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DNV os-f101_2010-10

DNV os-f101_2010-10

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OFFSHORE STANDARD DNV-OS-F101

SUBMARINE PIPELINE SYSTEMS
OCTOBER 2010

DET NORSKE VERITAS

FOREWORD
DET NORSKE VERITAS (DNV) is an autonomous and independent foundation with the objectives of safeguarding life, property and the environment, at sea and onshore. DNV undertakes classification, certification, and other verification and consultancy services relating to quality of ships, offshore units and installations, and onshore industries worldwide, and carries out research in relation to these functions. DNV service documents consist of amongst other the following types of documents: — Service Specifications. Procedual requirements. — Standards. Technical requirements. — Recommended Practices. Guidance. The Standards and Recommended Practices are offered within the following areas: A) Qualification, Quality and Safety Methodology B) Materials Technology C) Structures D) Systems E) Special Facilities F) Pipelines and Risers G) Asset Operation H) Marine Operations J) Cleaner Energy

O) Subsea Systems

The electronic pdf version of this document found through http://www.dnv.com is the officially binding version © Det Norske Veritas Any comments may be sent by e-mail to rules@dnv.com For subscription orders or information about subscription terms, please use distribution@dnv.com Computer Typesetting (Adobe Frame Maker) by Det Norske Veritas

If any person suffers loss or damage which is proved to have been caused by any negligent act or omission of Det Norske Veritas, then Det Norske Veritas shall pay compensation to such person for his proved direct loss or damage. However, the compensation shall not exceed an amount equal to ten times the fee charged for the service in question, provided that the maximum compensation shall never exceed USD 2 million. In this provision "Det Norske Veritas" shall mean the Foundation Det Norske Veritas as well as all its subsidiaries, directors, officers, employees, agents and any other acting on behalf of Det Norske Veritas.

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2010 Changes – Page 3

Acknowledgement The current revision of DNV-OS-F101 has been sponsored by three different Joint Industry Projects. The work has been performed by DNV and discussed in several workshops with individuals from the different companies. They are hereby all acknowledged for their valuable and constructive input. In case consensus has not been achievable DNV has sought to provide acceptable compromise agreement. The two material related JIP's have in total been sponsored by: BP Chevron Corus Europipe FMC Hydro JFE The operation JIP has been sponsored by: ConocoPhillips DONG ENI Gassco Hydro Shell Statoil MRM NSC PTT Saipem Sintef Statoil Subsea7 Technip Tenaris V&M Vector Vetco Woodside

In addition, individuals from the following companies have been reviewers in the hearing process: Acergy Allseas Butting Europipe Gorgon Hydro Inoxtech Intec JFE Nippon Steel Statoil Sumitomo Corp., Europe Tenaris Dalmine V & M Deutschland

DNV is grateful for the valuable co-operations and discussions with the individual personnel in these companies.

CHANGES
• General • Main changes

As of October 2010 all DNV service documents are primarily published electronically. In order to ensure a practical transition from the “print” scheme to the “electronic” scheme, all documents having incorporated amendments and corrections more recent than the date of the latest printed issue, have been given the date October 2010. An overview of DNV service documents, their update status and historical “amendments and corrections” may be found through http://www.dnv.com/resources/rules_standards/.

Since the previous edition (October 2007), this document has been amended, most recently in October 2008. All changes have been incorporated and a new date (October 2010) has been given as explained under “General”.

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2010 Page 4 – Changes

DET NORSKE VERITAS

............................................. 41 Application ....34 B............................................................ 52 Trawling interference....................... 49 D 900 Ovalisation...... Definitions .............................. 15 Certification notes and classification notes ....................................................... Pipeline Route..................... 51 E E E E E E E 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 General..............................................................51 E................................. 15 Rules ........................................................................... 34 Load effect combination ............................. 29 Objective............ 47 D 700 Global buckling .................................................................................................................................................. 22 Abbreviations................................. 33 E 100 E 200 E 300 External operational conditions .............................. 15 Verbal forms .......................... 34 General..... 13 A........................................................................... 31 C 100 C 200 C 300 Location ................................................................. 53 100 200 300 400 B........................41 C............................... 45 Sec.................................................. 35 Hydrodynamic loads......................... 15 Recommended Practices ............................. 39 Load combinations...................... 32 D................................................ 15 Other references..................................................................................................................................................................... General.........................................................................................................Loads............................................38 E 100 F 100 General........................ 31 Route survey ............. 35 Wind loads ................. 22 Symbols ......................................................................................................... 38 E.............43 General........................... 29 Concept development .............................................................. 27 General................... Design Format .................................................. 50 D 1100 Fracture and supplementary requirement P ............... 46 Local buckling ......................................... October 2010 Contents – Page 5 CONTENTS Sec................................. 26 Objective..................... 51 Pipe soil interaction ...................................................................................................................................................... 18 C 100 C 200 C 300 D D D D 100 200 300 400 D.. 26 F................................................ 46 Local Buckling – External over pressure only (System collapse).......................Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101........................................41 B 100 B 200 B 300 C C C C 100 200 300 400 Submarine pipeline system layout ......... 27 Health........... 25 D.....................39 G 100 G 200 G 300 Design cases.......................... 44 Stress and strain calculations ............ Construction Loads....................................................... 5 A 100 A 200 Design – Limit State Criteria ........... 32 Collection of environmental data...................General ................................................................................................ 27 Quality assurance..............35 100 200 300 400 500 600 General...................... 13 Scope and application . 49 D 800 Fatigue ........................ 26 Systematic review of risks .................................... 36 Earthquake ...................... 34 Objective............................................................................... 27 Categorisation of fluids............................. 24 Greek characters ................................38 General.......................... Risk Basis for Design ................................................... 38 A.............................................................................. 34 Internal Pressure loads............................................................................ 28 Reliability analysis......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 42 Operating requirements ........... General... System Design Principles ......... 36 C............................................................................................................... 18 Definitions .............................................................................................................................................. 41 Objective.................................................................. 43 C.. 41 Mill pressure test and system pressure test.................................................................................................................. References ................................................................................................................................................... 30 Hydraulic analyses and flow assurance .......................................................................... System Design Principles .......................... 14 Other codes .......... General.............................................................................. 46 Pressure containment (bursting) ............ 29 Application...... 33 Internal installation conditions..... Special Considerations ............................................................... 14 Offshore Service Specifications..................................................................................................................................................... Interference Loads ................................ 34 External Pressure loads....................... 13 Alternative methods and procedures........ safety and environment ......... dropped objects ..................... 46 D 500 Propagation buckling .................... 1 A A A A A A B B B B B B 100 200 300 400 500 600 General................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Sec.......................... 50 D 1200 Ultimate limit state – Accidental loads.......................... 2 A 100 A 200 B B B B B B C C C C C Safety Philosophy....................................................................................................... 26 G....... General.... Abbreviations and Symbols................. External and Internal Pipe Condition ......................................................................................................................................................... 41 A.......................................................................................................................................... 47 D 600 Local Buckling ............... 40 B......................... 13 Introduction................................................ 32 E........................................................................................... 31 Seabed properties....... 29 100 200 300 400 System integrity ............................................................................ 52 On bottom stability ................... 52 Third party loads....... 53 Thermal Insulation............ 29 D................................................................................................................................................................... 13 Objectives ................Combined Loading Criteria .. 29 Monitoring/inspection during operation ..... 43 Characteristic material properties .......... 26 Application............................. Environmental Conditions....... 18 Definitions (continuation)........................................... 3 A 100 A 200 A 300 B B B B Concept Development and Design Premises ....................... 33 DET NORSKE VERITAS ............ 34 Design cases........................ 43 Design resistance .................. 34 Load categories........ 15 100 200 300 400 500 600 B................... 50 D 1000 Accumulated deformation ....................................... 27 B........... 21 Sec...... 34 Application ......... 26 Safety objective............................................34 B 100 B 200 B 300 C C C C C C C............................................................... 28 Safety classes ... 30 C............................................. 35 A............... 32 Environmental data ............................................................................... Environmental Loads...........46 D D D D General.......................................... 15 Offshore Standards .................................................. 29 Pressure Protection System......................................... 26 100 200 300 400 500 600 100 200 300 400 500 General...................................................................... Limit States....................................................................................................................................... 14 Structure of Standard ............ 28 Sec.............................................. 36 Characteristic environmental load effects ...................................................................................... Design Load Effects ......................................................................................................38 D 100 General................................................................................................................................................ 29 A...... 34 Load scenarios ................................ 39 Load effect calculations..... 24 Subscripts............................... Safety Philosophy Structure ........................................ 51 Spanning risers/pipelines ................... 27 Location classes .......................................................... 27 Design criteria principles .................................................................................................... General................... 4 A A A A A A 100 200 300 400 500 600 Design ................................................................................................................................... Accidental Loads .......................................... Functional Loads ....... 32 D 100 D 200 D 300 General............................................................................ 33 Internal operational conditions ....... 35 Ice loads ............................................

...................... General............................................60 Specification of bolts and nuts .................75 Pipe designation .........58 Pipeline components (informative) .............................77 Manufacturing Procedure Specification ..........................................................................................................................56 Pipe straightness.............................................................. Marking.....................59 Welding consumables (informative) .................................................................................. 56 H 100 H 200 H 300 General ......................80 G.....57 Sour service......................61 External pipeline coatings (informative)...72 C....................57 Application........................................................ Corrosion Control .57 Corrosion resistant alloys (informative) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................92 B 700 Mechanical connectors..........................................................................................................................................................................................................76 E......89 A.... 66 C...............................81 Tolerances ..........................89 Induction bends – additional and modified requirements to ISO 15590-1...............................66 A..69 Inspection ....................................................................59 General ........................61 300 400 500 Supplementary requirement.......................................... 53 E................additional requirements to ISO 15590-3............86 Supplementary requirement........88 Sec.....97 Acceptance criteria for duplex stainless steels.............61 Corrosion allowance ....... 67 B B B B B C C C C C 100 200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 500 General .............................................................................89 C.....................................................................56 Coating ............ Component Requirements ...Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101......... Clad or Lined Steel Linepipe........................55 F...............84 Handling and storage ...77 D D D D D D 100 200 300 400 500 600 General ..91 B 600 Valves – Additional requirements to ISO 14723 ....................................89 Application...............................96 Heat treatment ........89 Quality assurance .............................................................................89 Component specification....................................56 General ....55 Stability of gravel supports and gravel covers ..............................80 Non-destructive testing ........................................87 Supplementary requirement...........................89 B 400 Fittings.................. 81 H.....................................95 Casting ..............94 C C C C C General ..........................................................79 Mill pressure test...................................................................59 Bolts and nuts.................................................................66 Application..........................89 B 100 B 200 B 300 General .................. 7 A A A A A A 100 200 300 400 500 600 Construction – Linepipe ......................95 Hot forming...................................................................................... Hydrostatic Testing...... Non-destructive Testing..................................................................................................................................................... 61 D D D D D D 100 200 300 400 500 600 General ........................................... records and certification ................................................................................................77 Manufacture ........................................................... high utilisation (U) ............................. linepipe for plastic deformation (P) ............................ dimensions (D) ...............................................................66 Supplementary requirements..................57 Documentation .............94 100 200 300 400 500 D..........................................62 Cathodic Protection..................................84 H...................................................93 B 900 Anchor flanges ............................................................54 Design of valves.....84 100 200 300 400 Sec.......................................................................................................... General................and fracture arrestors ..................................................55 D........................................ Mass and Tolerances ......... 66 Objective .. 8 A 100 A 200 A 300 Construction .....95 Sour Service .......................................75 Manufacture ..................................................................66 Linepipe specification ............................................................... Manufacture.... 75 General .........................................................................................................57 A..60 Galvanic anodes specification...........................................................................................................85 Supplementary requirement..................................................78 Acceptance criteria........................... 57 I...................... October 2010 Page 6 – Contents E 800 F F F F F F 100 200 300 400 500 600 Settings from Plugs ...... 55 G G G G G 100 200 300 400 500 General ....................................................55 J-tubes .............67 Acceptance criteria...................... 6 A 100 A 200 A 300 Design ..................................................................................................................................................................................................96 Acceptance criteria for C-Mn and low alloy steels ..................90 B 500 Flanges and flanged connections ..........................53 Design of bends..................................................................................................................................................................84 Delivery condition.....................................................67 Manufacturing ....................................55 Riser supports............................................................................................................................................................................................... Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) Linepipe ........59 Linepipe specification .................................................... Pipeline Components and Accessories .....84 Supplementary requirement.....................81 Inspection ....94 B 1100 Pig traps.............. 59 100 200 300 400 500 600 B....................................................................................................................53 General ............. Supporting Structure..........60 Coating specification..................................95 Forging ...54 Design of pig traps ......................................................................................54 Design of insulating joints ....96 Welding..............................................94 Duplex stainless steel.....................................................................................................................78 Inspection ............................... Cast and Forged Components.........................................................................................66 Manufacturing Procedure Specification and qualification .................................. Carbon Manganese (C-Mn) Steel Linepipe..................................................96 NDT ....................................................................................... Supplementary Requirements..........Components and Assemblies .... General..........................................................................58 Linepipe (informative) ...........................................80 E 100 F 100 F 200 G 100 G 200 G 300 H H H H I I I I I G.........61 Temporary corrosion protection..55 Pipe-in-pipe and bundles.................... 57 Objective ..............93 B 800 CP Insulating joints.... 89 Objective ............................................. tees and wyes ...............................95 Pipe and plate material...........................................................95 D.............. Delivery Condition and Documentation .................................................. Installation and Repair..........................................84 Documentation..........................................................................................................................................................Materials Engineering.................................................67 Pipe designation ......................................................98 DET NORSKE VERITAS ............................................................................................63 Internal corrosion control (informative) ...96 B.. Materials for Components ................................... Dimensions.. fracture arrest properties (F).................................................77 Pipe designation ...........................................84 100 200 B......60 Components specification ............................................................................................................................................................................................................additional requirements to ISO 15590-2............ forgings and castings ....66 Process of manufacture .....80 Visual inspection........ Materials Specification ........................................................................................................................................................................ sour service (S) ....................................................................................80 F........... 57 B B B B B B B C C C C C C 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 General ....................................75 Inspection ......54 Pipeline fittings ............64 D 700 Sec........ Materials Selection for Linepipe and Pipeline Components..................................................................................................94 B 1200 Repair clamps and repair couplings ............................................. Mechanical and Corrosion Testing of Hot Formed...95 D D D D D D D 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Manufacturing procedure specification (MPS) ..................62 External corrosion control of risers (informative) .....................................................................................................................82 Marking...................................................94 B 1000 Buckle.............75 Acceptance criteria......................................................................................96 E 100 E 200 E 300 General testing requirements .................94 C-Mn and low alloy steel forgings and castings ...............................

.................................... equipment and instrumentation ..................................................................... 106 C 100 C 200 C 300 C C C C C General.......... 116 Operating limit conditions ............................................. anchor patterns and anchor positioning . 116 General....... 106 J............. 104 Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) studies.............................112 G 100 H H H H H H H H I I I I I I I I B.................. 112 H...................................... Expansion Loops.............................. Installation of Galvanic Anodes ........................................ Concrete Weight Coating ..................................................................... 114 Specification of as-laid survey.............................................................. Records...116 100 200 300 400 D..............................................................................114 K K K K K K 100 200 300 400 500 600 General...........................................114 J J J J 100 200 300 400 General..................................... 116 Installation manual.................. 101 Objective................... Other Installation Methods ........................ 105 Pre-installation route survey ............................ 101 General..... 113 Operating limit conditions ........................................... 113 Installation procedures........................................ 117 General............. 116 As-built survey requirements................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ equipment and instrumentation ........................... laying equipment and instrumentation ...................................................... Hydrostatic Testing................... 99 Alternative test pressures ........ 107 D 100 D 200 D 300 D 400 General....................................................................... Pipe Strings for Reeling and Towing............................................ 114 As-laid survey of corrosion protection systems........... 113 General........112 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 General........................ 99 Corrosion protection ................................. 99 Dimensional verification......................... forming... Manufacture of Galvanic Anodes................. 101 Coating materials................111 E E E E E F F F F F F F F 100 200 300 400 500 General..................................................................................... Pipeline Installation by Towing................................. 116 Contingency procedures ........... Documentation......................................... 104 Application............................................................ 100 Sec........................................................................ 115 Grout bags and concrete mattresses. 104 Welding...... 106 Vessels ......................................................... 107 Contingency procedures ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 115 General................ 98 Materials for risers................................................................................................... 107 Installation manual......116 L 100 M M M M M M N N N N C...... 113 Qualification of installation manual .... 105 Production tests.... 111 Requirements for installation............................ 98 Fabrication procedures and planning........................................................................................... 9 Construction .................................... 102 Sec................................................. assembly............................... 116 Specification of as-built survey .................................... 102 A....... 113 Tie-in procedures ...........................................116 100 200 300 400 500 600 General...... 112 Operating limit conditions ................................... 100 General... 106 Pipeline and cable crossings ........................................................ identification and tracking......... 98 Material receipt............. As-Built Survey ................. 101 Concrete materials and coating manufacture..................... Additional Requirements for Pipeline Installation Methods Introducing Plastic Deformations ............................................................. 113 Contingency procedures . Pipeline Installation ...................................................................................... 116 B........................... 102 E......... expansion loops... 106 Preparations for shore approach . 102 Inspection and testing .................... External Corrosion Protective Coatings ......................................................................................................... 108 Operating limit conditions ................................. welding and heat treatment..................... October 2010 Contents – Page 7 F..................................................... 113 Operating limit conditions ........................................................ 107 Dynamic positioning... Shore Pull..................................................... pipe strings for reeling and towing ............... coating application and inspection/testing of coating...................................................... 104 Installation and testing specifications and drawings....... 114 Tie-in operations below water .......................113 Anode installation ....................................... 110 E.................. 112 Contingency procedures ........................ 107 Cranes and lifting equipment.... 99 Hydrostatic testing ......................................... 108 Review and qualification of the installation manual............... 101 C 100 C 200 C 300 D 100 D..................................................... 115 Trenching........................................ Fabrication of Risers................................. 114 As-laid survey................ 106 Anchoring systems................... Certification and Marking ................... General.................................. Span Rectification and Pipeline Protection ..................... 98 Cutting................... 112 Arrangement....................... 107 M................................................... 111 Qualification of the installation manual .......... General...................... As-Laid Survey............................................................. 104 Installation manuals ............113 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 General. 101 A 100 A 200 G.......................................................... 109 O..........................Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101............... 112 Installation procedures............................. 112 Installation manual....................................... 101 Application.................................................................................................. 112 General.......................................................... 111 Installation manual.................................................. 104 Non-destructive testing and visual examination............................. 101 B 100 B 200 H.......... 104 A........ 116 Requirements for installation................ 106 Positioning systems ......... 102 E 100 I.............................................. 114 Span rectification ............... 104 Quality assurance.................. 114 C....... 98 NDT and visual examination . essential variables and validity .......................... 116 Qualification of the installation manual ............................................... 112 Qualification of installation manual ............................................................................................................................................ Installation of Risers ............................. 101 General.................................................................................................................................. Installation of Protective and Anchoring Structures....................... 107 Anchor handling and tug management ...... 99 G 100 G 200 H 100 F......................... 117 400 500 600 700 800 N......................................................................... 98 F 100 F 200 General................................... 114 Span rectification and protection specification.................................................................................................................... 109 Layvessel arrangement............ 104 A 100 A 200 A 300 A A A A A A B B B B Objective.................................................................................................. 115 Post-installation gravel dumping .... 113 Contingency procedures ..... 113 Arrangement... 113 Requirements for installation...................... Tie-in Operations ................................................ Survey and Preparation .............Installation .............................................. 117 Inspection of impressed current cathodic corrosion protection system .................................................. 114 Tie-in operations above water ............................................................................................... 113 Installation manual..................................................................................................................... 111 G................................................................ 99 D 500 D 600 D 700 D 800 F 300 F 400 F 500 F F F F 600 700 800 900 Installation procedures............ Marine Operations ................................... 109 Requirements for installation............... Final Testing and Preparation for Operation ....................... 10 Construction ........................................ 114 400 500 600 700 800 900 100 200 300 400 K........... 112 Pipestring tow and installation........................................... 98 Hydrostatic testing .................................... 105 L.......................... 105 Seabed preparation........................................................................................................... 113 Qualification of installation manual ...................................117 O 100 DET NORSKE VERITAS .................................... Pipeline Route.................... 109 Contingency procedures .............................Corrosion Protection and Weight Coating ................................................................... 102 Anode manufacture.................................. surface preparation.................................................................... 111 Installation procedures.... 113 Installation manual...............................

................120 Responsibilities ............................................................................122 Evaluation of threats and condition ...139 B.................... General.............................140 Application...............129 DFI resumé content................................................................................................140 A 100 A 200 A 300 B 100 Objective ..........................................................................................119 D......120 Safety philosophy................................................................133 Pressure containment ............ Construction ....................... General.........................119 Systems testing......................120 Scope and application ................................................................................... Construction .................................................................................................. Installation ......................................... Re-qualification .....133 D.............127 Installation.............................137 G........130 B..132 C 100 C 200 C 300 D 100 E E E E E Safety Class discussion ..........................................................................................133 Conversion of pressures .................................................................136 Simplified laying criteria .......................................................132 Structural reliability analyses..........................................................................128 Corrosion control system and weight coating .................141 C...135 E 1000 Local buckling ....129 General ............................... intervention and repairs....... 127 B 100 B 200 B B B B 300 400 500 600 Structural .....................................................................130 I....................................................... General.................................135 E 800 Buckle arrestor ..........................................128 DFI-Resumé ...... 120 A... 126 F 100 G 100 General .................. Operation ............... ...........................................................................................................................127 I........ 131 A..............126 H.125 System pressure test ..........................125 E..128 D 100 D 200 General ..................... 140 A.........124 Mitigation......................123 Integrity assessment ...........120 Authority and company requirements................................................................................................................................. Cross References .......141 B........................................................................... October 2010 Page 8 – Contents O 200 O 300 O O O O 400 500 600 700 Specification of final testing and preparation for operation........................................................................ API Material Grades .......... incidental pressure less than 10% above the design pressure....................................................................................128 DFI-Resumé .....................125 Deterioration ......125 Application...............................................117 System pressure testing .............................................. Commissioning.................................. 127 A 100 Objective ......120 Fluid filling ............................140 General .................................................................................................................................................... 126 Sec......................................129 P......121 Information management .............126 General ...............................................143 C..........................................................................................129 H 100 H 200 I 100 General .....................129 In-Service file...................................136 100 200 300 400 500 D..........................122 External inspection........................................................................................................................ Integrity Management Process ............................................................................................................120 Company policy ...........................129 F........................................135 API material grades.......................................... Documentation...................131 C.................................... 129 E 100 F 100 F 200 G 100 General ............................................................................. DFI Resumé ......135 E 1100 Ovalisation ....................136 Coating ...................Manufacturing and Fabrication ..121 Reporting and communication ....................................128 DFI-resumé ................................. Components and Assemblies............. 122 D D D D D D D E E E E E E 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 100 200 300 400 500 600 General ..........................................................................equivalent format..............................................................................122 In-line inspection.......................................................................................... De-commissioning.........136 Safety class definition .........................................124 General .............. References..........118 De-watering and drying ...................................Collapse .......... Abandonment........................................................................................................129 General ..........................................................................................................................................135 E 900 Local buckling .............127 Linepipe and pipeline components (including welding) .......................................................................................128 Linepipe and pipeline component ................ Operation .................. 13 Commentary (Informative).................................................121 Organisation and personnel..............140 Introduction........................................................................................................................................136 J-tubes ......... 136 F 100 G......................................120 G.................... Abandonment......117 Procedures for final testing and preparation for operation....................................133 E.....121 Contingency plans..........................................................................120 General ............... Loads................................ Design Philosophy ..................Girth weld factor.......120 Operational verification ..............................................................................................................................................Moment.....Commissioning..............132 Characteristic values ............. Design Criteria.....................................................................................................................................121 Planning and execution of activities .........................129 H.......................................128 Operation..................................121 Audit and review ................................... 125 F..... 127 A................... A Structural Integrity of Girth Welds in Offshore Pipelines............................................................................................. General.................................................................................................................134 E 600 HIPPS and similar systems ...............................117 Cleaning and gauging..........................................121 Management of change .................................. 120 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 B.........................................129 E.........136 G 100 G 200 H H H H 100 200 300 400 Riser Supports ....143 C 100 General ...............................................................................................................136 F.......................... 128 C 100 C 200 C 300 DET NORSKE VERITAS ......133 Condition load effect factors.......................................... Generic ECA for Girth Welds Subject to Strains Less than 0................................. Integrity Management System..................................................................................134 E 700 Local buckling ...............127 Corrosion control systems and weight coating .............133 General ........................................................................................Installation and Pre-Commissioning.........123 Corrosion monitoring.................. 120 B 100 B 200 B 300 C C C C C C C C C C C General .........121 Condition evaluation and assessment methods ........................................................................................................................................................................4% Assessed According to ECA Static – Low..................................................... 12 Documentation..............133 Calculation of nominal thickness............129 General ...............................................119 General ................................................................131 A 100 Objective ............................121 Operational controls and procedures................................................................................................................................. Assessment Categories . Filing of Documentation.................................................. 11 Operations and Abandonment ................................................................................................................. 120 A A A A A 100 200 300 400 500 Objective ............................................................................ 119 P 100 Sec............................................................................................131 C...........Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101...........................128 App..................134 Pressure containment criterion......................................................................137 Reeling ....................................125 Design criteria .............................................................................................................................................................................121 Sec.... Design........................................................................................125 Safety level.................

..................................................................25% Assessed According to ECA Static – High ..................... 152 General...... 183 13Cr martensitic stainless steel............................................................................................................................................................... 159 Straining and ageing ........... Corrosion Testing ...... 161 Pitting corrosion test ...................Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.. 165 A A A A 100 200 300 400 General..................................... 186 600 Welding equipment and systems for hyperbaric dry welding ....... Girth Welds Assessed According to ECA Fatigue .................... 193 Manual magnetic particle testing of welds ................. 161 300 400 500 600 G................... 156 A.......................................................... 167 Shielding.............................................................................................................................................. 186 400 Welding consumables for hyperbaric dry welding...... Welding and PWHT Requirements ................................... 190 Manual ultrasonic testing of welds with CRA (duplex........................................... ECA Validation Testing ................................................... 175 Qualification of procedures for Pin Brazing and Aluminothermic welding of anode leads....................................................... 153 General......................... 168 Previously qualified welding procedures.............................................................................................................................................. 188 A........................ 186 700 Welding procedures for hyperbaric dry welding ...........................189 B 100 B 200 B 300 General...................................... 167 Mechanical properties.......................... 165 A.......... 168 Handling and storage of welding consumables ............. backing and plasma gases.................................................................................................................................. 170 B......................................... B Mechanical Testing and Corrosion Testing ................................................................................ 148 Assessment methodology ......................172 E 100 E 200 E 300 General.......................................... 183 H................ Hyperbaric Dry Welding ................................... 184 Pin brazing and aluminothermic welding .183 H 100 H 200 H 300 I I 100 200 Internally clad/lined carbon steel and duplex stainless steel..... Girth Welds under Strain-based Loading Assessed According to ECA Static ................ 187 App...................... 173 Qualification of welding procedures for corrosion resistant overlay welding .......... 181 Post weld heat treatment............................ Generic ECA for Girth Welds Subjected to Strains Equal to or Larger than 0.............. 161 General.......................... 182 Welding of pipeline girth welds ..................................................................................... 176 Qualification of welding procedures for structural components .............. 151 High-cycle fatigue......................... Welding Consumables......................................... 188 Applicability of requirements ................................................................................................................................................... 166 Qualification and testing of welding personnel for hyperbaric dry welding .................................................................... 182 Welding and PWHT of pipeline components.................................................................................... Welding Procedures..................... 178 Testing of butt welds ............ 154 App............................................................ 185 300 Welding processes for hyperbaric dry welding ................................. 149 E 400 E 500 E 600 E 700 E 800 F..................................................................................... 154 G...... 186 500 Shielding and backing gases for hyperbaric dry welding ............................... 166 Chemical composition ........................................... Application .......................... 188 Non-destructive testing methods ........................... 189 Manual ultrasonic testing of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel with C-Mn/low alloy steel weld deposits ..... 168 C 500 C 600 D D D D D D D D 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 D............................................................ 180 General............................Full ..................................................... 166 App...................................................................... 188 Timing of NDT ........................................ 177 Qualification of welding procedures for hyperbaric dry welding ...................... 188 Personnel qualifications.................. General....................................................... other stainless steels and nickel alloy steel) weld deposits ........................ 168 General...........................................185 General................. D Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) .................... 177 E............180 G G G G G G 100 200 300 400 500 600 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 100 200 300 400 H................................... 161 I............................. 185 Qualification and testing of welding personnel for hyperbaric dry welding ....................................................................... 187 1100 Production welding requirements for dry hyperbaric welding .................................................................................... Welding Equipment. 169 Welding procedure specification for repair welding ........................................................................................... 148 E 100 E 200 General............... Manual Non-Destructive Testing and Visual Examination of Welds............................... 180 Testing of welds for temporary and permanent attachments and branch outlet fittings to linepipe ............................... 173 Qualification of longitudinal and girth butt welds welding procedures ............................................. 151 F 100 F 200 F 300 G 100 G 200 H 100 General.. C Welding...177 F 100 F 200 F F F F General................ Examination and Testing for Welding Procedure Qualification .... 156 A 100 A 200 A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B General................................................. 152 Low-cycle fatigue .......................................................................................................................... 165 Personnel. 156 Chemical analysis ................... 185 B..................... 156 Charpy V-notch impact testing .................................... Material and Process Specific Requirements .................................................................................................................................................................. 169 Essential variables for welding procedures ...................................... 145 D 100 General............................................................................. 169 Welding procedure specification .................. general requirements .......................................................... Tools and Personnel ................................ 186 800 Qualification welding for hyperbaric dry welding ................................................................................ 158 Specific tests for clad and lined linepipe ... 187 1000 Examination and testing ........................ general requirements .......... Testing Requirements ........................ 177 Visual examination and non-destructive testing requirements ....... 188 Quality assurance.............................................. 176 Qualification of welding procedures for temporary and permanent attachments and branch welding fittings to linepipe ................. 180 Repair welding...................... 158 Drop weight tear test............. 189 C.................................................................... 167 Batch testing of welding consumables for pipeline girth welds..................................... 156 Tensile testing ........... 180 Production welding................................. October 2010 Contents – Page 9 D......... 187 900 Qualification of welding procedures for hyperbaric dry welding ... 189 Radiographic testing of welds .............................. 159 Metallographic examination and hardness testing.............................................. 169 Welding procedure qualification record . Mechanical Testing and Chemical Analysis ................................................. 161 Sulphide Stress Cracking test ............... 165 Welding processes .......................................................................................188 A A A A A A 100 200 300 400 500 600 Objective.................................. 165 I I I I I I I I I B......................... 166 C C C C 100 200 300 400 General..... 145 E.............................. 165 B 100 B 200 B 300 Welding equipment and tools ............. 161 Hydrogen Induced Cracking test ....... 165 Quality assurance...........................................4% but Less Than 2.............................................. 160 Testing of pin brazings and aluminothermic welds ...... 165 Definitions ......................... 158 Fracture toughness testing ..................................... 178 Testing of weld overlay ........................................... 194 B 400 B 500 DET NORSKE VERITAS ........ 156 General requirements to selection and preparation of samples and test pieces ......................................... 172 Repair welding procedures .......................... 168 Preliminary welding procedure specification ........ 152 Straining and ageing ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 179 Testing of pin brazing and aluminothermic welds .. 157 Flattening test....................... Qualification of Welding Procedures .............. 157 Bend testing ................... 152 F............ 169 Contents of pWPS.......

...................................................................................232 G 600 G 700 J....232 Equipment .............................. Design Premise ........................ 222 A 100 Scope ........................................................232 Specimens ....... General...........Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101...................................................................202 Ultrasonic and liquid penetrant testing of duplex stainless steel forgings.........................234 Other codes .........222 C.......196 Acceptance criteria for manual non-destructive testing of welds with nominal strains < 0............................................ 222 A..230 Test welds ............................................................................................................................................225 Power supply..................................... Non-Destructive Testing at Plate and Coil Mill ............................207 General ................................205 Radiographic testing of castings ..........................................229 Variables ....231 Analysis...................................208 Disposition of plate and coil with unacceptable laminations or inclusions ...................... E Automated Ultrasonic Girth Weld Testing.............................................................207 Ultrasonic testing of C-Mn steel and CRA plates......................................................................208 Acceptance criteria and disposition of surface imperfections..233 Accuracy ......................................................233 Recording .........................232 Essential variables..................................208 Suspect pipe ........................................................................................................208 H.................................. 202 D 100 D 200 General ....................................................................................................................................................210 General requirements for automated NDT systems ..................................................235 Quantification of consequence ..200 Visual examination .201 Residual magnetism ...........202 Ultrasonic and magnetic particle testing of C-Mn and low alloy steel forgings ................ Evaluation and Reporting .............................................................................................................................................................................226 Recording Threshold........................................................206 Visual examination of castings ........223 Calibration (reference) blocks........................................................ 207 G G G G G 100 200 300 400 500 I......................................................225 Circumferential scanning velocity ............................................... Automated Non-Destructive Testing...........................207 Ultrasonic testing of CRA clad C-Mn steel plate ..........204 Ultrasonic and magnetic particle testing of C-Mn and low alloy steel castings ...........213 Non-destructive testing of seamless pipe....................................225 General .............................................. Manual Non-destructive testing and Visual Examination of Plate.227 D 300 D 400 D 500 E.........................233 App...........229 Inspection records ..............................................234 General ..........................................................................................229 Examination reports ........227 Operational checks........................222 C............................................................................................................................227 E 100 E 200 E 300 F 100 Inspection requirements .......217 Manual NDT at pipe mills ...................................... Pipe and Weld Overlay......................................... Validity of Qualification..................................230 Reference destructive testing ................229 G 100 G 200 G 300 H H H H H H H H H H I I F..............................................235 B 100 B 200 B 300 C 100 App............... Calibration (Sensitivity Setting) ... Determination of Wave Velocities in Pipe Steels......................................................................... 206 General ...............................................229 Evaluation of indications ...................222 Documentation .....................4% and no ECA .................234 A A A A 100 200 300 400 Objective ............223 Ultrasonic system equipment and components.....................................................................................................................225 Software ............232 G..................................... October 2010 Page 10 – Contents B B B B Manual liquid penetrant testing of welds ....................226 B................................................ pipe and weld overlay ......207 Qualification..................................................................212 Non-destructive testing of pipe ends not tested by automated NDT equipment ..........................................................................204 Acceptance criteria for forgings...................196 B 1100 Repair of welds ......221 General .............................232 Validity..............................................206 F......214 Non-destructive testing of HFW pipe .........229 E............................199 600 700 800 900 A 200 B B B B B B B B B B B B B B 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 References................................................................................207 Evaluation of performance documentation ..............235 General ...........206 Documentation of function and operation ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Field Inspection .............................................................................................................................................232 Reporting.............209 Repair of suspect pipe ...........227 Recording of set-up data ..............................................228 Adjustments of the AUT system............224 Recorder set-up ...................................................................................................... 208 H H H H H H 100 200 300 400 500 600 H H H H H H H H H 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 General ...................................................................229 Scope.....222 General ..............................................................................................................................................203 Visual examination of forgings.......................................................................................................................................216 Non-destructive testing of SAWL and SAWH pipe ...............208 Alternative test methods...................................................226 Gate settings...234 Definitions................................................................. Non-Destructive Testing of Linepipe at Pipe Mills.....232 J J J J J J 100 200 300 400 500 600 H.........................196 B 1000 ECA based non-destructive testing acceptance criteria for pipeline girth welds .............................. band position and coating cut-back .. Non-destructive Testing and Visual Examination of Forgings ............................208 Visual examination of plate and coil.................................225 Operators..................................236 B..204 D..............207 Documentation of performance ..236 DET NORSKE VERITAS .......................................................................... 199 C C C C C C 100 200 300 400 500 600 General ...........233 Test method............215 Non-destructive testing of clad pipe .................................. Re-examination of Welds ................................................. Basic Requirements ............ Application ..214 Non-destructive testing of CRA liner pipe .........................................................................................................................................225 Reference line tools...................................................................235 Safety philosophy.........................................................................195 Manual eddy current testing of welds .................................................................................225 Spares ...................................................................................215 Non-destructive testing of lined pipe ....................229 Requirements .............................................. 234 A........................................................................................200 Weld overlay ..................................................................................................206 Acceptance criteria for castings ......................................................230 Qualification programme ..................................................... Safety Philosophy ..................................................................................223 Qualification......199 Plate and pipe ................................................................225 Reference line............................................................................................ Non-destructive Testing and Visual Examination of Castings ....................... 204 E 100 E 200 General ..........................................229 General ............................................204 Ultrasonic and liquid penetrant testing of duplex stainless steel castings .............................................................................................................201 Acceptance criteria for manual non-destructive testing of plate...............................213 Non-destructive testing of pipe ends..........................................................234 Scope and limitation..229 E 300 E 400 E 500 E 600 F F F F F 100 200 300 400 500 G.......................227 Dynamic calibration............226 C 100 D D D D D D......................... Qualification ...................................225 Slave monitors............................................226 100 200 300 400 500 Initial static calibration.........................................................................................................229 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 100 200 General .............................. F Requirements for Shore Approach and Onshore Sections.............. Procedure ....201 C............................................195 Visual examination of welds............219 Non-destructive testing of weld repair in pipe ..............................210 Visual examination and residual magnetism ................230 Qualification testing .........

........................ 238 G................................................................. 237 Design loads.......... 238 Corrosion protection & coatings.........................................................................................................238 G 100 General...................................................................... 236 Marking... 238 D.............................................238 F 100 General... Construction............................................................................................................................... 238 Components and assemblies ..................................... 237 F.......... 236 Survey ................................................................................................. Design.............................. 237 E................................................................................................................................................................................................. 238 DET NORSKE VERITAS ......................................................... Documentation....................................................................... Operation ...........................................Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101...238 E E E E 100 200 300 400 General. 237 General.............. October 2010 Contents – Page 11 C C C C D D D D 200 300 400 500 100 200 300 400 Routing ......................... 237 System design ......................... 237 Design criteria....................................................................................................................................... 238 Linepipe ............. 236 Environmental data .........

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. October 2010 Page 12 – Contents DET NORSKE VERITAS .

Rigid metallic pipe Single systems. design. pipeline bundles of the piggyback type and pipeline bundles within an outer pipe2 Extent Pressure and flow Pipeline system in such a way that the fluid transportation and pressure in the submarine pipeline system is well defined and controlled 3 Concept development. A 200 Objectives 201 The objectives of this standard are to: — Ensure that the concept development. the quantification of consequences by the three safety classes provided in this standard may be insufficient. A 300 Scope and application 301 The scope and applicability of this standard is given in Table 1-1. design. design. CRA linepipe with specific requirements to duplex stainless steel and 13Cr martensitic steel Clad and Lined linepipe. dimensional tolerances and high utilization. fracture arrest properties. Individual pipes. within an umbilical. operation and abandonment Pipeline Types Dynamic risers and compliant risers are covered by DNV-OS-F201 Dynamic Risers. CP Insulating joints. Supplementary requirements for sour service. Valves. design. and higher safety classes may be required. — provide an internationally acceptable standard of safety for submarine pipeline systems by defining minimum requirements for concept development.10 Method S-lay. construction. Pig traps. October 2010 Sec. construction. Buckle arrestor. Purchaser. Submarine pipeline system 4 construction. 2) Umbilicals intended for control of subsea installations are not included in this standard.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.1 Phases Concept development. plastic deformation. construction. Fittings. Components Bends. towing and laying methods introducing plastic deformations Installation requirements for risers as well as protective and anchoring structures are also included. Clamps and Couplings Material and manufacture Sec. design. combined loading are only given for straight pipes with 15 < D/t2 < 45) Water depth No limitation. For submarine pipeline systems that have extraordinary consequences. see Sec. operation and abandonment — serve as a technical reference document in contractual matters between Purchaser and Contractor — serve as a guideline for Designers.5 A201 Loads Pressure No limitation Temperature No limitation Material properties need to be documented for temperatures above 50oC and 20oC for C-Mn steels and CRAs respectively. Flanges. and Contractors.8 Design Sec.5 C300 Global deformations No limitation Linepipe Material General Sec. operation and abandonment of Submarine Pipeline Systems.5 F Fluids Categories Table 2-1 Sour service Generally conforming to ISO 15156 Installation Sec.7 A201 C-Mn steel linepipe is generally conforming to ISO 3183 Annex J but with modifications and amendments. Anchor flange. see Sec. 1) Example of extra ordinary consequences may be pristine environment and exploration in arctic climate. operation and abandonment Geometry and configuration Dimensions No limitation (Explicit criteria for local buckling. operation and abandonment of pipeline systems are safe and conducted with due regard to public safety and the protection of the environment. construction. Table 1-1 Scope and application summary General Systems in the petroleum and natural gas industries are in general described in this table. General A 100 Introduction 101 This standard gives criteria and guidance on concept development. made of materials DET NORSKE VERITAS . Mechanical connectors.1 – Page 13 SECTION 1 GENERAL A. J-lay.

. 604 This standard is intended to comply with the ISO standard 13623: Petroleum and natural gas industries .the equivalent stress criterion in the ISO standard sometimes allows higher utilisation than this standard.This standard allows higher utilisation for fluid category A and C pipelines. material characterisation and testing requirements. C.8 contains requirements to materials. the valid revision shall be taken as the revision which was current at the date of issue of this standard. It contains description of the design (LRFD) format and characterisation of material strength for straight pipes and supports. DNV Offshore Recommended Practice. commissioning and operation. subsection or paragraph outside the current section (e. unless otherwise noted. DNV Offshore Standard. establishment of design premises. see Sec.7 B102. — Sec. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 605 The requirements to C-Mn steel linepipe of this standard include amendments and modifications that are additional to ISO 3183. 4) A 400 Alternative methods and procedures 401 In case alternative methods and procedures to those specified in this Standard are used. a more severe environmental load is specified.9 contains requirements to corrosion protection and weight coating. October 2010 Page 14 – Sec. in agreement with ISO16708. The requirements to C-Mn steels are based on ISO 3183. — Appendix B details the requirements to materials testing including mechanical and corrosion testing as well as chemical analysis. welding and corrosion control. 503 Cross references are made as: — nnn within the same sub-section (e. — Sec. Guidance note: The following major deviations to the ISO standard are known: . Sec. repair. This standard is here in compliance with ISO16708.13 is an informative section which discusses several aspects of the standard. — Sec. pressure protection system.g. The owner may apply this standard on sub-sets of the limits of this standard. C500 or C512) — Section m. — Sec. It further introduces essential concepts.For design life less than 33 years. it shall be demonstrated that the obtained safety level is equivalent to the one specified herein. — Sec. material specification (including required supplementary requirement to the linepipe specification).11 contains requirements to operation including commissioning. Structural requirements to these components are given in Sec. This standard requires that the manufacture of line pipe and construction is performed to this standard. it defines design cases with associated characteristic values and combinations. for increased utilisation.minor differences may appear depending on how the pipeline has been defined in safety classes.applying the supplementary requirements U. see Sec. 502 The Standard is organised as follows: — Sec. with system design principles. — Sec. — Sec.5 C500 or Sec.5 C512). Design criteria for the different limit states for all phases. DNV Guideline or DNV Classification Note. It introduces the safety class methodology and normal classification of safety classes. pressure definitions and system test pressure requirements. and collection of environmental data. — Sec. specifying functional requirements for offshore pipelines and risers.1 contains the objectives and scope of the standard.4 defines the design loads to be applied in Sec. de-commissioning and abandonment of the submarine pipeline system. 512) — X or Xnnn to another sub-section within the same section (e.5 F.5 C. This implies that the same design criteria apply to both construction/installation and operation.g. Typical example of excluded items is smaller diameter piping such as kicker lines and designs these to e. — Sec. the requirements of the code with the latest revision date shall prevail.5. A 600 Other codes 601 In case of conflict between requirements of this code and a referenced DNV Offshore Code. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 602 Where reference is made to codes other than DNV documents. definitions and abbreviations. . 603 In case of conflict between requirements of this code and code other than a DNV document.12 contains requirements to documentation for the submarine pipeline system from concept development to abandonment.10 contains requirements to installation including preand post-intervention and pre-commissioning. Sec. — Sec.7 contains requirements to linepipe. as-laid.Pipeline transportation systems. — Sec. . integrity management.2 C500.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. are given. installation. 3) Different parts of the pipeline system may be designed to different codes. All structural criteria are therefore given in Sec. ISO 15649. 504 Additional requirements or modified requirements compared to ISO 3183 are denoted by AR or MR by the end of the paragraph.g. It includes classification of loads into functional loads (including pressure).6 contains materials engineering and includes material selection.g. — Appendix E contains requirements to AUT of girth welds. Any conflict is intended to be removed in next revision of that document. — Sec. . The section also includes requirements to CRAs and lined/clad pipe. — Appendix F contains selected requirements to onshore parts of the submarine pipeline system. DET NORSKE VERITAS .5 contains requirements to pipeline layout. manufacture and fabrication of components and assemblies. this standard allows 4% higher pressure containment utilisation than the ISO standard. — Appendix D contains requirements to Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) except Automated Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) of girth welds. A 500 Structure of Standard 501 This Standard is based on limit state design. system test and mill test. — Appendix A contains the requirements to engineering critical assessment (ECA). Guidance note: DNV Offshore code means any DNV Offshore Service Specification. environmental loads. It includes methodology.5. Sec.5.1 applicable to this standard. Where m and nnn denotes numbers and X letter.3 contains requirements to concept development. the ISO standard does not use the concept of safety classes. . It is important to identify differences between these at an early stage and assess these. the requirements of this code shall prevail. Section mX or Section mXnnn to section. Examples of conflicting requirements are. Finally. may be designed according to this standard.requirements to system pressure test (pressure test). interference loads and accidental loads. re-qualification.2 contains the fundamental safety philosophy and design principles. — The appendices are a compulsory part of the standard. — Appendix C contains requirements to welding including qualification of welding procedures and construction welding.

October 2010 Sec.Summary B 400 Rules The latest revision of the following documents applies: DNV DNV DNV DNV Rules for Certification of Flexible Risers and Pipes Rules for Classification of High Speed.4 DNV CN 30.4 2006 Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquid Hydrocarbons and Other Liquids ASME B31.9 Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings ASME B31. The latest revision of the following document applies.6 B 600 Conformity Certification Services. Metallic Materials Non Destructive Testing Foundations Structural Reliability Analysis of Marine Structures Other references Recommended Practice for Railroad transportation of Line Pipe API5LW Recommended Practice for Transportation of Line Pipe on Barges and Marine Vessels API RP 2201 Safe Hot Tapping Practices in the Petroleum & Petrochemical Industries-Fifth Edition ASME/ANSI B16.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 1 .8 2003 Gas Transmission and Distribution Systems ASME BPVC-V BPBV Section V . References B 100 Offshore Service Specifications The latest revision of the following documents applies: DNV-OSS-301 Certification and Verification of Pipelines DNV-OSS-302 Certification and verification of Dynamic Risers DNV-OSS-401 Technology Qualification Management B 200 Offshore Standards The following documents contain provisions which. Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft Rules for Planning and Execution of Marine Operations Rules for Classification of Fixed Offshore Installations B 500 Certification notes and classification notes The latest revision of the following documents applies: DNV CN 1. through reference in this text. ASTM D 695 Standard Test Method for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics ASTM A370 Standard Test Methods and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products ASTM A388 Specification for Ultrasonic Examination of Heavy Steel Forgings ASTM A578/578M Standard Specification for StraightBeam Ultrasonic Examination of Plain and Clad Steel Plates for Special Applications API RP5L1 DET NORSKE VERITAS . Type Approval Conformity Certification Services.Div.Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels ASME BPVC-VIII-2 BPVC Section VIII .2 DNV CN 1. DNV-OS-A101 Safety Principles And Arrangements DNV-OS-C101 Design of Offshore Steel Structures. 2 .3 2004 Process Piping ASME B31.Rules for Construction of Pressure Vessels Alternative Rules ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP).Non-destructive Examination ASME BPVC-VIII-1 BPVC Section VIII . Approval of Manufacturers.5 DNV CN 7 DNV CN 30.Div. constitute provisions of this Offshore Standard.1 – Page 15 B. General (LRFD method) DNV-OS-C501 Composite Components DNV-OS-E201 Oil And Gas Processing Systems DNV-OS-F201 Dynamic Risers B 300 Recommended Practices The latest revision of the following documents applies: DNV-RP-A203 Qualification Procedures for New Technology DNV-RP-B401 Cathodic Protection Design DNV-RP-C203 Fatigue Strength Analysis of Offshore Steel Structures DNV-RP-C205 Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads DNV-RP-F101 Corroded Pipelines DNV-RP-F102 Pipeline Field Joint Coating & Field Repair of Linepipe Coating DNV-RP-F103 Cathodic Protection of Submarine Pipelines by Galvanic Anodes DNV-RP-F105 Free Spanning Pipelines DNV-RP-F106 Factory applied pipeline coatings for corrosion control DNV-RP-F107 Risk Assessment of Pipeline Protection DNV-RP-F108 Fracture Control for Pipeline Installation Methods Introducing Cyclic Plastic Strain DNV-RP-F109 On-bottom Stability Design of Submarine Pipelines DNV-RP-F110 Global Buckling of Submarine Pipelines Structural Design due to High Temperature/ High Pressure DNV-RP-F111 Interference between Trawl Gear and Pipelines DNV-RP-F112 Design of Duplex Stainless Steel Subsea Equipment Exposed to Cathodic Protection DNV-RP-F113 Pipeline Subsea Repair DNV-RP-F204 Riser Fatigue DNV-RP-H101 Risk Management in Marine and Subsea Operations DNV-RP-H102 Marine Operations during Removal of Offshore Installations DNV-RP-O501 Erosive Wear in Piping Systems .

Part 1:Steels Welding consumables .Part 1: Instruments Non destructive testing . 936-965) ISO 3183 Petroleum and natural gas industries Steel pipe for pipeline transportation systems ISO 2400 Welds in steel -.Deposition of a weld metal pad for chemical analysis ISO 7005-1 Metallic flanges – Part 1: Steel Flanges ISO 7963 Non-destructive testing -.Time-of. Deposition of a weld metal pad for chemical analysis IMO 23rd Session 2003 (Res.Ultrasonic testing --. and Parts for Piping Applications Standard Test method for Liquid Penetrant Inspection Standard Reference Radiographs for Heavy-Walled (4 1/2 to 12-in.Characterisation and verification of ultrasonic examination equipment.Specification for calibration block No.Shielding gases for arc welding and cutting Non destructive testing .Part 1: Rust grades and preparation grades of uncoated steel substrates and of steel substrates after overall removal of previous coatings DET NORSKE VERITAS . Valves. and Martensitic Stainless Steel.Types of inspection documents Non destructive testing .Visual assessment of surface cleanliness -.1 ASTM A577/577M ASTM A609 ASTM A 961 ASTM E165 ASTM E280 ASTM E309 ASTM E 317-94 ASTM E426 ASTM E 709 ASTM E797 ASTM E 1212 ASTM E 1417 ASTM E1444 ASTM G 48 API 6FA API RP 2201 AWS C5. titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded) . 2 ISO 8501-1 Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products -. October 2010 Page 16 – Sec.Qualification and certification of NDT personnel General principles EN 583-6 EN 1418 EN 1591-1 EN 1998 EN 10204 EN 12668-1 EN 12668-2 EN 12668-3 EN 13445 EN 26847 Non destructive testing .Approval testing of welding operators for fusion welding and resistance weld setters for fully mechanized and automatic welding of metallic materials Flanges and their joints . Low Alloy.Ultrasonic examination Part 6 .Part: 3: Combined equipment Unfired pressure vessels .Fusion-welded joints in steel.Quality levels for imperfections ISO 6847 Welding consumables -.Determination of hydrogen content in ferreted steel arc weld metal ISO 4063 Welding and allied processes -Nomenclature of processes and reference numbers ISO 5817 Welding . Austenitic Stainless Steel and Similar Alloys Standard Guide for Magnetic Particle Examination Standard Practice for Measuring Thickness by Manual Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Contact Method Standard Practice for Quality Management Systems for Non-destructive Testing Agencies Standard Practice for Liquid Penetrant Examination Standard Practice for Magnetic Particle Examination Standard Test Methods for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steels and Related Alloys by Use of Ferric Chloride Solution Specification for Fire Test for ValvesThird Edition.Part 3: Design Covered electrodes for manual metal arc welding.Design rules for gasketed circular flange connections .flight diffraction as a method for defect detection and sizing Welding personnel . (114 to 305-mm)) Steel Castings Standard Practice for Eddy-Current Examination of Steel Tubular products Using Magnetic Saturation Standard Practice for Evaluating Performance Characteristics of Pulse Echo Testing Systems Without the Use of Electronic Measurement Instruments Standard Practice for Electromagnetic (Eddy Current) of Welded and Seamless Tubular Products. Errata 12/18/2006 Safe Hot Tapping Practices in the Petroleum & Petrochemical Industries-Fifth Edition Recommended Practices for Air Carbon Arc Gouging and Cutting Guide to methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures Specification for Unfired fusion welded pressure vessels Qualification test of welders .Part 2: Transducers Non destructive testing .3 BSI BS 7910 BSI PD 5500 EN 287-1 EN 439 EN 473 Standard specification for Ultrasonic Angle-Beam Examination of Steel Plates Standard Practice for Castings.Reference block for the calibration of equipment for ultrasonic examination ISO 3690 Welding and allied processes -.Part 1: Calculation method Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance Metallic products .Fusion welding .Characterisation and verification of ultrasonic examination equipment. Forged Fittings. nickel.Characterisation and verification of ultrasonic examination equipment. Ultrasonic Examination Thereof Standard Specification for Common Requirements for Steel Flanges.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.

Subsea pipeline valves Welding coordination -.Qualification and certification of personnel Electric resistance welded steel tubes for pressure purposes . and the use of cast irons Petroleum and natural gas industries Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production .Tasks and responsibilities Welding personnel -.Fire Type-Testing Requirements-Second Edition Steel tubes for pressure purposes -Qualification and certification of nondestructive testing (NDT) personnel Seamless and welded steel tubes for pressure purposes .Liquid penetrant testing Submerged arc-welded steel tubes for pressure purposes . Ultrasonic non-destructive testing -Reference blocks and test procedures for the characterization of contact search unit beam profiles Petroleum and natural gas industries – Pipeline transportation systems Welded steel tubes for pressure purposes .Fundamentals and vocabulary Quality management systems Requirements Quality systems -. installation and servicing Seamless and welded (except submerged arc-welded) steel tubes for pressure purposes .Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. October 2010 Sec.Characterization of search unit and sound field Seamless and hot-stretch reduced welded steel tubes for pressure purposes .Ultrasonic testing of tube ends for the detection of laminar imperfections ISO 12094 ISO 12095 ISO 12096 ISO 12715 ISO 13623 ISO 13663 ISO 13664 ISO 13665 ISO 14723 ISO 14731 ISO14732 ISO 15156-1 ISO 15156-2 ISO 15156-3 ISO 15589-2 ISO 15590-1 Welded steel tubes for pressure purposes .Magnetic particle inspection of tube ends for the detection of laminar imperfections Seamless and welded steel tubes for pressure purposes .Part 1: Steels Non-destructive testing -.Part 1: General principles for selection of cracking-resistant materials Petroleum and natural gas industries Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production .Radiographic testing of the weld seam for the detection of imperfections.Part 2: Offshore pipelines Petroleum and natural gas industries .Full peripheral magnetic transducer/ flux leakage testing of ferromagnetic steel tubes for the detection of longitudinal imperfections Seamless steel tubes for pressure purposes .Full peripheral magnetic transducer/flux leakage testing of ferromagnetic steel tubes for the detection of transverse imperfections Approval testing of welders -.Full peripheral ultrasonic testing for the detection of longitudinal imperfections Seamless and welded (except submerged arc-welded) steel tubes for pressure purposes.Fusion welding -.Eddy current testing for the detection of imperfections Seamless tubes for pressure purposes Full peripheral ultrasonic testing for the detection of transverse imperfections Seamless and welded (except submerged arc welded) steel tubes for pressure purposes .Approval testing of welding operators for fusion welding and of resistance weld setters for fully mechanized and automatic welding of metallic materials Petroleum and natural gas industries Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production .1 – Page 17 ISO 9000 ISO 9001 ISO 9001 ISO 9303 ISO 9304 ISO 9305 ISO 9402 ISO 9598 ISO 9606-1 ISO 9712 ISO 9764 ISO 9765 ISO 10124 ISO 10375 ISO 10543 ISO 10474 ISO 10497 ISO 11484 ISO 11496 Quality management systems -.Magnetic particle inspection of tube body for the detection of surface imperfections Petroleum and natural gas industries Pipeline transportation systems .Model for quality assurance in production. fittings and flanges for pipeline transportation systems -Part 1: Induction bends DET NORSKE VERITAS .Induction bends.Ultrasonic testing of the area adjacent to the weld seam body for detection of laminar imperfections Seamless and welded steel tubes for pressure purposes .Part 2: Cracking-resistant carbon and low alloy steels.Full peripheral ultrasonic thickness testing Steel and steel products Testing of Valves .Ultrasonic testing of the weld seam for longitudinal imperfections Submerged arc-welded steel tubes for pressure purposes .Part 3: Cracking-resistant CRAs (corrosion-resistant alloys) and other alloys Petroleum and natural gas industries Cathodic protection of pipeline transportation systems .Ultrasonic testing of the weld seam for the detection of longitudinal and/or transverse imperfections Seamless and welded (except submerged arc-welded) steel tubes for pressure purposes .Ultrasonic inspection -.Ultrasonic testing for the detection of laminar imperfections Non-destructive testing -.Ultrasonic testing for the detection of laminar imperfections in strips or plates used in manufacture of welded tubes Seamless and welded steel tubes for pressure purposes .

and fittings and other piping components (visual method). 215 Coiled tubing: Continuously-milled tubular product manufactured in lengths that require spooling onto a take-up reel. 104 Agreement. and to document deviations from the original design. Other possibilities may be applied DET NORSKE VERITAS . standard guideline. fittings and flanges for pipeline transportation systems -Part 2: Fittings Petroleum and natural gas industries .Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 210 Characteristic load (LSd): The reference value of a load to be used in the determination of load effects. See Sec. 202 Accidental loads a load with an annual frequency less than 10-2. part of operational phase. fittings and flanges for pipeline transportation systems -Part 3: Flanges Specification and qualification of welding procedures for metallic materials -. Wrought. see Sec. 208 Buckling. split into two or more parts. Activities associated with taking Guidance note: The latest revision of the DNV codes may be found in the publication list at the DNV website www. 203 Accumulated plastic strain: Sum of plastic strain increments. C 200 Definitions 201 Abandonment: Abandonment comprises the activities associated with taking a pipeline permanently out of operation.dnv. Approved 1998-04).5 D700. 205 As-built survey: Survey of the installed and completed pipeline system that is performed to verify that the completed installation work meets the specified requirements. Specification for High Test. An abandoned pipeline cannot be returned to operation.com. Examples. Activities associated with the initial filling of the pipeline system with the fluid to be transported. October 2010 Page 18 – Sec.Rules for qualification of welding inspectors subject to agreement. rule. The characteristic resistance is normally based upon a defined fractile in the lower end of the distribution function for resistance.5 D1200.5 D300.Part 1: Arc and gas welding of steels and arc welding of nickel and nickel alloys Qualification testing of welders for underwater welding -. 102 Should: Indicates that among several possibilities. this means agreed in writing between Manufacturer/ Contractor and Purchaser. or that a certain course of action is preferred but not necessarily required. see Sec. additional to other referred standards. connecting two hubs in a mechanical connector or two pipe half-shells for repair purpose 214 Code: Common denotation on any specification.5 D1100. Definitions C 100 Verbal forms 101 Shall: Indicates requirements strictly to be followed in order to conform to this standard and from which no deviation is permitted. Depending on the legislation this may require cover or removal. by agreement: Unless otherwise indicated.dnv. These shall be considered as mandatory part of the above codes. Compact flanged connections Welding .Induction bends. 217 Commissioning. see Sec. 216 Commissioning. global: Buckling mode which involves a substantial length of the pipeline. flanges. see Sec. collapse. 103 May: Verbal form used to indicate a course of action permissible within the limits of the standard. usually several pipe joints and not gross deformations of the cross section. during the primary milling or manufacturing process. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- C. Strain increments shall be calculated from after the linepipe manufacturing. Report 394 (Guidelines for NDE Reliability Determination and Description. local: Buckling mode confined to a short length of the pipeline causing gross changes of the cross section. irrespective of sign and direction. upheaval buckling is an example thereof. 209 Buckling.5 C200. one is recommended as particularly suitable. 204 Additional requirements: Requirements that applies to this standard.Part 2: Diverwelders and welding operators for hyperbaric dry welding Petroleum and natural gas industries – Piping Petroleum and natural gas industries – Pipeline transportation systems – Reliability-based limit state methods Non-destructive testing of welds -Radiographic testing of fusion-welded joints Non-destructive testing of welds -Visual testing of fusion-welded joints Non-destructive testing of welds -Magnetic particle testing Non-destructive testing of welds -Ultrasonic testing of welded joints Non-destructive testing of welds -Eddy current testing of welds by complex-plane analysis Quality standard for steel castings for valves. 212 Clad pipe (C): Pipe with internal (corrosion resistant) liner where the bond between (linepipe) backing steel and cladding material is metallurgical. see Sec. if any.Induction bends.Welding procedure test -. localised wall wrinkling and kinking are examples thereof. Butt Welding Fittings NT Techn. De-. 211 Characteristic resistance (RRd): The reference value of structural strength to be used in the determination of the design strength. 213 Clamp: Circumferential structural element. 207 Atmospheric zone: The part of the pipeline system above the splash zone. recommended practice or similar. 206 As-laid survey: Survey performed either by continuous touchdown point monitoring or by a dedicated vessel during installation of the pipeline. The expression may also be used to express interface criteria which may be modified subject to agreement.1 ISO 15590-2 ISO 15590-3 ISO 15614-1 ISO 15618-2 ISO 15649 ISO 16708 ISO 17636 ISO 17637 ISO 17638 ISO 17640 ISO 17643 MSSSP-55 MSS SP-75 NORDTEST NORSOK L-005 NS 477 Petroleum and natural gas industries . The characteristic load is normally based upon a defined fractile in the upper end of the distribution function for load. Amendments and corrections to the DNV codes are published biannually on www.com. without mentioning or excluding others.4 G.

single or multiple extruded headers.4 A500. including hubs. the activities associated with design. 252 Installation Manual (IM): A document prepared by the Contractor to describe and demonstrate that the installation method and equipment used by the Contractor will meet the specified requirements and that the results can be verified.6 D100 227 Coupling: Mechanical device to connect two bare pipes to create a structural joint resisting applied loads and preventing leakage. examination. reducers and transition sections 242 Flange: Collar at the end of a pipe usually provided with holes in the pipe axial direction for bolts to permit other objects to be attached to it.g. piling of structure etc. corrosion. as well as the inspection and monitoring of corrosion. 243 Fluid categorisation: Categorisation of the transported fluid according to hazard potential as defined in Table 2-1. Crack growth proceeds by a hydrogen embrittlement mechanism at the crack tip. Dog-type connectors. see Sec. tie-in and pre-commissioning. 244 Fractile: The p-fractile (or percentile) and the corresponding fractile value xp is defined as: F ( xp ) = p F is the distribution function for xp 245 Hub: The parts in a mechanical connector joined by a clamp. 223 Contractor: A party contractually appointed by the Purchaser to fulfil all. 231 Design premises: A set of project specific design data and functional requirements which are not specified or which are left open in the standard to be prepared prior to the design phase. The J-tube supports connect the J-tube to the supporting structure.6 D200. tees. fabrication and installation activities. Installation activities will typical include pre. Fabrication activities will typically include fabrication of pipeline components and assemblies. weighing testing. 246 Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC): Internal cracking of rolled materials due to a build-up of hydrogen pressure in micro-voids (Related terms: stepwise cracking). October 2010 Sec. 225 Corrosion control: All relevant measures for corrosion protection. 229 Design case: Characterisation of different load categories.6 D100. pipeline or structure. 235 Erosion: Material loss due to repeated impact of sand particles or liquid droplets. 226 Corrosion protection: Use of corrosion resistant materials. including two flanges. Pre-. 228 Design: All related engineering to design the pipeline including both structural as well as material and corrosion. clamps.e. The J-tube extends from the platform deck to and inclusive of the bottom bend at the seabed. 240 Fatigue: Cyclic loading causing degradation of the material. 247 Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking (HISC): Cracking that results from the presence of hydrogen in a metal while subjected to tensile stresses (residual and/or applied). 255 J-tube: A J-shaped tube installed on a platform. 251 Installation (object): See Offshore installation. Examples: Threaded types. see Table 5-7. through which a pipe can be pulled to form a riser. the bulk material is not necessarily embrittled by hydrogen. e.4 G200 Table 4-5. 233 Dynamic riser: A riser which motion will influence the hydrodynamic load effects or where inertia forces become significant. one female fitting (integral box) and seal ring(s). or — deterioration of functional capability to such an extent that the safety of the installation. see Sec. 253 Integrity: See Pipeline integrity. see Sec. transportation. basic design and detail design. 224 Corrosion allowance (tcorr): Extra wall thickness added during design to compensate for any reduction in wall thickness by corrosion (internally/externally) during operation. 248 Hydro-test or Hydrostatic test: See Mill pressure test 249 Inspection: Activities such as measuring. HISC by corrosion in presence of hydrogen sulphide is referred to as Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC). bolts and seal ring(s). 250 Installation (activity): The operations related to installing the equipment.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. DET NORSKE VERITAS . tie-in. de-watering. 254 Jointer: Two lengths of pipe welded together by the manufacturer to build up one complete (≈40’) pipe joint. bolts and gasket/seal ring. electroplating or some other electrochemical process. 220 Condition load effect factor (γC): A load effect factor included in the design load effect to account for specific load conditions. see Sec. 222 Construction phase: The construction phase will typically include manufacture. cleaning and drying. 234 Engineering Critical Assessment (ECA): Fracture mechanics assessment of the acceptability of flaws in metallic materials. gauging one or more characteristics of a product or service and comparing the results with specified requirements to determine conformity. caps. For each design phase. pipeline laying. construction and operation. see Sec. or (ii) two pins. or any of. Activities after tie-in/connection and prior to commissioning including system pressure testing. collecting of data and technical early phase considerations. The source of hydrogen may be welding. Manufacture activities will typically include manufacture of linepipe and corrosion protection and weight coating. 221 Connector: Mechanical device used to connect adjacent components in the pipeline system to create a structural joint resisting applied loads and preventing leakage. 238 Fabricator: The party performing the fabrication.and post intervention work. The original design life may be extended after a re-qualification. i. 239 Failure: An event affecting a component or system and causing one or both of the following effects: — loss of component or system function. corrosion allowance and various techniques for "corrosion mitigation". 236 Fabrication: Activities related to the assembly of objects with a defined purpose in a pipeline system. installation. 230 Design life: The initially planned time period from initial installation or use until permanent decommissioning of the equipment or system.1 – Page 19 the pipeline temporarily out of service. 241 Fittings: Includes: Elbows. personnel or environment is significantly reduced. cathodic protection. 219 Concept development phase: The concept development phase will typically include both business evaluations. 237 Fabrication factor (γfab): Factor on the material strength in order to compensate for material strength reduction from cold forming during manufacturing of linepipe. 232 Design phase: The design phase will typically be split into FEED-phase. the same design tasks are repeated but in more and more specific and detailed level. Flanged types. a coupling and seals sea rings(s). 218 Commissioning. Clamped hub types. including (i) one male fitting (pin).

to the equipment or system. such as stress. 277 Operation. filling the pipeline with the intended fluid. 268 Manufacturing Procedure Specification (MPS): A manual prepared by the Manufacturer to demonstrate how the specified properties may be achieved and verified through the proposed manufacturing route. processing or storage of hydrocarbons or other related activities/fluids. γE. 259 Load categories: Functional load. design. incidental conditions may lead to incidental pressures. γA): The partial safety factor by which the characteristic load effect is multiplied to obtain the design load effect. 270 Material strength factor (αu ): Factor for determination of the characteristic material strength reflecting the confidence in the yield stress see Sec. as well as possible packing and shut-in conditions where these occur as part of routine operation. construction and operation of the pipeline system. flow control stations. This has the form of an elliptic cross section. 290 Pipeline System: pipeline with compressor or pump stations. 289 Pipeline Integrity Management: The pipeline integrity management process is the combined process of threat identification. deformation. execution and documentation of manufacturing. reducers and valves. see Sec. Normal: Conditions that arise from the intended use and application of equipment or system. e. see Sec. Exceedance of a serviceability limit state category shall be evaluated as an accidental limit state. flattening. this should include steady flow conditions over the full range of flow rates. inspection.4 G200. motion. etc. interference load or accidental load. etc. 274 Nominal strain: The total engineering strain not accounting for strain concentration factors. The operator may change between phases. re-qualifications and de-commissioning. see Sec. often in large volumes. strain. compromises the integrity of the pipeline. planning. High Frequency Welded (HFW): Pipe manufactured by forming from strip and with one longitudinal seam formed by welding without the addition of filler metal. including associated condition and integrity monitoring. Offshore installation covers subsea installations and pipelines. 272 Nominal outside diameter: The specified outside diameter. 288 Pipeline Integrity: Pipeline integrity is the ability of the submarine pipeline system to operate safely and withstand the loads imposed during the pipeline lifecycle. 260 Load effect: Effect of a single load or combination of loads on the equipment or system.g.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.e. 266 Manufacture: Making of articles or materials. 287 Pipeline Components: Any items which are integral parts of the pipeline system such as flanges. 262 Load effect factor (γF. see Sec. displacement. (mm).4 A. 271 Mill pressure test: The hydrostatic strength test performed at the mill. 279 Operation phase: The operation phase starts with the commissioning.4 A. or as local out of roundness. including facilities. see Sec. maintenance etc. The hot forming may be followed by sizing or cold finishing to obtain the required dimensions. 275 Nominal plastic strain: The nominal strain minus the linear strain derived from the stress-strain curve. October 2010 Page 20 – Sec. anodes and other components and application of coating. 263 Load scenarios: Scenarios which shall be evaluated. if exceeded. Submerged Arc-Welded Longitudinal or Helical (SAWL or SAWH): Pipe manufactured by forming from strip or plate.5 B200.1 256 Limit state: A state beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the requirements. In relation to pipelines. In addition. bends. material resistance or safety class resistance factor). see Table 2-2. strain. The term does not cover traditional shuttle tankers. repairs etc. 273 Nominal pipe wall thickness: The specified non-corroded pipe wall thickness of a pipe. displacement. 269 Material resistance factor (γm): Partial safety factor transforming a characteristic resistance to a lower fractile resistance. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 284 Pipe. monitoring. 261 Load effect combinations: See Sec. pressure control stations. The operation phase will include inspection and maintenance activities. a load effect. pressure surges due to sudden closing of valves. 280 Operator: The party ultimately responsible for concept development. tees.5 C200 Table 5-4. Seamless (SMLS): Pipe manufactured in a hot forming process resulting in a tubular product without a welded seam. In relation to pipelines. e. 281 Out of roundness: The deviation of the linepipe perimeter from a circle. the operation phase may also include modifications. supply boats and other support vessels which are not directly engaged in the activities described above. This can be stated as ovalisation (%).5 Figure 3. environmental load. 257 Lined pipe (L): Pipe with internal (corrosion resistant) liner where the bond between (linepipe) backing steel and liner material is mechanical. and with one longitudinal (SAWL) or helical (SAWH) seam formed by the submerged arc process with at least one pass made on the inside and one pass from the outside of the pipe. 267 Manufacturer: The party who is contracted to be responsible for planning. which is equal to the minimum steel wall thickness plus the manufacturing tolerance.g. The longitudinal seam is generated by high frequency current applied by induction or conduction. The following limit states categories are of relevance for pipeline systems: — Serviceability Limit State (SLS): A condition which. 258 Load: Any action causing stress.4 A. to maintain pipeline integrity. 276 Offshore installation (object): General term for mobile and fixed structures. production. which are intended for exploration. see Sec. 286 Pipe. metering. 265 Lot: Components of the same size and from the same heat. deformation. 282 Ovalisation: The deviation of the perimeter from a circle. risk assessments. — Accidental Limit State (ALS): An ULS due to accidental (in-frequent) loads. see Sec. motion. performed under contracts from one or more Contractors. or failure of the pressure control system and activation of the pressure safety system. — Fatigue Limit State (FLS): An ULS condition accounting for accumulated cyclic load effects. 278 Operation. if exceeded. Incidental: Conditions which that are not part of normal operation of the equipment or system. the same heat treatment batch. 264 Location class: A geographic area of pipeline system. maintenance.5 C. renders the pipeline unsuitable for normal operations.5 C300 Table 5-6. condition load effect. drilling. — Ultimate Limit State (ULS): A condition which. 285 Pipe. In relation to pipeline systems. refers to activities for the production of linepipe. 283 Partial safety factor: A factor by which the characteristic value of a variable is modified to give the design value (i. The term includes installations intended for accommodation of personnel engaged in these activities.

Design (pd): In relation to pipelines. This implies that pressure transients due to valve closing shall be included. riser ESD valve. The maximum allowable operating pressure is defined as the design pressure less the positive tolerance of the pressure protection system. Operation (po): The most probable pressure during 1-year operation. 320 Riser support/clamp: A structure which is intended to Accidental Pressure DET NORSKE VERITAS . Local Incidental or Local Test: In relation to pipelines. this is the maximum pressure at which the pipeline system shall be operated during incidental (i. 305 Pressure. shut-in: The maximum pressure that can be attained at the wellhead during closure of valves closest to the wellhead (wellhead isolation). Mill test. or part of a structure. 310 Pressure.e. 304 Pressure. 319 Riser: A riser is defined as the connecting piping or flexible pipe between a submarine pipeline on the seabed and installations above water. 315 Ratcheting: Accumulated deformation during cyclic loading.5 C200. referred to a specified reference elevation.3 B300. 303 Pressure. see Sec. tran- Pressure Control System Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure (MAOP) Pressure Safety System Maximum Allowable Incidental Pressure (MAIP) Pressure Protection System sient) operation. this is the internal pressure at any point in the pipeline system or pipeline section for the corresponding design pressure. Hydro. 302 Pressure. project or contract. facility or building used in the transportation of fluids. Mill test (ph): The test pressure applied to pipe joints and pipe components upon completion of manufacture and fabrication. see Figure 1 and Sec. Local Design. A quality plan usually makes reference to the part of the quality manual (e. 316 Reliability: The probability that a component or system will perform its required function without failure. 295 Pressure test: See System pressure test 296 Pressure. 309 Pressure. Incidental (pinc): In relation to pipelines. 294 Pressure safety system: The system which. procedures and work instructions) applicable to the specific case. safety systems.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. see Sec. See also Submarine pipeline system.3 B300. incidental pressure or test pressure adjusted for the column weight.5 D1000. and any other equipment. this is the internal pressure applied to the pipeline or pipeline section during testing on completion of installation work to test the pipeline system for tightness (normally performed as hydrostatic testing). 291 Pipeline walking: Accumulation of incremental axial displacement of pipeline due to start-up and shut-down. see Sec. Does not include so called Pipeline Walking.or Hydrostatic test: See Pressure. see Sec.5 D500. (The Quality Assurance actions of an organisation is described in a Quality Manual stating the Quality Policy and containing the necessary procedures and instructions for planning and performing the required actions). independent of the pressure control system. 312 Quality Assurance (QA): Planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. 314 Quality Plan (QP): The document setting out the specific quality practices. see Sec.3 B300. 299 Pressure. see Figure 1 and Sec. 318 Resistance: The capability of a structure. see Figure 1 and Sec. see Sec. Collapse (pc): Characteristic resistance against external over-pressure.3 B300. Test: See Pressure.3 B300.5 D500. supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA). under stated conditions of operation and maintenance and during a specified time interval. this is the system which. The maximum allowable incidental pressure is defined as the maximum incidental pressure less the positive tolerance of the pressure safety system. see Figure 1 and Sec.3 B300. comprising the Pressure Control System. irrespective of the upstream pressure.1 – Page 21 tankage. 311 Purchaser: The owner or another party acting on his behalf. System test. 297 Pressure. 307 Pressure. used by manufacturers to ensure that their products meet the required standards and specifications. see Figure 1 and Sec. 292 Pressure control system: In relation to pipelines.e. see Figure 1 and Sec. ensures that the allowable incidental pressure is not exceeded. corrosion protection systems. Pressure Safety System and associated instrument and alarm systems. resources and sequence of activities relevant to a particular product. components or services intended for the design. ensures that the maximum allowable operating pressure is not exceeded. October 2010 Sec. this is the maximum internal pressure during normal operation. i.4 B200. Local. Maximum Allowable Incidental (MAIP): In relation to pipelines. who is responsible for procuring materials. 293 Pressure protection system: In relation to pipelines. 317 Re-qualification: The re-assessment of a design due to modified design premises and/or sustained damage. this is the system for control of the pressure in pipelines.5 D400. Propagating (ppr): The lowest pressure required for a propagating buckle to continue to propagate. 306 Pressure.g. 308 Pressure. referred to the same reference elevation as the design pressure. Maximum Allowable Operating (MAOP): In relation to pipelines.5 B200.3 B300. to resist load effects. see Figure 1 and Sec. this is the maximum pressure at which the pipeline system shall be operated during normal operation. 298 Pressure. this is the maximum internal pressure the pipeline or pipeline section is designed to withstand during any incidental operating situation. construction or modification of a installation or a pipeline. see Sec. see Sec. Internal Pressure Incidental Pressure Tolerance of Pressure Safety System Design Pressure Tolerance of Pressure Control System Figure 1 Pressure definitions C 300 Definitions (continuation) 301 Pressure. 313 Quality Control (QC): The internal systems and practices (including direct inspection and materials testing).5 B200. Initiation: The external over-pressure required to initiate a propagating buckle from an existing local buckle or dent. System test (ptest): In relation to pipelines. especially for diameter increase. The riser extends to the above sea emergency isolation point between the import/export line and the installation facilities.

324 Safety class resistance factor (γSC): Partial safety factor which transforms the lower fractile resistance to a design resistance reflecting the safety class. insulation joint) includes any pup pieces. connection or insulation joint at a landfall unless otherwise specified by the on-shore legislation. from the same heat.|L2| . if applicable 334 Splash zone wave-related height: The wave height with a probability of being exceeded equal to 10-2.4 B107 344 Test unit: A prescribed quantity of pipe that is made to the specified outer diameter and specified wall thickness. the submarine pipeline system extends to the weld beyond the pup piece.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. design.46 Hs100 Where Hs100 = significant wave height with a 100 year return period 335 Submarine Pipeline: A submarine pipeline is defined as the part of a submarine pipeline system which. This may be applied locally. If this value is not available. 349 Weld. connection. its supports. 351 Yield Stress (YS): The measured yield tensile stress. flange. The pipeline may. and under the same pipe-manufacturing conditions. see Sec. October 2010 Page 22 – Sec. 342 Temperature. 330 Splash zone: External surfaces of a structure or pipeline that are periodically in and out of the water by the influence of waves and tides. Gross errors are not included. see Table 5-5. D. Abbreviations and Symbols D 100 ALS AR API ASD ASME Abbreviations Accidental Limit State Additional Requirement (to ISO 3183). 346 Tide: See Sec. i. the seabed. be resting wholly or intermittently on. 322 Risk: The qualitative or quantitative likelihood of an accidental or unplanned event occurring. 337 Submerged zone: The part of the pipeline system or installation below the splash zone. flange. a concept adopted to classify the significance of the pipeline system with respect to the consequences of failure. 345 Threats: An indication of impending danger or harm to the pipeline system. 332 Splash Zone Lower Limit (LSZ) is determined by: LSZ = |L1| . as determined from the long term distribution of individual waves. 350 Work: All activities to be performed within relevant contract(s) issued by Owner.e. considered in conjunction with the potential consequences of such a failure. The direction is mainly vertical. see Sec. see Sec. an approximate value of the splash zone height may be taken as: 0. 340 System pressure test: Final test of the complete pipeline system. 343 Temperature. flange or connection above water on platform or floater — the connection point to the subsea installation (i. see Sec. see Sec. 333 Splash Zone Upper Limit (USZ) is determined by: USZ = |U1| + |U2| + |U3| U1 = highest astronomic tide level (HAT) U2 = 70% of the splash zone wave-related height defined in 334 U3 = settlement or downward motion of the riser. 327 Slapping: Impact load on an approximately vertical surface due to a breaking wave. 325 Single event: Straining in one direction.e. 341 Target nominal failure probability: A nominal acceptable probability of structural failure. Operator. 321 Riser system: A riser system is considered to comprise riser. risk is the quantified probability of a defined failure mode times its quantified consequence. 347 Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS): The measured ultimate tensile strength. strip/plate end: Weld that joins strip or plate joins together. The direction is mainly horizontal.3 D300.5 B200. 348 Verification: An examination to confirm that an activity..4 G200. including buried parts. 336 Submarine Pipeline System: a submarine pipeline system extends to the first weld beyond: — the first valve. 331 Splash Zone Height: The vertical distance between splash zone upper limit and splash zone lower limit. In quantitative terms. minimum: The lowest possible temperature profile to which the component or system may be exposed to during installation and operation.|L3| L1 = lowest astronomic tide level (LAT) L2 = 30% of the Splash zone wave-related height defined in 334 L3 = upward motion of the riser.2 C500. all integrated pipelining components. 326 Slamming: Impact load on an approximately horizontal member from a rising water surface as a wave passes. 329 Specified Minimum Yield Stress (SMYS): The minimum yield stress prescribed by the specification or standard under which the material is purchased. Contractor or Manufacturer. a product or a service is in accordance with specified requirements. The component above (valve. 338 Supplementary requirements: Requirements for material properties of linepipe that are extra to the additional requirements to ISO and that are intended to apply to pipe used for specific applications. 323 Safety Class (SC): In relation to pipelines. design.1 keep the riser in place. and potential structural failure may occur in connection with the lowest structural resistance among the pipe sections. 328 Specified Minimum Tensile Strength (SMTS): The minimum tensile strength prescribed by the specification or standard under which the material is purchased. see Sec. maximum: The highest possible temperature profile to which the equipment or system may be exposed to during installation and operation. or buried below.2 C400. and corrosion protection system.7 B102 American Petroleum Institute Allowable Stress Design American Society of Mechanical Engineers DET NORSKE VERITAS . except for pipeline risers is located below the water surface at maximum tide. piping manifolds are not included) — the first valve. 339 System effects: System effects are relevant in cases where many pipe sections are subjected to an invariant loading condition. by the same pipe-manufacturing process.

1 – Page 23 ASTM AUT BE BM BS C C-Mn CP CRA CTOD CVN DAC DC DFI DNV DP DWTT EBW EC ECA EDI EMS ERW ESD FEED FLS FMEA G-FCAW GMAW HAT HAZ HAZOP HFW HIPPS HIC HISC ID IM ISO J-R curve KV KVL KVT L LAT LB LC LBW LBZ LRFD LSZ M/A MAIP MAOP MDS American Society for Testing and Materials Automated Ultrasonic Testing Best Estimate Base material British Standard Clad pipe Carbon Manganese Cathodic Protection Corrosion Resistant Alloy Crack Tip Opening Displacement Charpy V-Notch Distance Amplitude Correction Displacement controlled Design.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. see Sec. October 2010 Sec. expanded Splash Zone Upper Limit DET NORSKE VERITAS . Fabrication and Installation Det Norske Veritas Dynamic Positioning Drop Weight Tear Testing Electron Beam Welded Eddy Current Testing Engineering Critical Assessment Electronic Data Interchange Electro Magnetic Stirring Electric Resistance Welding Emergency Shut Down Front End Engineering Design Fatigue Limit State Failure Mode Effect Analysis Gas-Flux Core Arc Welding Gas Metal Arc Welding Highest Astronomical Tide Heat Affected Zone Hazard and Operability Study High Frequency Welding High Integrity Pressure Protection System Hydrogen Induced Cracking Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking Internal Diameter Installation Manual International Organization for Standardization Plot of resistance to stable crack growth for establishing crack extension Charpy value Charpy value in pipe longitudinal direction Charpy value in pipe transversal direction Lined pipe or load effect Lowest Astronomic Tide Lower Bound Load controlled Laser Beam Welded Local Brittle Zones Load and Resistance Factor Design Splash Zone Lower Limit Martensitic/Austenite Maximum Allowable Incidental Pressure Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure Material Data Sheet MPQT MPS MR MSA MT MWP N NACE NDT OD P PIM PRE PRL PT PTFE PWHT pWPS Q QA QC QP QRA QT ROV RT SAWH SAWL SC SCF SCR SENB SENT SLS SMAW SMLS SMTS SMYS SN SNCF SRA SSC ST TCM TMCP TOFD TRB UB ULS UO UOE USZ Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test Manufacturing Procedure Specification Modified Requirement (to ISO 3183).7 B102 Manufacturing Survey Arrangement Magnetic Particle Testing Multiple Welding Process Normalised National Association of Corrosion Engineers Non-Destructive Testing Outside Diameter Production Pipeline Integrity Management Pitting Resistance Equivalent Primary Reference Level Penetrant Testing Poly Tetra Flour Ethylene Post weld heat treatment preliminary Welding Procedure Specification Qualification Quality Assurance Quality Control Quality Plan Quantitative Risk Assessment Quenched and Tempered Remotely Operated Vehicle Radiographic testing Submerged Arc-welding Helical Submerged Arc-welding Longitudinal Safety Class Stress Concentration Factor Steel Catenary Riser Singel Edge Notched Bend fracture mechanics specimen Single Edge Notched Tension fracture mechanics specimen Serviceability Limit State Shielded Metal Arc Welding Seamless Pipe Specified Minimum Tensile Strength Specified Minimum Yield Stress Stress versus number of cycles to failure Strain Concentration Factor Structural Reliability Analysis Sulphide Stress Cracking Surface testing Two Curve Method Thermo-Mechanical Controlled Process Time of Flight Diffraction Three Roll Bending Upper Bound Ultimate Limit State Pipe fabrication process for welded pipes Pipe fabrication process for welded pipes.

5.6 Derating on tensile stress to be used in design. Submerged weight Greek characters Thermal expansion coefficient Flow stress parameter.4 B100 Minimum thickness Planned operational period. see Eq.5 Derating on yield stress to be used in design.4 C600 Time between generated weather forecasts. see Eq.30 α αc αfab αfat αgw DET NORSKE VERITAS .10 and Eq. 4.8 Characteristic collapse pressure. 5.18 Global bending radius of pipe.9 Tensile strength to be used in design.temp g H hl Hp href Hs ID k L M N ni Ni O OD pb pc pd PDi pe Crack depth Cross section area π ⋅ D 2 Pipe external cross section area 4 pel pf pf. see Eq.1 and 5.A pt px R Rm Rpx Rtx S Sm Sr tc T t. 4. see Eq.2 Plastic collapse pressure.T ph pi pinc pinit pld pli plt pp ppr ppr. see Eq. 5. see Eq.1 Permanent plastic dent depth Elevation at pressure reference level. see Eq.4 C600 Reference period for operation/ceasing operation. see Eq. 4. t2 tcorr Tc/Tc’ tfab tm. 4. 5. 4. see Table 5-2 Temperature Nominal wall thickness of pipe (un-corroded) Testing temperature Pipe wall thickness.4 B100 Minimum design temperature. see Table 5-2 Corrosion allowance. see Eq. see Table 5-9 Girth weld factor (strain resistance). see Sec.Dmin Outside nominal diameter Pressure containment resistance. see Eq. 4. Miner’s sum D-2tnom Nominal internal diameter Greatest measured inside or outside diameter Smallest measured inside or outside diameter Young's Modulus Dmax _ Dmin Ovality D Minimum of fy and fu/1.1 Significant wave height Nominal inside diameter number of stress blocks Characteristic load effect Moment Axial force in pipe wall ("true" force) (tension is positive) or Number of load effect cycles Number of stress blocks Number of stress cycles to failure at constant amplitude Out of roundness. see Table 5-7 Allowable damage ratio for fatigue.15.12 Propagating pressure. see Table 5-2 Contingency time for operation/ceasing operation. 4. 5. see Eq. see Sec. see Eq.11 Failure probability Target nominal failure probability Mill test pressure. 5. see Eq.7 E100 Characteristic internal pressure Incidental pressure Initiation pressure Local design pressure Local incidental pressure.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. see Sec.11 Local height at pressure point. 5. 5. see Eq. Dmax . Section modulus or Specimen thickness.2. 5. see Eq. see Sec. 5.16 Propagating buckle capacity of infinite buckle arrestor System test pressure. see Table 7-18 Measured minimum thickness Maximum design temperature. see Sec. 5.temp fy fy.6 Yield stress to be used in design.5 Gravity acceleration Residual lay tension. see Sec. see Eq. 5. 5.4 C600 Planned time to cease operation. 5.2 Crossover pressure. 5.min Tmax Tmin tmin Tpop TR/TR’ TSafe TWF W Wsub D 300 π 4 (D − 2 ⋅ t ) 2 Pipe internal cross section area π ⋅ (D − t )⋅ t Pipe steel cross section area Specimen width Nominal outside diameter.34 External pressure Elastic collapse pressure.1 Local test pressure (system test). tnom T0 t1. Reaction force or Resistance Tensile strength Strength equivalent to a permanent elongation of x% (actual stress) Strength equivalent to a total elongation of x% (actual stress) Effective axial force (Tension is positive) Resistance to failure Ultimate state Characteristic thickness to be replaced by t1 or t2 as relevant. see Eq.4 C600 Fabrication thickness tolerance. see Eq. see Sec.22 Fabrication factor. see Eq.10 Design pressure (i’th) Damaging event. see Eq. October 2010 Page 24 – Sec.1 UT UTS VT WM WPQT WPS YS Ultrasonic testing Ultimate Tensile Strength Visual Testing Weld Metal Welding Procedure Qualification Test Welding Procedure Specification Yield Stress D 200 Symbols 201 Latin characters a A Ae Ai As B D Dfat Di Dmax Dmin E f0 fcb fu fu.

26 Material strength factor. 5. see Table 5-6 Factor used in combined loading criteria Strain Characteristic bending strain resistance. see Eq. strain resistance. see Eq. see Table 4-4 Resistance factor. see Table 5-4 Safety factor for residual strain Safety class resistance factor. see Table 4-5 Load effect factor for environmental load. see Eq. see Table 4-4 Condition load effect factor. see Table 3-1 Material resistance factor. 5.nom εp εr εr.1 – Page 25 αh αp αpm αU β ε εc εf εl.rot γA γC γE γε γF γinc γm γrot γSC η κ ν μ ⎛ Rt 0.5 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ R ⎟ ⎝ m ⎠ max Minimum strain hardening Pressure factor used in combined loading criteria.40 Tangential shear stress Subscripts Accidental load Buckle arrestor Characteristic resistance Design value Design load (i. 5.39 Longitudinal/axial stress. see Eq. see Table 4-4 Incidental to design pressure ratio. 5. see Eq.e. including partial resistance factors) Environmental load External Elastic Functional load Circumferential direction (hoop direction) Circumferential direction (hoop direction) Internal Axial (longitudinal) direction Moment Plastic Radial direction Steel SLS ULS Crossover (buckle arrestors) DET NORSKE VERITAS . thickness) Equivalent stress.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.23 Plastic moment reduction factor for point loads. including load effect factors) Design resistance (i.g. October 2010 Sec. see Table 5-8 Load effect factor for functional load. 5. Von Mises. 5.38 Hoop stress.e. see Eq.30 Accumulated plastic strain resistance Total nominal longitudinal strain Plastic strain Residual strain Residual strain limit Load effect factor for accidental load. see Table 5-5 Usage factor Curvature Poisson’s ratio Friction coefficient ρcont ρt σ σe σh σl τ lh D 400 A BA c d Sd Rd E e el F h H i L M p R s S U X Density pipeline content Density pipeline content during system pressure test Standard deviation of a variable (e.

covering all phases from conceptual development until abandonment. design. 5 & 6 7 8 9 Establish Integrity Installation Linepipe 10 *indicates Section in this Standard. and maintain integrity in the operations phase. The risk assessment could identify all hazards and their consequences. General A 100 Objective 101 This section presents the overall safety philosophy that shall be applied in the concept development. This standard defines two integrity stages: establish integrity in the concept development.e. . B. it can be a point of discussion as to whether this is being accomplished in the actual project.The pipeline installation shall not. They are typically more relevant for the work execution (i. operation and abandonment of pipelines. and then enable back-extrapolation to define acceptance criteria and areas that need to be followed up more closely. from initial concept through to final de-commissioning.Diverless installation and maintenance. under any circumstances impose any threat to fishing gear. Typical statements may be: . Having defined the Safety Objective. construction.The impact on the environment shall be reduced to as far as reasonably possible. 11 Maintain Integrity Figure 1 Integrity assurance activities during the pipeline system phases DET NORSKE VERITAS Abandonment . the structural failure probability is reflected in the choice of three safety classes (see B400). 203 This section also provides guidance for extension of this standard in terms of new criteria.g. . environment and financial issues. how the Contractor executes his job) and specific design solutions (e. It is therefore recommended that the overall Safety Objective be followed up by more specific. . . burial or no burial).There shall be no serious accidents or loss of life during the construction period. A 200 Application and implemented. design and construction phases.2 SECTION 2 SAFETY PHILOSOPHY A. In this standard. Statements such as those above may have implications for all or individual phases only. The choice of safety class should also include consideration of the expressed safety objective. B 200 201 Safety objective An overall safety objective shall be established. Guidance note: Most companies have a policy regarding human aspects. but may be followed by more detailed objectives and requirements in specific areas.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. measurable requirements. Safety Philosophy Structure B 100 General 101 The integrity of the submarine pipeline system constructed to this standard is ensured through a safety philosophy integrating different parts as illustrated in Figure 2. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 201 This section applies to all submarine pipeline systems which are to be built and operated in accordance with this standard. 102 The overall safety principles and the arrangement of safety systems shall be in accordance with DNV-OS-A101 and DNV-OS-E201. These policies should be used as a basis for defining the Safety Objective for a specific pipeline system. planned Concept Design Corrosion protection and weight coating Construction Operation Components and assemblies Business development Concept development Integrity management Inspection and repair Pre-commissioning Post-intervention Pre-intervention Re-qualification Commissioning Detail design Basic design 2* & 3 4. If no policy is available.No releases will be accepted during operation of the pipeline system. October 2010 Page 26 – Sec. one could also start with a risk assessment. These are typically on an overall level. see Figure 1. etc. or if it is difficult to define the safety objective. 202 The integrity of a submarine pipeline system shall be ensured through all phases.

506 To ensure safety during operations phase.g. normally given by the content and location.11 C shall be established and maintained. construction. and not just the submarine pipeline system as defined by this standard. The load and resistance factors depend on the safety class. operation and abandonment of the pipeline system shall be conducted in compliance with national legislation and company policy with respect to health. such that necessary remedial measures can be taken. the operator shall provide assurance that intended quality is being. The extent of quality surveillance shall be sufficient to establish that specified requirements are fulfilled and that the intended quality level is maintained. Effective implementation of quality systems shall be documented. the criticality of a planned operation. B 400 Design criteria principles 401 In this standard. environment and assets and comprises: hazard identification assessment of probabilities of failure events accident developments consequence and risk assessment. Guidance note: ISO 9000 give guidance on the selection and use of quality systems. processes and services will be in compliance with the requirements of this standard. verification of the design. This may provide an estimation of the overall risk to human health and safety. it is assumed that the operator of a pipeline system has established a quality objective. design contractors. also called Load and Resistance Factor Design format (LRFD). 505 Quality surveillance in the construction phase shall be performed by the operator or an inspectorate nominated by the operator. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 302 Special attention shall be given to sections close to installations or shore approaches where there is frequent human activity and thus a greater likelihood and consequence of damage to the pipeline. DET NORSKE VERITAS . For each safety class. and previous experience with similar systems or operations. Figure 2 Safety Philosophy structure 504 Repeated occurrence of non-conformities reflecting systematic deviations from procedures and/or inadequate workmanship shall initiate: — investigation into the causes of the non-conformities — reassessment of the quality system — corrective action to establish possible acceptability of products — preventative action to prevent re-occurrence of similar non-conformities. seek to achieve the quality level of products and services intended in the quality objective. the consequences of single failures and series of failures in the pipeline system. 502 For the purpose of this standard.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. at least at an overall level to identify critical scenarios that might jeopardise the safety and reliability of a pipeline system. competence of persons performing the work.2 – Page 27 gross errors (human errors) shall be controlled by requirements for organisation of the work. safety and environment 601 The concept development. achieved. 602 The selection of materials and processes shall be conducted with due regard to the safety of the public and employees and to the protection of the environment. It should be noted that legislation in some countries requires risk analysis to be performed. This also includes areas where pipelines are installed parallel to existing pipelines and pipeline crossings. safety and environmental aspects. in both internal and external quality related aspects. fabricators and installation contractors) to ensure that products. structural safety of the pipeline system is ensured by use of a safety class methodology. design. The pipeline system is classified into one or more safety classes based on failure consequences. Other methodologies for identification of potential hazards are Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Hazard and Operability studies (HAZOP). The scope of the systematic review should comprise the entire pipeline system. or will be. manufactures. and quality assurance during all relevant phases. October 2010 Sec. Further. Risk Basis for Design C 100 General 101 The design format within this standard is based upon a limit state and partial safety factor methodology. The operator shall. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- B 300 Systematic review of risks 301 A systematic review shall be carried out at all phases to identify and evaluate threats. a set of partial safety factors is assigned to each limit state. 503 Documented quality systems shall be applied by operators and other parties (e. The extent of the review or analysis shall reflect the criticality of the pipeline system. C 200 Categorisation of fluids 201 Fluids to be transported by the pipeline system shall be categorised according to their hazard potential as given by Table 2-1. Guidance note: A methodology for such a systematic review is quantitative risk analysis (QRA). which characterizes the consequences of failure. an integrity management system in accordance with Sec. B 600 Health. B 500 501 Quality assurance The safety format within this standard requires that C.

e. C Fluid Category B. This is the usual classification during operation in location class 2. and chlorine. Medium For temporary conditions where failure implies risk of human injury. See Appendix F Table F-2. Typical examples would be hydrogen. and extension into new areas of application shall be supported by technical verification. C D E 3) * 202 Gases or liquids not specifically identified in Table 2-1 should be classified in the category containing fluids most similar in hazard potential to those quoted. High For operating conditions where failure implies high risk of human injury. C 500 Reliability analysis 501 As an alternative to the LRFD format specified and used in this standard. This is the usual classification for operation outside the platform area. Table 2-2 Classification of location Location Definition 1 The area where no frequent human activity is anticipated along the pipeline route. the selection of a higher safety class may not be justified.2 Low Low Operational Low Medium3 Medium High 1) 2) Installation until pre-commissioning (temporary phase) will normally be classified as safety class Low.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 402 The partial safety factors related to the safety class are given in Sec. natural gas (not otherwise covered under category D). 503 As far as possible. when the table above does not apply. In this standard. the selection of a higher safety class shall also consider the implication. For safety classification of temporary phases after commissioning. on the total gained safety. 30. For pipelines where some consequences are more severe than normal. 3) 4) DET NORSKE VERITAS . the most hazardous category shall be assumed. i. Risers during normal operation will normally be classified as safety class High. If no such analyses are performed a minimum distance of 500 m shall be adopted. If this is not feasible. Typical examples are oil and petroleum products.10-7-10-8 10-5 10-7 1) 2) Or the time period of the temporary phase. Flammable and/or toxic fluids which are liquids at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions. special consideration shall be made to the consequences of failure. in accordance with industry practice and reflected by the ISO requirements. significant environmental pollution or very high economic or political consequences. The safety classes are defined in Table 2-3. safety classes Limit Probability Bases Safety Classes States Low Medium High Very High4) SLS Annual per Pipeline1) 10-2 10-3 10-3 10-4 ULS 2) Annual per Pipeline1) FLS Annual per Pipeline3) 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 ALS Annual per Pipeline Pressure containment 10-4. single-phase natural gas.10-5-10-6 10-6. Non-flammable fluids which are non-toxic gases at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions. 2 The part of the pipeline/riser in the near platform (manned) area or in areas with frequent human activity. the nominal target failure probability level shall be based on the failure type and safety class as given in Table 2-5. significant environmental pollution or very high economic or political consequences. a recognised structural reliability analysis SRA) based design method may be applied provided that: — the method complies with DNV Classification Note no. Non-toxic. this implies that reliability based limit state design shall not be used to replace the pressure containment criterion in Sec.5 with the exception of accidental loads. C 300 Location classes 301 The pipeline system shall be classified into location classes as defined in Table 2-2. Flammable and/or toxic fluids which are gases at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions and which are conveyed as gases and/or liquids. The failure probability will effectively be governed by the last year in operation or prior to inspection depending on the adopted inspection philosophy. The extent of location class 2 should be based on appropriate risk analyses. ethane. i. this is implicit by the concept of safety class. Guidance note: In particular. Methanol is an example of a flammable and toxic fluid. If the total safety increase is marginal. Table 2-5 Nominal failure probabilities vs. liquefied petroleum gas (such as propane and butane). Table 2-3 Classification of safety classes Safety Definition class Low Where failure implies low risk of human injury and minor environmental and economic consequences. ammonia. October 2010 Page 28 – Sec. carbon dioxide. D and E Location Class Location Class 1 2 1 2 Temporary1. If the fluid category is not clear. the safety classes in Table 2-4 apply: Table 2-4 Normal classification of safety classes* Phase Fluid Category A. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- C 400 Safety classes 401 Pipeline design shall be based on potential failure consequence. The failure probability for the bursting (pressure containment) shall be an order of magnitude lower than the general ULS criterion given in the Table.e. natural gas liquids.6 "Structural reliability analysis of marine structures" — the approach is demonstrated to provide adequate safety for familiar cases. giving a higher safety class than Low. The safety class may vary for different phases and locations. argon and air. Typical examples are nitrogen. This is the usual classification for installation phase. ethylene. nominal target failure probability levels shall be calibrated against identical or similar pipeline designs that are known to have adequate safety on the basis of this standard. 502 Suitably competent and qualified personnel shall perform the structural reliability analysis.2 Table 2-1 Category A B Classification of fluids Description Typical non-flammable water-based fluids.5 C100. 403 For normal use. Other classifications may exist depending on the conditions and criticality of failure the pipeline. as indicated by this standard.

operation and abandonment should be considered. and available design methods and DET NORSKE VERITAS . A 300 Concept development 301 When selecting the pipeline system concept all aspects related to design. data of product to be transported including possible changes during the pipeline system's design life transport capacity and flow assurance pressure protection system requirements including process system layout and incidental to design pressure ratio evaluations pipeline sizing data attention to possible code breaks in the pipeline system geometrical restrictions such as specifications of constant internal diameter. A 200 Application 201 This section applies to all pipeline systems which are to be built according to this standard. see Sec. and abandonment of the pipeline system are identified. operation. valves. General A 100 Objective 101 This section identifies and provides a basis for definition of relevant field development characteristics. non-availability of major installation equipment or services and weather issues). 302 Data and description of field development and general arrangement of the pipeline system should be established. inspected and evaluated with a frequency which enables remedial actions to be carried out before the system is damaged. System Design Principles B 100 System integrity 101 The pipeline system shall be designed. insurance. e. requirement for fittings.11. contracts. B 200 Monitoring/inspection during operation 201 Parameters which could violate the integrity of a pipeline system shall be monitored. construction. 202 The design premises outlined in this section should be developed during the conceptual phase.) — life cycle evaluations (e. pipe ovality and distances between various fittings affecting design for pigging applications sand production — second and third party activities — restricted access for installation or other activities due to presence of ice.g. final commissioning. e.11. repair and replacement of pipeline elements. actuators and fittings project plans and schedule.g.g. flanges and the use of flexible pipe or risers relevant pigging scenarios (inspection and cleaning) pigging fluids to be used and handling of pigging fluids in both ends of pipeline including impact on process systems pigging requirements such as bend radius. inlet and outlet conditions pipeline system description with general arrangement and battery limits functional requirements including field development restrictions. safety barriers and subsea valves installation. constructed and operated in such a manner that: — the specified transport capacity is fulfilled and the flow assured — the defined safety objective is fulfilled and the resistance against loads during planned operational conditions is sufficient — the safety margin against accidental loads or unplanned operational conditions is sufficient. 102 The possibility of changes in the type or composition of fluid to be transported during the lifetime of the pipeline system shall be assessed at the design phase. 304 An execution plan should be developed.. e. installation etc. third party. interfaces and project development phases — contacts with Purchaser. 305 The design and planning for the submarine pipeline system should cover all development phases including construction. 103 Any re-qualification deemed necessary due to changes in the design conditions shall take place in accordance with provisions set out in Sec. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 202 Special focus shall be on monitoring and inspection strategies for “live pipeline systems” i.e. operation and abandonment. area planning. pipeline systems that are designed to change the configuration during its design life. scope of work. including the following topics: — general information.) — installation aspects for remote areas (e.g. Further. requirements to vessels. choice of diameter may give restrictions to installation methods etc. October 2010 Sec. valves. maintenance activities etc. choice of material grade may affect manufacturing aspects of linepipe. 303 The data and description should include the following.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.g. as applicable: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — safety objective environmental objective location. Guidance note: Example of such systems may be pipelines that are designed to experience global buckling or possible free-span developments ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 203 Instrumentation of the pipeline system may be required when visual inspection or simple measurements are not considered practical or reliable. engineering. B. including planned period of the year for installation design life including specification for start of design life. key issues required for design. Guidance note: As a minimum the monitoring/inspection frequency should be such that the pipeline system will not be endangered due to any realistic degradation/deterioration that may occur between two consecutive inspection intervals. Due account should be given to identification of potential aspects which can stop the concept from being realised: — long lead effects of early stage decisions (e. authorities.3 – Page 29 SECTION 3 CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT AND DESIGN PREMISES A.g. construction. verification and construction Contractors — legal aspects. including project organisation.

e. is used as incidental pressure. The incidental to design pressure ratio shall be selected in order to meet the requirements in 302. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Probability Denisty Function Typical maximum pressure distribution for high integrity pressure protection systems (HIPPS). 303 The purpose of the pressure safety system is to protect the downstream system during incidental operation. the design pressure may be different in two connected systems. for each section. Pressure Figure 2 Schematic illustration of maximum pressure distribution for high integrity pressure protection systems (HIPPS) 305 For the conditions given in Table 3-1. The pressure protection system shall prevent the internal pressure at any point in the pipeline system rising to an excessive level.00 306 The pipeline system may be divided into sections with different design pressures provided that the pressure protection system ensures that. the given incidental to design ratios shall be used. The pressure safety system shall operate automatically.05 1. and to identify and determine the constraints and requirements for its operation. Table 3-1 Incidental to design pressure ratios Condition or pipeline system Typical pipeline system Minimum. B 400 Hydraulic analyses and flow assurance 401 The hydraulics of the pipeline system should be analysed to demonstrate that the pipeline system can safely transport the fluids.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. to ensure that the local design pressure is not exceeded at any point in the pipeline system during normal operation. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Typical maximum pressure . This analysis should cover steady-state and transient operating conditions. See also Sec. The conversion between the two system definitions will often then be based on that the incidental pressures are equal.e. 204 The need for in-line cleaning and/or inspection. i.1. Pressure Figure 1 Typical maximum pressure distribution – monotonic decay 302 The purpose of the pressure control system is to maintain the operating pressure within acceptable limits during normal operation i.3 Probability Denisty Function previous experience are not sufficient for a reliable prediction of the performance of the system. The local design pressure is defined in Sec. DET NORSKE VERITAS .4 B200 for definition of the incidental pressure. to ensure that the local incidental pressure is not exceeded at any point in the pipeline system in the event of failure of the pressure control system. Due account shall be given to the tolerances of the pressure control system and its associated instrumentation.5 D1200. The pressure protection system comprises the pressure control system. Guidance note: An example of situations where a pressure protection system is not required is if full shut-in pressure including dynamic effects. pressure safety system and associated instrumentation and alarm systems. If the pressure probability density function does not have a monotonic decay beyond 10-2 then pressure exceeding the incidental pressure shall be checked as accidental loads in compliance with Sec.10 1. involving the presence of appropriate pig launcher / receiver should be determined in the design phase.00 1. i.4 B200. Guidance note: When the submarine pipeline system is connected to another system with different pressure definition the pressure values may be different in order to comply with the requirements of this subsection. 304 The incidental pressure shall have an annual probability of exceedance less than 10-2. Hence. the maximum allowable incidental pressure is equal to the incidental pressure minus the pressure safety system operating tolerance. October 2010 Page 30 – Sec. except for below When design pressure is equal to full shut-in pressure including dynamic effects System pressure test γ inc 1. B 300 Pressure Protection System 301 A pressure protection system shall be used unless the pressure source to the pipeline system cannot deliver a pressure in excess of the incidental pressure including possible dynamic effects. see Figure 1 in Sec.monotonic decay. Due account shall be given to the tolerances of the pressure safety system. the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) is equal to the design pressure minus the pressure control system operating tolerance. the local design pressure cannot be exceeded during normal operations and that the incidental pressure cannot be exceeded during incidental operation. Examples of pressure probability density distributions are given in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Hence. The pressure control system should operate automatically.e. 303 and 304.

closing of valves) and all foreseen non-intended scenarios.g. pock marks. 102 Expected future marine operations and anticipated developments in the vicinity of the pipeline shall be considered when selecting the pipeline route. sand waves. etc. prevention of blockage such as caused by the formation of hydrates and wax deposition. and power and communication cables. such as trenching — location to minimise environmental impact. 206 Additional route surveys may be required at landfalls to determine: — seabed geology and topography specific to landfall and costal environment — environmental conditions caused by adjacent coastal features — location of the landfall to facilitate installation — facilitate pre or post installation seabed intervention works specific to landfall. pock marks or significant depressions. at minimum. 403 The hydraulic analyses shall be used to determine the maximum design temperature profile based on conservative insulation values reflecting the variation in insulation properties of coatings and surrounding seawater. related facilities together with seabed properties. protection of the environment. 207 All topographical features which may influence the stability and installation or influence seabed intervention of the pipeline shall be covered by the route survey. include the following: Environment — archaeological sites — exposure to environmental damage — areas of natural conservation interest including oyster beds and corral reefs — marine parks — turbidity flows. anomalies and all relevant pipeline attributes shall be shown. highly varied seabed topography. 404 The hydraulic analyses shall be used to determine the minimum design temperature. This shall also include determination of required incidental to design pressure ratio. 202 The survey corridor shall have sufficient width to define an installation and pipeline corridor which will ensure safe installation and operation of the pipeline. 208 Areas where there is evidence of increased geological activity or significant historic events that if re-occurring again can impact the pipeline. maximum shut-down times. measures to prevent unacceptable pressure losses from higher viscosities at lower operation temperatures. It also includes requirements to insulation. Factors to take into consideration shall. flow regime for internal corrosion control erosional velocities and avoidance of slack line operations. opening of valves is allowed and shall be documented e. lay method. additional geohazard studies should be C. measures for the control of liquid slug volumes in multi-phase fluid transport. Location of the pipeline. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Landfall — — — — — local constraints 3rd party requirements environmental sensitive areas vicinity to people limited construction period.g. by hydraulic analyses.3 – Page 31 Guidance note: Examples of constraints and operational requirements are allowances for pressure surges. etc. requirements for heating etc.. levelling or removal operations to be carried out prior to pipeline installation — topographical features that contain potentially unstable slopes. Benefit of specifying low temperatures locally due to e. 203 The required survey accuracy may vary along the proposed route. 402 The hydraulics of the pipeline system shall be analysed to demonstrate that the pressure control system and pressure safety system meet its requirement during start-up. 104 It is recommended that pipeline ends are designed with a reasonable straight length ahead of the target boxes. DET NORSKE VERITAS . scale commensurate with required use. 103 Pipeline components (e. ammunition. and the probability of damage to the pipe or other facilities. that could necessitate remedial. Facilities — — — — — offshore installations subsea structures and well heads existing pipelines and cables obstructions coastal protection works. valley or channelling and erosion in the form of scour patterns or material deposits. 205 The results of surveys shall be presented on accurate route maps and alignments. tees) in particular should not be located on the curved route sections of the pipeline. or unusually or hazardous sub-surface conditions may dictate more detailed investigations. soft sediment and sediment transport) — subsidence — seismic activity. large boulders. valves. shut-down (e. 204 Investigations to identify possible conflicts with existing and planned installations and possible wrecks and obstructions shall be performed. Seabed characteristics — uneven seabed — unstable seabed — soil properties (hard spots. Agreement with relevant parties should be sought as early as possible.g.g. lay direction and existing/ planned infrastructure. C 200 Route survey 201 Surveys shall be carried out along the total length of the planned pipeline route to provide sufficient data for design and installation related activities. soil and gravel.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Reference seawater elevation shall be defined. Obstructions. including but not limited to: — obstructions in the form of rock outcrops. Curvatures near pipeline ends should be designed with due regard to end terminations. Pipeline Route C 100 Location 101 The pipeline route shall be selected with due regard to safety of the public and personnel. Examples of such installations include other submarine pipelines. normal operation. mining activities military exercise areas. October 2010 Sec. Third party activities — — — — — ship traffic fishing activity dumping areas for waste.

3 performed. shall be included in the evaluation of the characteristic load effect. best estimate and lower bound limits. either environmental or accidental. 102 The principles and methods described in DNV-RP-C205 Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads may be used as a basis for establishing the environmental conditions. if significant. 202 Statistical data shall be utilised to describe environmental parameters of a random nature (e. results from seismic surveys. 205 The environmental data to be used in the design of pipelines and/or risers fixed to an offshore structure are in principle the same as the environmental data used in the design of the offshore structure supporting the pipeline and/or riser. waves). each of which is characterised by a given water depth. This may include tidal current. These parameters should preferably be determined from adequate laboratory tests or from interpretation of in-situ tests. conservative estimates based on data from other relevant locations may be used. In addition. D 300 Environmental data 301 The estimated maximum tide shall include both astronomic tide and storm surge. including possible unstable deposits in the vicinity of the pipeline. 203 The effect of statistical uncertainty due to the amount and accuracy of data shall be assessed and. and in-situ and laboratory tests. reference is made to Classification Note No. The characteristic value(s) of the soil parameter(s) used in the design shall be in line with the selected design philosophy accounting for these uncertainties. wind induced current. 304 It is primarily the characteristics of the upper layer of soil that determine the response of the pipeline resting on the seabed. Variations in magnitude with respect to direction and water depth shall be considered when relevant. classification and index tests should be considered. Supplementary information may be obtained from visual surveys or special tests.4 "Foundations". 306 Additional investigation of the seabed material may be required to evaluate specific problems. For guidance on soil investigation for pipelines. such as: — — — — — — unit weight water content liquid and plastic limit grain size distribution carbonate content other relevant tests. storm surge current. pipe penetration tests. density induced current or other possible phenomena. C 300 Seabed properties 301 Geotechnical properties necessary for evaluating the effects of relevant loading conditions shall be determined for the seabed deposits. 30.g. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 305 In areas where the seabed material is subject to erosion. Also the variations of the top soil between soil testing locations may add to the uncertainty. and — relevant deformation characteristics. 204 For the assessment of environmental conditions along the pipeline route.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. seabed topographical surveys. long-shore current due to wave breaking shall be considered. Minimum tide estimates should be based upon the astronomic tide and possible negative storm surge. The parameters shall be derived in a statistically valid manner using recognised methods. 303 Soil parameters of main importance for the pipeline response are: — shear strength parameters (intact and remoulded undrained shear strength for clay. bottom topography and other factors affecting the environmental conditions. Environmental Conditions D 100 General 101 Environmental phenomena that might impair proper functioning of the system or cause a reduction of the reliability and safety of the system shall be considered. Such studies may include: — — — — — — — extended geophysical survey mud volcanoes or pockmark activity seismic hazard seismic fault displacements possibility of soil slope failure mudflow characteristics mudflow impact on pipelines. 302 Geotechnical properties may be obtained from generally available geological information. 303 In areas where ice may develop or where ice bergs may pass or where the soil may freeze sufficient statistics shall be established in order to enable calculations of design loads. Soil parameters used in the design may therefore need to be defined with upper bound. Guidance note: For deep water areas the upper layer may be slurry with a very small strength. as for example: — problems with respect to excavation and burial operations — probability of forming frees-pans caused by scouring during operational phase DET NORSKE VERITAS . wind. The determination of soil parameters for these very shallow soils may be relatively more uncertain than for deeper soils.g. October 2010 Page 32 – Sec. In these cases emphasize should also be made to the soil layer underneath. and angle of friction for sands). the pipeline may be divided into a number of sections. including: — — — — — — — — — — wind tide waves internal waves and other effects due to differences in water density current ice earthquake soil conditions temperature marine growth (fouling). special studies of the current and wave conditions near the bottom including boundary layer effects may be required for the on-bottom stability calculations of pipelines and the assessment of pipeline spans. D. For near-shore regions. If sufficient data are not available for the geographical location in question. as e. D 200 Collection of environmental data 201 The environmental data shall be representative for the geographical areas in which the pipeline system is to be installed. — problems with respect to pipeline crossing — problems with the settlement of pipeline system and/or the protection structure at the valve/tee locations — possibilities of mud slides or liquefaction as the result of repeated loading — implications for external corrosion. 302 All relevant sources to current shall be considered.

and the need for using inhibitors or other measures to control corrosion shall be considered. E 200 Internal installation conditions 201 A description of the internal pipe conditions during storage. 102 Other conditions affecting external corrosion which shall be defined are: — maximum and average operating temperature profile along the pipeline and through the pipe wall thickness — pipeline fabrication and installation procedures — requirements for mechanical protection. water content and expected content of dissolved salts in produced fluids. The duration of exposure to sea water or humid air. burial. party activities as mentioned in C101 above should be considered. offshore pipeline sections. e. submerged weight and thermal insulation during operation — design life — selected coating and cathodic protection system. the following conditions relating to the environment shall be defined. External and Internal Pipe Condition E 100 External operational conditions 101 For the selection and detailed design of external corrosion control.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. E. — sea water and sediment resistivity.g. 103 Special attention should be given to the landfall section (if any) and interaction with relevant cathodic protection system for onshore vs. construction. rock dumping. 104 The impact on the external pipe condition of the third DET NORSKE VERITAS . pressure testing and commissioning shall be prepared.3 – Page 33 304 Air and sea temperature statistics shall be provided giving representative design values. hydrogen sulphide. 305 Marine growth on pipeline systems shall be considered. and expected variations during the design life — flow velocity and flow regime — fluid composition (initial and anticipated variations during the design life) with emphasis on potentially corrosive components (e. residual oxygen and active chlorine in sea water) — chemical additions and provisions for periodic cleaning — provision for inspection of corrosion damage and expected capabilities of inspection tools (i. in addition to those mentioned in D101: — exposure conditions. installation. the following conditions shall be defined: — maximum and average operating temperature/pressure profile along the pipeline. E 300 Internal operational conditions 301 In order to assess the need for internal corrosion control. taking into account both biological and other environmental phenomena relevant for the location.e. including corrosion allowance and provision for inspection and monitoring.g. October 2010 Sec. etc. carbon dioxide. detection limits and sizing capabilities for relevant forms of corrosion damage) — the possibility of erosion by any solid particles in the fluid shall be considered. Reference is made to DNV-RP-O501 Erosive Wear in Piping Systems.

5. mattresses. This will be governed either by the 100-year functional load effect. This includes: — — — — — load scenarios to be considered categorisation of loads design cases and corresponding characteristic loads load effect combinations load effect calculations. A 400 Load categories 401 The objective of categorise the different loads into different load categories is to relate the load effect to the different uncertainties and occurrence. clamps etc. drifting ice etc. Typical conditions to be covered in the design are: — — — — — — installation as laid water filled system pressure test operation shut-down. B.g.4 SECTION 4 DESIGN . see G100.g. 111 The soil pressure acting on buried pipelines shall be taken into account if significant. operation and design). For each cross section or part of the system to be considered and for each possible mode of failure to be analysed.g. environmental and interference load effects. such as permanent curvature or a permanent elongation introduced during installation. A 600 Load effect combination 601 The load combinations combine the load effect of each load category in a design case with different load effect factors. may be applied. loads induced by frequent pigging operations. 104 The weight shall include weight of pipe.g. Construction loads shall be categorised into the above loads and are described in D. coating. during both the construction and the operational phase. Operating DET NORSKE VERITAS . as-laid. This will typically be relevant to defined components and sections of the pipeline (e. A 200 Application 201 This section applies to all parts of the submarine pipeline system. C and E below. due to closure of valves).g.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 108 Fluctuations in temperature shall be taken into account when checking fatigue strength. General A 100 Objective 101 This section defines the design loads to be checked by the design criteria in Sec. the 100-year environmental load effect or the 100-year interference load effect. Functional Loads B 100 General 101 Loads arising from the physical existence of the pipeline system and its intended use shall be classified as functional loads. buoyancy. spots around valves). fixed plants etc. connectors and riser supports and other permanent attachments. rock.LOADS A. The load categories are described in B. culverts) reaction from seabed (friction and rotational stiffness) permanent deformations due to subsidence of ground. shall be classified as functional loads. shall be considered. 107 Local minimum temperature profiles. A 500 Design cases 501 The design cases describe the 100-year load effect.) permanent deformation of supporting structure cover (e. e. see 5 C100. A 300 Load scenarios 301 All loads and forced displacements which may influence the pipeline integrity shall be taken into account. water filled. bulb growth around buried pipelines near fixed points (in-line valves/ tees. see G200. 106 Environmental as well as operational temperatures shall be considered. The maximum and minimum design temperature profiles shall have an annual probability of exceedance less than of 10-2. Each load combination constitutes a design load effect to be compared with relevant design resistance. sudden shut-downs.g. The 100-year load effect is composed of contributions of functional. both vertical and horizontal permanent deformations due to frost heave changed axial friction due to freezing possible loads due to ice interference. as well as any transient pressure effects during normal operation (e. which may be caused by e. The temperature profile shall be applied.). all relevant combinations of loads which may act simultaneously shall be considered. the temperature difference relative to laying shall be considered. 302 The most unfavourable scenario for all relevant phases and conditions shall be considered. B 200 Internal Pressure loads 201 The following internal pressures shall be defined at a certain defined reference level. marine growth and all attachments to the pipe. 109 For expansion analyses. System Test Pressure. Pretension forces induced by bolts in flanges. 402 Unless the load is categorised as accidental it shall be categorised as: — functional load — environmental load — interference load. anodes. installation. 103 Effects from the following phenomena are the minimum to be considered when establishing functional loads: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — weight external hydrostatic pressure internal pressure temperature of contents pre-stressing reactions from components (flanges. Accidental loads are described in F. Different temperature profiles for different conditions should be considered (e. October 2010 Page 34 – Sec. 110 Pre-stressing. pressure test. 105 End cap forces due to pressure shall be considered. 102 All functional loads which are essential for ensuring the integrity of the pipeline system. shall be taken into account if the capacity to carry other loads is affected by the pre-stressing. contents. soil.

C 300 Hydrodynamic loads 301 Hydrodynamic loads are defined as flow-induced loads caused by the relative motion between the pipe and the surrounding water. direct application of data from adequate tests may be used.7 The pressure to which the complete submarine pipeline system is tested to prior to commissioning. vortex shedding). This may include waves. C 200 Wind loads 201 Wind loads shall be determined using recognised theoretical principles.g. Maximum allowable incidental pressure is equal to the incidental pressure minus the pressure safety system operating tolerance The maximum pressure the pressure protection system requires in order to ensure that incidental pressure is not exceeded with sufficient reliability. Maximum allowable operating pressure is equal to the design pressure minus the pressure control system operating tolerance Guidance note: The incidental pressure is defined in terms of annual exceedance probability. 102 For calculation of characteristic environmental loads. see Sec. The suitability of the selected theory shall be demonstrated and documented.1) (4. Environmental Loads C 100 General 101 Environmental loads are defined as those loads on the pipeline system which are caused by the surrounding environment. typically 10% below the incidental pressure Upper limit of pressure control system. relative pipe motions and indirect forces e. caused by vessel motions. well head shut-in pressure) this may constitute the selection of the incidental pressure. October 2010 Sec.1.g. see Sec.g.5 B200 Maximum pressure the submarine pipeline system is designed for The trigger level of pressure safety system. When transport capacity requirement constitute the design premise this may give the design pressure and the incidental pressure can then be established based on the pressure protection system. and — buoyancy variations due to wave action.4 – Page 35 Pressure (if relevant). External Pressure loads 301 In cases where external pressure increases the capacity. These pressures are summarised in Table 4-1. It can be expressed as: plt = pt + ρt ⋅ g ⋅ (href − hl ) pli = pinc + ρ cont ⋅ g ⋅ href − hl ( ) (4. 304 The applied wave theory shall be capable of describing the wave kinematics at the particular water depth in question including surf zones hydrodynamics where applicable. Guidance note: Recent research into the hydrodynamic coefficients for open bundles and piggy-back lines indicates that the equivalent diameter approach may be unconservative. and that are not otherwise classified as functional or accidental loads. see Table 3-1. current. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- C. 302 All relevant sources for hydrodynamic loads shall be considered. When the pressure source is given (e.5 B200. and Incidental Pressure. 303 The following hydrodynamic loads shall be considered. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 202 The local pressure is the internal pressure at a specific point based on the reference pressure adjusted for the fluid column weight due to the difference in elevation. the external pressure shall not be taken as higher than the water pressure at the considered location corresponding to low astronomic tide including possible negative storm surge.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 202 The possibility of vibrations and instability due to wind induced cyclic loads shall be considered (e. Description Hydrostatic test pressure at the mill. DET NORSKE VERITAS . The ratio between the incidental pressure and the design pressure. is determined by the accuracy of the pressure protection system. 302 In cases where the external pressure decreases the capacity. galloping and other instability phenomena — impact loads due to wave slamming and slapping.3 B300 for definitions and Figure 1 in Table 4-1 Pressure terms Pressure Mill test System test Incidental Maximum allowable incidental Design Maximum allowable operating Abbreviations MAIP MAOP Symbol Ph Pt Pinc PD - Sec. reference is made to the principles given in DNV-RP-C205 Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads. Design pressure (if applicable). and a system specific CFD analysis may be required to have a robust design. Alternatively. see Sec.2) where pli is the local incidental pressure pinc is the incidental reference pressure at the reference elevation ρcont is the density of the relevant content of the pipeline g is the gravity href is the elevation of the reference point (positive upwards) hl is the elevation of the local pressure point (positive upwards) plt is the local system test pressure pt is the system test reference pressure at the reference elevation ρt is the density of the relevant test medium of the pipeline 203 B 300 The test pressure requirement is given in Sec. The design pressure can then be established based on the pressure protection system. but not limited to: — drag and lift forces which are in phase with the absolute or relative water particle velocity — inertia forces which are in phase with the absolute or relative water particle acceleration — flow-induced cyclic loads due to vortex shedding. the external pressure shall not be taken as less than the water pressure at the considered location corresponding to high astronomic tide including storm surge.

The initial response to impulsive wave slam or slap usually occurs before the exposed part of the submarine pipeline system is significantly immersed. See Figure 1. due to sea spray) the following forces shall be considered: — — — — weight of the ice impact forces due to thaw of the ice forces due to expansion of the ice increased wind. 311 For pipelines on or close to a fixed boundary (e. However. If available. 316 The increased loads from marine growth shall be considered as follows: — Increased drag/lift area due to the marine growth — Increased pipe surface roughness and resulting increase in drag coefficient and reduced lift coefficient — Any beneficial effect of the weight of the marine growth shall be ignored in stability analyses 317 Tide loads shall be considered when the water depth is a significant parameter. but in the plane perpendicular to the wave direction. A vector combination of the current and wave-induced water particle velocities may be used. and partly due to floating ice. shielding and reflecting effects. Guidance note: Maximum wave load effects may not always be experienced during the passing of the design wave. possible effects due to disturbance of the flow field shall be considered when determining the wave and/or current actions. global wave loading on other parts of the system must be considered in addition to the direct wave loading. may be exposed to wave loading due to wave run-up. due to structural continuity of the riser. For shore approaches and areas of shallow water. Increased hydrodynamic loading due to presence of ice shall be considered. Loads due to this effect shall be considered if relevant.g. wave refraction and shoaling. October 2010 Page 36 – Sec. then interaction and solidification effects shall be taken into account when determining the mass and drag coefficients for each individual pipe or for the whole bundle of pipes. 308 For pipelines during installation and for in-place risers. The maximum wave loads may be due to waves of a particular length. 402 In case of ice frozen to parts of the submarine pipeline system. 309 Where parts of the pipeline system are positioned adjacent to other structural parts. model testing of the ice-structure interaction may be required. The highest slamming forces occur for members at mean water level and the slam force directions are close to the vertical. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- the normal wave impact zone. waves and current forces due to increased exposed area. etc. the possibility of ice loads on the pipeline system shall be considered. 403 Forces from floating ice shall be calculated according to recognised theory. 313 Possible increased waves and current loads due to presence of Tee’s. C 400 Ice loads 401 In areas where ice may develop or drift. The oscillating nature of the ice forces (built-up of lateral force and fracture of moving ice) shall be taken into account in the structural analysis. Guidance note: Earth quake with 475 years return period may be taken from International seismic zonation charts as in Eurocode 8. Such loads may partly be due to ice frozen on the pipeline system itself. pipe lay operation particularly near shore approaches/ landfalls. lift forces perpendicular to the axis of the pipe and perpendicular to the velocity vector shall be taken into account (possible vortex induced vibrations). shall be classified into accidental or environmental loads. Therefore. Wave slap is associated with breaking waves and can affect members at any inclination. When forces due to lateral ice motion will govern structural dimensions. the increase in drag coefficient shall be taken into account. 310 If parts of the submarine pipeline system is built up of a number of closely spaced pipes.g. shape of structure. 307 Where appropriate. contact area. other fluid loading on the system need not normally be applied with the impulsive load. consideration shall be given to wave direction.4 305 The current-induced drag and lift forces on the submarine pipeline system shall be determined and combined with the wave-induced forces using recognised theories for wavecurrent interaction. period or steepness. etc. Due attention shall be paid to the mechanical properties of the ice. Wave slam occurs when an approximately horizontal member is engulfed by a rising water surface as a wave passes. 315 Parts of the submarine pipeline system. 312 In connection with vortex shedding-induced transverse vibrations. due to failure of pipeline gravel supports). located above DET NORSKE VERITAS . risers). either directly or indirectly (e. C 500 Earthquake 501 Load imposed by earth quake. largescale model tests may be required. calculation of the total particle velocities and accelerations based upon more exact theories on wave-current interaction is preferable. Y’s or other attachments shall be considered. 306 Data from model testing or acknowledged industry practice may be used in the determination of the relevant hydrodynamic coefficients. the possibility of ice scouring and impacts from drifting ice shall be considered. the variations in current velocity magnitude and direction as a function of water depth shall be considered.g. however. (e. depending on the probability of earthquake occurrence in line with accidental loads in F. This can then be converted by importance factors to 100 years return period. 314 The effect of possible wave and current loading on the submarine pipeline system in the air gap zone shall be included. The highest forces occur on members above mean water level. e. or dynamic excitation by vortices being shed from the adjacent structural parts. Both slam and slap loads are applied impulsively (over a short instant of time) and the dynamic response of the submarine pipeline system shall be considered.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- C 600 Characteristic environmental load effects 601 The characteristic environmental load and the corresponding load effect depend on condition: — weather restricted condition — temporary condition — permanent condition.g. The ice load may be classified as environmental or accidental depending on its frequency. short crested waves. direction of ice movements. Such effects may cause an increased or reduced velocity. pipeline spans) or in the free stream (e. for the establishment of wave actions.g. If sufficient data is not available.

Functional loads (see B).2. 607 The characteristic environmental load effect for installation. see G103. When the correlations among the different environmental load components (i. referred to as operation reference period. position and direction of simultaneously acting environmental loads shall be used in documenting the integrity of the submarine pipeline system. Pt. until issue refer to DNV Rules for planning of marine operations. 608 The most critical load effect combination for the relevant return period shall be used. wind. 2. Uncertainty in the weather forecast for the operational period shall be considered. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- unfavourable relevant combination. current or ice) are unknown the characteristic combined environmental loads in Table 4-2 may be used. T’R. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 605 Conditions not defined as weather restricted conditions or temporary conditions shall be defined as permanent conditions.3) where: F(LE) is the cumulative distribution function of LE.1 and DNV-RP-H102. 1. paragraph 3. The environmental load effect for temporary conditions shall be taken as the 10-year return period for the actual season. referred to as operational reference period of ceasing operation. wave. Guidance note: For weather restricted operations reference is made to DNV-OSH101. October 2010 Sec.1. Ch. This is in conflict with ISO 13623 in case the design life is less than 33 years.4 – Page 37 Environmental conditions Weather Restricted Operations TPOP: Planned operation period Δstart: Start-up time TC: TR: Contingency time Operation reference period TSafe: Time to safely cease the operation T ’C: TWF: Contingency time to cease operation Weather forecast intervals Non-Weather Restricted Operations Environmental loads based on Statistics T’R=TWF+TSafe+TC TR’<72 h No T’POP=TWF+TSAFE Establish OPLIM Calculate start & interrupt Criterion Co(α(T’POP)) Weather window (T’R) 10 yr seasonal 100 yr TR<6m No No TR=Δstart+TPOP+TC TR<72 h Establish OPLIM Calculate start & interrupt Criterion Co(α(TPOP)) Weather window (TR) End End End End Figure 1 Determination of characteristic environmental load 602 An operation can be defined as weather restricted operation if it is anticipated to take less than 72 hours from previous weather forecast including contingency time. 603 An operation can be defined as weather restricted operation even if the operation time is longer than 72 hours given that it can be ceased and put into safe condition within 72 hours including contingency time and weather forecast intervals. This standard is not yet issued. The environmental load effect for permanent conditions shall be taken as the 100-year return period. Ch. and N is the number of load effect cycles in a sea-state of a duration not less than 3 hours. Guidance note: Conditions exceeding 6 months but no longer than 12 months may occasionally be defined as temporary conditions. is defined as the most probable largest load effect for a given seastate and appropriate current and wind conditions given by: 1 F ( L E ) = 1 – --N (4. It may then start-up based on reliable weather forecast less than established operation limit. 604 An operation can be defined as a temporary condition if the duration is less than 6 months unless defined as weather restricted conditions. TR. The operation can then start-up and continue based on reliable weather forecast less than established operation limit during this operational reference period for ceasing the operation. Uncertainty in the weather forecast for this period shall be considered. paragraph 2.e. 2. 606 When considering the environmental design load the most DET NORSKE VERITAS .Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. interference loads (see E) and accidental loads (see F) shall be combined with the environmental loads as appropriate. LE. Table 4-2 Combinations of characteristic environmental loads in terms of return period 1)2) Wind Waves Current Ice Earth quake Permanent condition 100-year 100-year 10-year 10-year 10-year 100-year 10-year 10-year 10-year 100-year 100-year Temporary condition 10-year 10-year 1-year 1-year 1-year 10-year 1-year 1-year 1-year 10-year 10-year 1) 2) The 100-year return period implies an annual probability of exceedance of 10-2.

on parts which are designed to be submerged after installation of the load-bearing structure — deflections/forces generated during load-out of the loadbearing structure — transportation forces due to barge movements — launch forces due to deflection and hydrodynamic loads (drag. Accidental Loads F 100 General 101 Loads which are imposed on a pipeline system under abnormal and unplanned conditions and with an annual probability of occurrence less than 10-2 shall be classified as accidental loads. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- E.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 102 Typical accidental loads can be caused by: — extreme wave and current loads — vessel impact or other drifting items (collision. the trawl board is stuck under the pipe and in extreme cases. — pressure testing — commissioning activities. sinking. waves and current. i. installation. These loads include but are not limited to trawl interference. 103 Functional Loads shall consider forces generated due to imposed tension during pipeline installation. the second phase caused by the wire and trawl board or beam sliding over the pipe. 107 Operating limit conditions shall be established relevant for the construction activity under consideration. and forces due to operation errors or failures in equipment that could cause or aggravate critical conditions. maintenance and repair. iceberg) — dropped objects — seabed movement and/or mud slides — explosion — fire and heat flux — operational malfunction — dragging anchors. pipe strings and pipe spools. including deflections and dynamic loads due to vessel movement. in particular wind-induced vortex shedding. 104 Environmental loads shall consider forces induced on the pipeline due to wind. pressure testing. The impact energy shall be used for testing of the pipeline coatings and possible denting of the pipeline wall thickness. 110 The most severe load effect may be taken as mean ±3 standard deviations unless otherwise stated. This will usually give a more global response of the pipeline. the initial impact from the trawl board or beam which may cause local dents on the pipe or damage to the coating. maintenance and repair activities shall be considered. shall be classified into functional and environmental loads.e. Reference is given to DNV-RP-F111. for a specific pipeline system.e. F. If the annual probability of occurrence is less than 10-2 the load shall be classified as accidental load. may be defined through risk analyses. reference is given to DNV-RP-F111 Interference between Trawl Gear and Pipelines. e. as a minimum: — the trawl gear mass and velocity — the effective added mass and velocity. and reeling of pipe strings — pull-in at landfalls. 102 The requirement for designing the submarine pipeline system for interference loads shall be determined based upon interference frequency studies and assessment of the potential damage. 3) Hooking. Reference is also made to DNV-RP-F107 Risk Assessment of Pipeline Protection. i. i. 105 The trawl impact energy shall be determined considering. e. Guidance note: This will typically apply to when dimensional tolerances are added. e. lifting of pipe.g. see Sec. slam and slap) on the structure — deflections/forces generated during installation of loadbearing structure — inertia loads on the riser supports/guides due to pile driving — re-distribution of support forces when possible temporary riser supports are removed and the riser turned into the final position — cold springing of the risers (elastic pre-deformations) — tie-in forces generated when the riser is connected to the tie-in spool/pipeline — dynamic loads from pre-commissioning activities. 108 Typical construction loads for pre-installed risers.e.4 D. 106 Other 3rd party interference loads shall be calculated using recognised methods. Construction Loads D 100 General 101 Loads which arise as a result of the construction of the pipeline system. forces as large as the breaking strength of the trawl wire are applied to the pipeline. 2) Over-trawling. 109 The load combinations to be considered shall be selected to reflect the most severe load combinations likely to be encountered during the construction phase under consideration. 105 Accidental loads shall consider inertia forces due to sudden water filling.10 A300. comprising installation. see F. riser supports/guides and J-tubes on jackets and similar installations are: — wind-induced forces. Interference Loads E 100 General 101 Loads which are imposed on the pipeline system from 3rd party activities shall be classified as interference loads. increase in pressure differential due to vacuum drying. 102 All significant loads acting on pipe joints or pipe sections during transport. trenching etc. fabrication.10 D400. excessive deformation in overbend and sagbend. In case piggy-back lines these shall also have adequate safety against trawl impacts. tie-ins. anchoring. see C600 and Sec. 106 Other loads to be considered are: — stacking of pipes — handling of pipe and pipe sections. pipe joints. vessel impacts and dropped objects. flooding and de-watering with pigs. commissioning. October 2010 Page 38 – Sec. grounding. DET NORSKE VERITAS .g. maintenance and repair. Hooking is normally categorised as an accidental load. 103 For calculations of trawl interference loads.g. often referred to as pull-over. 103 Size and frequency of accidental loads. 104 The trawling loads can be divided in accordance with the three crossing phases: 1) Trawl impact.

interference and accidental loads.0 γA ULS FLS ALS 1) 2) a b c d System check2) Local check 1. when the major part of the pipeline is exposed to the same functional load. shall be checked for the load effect induced by the most critical 100-year design case of functional. The fatigue design load shall be cyclic functional loading (start-up and shut-down). BE: Best estimate 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) This will normally be equivalent to an internal pressure equal to the local incidental pressure combined with expected associated values of other functional loads. When system effects are present. Structural reliability calculations differentiate between single joint failures (local checks) and series system failures (system effects). This is characterised by that the whole pipeline is exposed to the same load over time.collapse. Applied to pipelines.installation. wave and current spectra) and repeated interference loading. Interference load Associated Associated UB Associated Associated Accidental load NA NA NA NA BE Table 4-3 Combinations of characteristic loads effects for different design cases Design case Load Functional Environmental combination5) load load Functional design case a.g. see Sec.g.5) (4. Eq. As defined in C607. The characteristic load definitions for this combination are given in Table 4-3. Guidance note: The partial safety factors in DNV-OS-F101 have been determined by structural reliability methods to a pre-defined failure probability. the likely load shall be combined with the extreme low resistance. October 2010 Sec. UB: Upper Bound. This will normally be equivalent to an internal pressure and temperature not less than the operating pressure and the temperature profiles.3 1.7 1. DET NORSKE VERITAS .2 1.4 – Page 39 G.0 γF 1.0 1. Hence. this corresponds to: M Sd = M F ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + M E ⋅ γ E + M I ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + M A ⋅ γ A ⋅ γ c (4. G 200 Load combinations 201 The design load effect can generally be expressed in the following format: LSd = LF ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + LE ⋅ γ E + LI ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + LA ⋅ γ A ⋅ γ c (4.pressure containment . ε Sd = ε F ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + ε E ⋅ γ E + ε I ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + ε A ⋅ γ A ⋅ γ c S Sd = S F ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + S E ⋅ γ E + S I ⋅ γ F ⋅ γ c + S A ⋅ γ A ⋅ γ c Table 4-4 Load effect factors and load combinations Limit State / Load Design load combination Functional loads 1) combination γ F Environmental load Interference loads Accidental loads γE 0.19).1 1. These have been denoted design cases. interference or accidental load effect.1. random environmental load (e.5 D. environmental.1 1. system effects are present for: .0 1. i. fatigue limit state and accidental condition shall also be checked. This will typically only apply to pipeline installation. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- In specific forms. The referred combinations is given in Table 4-4. 103 In addition to the conditions defined above. These two kinds of scenarios are expressed as two different load combinations in DNV-OS-F101: a) shall only be considered for scenarios where system effects are present b) for local scenarios and shall always be considered. The 100-year load effect is the load with an annual probability of 10-2 of exceedance in a period of one year.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. b Associated2) 100-year3) Interference design case b Associated2) Associated Fatigue design4) case c Associated Associated Accidental design case d Associated Associated Characteristic load definition n-year: Most probable maximum in n years. This load combination shall only be checked when system effects are present. Table 4-4. (5. b 100-year1) 1-year Environmental design case a. e.e.6) (4. the pipeline will fail at its weakest point. environmental. Design Load Effects G 100 Design cases 101 Each static limit state.0 1. the design cases defined by combinations of characteristic load effects in Table 4-3 shall be used. Unless special evaluation of critical 100-year design case is carried out. The load combinations shall be associated. 102 The most critical combination is normally governed by extreme functional.0 1. see G100 for all relevant load combinations. The different ULS design load effects are referred to in the different local buckling limit states.7) 202 The design load effect shall be calculated for each design case. Applied to pipelines system effect can be expressed as the weakest link principle (where the chain gets weaker the longer the chain is). in as installed configuration .4) Guidance note: The load combinations to the left are referred to explicitly in the design criteria.0 If the functional load effect reduces the combined load effects. γF shall be taken as 1/1.

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2010 Page 40 – Sec.4

The first two are handled with explicitly by the use of thickness t1. This is also why thickness t2 and not t1 is used for the burst capacity in the local buckling for pressurised pipes, since it is a local check. Regarding installation, an extreme environmental load is not likely to occur when the weakest pipe section is at the most exposed location indicating that system effects not are present. However, combined with a more representative environmental load (in the extreme case, “flat sea”), the whole pipeline will undergo the same deformation “over time”, hence, having a system effect present. In Table 4-3, load combination a has a 10% increase in the functional load to cover the system effect combined with a 0.7 factor on the extreme environmental load giving a more “representative” environmental load, applicable for the above. Another example of where system effects are present is for reeling where the whole pipe also will undergo the same deformation (neglecting the variation in drum diameter increase). For this application, a condition factor of 0.82 also applies, giving the total load effect factor of 1.0. Hence, load combination b shall always be checked while load combination a normally is checked for installation only.
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quate, model or full-scale tests may be required. 303 When determining responses to dynamic loads, the dynamic effect shall be taken into account if deemed significant. 304 When non-linear material is required in the analyses the stress-strain curve shall based on specified minimum values accounting for temperature derating (fy and fu) considered being engineering stress values, except for when the mean or upper bound values are explicitly required by the procedure (e.g. for fracture mechanics applications). The use of true versus engineering stress strain curve shall be consistent with the FE-program applied.
Guidance note: The strain at fu is normally considerably less than the fracture strain and is normally in the order of 6-10%. This should be determined from tests of similar material.
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203 The condition load effect factor applies to the conditions in Table 4-5. Condition load effect factors are in addition to the load effect factors and are referred to explicitly in Eq. (4.5, 4.6 and 4.7).
Table 4-5 Condition Pipeline resting on uneven seabed Continuously stiff supported System pressure test Otherwise Condition load effect factors, γ C

305 Load effect calculation shall be performed applying nominal cross section values unless otherwise required by the code. 306 The effective axial force that determines the global response of a pipeline is denoted S. Counting tensile force as positive:

γc
1.07 0.82 0.93 1.00

π 2 S( pi ) = N − pi ⋅ Ai + pe ⋅ Ae = N − ⋅ pi ⋅ (D− 2⋅ t2 ) − pe ⋅ D2 (4.8) 4
307 Split up into functional, environmental and accidental effective force, the following applies:
S F ( pi ) = N F − pi ⋅ Ai + pe ⋅ Ae = N F −

(

)

π
4

⋅ pi ⋅ (D − 2 ⋅ t 2 ) − pe ⋅ D 2
2

(

)

Guidance note: An uneven seabed condition is relevant in connection with freespanning pipelines. If uncertainties in soil conditions and possible trawl interference are accounted for, a lower γc is allowed. Reference is given to DNV-RP-F110 Global Buckling of Submarine Pipelines – Structural Design due to High Temperature/High Pressure. Continuously stiff supported denotes conditions where the main part of the load is also displacement controlled. Examples may be reeling on the drum or J-tube pull-in. Several condition factors may be required simultaneously, e.g. for pressure testing of pipelines on uneven seabed, the resulting condition factor will be 1.07 · 0.93 = 1.00.
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

(4.9)

SE = NE SA = NA 308 In the as-laid condition, when the pipe temperature and internal pressure are the same as when the pipe was laid,

S=H

(4.10)

G 300 Load effect calculations 301 The design analyses shall be based on accepted principles of statics, dynamics, strength of materials and soil mechanics. 302 Simplified methods or analyses may be used to calculate the load effects provided that they are conservative. Model tests may be used in combination with, or instead of, theoretical calculations. In cases where theoretical methods are inade-

Where H is the effective (residual) lay tension. The effective residual lay tension may be determined by comparing the aslaid survey data to results from FE analysis. 309 Effective axial force of a totally restrained pipe in the linear elastic stress range is:

S = H − Δpi ⋅ Ai ⋅ (1 − 2 ⋅ν ) − As ⋅ E ⋅ α ⋅ ΔT
where: H = Effective (residual) lay tension

(4.11)

Δ pi = Internal pressure difference relative to as laid ΔΤ = Temperature difference relative to as laid.

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2010 Sec.5 – Page 41

SECTION 5 DESIGN – LIMIT STATE CRITERIA
A. General
A 100 Objective 101 This section provides design and acceptance criteria for the possible modes of structural failure in pipeline systems. A 200 Application 201 This standard includes no limitations on water depth. However, when this standard is applied in deep water where experience is limited, special consideration shall be given to: — other failure mechanisms than those given in this section — validity of parameter range (environmental/design/operational parameters) — dynamic effects. 202 This standard does not specify any explicit limitations with respect to elastic displacements or vibrations, provided that the effects of large displacements and dynamic behaviour, including fatigue effect of vibrations, operational constraints and ratcheting, are taken into account in the strength analyses. 203 The local buckling criteria, see D300-D600, are only applicable to pipelines that are straight in stress-free condition and are not applicable to e.g. bends. 204 For parts of the submarine pipeline system which extend onshore complementary requirements are given in Appendix F. 205 For spiral welded pipes, the following additional limitations apply: — when supplementary requirement F (fracture arrest properties) is specified, see Sec.7, the possibility for a running fracture to continue from a weld in one pipe joint to the weld of the next pipe joint shall be assessed — external pressure resistance should be documented — the design shall be based on the load controlled condition, see D600, unless the feasibility for use of displacement controlled condition can be documented.
Guidance note: The limitations to fracture arrest and load controlled condition are due to limited experience with spiral welded pipes subjected to running fracture or large strains.
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104 The routing of risers and J-tubes shall be based on the following considerations: — — — — — — — platform configuration and topsides layout space requirements movements of the Riser or J-tube cable/pipeline approach Riser or J-tube protection in-service inspection and maintenance installation considerations.

105 Crossing pipelines should be kept separated by a minimum vertical distance of 0.3 m. 106 The submarine pipeline system shall be protected against unacceptable damage caused by e.g. dropped objects, fishing gear, ships, anchoring etc. Protection may be achieved by one or a combination of the following means: — — — — concrete coating burial cover (e.g. sand, gravel, mattress) other mechanical protection.

B. System Design Principles
B 100 Submarine pipeline system layout 101 System lay out, including need for different valves etc., shall be designed such that the requirements imposed by the systematic review of the process control are met, see Sec.2 B. 102 The submarine pipeline system should not be routed close to other structures, other pipeline systems, wrecks, boulders, etc. The minimum distance should be determined based upon anticipated deflections, hydrodynamic effects, and upon risk-based evaluations. The detailed routing shall take the minimum established distance into account. 103 Pipelines, risers and J-tubes should be routed inside the structure to avoid vessel impact, and shall be protected against impact loads from vessels and other mechanical interaction. Risers and J-tubes should not be located inside the loading zones of platforms.

107 Relative settlement between the protective structure and the submarine pipeline system shall be properly assessed in the design of protective structures, and shall cover the full design life of the submarine pipeline system. Adequate clearance between the pipeline components and the members of the protective structure shall be provided to avoid fouling. 108 Structural items should not be welded directly to pressure containing parts or linepipe due to the increased local stress on the linepipe. External supports, attachments etc. shall be welded to a doubler plate or ring. The doubler plate or ring shall be designed with sufficient thickness to avoid stresses on the linepipe. In case structural items are integrated in the pipeline, e.g. pipe in pipe bulkheads, and are welded directly to the linepipe, detailed stress analyses are required in order to document sufficiently low stress to ensure resistance against fatigue, fracture and yielding. 109 Permanent doubler rings and plates shall be made of materials satisfying the requirements for pressure containing parts. Doubler plates shall be circular. For gas service and liquid service above 137 bar, doubler rings shall be used. For duplex stainless steels and 13Cr martensitic stainless steels no attachments are permitted unless a stress analysis is performed in each case to determine that local stresses will not exceed 0.8 fy. 110 Doubler rings shall be made as fully encircling sleeves with the longitudinal welds made with backing strips, and avoiding penetration into the main pipe material. Other welds shall be continuous, and made in a manner minimising the risk of root cracking and lamellar tearing. The toe of welds attaching anode pads, doubler plates and branch welding fittings, when permitted, shall have a toe-to-toe distance from other welds of minimum 4 · t or 100 mm, whichever is larger. 111 Girth welds shall not be inaccessible under doubler rings, clamps, or other parts of supports. 112 Riser and J-tube supports shall be designed to ensure a smooth transition of forces between riser/J-tube and support. 113 For requirements to transitions, see F110 through F113. 114 Pipelines in C-Mn steel for potentially corrosive fluids of categories B, D and E (see Sec.2 C) should be designed for inspection pigging. In cases where the pipeline design does not allow inspection pigging, an analysis shall be carried out in

DET NORSKE VERITAS

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2010 Page 42 – Sec.5

accordance with recognised procedures to document that the risk of failure (i.e. the probability of failure multiplied by the consequences of failure) leading to a leak is acceptable. For corrosive fluids of other categories the benefit of inspection pigging on operational reliability shall be evaluated. 115 For piggable components the internal diameter of the component shall meet the requirements imposed by the pigtrain.
Guidance note: It is recommended that bends radius are designed with a radius not less than 5 x nominal internal pipe diameter.
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— Medium and High Safety Class during normal operation: plt ≥ 1.05 · pli — Low Safety Class during normal operation: plt ≥ 1.03 · pli (5.2) (5.1)

Guidance note: With an incidental pressure of 10% above design pressure, the above gives a system test pressure of approximately 1.15 times the local design pressure at the highest point of the pipeline system part tested, see Figure 1.
Resulting test pressure
Local design pressure

Internal pressure

B 200 Mill pressure test and system pressure test 201 The purposes of the mill test are: — to constitute a pressure containment proof test — to ensure that all pipe sections have a minimum yield stress. Therefore, the mill test pressure is defined in terms of stress utilisation, see Sec.7 E100, rather than in terms of design pressure.
Guidance note: “in terms of stress utilisation” implies that the same structural utilisation will be achieved independent on temperature de-rating or corrosion allowance used in the design.
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Local incidental pressure, pli

System test requirement 5% above pli

Filled with water

1 ρtest⋅g ρcont⋅g 1

Filled with operating content

Water depth

Figure 1 Illustration of local pressures and requirements to system pressure test
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202 The purpose of the system pressure test is to prove the pressure containment integrity of the submarine pipeline system, i.e. it constitutes a leakage test after completed construction disclosing gross errors. 203 The pipeline system shall be system pressure tested after installation in accordance with Sec.10 O500 unless this is waived by agreement in accordance with 204 below. The local test pressure (plt) during the system pressure test shall fulfil the following requirement:
Table 5-1 Requirements to waive system pressure test Requirement Other aspects with respect to system pressure test than pressure containment integrity such as cleaning, contractual, shall be agreed. An inspection and test regime for the entire submarine pipeline system shall be established and demonstrated to provide the same level of safety as the system pressure test with respect to detectable defect sizes etc.; Records shall show that the specified requirements have consistently been obtained during manufacture, fabrication and installation. Less than 75% of the pressure containment design resistance shall be utilised

204 Alternative means to prove the same level of safety as with the system pressure test is allowed by agreement given that the mill pressure test requirement of Sec.7 E100 has been met and not waived in accordance with Sec.7 E107. The industries knowledge and track record to date implies the limitations in Table 5-1 for waiving the system pressure test.

Guidance note: The requirement implies that a reporting limit lower than the acceptance criteria shall be used. This enables tracking of tendencies such that it can be documented that the criteria has been consistently met. It will also indicate systematic errors
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Guidance note: The requirement implies that external pressure governs the wall thickness design. The advantage of the system pressure test is normally limited for deep water pipelines, hence, the criteria. The limitation implies that the wall thickness shall be at least 33% larger than required by the pressure containment criterion.
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The linepipe shall be seamless or produced by the SAW method. Repairs by other methods are allowed by agreement.

Guidance note: Other welding methods have to date not proved similar degree of quality as SAW. SAW is not required for the girth welds
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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2010 Sec.5 – Page 43

Table 5-1 Requirements to waive system pressure test (Continued) Requirement All components and risers shall be hydrostatically pressure tested during manufacture.

Guidance note: Components include flanges, valves, fittings, mechanical connectors, induction bends, couplings and repair clamps, pig traps etc.
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Automated Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) shall be performed after installation welding. Alternative NDT methods proven to give the same detectability and sizing accuracy may be allowed by agreement.

Guidance note: AUT is normally required in order to ensure that no critical defects exist. The acceptance criterion is often based on an ECA linking the fracture toughness, defects and loads. A reporting limit less than this acceptance criteria is required in order to ensure that there is no systematic error on the welding and to prove that the criteria are systematically met.
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The pipeline shall not be exposed to accumulated nominal plastic strains exceeding 2% after AUT. Installation and intervention work shall be unlikely to have caused damage to the submarine pipeline system.

Guidance note: Special attention shall here be given to ploughing, other trenching methods or third party damages e.g. anchor chains of wires.
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205 During system pressure test, all limit states for safety class low shall be satisfied (see D). B 300 Operating requirements

the following format:

RRd =
where

301 Operating requirements affecting safety and reliability of the pipeline system shall be identified during the design phase, and shall be documented in the DFI Resumé and reflected in the PIM system.

Rc ( f c , tc ) γ m ⋅ γ SC

(5.4)

C. Design Format
C 100 General 101 The design format in this standard is based on a Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) format. 102 The fundamental principle of the LRFD format is to verify that design load effects, LSd, do not exceed design resistances, RRd, for any of the considered failure modes in any scenario:

is the characteristic resistance is the characteristic material strength, see Eq. 5.5 and Eq.5.6 tc is the characteristic thickness, see Table 5-2 and Table 5-3 γm, γSC are the partial resistance factors, see Table 5-4 and 5-5 202 Two different characterisations of the wall thickness are used; t1 and t2 and are referred to explicitly in the design criteria. Thickness t1 is used where failure is likely to occur in connection with a low capacity (i.e. system effects are present) while thickness t2 is used where failure is likely to occur in connection with an extreme load effect at a location with average thickness. These are defined in Table 5-2. Rc fc
Table 5-2 Characteristic wall thickness Prior to operation1) t1 t-tfab t2
1) 2)

⎛⎛ L f ⎜ ⎜ Sd ⎜ ⎜ RRd ⎝⎝

⎞ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ≤1 ⎟ ⎟ ⎠i ⎠

(5.3)

Operation2) t-tfab-tcorr t-tcorr

t

Where the fractions i denotes the different loading types that enters the design criterion 103 A design load effect is obtained by combining the characteristic load effects from the different load categories by certain load effect factors, see Sec.4 G. 104 A design resistance is obtained by dividing the characteristic resistance by resistance factors that depends on the safety class, reflecting the consequences of failures, see 200. C 200 201 Design resistance The design resistance, RRd, can normally be expressed in

Is intended when there is negligible corrosion (mill pressure test, construction (installation) and system pressure test condition). If corrosion exist, this shall be subtracted similar to as for operation. Is intended when there is corrosion

Guidance note: If relevant, the erosion allowance shall be compensated for in the similar way as the corrosion allowance.
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203 Minimum wall thickness independent on limit state requirements are given in Table 5-3.

DET NORSKE VERITAS

the resistance factor will effectively be 3% higher. which clearly indicate that impact loads and corrosion are the most likely causes of failure and have the decisive effect on thickness design (not D/t2). see 304. unless the strengthening effect is documented. Guidance note: Field joint coating application during installation may also impose temperatures in excess of the above and shall be considered. ULS. When appropriate.temp and fu.2 C400.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.138 1.15 FLS 1. γ SC fu ( = (SMTS − f u .temp ⋅ α U 206 Based on potential failure consequences the pipeline shall be classified into a safety class see Sec. this effect shall be taken into account. αU is the material strength factor. 304 The material properties shall be selected with due regard to material type and potential temperature and/or ageing effects and shall include: — — — — yield stress tensile strength Young's modulus temperature expansion coefficient. f y = SMYS − f y .00 liner on a steel pipe shall not be taken into account in the characteristic resistance. The number of significant digits is given in order to comply with the ISO usage factors. unless the strengthening effect is documented. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 207 Possible beneficial strengthening effect of weight coating on a steel pipe shall not be taken into account in the characteristic resistance. 302 The characteristic material strength fy and fu. other external loads and excessive corrosion is provided by other means Special evaluation of accidental loads or other external loads and excessive corrosion shall be included in the determination of minimum required wall thickness - < 219 mm (8”) The minimum wall thickness requirement is based on failure statistics. Safety class low will be governed by the system pressure test which is required to be 3% above the incidental pressure. Hence. and for 22Cr and 25Cr for temperatures above 20°C. The safety class may vary for different phases and different locations. 204 Wall thickness for stability calculations is given in E404.14 High 1. is dependent on the limit state category and is defined in Table 5-4. γm Limit state category1) SLS/ULS/ALS 1. For parts of pipelines in location class 1. Coating which adds significant bending stiffness to the pipe may increase the stresses/strains in the pipe at any discontinuity in the coating (e. 205 The material resistance factor.138).046 3). October 2010 Page 44 – Sec.04 Medium 1. Table 5-5 Safety class resistance factors. see Table 5-6. 303 The different mechanical properties refer to room temperature unless otherwise stated. γm.26 Where: fy. The yield stress and tensile strength in the limit state formulations shall be based on the engineering stress-strain curve. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- DET NORSKE VERITAS .4) 1.temp are the de-rating values due to the temperature of the yield stress and the tensile strength respectively.308 1) 1.g. This will be reflected in the safety level by the Safety Class resistance factor γSC given in Table 5-5. which gives an allowable hoop stress of 96% of SMYS both for materials fulfilling supplementary requirement U and those not. values to be used in the limit state criteria are: γm 1) The limit states (SLS.5) (5. at field joints).00. αU shall be equal to 1. 208 Possible beneficial strengthening effect of cladding or Guidance note: If no other information of de-rating effects on the yield stress exist the recommendations for C-Mn steel and Duplex steels Figure 2 below may be used. C 300 Characteristic material properties 301 Characteristic material properties shall be used in the resistance calculations. for operation in safety class low. resistance safety class medium may be applied (1.6) U γ SC Safety class Pressure containment 2) Other 1) 2) 3) 4) Low 1.5 Table 5-3 Minimum wall thickness requirements Nominal diameter Safety Class Location class ≥ 219 mm (8”) High 2 Low and Medium High Low and Medium All 2 All Minimum thickness 12 mm unless equivalent protection against accidental loads. For 13Cr testing is normally required.temp ) )⋅ α (5. ALS and FLS) are defined in D. For system pressure test. For C-Mn steel this shall be considered for temperatures above 50°C. Table 5-4 Material resistance factor.

This is equivalent to the mill test utilisation. depend on Supplementary requirement U as shown in Table 5-6. Local stress concentrations (that may be caused by welded attachments. the de-rating of the yield stress can be conservatively applied. shall be determined. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- C-Mn Figure 2 Proposed de-rating values for yield stress of C-Mn and duplex stainless steels (DSS).00.2% and a plastic strain of 0.5% corresponds to an elastic strain of approximately 0.00 UO & TRB & ERW 0. Guidance note: Distinction should be made between global and local stress concentrations. if documented. a fabrication factor.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.5% Strain Figure 3 Reference for plastic strain calculation Guidance note: The yield stress is defined as the stress at which the total strain is 0. As an example for a 415 grade C-Mn steel. and shall be accounted for in the bending buckling evaluations as well as fatigue and fracture evaluations. If no other information exists.96 Supplementary requirement U 1. or very local discontinuities) will affect the pipe only locally and are typically accounted for in fatigue and fracture evaluations. αU Factor Normally 0. α fab Pipe Seamless 1. it may be used for future upgrade of the pipeline ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Plastic Strain Total Strain 307 For manufacturing processes which introduce cold deformations giving different strength in tension and compression.5%. Table 5-7 Maximum fabrication factor. Different approaches for calculation of the SNCF for fracture assessment are specified in Appendix A.00 αU Note: For system pressure test. Guidance note: If no other information on de-rating effect of the ultimate stress exists. The SNCF shall be adjusted for the non-linear stress-strain relationship for the relevant load level.6 D500. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 306 The material factor. 404 Nominal plastic strain increment shall be calculated from the point where the material stress-strain curve deviates from a linear relationship. C 400 Stress and strain calculations 401 Stress Concentration Factors (SCF) shall be included if relevant. Table 5-6 Material Strength factor.93 UOE 0. αU shall be equal to 1. Based on production data. Global stress concentrations (such as stress amplifications in field joints due to concrete coating.3%.5 – Page 45 308 For material susceptible to HISC. October 2010 Sec. relative to actual pipe material yield stress. the weld itself. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 402 Strain Concentration Factors (SNCF) shall be determined and accounted for if plastic strain is experienced. see Sec. a unidirectional strain of 0. SMYS Guidance note: The application of Supplementary requirement U requires documentation after the manufacture and shall be used with care.85 0. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- α fab DET NORSKE VERITAS . The fabrication factor may be improved through heat treatment or external cold sizing (compression). which typically extend one diameter) will affect the pipe globally. maximum fabrication factors for pipes manufactured by the UOE or UO processes are given in Table 5-7. see Figure 3. Stress 305 Any difference in the de-rating effect of temperature for tension and compression shall be accounted for. αfab. which gives an allowable hoop stress of 96% of SMYS both for materials fulfilling supplementary requirement U and those not. 403 Strain concentrations shall be accounted for when considering: — uneven deformation caused by variations in actual material yield stress and strain hardenability between pipe joints and in the weld metal due to scatter in material properties — variations in cross sectional area (actual diameter or wall thickness) between pipe joints — stiffening effects of coating and variations in coating thickness — reduction of yield stress in field joints due to high temperature imposed by field joint coating application during installation — undermatch/overmatch of actual weld metal yield stress. Guidance note: Difference in de-rating effect for tension and compression has been experienced on 13Cr steel material. αU.

D 300 Local buckling .local buckling limit state (pipe wall buckling limit state) . 202 The pressure containment shall fulfil the following criteria: ⎛ t ⎞ 2⋅ E ⋅⎜ ⎟ ⎝D⎠ pel (t ) = 1 −ν 2 2⋅t p p (t ) = f y ⋅ α fab ⋅ D D m ax – D min f o = ------------------------------D not to be taken < 0. may be used for such pipes if this can be documented representing the lowest collapse capacity of the pipeline.e. 203 The pressure containment resistance pb(t) is given by: Guidance note: Ovalisation caused during the construction phase shall be included in the total ovality to be used in design.14) Guidance note: In the above formulae.bursting limit state . October 2010 Page 46 – Sec. t shall be replaced by t1 when used in Eq 5.General 301 Local buckling (pipe wall buckling) implies gross deformation of the cross section.005 (0. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — system collapse (external pressure only) — propagation buckling — combined loading criteria. The following criteria shall be fulfilled: Guidance note: The system collapse will occur at the weakest point in the pipeline. Ultimate Limit State .accumulated plastic strain and strain ageing . D 400 Local Buckling – External over pressure only (System collapse) 401 The characteristic resistance for external pressure (pc) (collapse) shall be calculated as: ( pc (t ) − pel (t )) ⋅ ( pc (t )2 − p p (t )2 ) = pc (t ) ⋅ pel (t ) ⋅ p p (t ) ⋅ f 0 ⋅ D t (5.ovalisation/ ratcheting limit state .11) (5. interaction between external or internal pressure. This is normally taken as zero for as-laid pipeline.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.13) αfab is the fabrication factor. see Table 5-7 Guidance note: In the above formulas.9) where pc (t1 ) γ m ⋅ γ SC (5. the submarine pipeline system shall be designed against the following potential modes of failure: Serviceability Limit State . Ovalisation due to external water pressure or bending moment shall not be included.impact.8) 402 The external pressure at any point along the pipeline shall meet the following criterion (system collapse check): f ⎤ ⎡ f cb = Min ⎢ f y . u ⎥ ⎣ 1.fatigue . 5. (see Sec. N. t shall be replaced by t1 or t2 as given in the design criteria.19. 204 Reduction in pressure containment resistance due to true compressive forces (load controlled).10) where: 102 In case no specific design criterion is given for a specific limit state this shall be developed in compliance with the safety philosophy in Sec. i.15 ⎦ p e − p min ≤ (5. between t1 and t2.unstable fracture and plastic collapse limit state . D 200 Pressure containment (bursting) 201 The following criteria are valid provided that the mill pressure test requirement in Sec. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- pb (t ) = where 2⋅t 2 ⋅ f cb ⋅ D −t 3 (5.7 and t2 when used in Eq.damage due to.7 E100 has been met. Guidance note: As a minimum requirement. If not. shall be considered. A larger thickness. a corresponding decreased utilisation shall be applied.12) (5. This will normally be represented by fy and the minimum wall thickness.global buckling limit state (normally for load-controlled condition) . Reference is made to DNV-RP-F101 Corroded Pipelines. weight coating. axial force and bending moment.2.7) Where plx = pli during operation.ovalisation/ratcheting limit state (if causing total failure) .4.3 B300 and 4 B200) and plx = plt during system test. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- pmin is the minimum internal pressure that can be sustained. or loss of.large displacements .5 D.5%) 3 (5. A seamless produced linepipe’s weakest section may not be well represented by the minimum wall thickness since it is not likely to be present around the whole circumference. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- DET NORSKE VERITAS . t1. 302 Large accumulated plastic strain may aggravate local buckling and shall be considered. Limit States D 100 General 101 All relevant limit states (failure modes) shall be considered in design for all relevant phases and conditions listed in Sec. These will be given in the following sub-sections. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- plx − p e ≤ pb (t1 ) γ m ⋅ γ SC (5.

Combined Loading Criteria 601 Differentiation is made between: pe < p pr γ m ⋅ γ SC (5. The structural response of the spool itself has little effect on the imposed expansion displacement. However. 5. This is calculated by Eq. In that case. such as a J-tube or on a reel.16) αfab is the fabrication factor. This is because it is dependent on an initiating even.5 D/t2 < 45 (5. The relationship between the different pressures are: pc > pinit > ppr ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guidance note: The safety class and amount of metal loss due to corrosion shall be determined based on the probability and possibility of experiencing a high external over pressure during operation. and the response is primarily displacement-controlled. is the pressure required to start a propagating buckle from a given buckle. effective axial force and internal overpressure shall be designed to satisfy the following condition at all cross sections: 2 2 ⎧ ⎧ γ ⋅ γ ⋅ S ( p )⎫ ⎫ ⎛ M Sd p − pe ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎟ ≤1 + ⎨ m SC Sd i ⎬ ⎬ + ⎜α p ⋅ i ⎨γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ α c ⋅ M p (t 2 ) ⎪ α c ⋅ S p (t 2 ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎜ α c ⋅ pb (t 2 ) ⎟ ⎠ ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎝ ⎩ ⎩ 2 1. 4. the curvature of the pipe axis is imposed but the circumferential bending that leads to ovalisation is determined by the interaction between the curvature of the axis and the internal forces induced by the curvature.5 – Page 47 D 500 Propagation buckling 501 Propagation buckling cannot be initiated unless local buckling has occurred. always be applied ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- where ⎛t ⎞ p pr = 35 ⋅ f y ⋅ α fab ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝D⎠ 2. A load controlled criterion can. the question should be. is the pressure required to buckle a pipeline. how can one take partial benefit of that a condition is partially displacement controlled element? On a general basis this needs sensitivity analyses. 603 A displacement-controlled condition is one in which the structural response is primarily governed by imposed geometric displacements.18) 2 2 ⎧ M Sd ' (t2 ) ⎧ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ S Sd ' ( pi . The propagating buckle criterion reads: it is recommended to have a larger confidence and a safety class higher than for the propagating pressure is recommended. bending of the pipe between the rollers is determined by the interaction between weight and tension and is load-controlled.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. see Table 5-7 Guidance note: Collapse pressure. Guidance note: An example of a purely displacement-controlled condition is a pipeline bent into conformity with a continuous curved structure. A less clear-cut example is a pipeline in contact with the rollers of a lay barge stinger.1 ⋅ γ m ⋅ γ SC where the crossover pressure px is p X = p pr + p pr . pc. since a dent caused during the pressurised condition. This pressure will depend on the size of the initial buckle. however.BA is the propagating buckle capacity of an infinite arrestor.7 Pi > Pe DET NORSKE VERITAS . The stinger tip will.16 with the buckle arrestor properties LBA buckle arrestor length Guidance note: The propagating buckle criterion. Initiation pressure.5 is the design effective axial force. On a local scale however. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 502 A buckle arrestor capacity depends on — propagating buckle resistance of adjacent pipe — propagating buckle resistance of an infinite buckle arrestor — length of arrestor. where MSd SSd is the design moment. the configuration of the pipeline has to conform to the rollers. In case the external pressure exceeds the criteria given below. BA − p pr ( ) ⎡ t ⋅ L ⎞⎤ ⎛ ⋅ ⎢1 − EXP⎜ − 20 2 2BA ⎟⎥ D ⎠⎦ ⎝ ⎣ (5.15) — Load Controlled condition (LC condition) — Displacement Controlled condition (DC condition).17) Load controlled condition 605 Pipe members subjected to bending moment. pinit. An integral buckle arrestor may be designed by: pe ≤ pX (5. is the pressure required to continue a propagating buckle. 5. Pipeline expansion induced by temperature and pressure imposes a displacement at the end of the spool. Propagating pressure. may start propagating as the internal pressure is lost. buckle arrestors should be installed and spacing determined based on cost and spare pipe philosophy. On a large scale. Note that the possibility of a propagating buckle shall not be combined with the likelihood of getting an initiating event in the shut-down time span. (5. For liquid pipelines. A propagating buckle will stop when the pressure is less than the propagating pressure. see Eq. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- D 600 Local Buckling . t2 ) ⎫ ⎫ ⎛ p − pe ⎞ ⎪ ⎪ ⎜α p ⋅ i ⎟ ≤1 +⎨ ⎨γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ ⎬ ⎬ +⎜ αc αc α c ⋅ pb (t2 ) ⎟ ⎪ ⎩ ⎠ ⎭ ⎪ ⎝ ⎩ ⎭ 2 ppr. Another intermediate case is an expansion spool in contact with the seabed. however. 4. The answer to the question on if a condition is load controlled or displacement controlled is impossible since the questions in wrong. 602 A load-controlled condition is one in which the structural response is primarily governed by the imposed loads. Different design checks apply to these two conditions. October 2010 Sec. However.19b) Applies for D/t2 ≤ 45. for a buckle arrestor. the lateral resistance to movement of the spool across the seabed also plays a significant part and induces a degree of load control. safety class low and non-corroded cross section is normally used while other properties may be used for gas pipelines since they may experience a nearly zero internal pressure in the operational phase. corresponds to a nominal failure probability that is one order of magnitude higher than the target nominal failure probability. ppr. 604 A load controlled design criterion can always be applied in place of a displacement controlled design criterion. and in that sense is displacement controlled. always be load controlled.19a) (5. Eq. see Eq.15.

Guidance note: The left hand side of the combined loading criterion is referred to as interaction ratio in order not to mix it with “unity check”. pressure and moment also has a lateral point load. In a unity check.30) pmin = Minimum internal pressure that can be continuously sustained with the associated strain 606 If the pipeline in addition to the axial load.5 and Table 7.22) pi − pe 2 < 3 pb pi − pe 2 ≥ 3 pb D / t 2 < 15 D/t2 ≤ 45.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.13 E1000. pi ≥ pe (5. October 2010 Page 48 – Sec.28a) 2 ⎧ ⎫ M 'Sd (t2 ) ⎧ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ S 'Sd (t2 ) ⎫ ⎪ ⎛ pe − pmin ⎪ +⎨ ⎨γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ ⎬ ⎬ + ⎜ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ ⎜ αc αc pc (t2 ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎝ ⎩ ⎩ ⎭ 2 MSd’ = MSd/Mp (normalised moment) SSd’ = SSd/Sp (normalised effective force) ⎞ ⎟ ≤1 ⎟ ⎠ 2 f α c = (1 − β ) + β ⋅ u fy ⎧ 1− β ⎪ ⎪ αp = ⎨ ⎛ ⎞ ⎪1 − 3β ⎜1 − pi − pe ⎟ ⎜ pb ⎟ ⎪ ⎝ ⎠ ⎩ 0. 5. 5.78 ⋅ ⎜ p − pe ⎛ t ⎞ ⎛ − 0. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- where: εSd = Design compressive strain.10. effective axial force and external overpressure shall be designed to satisfy ⎛ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ε Sd ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ε c (t 2 . This shall be based on thickness t2. 609 Pipe members subjected to longitudinal compressive strain (bending moment and axial force) and external over pressure shall be designed to satisfy the following condition at all cross sections: α pm = 1 − R D / t2 R 130 R y (5.5 αh = ⎜ ⎜ R ⎟ .5 pi is the internal pressure.8 pb Sp and Mp denote the plastic capacities for a pipe defined by: S p (t ) = f y ⋅ π ⋅ (D − t ) ⋅ t M p (t ) = f y ⋅ (D − t ) ⋅ t 2 the following equation: 2 ⎧ ⎫ ⎫ ⎧ M Sd pe − pmin ⎪ ⎪ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ S Sd ⎪ ⎪ ⎛ +⎨ ⎨γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ ⎬ ⎬ + ⎜ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ ⎜ α c ⋅ M p (t2 ) ⎪ α c ⋅ S p (t 2 ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎝ pc (t2 ) ⎪ ⎭ ⎭ ⎩ ⎩ 2 ⎞ ⎟ ≤1 ⎟ ⎠ 2 (5. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- for 15 ≤ D / t 2 ≤ 60 for D / t 2 > 60 (5. pmin − pe ) γε D/t2 ≤ 45. (4.5 ⋅ α gw ⎟ ⎠ (5. it is recommended to use normalised moment. Guidance note: The left hand side of the combined loading criterion is referred to as interaction ratio in order not to mix it with “unity check”. the loads are normally directly proportional to the utilisation while the load components are squared in this criterion. pmin < pe pc (t 2 ) γ m ⋅ γ SC (5. see Sec.20) (5.31) DET NORSKE VERITAS . force and pressure as given in the b equations.0) ⎟ ⎜ γ ⎟ ε ⎝ ⎠ 0. Eq. Table 7.4 B300 pe is the burst pressure.29) Guidance note: In order to improve the engineering understanding. see Table 4-3 is the external pressure.9 ⋅ f y ⋅ t 2 (5. Table 5-8 (5.11 ⎟ ⎝ m ⎠ max ⎛R ⎞ αpm = Plastic moment reduction factor accounting for point load αgw = See Sec. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Displacement controlled condition 608 Pipe members subjected to longitudinal compressive strain (bending moment and axial force) and internal over pressure shall be designed to satisfy the following condition at all cross sections: ε Sd ≤ ε Rd = ε c (t 2 .23) where pmin is the minimum internal pressure that can be sustained. Eq.26) = Reaction force from point load 2 R y = 3. pc is the characteristic collapse pressure.6) ε c (t .5 ⎧ ⎪⎛ 60 − D / t 2 ⎞ ⎪ β = ⎨⎜ ⎟ 90 ⎠ ⎪⎝ ⎪ 0 ⎩ for (5. p min − p e ) = 0. This is normally taken as zero for installation except for cases where the pipeline is installed water filled. the loads are normally directly proportional to the utilisation while the axial load and internal pressure are squared in this criterion.75 ⋅ min ⎜ D pb (t ) ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⋅ α h −1. Eq.01⎟ ⋅ ⎜1 + 5.24) αc is a flow stress parameter and αp account for effect of D/t2 ratio.27) 607 Pipe members subjected to bending moment. Pi < Pe (5. this should be included by a modification of the plastic moment capacity as follows: M p .point load = M p ⋅ α pm where γε = Strain resistance factor.25) t 0.28b) (5. In a unity check.8 + pe − pmin ≤ 1 D/t2 < 45.21) (5.

fracture. For further guidance on fracture mechanics based fatigue analyses see Appendix A. required. Table 5-8 Resistance strain factors. or vertically (as upheaval buckling of a buried pipeline or on a free-span shoulder of an exposed pipeline). laterally ("snaking" on the seabed). The procedure is as for "ordinary" compression members in air. 802 The pipeline systems shall have adequate safety against fatigue failures within the design life of the system.vibrations of the pipeline system. Distinction shall be made between load-controlled and displacement-controlled buckling. waves. 702 The effect of internal and external pressures should be taken into account using the concept of an effective axial force. and the nominal thickness can be used also for this criteria. either downwards (in a free span). due to vortex shedding (current.5 – Page 49 Guidance note: For D/t2 < 23. which may be categorised into: — trawl board impact.5 3.g. see 808 — determination of Stress Concentration Factor (SCF) not included in the S-N curve — determination of accumulated damage. 708 It is not sufficient to design HP/HT pipelines for global buckling based on "worst case condition" axial and lateral soil resistance combined with displacement controlled local buckling criteria only. seam welds and construction details. Any increased utilisation shall be supported by analytical design methods. October 2010 Sec. 805 Where appropriate.direct wave action . or former experience indicate sufficient safety margin in compliance with this standard. fatigue etc. the utilisation may be increased provided that full scale testing. The specific criterion to be used shall be determined on a case-by-case basis. see Sec.3 610 A higher probability of failure corresponding to a serviceability limit state may be allowed during the installation phase provided that: — aids to detect buckle are provided — repair of potential damage is feasible and may be performed during laying — buckle arrestors are installed if the external pressure exceeds the initiation propagating pressure. and shall reflect the target safety levels in Sec. including the construction phase. However. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — exposed on un-even seabed — buried pipelines — reference is made to DNV-RP-F110 Global Buckling of Submarine Pipelines – Structural Design due to High Temperature/High Pressure.g. which have magnitude and corresponding number of cycles large enough to cause fatigue effects shall be taken into account when determining the long-term distribution of stress ranges.) — displacement of the pipeline is acceptable. γ e Safety class Low Medium High 2. General (LRFD). see 807 — selection of appropriate S-N curve (characteristic resistance). 703 A negative effective axial force may cause a pipeline or a riser to buckle as a bar in compression. A more total evaluation of the failure probability is. see 809.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Seam welds will be more vulnerable to fatigue for higher steel grades.2 C500. This implies that global buckling may be allowed provided that: — methods based upon fracture mechanics (see 805) — methods based upon fatigue tests (see 806). towing) or fluid flow . The fatigue check shall include both low-cycle fatigue and high-cycle fatigue. 803 All stress fluctuations imposed on the pipeline system during the entire design life. yielding unity. pullover and hooking — out of straightness.4 G300. Guidance note: Typical causes of stress fluctuations in a pipeline system are: . 706 Displacement-controlled global buckling may be allowed. local buckling.supporting structure movements . D 700 Global buckling 701 Global buckling implies buckling of the pipe as a bar in compression. t2 should be used. e. Relevant resistance factors may then be calibrated according to the SLS requirements in Sec. in particular between two pipe joints should be evaluated in addition to this system effect. hence. 705 Load-controlled global buckling may be designed in accordance with DNV-OS-C101 Design of Offshore Steel Structures. a large portion of the pipeline will be exposed to similar curvature and load combination “a” shall be used combined with the condition factor of 0. 707 For design of the following high pressure/high temperature pipelines: — exposed on even seabed — determination of long-term distribution of stress range.82. The thickness and yield stress variation along the pipe. for reeling.2.0 2. observation. hence. The specific design criterion to be used depends upon the analysis method. D 800 Fatigue 801 Reference is made to the following codes: Guidance note: System effects are normally not present for local buckling considerations and. and to the possibility of having low-cycle high strain fatigue. The pipeline may buckle globally. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 804 Special consideration shall be given to the fatigue assessment of construction details likely to cause stress concentrations. wind. a calculation procedure based upon fracture mechanics may be used. the following shall be considered: — pipeline integrity is maintained in post-buckling configurations (e. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 806 When using calculation methods based upon fatigue tests. These upper and lower bound soil resistance values will typically have a probability of exceedance in the order of a couple of per cent and will not alone prove a sufficient nominal failure probability. 704 The following global buckling initiators shall be considered: DNV-RP-C203 Fatigue Strength Analysis of Offshore Steel Structures DNV-RP-C205 Environmental Conditions and Environmental Loads DNV-RP-F105 Free Spanning Pipelines DNV-RP-F204 Riser Fatigue.fluctuations in operating pressure and temperature. The requirements regarding accumulated plastic strain (D1000 below) shall also be satisfied. Locations to be checked are the girth welds.

If the ratcheting causes increased ovality. October 2010 Page 50 – Sec.33) The requirement may be relaxed if: — a corresponding reduction in moment resistance has been included — geometrical restrictions are met. connected to SCR). ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 1103 Pipeline systems transporting gas or mixed gas and liquids under high pressure shall have adequate resistance to propagating fracture. D 1100 Fracture and supplementary requirement P 1101 Pipeline systems shall have adequate resistance against initiation of unstable fracture. This may occur during start-up/shut-down for: Dfat = Where: Dfat k ni Ni = = = = i=l ∑ -----i ≤ a fat N ni (5. such as pigging requirements — additional cyclic stresses caused by the ovalisation have been considered — tolerances in the relevant repair system are met. N.0% < ε l. welding.03 D (5. (σr)i or (εr)i.e.0% < ε p 1) 2) The strain levels refers to after NDT. workmanship and testing are in accordance with the requirements of this standard As an alternative girth welds allowable defect sizes may be assessed according to Appendix A. together with the out-of-roundness tolerance from — material with low transition temperature and adequate Charpy V-notch toughness — adequate DWTT shear fracture area — lowering the stress level — use of mechanical crack arrestors — by a combination of these methods. Total nominal strain in any direction from a single event. 902 Ovalisation shall be checked for point loads at any point along the pipeline system. construction detail. versus number of cycles to failure. defined as: D max – Dm in f 0 = ------------------------------.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. In cases where this guideline is not applicable. the fatigue criterion is given by: k fabrication of the pipe.g. the linear damage hypothesis (Miner's Rule) may be used. DET NORSKE VERITAS . stress amplitudes (or strain amplitudes for the case of low-cycle fatigue). NDT acceptance criteria and state of stress considered. ni.g. and the corresponding number of repetitions. 0. This may be achieved by using: D 900 Ovalisation 901 Risers and pipelines shall not be subject to excessive ovalisation and this shall be documented. allowable damage ratios are given in Table 5-9.5 807 As most of the loads which contribute to fatigue are of a random nature. is not to exceed 3%. The S-N curve shall be applicable for the material. Table 5-9 Allowable damage ratio for fatigue Safety Class Low Medium High α fat 1/3 1/5 1/10 811 The split between the different phases of the design fatigue life as described in Table 5-9 shall be agreed in the initiation phase of the project and be based on the highest safety class during the lifetime. The SN curve shall be based on the mean curve of log (N) with the subtraction of two standard deviations in log (N). or pipeline connected to pulling force (e. or pipeline parts with virtual anchor. D 1000 Accumulated deformation 1001 Accumulated plastic deformation of pipe caused by cyclic loads leading to increased diameter or ovality (ratcheting) shall be considered. deterministic or spectral analysis may be used.nom2) Supplementary requirement (P) shall be applied or 2. i. 809 In the general case where stress fluctuations occur with varying amplitude of random order. 10% and 80% but depend on the need for fatigue capacity in the different phases. The flattening due to bending. 1002 Accumulated longitudinal displacement of the pipeline (pipeline walking) shall be considered.nom The integrity of the girth welds shall be assessed in accordance with Appendix A 1. Thus.nom ≤ 0. special consideration shall also be made of the effect on buckling resistance. as well as to the surrounding environment. If a fracture mechanic assessment (ECA) is performed according to requirements in D1100.4% < ε l. The application of Miner's Rule implies that the long-term distribution of stress range is replaced by a stress histogram.32) — — — — αfat Miner's sum number of stress blocks number of stress cycles in stress block i number of cycles to failure at constant stress range of magnitude (sr)i or strain range (er)i.≤ 0. = allowable damage ratio. 10% of the design lifetime can be utilized during the installation and which is classified as safety class medium (high) during the operational phase this will correspond to a damage ratio of 2% (1%) of the operational lifetime. and pipeline laying on seabed slope. statistical consideration is normally required in determining the long-term distribution of fatigue loading effects. the S-N curve shall be validated for the allowable defect sizes determined by the ECA or a fracture mechanics based fatigue assessment shall be performed as described in Appendix A. Where appropriate. 808 The characteristic resistance is normally given as S-N curves or -N curves. consisting of a number of constant amplitude stress or strain range blocks. as laid and operation is 10%. see Table 5-9 pipeline shorter than two anchor lengths. 810 For detailed explanation regarding fatigue calculations/ analysis reference is made to DNV-RP-F105 Free Spanning Pipelines and DNV-RP-F204 Riser Fatigue. Such point loads may arise at freespan shoulders.4% Materials. Table 5-10 Requirements to unstable fracture1) Total nominal Accumulated strain plastic strain ε l. 1102 The safety against unstable fracture is considered satisfactory if the requirements in Table 5-10 are met. artificial supports and support settlements. Guidance note: For a pipeline where e. A common split between installation.

2. and survival of the pipeline is merely related to a conservative definition of characteristic resistance. whether theoretically or empirically based. this interaction shall be determined taking due account for all relevant parameters and the uncertainties related to these. 1205 If non-linear. DET NORSKE VERITAS . The adequacy of simplified design check must be assessed on the basis of the summation above in order to verify that the overall failure probability complies with the target values in Sec. In this standard. October 2010 Sec. 202 The main soil characteristics governing the interaction are the shear strength and deformation properties. For combined loading the simplified design check proposes a total factor in the range 1. as well as the approximate nature of the methods for determination of accidental load effects. as shall simplifications from the problem at hand to the calculation model used. E 200 Pipe soil interaction 201 For limit states influenced by the interaction between the pipeline and the soil. strain rate.g.g. D 1200 Ultimate limit state – Accidental loads 1201 The design against accidental loads may be performed by direct calculation of the effects imposed by the loads on the structure.34) where Pf.5 – Page 51 Design solutions shall be validated by calculations based upon relevant experience and/or suitable tests.7 I200) is considered to have adequate resistance to running propagating ductile fracture for applications carrying essentially pure methane up to 80% usage factor.g. ploughing of soil etc. the required Charpy V-notch impact energy shall be specially considered. 1202 The acceptance criteria for ALS relate to the overall allowable probability of severe consequences. 207 For pipelines that are buried (trenched and/or covered by gravel) and susceptible to global buckling the uplift resistance and possible increased axial resistance shall be considered.2. pipeline expansion of expansion loops. joint overloading and joint fracture) are adequately accounted for by the models and procedures applied. which shall all be properly accounted for in the simulation of the pipeline soil interaction. Extrapolation beyond documented validity of a method shall be performed with care. 1203 Design with respect to accidental load must ensure that the overall nominal failure probability complies with the nominal failure probability target values in Sec. Sound engineering judgement and pragmatic evaluations are hence required. roughness of the pipeline surface.0 10-4 – 10-5 γC = 0.0 for an accidental event with a probability of occurrence equal to 10.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. The possible effect of backfill material from trenching shall be considered. varying vertical reactions from installation laying pressures) — variations in the unit weight of the pipe (e. which is consistent with standard industry practice interpreted as corresponding to safety class Medium for accidental loads with a probability of occurrence equal to 10-4. Such non-linear effects and the uncertainties related to these shall be considered. it shall be ensured that system performance and local failure modes (e. remoulding of soil. Pf|Di. The overall nominal failure probability from accidental loads can be expressed as the sum of the probability of occurrence of the i'th damaging event. This includes: ∑ p f D i ⋅ P D i ≤ p f.. of Safety Class Safety Class Safety Class occurrence 1) Low Medium High > 10-2 Accidental loads may be regarded similar to environmental loads and may be evaluated similar to ULS design check 10-2 – 10-3 To be evaluated on a case by case basis 10-3 – 10-4 γC = 1. accidental loads and events are introduced in a more general context with a link between probability of occurrence and actual failure consequence. This shall be taken into account. 203 Pipeline characteristics of importance are submerged weight.0 γC = 1. 1206 A simplified design check with respect to accidental load may be performed as shown in Table 5-11 using appropriate partial safety factors. 1204 The inherent uncertainty of the frequency and magnitude of the accidental loads.g.T is the relevant target nominal failure probability according to Sec. related to the difference in drained and non-drained behaviour and to creep effects in drained and non-drained condition. For depths down to 10 metres and onshore.8 be disregarded < 10-6 1) When failure mode is bursting the probability of occurrence should be 12 order of magnitudes lower. shall be recognised. the use of more than one calculation approach shall be considered. local buckling. global buckling or when displacements are allowed for on-bottom condition) the soil will be loaded far beyond failure. The number of discretisation levels must be large enough to ensure that the resulting probability is evaluated with sufficient accuracy. diameter stiffness. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Table 5-11 Simplified Design Check versus Accidental loads Prob.0 γC = 1. the pipeline. The requirement is accordingly expressed as: Note to table: Standard industry practice assumes safety factors equal to 1.9 γC = 0.2. E. PDi. Both the load effects and acceptance criteria are affected. Special Considerations E 100 General 101 This subsection gives guidance on conditions that shall be evaluated separately. involving large non-linearities. shall be thoroughly considered in relation to the problem at hand. or indirectly. When large uncertainties exist. water filled and operation conditions) — cyclic loading effects (both directly from pipe as well as hydrodynamic loads) 205 Some soils have different resistance values for long term loading and for short term loading.9 10-5 – 10-6 Accidental loads or events may γC = 0. times the structural failure probability conditioned on this event. Guidance note: Due to the uncertainties in governing soil parameters. and initial embedment from installation which shall all be accounted for as relevant for the limit state in question. — load duration and history effects (e. it is difficult to define universally valid methods for simulation of pipe soil interaction effects.1-1. The limitations of the methods used. 204 All relevant load effects shall be considered. empty. In general pipeline soil interaction depends on the characteristics of the soil. ref Table 2-5. Requirements to fracture arrest properties need not be applied when the pipeline design tensile hoop stress is below 40% of fy. load effects etc. and the failure mode in question. by design of the structure as tolerable to accidents. lateral pull-in. 1104 Material meeting the supplementary requirement for fracture arrest properties (F) (Sec. 15 MPa internal pressure and 30 mm wall thickness. 206 For limit states involving or allowing for large displacements (e.2. dynamic finite element analysis is applied. T (5.

Any relevant slope failure triggering effect. The expansion calculations shall be based upon conservative values for the axial frictional resistance. reference is made to DNV-RP-F105 Free Spanning Pipelines.g. and flotation shall be considered assuming that the pipeline is gas or air filled (if relevant). weight and diameter of the pipeline. Examples of possible limitations to pipeline movements include: local buckling. shall be designed against sinking as described under 405 above. e. 411 The transverse pipeline stability may be assessed using three-dimensional dynamic or two-dimensional static analysis methods.4 F. the variation in forces along the line. Special considerations shall here be made to mechanical components such as valves and Tee's. the pipeline will not move from its as-installed position.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Thus. anchored in open trench. it shall be documented that the shear strength of the soil is adequate to prevent flotation. 416 If the stability of the pipeline depends on the stability of the seabed. 403 When the pipeline is routed in areas that may be influenced by unstable slopes. the nominal wall thickness shall be reduced to compensate for the expected average weight reduction due to metal loss. 414 Pipeline movements due to thermal axial expansion. The dynamic analysis methods allow limited pipe movements. liquefied. If pipelines are installed in soils having a low shear strength. E 400 On bottom stability special supporting structures or anchoring devices other than weight coating. the specific weight of the buried gas. This shall be considered in the analysis. then the soil bearing resistance shall be documented. E 500 Trawling interference 401 The pipeline shall be supported. the probability of such slope failures shall be evaluated. 413 Axial (longitudinal) stability shall be checked. re-routing of the pipeline shall be required. at offset spools). The anode structural connection (when exposed to friction.2 C400. the latter should be checked. µ. at riser tiein point) and where the pipeline changes direction (e. shall be addressed. 407 If the specific submerged weight of the gas. 502 The acceptance criteria are dependent on the trawling frequency (impact) and the safety classification (pull-over and hooking) given in Sec.or air-filled pipeline is not to be less than that of the soil. For more detailed description. it shall be documented that the depth of sinking will be satisfactorily limited (either by the depth of liquefaction or by the build-up of vertical resistance during sinking) meeting the requirements of D above. When determining this unfavourable combination. in soils which are or may be liquefied. For both liquid and gas pipelines. In such cases the equivalent friction coefficient may vary with the vertical load level. 410 The most unfavourable combination of simultaneously acting vertical and horizontal forces on the pipeline shall be considered.or air-filled pipe is less than that of the soil. Load effect factors equal to unity. may vary within a wide range depending on the seabed soil. or buried in such a way that under extreme functional and environmental loading conditions.35) where: Hp = η = permanent plastic dent depth usage factor given in Table 5-12. shall be considered. 406 If the specific submerged weight of the water-filled pipe is less than that of the soil. fracture and ovality and these shall be documented. For assessment of horizontal (transverse) stability of pipelines exposed to wave and current loads.g. sinking shall be considered assuming that the pipeline is water filled. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 402 Liquid or gas pipelines in the air. reference is made to DNV-RP-F109 On-bottom Stability Design of Submarine Pipeline.. fatigue. pipelines without weight coating) shall be sufficient to sustain the anticipated friction force. fatigue and fracture of pipe deterioration/wear of coating geometrical limitations of supports distance from other pipelines. 415 In shallow water. the repeated loading effects due to wave action may lead to a reduction of the shear strength of the soil. 409 It shall be documented that pipelines situated on the sea bottom have adequate safety against being lifted off the bottom or moved horizontally. such as wave loading. Possible flow rates and densities at the pipeline shall be evaluated for stability. the lateral resistance includes both friction type resistance and resistance due to mobilising the soil outside the contact surface. particularly if the back fill consists of loose sand which may be susceptible to liquefaction. earthquake loading or man made activities (e. 404 For weight calculations of the pipe. shall be allowed for near platforms/structures (e. that could lead to slope failure and flow of soil that will impact the pipeline. 302 For design of free spanning pipelines. or is likely to be. but require accurate three-dimensional modelling. thermal expansion. structures or obstacles. If the soil is. 412 The coefficient of equivalent friction. October 2010 Page 52 – Sec.g. surface roughness. 503 The acceptance criteria for trawl impact refer to an acceptable dent size. Pipelines resting directly on the sea bottom without any DET NORSKE VERITAS . Guidance note: The acceptance criterion on permissible movements may vary along the pipeline route. including directionality effects of waves and current. the pipe-laying itself). If stability can not be guaranteed by sufficient weight of the pipeline.g. reference is made to DNV-RPF111 Interference between Trawl Gear and Pipelines.5 E 300 Spanning risers/pipelines 301 Spanning risers and pipelines shall have adequate safety against local buckling. reference is given to DNV-RP-F204 Riser Fatigue.05η D (5. 408 501 The pipeline system shall be checked for all three loading phases due to trawl gear interaction. The maximum accepted ratio of permanent dent depth to the pipe diameter is: HP ≤ 0. and a limited amount of settlement after installation. This does not include permissible lateral or vertical movements. by burial of the pipeline or by other means. as outlined in Sec. For pipelines with minor corrosion allowance this reduction may be omitted and the nominal thickness used. For fatigue design of risers.or gas-filled condition shall have a specific gravity which is higher than that of the surrounding sea water (negative buoyancy). When the pipeline has some penetration into the soil. 405 Buried pipelines shall have adequate safety against sinking or flotation. then no further analyses are required to document safety against sinking.

g. 107 For material susceptible to HISC. protection or means to avoid impacts. see D1200. are required in order to address the maximum forces that can be transferred to the component from the connecting pipeline sections under installation and operation.A. F. Any beneficial effect of internal over-pressure.) used in the submarine pipeline system. as applicable. see 105. Tee’s.8 F600 Flanges 15590-3/ ISO 7005-1 or NORSOK L005 / EN 1591-1 Valves ISO 14723 F500 Mechanical ASME VIII Division 2 / EN connectors 13445 / PD 5500 Couplings and DNV-RP-F113 repair clamps. Required in case the code used in the design of a component does not take into account forces other than the internal pressure.4 as well as particular loads associated with the component shall be analysed. The strength shall. see Sec. 602 The design criteria shall be based upon the frequency/ likelihood of the impact force and classified as accidental. Hot taps: API RP 2201 hot taps Bolting ASME VIII Division 2 / EN 13445 / PD 5500 CP Insulating ASME VIII Division 2 / EN F300 joints 13445 / PD 5500 Anchor flanges N. the insulation should be resistant to oil and oil-based products. E 700 Thermal Insulation 701 When a submerged pipeline is thermally insulated.3 10-4-1 0. 506 Hooking loads shall be checked in combination with other relevant load effects. The beneficial effects of protective coating may be taken into account. Table 5-13 Referenced standards for structural design of components Component Design Code1) Additional design requirements All Non-linear FE analyses F100 Components according to. see Note 2) Buckle and fracture arrestors Pig traps ASME VIII Division 2 / EN F400 13445 / PD 5500 1) 2) Other recognised equivalent codes may be used. ASME VIII Division 2 / EN 13445 / PD 5500. additional evaluations. reference is given to DNV-RPF113 Pipeline Subsea Repair. 106 The load scenarios as described in Sec. This implies that also external hydrostatic pressure shall be considered in the design with respect to both strength and internal leakage when relevant.6 D500.5 – Page 53 Table 5-12 Usage factor (η) for trawl door impact Impact frequency Usage factor (per year per km) η > 100 0 1-100 0.g. All relevant failure modes for lateral buckling shall be checked. reference is made to DNV-RPF107 Risk Assessment of Pipeline Protection. non-linear FE analyses according to. All relevant failures modes shall be checked. see Sec. additional failure modes such as fatigue and collapse shall be taken into account.4. ASME VIII 2) Division 2 / EN 13445 / PD listed below 5500 Induction ISO 15590-1 Bends F200 Fittings Bends: F200 Tees: ASME B31.g. bends. e. 702 Furthermore. 102 Design of components may be based on the industry recognised codes as listed in Table 5-13 but shall also comply with the structural design and functional requirements of this sub-section and with the material. if relevant. If the code used in the design of a component does not take into account forces other than the internal pressure.4. October 2010 Sec. environmental or functional correspondingly. 109 The pigging requirements in B114 and B115 shall be considered for the component. 504 When allowing for permanent dents. valves etc. 703 Degradation of the insulation during construction and operation should be considered. Accumulation of damage due to subsequent trawling is not normally allowed. 603 For guidance on impacts. The insulation shall also have the required mechanical strength to external loads. B31.8.7 requirements for components in Sec. fishing gear or collisions. The design may be achieved either by design of pipe. 505 Pullover loads shall be checked in combination with other relevant load effects. 104 The component shall be designed to accommodate the loading from connected the pipeline section and vice versa with appropriate safety. manufacturing and test 103 All pressure containing components used in the submarine pipeline system shall generally represent at least the same safety level as the connecting riser/pipeline section. The impact effectiveness of coating shall be documented. Supporting structure requirements are given in G. dropped objects. or — sufficient to accommodate the most probable maximum 100-year load effect that will be transferred to the component from the connecting pipeline under installation and operation. Pipeline Components and Accessories F 100 General 101 This Subsection is applicable to pressure containing components (e. E 800 Settings from Plugs 801 For loads from plugs. E 600 Third party loads. as a minimum be: — equivalent to the connecting pipeline.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. "pop-out" shall not normally be included. temperature and hydrostatic pressure. e. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 108 Sealing systems should be designed to allow testing without pressurising the pipeline.e. flanges and connectors. it shall be documented that the insulation is resistant to the combination of water. 105 The design of pipeline components shall be according to recognised codes. dropped objects 601 The pipeline shall be designed for impact forces caused by. i.

compressive strength and suitability for use at the design temperatures shall be documented by testing in accordance with ASTM D 695.36) (5. and shall include a documented safety margin which is valid during all relevant pipeline operating conditions.40) DET NORSKE VERITAS . transition tapering in the base material should be avoided.37) σ e ≤ σ h 2 + σ l 2 − σ h ⋅ σ l + 3 ⋅τ hl 2 σ h = ( pi − p e ) D − t2 2 ⋅ t2 (5. October 2010 Page 54 – Sec. Sealing surfaces exposed to sea water shall be made of materials resistant to sea water at ambient temperature. vent. 115 The pressure testing of components (i.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.8 SMYS. Factory Acceptance Test) to be in accordance with specified design code.39) σl = N M + 4 π ⋅ (D − t2 ) ⋅ t2 π ⋅ (D − (D − 2 ⋅ t2 ) 4 ) 32 ⋅ D (5. Valve operation will be sensitive to friction and clearances.14. during lightning strikes. 303 Insulating joints shall be capable of meeting the test requirements given in Sec. reference electrodes. Table 5-14 Usage factors for equivalent stress check Safety class Low Medium η 1. F 200 Design of bends 201 This Standard does not provide any limit state criteria for pipeline bends. Alternative devices to the spark gap type can be used if documented to be reliable. The external pressure differential for the collapse limit state. If tapering is unavoidable the pipe ends shall be machined to provide parallel external and internal surfaces before the start of the taper. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- η = usage factor as given by Table 5-13 N = pipe wall force M = bending moment. The acceptable distortion will typically governed by the bullet points in D900. An interlock arrangement with the main pipeline valve should be provided. shall hence be multiplied by a factor of 3 in Eq 5.C.8 B900 and to withstand the effects of the environment without loss of performance.5 110 Transitions in C-Mn and low alloy steels where the nominal material thickness or yield stress is unequal shall be in accordance with ASME B 31. monolithic coupling type and shall be provided with a double seal system. The ASD criteria read: F 300 Design of insulating joints 301 CP insulating joints shall be of the boltless. This can be considered fulfilled if the system collapse design capacity is three times the external overpressure in question. 114 Specifications for installation and make-up of the component shall be established. sand etc. lightning protection shall be installed. Such measures should take into account the need for potential equalisation between the pipeline. The length of the parallel surfaces shall at least be sufficient to allow scanning from the external surface and sufficient for the required reflection off the parallel internal surface. pe . Surge arrestors should be mounted across insulating joints and output terminals of D. including dielectric strength.80 Guidance note: The ovalisation of the bend has typically to be determined by finite element calculation.00 0. Transition in C-Mn linepipe by means of an external or internal taper shall not be steeper than 1 in 4. F 500 Design of valves.6 C400. power supplies. If transitions to these requirements are not feasible. — That the imposed shape distortion (e.g. 111 Transitions in duplex stainless steels and 13Cr martensitic stainless steels shall be such that the local stresses will not exceed 0. — The bend is exposed to internal over pressure or that the bend has no potential for collapse.e. weld scale. saddle supports. The sealing materials shall have documented decompression. ovalisation) is acceptable. provided they are enclosed in a completely confined space. Sealing will be sensitive to internal deflections. 304 To protect insulating joints and CP equipment from lightning effects.8 Appendix I. Guidance note: Bends exposed to bending moments behave differently from straight pipes. AED certification is not required for seals other than O-rings.) or to fire loads. voltage sources. F 400 Design of pig traps 401 The design of closures and items such as nozzle reinforcements. 502 Consideration should be given to requirements for durability when exposed to abrasive material (e. 302 Insulating joints shall be fitted with pup pieces with mechanical properties and dimensions identical to that of the adjoining pipeline. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 202 As an alternative to recognised codes the following simplified Allowable Stress Design (ASD) check may be used provided that: — The pressure containment criterion in D200 is fulfilled. creep and temperature properties.90 High 0. Ovalisation becomes the first order of deformation and changes the stress pattern considerably compared to straight pipes. — The applied moment and axial load can be considered displacement controlled.g.pmin.38) (5. 113 For welds to be examined by ultrasonic testing. 306 All elastomeric materials used shall have a documented performance. anodes. enlargement of gaps and changes in their support conditions. 402 Closures shall be designed such that the closure cannot be opened while the pig trap is pressurised.kick and drain branches shall comply with the applied design standard. 305 Bolting shall meet the requirements of Sec. a transition piece shall be inserted. 307 The insulating materials. O-ring seals shall be resistant to explosive decompression and AED certified. Reference may be made to σe ≤ η · fy σl ≤ η · fy where (5. Figure 15 or equally recognised codes. 501 The design shall ensure that internal gaskets are able to seal. 503 Valves with requirements for fire durability shall be qualified by applicable fire tests. etc. 112 Internal transitions between different wall thicknesses and internal diameters for girth welds in pipes of equal SMYS may be made in the base material provided radiographic examination only is specified.

if safety considerations indicate that the overall safety is increased by a reduction of the failure load of certain supports. the additional calculations or qualification tests shall be performed. and other factors that may be relevant. 304 In clamps utilising elastomeric linings. sea water and air or sun light resistance shall be determined. 503 The design of the gravel supports and covers shall be performed using recognised methods. separation and pipeline stabilisation at crossings. G. both longitudinal and horizontal uncertainty in soil characteristics resistance against hydrodynamic loads slope failure (e. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — the actual bursting strength of the fitting is demonstrated to exceed that of the adjoining pipe — the fitting is demonstrated to be able to accommodate the maximum forces that can occur in the pipeline in accordance with A105. and that the bars parallel to the flow direction are welded to the transverse bars only. element stresses. brittle failure. as these items require special consideration. G 300 Riser supports 301 The riser supports should be designed against the possible forms of failure with at least the same degree of safety as that of the riser they support. stress concentrations and excessive rotation.g. The design shall be according to ASME B31. alternative designs should be considered in order to avoid peak stresses at the ends.e. 303 For supports with doubler and/or gusset plates consideration shall be given to lamellar tearing. Therefore. fatigue. pressure containment for the outer pipe. If this is impracticable. the long-term performance of the material with regard to creep. 603 Y-pieces and tees where the axis of the outlet is not perpendicular to the axis of the run (lateral tees) shall not be designed to ASME B31. When determining the safety class.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. pull out.g. F 600 Pipeline fittings 601 Tees shall be of the extruded outlet. external impact. 504 The design of the gravel supports and covers shall consider: — — — — — — — — weight of gravel supports and/or covers and pipeline loads imposed by pipeline (e. be based on "burst disc" which will imply that a lower pressure containment resistance shall be governing. Other relevant evaluations may be J-tube pull-in forces. 605 Standard butt welding fittings complying with ANSI B16. 403 The J-tube spools should be joined by welding. 604 The design of hot taps shall ensure that the use of and the design of the component will result in compliance with API RP 2201. lateral and/or vertical deformations or buckling depends on how the pipes may slide relatively to each other. advantage may be taken of other loading conditions. pipe crushing. plate or shell element stresses. 202 The combined effective force for a pipe-in-pipe or a bundle may be calculated using the expression in Sec. due expansion) seabed slope. such as analysis of expansion. suppressing of upheaval buckling.g. analysis of cases where the effective axial force is important. MSS SP-75 or equivalent standards may be used provided that: void for internal pipes. The J-tube concept may e. effective weld length. requires accurate modelling of axial restraints such as spacers. DET NORSKE VERITAS . "Procedure for Welding and Hot Tapping on Equipment in Service". relaxation. i. hoop stress usage factors).4 G300 for each component and summing over all components. Release of effective axial force by end expansions. with a suitable safety margin to accommodate deterioration and friction increase during service. galvanic corrosion. the pressure in the G 500 Stability of gravel supports and gravel covers 501 This applies to all types of gravel supports and covers. G 400 J-tubes 401 An overall conceptual evaluation shall be made in order to define the required: — safety class — impact design — pressure containment resistance. stabilisation of pipeline etc. integral reinforcement type. such as free span supports for installation and operating phases (excessive bending and fatigue). 402 The J-tube shall be designed against the failure modes given in D100. axial restraints/locking.8 or equivalent.4. Socket welding fittings are not permitted. October 2010 Sec. design by finite element analysis. consideration shall be given to friction factors. both horizontal and vertical. 504 Valve control systems and actuators shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with recognised standards.9. General (LRFD method). 302 For bolted connections. 102 Steel structural elements shall be designed according to DNV-OS-C101 Design of Offshore Steel Structures. Guidance note: 301 above includes evaluation of whether the j-tube shall be designed for the full design pressure and to which safety class (i.5 – Page 55 API 6FA and ISO 10497 for test procedures. e. B31.e. See also B108 through B111. bulkheads etc. However. stress corrosion cracking.8. advantage may also be taken on the reduced failure consequences compared to those of ordinary pipelines. buckling and dynamics. such considerations may govern the support design (weak link principle). G 200 Pipe-in-pipe and bundles 201 For pipe-in-pipe and bundle configurations.4 or B31. 505 If the code or standard used for design of a component does not take into account the possibility for internal leakage due to forces transferred to the component from the connecting pipeline sections. corrosion etc. due to earthquakes) uncertainty in survey data subsea gravel installation tolerances. 502 The design of the gravel supports and covers shall consider the consequence of failure.e. 606 Branch welding fittings with a size exceeding 2 inches or 20% of the pipe circumference shall not be used. The external pressure for each component shall be taken as the pressure acting on its external surface. It is recommended that the bars transverse to the flow direction are welded to a pup piece.g. 602 Bars of barred tees should not be welded directly to the high stress areas around the extrusion neck. i. Supporting Structure G 100 General 101 Structural items such as support and protective structures that are not welded onto pressurized parts are considered as structural elements. The valve actuator specification should define torque requirements for valve operation.

Residual stresses affecting present and future operations and modifications shall also be considered.g. Other effects can also give rotation (curved lay route.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. in-line assemblies etc. This requirement also applies to sections of a pipeline where the strains are completely controlled by the curvature of a rigid ramp (e. Guidance note: According to this standard. installation and repair is the resulting straightness of the pipeline.5 H. whether or not environmental loads are acting on the pipe.) and need to be considered. 205 Instability during operation.rot where (5. controlled depth tow and surface tow) pipeline reeling and unreeling trenching and back filling riser and spool installation tie-in operations landfalls. including: γ rot ε r ≤ ε r . Guidance note: Rotation of the pipe within the tensioner clamps of the pipe due to elasticity of the rubber and slack shall be included in the evaluation of the rotation. due to out of straightness caused by the installation method and the corresponding consequences.4 C600 and Sec. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- H 300 Coating 301 Concrete crushing due to excessive compressive forces for static conditions in the concrete during bending at the overbend is not acceptable. 108 Configuration considerations for risers and pipelines shall also be made for other installation and repair activities. off-bottom tow. 204 The above equations only consider rotation due to residual strain from installation along a straight path. Installation is usually classified as a lower safety class (safety class low) than operation. εr γrot εr. see Sec. 106 The variation in laying parameters that affect the configuration shall be considered. 107 Critical laying parameters shall be determined for the installation limit condition.10 D400. 206 The requirement for straightness applies to the assumed most unfavourable functional and environmental load conditions during installation and repair. Installation and Repair H 100 General 101 The linepipe transportation should comply with the requirements of API5L and API5LW. eccentric weight. 202 The possibility of instability due to out of straightness during installation (twisting) and the corresponding consequence shall be determined. equivalent limit states are used for all phases. In this case the residual strain from bending at the overbend shall satisfy the following during installation: 103 The design analysis for the submarine pipeline system shall include both installation and repair activities. and the allowed parameter variations and operating limit conditions shall be established. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 109 If the installation and repair analyses for a proposed pipeline system show that the required parameters cannot be obtained with the equipment to be used. shall be determined. 110 The flattening due to a permanent bending curvature. This shall be determined and evaluated with due considerations of effects on: — instability — positioning of pipeline components e. together with the out-of-roundness tolerances from fabrication of the pipe shall meet the requirements defined in D900. in order to ensure that they can be installed and repaired without suffering damage or requiring hazardous installation or repair work.3 safety factor for residual strain = limit residual strain from over bend. 203 If Tee-joints and other equipment are to be installed as an integrated part of the pipeline assembled at the lay barge. hydrodynamic loads. corresponding to lower partial safety factors (higher failure probability). buckle arrestors. stinger on installation vessel). reduced rotational resistance during pulls due to lateral play/elasticity in tensioners/pads/tracks etc. shall be considered. An allowed range of parameter variation shall be established for the installation operation. 104 The design shall verify adequate strength during all relevant installation phases and techniques to be used. Discontinuities due to weight coating.g. October 2010 Page 56 – Sec. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- H 200 Pipe straightness 201 The primary requirement regarding permanent deformation during construction. Hence the design criteria in this section also apply to the installation phase. valves and Teejoints — operation.rot = residual strain from over bend = 1. 105 The configuration of pipeline sections under installation shall be determined from the laying vessel to the final position on the seabed. 102 The pipeline strength and stability shall be determined according to D and E above. no rotation of the pipe due to plastification effects shall be permitted. the pipeline system shall be modified accordingly. The configuration shall be such that the stress/ strain levels are acceptable when all relevant effects are taken into account.41) — — — — — — — — — — initiation of pipe laying operation normal continuous pipe laying pipe lay abandonment and pipeline retrieval termination of laying operation tow out operations (bottom tow.

102 The purpose of performing materials selection is to assess the feasibility of different candidate materials (including CRA’s) to meet functional requirements for linepipe and for other components of a pipeline system. general considerations for fabrication applicable to the design phase are addressed. October 2010 Sec. 102 Materials selection shall include identification of the following supplementary requirements for linepipe given in Sec. pipeline coatings (including field joint coating and any concrete coating). Finally. hardness). respectively. These are applicable both to manufactured materials as-delivered after manufacture and after fabrication (e. materials shall be selected for compliance with this standard. DET NORSKE VERITAS . In the material selection document design premises for materials selection should be identified. together with the applicable codes and standards. the pipeline owner shall verify and retain the qualification records in case the testing was initiated by a contractor or supplier. The user of this standard shall ensure that the applicable corrigenda are used. linepipe exposed to plastic deformation exceeding the thresholds specified in Sec. 4 (four) corrigenda had been published with requirements and guidelines overruling the published standard and previous corrigenda. heat treatment) and fabrication (e. Guidance note: ISO 15156-2/3 giving requirements for materials selection were first published in 2004. The same applies if a material specified for sour service is to be used beyond the conditions specified (e. The selection of materials shall ensure compatibility of all components of the pipeline system. the design documentation shall include a cathodic protection design report. referring to the requirements and recommendations in this section.7 and 8. fracture arrest properties (see B406) — supplementary requirement P. 302 Any requirements and conditions on pipeline fabrication and operational procedures used as the basis for materials selection shall be duly high-lighted in the document to ensure that they are adequately transferred into these phases of the pipeline. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 301 The selection of materials during conceptual and/or detailed design shall be documented. Manufacture and installation of systems for external corrosion control is addressed in Sec. For materials specified for sour service in ISO 15156.g. corrosion allowance and provisions for internal corrosion control.g. General A 100 Objective 101 This section provides requirements and guidelines to the selection of materials for submarine pipeline systems and to the external and internal corrosion control of such systems. Sec. welding). A 300 Documentation — supplementary requirement S. type 13Cr steels).g. increased utilisation (see B409). preferably in a “Materials Selection Report”. including the calculated costs for operation and any associated risk cost (see D701). Materials Selection for Linepipe and Pipeline Components B 100 General 101 Materials for pipeline systems shall be selected with due consideration of the fluid to be transported. making reference to the design basis and any other relevant project documents. A 200 Application B. cold forming) apply). For certain materials. pipeline components. pipeline components (including bolts and nuts).7 I as required: 201 This section is applicable to the conceptual and design phases for submarine pipeline systems. It contains both normative requirements and information. For all pipeline components exposed to such internal fluids.5 D1102 (see B407-408) — supplementary requirement D. shall be qualified according to the said standard. coatings and cathodic protection. Low internal temperatures due to system depressurisation shall be considered during the material selection.g. temperature and possible failure modes during installation and operation. As per 2006. It may also include a cost comparison between candidate materials.6 – Page 57 SECTION 6 DESIGN . weldability and corrosion resistance of materials used in components shall be compatible with the part of the pipeline system where they are located. including use of CRAs. (Sub-sections containing only informative text are indicated ‘Informative’ in heading) 202 Functional requirements for materials and manufacturing procedures for linepipe and pipeline components are contained in Sec. In accordance with ISO 15156-2/3. corrosion monitoring and inspection of the integrity of the pipeline which are not always defined in the project design basis and need to be verified by the operator of the pipeline. sour service (see B200) — supplementary requirement F. 103 The mechanical properties. max. specific hardness requirements always apply. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 303 As a result of design activities. 9. more stringent dimensional requirements (see B402) — supplementary requirement U. chemical composition. 9 also contains functional requirements to any concrete coating. anode manufacture and installation shall further be prepared as separate documents. Moreover. loads. specifications of linepipe material. 202 Any materials to be used which are not covered by ISO 15156 (e. restrictions for manufacture (e. This activity is generally carried out during conceptual design of submarine pipeline systems. B 200 Sour service 201 Pipelines to route fluids containing hydrogen sulphide (H2S) shall be evaluated for ‘sour service’ according to ISO 15156. Guidance note: The internal corrosion control of pipelines carrying potentially corrosive fluids based on chemical treatment is much based on conditions for periodic cleaning.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.MATERIALS ENGINEERING A. Also covered is the specification of linepipe. The following material characteristics shall be considered: — — — — — — mechanical properties hardness fracture toughness fatigue resistance weldability corrosion resistance.g.

Calculations should be carried out by use of the Battelle Two Curve Method (TCM) and the appropriate correction factor for calculated required Charpy values ≥ 95 J. heat affected zone and base material of such pipes are fit for intended use after significant straining. increased yield stress.6 Guidance note: Purchaser may consider to specify SSC testing of material grades meeting all requirements for sour service in this standard. Duplex and martensitic stainless steels may be less tolerant than C-Mn steel to well stimulation acids. AISI 316 and Alloy 825 (UNS N08825) are not resistant to corrosion by raw seawater but are applicable for components exposed to treated seawater (deoxygenated to max.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Guidance note. corrosion testing is not normally included in specifications for manufacture and fabrication. For conditions outside the above limitations the required fracture arrest properties should be based on calculations which reflect the actual conditions or on full-scale tests. Corrosion inhibitors for such acids and developed for the latter materials may not be effective for CRA’s. If no particular requirements are identified the requirement should be based on the gripping force obtained during MPQT. Additional information. primarily (HISC). ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 203 The qualification and selection of materials according to ISO 15156 are applicable to equipment designed and constructed using conventional elastic design criteria. In particular this applies to material subjected to plastic straining during installation and/or operation with cathodic protection applied. provided welds have adequate PWHT.7 I100 and Sec. Although the Battelle TCM is based on physical models of the speed of crack propagation and the speed of decompression. causing e. HISC design recommendations are given in DNV-RP-F112. For such testing. For special applications. When other design criteria are applied qualification testing shall be considered. This may further affect the critical defect size considerably if the pipe is strained above the yield stress. PWHT is known to reduce the HISC susceptibility of welds for 13Cr martensitic stainless steel. gas mixtures that enter the two-phase state during decompression can be much higher than for essentially pure methane. The most prominent benefit of specifying Supplementary requirement D is the eased fit-up for welding. UNS S32750/S32760) are generally resistant to ambient temperature seawater but require more stringent control of microstructure in base material and weld.g. testing according to ASTM G48. 30 mm wall thickness and 1120 mm diameter. Gripping force of lined linepipe 404 In accordance with Sec. unless relevant documentation is provided.g.7 D510 the gripping force shall determined with due consideration of the project requirements.g. It is strongly recommended that the Battelle TCM is calibrated by use of data from full-scale test which are as close as possible to the actual pipeline conditions with regard to gas pressure. Alloy 625 (UNS N06625) is generally considered immune to ambient temperature seawater.7 I200 and are valid for gas pipelines carrying essentially pure methane up to 80% usage factor. During pipe coating. Guidance note: Procurement conditions such as availability. 303 Duplex and martensitic stainless steel linepipe and pipeline components require special considerations of the susceptibility of environmentally assisted cracking. Improved fit-up implies reduced stress concentrations and improved structural integrity. but may be costly as machining may be required. special considerations should be made for longitudinally welded pipes to ensure that both the longitudinal weld. Stricter tolerances and additional requirements such as e. see Sec. especially the level of installation and operational bending stresses. up to a pressure of 15 MPa. B 300 Corrosion resistant alloys (informative) 301 Type 13Cr martensitic stainless steels (i. including field coating. Type 22Cr duplex. the pipes might be exposed to temperatures up to approximately 250°C. should be considered.g. Also type 25Cr duplex (e. For TMCP processed pipes and cold formed pipes not subjected to further heat treatment mechanical properties may change due to strain aging. water injection. pipe eccentricity may be specified for further improvements. pipeline dimensions and gas composition. relevant for the selection and specification of linepipe is provided below. with acceptance criteria as for 25Cr duplex. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- B 400 Linepipe (informative) 401 Acceptance criteria and inspection requirements for linepipe are given in Sec. 10 ppb and max. lead times and costs should also be considered. 408 It is recommended that the weld metal strength of the DET NORSKE VERITAS .7 I400 are considered to be in the uppermost range of what may be achieved by reputable pipe mills. it includes constants that are based on fitting data and calculations within a limited range of test conditions. Influence of coating application on mechanical properties 405 Pipe tensile properties may be affected by high temperature during coating application.7. 100 ppb as max monthly and daily residual concentrations of oxygen). i. as a part of a program for pre-qualification of linepipe manufacturing or pipeline installation procedures.e. 304 In addition to resistance to internal corrosion and environmentally assisted cracking. corrosion testing should be considered to qualify the material for the intended use. Fracture arrest properties 406 Supplementary requirements to fracture arrest properties are given in Sec. oxygen and chloride can be present in the fluid. see E502. Corrosion testing of the CRA material of clad or lined linepipe 403 For alloy 625 clad or lined pipe specified to be seawater resistant. stainless steels can be susceptible to localised corrosion. e. October 2010 Page 58 – Sec. The fracture toughness required to arrest fracture propagation for rich gas. proprietary alloys developed for oil/gas pipelines) are generally considered fully resistant to CO2-corrosion.7 C409. the methods and acceptance criteria in ISO 15156-2/3 apply. Dimensional tolerances 402 When significant plastic straining is required during installation or operation Supplementary requirement D is normally specified. particularly weldability. Hence the corrosion resistance shall be considered for each specific application. 302 Under conditions when water. For the latter materials. consequently corrosion testing are often included for the qualification of manufacturing and fabrication procedures of these materials. Reeling of longitudinally welded pipes and clad pipes 407 Due to the limited field experience. with supplementary requirements specified in Subsection I. Method C. 204 Supplementary requirements to sour service in this standard are given in Sec.e. For duplex stainless steel.8 C500. The tolerances specified in Sec. the following major parameters shall be considered: — mechanical properties — ease of fabrication. 22Cr and 25Cr duplex stainless steel and austenitic CRA’s are also fully resistant and do not require PWHT.

be specified by the purchaser. as specified for the standard grades in Table 6. If welds between the component and other items such as linepipe are to be post weld heat treated at a later stage.0) standard deviations above SMYS. then the component should be fitted with pup pieces of the linepipe material in order to avoid field welding of these components. if required. The hardness of bolts and nuts shall be verified for each lot (i. duplex and martensitic stainless steels should not be specified as bolting material if subject to cathodic protection. ASTM A194. B 500 Pipeline components (informative) 501 Materials for components shall be selected to comply with internationally recognised standards meeting the requirements given in Sec. Hence.g. Modification of the chemical composition given in such standards may be necessary to obtain a sufficient combination of weldability.nom ≥ 0. Alternatively.3 standard deviations above SMYS. or if any other heat treatment is intended. hardenability. The ECA generally requires that the weld metal yield stress is matching or overmatching the longitudinal yield stress of the pipe. All Grade B7/B7M Grade 2H -100 to + 400 ASTM A320. 502 A component should be forged rather than cast whenever a favourable grain flow pattern.10.5 C300. Requirements that are specific for pipeline installation welding are given in Sec. Table 6-1 Carbon and low alloy steel bolts and nuts for pressure bearing or main structural applications Temperature Bolt Nut Size range range (oC) -100 to + 400 ASTM A320.e. 702 The requirement for welds to have strength level equal to or higher than (overmatching properties) the base material is to minimise deformation in the area adjacent to any possible defects. This includes requirements to all relevant manufacturing steps from steel making to dispatch from the pipe mill or component 602 When bolts and nuts shall be used at elevated temperature strength de-rating shall be applied. the hardness for any bolts and nuts to receive cathodic protection shall not exceed 350 HV. ASTM A194.Qualification in retrospect 409 The Purchaser may in retrospect upgrade a pipe delivery to be in accordance with Supplementary requirement U. there have been concerns that hot-dip zinc coating may cause loss of bolt tensioning and that polymeric coatings may prevent efficient cathodic protection. however. except for pipe mill manufacturing welds. if lower than 610°C.1 if the number of test units are between 21 and 49. see Appendix A. Whenever such situations occur. Supplementary requirement U . If the number of test units are between 10 and 20 the actual average yield stress shall as a minimum be 2. from each heat of steel and heat treatment batch). It is further recommended to have a limited cap reinforcement of the longitudinal weld in order to avoid strain concentrations. the tempering temperature shall be sufficiently high to allow effective post weld heat treatment during later manufacture / installation. C. 603 Stainless steel according to ASTM A193 grade B8M (type AISI 316) is applicable but requires efficient cathodic protection for subsea use. i. B 600 Bolts and nuts 601 Carbon and low alloy steel bolts and nuts for pressure containing and main structural applications shall be selected in accordance with Table 6-1. it will be required to perform transverse all weld tensile testing of the weld metal and fracture toughness testing at the relevant temperature. rings of the component material should be provided for welding procedure qualification of the field weld.6 – Page 59 pipe longitudinal weld overmatches the strength of the base material. The minimum tempering temperature should. when girth welds are exposed to strain εl.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. and the absence of internal flaws are of importance. strength. 703 For pipes exposed to global yielding. a maximum degree of homogeneity.8. undermatching may be experienced for high operation temperatures (e. UNS N06625 (Alloy 625) is appli- DET NORSKE VERITAS . and 2. Materials Specification C 100 General 101 Requirements to the manufacture of linepipe and pipeline components are covered in Sec. An ECA involving undermatching weld metal will require special considerations. it is normally required that the yield stress of the weld metal is 120-150 MPa higher than SMYS of the base material (depending on the SMYS).7 and Sec. ductility.8. < 65 mm Grade L7 / L7M Grade 4/S¤ -46 to + 400 ASTM A193. < 100 mm Grade L43 Grade 7 cable as subsea bolting material without cathodic protection but should only be used in the solution annealed or annealed condition (ASTM B446) or cold-worked to SMYS 550 MPa maximum. 503 For component material delivered in the quenched and tempered condition. snaking scenario). In case of more than 50 test units it must be demonstrated that the actual average yield stress is at least two (2. Precipitation hardening Fe-or Ni-base alloys. 504 If the chemical composition and the delivery condition of components require qualification of a specific welding procedure for welding of the joint between the component and the connecting linepipe. Restrictions for sour service according to ISO 15156 shall apply when applicable. PTFE coatings have low friction coefficient and the torque has to be applied accordingly. October 2010 Sec. Below is provided guidance regarding the influence of weld metal strength on allowable defect size as determined by ECA (if applicable). a simulated heat treatment of the test piece should. 605 Any coating of bolts shall be selected with due considerations of how such coatings affect tensioning and as-installed properties. see Sec. 505 Particular consideration shall be given to the suitability of elastomers and polymers for use in the specific application and service conditions. bolts of the same size and material. This is particularly relevant when welding clad or lined linepipe.4%. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- B 700 Welding consumables (informative) 701 Requirements to welding. Guidance note: Zinc coating. toughness and corrosion resistance. Due to the scatter in the pipe material yield stress. be specified by the purchaser. are covered in Appendix C. ASTM A194. 604 To restrict damage by HISC for low alloy and carbon steels.1. The same restriction shall apply for solution annealed or cold-worked type AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel and any other cold-worked austenitic alloys. phosphating and epoxy based coatings are applicable.e.7 and Sec. respectively. it is required to perform an ECA according to Appendix A. unless exposure to cathodic protection can be excluded. Temperature effects 704 It must be noted that the reduction in yield stress at elevated temperature may be higher for the weld metal than the base material.

see Sec. fabrication and testing of linepipe.7 I107) if SSC testing shall be performed during MPQT for pipes — quantity (i.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. material type. respectively with emphasis of quality control of the application procedure. chemical composition and mechanical properties at design temperature — required testing — required weld overlay. and if it may be applied if the outside weld bead shall be ground flush at least 250 mm from each pipe end to facilitate girth welds AUT (see Sec.8 B413 — type of component. see Sec. C 400 Specification of bolts and nuts 401 Bolts and nuts shall be supplied with certificates to EN 10204 Type 3. F. see B102-B103 delivery condition (see Sec. shall be prepared by the Purchaser.g.7. and Appendix E.. shall be prepared by the Purchaser. Table 7-1 and H201-H202) minimum design temperature range of sizing ratio for cold-expanded pipe chemical composition for wall thickness > 25 mm (applicable to C-Mn steel pipe with delivery condition N or Q) chemical composition for wall thickness > 35 mm (applicable to C-Mn steel pipe with delivery condition M) if additional tensile testing in the longitudinal direction with stress strain curves shall be performed if additional tensile testing of base material at other than room temperature is required. 202 The material specification may be a Material Data Sheet referring to this standard.g.7 A300) type of pipe (see Sec.10 O408 — minimum design temperature (local) — maximum design temperature (local) — design pressure (local) — water depth — pipeline operating conditions including fluid characteristics — details of field environmental conditions — external loads and moments that will be transferred to the component from the connecting pipeline under installation and operation and any environmental loads — functional requirements — material specification including. OD or ID.8. maximum design temperature). define. DNV-RP-F102 and DNV-RP-F106 give detailed requirements and recommendations to manufacture of field joint and linepipe coatings.7 B336) if criteria for reduced hydrostatic test pressure. B107) length and type of length (random or approximate) application of supplementary requirements (S. chemical composition and mechanical properties at design temperature — nominal diameters. The specification shall state any options. C 300 Components specification 301 A specification reflecting the results of the materials selection according to this section and referring to Sec.7. manufacture. C 200 Linepipe specification 201 A specification reflecting the results of the materials selection according to this section and referring to Sec. temperature (e. possible corrective actions (e. additional requirements to and/or deviations from this standard pertaining to materials. 402 Bolts and nuts for pressure containing and main structural applications should be specified to have rolled threads. total mass or total length of pipe) manufacturing process (see Sec. baking at 200°C for a minimum of 2 hours shall be specified. but excluding any permanent external/ internal coating. The specification shall state any options. 302 The materials specification shall as a minimum include the following (as applicable): — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — quantity (e. acceptance criteria and frequency of tests CVN test temperature for wall thickness > 40 mm liner/cladding material (UNS number) mechanical and corrosion properties of liner/cladding material “type” of seal weld for lined linepipe thickness of carrier pipe and liner/cladding material any project specific requirements to gripping force of lined linepipe if the ultrasonically lamination checked zone at the pipe ends shall be wider than 50 mm if diameter at pipe ends shall be measured as ID or OD if pipes shall be supplied with other than square cut ends (see Sec. 502 The specification of linepipe coating. as given in Sec. “reel on and reel off twice”) and post installation conditions/operations introducing plastic deformation shall be specified. is fulfilled. In order to prevent hydrogen embrittlement of acid cleaned and/or electrolytically plated bolts and nuts. project specific requirements to as-applied coating properties and to quality control of the manufacture of coating materials and of coating application (including risers. P. corrosion resistant or hardfacing — if pup pieces of the linepipe material shall be fitted — coating/painting requirements. and in case of what type (see Sec. October 2010 Page 60 – Sec.7 E105. additional requirements to and/or deviations from this standard pertaining to materials. field joint coating and any weight coating shall include requirements to the qual- DET NORSKE VERITAS .g.7 B338) if inside machining of pipe ends is applicable. and the distance from pipe end to tapered portion (see Sec. delivery condition. delivery condition. piggable or not piggable — gauging requirements.7 H300) if weldability testing is required if qualification testing shall be conducted after the pipe material has been heated to the expected coating temperature when fusion bonded epoxy is used (see B406-B407) application of the alternative weld cap hardness of C-Mn steel pipe according to supplementary requirement S (see Sec. the relevant straining for the installation process. C 500 Coating specification 501 As a part of detailed design. B108) if pipes shall be supplied with bevel protectors. 403 Any coating of bolts shall be specified in the purchase document for bolting. out of roundness and wall thickness for adjoining pipes including required tolerances — bend radius. 203 The materials specification shall as a minimum include the following (as applicable): conforming to supplementary requirement S — if supplementary requirement P apply. fabrication and testing of the components. see D600) shall be defined in a purchase specification for the applicable coating.1. manufacture.7 B339.6 manufacturing facility.7 A201) SMYS outside or inside diameter wall thickness whether data of the wall thickness variation (tmax and tmin) or the standard deviation in wall thickness variation shall be supplied to facilitate girth welds AUT (see Appendix E.e the total number of components of each type and size) — design standard — required design life — material type. D or U).

203 An internal corrosion allowance of minimum 3 mm is recommended for C-Mn steel pipelines of safety class Medium and High carrying hydrocarbon fluids likely to contain liquid water during normal operation. 204 An external corrosion allowance of minimum 3 mm is recommended for C-Mn steel risers of safety class Medium and High in the splash zone. 9. D. the extra wall thickness will then only delay leakage in proportion to the increase in wall thickness. Discrete pitting attacks are more likely to cause a pinhole leakage once the full pipe wall has been penetrated ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — design life and potential corrosivity of fluid and/or external environment — expected form of corrosion damage (see Guidance note above) — expected reliability of planned techniques and procedures for corrosion mitigation (e.9. at least for the splash zone (see 602). but scattered pitting and grooving corrosion oriented longitudinally or transversally to the pipe axis is more typical. For nominally dry gas and for other fluids considered as non-corrosive. or externally at any supports. a corrosion allowance may be applied either alone or in addition to some system for corrosion mitigation. For C-Mn steel components. allowing entry of rain water or condensation. Detailed requirements are given in Sec. Type 13Cr linepipe may suffer superficial corrosion attack during outdoor storage. D 200 Corrosion allowance 201 For submarine pipeline systems a corrosion allowance may serve to compensate for internal and/or external corrosion and is mostly applied for control of internal or external pressure. End caps may retain water internally if damaged or lost at one end. a higher corrosion allowance should be considered. These documents shall define requirements to materials. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 202 The needs for. and benefits of. and chemical treatment or processing (internally only).g. properties of anodes (as manufactured and as-installed. How- 302 The needs for corrosion protection during flooding shall be assessed for inclusion in installation specifications. Stress corrosion cracking is another form of damage. or wall thickness not needed for pressure containment due to a later down rating of operational pressure can be utilised for corrosion control but is not referred to in this document as a “corrosion allowance” A corrosion allowance is primarily used to compensate for forms of corrosion attack affecting the pipeline's pressure containment resistance. Options for corrosion mitigation include use of corrosion protective coatings and linings. taking into account the following factors as a minimum: 503 For pipeline components in CRA materials to receive CP.) — expected sensitivity and damage sizing capability of relevant tools for integrity monitoring. both externally and internally. chemical treatment of fluid. Guidance note: Outdoor storage of unprotected pipes for a period of up to about a year will not normally cause any significant loss of wall thickness. Guidance note: Cut-backs shall be defined to accommodate any AUT equipment ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- ever. D 300 Temporary corrosion protection 301 The need for temporary corrosion protection of external and internal surfaces during storage and transportation shall be considered during design/engineering for later inclusion in fabrication and installation specifications. specifications for manufacture and installation of galvanic anodes shall be prepared. dimensions of the linepipe cut-back (including tolerances) and to documentation of inspection and testing.6 – Page 61 ification of coating materials. requirements to safety and reliability — any extra wall thickness applied during design for installation forces and not needed for control of internal and external pressure — any potential for down-rating (or up-rating) of operating pressure. October 2010 Sec. external coating. Guidance note: A requirement for wall thickness determined by installation forces and exceeding that needed for pressure containment at the initial design pressure. no corrosion allowance is required. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 102 Pipeline systems may be exposed to a corrosive environment both internally and externally. Optional techniques include end caps or bevel protectors. uniform attack and. an oxygen scavenger may be DET NORSKE VERITAS . causing rupture by plastic collapse or brittle fracture. Conditions for storage should be such that water will not accumulate internally. Guidance note: Any corrosion damage may take the form of a more or less uniform reduction of pipe wall thickness. C 600 Galvanic anodes specification 601 As a part of design. surface rusting may cause increased surface roughness affecting pipeline coating operations. Uniform corrosion and corrosion grooving may interact with internal pressure or external operational loads. corrosion damage as grooves or patches. Any allowance for internal corrosion shall be additional. Still. a corrosion allowance may also enhance the operational reliability and increase the useful life if corrosion damage occurs as isolated pits.e.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. For uncoated C-Mn steel pipelines. More detailed requirements to the specification of pipeline coating are contained in Sec. detailed coating specifications shall be prepared with a primary objective to prevent HISC. Corrosion Control D 100 General 101 All components of a pipeline system shall have adequate corrosion control to avoid failures caused or initiated by corrosion. Use of temporary coatings may interfere with later external/internal coating. etc. i. cathodic protection (externally only). An external corrosion allowance shall further be considered for any landfalls. coating application and repair procedures. respectively) and associated quality control. time to first inspection and planned frequency of inspection — consequences of sudden leakage. to a lesser extent. Guidance note: The use of a biocide for treatment of water for flooding is most essential (even with short duration) as incipient bacterial growth established during flooding may proceed during operation and cause corrosion damage (pipelines for dry gas are excluded). corrosion allowance shall be evaluated. temporary thin film coating and rust protective oil/wax. Special precautions are required to avoid corrosion damage to CRA pipelines during system pressure testing using seawater. although such damage is unlikely to affect the pipeline's resistance. it will cause a pinhole leak when the full wall thickness is penetrated. For risers carrying hot fluids (> 10oC above normal ambient seawater temperature). However.

Guidance note: CP may be achieved using either galvanic ("sacrificial") anodes. pipelines for reel laying and prefabricated risers). Thermally sprayed aluminium coating has also been applied for this purpose. and particularly in martensitic or ferritic-austenitic (‘duplex’) stainless steel.6 omitted since oxygen dissolved in seawater will become rapidly consumed by uniform corrosion without causing significant loss of wall thickness. If this is not practical. the field joint coating (FJC) is typically made up of an inner corrosion protective coating and an in-fill. cracking or disbondment. In addition. It is essential that the coating systems to be applied (i. also within the potential range given above. and capability of reducing current demand for CP. if applicable g) linepipe material’s compatibility with CP considering susceptibility to HISC. and also for subsequent damage to the coating during installation and operation. temperature) and operation (max. D 500 Cathodic Protection D 400 External pipeline coatings (informative) 401 “Linepipe coating” (also referred to as “factory coating or “parent coating”) refers to factory applied external coating systems (mostly multiple-layer. factory applied coating and field joint coating) for materials that are known to be susceptible to HISC have adequate resistance to disbonding by mechanical effects during installation as well as chemical/physical effects during operation. 402 “Field joint coating” (FJC) refers to single or multiple layers of coating applied to protect girth welds and the associated cut-back of the linepipe coating. DNV-RP-F103 is based on this standard.g. chemical and biological degradation leading to e. adhesion. primarily during laying and any rock dumping or trenching operations. 404 For thermally insulating coatings. however. Use of fresh water should be considered or seawater treated to a pH of 9 minimum. 407 For pipes with a weight coating or thermally insulated coating. including stress corrosion cracking in the atmospheric zone and any onshore buried zone i) environmental compatibility and health hazards during coating application. However. In case conventional bracelet anodes are still to be used. DET NORSKE VERITAS . For thermally insulated pipelines and risers. e. “Coating field repairs” refers to repairs of factory coating performed in the field (typically by the FJC contractor). including field joint coating and coating field repairs e) coating systems compatibility with concrete weight coating (see Sec. October 2010 Page 62 – Sec. Ag/AgCl/ seawater can be achieved using impressed current.g. temperature) d) coating system’s compatibility with specific fabrication and installation procedures.g. see Sec. b) resistance to physical. special emphasis should be laid on ensuring adequate coating of components that may be subject to localised straining. during installation (min.g. Compliance with DNV-RP-F102 is recommended. Some coating systems may further include an outer layer for mechanical protection. 403 The linepipe (external) coating system should be selected based on consideration of the following major items: 501 Pipelines and risers in the submerged zone shall be furnished with a cathodic protection (CP) system to provide adequate corrosion protection for any defects occurring during coating application (including field joints). with a total thickness of some millimetres) with a corrosion protection function. 406 For the selection of FJC. Galvanic anodes are normally preferred. welding of anodes to any pressure containing components in these materials should be avoided.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.9 C) is. 405 Pipeline components should have external coatings preferably matching the properties of those to be used for linepipe. not covered by the term linepipe coating. Such potentials may cause detrimental secondary effects. fabrication/installation and operation. thermal conductivity and the degradation of such properties by high operating external pressure and internal fluid temperature.80 to -1. Other measures to reduce or eliminate the risk of HISC include control of galvanic anodes by diodes and use of special anode alloys with less negative closed circuit potential. pre-commissioning) or operation can suffer HISC by CP. Such damage is primarily to be avoided by restricting straining subsea by design measures. properties related to flow assurance also apply. etc. Ag/AgCl/ seawater. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- addition. including ferritic-austenitic (duplex) and martensitic stainless steel. including coating disbondment and HISC of linepipe materials and welds. subject to high local stresses during subsea installation activities (e. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- a) general corrosion-protective properties dictated by permeability for water. giving amendments and guidelines. In 502 The CP systems should be capable of suppressing the pipe-to-seawater (or pipe-to-sediment) electrochemical potential into the range -0. freedom from pores. Concrete coating for anti-buoyancy (weight coating. The requirements and guidelines to FJC are also applicable to any field repairs of factory coating 408 The design and quality control of field joint coatings is essential to the integrity of pipelines in HISC susceptible materials. either alone or in combination with a thermal insulation function. dissolved gases and salts. CP design may compensate for inferior properties. primarily those related to adhesion and flexibility. sufficient time for application and cooling or curing is crucial during barge laying of pipelines. Overlay welding of critical areas with austenitic CRA filler materials may be considered when organic coatings are not applicable. see B303 h) linepipe material’s susceptibility to corrosion in the actual environment. Pipeline system components in high-strength steel.e.15 V rel. the same considerations as for pipeline and riser coatings as in 403 and 605-606 apply. Film forming or "passivating" corrosion inhibitors are not actually required and may even be harmful. The objective of the in-fill is to provide a smooth transition to the pipeline coating and mechanical protection to the inner coating. irrespective of whether such coating is actually applied in the field or in a factory (e. if applicable f) coating system’s compatibility with CP. Type 13Cr steel is highly susceptible to damage by raw seawater or marginally treated seawater even at a short exposure period. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 503 Galvanic anode CP systems should be designed to provide corrosion protection throughout the design life of the protected object. specific heat capacity. or impressed current from a rectifier. The design of submarine pipeline CP systems shall meet the minimum requirements in ISO15589-2. A less negative potential may be specified for pipelines in CRA materials. Guidance note: Potentials more negative than -1. requirements for adequate insulating properties may also apply. (These techniques require that the pipeline is electrically insulated from conventional CP systems on electrically connected structures).9 C). risks associated with HISC by CP shall be duly considered (see B303 and 502 Guidance note). primarily in service but also during storage prior to installation (temperature range and design life are decisive parameters) c) requirements for mechanical properties.15 V rel.

this may require use of bolts for tensioning or welding of anode tabs with pressure applied on the bracelet assembly.e. 604 In the ‘submerged zone’ and in the splash zone below the lowest astronomical tide (LAT). ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 504 Pipeline systems connected to other offshore installations shall have compatible CP systems unless an electrically insulating joint is to be installed. an adequately designed DET NORSKE VERITAS . including design life and reference to relevant project specifications. pipelines shall be designed with a self-sustaining CP system based on bracelet anodes installed with a maximum distance of 300 m (in accordance with ISO 15589-2) and with electrical connections to the pipeline by pin brazing or aluminothermic welding of cable connections to the pipe wall. e. October 2010 Sec. Guidance note: Design of impressed current CP systems at landfalls is not covered by this standard. above the splash zone) is more shielded from both severe weathering and mechanical damage. some current drain from riser and from pipeline anodes adjacent to the pipeline cannot be avoided. for buried pipelines in general and for hot buried lines in particular. Requirements to electrically insulating joints are given in Sec. In the splash zone. Connector cables shall be adequately protected. Guidance note: CP by anodes located on adjacent structures significantly reduces the cost of anode installation in case the pipeline installation concept would otherwise require anode installation offshore. field joint coatings and coating field repairs are closely defined (e.g.g. reference is made to DNV-RP-B401. Moreover. As the design parameters for subsea pipelines are typically more conservative than that of other structures. by locating the cables to the gap between the anode bracelets and filling with a moulding compound. Guidance note: The above requirements for documentation of CP design is an amendment to ISO 15589-2 ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 505 Unless otherwise specified by or agreed with the owner. Guidance note: Without insulating joints.g. to meet the mean current demand — calculation of final current anode output to verify that the final current demand can be met for the individual sections of the pipeline (applies to a conventional bracelet anode concept with max. The condition of such anodes can also be monitored. contrary to DNV-RP-F103. however.1. that the design and quality control of factory applied coatings. there is better accessibility for inspection and maintenance. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 509 For CP design of pipeline system components with major surfaces in structural steel (e. riser bases). if applicable. Particularly severe corrosive conditions apply to risers heated by an internal fluid.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. The concept of basing pipeline CP on anodes installed on adjacent structures further reduces the risk of HISC damage to pipelines in susceptible materials (e. For anodes to be installed on top of the pipeline coating. martensitic and ferriticaustenitic stainless steels). as in DNV-RP-F106 and DNV-RP-F102).6 – Page 63 Guidance note: As retrofitting of galvanic anodes is generally costly (if practical at all). i. 508 The detailed engineering documentation of galvanic anode CP systems shall contain the following: — design premises. (see Appendix C E500). The upper and lower limits of the ‘splash zone’ may be determined according to the definitions in Sec. the riser coating may be exposed to mechanical damage by surface vessels and marine operations. DNV-RP-F103 emphasizes the importance of coating design and quality control of coating application when defining the CP current reducing effects of such coatings.g. unless the second structure has insufficient CP.8 B800. Some general guidance is given in ISO 15889. subsea template or riser base) electrically connected to the pipeline. does not define the primary parameters to be used for calculation of the protective length). the needs for an insulating joint shall be evaluated. the likelihood of the initial pipeline design life being extended should be duly considered. 602 Adverse corrosive conditions occur in the zone above lowest astronomical tide (LAT) where the riser is intermittently wetted by waves. platform sub-structure. It further contains additional guidance to the CP design. tide and sea spray (‘splash zone’). ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 506 Bracelet pipeline anodes are to be designed with due considerations of forces induced during pipeline installation. some interaction with the CP system of electrically connected offshore structures cannot be avoided. This concept requires. sometimes leading to premature consumption. Furthermore. see 505 and 506 above. codes and standards — calculations of average and final current demands for individual sections of the pipeline — calculations of total anode net mass for the individual sections.e. the division into corrosion protection zones is dependent on the particular riser or platform design and the prevailing environmental conditions. For alternative design procedures. 603 The riser section in the ‘atmospheric zone’ (i. and resulting net anode mass to be installed on each section — outline drawing(s) of bracelet anodes with fastening devices and including tentative tolerances — calculations of pipeline metallic resistance to verify the feasibility of CP by anodes on adjacent structure(s) or a bracelet anode concept exceeding a spacing of 300 m in case any of these options apply (see DNV-RP-F103) — documentation of CP capacity on adjacent installation(s) to be utilized for CP of pipeline. When the structure has a correctly designed CP system such current drain is not critical as the net current drain will decrease with time and ultimately cease. For shorter pipelines (up to 30 km approximately). The latter document generally refers to ISO 15589-2 for design parameters and design procedures to be used and recommends some default values which represent minimum requirements D 600 External corrosion control of risers (informative) 601 For a specific riser. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- that do not need to be verified by special considerations and testing. 300 m anode spacing) — number of bracelet anodes for the individual pipeline sections. At any landfall of an offshore pipeline with galvanic anodes and impressed current CP of the onshore section. CP may be achieved by anodes installed on structures at the end of the pipeline (e. whilst there is limited accessibility for inspection and maintenance. the anode electrochemical efficiency and current output capacity increases since anodes are located boldly exposed to seawater.g. A recommended procedure to calculate the protective length of anodes on an adjacent structure is given in DNV-RP-F103 (ISO 15589-2 gives an alternative procedure but. 510 Design of any impressed current CP systems installed at land falls shall comply with ISO 15589-1. 507 A calculation procedure for pipeline CP design using conventional bracelet anodes and a maximum anode spacing of 300 m is given in ISO 15589-2 and in DNV-RP-F103.

primarily in the transition of the splash zone and the submerged zone (see D602). g) and h) in D403 above apply for all of the three zones. or of oxygen from seawater for injection (deoxygenation). if applicable — consequences of failure and redundant techniques for corrosion mitigation.g. In the tidal zone. 608 Mechanical and physical coating properties listed in D403 are also relevant for riser coatings. lost capacity and secondary damage to life. the pressure retaining capacity of the pipeline. The risk cost is the product of estimated probability and consequences (expressed in monetary units) of a particular failure mode (e. Some of the coating systems with functional requirements defined in coating data sheets are applicable also as riser coatings. addition of chemicals with corrosion mitigating function. The following options for corrosion control may be considered: a) processing of fluid for removal of liquid water and/or corrosive agents. b). resistance to biofouling is relevant in surface waters of the submerged zone and the lowermost section of the splash zone may have to be considered.e. repairs. a "risk cost" may be added for a specific option being evaluated. Any such coatings should have a minimum specified thickness of 40 μm and should comply with the minimum requirements in API RP 5L2. the benefits of a corrosion allowance (see D200) should be duly considered for a) and d). Fastening devices for risers are normally selected to be compatible with a specific riser coating rather than vice versa. c) use of organic corrosion protective coatings or linings (normally in combination with a) or d)). On-line monitoring of fluid corrosion properties downstream of processing unit is normally required. When fluid corrosivity and efficiency of corrosion mitigation cannot be assessed with any high degree of accuracy.The selection of the most cost-effective strategy for corrosion control requires that all major costs associated with operation of the pipeline system. dependent on the particular corrosion protection zone. are evaluated ("Life Cycle Cost Analysis"). metallic materials with anti-fouling properties must be electrically insulated from the CP system to be effective. The general requirements and guidelines for quality control in DNV-RPF106 are applicable. 610 Riser FJC’s shall have properties matching the selected pipe coating. b) use of linepipe or internal (metallic) lining/cladding with intrinsic corrosion resistance (see B300). i. Although such coatings can not be expected to be efficient in preventing corrosion attack if corrosive fluids are conveyed. d) chemical treatment. f). Multiple-layer paint coatings and thermally sprayed aluminium coatings are applicable to the atmospheric and submerged zones. diluting the water phase) — dispersants (for emulsification of water in oil) — scavengers (for removal of corrosive constituents at low concentrations). In addition.g. 605 Different coating systems may be applied in the three corrosion protection zones defined above. "film forming") pH-buffering chemicals biocides (for mitigation of bacterial corrosion) glycol or methanol (added at high concentrations for hydrate inhibition. c). 705 Internal coating of pipelines (e. In the splash zone. a CP system will be marginally effective.g. provided they are compatible. 606 The following additional considerations affecting selection of coating system apply in the splash and atmospheric zones: — resistance to under-rusting at coating defects — maintainability — compatibility with inspection procedures for internal and/ or external corrosion — compatibility with equipment/procedures for removal of biofouling (if applicable) — fire protection (if required). For oil export pipelines carrying residual amounts of water. The probability of such failures should reflect the designer's confidence in estimating the fluid corrosivity and the efficiency of options for corrosion control being evaluated. 702 The selection of a system for internal corrosion protection of pipelines and risers has a major effect on detailed design and must therefore be evaluated during conceptual design. The applicable requirements to properties for each coating system and for quality control shall be defined in a purchase specification. commissioning and operation. October 2010 Page 64 – Sec. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Periodic pigging for removal of water and deposits counteracts internal corrosion in general and bacterial corrosion in particular. the following main parameters shall be considered: — chemical compatibility with all fluids to be conveyed or contacted during installation. including the effects of any additives for control of flow or internal corrosion (see D706) — resistance to erosion by fluid and mechanical damage by pigging operations — resistance to rapid decompression — reliability of quality control during coating application — reliability of (internal) field joint coating systems. consequences of failure may include costs associated with increased maintenance. In addition. 706 Chemical treatment of fluids for corrosion control may include: — — — — corrosion inhibitors (e.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 609 In the submerged zone. for example. 607 External cladding with certain Cu-base alloys may be used for combined corrosion protection and anti-fouling. The considerations according to a). However. 703 Corrosion control by fluid processing may involve removal of water from gas/oil (dehydration). rupture or pinhole leakage).6 CP system is capable of preventing corrosion at any damaged areas of the riser coating. field joint coatings should be avoided unless it can be demonstrated that their corrosion protection properties are closely equivalent to those of the adjacent coating. and in the splash zone if functional requirements and local conditions permit. the considerations for selection of coating in D403 apply. 704 If internal coatings or linings are to be evaluated as an option for corrosion control. as well as investment costs for corrosion control. The necessity for corrosion allowance and redundant systems for fluid processing should be considered. any coating with adequate properties may still be beneficial in reducing forms of attack affecting membrane stresses and hence. a biocide treatment should be considered as a back up for prevention of bacterial corrosion. by thin film of epoxy) has primarily been applied for the purpose of friction reduction in dry gas pipelines ("flow coatings" or “anti-friction coatings”). Consequences of operational upsets on material degradation should be taken into account. environment and other investments. Depending on the failure mode. D 700 Internal corrosion control (informative) 701 Options for internal corrosion control should be evaluated aiming for the most cost-effective solution meeting the overall requirements of safety and environmental regulations.

12).Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Important parameters to be considered are: — anticipated corrosion mitigating efficiency for the actual fluid to be treated. For pipelines carrying untreated well fluid or other fluids with high corrosivity and with high requirements to safety and reliability. October 2010 Sec.6 – Page 65 707 The reliability of chemical treatment should be evaluated in detail during the conceptual design. DET NORSKE VERITAS . etc. associated with this fluid — capability of the conveyed fluid to distribute inhibitor in the pipeline system along its full length and circumference — compatibility with all pipeline system and downstream materials. including possible effects of scales. there is a need to verify the efficiency of chemical treatment by integrity monitoring using a tool allowing wall thickness measurements along the full length of the pipeline (see Sec. deposits. and redundant techniques. — health hazards and environmental compatibility — provisions for injection and techniques/procedures for monitoring of inhibitor efficiency — consequences of failure to achieve adequate protection. Corrosion probes and monitored spools are primarily for detection of changes in fluid corrosivity and are not applicable for verification of the integrity of the pipeline. particularly elastomers and organic coatings — compatibility with any other additives to be injected.

manufacture. suffix D (see I400) — high utilisation. References to the procedures established for the execution of all the individual production steps shall be included. shall be prepared by the Purchaser. October 2010 Page 66 – Sec. The specification shall state any additional requirements to and/or deviations from this standard pertaining to materials. suffix P (see I300) enhanced dimensional requirements for linepipe.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 303 The backing steel of lined linepipe shall comply with A301. 104 The requirements stated herein for Carbon-Manganese (C-Mn) steel linepipe conform in general to ISO 3183 Annex J: “PSL 2 pipe ordered for offshore service”. suffix U (see I500). with or without the use of filler metal. other stainless steels and nickel based alloys. The MPS shall demonstrate how the specified properties may be achieved and verified throughout the proposed manufacturing route. the Manufacturer shall prepare a Manufacturing Procedure Specification (MPS). the pipe manufacturing shall be in general compliance with one of the manufacturing routes for SAW pipe as given in Table 7-1. A 500 Linepipe specification 501 A linepipe specification reflecting the results of the materials selection (see Sec. the hot forming may be followed by sizing or cold finishing. martensitic stainless steels (13Cr). All main manufacturing steps from control of received raw material to shipment of finished pipe. If the combination of welding processes has not been used previously. super heat DET NORSKE VERITAS . suffix S (see I100) fracture arrest properties. shall be outlined in detail. manufacturing methods and procedures that comply with recognised practices or proprietary specifications will normally be acceptable provided they comply with the requirements of this section. expansion and final shaping. With respect to the backing steel. A 300 Process of manufacture 301 C-Mn linepipe shall be manufactured according to one of the following processes: Seamless (SMLS) Pipe manufactured by a hot forming process without welding. in addition to SMLS and SAWL. A 400 Supplementary requirements 401 When requested by the Purchaser and stated in the materials specification (as required in A500). girth welding and coating. General A 100 Objective 101 This section specifies the requirements for. 102 Materials selection shall be performed in accordance with Sec. All mechanical properties and dimensional tolerances shall be met after heat treatment.g.austenitic (duplex) stainless steel. — — — — sour service. The longitudinal weld shall be MWP (see A302). pre-qualification testing should be conducted according to Appendix C. testing and documentation of linepipe. fabrication and testing of linepipe. The forming may be followed by cold expansion or reduction. with at least one pass made on the inside and one pass from the outside of the pipe. linepipe to this standard shall meet supplementary requirements given in Subsection I. The forming may be followed by cold expansion or reduction to obtain the required dimensional tolerances.6 C200). referring to this section (Sec. be manufactured according to one of the following processes: Electron Beam Welded (EBW) and Laser Beam Welded (LBW) Pipe formed from strip and welded with one longitudinal seam.7 SECTION 7 CONSTRUCTION – LINEPIPE A. The forming may be followed by cold expansion or reduction. High Frequency Welded (HFW) Pipe formed from strip and welded with one longitudinal seam formed by electric-resistance welding applied by induction or conduction with a welding current frequency ≥70 kHz. degassing. manufacture. 202 Materials. details of inclusion shape control. Submerged Arc-Welded (SAW) Pipe manufactured by forming from strip or plate and with one longitudinal (SAWL) or helical (SAWH) seam formed by the submerged arc process. A 200 Application 201 The requirements are applicable for linepipe made of: Multiple welding processes (MWP) Pipe formed from strip or plate and welded using a combination of two or more welding processes. These welding processes shall be subject to pre-qualification testing according to Appendix C. The MPS shall address all factors that influence the quality and consistency of the product. for: — C-Mn steel — clad or lined steel — corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) including ferritic .6. with some additional and modified requirements. including all examination and check points. without the use of filler metal. 103 This section does not cover any activities taking part after the pipes have been dispatched from the pipe mill. 302 CRA linepipe may. A 600 Manufacturing Procedure Specification and qualification Manufacturing Procedure Specification (MPS) 601 Before production commences. austenitic stainless steels. 105 Manufacturers of linepipe shall have an implemented quality assurance system according to ISO 9001. e. 304 The liner pipe of lined linepipe shall be manufactured in accordance with API 5LC. 602 The MPS shall as a minimum contain the following information (as applicable): — — — — — — — steel producer plan(s) and process flow description/diagram project specific quality control plan manufacturing process target chemical composition steel making and casting techniques ladle treatments (secondary refining). suffix F (see I200) linepipe for plastic deformation. In order to obtain the required dimensions.7) of the offshore standard. 305 Clad linepipe shall be manufactured from CRA clad CMn steel plate by application of a single longitudinal weld.

g. meeting the supplementary requirements for sour service and fracture arrest properties.03 in Pcm — any change in pipe forming process. coating and protection procedures — handling. weldability testing. and manufacturing/ fabrication facilities used during the qualification. Any additional or modified requirements to ISO 3183 Annex J are highlighted in this subsection (B200-B600) as described in B102 and B103. mechanical. Re-testing may be allowed subject to agreement. including preparation of edges and control of alignment and shape (including width of strip for HFW) — procedure for handling of welding consumable and flux — all activities related to production and repair welding. soft reduction and electro magnetic stirring (EMS) used during continuous casting — manufacturer and manufacturing location of raw material and/or plate for welded pipes — billets reheating temperature for seamless — allowable variation in slab reheating temperature. MR Guidance note: e.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. it is recommended for all projects to carefully evaluate if the MPQT should be conducted prior to the start of production.g. 608 The validity of the MPQT shall be limited to the steelmaking.g. Carbon Manganese (C-Mn) Steel Linepipe B 100 General 101 C-Mn steel linepipe fabricated according to this standard generally conform to the requirements in ISO 3183 Annex J: “PSL 2 pipe ordered for offshore service”.02% C. see Appendix B A1201. 607 Additional MPS qualification testing may be required by Purchaser (e. including welding procedures and qualification — heat treatment procedures (including in-line heat treatment of the weld seam) including allowable variation in process parameters — method for cold expansion/reduction/sizing/finishing. For C-Mn steels with SMYS ≤ 485 MPa that are not intended for sour service. rolling. Guidance note: Depending on the criticality of the project. This includes all stated production tests plus additional tests given in Table 7-8.). ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 609 In addition to the requirements stated above. the qualification of the MPS shall be completed prior to start of production. the following changes (as applicable) to the manufacturing processes will require re-qualification of the MPS (essential variables): — any change in steelmaking practice — changes beyond the allowable variation for rolling practice. October 2010 Sec. accelerated cooling and/or QT process — change in nominal wall thickness exceeding + 5% to -10% — change in ladle analysis for C-Mn steels outside ± 0. 610 If one or more tests in the MPQT fail.02 CE and/or ± 0. 604 Each MPQT shall include full qualification of one pipe from two different test units (a total of two pipes). and non-destructive testing are given in this section. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 606 If the cold forming of C-Mn steel exceeds 5% strain after heat treatment then ageing tests shall be performed as part of the qualification testing. Paragraphs containing requirements that are modified compared to ISO 3183 are marked at the end of the relevant paragraph with MR. If the entire production is limited to one heat the MPQT may be performed on a single pipe from that heat. target and maximum sizing ratio — hydrostatic test procedures — NDT procedures (also for strip/plate as applicable) — list of specified mechanical and corrosion testing — dimensional control procedures — pipe number allocation — pipe tracking procedure (traceability procedure) — marking. the MPS shall be reviewed and modified accordingly. analysis for trace elements for steel made from scrap. as part of the qualification of the MPS (see A603). The tests shall be performed on the actual pipe without any straightening and additional deformation. Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test (MPQT) 603 The MPS shall be qualified for each nominal pipe diameter as part of first day production. EBW and LBW pipe: — any change in nominal thickness — change in welding heat coefficient Q = (amps × volts) / (travel speed × thickness) ± 5% — addition or deletion of an impeder — change in rollers position and strip width outside agreed tolerances. etc. e. 605 For C-Mn steels with SMYS > 485 MPa. 103 Additional or modified requirements when given in tables are marked in accordance with B102 with AR and MR in the relevant table cells as applicable. as well as micro segregation. The absorbed Charpy V-notch impact energy in the aged condition shall meet the requirements in Table 7-5. stacking of slabs or plates) — pipe-forming procedure. Table 7-13 and Table 7-15. "DNV SMLS 450 SF" designates a seamless pipe with SMYS 450 MPa. The minimum type and extent of chemical.7 – Page 67 — method used to ensure that sufficient amount of intermixed zones between different orders are removed — details and follow-up of limiting macro. unless otherwise agreed. B 300 Manufacturing Starting material and steel making 301 C-Mn steel linepipe shall be manufactured in accordance with the processes given in A300 using the starting materials and corresponding forming methods and final heat treatment as given in Table 7-1.g. relevant documentation may be agreed in lieu of qualification testing providing all essential variables in A609 are adhered to. Additional or modified requirements 102 Paragraphs containing additional requirements to ISO 3183 are marked at the end of the relevant paragraph with AR. 302 All manufacturing including steel making and the raw DET NORSKE VERITAS . B 200 Pipe designation 201 C-Mn steel linepipe shall be designated with: — — — — DNV process of manufacture SMYS supplementary requirement suffix (see Subsection I). The following additional essential variable applies to HFW. and a complete re-qualification performed. B. loading and shipping procedures. — any change in alignment and joint design for welding — change in welding heat input ± 15%. ± 0. unless as allowed in A609. and start and stop temperatures for finishing mill and accelerated cooling — methods for controlling the hydrogen level (e. as applicable.

AR 311 Cold forming (i. 306 Pipe ends shall be cut back sufficiently after rolling to ensure freedom from defects. 331 The documented procedures shall be in accordance with any recommendations from the material Manufacturer with regard to heating and cooling rates. 333 The sizing ratio of cold expanded pipe should be within the range 0. shall not exceed 0. AR 316 Welds containing defects may be locally repaired by welding. either before or after cutting the strip or plate. and stay within the agreed allowable variations.2 is sufficient for SAW Flux. ductility and toughness meeting the requirements of the base material. below 250°C) of C-Mn steel shall not introduce a plastic deformation exceeding 5%. MR 337 The internal weld bead shall be ground to a height of 0 to 0.03%. AR General requirements to manufacture of welded pipe 307 Unless otherwise agreed.7 materials used shall be in accordance with the qualified MPS. sr . AR 314 Welding procedures for the seam weld shall be qualified as part of MPQT. The sizing ratio. or the completed pipe shall be subjected to full-body inspection. strip and plate used for the manufacture of welded pipe shall be rolled from continuously (strand) cast or pressure cast slabs. Welding wire shall be supplied with certificate type 3. AR 329 The weld seam and the HAZ shall be fully normalized subsequent to welding. Any repair welding shall be carried out prior to cold expansion. 334 Pipes may be cold sized to their final dimensions by expansion or reduction. Finish of pipe ends 336 Unless otherwise agreed.e. as a minimum.5 mm for a distance of at least 100 mm at both pipe ends. this shall be stated in the inspection document. 335 The sizing ratio. 310 Plate or strip shall be cut to the required width and the weld bevel prepared by milling or other agreed methods before forming. either of the plate. AR 318 Low hydrogen welding consumables shall be used and shall give a diffusible hydrogen content of maximum 5 ml/ 100 g weld metal. Strip and plate shall be inspected visually after rolling. soaking time. AR 313 Welding personnel for execution of all welding operations shall be qualified by in-house training. follow the same activity sequence. MR Heat treatment 330 Heat treatments of SMLS and welded pipe shall be performed according to documented procedures used during MPQT. 326 Acceptance criteria and test requirements for Charpy Vnotch impact properties for qualification of repair welding procedures shall be in accordance with B409 through 411. AR SAW pipe 321 Any lubricant and contamination on the weld bevel or the surrounding areas shall be removed before making the seam welds of SAWL pipes or SAWH pipes. AR 319 Welding consumables shall be individually marked and supplied with an inspection certificate according to EN 10204.015 unless the entire pipe ends are subsequently stress relieved. 305 If the process of cold finishing is used. electric welding. including ultrasonic inspection. shall be calculated according to the following formula: sr = |Da . This shall not produce excessive permanent strain.0 times the pipe diameter. AR 317 Arc stops during welding shall be repaired according to a qualified welding repair procedure.8 and not more than 3. AR 315 The weld metal shall. Expansion shall not introduce high local deformations. flux-cored arc welding. Repair welding of SAW seam welds 325 Repair welding of SAW pipe seam welds shall be qualified in accordance with ISO3183 Annex D and be performed in accordance with ISO3183 Annex C. 303 All steels shall be made by an electric or one of the basic oxygen processes. or shielded metal-arc welding using a low hydrogen electrode. and soaking temperature. of the uncoiled strip or of the coil edges.4. Weld deposit having unacceptable mechanical properties shall be completely removed before re-welding. Tack welds shall be melted and coalesced into the final weld seam or removed by machining. AR Cold expansion and cold sizing 332 The extent of cold sizing and cold forming expressed as the sizing ratio sr.003 < sr ≤ 0.Db| / Db where Da is the outside diameter after sizing Db is the outside diameter before sizing. AR HFW pipe 327 The abutting edges of the strip or plate should be milled or machined immediately before welding. C-Mn steel shall be fully killed and made to a fine grain practice. gas metal-arc welding. strip and plate shall be inspected ultrasonically for laminar imperfections or mechanical damage. 323 Intermittent tack welding of the SAWL groove shall not be used unless Purchaser has approved data furnished by Manufacturer to demonstrate that all mechanical properties specified for the pipe are obtainable at both the tack weld and intermediate positions.015. pipe ends shall be cut square and be free from burrs. 309 If agreed. sr . have strength.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. October 2010 Page 68 – Sec. General requirements to manufacture of seamless pipe 304 SMLS pipe shall be manufactured from continuously (strand) cast or ingot steel. 328 The width of the strip or plate should be continuously monitored. AR 312 Normalising forming of materials and weldments shall be performed as recommended by the Manufacturers of the plate/strip and welding consumables. 308 The strip width for spiral welded pipes should not be less than 0. Strip or plate shall not contain any repair welds. The in-house training program shall available for review on request by Purchaser.015 if no subsequent heat treatment or only heat treatment of the weld area is performed. AR 320 Handling of welding consumables and the execution and quality assurance of welding shall meet the requirements of inhouse quality procedures. while certificate type 2. 324 Unless comparative tests results of diffusible hydrogen versus flux moisture content are provided (meeting the requirement in B318). for cold sizing of pipe ends shall not exceed 0. 322 Tack welds shall be made by: manual or semi-automatic submerged-arc welding. the maximum residual moisture content of agglomerated flux shall be 0.1. see Table 7-16. DET NORSKE VERITAS . unless heat treatment is performed or ageing tests show acceptable results (see A606).

then it is not necessary for the product analysis to include boron.0 11. strip / plate end welds shall not be permitted unless otherwise agreed.0 ≤ t < 17. carbon equivalents shall be determined using the Pcm formula as given in Table 7-3 and Table 7-4. 338 If agreed. MR 339 If agreed internal machining or grinding may be carried out.5 ≤ t < 14.12% (product analysis). If the heat analysis for boron is less than 0. For SMLS pipe the maximum angle of the internal taper shall be as given in Table 7-2. MR 403 For pipes with nominal wall thickness larger than the limits indicated in B401 and B402.0 9. angle of taper [°] < 10. In case of machining. heat treatment batch and test unit number and the records from all required tests to each individual pipe shall be established and described in the MPS (see A602).12% (product analy- Jointers and strip end welds 340 Jointers shall not be delivered unless otherwise agreed.7 – Page 69 Table 7-1 C-Mn steels. it is acceptable to conduct one re-heat treatment cycle of the entire test unit.0005%. MR 343 If used. AR Traceability 345 A system for traceability of the heat number.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. MR Table 7-2 Maximum angle of internal taper for SMLS pipe Wall thickness t [mm] Max. “Quenched and tempered”. The transition to the base material/pipe body shall be smooth and without a noticeable step.5 mm for a distance of at least 250 mm at both pipe ends. see B341.0 Re-processing 344 In case any mechanical tests fail during production of QT or normalised pipe material.0° for welded pipe. 405 For pipe with a carbon content > 0.0 14. with nominal wall thickness t ≤ 25 mm. 404 For pipe with a carbon content ≤ 0. unless required due to N strip degree of cold forming Thermo-mechanical rolled plate or strip M QT 2) plate or strip Q As-rolled. MR B 400 Acceptance criteria Chemical composition 401 The chemical compositions given in Table 7-3 are applicable to pipes with delivery condition N or Q (normalised or quenched and tempered according to Table 7-1). the chemical composition shall be subject to agreement. October 2010 Sec. QT 2). The chemical compositions given in Table 7-4 are applicable for pipes with t ≤ 35 mm.Normalising forming None N ing rolled plate or strip Cold forming Normalising N QT 1) Q Final heat treatment Notes 1) 2) The delivery conditions are: “Normalised” denoted N. and the boron content may be considered to be zero for the Pcm calculation. Quenched and Tempered. 342 Apart from linepipe supplied as coiled tubing. bloom or billet Normalising forming Hot forming Hot forming and cold finishing HFW Normalising rolled strip Cold forming Thermo-mechanical rolled strip SAW Delivery condition 1) None N Normalising or QT 1) N or Q N or Q Normalising of weld area N Heat treating of weld area M Heat treating of weld area and M stress relieving of entire pipe Hot rolled or normalising rolled strip Cold forming Normalising of entire pipe N QT 2) of entire pipe Q Cold forming and hot reduction under None N controlled temperature. strip / plate end welds shall comply with all applicable requirements in ISO 3183.5 14. Required repairs and records of dimensional testing and all other required inspections shall be included. Other manufacturing requirements shall comply with Annex A of ISO 3183. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 341 If used. and “Thermomechanical rolled or formed”. Production testing requirements for jointers shall be in accordance with ISO 3183. 402 The chemical compositions given in Table 7-4 are applicable to pipes with delivery condition M (thermo-mechanical formed or rolled according to Table 7-1). resulting in a normalised condition Cold forming followed by thermomeM chanical forming of pipe Normalised or normalising rolled plate or Cold forming None. All mechanical testing shall be repeated after re-heat treatment. the outside weld bead shall be ground to a height of 0 to 0. denoted M. the jointer circumferential weld shall be qualified according to the requirements for pipeline girth welds given in Appendix C.5 7. denoted Q. acceptable manufacturing routes Type of Starting Material Pipe forming pipe SMLS Ingot.0 10. Care shall be exercised during storage and handling to preserve the identification of materials. the following requirements shall be adhered to: — if required in the purchase order the internal taper shall be located at a defined minimum distance from future bevel to facilitate UT or AUT — the angle of the internal taper. measured from the longitudinal axis shall not exceed 7.0 ≥ 17. normalised or normalis.

Hardness 408 The hardness in the Base Material (BM).22 8) 6.16 0. and titanium contents shall be ≤ 0.03. Weld Metal (WM) and the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) shall comply with Table 7-5.38 0.020 0.020 0.0005%.36 0. provided that they are not longer than 6.04 0.35%.010 0.04 Notes 0. Cu ≤ 0.20 8) 6) 360 0.04 Notes 0.65 0.50%.9) 415 0.14 0. Ni ≤ 0.39 0.16 0. Al total ≤ 0. The ultimate tensile strength shall be at least equal to the SMTS.020 0.08 0.41 0. up to a maximum increase of 0. the listed value is increased by 0. or fusion line longer than 3.04 Notes 0.04 0.04 Note 7) 0.40 0.21 8) 6.14 0.2 mm.16 0. the sum of the niobium and vanadium contents shall be ≤ 0.010 0.06 0. be performed on test specimens 10 × 10 mm.05 0. Ni ≤ 0. HAZ.010 0.19 8) 6.42 0.05 0.4 mm.40 0. wt.05 0.07 0.05 0. However.04 Note 0. only one is allowed to be below the specified average value and shall meet the minimum single value requirement.45 1.10 0. Product analysis. Tensile properties 406 The tensile properties shall be as given in Table 7-5.07 0.9) 555 0.05 0. the fracture shall not be located in the weld metal.25.09 0.16 0.010 0.020 0.020 0.40 1.17 0. or — reveal any cracks or ruptures in the parent metal. Mo ≤ 0.17 0. maximum.16 0. N ≤ 0.05 0. there shall be no cracks or breaks other than in the weld before the distance between the plates is less than 33% of the original outside diameter.40 1. the measured average impact energy (KVm) and the test piece cross-section measured under the notch (A) (mm2) shall be reported.36 0. regardless of depth.36 0.50%. The sum of the niobium.14 0.23 8) 6.04 Notes 0.010 0. the measured energy shall be converted to the impact energy (KV) in Joules using the formula: 8 × 10 × KV m KV = -------------------------------A (7.07 0. Where test pieces of width < 10 mm are used.14 0. Cr ≤ 0.04 Notes 0.40 0.05 0. of 6.45 1.19 8) 7) 290 0.10%. vanadium. MR 410 Testing of Charpy V-notch impact properties shall.05 0.65 0.42 0.1) 411 From the set of three Charpy V-notch specimens. there shall be no opening of the weld before the distance between the plates is less than 50% of the original outside diameter.06 Notes 0.020 0. and 13 mm for D ≥ 60.15 0. Cr ≤ 0. B ≤ 0.010 0.45 1.4 mm for D < 60.06 Notes As agreed Notes 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) For each reduction of 0.060%.04 0.35 0.14 0.15%.020 0. there shall be no opening of the weld before the distance between the plates is less than 66% of the original outside diameter.020 0.45 1.40 1.19 8) 7) 320 0.010 0.0005%.30%.20%. WM and HAZ are given in Table 7-5. The values in Table 7-5 shall be met when tested at the temperatures given in Table 7-6.5% of the specified wall thickness.010 0.9) 360 0.04 Note 0.05 0.65 0. AR CVN impact test 409 Requirements for Charpy V-notch impact properties for linepipe BM. applicable for seamless and welded pipe. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guided-bend test 414 The guided-bend test pieces shall not: — fracture completely — reveal any cracks or ruptures in the weld metal longer than 3.85 0.06%.43 0.75 0.010 0.10 0.7 mm.30%. cracks that occur at the edges of the test piece during testing shall not be cause for rejection.05% above the specified maximum for manganese is permissible.20 8) 6.05 0. in general. 413 For HFW pipe with a D/t2 > 10.020 0.34 0. CE = C + Mn (Cr + Mo + V ) ( Ni + Cu ) + + 6 5 15 Si Mn Cu Ni Cr Mo V Pcm = C + + + + + + + + 5B 30 20 20 60 20 15 10 Unless otherwise agreed. DET NORSKE VERITAS .22 8) Pipe with delivery condition Q (quenched and tempered according to Table 7-1) 245 0.06 Notes 0. AR Flattening test 412 For HFW pipe with SMYS ≥ 415 MPa with wall thickness ≥ 12.7 sis) carbon equivalents shall be determined using the CE formula as given in Table 7-3.45 1.020 0.22 8) 6.9) 485 0.45 1.9) 450 0.020 0.012%.65 0. Cu ≤ 0.45 1.34 0.% Carbon SMYS equivalents C1) Si Mn 1) P S V Nb Ti Other 2) CE 3) Pcm 4) Pipe with delivery condition N (normalised according to Table 7-1) 245 0. Guidance note: The weld extends to a distance.010 Note 5) Note 5) 0.19 8) 7) 290 0.20 8) 6. Mo ≤ 0.020 0.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.45 1. For SMLS pipe.7) 320 0.35 0. B ≤ 0. an increase of 0.05 0. AR Table 7-3 Chemical composition for C-Mn steel pipe with delivery condition N or Q.010 0. For comparison with the values in Table 7-5. For all other combinations of pipe grade and specified wall thickness. 407 For transverse weld tensile testing.50%.01% below the specified maximum for carbon.3 mm.35 0.2 mm or deeper than 12.65 0.9) 390 0.40 1.010 0. on each side of the weld line.35 0.3 mm.04 0.04 Notes 6.50%.04 Note 0. Al/N ≥ 2:1 (not applicable to titanium-killed steel or titanium-treated steel).10 0.7) 0.010 0.020 0. up to a maximum of 0. October 2010 Page 70 – Sec.40 1.

08 0.05 0.45 1.45 1.65 0.75 0. The sum of the niobium.06 415 0.0005%.060%.85 0.04 0.12 0. 130 mm2 for 12. and 65 mm2 for 6. Mo ≤ 0.020 0. Product analysis.6) Notes 5.012%. Al/N ≥ 2:1 (not applicable to titanium-killed steel or titanium-treated steel).12 0. N ≤ 0. the yield strength shall be ≤ 495 MPa.010 0.05% above the specified maximum for manganese is permissible. in 50.19 0.020 0.12 0.010 0.08 0.45 1.04 0.10 555 0. maximum. 760 760 760 760 760 760 760 760 825 Elongation in 50.12 0.12 0. in MPa.5 Rm [MPa] [MPa] SMYS 245 290 320 360 390 415 450 485 555 Notes 1) 2) 3) 4) Ratio Rt0. and U is the specified minimum tensile strength. Note 4) Hardness [HV10] BM.020 0.05 360 0.7 – Page 71 Table 7-4 Chemical composition for C-Mn steel pipe with delivery condition M (thermo-mechanical formed or rolled according to Table 7-1).19 0.12 0. For pipe with specified outside diameter < 219.6) Notes 5. the lesser of a) 485 mm2 and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece.04 0. calculated using the specified width of the test piece and the specified wall thickness of the pipe.05 0.06 0.020 0.93 min.20%.22 0.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.5 mm and 8.50%.01% below the specified maximum for carbon.01.50%.010 0.06 Other 2) Note 4) Note 4) Note 4) Notes 5.65 0. WM max.45 1.04 290 0.8 mm Af [%] min.10 485 0.% SMYS C1) Si Mn 1) P S V 245 0.04 320 0. 245 290 320 360 390 415 450 485 555 max.020 0.08 0.04 0. For nominal wall thickness t > 25 mm the carbon equivalent may be increased with 0.20 0.1 mm. DET NORSKE VERITAS .35 0. B ≤ 0.35%.5/Rm max.6) Notes 5. wt. Cr ≤ 0.6) Notes 5.6) Notes 5.40 1.0005%. Ni ≤ 0.10 Notes 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Nb 0. 2 0.45 1. as follows: - for round bar test pieces.12 0. rounded to the nearest percent shall be as determined using the following equation: Af = C AXC U 0.9 where: C is 1940 for calculations using SI units.04 0.20 0. B ≤ 0.12 0. Al total ≤ 0.06 0.010 0.45 1.04 0.9 mm diameter test pieces. Table 7-5 C-Mn steel pipe.50%. up to a maximum increase of 0.65 0. Cu ≤ 0.020 0. rounded to the nearest 10 mm2. an increase of 0.40 1.45 1. a minimum tensile strength 5% less than the required value is acceptable.020 0. and titanium contents shall be ≤ 0.020 0. Pcm = C + Si Mn Cu Ni Cr Mo V + + + + + + + 5B 30 20 20 60 20 15 10 Cu ≤ 0.21 0.2) 415 415 435 460 490 520 535 570 625 max. The specified minimum elongation Af . calculated using the specified outside diameter and the specified wall thickness of the pipe. expressed in percent.08 Ti 0. rounded to the nearest 10 mm2 .8 mm.30%.22 7) 0. Cr ≤ 0. 270 270 270 270 270 270 270 300 300 300 HAZ Charpy V-notch energy (KVT) 1) [J] average 27 30 32 36 39 42 45 50 56 min. Mo ≤ 0.010 0.12 0.010 0.for rectangular test pieces. the lesser of a) 485 mm2 and b) the cross-sectional area of the test piece.010 0.15%.65 0.05 390 0.50%.30%. October 2010 Sec.06 0.24 7) For each reduction of 0. 22 24 27 30 33 35 38 40 45 The required KVL (longitudinal direction specimens) values shall be 50% higher than the required KVT values. AXC is the applicable tensile test piece cross-sectional area.010 0. 0.010 0.21 0. mechanical properties Yield strength Tensile strength Rt0.6) Carbon equivalent Pcm 3) 0.04 0.10%.08 450 0. Ni ≤ 0.020 0.25 0.08 0. 450 3) 495 520 525 540 565 570 605 675 min.35 0. vanadium. If tested in the longitudinal direction.4 mm test pieces for full-section test pieces.

AR Surface condition. Strip end welds for coiled tubing shall be tested according to ISO 3183 Annex J. 512 If the test results are influenced by improper sampling. If a pipe fails due to low CVN values in the fusion line (HAZ) or weld line in HFW pipe. AR B 500 Inspection 501 Compliance with the requirements of the purchase order shall be checked by specific inspection in accordance with EN 10204. In this situation the Manufacturer shall investigate and report the reason for failure and shall change the manufacturing process if required. MR 503 A test unit is a prescribed quantity of pipe that is made to the same specified outside diameter and specified wall thickness. 504 For coiled tubing. preparation. or combination of elements fails to meet the requirements. where the test unit is governed by the heat size. the below testing philosophy may be applied: — each test unit may consist of pipes from maximum 3 heats — in case of test failure. unless alternative methods with demonstrated capabilities are used. expansion and final shaping. October 2010 Page 72 – Sec. Records from the qualification of the MPS and other documentation shall be in accordance with the requirements in Sec. AR 422 For pipe classified as coiled tubing.15 mm. For SAW pipe complete remelting of tack welds shall be demonstrated. the hydrostatic test of the finished coiled tubing shall be performed at a pressure corresponding to 100% of SMYS calculated in accordance with the Von Mises equation and considering 95% of the nominal wall thickness. The first 30 000 tons shall be tested with a frequency according to normal practice of this standard. Subsection G. the Manufacturer shall supply weldability data or perform weldability tests. all required mechanical testing in Table 7-7 shall be performed at each pipe end or for each heat.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Both re-tests shall meet the specified requirements. imperfections and defects 423 Requirements to visual examination performed at the plate mill are given in Appendix D. Requalification of the MPS is required if the agreed allowable variation of any parameter is exceeded (see A609 and A610). 509 The reason for the failure of any test shall be established and the appropriate corrective action to prevent re-occurrence of the test failures shall be taken accordingly. Heat and product analysis 513 Heat and product analysis shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. MR and AR Dimensions. Hydrostatic test 420 The pipe shall withstand the hydrostatic test without leakage through the weld seam or the pipe body. Table D-4. by the same pipe-manufacturing process. Weldability 425 If agreed. For MPQT welds shall meet the requirements of ISO 5817 Quality level C. the linepipe supplier shall provide information regarding the maximum Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) temperature for the respective materials. machining. from the same heat. 421 Linepipe that fails the hydrostatic test shall be rejected. whichever gives the highest number of tests. AR 417 The alignment of internal and external seams of SAW pipes shall be verified on the macro section. when tested at the minimum design temperature. MR 514 If the value of any elements. Test pressure shall be held for not less than two hours. 508 If a test fails to meet the requirements. Charpy V-notch impact testing temperatures T0 (°C) as a function of Tmin (°C) (Minimum Design Temperature) Nominal wall Thickness (mm) PIPELINES and risers t ≤ 20 T0 = Tmin 20 < t ≤ 40 T0 = Tmin – 10 t > 40 T0 = to be agreed in each case Fracture toughness of weld seam 415 The measured fracture toughness shall as a minimum have a CTOD value of 0. treatment or testing. Reference to the relevant acceptance criteria is given in these tables. the test frequency shall revert to the normal rate of testing until again 30 000 tons with satisfactory results are documented. Inspection frequency 502 The inspection frequency during production shall be as given in Table 7-7 and the extent of testing for MPQT as given in Table 7-8. and under the same pipe-manufacturing conditions. Re-testing 507 In order to accept or reject a particular test unit with an original test unit release failure. mass and tolerances 424 Requirements to dimensions. two re-tests shall be performed (for the failed test only) on samples taken from two different pipes within the same test unit. AR 419 It shall be verified that the entire HAZ has been appropriately heat treated over the full wall thickness and that no untempered martensite remains. AR 505 Sampling for mechanical and corrosion testing shall be performed after heat treatment.12. AR Macro examination of weld seam 416 The macro section shall show a sound weld merging smoothly into the base material without weld defects according to Appendix D. re-testing shall be conducted in accordance with B508 through B512. two re-tests shall be performed DET NORSKE VERITAS . The samples shall not be prepared in a manner that may influence their mechanical properties. the Manufacturer may conduct individual testing of all the remaining pipes in the test unit. the test unit shall be rejected. Metallographic examination of HFW pipe 418 The metallographic examination shall be documented by micrographs at sufficient magnification and resolution to demonstrate that no detrimental oxides from the welding process are present along the weld line. 426 If requested. mass and tolerances shall be as given in Subsection G. Refer to B344 for reprocessing of pipe. the test sample shall be replaced by a correctly prepared sample from the same pipe and a new test performed. The number and orientation of the samples are given in Table 7-9. After exceeding 30 000 tons.7 Table 7-6 C-Mn steel linepipe. 506 In case of large quantities of longitudinally welded large diameter and heavy wall thickness pipe. If the total rejection of all the pipes within one test unit exceeds 25%. Requirements for visual inspection of welds and pipe surfaces are given in Appendix D H500. 511 Re-testing of failed pipes shall not be permitted. 510 If a test unit has been rejected. The test unit shall be rejected if one or both of the re-tests do not meet the specified requirements. it may be agreed that pipes from several heats represents one test unit. The details for carrying out the tests and the acceptance criteria shall be as specified in the purchase order. testing of samples from the same pipe may be performed subject to agreement.

HFW Table 7-5 Table 7-5 and Table 7-6 Table 7-5 SAWL. MR Non-destructive testing 518 NDT.1 mm ≤ D < 508 mm and not more than 50 pipes for D > 508 mm. Hydrostatic test (mill pressure test) 517 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed in accordance with Subsection E. and is derived using the designated before-expansion outside diameter or circumference and the after-expansion outside diameter or circumference. At least once per operating shift plus whenever any change of pipe size occurs during the operating shift. the heat shall be rejected. Not more than 100 pipes with D ≤ 508 mm and not more than 50 pipes for D > 508 mm. shall be carried out in accordance with Subsection F. MR Mechanical testing 515 All mechanical testing shall be performed according to Appendix B. If one or both re-tests still fail to meet the requirements. CVN.3 mm ≤ D ≤ 508 mm and not more than 50 pipes for D > 508 mm.2) Applicable Type of test Frequency of testing to: All pipe Heat analysis One analysis per heat Product analysis Two analyses per heat (taken from separate product items) Tensile testing of the pipe body Once per test unit of not more than 50/1003) pipes with the same cold-expansion ratio4) CVN impact testing of the pipe body of Once per test unit of not more than 50/1005) pipes with pipe with specified wall thickness as the same cold-expansion ratio4) given in Table 22 of ISO 3183 Hardness testing Once per test unit of not more than 50/1003) pipes with the same cold-expansion ratio4) (AR) Hydrostatic testing Each pipe Pipe dimensional testing See Subsection G NDT including visual inspection See Subsection F (MR and AR) SAWL. MR Treatment of surface imperfections and defects 520 Surface imperfections and defects shall be treated according to Appendix D H300. Not more than 100 pipes with 114.002 requires the creation of a new test unit (for lined pipe this does not apply to the liner expansion process). The number orientation and location of test pieces per sample for mechanical tests shall be in accordance with Table 7-9. testing is only required at the beginning of the production of each combination of specified outside diameter and specified wall thickness. October 2010 Sec. The cold-expansion ratio is designated by the Manufacturer. AR and MR Dimensional testing 519 Dimensional testing shall be performed according to Subsection G. If qualified alternative methods for detection of misalignments is used. An increase or decrease in the cold-expansion ratio of more than 0. hardness. guided-bend and flattening testing Appendix B refers to ISO 3183 without additional requirements. including visual inspection. Not more than 100 pipes with 219.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. SAWH HFW Notes 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) B420 to B422 See Subsection G See Subsection F (MR and AR) Tensile testing of the seam weld (cross Once per test unit of not more than 50/1006) pipes with B406 and B407 weld test) the same cold-expansion ratio4) (MR) CVN impact testing of the seam weld Once per test unit of not more than 50/1005) pipes with Table 7-5 and Table 7-6 of pipe with specified wall thickness as the same cold-expansion ratio4) (MR) given in Table 22 of ISO 3183 Hardness testing of hard spots Any hard spot exceeding 50 mm in any direction Appendix D H500 Macrographic testing of seam weld At least once per operating shift7) B416 Guided-bend testing of the seam weld Once per test unit of not more than 50/1003) pipes with B414 of welded pipe the same cold-expansion ratio4) (MR) Flattening test As shown in Figure 6 of ISO 3183 B412 and B413 Metallographic examination At least once per operating shift7) B418 (MR) Sampling of specimens and test execution shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. SAWH. MR Metallurgical testing 516 Macro examination and metallographic examination shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. MR Acceptance criteria Table 7-3 or Table 7-4 Table 7-7 Inspection frequency for C-Mn steel linepipe during production 1 . For tensile. where D = Specified outside diameter DET NORSKE VERITAS .7 – Page 73 on samples taken from two different pipes from the same heat.

see Appendix B. SMTS and elongation applies. DET NORSKE VERITAS . CTOD testing is not required for pipes with t < 13 mm.7 Table 7-8 Additional testing for Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test for C-Mn steel pipe 1) Applicable to: Type of test Extent of testing All pipe All production tests as stated in Table 7-7 One test for each pipe proSMLS pipe 2. and location of test specimens per tested pipe 1. October 2010 Page 74 – Sec. Only applicable to pipe delivered in the quenched and tempered condition. see Appendix B. 3) with t > CVN testing at ID of quenched and tempered seamless vided for manufacturing4) procedure qualification 25 mm pipe with t > 25 mm AR Welded pipe (all types) All weld tensile test AR Fracture toughness (CTOD) test of weld metal 5. W means that the notch shall be located in the FL. see A606 AR Notes 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Sampling of specimens and test execution shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 6) AR Ageing test 7).1 mm ≥ 219. 3) Full-section longitudinal test pieces may be used at the option of the manufacturer. orientation. Two pipes from two different test units shall be selected for the MPQT. while HAZ means that the notch shall be located in FL +2 (see Figure 6 in Appendix B). 6) HAZ means that the notch shall be located in FL and FL +2 (see Figure 5 in Appendix B). cold expanded pipe HFW pipe Pipe body Pipe body Pipe body Seam weld SAWL pipe Pipe body and weld Pipe body Seam weld SAWH pipe Pipe body Seam weld Tensile CVN Hardness Tensile CVN Hardness Tensile CVN Tensile CVN Hardness Flattening Tensile CVN Tensile CVN Guided-bend Hardness Tensile CVN Tensile CVN Guided-bend Hardness Specified outside diameter Specified outside diameter < 219. 2) All destructive tests may be sampled from pipe ends.1 mm 1L3) 1L 1L3) 1L 3T 3T 3T 3T 1T 1T 1T 1T 1L3) 1T4) 1L3) 1T4) 3T 3T 3T 3T 1T 1T 1T 1T 1L903) 1T1804) 1L903) 1T1804) 3T90 3T90 3T90 3T90 — 1W — 1W 3W and 3HAZ 5) MR 6W and 6HAZ 5) MR 1W 1W 1W 1W As shown in Figure 6 of ISO 3183 1L903) 1T1804) 1L903) 1T1804) 3T90 3T90 3T90 3T90 — 1W — 1W 3W and 6HAZ 6) MR 6W and 12HAZ 6) MR 2W 2W 2W 2W 1W 1W 1W 1W 1L3) 1T4) 1L3) 1T4) 3T 3T 3T 3T — 1W — 1W 3W and 6HAZ 6) MR 6W and 12HAZ 6) MR 2W 2W 2W 2W 1W 1W 1W 1W Notes 1) See Figure 5 of ISO 3183 for explanation of symbols used to designate orientation and location. 2) Applicable to: Sample location Type of test ≤ 25 mm Wall thickness > 25 mm SMLS.1 mm < 219. 5) For the HF weld seam. Only when cold forming during pipe manufacture exceeds 5% strain. Only SMYS. Sampling shall be 2 mm from the internal surface. annular test pieces may be used for the determination of transverse yield strength by the hydraulic ring expansion test in accordance with ASTM A370. not cold expanded pipe SMLS. For HFW pipe the testing applies to the fusion line (weld centre line). A500. see A600.1 mm ≥ 219. Acceptance criteria See Table 7-7 Table 7-5 and Table 7-6 Table 7-5 8) B415 Table 7-5 where t = specified nominal wall thickness Table 7-9 Number. 4) If agreed.

follow the same activity sequence. Guidance note: e. Microstructure of duplex stainless steel 407 The material shall be essentially free from grain boundary carbides. as applicable) supplementary requirement suffix (see A400). until the distance between the plates is less than 50% of the original outside diameter.0% (max. shall be subject to agreement.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. until the distance between the plates is less than 33% of the original outside diameter. C 300 Manufacture Starting material and steel making 301 CRA linepipe shall be manufactured in accordance with the processes given in A302 using the raw materials stated in the qualified MPS. October 2010 Sec. hardness and Charpy V-notch properties are given in Table 7-11. The limits and tolerances for trace elements for martensitic 13Cr stainless steels. Requirements to manufacture of pipe 303 In addition to the requirements in C304 and C305 below. nitrides and intermetallic phases after solution heat treatment. there shall be no opening of the weld. The manufacturing practice and instrumentation used to ensure proper control of the manufacturing process variables and their tolerances shall be described in the MPS. the ferrite content shall be within the range 35-65%. until the distance between the plates is less than 66% of the original outside diameter. 302 All steels shall be made by an electric or one of the basic oxygen processes. the following requirements given for C-Mn steel pipe are also applicable for CRA pipes: — — — — B304-306 for seamless pipe B307-310 and B313-320 for all welded pipes B321-326 for SAW and MWP pipe B330-345 for all pipe. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 404 For the flattening test of pipe with wall thickness ≥ 12. For pipe with wall thickness < 12. 304 Before further processing. mechanical properties. the slabs/ingots shall be inspected and fulfil the surface finish requirements specified in the MPS.5% intermetallic phases).6 and as specified in the following. there shall be no cracks or breaks other than in the weld.0 g/m2 for solution annealed material tested for 24 hours at 50°C.7 mm. a specification shall be prepared that defines these requirements. Essentially free implies that occasional strings of detrimental phases along the centreline of the base material is acceptable given that the phase content within one field of vision (at 400X magnification) is < 1. delivery condition and all the details listed in Sec. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — — — — B407 for transverse weld tensile testing B410 and 411 for Charpy V-notch impact testing B414 for guided-bend testing B415 for fracture toughness testing of the seam weld. If a recognised standard is not available. C 400 Acceptance criteria Chemical composition 401 The chemical composition of duplex stainless steel and martensitic 13Cr stainless steel parent materials shall be according to Table 7-10. 408 The base material ferrite content of duplex stainless steel shall be within the range 35-55%. elements not listed in Table 7-10. “DNV SMLS 22Cr D” designates a seamless 22Cr duplex steel linepipe meeting the supplementary requirements for enhanced dimensional requirements. Corrosion resistance of duplex stainless steel 409 The maximum allowable weight loss for 25Cr duplex stainless steel is 4. 405 For pipe with a D/t2 > 10. For weld metal and HAZ. Mechanical properties 402 Requirements for tensile.g. Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) Linepipe C 100 General 101 All requirements of this subsection are applicable to welded and seamless linepipe in duplex stainless steel and seamless martensitic 13Cr stainless steel. C 200 Pipe designation 201 CRA linepipe to be used to this standard shall be designated with: Supply conditions 305 Duplex and austenitic stainless steel pipe shall be delivered in solution-annealed and water-quenched condition.7 mm there shall be no opening of the weld.7 – Page 75 C. including the HAZ. including the HAZ. Weldment shall meet the requirement for KVT impact properties. 403 In addition to the requirements in C404 and C405 below. 102 Austenitic stainless steel and nickel based CRA linepipe shall be supplied in accordance with a recognised standard that defines the chemical composition. 0.e. i. the following acceptance criteria given for C-Mn steel pipe are also applicable to CRA pipe (as applicable): — — — — DNV process of manufacture (see A300) grade (see Table 7-10 or C102. and stay within the agreed allowable variations. Macro examination of weld seam 406 The macro examination of weld seam shall meet the requirements in B416 and B417. Modifications are subject to agreement. including the HAZ.

50 – 3.3%Mo+16%N.and martensitic 13Cr stainless steel linepipe.12.00 – 8. Reference to the relevant acceptance criteria is given in the tables.50 min - If other alloying elements than specified in this table are being used. two re-tests shall be performed on samples taken from two different pipes from the same heat.20 – 0. by the same pipe-manufacturing process.020.035 max S 0.00 max P 0.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.92 0. The samples shall not be prepared in a manner that may influence their mechanical properties.5 Mo Notes 1) 2) 3) 450 550 550 550 620 750 700 700 0. tested: at T0 = Tmin .2.00 max 1. Retesting 508 Requirements for retesting shall be according to B508 to B512. Note 4) in Table 7-5.92 0. mechanical properties Grade SMYS SMTS Ratio Maximum Elongation Hardness in 50.0 min 2.0 Mo 2. wt.8 mm (HV10) Af MPa MPa Rt0. C 500 Inspection 501 Compliance with the requirements of the purchase order shall be checked by specific inspection in accordance with EN 10204. Other elements added for controlling the material properties may be added.00 N 0.50 3.14 – 0. Table 7-11 Duplex.00 Cr 21.020 max 0. Heat and product analysis 509 Heat and product analysis shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B.20°C for duplex.015 max 0.00 min 12.020 max Ni 4.030 max 0. 504 Sampling for mechanical and corrosion testing shall be performed after heat treatment.015 max 0.00 max 1. the heat shall be rejected.50 .50 6. Ref.23. respectively. 510 All elements listed in the relevant requirement/ standard shall be determined and reported.20 0. subject to agreement. October 2010 Page 76 – Sec. 511 If the value of any elements. Mechanical testing 512 All mechanical testing shall be performed according to Appendix B. Corrosion testing of duplex stainless steels 514 Corrosion testing of 25Cr duplex stainless steels according to ASTM G48 shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B B200. from the same heat.0 – 26. 506 For EBW and LBW pipe.7 Table 7-10 Duplex.003 max 4. the number and orientation of the samples shall be as for SAWL pipe in Table 7-9. the number and orientation of the samples shall be as for HFW in Table 7-9. 40 2) Notes 1) 2) Grade 13Cr .00 min - Grade 13Cr . and under the same pipe-manufacturing conditions. J.0 min 2.34 PRE min. Refer to B506 for reduced frequency of testing in case of large quantities of pipe. 503 A test unit is a prescribed quantity of pipe that is made to the same specified outside diameter and specified wall thickness.003 max 6. The YS/UTS ratio in the longitudinal direction shall not exceed the maximum specified value in the transverse direction by more than 0.030 max Mn 2.50 min 12.% Grade Grade 22Cr duplex 25Cr duplex C 0.5 / Rm 2) [%] Charpy V-notch energy (KVT) 1) min.5 Mo 0. PRE = %Cr+3.92 0.6.00 – 4.0 . chemical composition Element 1) Product analysis.and martensitic stainless steel linepipe. the elements and the maximum content shall be agreed in each case. If one or both re-tests fail to meet the requirements.92 290 330 300 300 WM HAZ 350 350 na na Mean Note 3) 45 45 60 60 Single 35 35 45 45 The required KVL (longitudinal direction specimens) values shall be 50% higher than the required KVT values. 505 The number and orientation of the samples for SMLS and SAWL/SAWH pipe shall be according to Table 7-9.025 max 0.030 max 0. Metallurgical testing 513 Macro examination and metallographic examination shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. expansion and final shaping. Inspection frequency 502 The inspection frequency during production and MPQT shall be as given in Table 7-12 and Table 7-13. or combination of elements fails to meet the requirements. DET NORSKE VERITAS .2 Mo 0.025 max 0. Records from the qualification of the MPS and other documentation shall be in accordance with the requirements in Sec.20 max Si 1.0 24. and according to Table 7-6 for martensitic 13Cr BM 22Cr 25Cr 13Cr-2 Mo 13Cr-2. 507 For MWP pipe.

UNS XXXXX” designates a longitudinal submerged arc welded pipe. 104 The manufacturing process for clad or lined linepipe shall be according to A303 to A305. The two pipes provided shall be from two different test units. D 200 Pipe designation 201 In addition to the designation of the backing material (see A303 to A305) clad/lined pipes shall be designated with: — C. meeting the supplementary requirements for dimensions. shall be in accordance with Subsection F. H300. including visual inspection. clad with a UNS designated material.7 – Page 77 Hydrostatic test (mill pressure test) 515 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed in accordance with Subsection E. the MPS for clad linepipe shall as a minimum contain the following information (as applicable): — slab reheating temperature and initial rolling practice of cladding alloy and backing material prior to sandwich assembly — method used to assemble the sandwich or one-sided-open package. October 2010 Sec. where D = Specified outside diameter Table 7-13 Additional testing for Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test of CRA linepipe 1) Applicable to Type of test Frequency of testing All pipe Welded pipe (all types) Notes 1) 2) 3) Acceptance criteria All production tests as stated above One test for each pipe provided for Subsection C manufacturing procedure qualification Table 7-11 All weld tensile test 3) Fracture toughness (CTOD) test of weld metal 2) B415 Sampling of specimens and test execution shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. and "lined" if the bond is mechanical. prior to reheating and rolling — package (sandwich or one-side-open) reheating tempera- DET NORSKE VERITAS . The number orientation and location of test pieces per sample for mechanical tests shall be according to C505-507.g. The number. for clad pipe. orientation and location of test pieces per sample for mechanical tests shall be according to C505-507. Guidance note: e. Not more than 100 pipes with 114. D. Two pipes shall be provided for MPQT. CTOD testing is not required for pipes with t < 13 mm. Frequency of testing All tests in Table 7-7 applicable to “All As given in Table 7-7 pipe” All tests in Table 7-7 applicable to “SAWL” Flattening test Metallographic examination As shown in Figure 6 of ISO 3183 Acceptance criteria Table 7-10 and Table 7-11 25Cr duplex stainless steel pipe Pitting corrosion test (ASTM G48) Notes 1) 2) 3) C404 and C405 Once per test unit of not more than 50/100 3) C407 and C408 Once per test unit of not more than 50/100 3) C409 Sampling of specimens and test execution shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. Treatment of surface imperfections and defects 518 Surface imperfections and defects shall be treated according to Appendix D. Table 7-12 Inspection frequency for CRA linepipe 1) Applicable to Type of test All pipe SAWL and MWP pipe EBW and LBW pipe 2) Duplex stainless steel pipe Dimensional testing 517 Dimensional testing shall be performed according to Subsection G. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- D 300 Manufacturing Procedure Specification MPS for clad linepipe 301 In addition to the applicable information given in A600. 103 The backing steel of lined pipe shall fulfil the requirements in Subsection B.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. with SMYS 415 MPa. unless otherwise agreed. Non-destructive testing 516 NDT. For EBW and LBW pipes the testing applies to the fusion line. 105 Cladding and liner materials shall be specified according to recognised standards. 102 Linepipe is denoted "clad" if the bond between the backing material and internal CRA layer is metallurgical. “DNV SAWL 415 D C . for lined pipe — UNS number for the cladding material or liner pipe. a specification shall be prepared that defines chemical composition. or — L. If a recognised standard is not available.3 mm ≤ D ≤ 508 mm and not more than 50 pipes for D > 508 mm. Clad or Lined Steel Linepipe D 100 General 101 The requirements below are applicable to linepipe consisting of a C-Mn steel backing material with a thinner internal CRA layer.5 mm. 106 The cladding/liner material thickness shall not be less than 2. If agreed corrosion testing and acceptance criteria shall be specified. as applicable.

sr . 402 All work shall be undertaken in clean areas and controlled environment to avoid contamination and condensation. 407 Unless otherwise agreed. 416 After having lined up the two pipes. the mating plate surfaces shall as a minimum be blast cleaned to a surface cleanliness of ISO 8501 Sa2. 408 A pre-clad rolling assembly procedure shall be part of the MPS. deformation) — procedure for cut back prior to seal welding or cladding to attach liner to carrier pipe — seal welding procedures — details regarding any CRA clad welding to pipe ends. 409 The sandwich or one-side-open packages. The carbon steel pipe shall not under any circumstances receive a sizing ratio. belts. Direct contact of the CRA layer with carbon steel handling equipment (e. shall be hot rolled in order to ensure metallurgical bonding between the base and the cladding material. cladding material. 418 Subsequent to expansion. 419 In addition to the applicable requirements given in B307 to B331. 406 The steel backing material and the cladding alloy shall be cleaned.g.g. shall be manufactured through a TMCP route. strain. 413 The internal surface of the C-Mn steel backing pipe shall be blast cleaned to a surface cleanliness of ISO 8501 Sa2 along the complete length of the pipe prior to fabrication of lined pipe. Welding of lined linepipe 417 The liner pipe shall be welded according to API 5LC. the MPS for lined linepipe shall as a minimum contain the following information (as applicable): Welding of clad linepipe 411 In addition to the applicable requirements given in B307 to B331. The corrosion properties of the weld consumable shall be equal to or superior to the clad or liner material. start and stop rolling temperatures. DET NORSKE VERITAS . e. the following requirements shall apply for welding of lined linepipe: — the corrosion properties of the CRA weld consumable (e. quench and tempering (if applicable) — method used to cut and separate the metallurgically roll bonded plates after rolling (separation of the sandwich between the CRA layers — details regarding any CRA clad welding to pipe ends.) is prohibited. and the carbon steel and CRA surfaces shall be maintained at least 5°C above the dewpoint temperature. D 500 Acceptance criteria Properties of the backing material 501 The backing material of the manufactured clad or lined linepipe shall comply with the requirements for C-Mn steel given in Subsection B. This procedure shall include details of all surface preparation to be performed just prior to the sandwich assembly (if applicable). MPS for lined linepipe 302 In addition to the applicable information given in A600. etc. GFCAW or SMAW using low hydrogen electrodes — weld seam tracking of continuous welding shall be automatically controlled. rolls. quench and tempering). the following shall apply: Welding consumables 404 The welding consumables for seam welds and liner seal welds shall be selected taking into consideration the reduction of alloying elements by dilution of iron from the base material. the liner shall be expanded by a suitable method to ensure adequate gripping. GMAW. Direct contact may be allowed providing subsequent pickling is performed. HAZ. start and stop temperatures for accelerated cooling (if applicable) and inspection — final plate heat treatment. dried and inspected to ensure that the level of humidity and particles between the respective plates are equal to or less than for the MPQT plates. 415 The humidity during assembly shall be less than 80%.7 ture. respectively) to ensure that no humidity can enter the annulus during storage. 414 The liner pipe shall be inserted into the backing C-Mn steel pipe after both pipes have been carefully cleaned. the liner or backing pipe shall be machined at each end and further fixed to the backing pipe by a seal weld (clad or fillet weld. 403 In addition to the requirements stated in B300 and C300 (as applicable). root and hot pass) shall be equal or superior to the clad material — the longitudinal weld shall be back purged with welding grade inert gas and be free from high temperature oxides — tack welds shall be made using GTAW. transportation and preparation for installation. dried and inspected to ensure that the level of humidity and particles in the annular space between these two pipes are equal to or less than for the MPQT pipes. The external surface of the liner pipe shall be blast cleaned as specified above or pickled. expansion pressure/ force. as applicable.g. D 400 Manufacture 401 During all stages of manufacturing. — details for fabrication of backing pipe and liner — quality control checks for the lining process — details of data to be recorded (e.g. and shall be supplied in a solution or soft annealed condition.015 during the expansion process (See B332). contamination of CRA with carbon steel shall be avoided. or receive a final heat treatment (e. exceeding 0. 303 The following additional essential variable applies to the qualification of the MPS for clad linepipe (see A609): — sequence of welding.g. Temperature and humidity shall continuously be measured and recorded. Sour service requirements according to I100 shall not apply to the backing material unless required according to I115. October 2010 Page 78 – Sec. 410 The package consisting of sandwich or one-side-open. Hardness 503 The hardness of the base material. hooks.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. General requirements to manufacture of clad linepipe 405 The cladding alloy shall be produced from plate. General requirements to manufacture of lined linepipe 412 The liner pipe shall be manufactured according to API 5LC. as applicable. 502 The cladding/liner material shall be removed from the test pieces prior to mechanical testing of the backing material. fillet or clad weld) shall be equal or superior to the liner material — the weld shall be purged with welding grade inert gas and be free from high temperature oxides. means of temperature and thickness control.g. weld metal and the metallurgical bonded area shall meet the relevant requirements of this standard. the following requirements shall apply for welding of clad linepipe: — the corrosion properties of the CRA weld consumable (e.

6 B400) and/or test results obtained during MPQT. Hydrostatic test (mill pressure test) 613 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed in accordance with Subsection E. Gripping force test 612 Gripping force of lined pipe shall be measured in accordance with API 5LD. e. Microstructure 509 The weld metal and the HAZ in the root area of the clad pipe seam welds. Liner collapse 511 After the test for presence of moisture in the annulus between the liner and the backing material. Properties of the CRA of clad and lined linepipe 507 The CRA material shall meet the requirements of the relevant reference standard. 603 For clad pipe. cladding material and the metallurgical bonded area as detailed in Appendix B. Corrosion testing 609 Unless otherwise agreed. Test- ing of the liner pipe shall be according to API 5LC. Records from the qualification of the MPS and other documentation shall be in accordance with the requirements in Sec. one finished pipe or a section thereof (minimum length of 6 m) shall be heated to 200°C for 15 minutes and air cooled. shall be in accordance with Subsection F. Unless otherwise agreed the calculated PRE (see Table 7-10. respectively. This pipe shall be within the first 10 pipes produced. F405 D511 DET NORSKE VERITAS . Inspection frequency for production testing shall be agreed based on test results obtained during the MPQT (see D300).12. corrosion testing of roll bonded clad pipes or any longitudinal weld seams is not required. Acceptance criteria D501 D505 D507 Table 7-14 Additional production testing for clad or lined steel linepipe Applicable to Type of test Extent of testing All pipe All tests in Table 7-7 applicable to “All pipe” See Table 7-7 and D600 Clad pipe All tests in Table 7-7 applicable to “SAWL” Bend tests (2 specimens) Once per test unit of not more than 50 pipes Shear strength CRA material of According to reference standard (see D508 clad pipe Liner pipe According to API 5LC (see D508) Lined pipe Macrographic examination of seal weld Once per test unit of not more than 50 pipes Gripping force test To be agreed. shall be analysed during MPQT.7 – Page 79 Bonding strength of clad linepipe 504 After bend testing in accordance with Appendix B A906 (see Table 7-14). originating at the specimen edge may be disregarded if not associated with obvious defects. note no. see D612 Appendix C. Inspection frequency 602 The inspection frequency during production and MPQT shall be as given in Table 7-14 and Table 7-15. D 600 Inspection 601 Compliance with the requirements of the purchase order shall be checked by specific inspection in accordance with EN 10204. Retesting 605 Requirements for retesting shall be according to B508 to B512. Metallurgical testing 610 Macro examination and metallographic examination shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. Indentations shall be made in the base material.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. including visual inspection.g. and the liner seal welds (if exposed to the pipe fluid). Treatment of surface imperfections and defects 616 Surface imperfections and defects shall be treated according to Appendix D. Heat and product analysis 606 Heat and product analysis shall be performed in accordance with B500 and C500 for the backing steel and the CRA liner or cladding. Chemical composition of welds 508 The chemical composition of the longitudinal seam weld of clad pipes. there shall be no sign of cracking or separation on the edges of the specimens. any pipe end clad welds and the seal welds of lined pipe shall be essentially free from grain boundary carbides. API 5LD. pipe end clad welds. Gripping force of lined linepipe 510 Acceptance criteria for gripping force production testing shall be agreed based on project specific requirements (see Sec. the pipe shall be inspected and no ripples or buckles in the liner or carbon steel pipe shall be in evidence when viewed with the naked eye. October 2010 Sec. nitrides and intermetallic phases. Dimensional testing 615 Dimensional testing shall be performed according to Subsection G. Minor ductile tears less than 6 mm. 2) for alloy 625 weld metal shall not be less than for the clad pipe base material or liner material. Mechanical testing 607 All mechanical testing of clad pipe and the backing steel of lined pipe shall be performed according to Appendix B. 506 The minimum shear strength shall be 140 MPa. the number and orientation of the samples shall be as for SAWL pipe in Table 7-9 604 For lined pipe. Equivalent tests may be applied subject to agreement. respectively. Mechanical testing of the liner pipe shall be according to API 5LC. H300. Unless otherwise agreed the composition of the deposited weld metal as analysed on the exposed surface shall meet the requirements of the base material specification. the bend test specimen shall not show any open defects in any direction exceeding 3 mm. the number and orientation of the samples for the backing steel shall be according to Table 7-9. Non-destructive testing 614 NDT. Liner collapse test 611 To check for the presence of moisture in the annulus between the liner and the backing material. 505 After longitudinal weld root bend testing in accordance with Appendix B A607 (see Table 7-15). 608 Hardness testing of welded linepipe shall be performed on a test piece comprising the full cross section of the weld.

the mill test pressure may be limited to ph= 1. in situations where the seal is made on the inside or the outside of the linepipe surface. Hydrostatic Testing E 100 Mill pressure test 101 Each length of linepipe shall be hydrostatically tested. and the linepipe is exposed to axial stresses. the test pressure (ph) may be reduced as permitted in Sec. (where pli is the local incidental pressure). The pressure test equipment shall be equipped with a calibrated recording gauge. For such conditions and where the mill pressure test capacity is limited. 107 Subject to agreement. or significant temperature de-rating of the mechanical properties take place. It shall in such situations be documented that the expansion process and subsequent pipe inspection will: — ensure that the pipe material stress-strain curve is linear up to a stress corresponding to E102 — identify defects with the potential for through-thickness propagation under pressure loading — identify pipes subject to excessive permanent deformation under pressure loading to a degree equivalent to that provided by hydrostatic testing. the hydrostatic testing may be omitted for expanded pipes manufactured by the UOE process.SMTS ⋅ 0. The equipment shall be capable of registering a pressure drop of minimum 2% of the applied pressure. Workmanship and inspection shall be at the same level as for hydrostatically tested pipe. October 2010 Page 80 – Sec. unless the alternative approach described in E107 is used.5 B200. As applicable.5) ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 104 For pipes with reduced pressure containment utilisation. coil and strip performed at plate mill Ns l = ---As (tmin is equivalent to t1 in Sec. Calibration records for the equipment shall be available.7 Table 7-15 Additional testing for Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test of clad or lined steel linepipe 1) Applicable to Type of test Extent of testing All pipe All production tests in Table 7-14 One test for each pipe provided for manufacCorrosion testing of welds. according to D508 and D509. F 200 Non-destructive testing 201 Requirements for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) of linepipe are given in Appendix D.⋅ min [ SMYS ⋅ 0. if agreed. be conducted at the lowest value obtained by utilising the following formulae: 2 ⋅ tmin ph = ------------------.84 ] (7. 102 If visual inspection for detection of surface imperfections is substituted with alternative inspection methods then the substitution shall conform to the requirements in Appendix D H505 and H506.84 ] D – t min (7. 202 Requirements for NDT (laminar imperfections) and visual examination of plate. see D609 turing procedure quali2) Clad pipe Chemical composition of seam weld and clad weld fication Metallographic examination of the seam weld and clad weld 2) Longitudinal weld root bend test Lined pipe Chemical composition of seal or clad welds 2) Metallographic examination of seal welds Liner collapse test Notes 1) 2) Acceptance criteria See Table 7-14 To be agreed D508 D509 D505 D508 D509 D511 Sampling of specimens and test execution shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. based on the minimum pipe wall thickness tmin.2) 103 103In situations where the seal is made against the end face of the linepipe by means of a ram or by welded on end caps. 105 In case significant corrosion allowance has been specified (as stated by the Purchaser in the material specification). 102 The test pressure (ph) shall.96 . Guidance note: The Von Mises Equivalent stress shall be calculated as: se = where s h + s l –s h ⋅ s l 2 2 p h ⋅ ( D – t min ) s h = ---------------------------------2 ⋅ t min N = True pipe wall force which depend on the test set up end restraints. Non-destructive Testing F 100 Visual inspection 101 Visual inspection shall be in accordance with Appendix D H500. orientation and location of test pieces per sample for mechanical tests shall be according to D603-604.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.4·pli. 106 The test configuration shall permit bleeding of trapped air prior to pressurisation of the pipe. The expansion process parameters and inspection results shall be recorded for each pipe. The holding time at test pressure shall be minimum 10 seconds. the mill test pressure may be significantly higher than the incidental pressure.SMTS ⋅ 0. F. or a large wall thickness is needed for design purposes other DET NORSKE VERITAS . The applied pressure and the duration of each hydrostatic test shall be recorded together with the identification of the pipe tested.96 . The number. Subsection H. the test pressure shall be calculated such that the maximum combined stress equals: s e = min [ SMYS ⋅ 0.3) than pressure containment. E.

magnetic particle testing or EMI (flux leakage) for magnetic materials and liquid penetrant testing for non-magnetic materials. 100/10% = 100% testing of the first 20 pipes manufactured and if all pipes are within specification.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. H401 and H402.7 – Page 81 are given in Appendix D. G 200 Tolerances 201 The diameter and out-of-roundness shall be within the tolerances given in Table 7-17. e. in accordance with Appendix D. in areas where defects have been completely removed by grinding. the minimum average length of pipe shall be 12. Laminar inspection is not applicable to pipe with t ≤ 5 mm. Mass and Tolerances G 100 General 101 Linepipe shall be delivered to the dimensions specified in the material specification. Standard width of band to be tested is 50 mm. lamination checks may be performed on linepipe or plate/strip at Table 7-16 Type and extent of non-destructive testing 1) Applicable to Scope of testing the discretion of the Manufacturer. Alternative methods may be used as required in Appendix D. pipe straightness. The wall thickness shall be controlled by continuously operating measuring devices. as specified in the material specification. see Appendix D. For welded pipe. H300. 204 Unless otherwise agreed. subject to the applicable tolerances. EBW Laminar imperfections in pipe body and LBW Laminar imperfections in area adjacent to weld Longitudinal imperfections in weld SAWL. thereafter random testing (minimum five pipes per 8hour shift) during the production of 10% of the remaining pipes. 203 Table 7-16 lists the required NDT of linepipe including lamination check for welded linepipe. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 5% = testing of 5% of the pipes produced but minimum 4 pipes per 8-hour shift. Type of test 2) UT+ST UT ST UT UT UT UT ST UT UT UT UT UT UT ST RT UT UT UT UT ST RT EC or RT ST UT Extent of testing 100% 5% 3) 100% or cut off 100% 100% 100% 100% 100/10% 6) 100% 7) 100/10% 6) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100%/R 8) 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Visual inspection Residual magnetism Imperfections in un-tested ends Pipe ends of all Laminar imperfections pipe ends 4) pipe Laminar imperfections pipe end face/bevel SMLS Laminar imperfections in pipe body Longitudinal imperfections in pipe body Transverse imperfections in pipe body Wall thickness testing Longitudinal surface imperfections in pipe body 5) HFW. Dimensions.g. the minus tolerances for diameter and out-of-roundness tolerances shall not apply in the ground area. ST = surface testing.1 m. If all pipes are within specification. thereafter random testing of a minimum of one pipe per 8-hour shift. 100%/R = 100% testing of the first 20 pipes manufactured. Nomenclature: UT = ultrasonic testing. October 2010 Sec. 204 Alternative test methods may be accepted subject to agreement according to Appendix D. Applies to pipe ends irrespective if clad welds are applied to pipe ends or not. Laminar imperfections in pipe body SAWH and Laminar imperfections in area adjacent to weld MWP Imperfections in weld Surface imperfections in weld area 5) Imperfections at weld ends Clad pipe Lack of bonding in pipe body and pipe ends 9) Laminar imperfections in pipe body Longitudinal and transverse imperfections in weld Laminar imperfections in area adjacent to weld Surface imperfections in weld area Imperfections in welds CRA liner pipe Longitudinal and transverse imperfections in weld Lined pipe As required for the type of backing material used. Applicable to external surface only. G. 202 The wall thickness shall be within the tolerances given in Table 7-18. end squareness and weight shall be within the tolerances given in Table 7-19. and the tolerances for length according to Table 7-19. see above Seal and clad welds Clad welds (bonding imperfections) Notes 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) All Reference (Appendix D) H500 H500 H600 H700 H800 H900 H1300 H1200 H1000 H1100 The indicated test methods are considered to be industry standard. 203 Geometric deviations. 102 The pipe shall be delivered in random lengths or approximate length. Subsection G. RT = radiographic testing and EC = eddy current testing. H400. However. but a wider band may be tested if specified by the Purchaser.

shall be used for the determination of pipe weight and shall be calculated using the following equation: rl = t(D-t) · C (7.1 mm for pipe of size 168. or optical measuring device. Wall thickness measurements shall be made with a mechanical calliper or with a properly calibrated non-destructive inspection device of appropriate accuracy. as measured in the same cross-sectional plane. rl. *) MR indicates that the requirement is modified compared to ISO 3183. ring gauges can be slotted or notched to permit passage of the gauge over the weld reinforcement. in kg/m D is the specified outside diameter. The end of the pin contacting the inside surface of the pipe shall be rounded to a maximum radius of 38. expressed in mm t is the specified wall thickness.e. 310 Out-of squareness at pipe ends shall be measured according to Figure 3 in ISO 3183. 311 For pipe with D ≥ 141. unless a higher frequency is agreed.2 mm. not including dents). For weight and length 100% of the actual measurement results shall be recorded. see Table 7-19. MR (the requirement is modified compared to ISO 3183). ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 306 The pipe body out-of-roundness shall be determined as the difference between the largest and smallest outside diameter. 206 Requirements for dents are given in Appendix D.3 mm or larger. 302 Suitable methods shall be used for the verification of conformance with the dimensional and geometrical tolerances.3 mm. MR (the requirement is modified compared to ISO 3183). If agreed. G 300 Inspection 301 The frequency of dimensional testing shall be according to Table 7-17 to Table 7-19.3 mm with a minimum radius of 3. and up to a radius of d/4 for pipe smaller than size 168. shall be within the tolerances given in Appendix D. whichever is less. diameter measurements shall be made with a circumferential tape. shall be recorded for 10% of the specified tests. tolerances may be applied to actual internal diameter.e. October 2010 Page 82 – Sec. the lengths of pipe shall be weighed individually. Internal measurements shall be taken within 50 mm of each pipe end. Table D-4. In case of dispute.1 mm. as measured in the same cross-sectional plane. at the discretion of the manufacturer. 307 The wall thickness at any location shall be within the tolerances specified in Table 7-18. The mechanical calliper shall be fitted with contact pins having circular cross sections of 6. ring gauge. 304 Unless a specific method is specified in the purchase order. i.35 mm in diameter.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. shall be measured using a gauge with the correct curvature according to the specified internal/external diameter. the measurement determined by use of the mechanical calliper shall govern. except that the weld area shall not be limited by the plus tolerance. These measurements shall not be based on circumferential measurements (e.02466. H500. resulting from the pipe forming or manufacturing operations (i. snap gauge. in mm C is 0. The end of the pin contacting the outside surface of the pipe shall be either flat or rounded to a radius of not less than 38. 313 All specified tests shall be recorded as acceptable or non-acceptable. Out-of-roundness shall be determined as the difference between the largest and smallest inside diameter.4) where: rl is the mass per unit length. For pipe with D < 141. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 312 The mass per unit length. 309 Straightness shall be measured according to Figure 1 and Figure 2 in ISO 3183.g. the methods to be used shall be at the discretion of the Manufacturer. External measurement shall be taken where indicated by visual inspection. 305 At pipe ends (unless otherwise agreed) inside measurements shall be used to determine diameter and out-of-roundness. calliper. Unless particular methods are specified in the purchase order. It is necessary that the pipe permit the passage of the ring gauge within (internal) or over (external) each end of the pipe for a minimum distance of 100 mm.: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — cap reinforcement MR* root penetration MR* cap and root concavity radial offset misalignment of weld beads for double sided welds waving bead (dog-leg) undercut arc burns start/stop craters/poor restart surface porosity cracks lack of penetration/lack of fusion systematic imperfections burn through. 303 All test equipment shall be calibrated.3 mm. The length of the gauge shall be 200 mm or 0. Guidance note: For inspection of submerged arc welded pipe.7 Tolerances for the weld seam 205 Tolerances for the weld seam of welded pipe.25 D. 314 The minimum and maximum value for wall thickness and the diameter of pipe ends and maximum out-of-roundness at pipe ends. tape). Dimensional testing by automatic measuring devices is acceptable provided the accuracy of the measuring devices is documented and found to be within acceptable limits. 308 Geometric deviations from the nominal cylindrical contour of the pipe. rod gauge. the lengths of pipe shall be weighed either individually or in convenient lots selected by the Manufacturer.

For D ≤ 168.70 m -3. ± 4. once per test unit of not more than 100 lengths of pipe.0 < t ≤ 15.0. The pipe end region includes a length of 1.1 t or .01 D but max. whichever is greater ± 0.1 t or + 3.0 mm.7 mm ± 1. October 2010 Sec.5 mm ± 0.5 mm or ± 0.0 mm SMLS 100% SAW 3) where t = specified nominal wall thickness.0 ≤ t < 25.0 t > 20. The plus tolerance for wall thickness does not apply to the weld area. 3) where D = Specified outside diameter t = specified nominal wall thickness.0075 D but max.7 – Page 83 Table 7-17 Tolerances for diameter and out-of-roundness D [mm] Frequency Diameter of Pipe body 1) inspection SMLS Welded < 60.0 mm ± 1.0 t ≤ 6.01 D ± 0.0 4.3 ≤ 610 test unit whichever is whichever is greater greater.005 D.70 m and max. the plus tolerance for wall thickness shall be increased by an amount sufficient to maintain the applicable tolerance range.0 mm ± 0. Notes 1) 2) 3) If the purchase order specifies a minus tolerance for wall thickness smaller than the applicable value given in this table. EBW.0. 11. Tolerances 0.0 6.0 ≤ t < 10.0 HFW. 0.0 m at each of the pipe extremities.7 mm. max.5 mm or 4) ± 0. Subject to agreement a larger plus tolerance for metallurgically clad pipes may be applied.0 10.0 t > 15.0075 D.6 mm 0. max. Once per test unit of not more than 20 lengths of pipe.5 mm + 0.3.0 t ≥ 25.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.0.125 t ± 0.0075 D. but max.0 mm > 1422 as agreed Out-of-roundness Pipe body 2) Pipe end 3) SMLS Welded ± 0.005 D. the tolerances apply for t ≤ 25.5 mm. Notes 1) 2) 3) 4) Dimensions of pipe body to be measured approximately in the middle of the pipe length.125 t + 0. whichever is less ≤ 0.6 mm . but minimum one (1) and maximum 6 pipes per 8-hour shift. but max. The pipe end includes a length of 100 mm at each of the pipe extremities.15 t . 8 mm for D/t2 ≤ 75 for D/t2 ≤ 75 By agreement for D/t2 > 75 By agreement for D/t2 > 75 Pipe end 2. and the tolerances for heavier wall pipe shall be as agreed. ± 0.0015 L 3 mm ≤ 1.5% / +10% of nominal weight DET NORSKE VERITAS .3 Once per ± 0.4 mm ± 0.0 mm + 1. 12.10 mm 0.0 < t ≤ 10.015 D 0. For SMLS pipe. deviation for pipe end region 3) Out-of squareness at pipe ends Length 100% Weight of each single pipe / pipe bundle Tolerances for the pipe weld seam and dents see G205 and G206 where L = actual length of pipe Notes 1) 2) 3) Applicable to welded pipes only Testing of the required percentage of the pipes produced but minimum 4 pipes per 8-hour shift.0 < t ≤ 20. for full length of pipe 5% 2) Straightness.01 D whichever is greater. but max. LBW and MWP 2) t ≤ 6.0 10.3 mm. ≥ 60.005 D or 2.6 mm ± 2.6 mm from true 90° min.5 mm . ± 3.0 6.5 mm Included in the diameter tolerance or ± 0.2 mm > 610 ≤ 1422 ± 0.1. whichever is greater . MR Table 7-18 Tolerances for wall thickness Type of pipe Wall thickness [mm] t < 4.0 mm.7 mm ± 1.0 Frequency of inspection Tolerances 1) + 0. Table 7-19 Tolerances for pipe geometric properties not covered in Table 7-17 and 7-18 Characteristic to be tested Frequency of inspection Geometric deviations (peaking and flats) 1) 10% 2) Straightness. ± 1.

45% and Ni ≤ 0.according to Table 7-1 245 0. testing and measurements including any supplementary testing specified in the purchase order. hence. the minimum temperature for heat treatment of the weld seam shall be stated.006% for welded pipe. 202 The internal surface of CRA pipes shall be pickled in accordance with the purchase order. If agreed Mo ≤ 0.6 D300.6.4) 245 0.10 0.7) Notes 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) For each reduction of 0.1 according to European Standard EN 10204 (Metallic Products Types of Inspection Documents) or an accepted equivalent. Table 7-20 Chemical composition for SMLS and welded C-Mn steel pipe with delivery condition N or Q for Supplementary requirement. The marking shall reflect the correlation between the product and the respective inspection document. H 300 Handling and storage 301 On customer's request.002 Notes 5.003 360 0.003 415 0. pipe designation. for welded pipe where calcium is intentionally added. Other type of marking shall be subject to agreement.01% below the specified maximum for carbon.7 H.05% above the specified maximum for manganese is permissible. an increase of 0.60 0. 405 Records from the qualification of the MPS and other documentation shall be in accordance with the requirements in Sec. in combination with the additional requirements of this standard. For SMLS and welded pipe Ca ≤ 0.5 if S > 0.002 415 0. Supplementary Requirements I 100 Supplementary requirement.35%.6) 450 0.002 0.4) Pipe with delivery condition N .15%.002 320 0. Documentation. I.45%. up to a maximum increase of 0. maximum. heat number and heat treatment batch.006%.6 B200 provide guidance for material selection. shipping. 302 strain based design.12 C100. DET NORSKE VERITAS . and normal installation activities. Guidance note: ISO 15156-1/2/3. and in such cases lower Ca/S may be agreed.09 Notes 5. weight % SMYS C1) Mn 1) S 2) Nb Other 3. If agreed the sulphur content may be increased to ≤ 0.003 Note 5.45 0.003 Pipe with delivery condition Q .6) 485 0. each linepipe shall be protected until taken into use.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 102 All mandatory requirements in ISO 15156-2/3 shall apply.25 for SMLS pipe. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- C-Mn steel 103 C-Mn steel linepipe for sour service shall conform to Subsection B.50%. which conform to the requirements in ISO 3183 Annex H: “PSL 2 pipe ordered for sour service”.06 390 0. If agreed Cr ≤ 0. 403 The Inspection Certificate shall identify the products represented by the certificate.003 320 0.002 360 0.10 1. with reference to product number.0015%.45 0.65 0. specified wall thickness. for manufacture and installation of pipelines the restrictions imposed in the ISO standard are applicable also to Table 7-21 Chemical composition for welded C-Mn steel pipe with delivery condition M for Supplementary requirement. sour service Product analysis.008% for SMLS and ≤ 0. 6) If agreed Cr ≤ 0. If agreed Cu ≤ 0.10%. respectively. Unless otherwise agreed. 102 Marking shall include DNV linepipe designation (ref. 1. Sec.003 290 0. type of pipe. B200. The maximum allowable Pcm value shall be 0. Marking.003 290 0.003 320 0.16 1. and the delivery condition shall be stated.10 0. 103 Each linepipe shall be marked with a unique number. and to the modified and additional requirements below. For temporary storage see Sec.002 290 0. 104 The chemical compositions given in Table 7-3 and Table 7-4 shall be modified according to Table 7-20 and Table 7-21. The specified outside diameter. Ca/S ≥ 1.003 0.according to Table 7-1 245 0. 402 Inspection documents shall be in printed form or in electronic form as an EDI transmission that conforms to any EDI agreement between the Purchaser and the manufacturer.22 for welded pipe and 0. states that the standard is only applicable “to the qualification and selection of materials for equipment designed and constructed using conventional elastic design criteria”.10 0. sour service Product analysis. maximum. If agreed the external surface of CRA pipes shall be cleaned. records and certification H 400 401 Linepipe shall be delivered with Inspection Certificate 3. For HFW pipe.002 Note 5) 450 0.45 0. C200 and D200).6) Notes 1-5) See Table 7-20. H 200 Delivery condition 201 The delivery condition of C-Mn steel pipe shall be according to Table 7-1. Delivery Condition and Documentation H 100 Marking 101 All marking shall be easily identifiable and durable in order to withstand pipe loading.10 1. sour service (S) 101 Linepipe for sour service shall conform to the requirements below. October 2010 Page 84 – Sec. weight % SMYS C 1) Mn 1) S 2) V Other 3.10 1.20%.003 Note 5. Sec.002 Notes 5.003 390 0. Mo ≤ 0. Any detrimental effects of induced strain will only apply if these are imposed during exposure to an H2S-containing environment. 404 The certificate shall include or refer to the results of all specified inspection.003 360 0.60 0.10 1. Any restrictions for maximum allowable strain during operation are beyond the scope of this standard.6) 485 0.10 1.

Providing these three tests show acceptable results. 7-12. if any of these three tests fail. I 200 Supplementary requirement. and to the modified and additional requirements below. then all the ten heats shall be tested. and the results documented in the qualification report.6 B200 and D700. hardness measurements shall be performed as outlined in Appendix B. shall be classified as a defect if its hardness.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.7 – Page 85 105 Vacuum degassing or alternative processes to reduce the gas content of the steel should be applied. 118 HIC testing during production shall be performed on one randomly selected pipe from each of the three (3) first heats.0015 heats shall be selected with the lowest Ca/S ratio. and with additional testing given in Table 7-22. associated hardness criteria. meet the values given in Table 7-23. For selection of the C-Mn steel base material the considerations in A13. and — crack thickness ratio (CTR) ≤ 5%.3 of ISO 15156-2): — crack sensitivity ratio (CSR) ≤ 2% — crack length ratio (CLR) ≤ 15%. and requirements to manufacturing and fabrication shall comply with ISO 15156-3. (see Sec.0015. CRA linepipe 112 CRA linepipe for sour service shall conform to Subsection C. with each ratio being the maximum permissible average for three sections per test specimen when tested in Solution (Environment) A (see Table B. SSC test 120 If specified in the purchase order SSC testing shall be performed in accordance with ISO 15156 2/3 as applicable. see Table 7-7. the hardness in the pipe body. After three consecutive heats have shown acceptable test results. and requirements to manufacturing/fabrication shall comply with ISO 15156-3. three pipes from three different heats of the last ten heats.1 of ISO 15156-3 shall apply. selecting the heats with the lowest Ca/S ratio (based on heat analysis). 202 A Charpy V-notch transition curve shall be established for the linepipe base material. 119 If any of the tests during the subsequent testing fail. 7-14 and 7-15 as relevant. The Charpy V-notch energy value in the transverse direction at Tmin shall. Pipes that contain such defects shall be treated in accordance with Appendix D H300. After three consecutive heats have shown acceptable test results. 116 During qualification of welding procedures and production. Testing shall be according to Table 7-24. based upon individual indentations. 107 The requirements for mechanical properties in B400 shall apply. Extent of testing In accordance with I118 and I119 Acceptance criteria I110 Tests for Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test Type of pipe Type of test Welded C-Mn steel pipe HIC test All pipe (only if agreed. (see ISO 15156-2) and provided the parent pipe wall thickness is greater than 9 mm and the weld cap is not exposed directly to the sour environment. If agreed. fracture arrest properties (F) 201 The requirements to fracture arrest properties are valid for gas pipelines carrying essentially pure methane up to 80% usage factor. 113 Linepipe grades. October 2010 Sec. the testing frequency may again be reduced to one test per ten heats. Further. and the recommendations given in Sec. shall be tested. 115 Materials selection for cladding/liner. 30 mm wall thickness and 1120 mm diameter. the ten heats are acceptable. alternative acceptance criteria may be agreed. For heat with S level greater than 0. 6 B409). 7-13. as a minimum. or until three consecutive heats have shown acceptable test results. 110 The acceptance criteria for the HIC test shall be the following. see SSC test Sec. 6 B202) Notes 1) Extent of testing Acceptance criteria If agreed. Specific inspection 117 The frequency of inspection for shall be as given in Tables 7-7. including Tmin. Properties of pipe delivered without final heat treatment DET NORSKE VERITAS . If HIC tests are conducted in alternative media (see Appendix B B302) to simulate specific service conditions. 111 By examination of the tension surface of the SSC specimen under a low power microscope at X10 magnification there shall be no surface breaking fissures or cracks. the associated hardness criteria. However. Table 7-22 Applicable testing for Supplementary requirement S 1) Production tests Type of pipe Welded C-Mn steel pipe Type of test HIC test Clad or lined steel linepipe 114 Clad or lined steel or linepipe for sour service shall conform to Subsection D. 108 During MPQT and production. the testing frequency for the subsequent production may be reduced to one test per casting sequence of not more than ten (10) heats. 109 Any hard spot larger than 50 mm in any direction. 275 HV10 is acceptable for the weld cap area. 106 The molten steel shall be treated for inclusion shape control. up to a pressure of 15 MPa. exceeds: — 250 HV10 on the internal surface of the pipe. unless it can be demonstrated that these are not the result of sulphide stress cracking. 7-8. or — 275 HV10 on the external surface of the pipe. The hardness in the internal heat-affected zone and in the fused zone of the cladding/lining shall comply with relevant requirements of ISO 15156-3. The same applies to welding consumables for weldments exposed to the internal fluid. one pipe from every consecutive heat shall be tested until the test results from three consecutive heats have been found acceptable. except for the hardness. unless the S level is below 0. one test (3 test pieces) for each pipe provided I110 for manufacturing procedure qualification I111 Sampling of specimens and test execution shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. weld and HAZ shall not exceed 250 HV10. Five sets of specimens shall be tested at different temperatures.

The strain hardening capability combined with a tighter tolerance on the yield stress are therefore good measures to mitigate these buckles. when tested. See I203 I 300 Supplementary requirement. Minimum five sets of specimens shall be tested at different temperatures. at Tmin.7 203 This paragraph does not apply to linepipes delivered with a final heat treatment (e. evaluations of the loading scenario is also necessary.2 · eF · gc ·1.0. (max 1 specimen per set) 290 40 43 52 2) The values obtained in the longitudinal direction. The samples shall be aged for 1 hour at 250°C. Transverse tensile testing according to Table 7-9 is required. The specimens tested at the minimum design temperature shall as a minimum.0%.90 unless otherwise specified. The stated criteria alone does not prevent buckles.0% or accumulated nominal plastic strain is exceeding 2. October 2010 Page 86 – Sec. shall be at least 50% higher than the 360 50 61 75 values required in the transverse direction. Guidance note: A higher yield to tensile ratio may be specified in case the local buckling utilisation is not fully utilised given by: ah = 1 . The Charpy V-notch energy value in the transverse direction. 303 The finished pipe (for C-Mn steel the requirements are applicable up to X65. otherwise subject to agreement) shall meet the following requirements to tensile properties in longitudinal direction (see I302) prior to being tested according to I304: — the difference between the maximum and minimum measured base material longitudinal yield stress shall not exceed 100 MPa — the YS/TS ratio shall not exceed 0. tensile testing shall be performed in the longitudinal direction using proportional type specimens in accordance with Appendix B.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. These strain concentrations are primarily caused by variation in thickness and yield stress along the pipeline. The required testing is outlined in Table 725 and detailed below. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- DET NORSKE VERITAS . Transverse Values. when tested. This requirement does not apply to pipe specified as coiled tubing. normalising or quench and tempering). shall as a minimum. A DWTT transition curve shall be established for the linepipe base material. 5 D1100) 485 82 100 124 555 103 126 155 Table 7-24 Applicable testing for Supplementary requirement F Type of pipe Type of test All pipe CVN impact testing of the pipe body for establishment of transition curve Welded pipe DWT testing Welded pipe CVN impact testing of the pipe body for establishment of transition curve. linepipe for plastic deformation (P) 301 Supplementary requirement (P) is applicable to linepipe when the total nominal strain in any direction from a single event is exceeding 1. 302 For pipes delivered in accordance with supplementary requirement (P). including Tmin. shall at least be 50% higher than the values required in the transverse direction. except CRA pipe aged condition 2) Notes 1) 2) Extent of testing One test for each pipe provided for manufacturing procedure qualification Acceptance criteria Table 7-23 1) I204 (see also I205) Table 7-23 1) The values obtained in the longitudinal direction. wall thickness > 8 mm and SMYS > 360 MPa.2/ec Buckling of the pipeline during on-reeling is primarily caused by strain concentrations in the pipeline. The requirements are only applicable to single event strains below 5%. 204 Drop Weight Tear Testing (DWTT) shall only be per- formed on welded linepipe with outer diameter > 500 mm. including Tmin. The plastic deformation shall be equal to the actual deformation introduced during manufacturing (no additional straining is required). 2) Wall ≤ 30 mm 3) thickness OD (mm) Notes SMYS ≤ 610 ≤ 820 ≤ 1120 1) Minimum individual results to exceed 75% of 245 40 40 40 these values. The test shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. 415 64 77 95 3) Fracture arrest properties for larger wall thick450 73 89 109 nesses and diameters shall be subject to agreement (see Sec. Values obtained at other test temperatures are for information.g. A Charpy V-notch transition curve shall be established for the linepipe base material in the aged condition. in order to meet the requirements in I303. meet the values given in Table 7-23 in the aged condition. — the elongation shall be minimum 20%. Five sets of specimens shall be tested at different temperatures. meet an average of 85% shear area with one minimum value of 75%. Average value of three full size base material specimens) 1. Each set shall consist of two specimens taken from the same test coupon. 205 If supplementary requirements for sour service as in I100 are specified for linepipe material with SMYS ≥ 450 MPa the acceptance criteria stated in I204 (average and minimum shear area) may be subject to agreement. Table 7-23 Charpy V-notch Impact Test Requirements for Fracture Arrest Properties tested at Tmin (Joules. Tensile testing in the longitudinal direction according to Table 7-9 is not required.

304 As part of qualification of the pipe material. After the deformation. Proportional type specimens according to ISO 6892 shall be tested. and is derived using the designated before-expansion outside diameter or circumference and the after-expansion outside diameter or circumference. specimens for mechanical testing (see I306 and I307) shall be sampled in areas representative of the final deformation in tension. the testing for these supplementary requirements shall be performed on samples that are removed. shall be extracted from the sector 5-7 o’clock of the pipe.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.002 requires the creation of a new test unit. the finished pipe shall be deformed either by full scale or simulated deformation (see Appendix B A1202-A1210) as stated by the Purchaser in the linepipe specification. (see Appendix A). as applicable. strained and aged 2) manufacturing procedure qualification CVN impact testing of the pipe body Hardness testing Welded pipe Tensile testing of weld metal (all weld test) CVN impact testing of the seam weld Hardness testing of the seam weld Notes 1) 2) 3) 4) Acceptance criteria I308 I308 Mechanical and corrosion testing shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. Not more than 100 pipes with D < 508 mm and not more than 50 pipes for D ≥ 508 mm. 309 If the supplementary requirement for sour service (S) and/or fracture arrest properties (F) is required. The samples shall be artificially aged at 250°C for one hour before testing. which shall represent the strain history ending up in tension. 12 o’clock position is defined as the top of the pipe when reeling on. 308 The following requirements shall be met after straining and ageing (see I306 and I307): — SMYS. longitudinal spec.7 – Page 87 Table 7-25 Additional testing for Supplementary requirement P 1) Production tests Type of pipe Type of test Extent of testing Acceptance criteria All pipe Tensile testing of the pipe body. see Appendix B A408. as relevant: — the elongation shall be minimum 15% — Charpy V-notch impact toughness and hardness shall be according to Table 7-5 or 7-11. longitudinal spec. dimensions (D) — longitudinal tensile testing — hardness testing in pipe mid wall thickness — Charpy V-notch impact toughness testing. Requirements for tolerances should be selected by the Purchaser considering the influence of dimensions and tolerances on the subsequent fabrication/installation activities and the welding facilities to be used. For full scale straining the test specimens. strained and artificially aged in accordance with I304. An increase or decrease in the cold-expansion ratio of more than 0.One test for one of the pipes provided for imen. I 400 Supplementary requirement. The cold-expansion ratio is designated by the Manufacturer. 306 The following testing shall be conducted of the base material after straining and ageing: — weld metal (all weld) tensile test — hardness testing (mid wall thickness) — Charpy V-notch test (transverse specimens). Test temperature shall be according to Table 7-6 or Table 7-11 as relevant. October 2010 Sec. SMTS and hardness shall be according to Table 7-5 or 7-11. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 305 Qualification for Supplementary requirement P may be based on historical data to be documented by the Manufacturer. 307 The following testing shall be performed of the longitudinal weld seam after straining and ageing: 401 Supplementary requirements for enhanced dimensional requirements for linepipe (D) are given in Table 7-26.Once per test unit of not more than 50/100 3) I303 imen of proportional type 2) pipes with the same cold-expansion ratio 4) Tests for Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test (all testing on strained and aged samples) Type of pipe Type of test Extent of testing All pipe Tensile testing of the pipe body. The relevant acceptance criteria shall be met.

512 In this situation. Alternative ways of documenting the same based upon earlier test results in the same production is allowed. the test unit shall be rejected.0 to ≤ 10.03. Notes 1) 2) For tolerances not specified in this table. then two (2) confirmatory tests taken from two (2) different pipes (a total of two tests) within the same test unit shall be performed. even if all tested pipes fulfil the requirements for the grade in question the pipes do not necessary fulfil the requirements for supplementary requirement U. the test unit shall be rejected.125 t – 0. four (4) re-tests taken from four (4) different pipes (a total of 4 tests).1 t Wall thickness t ≥ 25. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Confirmatory mechanical testing 506 If the mandatory test result falls between SMYS × 1. For seamless pipes delivered in the quenched and tempered condition testing may be conducted in the longitudinal direction. Guidance note: The outlined test regime is required to be able to meet Supplementary requirement U. the test unit is acceptable. 509 Re-testing of failed pipes is not permitted. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Mandatory mechanical testing 503 The testing frequency shall comply with Table 7-7 or Table 7-12. If all re-tests meet SMYS. 505 If the result from the mandatory testing falls below SMYS. treatment or testing. no further testing is required in order to accept the test unit. 511 If a test unit has been rejected after re-testing (I507 and I508 above).0 mm ± 0. the test unit is acceptable.0 mm ± 0. enhanced tolerances and/or increased frequency of inspection 1) Type of pipe Characteristic to be tested Pipe diameter Frequency of Tolerances inspection All Diameter pipe ends Each pipe end As per Table 7-17 Out-of-roundness. machining.0075 D.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.0 to ≤ 20. preparation. the re-test program given in I508 shall apply.8 mm 2) Wall thickness t ≥ 20. 5.0 mm ± 1. but max.0 mm Each pipe +0. 504 If the results from the mandatory testing meet the requirement SMYS × 1. The testing scheme applies to production in excess of 50 test units. the Manufacturer may conduct re-heat treatment of the test unit or individual testing of all the remaining pipes in the test unit.5 mm. October 2010 Page 88 – Sec. D/t2 ≤ 75 610 < D ≤ 1422 0. two (2) re-tests taken from each of two (2) different pipes within the same test unit shall be tested (a total of 4 tests).0 mm ± 0. 3. If one of the re-tests fall below SMYS the test unit shall be rejected. Subject to agreement a larger plus tolerance for metallurgically clad pipes may be applied.7 Table 7-26 Supplementary requirements D. If one or both of the confirmatory tests fall below SMYS. within the same test unit. If the total rejection of all the pipes within one test unit exceeds 15%. Re-testing 507 If the result from the mandatory testing falls below SMYS.5 mm 2) Wall thickness t > 6. 510 If the test results are influenced by improper sampling. and a new test performed. pipe ends. If the four re-tests meet SMYS. as applicable.03 and SMYS. I 500 Supplementary requirement. 508 If one or both of the confirmatory tests fail to meet SMYS.0 mm ± 0. 502 The test regime given in this sub-section intends to ensure that the average yield stress is at least two standard deviations above SMYS. shall be tested. If the confirmatory tests meet SMYS.0 mm SAW pipe Wall thickness t ≤ 6. supplementary requirement U does only consider the SMYS at ambient temperature in the transverse direction.0 mm SMLS Wall thickness 15. the re-test program given in I507 shall apply. including the pipes failing the mandatory and/or confirmatory tests. Re-qualification of the MPS is required if the agreed allowed variation of any parameter is exceeded.0 mm 2) Geometric deviations (peaking and flats) 10% of pipe 0.1 t. the test sample shall be replaced by a correctly prepared sample from the same pipe. the dimensional tolerances in Table 7-17 to Table 7-19 shall apply. the Manufacturer shall investigate and report the reason for failure and shall change the manufacturing process if required. but max.005 D or 1.0 mm ≤ t < 25. but as stated above. whichever is less ends where D = specified nominal outside diameter t = specified nominal wall thickness. If any of the re-tests fall below SMYS.6 mm 2) Wall thickness t > 10. the test unit is acceptable. high utilisation (U) 501 For welded pipes.

Class C for non-sour and Class CS for sour service Flanges B500 ISO 15590-3. located 120-180° apart) and the allowable temperature difference between them — the centering tolerances for the coil — the number of water nozzles and flow rate. Components not covered by ISO standards 103 Pipeline components not covered by any specific ISO standard (see B201). expansion loops and pipe strings for reeling and towing. 302 (8. and to the construction of assemblies such as risers.6. October 2010 Sec. fabrication and testing of linepipe. B 300 Induction bends – additional and modified requirements to ISO 15590-1 301 The ISO 15590-1 paragraph number is given in brackets. tees. Components covered by ISO standards 102 The following types of components shall be manufactured and tested in accordance with the ISO standards listed in Table 8-1 and the additional and modified requirements given in B300 . valves etc. General A 100 Objective 101 This section specifies requirements to the construction of pipeline components. The carbon equivalent (Pcm) of thermo-mechanical formed or rolled C-Mn DET NORSKE VERITAS . — the steel type and grade — the number and location of the pyrometers used (minimum two. shall be prepared by the Purchaser. Table 8-1 Manufacture and testing of pipeline components Components Requirements for manufacture and testing Reference code and applicable class or designation 1) given in this section Bends B300 ISO 15590-1. in addition to requirements for the different components in Subsection B according to Table 8-1. The maximum carbon equivalent (CE) of quenched and tempered or normalised C-Mn steel mother pipe (delivery condition N or Q. single or multiple extruded headers. Component Requirements B 100 General 101 Reference to requirements for manufacture and testing of components are listed in Table 8-1. Designation (L) for non-sour and designation (LS) for sour service Valves B600 ISO 14723 Mechanical connectors B700 not covered by specific reference code CP Insulating joints B800 Anchor flanges B900 Buckle and fracture arrestors B1000 Pig traps B1100 Repair clamps and repair couplings B1200 Notes 1) 2) The listed reference codes only cover C-Mn steels. 7-4. manufacture.COMPONENTS AND ASSEMBLIES A. 303 (8.B600: B 200 Component specification 201 A component specification reflecting the results of the materials selection (see Sec. flanges and connectors. B. A 200 Application 201 This Section is applicable to pressure containing components (e. caps.) used in the submarine pipeline system. Fittings include: Elbows.2) The chemical composition of C-Mn steel mother pipe.7. 202 Design of components shall be in accordance with Sec.8 – Page 89 SECTION 8 CONSTRUCTION . including the backing steel of clad mother pipe. for other materials reference is given to this section.1) The following additional requirements shall be stated in the MPS: — — — — induction bends fittings flanges valves.g. A 300 Quality assurance 301 Requirements for quality assurance are given in Sec. 7-20 or 7-21 in Sec. shall comply with the general requirements given in the following subsections: — materials shall be in accordance with Subsection C — manufacture shall be in accordance with Subsection D — mechanical and corrosion testing of components covered in this subsection shall be in accordance with Subsection E. Corresponding requirements for the material processing and the manufacture of components shall be specified. 203 Materials selection for components shall be in accordance with Sec.5 F. Tee’s.6 B200).2 B500. Class C for non-sour and Class CS for sour service Fittings2) B400 ISO 15590-2. reducers and transition sections. and referring to this section of the offshore standard. bends. shall be in agreement with the composition for the linepipe grades listed in Tables 7-3. The specification shall state any additional requirements to and/or deviations from this standard pertaining to materials.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. respectively) shall be according to Table 8-2.

4.3 and Table 2) The following parameters shall be additional to or modification of the essential variables given in Table 2: — Heat of steel: This essential variable shall be replaced by: Change in ladle analysis for C-Mn steels outside ± 0.3) For bends with wall thickness greater than 25 mm (intrados .5) The three indicated surface hardness readings (per circumferential location) shall be located at the bend extrados.43 390 0. 402 The ISO 15590-2 paragraph number is given in brackets.7. B 400 Fittings. 312 (9. 310 (9.4. Bends may be made from spare sections of normal linepipe.7)Gauging shall be performed as specified in the Component specification.6 C302 shall be provided.5% and maximum 3% for the body — the included angle between the centrelines of the straight portions of the bend shall be within ±0. In addition to the test pieces sampled 2 mm below the outer surface. October 2010 Page 90 – Sec. max. 316 (11) Marking requirements shall be specified to distinguish between bends manufactured and tested to the requirements above and unmodified ISO 15590-1 bends.02% C. particularly pipe manufactured from TMCP plate. — Any change in the stated tolerances for coil centring. 314 (9.7 E107 does not apply.7. If this is impractical. 315 (9. and large enough (e. where Sec. hardness values up to 275 HV10 are acceptable in the outside cap layer. and Acceptance criteria for the additional testing shall be according Appendix D. Mother pipe of CRA clad C-Mn steel should preferably be longitudinally welded pipe manufactured from roll bonded plate ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — — — — H800. Mother pipe shall be subjected to NDT as required for linepipe in Sec. 313 (9. alternative designs shall be considered in order to avoid peak stresses at the bar ends.additional requirements to ISO 15590-2 401 The following components shall be defined as fittings: Elbows. maximum 3 mm. tees and wyes . the supplementary requirements F. Bars of barred tees and wyes shall not be welded directly to the high stress areas around the extrusion neck. reducers and transition sections. but not smaller. for RT of welds H700 or H800. or any change in nominal chemical composition for CRA's.5 mm/min or ± 10%.4.4. ± 0. for DP of welds in duplex stainless steel.02 CE and/or ± 0.7. 403 (6. However. — Any change in the number and size of cooling nozzles and flow rate or water pressure.5) Heat treatment equipment and procedures shall be in accordance with D500. D or U are not applicable to bends. and — end squareness shall be within ± 0. — Any change in number and position of pyrometers used and in the allowable temperature difference between the pyrometers. 404 (7) The information required in Sec. It is recommended that the bars transverse to the flow direction are welded to a pup piece.6) Ovality of cross sections shall be kept within the specified tolerances.6) For metallographic evaluation of CRA or clad induction bends.8) If hydrostatic testing of bends is specified. DET NORSKE VERITAS .40 360 0.6 C300. Guidance note: Hot expanded mother pipe may experience dimensional instability after post bending heat treatment.7 C400 and C500.03 in Pcm. tees.02 higher than as required in Table 7-4. 245 0. 309 (Table 3 and 9. Table 8-2 Carbon equivalent values for mother pipe SMYS CE 1). if agreed. — Bending radius: Qualified MPS qualifies all larger radii. 405 (8) The following additional information shall be provided: 305 All mother pipe shall be mill pressure tested in accordance with Sec.44 450 0. Dimensional control shall include the following additional or modified tests and acceptance criteria: — ID at bend ends (always measure ID) shall be within ± 3 mm — out-of-roundness of bend ends shall be maximum 1. single or multiple extruded headers. It should be noted that linepipe.2) Tees and headers shall be of the integral (nonwelded) reinforcement type. 5x outer diameter) to allow passage of inspection vehicles when relevant. the testing shall be performed accordance with G100.5°. 306 (8. for UT of welds in duplex stainless steel H800.2) For C-Mn steel bends intended for sour-service. whichever is the greater.46 555 0.36 290 0. Surface hardness testing using portable equipment shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B.47 Note 1) According to Table 7-3 the same number of specimens shall be sampled from the midwall thickness position in the following locations: — — — — transition zone base metal (if applicable) bend extrados base metal bend intrados base metal bend weld metal.45 485 0. see Sec.75° — identification of weld seam location.4. the neutral axis. Subsection E. and the bend intrados. The bend radius shall be as specified by the Purchaser.8 steel mother pipe (delivery condition M) shall be maximum 0.after bending). Outlets shall normally be extruded but other manufacturing methods may be used. Induction bends shall not be produced from CRA lined steel pipe. — Forming velocity: ± 2. the acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with in Sec.38 320 0. 307 (8. additional CVN testing shall be performed during MPS qualification testing. 311 (9. 308 (9. P. caps. may not have adequate hardenability to achieve the required mechanical properties after induction bending and subsequent post bending heat treatment.43 415 0. for UT of welds in C-Mn steel H200.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.g.5) The following additional NDT testing shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D (as applicable): 304 The chemical composition of mother pipe for CRA materials shall meet the applicable requirements for the relevant material type and grade given in Sec. and that the bars parallel to the flow direction are welded to the transverse bars only.

for UT of plate material with acceptance criteria according to the corresponding requirements of Appendix D. October 2010 Sec.4. for visual inspection D200. 410 (Table 2) Inspection. for duplex stainless steel forgings C206 through 213. for C-Mn steel forgings — Appendix D D300.7 or Appendix D C200. in accordance with Table 8-4.and process control procedures.2) Test pieces shall be taken according to E101 and E103. Location of test specimens shall be in accordance with E100.4. manufacturing procedure specification and heat treatment batch — surface hardness tests shall be performed on two fittings per test unit — metallography of duplex stainless steel fittings with the largest thickness exceeding 25 mm shall be performed as one per test unit — HIC testing shall be performed for qualification of the MPS for fittings in Class CS manufactured from rolled material.2) Starting material shall be subject to 100% NDT at an appropriate stage of manufacture according to: — the test unit definition shall be amended to: Fitting or test piece of the same designation. 502 (7) The following additional information shall be pro- DET NORSKE VERITAS . 414 (11) Marking requirements shall be specified to distinguish between fittings manufactured and tested to the requirements above and unmodified ISO 15590-2 fittings. for UT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel B400. starting material wall thickness.2) Welding and repair welding shall be performed in accordance with qualified procedures meeting the requirements in Appendix C. and — manufacturing processes including process. and C500. for C-Mn/low alloy steel forgings D300. for UT of welds in starting materials other than pipe — Appendix D D200. for UT of welds in duplex stainless steel B500. for visual inspection of welds. the following additional information shall be provided: — plan and process flow description/diagram — order specific quality plan including supply of material and subcontracts. for MT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel B600. Acceptance criteria shall be according to the corresponding requirements of Appendix D. for UT of a 50 mm wide band inside ends/bevels C221. Subject to agreement. B 500 Flanges and flanged connections . and at-site installation recommendations. 413 NDT shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D (as applicable): — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — C400.8 – Page 91 The MPS should specify the following items. as applicable: a) For the starting material — delivery condition — chemical composition.3. for RT of welds in starting materials other than pipe — Appendix D B300 or B400 as applicable. for MT of ends/bevels C222.additional requirements to ISO 15590-3 501 The ISO 15590-3 paragraph number is given in brackets. for duplex stainless steel forgings — Appendix D C200.3) Heat treatment equipment and procedures shall be in accordance with D500. for residual magnetism. 409 (9. for overlay welds D400. 407 (8. equivalent NDT standards with regard to method and acceptance criteria may be applied. heat. — Appendix D B200. and — 25Cr duplex stainless steel fittings shall be corrosion tested for qualification of the MPS. and — NDT of fitting bodies shall be performed according to B512. Class C with the following additional requirements: — C-Mn steel and duplex stainless steel pipe shall be tested as required in Sec. — 25Cr duplex stainless steel fittings shall be corrosion tested as required in Table 8-4. for RT of welds B300. for PT of ends/bevels B200. 411 (Table 3) The extent of testing and examination shall comprise the following additional requirements: For “one-off” fittings designed and manufactured for a specific purpose.2 — metallographic examination for welds and body of duplex stainless steel fittings shall be performed and in accordance with Appendix B and with acceptance criteria according to E300 — HIC testing shall be performed on fittings in Class CS manufactured from rolled material as required in Table 8-4 — the body of fittings manufactured from plates and pipes shall be subject to 100% magnetic particle testing for CMn steels and 100% dye penetrant/eddy current testing for duplex stainless steel — the extrusion area for tees and headers with adjoining pipe wall thickness ≥ 12 mm shall be subject to 100% volumetric ultrasonic and 100% magnetic particle testing for CMn steels and 100% volumetric ultrasonic and 100% dye penetrant/eddy current testing for duplex stainless steel — the extrusion area for tees and headers with adjoining pipe wall thickness < 12 mm shall be subject to 100% magnetic particle testing for C-Mn steels and 100% dye penetrant/ eddy current testing for duplex stainless steel — overlay welds shall be tested 100%. loading and shipping procedures. b) For fitting manufacture — — — — — — NDT procedures hydrostatic test procedures dimensional control procedures coating and protection procedures handling. 408 (8. 412 (Table 2 and 9. for DP of welds in duplex stainless steel C300. testing and acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with Class C with the following additional requirements: — the chemical composition for components shall be modified according to C200 — the chemical composition of duplex stainless steel materials shall be according to C300 — Mechanical and hardness testing of weld seams as required by Appendix B — the CVN test temperature shall be 10°C below the minimum design temperature — Surface hardness testing of fittings of Class CS shall be performed with acceptance criteria according to 9. for visual inspection of forgings B800. 406 (8.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.3.5) NDT of each completed fitting shall be performed in accordance with the Table 2. and — NDT procedures for examination of starting materials.

4.4. — Surface hardness testing shall be performed once per test unit for flanges in class LS. in accordance with Appendix D. If defects are found in any tested flange. 605 (7. 514 (9. — The chemical composition of duplex stainless steel materials shall be according to C300. all flanges of the same size. Liquid penetrant testing shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D. acceptance criteria to E200 or E300. Flanges of the same size. D200 or ISO 13664. Ultrasonic testing of C-Mn/low alloy steel forgings shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D. Manufacturing procedure specification 603 A manufacturing procedure specification in accordance with D100 shall be documented. 518 Sealing rings shall be capable of withstanding the maximum pressure to which they could be subjected. Flanged connections 517 Sealing rings shall be compatible with the finish and surface roughness of the flange contact faces.5) Metallographic examination of duplex stainless steel shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B.6) Bolting shall meet the requirements of Sec. delivery condition. A percentage test is not permitted. impact and through thickness hardness shall be performed once per test unit with the test unit defined as. with acceptance criteria according to Sec. 100% ultrasonic testing of the first 10 flanges of each type and size ordered. 7. D300 or ISO 12095. 509 Hardness indentation locations shall be according to Table 8-4.6 C400. Visual examination shall be in accordance with Appendix D D400. and weld overlay. 510 (9. chemical composition and mechanical properties at design temperature — required testing — corrosion resistant weld overlay.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.4) The extent. 516 (11) Marking requirements shall be specified to distinguish between flanges manufactured and tested to the requirements above and unmodified ISO 15590-3 flanges. 513 Magnetic particle testing shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D. heat. 607 (8) Welding shall be performed according to qualified welding procedures meeting the requirements of Appendix C. Testing of overlay welds shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D C300.7) Materials shall be specified to meet the requirements given in subsection C.8 vided: — required design life — nominal diameters. hardness and corrosion testing of flanges shall be performed as required by E100.2 & Table 4) — The chemical composition for flanges shall be modified according to C200. (9. 507 (Table 3) Mechanical testing shall be performed in accordance with the Table 3 with the following additional requirements: — Tensile. 515 (9.5) The impact test temperature shall be 10°C below the minimum design temperature 606 (7.9) Repair welding of flange bodies is not permitted. D200. 604 (7. 602 (Annex B) The following additional information shall be provided: — — — — — — — design standard required design life minimum design temperature (local) maximum design temperature (local) design pressure (local) water depth. C600.5. heat. If no defects are found during the testing of the first 10 flanges of each type and size ordered the extent of testing may be reduced to 10% of each size and type. D300.7) Corrosion testing of duplex stainless steel shall be according to Table 8-4. 505 (8. with acceptance criteria according to E300. OD or ID. — Metallographic examination for duplex stainless steel flanges shall be performed according to E100. — Mechanical. 512 (9.1) The MPS shall be in accordance with D100. corrosion resistant and/or wear resistant. 506 (8.6 C400.4. B 600 Valves – Additional requirements to ISO 14723 601 The ISO 14723 paragraph number is given in brackets. 519 Bolts shall meet the requirements given in Sec. D500 and for overlay welds only.6) For flanges with specified dimensions and tolerances different from ISO 7005-1. as well as installation forces if flanges are laid in-line with the pipeline. All flanges shall be subject to 100% visual inspection. these specified requirements shall be met. 511 (9.4 and 7.g. October 2010 Page 92 – Sec. method and type of NDT of C-Mn/low DET NORSKE VERITAS . manufacturing procedure specification and heat treatment batch shall be 100% tested. 504 (8. manufacturing procedure specification and heat treatment batch. equivalent NDT standards with regard to method and acceptance criteria may be applied. nominal longitudinal strain) — material type and grade. Acceptance criteria for forgings shall be in accordance with the corresponding requirements of Appendix D.4) The extent of NDT shall be100% magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic materials and 100% liquid penetrant testing of non magnetic materials. Ultrasonic testing of duplex stainless steel forgings shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D. Sealing rings for flanges shall be made from metallic materials that are resistant to the fluid to be transported in the pipeline system. out of roundness and wall thickness for adjoining pipes including required tolerances — dimensional requirements and tolerance if different from ISO 7005-1 — minimum design temperature (local) — maximum design temperature (local) — external loads and moments that will be transferred to the component from the connecting pipeline under installation and operation and any environmental loads (e.6 & 9.7 C400. 508 (Table 5) The impact test temperature for C-Mn steel and low alloy flanges shall be 10°C below the minimum design temperature for all thicknesses and categories. 503 (8) Overlay welding shall be performed according to qualified welding procedures meeting the requirements of Appendix C. Subject to agreement. 608 (9.5.4) Heat treatment equipment and procedures shall be in accordance with D500. Mechanical properties shall be maintained at the anticipated in service pressures and temperatures.1.5) 100% ultrasonic testing of the final 50 mm of each end of the flange shall be performed.

or according to specified requirements. for UT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel B400. October 2010 Sec. Annex E. Annex E with the following amendments: For UT 2. B 700 Mechanical connectors 701 These requirements apply to manufacture and testing of end connections such as hub and clamp connections connecting a pipeline to other installations. 805 Insulation joint shall be forged close to the final shape (if applicable). for RT of welds B300. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 703 End connections shall be forged. for duplex stainless steel forgings C220. and C500. 705 If hydrostatic testing is specified. for residual magnetism. manufacture and testing of insulating joints.5 times the design pressure Pressure cycling from minimum to maximum design pressure 10 times at both minimum and maximum design temperature. The qualification programme should as a minimum contain the following elements: — — — — bending to maximum design bending moment Tension to maximum design tension Pressure testing to 1. 612 Valves with requirements for fire durability shall be qualified by applicable fire tests. The extent and type of NDT of duplex stainless steels shall be in accordance with ISO 14723. for RT of castings C221.2) Hydrostatic shell tests shall be performed in accordance with ISO 14723. Machining of up to 10% of the local wall thickness at the outside of the component is allowed. NDT shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D (as applicable): — — — — — — — — — — — — — — C400. for C-Mn/low alloy steel forgings D300. for visual inspection of forgings B800. 806 The extent of NDT shall be: — 100% magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic materials and 100% liquid penetrant testing of non magnetic materials — 100% ultrasonic testing of forgings — 100% ultrasonic or radiographic testing of welds — 100% magnetic particle testing / liquid penetrant testing of welds — 100% visual inspection.8 – Page 93 alloy steels shall be in accordance with ISO 14723.” 804 For manufactures without previous experience in the design. for MT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel B600. for UT of welds in duplex stainless steel B500. for visual inspection of welds. for residual magnetism. Acceptance criteria for NDT shall be in accordance with ISO 14723. 610 (10.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. for C-Mn/low alloy steel castings E300. hydraulic fatigue test and the combined pressure-bending test / electrical leakage tests shall be performed and the results recorded. Clause 10.5) Repair welding of forgings is not permitted. the method shall be according to Appendix D. for MT of ends/bevels C221. the test shall be performed according to G100. for overlay welds D400. for duplex stainless steel forgings E200. for visual examination of castings B800. one joint should be manufactured and destructively tested for the purpose of qualifying the design and materials of the joint. for MT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel B600. for DP of welds in duplex stainless steel C300. for DP of ends/bevels B200. for visual inspection D200. VT 2 and VT 3 the acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with Appendix D of this standard. for duplex stainless steel castings E400. Acceptance criteria shall be according to the corresponding requirements of Appendix D. Acceptance criteria shall be according to the corresponding requirements of Appendix D. In addition. The extent and type of NDT of weld overlay shall be in accordance with ISO 14723. for DP of ends/bevels B200. QL 2 requirements. If high voltage surge protection is not provided in the construction period insulating joints shall be fitted with a temporary short-circuit cable clearly tagged with the instruction “not to be removed until installation of permanent high voltage surge protection. Refer to API 6FA and BS 6755 Part 2 for test procedures. after full tests the joint should be cut longitudinally into sections to confirm the integrity of the insulation and fill materials and the condition of the O-ring seals. 702 Bolting shall meet the requirements of Sec. Before and after testing the resistance and electrical leakage tests should show the same and stable values. for DP of welds in duplex stainless steel C300. Annex E. Annex E. 807 Prior to hydrostatic testing. 611 (11) Marking requirements shall be specified to distinguish between valves manufactured and tested to the requirements above and unmodified ISO 14723 valves. QL 2 requirements. QL 2 requirements. Methods shall be according to Appendix D of this standard. 808 Hydrostatic strength test of each insulating joint shall be performed with a test pressure 1. in the construction period. for UT of welds in duplex stainless steel B500. for visual inspection of welds C500. monolithic coupling type of insulating joints for onshore applications. for visual inspection of forgings E500. 802 CP Insulating joints shall be manufactured from forgings 803 Insulating joints shall be protected from electrical high current high voltage from welding and lightening etc. 609 (9. for RT of welds B300. for overlay welds D400. for C-Mn/low alloy steel forgings D300. for UT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel B400.6 C400. for visual inspection D200.5 times the design pressure. — 100% magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic materials and 100% liquid penetrant testing of non magnetic materials. NDT 704 The extent of NDT shall be: B 800 CP Insulating joints 801 These requirements apply to manufacture and testing of boltless. for MT of ends/bevels C222. — 100% ultrasonic testing of forgings and castings — 100% RT of critical areas of castings — 100% ultrasonic or radiographic testing of welds — 100% magnetic particle testing / liquid penetrant testing of welds — 100% visual inspection NDT shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D (as applicable): — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — C400.

809 Hydraulic fatigue of each insulating joint shall be performed. methods and acceptance criteria for NDT shall comply with the requirements of the design code. The acceptance criteria are no water leakage or permanent distortion. 1102 Testing and acceptance criteria for qualification of welding procedures shall comply with the requirements of the design code or with the requirements of Appendix C. Materials for Components C 100 General 101 The materials used shall comply with internationally recognised standards. 102 Sampling for mechanical and corrosion testing shall be performed after final heat treatment. C-Mn steel shall be fully killed and made to a fine grain practice. if more stringent. The joint shall be pressurised to the specified hydrostatic test pressure and simultaneously be subjected to an external 4 point bending load sufficient to induce a total (bending plus axial pressure effect) longitudinal stress of 90% of SMYS in the adjoining pup pieces. cast and forged components shall be in accordance with recognised — 100% magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic materials and 100% liquid penetrant testing of non magnetic materials — 100% ultrasonic testing of forgings — 100% ultrasonic or radiographic testing of welds — 100% magnetic particle testing / liquid penetrant testing of welds — 100% visual inspection NDT shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D (as applicable): — — — — — C400. Acceptance criteria shall be according to the corresponding requirements of Appendix D. and C500. for residual magnetism. No significant changes in electrical leakage shall be accepted. B 1000 Buckle. for visual inspection D200. 816 Electrical leakage tests shall be performed to assess any changes which may take place within a joint after hydrostatic testing. for visual inspection of welds. all isolating joints shall be leak tested with air or nitrogen. Essential variables for welding procedures shall comply with the requirements of the design code Production welding shall comply with the requirements in Appendix C. The FAT shall consist of: — dielectric testing — electrical resistance testing — electrical leakage tests. strength. 813 Prior to testing insulating joints shall be stored for 48 hours at an ambient temperature between 20 and 25°C and a relative humidity of 93%. toughness. At the completion of the test cycles the pressure shall be increased to the hydrostatic test pressure and maintained for 30 minutes. C 200 C-Mn and low alloy steel forgings and castings 201 These requirements are applicable to C-Mn and low alloy steel forgings and castings with SMYS ≤ 555 MPa. for MT of ends/bevels C221. in the final condition. for duplex stainless steel forgings C220. hydraulic fatigue test and the combined pressure-bending test.and fracture arrestors 1001 The material for buckle and fracture arrestors and manufacture. 810 One insulating joint per size/design pressure shall also be tested to meet the specified bending moment requirements.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 812 The FAT shall be performed according to the accepted FAT programme. and corrosion resistance.e. subsection A and B100 shall apply. for UT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel B400.2kV increasing to 5. for DP of ends/bevels DET NORSKE VERITAS . 815 Electrical resistance testing shall be carried out at 1000 V DC. B 1100 Pig traps 1101 Materials shall comply with the requirements of the design code or with the requirements of this section. for MT of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel B600. The test duration shall be 2 hours. 1103 The extent. The acceptance criterion is: no leakage. hardenability. provided that such standards have acceptable equivalence to the requirements given in Sec. The test is acceptable if no breakdown of the insulation or surface arcing occurs during the test and a maximum leakage of current across the insulation of 1 mA.8 unless otherwise specified. The tightness shall be checked by immersion or with a frothing agent. inspection and testing shall be in accordance with Subsec. if more stringent. The test is acceptable if the electrical resistance is minimum 25 MOhm. i. and to the specified holding time in general accordance with G100. The testing shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B and E100. 202 All steels shall be made by an electric or one of the basic oxygen processes. October 2010 Page 94 – Sec.E or Sec.60 Hz to the joint. Modification of the chemical composition given in such standards may be necessary to obtain a sufficient combination of weldability. The current shall be applied gradually. B 900 Anchor flanges 901 Anchor flanges shall be forged. starting from an initial value not exceeding 1. for UT of welds in duplex stainless steel B500. for DP of welds in duplex stainless steel D400. 203 The chemical composition for hot-formed. ductility.7 and this section. for visual inspection of forgings B800. 1104 Hydrostatic testing shall comply with the requirements of the design code B 1200 Repair clamps and repair couplings Repair clamps and repair couplings to be installed according to RP-F113 shall be manufactured and tested in general accordance with this section and based on materials selection according to Sec. The test shall consist of 40 consecutive cycles with the pressure changed from 10 barg to 85 percent of the hydrostatic test pressure. There shall be no leakage or pressure loss during the test. 902 The extent of NDT shall be: — — — — — — — — B200.7. C. In addition the requirements of Appendix D. Use of higher strength materials shall be subject to agreement. 814 Dielectric testing shall be performed by applying an AC sinusoidal current with a frequency of 50 . for RT of welds B300. for C-Mn/low alloy steel forgings D300. The joints shall be leak tested at 10 barg for 10 minutes.0kV in a time not longer than 10 seconds and shall be maintained at peak value for 60 seconds.6. 811 After hydrostatic testing.

October 2010 Sec. hardness. 208 Castings shall be delivered in homogenised. the following additional information shall be provided: — Plan and process flow description/diagram — Order specific quality plan including supply of material and subcontracts — Manufacturing processes including process. hardness and Charpy Vnotch impact properties are given in E200. 104 The MPS should be project specific and specify the following items as applicable: — starting materials — — — — — — — manufacturer steel making process steel grade product form. 204 If the temperature falls below the working temperature the work piece shall be returned to the furnace and re-heated before resuming forging. 204 For materials to be quenched and tempered.and process control procedures — welding procedures — heat treatment procedures — NDT procedures — list of specified mechanical and corrosion testing — hydrostatic test procedures — functional test procedures — dimensional control procedures — FAT procedures — marking. to the final size with a minimum reduction ratio of 4:1.-------------------------------.7 C400. loading and shipping procedures — at-site installation recommendations. forgings and castings 301 All requirements with regard to chemical composition for 22Cr and 25Cr duplex stainless steel shall be in accordance with Sec. The MPS shall address all factors which influence the quality and reliability of production. 206 Weld repair of forgings is not permitted. normalised and stress relieved or homogenised.50. 502 The sulphur content of C-Mn and low alloy steel forgings and castings shall not exceed 0. delivery condition chemical composition welding procedure specification (WPS) NDT procedures. 302 Acceptance criteria for tensile.7. 205 The identity and traceability of each work piece shall be maintained during the forging process. D. 503 Pipe and plate material used for fabrication of components shall meet the requirements given in Sec. 102 Components shall be manufactured in accordance with a documented and approved MPS. D 300 Casting 301 Casting shall be performed in general compliance with ASTM A352. quenched and tempered condition. shall be covered in detail. the mechanical testing should be conducted after simulated heat treatment. 403 In case post weld heat treatment is required. For “one-off” components and other components designed and manufactured for a specific purpose. all requirements to chemical composition.8 – Page 95 international standards. 103 The MPS shall demonstrate how the fabrication will be performed and verified through the proposed fabrication steps. 209 For C-Mn and low alloy materials delivered in the quenched and tempered condition. 303 Duplex stainless steel castings and forgings shall be delivered in the solution annealed and water quenched condition. 207 Forgings shall be delivered in normalised or quenched and tempered condition. C 300 Duplex stainless steel. 202 The work piece shall be heated in a furnace to the required working temperature. Charpy Vnotch impact properties and corrosion tests are given in E300. The chemical composition shall be selected to ensure an acceptable balance between sufficient hardenability and weldability. C 500 Sour Service 501 For components in pipeline systems to be used for fluids containing hydrogen sulphide and defined as “sour service” according to ISO 15156.7 I100.------------------6 5 15 206 Acceptance criteria for tensile. coating and protection procedures — handling. References to the procedures and acceptance criteria established for the execution of all steps shall be included.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. — Manufacturing — supply of material and subcontracts — manufacturing processes including process. All main fabrication steps from control of received material to shipment of the finished product(s). the tempering temperature shall be sufficiently high to allow effective post weld heat treatment during later manufacture / installation (if applicable). when calculated in accordance with: CE = C + Mn + Cr + Mo + V + Cu + Ni ------. 205 For C-Mn steels the maximum Carbon Equivalent (CE) shall not exceed 0. including all examination and check points. maximum hardness. a hardenability assessment shall be performed to ensure that the required mechanical properties are met. Each forged product shall be hot worked as far as practicable. unless otherwise specified. D 200 Forging 201 Forging shall be performed in compliance with the accepted MPS. Manufacture D 100 Manufacturing procedure specification (MPS) 101 The requirements of this subsection are not applicable to induction bends and fittings that shall be manufactured in accordance with B300 and B400 DET NORSKE VERITAS . Minimum tempering temperature shall be 610°C when PWHT will be applied. 203 The working temperature shall be monitored during the forging process. and manufacturing and fabrication procedures given in the above standard shall apply.and process control procedures. C 400 Pipe and plate material 401 Pipe and plate material shall meet the requirements in Sec. 402 For welded pipe it shall be assured that the mechanical properties of the material and longitudinal welds will not be affected by any heat treatment performed during manufacture of components.010%.

respectively. ASTM A991). The maximum temperature of the quenchant shall never exceed 40°C. The testing shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. 103 If agreed. 107 A sketch indicating the final shape of the component and the location of all specimens for mechanical testing shall be issued and accepted prior to start of production. and 60 seconds for duplex stainless steels. 504 Whenever practical thermocouple(s) should be attached to one of the components during the heat treatment cycle. D 400 Hot forming 401 Hot forming shall be performed to according to an agreed procedure containing: nace volume shall be within ± 10°C. and mass are representative of the actual component. provided that the wall thickness in no place is below the minimum designed wall thickness. both for furnace control and recording of component temperature calibration intervals for furnace temperature stability and uniformity and all thermocouples fixtures and loading conditions heating and cooling rates temperature gradients soaking temperature range and time maximum time required for moving the component from the furnace to the quench tank (if applicable) cooling rates (conditions) type of quenchant (if applicable) start and end maximum temperature of the quenchant (if applicable). components of the same size and material. 502 If PWHT in an enclosed furnace is not practical. The temperature shall be monitored. temperature during forming operation temperature maintenance/control recording equipment position of the longitudinal seam methods for avoiding local thinning post bending heat treatment (duplex stainless steel: full solution annealing and water quenching) — hydrostatic testing procedure — NDT procedures — dimensional control procedures. E. 304 Defects deeper than those allowed by D303 may be repaired by welding.e. separate test coupons may be allowed providing they are heat treated simultaneously with the material they represent. 403 For duplex stainless steel material. D 700 NDT NDT shall be performed in accordance with Appendix D. Temperature measurements of the quenchant shall be performed 508 The hardness of the accessible surfaces of the component shall be tested. The hardness for C-Mn or low alloy steels and duplex stainless steels shall be in accordance with E200 and E300. casting or forging shall be performed on material taken from one prolongation or component from each test unit (i. The uniformity test shall be conducted in accordance with a recognised standard (e. 106 Sampling for mechanical and corrosion testing shall be performed after final heat treatment. forging reduction. Excavations for welding shall be ground smooth and uniform and shall be suitably shaped to allow good access for welding. Mechanical and Corrosion Testing of Hot Formed.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. including extrusion of branches. 503 The heat treatment equipment shall be calibrated at least once a year in order to ensure acceptable temperature stability and uniformity. from each heat and heat treatment batch) shall be tested as given in Table 8-4. 104 A simulated heat treatment of the test piece shall be performed if welds between the component and other items such as linepipe are to be PWHT at a later stage or if any other heat treatment is intended. See also Appendix D. D 600 Welding Welding and repair welding shall be performed in accordance with qualified procedures meeting the requirements of Appendix C.8 302 A casting shall be made from a single heat and as a single unit. The ground areas shall merge smoothly with the surrounding material. preferably by cross flow to ensure adequate cooling rate. 108 For 25Cr duplex stainless steels corrosion testing — — — — — — — — — — — — — heating facilities furnace insulation (if applicable) measuring and recording equipment.e. the time from the components are leaving the furnace until being immersed in the quenchant shall not exceed 90 seconds for low alloy steel. The component shall be allowed to cool in still air. 507 The volume of quenchant shall be sufficient and shall be heavily agitated. This is particularly important for large thickness components. The maximum extent of repair welding should not exceed 20% of the total surface area. the hot forming shall be conducted between 1000 and 1150°C. local PWHT shall be performed according to Appendix C. shall be performed below 1050°C. as applicable: 102 All mechanical testing shall be conducted after final heat treatment. wall thickness and bend radius heating/cooling rates max/min. 303 Castings may be repaired by grinding to a depth of maximum 10% of the actual wall thickness. i. G400. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — — — — — — — — — — — sequence of operations heating equipment material designation pipe diameter. Cast and Forged Components E 100 General testing requirements 101 Testing of mechanical properties after hot forming. 505 Components should be rough machined to near final dimensions prior to heat treatment. 305 All repair welding shall be performed by qualified welders and according to qualified welding procedures. The temperature stability and uniformity throughout the fur- DET NORSKE VERITAS . 105 The CVN test temperature shall be 10°C below the minimum design temperature.g. Guidance note: The extent and amount of machining of forgings and castings prior to heat treatment should take into account the requirements for machining to flat or cylindrical shapes for ultrasonic examination. D 500 Heat treatment 501 Heat treatment procedures for furnace heat treatment shall as a minimum contain the following information: 506 For components that shall be water quenched. in the final condition. and the material thickness. October 2010 Page 96 – Sec. 402 Hot forming of C-Mn and low alloy steel.

3) Tensile test 3 One specimen in tangential direction from the thickest section 1/4T below the internal surface One mid thickness specimen in both tangential and axial direction from the area with highest utilisation (after final machining). of tests 1) Test location.6) Metallographic sample 3 As for the CVN impact testing sets Hardness testing 7) 3 As for the CVN impact testing sets HIC and SSC test 8) 1 In accordance with ISO 15156 ASTM G48 9) 1 See E108 Notes 1) 2) For CVN impact testing one test equals one set which consist of three specimens. component with section thickness ≥ 25 mm DET NORSKE VERITAS . For components intended for sour service the hardness shall according to Sec. T ≤ 50 mm. from any second surface. Testing shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. a total of 2 sets) CVN impact testing of the thickest 3 One set in the tangential direction 2 mm below the internal surface section of the component for section thickness ≥ 25 mm 5. For Tees and Wyes both main run and branch weld necks shall be tested. orientation. A minimum of 3 hardness measurements shall be taken on each sample.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. E 200 201 Acceptance criteria for C-Mn and low alloy steels shall meet the requirements for linepipe with equal SMYS as given in Sec. Only applicable to C-Mn and low alloy steel. For test pieces (components) having maximum section thickness. The notch shall be perpendicular to the component's surface.g. and location of test specimens per tested component Type of test No. For test pieces (components) having maximum section thickness. For welded components. The section thickness is in the radial direction in the as-heat treated condition. October 2010 Sec. e.g. e. Only applicable for 25Cr duplex steels. T > 50 mm. at 50°C. Tensile. the weld neck area 4) CVN impact testing. hardness and Charpy V-notch impact properties Table 8-4 Number. Only applicable for rolled C-Mn steels not meeting the requirements in C500. 202 The hardness for components intended for non-sour service shall not exceed 300 HV10. 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Figure 1 Location of tensile and CVN specimens. as shown in Figure 1 2. Internal and external surface refers to the surfaces of the finished component. the test specimens shall be taken at mid-thickness and the mid-length shall be at least 50 mm from any second surface. whichever is less. the test specimens shall be taken at least 1/4 T from the nearest surface and at least T or 100 mm.7 B400.8 – Page 97 according to ASTM G48 shall be performed in order to confirm that the applied manufacturing procedure ensures acceptable microstructure. axial and tan6 One set in each direction (axial and tangential) taken from the same locations as the gential specimens 5) two tensile specimens described above for the relevant wall thicknesses4) (thick section and high utilisation section. the testing shall also include testing of the welds in accordance with Appendix C. The test period shall be 24 hours.7 I100.

F 300 Fabrication procedures and planning 301 Before production commences. pipe lengths. This may include welding of girth welds. pipe strings for reeling and towing 201 Linepipe shall comply with the requirements. 403 A system for ensuring correct installation of materials and their traceability to the material certificates shall be established. 303 For ASTM G48 testing the acceptance criteria is: maximum allowable weight loss 4. coating and protection procedures and — handling. 305 Due consideration shall be given to the access and time required for adequate inspection and testing as fabrication proceeds. 502 Attention shall be paid to local effects on material properties and carbon contamination by thermal cutting. loading and shipping procedures. 503 Forming of material shall be according to agreed procedures specifying the successive steps. 406 If damaged pipes or other items are replaced. cumulative length. manufacturer and manufacturing location of material — fabrication processes — fabrication process procedures — fabrication process control procedures — welding procedures — heat treatment procedures — NDT procedures — pressure test procedures — list of specified mechanical and corrosion testing — dimensional control procedures — marking. Expansion Loops. hardness and Charpy V-notch impact properties shall meet the requirements for linepipe as given in Sec. Fabrication of Risers. F 500 Cutting. 202 Forged and cast material shall as a minimum meet the requirements given in this section. It may be required to mark a band on top of the pipe string to verify if any rotation has occurred during installation.7 C400. the sequential marking shall be maintained. F 400 Material receipt. 303 The MPS shall. NDT. 506 Welding shall meet the requirements given in Appendix C. expansion loops. 307 The procedures prepared by the fabricator shall be submitted for acceptance prior to start of fabrication. References to the procedures and acceptance criteria established for the execution of all steps shall be included.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. welding and heat treatment 501 The Contractor shall be capable of producing welded joints of the required quality. 504 The fabrication and welding sequence shall be such that the amount of shrinkage. 306 Due consideration during fabrication shall be given to the control of weight and buoyancy distribution of pipe strings for towing. shrinkage or cracking. in-line assemblies and repair numbers. pipe strings etc.8 203 Specimens for hardness testing shall be examined. pipe numbers. other welds. prior to testing. shall be covered in detail. debris. Preheating of the area to be cut may be required. Relevant documentation of the Contractor's capabilities shall be available if requested by the Purchaser. F 600 Hydrostatic testing 601 Hydrostatic testing shall be performed to established procedures meeting the requirements of G100. at a magnification of not less than x100. overlay welding and post weld heat treatment. 304 The MPS shall be submitted for acceptance prior to start of fabrication DET NORSKE VERITAS . until welding has progressed to a stage where the holding devices or tack welds can be removed without danger of distortion. size and colour of the marking shall be suitable for reading by ROV during installation. Suitable allowances shall be made for distortion and shrinkage where appropriate. identification and tracking 401 All material shall be inspected for damage upon arrival.7. procedures. assembly. F 200 Materials for risers. distortion and residual stress is minimised. anode installation. The location. including supplementary requirements (as applicable) given in Sec.e.7. other suitable devices. including all examination and check points. Quantities and identification of the material shall be verified. The type of microstructure and actual grain size shall be recorded on the materials testing report. The cleaning method shall not cause damage to any internal coating. Pipe Strings for Reeling and Towing F 100 General 101 The following requirements are applicable for the fabrication of risers. the fabricator shall prepare an MPS. E 300 Acceptance criteria for duplex stainless steels 301 Tensile. 405 The individual pipes of pipe strings shall be marked in accordance with the established pipe tracking system using a suitable marine paint.0 g/m2. 404 A pipe tracking system shall be used to maintain records of weld numbers. storage and all fabrication activities. 302 The MPS shall demonstrate how the fabrication will be performed and verified through the proposed fabrication steps. or tack welds. The identification of material shall be preserved during handling. The specification shall be subject to agreement prior to start of production. All main fabrication steps from control of received material to shipment of the finished product(s). extent of testing. 505 Members to be welded shall be brought into correct alignment and held in position by clamps. and other contamination. as a minimum. i. F. acceptance criteria and required documentation. Damaged items shall be clearly marked. October 2010 Page 98 – Sec. C400. 302 The metallographic samples shall comply with the requirements of Sec. segregated and disposed of properly. Carbon contamination shall be removed by grinding off the affected material. forming. bends. 402 Pipes shall be inspected for loose material. expansion loops. The system shall be capable of detecting duplicate records. Grain-size measurement shall be performed in accordance with ASTM E112. 102 The fabrication shall be performed according to a specification giving the requirements for fabrication methods. and shall be cleaned internally before being added to the assembly. The MPS shall address all factors which influence the quality and reliability of production. contain the following information: — plan(s) and process flow description/diagram — project specific quality plan including supply of material and subcontracts — fabrication processes used — supply of material.

114 During testing. methods. DET NORSKE VERITAS . If the instruments and test equipment have been in frequent use. 105 Welds shall not be coated. Where the test acceptance is to be based on pressure observation the holding time at test pressure shall be not less than 2 hours. Hydrostatic Testing G 100 Hydrostatic testing 101 Prior to the performance of the pressure test the test object shall be cleaned and gauged. 102 The extent of the section to be tested shall be shown on drawings or sketches. Considerations shall be given to pre-filling valve body cavities with an inert liquid unless the valves have provisions for pressure equalisation across the valve seats. include: — — — — — Test drawings or sketches pressure and temperature recorder charts log of pressure and temperatures calibration certificates for instruments and test equipment calculation of pressure and temperature relationship and justification for acceptance. 703 For welds where allowable defect sizes are based on an ECA. volume. and in accordance with a recognised code.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 802 Dimensional verification of pipe strings for towing shall include weight. equipment. and sensitivity.25 times the specified test pressure. the test pressure can be reduced to a pressure that produce an equivalent stress of 96% of SMYS in the pup piece. All instruments and test equipment shall possess valid calibration certificates with traceability to reference standards within the 6 months preceding the test. shall be positioned close to the test object and the distance between the devices shall be based on temperature gradients along the test object. 104 Testing should not be performed against in-line valves. repeatability. 109 Where the test acceptance is to be based on observation of pressure variations calculations showing the effect of temperature changes on the test pressure shall be developed prior to starting the test. unless possible leakage and damage to the valve is considered. ultrasonic testing shall supplement radiographic testing. and tested to withstand the maximum test pressure. 103 End closures and other temporary testing equipment shall be designed. 115 The pressure test shall be acceptable if: G.0°C.05 bar. and the distribution of weight and buoyancy. 100% visual inspection shall only be acceptable where there is no risk that a leak may go undetected due to prevailing environmental conditions. F 900 Corrosion protection 901 Application of coatings and installation of anodes shall meet the requirements of Sec. 108 The following requirements apply for instruments and test equipment: — During a 100% visual inspection there are no observed leaks and the pressure has at no time during the hold period fallen below 99% of the test pressure. Thin primer coatings may be used where agreed. The limits of the test. 702 Welds where the acceptance criteria are based on the acceptance criteria in Appendix D shall be subject to 100% radiographic or ultrasonic testing based on the requirements to applicable and preferred NDT methods is given in Appendix D. painted or covered. whichever is longer. if used. mechanical connectors etc. 116 Documentation produced in connection with the pressure testing shall. 112 The test pressure shall be according to the specified requirement. 706 Requirements for personnel. Blocking off or removal of small-bore branches and instrument tappings should be considered in order to avoid possible contamination. F 800 Dimensional verification 801 Dimensional verification should be performed in order to establish conformance with the required dimensions and tolerances. and — Pressure and temperature recorders are to be used to provide a graphical record of the pressure test for the total duration of the test. and temperature shall be calibrated for accuracy. G 200 Alternative test pressures 201 For components fitted with pup pieces of material identical to the adjoining pipeline. 202 If the alternative test pressure in G201 can not be used and the strength of the pup piece is not sufficient: — Testing shall be performed prior to welding of pup pieces. and acceptance criteria for NDT are given in Appendix D. flanges. as applicable. — Testers shall have a range of minimum 1. — Temperature-measuring instruments and recorders shall have an accuracy better than ± 1. all welds.8 – Page 99 F 700 NDT and visual examination 701 All welds shall be subject to 100% visual inspection. The elevation of the test instruments shall serve as a reference for the test pressure. 113 Where the test acceptance is to be based on 100% visual inspection the holding time at test pressure shall be until 100% visual inspection is complete or 2 hours. October 2010 Sec. with an accuracy better than ± 0. under pressure shall be visually inspected for leaks. procedures. Temperature measuring devices. Filling procedure shall ensure minimum air pockets. 110 The test medium should be fresh water or adequately treated sea water. and the valve is designed and tested for the pressure test condition. The final 5% up to the test pressure shall be raised at a reduced rate to ensure that the test pressure is not exceeded. or — The test pressure profile over the test hold period is consistent with the predicted pressure profile taking into account variations in temperatures and other environmental changes. 106 Instruments and test equipment used for measurement of pressure. end closures and the location and elevation of test instruments and equipment shall be shown. All test equipment shall be located in a safe position outside the test boundary area. unless automated ultrasonic testing is performed 704 Requirements to automated ultrasonic testing systems are given in Appendix E. 705 All NDT shall be performed after completion of all cold forming and heat treatment. where relevant. temporary blind flanges.1 bar and a sensitivity better than 0. 111 Pressurisation shall be performed as a controlled operation with consideration for maximum allowable velocities in the inlet piping up to 95% of the test pressure. they should be calibrated specifically for the test.9. Time shall be allowed for confirmation of temperature and pressure stabilisation before the test hold period begins. fabricated. The weld between component and pup piece is regarded a pipeline weld and will be tested during pipeline system testing. 107 Gauges and recorders shall be checked for correct function immediately before each test.

12. Records. and retained during the subsequent activities. 106 Equipment and components shall be adequately protected from harmful deterioration from the time of manufacture until taken into use. Certification and Marking H 100 General 101 All base material. The marking shall. provide correlation of the product with the related inspection documentation. — identification the products covered by the certificate with reference to heat number. Documentation.8 H. October 2010 Page 100 – Sec.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. The inspection certificate shall include: 102 Records from the qualification of the MPS and other documentation shall be in accordance with Sec. as a minimum. etc. fittings and.1 according to European Standard EN 10204 or accepted equivalent. 104 The marking shall be such that it easily will be identified. shall be delivered with Inspection Certificate 3. flanges. — dimensions and weights of products — the results (or reference to the results) of all specified inspections and tests — the supply condition and the temperature of the final heat treatment. heat treatment batch etc. 105 Other markings required for identification may be required. 103 Each equipment or component item shall be adequately and uniquely marked for identification. DET NORSKE VERITAS .

sometimes referred to as an “inspection plan” or “quality plan”) shall be prepared and submitted to the purchaser for acceptance. that the coating manufacturing procedure specification (MPS). including ferritic-austenitic (duplex) and martensitic stainless steel. handling and storage of coating materials — surface preparation and inspection — coating application and monitoring of essential process parameters — inspection and testing of coating — coating repairs and stripping of defect coating — preparation of cut-backs (for linepipe coating) — — — — — — — — submerged weight/negative buoyancy thickness concrete density compressive strength water absorption impact resistance (e. essential process parameters. water. also referred to as an “application procedure qualification test”. The ITP shall refer to the individual manufacturing and inspection/testing activities in consecutive order. The requirements in ISO 15589-1 shall then apply. 203 An inspection and testing plan (ITP. DNV-RP-F102 also covers field repairs of linepipe coating. “procedure qualification trial” or “pre-production trial”) should be executed and accepted by the purchaser before starting the coating work. 102 The design and quality control during manufacture of field joint coatings is essential to the integrity of pipelines in HISC susceptible materials. — manufacture (application) of external pipeline coatings including field joint coatings — manufacture (application) of concrete weight coatings — manufacture of galvanic anodes — installation of galvanic anodes. The purchaser may specify that the above documentation shall be submitted for approval prior to the start of production and any PQT (see B202). testing and calibrations. 102 The objectives are to ensure that the external corrosion control system and any weight coating are manufactured and installed to provide their function for the design life of the systems. with emphasis on quality control procedures. define methods/standards. reinforcement). As to the last item above. DET NORSKE VERITAS . The following items shall be described in the procedure specification: C. prior to the start of regular production. October 2010 Sec. 202 Manufacture and installation of any impressed current CP systems for landfalls is not covered by this standard. and coating properties (functional requirements) shall be defined in a purchase specification.CORROSION PROTECTION AND WEIGHT COATING A. Project specific requirements to quality control (including pipe tracking and documentation) and marking shall also be described in the purchase documentation. frequency of inspection/testing.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Some general requirements to steel reinforcement are recommended in C203 and C204. B 200 Coating materials. The following coating properties may be specified as applicable: — receipt. it is a further objective to ensure that the fastening does not impose any damage or hazards affecting the integrity of the pipeline system. traceability and handling of non-conformities — handling and storage of coated pipes (for linepipe coating) — documentation. over-trawling capability) flexibility (bending resistance). coating application and inspection/testing of coating 201 All coating work shall be carried out according to a project specific “manufacturing procedure specification” (MPS. Compliance with DNV-RP-F102 is recommended. and to the associated quality control. especially for coating systems which rely on a curing process to achieve the specified properties. B. and acceptance criteria. 202 A coating pre-production qualification test (PQT.g. The purpose of the qualification is to confirm. 204 Inspection and testing data. checking/calibrations. Recommended minimum requirements to some of the above properties are given in C202 below. respectively. coating materials. Material data sheets for coating. also referred to as “application procedure specification”). and to provide mechanical protection of the corrosion coating during installation and throughout the pipeline's operational life. additives. External Corrosion Protective Coatings B 100 General 101 Properties of the coating (as-applied) and requirements to quality control during manufacture shall be defined in a purchase specification. These documents are applicable to the preparation of coating specifications and can also be used as a purchase document if amended to include project and any owner specific requirements. surface preparation. and cutbacks. aggregates. Reference shall be made to applicable procedures for inspection. Such specifications shall define the requirements to properties of the coatings and anodes. DNV-RP-F106 and DNV-RP-F102 give detailed requirements and recommendations to the manufacture of linepipe coatings and field joint coating. 102 Requirements to raw materials (cement. A 200 Application 201 This section is applicable to the preparation of specifications for manufacture and installation of external corrosion control systems and for the manufacture of concrete weight coating during the construction phase. General A 100 Objective 101 This section gives requirements and guidelines on: — marking. blasting and any other surface preparation materials may either be included in the MPS or in a separate document. Concrete Weight Coating C 100 General 101 The objectives of a concrete weight coating are to provide negative buoyancy to the pipeline. tools/equipment and personnel to be used for production are adequate to achieve the specified properties of the coating.9 – Page 101 SECTION 9 CONSTRUCTION . repairs and checking/calibrations of equipment for quality control shall be recorded in a “daily log” that shall be updated on a daily basis and be available to the purchaser on request at any time during coating production.

For manufacturing of other types of anodes than pipeline bracelet anodes. The plan shall define the methods and frequency of inspection. Installation of Galvanic Anodes E 100 Anode installation 101 Installation of anodes shall meet the requirements in ISO 15589-2. C 300 Inspection and testing 301 An inspection and testing plan (ITP) shall be prepared 103 For each anode type/size. 208 Procedures for repair of uncured / cured coatings and detailed criteria for repairs (e. testing and calibrations. anode gross weight and other details as specified in a purchase document 104 A procedure for electrochemical testing of anode material performance during anode manufacturing is given in Appendix A of DNV-RP-B401 and in Annex D of ISO 15589-2. Electrical contact with anodes for CP shall be avoided. unless otherwise agreed. max repair areas for different types of coating damage) shall be subject to agreement. Pipes with deficient coating exceeding 10% of the total coating surface shall be recoated. reference is made to DNV-RPB401. repairs. The average percentage of steel to concrete surface area in circumferential direction and longitudinal direction sections should be minimum 0.g. including calibrations of equipment coating repairs (see F209) pipe tracking. As a minimum.1. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — impingement application — compression coating — slip forming. it shall be located within the middle third of the concrete coating. anode casting.1. 204 When a single layer of reinforcement is used. Anodes should be delivered according to ISO 10474. the coating manufacturer shall document that the materials. The curing process should ensure no significant moisture loss for 7 days and/or a minimum compressive strength of 15 MPa. The purchaser may specify that the MPS shall be subject to approval prior to start of production and any PQT.e. Handling of non-conforming coating materials and as-applied coating shall be described. whilst the recommended minimum coverage is 15 mm and 20 mm for coatings with specified minimum thickness ≤ 50 mm and > 50 mm respectively. and documentation. Manufacture of Galvanic Anodes D 100 Anode manufacture 101 Requirements to anode manufacture shall be detailed in a purchase specification (‘anode manufacturing specification’). The purchaser may specify a pre-production qualification test for documentation of certain properties such as impact resistance and flexibility (bending strength). 206 Rebound or recycled concrete may be used provided it is documented that specified properties are met and the purchaser has accepted. DNV RP-F103 gives some additional requirements DET NORSKE VERITAS . average of 3 core specimens per pipe): 40 MPa (ASTM C39) — maximum water absorption: 8% (by volume). marking and coating documentation handling and storage of coated pipes. 202 The concrete constituents and manufacturing method shall provide the following recommended minimum requirements to as-applied coating properties: — minimum thickness: 40 mm — minimum compressive strength (i. Inspection Certificate 3. respectively. The recommended minimum distance from the corrosion protective coating is 15 mm.08%.g. 105 Marking of anodes shall ensure traceability to heat number. It is further recommended that the inspection and testing results are compiled in a ‘daily log’. anode core preparations. Guidance note: The requirement for an ITP is an amendment to ISO 15589-2. E. Overlap for wire mesh reinforcement should be minimum 25 mm. 302 Inspection shall include weighing and measurements of outside concrete diameter for each individual pipe. essential process parameters and calibrations of equipment for quality control shall be recorded in a “daily log” that shall be updated on a daily basis and be available to the purchaser on request at any time during coating production. Requirements and guidance for preparation of these documents and to a ‘pre-production qualification test’ are given in DNV-RP-F103.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Inspection Certificate 3. DNV-RPF103 refers to this document for anode manufacture and gives some additional requirements and guidance. The following items shall be described: — — — — — — — coating materials.5% and 0. Steel bars should have a diameter of 6 mm minimum. acceptance criteria and requirements to documentation. primarily for procedures and documentation associated with quality control. 303 Inspection and testing data. 102 An “Inspection and Testing Plan” (ITP) for manufacture of bracelet anodes. October 2010 Page 102 – Sec. testing and calibration. 207 The curing method shall take into account any adverse climatic conditions. Reference shall be made to applicable specifications and procedures for inspection. the spacing between circumferential bars should be maximum 120 mm.B or EN 10204. Before starting coating production. the manufacturer shall prepare a detailed drawing showing location and dimensions of anode inserts. (testing of coated pipe according to agreed method). The following recommendations apply: For welded cages. 203 The concrete coating shall be reinforced by steel bars welded to cages or by wire mesh steel. Acceptance criteria for all inspection and testing shall be subject to agreement. shall be prepared and submitted to the purchaser for acceptance. all areas with exposed reinforcement shall be repaired.9 C 200 Concrete materials and coating manufacture 201 All coating work shall be carried out according to a manufacturing procedure specification (MPS). inspection and testing. limits for alloying and impurity elements) and anode core materials. handling and storage reinforcement design and installation coating application and curing inspection and testing. marking and handling of anodes. 205 The concrete may be applied according to one of the following methods: and submitted to the purchaser for acceptance in due time prior to start of production. procedures and equipment to be used are capable of producing a coating of specified properties. The manufacturer of bracelet anodes shall prepare a ‘manufacturing procedure specification’ (MPS) describing anode alloy (e. and — minimum density: 1900 kg/m3 (ASTM C642). coating of bracelet anode surfaces facing the pipe surface. A manufacturing specification for pipeline bracelet anodes shall cover all requirements in ISO 15589-2. The purchaser may further specify seawater adsorption tests after completed curing and compression tests of core samples from applied coatings. including receipt. D.

electrical contact between concrete reinforcement and the anodes shall be avoided. reference is made to DNV-RP-B401. primarily for quality control. Most CP related HISC damage to pipeline components in CRA’s have occurred at welded connections of galvanic anodes to the pipe walls. forced clamping of anodes is applicable in combination with electrical cables attached to anodes and pipeline by brazing. for many applications. To secure adequate fastening of pipeline bracelet anodes for compatibility with the applicable installation techniques. Guidance note: Guidance note: The requirement above is an amendment to ISO 15589-2.6 D500). October 2010 Sec.9 – Page 103 and guidelines. However. Any spillage of filling compound on the external anode surfaces shall be removed.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 104 For linepipe to be concrete weight coated. For installation of anodes on such structures. no welding for anode fastening (including installation of doubling plates) shall be carried out on linepipe or other pressure containing components. DET NORSKE VERITAS . CP can be provided by anodes attached to other structures electrically connected to the pipeline (see Sec. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 103 All welding or brazing of anode fastening devices and connector cables shall be carried out according to a qualified procedure (see Appendix C of this standard) to demonstrate that the requirements in ISO 13847 to maximum hardness (welding/brazing) and copper penetration (brazing including ‘aluminothermic welding’) are met. polyurethane or similar. 102 For martensitic and ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steels and for other steels with SMYS > 450 MPa. unless specified by or agreed with the pipeline owner. The gaps between the anode half shells may be filled with asphalt mastic.

The following shall. Further requirements for quality assurance are given in Sec. including normal and contingency situations. acceptance criteria and associated documentation required to verify that the properties and integrity of the pipeline system meet the requirements of this standard.2 B500. and that the results can be verified. 504 The installation manual shall be updated/revised as needed as installation proceeds. anchoring etc. equipment and documents to be used how the activity is performed in order to meet specified requirements — how the activity is controlled and documented. studies and documentation shall be prepared and agreed for the installation. the design activities. It is prepared in order to demonstrate that the methods and equipment used by the Contractor will meet the specified requirements.10 SECTION 10 CONSTRUCTION . risers. A 200 Application 201 This section is applicable to installation and testing of pipelines and rigid risers designed and manufactured according to this standard. For critical operations. The systematic analyses should be carried out as a failure mode effect analysis (FMEA) and hazard and operability studies (HAZOP). October 2010 Page 104 – Sec.2. testing. and Light Craft and Naval Surface Craft. in sufficient detail. records and certification required. A 600 Quality assurance 601 The installation Contractor shall as a minimum have an implemented quality assurance system meeting the requirements of ISO 9001 Quality management systems – Requirements or equivalent. General A 100 Objective 101 This section provides requirements as to which analyses. execution of welding and welding personnel are DET NORSKE VERITAS . requirements to installation methods and the processes to be employed and to the final result of the operations. The installation manual shall include all factors that influence the quality and reliability of the installation work. procedural HAZOP studies shall be performed. A 400 Installation and testing specifications and drawings 401 Specifications and drawings shall be prepared covering installation and testing of pipeline systems. 303 Special attention shall be given to sections of the pipeline route close to other installations or shore approaches where there is greater risk of interference from shipping. The manuals should include: — interface description — organisation. the essential variables and their acceptable limits shall be established. 502 The installation manual is a collection of the manuals and procedures relevant to the specific work to be performed. and the results of. 404 Requirements to the installation manual and the extent of tests. The results of the FMEA analysis or HAZOP studies (see A300) shall also be used in determining the extent and depth of verification of equipment and procedures. For FMEA. safety and environment manual emergency preparedness manual. A 700 Welding 701 Requirements for welding processes. 403 The requirements shall reflect the basis for. 302 The extent of analysis shall reflect the criticality of the operations and the extent of experience available from previous similar operations.INSTALLATION A. and shall address all installation steps. A 500 Installation manuals 501 Installation manuals shall be prepared by the various Contractors.0 Ch. be covered: — — — — — quality system manual mobilisation manual construction manual health. 402 The specifications and drawings shall describe. investigations and acceptance criteria required for qualification of the installation manual shall be included. protective structures etc. as a minimum. 503 The Contractor shall prepare procedures covering normal and contingency situations. and further to provide requirements for the installation and testing of the complete pipeline system which are not covered elsewhere in the standard. procedures and calculations review and qualification of procedures qualification of vessels and equipment review of personnel qualifications. and to ensure that effective remedial measures are taken. welding procedure qualification. 507 In cases where variations in manner of performance of an activity may give undesirable results.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.4 Sec. Reference is given to DNV-RP-H101 Risk Management in Marine and Subsea Operations. 506 Requirements to the installation manual and acceptance are given in the various subsections. The procedures shall describe: — — — — purpose and scope of the activity responsibilities materials. A 300 Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) and Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) studies 301 Systematic analyses of equipment and installation operations shall be performed in order to identify possible critical items or activities which could cause or aggravate a hazardous condition. and shall state requirements for the parameters to be controlled and the allowable range of parameter variation during the installation. including examinations and check points. shall be stated. reference is made to DNV Rules for Classification of High Speed. as well as the extent and type of documentation. 505 The installation manuals are subject to agreement through: — — — — review of methods. The type and extent of verification. Pt. responsibilities and communication — description of and commissioning procedures for the equipment and systems involved in the operation — limitations and conditions imposed by structural strength in accordance with the design — limitations on operations imposed by environmental conditions — references to the established operational and contingency procedures. The manual shall reflect the results of the FMEA analysis or HAZOP studies.

906 Production tests shall be subject to the non-destructive. 903 Production tests may. Survey and Preparation B 100 Pre-installation route survey 101 A pre-installation survey of the pipeline route may be required in addition to the route survey required for design purposes covered by Sec. If the ultrasonic testing is performed as automated ultrasonic testing. 808 Magnetic particle testing or liquid penetrant testing of non-ferromagnetic materials shall be performed to verify complete removal of defects before commencing weld repairs. the welding shall be suspended until the causes B.3 if: — — — — — the time elapsed since the previous survey is significant a change in seabed conditions is likely to have occurred the route is in areas with heavy marine activity new installations are present in the area seabed preparation work is performed within the route corridor after previous survey. A 900 Production tests 901 One production test is required for each Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) used for welding of the pipeline girth welds. 703 The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of weldments shall at least meet the requirements given in the installation and testing specifications. 806 If ultrasonic testing reveals defects not discovered by radiography. procedures. Pipeline Route. taking into account all stresses acting at the area of the repair. be completed at the first welding station before moving the pipe. to aid in characterising and sizing of ambiguous indications — testing to supplement radiographic testing for unfavourable groove configurations. the radiographic and magnetic particle/liquid penetrant testing may be omitted subject to agreement. For wall thickness above 25 mm additional random local spot checks during installation are recommended — testing to supplement radiographic testing for wall thickness above 25 mm.10 – Page 105 given in Appendix C.ferromagnetic materials shall be performed. all weld tensile. see Appendix E. 803 The extent of NDT for installation girth welds shall be 100% ultrasonic or radiographic testing. 809 Visual Examination shall include: — 100% examination of completed welds for surface flaws. the height of the deposited weld metal. and 100% magnetic particle testing or 100% liquid penetrant testing of non. acceptance criteria and the qualification and certification of personnel for visual examination and non-destructive testing (NDT) are given in Appendix D. appropriate corrective and preventative actions shall be initiated and the extent of production testing shall be increased. Tee-piece welds etc. This analysis shall consider the maximum misalignment allowed. Charpy V-notch fracture toughness (when applicable) and corrosion testing as required in Appendix C for Welding Procedure Qualification Testing (WPQT). preheating. 704 For weld repair at weld repair stations where the pipeline section under repair is subjected to tensile and bending stresses. to aid in detection of defects — 100% lamination checks of a 50 mm wide band at ends of cut pipe. the extent of ultrasonic testing shall be 100% for the next 10 welds. as a minimum. and for 100% lamination checks at re-bevelled ends of cut pipe.) 100% ultrasonic testing. 702 Requirements for mechanical and corrosion testing for qualification of welding procedures are given in Appendix B. — UT or automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) shall be performed whenever sizing of flaw height and/or determination of the flaw depth is required — 100% testing of the first 10 welds for welding processes with high potential for non-fusion type defects. A400. The analysis shall be performed in accordance with Appendix A. see Sec. be omitted in cases where fracture toughness testing during welding procedure qualification is not required by this standard. 805 Ultrasonic testing (UT) shall be used in the following cases: of the defects have been established and rectified. or for CMn steel linepipe with SMYS < 450 MPa.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 904 The extent of production tests shall be expanded if: — the Contractor has limited previous experience with the welding equipment and welding methods used — the welding inspection performed is found to be inadequate — severe defects occur repeatedly — any other incident indicates inadequate welding performance — the installed pipeline is not subjected to system pressure testing. prior to field joint coating — 100% examination of completed field joint coating. DET NORSKE VERITAS . The analysis shall determine the maximum excavation length and depth combinations that may be performed. shape and dimensions — 100% examination of the visible pipe surface. 807 For "Golden Welds" (critical welds e. The analysis shall consider the reduction of yield and tensile strength in the material due to the heat input from defect excavation. 902 Production tests should not be required for welding procedures qualified specifically for tie-in welds. A 800 Non-destructive testing and visual examination 801 Requirements for methods.g. flange welds. October 2010 Sec.5 B203. 804 For wall thickness > 25 mm. subject to agreement. 802 Requirements to automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) are given in Appendix E. 905 The extent of production testing shall be consistent with the inspection and test regime and philosophy of the pipeline project. 706 The root and the first filler pass shall. Radiographic testing should be supplemented with ultrasonic testing in order to enhance the probability of detection and/or characterisation/ sizing of defects. 100% radiographic testing. automated ultrasonic testing should be used. tie-in welds that will not be subject to pressure testing. a weld repair analysis shall be performed. etc. support conditions for the pipe and any dynamic effects. 705 The weld repair analysis shall be subject to agreement. equipment. the possible presence of flaws. If the results of this extended testing are unsatisfactory. Selection of non-destructive methods shall consider the requirements in Appendix D. 907 If production tests show unacceptable results. when starting installation or when resuming production after suspension of welding and when radiographic testing is the primary NDT method. Moving the pipe at an earlier stage may be permitted if an analysis is performed showing that this can be performed without any risk of introducing damage to the deposited weld material. and welding and also dynamic amplification due to weather conditions and reduced stiffness effect at field joints.

Different configurations for anchor patterns may be required for various sections of the DET NORSKE VERITAS . or impose restrictions on. 203 The extent of. 103 The extent of. anchor patterns and anchor positioning 301 Anchoring systems for vessels kept in position by anchors (with or without thruster assistance) while performing marine operations shall meet the following requirements: — instruments for reading anchor line tension and length of anchor lines shall be fitted in the operations control room or on the bridge. debris. the trench cross-section shall be specified and the trench shall be excavated to a sufficiently smooth profile to minimise the possibility of damages to the pipeline. The valid class shall cover all systems of importance for the safety of the operation. shall determine: C. C 200 Vessels 201 All vessels shall have valid class with a recognised classification society. submarine installations and other obstructions such as mines. B 400 Preparations for shore approach 401 The location of any other pipelines. rocks and boulders that might interfere with or restrict the installation operations shall be removed. coating and anodes. 402 Obstructions such as debris. anchor lines and anchor winches anchoring systems positioning and survey equipment dynamic positioning equipment and reference system alarm systems. including remote alarms when required general seaworthiness of the vessel for the region cranes and lifting appliances pipeline installation equipment (see. 203 Status reports for any recommendations or requirements given by National Authorities and/or classification societies. and also at the winch station — remotely operated winches shall be monitored from the control room or bridge. The laying tolerances shall be considered when the extent of seabed preparation is determined. B 300 Pipeline and cable crossings 301 Preparations for crossing of pipelines and cables shall be carried out according to a specification detailing the measures adopted to avoid damage to both installations. and the requirements for. 104 Manning level should comply with IMO's Principles of Safe Manning (IMO 23rd Session 2003 (Res. B 200 Seabed preparation 201 Seabed preparation may be required to: — remove obstacles and potential hazards interfering with the installation operations — prevent loads or strains that occur as a result of seabed conditions such as unstable slopes. sand waves. Further requirements to vessels shall be given in a specification stating requirements for: — potential new/previously not identified hazards to the pipeline and the installation operations — location of wrecks. Interfaces with other parties shall be defined. Support and profile over the existing installation shall be in accordance with the accepted design. Non-propelled vessels shall have similar manning and organisation as required for propelled units of same type and size. cables or outfalls in the area of the shore approach shall be identified and clearly marked. The requirements are applicable for the marine operations during installation work only. 936-965))"Principles of Safe Manning". 103 All personnel shall be qualified for their assigned work. Marine Operations C 100 General 101 These requirements are applicable for vessels performing pipeline and riser installation and supporting operations. The seabed and shore area shall be prepared to the state assumed in the design such that over-stressing in the pipeline during the installation and damage to coating or anodes is avoided.10 102 The pre-installation survey. related to the operation to be performed. 202 Vessels shall have a documented maintenance programme covering all systems vital for the safety and operational performance of the vessel. seabed preparation shall be specified.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. if required. rocks and boulders that might interfere with. 302 The specification shall state requirements concerning: — — — — — — — — — anchors. 202 Where trench excavation is required before pipelaying. 302 Anchor patterns shall be predetermined for each vessel using anchors to maintain position. and the requirements for. the pre-installation route survey shall be specified. deep valleys and possible erosion and scour from exceeding the design criteria — prepare for pipeline and cable crossings — infill depressions and remove high-spots to prevent unacceptable free spans — carry out any other preparation due to the nature of the succeeding operations. 102 The organisation of key personnel with defined responsibilities and lines of communication shall be established prior to start of the operations. C 300 Anchoring systems. D) any other requirement due to the nature of the operations. Key personnel shall have sufficient verbal communication skills in the common language used during operations. The operations should be monitored by ROV to confirm proper placement and configuration of the supports. The maintenance programme shall be presented in a maintenance manual or similar document. the installation operations — that the present seabed conditions confirm those of the survey required in Sec. by means of cameras or equivalent.3 — any other potential hazards due to the nature of the succeeding operations. October 2010 Page 106 – Sec. — minimum separation between existing installation and the pipeline — co-ordinates of crossing — marking of existing installation — confirmation of position and orientation of existing installations on both sides of the crossing — lay-out and profile of crossing — vessel anchoring — installation of supporting structures or gravel beds — methods to prevent scour and erosion around supports — monitoring and inspection methods — tolerance requirements — any other requirements. shall be available for review. 204 An inspection or survey shall be performed prior to mobilisation of the vessels to confirm that the vessels and their principal equipment meet the specified requirements and are suitable for the intended work. Specific requirements for installation equipment onboard vessels performing installation operations are given in the relevant subsections. and status of all maintenance completed in relation to the maintenance planned for a relevant period.

404 The positioning system shall provide information relating to: — Class 2 for operations < 500 m away from existing installations and for tie-in/riser installation operations — Class 3 for manned subsea operations or other operations where a sudden horizontal displacement of the vessel may have fatal consequences for personnel. 305 Each anchor pattern shall be clearly shown on a chart of adequate scale. and communication lines established — position prior to anchor drop is confirmed — anchor positions are monitored at all times. slings. ensuring that: — — — — — position relative to the grid reference system used geographical position offsets from given positions offsets from antenna position vertical reference datum(s). shall meet applicable statutory requirements. such as acoustic transponder array systems. C 800 Contingency procedures 801 Contingency procedures shall be established for the marine operations relating to: 405 Positioning systems shall have minimum 100% redundancy to allow for system errors or breakdown. grommets. placing of the pipeline. and shall have corresponding class notations from a recognised classification society as follows: — work site abandonment including emergency departure of the work location and when anchors cannot be recovered — mooring systems failure — any other requirement due to the nature of the operations. attention shall be paid to the anchor cable and the catenary of the cable. Use of ROV's to monitor and assist the operations should be considered. 304 Station-keeping systems based on anchoring shall have adequate redundancy or back-up systems in order to ensure that other vessels and installations are not endangered by partial failure. to maintain minimum clearance between the anchor cable and any subsea installations or obstacles. vessels with displacement > 5 000 t performing operations < 500 m away from existing installations or performing tie-in/riser installation operations may have Class 2 provided that the consequences of fire or flooding will not seriously affect the safety of the installation or the integrity of the pipeline. valid for the operations and conditions under which they will be used. D. 502 Subject to agreement and on a case by case basis.10 – Page 107 pipeline. 303 Anchor patterns shall be according to the results of a mooring analysis. 402 The accuracy of horizontal surface positioning systems shall be consistent with the accuracy required for the operation and sufficient to perform survey work. Distance to other installations and the possibility to leave the site in an emergency situation shall be considered. Care shall be taken in correlating different chart datum. shall be available on board for review. 406 Documentation showing that positioning systems are calibrated and capable of operating within the specified limits of accuracy shall be available for review prior to start of the installation operations. lifting appliances. shackles and pad-eyes. 306 Minimum clearances are to be specified between an anchor. if used. Additional requirements pertaining to specific installation methods are given in the following subsections. b) Vessels < 5 000 t displacement: — Class 1 for operations > 500 m away from existing installations. and shall be verified to have the required capacity for the proposed location. 703 All anchors transported over subsea installations shall be secured on deck of the anchor handling vessel. a) Vessels > 5 000 t displacement: — Class 1 for operations > 500 m away from existing installations — Class 3 for operations < 500 m away from existing installations and for tie-in/riser installation operations — Class 3 for manned subsea operations or other operations where a sudden horizontal displacement of the vessel may have fatal consequences for personnel. C 400 Positioning systems 401 Requirements for the positioning system and its accuracy for each type of vessel and application shall be specified. regardless of installation method. its cable and any existing fixed or subsea installations or other pipelines or cables.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 704 During anchor running. Certificates for the equipment. both for normal operations and emergency conditions. C 600 Cranes and lifting equipment 601 Cranes and lifting equipment including lifting gear. supporting structures or anchors within the specified tolerances. time of year and duration of operation. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Pipeline Installation D 100 General 101 The requirements of this subsection are generally applicable to pipeline installation.645 (Guidelines for Vessels with Dynamic Positioning Systems). using an agreed computer program. particularly in the vicinity of other installations and pipelines — any other requirement due to the nature of the operations is fulfilled. equipped and operated in accordance with IMO MSC/Circ. or with earlier NMD requirements for consequence class. 403 Installation in congested areas and work requiring precise relative location may require local systems of greater accuracy. October 2010 Sec. 702 Procedures for the anchor handling shall be established. 102 Interfaces shall be established with other parties that may be affected by the operations. especially in the vicinity of fixed installations and other subsea installations or other pipelines or cables. trenching vessel or other anchored vessels. and to establish reference points for local positioning systems. The responsibilities of all parties and lines of communication shall be established. — anchor locations are in compliance with the anchor pattern for the location — requirements of owners of other installations and pipelines for anchor handling in the vicinity of the installation are known. C 700 Anchor handling and tug management 701 Anchor handling vessels shall be equipped with: — a surface positioning system of sufficient accuracy for anchor drops in areas within 500 m of existing installations and pipelines — computing and interfacing facilities for interfacing with lay vessel. C 500 Dynamic positioning 501 Vessels using dynamic positioning systems for station keeping and location purposes shall be designed.

202 The installation manual shall cover all applicable aspects such as: — other calculations made as part of the installation scope. welding production tests — NDT equipment. HAZOP studies. welding procedures. engineering critical assessments for girth welds. procedures and calculations shall include: — welding procedures for production and repair welding (see Appendix C) — non-destructive testing procedures and automated NDT equipment (see Appendix D. testing of single tensioner failure when running two or three tensioners. subsea installations. installation procedures. shipping lanes.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. platforms. D 300 Review and qualification of the installation manual. NDT equipment and NDT equipment calibration beyond that allowed in Appendix D and Appendix E — weld repair lengths/depths in areas where the pipe is subject to bending moments/axial stress. production welding. 303 Qualification of vessels and equipment prior to start of work shall include: — dynamic positioning system test — combined review and dynamic positioning system/tensioner system tests (simulate vessel pull and tensioner failures and redundancy tests during pull) — tensioner system review test (test combinations of tensioners. engineering critical assessments for weld repair lengths. test redundancy of single tensioners. 305 Records from vessel qualification. control. e. 203 The installation manual shall be supported by calculations and procedures. to an extent that adequately covers the work to be performed. essential variables and validity 301 The review of methods. if any — supervisory personnel. including contingency procedures. welders and NDT personnel — communications and reporting — navigation and positioning — anchor handling. contingency procedures.g. and — Field coating personnel. and recording during all phases of installation activities — operating limit conditions — normal pipe-lay — anode installation (where applicable) — piggyback pipeline saddle installation (where applicable) — piggyback pipeline installation (where applicable) — pipe-lay in areas of particular concern. 302 Review and qualification of procedures shall as a minimum include: — spread. etc. visual examination and NDT of welds — weld repair analysis extent of weld repair at repair station. As a minimum. determined by ECA (see A700) — field joint coating and field joint coating repair — touchdown point monitoring — pipeline repair in case of wet or dry buckle — crossings — provisions for winter laying. 306 Essential variables shall as minimum be established for: — — — — — — Failure mode effect analysis. hauling. stacking and storage — maintaining pipeline cleanliness during construction — pipe tracking — repair of damaged pipe coating — internal coating repair — internal cleaning of pipe before and after welding — welder qualification — welding equipment. anchor patterns and catenary curves (if applicable) — dynamic positioning system (if applicable) — stress/strain and configuration monitoring. simulate main power loss and loss of signal power) — abandonment and recovery winch test (fail safe actions. and shall demonstrate that the pipeline can be safely installed and completed to the specified requirements by use of the dedicated spread. shore approach — vessel pull management system — abandonment and recovery — start-up and lay-down — method of buckle detection — installation of in-line assemblies and equipment — pipe handling. bevelling procedures. simulate main power loss and loss of signal power) — friction clamp test (fail safe actions and test clamps during vessel pull) — remote operated buckle detector — pipeline support geometry — stinger configuration and control devices — review of calibration records of critical/essential equipment.704) — changes in field joint coating procedure — operating limit conditions — any other requirement due to the nature of the operations. including modifications and upgrading. The maximum length/depth of excavation shall be determined by ECA calculations (see A. — vessel emergency bridging document describing co-ordination of safety management systems between the vessel contractor and the pipeline operator/licensee. — Lay barge survey party chief. Appendix E) — field joint coating and field joint coating repair procedures — internal and external coating repair procedures. including welding machines and automated NDT equipment — review of maintenance records for critical/essential equipment. — NDT operators qualification/certification records. inspectors. low temperature reservoirs in steel and concrete coating. 307 The validity of the installation manual is limited to the lay-vessel/spread where the qualification was performed and to the pipeline or section of pipeline in question.10 D 200 Installation manual 201 The laying Contractor shall prepare an installation manual. October 2010 Page 108 – Sec. visual examination and NDT procedures. prevention of ice build-up. including welding machines and automated NDT equipment — maintenance/calibration records of critical/essential equipment on support vessels. 304 Review of personnel qualifications shall include: — welders qualification/certification records. the installation manual shall include all documentation required to perform the installation. DET NORSKE VERITAS . weld repair. line-up clamps. testing and calibration shall be kept onboard and be available for review. removal of ice. — Allowable variations in stress/strain and configuration control parameters where variations beyond established limits may cause critical conditions during installation — variations in equipment settings/performance that can cause or aggravate critical conditions — changes in welding joint design and process parameters beyond that allowed in Appendix C — changes in NDT method. — welding inspectors and QC personnel qualification/ certification records.

and shall refer to objective. If the critical condition is weather dependent only. 407 If the critical values are about to be exceeded. the lay-down may be postponed subject to agreement. 403 The operating limit conditions shall be based on stress and strain calculations. 702 The installation vessel tensioning system arrangement shall therefore be such that: — the tensioners. and shall be supplemented by historical environmental data. it shall be possible to determine the stinger position and configuration by reference to position markings or indicators. Ch. that if buckle detection is not used during laying a higher safety class may be applied. subject to agreement. The forces applied shall be controlled such that no damage to the pipeline or coating will occur. operating limit conditions shall be established and agreed. The intention of the buckle detection is to identify a buckle at an early stage. and to maintain the loading on the pipeline within the specified limits.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. (1) This standard is not yet issued.4 C600. the pipeline shall be fully supported along the length of the vessel and on to the stinger by rollers. Reference is made to DNV-OS-H101 Marine Operations (1). D 500 Installation procedures 501 Installation procedures meeting the requirements of this standard. and rollers shall move freely. touch down point etc. and the accepted height and spacing of supports shall be permanently marked or otherwise indicated. Additional requirements — DNV Rules for planning and execution of marine Operations. without compromising the pipeline integrity — in case of tensioner failure or failure in the tensioner system. paragraph 3. the probability of a buckle event will be reduced. and subject to agreement. The support heights and spacing shall be related to a clear and easily identifiable datum. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Guidance note: The buckle detector (or equipment providing same degree of detect ability) shall be positioned in such a way that critical areas monitored (normally a distance after the touch down point). 704 Stingers shall be adjusted to the correct configuration to ensure a smooth transition from the vessel to the outboard stinger end. lay tension. the pipeline installation shall not re-start before the system has been repaired. The geometry shall be verified prior to laying. D 600 Contingency procedures 601 Contingency procedures meeting the requirements of this standard.1. Regular weather forecasts from a recognised meteorological centre shall be available onboard the lay vessel. 703 When applicable for the laying method. If a buckle detector is used the diameter of the disc shall be chosen DET NORSKE VERITAS . October 2010 Sec. The pipeline support geometry shall be verified prior to laying. The contingency procedures shall at least cover: — failure of dynamic positioning system — failure of tensioner system — failure of anchors and anchor lines Table 10-1 Safety class during installation Buckle detection requirement Low Buckle detection required (e.g. anodes and in-line assemblies. 2. by buckle detector or equipment providing similar degree of detection) Medium Buckle detection not required High Buckle detection not required Good control of installation parameters required (e.) and consequence of possible buckle is found acceptable Consequence of possible buckle is found acceptable Guidance note: The above implies. brakes and holding clamps shall be able to hold the pipeline throughout an accidental flooding. shall be prepared by the Contractor for agreement. the guidance provided in Table 10-1below may be used. preparations for lay-down shall commence. and if weather forecasts indicate that the weather condition will subside. The vertical and horizontal adjustment of the supports shall ensure a smooth transition from the vessel onto the stinger. shall be prepared by the Contractor for agreement. laying equipment and instrumentation 701 The tensioners shall operate in a fail-safe mode and shall have adequate pulling force. including all requirements of the installation and testing specifications. Supports shall prevent damage to coating. unless it can be demonstrated that the flooded pipe can be released safely and without damage to the laying vessel and the risk of such a release is found acceptable — the tensioning system shall have sufficient redundancy to prevent simultaneous breakdown of tensioners — the tensioner capacity shall have sufficient redundancy to allow failure of individual tensioners. see Sec. 705 Buckle detection should normally be used continuously during laying.g. 1. Continuous monitoring and recording of the measuring devices required for control of the operating limit conditions shall be performed during all phases of installation activities. Further. together with weather forecasts. the operational criteria shall account for uncertainties in both weather forecasts and monitoring of environmental conditions. holding force. Buoyant stingers shall be equipped with indication devices showing the position of the rollers relative to the water surface. planning of operation shall be based on an operational reference period. field joint coatings. 402 For weather restricted operations. critical values indicated by measuring devices. 405 Start of weather restricted operations is conditional to an acceptable weather forecast. 406 For weather restricted operations. braking capacity and squeeze pressure to maintain the pipe under controlled tension. vessel station keeping capability. Until issue.10 – Page 109 D 400 Operating limit conditions 401 The installation operation shall be classified as weather restricted operation or temporary condition. FMEA analysis or HAZOP study data. including all requirements of the installation and testing specifications. to maintain the loading on the pipeline within the specified limits. 404 If a systematic deviation between the monitored response and predicted response from a seastate is found this should be accounted for. If the stinger can be adjusted during laying operations. Pt. refer to: — ROV breakdown — breakdown of positioning system — other critical or emergency situations identified in FMEA analysis or HAZOP studies. tracks or guides that allow the pipe to move axially. 408 Decision to recover the pipeline shall be based on comparison of the actual seastate with the limiting seastate. D 700 Layvessel arrangement. By adopting a higher safety class during installation. The operating limit conditions shall be referred to in the procedure for stress/strain and configuration control.

---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 706 The abandonment and recovery (A & R) winch should be able to recover the pipeline when waterfilled. using a suitable quick-curing marine paint. The cleaning method shall not cause damage to any internal coating. Acceptable alignment. The location. Direct reading and processing of records from all required essential instrumentation and measuring devices. 707 A sufficient amount of instrumentation and measuring devices shall be installed to ensure that monitoring of essential equipment and all relevant parameters required for stress/strain and configuration control and control of the operating limit conditions can be performed.10 with regard to the pipeline diameter and tolerances on ovality. Measures shall — — — — total pipeline tension recorders tension at each tensioner tensioner setting and variance to set point (dead band). cumulative length. and the allowable range of parameter variation during installation. Essential equipment shall be provided with back-up. in-line assemblies and repair numbers. Winches: — abandonment and recovery winches shall be equipped with wire tension and length recorder — anchor winches shall meet the requirements given in C300. unless use of such clamps is demonstrated to be impracticable.9. the situation shall be investigated and remedial action performed. All measuring equipment shall be calibrated and adequate documentation of calibration shall be available onboard the vessel prior to start of work. a sonar is required for monitoring pipeline position with respect to the rollers on the stinger) — reaction load indicators (vertical and horizontal) on the first roller on the stinger — for installations that rely on a maximum force on the last roller on the stinger this shall be monitored by reaction load indicators or documented by other means — stinger configuration and tip depth for articulated stingers. 808 Field joint coating and inspection shall meet the requirements given in Sec. any sequential marking shall be maintained. heave water depth vessel draft and trim current strength and direction wind strength and direction direct or indirect indication of sagbend curvature and strain. debris and other contamination and cleaned internally before being added to the line. coating or anodes. The system shall be capable of detecting duplicate records. in the vicinity of existing installations and at pipeline and cable crossings. and indication of applied pulling. 804 A pipe tracking system shall be used to maintain records of weld numbers. and inspected for damage. 803 Pipes and in-line assemblies shall be inspected for loose material. Slings and other equipment used shall be designed to prevent damage. The buckle detector shall be retrieved and inspected if there is reason to believe that buckling can have occurred. All measuring equipment used shall be provided with an adequate amount of spares to ensure uninterrupted operation. size and colour of the marking shall be suitable for reading by ROV during installation and subsequent surveys. 802 All material shall be inspected for damage. checked to be within tolerance. 806 Pipes shall be bevelled to the correct configuration. 810 The buckle detector load chart. All material shipped for installation shall be recorded. Correlation of recorded data and pipe numbers shall be possible. D 800 Requirements for installation 801 Handling and storage of materials on supply and laying vessels shall ensure that damage to pipe. pitch. Internal line-up clamps shall be used. Storage of pipes shall be in racks and suitable shoring shall be used. The following instrumentation is required: Tensioners: under the seastates expected for the operation in question. holding and squeeze pressure. shall be possible at the vessels bridge. 811 The position of pipeline start up and lay-down shall be verified as within their respective target areas prior to departure of the lay vessel from site. The function of essential measuring devices shall be verified at regular intervals and defective or non-conforming devices shall repaired or replaced. pipeline tension and stress monitoring. 708 Pipeline lay down point shall be monitored as well as other operations that are critical to the integrity of the pipeline or represent a risk for fixed installations or other subsea installations and pipelines. October 2010 Page 110 – Sec. and shall be protected against damage during passage through the tensioners and over pipe supports. pipe lengths. and adequate protection of pipeline and lay-down head shall be provided. root gap and staggering of longitudinal welds shall be confirmed prior to welding. sway. or alternative methods for recovering the pipeline should be available. If the inspection shows indications of buckling or water ingress. It may be necessary to mark a band on top of the pipeline to quantify any rotation that may have occurred during installation. NDT. misalignment and internal weld bead. Damaged items shall be quarantined. If damaged pipes are replaced. wall thickness. Buckle detector: — pulling wire tension and length recorder. anode installation. 812 Pipelaying in congested areas. 805 The individual pipes of the pipeline shall be marked in accordance with the established pipe tracking system. Stinger: — underwater camera(s) and video recorders for monitoring pipeline position with respect to the last roller on the stinger (if restricted underwater visibility is expected. 709 Other measuring and recording systems or equipment shall be required if they are essential for the installation operation. ROVs shall be capable of operating DET NORSKE VERITAS . if a buckle detector is used (see 705) shall be checked at regular intervals. repaired or clearly marked and returned onshore. 807 In-line assemblies shall be installed and inspected as required by the specification. when applicable. quantity and identification upon arrival. assemblies and accessories are avoided. shall be established in a procedure for configuration control. 809 The parameters to be controlled by measuring devices. shall be carried out using local positioning systems with specified accuracy and appropriate anchor patterns (if used). coatings. Vessel: — — — — — — — vessel position vessel movements such as roll.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Maximum stacking heights shall be determined to avoid excessive loads on the pipe. pipe numbers.

The straightening shall not cause damage to coating. Alternatively. requirements of A500 and applicable requirements of D200. 103 Pipes used for such installation methods shall meet the supplementary requirement. 303 Bending tests on pipe coating shall be performed to demonstrate that successive bending and straightening will not impair the pipe coating and field coating. This may be achieved by matching. it shall include: — the amount of displacement controlled strain. the sequence of pipes included in the pipe string shall be controlled such that variations in stiffness on both sides of welds are maintained within the assumptions made in the design.0%. chemical composition and strain level. see Sec. Adequate measures shall be taken to protect the coating during reeling. seabed abandonment with a ROV friendly hooking loop may be used. repair shall be performed and inspected according to established procedures. 104 For installation welding. E 400 Installation procedures 401 In addition to the relevant applicable procedures of this subsection. including the abandonment and recovery head welds.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. as well as any hydrodynamic loads from waves and current. 816 Prior to abandonment of the pipeline. E 200 Installation manual 201 An installation manual shall be prepared by the Contractor for acceptance by the Purchaser and in addition to the — — — — — loadout/spooling of pipe onto reel pipe straightening anode and anode double plate installation installation. between the point of departure from the reel and entry into the straight- DET NORSKE VERITAS . 817 An as-laid survey shall be performed either by continuous touch down point monitoring or by a dedicated vessel. No degradation of the coating properties shall occur. a buoy and pennant wire should be attached to the abandonment and recovery head. and shall. as closely as possible. if relevant. The maximum deformation used during straightening to the specified straightness shall be recorded and regarded as an essential variable during installation. E 300 Qualification of the installation manual 301 In addition to the applicable requirements of D300. shall be identified and special procedures for the operation shall be prepared.7 I300.0% or accumulated nominal plastic strain ≥ 2. include the requirements given in J. sufficient to ensure that no damage has occurred. After completion of the repair. 102 The specific problems associated with these installation methods shall be addressed in the installation and testing specifications. areas with steep slopes. as a minimum. Such operations and the pipeline touch down point shall be monitored continuously by ROV. Tension shall be applied and monitored during reeling in order to ensure that the successive layers on the reel are sufficiently tightly packed to prevent slippage between the layers. shall be filled to a level that the pipe can be safely abandoned on and retrieved from the seabed. wall thickness/diameter of the pipes and the actual yield stress on both sides of the weld. 302 A fracture assessment including testing shall be performed as specified in Appendix A. 502 If the reel is used for control of the pipeline tension during installation it shall be demonstrated that such use will give acceptable redundancy and will not induce excessive stresses or have other detrimental effects. 815 If loss or major damage to weight and corrosion coating or anodes and their cables/connectors are observed. For this test the coating test may be carried out on plates. and allowable variation in. cables and pipelines from damage. 304 The straighteners shall be qualified using pipe which is delivered to the pipeline and bent corresponding to the minimum curvature fed into the straighteners. October 2010 Sec. including δ-R or J-R testing — engineering critical assessments to determine the maximum allowable weld defects — validation of engineering critical assessment by testing. 814 In the event of buckling a survey of the pipeline shall be performed before repair to establish the extent of damage and feasibility of the repair procedure. qualification of the installation manual shall include: — qualification of welding procedures according to the specific requirements given in Appendix C. the following procedures are required as applicable: E. both accumulated and maximum for each single strain cycle — method for control of. Additional Requirements for Pipeline Installation Methods Introducing Plastic Deformations E 100 General 101 The additional requirements of this subsection are applicable to pipeline installation by methods which give total single event nominal strain ≥ 1. E 500 Requirements for installation 501 Adequate support of the pipestring shall be provided when loading the reel. peaking and sagging. Before recovery the pipeline shall be surveyed over a length away from the abandonment and recovery head. 105 100% automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) according to the requirements given in Appendix E or manual ultrasonic testing according to the requirements given in Appendix D shall be performed. all internal equipment except the buckle detector shall be removed and all welds. previous test results may be used as documentation given that it is the same manufacturer. and the specified values shall not be exceeded during the abandonment and recovery operation. a survey shall be performed of the pipeline over a length sufficient to ensure that no further damage has occurred. 813 Other critical operations such as laying in short radii curves. and that the specified straightness is achieved.10 – Page 111 be taken to protect existing installations. Winch tension and cable lengths shall be monitored. curvature of the pipe between the point of departure from the reel and entry into the straighteners — description of straighteners — proposed procedure for qualification of the installation method by fracture mechanics assessment and validation testing. see Appendix A — testing of pipe coating durability — testing of straighteners and resulting pipe straightness. The buoy shall be large enough to remain on the surface when exposed to the weight of the pennant wire. It shall be demonstrated that the strain resulting from the straightening is within the assumptions made for the validation testing. 503 The curvature of the pipe. welding and NDT of additional pipe strings any other procedure needed due to the nature of the operations. Alternatively. use of very high or low pulling tension values etc. pipe for plastic deformation (P). In the event that the cable will have to be released from the vessel.

F 500 Installation procedures 501 Installation procedures meeting the requirements of this standard and the installation specifications shall be prepared and agreed. equipment and instrumentation — description of pipestring instrumentation. If pipestrings are moored inshore awaiting the tow. the seabed. The weight and buoyancy distribution control during fabrication. All aspects pertaining to bottom tows are subject to agreement in each case. but not limited to: G. the requirements in F200 through F800 are generally applicable. — control of weight. The installation operation shall be monitored by ROV. — description of towing vessel(s) including capacities. 804 Tension in the towing line and the towing depth shall be kept within the specified limits during the tow. The use of drag chains during the installation is recommended. 103 For surface tows. or close to. — ballast control during installation — installation and joining of additional pipestrings. adequate monitoring with ROVs and of the pipeline position at critical phases is required. weight and drag. procedures are required for. The electrical connection between anodes and pipe shall meet the specified requirements and shall be verified at regular intervals. environmental loads and contingencies shall be addressed when the requirements are specified. contingency procedures are required for: — weather conditions in excess of the operating limit conditions — ballast system breakdown or partial failure — loss of towing tension — excessive towing tension — pre-designation of temporary mooring area(s) along the tow route — third party marine activities.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Such methods are subject to agreement in each case. 102 Tows may be performed as: — surface or near-surface tows. October 2010 Page 112 – Sec.and buoyancy distribution — launching of the pipestring — ballast control during tow DET NORSKE VERITAS . the pipeline route shall be surveyed prior to the tow and the route shall avoid rough seabed. 105 For mid-depth tows. boulders. During the tow a standby vessel shall be present to prevent interference with the tow by third party vessels. rock outcrops and other obstacles that may cause damage to the pipeline. see Sec. 703 Installation of strain gauges to monitor the stresses in the pipestring during tow and installation shall be considered. with the pipestring supported by surface buoys — mid-depth tows. 504 Anodes should be installed after the pipe has passed through the straightener and tensioner. 702 All measuring equipment shall be continuously monitored during the tow and installation. F 800 Pipestring tow and installation 801 Launching of pipestrings shall be performed such that over-stressing of the pipestring and damage to the coating and anodes are avoided. F 400 Operating limit conditions 401 Operating limit conditions with regard to weather window for the tow. Care shall be exercised to prevent over-stressing of the pipestring. it shall include: — measuring equipment that continuously displays and records the towing speed and tensions — measuring equipment that continuously displays and monitors the depth of the pipestring and its distance from the seabed — measuring equipment that continuously display the position of any ballast valves. Other Installation Methods G 100 General 101 Other installation methods may be suitable in special cases. 802 Notification of the tow shall be given to the relevant authorities. The flow rates during any ballasting and de-ballasting are to be displayed. all aspects pertaining to the tow are subject to agreement in each case. equipment and instrumentation 701 Vessels shall be equipped with: F. If required. where the pipestring is towed in contact with. bundles and multiple pipelines shall be performed after a thorough study to establish the feasibility of the installation method and the loads imposed during installation. A thorough study shall be performed to establish the feasibility of the installation method and the loads imposed during installation.9. in addition to the requirements of A500 and applicable requirements of D200. launching of the pipestring. the seastate and current and allowed strain gauge values (if installed) shall be established. coating or anodes during the tow and installation. 803 Towing shall not commence unless an acceptable weather window for the tow is available. The installation is subject to agreement in each case. 805 Installation shall be performed by careful ballasting and deballasting. ballasting or de-ballasting shall be performed to adjust the towing depth to the specified values. owners of subsea installations crossed by the towing route and users of the sea. F 200 Installation manual 201 An installation manual shall be prepared by the Contractor and. During bottom and near bottom tows. where the pipestring is towed well clear away from the seabed — bottom tows. tow. In addition to the applicable procedures of D500. Satisfactory abrasion resistance of the pipeline coating shall be demonstrated. Pipeline Installation by Towing F 100 General 101 The specific problems associated with pipeline towing operations are to be addressed in the installation and testing specifications. F 300 Qualification of installation manual 301 Qualification of the installation manual shall include the applicable requirements of D300. 102 Installation of flexible pipelines. F 700 Arrangement. adequate precautions shall be taken to avoid marine growth influencing pipestring buoyancy. 104 For bottom or near bottom tows. F 600 Contingency procedures 601 In addition to the applicable procedures of D600. ballast control.10 eners shall not exceed the maximum values assumed in design and ECA and validated in the material testing of the girth welded pipes.

H 700 Arrangement. equipment and instrumentation — description of onshore plant arrangement. in addition to the requirements of Subsection A500 and Subsection D200. Tie-in Operations I 100 General 101 The requirements of this subsection are applicable to tiein operations using welding or mechanical connectors. pulling heads and other equipment shall be dimensioned for the forces to be applied. as needed. cover: — — — — — — — — installation of pulling head tension control twisting control ROV monitoring where applicable other critical operations site preparation and winch set-up buoyancy aids. H 500 Installation procedures 501 Installation procedures meeting the requirements of this standard and the installation specifications. It shall be documented that ROVs are able to operate under the seastate expected for the operation in question. H 800 Requirements for installation 801 If necessary the seabed shall be prepared as required in B. such as strain gauges. 102 Detailed requirements for the execution. friction and dynamic effects that may occur.: terrupted operation shall be provided. 805 During the operation. 802 Satisfactory abrasion resistance of the pipeline coating shall be demonstrated for the installation conditions. 102 Tie-in operations.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. shall cover. transponders. sonars. or vice versa. equipment and instrumentation — special operations.10 – Page 113 H. continuous monitoring of cable tension and pulling force is required. should be provided if they are essential for the installation operation or the integrity of the pipeline. the following procedures are required: — — — — cable tension exceeding acceptable limits excessive twisting of the pipestring ROV breakdown other critical or emergency situations. All measuring equipment shall be calibrated. H 400 Operating limit conditions 401 Operating limit conditions with regard to the seastate and current shall be established if relevant. shall be prepared and agreed. equipment and instrumentation — special operations. considering the nature of the particular installation site. In addition to the applicable procedures of Subsection D500. but not limited to: I. The specific problems associated with tie-in operations shall be addressed in the installation and testing specifications. inspection and testing of shore pull shall be specified. responders etc. including any overloading. October 2010 Sec. procedures are required for. 705 Other measuring and recording systems or equipment. 804 Buoyancy aids should be used if required to keep pulling tension within acceptable limits. Shore Pull H 100 General 101 The requirements of this subsection are applicable to the execution. DET NORSKE VERITAS . H 600 Contingency procedures 601 Contingency procedures meeting the requirements of this standard and the installation and testing specification shall be prepared. adequate tooling such as wire cutters or manipulator. 704 ROVs shall. — description of offshore plant arrangement. and an adequate amount of spares to ensure unin- — lifting and deployment of the pipeline/riser section — configuration and alignment control — mechanical connector installation. H 300 Qualification of installation manual 301 Qualification of the installation manual shall include the applicable requirements of D300. H 200 Installation manual 201 An installation manual shall be prepared by the Contractor and. I 400 Operating limit conditions 401 Operating limit conditions with regard to the seastate. I 500 Tie-in procedures 501 Tie-in procedures meeting the requirements of this standard and the installation specifications shall be prepared and agreed. as applicable. additional procedures are required to cover the safety and operational aspects of the underwater operations. equipment and instrumentation 701 Cables. The specific problems associated with shore pull shall be addressed in the installation and testing specifications. are subject to special consideration and agreement. etc. The forces applied shall be controlled such that no damage to the pipeline anodes or coating will occur. where applicable position control in trench. 602 The contingency procedures shall cover: — description of diving plant arrangement. I 200 Installation manual 201 An installation manual shall be prepared by the Contractor and shall. by means of hot or cold taps. inspection and testing of shore pull when pipestrings are pulled either from a vessel onto the shore. in addition to the requirements of A500 and D200.. if used. I 300 Qualification of installation manual 301 Qualification of the installation manual shall include the applicable requirements of Subsection D300. current and vessel movements shall be established. The operations can be performed onboard a laying vessel (in which case welding is the preferred method) or underwater. be equipped with video cameras. 803 Installation of the pulling head shall be made in a manner that prevents over-stressing of the pipeline and provides a secure connection. 703 The winches shall be equipped with wire tension and length indicators and recorders. If underwater methods are used. tunnels. altimeter. a bathymetric system. In addition to the applicable procedures of D500. Monitoring with ROVs may be needed. 702 Winches shall have adequate pulling force to ensure that the pipe is maintained under controlled tension within the allowed stress/strain limits.

For flanged connections hydraulic bolt tension equipment shall be used. 704 The alignment and position of the tie-in ends shall be within the specified tolerances before completing the tie-in. survey equipment. gravel dumping. or supplementing. survey equip- DET NORSKE VERITAS . monitoring and acceptance. a survey of the pipeline on both sides of the tie-in. 802 Diving and underwater operations shall be performed in accordance with agreed procedures for normal and contingency situations covering applicable requirements.10 I 600 Contingency procedures 601 In addition to the requirements of Subsection D600. grout bags. should be performed 709 It shall be verified that the position of the tie-in is within the target area prior to departure of the vessel from site. and the maximum acceptable length and gap height of spans at various locations. and over a length sufficient to ensure that no damage has occurred. e. Span Rectification and Pipeline Protection K 100 General 101 The requirements of this subsection are applicable to span rectification and the protection of pipelines. The undisturbed seabed level shall be included in the cross profiles. by trenching and backfilling. 707 Corrosion protection of the tie-in area shall be performed and inspected in accordance with accepted procedures.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. K 200 Span rectification and protection specification 201 The requirements applicable to the specific methods of span rectification and protection regarding execution. J 300 As-laid survey 301 The as-laid survey should include and not limited to the following: — determination of the position and depth profile of the entire pipeline — identification and quantification of any spans with specified accuracy to length and gap height — determination of position of start-up and lay down heads. the winch tension shall be monitored continuously and shall not exceed the specified for operation. 803 Requirements for underwater hyperbaric dry welding are given in Appendix C. 103 The survey of the work area. additional contingency procedures are required to cover the safety and operational aspects of the underwater operations. Corrective actions may include retrofitting of anodes and coating repairs. coating and anodes — cross profiles of the pipeline and adjacent seabed at regular intervals — depth profiles along the pipeline and the seabed at both sides of the pipeline — any existing subsea installations. tolerances for the as-laid pipe line. and lifting points attached. 706 A leak test to an internal pressure not less than the local incidental pressure should be performed for all mechanical connections whenever possible. shall as a minimum include: J. 102 A specific survey of the work area should be required in addition to. Requirements for vessels. K. consequences for long-term performance shall be considered. — determination of the presence of debris — as laid-video documentation of the pipeline to the extent specified. As-Laid Survey J 100 General 101 These requirements are applicable to as-laid surveys performed by ROV either by continuous touch down point monitoring from the lay vessel or by a dedicated vessel. During all handling. A survey shall be performed to establish that the location is free of obstructions and that the seabed conditions will permit the tie-in to be performed as specified. I 700 Tie-in operations above water 701 The position of the tie-in shall be verified prior to start of operations. I 800 Tie-in operations below water 801 In addition to the requirements in Subsection I700. 402 In the case of extensive damage to coating or sacrificial galvanic anodes. a video survey of the corrosion protection system shall be carried out along the full length of the pipeline. 708 After completion of the tie-in. The pipeline stability shall be ensured and adequate protection of pipeline provided. Satisfactory level of protection shall be documented after the corrective action has been performed. J 400 As-laid survey of corrosion protection systems 401 Prior to any pipeline protection operations. requirements to survey vessel. including risers. the as-laid survey if: — — — — — significant time has elapsed since the as-laid survey a change in seabed conditions is likely heavy marine activity is present in the area new installations are present in the area the as-laid survey does not provide sufficient information. 702 To avoid overstressing during lifting and lowering of the pipeline sections. Significant damage to the coating and sacrificial anodes shall be documented. the following contingency procedure is required: — weather conditions in excess of the operating limit conditions before completion of tie-in — If underwater methods are used. Lifting arrangements and equipment shall be designed. including risers. concrete mattresses etc. lifting and lowering into the final position. J 200 Specification of as-laid survey 201 The installation and testing specification shall contain — a video inspection of the pipeline to identify any areas of damage to pipeline. the requirements in 802 and 803 are valid for tie-in operations involving underwater activities. the extent of survey. 705 Installation of mechanical connectors shall be performed in accordance with the Manufacturer's procedure. open flange faces shall be protected against mechanical damage. Where video coverage cannot be obtained at any time due to environmental reasons. if required.g. alternate methodologies should be utilised to ensure 100% coverage. 703 ROV/diver monitoring of the operation should be performed to confirm correct configuration of the pipeline sections from the seabed and onto the vessel. October 2010 Page 114 – Sec. The extent of procedures to be prepared and qualified shall be specified. Potential measurements at any bare surfaces should be carried out to confirm adequate protection. in a manner that prevents any over-stressing of the pipeline section during lifting and lowering into final position.

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2010 Sec.10 – Page 115

ment etc. shall be addressed in the installation and testing specifications. The extent of procedures to be prepared and qualified shall be specified.
K 300 Span rectification 301 Span rectification is required for all spans exceeding the specified acceptable length or height for the specific location. Rectification of other spans shall be considered if scour or seabed settlement could enlarge the span length and gap height above maximum acceptable dimensions before the first planned pipeline inspection. 302 Adequate rectification of spans shall be documented by a video survey. All rectified spans shall be identified and the length, gap and height shall be within the requirements. K 400 Trenching

K 500

Post-installation gravel dumping

501 Material used for gravel dumping shall meet the specified requirements for specific gravity, composition and grading. 502 Gravel dumping shall be performed in a continuous and controlled manner, such that the required material is deposited over and under the pipeline, supports, subsea assemblies, etc. without disturbing their vertical or lateral position, and over the adjacent seabed. 503 The gravel dumping operation shall ensure rectification of all spans to meet the specified requirements. Stabilisation of free spans should be carried out in a continuous operation, where the distance between spans to be stabilised is not too large, so as to avoid scouring and formation of free spans between gravel dumps. 504 If the fall pipe technique is used for gravel dumping, minimum clearances shall be specified such that the fall pipe cannot touch the pipeline, any other subsea installation or the seabed. Deployment operations shall be performed well away from the pipeline or any other subsea installation. Before the fall pipe is moved to the dumping location, the clearance beneath the fall pipe shall be verified. The clearance shall be continuously monitored during dumping. 505 The completed gravel dump shall leave a mound on the seabed with a smooth contour and profile and a slope not steeper than specified. If the gravel dumping is performed over cable and pipeline crossings, the gravel mound shall provide the specified depth of cover over both the raised and the crossed pipeline. During the dumping operations inspections shall be performed with a sonar survey system, or when visibility is restored, a video camera, to determine the completeness and adequacy of the dumping. 506 Upon completion of the gravel dumping, a survey shall be performed to confirm compliance with the specified requirements. The survey shall, as a minimum, include:

401 Where trench excavation is performed after pipelaying, the trenching equipment shall be of a type that does not place significant loads on the pipeline and minimises the possibility of damage to the pipeline. 402 Trenching equipment shall be equipped with sufficient instrumentation to ensure that damage and excessive pipe contact is avoided. 403 Special care shall be taken during trenching operations of piggy back / bundle pipelines, so that strapping arrangements will not be disturbed / damaged during trenching. For small pipelines without any weight coating, trenching shall not damage / dismantle the anodes. 404 Where mechanical backfilling is required, it shall be carried out in a manner that minimises the possibility of damage or disturbance to the pipeline. 405 The trenching equipment monitoring system shall be calibrated and include:

— devices to measure depth of pipe — a monitoring system and control system preventing horizontal loads on the pipeline or devices to measure and record all vertical and horizontal forces imposed on the pipeline by trenching equipment, and devices to measure the proximity of the trenching equipment to the pipeline, horizontally and vertically relative to the pipeline — underwater monitoring systems enabling the trenching equipment operator to view the pipeline and seabed profile forward and aft of the trenching equipment — measuring and recording devices for trenching equipment tow force — devices monitoring pitch, roll, depth, height and speed of the trenching equipment.
406 Jet sleds shall have a control and monitoring system for the position of the jetting arms and the overhead frame, horizontally and vertically relative to the pipeline. The location of the sled shall not be controlled by the force between sled and pipeline. Devices indicating tension in the tow line and showing the depth of the trench, shall be installed. 407 The trench depth shall be referenced to the undisturbed seabed adjacent to the pipeline and to the top of the pipeline. 408 An allowable range of values, indicated by the measuring devices of the trenching equipment, shall be established. The possibility of damage to coating shall be considered. During trenching operations the measuring devices shall be continuously monitored. 409 A post-trenching survey shall be performed immediately or as agreed after the trenching, in order to determine if the required depth of lowering has been achieved and if any remedial work is required.

— a video inspection of the pipeline length covered — cross profiles of the mound and adjacent undisturbed seabed at regular intervals — length profiles of the mound — confirmation that minimum required buried depth is achieved — any existing installations and their vicinity in order to ensure that the installation(s) have not suffered damage.
K 600 Grout bags and concrete mattresses 601 Concrete mattresses and grout bags shall meet the specification with regard to size, shape and flexibility of the material, location of filling points, and the specific gravity, composition and grading of grout. 602 Placing of grout bags and concrete mattresses shall be performed in a controlled manner, such that the bags or mattresses are placed as required. Restrictions on vessel movements during the operation shall be given. 603 During the placing operations, inspections shall be performed with a ROV-mounted video camera to determine the completeness and adequacy of the installation. 604 Upon completion of the placing operation, a survey shall be performed to confirm compliance with the specified requirements. The survey shall as a minimum include:

— a video inspection of the completed work — cross profiles of the placed bags or mattresses and adjacent undisturbed seabed at regular intervals — length profiles of the placed bags or mattresses and the seabed at both sides of the area.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2010 Page 116 – Sec.10

L. Installation of Protective and Anchoring Structures
L 100 General 101 Installation of protective and anchoring structures shall be performed according to specifications and procedures meeting the requirements of the applicable design code.

ual examination and non-destructive testing shall be established in accordance with Appendix D and Appendix E as applicable.
602 Transportation, storage and handling of riser pipe and appurtenances shall prevent any damage to coating and paint. In addition, special precautions shall be taken to protect flange faces and other specially prepared surfaces from damage. 603 All tolerances and measurements required in order to install the riser in accordance with drawings and specifications shall be verified in the field before installation commences. Diameter, roundness and cleanness of J-tubes shall be checked by gauging pigs, pulling a test pipe or similar to prevent the pulling head and riser from jamming. 604 Adequate control shall be performed to ensure that the angularity and straightness of risers, the distance between risers and bracing, the spacing between adjacent risers and other critical dimensions meet the specified requirements. 605 Tie-ins between riser and pipeline shall be performed in accordance with I. 606 Prior to pull-in of risers into J-tubes, it shall be verified that the bellmouth is clear of debris and obstructions, that the bellmouth height above the seabed is within design limits, and that no damage to the bellmouth, J-tube or J-tube clamps (if applicable) has occurred. Entry of the pipeline into the bellmouth shall be monitored by ROV, and the tension in the pullin cable shall be monitored by calibrated load cells and shall not exceed the specified maximum. Proper sealing as specified shall be ensured at the bell-mouth for a riser in a J-tube in case the corrosion protection system is designed with for a non-corrosive fluid in the annulus. 607 All clamps, protection frames, anchor flanges etc., shall be installed in accordance with specification and drawings, using appropriate bolt torque and to the specified tolerances. 608 Repair of damage to coating and paint shall be performed in accordance with accepted procedures. 609 Upon completion of the installation, a ROV or diver survey shall be performed to confirm the position of the riser relative to the platform, the position of any expansion loops, supports, etc., and the results of any trenching and protection operations. 610 In case the riser has not been tested according to Sec.7 G, cleaning, gauging and system pressure testing shall be performed in general accordance with the requirements in O, except that wire line pigs may be used, the holding time shall be at least 2 hours and the pressure variation shall not exceed ± 0.4% unless the variation can be related to temperature variations during the test period. Visual inspection of welds and flanged connections shall be performed whenever possible.

M. Installation of Risers
M 100 General 101 The installation and testing specification shall cover the riser installation operations and address the specific problems associated with these operations. Diving and underwater operations shall be performed in accordance with agreed procedures covering applicable requirements. 102 The following methods may be used:

— integral installation by surface vessel, where the riser and pipeline are welded on deck of the vessel and the pipeline and riser lowered to the seabed. The riser is then positioned in clamps installed on the structure — installation by J-tube method, where the riser is pulled through a pre-installed J-shaped conduit on the structure, — installation of prefabricated risers, where the riser is installed in clamps fitted on the structure by a surface vessel. Hyperbaric welding or mechanical connector are then used to connect the riser and pipeline, — stalk-on risers installed by a installation vessel, and — flexible, free-hanging risers.
M 200 Installation manual 201 The installation manual should, in addition to the requirements given in Subsection A500 and Subsection D200, cover:

— communication line and interface procedure with the platform where the riser is installed — description of offshore plant arrangement, equipment and instrumentation — procedures for offshore riser fabrication — procedures for measurement and control of cut-off length on the pipeline, riser bottom bend section, spool piece etc. — anchor pattern for installation vessel — diving and/or underwater operations procedures.
M 300 Qualification of the installation manual 301 The installation manual shall be qualified. The qualification shall, as a minimum, include the requirements of Subsection D300. M 400 Operating limit conditions 401 Operating limit conditions with regard to the seastate and current shall be established such that any over-stressing of the pipe material and weldments is avoided. When adverse weather conditions require shut-down of the installation work, the vessel shall move away from the platform. M 500 Contingency procedures 501 Contingency procedures shall be prepared for acceptance, covering dynamic positioning system breakdown, anchor dragging and anchor line failure. If underwater methods are used, additional contingency procedures are required to cover the safety and operational aspects of the underwater operations. M 600 Requirements for installation 601 Offshore installation welding shall be performed in accordance with Appendix C, and acceptance criteria for vis-

N. As-Built Survey
N 100 General 101 All work on the pipeline, including crossings, trenching, gravel dumping, artificial backfill, subsea assemblies, riser installation, final testing etc., should be completed before the as-built survey is performed. The as-built survey of the installed and completed pipeline system is performed to verify that the completed installation work meets the specified requirements, and to document any deviations from the original design. N 200 Specification of as-built survey 201 The specification shall contain requirements to survey vessel, survey equipment and the extent of survey. The extent of procedures to be prepared and qualified shall be specified.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2010 Sec.10 – Page 117

N 300 As-built survey requirements 301 The as-built survey shall as a minimum include:

— detailed plot of the position of the pipeline, including location of in-line assemblies, anchoring and protective structures, tie-ins, supports etc. — out of straightness measurements as applicable — depth of cover or trench depth as applicable — quantification of span lengths and heights, including length and height reporting tolerances — location of areas of damage to pipeline, coating and anodes — location of any areas with observed scour or erosion along pipeline and adjacent seabed — verification that the condition of weight coating (or anchoring systems that provide for on-bottom stability) is in accordance with the specification — description of wreckage, debris or other objects which may affect the cathodic protection system or otherwise impair the pipeline — as-built video for the entire pipeline.
N 400 Inspection of impressed current cathodic corrosion protection system 401 Impressed current cathodic corrosion protection systems shall be inspected, including cables, conduits, anodes and rectifiers. Readings from the corrosion monitoring system shall be verified by independent potential measurements, and adequate electrical insulation from other installations (if applicable) shall be confirmed installed and commissioned according to ISO 15589-2 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Cathodic protection of pipeline transportation systems - Part 2: Offshore pipelines... If the required protection level is not attained, the causes shall be identified and adequate corrective actions performed. Satisfactory performance shall be documented after the corrective action.

402 Appropriate measures shall be taken to ensure that any suspended and dissolved substances in the fluid used for this operation are compatible with the pipe material and internal coating (if applied), and that deposits are not formed within the pipeline. 403 Water to be used for flooding should have a minimum quality corresponding to filtration through be filtered to remove suspended particles larger than a 50μm and filter, and should have an average content of suspended matters not exceeding 20 g/m3. 404 If water quality or the water source is unknown, water samples shall be analysed and suitable actions shall be taken to remove and/or inhibit harmful substances. 405 If water is to remain in the pipeline for an extended period of time, consideration shall be given to control of bacterial growth and internal corrosion by chemical treatment (see Sec.6 D302). 406 Added corrosion inhibitors, any chemical additives like oxygen scavengers, biocides, dyes, etc. shall be considered for possible harmful interactions selected to ensure full compatibility and their impact on the environment during and after disposal of the test watershall be considered. 407 The pipeline cleaning concept shall consider:

— protection of pipeline components and facilities (e.g. valves) from damage by cleaning fluids and pigs — testing devices such as isolation spheres etc. — removal of substances that may contaminate the product to be transported — particles and residue from testing and mill scale — organisms and residue resulting from test fluids — chemical residue and gels — removal of metallic particles that may affect future inspection activities.
408 The main purpose of gauging a pipeline system is to establish an internal diameter which is less than the minimum internal diameter of the system in order to provide a basis for any future operational pigging activities. Selection of an appropriate gauging concept/method shall therefore be based on a review of the operational pigging requirements.

O. Final Testing and Preparation for Operation
O 100 General 101 All work on the subsea pipeline system, including crossings, trenching, gravel dumping, artificial backfill, subsea assemblies, riser installation, as-built survey etc., should be completed before the final testing commences. 102 Disposal of cleaning and test fluids shall be performed in a manner minimising danger to the environment. Any disposal of fluids shall be in compliance with requirements from National Authorities. O 200 Specification of final testing and preparation for operation 201 The installation and testing specification shall contain requirements for equipment, the extent of testing and preparation for operation, performance of tests and preparation for operation and associated acceptance criteria. The extent of procedures to be prepared and qualified shall be specified. O 300 Procedures for final testing and preparation for operation 301 All operations and tests shall be performed in accordance with agreed procedures. O 400 Cleaning and gauging 401 Cleaning and gauging may be combined with the initial flooding of the pipeline, be run as a separate operation, or be combined with the weld sphere removal after completion of hyperbaric tie-in.

a) As a minimum pipelines with a constant nominal internal diameter should normally be gauged using a metallic gauge plate with a diameter that is 95% of the nominal internal diameter. Alternatively the gauging plate may have a diameter that is 97% of the minimum internal diameter, taking into account the manufacturing tolerances for all system components and weld penetrations. b) As a minimum pipelines with variations in the nominal internal diameter should normally either be gauged in sections in accordance with a) above or be gauged by use of an “intelligent” gauging tool. In cases where this is considered impractical or unnecessary, based on a review of operational pigging requirements, the system should be gauged in accordance with a) above based on the smallest diameter section.
Guidance note: The minimum internal diameter including uncertainties can be established as: Dmin,tot = Dmin(1-f0/2)-2tmax-2hbead Where hbead also allows for possible misalignment
---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e---

409 Cleaning and gauging train design, number and type of pigs, need for chemical cleaning, train velocity etc., shall be decided based on type and length of pipeline, steep gradients along the pipeline route, type of service, construction method, downstream process etc.

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Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2010 Page 118 – Sec.10

410 If cleaning and gauging are performed on separate sections of the pipeline prior to tie-in, a minimum of one cleaning and gauging pig should be run through the completed pipeline system prior to, or during, product filling. O 500 System pressure testing 501 A pipeline system pressure test shall be performed based upon the system test pressure determined according to Sec.5 B 203 unless the test is waived as allowed by Sec.5 B204. The extent of the test should normally be from pigtrap to pigtrap, including all components and connections within the pipeline system. The pressure test is normally performed as a leak test. 502 The system may be tested as separate sections provided that the tie-in welds between sections have been subject to 100% radiographic, ultrasonic and magnetic particle testing, or by a combination of other methods which provide the same or improved verification of acceptable weld quality. 503 The pipeline section under test shall be isolated from other pipelines and facilities. Pressure testing should not be performed against in-line valves, unless possible leakage and damage to the valve is considered, and the valve is designed and tested for the pressure test condition. Blocking off or removal of small-bore branches and instrument tappings, should be considered to avoid possible contamination. 504 End closures, temporary pigtraps, manifolds and other temporary testing equipment, shall be designed and fabricated according to a recognised code and with design pressure equal to the pipeline's design pressure. Such items shall be individually pressure tested to at least the same test pressure as the pipeline. 505 Filling of the pipeline with test water should be performed in a controlled manner, using water behind one or more pigs. The pig(s) shall be capable of providing a positive air/ water interface. Considerations shall be given to pre-filling valve body cavities with an inert liquid, unless the valves have provision for pressure equalisation across the valve seats. All valves shall be fully open during line filling. A pig tracking system and the use of back-pressure to control the travel speed of the pig shall be considered if steep gradients occur along the pipeline route. 506 Instruments and test equipment used for the measurement of pressure, volume and temperature shall be calibrated for accuracy, repeatability and sensitivity. All instruments and test equipment shall possess valid calibration certificates, with traceability to reference standards within the 6 months preceding the test. If the instruments and test equipment have been in frequent use, calibration specifically for the test should be required. 507 Gauges and recorders shall be checked for correct function immediately before each test. All test equipment shall be located in a safe position outside the test boundary area. 508 The test pressure should be measured using a dead weight tester. Dead weight testers shall not be used before a stable condition is confirmed. When pressure testing is performed from a vessel, where a dead weight tester can not be utilised due to the vessel movements, the test pressure shall be measured by using one high accuracy pressure transducer in addition to a high accuracy large diameter pressure gauge. 509 The following requirements apply for instruments and test equipment: — dead weight testers shall have a range of minimum 1.25 times the specified test pressure, and shall have an accuracy better than ±0.1 bar and a sensitivity better than 0.05 bar — the volume of water added or subtracted during a pressure test shall be measured with equipment having accuracy better than ± 1.0% and sensitivity better than 0.1% — temperature measuring instruments and recorders shall have an accuracy better than ±1.0°C, and a sensitivity bet-

ter than 0.1°C — pressure recorders and temperature recorders when included shall be used to provide a graphical record of the pressure test continuously for the total duration of the test. If a pressure transducer is used instead of a dead weight tester, the transducer shall have a range of minimum 1.1 times the specified test pressure, and the accuracy shall be better than ±± 0.2% of test pressure. Sensitivity shall be better than 0.1%. 510 A correlation that shows the effect of temperature changes on the test pressure where relevant, shall be developed and accepted prior to starting the test. Temperature measuring devices, if used, shall be positioned close to the pipeline, and the distance between the devices shall be based on temperature gradients along the pipeline route. 511 The test medium should be water meeting the requirements given in O400. 512 The air content of the test water shall be assessed by constructing a plot of the pressure against volume during the initial filling and pressurisation, until a definite linear relationship is apparent, see Figure1. This should be done at 35% of test pressure. The assessed air content should not exceed 0.2% of the calculated total volume of the pipeline under test. If the limit is exceeded, it shall be documented that the amount of air, not will influence the accuracy of the test significantly.

Figure 1 Determination of volume of air

513 Pressurisation of the pipeline shall be performed as a controlled operation with consideration for maximum allowable velocities in the inlet piping. The last 5% up to the test pressure shall be raised at a reduced rate to ensure that the test pressure is not exceeded. Time shall be allowed for confirmation of temperature and pressure stabilisation before the test hold period begins. 514 The pressure level requirement for the system pressure test is given in Sec.5 B203. 515 The test pressure hold period after stabilisation shall be held for a minimum 24 hours. 516 Subject to agreement shorter pressure hold periods may be accepted for pipelines with test volumes less than 5 000 m3. In these cases the principles of Sec.7 G shall normally apply. 517 The pressure and temperatures where relevant, shall be continuously recorded during the pressurisation, stabilisation and test hold periods. 518 If possible, flanges, mechanical connectors etc. under pressure shall be visually inspected for leaks during the pressure test, either directly or by monitors.

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Drying may be required in order to prevent an increase in the corrosion potential or hydrate formation. 520 De-pressurisation of the pipeline shall be performed as a controlled operation with consideration for maximum allowable velocities in the pipeline and the discharge piping.12. the holding period shall be extended until a hold period with acceptable pressure variations has occurred. October 2010 Sec. O 600 De-watering and drying 601 De-watering is required before introducing the product fluid into the pipeline. and the pressure variation is within ± ± 0. as a minimum.2% of the test pressure is normally acceptable if the total variation (i.4% of the test pressure are observed. — pressure monitoring systems and other monitoring and control systems — operation of pipeline valves. 603 Selection of de-watering and drying methods and chem- icals shall include consideration of any effect on valve and seal materials. branch piping. This includes testing of: — corrosion monitoring systems — alarm and shutdown systems — safety systems such and pig trap interlocks. Documentation P 100 General 101 The installation and testing of the pipeline system shall be documented. include that given in Sec.4%) can be documented to be caused by temperature fluctuations or otherwise accounted for. safety and monitoring systems shall be tested in accordance with accepted procedures. 602 Introduction of the fluid may be accepted in special cases. ± 0. The separation pig train between the test medium and the fluid will then require special qualification in order to avoid contact between the residual test water and the product. any internal coating and trapping of fluids in valve cavities. pressure protection systems etc. A pressure variation up to an additional ±0.2% of the test pressure.e.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. P. If pressure variations greater than ± 0. O 700 Systems testing 701 Prior to fluid product filling. instruments etc. The documentation shall. DET NORSKE VERITAS . or if omission of drying is deemed to have an adverse effect on the product transported.10 – Page 119 519 The pressure test is acceptable if the pipeline is free from leaks.

) CP-system expansion movement lateral snaking free span and exposure 302 Scheduling of the first inspection of the wall thickness shall be evaluated based on the corrosivity of the fluid. expected operational parameters. to maintain pipeline integrity. inspection. 502 Operating safely is interpreted as operating to meet the acceptance criteria as established in design and updated through the project phases and service life. A 400 Authority and company requirements 401 The relevant national requirements shall be identified and ensured that they are complied with. temperature and flow rate fluid composition (content of water. B 300 Operational verification 301 After stable production has been reached it shall be verified that the operational limits are within design conditions. — — — — — — — — — — company policy organisation and personnel condition evaluation and assessment methods planning and execution of activities management of change operational controls and procedures contingency plans reporting and communication audit and review information management. planning. These premises and requirements may be linked to: which takes into account probability of failure and consequence of failure. robustness of the internal corrosion protection system (inhibitor system). 302 At all times during the operational life of the pipeline system. and the defect sizing capabilities of the inspection tool that will be used during operation of the pipeline. The injection rate shall be controlled so that pressure and temperature do not exceed allowable limits for the pipeline material or dewpoint conditions. snaking) others. B. 504 It must be verified that design and operating premises and requirements are fulfilled. the effectiveness of the QA/QC system applied during fabrication and construction. DET NORSKE VERITAS . H2S etc. 505 A risk based pipeline integrity management philosophy. If this is not the case. 503 Design and operating premises and requirements shall be identified prior to start of operation and updated during the service life. General A 100 Objective 101 The purpose of this section is to provide minimum requirements for the safe and reliable operation of submarine pipeline systems (see Sec. A 200 Scope and application 201 This section covers the submarine pipeline system phases operations and abandonment. 203 The pipeline integrity management process is the combined process of threat identification.) sand cover depths free spans length and height pipeline configuration (e.11 E. Operations consist of commissioning. 402 The relevant company requirements should be complied with when planning and performing pipeline integrity management. The PIM principles and methodology are applicable to pipeline systems in general. A change in design basis will in general require a re-qualification. The core of the integrity management system is the integrity management process as illustrated in Figure 1. C. and is part of the operational phase. CO2. the corrosion allowance used in the design.11 A500) for the whole service life with main focus on pipeline integrity management (PIM).12 E. in the case of gas or condensate. Commissioning B 100 General 101 Commissioning is activities associated with the initial filling of the pipeline system with the fluid to be transported. to avoid hydrate formation.2 shall apply. October 2010 Page 120 – Sec. etc. The operator needs to ensure that the integrity of the pipeline is not compromised. B 200 Fluid filling 201 During fluid filling. responsibilities must be clearly defined and allocated. see Sec. Integrity Management System C 100 General 101 The operator shall establish and maintain an integrity management system which as a minimum includes the following elements: — — — — — — — pressure. monitoring. see Sec. should be applied. operation and de-commissioning. 204 The equipment scope limits include pipeline and components according to the definition of a submarine pipeline system in Sec. The other elements mainly support this core process. risk assessments. maintenance etc. Documentation and procedures for commissioning are specified in Sec.1 C335. Important issues can be: — — — — — — flow parameters (pressure. care shall be taken to prevent explosive mixtures and. 202 Pipeline integrity is the ability of the submarine pipeline system to operate safely and withstand the loads imposed during the pipeline lifecycle. temperature.11 D. The activity plans are the result of the integrity management process by use of recognised assessment methods.11 SECTION 11 OPERATIONS AND ABANDONMENT A. A 300 Responsibilities 301 Pipeline integrity management is the responsibility of the operator.g. appropriate actions shall be taken to bring the pipeline system back to a safe condition.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. A 500 Safety philosophy 501 The safety philosophy adopted in design and consistent with Sec.

C 600 Management of change 601 Modifications of the pipeline system shall be subject to a management of change procedure that must address the continuing safe operation of the pipeline system. interventions. density and viscosity. and reporting in connection with changes. inspections and repairs shall be established prior to start-up of operation.g.3 B300. repairs and other activities.Mitigation. including pressure control and over-pressure protection devices. emergency shutdown systems and automatic showdown valves.Condition evaluation and assessment methods Management of change — corrosion control — monitoring — safety equipment and pressure control system. C 900 Reporting and communication 901 A plan for reporting and communication to employees. intervention and repairs Contingency plans Audit and review Information management — pressure and temperature at inlet and outlet of the pipeline — dew point for gas lines — fluid composition. public and others shall be established and maintained. Documents and procedures for the operational phase are specified in detail in Sec. and guide people in how they are to be realized. 1103 The in-service file and the DFI-resume shall be easily retrievable in case of an emergency situation.12F and 12I. shall be established and maintained for the whole service life. C 500 Planning and execution of activities 501 This covers planning and execution of inspections. 1003 The focus in audits should be on: — compliance with regulatory and company requirements — rectifications to be implemented. 706 Operational control shall ensure that design temperature limits are not exceeded. 702 Measures shall be in place to ensure that critical fluid parameters are kept within the specified design limits. C 200 Company policy 201 The company policy for pipeline integrity management should set the values and beliefs that the company holds. If the design is based on a constant temperature along the whole route.Integrity assessment . C 300 Organisation and personnel 301 The roles and responsibilities of personnel involved in integrity management of the pipeline system shall be clearly defined. see Sec.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. C 1000 Audit and review 1001 Audits and reviews of the pipeline integrity management system shall be conducted regularly.Planning and execution of activities . modifications etc. The inspection shall verify that the integrity of the safety equipment is intact and that the equipment can perform the safety function as specified. special findings. customers. management. 302 Training needs shall be identified and training shall be provided for relevant personnel in relation to management of pipeline integrity. October 2010 Sec. in case of major repairs. 104 Procedures covering non-routine or special activities. This covers both regular reporting and communication. studies. pigging DET NORSKE VERITAS . 103 The detailed procedures for operation.11 E shall be carried out.Evaluation of threats . C 400 Condition evaluation and assessment methods 401 The condition evaluation of the pipeline system shall use recognised methods and be based on design data and operational experience.12 H. flow rate. data files and data bases. C 1100 Information management 1101 A system for collection of historical data. 703 All safety equipment in the pipeline system. analyses. see Sec. 705 For pressure control during normal operations. 1102 The in-service file. 1002 Reporting and communication Operational controls and procedures Figure 1 Pipeline integrity management system 102 Specification of work processes should be the basis for definition of procedures. together with the DFI-resume. e.12 F201. C 700 701 Operational controls and procedures The focus in reviews should be on: — effectiveness and suitability of the system — improvements to be implemented. 1104 The documents. a re-qualification of the pipeline system according to Sec. 602 If the operating conditions are changed relative to the design premises. C 800 Contingency plans 801 Plans and procedures for emergency situations shall be established and maintained based on a systematic evaluation of possible scenarios. the following parameters should be controlled or monitored: Organisation and personnel . 704 Safety equipment in connecting piping systems shall be subject to regular testing and inspection. shall be periodically tested and inspected. additional measures may be required. control of inlet temperature will be sufficient. data and information shall be managed as described in Sec. shall be prepared as required. If the design is based on a temperature profile for the pipeline.g. shall be the basis for future inspection planning.12 A103 and Sec.11 – Page 121 Integrity management system Company policy Integrity management process . e. The in-service file will typically consist of documents. Relevant operational controls and procedures are: — start-up and shutdown procedures — cleaning and other maintenance. As a minimum. an in-service file. Documentation of changes and communication to those who need to know is essential. emergencies etc.Inspection and monitoring . authorities.

) — mechanical damage to pipe.g. reliability. In case of significant increase in temperature. or close to. and shall form the basis for the detailed inspection and monitoring program. 307 Inspection shall be carried out to ensure that the design requirements remain fulfilled and that no damage has occurred. Examples of typical threats are: 305 A detailed inspection program including specifications for the inspections shall be prepared for each survey. etc.5 B300. 105 A special investigation shall be performed in case of any event which impairs the safety. 303 A long term inspection programme reflecting the overall safety objective for the pipeline shall be established. see Sec. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- The long term program shall state the philosophy used for maintaining the integrity of the pipeline system and will form the basis for the detailed inspection program in terms of inspection methods and intervals. The following items. Data from design and operation is the basis for the condition assessment. d) Assess need for. The philosophy shall be evaluated every 5 to 10 years. Integrity Management Process D 100 General 101 The integrity management process consists of the following steps: a) Evaluation of threats and the condition of the pipeline system. 306 Pipeline systems that are temporarily out of service shall also be subject to periodical survey. The following should be considered: — — — — — operation conditions of the pipeline consequences of failure likelihood of failure inspection methods design and function of the pipeline.3 B200 and Sec.and Tee connections including protective structure — pipeline settlement in case of exposed pipeline. The detailed inspection program should be updated based on previous inspections as required. and the capability of optional techniques. 308 The risers shall be part of the long-term inspection programme for the pipeline system. 103 An inspection and monitoring philosophy shall be established. 106 If mechanical damage or other abnormalities are detected during the periodic inspection. mattresses. 202 The condition assessment shall include an evaluation of relevant risks by using qualitative and/or quantitative methods. 102 The requirements for corrosion inspection and monitoring. as a minimum. particularly at the valve/Tee locations — the integrity of pipeline protection covers (e. October 2010 Page 122 – Sec. covers. pressure or flowrate after this — exposure and burial depth of buried or covered lines. and conduct if needed. This must be evaluated in each particular case. Guidance note: Pipelines and risers manufactured from Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA) do not normally require inspection and monitoring of internal corrosion. address: — — — — — internal corrosion external corrosion free spans buckles impact damage. 104 All inspection and monitoring requirements identified during the design phase as affecting safety and reliability during operation shall be covered in the inspection and monitoring program. b) Plan and conduct activities including inspection and monitoring. intervention and repair activities and other mitigating actions. This investigation may initiate further inspections. strength or stability of the pipeline system. should be considered: — — — — — — — — — — — pipeline risers and their supports valves Tee and Y connections mechanical connectors flanges anchors clamps protecting structures anodes coating.11 B300. D 300 External inspection Pipeline configuration survey 301 A pipeline configuration survey is a survey to determine the position. D 200 Evaluation of threats and condition 201 Threats shall be systematically identified. configuration and condition of the pipeline and its components. the pipeline that may cause damage to the pipeline or the external corrosion protection system — leakage. shall be evaluated at an early stage of pipeline system design. which may include additional inspections. The inspection program should. if required by design. In addition to the generally applicable requirements for pipeline inspection. see Sec. height and endsupport conditions — condition of artificial supports installed to reduce free span — local seabed scour affecting the pipeline integrity or attached structures — sand wave movements affecting the pipeline integrity — excessive pipe movements including expansion effects — identification of areas where upheaval buckling or excessive lateral buckling has taken place — integrity of mechanical connections and flanges — integrity of sub-sea valves including protective structure — Y. 304 The long term inspection program shall include the entire pipeline system.11 D. This shall be done for each section along the pipeline and for components. regulations or other specific requirements — free spans including mapping of length. sand bags.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. c) Integrity assessment based on inspection and monitoring results and other relevant information. assessed and documented throughout the operational lifetime. 302 The start-up inspections should be completed within one year from start of production. at minimum. first inspection. special attention DET NORSKE VERITAS . gravel slopes. This process shall be performed periodically within regular intervals. the need of additional inspections should be considered. and shall be maintained/updated on a regular basis. a proper evaluation of the damage shall be performed. coatings and anodes — major debris on.

measurements of protection potentials shall. the anode(s). linepipe material. The latter shall be determined based on pipeline design and operational parameters. The remaining sections should also be inspected. ensuring a full coverage of the entire pipeline system within a suitable period. Electric field gradient measurements in the vicinity of anodes may be used for semi-quantitative assessments of anode current outputs. and most remote from. templates and other structures where current drain may lead to premature consumption of adjacent pipe anodes. damaged and/or disbonded coatings can cause severe corrosion damage. i. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Risers in the splash zone and the atmospheric zone 312 In the splash zone and in the atmospheric zone. 309 The frequency of future external inspections shall be determined based upon an assessment of: 319 A survey of the external corrosion protection system. if required. 313 In the splash and atmospheric zones. or section thereof. more often. at minimum. 317 Potential measurements on anodes. Pipelines and risers in the submerged zone 315 In the submerged zone. and at any coating damage exposing bare pipe metal. visual examination of the coating should be performed in order to assess the needs for preventive maintenance. shall be inspected at short intervals. Although monitoring may be carried out as actual wall thickness measurements in a selected area. support and/or burial of the pipeline. 314 The frequency of the external inspection in the splash zone of risers shall be determined based on the fluid category. weight loss coupons or other retrievable probes for periodic or on-line determination of corrosion rates — in-situ wall thickness measurements.e.11 – Page 123 shall be given to the following elements for riser inspections: — riser displacement due to pipeline expansion or foundation settlement — coating damage — technique for corrosion control of any risers in closed conduits or J-tubes — extent of marine growth — extent of any previous damage due to corrosion — integrity and functionality of riser supports and guides — integrity and functionality of protecting structure. primarily by means of in situ wall thickness measurements. 318 For pipelines with impressed current cathodic protection systems. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — — — — — — — — authority and company requirements degradation mechanisms and failure modes likelihood and consequences of failure results from previous inspections changes in the operational parameters re-qualification activity and results repair and modifications subsequent pipelay operation in the vicinity. effects such as rust discoloration and bulging or cracking of the coating are indicative of underrusting. to assess the efficiency of any corrosion preventive measures. in its full length and circumference. On the other hand.e. inspection of external corrosion protection of pipelines and risers with sacrificial anodes can be limited to inspection of the condition of anodes. it cannot replace pipeline inspection schemes that cover the pipeline system.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. coating malfunctions are not critical unless they are combined with deficiency in the cathodic protection system. and accordingly to identify requirements for inspection of corrosion. i. 316 To a large extent. Risers carrying hot fluids are most vulnerable to such damage. expected form of damage. the line pipe material. 311 For risers contained in J-tubes filled with non-corrosive fluid inspection of external corrosion may not be required if adequate properties of the fluid is verified by periodic testing. normally on an annual basis. diameter and wall thickness. 403 The technique for detection of internal and/or external corrosion shall be selected based on considerations of fluid. corrosion retarding additions or corrosion products — corrosion probes. D 500 Corrosion monitoring 501 The objective of monitoring internal corrosion is to confirm that the fluid remains non-corrosive or. Coating systems which prevent close inspection of under-coating corrosion shall require special consideration. may be carried out to verify adequate protection. i. 402 In-line inspection should be carried out with a carrier tool ("inspection pig") capable of inspecting the internal and external surface of the pipeline along its full circumference and length. Besides visual indications of direct damage to the coating. October 2010 Sec. 404 Candidate operators of inspection tools should be required to document the capability of their systems with respect to detection limits and sizing of relevant corrosion defects (including localised corrosion at girth welds) for the pipe dimensions considered. 310 Critical sections of the pipeline system vulnerable to damage or subject to major changes in the seabed conditions i. 502 Corrosion monitoring as defined above does not normally give any quantitative information of critical loss of wall thickness. and requirements to detection limits and defect sizing capability. 503 The following major principles of corrosion monitoring may be applied: — fluid analyses. or a critical part thereof. Excessive anode consumption is indicative of coating deficiencies. should be carried out within one year of installation. coating properties and any corrosion allowance.e. 406 Inspection by special internal tools may be used to detect external corrosion of risers and pipelines in all three zones (see D200) including risers contained in J-tubes. D 400 In-line inspection 401 In-line inspection is carried out in order to confirm the integrity of the pipeline system. be carried out at locations closest to. Guidance note: Un-piggable pipelines are subject to separate evaluations and alternative methods. monitoring of fluid physical parameters and sampling of fluid for chemical analysis of corrosive components. repeated measurements of wall thickness at defined locations using portable or permanently installed equipment.e. 405 The frequency of in-line inspections shall be determined based on factors such as: — — — — authority and company requirements likelihood and consequences of failure potential corrosivity of fluid potential for development of external corrosion at hot-spots such as riser(s) and landfall/onshore pipeline sections — detection limits and accuracy of inspection system — results from previous surveys and monitoring — changes in pipeline operational parameters.11 B300. normally not more than 5 years. See also Sec. etc. except close to platforms. inspection techniques for internal corrosion are not normally sensitive enough to replace monitoring.

pipe dimensions. reference is made to DNV-RP-F101. gouges. 505 A typical major objective of corrosion monitoring is to detect changes in either intrinsic corrosivity of the fluid. a temporary repair may be accepted until the permanent repair can be carried out.g. 704 All repairs shall be tested and inspected by experienced and qualified personnel in accordance with agreed procedures. then further evaluations include: — options for continued operation of the pipeline system — repair methods. intervention and repairs shall be documented. 707 The most suitable method for repairing a leak in the pipe depends upon e. inspection of internal corrosion may be postponed provided that monitoring demonstrates that no corrosive liquids have entered the pipeline. The requirements given in the following sections regarding required actions. friction or other qualified mechanical means. For other types of repair the requirements for personnel. and up to the standard defined for the pipeline. or repaired by installing a full encirclement welded split sleeve or bolted clamp which is designed to take the full internal operating pressure. corrosion. D 600 Integrity assessment 601 Pipeline systems with unacceptable defects may be operated temporarily under the design conditions or reduced operational conditions until the defect has been removed or repair has been carried out. method. 602 When a defect is observed. e. For dent acceptance criteria. the pipeline should be verified based on established design limits and conditions (curvatures. erosion. may be waived if it can be documented that the specified safety level for the pipeline system is not impaired. All mitigation. see D608. For guidance. NDT personnel. fully processed) gas. intervention and repairs are: a) mitigation: — restrictions in operational parameters (pressure. 604 Defects that affect the safety or reliability of the pipeline shall either be removed by cutting out the damaged section of the pipe or repaired by local reinforcement. methods. For pipelines carrying dry (i. reference is made to DNV-RP-F113 Pipeline Subsea Repair. be documented that the pipeline integrity and the specified safety level is maintained. gouges. see Sec. 610 A dent affecting a weld can result in cracks. For guidance. equipment. the personnel. reference is made to DNV-RP-F105. however. For ground defects where all sharp edges are confirmed as removed.e. Alternatively. method and necessary equipment to carry out the work shall be agreed upon in each case. If a temporary repair is carried out. If unexpected global buckling occurs. the pipe material. and removal of the damaged portion of the pipe should be considered. intervention and repairs 701 Examples of mitigation. flow rate. the defect can be regarded as a smooth metal loss defect. Metal loss defects 608 Metal loss defects caused by e. which may include reduced operational conditions and/ or temporary precautions. and notches should preferably be removed by grinding or other agreed repair methods. location of leak. For guidance. e.5. pressure. cracks and notches 607 Sharp defects like grooves. b) Clamps are installed. including requirements for accuracy and sensitivity — fluid corrosivity and the corrosion preventive measures to be applied — potential corrosion mechanisms. The damaged part can be cut out as a cylinder. and acceptance criteria shall be agreed upon in accordance with Appendix D.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. and equipment shall be agreed upon according to Appendix C. and temperature. strains.g. Global Buckling of Submarine Pipelines. grinding or replacement. the pipeline may be permanently re-qualified to lower operational conditions see Sec. it shall be documented that the pipeline integrity and safety level is maintained either by the temporary repair itself and/or in combination with other precautions. b) intervention: — rock dumps — pipeline protections — trenching. D 700 Mitigation. Dents 609 A dent is defined as a depression which produces a gross disturbance in the curvature of the pipe wall.) — replacement of pipeline parts.) — use of chemical injections. 703 All repairs shall be carried out by qualified personnel in accordance with agreed specifications and procedures. Free spans 605 For guidance. — quantify details of the defect — identify cause of defect — evaluate accuracy and uncertainties in the inspection results. filler material. the cause of the leak shall be established. and tightness is obtained by either welding. 702 Repair and modification shall not impair the safety level of the pipeline system below the specified safety level. If the repair involves welding. October 2010 Page 124 – Sec.5 E503. reference is made to DNV-RP-F110. reduced pressure. 705 Depending upon the condition of the damage. Free Spanning Pipelines. utilisation of the pipeline should be evaluated based on relevant failure modes. Global buckling 606 If the design is based on controlled global buckling including plastic strains. load conditions. or been formed by condensation downstream of the inlet.11 504 Techniques and equipment for corrosion monitoring shall be selected based upon: — monitoring objectives. c) repairs: — local reinforcement (clamps etc. The following repair methods may be used: a) The damaged portion is cut out of the pipe as a cylinder and a new pipe spool is installed either by welding or by an mechanical connector. or DET NORSKE VERITAS . Repair of leaks 706 Prior to carrying out a permanent repair of any leak. or in the efficiency of the corrosion prevention measures. Corroded Pipelines. If the defect is not acceptable. Grooves.g. fluid composition etc.11 E and Sec. which may allow for omitting repair. It must. an evaluation shall be performed including: grind repair shall be checked for capacity. temperature. 603 In each case a thorough evaluation of the defect and the impact on safety and reliability for the operation of the pipeline shall be performed.g. bending moment).

g. flange or gasket/seals. 201 Within the original design life. e. it shall be documented by calculation that no over-stressing occurs in bolts. either internal or external — dynamic responses. see Appendix C. 502 Sufficient reliability or safety measures shall be applied to account for the accuracy and uncertainties in the inspection results. shall be considered in a re-qualification assessment. which may be caused by lacking supports etc. due to requirements for higher utilisation for existing pipelines b) change of the premises: — environmental loads — deformations — scour. This standard and associated DNV codes may alternatively be used. pipe wall thickness. reference is made to Sec. For major modifications or other instances not covered by the above paragraph this standard shall apply. 103 A re-qualification may be triggered by a change in the original design basis. sleeves. reference is made to DNV-RP-F113 Pipeline Subsea Repair. Guidance note: The same safety level shall apply for lifetime extensions of an existing pipeline as would apply for the design of a new pipeline.g. The reason for requiring use of this standard is in case the original standard used for design is less stringent than necessary to meet the target safety levels specified in this standard. d) deterioration mechanisms having exceeded the original assumptions: — corrosion rate. inspection records and modifications. new bolts shall be used for the flange connection. pressure and temperature.5. Following the repair.11 – Page 125 708 Leaking flanges and couplings may be sealed by installing a seal clamp covering the leaking flange or coupling. new pipeline section. see Appendix D.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. For guidance. see Sec. 102 Re-qualification is a re-assessment of the design under changed design conditions. 709 All repair clamps. Re-qualification E 100 General 101 The purpose of this section is to define re-qualification and to give requirements for re-qualification of pipeline systems. — — — — — E 200 dents damage to pipeline protection weld defects corrosion related defects damage to anodes. e) extended design life. c) change of operational parameters: — pressure or temperature — corrosivity of the medium.5 B204). or replacing gaskets and seals. change of operational conditions. contributing to fatigue. 712 Underwater welding shall be carried out in a dry habitat. pressure testing may be required for the repaired section.). depending on pipe material. 503 Accumulated damage experienced prior to the re-qualification shall be included in the evaluation. October 2010 Sec. and mechanical connectors shall be qualified prior to installation and leak tested after installation. be carried out on pipelines while operating.2 C500 shall apply for a re-qualification assessment. E 500 Deterioration 501 All relevant deterioration and damage mechanisms shall be evaluated. f) discovered damage: a) corrosion: — external corrosion — internal corrosion.g. or by mistakes or shortcomings having been discovered during normal or abnormal operation.g. by not fulfilling the design basis. 714 All repair welds shall be subject to visual and nondestructive testing. In case the pre-load in the bolts is removed. It shall be documented that safety for carrying out the repair is acceptable. Prior to increasing the pre-load in bolts. increasing the bolt pre-load. fluid type. b) erosion c) accidental loads d) development of free spans e) fatigue f) settlement. Typical mechanisms are: a) preference to use this standard. E 400 401 System pressure test E. E 600 Design criteria 601 The parameters that trigger the re-qualification and the implication of changes in these parameters on different design conditions shall be clearly identified and documented. in special cases. and a safety procedure shall be established. 713 Repair welding may. Application Repair by welding 710 Repair welding procedures and welders shall be qualified as described in Appendix C. (for omission of system pressure test. Possible causes may be: System pressure testing may be required when: — the original mill pressure test or system pressure test does not satisfy requirements according to this standard at the new design pressure — a significant part of the pipeline has not been system pressure tested e. e. minor modifications or rectification of design parameters exceeded during operation. 711 Repair welding above water shall be carried out as described in Appendix C. and without essential changes in the manner of employment (repair etc. e. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- E 300 Safety level 301 A target safety level as defined in Sec. pipe spools. 302 Operational experience. For redesign of these design conditions. DET NORSKE VERITAS . the standard under which the pipeline was built may apply when considering incidents. due to changing of gasket.

104 De-commissioned pipelines shall be preserved to reduce effect from degradation mechanisms.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. if the pipeline is to be removed — environment. DET NORSKE VERITAS . October 2010 Page 126 – Sec.11 F. De-commissioning F 100 General 101 Pipeline de-commissioning shall be planned and prepared. 103 De-commisioning evaluation shall include the following aspects: G. 102 Pipeline abandonment evaluation shall include the following aspects: — — — — — relevant national regulations environment. 102 De-commissioning shall be conducted and documented in such a way that the pipeline can be re-commissioned and put into service again. especially pollution — obstruction for ship traffic — obstruction for fishing activities — corrosion impact on other structures. — relevant national regulations — health and safety of personnel. Abandonment G 100 General 101 Pipeline abandonment shall be planned and prepared. especially pollution obstruction for ship traffic obstruction for fishing activities corrosion impact on other structures.

flanges and the use of flexible pipe or risers — pigging requirements such as bend radius. etc. including. valves. C and D).3 A 200. e. October 2010 Sec. shall be established with the main objective being to provide the operations organisation with a concentrated summary of the most relevant data from the design. safety barriers and subsea valves — requirements to repair and replacement of pipeline sections. 103 Drawings shall be provided for the fabrication and installation of the pipeline system. valves.g. seabed properties and topology. As a minimum. as applicable — spool fabrication drawing — other components within the pipeline system (connectors. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- DET NORSKE VERITAS . operation and abandonment of a pipeline system. flow rate. General A 100 Objective 101 This section specifies the minimum requirements to documentation needed for design. fluid composition. final commissioning. loading zones. riser protection systems. including possible changes during the pipeline system's design life — principles for strength and in-place analysis — pipeline route drawings including information on. rescue areas. pigging loops etc. — corrosion control philosophy — second and third party activities. including planned period of the year for installation — design life including specification of start of design life. fabrication and installation (incl. — transport capacity and pipeline sizing data — attention to possible code breaks in the pipeline system — geometrical restrictions such as specifications of constant internal diameter.g.g. including but not limited to: B. location. temperature. general arrangements. subsea well heads. as applicable: — — — — — — — cathodic protection design report anode manufacturing and installation specifications anode drawings coating manufacturing specifications field joint coating specification(s) corrosion monitoring system specification material take off/data sheets. pipe ovality and distances between various fittings affecting design for pigging applications — relevant pigging scenarios (inspection and cleaning) — pigging fluids to be used and handling of pigging fluids in both end of pipeline including impact on process systems — topographical and bathymetrical conditions along the intended pipeline route — geotechnical conditions — environmental conditions — operational conditions such as pressure. sand production etc. The design shall be adequately documented to enable second and/or third party verification. fabrication and installation phase. — alignment sheets — detailed pipeline crossing drawings — platform layout drawings with risers. Design B 100 Structural 101 A design basis for the pipeline system shall be established. 102 A Design Fabrication Installation (DFI) resumé. 103 An in-service file containing all relevant data achieved during the operational phase of the pipeline system and with the main objective to systemise information needed for integrity management and assessment of the pipeline system shall be established and maintained for the whole service life (see F200). pre-commissioning) phase (see B. inlet and outlet conditions — functional requirements including field development restrictions. all required documentation shall be reflected in a master document register (MDR). but not limited to: — safety objective — pipeline system description incl. etc.2 B300) corrosion control (internal and external) piggability installation and commissioning. Guidance note: The cathodic protection design report shall pay attention to the landfall section (if any) and possible interaction with the relevant onshore CP-system. ship lanes. etc. actuators and fittings — project plans and schedule. 102 The purpose of the design documentation is to ensure a reliable pipeline system.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 104 For the design. existing and future platforms. pipelines/cables. battery limits. manufacturing / fabrication.) — pipeline protection drawings — riser and riser clamp fabrication drawings — land ownership details. B 300 Corrosion control systems and weight coating 301 The following documentation shall be established. The pipeline system phases are further described in Sec. e. as described in H. 105 The required documentation for all phases of the pipeline system’s lifetime shall be submitted to the relevant parties for acceptance or information as agreed. the following items shall be addressed: — — — — — — — — — — — — pipeline routing physical and chemical characteristics of fluid materials selection temperature/pressure profile and pipeline expansion strength analyses for riser and riser supports all relevant strength and in-place stability analyses for pipeline relevant pipeline installation analysis risk analysis as applicable systematic review of threats in order to identify and evaluate the consequences of single failures and series of failures (see Sec. B 200 Linepipe and pipeline components (including welding) 201 The following documentation shall be established: — material manufacturing specifications — welding and NDT specifications — material take off/data sheets. installation. boat landing areas. installation.12 – Page 127 SECTION 12 DOCUMENTATION A. e. requirement for fittings.

test certificates for equipment.12 B 400 Installation 401 The following documentation shall be established: — Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) and HAZOP studies (see Sec. etc. but not be limited to: C. — operation envelope — external and internal inspection strategies incl. — documentation of materials and concrete mix design — Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Tests (MPQT) results — quality plan with referenced procedures for inspection. flooding. ER-probes. risers. testing and calibrations — outline drawing of anodes. fluid monitoring etc. including test requirements and acceptance criteria. welding. hydrostatic testing.Installation and Pre-Commissioning D 100 General 101 The documentation to be submitted for review prior to start of installation shall include.10) — installation and testing specifications and drawings — Welding Procedure Qualification (WPQ) records. mechanical and corrosion testing etc. etc. Construction . etc. personnel qualification records. repairs. weight loss coupons. Construction .:and — filling of fluid procedures 102 Documentation produced in connection with the pressure testing of the pipeline system shall include: — pressure and temperature record charts DET NORSKE VERITAS . but not be limited to: — manufacturing procedures. coating). the following documentation shall be established: — pipeline integrity management strategy covering strategies for corrosion control. B 500 Operation 501 Decisions and parameters having an impact on the operational phase of the pipeline system such as: — — — — — — — — — — — consumable batch numbers welder certificates heat treatment records NDT procedures and records NDT operator certificates dimensional reports equipment calibration certificates/reports storage procedures release certificates pipe tally sheet complete statistics of chemical composition. mechanical properties and dimensions for the quantity delivered. drying. qualification records for personnel (e. cleaning. weight and negative buoyancy for the each joint delivered — repair log — electrical resistance test log. C 200 Corrosion control system and weight coating 201 The documentation to be submitted for review prior to start of manufacturing shall include.etc. but not be limited to: D.g. dimensional measurements. incl. 202 The as built documentation to be submitted after manufacturing shall include. — material certificates — production test records — complete statistics of coating dimensions. spools and components including acceptance criteria.) and pipeline anchoring structures — Installation Manuals (IM) procedures — trenching specification — intervention procedure — survey procedure — hydrotest procedures — pre-commissioning procedure.Manufacturing and Fabrication C 100 Linepipe and pipeline component 101 The documentation to be submitted for review prior to start or during start-up of manufacturing shall include. 502 As a minimum.g. piggability. procedures for dewatering. mothballing. 102 The as built documentation to be submitted after manufacturing shall include. B 600 DFI-Resumé 601 The Design part of the DFI-resumé shall be established and in accordance with the requirements given in H.) mechanical test reports hydrostatic testing report weld log records — installation procedures for pipelines. but not be limited to: — manufacturing procedures. but not be limited to: — — — — — — — — — — Quality Control (QC) procedures Inspection and Test Plan (ITP) traceability procedure material certificates Manufacturing Procedure Specifications (MPS) including test requirements and acceptance criteria results from MPQT test procedures (e. including procedures for repair welding — Welding Procedure Qualification (WPQ) records — Non Destructive Testing (NDT) procedures — Personnel qualification records (e.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. hydrostatic testing.g. for welders and NDT operators) — manufacturer's/fabricator's quality system manual. dimensional measurements.g. — installation procedures for protective structures (as mattresses etc. mechanical and corrosion testing etc. including inspection/test requirements and acceptance criteria. ROV surveys — measuring points for in-situ wall thickness measurements. documentation. repairs.) — Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS). inspection and maintenance — emergency response strategy — emergency repair contingency strategy. shall be emphasised and documented in design. — Quality Plan (QP) — Manufacturing Procedure Specifications (MPS) including test requirements and acceptance criteria — Manufacturing Procedure Qualification Test (MPQT) results — manufacturing procedures (e. October 2010 Page 128 – Sec. C 300 DFI-resumé 301 The Manufacturing / Fabrication part of the DFI-resumé shall be established and in accordance with the requirements given in H.

extent of damage and temporary measures. October 2010 Sec. as defined in Sec. c) inspection plans covering the future external and internal inspections of the pipeline system. Important parameters to document are typically: — — — — expansion movement global buckling wall thickness/metal loss. DFI Resumé H 100 General 101 A Design Fabrication Installation (DFI) Resumé shall be prepared to provide information for operation of the pipeline system. and as an integrated part. previous survey reports. inspections and maintenance and provide references to the documentation needed for any repair. 103 The DFI Resumé shall specify design and operating premises and requirements. its systems or components with due reference to location. modification and replacement. pressure.11. pressure and dew points b) procedures and results from operational verification activities (i. if any — plans and full particulars of repairs. H. G.11 E). modification or re-qualification of the pipeline system. reliability. be prepared prior to start-up of the pipeline: — description of the damage to the pipeline. type. modifications and replacements. 103 The as built documentation to be submitted after installation and pre-commissioning shall include.11 C1100 shall as a minimum contain documentation regarding: — — — — survey reports updated drawings intervention reports pre-commissioning reports. but not be limited to.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. including navigation charts showing the pipeline route. The DFI resumé shall clearly show the limits of the pipeline system. pre-commissioning) part of the DFI-resumé shall be established and in accordance with the requirements given in H. as-laid / as-built installation drawings and test reports — physical and chemical characteristics of transported media including sand data — inspection and maintenance schedules and their records — inspection procedure and results covering the inspection aspects described in Sec. the size of the pipeline depth of burial and its location relative to surface features — details of abandoned offshore pipelines. but not be limited to: — — — — results and conclusions from the in-service inspections accidental events and damages to the pipeline system intervention. but not be limited to: — — — — that might impair the safety. E. Operation F 100 General 101 In order to maintain the integrity of the pipeline system. a) procedure and results from fluid filling operations with special emphasis on design parameters having an impact on the integrity of the pipeline system such as temperature. 102 In case of mechanical damage or other abnormalities DET NORSKE VERITAS . of the design. start-up inspection). Operation . 104 The DFI Resumé shall contain all documentation required for normal operation.11 B) the documentation made available shall include.) affecting corrosion and other deterioration mechanisms. 102 The DFI Resumé shall reflect the as-built status of the pipeline system and shall provide information for preparation of plans for inspection and maintenance planning. Abandonment G 100 General 101 Records of abandoned pipelines shall be available and shall include but not be limited to: — details of abandoned pipelines on land including route maps. temperature etc. the following documentation shall. which shall be in accordance with Sec. 104 Records and documentations should include authorisations and permits to operate.1 C335 or otherwise as agreed between Contractor and Pipeline Owner.12 – Page 129 log of pressure and temperatures calibration certificates for instruments and test equipment calculation of air content calculation of pressure and temperature relationship and justification for acceptance — endorsed test acceptance certificate. F 200 In-Service file 201 The in-service file. 103 In case of re-qualification of the pipeline system (see Sec. the documentation made available during the operational phase shall include. as agreed upon in line with those for the construction or installation phase. including contingency measures — further documentation with respect to particular repair. e.e. fabrication and installation phase of the project. D 200 DFI-Resumé 201 The Installation (incl.Commissioning E 100 General 101 As a part of the commissioning (see Sec. including supporting records. all information related to the re-assessment process of the original design shall be documented. 105 The preparation of the DFI Resumé shall be carried out in parallel. but not be limited to: — organisation chart showing the functions responsible for the operation of the pipeline system — personnel training and qualifications records — history of pipeline system operation with reference to events which may have significance to design and safety — installation condition data as necessary for understanding pipeline system design and configuration. the DFI Resumé shall contain the below listed items: F. flow rate. repair.g. H 200 DFI resumé content 201 As a minimum. strength and stability of the pipeline system. and modifications operational data (fluid composition.

Fabrication 206 Shall include a manufacturing / fabrication activity resumé. including drawings from sub-vendors and contractors. listing all components in the system from pigtrap to pigtrap. release notes and authority approvals shall show unambiguous reference to applicable standards and documents. October 2010 Page 130 – Sec. and final reports of maintenance and repair. environmental conditions tabulated geotechnical parameters as used in design design pressure and temperature flow rate fluid composition corrosion allowance depth of cover material specifications. Filing of Documentation I 100 General 101 Maintenance of complete files of all relevant documentation during the life of the pipeline system is the responsibility of the Owner. covering pressure containing equipment and structure CP-system (i. as: — drawings of special components — alignment sheets — as-installed route drawings shall be included. reference to specifications. certification activities and condition for certificates. free span criteria incidental pressure relief system flow control techniques and requirements. This includes also documentation from possible major repair or re-construction of the pipeline system. Design Basis 204 Shall give a summary of the final design basis. Inspection.12 System description 202 Shall include a description of the pipeline system including: — final dimensions — final operational parameters — a table. 103 The engineering documentation not mentioned in I102 shall be filed by the Owner or by the engineering Contractor for a minimum of 10 years. anode details) fatigue design assumptions incl. Installation 207 Shall include an installation activity resumé. discussion of problem areas and any deviations from specifications and drawings of importance for the operational phase.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. The following parameters are considered important for the operation of the pipeline system: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — design life and limitations design standards. Key data like inner diameter (ID). fabrication and installation is based. release notes and authority approvals with reference to items and nature of any conditional approvals. 104 Files to be kept from the operational phase of the pipeline system shall as a minimum include final in-service (F200) inspection reports from start-up. reference to specifications. Document filing system 203 Shall give an overview of as-built documentation including description of filing system and method. for planning of future pigging operations. on which engineering. Surveys 210 Shall give all engineering assumptions and assessments drawn from the route and site surveys in addition to all applicable as-installed route drawings. Pre-commissioning 208 Shall include a pre-commissioning activity resumé and any results from the pre-commissioning phase. 102 The DFI-resumé (see H200) and all documentation referred to in the DFI Resumé shall by filed for the lifetime of the system. drawings etc. as well as references to additional documentation / drawings. Design parameters of key importance for the operation of the pipeline system should be emphasised. accepted deviations. All applicable deviations and non-conformances shall be listed including a I. deviations and non-conformances with special emphasis on identified areas deemed to require special attention during normal operation of the pipeline system. fabrication and installation phase.e. drawings etc. or for the operational phase the Operator. DET NORSKE VERITAS .. Design 205 Shall include a design activity resumé.. description of possible impact on the operational phase. Selected drawings from the design. bend radius and wall thickness (WT) should be included. The certificates. periodical and special inspections. Selected Drawings 213 Shall include a complete as-built drawing list. with reference to the as-built filing system. discussion of problem areas and any deviations from specifications and drawings of importance for the operational phase. condition monitoring records. all engineering assumptions and assessments not listed in the design basis in addition to applicable deviations and non-conformances including a description of possible impact on the operational phase. Maintenance and Repair 211 Shall include an overview of: — identified areas deemed to require special attention during normal operation of the pipeline system — operational constraints Deviations and Non-Conformances 212 Shall include a complete list of waivers. items covered. Certificate and Authority Approval 209 Shall include a hierarchical overview of issued certificates.

relation to nominal thickness and corrosion allowance Minimum allowed ovality for collapse Sec.13) B.3 B300 Table 3-1 Table 5-10 Appendix A Eq.1 C200 Sec.10 E Sec.5 C302 Table 5-6 Figure 2 in Sec.13 – Page 131 SECTION 13 COMMENTARY (INFORMATIVE) A.5 D201 Sec.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. The section is informative only.10 B300 Golden weld Sec.5 H102 Sec.7 I300 Sec.7 I400 Sec.2 C400 Sec. line pipe specification Pressure .7 E100 Sec. Cross References Comment or aspect Evaluation of risks Survey Minimum vertical distance Specification Requirements Safety class Design criteria Pipe straightness Installation fc Relation to supplementary requirement U Proposed (conservative) de-rating stresses Reduction due to the UO/UOE process Definition Link between mill pressure test and design Reduced mill test pressure implication on pressure containment capacity Basic Requirement Maximum test pressure Waiving of mill test – UOE-pipes. General A 100 Objective The objective of this section is to: — give guidance reflecting good engineering practice.5 B105 Sec. (5. as installed Table 7-17 and Table 7-26 Maximum allowed ovality (Out-of roundness).2 B302 Sec.31) Table 4-5 Sec.5 Table 5-7 Mill pressure test Sec.7 E105 Sec. (5.13 E500 Sec.5 D901 Maximum allowed ovality.5 H200 Sec.5 A205 Definitions Pressure protection system Pressure terms Characteristic values Benefit of lower incidental pressure Pressure protection system Incidental to design pressure ratios Fracture assessment – when supplementary requirement P comes into force Engineering critical assessment Capacity formula Condition factor Supplementary requirement P Supplementary requirement D Testing Requirements Pressure – incidental Reeling Spiral welded DET NORSKE VERITAS .3 B300 Table 4-1 Table 4-3 Sec.5 B200 Sec. conditions Minimum 12 mm and when it applies When to use minimum wall thickness.3 C204 Sec.9 Material strength Sec. and some of the recommendations may not be founded on thorough work but engineering judgement only. — give an overview of the standard by giving cross references to subjects covered in different sections — give background information to the requirements in the standard Table 13-1 Index and cross references Key word Reference Crossing Sec. October 2010 Sec.10 A807 Installation Sec.general Sec.7 E107 Minimum wall thickness Table 5-3 Table 5-2 Ovality Eq.1 C200 Sec.

Note that this consequence not necessarily is limited to failure of the considered pipeline itself. will have a significantly smaller consequence than a failure during a shut-down period of the pipeline.5 D300 Sec. but rather a nominal measure of DET NORSKE VERITAS .2.(in αc) SMYS and SMTS αh (YS/UTS) Definition Link to design Requirements Waiving of system pressure test Safety class during system pressure test Limit state check . Pressure containment Collapse Local buckling Load Displacement Controlled Controlled X X X Table 13-2 Characteristic material properties for design Symbol Description Reference Propagating buckling Elastic properties E Young’s modulus ν Poisson’s ratio α Temperature expansion. Design Philosophy C 100 Safety Class discussion Safety class shall be specified for each part of the pipeline and for each phase.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. as stated. Eq. strain Capacity formula SMYS/SMTS . typically to people. The classification shall be based on the requirements in Sec.30.5 D200 Sec. 5. but also to its impact on the total exploration. 5. this allows the owner to differentiate between the design conservatism for a flow line with a 5 year design life and a trunk line with 40 years design life. C 200 Structural reliability analyses Structural reliability methods consider structural analysis models in conjunction with available information regarding the involved variables and their associated uncertainties.22) Table 7-5 and Table 7-11 Table 7-5 and Table 7-11 System pressure test Sec. However. where both pollution and time for repair are significantly more expensive and time consuming. holding time etc.Figure 2 ing value in Sec. During such circumstances. temp Tensile strength temperature Sec.pressure containment Limit state check . 5. October 2010 Page 132 – Sec. This may be the case when the most probable cause of failure would be draught of vessel.) Requirements for doubler plates etc.31 Eq. 5. environment and cost.1 C200 Sec.local buckling Execution of the test (filling. as function of the temperature (within the actual temperature range) Plastic properties SMYS Specified minimum yield stress Table 7-5 and Table 7-11 fy.10 O500 Weld onto pipe Sec. A fail- ure during installation. One such example may be reduction in production if a water injection line or a system for waste water fails which from an isolated point of view could be defined as safety class low.5 B205 Sec. Another example is differentiation of temporary phases. The reliability as assessed by reliability methods is not an objective physical property of the pipeline itself in the given operational and environmental condition.5 SMTS Specified minimum tensile Table 7-5 and Table strength 7-11 fu.5 B203 Table 5-1 Sec.5 B200 Sec. The above clearly illustrates that Table 2-4 is for “Normal”classification only. The safety class concept allows the owner some flexibility in terms of risk which is both a reasonable and rational approach.g.13 Table 13-1 Index and cross references (Continued) Key word Reference Strain hardening Eq.22 X X X X X - X X X X - X X X X (X) X X X X (X) X X - X X X X - C.5 B108 Comment or aspect In capacity formula.5 C304 GN derating value α fab Fabrication factor Table 5-7 Plastic properties depending on additional requirements αu(U) increased utilisation Table 5-6 αh(P) Strain hardening value Table 7-5 and Table 7-11 αc(U) Flow stress parameter Eq 5. e. normally considered as safety class low.19 (through Eq. where the emphasis should be put on operating procedures and back-up. it may not be required with a higher safety class. The main aspect when determining the safety class is the consequence. temp Yield stress temperature derat. the total safety may not always be increased by specifying a higher safety class.

Failure statistics may be used as guidance on relative failure probability levels but only limited information about specific failure probability for SLS. e. The characteristic value in the resistance formulas is a lower fractile and the expected yield stress is typically in the order of 8% higher. A γC lower than unity is e. installation or operation of the pipeline that may lead to a safety level far below what is normally aimed for by use of a partial safety factor design format or specific reliability analysis. For pipeline systems with a two peak annual extreme pressure distribution. only incidental operations are expected to be in the upper 5% of the incidental pressure. Hence. Determination of design pressure shall then be made based on the above principles. the pipesoil properties. full shut-in pressure is used.1) Correspondingly. used in DNV-RP-F110 Global Buckling of Submarine Pipelines – Structural Design due to High Temperature/High Pressure.T is a nominal target value that should be fulfilled for a design to be accepted. When converting the defined pressures in one system to pressure in another system..1) applies.07. e. Design Criteria E 100 General The basis for most of the given limit states were developed within the joint industry project SUPERB and the reports may be bought from Sintef. i. construction. Structural (nominal) failure probability from a SRA is a nominal value and cannot be interpreted as an expected frequency of failure.calculated < Pf. span length or heights. see Table 3-1. In the following only natural variability are discussed and the corresponding probabilities are referred to as Nominal throughout this standard. The SUPERB results were incorporated in DNV Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems. t1.T Pf. and upper fractiles for loads. the risk of human injury.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. ULS and FLS can be deduced from failure statistics. See e. between topside and a pipeline system. In this revision. and as an absolute measure for welded pipes. This implies that it is not applicable for the sag bend evaluation during installation on uneven seabed. e. Acceptable nominal failure probabilities depend in general on the consequence and nature of failure. allowing a higher utilisation of pressurised pipes.13 – Page 133 the reliability given a particular physical and probabilistic modelling and analysis procedure applied. Reference is given to E600. E 200 Condition load effect factors The load condition factor γC = 1. A table specifying the combinations of characteristic loads have been included in Sec. special considerations are required. the incidental pressure shall be determined based on the pressure control system and the pressure safety system tolerances and capabilities to ensure that the local incidental pressure meets the given annual probability of exceedance above. The pressure containment criterion gives a minimum required minimum wall thickness. The incidental pressure is normally defined as the pressure with an annual probability of exceedance of 10-2 If the design pressure is given. (13. Such a replacement requires a thorough evaluation by a reliability specialist. the nominal thickness based on an absolute fabrication tolerance.e. A gross error is defined as a human mistake during the design. Eq. E. October 2010 Sec. Jiao et al (1996) and Mørk et al (1997). primarily. In the 2000 revision of this standard. % tfab. For a fabrication tolerance given as a percentage. 1996 (DNV'96) and modified in order to allow for additional aspects. (13. E 300 Calculation of nominal thickness D.2). Loads D 100 Conversion of pressures The governing pressure for design is the incidental pressure. t = t 1 + t c or r + t f ab (13. On commonly overlooked implication of this is that it is not allowed to replace the fy based upon a certificate or test. Typical examples of these may be SMYS for the yield stress and 100-year waves for loads. the implication of the corrosion allowance will be different. not always however.g. social (political) inconvenience and the expense and effort required to reduce the failure probability. Structural reliability analysis is only one part of a total safety concept as gross errors are not included.g. so called characteristic values are used. tfab.4. the incidental pressure may be reduced to the design pressure.g. to represent the degree of displacement control and uncertainties in. the LRFD format was modified on the resistance side as described in Sec. It is expected that the operating pressure of a well stream designed for the shut-in pressure is at least 5% less than the shut-in pressure. The local buckling formulation included some results from the Hotpipe project. all limit states may not have identical partial factors as in the SUPERB reports. Some results have been published. Different systems may have different definitions of design pressure and incidental pressure.g. A probabilistic design check can be performed using the following design format: Pf. only a interpretation given explicitly. economic losses.2) DET NORSKE VERITAS . not necessarily to be considered in a research project. Depending on the fabrication tolerance format. this has been further improved to allow for higher utilisation for pressurised pipes. is given by Eq. C 300 Characteristic values In a LRFD format. Vitali et al (1999). Norway.g. This pressure shall then be defined as the incidental pressure in the pipeline system. If the pressure not can exceed the design pressure. Nominal target reliabilities have to be met in design in order to ensure that certain safety levels are achieved. pipeline resting on uneven seabed refers to the load effect uncertainty due to variation in weight. The characteristic pressure is now incidental pressure for all limit states.2 and the limit states from DNV'96 modified correspondingly. based on pressure having an annual probability of exceedance less than 10-2. These are often lower fractiles for strength and resistance. the conversion shall be The negative fabrication tolerance is normally given as a percentage of the nominal thickness for seamless pipes. This is not intended to be different from the 2000 revision (with exception of use of the incidental pressure and that interference loads is a separate load category). t 1 + t corr t = --------------------1 – %t fab (13. stiffness.calculated is the calculated nominal probability of failure evaluated by a recognised (accepted) reliability method and pf.

672 0. The governing pressure when determining the wall thickness is the local incidental pressure.15 The corresponding usage factors for γinc = 1. incidental pressure less than 10% above the design pressure. a correspondingly smaller wall thickness is required.5 times the incidental pressure).5 D1200 may be used.77 0.00 0. the annual probability of this to happen must be less than 10-2.5) and will typically apply to hydraulicly “softer” systems like gas trunk lines.temp ) 2 ⋅ t1 3 ⋅ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ γ inc (13. ( p li − p e ) 2 ⋅α U D − t1 ≤ ⋅ ( SMYS − f y . the criteria can be given as in Eq.96 (0. If the over pressure would have been less than 20-30% above the incidental pressure. For high pressure wells. A High Integrity Pressure Protection System (HIPPS) serve the purpose to protect the downstream pipeline from the shutin pressure by stopping the flow in case a pressure increase is experience (due to some blocking down-stream).T (13.temp ) 2 ⋅ t1 1. (13. (13. is given in Eq.temp ) (13.5).temp ) 2 ⋅ t1 D − t1 η ≤ ⋅ ( SMTS − f u . a better control system which can guarantee the same probability for an incidental pressure 5% above the design pressure. reflecting the ratio between the incidental pressure and the design pressure. γinc.847 0.96 (0.αU test Low Medium High 3 1 1. October 2010 Page 134 – Sec.10 (10% incidental pressure) are given in Table 13-3.802 may be used In location class 1.3) 2 ⋅ t1 3 ⋅ γ m ⋅ γ SC The differential pressure is here given as a function of the local incidental pressure. The wall thickness will then be the larger of the pressure containment criterion based: — on the choke pressure and — the accidental scenario of the shut-in pressure. (13. the faster will the pressure increase occur. However. which usually is expressed in terms of allowable hoop stress. the downstream pipeline will experience the full shut-in pressure. The resulting annual extreme pressure distribution will then be similar to Figure 1. This corresponds to the traditional format. a two peak distribution where the right peak describes the pressure distribution in case of failure of the HIPPS.8133 0. This reduced pressure is dependent on a constant flow and will increase to the shut-in pressure in case of blockage downstream.843) 0. Table 13-3 "Usage factors" η for pressure containment Utilisation Safety Class Pressure factor.7). η= pd pd 2 ⋅α U 3 ⋅ γ m ⋅ γ SC ⋅ γ inc (13. reduced on purpose by a choke in order to enable a lower pressure pipeline downstream.6) (13. as given in Eq.698 0. this downstream pressure may be From the example in the figure. The closer this blockage is to the HIPPS.7) Probability Density 0 D − t1 ≤ η ⋅ ( SMYS − f y . it is assumed that the over pressure scenario will be the overall contributing accidental scenario and the summation sign is neglected. The accidental criterion is: ∑p f | Di ⋅ PDi ≤ p f .3).77 may be used Effectively this factor since the pressure test is governing 1 2 Norma lised pressure 3 4 Figure 1 E 500 Pressure containment criterion. the choke pressure may govern the design. In order to take advantage of a HIPP system. it is evident that the over pressure scenario will burst the pipeline (a factor 2. DET NORSKE VERITAS . E 600 HIPPS and similar systems A pipeline will always have an operating pressure lower than the design pressure due to the pressure drop caused by the flow of the fluid. This is reflected by a lower γinc in (13. In case of failure of this HIPP system. the formula can be rearranged for the reference point above water.4) Introducing a usage factor as given in (13.13 E 400 Pressure containment .838) 1) 2) 3) In location class 1. (13. For a failure probability less than 10-2 this over-pressure may be considered as an accidental limit state and the methodology in Sec. Hence.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.equivalent format The format of the pressure containment resistance in Sec.802 0.4). 0. With the example in Figure 1 the accidental scenario will govern the wall thickness design. this gives one wall thickness. This part is referred to as the fortified zone. pd 2 ⋅α U D − t1 ≤ ⋅ ( SMYS − f y .96 0. the speed of this HIPPS will determine how long part of the pipeline downstream that not can be protected but designed for the full shut-in pressure. Introducing a load factor. 0. The pipeline system shall have a pressure safety system which ensures that there is a low lifetime probability for exceeding the local incidental pressure at any point in the system.6) and Eq. If this is achieved for an incidental pressure which is 10% above the design pressure.5) (13.8) where pf|Di is the failure probability given that the scenario happens and PDi is the probability of the scenario to happen. In the following.5 is given in a LRFD format.

11) 2⋅t D (13.5 is taken from Torselletti et al.8 Note that the target failure probability in accordance with Sec.g. a thinner pipe becomes more susceptible to imperfections. as well as other functional aspects as stated in the paragraph. (13. where the minimum ovalisation f0 = 0.13 – Page 135 For the HIPPS scenario outlined above. This limitation is due to the given resistance formulations which not includes the ovality explicitly. E 700 Local buckling . E 1100 Ovalisation Pipe ovalisation is mentioned in three different places within this standard: Sec.10) t ⎛t ⎞ 2⋅ E ⋅⎜ ⎟ ⎝D⎠ p el (t ) = 1 −ν 2 p p (t ) = f y ⋅ α fab ⋅ 3 (13.-. see Ghodsi et al (1994).b – 1 bc + d⎞ -.5 D401. elastic buckling has to be checked separately.⎝ -⎠ 2 27 3 –1 ⎛ –v ⎞ Φ = cos ⎜ ------------⎟ ⎝ – u 3⎠ ⎛ Φ 60π ⎞ y = −2 − u cos⎜ + ⎟ ⎝ 3 180 ⎠ E 800 Buckle arrestor The buckle arrestor formula in Sec.b + c⎞ . and hence do not need to be checked. If this is true. The collapse formula includes the ovality explicitly giving a lower resistance for a larger ovality. where the maximum allowable ovalisation f0 = 3%. elastic buckling. with D/t2 a sufficient "safety margin" above the actual D/t2 in order to account for both uncertainty as well as natural thickness variations. It is assumed that the detrimental effect is due to on-set of buckling due to imperfections at the weld on the compressive side. e. is a function of the: E 900 Local buckling .Collapse The collapse pressure. and the combined loading.⎠ 3⎝ 3 Figure 2 Proposed girth weld factors 2 3 v = 1 ⎛ ----. Up to D/t2 equal to 45.5% to be accounted for in the system collapse check.g. Special considerations shall be made to — girth welds and mismatch at girth welds. The failure probability of the pressure containment criterion is at least one order of magnitude less than the target values in Table 2-5. If no other information exists then the following girth weld factor is proposed. typically through FE analysis.10) with the defined elastic and plastic capacities in Eq. PDi = Pblockage · Pfailure on demand(HIPPS) (13. October 2010 Sec. In addition to check for elastic buckling.2 primarily shall be equal to similar limit states. This applies for the pipeline as installed condition. The formula is given in Eq. A linear interpolation is then proposed up to D/t2 = 60.12).⎛ . the reduction is expected to negligible at D/t2 = 20. E 1000 Local buckling .b 3 (13. the probability of the scenario.5 D900. DET NORSKE VERITAS .12) This third degree polynomial has the following analytical solution: 1 pc = y – -. (13. PDi. will be equal to the probability of a blockage to happen times the on-demand-failure of the HIPPS.11) and Eq. e. The formulation adopted in this standard is identical as in BS8010. the criteria may be extended to D/t2 = 60. If no other information exists and given that the reduction is due to the misalignment on the compressive side. this effect will be more pronounced for higher D/t2's. There are no other known experiments on the impact from girth welds for lower D/t2. The girth weld factor should be established by test and/or FE-calculations. — elastic capacity — plastic capacity — the ovality.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. point supports. Sec. A reduction in the order of 40% was found for D/t2 = 60.9) The resulting wall thickness for the accidental scenario will then be the wall thickness giving the failure probability required in accordance with 13. pc.13) where: b = − p el (t ) d = p el (t ) p p (t ) 2 1 1 2 u = -. apart from the safety margin. (13. If both the elastic buckling has been documented to occur beyond the valid range and the implications of imperfections has found to be acceptable.Girth weld factor Research on buckling of pipes including girth welds has shown that the girth weld has a significant impact on the compressive strain capacity. and — point loads.Moment The given formula is valid for 15 < D/t2 < 60 for yielding and ovalisation failure modes. ( pc (t ) − pel (t )) ⋅ ( pc (t )2 − p p (t )2 ) = p c (t ) ⋅ pel (t ) ⋅ p p (t ) ⋅ f 0 ⋅ D (13. hence a minimum ovality is prescribed. Over D/t2 45. these failure modes will occur prior to other failure modes.

This can be done by utilising mechanical bolt load indicators in some of the studbolts in each connection. Loads caused by deflections of the J-tube. The mean overbend strain: D ε mean = – -----. October 2010 Page 136 – Sec.7 Table 7-5. modifications to existing system or installation operations where failure may lead to extensive economic loss. ksi = 1000 psi (lb f/in2) G. environment or the assets. appropriate analytical methods or experimental test results are to be used to demonstrate that adequate load transfer will be developed and maintained during the life of the structure. For J-tubes. where the system is shut down. Inspection/control methods are to be specified so that proper Installation is ensured. The design is to be such that all the studbolts in one connection can be pre-tensioned simultaneously by means of bolt tensioning jacks. The relevant accidental loads and their magnitude are to be determined on the basis of a risk analysis. Such activities may typically be repair. The design of the studbolts is to be such that it is possible to monitor the remaining bolt tension during the design life time. Components and Assemblies G 100 Riser Supports Riser Supports are to be designed to ensure a smooth transition of forces between Riser and support. The ovality of a pipe exposed to bending strain may be estimated by Eq.895 MPa. The SMYS and SMTS values given in MPa in the table below are converted from the API specification (in ksi).+ ε a xi al 2R (13. loads during Installation include: — — — — — — — — load-out transportation lifting launching upending docking pressure testing temporary supporting. 1 MPa = 0. and differ slightly from the mechanical properties in Sec. where the maximum allowable out of roundness to be delivered from Manufacturer is specified. This is a characteristic formula without any safety factors.⎠ ⎝ 120t⎠ ⎝ t f 0 ′ = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Pe 1 – ---Pc 2 G 200 J-tubes The J-tube system is to be designed to perform satisfactorily during its entire planned life. Where the Riser Support relies on friction to transfer load.145 ksi. (13.14) — — — — — — — platform configuration and topsides layout space requirements movements of the J-tube cable/Pipeline approach J-tube protection in-service inspection and maintenance Installation considerations. reference is made to Murphey (1985) The J-tube spools are normally to be joined by welding. but the production medium is still within the system.14). Installation H 100 Safety class definition Installation of pipeline and pipeline components is normally defined as safety class Low. The routing is to be based on the following considerations: (13. Normally the J-tubes and supports are to be routed inside the structure to avoid vessel impact. explosions and impact loads. Table 13-4 API Material Grades API SMYS SMTS Grade ksi MPa ksi MPa X42 42 289 60 413 X46 46 317 63 434 X52 52 358 66 455 X56 56 386 71 489 X60 60 413 75 517 X65 65 448 77 530 X70 70 482 82 565 X80 80 551 90 620 ksi = 6. dimensional requirements. Loads on the J-tube and supports as a result of foundation settlements are to be considered. H. if the installation activity impose a higher risk to personnel.030 ⎛ 1 + ----------⎞ ⎛ 2ε c D⎞ --. However.15) DET NORSKE VERITAS . F. API Material Grades F 100 API material grades The API requirements to the Grades X42 through X80 are listed in Table 13-4. The minimum remaining pretension level in the studbolts at which pre-tensioning must be performed is to be determined during the design phase. a higher "safety class" should be used. It is to be designed against relevant failure modes. All relevant loads are to be considered when calculating the fatigue life of the Riser Supports. are to be considered. The effect of deflections due to a connected Pipeline's thermal expansion or contraction is to be taken into account. H 200 Coating In case no other data is available the following criterion should be used. D f0 + 0. Consideration is to be given to accidental loads caused by falling objects such as: — falling cargo from lifting gear — falling lifting gear — unintentionally swinging objects.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. For full details see the API Specification for Line Pipe (API Specification 5L). or the structure to which the support is attached. in accordance with the design assumptions.13 Table 7-17. For further information. Accidental loads are loads to which the J-tube and support system may be subjected in connection with incorrect operation or technical failure such as fire. which apply for this standard. The effect of impact by vessels is to be considered for the Jtube and support system within the splash zone.

This figure also shows clearly that an increased stiffness difference will increase the sudden increase in curvature in the weaker joint. It is seen that the required moment equilibrium across the weld will lead to an increase in curvature in the weaker pipe. Fatigue (Sec.230% II 0. Experience has shown that variations in properties (within fabrication tolerances) may cause the pipe to buckle. including varying stiffness due to field joints or buckle arrestors. overbend Criterion X70 X65 X60 I 0. it shall be documented that the choice of wave heights and periods conservatively represents the irregular sea-state (Hs. lower axial force. nonlinear material properties of the steel. the concrete and the corrosion coating shall be considered. For concrete coating of 40 mm thickness or more. higher pipe stiffness and higher shear resistance. the moment is assumed to decay linearly to zero.16) Calculation requirements The following requirements to the lay analysis apply both when using Limit State Criteria and Simplified Criteria: — The analysis shall be conducted using a realistic non-linear stress-strain (or moment-curvature) representation of the material (or cross-section). — If the dynamic lay analysis is based on regular waves. It is recognised that these illustrations. For the sagbend in deeper water. with linear interpolation in between. — The characteristic environmental load during installation is to be taken as the most probable largest value for the sea-state (Hs.270% 0. Reference is further made to Endal et.250% 0.205% 0. to the point at the right hand side where back tension is applied. axial force and local roller loads. a conservative estimate of εcc is 0. The strain shall include effects of bending. al. When two abutting pipe joints have dissimilar tangential stiffness. the axial force and the shear resistance of the corrosion coating. where = outer steel diameter = stinger radius εmean = calculated mean overbend strain εaxial = axial strain contribution γcc = 1. From the point where the pipe first touches the reel. It does not supersede any of the failure mode checks as given in the normative part of the standard.305% 0. the normative buckling criteria in the standard shall also be satisfied. the concrete strength and thickness.13 – Page 137 should satisfy: γ c c ε me an ≥ ε c c (13.22% for 42" pipelines and 0. Figure 3 provides a different illustration: The distribution of moment and corresponding tangential stiffness is schematically plotted along the pipeline. H 400 Reeling A pipeline that is reeled onto a spool will be subjected to large plastic strains. The mean overbend strain at which concrete crushing first occurs depends on the pipe stiffness. the limit states for Concrete Crushing (K200).5 D700) and Rotation (Sec.g.2%. due to different wall thickness or varying material properties. October 2010 Sec. H 300 Simplified laying criteria This simplified laying criteria may be used as a preliminary simplified criterion of the local buckling check during early design stages. The strain shall include all effects. In Figure 4 the sudden increased curvature is visualised by looking at the moment curvature relationship for the two abutting joints.g.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.05 safety factor for concrete crushing εcc = limit mean strain giving crushing of the concrete. a discontinuity will occur. Tp) considered with appropriate current and wind conditions. Table 13-5 Simplified criteria. Figure 4 and Figure 5 attempt to illustrate the reeling situation from two different points of view. together with asphalt corrosion coating.260% D R Sagbend For combined static and dynamic loads the equivalent stress in the sagbend and at the stinger tip shall be less than Figure 3 Moment curvature relationship for plastic bending of pipes with different stiffness. Crushing occurs at lower mean overbend strains for lower concrete strength. e. σeq < 0. (1995) for guidance on the Rotation limit state. Tp). The result of this is a concentration of compressive strains in the softer joint in an area close to the weld. If no other information is available. Overbend For static loading the calculated strain shall satisfy Criterion I in Table 13-5.24% for 16" pipelines.5 H203) shall be satisfied.87 times fy (13. — For calculation of strain concentration at field joints. The sea-state duration considered is not to be less than 3 hrs. are simplified and only take into account global effects. For static plus dynamic loading the calculated strain shall satisfy Criterion II in Table 13-5. DET NORSKE VERITAS .325% 0. At the left hand side of the figure the pipe is assumed to lie tight onto the reel with a constant bending moment well into the plastic regime. where collapse is a potential problem. and the description below.17) with all load effect factors set to unity. Positive strain denotes tensile strain. Effects due to varying stiffness (e. In addition to the simplified stress criteria given below. Reference is made to Endal (1995) or Ness (1995).290% X52 0. strain concentration at field joints or buckle arrestors) need not be included. Effects due to varying stiffness or residual strain from the overbend may be ignored. concrete crushing may be assumed to occur when the strain in the concrete (at the compressive fibre in the middle of the concrete thickness) reaches 0.

often defined through the yield stress to ultimate stress ratio. The lower part of this figure shows the tangential stiffness along the pipeline.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Moment moment at reel curvature weld elastic moment for stiffer pipe elastic moment for softer pipe on reel plastified elastic plastified elastic Stiffness on reel plastified elastic plastified elastic Pipe axis Figure 4 Schematic illustration of bending moment and stiffness along the pipe FE analyses have shown that the most important parameters. variations within normal fabrication tolerances may lead to buckling of the pipe cross section. specify a low variation in yield stress. however the effect of these are not normally significant from a buckling point of view. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Under disadvantageous circumstances. October 2010 Page 138 – Sec. High ratios increase significantly the cross section's tendency to buckle. SMYS/SMTS. Hence: in order to reduce the probability of buckling during reeling. and both practical experience and FE analyses have shown that this is a viable and mitigating measure in this context. Obviously a high D/t2 ratio will have a similar effect.) Furthermore. specify a low yield stress to ultimate stress ratio apply a high and steady back tension during reeling.e. Especially important in this respect is the tangential material stiffness. through which the back tension is applied. Attention should be paid to the sudden drop in stiffness at the weld. stress concentrations due to variations in yield stress and wall thickness will be amplified. i. Figure 4 illustrates the scenario where a field joint approaches the reel and a weak/soft joint follows a stronger/stiffer one. Over-matching (girth) weld materials are often used in pipes. If a thick and relatively stiff coating is applied with gaps across field joints. reference is made to Crome (1999). restrain rotation. For further information. Brown et al (2004). These will introduce stiffness variations. with respect to stiffness variations are variations. one should: — — — — specify a low thickness fabrication tolerance. in yield stress and wall thickness. During reeling. Analyses have also shown that accurate non-linear material modelling is essential for the accuracy of FE analyses. It is obvious that this loss of stiffness will attract deformations.13 (Note that this moment will not vanish if the caterpillars. increased curvature in the weaker pipe close to the weld. application of a high back tension is the major remedy available for reducing the possibility for pipe buckling.

Denmark Sriskandarajah T. and Mørk K. Kulak G.Capacity of pipes subjected to internal pressure. London. Copenhagen. "Behaviour of Girth Welded Line-pipe".. Verley R. 1987 Torseletti E.. Proceedings of OMAE'95 conference. 9th Int. and Ramseth S. Structural Engineering Report No. Mørk K. OTC.. October 2010 Sec.. K.. Japan Ness O. References Brown G.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. “Reliability based assessment of minimum reelable wall thicknesss for reeling” Proceedings of IPC04-0733.(1999). B. "The SUPERB Project and DNV'96: Buckling and Collapse Limit State". Verley R. and Verley R. Yokohama. Italy Murphey D. Brest 1999.. "Hotpipe project .. 23. University of Alberta department of Civil Engineering. and Murray D. and Langner C. New Orleans 1985.13 – Page 139 I. 1999.. Proceedings of OMAE'96 conference. Bruschi R. Sotberg T... Ness O. "Strain Concentrations in Pipelines with Concrete Coating: An Analytical Model". Bruschi R.E. "Parametric considerations of design and installation of deepwater pipelins". "Behaviour of Offshore Pipelines Subjected to Residual Curvature During Laying". Marchesani F. I. Offshore Oil and Gas Pipeline Technology.. B. Proceedings of OMAE'95 conference. L.. Vitali L. "Reeling of Pipelines with Thick Insulating Coating. Verley R. Endal G. Houston. “Buckle Propagation and its Arrest: Buckle Arrestor Design Versus Numerical Analyses and Experiments” OMAE2003-37220 Vitali L. Tim.. Proc.. and Verley R. Alberta. G. IPC Calgary. K. and Mamendran. B. Finite Element Analyses of Local Buckling". Copenhagen. axial force and bending moment". Florence. Torselletti E. Holthe K.. "Ultimate pipe strength under bending collapse and fatigue".. Canada 2004 Crome. Howard B. Tkaczyk T. Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference. Proceedings of OMAE'97 conference. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Mørk.... "The SUPERB Project: Wall Thickness Design Guideline for Pressure Containment of Offshore Pipelines". Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering symposium.. Spiten J. Denmark Ghodsi Nader Yoosef-. 1994 Jiao G. W.. Ness O. Bruschi R.

shall be considered/analysed with the methodology presented herein.nom exceeds 0. See also G105. A 300 Application 301 The ECA procedures described in this Appendix are only applicable to C-Mn steels with SMYS up to 555 MPa.and strain-based conditions are described. Typically the assessments are used to: can be demonstrated to be conservative.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 305 Some materials are sensitive to environmentally induced embrittlement. 205 The fatigue assessment procedure described in this Appendix (Subsection F) is supplementary to the fatigue design guidance described in the main body of this document (the S-N approach).nom is not larger than 0. 204 The fracture toughness requirements specified in this Appendix is expressed in terms of the J value. General A 100 Objective 101 The objective of this Appendix is to: Provide detailed procedures and recommendations for evaluation of the integrity of girth welds considering weld discontinuities during installation and operation Referenced Standards 102 The following standards are referred to in this appendix: BS 7448 BS 7910 DNV-RP-C203 DNV-RP-F108 A 200 Introduction 201 The purpose of the structural integrity evaluation of welds in pipelines is to avoid failure during the installation and operation stages by determining the criticality of flaws. strain level. The results are however considered to be less reliable and it is not acceptable to assess the integrity of pipeline girth welds in accordance with this Appendix based on Charpy V-notch testing only. the effect of circumferential stresses also need to be considered. F108. 304 The integrity of welds in lined and clad pipelines may be evaluated according to the procedures described in this appendix. It is recommended that the dimensions of SENT specimens are not less than W = 8 mm and B shall be at least equal to W. Guidance note: The ECA procedures described in this Appendix requires that fracture toughness testing is performed.A APPENDIX A STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF GIRTH WELDS IN OFFSHORE PIPELINES A. All strain requirements/limitations for girth welds are defined as the total nominal strain (elastic plus plastic). H101 and Appendix B. e. Hence. D103. For assessments of the operational stage. it is the pipeline longitudinal stressstrain condition that is of relevance during installation. procedures for assessing girth welds under load. In such cases specialist advice shall be sought. October 2010 Page 140 – App. It is possible that B = 2W and the specimens shall be as large as possible. Appendix B and DNV-RP-F108. In such cases the choice of toughness and fatigue properties shall reflect the actual environment. D103 and E206. but special considerations apply. Special advice must be sought if any other type of pipeline materials is used. 13Cr martensitic stainless steel. full scale testing or pipe segment testing shall be performed to prove the integrity of the girth welds including worst case weld defects. 22Cr and 25Cr duplex stainless steels. 303 This Appendix is not applicable to flexible pipes or dynamic or compliant risers. any other local effects. 202 For girth welds. relevant temperature.g.: — to avoid failures during installation and/or operation — to assess the effect of changed operational conditions (temperature. b) Perform fitness-for-purpose evaluations. lifetime extension etc. unfavourable material properties and unfavourable girth weld geometry. G106 shows a conservative way of estimating the corresponding CTOD fracture toughness from a J fracture toughness test. However.4%. the pipe dimensions which may be assessed according to this Appendix depend on the limitations with respect to the fracture toughness testing.) — to assess the significance of weld flaws or damage incurred after installation.5 D800. see DNV-RP-F108 for further details. Hence. e.. a) Derive flaw acceptance criteria from the ECA results (where applicable) in line with Appendix D and Appendix E. εl. other fracture toughness test methods and specimen geometries may be used provided that it can be demonstrated that these test techniques are conservative in relation to their application. If fracture toughness testing is not possible and the εl. The procedures described are based on fracture mechanics and the term “Engineering Critical Assessment” (ECA) is used. see B103. 308 The fracture toughness properties will normally be determined from a fracture toughness test programme using single edge notched tensile (SENT) specimens in accordance with Subsection G. εl. Assessment of the fatigue life should satisfy the requirement listed here and described in Sec. The procedures are also applicable for assessing flaws in parent pipe. due to hydrogen from sour service or cathodic protection.nom in the pipe longitudinal direction. Both static and dynamic strains (fatigue) are considered as relevant. see C105.g. it is normally not possible to perform ECA of pipelines with nominal wall thickness less than about 10 mm. such as wall thickness mismatch and joint misalignment effects. 307 It is possible to estimate KIC from Charpy V-notch test results using correlation formulas. The total nominal strain may be inclusive of global stiffness disruption effects such as concrete coating discontinuity (if applicable) at the field joint.5 D800. see Figure 1.4% — the maximum size of weld defects is in accordance with Appendix D — the material is in accordance with Sec. 203 Failures are assumed to be avoided if: — the maximum longitudinal strain. or — an ECA is performed as specified in this Appendix and acceptance criteria are determined in accordance with Appendix D and Appendix E as relevant.6 and 7 — the girth welds have acceptable fatigue capacity according to Sec. However. Such assessments are only considered as indications. the ECA may be expressed in terms of the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) provided that the assessment procedure DET NORSKE VERITAS . C104. However. etc. The testing shall reflect the worst case loading condition. 306 This Appendix is not applicable where the yield and/or tensile stress of the weld is under-matched with respect to the parent pipe material. E206. 302 In general.

ECA static – low. A typical ECA process is illustrated in Figure 2. i. requires less testing and assessments are not required as maximum allowable flaw sizes are extracted from tables. may further be “generic” (see Subsection D) or “full” (see Subsection E) as specified above. ECA of the operational stage under biaxial stresses is described in E206 (last part). but are not implemented in this standard. If other test temperatures are chosen it must be substantiated that the testing gives conservative results as compared to testing at the assessment temperature. shut-down). This phenomenon is mainly caused by increased crack driving force. elevated (e.g.nom. Full ECA is performed if generic ECA is not acceptable because all requirements are not fulfilled or if larger maximum allowable flaw sizes are required. 102 The various assessment procedures provided in this Appendix are based on BS 7910.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.g. c) More than 10 strain cycles with Δσl. If the size of weld defects indicates potential failures during installation or operation based on ECA. lateral buckling) or sub-zero (e. fabrication. Analysis for such situations must be well documented Figure 2 Illustration of a typical ECA process DET NORSKE VERITAS . εl.nom larger than 200 MPa or more than 10 000 stress cycles suffix ECA fatigue. Assessment procedures considering internal overpressure combined with longitudinal tensile strains are under development. less than 0. requires more testing and assessments. installation and operation shall be evaluated and included in the assessment of maximum allowable flaw sizes. Maximum number of strain cycles limited to 10. 3D FE fracture mechanics analysis.A – Page 141 and based on well proven engineering principles e. It may be ambient (typically installation). This shall be achieved by selecting materials and welds with adequate fracture toughness.g. the allowable weld defect sizes shall be reduced.low”. 105 Depending on the level of monotonic and cyclic deformations. However.e.nom.4%. It is acceptable to base the integrity of welds on finite element (FE) analyses or other suitable standards. equal to or larger than 0. However. but in such cases the assessment procedure must be thoroughly described and documented.low. Assessment Categories B 100 General 101 Pipeline systems shall have adequate resistance against failure during the whole of its design life. see Subsection C. b) Maximum longitudinal strain. “ECA static – high”. Such procedures shall be compared with the procedures described in this standard. 103 The ECA procedures described in this standard generally consider uni-axial loading conditions. ECA static – high. see Subsection G and 109. Hence the recommendations and requirements are only applicable if BS 7910 is the basis for the assessment with amendments and adjustments as described in this Appendix. All phases during manufacturing. Maximum number of strain cycles limited to 10. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Figure 1 SENT geometry ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 104 The assessment temperature is defined as the temperature representative for the stress-strain condition considered. see Subsection F. suffix ECA static . εl. if A203 is fulfilled. the operation of pipelines normally involves both internal pressure and axial strain. no further assessments are required. October 2010 App. a bi-axial stress-strain state. may further be “generic” or “full”: — generic ECA. 106 A pipeline may either be defined according to “ECA static . The actual assessment procedures for girth welds are illustrated in Figure 3. the assessment procedure and required testing is divided in categories as follows: B. “ECA fatigue” or as a combination of “static” and “fatigue”. a) Maximum longitudinal strain.4%. Guidance note: Recent full-scale testing has indicated that the fracture capacity for circumferentially aligned defects (such as those at girth welds) subject to an applied longitudinal strain is reduced if the pipeline is pressurized. see Subsection E. tensile properties and weld defect acceptance criteria. All testing shall normally be performed at the assessment temperature.high. suffix ECA static . Generic ECA is only applicable if specified requirements are fulfilled — full ECA.

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.A Figure 3 Flowchart of girth weld integrity assessment DET NORSKE VERITAS . October 2010 Page 142 – App.

the maximum allowable flaws specified in Table A-2 to A-4.90 for C-Mn with SMYS ≤ 555 MPa YS/UTS ≤ 0. are requested. see E208. Normally offshore submarine pipelines are displacement controlled during installation (e. Subsection G and Appendix B — if the linepipes have not been tested and designed according to Sec. Generic ECA for Girth Welds Subject to Strains Less than 0. October 2010 App. flaw sizing error and potential flaw interaction relevant to the specific NDT equipment used for inspection see Appendix D and E (Note the probability of detection and sizing error is normally specific to the NDT method.10 for C-Mn with 485 < SMYS ≤ 555 MPa Lr cut-off ≥ 1. where UTS is the engineering tensile strength and YS is the engineering yield stress of the parent pipe. see BS 7448: Part 2. 105 This “generic ECA” is not applicable for the following situations: — clad or lined pipelines (special advice must be sought) — where the girth welds have under-matching strength compared to the parent pipe.20 for 13Cr. as-received material used for testing shall as far as possible have documented “lower-bound” tensile properties. the assessment methodology specified in this Appendix can be used with the following changes: — if pre-straining is relevant (see Subsection G). It is recommended that the J fracture toughness parameter is established by testing of SENT specimens.7 — if experimentally determined values of J do not meet the requirements specified in Table A-2 to Table A-4 — the geometry. see E108 — if the girth welds are not tested according to Table A-1. applied strain and misalignment is not within the limitations specified in Table A-2 to Table A-4 — if the stress-strain curve exhibit a Lüder plateau (yield discontinuity in the stress-strain curve) and the maximum length of the plateau seen during production tensile testing and tensile testing according to Table A-1 exceeds 2% — if significant pop-ins. 108 If the loading mode is load controlled and it is natural to specify the applied load as a tension stress. The derivation of flaw acceptance criteria for UT/AUT can be based upon the critical flaw dimensions obtained from the ECA in accordance with the recommendations and limitations of Appendix D and Appendix E.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 110 The maximum defect size resulting from the ECA shall be adjusted for the probability of detection. The characteristic fracture toughness value shall be defined according to E211.6 and Sec. This is only acceptable if all requirements specified in A300 and 104 are fulfilled.g. bending controlled by curvature. 109 The effect of plastic deformation. Jc or Ju according to BS 7448: Part 1 and Part 2. possible ageing and the assessment temperature shall be taken into account when fracture toughness testing and tensile testing is performed.4% Assessed According to ECA Static – Low C 100 General 101 If larger weld defect acceptance criteria than specified in Appendix D. The specimens shall be tested to maximum load and the J value shall be judged either as Jm. 104 If the ECA is performed for the operational phase considering a combination of internal overpressure and longitudinal loading. geometry and welding procedures) C.15 for C-Mn with 450 < SMYS ≤ 485 MPa Lr cut-off ≥ 1. shall be defined as: L r .20 for C-Mn with SMYS ≤ 450 MPa Lr cut-off ≥ 1. may be used for the final weld defect acceptance criteria.85 for 13Cr — if the following Lr cut-off values determined from the SENT testing according to C208 are not met: Lr cut-off ≥ 1. Tensile test results and fracture toughness results from this material shall be used in the assessment — if pre-straining is not relevant. The intention of an ECA is to provide critical flaw DET NORSKE VERITAS . the final strain cycle applied to the test specimen blanks shall end in compression.A – Page 143 107 It shall be evaluated if the loading mode in consideration is displacement controlled or load controlled and the assessment methodology shall reflect this. 103 The generic ECA is performed based on Level 2B according to BS 7910 with amendments and adjustments as described in this Appendix. or unstable fracture occur prior to maximum load during fracture toughness testing — if the material testing does not satisfy the requirements specified in Subsection G and Appendix B — if the following YS/UTS ratios are not met during the production qualification tests for the line pipe according to Table A-1: YS/UTS ≤ 0. some operational conditions or whilst in the lay catenary) the special considerations specified in 108 apply. the fracture toughness testing shall be performed on SENB specimens.g. 107 Where the linepipe is subjected to fatigue during operation or installation the maximum allowable flaw sizes determined from Tables A2 to A4 should be adjusted to account for possible fatigue crack growth in accordance with Subsection F. 106 If not all the requirements in 105 are fulfilled either a full ECA shall be performed or the acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with Appendix D and Appendix E. Where the pipeline is load-controlled (e. For the assessments either a “lower-bound” stress-strain curve shall be constructed or a tensile stress-strain curve shall be established from testing which shall represent “lower-bound” properties — Lr. max = YS + UTS 2YS dimensions for given material properties and loading conditions in a conservative way.max (Lr cut-off). 102 The ECA does not provide acceptance criteria for UT/ AUT. pipe material. see Subsection G.) and it is acceptable to follow the displacement controlled (strain-based) procedure which is presented in this standard. suitably adjusted to account for sizing accuracy.

SMYS = 485 C-Mn.5 a > 5 mm Full ECA required 2c > 200 mm Full ECA required WT < 15 mm Full ECA required WT < 10 mm See A308 1) 2) Only acceptable if testing as specified in Table A-1 has been performed Maximum allowable flaw size. WT = nominal wall thickness a × 2c [mm] 2) C-Mn. additional tensile testing is not required The specimen geometry and test requirements are specified in Appendix B The blunting shall be included in the tearing length Table A-2 Characteristic J requirements for different maximum allowable flaw sizes 1) [N/mm = kJ/m2] Max allowable flaw.5 1. 8” ≤ OD ≤ 12”. 5) Transverse girth weld 3 Tensile testing 4).8 2. If the embedded flaw is located close to the surface (ligament height less than half the flaw height) the ligament height between the flaw and the surface shall be included in the flaw height.5 1. a × 2c refers to height and length respectively of both surface breaking and embedded flaws.8 2.5 1.8 2. SMYS = 485 C-Mn. WT = nominal wall thickness a × 2c [mm] 2) C-Mn. 12” < OD ≤ 16”.5 1. Nominal outer diameter. a × 2c refers to height and length respectively of both surface breaking and embedded flaws. SMYS ≤ 450 C-Mn. see Appendix D and Appendix E WT = nominal wall thickness DET NORSKE VERITAS .A Table A-1 Testing required for use of “generic ECA” for strain conditions less than 0. If the embedded flaw is located close to the surface (ligament height less than half the flaw height) the ligament height between the flaw and the surface shall be included in the flaw height. SMYS ≤ 450 C-Mn.8 2. 2) Type of test Location Test quantity Transverse all weld tensile testing 4).8 2.8 2. Table C-2 shall be tested 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) The test temperatures and material condition to be tested shall be as specified in Subsection G If the welding procedure and heat input is equal to the through thickness repair procedure.8 2. see Appendix B J testing of SENT specimens 5) 6) Through thickness repair (TTR) 3 specimens for each notch position. see E206 1. SMYS = 555 13Cr 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 3 × 50 370 250 400 250 460 250 250 250 4 × 50 600 410 660 440 740 500 310 250 5 × 50 Full 540 Full 590 Full 670 550 250 3 × 100 560 350 610 390 680 440 310 250 4 × 100 Full 570 Full 620 Full 690 740 270 3 × 200 Full 510 Full 550 Full 610 Full 270 4 × 200 Full Full Full Full Full Full Full 580 δmax [mm]. The UT/AUT flaw sizing error must be subtracted from the maximum allowable flaw height to establish the UT/AUT weld defect acceptance criteria. see Appendix B J testing of SENT specimens 5) 6) Partial repair 3) 3 specimens for each notch position.5 1.5 1. October 2010 Page 144 – App. 5) Parent pipe. longitudinal 3 J testing of SENT specimens 5) 6) Main line 3 specimens for each notch position. see Appendix B 1) All weld procedures which have different essential variables according to Appendix C. Nominal outer diameter.5 a > 5 mm Full ECA required 2c > 200 mm Full ECA required WT < 15 mm Full ECA required WT ≤ 10 mm See A308 1) 2) Only acceptable if testing as specified in Table A-1 has been performed Maximum allowable flaw size. see Appendix B J testing of SENT specimens 5) 6) Double joint 3 specimens for each notch position.4% 1).8 2. see E206 1. this testing may be omitted If production tensile testing is performed at the assessment temperature and full stress-strain curves are established. SMYS = 555 13Cr 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 3 × 50 440 310 480 340 530 460 250 250 4 × 50 750 450 Full 500 Full 570 440 250 5 × 50 Full 640 Full 700 Full 780 Full 300 3 × 100 730 430 790 470 Full 680 480 250 4 × 100 Full 720 Full 790 Full Full Full 400 3 × 200 Full 650 Full 710 Full Full Full 420 4 × 200 Full Full Full Full Full Full Full Full δmax [mm].Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. see Appendix D and Appendix E WT = nominal wall thickness Table A-3 Characteristic J requirements for different maximum allowable flaw sizes 1) [N/mm = kJ/m2] Max allowable flaw. The UT/AUT flaw sizing error must be subtracted from the maximum allowable flaw height to establish the UT/AUT weld defect acceptance criteria.

g. If the embedded flaw is located close to the surface (ligament height less than half the flaw height) the ligament height between the flaw and the surface shall be included in the flaw height.6 and Sec.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.15 for C-Mn with 450 < SMYS ≤ 485 MPa Lr cut-off ≥ 1.0 1. SMYS = 485 C-Mn. Δa.nom exceeded 1% during installation the crack height shall be increased by 1. suitably adjusted to account for sizing accuracy.0 mm. one contingency operation during reeling installation is acceptable) — if the girth welds are not tested in accordance with Table A-5. The UT/AUT flaw sizing error must be subtracted from the maximum allowable flaw height to establish the UT/AUT weld defect acceptance criteria.5 1. fracture toughness and maximum misalignment are not within the limitations specified in Table A-6 to Table A-9 — if the following YS/UTS ratios are not met during the production qualification tests or the parent pipe tensile testing specified in Table A-5: YS/UTS ≤ 0. the crack height shall be increased by 0.4% < εl.10 for C-Mn with 485 < SMYS ≤ 555 MPa Lr cut-off ≥ 1.90 for C-Mn with SMYS ≤ 450 MPa YS/UTS ≤ 0.nom> 0.1). 103 This generic ECA is not applicable for the following situations: — if experimentally determined values of J do not meet the requirements specified in Table A-6 to Table A-9 (see Figure 4) — if significant pop-ins. a × 2c refers to height and length respectively of both surface breaking and embedded flaws. Generic ECA for Girth Welds Subjected to Strains Equal to or Larger than 0. October 2010 App. 105 Where the linepipe is subject fatigue during operation or installation the maximum allowable flaw sizes determined from Tables A6 to A9 should be adjusted to account for possible fatigue crack growth in accordance with Subsection F.5 mm if 0. DET NORSKE VERITAS .A – Page 145 Table A-4 Characteristic J requirements for different maximum allowable flaw sizes 1) [N/mm = kJ/m2] Max allowable flaw.90 for C-Mn with 450 < SMYS ≤ 485 MPa YS/UTS ≤ 0.5 1.0 1. If εl. 104 If any of the requirements specified in 103 are not met. see E206 1. Subsection G and Appendix B — if the linepipes have not been tested and designed according to Sec. one test shall be tested to maximum load and one test shall be unloaded before maximum load. may be used for the final weld defect acceptance criteria. shall be measured for all the SENT tests.nom ≤ 1. a full ECA shall be performed according to Subsections E. SMYS ≤ 450 C-Mn. 85 for 13Cr — clad or lined pipelines (special advice must be sought) — pipelines subjected to a combination of internal overpressure and εl.0 1.4% but Less Than 2.0% during installation. SMYS = 555 13Cr 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 3 × 50 350 250 380 250 430 250 250 250 4 × 50 540 280 590 370 670 370 260 250 5 × 50 Full 510 Full 550 Full 630 450 250 3 × 100 490 330 540 360 600 410 250 250 4 × 100 Full 510 Full 560 Full 630 580 250 3 × 200 800 440 Full 490 Full 540 Full 250 4 × 200 Full 770 Full Full Full Full Full 440 δmax [mm].20 for 13Cr. see BS 7448: Part 1 and 4. WT = nominal wall thickness a × 2c [mm] 2) C-Mn. or unstable fracture occur prior to maximum load during fracture toughness testing — if geometry. 106 If ECA is performed for the operational phase based on generic ECA for the installation phase. OD > 16”. For each set (3 specimens) one test shall be tested beyond maximum load (notch opening displacement (V) at maximum load multiplied by 1. Nominal outer diameter. The ductile tearing including blunting. This is only acceptable if all requirements specified in A300 and 103 are fulfilled.7 — if the difference in yield stress between adjacent linepipes exceeds 100 MPa — if the following Lr cut-off values determined from the SENT testing according to E208 are not met: Lr cut-off ≥ 1.5 a > 5 mm Full ECA required 2c > 200 mm Full ECA required WT < 15 mm Full ECA required WT ≤ 10 mm See A308 1) 2) Only acceptable if testing as specified in Table A-1 has been performed Maximum allowable flaw size. applied strain.4%.0 1.5 1.20 for C-Mn with SMYS ≤ 450 MPa Lr cut-off ≥ 1.25% Assessed According to ECA Static – High D 100 General 101 The maximum allowable flaws specified in Table A-6 to A9. 102 The generic ECA is based on Level 3B (fracture resistance curve needed) according to BS 7910 with amendments and adjustments as described in this Appendix. see Appendix D and Appendix E WT = nominal wall thickness D. see E206 (last part) — where the girth welds have under-matching strength compared to the parent pipe.90for C-Mn with 485 < SMYS ≤ 555 MPa YS/UTS ≤ 0. see E108 — if more than 5 tensile strain cycles are applied (e.

5) Parent pipe. 6) Double joint 3 specimens for each notch position. 5) Transverse girth weld 3 Tensile testing 4).0 = 800 J0.4% 1). a × 2c [mm]. 6) Through thickness repair (TTR) 3 specimens for each notch position.5 1. longitudinal 5 J R testing of SENT specimens 5).8 2.5 = 800 and J1. see Appendix B J R testing of SENT specimens 5).5 Full ECA required Full ECA required See A308 Only acceptable if testing as specified in Table A-5 has been performed Maximum allowable flaw size.4% ≤ εl.5 = 400 and J1. additional tensile testing is not required The specimen geometry and test requirements are specified in Appendix B The blunting shall be included in the tearing length Table A-6 Maximum allowable flaw sizes.0 = 600 J0. WT = nominal wall thickness C-Mn. see Appendix B 1) All weld procedures which have different essential variables according to Appendix C.8 2. SMYS = 555 13Cr. SMYS ≤ 450 C-Mn.nom < 1% 1). 8” ≤ OD ≤ 12”. If the embedded flaw is located close to the surface (ligament height less than half the flaw height) the ligament height between the flaw and the surface shall be included in the flaw height. 2) Type of test Location Test quantity Transverse all weld tensile testing 4). The UT/AUT flaw sizing error must be subtracted from the maximum allowable flaw height to establish the UT/AUT weld defect acceptance criteria.0 = 1000 δmax [mm].8 2. 2) J [N/mm = kJ/m2] J0.5 = 600 and J1. maximum strain. see Appendix D and Appendix E WT = nominal wall thickness DET NORSKE VERITAS . Table C-2 shall be tested 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) The test temperatures and material condition to be tested shall be as specified in Subsection G If the welding procedure and heat input is equal to the through thickness repair procedure. see E206 2c ≥ 100 mm WT < 15 mm WT ≤ 10 mm 1) 2) Nominal outer diameter.A Figure 4 No J Δa test results shall end-up inside the area indicated Table A-5 Testing required for use of “generic ECA” for strain conditions equal to or larger than 0. 6) Main line 3 specimens for each notch position.5 1. 0. SMYS = 550 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 3 × 25 3 × 55 3 × 25 3 × 40 3 × 20 3 × 30 3 × 30 3 × 60 4 × 20 4 × 25 4 × 15 4 × 25 4 × 15 4 × 20 4 × 20 4 × 35 5 × 15 5 × 20 5 × 15 5 × 20 5 × 10 5 × 15 5 × 15 4 × 25 3 × 50 3 × 100 3 × 45 3 × 90 3 × 35 3 × 80 3 × 45 3 × 95 4 × 30 4 × 50 4 × 25 4 × 45 4 × 20 4 × 40 4 × 25 4 × 55 5 × 20 5 × 35 5 × 20 5 × 30 5 × 15 5 × 25 5 × 20 5 × 40 3 × 70 3 × 150 3 × 65 3 × 145 3 × 55 3 × 115 3 × 50 3 × 100 4 × 40 4 × 80 4 × 35 4 × 70 4 × 30 4 × 60 4 × 30 4 × 70 5 × 25 5 × 50 5 × 25 5 × 45 5 × 20 5 × 40 5 × 25 5 × 50 1.5 1. this testing may be omitted If production tensile testing is performed at the assessment temperature and full stress-strain curves are established. see Appendix B J R testing of SENT specimens 5).Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. see Appendix B J R testing of SENT specimens 5). October 2010 Page 146 – App.8 2. SMYS = 485 C-Mn. 6) Partial repair 3) 3 specimens for each notch position. a × 2c refers to height and length respectively of both surface breaking and embedded flaws.

5 C-Mn. maximum strain. 2) J [N/mm = kJ/m2] J0. SMYS = 550 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 3 × 40 3 × 90 4 × 25 4 × 45 5 × 20 5 × 30 3 × 65 3 × 145 4 × 35 4 × 80 5 × 25 5 × 50 3 × 75 3 × 150 4 × 45 4 × 105 5 × 30 5 × 70 1.5 2. The UT/AUT flaw sizing error must be subtracted from the maximum allowable flaw height to establish the UT/AUT weld defect acceptance criteria.0 = 1000 δmax [mm]. The UT/AUT flaw sizing error must be subtracted from the maximum allowable flaw height to establish the UT/AUT weld defect acceptance criteria. WT = nominal wall thickness C-Mn.5 2. If the embedded flaw is located close to the surface (ligament height less than half the flaw height) the ligament height between the flaw and the surface shall be included in the flaw height. October 2010 App.0 Full ECA required Full ECA required See A308 Only acceptable if testing as specified in Table A-5 has been performed Maximum allowable flaw size.0 1. OD > 16”. SMYS = 555 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 3 × 25 3 × 40 4 × 15 4 × 25 5 × 15 5 × 20 3 × 50 3 × 115 4 × 25 4 × 50 5 × 20 5 × 30 3 × 80 3 × 150 4 × 40 4 × 85 5 × 25 5 × 50 1.0 1. SMYS ≤ 450 C-Mn.8 2. 12” < OD ≤ 16”.5 = 600 and J1.A – Page 147 Table A-7 Maximum allowable flaw sizes.5 C-Mn. WT = nominal wall thickness C-Mn.5 J0. SMYS ≤ 450 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 3 × 35 3 × 75 4 × 20 4 × 30 5 × 15 5 × 25 3 × 65 3 × 150 4 × 35 4 × 75 5 × 25 5 × 45 3 × 95 3 × 150 4 × 50 4 × 115 5 × 35 5 × 70 1.0 = 600 J0. SMYS = 555 13Cr. SMYS = 485 C-Mn. a × 2c refers to height and length respectively of both surface breaking and embedded flaws.5 = 600 and J1.5 = 800 and J1. a × 2c [mm].8 2. 0. 2) J [N/mm = kJ/m2] Nominal outer diameter.0 = 800 J0.4% ≤ εl.5 = 800 and J1. maximum strain. SMYS = 550 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 3 × 40 3 × 90 3 × 30 3 × 70 3 × 25 3 × 50 3 × 50 3 × 125 4 × 20 4 × 35 4 × 20 4 × 35 4 × 15 4 × 30 4 × 30 4 × 60 5 × 15 5 × 25 5 × 15 5 × 25 5 × 15 5 × 25 5 × 20 5 × 40 3 × 80 3 × 150 3 × 70 3 × 150 3 × 60 3 × 140 3 × 85 3 × 150 4 × 40 4 × 90 4 × 35 4 × 75 4 × 30 4 × 60 4 × 45 4 × 105 5 × 25 5 × 50 5 × 25 5 × 45 5 × 20 5 × 35 5 × 20 5 × 65 3 × 120 3 × 150 3 × 105 3 × 150 3 × 95 3 × 150 3 × 100 3 × 150 4 × 60 4 × 145 4 × 50 4 × 125 4 × 45 4 × 105 4 × 60 4 × 145 5 × 35 5 × 80 5 × 35 5 × 70 5 × 30 5 × 60 5 × 40 5 × 90 1.5 = 400 and J1. see Appendix D and Appendix E WT = nominal wall thickness DET NORSKE VERITAS .nom < 1% 1).0 = 1000 δmax [mm].Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.5 2.nom < 1% 1).8 2.0 1. a × 2c [mm].5 13Cr. SMYS = 485 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 3 × 30 3 × 55 4 × 20 4 × 30 5 × 15 5 × 20 3 × 60 3 × 135 4 × 30 4 × 65 5 × 20 5 × 40 3 × 85 3 × 150 4 × 45 4 × 100 5 × 30 5 × 60 1.8 2.0 = 800 J0.5 2. see Appendix D and Appendix E WT = nominal wall thickness Table A-8 Maximum allowable flaw sizes.5 = 400 and J1.0 = 600 J0. see E206 2c ≥ 100 mm WT < 15 mm WT ≤ 10 mm 1) 2) Nominal outer diameter. see E206 2c ≥ 100 mm WT < 15 mm WT ≤ 10 mm 1) 2) Full ECA required Full ECA required See A308 Only acceptable if testing as specified in Table A-5 has been performed Maximum allowable flaw size.4% ≤ εl. a × 2c refers to height and length respectively of both surface breaking and embedded flaws. 0. If the embedded flaw is located close to the surface (ligament height less than half the flaw height) the ligament height between the flaw and the surface shall be included in the flaw height.

0 1.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. a × 2c [mm].0 = 1000 δmax [mm]. 2) J [N/mm = kJ/m2] J0.A Table A-9 Maximum allowable flaw sizes. this testing may be omitted 4) If production tensile testing is performed at the assessment temperature and full stress-strain curves are established. longitudinal 5 J-R testing of SENT specimens 5). maximum strain. 104 The linepipes shall be tested and designed according to Sec. see Appendix B J-R testing of SENT specimens 5). see Appendix D and Appendix E WT = nominal wall thickness E. Tests already performed for a generic ECA may be used when constructing the J R-curves required for the full ECA. see Table A-1 and Table A-5. see Appendix B J-R testing of SENT specimens 5). It is suggested that one specimen is tested beyond maximum load (notch opening displacement (V) at maximum load multiplied by 1. SMYS ≤ 450 C-Mn. SMYS = 485 C-Mn.0 1.Full E 100 General 101 For load-controlled conditions. additional tensile testing is not required 5) The specimen geometry and test requirements are specified in Appendix B 6) The blunting shall be included in the tearing length DET NORSKE VERITAS . Subsection G and Appendix B. see E206 2c ≥ 100 mm WT < 15 mm WT ≤ 10 mm 1) 2) Nominal outer diameter. a × 2c refers to height and length respectively of both surface breaking and embedded flaws. 6) Through thickness repair (TTR) One J R-curve (minimum 6 SENT) for each notch position. 105 The ECA static – full procedure is only acceptable if limitations specified in A300 applies. this procedure may be followed provided B108 is followed.0 1. 6) Partial repair 3) One J R-curve (minimum 6 SENT) for each notch position.5 = 400 and J1. If the embedded flaw is located close to the surface (ligament height less than half the flaw height) the ligament height between the flaw and the surface shall be included in the flaw height. 6) Double joint One J R-curve (minimum 6 SENT) for each notch position. WT = nominal wall thickness C-Mn.1).25% 1). A minimum of 6 SENT specimens are normally required to construct a J Rcurve for each weld procedure considered.5 2.nom < 2.0% < εl.0 = 600 J0. that two specimens are tested to maximum load and that the remaining 3 specimens are unloaded prior to maximum load at different V values. For determination of acceptance criteria. 106 Full ECA requires more testing than the generic ECA. see Appendix B 1) All weld procedures which have different essential variables according to Appendix C. 5) Parent pipe.7 and the girth welds shall be tested according to Table A-10. 107 The crack growth including blunting (total a minus a0) shall be measured for all the SENT tests. SMYS = 555 13Cr. 6) Main line One J R-curve (minimum 6 SENT) for each notch position. 2) Type of test Location Test quantity Transverse all weld tensile testing 4). October 2010 Page 148 – App. Girth Welds under Strain-based Loading Assessed According to ECA Static . see Appendix B J-R testing of SENT specimens 5).0 = 800 J0. see Appendix D and Appendix E.5 = 800 and J1. 8” ≤ OD ≤ 16”. 1. 5) Girth weld 3 Tensile testing 4). 102 If the generic ECA is not applicable a full ECA static shall be performed. If the maximum allowable flaw sizes assessed by ECA generic are not as required/desirable a full ECA shall be performed which may improve the results.5 2.5 2. 103 The ECA does not provide acceptance criteria for UT/ AUT.0 Full ECA required Full ECA required See A308 Only acceptable if testing as specified in Table A-5 has been performed Maximum allowable flaw size. Table C-2 shall be tested 2) 3) The test temperatures and material condition to be tested shall be as specified in Subsection G If the welding procedure and heat input is equal to the through thickness repair procedure.5 = 600 and J1. SMYS = 550 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 15 ≤ WT < 25 WT ≥ 25 3 × 20 3 × 35 3 × 20 3 × 30 3 × 15 3 × 25 3 × 15 3 × 25 4 × 15 4 × 20 4 × 15 4 × 20 4 × 10 4 × 15 4 × 10 4 × 20 5 × 10 5 × 15 5 × 10 5 × 15 4 × 10 5 × 10 5 × 15 3 × 35 3 × 85 3 × 35 3 × 75 3 × 30 3 × 60 3 × 30 3 × 60 4 × 20 4 × 40 4 × 20 4 × 35 4 × 20 4 × 30 4 × 20 4 × 30 5 × 15 5 × 30 5 × 15 5 × 25 5 × 15 5 × 20 5 × 15 5 × 25 3 × 45 3 × 95 3 × 45 3 × 95 3 × 45 3 × 95 3 × 35 3 × 75 4 × 30 4 × 65 4 × 30 4 × 60 4 × 25 4 × 50 4 × 25 4 × 50 5 × 20 5 × 40 5 × 20 5 × 40 5 × 20 5 × 30 5 × 15 5 × 30 1. Table A-10 Testing required for girth welds in pipelines with category ECA static – Full ECA1). The UT/AUT flaw sizing error must be subtracted from the maximum allowable flaw height to establish the UT/AUT weld defect acceptance criteria.5 2.6 and Sec.

DET NORSKE VERITAS . see E108 — fracture toughness data for specimens with notches located both within the weld metal and at or near the fusion boundary as specified in this Appendix and Appendix B — the Lr cut-off value (see E208) — maximum acceptable tearing (stable crack extension/ growth) (see E209) — applied strain history during the installation phase and secondary stresses (e. the stress-strain curve of the parent pipe material shall be used. an assessment at Level 3B for the installation phase provides information about the defect size after installation which is needed for assessing possible fatigue crack growth and fracture during operation. Girth welds with less thickness than the parent pipe wall thickness is not acceptable (counter-boring is not acceptable). the following requirements and recommendations are applicable: — tensile testing performed during production or qualification shall be issued to the ECA contractor and the results shall be considered when the material specific stress-strain curve is constructed — the tensile properties used in the ECA shall describe an upper-bound stress-strain curve with low strain hardening — assumptions of local displacement control involving relaxation of the stress level due to crack growth are not acceptable — for load controlled conditions see 101 and B108.4% during installation shall be carried out in accordance with BS 7910 at assessment Level 3B with amendments and adjustments as described in this Appendix. — The assessments shall be thoroughly defined and presented such that the assessment results are reproducible by a 3rd. it is assumed that the primary stresses are equal for defects located at the Fusion Line (FL) border and for defects located within the weld metal. see A307. — A suitable corrosion allowance shall be included in the assessments during the operational life of the pipeline. according to BS 7910.e. the procedure for determination of applied stresses specified in E206 is not acceptable and special advice must be sought. At the end of design life the whole corrosion allowance shall be subtracted. Pb. The Neuber approach may be applied. However. — The nominal stress shall be increased because of an assumed stress concentration factor (SCF) due to misalignment at the girth weld. 110 Where the linepipe is subjected to fatigue loading during installation or operation the maximum allowable flaw sizes determined from the ECA shall be adjusted to account for possible fatigue crack growth in accordance with Subsection F. October 2010 App.A – Page 149 108 The parent pipe tensile properties and the weld metal tensile properties shall be assumed to be even-matching in the assessment.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. If weld metal strength overmatch is not obtained for all material conditions. A strength overmatching weld is obtained if the tensile stressstrain curves for the weld metal are higher than the tensile stress-strain curve of the parent pipe for all material conditions and strain levels under consideration. — For uniaxial loading the nominal stress shall be determined from the nominal strain from the actual engineering “upper-bound” stress-strain curve. 202 Assessment procedures. documented and accepted by all parties. Pm.or CTOD Rcurve) is further required for assessments according to Level 3B while single parameter fracture toughness is required for Level 2B (CTOD or J). according to BS 7910. Both assessments based on the Level 2B and 3B procedures require that material specific stress-strain curves are established.g. This is to ensure that a possible weld defect will not lead to failure due to ductile tearing. The stress magnification is defined as a primary bending stress. If the weld residual stress distribution is documented by sufficient simulations.g. residual stresses from the welding or installation processes) — applied maximum design stress (tensile) applicable to the operational life — cyclic stress history applicable to the pipeline whilst it is in the lay catenary configuration and during the operational life. high lows acceptable for manufacture) — tensile properties in the form of complete engineering stress-strain curves for the parent pipe material and evidence that the weld metal stress-strain curve over-matches the parent pipe in the region of interest. — The sensitivity of different input parameters and the conservatism of the results should be evaluated and discussed. other than specified in this Appendix may be acceptable. party. Because of the assumption of even-matching. Fracture resistance curves (J R. E 200 Assessment methodology 201 Strain based assessments with εl. For operational cases considering combined internal overpressure and longitudinal strain see the instructions at the end of this paragraph. but must be justified. it is acceptable to define the stress distribution more accurately. Relaxation according to BS 7910 is acceptable. i. This stress is defined as the primary membrane stress. However. and Appendix B (see also Subsection G for further details). see also last part of 206.nom equal to or less than 1% Level 2B in accordance with this Appendix is acceptable. In case of fitness-for-purpose evaluations it is acceptable to base the thickness on inspected values. 203 If an ECA is performed. well described.nom exceeding 0. for assessment of critical flaw size at the end of design life with εl. If ECA is performed for only a limited amount of girth welds it is acceptable to determine the wall thickness to be used in the ECA using probabilistic methods. 109 Weld residual stresses shall in general be assumed to be uniform and equal to the yield stress of the parent pipe. 206 Determination of the applied stresses shall follow the following procedure: — The nominal wall thickness minus the manufacturing tolerance of the pipe shall be used in assessments considering installation. weld dimensions and dimensional tolerances (e. for the operational phase considering a combination of internal overpressure and longitudinal loading the fracture toughness testing shall be performed by testing of SENB specimens. Further. 205 Determination of tensile properties and stress-strain curve shall be performed as follows: It is recommended that the fracture resistance curves are presented as J R-curves established from SENT testing according to DNV-RP-F108. 204 Required inputs for an assessment according to a full ECA as specified in this Appendix: — pipe dimensions.

October 2010 Page 150 – App. However. see Figure 5: σ 2 ⋅ ε 2 = σ 1 ⋅ ε 1 × SCF 2 where SCF δ = hi / lo ROOT + hi / loCAP 2 The hi/lo shall in general be less than 0.5 ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⋅ e −α where α= 1. out-of-roundness. the criticality of surface breaking flaws shall be assessed and an appropriate Mk shall be applied. This increases the stress intensity factor to account for the presence of the weld toe. or the wall thickness DET NORSKE VERITAS . If actual surface breaking defects with a height less than 10% of the wall thickness must be expected.5 ⎞ ⎜1 + ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎝t ⎠ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2. the local stress intensity magnification factor Mk is applied to welded connections. Table D-3.4% pro- vided the applied stress is defined according to the procedure specified above. see Sec.82 L Dt ⋅ and: T and t = = = = Wall thickness of the pipes on each side of the girth weld. T > t Eccentricities (wall thickness differences. I303. Figure 6 Illustration of the Neuber rule — Normally. weld contractors often specify a maximum value of hi/loROOT which is smaller than the allowable hi/lo. σ1 ε1 σ2 ε2 = = = = = elastic stress concentration factor nominal stress (excluding SCF) nominal strain (excluding SCF) actual stress (including SCF) actual strain (including SCF) An illustration of the Neuber rule is shown in Figure 6. centre eccentricities etc. see Appendix D. It is normally acceptable to exclude the Mk factor for pipeline girth welds if εl. The Neuber method is defined by the following equation: It is acceptable to calculate the SCF with the following assumptions. Note that hi/loROOT may be less than the misalignment.A The SCF used in the ECA calculation may be calculated according to DNV-RP-C203: SCF = 1 + 6 ⋅δ 1 ⋅ t ⎛ ⎛ ⎜ ⎜T ⎜1 + ⎜ t ⎜ ⎝ ⎝ 1 ⎛ ⎛ T ⎞ 2.nom is exceeding 0.7. This is acceptable but must be documented.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. It has been extensively used for pipeline girth welds subjected to plastic strains with good experience and has been adopted for use in this Appendix. — If the difference in yield stress between adjacent pipes exceeds 100 MPa.15tnom and maximum 3 mm.) Length of weld cap Outside diameter of pipe Figure 5 Illustration of how the maximum SCF may be assumed δ L D The Neuber method was originally developed to assess strains at notches.

However. The equivalent fracture toughness values are valid for both SENB and SENT testing.12). W and a0 = minimum value of the maximum load from the SENT test programme dimensions associated with the relevant SENT specimen (see Figure 1).nom. Girth Welds Assessed According to ECA Fatigue F 100 General 101 If A203 is fulfilled. a0 is the original crack height Alternatively. see BS 7910 (P. Normally the weld residual stress shall be defined as a uniform secondary membrane stress. if SENT test data is not available. It is recommended that the Lr cut-off is calculated directly from the SENT tests for the correct material condition. residual stresses and applied stresses is complex. The Lr cut-off value. concentrations. the applied stresses shall be defined based on such FE analysis. 210 The maximum tearing permitted during the whole installation process should not exceed 1 mm. σref: It is recommended that the Kastner. non-linear FE analyses shall be performed.3 shall be satisfied. D or E. less conservative. the tearing must not exceed the maximum tearing measured in the SENT specimens.7. reference stress solutions. If the embedded flaw is located close to the surface (ligament height less than half the flaw height) the ligament height between the flaw and the surface shall be included in the flaw height. — Weld residual stresses shall be assumed for girth welds in the as-welded condition. in such cases fracture toughness testing shall be performed on SENB specimens to compensate for the under-estimated crack driving force. Hence. However. Qm. The stress distribution across the girth weld is defined as accurately as possible using the combination of Pm and Pb. a well defined and validated procedure for including a possible initiation period in DET NORSKE VERITAS . it is acceptable for strain-based assessment to define the Lr cut-off value as UTS/YS. see BS 7910. no further assessments are required. Alternatively a Level 3 assessment may be performed or other well documented procedures agreed by all parties. However. the height 2a of an embedded flaw is equal to the height a of the equivalent surface breaking flaw.4% under internal over-pressure is it acceptable to apply the procedure specified above to determine applied stresses. It is not acceptable for experimentally derived J-Δa points to be lower than the J R-curve applied in the assessment.2. This is however considered to be too conservative where the critical defect height of the embedded flaw may be predicted to be less than that of a surface breaking flaw of a corresponding length. For the assessment of embedded flaws. where UTS is the engineering tensile stress and YS is the yield stress of the parent pipe for the correct material condition. must be justified and documented. — The relation between strains. relevant geometry and material properties. For assessments of situations with longitudinal strains. solution is used to determine the reference stress (σref) for the assessment of surface flaws. Table 7-17 to Table 7-19. As crack initiation is not included in the fracture mechanics approach. 207 Determination of the reference stress. εl. October 2010 App.max) for the Lr (Lr = σref/YS) axis must be defined. In cases with large plastic strain. or for any other reason are larger than specified in Appendix D. Hence. F. the applied stress in the ECA may alternatively be calculated by non-linear FE analysis (without a crack) considering the nominal design strain. max = where Pmax = P max YS⋅ B(W − a0 ) B. 208 The Failure Assessment Diagram (FAD) cannot be extended to arbitrarily large plastic deformations and a cut-off limit (referred as Lr cut-off or Lr. i. this value should be chosen carefully.5 D808) or assessed based on fracture mechanics in accordance with this Subsection.3.) and the requirements of BS 7910 Annex K.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. the critical J (or CTOD) shall be chosen according to BS 7910. shorter fatigue lives are normally derived from fracture mechanics than by S-N data. see Subsection G. the maximum allowable flaw sizes are often strongly dependant on the Lr cut-off value. Annex K. the fatigue life assessment shall be based on S-N curves validated for the allowable defect sizes (see Sec.e.A – Page 151 tolerances specified in Sec. This means that if the crack driving force is determined from dedicated 3D FEA or well documented and validated research results it is acceptable to use SENT testing to determine the fracture resistance also for the combination of internal over-pressure and longitudinal loading. BS 7910 uses a reference stress solution developed for a flat plate. The research results indicate that the reduction in strain capacity is caused by and increase in the crack driving force (applied J or applied CTOD) but that the material fracture toughness is not influenced. — For lined and clad pipelines. either to determine correct applied stresses or to perform a Level 3C (3D FE fracture mechanics) assessment. However. equal to the lowest yield stress of the weld metal and the parent pipe material. whether for embedded or surface defects.2. In case of PWHT or high applied strain it is acceptable to reduce the weld residual stress according to BS 7910. Normal practice is to assess the critical flaw height of a surface breaking flaw and to regard the results as valid for embedded flaws of the same length. are not fulfilled. there is currently no validated and generally accepted procedure for assessing the combined loading and each case shall be evaluated separately and the procedure accepted by all parties.2: Number of fracture toughness results 3 to 5 6 to 10 11 to 15 Equivalent fracture toughness value Lowest Second lowest Third lowest All test results shall represent one homogeneous group (identical microstructure and testing conditions etc. Recent research has shown that the combination of internal over-pressure and longitudinal loading may be more onerous than longitudinal loading alone. equal to or less than 0. In such cases. 102 If allowable defect sizes are determined by ECA in accordance with Subsections C. The use of other. corresponding to the recorded maximum loads and the net-section area is as follows: Lr. K. 209 The J R-curves (or CTOD R-curves) to be used in a Level 3B assessment according to this Appendix shall be a lower bound to all J-Δa test data. 211 If a Level 2B assessment is performed (no fracture toughness resistance curve). identical material tensile properties shall be applied to the FE analyses and to the ECA’s.

5. Due to possible residual stresses from welding or plastic deformation during installation or operation the compressive part of cyclic stresses may contribute to the fatigue crack growth and the whole stress range shall be considered in the assessment. validated and generally accepted procedure for the assessment of low-cycle fatigue in pipeline girth welds. vortex induced vibration (VIV). ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- If satisfactory fatigue life can not be demonstrated or there is a risk of unstable fracture before or at the end of the operational life. there does currently not exist any well defined. 104 The critical flaw size shall be determined according to Subsection D and E as relevant and considered when the fatigue life is determined. fracture mechanics testing and prestraining shall be performed according to this Subsection and Appendix B. see also 204. If it can be substantiated that surface breaking defects are not present it is acceptable to assume the defects to be embedded with ligament height of 3 mm in the fracture mechanics based fatigue assessment. 107 The thickness of the pipe wall shall be defined according to E203. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 202 Mean plus two standard deviation fatigue crack growth curves representing the relevant environment shall be used. Testing Requirements G 100 General 101 Fracture toughness testing shall be performed on the materials and material conditions specified in Table A-11. For embedded defects it is acceptable to use air data until the crack extends through the ligament and becomes a surface crack when the relevant environmental data shall be used. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- G. 102 Tensile testing shall be performed on the materials and the material conditions specified in Table A-12. 108 For lined or clad pipelines. and varying longitudinal stresses due to thermal expansion and contraction. The fatigue assessment shall be performed using the relevant fatigue loading and fatigue crack growth law to determine the fatigue life from the initial defect size and until the critical defect size is reached. October 2010 Page 152 – App. In case of life extension assessments the wall thickness of the pipe shall be reduced by the full corrosion allowance. well documented and agreed by all parties. first and second bullet points. F 200 High-cycle fatigue 204 If the NDT probability of detection (PoD) and sizing error is in accordance with Appendix D and E it is acceptable to increase the fatigue damage ratio for the fracture mechanics based fatigue assessment in accordance with this Subsection to double that of an S-N based fatigue assessment as described in Sec.g. Guidance note: Large surface breaking defects normally do not occur in modern high quality pipeline girth welds. it can be assumed to be negligible. e. 106 It is acceptable to define the fatigue stress distribution through the wall thickness based on FE analyses provided that the analyses are well documented. Residual stresses shall be included by applying the fatigue crack growth curves for R≥0. 103 Possible stable crack growth (ductile tearing) and fatigue crack growth shall be considered in the assessment. Table A-5 and Table A-10 respectively. the fatigue life shall be assumed equal to the time necessary to grow through the clad/ liner thickness. Where fatigue crack growth is predicted to be less than 0. either the weld defect acceptance criteria shall be reduced or actions to reduce the fatigue loading shall be taken. 104 The extent of fracture mechanics testing and tensile testing for the different ECA categories shall be as specified in Table A-1. F 300 Low-cycle fatigue 301 Possible low-cycle fatigue shall be assessed. The assessment shall confirm that the largest weld defects expected to remain after NDT and repair will not increase during pipe laying to an extent such that fracture or fatigue failure will occur during operation of the pipeline. If the actual defect location can be determined it is acceptable to base the integrity assessment on the actual location.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. For the weld cap stress concentration it is acceptable to increase the stress intensity factor by the Mk factor according to BS 7910 or to use other well documented relevant stress intensity factor solutions.5 D810. Guidance note: High-cycle loading is normally understood to be cycles of more than around 1000 and stress ranges in the elastic regime. Guidance note: Low-cycle loading is normally understood to be cycles less than around 1000 and stress/strain ranges in the elastic-plastic regime. If reliable wall thickness measurements are available it is acceptable to base the assessment on such measurements.A the fracture mechanics fatigue approach does currently not exist.5 D810. Possible initial weld defects shall be assumed as relevant. All notch positions specified in Appendix B shall normally be tested and exceptions must be thoroughly evaluated and documented. 105 The fatigue assessment shall consider all loading relevant to the design case. 201 Fracture mechanics based fatigue assessments in the high-cycle regime shall be based on BS 7910 or equivalent procedures. bending stresses due to spanning. Any method used for assessing low-cycle fatigue shall therefore be justified. 103 Mechanical testing. 109 If the NDT probability of detection (PoD) and sizing error is in accordance with Appendix D and E it is acceptable to increase the fatigue damage ratio for the fracture mechanics based fatigue assessment in accordance with this Subsection to double that of an S-N based fatigue assessment as described in Sec. However. 203 Fatigue crack growth from possible flaws at the weld cap toe shall include an allowance for the increase in stress intensity factor due to the weld cap geometry as well as any local increase of bending due to girth weld misalignment. DET NORSKE VERITAS .2 mm.

nom ≥ 0.724 − 6. 0oC ≤ Tmin ≤ 20oC for 22Cr and 25Cr pipelines C Maximum temperature.4% during operation Pre-strained and aged 2) Assessment temperatures in consideration: A Minimum temperature. 202 There are three important material mechanisms that must be considered when the pre-straining and aging procedure is established. εl.4% during both installation and operation As-received ECA Static . see also A306. Pre-straining and ageing is normally not required for ECA Static considering installation. it is not acceptable to use the formulas the other way around to calculate the J fracture toughness to be used in Subsection C and D. εl. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- where YS UTS m n a W = = = = = = 105 For pipeline materials susceptible to environmentally induced embrittlement the mechanical.low. October 2010 App. 0oC ≤ Tmin ≤ 20oC for 22Cr and 25Cr pipelines C Maximum temperature.965⎜ ⎟ ⎝ UTS ⎠ ⎝ UTS ⎠ ⎝ UTS ⎠ 2 3 If aging is relevant.nom < 0.4% during installation1) As-received ECA Static – high. Tmax > 50 for C-Mn and 13Cr pipelines C Maximum temperature. If tensile testing. Tmin < 0oC B Minimum temperature. fracture toughness testing and crack growth testing is performed under representative environmental and loading condition. upper-bound tensile properties with low strain hardening shall be assessed and tested.418n W W ⎛ YS ⎞ ⎛ YS ⎞ ⎛ YS ⎞ n = 1.high. εl. Tmax > 20 for 22Cr and 25Cr pipelines 1) 2) If pipelines are installed as illustrated in Figure 9 b). see also 204. For stress-based ECAs.098⎜ ⎟ + 8.793 + 2.4% during operation Pre-strained and aged Assessment temperatures in consideration: A Minimum temperature.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. These are: DET NORSKE VERITAS . it is acceptable to pre-compress all material prior to testing Test temperatures A Tmin Tmin Tmin B RT RT RT C Tmax Tmax Tmax Guidance note: The tensile properties and the shape of the stress-strain curve are important and have a strong effect on the critical flaw dimensions.low. Tmin < 0oC B Minimum temperature.326⎜ ⎟ − 3. artificial ageing at 250°C for one hour shall be performed prior to any tensile testing. the assessment procedure described in Subsection E and F are applicable. G 200 Straining and ageing 201 For strain-based ECAs.nom ≥ 0. εl.4% during installation1) As-received ECA Static – high.high. hence. 106 The corresponding CTOD fracture toughness can conservatively be estimated from the J fracture toughness according to the following formulas: The engineering yield stress at test temperature The tensile strength at the test temperature Constraint parameter according to ASTM E1290-02 The strain-hardening parameter according The original crack size The specimen width This is a conservative way of calculating CTOD from J and. Experience shows that for strain based assessments the tensile properties are sensitive to test temperature and pre-straining and ageing history.nom ≥ 0. To achieve this it may be necessary to prestrain and age the material prior to testing. εl. Conservative values of the critical flaw dimensions are determined using higher yield strengths and low strain hardening.nom < 0. εl. it is acceptable to pre-compress all material prior to testing See G204 Test temperatures A Tmin Tmin Tmin B RT RT RT C Tmax Tmax Tmax Table A-12 Required material condition and test temperature for tensile testing ECA Category Material condition to be tested ECA Static . The ageing shall be performed after the pre-straining but before the tests are performed.221 + 0.4% during both installation and operation As-received ECA Static .A – Page 153 Table A-11 Required material condition and test temperature fracture toughness testing ECA Category Material condition to be tested ECA Static . Tmax > 50 for C-Mn and 13Cr pipelines C Maximum temperature. fracture toughness and fatigue properties shall reflect the actual environment.751n − 1. 0oC ≤ Tmin ≤ 50oC for C-Mn and 13Cr pipelines B Minimum temperature. lower-bound tensile properties shall be assessed and tested. Tmax > 20 for 22Cr and 25Cr pipelines 1) If pipelines are installed as illustrated in Figure 9 b). δ= J ⎛ YS + UTS ⎞ m⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ⎠ a a m = 1.nom ≥ 0. 0oC ≤ Tmin ≤ 50oC for C-Mn and 13Cr pipelines B Minimum temperature.

e. the strain increment may be larger at the 6 o’clock location in the straightener and this situation shall also be considered. 102 The segment testing shall be performed based on the procedure described in DNV-RP-F108 and Appendix B. the whole installation sequence. Figure 9 a).Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. — If maximum total strain. the ECA is considered validated. the tensile testing and fracture mechanics testing shall be performed on material representing strained material with ageing if relevant. If the load condition is stress-based. the tensile testing shall be performed on pre-strained and aged material. σ ics testing. as illustrated in Figure 7 — Strain hardening. October 2010 Page 154 – App. see Figure 7. For other installation methods.nom > 1. 204 If the ECA includes situations where the pipeline has already been subject to plastic strains. If it can be documented based on earlier experience that the fracture toughness properties are not reduced because of pre-straining and aging it is acceptable to perform fracture toughness testing in the as-received condition. as illustrated in Figure 8 — Aging. 205 The pre-straining shall simulate one complete strain history (i. If the load condition is strain-based. Upper bound values of tensile strength consistent with the values used in ECA should be used. The dimensions of the starter flaw should be such that approximately 0.nom > 1.5%. εl.5 mm of tearing (or as agreed) at the deepest point is predicted. In such cases ageing is not required.g.) if ECAs are required for the operational phase. — 13Cr martensitic steels and εl.5%. For reeling installation. it is important that the whole installation sequence is evaluated in order to determine the largest strain increment. 103 It is recommended that where a segment test is required the dimensions of the starter flaw should be determined by an ECA tailored to the segment test prior to testing and based on the lower bound fracture toughness curve. e. 203 Figure 9 illustrates the moment/curvature cycles for two different installation methods introducing large plastic strains. the pre-straining cycling shall end in tension because this will give upper-bound tensile properties and little strain hardening. but not contingency etc. the strain increment marked in Figure 9 b). The amount of testing and the strain cycles applied shall be agreed. If less tearing than estimated in the ECA is measured in the segment specimens and the stress capacity is at least as large as estimated by ECA. ECA Validation Testing H 100 General 101 Segment specimen testing or full scale testing shall be performed for the following situations where “ECA static” is applicable and more than one strain increments are applied: ε Figure 8 Cyclic strain hardening is the effect seen if a material is strained in one direction followed by unloading before the material is strained in the same direction once more. The effect of such cycling is that the reversed yield stress is decreased σ H.5%. — C-Mn linepipe materials with SMYS larger than 450 MPa and εl.A — The “Bauschinger effect”. In some cases it may be acceptable to pre-compress the material prior to tensile and fracture mechan- DET NORSKE VERITAS . The effect of such cycling is that the yield stress is increased and that the strain-hardening is decreased — Clad or lined pipelines. the most critical situation is theoretically reeling-on at 12 o’clock because the tensile properties are represented by the highest stress-strain curve with little strain hardening. The tip of the starter flaw should be in the lowest toughness material consistent with the ECA.25%. ε Figure 7 The Baushinger effect is a phenomenon which occurs when materials are strained into the non-linear stress-strain area in one direction followed by straining in the opposite direction. — 22Cr and 25Cr duplex stainless steels if εl. However.nom exceeds 2.nom > 1. the pre-straining cycling shall end in compression because this will give lower-bound tensile properties. If the loading situation to be evaluated takes place more than one week after the material was plastically deformed during installation or operation.

5 Curvature a) Reeling installation Crack driving force 12 o'clock over ramp Crack driving force no.5 -2.0 0. 6 o'clock Crack driving force no.A – Page 155 Crack driving force 600 12 o'clock 6 o'clock Crack driving force 500 400 300 200 100 Aligner Reel drum Straightener Moment 0 -2.0 1. 2.0 2.5 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500 -600 0. 6 o'clock Aligner Straightener Bending on vessel 6 o'clock 12 o'clock Curvature b) Installation method introducing large plastic strain increment Figure 9 Examples of installation methods introducing large plastic strain increments DET NORSKE VERITAS Moment .0 -0.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.5 1. 1.5 -1.0 -1. October 2010 App.5 2.

whichever is the lesser. Methods and procedures for chemical analysis shall be according to recognised industry standards. see A403 and A404. and the details stated below.1 mm. Weld beads may be ground flush and local imperfections may be removed. Samples and test pieces from components 205 Unless otherwise stated the location of samples and test pieces from components shall be according to Sec. 402 Base material tensile properties may be determined using rectangular or round test pieces at the manufacturers discretion. Test piece grip ends may be flattened or machined to fit the test machine's grips. and the corresponding test pieces prepared. Samples and test pieces from linepipe 203 For tensile tests. 204 Samples and test pieces for the various test types for linepipe shall be taken from alternating pipe ends in the locations as shown in Figure 5 and Figure 6 in ISO 3183 and as given in Sec. CVN impact tests. 102 Test laboratories shall meet the requirements of ISO 17025.8. 406 If agreed. in accordance with the applicable reference standard. 407 All weld tensile tests shall be carried out using round test pieces. Guidance note: ISO/TR 9769 gives a list of available international standards providing chemical analysis methods. Mechanical Testing and Chemical Analysis A 100 General 101 This appendix addresses methods for mechanical testing. with information on the application and precision of the various methods. 405 For testing when D < 219.7 Table 7-9. where S0 is the cross section area of the specimen. the samples shall be taken. DET NORSKE VERITAS . may be discarded and replaced by another test piece from the same pipe. The extensometer shall be attached to a machined surface. Results from chemical analyses shall be given with the same number of digits (or more) as given in the specification of the product and/or in this standard. In addition the following requirements apply. A 300 Chemical analysis 301 Samples for heat and product analyses shall be taken and prepared in accordance with ISO 14284. whether observed before or after testing. except that the next larger diameter may be used at the option of the manufacturer. 403 Rectangular test pieces shall represent the full wall thickness. Longitudinal/axial test pieces shall not be flattended. ring expansion test pieces may be used for the determination of transverse yield strength.B APPENDIX B MECHANICAL TESTING AND CORROSION TESTING A.7 mm in diameter. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — API 5LD API RP 5L3 ASTM A264 ASTM A 956 ASTM A 1038 ASTM E110 ASTM E1820 ASTM G48 BS 7448 BS 7910 DNV-RP-F108 ISO 148 ISO 377 ISO 3183 ISO 4136 ISO 5173 ISO 5178 ISO 6507 ISO 6892 ISO/TR 9769 ISO 14284 ISO 15156 ISO 17025 NACE TM0284 Chemical analysis of weld overlay 302 The chemical composition of the weld overlay shall be obtained at the surface of the overlay after machining of the overlay such that the minimum distance from the surface to the fusion line is either 3 mm or the minimum thickness specified for the finished component. and flattening tests. guidedbend tests. of acceptable uncertainty. as specified for the relevant component in Sec. Transverse/tangential test pieces shall be flattened.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. any test piece that shows defective preparation or material imperfections unrelated to the intent of the particular mechanical test. respectively. Double sided extensometers should be used. 206 For induction bends and bolts the location of samples and test pieces shall be according to the recognised standard or specification used for manufacture. 103 The following standards are referred to in this Appendix: Samples and test pieces for welds not performed at pipe mills 207 For welds not performed as part of linepipe fabrication. General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories. 408 For pipes to be tested according to supplementary requirement P specimens shall be of proportional type with gauge length of value 5.8 E100. samples shall be taken in accordance Appendix C Figure 1 and 2.65 S 0 . 202 For any of the mechanical tests. For longitudinal/axial tensile tests when t ≥ 19. A 400 Tensile testing 401 Tensile testing shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements in this appendix and ISO 6892 or ASTM A370.0 mm. For transverse or tangential tensile tests the diameter of such test pieces shall be as given in Table 21 in ISO 3183. October 2010 Page 156 – App. such test pieces shall be 12. including girth welds. Transverse weld (cross weld) tensile test 409 Test pieces shall be rectangular and in accordance with A 200 General requirements to selection and preparation of samples and test pieces 201 Selection of samples and preparation of test pieces shall as far as applicable be in accordance with the general conditions of ISO 377. The test piece configuration and possible test piece flattening shall be the same for all the delivered items. 404 Round test pieces shall be obtained from non-flattened samples. full-section longitudinal/axial test pieces may be used at the option of the manufacturer. chemical analysis and corrosion testing of materials and products. or an accepted equivalent. DWT tests.

Transverse all-weld tensile test for girth welds 412 The geometry of the test pieces shall be according to Figure 13. The specimens shall be bent 180° around a former with a diameter 5x the pipe wall thickness. Notch positioning for HAZ test pieces 510 The HAZ notch positions comprise the fusion line (FL) test pieces. The weld reinforcement shall be removed on the face and root sides by machining or grinding. 607 Longitudinal weld root bend test shall include the corrosion resistant alloy. FL test pieces shall always be located such that 50% of weld metal and 50% of HAZ is sampled. as given in Table 23 of ISO 3183 1. The mandrel dimension shall not be larger than that determined using the following equation. 513 For weld overlay material contributing to the transfer of load across the base material/weld overlay fusion line. 505 The locations of test pieces taken from girth welds shall be according to Appendix C Figure 1 and Figure 2. Each set shall consist of three specimens taken from the same test coupon. All-weld tensile testing of load bearing weld overlay 411 Test pieces shall be round with maximum obtainable diameter. 506 The test pieces shall be sampled 2 mm below the external surface. A smaller distance than 2 mm shall be used if necessary (due to the dimensions of the material) to make specimens with the largest possible cross section. and Figure 8 in ISO 3183. expressed in millimetres (inches) t is the specified wall thickness. The edges may be rounded to a DET NORSKE VERITAS . each test piece shall be etched prior to notching in order to enable proper placement of the notch.8 E100.0 mm.0 mm. orientation. Guidance note: It is not necessary to impact-test linepipe with combinations of specified outside diameter and specified wall thickness not covered by Table 22 in ISO 3183. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- pieces shall be sampled in the positions given in Figure 3 to Figure 8. For pipe with t ≤ 19. 509 For test pieces taken in the weld of HFW pipe. One test piece shall have the root of the weld directly in contact with the mandrel. expressed in millimetres (inches) D is the specified outside diameter.15( D − 2t ) −t D (e − 2e − 1) t 503 During MPQT. the other test piece shall have the face of the weld directly in contact with the mandrel. — The longitudinal axis of the weld shall be parallel to the specimen. including the full thickness of the clad layer. the centreline of the outside weld bead. except that the next smaller test piece size may be used if the absorbed energy is expected to exceed 80% of the full-scale capacity of the impact testing machine. 604 The guided-bend test shall be carried out in accordance with ISO 7438. 602 For pipe with t > 19.0 mm. 502 The size. or as close as practical to the weld line. when the overlay is a part of a butt joint or acts as a transition between a corrosion resistant alloy and a carbon steel). The test pieces shall be round with maximum obtainable diameter and be instrumented with strain gauges on the reduced section representing the weld metal.15 is the peaking factor. The longitudinal axis of the specimen shall be perpendicular to the fusion line and the notch parallel to the fusion line. The tensile strength shall be determined (yield stress and elongation is not required). the axis of the notch shall be located on. for seamless pipe with t > 25 mm and delivered in the quenched and tempered condition. 507 For weld metal and HAZ tests. see Table 7-7 and Table 7-8 in Sec. Bend testing of clad linepipe 606 Weld clad or roll bonded clad pipe shall be subjected to bend testing (the longitudinal weldment shall not be included). or as close as practical to. The test pieces shall be machined from the weld overlay transverse to the welding direction. one set of transverse direction CNV test pieces shall be sampled 2 mm above the internal surface. except for testing of the root of double sided welds. — The width of the longitudinal root bend specimen shall be at least twice the width of the internal weld reinforcement or maximum 25 mm. after removal of the CRA. 511 Impact testing of clad/lined pipes shall be performed in the carbon steel portion of the material. the weld reinforcement shall be removed from both faces. Specimens shall be of full thickness. 410 Transverse weld tensile test pieces of clad or lined linepipe shall be performed on the full thickness of the carbon steel. impact testing of the weld overlay and HAZ shall be performed (i. taking care not to reduce the C-Mn steel wall thickness. A 600 Bend testing Guided-bend testing of the seam weld of welded pipe 601 The test pieces shall be prepared in accordance with ISO 7438 or ASTM A370. the test pieces may be machined to provide a rectangular cross-section having a thickness of 18.B – Page 157 A403. A 500 Charpy V-notch impact testing 501 The test pieces shall be prepared in accordance with ISO 148-1 without any prior flattening of the material. The width of the specimens shall be approximately 25 mm. Notch positioning for weld metal test pieces 508 For production welds other than HFW pipe the axis of the notch of the weld metal sample shall be located on. Additional sets of HAZ test pieces shall be sampled compared to ISO 3183. 605 Both test pieces shall be bent 180° in a jig as shown in Figure 9 in ISO 3183. both sides of the weld shall be tested. the test pieces shall be full wall thickness curved-section test pieces. 512 When dissimilar materials are welded. and source of the test pieces from linepipe shall be as given in Table 22 in ISO 3183. October 2010 App. with the result rounded to the nearest 1 mm: Agb = 1. the FL+2 mm test pieces and the FL+5 mm Test where: Agb is the mandrel dimension. 504 The locations of test pieces taken from components shall be according to Sec. which is bent so that the root surface is in tension. expressed in millimetres (inches) e is the strain.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. The edges may be rounded to a radius of 1/10 of the thickness. Full size test pieces shall be used whenever possible.e. with the notch positions as applicable. The notch locations shall be according to A508-513. The test requires that the width of the weld is at least 6 mm.7. The axis of the notch shall be perpendicular to the surface. Testing according to ASTM A370 is acceptable if agreed. 603 For SAW pipes.

905 Other test specimen configurations may be used for deriving the fracture toughness for use in an ECA provided that the fracture toughness can be derived from experimental measurement. The recommended specimen for such conditions is the SENT specimen. e. including the corrosion resistant alloy. 609 Bend test of clad pipes shall be performed on full thickness of the pipe. as shown in Figure 2. The width of side bend specimens shall be 10 mm. A 900 Fracture toughness testing 901 For qualification testing of linepipe weld metal. 902 The fracture toughness testing applicable to this Standard is: — Fracture toughness testing. or — Single Edge Notched Bend (SENB) specimen Pipeline walls are predominately loaded in tension independent of the loading mode. A 700 Flattening test 701 The test pieces shall be taken in accordance with ISO 8492. — Fracture toughness resistance curve testing. see 904 and 913 to 916: — for qualification testing of girth welds. For base materials with SMYS up to 415 MPa the former diameter shall be 4x thickness of the test specimen. have high crack tip constraint and will hence give lower bound estimates for the fracture resistance that can be used for conservative fracture assessments for a large range of engineering structures. Test pieces taken from crop ends at weld stops shall be tested at the 3 or 9 o’clock position only. — The specimens shall be bent to an angle of 180°. The weld shall be located in the centre of each specimen. The width of root and face bend specimens shall be approximately 25 mm. 907 Post-test metallography shall be applied to the specimens designated for FL/HAZ testing in order to establish if the crack tip has been successfully located in the target microstructure. For base materials with SMYS equal to or exceeding 415 MPa the former diameter shall be 5x thickness of the test specimen. J or CTOD (δ). The edges may be rounded to a radius of 1/10 of the thickness. J-Δa (J Rcurve) or δ-Δa (δ R-curve). — The specimen shall be bent to an angle of 180° using a former with diameter 90 mm. — For pipes. 613 After bending. For materials with SMYS equal to or exceeding 415 MPa. For heavy section components. using the same roller diameter as for the conventional bend testing. 610 The weld reinforcement on both faces shall be removed flush with the original surfaces. both predominantly loaded in bending.1). Bend test specimens shall have full wall thickness. — The internal and external weld reinforcement shall be removed flush with the original surfaces. As shown in Figure 6 in ISO 3183. a minimum of 6 specimens is required for each notch position. For high toughness steels ductile crack initiation from the notch tip shall be acceptable (contrary to API RP 5L3. — The thickness of side bend specimens shall be 10 mm. October 2010 Page 158 – App. the welded joint shall be completely within the tensioned region. both surfaces shall be equally machined to the thickness of 19. All SENT testing shall be performed in accordance with DNVRP-F108. A 800 Drop weight tear test 801 Drop weight tear test shall be carried out in accordance with API RP 5L3. 612 If necessary. one of the two test pieces taken from both end-of-coil locations shall be tested with the weld at the 6 or 12 o’clock position. Bend testing for WPQT according to Appendix C 608 Bend testing shall be performed in accordance with ISO 5173. 903 Unless otherwise agreed fracture toughness testing shall be performed using one of the following type of specimens: — Single Edge Notched Tension (SENT). clip gauge displacement and that it is justified that the crack tip constraint of the test specimen is not smaller than for the most severe pipeline weld defect assessed in the ECA. Minor surface imperfections may be removed by grinding. as shown in Figure 1. a minimum of 3 specimens is required for each notch position. BS 7448 and ASTM E1820. e. Clause 7. see 917 to 920. These specimens. The test specimens shall be sampled perpendicular to the welding direction.g. the test specimens shall sample the full thickness of the weld overlay and the base material. If reduced thickness specimens are used. The specimen is considered qualified if: — the pre-crack tip is not more than 0.0 mm. The testing temperature reduction given in API RP 5L3 shall apply.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 904 Fracture toughness testing as required in Sec. 611 The specimens shall be bent to an angle of 180° using a former with diameter depending on the specified minimum yield stress SMYS for the parent material. the former diameter shall be 5x thickness of the test specimen.g. The edges may be rounded to a radius of 1/10 of the thickness.5 mm from fusion line DET NORSKE VERITAS . describe methods for determining the fracture resistance from deeply notched SENB (Single Edge Notched Bend) or CT (Compact Tension) specimens. 802 Full thickness specimens shall be used where possible. load vs.B radius of 1/10 of the thickness. For materials with SMYS up to 360 MPa. e.7 for weld metal shall be CTOD testing of SENB specimens. if one of the materials to be joined has a lower yield stress than the other. Reduced thickness specimens may be used subject to Purchaser agreement. Refer also to DNV-RP-F108 for further guidance. the former diameter shall be 4x thickness of the test specimen. 702 The flattening test shall be carried out in accordance with ISO 8492. The central portion of the bend test specimen shall include an overlap area. Guidance note: Commonly used testing standards. guided bend testing in accordance with ISO 5173 may be applied. Bend testing of weld overlay 614 Side bend test specimens shall be used. The specimens shall be taken transverse to the rolling direction or pipe axis.g. — The thickness of the specimen shall be equal to the base material thickness or a maximum of 10 mm. the thickness of the base material in the specimen shall be at least equal to 5x the thickness of the overlay. whereas the remaining two test pieces shall be tested at the 3 or 9 o’clock position. except that the length of each test piece shall be ≥ 60 mm. 906 Testing of SENB specimens shall be carried out in general compliance with the latest revisions of the relevant parts of BS 7448 or an equivalent standard. The SENB specimen can also be used but this is likely to result in unnecessarily conservative fracture toughness. with the notch perpendicular to the surface. as shown in Figure 12.

curve testing: — — — — — — — load vs. 918 The SENT specimens shall be designed with a Surface Notch (SN). Only specimens that are qualified with respect to crack tip location by post-test metallographic examination shall be considered valid. The macro-section shall be prepared by Fracture toughness testing of linepipe 913 The following applies to fracture toughness testing of linepipe as required during MPQT: fracture toughness testing of the weld metal shall be performed using SENB specimens. A 1100 Metallographic examination and hardness testing Macro examination 1101 Macro examination shall be performed at 5X to 10X magnifications (for HFW the examination shall be performed at minimum 40X and be documented at least 20X magnification). as applicable. For SENB specimens the instructions specified in BS 7448-2 shall be followed. testing shall be performed based on DNV-RP-F108. Macro examination shall be conducted on specimens given in Figures 10 and 11. also with reduced notch length.2a from the physical crack mouth then the CMOD can be calculated from: 915 The number of valid CTOD or J tests for each location shall be minimum 3. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 910 The CTOD-value. δ DET NORSKE VERITAS . It is important that the weld metal is not mechanically deformed during fabrication of specimens. For definitions of the other parameters it is referred to BS 7448. 919 The notch positions and welding procedures to be tested shall be agreed. 912 The following information shall be reported from J Rcurve or δ R. δ. It is acceptable to test SENT specimens. Relevant for testing of SENB specimens 908 Testing of SENB specimens are acceptable. 920 For situations involving plastic deformation and possibility of unstable fracture caused by tearing. see A907. Extensions are butt welded until required specimen length before the specimen is finally machined to a SENT specimen. crack resistance curve testing (preferably J R-curve) shall be performed of the girth weld. The macro section shall include the whole weld deposit and in addition include at least 15 mm of base material on each side measured from any point of the fusion line. The fracture toughness for SENB test specimens can be derived from the load vs. The notch shall be located in the weld metal centre line. 909 If the total displacement.5 mm ahead of the crack tip. The characteristic CTOD or critical J value shall be taken as the lowest from 3 valid tests or selected in accordance with BS 7910. For SENT specimens it is normally required to cut out the seam weld and at least 10 mm of the parent pipe on each side of the seam weld. 1002 Gripping force of lined pipe shall be measured by the residual compressive stress test. If the SENT specimen is tested. since this is the relevant orientation for defects in the welds. G106. crack mouth opening displacement curves of all tests crack measurements (a0 and Δa) J-Δa or δ-Δa results test temperature material condition (possible pre-straining and aging history) welding procedure and weld metal designation parent pipe designation. Qualification of girth welds (ECA) 917 The recommended specimen for fracture toughness testing of girth welds is the SENT (Single Edge Notched Tension) specimen. see Appendix A. which is recommended. for use in an ECA the specimen notch length shall not be chosen shorter than the height of the most severe weld defect assessed in the ECA. The amount of testing and test procedure shall be adjusted to the loading considered. Vg. October 2010 App. Reporting of fracture toughness testing: 911 The following information shall be reported from J/ CTOD testing: — — — — — load vs. The calculation and performance of SENT testing shall be according to DNV-RP-F108. Such notching is empirically more successful because the crack growth tends to grow towards the base material.3 b of API 5LD.B – Page 159 — grain coarsened heat affected zone (GCHAZ) micro-structure is present within a region confined by a plane perpendicular to the crack plane through the crack tip and a parallel plane 0. Hence. surface notched specimens shall be tested. is measured at a distance z ≤ 0. crack mouth opening displacement curves of all tests crack measurements (a0) j or δ results test temperature material condition (possible pre-straining and aging history) — welding procedure and weld metal designation — parent pipe designation. 914 Testing shall be conducted on through thickness notched specimens with the specimen orientated transverse to the weld direction (The corresponding notation used by BS 7448 is NP). A-5 and A-7 as relevant. Typically the main line procedure(s). 921 If segment testing is required. see 903. can be calculated from J according Appendix A. the testing shall be in accordance with DNV-RPF108.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 916 If fracture toughness testing of the FL/HAZ of the seam weld is performed. crack mouth displacement (CMOD) curve. Sheet and Strip). a crack tip at the FL boundary is typically growing through the HAZ if it is notched from the outer surface. A 1000 Specific tests for clad and lined linepipe 1001 Shear testing shall be performed in accordance with ASTM A264 (Standard Specification for Stainless ChromiumNickel Steel-Clad Plate. in accordance with Clause 7. The notch may be introduced either from the outer surface or from the inner surface. H101. Guidance note: It is recommended that the FL/HAZ is notched from the outer surface. However. clip gauge displacement record according to the following formulae: where Ap is the area under the load vs. the through thickness procedure(s) and the partial repair procedure(s) shall be tested as illustrated in Figure 9 and specified in Appendix A Tables A-1. Validation of the crack tip shall be performed.

5 . 1203 Pre-straining can be carried out as full scale (reversed) bending of whole pipes sections or as tension/compression straining of material cut from the pipe wall. ISO 6508. shall be carried out in accordance with ISO 6506. it is only necessary to carry out the inside and outside surface traverses. it is only necessary to carry out the mid-thickness traverse — for pipe with 4. Thereafter. 1107 For SAW. a minimum of 3 indentations equally spaced along each traverse shall be made.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. ISO 6507. If the test machine is not sufficiently rigid. 1105 Hardness test locations for SMLS pipe shall be as shown in Figure 10 a). The face exposed by sectioning shall be prepared by grinding. The orientation of the specimens shall be longitudinal to the coupon centreline.10% of units of strain from the specified cycle when measured at the corners of the pre-straining cycle where the strain rate changes sign. the samples shall be artificially aged at 250°C for one hour before — when t < 4. The width of the macro section shall be minimum 40 mm. indentations shall be made along the traverses for each 0. individual hardness readings exceeding the applicable acceptance limit may be considered acceptable if the average of a minimum of three and maximum of six additional readings taken within close proximity does not exceed the applicable acceptance limit and if no such individual reading exceeds the acceptance limit by more than 10 HV10 units. ASTM A1038 or ASTM E110. see Figure 14 b). normalising or quench and tempering). Surface hardness testing 1111 Surface hardness testing. and further etched using a suitable etchant in order to reveal the microstructure. and as shown in Figures 10 b) and c).0 mm (as close as possible but provided indentation is made into unaffected material. A sufficient number of strain gauges shall be fitted along the length of the test section to ensure an efficient monitoring of the strain along the whole test section. Pre-straining and ageing of materials 1202 Pre-straining is applicable to: — Linepipe material to be qualified in accordance with Supplementary requirement P.0 mm. or ASTM A370 using portable hardness test equipment. in the HAZ and in each layer of overlay up to a maximum of 2 layers. 1206 The strain gauges shall be logged with sufficient frequency during the straining cycle to ensure efficient monitoring of the cycle. 1106 Hardness testing of welds shall be performed on the specimens used for macro examination. 1109 Hardness testing of clad/lined pipes shall have one additional hardness traverse located in the thickness centre of the CRA material. 1108 In the weld metal of SAW and MWP welds. and Figure 11. 1208 The characteristic strain shall for cut material be defined as the mean value of the strains measured on the outside and inside of the pipe wall for pre-straining material encompassing the full pipe wall thickness. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Depending on the method used the equipment shall comply with ASTM A956. Micro examination of duplex stainless steels shall be performed and documented at a minimum magnification of 400X. 1210 After straining for Supplementary requirement P. the full straining cycle as measured on each strain gauge shall be reported and it shall be ensured that test pieces fabricated are fabricated from pre-strained material that complies with the requirement to the straining cycle. October 2010 Page 160 – App. A test coupon shall be machined from the pipe material and aged at 250°C for one hour. see Figure 14 a). polishing. except that: A 1200 Straining and ageing Ageing test 1201 This test is applicable if the cold forming during pipe manufacture of C-Mn and clad/lined steels exceeds 5% strain and for Supplementary requirement F.g. it is only necessary to carry out the midthickness traverse — for pipe with 4. The macro examination of weld overlay shall be sampled transverse to the welding direction. See Figure 14 b). the specified number of Charpy V-notch specimens shall be machined from the middle of the coupon. A sufficient number of strain gauges shall be fitted along the length of the test section to ensure an efficient monitoring of the strain along the whole test section.0 mm ≤ t < 6 mm.0 mm ≤ t < 6 mm. and starting as close to the fusion line as possible according to Figure 10 b). If the difference is larger. For full scale bending of spool pieces the characteristic strain is defined as the strain measured on the outside of the pipe wall. See Figure 11. 1205 When pre-straining cut material such material shall be fitted with strain gauges on each of the opposite sides with respect to the smallest measure on the cross section. with the notch perpendicular to the surface of the test coupon.g. The ferrite content of the base material and weld metal shall be measured according to ASTM E562. 1209 The difference between the average strain and each strain gauge shall not exceed ±20% of the specified strain when measured at the corners of the pre-straining cycle where the strain rate changes sign. If this is not possible additional material shall be pre-strained or acceptance from the client be obtained. and etched on one side to clearly reveal the fusion line and HAZ. 1204 When full scale bending is applied whole pipes sections they shall be instrumented with strain gauges on the outside of the pipe wall in the 12 and 6 o'clock positions.1. Hardness testing 1103 Hardness testing of base material and weld cross-section samples shall be carried out using the Vickers HV10 method according to ISO 6507-1.B grinding. For pre-straining material not encompassing the full pipe wall thickness the average strain shall be defined as the mean value of the strains measured on the two opposite sides of the material of the smallest thickness. it is only necessary to carry out the inside and outside surface traverses. of suspected hard spots detected by visual inspection. strain gauges shall also be fitted either sides along the long cross section. HFW and MWP the following applies: — for pipe with t < 4. This test does not apply to linepipe delivered with a final heat treatment (e. e. In the HAZ. 1207 The pre-straining shall be carried out in such a way that the characteristic strain (see below) does not deviate by more than ±0. 1110 For hardness testing of weld overlay hardness testing shall be performed at a minimum of 3 test locations: in the base material. polishing and etched by a suitable etchant to clearly reveal the weld and heat affected zone. 1104 For pipe base material tests. — Girth welds to be qualified in accordance with Appendix A (ECA). Microstructure examination 1102 Samples for optical metallography shall be prepared using standard procedures.0 mm.

Intergranular copper penetration of the base material shall not at any point extend beyond 0. Corrosion testing of weld overlay 208 Specimens for corrosion testing of the weld overlay shall be machined from the base material side. (e. Solution A. The specimen shall subsequently be pickled to reduce the susceptibility of cut surfaces to end-grain attack. A 1300 Testing of pin brazings and aluminothermic welds Copper penetration 1301 2 test specimens shall the sectioned transverse to the anode lead and 2 test specimens parallel with the anode lead. see Appendix A G200.3) including NACE TM 0284 Solution B — with a partial pressure of H2S appropriate to the intended application — with acceptance criteria that are equal to or more stringent than those specified in Sec.7 I100. without mechanical preparation.g.5 mm from the fusion line. October 2010 App. SSC testing may be carried out for qualification of pipe manufacturing. 202 Testing shall be carried out according to ASTM G48 "Standard Test Methods for Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of Stainless steels and Related Alloys by the Use of Ferric Chloride solutions". testing shall be conducted on specimens from at least 3 heats of material.g. The remaining surface of the specimen shall be representative for the weld overlay at the minimum distance from the fusion line (equal to 3 mm or the minimum weld overlay thickness specified for the finished machined component. B 400 Sulphide Stress Cracking test Qualification of new materials 401 For qualification of new materials (i. Values of crack length ratio. 207 The test solution shall be prepared according to the referenced standard. One longitudinal base material sample shall be taken from each test pipe. raw seawater and other water containing fluids (including treated seawater) with high residual contents of oxygen and/or active chlorine. this test is further applicable to verify adequate microstructure after manufacturing or fabrication (see B101). The specimen shall break in the cable. The specimens shall be prepared and etched for metallographic examination.e. The specimen thickness shall as a minimum be 1 mm — in an alternative medium (see ISO 15156-2:2003. Cut faces shall be ground (500 grid) and sharp edges smoothed off. photographs of any reportable crack shall be provided with the report. Qualification testing shall include testing of simulated girth welds and for welded pipe also seam welds. at least 15 mm of the base material on each side of the weld shall be included in the test specimen.5 (referring to NACE TM0284 "Evaluation of Pipeline Steels for Resistance to Stepwise Cracking II). except that testing shall be carried out on material representing the worst case conditions to be qualified (e. testing procedures and acceptance criteria shall comply with ISO 15156. maximum hardness or contents of alloying or impurity elements) may be qualified by testing for resistance to Sulphide Stress Cracking (SSC) as specified in B401. The root and the cap side of the welds are only to be prepared with the intention of removing "loose material" that will interfere with weighing prior to and after testing. Qualification of pipe manufacturing 403 As an option to Purchaser.7 I110.B – Page 161 testing. Certain corrosion tests are further applicable to verify adequate microstructure affecting toughness in addition to corrosion resistance. where one of the surfaces is representing the inside of the pipe. e. heat of material and environment). whichever is the lesser). crack thickness ratio.e. The size of the specimen shall be 25 × 25 mm in length and width. B. Corrosion Testing B 100 General 101 For certain material and fluid combinations where improper manufacture or fabrication can cause susceptibility to corrosion related damage. and crack sensitivity ratio shall be reported. DET NORSKE VERITAS .g. Force shall be applied until the specimen breaks. The traverse shall consist of minimum 6 indentations. the need for corrosion testing during qualification and/or production of materials shall be assessed. If agreed. 203 Location of specimens is given in Appendix C. This subsection describes test requirements and methods for corrosion testing. tests may be conducted: B. 5 minutes at 60°C is adequate. max. 20% nitric acid + 5% hydrofluoric acid. Method A. 1303 The maximum hardness shall not exceed the limits given in Appendix C as applicable for the intended service and type of material. For welds. 206 Rolled surfaces shall be tested "as-received". Testing shall be according to ISO 15156-2. 205 Test specimens from clad/lined pipe shall be machined to remove the carbon steel portion and are to contain the full weld and any heat affected zone in the corrosion resistant alloy.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. The examination shall be performed at a magnification of 50X.0 mm below the base material surface. 204 The minimum recommended size of test specimens is 25 mm wide by 50 mm long by full material thickness (except as allowed by 205). For duplex stainless steels and austenitic grades with PRE > 30. B 200 Pitting corrosion test 201 This test is applicable to verify CRAs’ resistance to pitting and crevice corrosion by oxidising and chloride containing fluids. two in the HAZ under the weld/brazing and two in the base material on each side of the weld/brazing. Table B. i. Regarding artificial ageing for ECA. hardness or max. B 300 Hydrogen Induced Cracking test 301 Testing for Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC). as defined in ISO 15156 is applicable to rolled C-Mn steel linepipe and pipeline components. Specimen preparation. also referred to as StepWise Cracking (SWC).e. two in the heat affected zone (HAZ) on each side of the weld/brazing. If agreed. For duplex stainless steels. using triplicate specimens for each testing condition (i. The opposite surface of the specimen shall be machined such that the thickness of the specimen is 2 mm. A traverse shall be made across the weld/brazing zone. Hardness 1302 HV10 hardness tests shall be made on each of the specimens for copper penetration measurements. not listed for sour service in ISO 15156-2/3). The fusion line of the weld/brazing shall at any point not be more than 1. 302 Unless otherwise agreed tests shall be conducted in a medium complying with NACE TM0284. 402 Materials listed for sour service in ISO 15156 but not meeting the requirements in Sec. Figures 1 and 2. The HAZ indentations shall be made as close to the fusion line as possible. sulphur content). Pull test 1304 The test specimen shall be mounted in a tensile testing machine and secured in the cable in one end and the base material in the other end. in addition to longitudinal samples of the base material.

testing shall include one additional sample transverse to the weld direction (samples W or WS according to Figure 5 in ISO 3183) and shall contain a section of the longitudinal or helical seam weld at its centre. see Table 13-3. Figure 4 Charpy V-notch impact test specimen positions for single sided welds with t > 25 mm t = Specimen thickness = 10 mm W = Width of specimen = 30 mm T = Base material thickness The weld reinforcement is to be machined / ground flush with the base material Figure 2 Longitudinal root bend test specimens DET NORSKE VERITAS . using Test Solution A. W t = Specimen thickness.0 mm (all edges) — The "FL" specimen shall sample 50% WM and 50% HAZ — The "FL+ 5 mm" sample is applicable to WPQT only. 406 Unless otherwise agreed tests shall be performed in accordance with NACE TM0177. 405 Three test pieces shall be taken from each sample. 3. thickness t < 20 mm. 3. r W = Width of specimen = Base material thickness The weld reinforcement is to be machined / ground flush with the base material a) SIDE BEND TEST SPECIMEN (Pl. W = Width of specimen. W l ≥ 200 mm t — The "FL" specimen shall sample 50% WM and 50% HAZ — The "FL+5 mm" sample is applicable to WPQT only.1 t.1 t. October 2010 Page 162 – App.0 mm (all edges) t t = Specimen thickness = Base material thickness./pipe mat.B 404 For welded linepipe.1 t. Figure 1 Bend test specimens T l t ≥ 200 mm W t r ≤ 0. Unless otherwise agreed. t = 10 mm. A four-point bend test piece in accordance with ISO 7539-2 shall be used and the test duration shall be 720 h. max. W = 1. 20 mm The weld reinforcement is to be machined / ground flush with the base material b) FACE/ROOT BEND TEST SPECIMEN (Pl. max. however minimum 72% of the material SMYS. test pieces for four-point bending SSC tests shall be ≥ 115 mm long × 15 mm wide × 5 mm thick. Samples may be flattened prior to machining test pieces from the inside surface of the pipe.0 mm (all edges) Figure 3 Charpy V-notch impact testing specimen positions for single sided welds with t ≤ 25 mm t l ≥ 200 mm W r ≤ 0.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. ≤ 0. min. The test pieces shall be stressed to a fraction of SMYS appropriate for the pipeline design.5 t./pipe mat. max. 3. thickness t ≥ 20 mm.

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. October 2010 App. Figure 8 Charpy V-notch impact test specimen positions for partial thickness repair welding Figure 9 Illustration of typical notch positions for fracture toughness testing of girth welds DET NORSKE VERITAS . Figure 7 Charpy V-notch impact test specimen positions for full thickness repair welding of narrow gap welds — The specimens indicated in the root area are only applicable when t > 25 mm). Figure 6 Charpy V-notch impact test specimen positions for HF welds — The "FL" specimen shall sample 50% WM and 50% HAZ — The "FL+5 mm" sample is applicable to WPQT only. Figure 5 Charpy V-notch impact test specimen positions for double sided welds — The "FL" specimen shall sample 50% WM and 50% HAZ — The "FL+5 mm" sample is applicable to WPQT only.B – Page 163 — The specimens indicated in the root area are only applicable when t > 25 mm) — The "FL" specimen shall sample 50% WM and 50% HAZ — The "FL+5 mm" samples are applicable to WPQT only (not at pipe mill).

p p Figure 13 Tensile specimen for determination of stress/strain curves of weld metals in the weld transverse direction CENTRE OF CLAD Strain gauges Strain gauges p = 1. b) HFW pipe.5 Figure 11 Hardness locations clad materials a) b) Figure 14 Instrumentation of pipe section of samples for pre-straining of materials DET NORSKE VERITAS . and c) fusion welded joints. October 2010 Page 164 – App.B P B Gripped area W 'Day-light' between grips. H H = 10W a Gripped area P Figure 12 The clamped SENT (Single Edge Notched Tension) specimen Figure 10 Hardness locations in a) seamless pipes.5 mm ± 0.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.

7 and Sec. EBW(Process ISO 4063-51) Electro slag welding Plasma transferred arc welding. Welding where the welding parameters and torch guidance are fully controlled mechanically or electronically and where manual adjustment of welding variables during welding is not possible and where the task of the welding operator is limited to preset. Application A 100 General 101 This appendix applies to all fabrication involving shop. other stainless steels and nickel based alloys — clad/lined steel. Welder who holds and manipulates the electrode holder. welding gun. The name and unique version number of control software and the executable programme in use shall be clearly observable. The equipment shall be calibrated and maintained in good working condition. martensitic stainless steels (13Cr). 106 Welding return cables shall have sufficient cross section area to prevent concentration of current and shall be securely attached to prevent arc burns. 102 Welding equipment shall be of a capacity and type suitable for the work. GMAW (Process ISO 4063-135) — Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding.7. G-FCAW (Process ISO 4063-136) — Flux Cored Arc Welding with inert gas shield. Welding where the welding parameters and torch guidance are controlled by the welder. or where the system will be used under new conditions. Welding Equipment. welding gun. 203 Mechanised and automatic welding systems where previous experience is limited.8. Welding where the welding parameters and torch guidance are fully controlled mechanically or electronically but where minor manual adjustments can be performed during welding to maintain the required welding conditions. GMAW (Process ISO 4063-131) — Gas Metal Arc Welding with active gas shield. Tools and Personnel B 100 Welding equipment and tools 101 Inspection of the workshop. G-FCAW (Process ISO 4063-137) — Gas Metal Arc Welding with inert gas shield. torch or blowpipe by hand. Guidance note: GMAW and FCAW are regarded as methods with high potential for non-fusing type defects. SMAW (Process ISO 4063111) — Flux Cored Arc Welding with active gas shield. Welder: Manual welder: Welding operator: Manual welding: Partlymechanised welding: Mechanised welding: The base materials covered by this appendix are: — C-Mn and low alloy steels — corrosion resistant alloys (CRA) including ferritic austenitic (duplex) steel. 105 Calibration status and the validity of welding. austenitic stainless steels. monitoring and inspection equipment shall be summarised giving reference to the type of equipment.g. The extent and the contents of a pre-qualification programme for such mechanised welding systems shall be agreed before start up. 202 The following processes may be used for specific applications subject to agreement: — — — — Laser beam welding. DET NORSKE VERITAS . e. calibration certificate and expiry date. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Automatic welding: A 400 Quality assurance 401 Requirements for quality assurance are given in Sec. B. start and stop the welding operation. GTAW (Process ISO 4063-141) — Submerged Arc Welding. PAW (Process ISO 4063-15) may be used for specific applications.or field welding including post weld heat treatment. 104 All welding equipment shall have a unique marking for identification. but where the equipment incorporates wire feeding. LBW (Process ISO 4063-52) Electron beam welding. Welder who operates welding equipment with partly mechanised relative movement between the electrode holder. PTA. 103 The control software for mechanised and automatic welding systems shall be documented. on displays and/or printouts. site. This shall include verification of calibration and testing of all tools and welding equipment used during qualification/production welding. The Contractor shall prove and document that the welding systems are reliable and that the process can be continuously monitored and controlled. Welding where the welding parameters and torch guidance are controlled by the welder. Welding of longitudinal welds in pipe mills is covered in Sec.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. October 2010 App. 102 A 300 301 Definitions The following definitions are used in this appendix: Person who performs the welding. shall be subject to a more extensive prequalification programme or documentation before they may be used. torch or blowpipe and the work piece. site or vessel prior to start of welding shall be required.2 B500. SAW (Process ISO 4063-12) — Plasma arc welding.C – Page 165 APPENDIX C WELDING A. A 200 Welding processes 201 Welding may be performed with the following processes unless otherwise specified: — Shielded Metal Arc Welding. The base material requirements are specified in Sec.

If used the delay between completion DET NORSKE VERITAS . EN 287-1 or other relevant and recognised standards. Welding operators and welders 203 Through training and practise prior to qualification testing. 207 The qualification test shall be carried out with the same or equivalent equipment to be used during production welding. 212 If it is determined that the failure of a test is due to welder’s lack of skill. Qualification testing may be required. October 2010 Page 166 – App. Welding Consumables C 100 General 101 Welding consumables shall be suitable for their intended application. and vessel. a.2 is sufficient for SAW flux. i. material grades and welding processes. the welding personnel shall be informed about particular project requirements for which their welding performance will be especially important. Repair welders may be qualified for partial thickness repair on a representative test configuration provided only such weld repairs are made. A qual- ification can be cancelled if the welder/welding operator show inadequate skill. 103 Welding consumables and welding processes shall give a diffusible hydrogen content of maximum 5 ml/100g weld metal unless other requirements are given for specific applications in this Appendix. Period of validity 213 The period of validity of a welder qualification shall be in accordance with the standard used for qualification. 209 When using processes which have high potential for non-fusing type defects. Hydrogen testing shall be performed in accordance with ISO 3690. yard. and should be at the actual premises. fillers or cap by agreement. The welding co-ordinator shall have comprehensive technical knowledge according to ISO 14731. Welders may be qualified for part of the weld. letter or symbol to identify the work of that welder. letter or symbol. Welding co-ordinator 202 The organisation responsible for welding shall nominate at least one authorised welding co-ordinator in accordance with ISO 14731 to be present at the location where welding is performed. giving a weld with the required properties and corrosion resistance in the finally installed condition.2. 206 Welders shall be qualified for single side butt welding of pipes in the required principal position. 107 All welding consumables shall be individually marked and supplied with an inspection certificate type 3. 217 The Welding Coordinator shall maintain a list of welders ID stating the qualification range for each welder Thermal cutters and air-arc gougers 218 Personnel to perform air-arc gouging shall be trained and experienced with the actual equipment. Use of other premises shall be specially agreed. 104 For the FCAW welding processes it shall be documented that the hydrogen content of the deposited weld metal will be below 5 ml diffusible hydrogen per 100 g weld metal under conditions that realistically can be expected for production welding. 210 A welder or welding operator who has produced a complete and acceptable welding procedure qualification is thereby qualified. knowledge and performance. 204 Welding operators performing automatic welding shall be qualified according to EN 1418 or ISO14732. C. Cellulose coated electrodes 108 Cellulose coated electrodes may be used only subject to agreement for welding of pipeline girth welds in C-Mn linepipe with SMYS ≤ 450 MPa. subsection B. 205 Welders performing manual. Test requirements and acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with Appendix D. handling and storage. Operators for pin brazing and aluminothermic welding 219 Operators that have performed a qualified procedure test are thereby qualified 220 Other operators shall each complete three test pieces made in accordance with the procedure specification prior to carrying out operation work.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. B 300 Qualification and testing of welding personnel for hyperbaric dry welding 301 Requirements for qualification and testing of welding personnel for hyperbaric dry welding are given in subsection I. 100% radiographic or ultrasonic testing. 216 Qualified welders shall be issued with and be carrying an ID card displaying the identifying number. Retesting 211 A welder may produce additional test pieces if it is demonstrated that the failure of a test piece is due to metallurgical or other causes outside the control of the welder/ welding operator. Each test piece shall pass the test for electrical resistance and mechanical strength according to Table C-6. Identification of welders 215 Each qualified welder shall be assigned an identifying number. paragraph 6.e. Certificate type 2. retesting shall only be performed after the welder has received further training. 102 Welding consumables for arc welding shall be classified according to recognised classification schemes.1 according to EN 10204 or equivalent. root. for the respective positions.99% argon shall be considered. 208 Qualification NDT shall be 100% visual examination. 105 Welding consumables for processes other than manual or mechanised arc welding may require special consideration with respect to certification. 214 When a qualification testing of recent date is transferred to a new project. the welding personnel shall have a understanding of (see Annex D of ISO 9606-1): — — — — fundamental welding techniques welding procedure specifications relevant methods for non-destructive testing acceptance criteria. The qualification level shall reflect the tasks and responsibilities of each person in order to obtain the specified quality level. and 100% magnetic particle or liquid penetrant testing. partly-mechanised welding and mechanised welding shall be qualified for single side butt welds of pipes or plates in the required principal position in accordance with ISO 9606-1. including G-FCAW (Process ISO 4063-137) bend testing shall be performed with the number of bend tests according to ISO 9606-1. 106 Depletion of alloying elements during welding performed with shielding gases other than 99.C B 200 Personnel 201 All personnel involved in welding related tasks shall have adequate qualifications and understanding of welding technology. work shop. These requirements are also applicable for welders performing temporary welds and tack welds.

the yield stress (Rt0.5) of the deposited weld metal shall at least be 80 MPa above SMYS of the base material. when applicable.nom ≥ 0. The Ni-content in welding consumables for girth welds in CMn steel may be increased up to 2% Ni. which shall state the minimum and maximum levels of C. 304 Whenever an ECA is performed. October 2010 App. 302 For girth welds exposed to strain εl. If the properties of the weld metal do not meet these requirements. The data sheet shall. as a minimum. 306 For girth welds. any batch intended for use in production welding that was not qualified during welding procedure qualification. the yield stress (Rt0. ductility and toughness meeting the requirements of the base material.4%. The analysis shall include all elements specified in the relevant classification standard and the relevant data sheet. shall be qualified according to C400. Guidance note: The Contractor responsible for the welding and the welding consumable manufacturer should agree on the content and the specified limits in the data sheets. deposited according to EN 26847 (ISO 6847). ECA shall be conducted for all girth welds exposed to a strain εl. If two grades are joined. — 1 macro section taken adjacent to the all-weld metal tensile test. including possible wire/flux combinations.5) of the weld metal should be minimum 80 MPa above SMYS of the base material. SAW fluxes do not require individual testing but SAW wires shall be tested in combination with a selected. Mechanical testing 405 The testing shall be performed on samples taken from girth welds welded according to the welding procedure to be used in production. which shall state: — guaranteed maximum value for diffusible hydrogen in the deposited weld metal — the guaranteed minimum and maximum levels of C.5) of the weld metal requires special attention with regard to straining and ageing and. the chemical analysis shall represent the product itself. 404 Each individual product (brand name and dimensions) shall be tested once per batch/lot. Data Sheet 110 Each batch of welding consumables shall be delivered in accordance with a Manufacturer’s data sheet. 202 For solid wire and metal powders. 305 Whenever an ECA is performed and for steels with SMYS ≥ 450 MPa. Further details regarding to the requirements for weld metal tensile properties are given in Sec. DET NORSKE VERITAS . have ductility and toughness meeting the requirements of the base material and the actual yield stress (Rt0. 303 For girth welds exposed to strain εl. the chemical composition of the deposited weld metal shall comply with ISO 15156.4% (see Appendix A). and include: — 1 transverse all weld metal tensile test. Pipeline components 308 For welds in pipeline components the weld metal shall. except for solid wire originating from the same heat. when relevant. also to the properties at elevated temperatures. If two grades are joined. 403 The batch testing shall be performed for all welding consumables. 206 The chemical composition of the weld overlay materials shall comply with the material requirements specified for the applicable type of overlay material or with a project specification. Mn. the requirement applies to the SMYS of the lower strength base material. 307 Batch testing is not required for steels with SMYS < 450 MPa and when ECA is not performed if the tensile or impact properties stated on the Inspection Certificates are not less than 90% of the batch used for welding procedure qualification. P. the tensile properties of the weld metal shall be at least be equal to the properties used as input to the ECA. manufactured in one continuous run from batch/lot controlled raw materials.6 B700. and for selection of welding consumable for the root pass in systems for seawater service. 402 Batch testing shall be conducted to verify that consumables that were not tested during qualification of the welding procedure will give a deposited weld metal nominally equivalent to those batches used for welding procedure qualification. S. C 300 Mechanical properties Pipeline girth welds 301 Weld metal in pipeline girth welds shall. the requirement applies to the SMYS of the lower strength base material.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 109 Use of cellulose coated electrodes is not permitted for: — repair welding of pipeline girth welds — welding of other than pipeline girth welds in C-Mn linepipe with SMYS ≤ 450 MPa.C – Page 167 of the root pass and the deposition of the hot pass is simulated during welding procedure qualification according to E108. Test temperature shall be the same as for qualification of the relevant welding procedure. provided that other requirements in ISO 15156 are fulfilled. Three samples shall be removed from the 12 and 6 o'clock position and from the 3 or 9 o'clock position. C 400 Batch testing of welding consumables for pipeline girth welds 401 A consumable batch is defined as the volume of product identified by the supplier under one unique batch/lot number. also give recommendations for handling/recycling of the welding consumables in order to meet the guaranteed maximum value for diffusible hydrogen in the deposited weld metal.nom< 0. The testing of each sample shall be performed as required in Appendix B. as a minimum have strength. and that the welding procedure has been tested for resistance to SSC.nom≥ 0. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- C 200 Chemical composition 201 All welding consumables shall be delivered in accordance with Manufacturer's data sheets. 205 The selection of welding consumables shall be given special attention in order to avoid any types of preferential weld corrosion. micro-alloying elements and any other intentionally added elements. see Sec. it shall be validated that the assumptions made during design and/or the ECA have not been jeopardised.6 B700.4%. 203 For coated electrodes and cored wires. all batches of consumables used in production including possible wire / flux combinations should be qualified by testing during welding procedure qualification. alloying elements and any other intentionally added elements — guaranteed mechanical properties (tensile and impact) — determined under defined reference conditions. This applies particularly to material with enhanced corrosion properties. Si. nominal batch of flux of the same classification as used for the welding of the girth welds. The analysis shall include all elements specified in the relevant classification standard and the relevant data sheet 204 When sour service is specified.5 mm apart — 1 set of Charpy V-notch test at weld centre line in the same locations as tested during WPQT. with respect to chemistry and mechanical properties. the analysis shall represent the weld metal. The macro section shall be hardness tested (HV10) vertically through the weld centre line with indentations spaced 1. where one diameter may represent all.

Pipeline girth welds 203 Previously qualified welding procedures shall not be used for: — welding of girth welds when the SMYS of C-Mn linepipe is > 450 MPa — welding of girth welds in clad or lined. holding boxes and storage containers shall be in accordance with the flux manufacturer’s recommendations — whenever recycling of flux is applied. be in accordance with the Manufacturer's recommendations. see C201. fracture toughness testing shall be performed with the same type of specimens and test conditions as for qualification of the relevant welding procedure. For coated electrodes and cored wires. Alternatively a limited confirmation welding may be performed to demonstrate that the WPS is workable and producing welds of acceptable quality. The procedure shall be reviewed and agreed prior to start of the production. handled and re-baked in accordance with the Manufacturer’s recommendation. 102 All welding shall be based on welding consumables.g. Welding Procedures D 100 General 101 Detailed Welding Procedure Specifications shall be prepared for all welding covered by this Appendix. the restrictions below shall not apply. 503 The gas supply/distribution system shall be designed and maintained such that the purity and dewpoint is maintained up to the point of use.C 406 If an ECA in not performed. backing and plasma gases shall be in compliance with EN 439. 407 If an ECA is used as basis for establishing acceptance criteria for pipeline girth welds (see Appendix A). 505 If gas mixing unit systems are used. 602 The Manufacturer's recommendations may be adapted for conditions at the location of welding provided the following requirements are met: The moisture proof integrity of bags shall be verified upon delivery and when retrieving bags for use. — solid and flux cored wire shall be treated with care in order to avoid contamination. Re-baking more than once should not be permitted — flux shall be delivered in moisture proof containers/bags. 207 For a WPQR where the actual qualification is more than 5 years old. D. the analysis shall represent the weld metal. A WPS for new production may otherwise be based on a previously qualified WPQR. The flux shall only be taken from undamaged containers/bags directly into a hopper or storage container — the temperature ranges for heated hoppers. backing and plasma gases shall be stored in the containers in which they are supplied. recycling and re-baking of welding consumables to ensure that the hydrogen diffusible content of weld metal is maintained at less than 5 ml per 100 g weld metal shall be prepared. 204 Except as limited by 203 above. 409 The chemical analysis shall be in accordance with the composition ranges stated in the Manufacturer's data sheets. C 600 Handling and storage of welding consumables 601 A detailed procedure for storage. A WPS for the new production shall be specified within the essential variables of this Appendix. 205 For WPQRs older than 5 years the validity shall be documented through production tests. and shall be stored under controlled dry conditions. Ranges of temperature and relative humidity for storage shall be stated — if vacuum packed low hydrogen SMAW welding consumables are not used. designation. the recycling process shall ensure a near constant ratio of new/recycled flux and the ratio of new/recycled flux shall be suitable to prevent any detrimental degradation of the flux operating characteristics. the delivered gas composition shall be verified and regularly checked. 502 Gases shall be delivered with a certificate stating the classification. see 201 — the N content. a WPS for new production may be based on a previously qualified WPQR. DET NORSKE VERITAS . welding processes and welding techniques proven to be suitable for the type of material and type of fabrication in question. 504 Shielding. as a minimum. baked. 202 For welding procedures developed qualified and kept on file for contingency situations such as hyperbaric welding procedures intended for pipeline repair and other contingency situations. The type and extent of testing and test results for the previously qualified WPQR shall meet the requirements of this Appendix. October 2010 Page 168 – App. The procedure shall. C 500 Shielding. handling. low hydrogen SMAW consumables shall be stored. whenever: — average impact test values are not within 80% of the average value obtained during WPQT — the transverse all weld metal yield stress is not within 90% of the value obtained during WPQT or the transverse all weld metal yield stress results in undermatching weld metal strength — the relevant mechanical properties of the weld metal does not meet the properties used as input in the ECA. the mechanical properties shall meet the specified minimum requirements. Gases shall not be intermixed in their containers. Pipeline components 206 Previously qualified welding procedures shall not be used for welding of steels with SMYS ≥ 450 MPa. be specified within the essential variables of this Appendix. excessive build-up of fines and change of grain size balance. deposited according to EN 26847 (ISO 6847). it shall be documented through production tests that a WPS based on the qualifying WPQR have been capable of producing welds of acceptable quality over a period of time. e. D 200 Previously qualified welding procedures General 201 A qualified welding procedure of a particular manufacturer is valid for welding only in workshops or sites under the operational technical and quality control of that manufacturer. purity and dewpoint of the delivered gas. The analysis shall include: — all elements specified in the relevant classification standard and the relevant data sheet. moisture pick-up. Chemical analysis 408 For solid wire and metal powders the analysis shall represent the product itself. based the previously qualified WPQR. The type and extent of testing and test results for the previously qualified WPQR shall meet the requirements of this Appendix and a WPS for the new production shall. moisture pick-up and rusting.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. backing and plasma gases 501 The classification and designation and purity of shielding. duplex stainless steel or 13Cr martensitic stainless steel linepipe.

One or more WPSs may be prepared based on the data of one or more WPQRs provided the essential variables are kept within the acceptable limits and other requirements of this Appendix are met. as relevant for the welding to be performed. including any tack welds. Gas flow rate Electrical characteristics and Polarity. All essential variables used during qualification welding that are relevant for the final application of the WPQR shall be documented and the welding parameters recorded in relevant positions for each pass. DC or pulsed current). Additional requirements to pWPS for mechanised welding of pipeline girth welds 702 For mechanised welding of pipeline girth welds the following additional information shall be included in the pWPS: — control software (programme and/or software version) — list of pre-set welding parameters that can not be adjusted by the welder — list of welding parameters that can be adjusted by the welder. October 2010 App. All limits and ranges for the applicable essential variables for the welding to be performed shall be stated in the WPS. For steels with SMYS > 450 MPa. partly-mechanised. pulsating arc or short circuiting arc Welding techniques Welding position according to ISO 6947. diameters. Pulse welding details (machine settings and/or propulsing data gramme selection) Arc Characteristics Spray arc. Table C-1 Contents of pWPS Manufacturer Identification of manufacturer pWPS Identification of the pWPS Welding process Welding process and for multiple processes. Sequence of deposition of different consumables. Welding direction. 703 A pWPS for mechanised GMAW welding shall in addition include: — wire feed — oscillation width and frequency — side wall dwell time. The pWPS shall contain the relevant information required for making a weld for the intended application when using the applicable welding processes. time and temperature for post heating for hydrogen release Method of post weld heat treatment (holding time and heating and cooling rates) Specific for the SMAW Run-out length of electrode or travel speed welding process DET NORSKE VERITAS .Material thickness of test piece. Type of current (AC. UNS and PRE numbers. Stage for removal of line-up clamp Welding consumables Electrode or filler metal diameter or cross section area. dimensions and tolerances of angles. parameters and any heat treatment used during qualification welding and the subsequent non-destructive. including tack welds. root gap and when applicable. destructive and corrosion test results. For double sided welding: Sequence of sides welded first and last and number of passes welded from each side. D 400 Welding procedure qualification record 401 The Welding Procedure Qualification Record (WPQR) shall be a record of the materials. root face. classification and purity according to EN 439. Backing and backing material. Interpass temperature Maximum and minimum interpass temperature Heat input Heat input range for each pass Post weld heat treatment Method. Type.C – Page 169 D 300 Preliminary welding procedure specification 301 A preliminary Welding Procedure Specification (pWPS) shall be prepared for each new welding procedure qualification. Number of wires Base materials Material grade(s). consumables. Accelerated weld cooling (method and medium). backing and Designation. D 500 Welding procedure specification 501 A Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) is a specification based on one or more accepted WPQRs. 704 A pWPS for mechanised GTAW/PAW welding shall in addition include: — — — — — programmed arc voltage wire feed including pulsing pattern and timing diagram oscillation width and frequency side wall dwell time shielding gas timing diagrams and pulse pattern. Stringer/weave beads. classification and trade name. the order of processes used Manual. Number of passes to be completed before cooling to below preheats temperature. Minimum initial temperature when preheat is not used. For cellulose coated electrodes: Time lapse between completion of root pass and start of hot pass and number of welders on each side. consumables or other variables. Nominal ID of pipe eter Groove configuration Groove design/configuration. D 600 Welding procedure specification for repair welding 601 Repair welding procedure specifications shall be prepared. A pWPS for production welding shall include the information given in Table C-1 and 702 through 705. based on WPQRs for the type of weld repair to be applied. Shielding. Alignment and tack welding Tack welding (removal of tack welds or integration of tack welds in the weld) Type of line-up clamp. 502 The WPS shall be submitted together with the referenced supporting WPQR(s) for review and acceptance prior to start of production. D 700 Contents of pWPS 701 The pWPS shall contain the relevant information required for the applicable welding processes. globular arc. mechanised and automatic welding Welding equipment Type and model of welding equipment. Material thickness and diam. (“hot-key limits”) — minimum number of welders for each pass. chemical composition and manufacturing process. Steel supplier and For CRAs.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Nominal composition of other gases and gas mixplasma gases tures. Preheating Method of preheat and minimum preheat temperature. supply condition. A WPS may include one or a combination of welding processes.

the maximum difference in heat input shall not exceed 30%.C Table C-1 Contents of pWPS (Continued) Specific for the SAW weld. Subsection B to confirm complete removal of defect before welding as well as visual examination and NDT of the final repaired weld. A WPQR qualified for a dissimilar material joint will also qualify each material welded to itself. Nozzle diameter. 802 For special welding processes as stated in A202 and welding systems using these processes other essential parameters and acceptable variations need to be applied and shall be subject to agreement.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. preparation and design of the repair weld excavation — minimum repair depth and length — visual examination and NDT to be performed of the excavated area according to Appendix D. All required mechanical testing shall be performed on test pieces welded with both high and low heat input.75 to 1. Hot or cold wire. 803 The limits and ranges for essential variables for a WPS shall be based on the on documented records in one or more WPQRs. Diameter and codification of tungsten electrode (EN welding process 26848). The allowable variation in heat input shall be based on the average of the heat inputs used by the welders. Multiple test pieces 806 A number of test pieces may be required for qualifying a pWPS where the size of the test piece will not allow extraction of test specimens in the correct locations according to Figure 2. Nozzle diameter. provided the applicable essential variables are complied with. Contact tip . Contact tip .Mode of metal transfer (short circuiting. 809 The maximum interpass temperature of any pass to be stated in the WPS shall not be higher than that of the test piece with the recorded lowest interpass temperature +25oC or the recorded highest interpass temperature. the maximum difference in heat input between the welders shall not exceed 15%. mechanised and automatic welding a b c a Any change in make. Flux. — In cases when through thickness or partial thickness repeated repairs are permitted or agreed (see Table C-7) the location of additional Charpy V-notch tests. 804 The essential variables given in Table C-2 shall.work piece distance.work piece distance. 807 When it is intended to qualify a pWPS with a high and low heat input in order to allow welding within this heat input range. Dissimilar material joint 805 If two different materials are used in one test piece. mechanised and automatic welding Any change in type for manual welding Change from single wire to multiple wire system and vice versa A change from a lower to a higher strength grade but not vice versa DET NORSKE VERITAS . October 2010 Page 170 – App. Additional filler metal. Type of torch. This will qualify welding with a heat input range between the low and high heat input values. spray or globular transfer) ing process Specific for the GMAW Shielding and backing gas flow rate. be supplemented with the requirements in 805 through 814 below. mechanised or automatic welding 3 Welding equipment Welding Welding equipment Number of wires 4 Base materials Material grade a b c Any change Any change when multiple processes are used Any change between manual. provided: — hardness test specimens are taken from the test piece welded with the lowest heat input — impact test specimens are taken from the test piece welded with the highest heat input. D 800 Essential variables for welding procedures 801 A qualified welding procedure remains valid as long as the essential variables are kept within the limits specified in Table C-2. in addition to the tests required by Table C-4. Contact tip . partly-mechanised. the essential variables shall apply to each of the materials joined. 808 The minimum preheat or work piece temperature to be stated in the WPS shall not be below that of the test piece with the recorded highest preheat.Number and configuration of wire electrodes. partly-mechanised.Shielding. whichever is the lower. manufacturer and trade name. Table C-2 Essential variables for welding of pipeline girth welds Variable Changes requiring re-qualification 1 Manufacturer Manufacturer a Any change in responsibility for operational. type and model for partly-mechanised. ing process Hot or cold wire Additional requirements to pWPS for repair welding 705 A pWPS for repair welding shall in addition to the requirements applicable for a pWPS for production welding include the following information: — type of repair — method of removal of the defect. In such cases the maximum variation in heat input during welding of the different test pieces shall be within 25% of the heat input of the test piece welded with the lowest heat input. the qualified thickness for each deposited filler metal shall be between 0. shall be shown on sketches in the pWPS. Arc voltage range. Multiple filler metals 810 When multiple filler metals are used in a test joint. technical and quality control 2 Welding process The process(es) used The order of processes used Manual. designation. Number of welders 811 If welders have been working on opposite sides of a test piece. when applicable. Specific for the GTAW Shielding and backing gas flow rate.work piece distance. Specific for the PAW weld. backing and plasma gas flow rate.5 times the deposited thickness of that filler material. Arc voltage welding process range. Additional ing process filler metal. Specific for the FCAW weld.

Q/T or normalised) Steel supplier c For SMYS ≥ 450 MPa. Time lapse between completion h For cellulose coated electrodes: Any increase above maximum time qualified of root pass and start of hot pass Weld completion i Any reduction in the number of passes completed before cooling to below preheat temperature.5 t — t > 25 mm: A change outside 0. a change in base material origin (steel mill) (pipeline girth welds only) Chemical composition d An increase in Pcm of more than 0. Number of welders g Any decrease in number of welders for welding of root and hot pass for cellulose coated electrodes.75 t to 1. the spacing of sections.5 ID to 2 ID Any change in groove dimensions outside the tolerances specified in the agreed WPS Addition or deletion of backing or change of backing material Any change in removal of tack welds or integration of tack welds in the weld. purity and dew point. number of sections and percentage of circumference welded for external line-up clamp Any change in number of completed passes and length of passes for internal line-up clamp Any increase for clad and lined pipe Any change of diameter or cross section area Any change of type classification and brand (brand not applicable for bare wire) Any use of a non tested welding consumables batch when batch testing is required Any use of a welding consumables batch with a reduction in tensile or impact properties of more than –10% from the batch used for WPQR when batch testing is not required Any change of type. DC or pulsed current b Any change in type of current and a change from normal to pulsed current and vice versa. Pulse frequency range in pulsed c Any change in: Pulse frequency for background and peak current exceeding ± 10% and pulse duration manual welding range exceeding ± 10%.030 and C content of more than 0.C – Page 171 Table C-2 Essential variables for welding of pipeline girth welds (Continued) Variable Changes requiring re-qualification Supply condition b A change in the supply condition (TMCP.75 t to 1.25 t For sour service: Nominal ID of pipe 6 Groove configuration Groove design/configuration.) — t < 25 mm: A change outside 0.75 t to 1.02% for C-Mn and low alloy steel Manufacturing process e A change in manufacturing process (rolled. CE of more than 0.020. globular arc or pulsating arc to short circuiting arc and vice versa 12 Welding techniques Angle of pipe axis to the a A change of more than ± 15°from the position welded. Backing and backing material. cast) UNS numbers.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 7 Alignment and tack welding Tack welding Line-up clamp Removal of line-up clamp b a b a b c d e a b c d — A change outside the thickness interval 0. The L045 position qualifies for all positions horizontal provided all other essential variables are fulfilled Welding direction b A change from upwards to downwards welding and vice versa Stringer/weave c A change from stringer to weave of more than 3X electrode/wire diameter or vice versa Sequence of deposition of differ.d Any change in the sequence ent consumables Sequence of sides welded first e Any change in the sequence and last (double sided welds) Passes welded from each side f Change from single to multi pass welding and vice versa. Any reduction in length of each section of root pass welded. seamless. Accelerated weld cooling j Any change in method and medium and any increase in maximum temperature of the weld at start of cooling. 137 and 141: Any change in flow rate beyond ± 10% 10 Electrical characteristics and pulsing data Polarity a Any change in polarity AC. Oxygen content of backing gas c Any increase Shielding gas flow rate d For processes 131. backing and plasma gases Gases according to EN 439 a Any change in designation. Omission of a line-up clamp and a change between external and internal line-up clamp.25 t A change of pipe ID outside the range 0. October 2010 App. classification and brand Any increase in the ratio of recycled to new flux Internal misalignment 8 Welding consumables Electrode or filler metal e f 9 Shielding. classification and purity according to EN 439 Other gases and gas mixtures b Any change in nominal composition. forged. 11 Arc Characteristics Mode of metal transfer a A change from spray arc. f A change in the UNS number for CRAs 5 Material thickness and diameter Material thickness (t = nominal a For non sour service: thickness of test joint. 135 136. Flux DET NORSKE VERITAS .

15 Heat input Heat input range for each pass a For C-Mn and low alloy steels with SMYS ≤ 450 MPa in non sour service: Any change exceeding ± 15% b For C-Mn and low alloy steels with SMYS > 450 MPa: Any change exceeding ± 10% c For CRAs: Any change exceeding ± 10% 16 Post weld heat treatment Post heating. c Any change beyond ± 10% 18 Specific for the FCAW welding process Mode of metal transfer a A change from short circuiting transfer to spray or globular transfer. Any change in holding temperature exceeding ± 20°C.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Qualification of Welding Procedures E 100 General 101 Qualification welding shall be performed based upon the accepted pWPS. — any change of control software — any change of pre-set parameters (parameters that can not be adjusted by the welder) for automatic welding — any change in programmed parameters and their variation. Any increase for CRAs. Arc voltage range. Any change in holding time and any change in heating and cooling rates outside ± 5% 17 Specific for the SAW welding process Wire electrode configuration. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Post weld heat treatment b Addition or deletion of post weld heat treatment. Allowance for re-testing should be considered when deciding the number of test joints to be welded. is not used 14 Interpass temperature Maximum and minimum intera Any increase above 25°C for C-Mn and low alloy steel. or vessel where the production welding will be performed. Essential variables for repair welding 813 For repair welding the following essential variables apply: E. and under conditions that are representative of the actual working environment for the work shop. 103 The test joints for qualification welding shall be of sufficient size to give realistic restraint during welding. 104 The base material selected for the qualification testing should be representative of the upper range of the specified chemical composition for C-Mn and low alloy steels. site.C Table C-2 Essential variables for welding of pipeline girth welds (Continued) Variable Changes requiring re-qualification 13 Preheating Preheat temperature a Any reduction. a Each variant of process 12 (121 to125) shall be qualified separately Flux b Any change of type. Test joints 102 The number of test joints shall be sufficient to obtain the required number of specimens from the required locations given in Figure 1 and Figure 2. GTAW and PAW. Any reduction below pass temperature the preheat temperature. using the type of welding equipment to be used during production welding. Qualification with spray or globular transfer qualifies both spray or globular transfer 19 Specific for the GMAW welding process Arc voltage range a Any change beyond ± 10% 20 Specific for the GTAW welding process Diameter and codification of a Any change tungsten electrode (EN 26848) Hot or cold wire. — any change in limits for parameters that can be adjusted by the welder. except that necessary variation in oscillation width for welding of thinner/ heavier wall than used during qualification shall be allowed for mechanised GMAW. 105 The material thickness shall be the same for both pipes/ — the essential variables given in Table C-2 — a change from internal to external repairs and vice versa for pipeline girth welds — a change from multi pass to single pass repairs and vice versa — a change from cold to thermal method for removal of the defect but not vice versa — any increase in the depth of excavation for partial thickness repairs. October 2010 Page 172 – App. (“hot-key limits”). hydrogen release a Any reduction in the time and temperature and deletion but not addition of post heating. items 10 through 15 may be agreed. and of the nominal range of the specified chemical composition for corrosion resistant alloys. classification and brand. b A change from hot to cold wire and vice versa 21 Specific for the PAW welding process Hot or cold wire a A change from hot to cold wire and vice versa Additional essential variables for mechanised and automatic welding of pipeline girth welds 812 For mechanised and automatic welding of pipeline girth welds the following additional essential variables apply: Post weld heat treatment 814 If CRA or clad welds are subject to solution annealing heat treatment after welding a slight variation in welding parameters outside those in Table C-2. Initial temperature when preheat b Any reduction.

107 The following requirements apply: — the welding qualification test shall be representative for the production welding with respect to welding positions. 202 Preheat for repair welding shall normally be minimum 50°C above minimum specified preheat for production welding. in which case repair welding is qualified for repair welding in these locations only. E 300 Qualification of longitudinal and girth butt welds welding procedures 301 Qualification of welding procedures for pipeline system girth welds and welds in pipeline components may be performed by any of the arc welding processes specified in A200. Qualification welding 208 The qualification test shall be made in a manner realistically simulating the repair situation to be qualified. the spacing of the sections. The cooling method and the weld temperature at the start of the cooling shall be recorded. for AUT will be performed in production. the following additional requirements shall apply: — preheat shall be minimum 100°C — delay between completion of the root pass and the start of depositing the hot pass shall be minimum 6 minutes — immediately upon completion of welding during welding procedure qualification the test pieces shall be water quenched as soon as the temperature of the test piece is below 300°C — non destructive testing of the test piece shall be by Automated Ultrasonic Testing (AUT) or Radiographic testing and Manual Ultrasonic Testing. 302 The WPS shall be qualified prior to start of any production welding. including shielding. etc. 209 Qualification welding shall be performed in accordance with E101 through E108. heat conduction. non-destructive testing and mechanical testing shall be traceable to each test piece. Repeated repairs 206 Repeated weld repairs shall be qualified separately. with one sector centred at the 12 o’clock position. etc. e. — if multiple welding arcs are combined in a single welding head the parameters for each welding arc shall be recorded — the direction of plate rolling (when relevant) and the 12 o’clock position (for fixed pipe positions) shall be marked on the test piece — when more than one welding process or filler metal is used to weld a test piece. the number of sections welded and the percentage of welded sections of the circumference shall be recorded — cooling of the test piece to below preheat temperature shall be simulated during qualification welding for at least one test piece. application of preheat. during and after welding shall be recorded — each test piece shall be uniquely identified by hard stamping or indelible marking adjacent to the weld and the records made during test welding. For repeated in-process root repair. with the exception of heating required to obtain and maintain the minimum preheat temperature and post heating stated in the pWPS — backing gas oxygen content and the duration of backing gas application before. Pipeline girth welds — the welding qualification test shall be representative for the production welding with respect to angle of pipe axis. 211 For roll welding the length of the repair weld may be centred at the 12 o’clock location for external repairs and at the 6 o’clock location for internal repairs. October 2010 App. Clamps shall normally not be released until the completed sections of the root pass covers a minimum of 50% of the circumference with even spacing. 207 In case of repeated repairs.C – Page 173 components/plates to be welded. The welding parameters shall be recorded for each pass in each sector and for each welding arc. time between each layer. 203 When a heat treated pipe or component is repaired by welding. Qualification welding 106 Certificates for materials and consumables. it is recommended that one of the pipes used for the welding procedure qualification test be fixed with the longitudinal weld in the 6 or 12 o'clock position — for welding of pipe with diameter ≥ 20” in fixed positions the weld circumference shall be divided in 90° sectors around the circumference. The records from qualification welding shall include all information needed to establish a WPS for the intended application within the essential variables and their allowable ranges. a new suitable heat treatment may be required to be included in the qualification of the weld repair procedure. heat conduction.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.g. backing and plasma gases. single pass cap repair and/or single pass root sealing repairs the repair weld shall be removed prior to re-repair. except to qualify joining of two base materials with unequal thickness and for fillet end Tjoint test pieces. — for girth welds in welded pipe in all positions. 205 The excavated groove shall be of sufficient length to obtain the required number of test specimens + 50 mm at each end. interpass temperature. 303 The type and number of destructive tests for welding DET NORSKE VERITAS . time between each layer. The number of passes completed before cooling to below preheat temperature shall be recorded — accelerated cooling of the weld shall be performed during qualification welding if accelerated weld cooling. depending on the effect of the weld repair on the properties and microstructure of the existing weld and base material. the parameters used and the approximate thickness of the weld metal deposited shall be recorded for each welding process and filler metal — if tack welds are to be fused into the final joint during production welding. The heat input for each sector may be recorded as the average value in the sector — for welding of pipe with diameter < 20” the heat input shall be recorded as the average value for each pass — the release of external line-up clamps shall be simulated during qualification welding. interpass temperature. they shall be included when welding the test piece — heating of test pieces in addition to that generated by the welding is not permitted. application of preheat. E 200 Repair welding procedures 201 Repair welding shall be qualified by a separate weld repair qualification test. the test piece shall contain a repair weld of a qualified repaired original weld. The length of each section. except 1G (PA) and 2G (PC). Cellulose covered electrodes 108 If the use of cellulose covered electrodes has been agreed. shall be verified. 210 For pipeline girth welds the repair qualification welding shall be performed in the overhead through vertical positions. 204 Qualification of repair welding procedures shall be made by excavating a repair groove in an original weld welded in accordance with a qualified welding procedure. and validity and traceability to the actual materials shall be established prior to start of qualification welding. if repeated weld repairs are permitted or agreed.

For welding processes GMAW and FCAW.Charpy V. The notch shall be located in the weld metal. the fusion line (FL) sampling 50% of HAZ. For nominal wall thickness above 50 mm in C-Mn and low alloy steels fracture toughness testing is required unless PWHT is performed. FL+2 mm and FL+5 mm in the root area.Macro and thickness (mm) weld Tensile seall-weld tensile 2) bend 10) bend 10) bend 10) notch sets hardness 11) 4. Each Charpy V-notch set consists of 3 specimens. see Appendix B. impact testing shall be carried out in the corresponding weld regions.14) 13. See Appendix A. Table C-3 Qualification of welding procedures for longitudinal and girth butt welds TEST JOINT MINIMUM NUMBER OF EACH SPECIFIED TEST Wall D Transverse TransverAll-weld Root Face Side.C procedure qualification are given in Table C-3. two additional sets of Charpy V-notch test specimens shall be sampled from the weld metal root and FL in the root area. DET NORSKE VERITAS . Subsection G. 308 The type and number of destructive tests for qualification or repair welding procedure are given in Table C-4. 307 The following types of repairs shall be qualified to the extent that such repairs are applicable and for pipe. the extent of testing shall be as tests required by Table C-4. then additional Charpy V-notch sets (in addition to the tests required by Table C-4) shall be located in the re-repair weld metal and in FL. side bend tests shall be performed instead of root and face bend tests. 304 For pipeline girth welds exposed to strain ≥ 0. see Table C-7. and a HAZ is introduced in the weld metal from the first repair. For double sided welds on C-Mn and low alloy steels. also if the type of repair is feasible for the size of pipe in question: — — — — — through thickness repair partial thickness repair in-process root repair single pass cap repair single pass root sealing repair. October 2010 Page 174 – App. see D705.4% it may be required to perform testing to determine the properties of weld metal in the strained and aged condition after deformation cycles and also at elevated temperature. When the wall thickness exceeds 25 mm for single sided welds. For girth welds in welded pipe. Fracture toughness testing is only required when a generic or full ECA is performed for pipeline girth butt welds. one macro and hardness shall include an intersection between a longitudinal/girth weld.5. FL+2 mm and FL+5 mm.6.7) (mm) Tensile 1) ≤ 25 > 25 Notes: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) ≤ 300 > 300 ≤ 300 > 300 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3) 4 3) 0 0 2 3) 4 3) 0 0 0 0 4 4 4 8) 4 8) 6 8. Extent of testing shall be in accordance with Appendix A. see Appendix B Figure 5.9) 2 2 2 2 Other tests12) 13) 13) 13) 13) Fracture toughness 13) 13) 13. single pass cap repair and/or single pass root sealing repair. Repeated repairs 309 If it has been agreed to permit through thickness or partial thickness repeated repairs (see Table C-7). Bend tests on clad/lined pipes shall be performed as side bend tests. 310 If it has been agreed to permit repeated in-process root repair. with methods and acceptance criteria as specified in subsection F below. All weld tensile tests are not required for OD ≤ 200 mm and not if transverse all-weld tests are performed.14) Transverse all weld tensile are required if an ECA is performed. FL+2 mm and FL+5 mm of the weld metal from the first repair and/or the base material as applicable and as shown in the accepted pWPS. chemical analysis and microstructure examination are specified in F. Impact testing is not required for t < 6 mm.9) 6 8. Qualification of repair welding procedures 305 Qualification of repair welding procedures for pipeline system girth welds and welds in pipeline components may be performed by any of the arc welding processes specified in A200. with methods and acceptance criteria as specified in subsection F below. four additional sets of Charpy V-notch test specimens shall be sampled from the weld metal. Requirements for corrosion tests. FL (sampling 50% of HAZ). 306 The WPS for repair welding shall be qualified prior to start of any production welding. If several welding processes or welding consumables are used. if the region tested cannot be considered representative for the complete weld. Figure 3 through Figure 5.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.

DET NORSKE VERITAS . chemical analysis and microstructure examination are specified in Subsection F. impact testing shall be carried out in the corresponding weld regions. the fusion line (FL) sampling 50% of HAZ.7. 5. 404 The dimensions of. 1 root and 1 face bend test for t < 25 mm For welding processes GMAW and FCAW. FL+2 mm and FL+5 mm of the base material. The minimum weld overlay thickness used for the production welding shall be used for the welding procedure qualification test. 408 The type and number of destructive tests for welding procedure qualification are given in Table C-5 with methods and acceptance criteria specified in F below.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Extent of testing shall be in accordance with Appendix A. side bend tests shall be performed instead of root and face bend tests. 8) Through thickness 1 1 1 1 3) 1 3) 2 4) 1 repair Partial thickness 1 1 1 1 3) 1 3) 2 4) 4) 1 repair In-process root 1 1 repair Single pass cap 1 1 repair Single pass root 1 1 sealing repair Notes: 1) 2) 3) 4) Other tests 9) 9) 9) 9) 9) Fracture toughness 10. October 2010 App. 9) Fracture toughness testing is only required when a generic or full ECA is performed for pipeline girth butt welds.Macro and weld Tensile all-weld Tensile 2) Bend Bend bend notch sets hardness 1) Tensile 4.11) Transverse all weld tensile are only required if an ECA is performed. 407 The WPS shall be qualified prior to start of any production welding. Charpy V-notch sets of 3 specimens shall be located according to Appendix B. 405 The test pieces used shall be relevant for the intended application of the weld overlay: — forging or casting for overlay welding of ring grooves — pipe with the overlay welding performed externally or internally. 7) If several welding processes or welding consumables are used. 406 If a buffer layer will be used in production welding. 8) Requirements for corrosion tests.11) 10. Figures 7 and 8. All weld tensile tests are not required for OD ≤ 200 mm and not if transverse all-weld tests are performed. for clad/lined pipes and for all pipes when t > 25 mm. 5) For partial penetration and through thickness repairs where a new HAZ is introduced in the original weld metal. or — plate or pipe with a prepared welding groove for qualification of buttering and when the weld overlay strength is utilised in the design. if the region tested cannot be considered representative for the complete weld. it shall also be used in welding the test piece. 402 The chemical composition of test pieces shall be representative for the production conditions. or the number of test pieces shall be sufficient to obtain all required tests. 10) For nominal wall thickness above 50 mm in C-Mn and low alloy steels fracture toughness testing is required unless PWHT is performed E 400 Qualification of welding procedures for corrosion resistant overlay welding Qualification of welding procedures 401 Qualification of welding procedures for corrosion resistant overlay welding shall be performed with GMAW or pulsed GTAW. 403 Qualification of weld overlay shall be performed on a test sample which is representative for the size and thickness of the production base material. 6.C – Page 175 Table C-4 Qualification of repair welding procedures for longitudinal and girth butt welds TEST JOINT MINIMUM NUMBER OF EACH SPECIFIED TEST Type of repair) Transverse Transverse All-weld Root Face Side Charpy V. Other methods may be used subject to agreement. 6) The notch shall be located in the repair weld metal.

608 The extent of testing shall be 4 macro and hardness specimens taken from the 12. The hardness tests shall be made on the specimens for copper penetration measurements. In cases when qualification is performed using a pipe. Pull test 4 505 The type and number of destructive tests for procedure qualification are given in Table C-6 with methods and acceptance criteria specified in F below. E 600 Qualification of welding procedures for temporary and permanent attachments and branch welding fittings to linepipe Qualification of welding procedures 601 Qualification of welding procedures for temporary and permanent attachments and branch welding fittings to linepipe may be performed by any of the arc welding processes specified in A200. and FL+2 mm and FL+5 mm in the base material. 2 test specimens shall the sectioned transverse to the anode lead and 2 test specimens parallel with the anode lead. 503 Qualification for brazing/welding of anode leads shall be performed on test samples which is representative for the size and thickness of the production base material and the number of test pieces shall be minimum 4 and sufficient to obtain all required tests. 609 Charpy V-notch impact testing with the notch in the weld metal. Only required when the weld overlay is load bearing across the overlay/base material fusion line. end and middle of each test weld with methods and acceptance criteria as specified in F. impact testing shall be carried out in the corresponding weld regions if the region otherwise required to be tested cannot be considered representative for the complete weld. Other methods may be used subject to agreement. 3.5) All 4 1) 1 1 2 2) Notes: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Other tests 6) Side bend specimens shall be taken transverse to the welding direction. the repair welding procedure shall be qualified. Longitudinal welds in doubler sleeves 604 Longitudinal welds in doubler sleeves shall be made with backing strips and qualified as required in E300 and Table C-3. but with the extent of testing modified to: — transverse weld tensile — Charpy V-notch impact testing — macro and hardness testing. 603 The type and number of destructive tests for welding procedure qualification are given in 604 to 614 with methods and acceptance criteria as specified in subsection F. 410 The type and number of destructive tests for qualification of repair welding procedure are given in Table C-5. Full details of the technique used and associated equipment shall be available prior to qualification of procedures. 606 The extent of testing for each test piece shall be 3 macro and hardness specimens taken from the start. but use of cellulose coated electrodes is not permitted. E 500 Qualification of procedures for Pin Brazing and Aluminothermic welding of anode leads Qualification of procedures 501 Attachment of anode leads shall be by pin brazing or aluminothermic welding methods. October 2010 Page 176 – App. If several welding processes or welding consumables are used. FL+2 mm and FL+5 mm using full size or reduced size specimens shall always be performed whenever DET NORSKE VERITAS . Branch welding fittings 607 The branch fitting qualification test welds shall be welded in the PF or PD pipe positions to qualify welding in all positions.All-weld TenCharpy V-notch material tests sis sile Impact tests 2. additional Charpy Vnotch sets shall be located according to Appendix B. Requirements for corrosion tests and microstructure examination are specified in subsection F. Sets shall be tested with the notch in the overlay weld metal. Qualification of repair welding procedures 409 Unless the production welding procedure can be applied. For t > 25 mm the weld metal root and FL shall also be tested. and a new HAZ is introduced in the original weld metal. Only required when the weld overlay strength is utilised in the design of the welded joint. Figures 7. Table C-6 Qualification of Pin Brazing and Aluminothermic welding procedures TEST JOINT MINIMUM NUMBER OF EACH SPECIFIED TEST 1) Thickness of base Electrical resistance Mechanical strength Copper penetration 2) Hardness3) material All 4 4 4 4 Notes 1) 2) 3) The number of tests refer to the total number of tests from all pieces. 502 The chemical composition of test pieces shall be representative for the production conditions and be selected in the upper range of the chemical composition. Fl.3. FL. 602 The WPS shall be qualified prior to start of any production welding.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.4. and 8. 504 The WPS shall be qualified prior to start of any production. component or plate with a prepared welding groove. Fillet welds in doubler sleeves and anode pads 605 The fillet weld qualification test shall comprise two test pieces welded in the PD and PF plate positions to qualify the welding procedure for welding in all positions.C Table C-5 Qualification of corrosion resistant overlay welding procedures TEST JOINT MINIMUM NUMBER OF EACH SPECIFIED TEST Thickness of base Side bend Macro and hardness Chemical Analy. Weld repair performed on weld overlay machined to the final thickness shall be separately qualified. 6 and 9 o’clock locations of each test weld.

108 Re-testing of a test failing to meet the specified requirements should only be performed subject to agreement. then the test sample and specimen (as relevant) shall be replaced by a correctly prepared sample or specimen and a new test performed. including the failed tests. October 2010 App. 110 Specific for Charpy V-notch impact testing the following requirements apply: — through thickness repair — single pass cap repair against the fitting — single pass cap repair against the pipe. supplied as a part of the pipeline systems. retesting shall be carried out on the reverse side of the tested specimen or after grinding and re-preparation of the tested surface. The reason for the failure shall be investigated and reported before any re-testing is performed. — retest may. subject to agreement. but with the extent of testing modified according to 604. 614 Methods of testing and acceptance criteria shall be as specified in F. Re-testing 106 A destructive test failing to meet the specified requirements may be re-tested. If the investigation reveals that the test results are influenced by improper sampling. None of these additional hardness values shall exceed the maximum value.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Charpy V-notch specimens shall be taken from both test welds. E 700 Qualification of welding procedures for structural components 701 Welding procedures for structural components. the WPQ is not acceptable. shall be qualified in accordance with ISO 15614-1. If both re-tests meet the requirements. Examination and Testing for Welding Procedure Qualification F 100 General 101 All visual examination. Qualification of repair welding procedures for fillet welds 611 Qualification welding shall be performed in the PD and PF plate positions. non-destructive testing. the WPQ is not acceptable. mechanical testing and corrosion testing of test pieces shall be performed in the as welded or post weld heat treated condition. HAZ. 105 Test specimens shall be taken from the positions shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2 for longitudinal welds and girth welds respectively. 107 A destructive test failing to meet the specified requirements shall be rejected if the reason for failure can not be related to improper sampling. This retesting shall consist of at least two further test specimens/sets of test specimens. All test results. Qualification of repair welding procedures for longitudinal welds in doubler sleeves 610 Repair welding procedures for longitudinal welds in doubler sleeves shall be qualified as required in E300 and Table C-4. shall be reported. hardness and impact testing and the testing conditions should be in compliance with this Appendix. — if two out of three test specimens in any set fail or the average requirement is not met. DET NORSKE VERITAS . 103 If a test piece does not meet the acceptance criteria for visual examination and NDT one further test piece shall be welded and subjected to the same examination.C – Page 177 the material thickness allows. The extent of tensile. — if more than one set of specimens includes a failed specimen the WPQ is not acceptable. the test may be regarded as acceptable. treatment or testing. base material) that do not meet the requirement. preparation. machining. 612 Methods of testing and acceptance criteria shall be as specified in F. The extent of qualification of repair welding procedures shall at as a minimum consist of: whatever is applicable for the final product. treatment or testing of specimens. preparation. Visual examination and non-destructive testing 102 Visual examination and non-destructive testing shall be performed no earlier than 48 hours after the completion of welding of each test piece. The requirements shall be appropriate for the structural categorisation of the members and stresses in the structure. F. Destructive testing 104 The type and number of mechanical tests and microstructure evaluations for qualification tests are given in E300 to E700. machining. be performed with two test specimen sets. All re-tested specimens shall meet the specified minimum average toughness. Qualification of repair welding procedures for branch welding fittings 613 Qualification welding shall be performed in the PD and PF pipe positions. If this additional test piece does not meet the requirements. The extent of qualification of repair welding procedures shall at as a minimum consist of: — through thickness repair — single pass repair against the pipe material — single pass repair against the sleeve material. 109 If there are single hardness values in the different test zones (weld metal. E 800 Qualification of welding procedures for hyperbaric dry welding 801 Requirements for qualification of welding procedures for hyperbaric dry welding are given in subsection I.

e. Transverse weld tensile testing 302 The fracture shall not be located in the weld metal.4% and where no ECA is performed.7 B400. Transverse all-weld tensile testing 304 For pipeline girth welds where generic ECA acceptance criteria. When different material grades are joined. i.sampling of test specimens for longitudinal butt welds. B900. 1 7 6 2 5 3 8 4 7 5 2 1 1: Cross weld tensile specimens 2: All weld tensile specimens 3: Bend test specimens 4: Impact test specimens 5: Macro and hardness test specimens 6: Corrosion test specimens 7: Micro examination and chemical analysis 8: Fracture toughness specimens Figure 2 Welding procedure qualification test .When different material grades are joined. the upper yield or the Rt0. the upper yield or the Rt0. B900 for welds exposed to strains < 0. Minor ductile tears less than 6 mm. Charpy V-notch impact testing 307 The average and single Charpy V-notch toughness at each position shall not be less than specified for the base material in the transverse direction (KVT values). the yield stress requirements applies to the lower grade. the acceptance criteria shall be as for the production welding or according to Appendix D.4%. after machining of the overlay thickness or the thickness representative for the thickness on the finished component.5 of the deposited weld metal shall at least match the upper maximum of the permitted yield stress of the base material or the assumptions made during design and/ or the ECA. The elongation shall not be less than 18%. 203 Weld overlay shall be non-destructively tested according to Appendix D. DET NORSKE VERITAS . (see Appendix A) are applied.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. If two grades are joined the requirement applies to the lower strength material. if applicable. originating at the specimen edge may be disregarded if not associated with obvious defects. whichever is the more stringent. 202 Acceptance criteria for visual examination and nondestructive testing shall be in accordance with Appendix D. October 2010 Page 178 – App.C 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 5 F 200 Visual examination and non-destructive testing requirements 201 Each test weld shall undergo 100% visual examination and 100% ultrasonic and 100% radiographic testing and 100% magnetic particle or liquid penetrant testing. the ultimate tensile strength of the joint shall be at least equal to the SMTS for the lower grade.nom <0. The surface and weld thickness shall be representative for the production welding. F 300 Testing of butt welds 301 All testing shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. C300 with acceptance criteria according to Appendix D. C-Mn and low alloy steels shall meet the requirements given in Sec. The elongation shall not be less than 18%.7 B400. one macro and hardness specimen shall include a pipe longitudinal seam weld.sampling of test specimens for girth butt welds. subsection B.nom ≥ 0. Note 1: For pipeline girth welds. the upper yield or the Rt0. Bend testing 306 The end tests shall not disclose any open defects in any direction exceeding 3 mm. Duplex and martensitic stainless steels shall meet the requirements given in Sec. 305 For pipeline girth welds exposed to strain εl.5 of the deposited weld metal should be at least be 80 MPa above SMYS of the base material and the elongation not less than 18%. where sampling positions are optional. 5 6 3 2 Figure 1 Welding procedure qualification test . For welds exposed to strains ≥ 0.5 of the deposited weld metal shall at least match the upper maximum of the permitted yield stress of the base material. The C-Mn steel backing material in clad and lined linepipe shall meet the requirements given in Sec. C600.4%.4% and where full ECA acceptance criteria shall be applied. Requirement for fracture arrest properties does not apply. Note: The indicated location of the test specimens are not required for qualification of welding in the PA (1G) and PC (2G) positions. All-weld tensile testing 303 For longitudinal welds and girth welds exposed to strain εl. The ultimate tensile strength shall be at least equal to the SMTS for the base material.7 C400. Testing shall be in accordance with Appendix D. Note 2: The indicated location of the test specimens are not required for qualification of welding in the PA (1G rotated) where sampling positions are optional.

403 The testing in 404 through 408 shall. For duplex steel the ferrite content of the weld metal and HAZ shall be within the range 35-65%. The material shall be essentially free from grain boundary carbides. The macro section shall show a sound weld merging smoothly into the base material and meeting Quality level C of ISO 5817. Bend testing of weld overlay 404 The bend testing shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B. The maximum hardness for the overlay material shall not exceed any limit given in ISO 15156 for sour service. The material shall be essentially free from grain boundary carbides.0 g/m2 when tested at 40°C for 24 hours. 0. Microstructure examination shall be performed after any final heat treatment. unless otherwise agreed. nitrides and inter-metallic phases in the final condition (as-welded or heat treated as applicable). The analysis shall be representative of the CRA composition at a point at the centreline of the root pass 0. CRA materials and clad/lined materials shall be subject to microstructure examination. Micro cracking at the fusion line is not permitted. 315 Pitting corrosion test according to ASTM G48 is only required for 25Cr duplex stainless steel (see Sec. one macro section shall include a longitudinal weld. 319 For nominal wall thickness above 50 mm in C-Mn and low alloy steels fracture toughness testing is required unless PWHT is performed. 408 The chemical composition of overlay shall be shall be within the specification limits according to the UNS for the specified overlay material. maximum of hardness of 275 HV10 may be agreed for base material thickness > 12 mm) — 325 HV10 for 13Cr martensitic stainless steels — 350 HV10 for duplex stainless steels — 325 HV10 for clad or lined material in non-sour service. October 2010 App. Micro cracking at the CRA to the C-Mn/low alloy steel interface is not permitted.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101.0% (max. Fracture toughness testing 318 For girth welds fracture toughness testing shall per- — the as welded surface — a machined surface — from a horizontal drilled cavity. Hardness testing of weld overlay 406 The maximum hardness for base material and HAZ shall not exceed the limits given in F312 above as applicable for the intended service and type of material. Acceptance criteria shall be according to ISO 15156. 310 The macro section shall show a sound weld merging smoothly into the base material and meeting Quality level C of ISO 5817. 311 For girth welds in welded pipe. For clad or lined materials in sour service special considerations are required. if the weld metal is of a different composition than the cladding/liner. The location for the chemical analysis shall be considered as the minimum qualified thickness to be left after any machining of the corrosion resistant weld overlay. 402 The base material shall retain the minimum specified mechanical properties after any post weld heat treatment. Specimens for chemical analysis shall either be performed directly on the as welded or machined surface or by taking specimen or filings/chips from: — 325 HV10 for C-Mn and low alloy steels in non-sour service — 250 HV10 for C-Mn and low alloy steels in sour service (for weld caps not exposed to the sour service media. HAZ and weld metal is: formed when acceptance criteria are established by an ECA.5% intermetallic phases). DET NORSKE VERITAS . Hardness testing 312 The maximum hardness in the base material. as a minimum. Corrosion testing 314 Sulphide stress cracking testing (SSC) is only required for C-Mn and low alloy steels with SMYS > 450 MPa. originating at the specimen edge may be disregarded if not associated with obvious defects. A614. within the limits of chemical composition specified for the welding consumable. tensile testing and Charpy V-notch testing of the weld overlay material are not required. Chemical analysis 317 For welds in clad or lined materials a chemical analysis shall be performed. F 400 Testing of weld overlay 401 When the weld overlay is not contributing to strength.C – Page 179 308 When different steel grades are joined the required impact tests shall be performed on both sides of the weld. such mechanical testing of the weld overlay material is required. The base material properties in the post weld heat treated condition shall then be documented by additional testing and recorded as a part of the welding procedure qualification. The extent of testing shall be in accordance with Appendix A. Chemical analysis of weld overlay 407 The chemical composition shall be obtained in accordance with Appendix B. 410 Metallographic examination at a magnification of 400X of the CRA weld metal HAZ and the base material shall be performed. Microstructure examination of weld overlay 409 The surface to be used for microstructure examination shall be representative of a weld overlay thickness of 3 mm or the minimum overlay thickness specified for the finished machined component. Microstructure examination 316 Welds in duplex stainless steel materials. Essentially free implies that occasional strings of detrimental phases along the centreline of the base material is acceptable given that the phase content within one field of vision (at 400X magnification) is < 1. The weld metal shall meet the more stringent energy requirement. be performed when the overlay material is not considered as part of the design and when the base material has not been affected by any post weld heat treatment. When the weld overlay strength is considered as a part of the design. The iron content of alloy UNS N06625 overlay shall be < 10%. 313 For girth welds in welded pipe. one hardness test specimen shall include a longitudinal weld.6 B302). Macro section 309 The macro section shall be documented by photographs (magnification of at least 5X). see ISO 15156.6 mm. Macro examination of weld overlay 405 The macro sections shall be documented by photographs (magnification of at least 5X). The ferrite content of austenitic stainless steel weld deposit shall be within the range 5-13%. nitrides and intermetallic phases. The chemical composition shall be within the specification limits according to the UNS number for the specified cladding/lining material or. whichever is less. The maximum weight loss shall be 4. 13Cr martensitic stainless steels and other materials not listed for sour service in ISO 15156. The bend tests shall disclose no defects exceeding 1. Minor ductile tears less than 3 mm.5 mm below the surface.

the welding procedure shall be re-specified and re-qualified. which may affect the weld quality. grease. dust. 103 All welding shall be performed under controlled conditions with adequate protection from detrimental environmental influence such as humidity. coating etc. 205 The weld bevel shall be free from moisture. draught and large temperature variations.. 208 If applicable pre-heating shall be applied prior to any welding. The weld/brazing shall withstand the hammer blow and remain firmly attached to the base material and show no sign of tearing or cracking. Welding and PWHT Requirements G 100 General 101 All welding shall be performed using the type of welding equipment and under the conditions that are representative for the working environment during procedure qualification welding. 102 Pre-qualification testing shall be performed for welding systems where the Contractor has limited previous experience. general requirements 201 All welding shall be carried out strictly in accordance with the accepted welding procedure specification and the requirements in this subsection. 203 After cutting of pipe or plate material for new bevel preparation. rust.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. backing and plasma gases. All gas supply lines shall be inspected for damage on a daily basis. Essential variables and variation limits are specified in D800. F 500 Testing of pin brazing and aluminothermic welds Electrical resistance 501 The electrical resistance of each test weld/brazing shall not exceed 0.e. when the overlay is a part of a butt joint or acts as a transition between a corrosion resistant alloy and a C-Mn/low alloy steel). All-weld tensile testing of load bearing weld overlay 412 All-weld tensile testing shall be performed in accordance with Appendix B A400. 417 The average and single Charpy V-notch toughness at each position shall not be less than specified for the base material. Mechanical strength 502 Each test weld/brazing shall be securely fixed and tested with a sharp blow from a 1. FL+2 mm and FL+5 mm in the base material. the gas classification moisture content and dew point shall be checked prior to start of welding. 415 Testing shall be with the notch in the overlay weld metal. If this is not possible.C 411 The ferrite content of austenitic stainless steel weld overlay deposit shall be within the range 5-13%. The ferrite content of duplex stainless steel weld overlay in the weld metal and HAZ shall be within the range 35-65%. If any parameter is changed outside the limits of the essential variables. The weld metal shall meet the more stringent energy requirement. or where the system will be used under new conditions. For t > 25 mm the weld metal root and FL shall also be tested. The fusion line of the weld/brazing shall at any point not be more than 1. FL. 105 Welding and welding supervision shall be carried out by personnel qualified in accordance with the requirements given in B200. The minimum tack weld DET NORSKE VERITAS . 505 The maximum hardness shall not exceed the limits given in F312 as applicable for the intended service and type of material. carbonised material. 204 For welding processes using shielding. Provided it can be demonstrated that the cut has been made inside a zone where a lamination check was performed at the plate/ pipe mill the check may be omitted. Charpy V-notch impact testing of load bearing weld overlay 414 When the weld overlay material is designed to transfer the load across the base material/weld overlay fusion line. When different steel grades are joined. impact testing shall be carried out in the corresponding weld regions if the region otherwise required to be tested cannot be considered representative for the complete weld. 207 The weld area shall be heated to the minimum preheat temperature specified in the WPS. Welding below 20°C shall not be performed unless otherwise agreed. Corrosion testing of weld overlay 418 Corrosion testing and microstructure examination of stainless steel and nickel base weld overlay materials shall be considered.0 kg hammer. oil. 206 The alignment of the abutting ends shall be adjusted to minimise misalignment. Intergranular copper penetration of the base material shall not at any point extend beyond 0.5 mm from the fusion line. Pre-heating shall also be performed whenever moisture is present or may condense in the weld area and/or when the ambient temperature or material temperature is below 5°C. G 200 Production welding. 416 Where several welding processes or welding consumables are used.0 mm below the base material surface. the adequacy of the performed measurement shall be demonstrated. a new lamination check by ultrasonic and magnetic particle/dye penetrant testing is normally required. F 600 Testing of welds for temporary and permanent attachments and branch outlet fittings to linepipe 601 Welds shall be tested to the extent required in E600 and meet the relevant requirements given in F300 above. 104 All instruments shall have valid calibration certificates and the adequacy of any control software shall be documented. 209 Tack welding shall only be performed if qualified during welding procedure qualification. Pull test 506 The specimen shall break in the cable. All gas supply lines shall be purged before the welding is started. Procedures for ultrasonic and magnetic particle/dye penetrant testing and acceptance criteria shall be in accordance with Appendix D. 202 The preparation of bevel faces shall be performed by agreed methods. Gases in damaged containers or of questionable composition. October 2010 Page 180 – App. including tack welding. G.1 Ohm. Misalignment shall not exceed the tolerances in the WPS. purity and dew point shall not be used. Copper penetration 503 2 test specimens shall the sectioned transverse to the anode lead and 2 test specimens parallel with the anode lead. Hardness 504 HV10 hardness tests shall be made on each of the specimens for copper penetration measurements. The pre-heating temperature shall be measured at a distance of minimum 75 mm from the edges of the groove at the opposite side of the heating source when practically possible. impact testing of the weld overlay and HAZ shall be performed (i. 413 The yield stress and ultimate tensile strength of the weld deposit shall be at least equal to the material tensile properties used in the design. The final groove configuration shall be as specified in the WPS and within the tolerances in the WPS. All welding equipment shall be maintained in good condition in order to ensure the quality of the weldment. a series of impact tests shall be considered in the HAZ on each side of the joint.

218 After weld completion. G 300 Repair welding. any unintended arc-stops shall be considered as defects. porosity. 217 Surface slag clusters. 211 The interpass temperature shall be measured at the edge of the groove immediately prior to starting the following pass. the minimum number of passes specified in the WPS shall be completed before stopping welding. Defective tack welds shall be removed or repaired prior to production welding.7 mm for each mm beyond 2 mm gap. 213 The number of welders and the weld sequence shall be selected in order to cause minimum distortion of the pipeline or the components. Welding of earth connections to the work piece is not permitted. general requirements 301 The allowable repairs and re-repairs are given in Table C-7 and are limited to one repair in the same area. Weld repairs shall be ground to merge smoothly into the DET NORSKE VERITAS . e. The cleaned area shall be sufficient for the subsequent NDT.C – Page 181 length is 2t or 100 mm. Welding of fillet welds with root gap > 5 mm is subject to repair based on an agreed procedure. slag. multi-arc welding systems. Type of material 13Cr MSS Clad/lined Permitted Permitted Permitted Permitted If agreed Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted If agreed Permitted Permitted Permitted If agreed Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted CRA/Duplex SS 1) If agreed Permitted Permitted Permitted If agreed Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted Through thickness repair Partial thickness repair In-process root repair Single pass cap repair Single pass root sealing repair Through thickness repeated repair Partial thickness repeated repair In-process root repeated repair Single pass cap repeated repair Single pass root sealing repeated repair Note 1) Provided solution annealing is performed after welding. Where temporary tack welds are removed. 221 Maximum root gap for fillet welds should be 2 mm. 307 Weld seams may only be repaired twice in the same area. Temporary tack welds using bridging or bullets shall only be performed using materials equivalent to the base material and using a WPS based on a qualified welding procedure. Qualification of repair welding procedures denoted “if agreed“.g. Peening is not permitted. For welding processes applying large weld pools. the bevel configuration and root gaps specified in the WPS shall be maintained for the subsequent pass and the groove visually inspected prior to resuming welding of the root pass. Repeated repairs shall be subject to agreement and are limited to one repeated repair of a previously repaired area.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Welding of fittings shall always be completed without interruption. Repeated repairs of the root in single sided welds are not permitted. all spatter. 210 Removal of tack welds shall be by grinding and cleaning followed by examination of the ground area by visual inspection. When interruption of welding is imposed by production restraints interrupted welds shall be wrapped in dry insulating material and allowed to cool in a slow and uniform manner. 212 Earth connections shall be securely attached to avoid arc burns and excessive resistance heating. at least 3 passes or half the thickness of the joint should be completed before the welding is interrupted. surface porosity and high points Table C-7 Types of weld repairs Type of repair C-Mn and low alloy steel Permitted Permitted Permitted Permitted If agreed If agreed If agreed Not permitted Not permitted Not permitted shall be removed by grinding and the weld visually inspected prior to deposition of the next weld pass. Weld repair of base material affected by stray arcs is not permitted. All such tack welds and any spacer wedges shall be removed from the final weldment. irregularities and extraneous matter on the weld and the adjacent area shall be removed. 304 Repair welding of cracks is not permitted unless the cause of cracking by technical evaluation has been established not to be a systematic welding error (cracks in the weld is cause for rejection). October 2010 App. preheating to the minimum interpass temperature of the pass in question shall be applied. 302 Repair welding procedures shall be qualified to the extent that such repairs are feasible and applicable for the repair situation in question. 214 Start and stop points shall be distributed over a length of weld and not "stacked" in the same area. Tack welds to be fused into the weld shall be made in the weld groove only and the ends of the tack welds shall have their ends ground and feathered and examined for cracks by an adequate NDT method. 305 Defects in the base material shall be repaired by grinding only. If the WPS does not specify a minimum number of passes. need only be done if performing such repairs is agreed and are feasible for the repair situation in question. Prior to restart after an interruption. 219 Welding shall not be interrupted before the joint has sufficient strength to avoid plastic yielding and cracking during handling. 220 Welds shall only be left un-completed if unavoidable. If welding is interrupted due to production restraints. 216 Arc burns shall be repaired by mechanical removal of affected base material followed by NDT to verify absence of cracks and ultrasonic wall thickness measurements to verify that the remaining material thickness is not below the minimum allowed. Repair welding shall be performed in accordance with a qualified repair welding procedure. Where the root gap is > 2 mm but ≤ 5 mm. 306 Defective welds that cannot be repaired with grinding only may be repaired locally by welding. scales. 303 Cellulosic coated electrodes shall not be used for repair welding. this shall be compensated by increasing the throat thickness on the fillet weld by 0. 215 Welding arcs shall be struck on the fusion faces only. all repairs are allowed. Before restarting welding of an interrupted weld the joint shall be reheated to the interpass temperature recorded during qualification of the welding procedure. whichever is larger. unless specifically qualified and accepted in each case.

510 Correction of angular misalignment of the pipe axis by mitre welds is not permitted. pipe strings for reeling or towing and tie-in welds are considered as pipeline girth welds. Girth welds in expansion loops. The band shall be centred on the weld and the width of the heated band shall not be less than 5 times the thickness of the thicker component in the assembly. 312 Repair by welding after final heat treatment is not permitted. 309 A local weld repair shall be at least 50 mm long or 4 times the material thickness. The width of the insulation shall be sufficient to ensure that the material temperature at the edge of the insulation is less than 300°C. unless fracture toughness testing shows acceptable values in the as welded condition. The distance from the root face and the tolerances shall be established. Internal line-up clamps shall not be released unless the pipe is fully supported on each side of the joint. 507 For S-lay welding. Bevels prepared by thermal cutting shall be dressed to obtain the final configuration. If air-arc gouging is used. G 400 Post weld heat treatment 401 Welds shall be subjected to PWHT as specified in the pWPS or WPS and to a documented procedure. 308 Repairs of the root pass in a single-sided joint for material meeting sour service requirements shall be carried out under constant supervision. temperature. 503 In addition to the requirements given in G100 and G200 the requirements below shall apply for production welding of pipeline girth welds.C original weld contour. this shall be performed for all thicknesses. 509 Excessive misalignment may be corrected by hydraulic or screw type clamps. 403 If post weld heat treatment is used to obtain adequate resistance of welded joints against sulphide stress cracking. External line-up clamps shall not be removed unless the pipe is fully supported on each side of the joint and not before the completed parts of the root pass meet the requirements to length of each section. reference marking shall be made on both sides of the joint as a scribed line around the pipe circumference. 506 All pipes shall be cleaned on the inside to remove any and all foreign matters and deposits in accordance with a documented procedure. Residuals from the NDT shall be removed prior to re-welding. and holding time shall be as recommended by the material manufacturer. B108 and B1000. the last 3 mm through the root of the weld shall be removed by mechanical means and the whole excavated area shall be ground to remove any carbon enriched zones. or by dye penetrant testing for non ferromagnetic materials. onshore or offshore. Bevelling by thermal cutting shall be performed only when bevelling by machining is not feasible e. DET NORSKE VERITAS .8 D500. The bevelling operator shall check the bevel configuration for compliance with suitable tools or gauges at regular intervals. Below 300°C the cooling may take place in still air. October 2010 Page 182 – App. and the ends and sides of the excavation shall have a gradual taper from the bottom of the excavation to the surface. Requirements to PWHT in an enclosed furnace are given in Sec.3. The final fit-up shall be checked with spacer tools prior to engaging line-up clamps or tack welding. G 500 Welding of pipeline girth welds Production welding 501 These requirements apply to welding of girth welds in pipelines regardless of whether the welds are made onboard a laying vessel or at other locations. In cases where the minimum design temperature is less than -10°C. for tie-in and similar situations. 311 Weld repairs shall be ground to merge smoothly into the original weld contour. Complete removal of the defect shall be confirmed by magnetic particle testing. 406 Unless otherwise agreed temperatures shall be measured by thermocouples in effective contact with the material and at a number of locations to monitor that the whole length of the weld is heated within the specified temperature range. In addition temperature measurements shall be made to confirm that undesired temperature gradients do not occur. 405 If PWHT in an enclosed furnace is not practical. the spacing of the sections. 505 When welds are to be examined by manual or automated ultrasonic testing. Girth welds shall be separated at least 1. 410 The heat treatment temperature cycle charts shall be available for verification if requested. The holding time at temperature should be minimum 30 minutes +2. local PWHT shall be performed by means of electric resistance heating mats or other methods as agreed or specified. 411 For materials other than C-Mn and low alloy steels the PWHT heating and cooling rates. Root gaps shall be even around the circumference. 408 The rate of heating for C-Mn and low alloy steels above 300°C shall not exceed 5500/t °C · h1 and the rate of cooling while above 300°C shall not exceed 6875/t °C · h1 with t expressed in mm. 511 Power operated internal line-up clamps shall be used whenever possible. The PWHT shall cover a band over the entire length of the weld. machining or air-arc gouging. whichever is larger. Air-arc gouging shall be controlled by a documented procedure including the allowed variables according to AWS C5. longitudinal welds shall be located in the top quadrant.5 minutes per mm thickness. Defects can be removed by grinding. Hammering or heating for correction of misalignment is not permitted. 402 Post weld heat treatment shall be performed for welded joints of C-Mn and low alloy steel having a nominal wall thickness above 50 mm.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. The reference marking shall be at a uniform and known distance from the root face of the bevel preparation. 508 The longitudinal welds shall be staggered at least 50 mm. The maximum PWHT temperature for quenched and tempered low alloy steels shall be 25°C less than the tempering temperature of the material as stated in the material certificate. 409 The holding temperature for C-Mn low alloy steels shall normally be within 580°C to 620°C unless otherwise specified or recommended by the material/welding consumable supplier. 404 Whenever possible.5 pipe diameters or 500 mm. 502 The type of welding equipment and the welding procedure shall be qualified prior to installation welding. 310 The excavated portion of the weld shall be large enough to ensure complete removal of the defect. the thickness limit shall be specially determined. the number of sections and the percentage of circumference required by the WPS. See also Appendix E. 407 Insulation shall be provided if necessary to ensure that the temperature of the weld and the HAZ is not less than the temperature specified in the pWPS or WPS. PWHT shall be carried out by placing the welded assembly in an enclosed furnace. whichever is longest. If the length at the bottom of the excavation is 50 mm this may be ok if the taper required in 310 gives adequate access for welding. During heating and cooling at temperatures above 300°C the temperature variation shall not exceed 35°C in any weld length of 1000 mm. 504 Bevels shall be prepared by machining. The width and the profile of the excavation shall be sufficient to ensure adequate access for re-welding. Whenever possible girth welds shall be separated by the maximum possible distance.g.

Production tests 526 Production tests (see Sec. 519 For through thickness repairs where the defects to be repaired are less than 150 mm apart.) Production 106 Welding of clad/lined carbon steel and duplex stainless steel may be performed by the welding processes listed in A200. Welding of the root pass in single sided joints will generally require welding with Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW / 141) or Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW / 135). brushes etc. 517 The root and the first filler pass shall be completed at the first welding station before moving the pipe. H. the weld shall be cut out. contamination of CRA and duplex steel with carbon steel and zinc shall be avoided. Damaged contact tips and backing strips shall be replaced.1% during welding of the root pass. G 600 Welding and PWHT of pipeline components 601 The Manufacturer shall be capable of producing pipeline components of the required quality. shall be maintained. 515 Procedures shall be established for pre-cleaning.10 A900) shall be performed in a manner which. in process cleaning and post cleaning of welds. see Sec. 523 If the repair is performed at a location where the pipe and the area of repair is exposed to bending and axial stresses the allowable length of the repair excavation shall be determined by calculations. 520 The location of repair of burn through and other in process root repairs shall be marked on the outside of the pipe to inform NDT personnel that a root repair has been made. Welding consumables for duplex steel 104 Welding consumables with enhanced nickel and nitrogen content shall be used unless full heat treatment after welding is performed.10 A704 and 705. etc.) shall be avoided. hooks. Direct contact of the CRA with carbon steel or galvanised handling equipment (e. The welding shall be double sided whenever possible. subject to agreement. or part thereof. reproduces the actual welding. Moving the pipe at an earlier stage may be permitted if an analysis demonstrates that the pipe can be moved without any risk of introducing damage to the deposited weld metal. Backing gas shall be used for welding of root pass and succeeding passes. and covers the welding of a sufficient large test section in the relevant position. 524 If repairs can not be executed according to the requirements above. and radiographic testing is used. Essential variables 102 The following essential variables shall apply in addition to those in Table C-2: — any reduction of the time of backing gas application prior to start of welding — any reduction in the number of passes completed before stopping back-purging. 516 If a pipe is to be cut for any reason. The maximum length of allowable repair steps shall be calculated based on the maximum stresses present in the joint during the repair operation.g. shall be stainless steel suitable for working on type of material in question and not previously used for carbon steel. the same type of welding consumable should be used for all passes needed to complete the joint. The alternative welding consumables shall be documented to be compatible with the welding consumables used for the root area. The oxygen content of the backing gas shall be less than 0. and shall not exceed 80% of SMYS. During all stages of manufacturing. as far as possible. buckle detector cables. Welding consumables shall be segregated from consumables for C-Mn steel. See Sec. as recorded during the welding procedure qualification: — the minimum time period of backing gas application prior to start of welding — the minimum time period of backing gas application during welding — the minimum time period of backing gas application after welding — description of the back-purge dam type and method.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. the starts and stops shall be made away from the six o’clock position to avoid masking of starts and stops on radiographs. 521 If the pipe and the area of repair is not exposed to bending and/or axial stresses at the repair location the length of a repair excavation shall not exceed 30% of the pipe circumference for partial penetration repairs and 20% of the pipe circumference for through thickness repairs.C – Page 183 512 Line-up clamps should not be removed before the first two passes are completed 513 If cables are present inside the pipeline. including in-process root repairs. 525 Full records of all repairs. Contamination of weld bevels DET NORSKE VERITAS .10 A706. (Exception from this requirement may be tie-in welds when stick electrodes are used for root bead welding. Welding consumables shall be segregated from consumables for C-Mn steel. Production welds cut out due to NDT failure may be used. as far as possible.g. Welding consumables for clad/lined carbon steel 103 For single sided (field) joints. October 2010 App. Backing and shielding gases 105 Backing and shielding gases shall not contain hydrogen and shall have a dew point not higher than 30°C. 107 Onshore fabrication of clad/lined carbon steel and duplex stainless steel shall be performed in a workshop. rolls. 602 Welding and PWHT shall be performed in accordance with G100 through G400 above. 514 Copper contact tips and backing strips shall be checked on a regular basis for damage that could introduce copper contamination in welds. 603 Production tests shall be performed in a manner which. Repair welding 518 In addition to the requirements given in G300 the below requirements shall apply for repair welding of pipeline girth welds. they shall be considered and repaired as one continuous defect. 522 Long defects may require repair in several steps to avoid yielding and cracking. Tools such as earthing clamps. or are not performed successfully. the cut shall be at a minimum distance of 25 mm from the weld toe. belts. the base material and the applicable service conditions. and covers the welding of a sufficient large pipe section in the relevant position. Sufficient addition of material from the welding consumables is essential for welding of the root pass and the two subsequent passes. e. Production welds cut out due to NDT failure may be used. Material and Process Specific Requirements H 100 Internally clad/lined carbon steel and duplex stainless steel WPS 101 In addition to the applicable data given in Table C-1 the WPS shall specify the following. which is reserved exclusively for this type of material. Alternative welding consumables may be considered for fill and capping passes after depositing a weld thickness not less than 2 times thickness of the cladding/lining. reproduces the actual welding.

The welding shall be double sided whenever possible. whichever is less. Parts of internal line-up clamps that come in contact with the material shall be non-metallic or of a similar alloy as the internal pipe surface. grinding or machining. except active gas shielded methods. Additional for welding of duplex steel 116 The heat input must be controlled to avoid detrimental weld cooling rates.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Air-arc gouging shall not be used. Internal high-low of duplex stainless steel linepipe shall not exceeded 2 mm or 1% of the pipe internal diameter. Direct contact with carbon steel or galvanised handling equipment (e. grinding or machining. defect free material for all passes using designated tools. 209 Internal high-low of 13Cr MSS linepipe shall not exceeded 2 mm or 1% of the pipe internal diameter. rolls. Thermal cutting shall be limited to plasma arc cutting. The weld bevel and the internal and external pipe surface up to a distance of at least 25 mm from the bevels shall be thoroughly cleaned with an organic solvent. The depth to width ratio of the weld deposit shall be less than 1. zinc. Unless post weld heat treatment is performed the maximum interpass temperature shall not exceed 100°C for nickel based CRAs and 150°C for all other CRAs. Contamination of weld bevels and surrounding areas with iron and low melting point metals such as copper. 114 The interpass temperature shall be measured directly where a weld run will start and terminate. 113 Welds shall be multipass and performed in a continuous operation.4 kJ/mm is acceptable. 207 The backing gas composition shall be monitored using an oxygen analyser immediately prior to starting or re-starting welding. 118 Excavation of repair grooves shall be by chipping. is not acceptable. 117 Any post weld heat treatment shall be performed in accordance with the qualified post weld heat treatment procedure.5 . 211 The interpass temperature shall be measured directly at the points where a welding run will start and terminate. whichever is less. Welding of the root pass in single sided joints will generally require welding with Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW / 141). If a laminar discontinuity is detected on the bevel face the cladding/liner shall be removed and a seal weld shall be overlay welded at the pipe end. 119 All operations during welding shall be carried out with adequate equipment and/or in a protected environment to avoid carbon steel contamination of the corrosion resistant material. and any weaving of the weld bead shall be limited to maximum 3X filler wire/electrode diameter. Air-arc gouging shall not be used. The grinding wheels shall not have previously been used for carbon steel. DET NORSKE VERITAS . The weld bevel and the internal and external pipe surface up to a distance of at least 25 mm from the bevels shall be thoroughly cleaned with an organic solvent. Welding consumables 202 The requirements to backing and shielding gases in H105 also applies to 13Cr MSS. Production 203 Welding of 13Cr MSS may be performed by the welding processes listed in A200. 108 The weld bevel shall be prepared by milling or other agreed machining methods. The maximum interpass temperature shall not 150oC. 115 When clad/lined C-Mn linepipe is cut and/or re-bevelled a lamination check by through thickness ultrasonic testing and dye penetrant testing on the bevel face shall be performed. Entire welds shall be removed by plasma cutting or machining. 109 Welding consumables shall be segregated from consumables for C-Mn / low alloy steels. Care shall be taken to adjust the flow rate of the back purge gas to prevent gas turbulence and possible air entrainment through open weld seams.. The flow rate of the back purge gas shall be adjusted to prevent gas turbulence and possible air entrainment through open weld seams. For optimum control of the heat input faster welding speeds and associated higher welding current should be used. The weld zone shall be below the maximum interpass temperature before a welding run is started. For girth welds the heat input shall be kept within the range 0.g. 112 Internal high-low of clad/lined pipes shall not exceed 1 mm unless otherwise qualified or if the cladding at pipe ends has a thickness increase allowing larger misalignment. defect free material for all passes. is not acceptable.C and surrounding areas with iron and low melting point metals such as copper.≈ 5 minutes at≈ 630oC) shall be performed in accordance with the PWHT procedure qualified during welding qualification 213 Excavation of repair grooves shall be by chipping. 206 Welding consumables shall be segregated from consumables for C-Mn steel. unless otherwise qualified. In any case the internal high-low shall not reduce the thickness of the CRA below the specified thickness. 212 Unless otherwise agreed PWHT (e. 208 Inter-run cleaning shall be by grinding to bright. H 200 13Cr martensitic stainless steel WPS and essential variables 201 The additional data for the WPS and the essential variables given in H101 and 102 also applies to 13Cr martensitic stainless steels. 204 During all stages contamination of 13Cr MSS with carbon steel and zinc shall be avoided. zinc. belts. Parts of internal line-up clamps that come in contact with the material shall be non-metallic or of a similar alloy as the internal pipe surface. unless otherwise qualified.) shall be avoided. etc.0. October 2010 Page 184 – App. brushes etc. The weld zone shall be kept below the maximum interpass temperature before a welding run is started. Procedures for examination of surfaces and removal of any contamination shall be prepared. Stringer beads shall be used to ensure a constant heat input. For SAW welding small diameter wire and modest welding parameters (high travel speed and low arc energy) shall be used. shall be stainless steel suitable for working on type of material in question and not previously used for carbon steel. For wall thickness > 25 mm and provided post weld heat treatment (solution annealing) is performed a maximum heat input of 2. The grinding shall not have previously been used for carbon steel. 205 The weld bevel shall be prepared by milling or other agreed machining methods. Entire welds shall be removed by plasma cutting or machining. Procedures for examination of surfaces and removal of any contamination shall be prepared.8 kJ/mm and avoiding the higher heat input for small wall thicknesses. Thermal cutting shall be limited to plasma arc cutting. 210 Welds shall be multipass and performed in a continuous operation. 110 The backing gas composition shall be monitored using an oxygen analyser immediately prior to starting or re-starting welding. 214 All operations during welding shall be carried out with adequate equipment and/or in a protected environment to avoid carbon steel contamination of the corrosion resistant material. 111 Inter-run cleaning shall be by grinding to bright. Tools such as earthing clamps. etc.1.g. For the root pass the heat input shall be higher than for second pass. hooks. etc.

October 2010 App. Welders for hyperbaric welding 203 Prior to qualification testing for underwater (hyperbaric) dry welding of girth welds. have completed the training programme required for mechanised welding required in I204 to I206. 306 For cable preparation cable cutters shall be used. Corroded conductor cores shall be cleaned to bright metal with brush or other means. make and model of other consumables — volume (cartridge. rust. Wet conductor cores shall be dried by rapid drying residue free solvent. The surface shall be bright. Imperfections that encroach on the minimum permissible wall thickness shall be classified as defects. Complete removal of defects shall be verified by local visual inspection and polishing and etching to confirm removal of copper penetration. composition. packaging type) and type of start and welding powder that will change the heat input by more than ± 15%. each complete three test pieces made in accordance with the procedure specification under realistic conditions. 206 In addition. The insulation shall be stripped for the last 50 mm of the cable to be attached. from programming of the welding parameters to welding of the cap passes — repair welding — daily maintenance of the welding equipment — knowledge about the functions of the welding heads and how to replace consumables such as welding wire. CE of more than 0. Production testing 308 Each welded/brazed anode lead shall be subjected to electrical resistance test and mechanical strength test according to Table C-6 with acceptance criteria according to F500. paint. For Pin brazing a change in: — — — — type. Q/T or normalised) — any increase in Pcm of more than 0. For Aluminothermic welding a change in: — type.C – Page 185 H 300 Pin brazing and aluminothermic welding 301 Anode leads may be attached by pin brazing or aluminothermic welding according to qualified procedures including full details of the technique used and associated equipment. The remaining wall thickness in the ground area shall be checked by ultrasonic wall thickness measurements to verify that the thickness of the remaining material is more than the specified minimum. 303 Other operators shall prior to carrying out operation work.02. 307 The cable attachment area. I 200 Qualification and testing of welding personnel for hyperbaric dry welding Hyperbaric welding co-ordinator 201 The welding co-ordinator for hyperbaric dry welding shall have EWE or IWE qualifications. Each test piece shall pass the test for electrical resistance and mechanical strength according to Table C-6 and F500. gas nozzles and tungsten electrodes. The training programme shall be structured according to Annex B of ISO 15618-2. clean and dry when welding/brazing is started. Hyperbaric Dry Welding I 100 General 101 Underwater welding on pressure containing components for hydrocarbons shall be carried out utilising a low hydrogen process. For both methods a change in: — — — — cable dimension process (brazing or aluminothermic welding) make. 202 The welding co-ordinator shall.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 102 All relevant welding parameters shall be monitored and recorded at the surface control station under supervision by a welding co-ordinator. welders shall have passed a welding test for pipeline girth welds as specified in B200 above. DET NORSKE VERITAS .02% for C-Mn linepipe. the applicable technical specifications and layout of the welding and habitat system. in a chamber (habitat) where the water has been displaced. Qualification of operators 302 Operators that have performed a qualified procedure test are thereby qualified. shall be cleaned for an area of minimum 50 mm × 550 mm. The welding area shall have continuous communication with the control station. Essential variables 304 Essential variables for pin brazing and aluminothermic welding shall be: Base material grade and chemical composition: Repair of welded/brazed anode leads 309 Welded/brazed anode leads not meeting the requirements in F500 shall be removed and the affected area shall be removed by grinding. All mill scale. and for pin brazing also the equipment earth connection area. the qualified welding procedures. Other methods can be used on non-pressure containing components subject to special acceptance by Purchaser. bright and dry. I. primer. type and model of equipment method for cleaning and preparation of cable ends and cable attachment area. — software structure of welding programme and loading of any welding programme prior to start of welding — perform a complete butt weld. In addition the welding co-ordinator shall be familiar with and have adequate experience with welding procedure qualification and offshore operations for the hyperbaric welding system used. Production requirements for welding/brazing of anode leads 305 The anode cable attachments shall be located at least 150 mm away from any weld. and dirt shall be removed and the surface prepared to finishing degree St 3 according to ISO 8501-1. alcohol or hand torch. The conductor core shall be clean. when applicable. classification and brand of start and welding powder — type. grease. make and model of pin for pin brazing the minimum preheat or working temperature range of equipment settings for pin brazing the equipment earth connection area. Greasy and oily conductor cores shall be cleaned with residue free solvent or dipped in molten solder. 310 For welded/brazed anode leads that are attached directly onto pressure containing parts the ground areas shall blend smoothly into the surrounding material. contact tubes.03 and C content of more than 0. Training programme 204 The hyperbaric welders shall be informed on all aspects of the work related to the welding operation. for mechanised welding the training programme shall include: — a change in grade — a change in the supply condition (TMCP. 205 Hyperbaric welders shall receive a training programme and pass an examination upon completion of the programme. corrosion coating. All operations including welding shall be monitored by a video system that can be remotely controlled from the control station.

This means that the gas is saturated with water when used at this depth and condensed water will be present at greater depths. the length of each section and spacing of the sections — water depth (minimum/maximum) — pressure inside the chamber — gas composition inside the chamber — humidity. as applicable. including disposal of unused exposed consumables.C Test welding 207 The hyperbaric welders shall perform a qualification test using welding equipment identical or equal in function to the hyperbaric welding equipment used for production welding. FL+5. FL+2. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- I 600 Welding equipment and systems for hyperbaric dry welding 601 In addition to the requirements given in B100 the following shall apply unless the voltage is measured at the arc during both qualification and production welding: — Welding cables shall have the same dimension and approximately the same resistance during the welding procedure qualification and production welding. Qualification testing of welders 209 For welder qualification for dry hyperbaric welding of girth welds and other butt weld configurations the test pieces shall be subject to same the testing and acceptance criteria as for pipeline girth welds in B200.1 and prolongations in accordance with paragraph 10. The maximum allowable moisture content in the gas used in the actual welding is governed by the moisture content of the gas used during DET NORSKE VERITAS . However. hardness testing and for CRA also metallographic examination. including any tack welds and shall be prepared in accordance with Table C-1 and shall propose limits and ranges for the applicable essential variables for welding and repair welding procedures given in Tables C-2 and C-8. paragraph 10. bend testing as required in ISO 9606 shall be performed for all welding processes. It must be related either to volume or weight of the gas. I 400 Welding consumables for hyperbaric dry welding 401 In addition to the requirements given in C100 to C400 the following shall apply: — consumables should be of a type that is tested or developed for dry hyperbaric welding with respect to arc stability and metal transfer behaviour and mechanical properties — procedures for transfer of consumables to the hyperbaric chamber and for consumable handling in the chamber.g. 210 A welder is deemed qualified for the applicable ranges of approval stated in Clause 6 of ISO 15618-2 when the following requirements for inspection and testing of test pieces.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. The qualification may be performed as a "buttering" test providing considerations are made to start/stop and that access limitations for the actual production welding is simulated. even a low dew-point temperature (e.995 for Ar and 99. The use of “ppm” alone is not sufficient. I 500 Shielding and backing gases for hyperbaric dry welding 501 In addition to the requirements given in C500 the following shall apply: — the purity of shielding and backing gases shall be 99. type and size of the welding umbilical — position for voltage measurements — welding equipment. Chapter 8 — if 100% radiographic testing with test requirements and acceptance criteria in accordance with Appendix D is performed in lieu of 100% ultrasonic testing. maximum level — temperature inside the chamber (minimum/maximum) — length. I 700 Welding procedures for hyperbaric dry welding Contents of pWPS 701 A pWPS shall be prepared for each welding and repair welding procedure that will be qualified for use during welding of pipeline girth welds. at 165 m at 5°C). a consumable batch being defined as the volume of product identified by the supplier under one unique batch/lot number.g. It is the water concentration in the gas at the working depth/pressure which is essential. 704 The welding procedures for closing possible vent holes shall also be qualified. manufactured in one continuous run from batch/lot controlled raw materials. -30°C for an Argon gas) can result in condensation of water at the relevant working depth/pressure and temperature (e. for hyperbaric conditions. number of runs to be deposited before closing the root and methods for closing the root — conditions for release of external line-up clamps including the percentage of the circumference for the welded root sections. Retesting 211 See ISO 15618-2. In general the acceptance level for the water content in the shield gas must be specified precisely. FL. 702 The pWPS shall contain the information required for the applicable welding processes. 208 The qualification welding for hyperbaric welding shall be performed in accordance with ISO 15618-2.2. This qualification test shall as a minimum include impact testing of weld metal. are met: — 100% visual examination and 100% ultrasonic testing with test requirements and acceptance criteria in accordance with Appendix D — macro-examination according to Appendix B. — — — — SMAW (Process ISO 4063-111) G-FCAW (Process ISO 4063-137) GMAW (Process ISO 4063-131) GTAW (Process ISO 4063-141). This can be specified as weight of the water per volume unit (mg H2O/m3) or partial pressure of the H2O (millibar H2O). Essential variables 705 The essential variables for hyperbaric dry welding shall be according to Table C-2 with additional requirements according to Table C-8 below. The procedure shall particularly consider the maximum humidity expected during production welding — all consumables for qualification of the welding procedure shall be from the same batch. 703 In addition the pWPS shall address the following: — part of the root to be left open. Period of validity and prolongation 212 The period of validity shall be in accordance with ISO 15618-2. Chapter 9. I 300 Welding processes for hyperbaric dry welding 301 The allowable welding processes are: the qualification welding.997% for He. If necessary artificial resistance to simulate the full cable length used in production should be used during qualification welding. The specimen shall meet the requirements of ISO 15618-2. Guidance note: The dew point temperature at atmospheric pressure (1 bar) is often used to specify the upper level acceptance criteria for the moisture content in shielding gases. October 2010 Page 186 – App.

1106 At completion of positioning of the two pipe sections to be welded. October 2010 App. H100 and H200. or under appropriately simulated conditions. Weld repair 1110 The applicable requirements given Table C-7 shall apply. The function test shall also include verification of that the welding parameters are applied correctly on the actual equipment. For calculations of the heat input. 1109 The following records shall be presented as part of the documentation: — chart recordings of welding current. The moisture content of the shielding gas shall be monitored at/near the torch during welding operation. 1108 All operations including welding shall be monitored by a video system that can be remotely controlled from the control station and the welding area shall have continuous communication with the control station. habitat equipment and the monitoring and communication equipment shall be performed to a written and agreed procedure. atmosphere composition) — welding parameters (mechanised and automatic welding) — gas moisture content — preheat and interpass temperature — information transmitted by the welders. safety and life support equipment. Welding fumes shall not prevent the use of the remote cameras in the welding area. filler wire speed. any reduction in the separation of welds shall be limited to two pipe lengths. 2 200 m < WD ≤ 300 m: ± 10% 3 300 m < WD ≤ 500 m: ± 10% B Habitat environment Gas composition (argon.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. I 1000 Examination and testing 1001 Examination and testing shall be in accordance with F100. the following information. F200 and F300. Repair welding procedures 803 Qualification welding shall be performed in compliance with the requirements given in E200. 1105 Any pup pieces shall be bevelled at the surface and checked for correct length. the arc voltage shall be recorded at the position/point of welding during qualification of the welding procedure and the difference between these values and remote monitored values recorded for use during production welding. I 1100 Production welding requirements for dry hyperbaric welding 1101 In addition to the applicable requirements given in G. In addition repairs exceeding 30% of pipe OD shall be performed only if agreed. laminations at cut ends and squareness of ends. heat number if possible) — approximate distance from the girth weld to the pipe extremity — position of the longitudinal welds. Accordingly may small changes in arc length and or operating depth result in considerable changes in the monitored values of arc voltage. arc voltage.C – Page 187 Table C-8 Additional essential variables for hyperbaric dry welding A Qualified water depth for SMAW and GTAW 1) Water depth (WD) in metres: 1 WD ≤ 200 m: Any increase in excess of + 20% or 10 m or whichever is greater. air or 1 For water depth ≤ 200 m: A change from argon or heliox to air or nitrox but not vice versa nitrox). as a minimum. I 900 Qualification of welding procedures for hyperbaric dry welding 901 The requirements given in E300 shall apply. including: — environmental conditions (humidity. 802 Qualification welding shall comply with E100 and the following additions: — for SMAW welding shall be performed at the maximum expected humidity in the chamber during production welding — the power source and the technical specification for the welding system shall be equivalent to the production system — the pipes shall be rigidly fixed to simulate restraint during welding — method and position/point for monitoring of electrical parameters shall be as for production welding — with increasing pressure the voltage gradient will increase. Gas purity and composition in all containers shall be certified and traceable to the gas storage containers. 1104 If used shielding and/or backing gas shall be of qualified purity including moisture limit. welding speed — video recording from the weld observation cameras. and a minimum of three joints for mechanised welding systems. DET NORSKE VERITAS . and accepted before lowering the habitat to the working position. The gas purity and moisture content shall be verified after purging the gas supply system prior to start of welding. the requirements below shall apply for dry hyperbaric production welding: 1102 The habitat shall be of adequate size to allow access for welding and for all necessary welding. shall be reported to the surface: — pipe sections to be connected (pipe number. 1107 If the requirement for staggering of welds can not be met. and humidity 2 For water depth > 200 m: Any change in gas composition 3 Any increase in relative humidity for SMAW and G-FCAW flux based welding processes otherwise any increase in excess of + 10% C Monitoring of electrical parameters Method and point of monitoring 1 Any change Note 1) For other processes the depth of qualification shall be agreed. Further the habitat shall be lighted and be fitted with remote cameras for surveillance. 1103 A function test of the habitat. The qualification test program shall consist of a minimum of one completed joint for manual welding. temperature. heliox. All relevant data shall be monitored and recorded at the surface control station under supervision by the welding co-ordinator. I 800 Qualification welding for hyperbaric dry welding 801 Qualification welding shall be performed in the habitat at a water depth selected in accordance with the intended range of qualification.

402 As the NDT methods differ in their limitations and/or sensitivities. duplex steels. DET NORSKE VERITAS . as a result of an ECA. the presence of branching parts of the crack. For material thicknesses above 25 mm radiographic testing should always be supplemented by ultrasonic testing. other stainless steels and clad steel materials and weldments for use in pipeline systems. A 300 Quality assurance 301 NDT Contractors and organisations shall as a minimum have an implemented quality assurance system meeting the general requirements of ISO 9001 and supplemented with the requirements given in ASTM E1212. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 405 When manual non-destructive testing in special cases is used as a substitute for automated ultrasonic testing for pipeline girth welds. For detection of surface imperfections in non-magnetic materials. 103 Requirements for NDT and visual examination of other materials shall be specified and be in general agreement with the requirements of this Appendix. they shall be able to document adequate training and experience with the equipment in question. Visual examination 505 Personnel performing visual examination of welds shall have documented training and qualifications according to NS 477 or minimum IWIS or equivalent certification scheme. It may be necessary to supplement ultrasonic testing by radiographic testing or vice versa. performing ultrasonic testing. Specific requirements pertaining to AUT of girth welds are given in Appendix E. eddy current or magnetic flux leakage testing is preferred for detection of surface imperfections in ferromagnetic materials. 102 This Appendix does not cover automated ultrasonic testing (AUT) of girth welds. low alloy steels. 406 Alternative methods or combination of methods for detection of imperfections may be used if the methods are demonstrated as capable of detecting imperfections with an acceptable equivalence to the preferred methods. Automated NDT. procedures. 404 Ultrasonic and/or radiographic testing shall be used for detection of internal imperfections. Lack of sidewall fusion will probably not be detected unless it is associated with volumetric imperfections or if X-ray beam is in the direction of the side-wall. General A 100 Objective 101 This Appendix specifies the requirements for methods. Automated NDT. A 400 Non-destructive testing methods 401 Methods of NDT shall be chosen with due regard to the conditions influencing the sensitivity of the methods. and shall be able to demonstrate their capabilities with regard to calibrating the equipment. 203 The requirements given within the other subsections are applicable only to the scope of the subsection as indicated in the title of the subsection. Reliable detection of cracks is therefore limited. Personnel performing visual examination of other objects shall have training and examination according to a documented inhouse standard. Ultrasonic testing shall be preferred for detection of planar imperfections. Personnel holding Level 1 qualifications may carry out NDT under the direct supervision of Level 2 personnel. The ability to detect imperfections shall be considered for the material. linepipe manufacture 503 Personnel operating automated equipment for NDT during manufacture of linepipe shall be certified according to ISO 11484 or equivalent certification scheme.g. the direction if the X-ray beam to the orientation of the crack and radiographic technique parameters. either liquid penetrant testing or eddy current testing shall be preferred. general 502 Personnel calibrating equipment and interpreting results from automated equipment for NDT shall be certified to an appropriate level according to a certification scheme meeting the requirements of 501. acceptance criteria and the qualification and certification of personnel for visual examination and non-destructive testing (NDT) of C-Mn steels. 403 Magnetic particle. Visual acuity 506 Personnel interpreting radiographs. and evaluating size and location of imperfections. A 500 Personnel qualifications Manual or semi-automatic NDT 501 Personnel performing manual or semi-automated NDT and interpretation of test results shall be certified to Level 1 or Level 2 by a Certification Body or Authorised Qualifying Body in accordance with EN 473. combination of two or more methods shall be considered since this is often required in order to ensure optimum probability of detection of harmful defects. e. 202 The requirements given in subsection A are applicable for the whole of this Appendix. performing an operational test under production/site/field conditions. ISO 9712 or the ASNT Central Certification Program (ACCP). October 2010 Page 188 – App. In addition. Personnel qualification to an employer based qualification scheme as SNT-TC-1A may be accepted if the employer’s written practice is reviewed and found acceptable and the Level 3 is ASNT Level III or ACCP Professional Level III and certified in the applicable method. both radiographic and ultrasonic testing of the girth weld shall be performed. interpreting results of magnetic particle and liq- Radiographic testing is preferred for detection of volumetric imperfections. in order to enhance the probability of detection or characterisation/sizing of the type of flaws that can be expected. unless specific references to other subsections are made. joint geometry and welding process used. Guidance note: The detectability of cracks with radiographic testing depends on the crack height. Whenever determination of the imperfection height and depth is necessary.D APPENDIX D NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT) A. A 200 Applicability of requirements 201 The requirements in this Appendix are given in several subsections with each subsection dealing with the non-destructive testing of specific objects. ultrasonic testing is required. Preparation of NDT procedures 504 Preparation of NDT procedures and execution of all NDT shall be carried out under the responsibility of Level 3 personnel and shall be performed by personnel holding at least Level 2 qualifications.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. equipment.

At least the following minimum information must be given: — Name of the company and operator carrying out the testing including certification level of the operator — Object and drawing references — Place and date of testing — Material type and dimensions — Post weld heat treatment. 206 If. Radiographic testing procedures 203 Radiographic testing procedures shall be according to B102 through B104 and include: B. — Example of reporting forms — Sketch showing location and information regarding detected defects — Extent of testing — Test equipment used — Description of the parameters used for each method — Description and location of all recordable indications — Testing results with reference to acceptance level — Other information related to the specific method may be listed under each method. as a minimum. shielding gas content of H2 is controlled. The reports shall identify the defects present radiographic technique class radiation source technique geometric relationships film type intensifying screens exposure conditions processing Image Quality Indicator sensitivities in percent of the wall thickness. the procedures shall be prepared in accordance with an agreed code or standard. Se 75 as gamma ray source shall be preferred. it is not possible to meet one of the conditions specified for Class B. the time in 601 above can be reduced. NDT of welds shall not be performed until 24 hours has elapsed since completion of welding. If use of radiographic isotopes is agreed. Classification of radiographic techniques 204 The radiographic techniques used shall be according to Class B and the requirements below. if required — Location of examined areas. October 2010 App. Use of radiographic isotopes (gamma rays) may be required in some situations and is subject to agreement in each case. within the previous 12 months. NDT procedure and acceptance criteria.D – Page 189 uid penetrant testing and performing visual examination shall have passed a visual acuity test such as required by EN 473. Reporting 105 All NDT shall be documented such that the tested areas may be easily identified and such that the performed testing can be duplicated.g. 602 If welding processes ensuring a diffusible hydrogen content of maximum 5 ml/100 g of weld metal are used. based on source and film side indicators respectively backscatter detection method density film side Image Quality Indicator (IQI) identification method film coverage weld identification system. — — — — — — — — — — — — — — 103 If alternative methods or combinations of methods are used for detection of imperfections. B 200 Radiographic testing of welds 201 Radiographic testing shall be performed in compliance with ISO 17636 and as required below.3 or a Jaeger J-w test at 300 mm. paragraph 6. or measures (such as post heating of the weldment) are taken to reduce the contents of hydrogen. 106 The report shall include the reporting requirements of the applicable standard. give information on the following aspects: — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — applicable code(s) or standard(s) welding method (when relevant) joint geometry and dimensions material(s) method technique equipment main and auxiliary consumables (including brand name) sensitivity calibration techniques and calibration references testing parameters and variables assessment of imperfections reporting and documentation of results reference to applicable welding procedure(s). The need for procedure qualification shall be considered in each case based on the method's sensitivity in detecting and characterising imperfections and the size and type of defects to be detected. order no. in the weld area and state if the weld satisfies the acceptance criteria or not. 205 Class B techniques shall also be used when using gamma ray sources. example of reporting forms acceptance criteria. Manual Non-Destructive Testing and Visual Examination of Welds B 100 General 101 Manual non-destructive testing of welds shall be performed in compliance with the standards listed below and as required in the following: Radiography ISO 17636 Ultrasonic ISO 17640 Magnetic Particle ISO 17638 Liquid Penetrant ASTM E 1417 Eddy Current ISO 17643 Visual examination ISO 17637 Non-destructive testing procedures 102 Non-destructive testing shall be performed in accordance with written procedures that. special agreements etc. type of joint — Welding process used — Surface conditions — Temperature of the object — Number of repairs if specific area repaired twice or more — Contract requirements e. for technical reasons. unless otherwise agreed.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. 603 NDT of pipeline installation girth welds and longitudinal welds in linepipe can be performed as soon as the welds have cooled sufficiently to allow the NDT to be performed. 202 Radiographic testing shall be performed by use of X-ray according to accepted procedures. 104 All non-destructive testing procedures shall be signed by the responsible Level III person. subject to agreement. specifications.. A 600 Timing of NDT 601 Whenever possible. DET NORSKE VERITAS . the note to Chapter 5 of ISO 17636 shall apply. adequate handling of welding consumables is verified.

305 No special procedure qualification test should be required when manual methods are used. but not more than 4. 304 Typical applications. Annex A except for double wall techniques with the IQI on the film side. Annex A the film side sensitivity obtained during procedure qualification shall be recorded and be acceptance criterion for the sensitivity of the film side IQI during production radiography. Ultrasonic testing techniques 306 Ultrasonic testing techniques shall be in accordance with ISO 17640 and the requirements below. Ultrasonic testing procedures 303 Ultrasonic testing procedures shall be according to B102 through B104 and include: — — — — — — — — type of instrument type and dimensions of probes range of probe frequencies description of reference block calibration details. Time-Of-Flight-Diffraction (TOFD) technique or the back diffraction technique. Annex A and the density shall meet the requirements of 208. Films used with fluormetallic screens shall be designed for use with this screen type — For pipe with internal diameter < 250 mm gamma ray and panoramic (single wall single image) exposures may be used. The use of gamma ray sources shall always be based on a satisfactory procedure qualification test where all requirements to sensitivity are met — Where no internal access is possible. range and sensitivity surface requirements. are: — Estimation of defect size (height) using conventional beam spread diagram (20 dB drop). the sensitivity of the film side IQI from the procedure qualification shall be used as acceptance criterion for film sensitivity. In addition to the items listed in ISO 17636 the following shall be included in the radiographic testing report: — radiographic procedure reference — geometric unsharpness.0. The maximum density allowed shall be according to the capabilities of the available viewing equipment.0.automated ultrasonic phased array systems may be used provided it is demonstrated that such systems will give DET NORSKE VERITAS . in accordance with Subsection F. For this technique. Radioscopic testing 213 Radioscopic testing techniques in accordance with EN 13068 may be used provided the equipment has been demonstrated. Reporting 212 Reports shall be in accordance with B105 and B106. The choice of radiation source. film and screen types shall be based on a satisfactory procedure qualification test where all requirements to sensitivity are met. The sensitivity of the source and film side IQIs shall both satisfy the applicable criteria in ISO 17636. to give sensitivity and detection equivalent to conventional x-ray according to ISO 12096. Storage shall be such that the radiographs maintain their quality for a minimum of 5 years without deterioration. Thiosulphate tests shall be performed at regular intervals. Radiographic procedure qualification 209 Each radiographic procedure and the consumables used shall be qualified by making radiographic exposures of a welded joint or base material with the same or typical configuration and dimensions. If the sensitivity of the film side IQI is better than required by the applicable criterion in ISO 17636. Films for use with fluormetallic screens shall be suitable for this screen type — For the double wall single image technique both X-ray and gamma ray may be used. If the absorption coefficients of the IQI material and the material tested differ by more than 20%. an experimental evaluation according to ISO 19232-4 shall be performed to establish the acceptable image quality values. including maximum temperature type of coupling medium scanning techniques supplemented with sketches. The gamma ray source shall preferably be Se 75 used with a film system class better than C4 according to ISO 17636. October 2010 Page 190 – App. Fluormetallic screens may be used based on a satisfactory procedure qualification test where all requirements to sensitivity are met. 302 Ultrasonic testing shall be performed according to accepted procedures. Sensitivity 208 The sensitivities obtained during production radiography shall at least meet the requirements of ISO 17636. showing the probes used and area covered — recording details. a double wall technique shall be applied — For the double wall double image technique x-ray shall be used. The ultrasonic testing procedure shall be submitted for acceptance.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Processing and storage 211 Processing of radiographs shall conform to ISO 17636. Table 3 unless otherwise agreed. Annex A and the average density at the sound weld metal image shall be minimum 2. Specific requirements to radiography of installation girth welds 214 For radiography the following additional requirements shall apply for installation girth welds: — Panoramic (single wall single image) exposures shall be used whenever possible — Fluormetallic screens may be used in combination with Xray based on a satisfactory procedure qualification test where all requirements to sensitivity are met. The wire material shall have a coefficient of absorption as close as possible to the material tested.D Image Quality Indicators 207 Image Quality Indicators (IQIs) shall meet the requirements given in ISO 19232. Other types of radiation sources may be used for small wall thicknesses in combination with other film types. Guidance note: Manual or semi. B 300 Manual ultrasonic testing of welds in C-Mn/low alloy steel with C-Mn/low alloy steel weld deposits 301 Ultrasonic testing shall be performed in compliance with ISO 17640 and as required below. — Testing of objects with temperature outside the range 0°C to 40°C. the radiographs should be digitised using methods giving adequate resolution and stored in electronic media in an agreed manner. the sensitivity shall meet the applicable criterion in ISO 17636. 210 For procedures using film side IQIs. the IQIs shall for radiographic procedure qualification purposes be placed on both the film side and the source side. If radiograph storage time in excess of 5 years is required. and of material equivalent to that which shall be used in production radiography. which require specific UT procedures. For procedures using source side IQIs.

These calibration blocks shall. Calibration of range scale and angle determination 313 The IIW or ISO calibration blocks (V1 – V2) according to ISO 2400 or ISO 7963 respectively. shall be used for calibration of range scale and for angle determination. Angle beam shear-wave probes shall be available in angles allowing effective testing of the actual weld connections. the OD side. For testing of girth welds or welds in plate probe angles of 45°. whichever is less). resolution and detection ability as conventional ultrasonic testing performed according to the requirements given in B300 and that specific ultrasonic testing procedures are developed and accepted. The rolling direction shall be clearly identified. the reference blocks shall have side drilled holes at T/4. Figure 1 Reference block dimensions DET NORSKE VERITAS . be suitable for use on hot surfaces (100 to 150°C). 60° and 70° will normally be sufficient but additional probes of 35° and 55° are recommended. e. Twin crystal probes shall be used when testing is performed on material with nominal thickness t < 60 mm. Other applications may require probes covering the range of 35° to 80° to allow effective testing. The reference block shall have length and width dimensions suitable for the sound beam path for all probe types and the material dimension(s) to be tested. and the DAC reference signals can only be obtained from the side where the inspection shall be performed. The reference block shall be manufactured from the actual material to be examined. have the same acoustic properties as the material to be tested. For testing of welds in plate and similar geometries a reference block with side drilled holes shall be used. diameter and position of the drilled holes shall be as shown in Figure 1 and Table D-1. When ultrasonic testing is to be performed on TMCP steel reference blocks shall. Reference blocks manufactured from other materials may be acceptable provided that the material is documented to have acoustic properties similar to the actual material to be examined. Single crystal probes may be used when testing is performed on material with nominal thickness t ≥ 60 mm. have a curvature equal to the pipe to be tested. when required. 310 Additional probes for time-of-flight diffraction (ToFD) and double probe techniques are recommended. Straight beam probes shall be single or twin crystal probes.D – Page 191 the same sensitivity. Verification of Screen Height Linearity and Amplitude Linearity shall be performed at the beginning of each period of extended use (or every 3 months. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- 311 Probe frequencies shall be selected according to ISO 17640. Probes 309 Probes used for testing of welds with C-Mn steel weld deposits shall be characterised as required by ISO 10375 and ISO 12715. Calibration records shall be made available upon request. ---e-n-d---of---G-u-i-d-a-n-c-e---n-o-t-e--- Manual ultrasonic testing equipment 307 Manual ultrasonic testing equipment shall: — be applicable for the pulse echo technique and for the double probe technique — cover as a minimum the frequency range from 2 to 6 MHz — have a calibrated gain regulator with maximum 1 dB per step over a range of at least 60 dB — have a flat screen accessible from the front for direct plotting of reference curves or be equipped with digital DACdisplay presentation of user-defined curves — allow echoes with amplitudes of 5 per cent of full screen height to be clearly detectable under test conditions. if necessary. 315 For testing of longitudinal welds in pipe and similar geometries the reference block shall in addition to the features required above. The thickness of the reference block. be produced perpendicular to and/or parallel to the direction of rolling. Guidance note: The nominal angle of probes used are normally valid for C-Mn steels with compression wave velocity of approximately 5900 m/ s and shear wave velocity of approximately 3200 m/s at 20oC.g. T/2 and 3/4T. 308 Calibration of ultrasonic equipment shall be undertaken according to procedures established according to a recognised code or standard.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. Coupling medium 312 The same coupling medium as used for calibration and setting of gains and amplification shall be used during testing. Probes shall. October 2010 App. Reference blocks for setting of reference levels 314 For testing of welds reference blocks shall be used for gain calibration and construction of the reference curves. i. as near as practicable.e. EN 12668-1-2-3 or ASME V. For testing of welds in pipe when testing can be performed from one side only.

Testing levels 325 The testing level shall be in accordance with ISO 17640. welding spatter. 320 When testing is carried out of welds in TMCP steel the actual beam angle shall be determined. 332 The scanning zone for angle probes in the base material shall be examined with straight beam (normal) probes for features that might influence the angle beam testing. scale. Difference in gain setting must be noted and taken into consideration when evaluation of indications is performed.2 3. 70° 45°.2 Position of side drilled hole T/2 Note T/4 Additional holes are required for testing of pipe when the DAC can be constructed from one side only. 318 Reference blocks not made from the actual material to be tested shall be checked for variation in acoustic properties between the reference block and the actual material. the nearest larger probe angle shall be selected. rust. Table D-2 Guidance for angle probes Parent material thickness. Alternatively. Construction of the reference curves (DAC) 321 The echo reflected from the drilled hole in the calibration block shall be maximised and the amplitude set at 80% of full screen height. 60°. see the guidance given in Table D-2. subsection J can be used. the gain shall be increased by a minimum of 6 dB above the corrected primary gain.6 N where N is the near field length of the relevant probe. October 2010 Page 192 – App.e. Additional holes are generally allowed and recommended 316 All reference blocks shall be marked with an identification that relates to the specific application of each block Gain calibration 317 The DAC. The recorded gain following all corrections for surface condition and attenuation is the corrected primary gain. If this angle does not comply with any standard probe angle. Probe selection 326 In addition to straight beam probe minimum two angle probes shall be used for the testing.4 ± 0. For T-joints and plate thick- DET NORSKE VERITAS . 322 The first point of DAC must be selected such that the distance in sound path from the probe index to the drilled hole is not less than 0. 329 These additional probes shall have a larger and smaller angle than the probe used for initial scanning. re-calibration and re-examination 323 At approximately four-hourly intervals and at the end of testing. chapter 11. The echo amplitude reflected from the drilled hole in the calibration can be adjusted to 80% of full screen height over the whole range in question. The differences in angle shall be more than 10o. T 8 – 20 mm 20 – 40 mm T > 40 mm Probe angle 60° and 70° 45°.25 × full skip distance. The scanning zone is defined as 1. the range scale. The DAC shall be constructed by obtaining at least 3 points on the curve. Contact surface 324 For ultrasonic testing the contact surface shall be clean and smooth. i. Alternatively the method described in Appendix E.0 ± 0. 333 The welds shall whenever feasible be tested from both sides on the same surface and include scanning for both transverse and longitudinal indications. The angle can be calculated using trigonometric functions as long as the distance and depth to the reflectors in the TMCP steel reference block is known. Testing of welds shall be performed in accordance with ISO 17640. 60° 70° 327 The choice of optimum probe angle for initial full scanning of the weld shall be chosen such that incident angle of the sound beam centre is perpendicular to the side of the weld bevel.D Table D-1 Reference Block Dimensions Material thickness (t) Thickness of reference block (T) T < 15 mm 15 mm ≤ t < 35 mm 35 mm ≤ t < 50 mm 50 mm ≤ t < 100 mm 100 mm ≤ t < 150 mm 15 mm or t 20 mm or t 38 mm or t 75 mm or t 125 mm or t Diameter of side drilled hole (mm) 2. 328 In addition to the probe used for initial scanning two additional angle probes shall be used when possible. This requires DAC constructed by use of calibration blocks taken from transverse and parallel to the rolling direction. free from dirt. the difference in attenuation between transverse and longitudinal rolling direction shall be checked when the scanning direction changes between transverse and parallel to the rolling direction. testing level B and the requirements below. probe angle and primary gain must be checked and confirmed. 319 Whenever ultrasonic testing of welds in TMCP steel is performed.2 3. Correction for differences in surface conditions and attenuation between the reference block and the actual work piece shall be performed and the maximum correction allowed on flat surfaces is 6 dB. The gain setting shall be recorded and comprises the primary gain. Periodical checks of equipment. weld bevel and type of defects likely to occur with the welding method used. Re-calibration shall be performed whenever the equipment has been out function for any reason including on-off and whenever there is any doubt concerning proper function of the equipment. etc.curve shall be constructed using reference blocks with side-drilled holes as described in 315.Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101. or 4 dB of primary gain setting or 2° of nominal probe angle. a Time Corrected Gain calibration can be used if the ultrasonic apparatus is fitted with a time corrected gain (TCG) correction. which may influence the result of the testing. 330 If only one additional probe can be used the angle for this probe should be: — ≥ 10° different — Larger than the initial probe if the sound beam centre of the initial probe is perpendicular to the side of the weld bevel — Smaller than the initial probe if the nearest larger probe angle was selected for the initial probe Testing of welds 331 When scanning. the equipment shall be re-calibrated and the testing carried out with the equipment over the previous period shall be repeated. It is emphasised that this table is for guidance and that the actual choice of angle probes must be made carefully and depending on material thickness. DAC will thus be a horizontal line. If deviation is found to be larger than 2% of range scale. Features interfering with the scanning shall be reported. The variation can be checked by calibrating the range scale on the ISO 2400 block with a normal probe and subsequently measure a known material thickness with this calibration.0 ± 0.

Offshore Standard DNV-OS-F101, October 2010 App.D – Page 193

ness above 70 mm, scanning from both surfaces and all accessible sides shall be performed. Evaluation of indications 334 For evaluation of indications the gain shall be reduced by the increased dB level used during scanning. 335 All indications equal to or exceeding 33% of the reference curve (evaluation level) shall be evaluated. The indications shall be investigated by maximising the echoes by rotating the probes and by using different angle probes with DAC established according to 321 and 322. 336 The length of an indication shall be determined by measuring the distance between the points where the echo amplitude exceeds the evaluation level using the fixed level technique. 337 The final evaluation against the acceptance criteria shall be based on the echo amplitude and length measured with the probe angle giving the maximum response. Reporting 338 Reports shall be in accordance with B105 and B106. In addition to the items listed in ISO 17640 the following shall be included in the ultrasonic testing report: — identification of the ultrasonic testing procedure used — the length of acceptable indications with amplitude exceeding 50% of the reference curve.
B 400 Manual ultrasonic testing of welds with CRA (duplex, other stainless steels and nickel alloy steel) weld deposits General 401 Ultrasonic testing shall be performed in compliance with B300, ISO 17640, and as required below. 402 Weld deposits in duplex, austenitic stainless steels and nickel alloys have a coarse grain structure with variations in grain size and structure resulting in unpredictable fluctuations in attenuation and ultrasonic beam patterns. Duplex and austenitic stainless steel base materials, in particular forgings and castings, will have the same characteristics. Ultrasonic testing of welds with CRA (duplex, other stainless steels and nickel alloy steel) weld deposits will in order to achieve an adequate detection of imperfections require that special calibration blocks and probes are used for testing of welds in these materials. Angle probes generating compression waves must normally be used in addition to straight beam probes, angle shear wave probes and creep wave probes.

Ultrasonic testing procedures 403 Specific ultrasonic testing procedures shall be developed for this testing in compliance with this chapter and including the information required in B102 and B303. The procedure shall be submitted for acceptance prior to start of testing. Personnel qualifications 404 In addition to the requirements given in A500 personnel performing testing of welds with duplex, other stainless steels and nickel alloy steel weld deposits shall be qualified for or document adequate experience and training for this type of ultrasonic testing. Manual ultrasonic testing equipment 405 The requirements given in B307 and B308 shall apply Probes 406 In addition to the requirements given in B309, B310 and B311, the requirements below shall apply. 407 Probes used for testing shall normally be straight beam transducers and twin crystal (transmitter/receiver) compression wave probes of 45°, 60° and 70°. In addition similar shearwave angle probes shall be used, if found suitable. 408 In general, using a combination of shear and compression wave angle probes is recommended since the detection of "open to surface" imperfections on the opposite surface of the scanning surface, e.g. incomplete penetration or lack of fusion, may increase by using shear wave probes. It must, however, be verified by using calibration blocks with actual weld connections, see 418 below, that angle shear wave probes are suitable. 409 Creep wave probes shall be used for detection of sub surface defects close to the scanning surface, unless testing can be performed from opposite sides. Reference blocks for setting of reference levels 410 In addition to the reference blocks as described in B314, B315 and B316, reference blocks prepared from the actual test material and containing welds produced in accordance with the actual WPS shall be used for establishing the DAC. These reference blocks shall have the weld ground flush and the surface condition of the calibration blocks shall be typical of the condition of the parent material(s) in the scanning areas. 411 The reference block for construction of DAC shall have side drilled holes with dimensions according to Table D-3 and located as shown in Figure 2. The length and width of the reference blocks shall be sufficient to allow the scanning needed for construction of the DAC.

Figure 2 Reference block for construction of DAC, dimensions
Notes: 1) 2) Side drilled holes shall be drilled in the fusion line and in the base material. Holes in the base material shall be in the same relative position as the fusion line holes. Holes shall be drilled in both fusion lines and base material when two dissimilar materials are welded to each other. 3) 4) For double sided welds, side drilled holes shall be located in the fusion line for the full thickness of the weld. For hole positions when t ≥ 50 mm, see Table D-3.

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Table D-3 Reference Block Dimensions Material thickness (t) Thickness of reference block (T) in Diameter of side drilled hole in mm Position of side drilled holes. T < 15 mm 15 mm ≤ t < 35 mm 35 mm ≤ t < 50 mm 50 mm ≤ t < 100 mm 100 mm ≤ t < 150 mm 15 mm or t 25 mm or t 45 mm or t 75 mm or t 125 mm or t 2.4 ± 0.2 3.0 ± 0.2 3.0 ± 0.2 T/4, T/2 and T3/4

The distance between the two outer holes and the nearest surface shall not exceed 12 mm.

412 The reference block for sensitivity setting for creep wave probes shall have 0.5-1.0 and 2.0 mm spark eroded notches with a minimum length of 20 mm as shown in

Figure 3. The location of notches shall allow setting against each individual notch.

Figure 3 Reference block for sensitivity setting for creep wave probes, dimensions

Construction of the reference curves (DAC) for angle compression wave probes
413 Angle compression wave probes shall and can only be used for scanning without skipping. The construction of the DAC curves using angle compression wave probe shall be performed according to:

— when the ultrasonic beam is passing through the parent metal only — when ultrasonic beam is passing through the weld metal.
414 When the ultrasonic beam is passing through the parent metal only the DAC curve shall be constructed from the drilled holes in the parent material of the calibration blocks, see Figure 2. Next, a maximum response shall be obtained from the holes in the weld fusion line and if necessary, the gain setting shall be adjusted such that this response reach the DAC constructed against drilled holes in the parent material. This shall be the primary gain to be used when locating indications on the fusion line on the side of the weld nearest to the scanning side. 415 When the ultrasonic beam is passing through the weld metal, the DAC curve shall be constructed from the holes drilled in the fusion line on the side of the weld opposite to the scanning side. See Figure 2. This DAC shall be verified against the holes drilled in the base material. Any variations must be noted so that echoes reflected from indications within the weld zone can be evaluated for amplitude response.

similar to the production material. Sensitivity setting for creep wave probes 417 The reference block shown in Figure 3 shall be used for sensitivity setting for creep wave probes. The echo response from the 1.0 mm notch shall be set to 75% of FSH. Shear wave angle probes 418 If shear angle probes are considered for skipped scanning or in the root area of single sided welds, it must be verified on the reference blocks with welds, see Figure 2, if it is possible to obtain a DAC with a shear wave angle probe that is comparable to the DAC obtained with an angle compression wave probe. Preparation of weld and scanning surfaces for testing 419 Prior to starting the testing the external weld cap shall be ground flush with the adjacent base material. The surface finish of the weld and the scanning areas shall be as that on the reference blocks to be used or better. Probe selection 420 In addition to the straight beam probe minimum two angle probes shall be used for the testing, see the guidance given in Table D-2 and B326 through B330. 421 Where the weld configuration or adjacent parts of the object are such that scanning from both sides is not possible, two additional probes shall always be used.
B 500 Manual magnetic particle testing of welds General 501 Magnetic particle testing shall be performed in compliance with ISO 17638 and as required below. 502 Magnetic particle testing shall be performed according to accepted procedures. Magnetic particle testing procedures 503 Magnetic particle testing procedures shall be according

Transfer correction
416 Since compression wave angle probes can only be used without skipping, transfer correction can not be performed. The calibration blocks must therefore have a surface finish

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to B102 through B104 and include: — — — — — — type of magnetisation type of equipment surface preparation wet or dry method make and type of magnetic particles and contrast paint magnetising current (for prod magnetising, the prod type and spacing shall be stated) — demagnetisation — description of the testing technique.
504 No special procedure qualification tests is required. Magnetising equipment 505 The equipment shall be tested at maximum 6 months interval to verify that the required field strength is established at the maximum leg spread/prod spacing to be used. The results shall be recorded. 506 Prods shall be soft tipped with lead or similar. Sparks between the prods and the material tested shall be avoided. 507 Electromagnetic AC yokes shall develop a minimum lifting force of 5 kg at maximum leg spread. The lifting force shall be checked prior to start of any testing and at regular intervals during testing. 508 Use of permanent magnets is not permitted. DC yokes may only be used for specific applications if required by national regulations. Application techniques 509 Magnetic particle testing shall not be performed on parts with surface temperatures exceeding 300°C. Between 60°C and 300°C, only dry magnetic particle testing shall be used. Detection media 510 Testing using fluorescent wet magnetic particles should be the preferred method. 511 If non-fluorescent wet or dry particles are used they shall provide adequate contrast with the background or the surface being tested. Viewing conditions 512 Testing with fluorescent magnetic particles shall be conducted in a darkened area with maximum 20 lux background light, using filtered ultraviolet light with wave lengths in the range of 3200 to 3900 Å. Operators/interpreters shall allow sufficient time for eyesight to adjust to the dark surroundings. Interpreters shall not wear photo-chromatic viewing aids. Reporting 513 Reports shall be in accordance with B105 and B106. In addition to the items listed in ISO 17638 the following shall be included in the testing report:

— surface preparation — make and type of penetrant, remover, emulsifier and developer — details of pre-testing cleaning and drying, including materials used and time allowed for drying — details of penetrant application: the time the penetrant remains on the surface, the temperature of the surface and penetrant during the testing (if not within the 15°C to 35°C range) — details of developer application, and developing time before evaluation — method for post-test cleaning. Application techniques 605 The penetration and developing times shall be long enough to allow effective detection of the smallest indications allowed. Demonstration of adequate detection shall be performed for short penetration times.
Guidance note: The penetration time for water washable penetrants should normally not be less than 40 - 60