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Performance Appraise of Assorted Thresholding Methods in CBIR using Block Truncation Coding

Performance Appraise of Assorted Thresholding Methods in CBIR using Block Truncation Coding

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The paper proposes various types of thresholding methods for generation of image bitmaps used in Block Truncation Coding (BTC), also the performance comparison of these assorted thresholding methods in image retrieval using multilevel BTC is presented. The different thresholding methods discussed here alias Global thresholding, Local thresholding and Intermediate thresholding. Based on the type of thresholding method used for bitmap generation in BTC the performance of the respective BTC based image retrieval method varies. The proposed variations of BTC based image retrieval techniques are tested on extended Wang generic image database of 1000 images spread across 11 categories. For each CBIR (content based image retrieval) technique, 1000 queries are fired on image database to compute average precision and recall for all queries with respect to number of retrieved image. These values are plotted to obtain the crossover point of precision and recall, which is used as criteria for performance comparison. The results have shown the performance improvement (i.e., higher precision and recall crossover point values) with Intermediate BTC-CBIR method. The performance of multileveled Intermediate BTC-CBIR increases gradually with increase in level up to certain extent (Level 3) and then increases slightly due to voids being created at higher levels. In all level 3 of BTC Intermediate-9 BTC gives best performance.
The paper proposes various types of thresholding methods for generation of image bitmaps used in Block Truncation Coding (BTC), also the performance comparison of these assorted thresholding methods in image retrieval using multilevel BTC is presented. The different thresholding methods discussed here alias Global thresholding, Local thresholding and Intermediate thresholding. Based on the type of thresholding method used for bitmap generation in BTC the performance of the respective BTC based image retrieval method varies. The proposed variations of BTC based image retrieval techniques are tested on extended Wang generic image database of 1000 images spread across 11 categories. For each CBIR (content based image retrieval) technique, 1000 queries are fired on image database to compute average precision and recall for all queries with respect to number of retrieved image. These values are plotted to obtain the crossover point of precision and recall, which is used as criteria for performance comparison. The results have shown the performance improvement (i.e., higher precision and recall crossover point values) with Intermediate BTC-CBIR method. The performance of multileveled Intermediate BTC-CBIR increases gradually with increase in level up to certain extent (Level 3) and then increases slightly due to voids being created at higher levels. In all level 3 of BTC Intermediate-9 BTC gives best performance.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 09, No.

06, June 2011

Performance Appraise of Assorted Thresholding Methods in CBIR using Block Truncation Coding
1

Dr. H.B.Kekre1, Sudeep D. Thepade2, Shrikant Sanas3 Senior Professor, 2Associate Professor & Ph.D.Research Scholar, 3M.Tech Student Computer Engineering Department, MPSTME, SVKM‟s NMIMS (Deemed-to-be University), Mumbai, India 1 hbkekre@yahoo.com, 2sudeepthepade@gmail.com,3shri.sanas@gmail.com to provide a high percentage of relevant images in response to the query image. The goal of an image retrieval system is to retrieve a set of images from a collection of images such that this set meets the use requirements [14,15,16]. The user‟s requirements can be specified in terms of similarity to some other image. The challenge to image indexing/management is studied in the context of image database, Image retrieval systems can be divided into two main types: Text Based Image Retrieval and Content Based Image Retrieval [9]. Text Based Image Retrieval is the traditional image retrieval system. In retrieval systems by adding text strings describing the content of an image. This system having drawbacks first It is very time consuming technique. Second as per perception of information from same image different person having different meaning. Due to these drawbacks, Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) is introduced [20]. A Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) gives query as Image and output is number of matching images to query image. In a CBIR, features are used to represent the image content. The features are extracted automatically and there is no manual intervention, thus eliminating the dependency on humans in the feature extraction stage. The typical CBIR system performs two major tasks. The first one is feature extraction (FE), where a set of features, called feature vector, is generated to accurately represent the content of each image in the database. A feature vector is much smaller in size than the original image. The second task is similarity measurement (SM), where a distance between the query image and each image in the database using their signatures is computed so that the top “closest” images can be retrieved [3, 11, 12, 13]. Many current CBIR system use Euclidean distance on the extracted feature set as a similarity measure. The Direct Euclidian distance [21] between image P and query image Q can be given as equation 1. Where Vpi and Vqi are the feature vectors of image P and query image Q respectively with size „n‟.
ED  1 / 2

Abstract— The paper proposes various types of thresholding methods for generation of image bitmaps used in Block Truncation Coding (BTC), also the performance comparison of these assorted thresholding methods in image retrieval using multilevel BTC is presented. The different hresholding methods discussed here alias Global thresholding, Local thresholding and Intermediate thresholding. Based on the type of thresholding method used for bitmap generation in BTC the performance of the respective BTC based image retrieval method varies. The proposed variations of BTC based image retrieval techniques are tested on extended Wang generic image database of 1000 images spread across 11 categories. For each CBIR (content based image retrieval) technique, 1000 queries are fired on image database to compute average precision and recall for all queries with respect to number of retrieved image. These values are plotted to obtain the crossover point of precision and recall, which is used as criteria for performance comparison. The results have shown the performance improvement (i.e., higher precision and recall crossover point values) with Intermediate BTC-CBIR method. The performance of multileveled Intermediate BTC-CBIR increases gradually with increase in level up to certain extent (Level 3) and then increases slightly due to voids being created at higher levels. In all level 3 of BTC Intermediate-9 BTC gives best performance. Keywords: CBIR, BTC, Multilevel BTC, Thresholding.

1. Introduction Visual communication plays an important role in human communication. We live in digital era with advancement in information and communication technology. Large amount of digital data is generated, transmitted, stored, analyzed and accessed. Mostly information is in multimedia nature such as digital images, audio, video, graphics. From various sources large amount of images are generated and it takes large volume for storage purpose [1,2,3,4]. This store information in the form of images are more complex to retrieve and it is difficult to store in large volume. The need for efficient retrieval of images has been recognized by managers of large image collections [5,6,7]. To develop efficient indexing techniques for the retrieval of enormous volumes of images being generated these days, reasonable solutions need to be achieved. Content based image retrieval (CBIR) is one of such attempts [8,9,10]. CBIR is used

 (Vpi  Vqi)2
i 1

n

(1)

Where, Vpi and Vqi be the feature vectors of image P and Query image Q respectively with size „n‟.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 09, No.06, June 2011

The thirst of better and faster image retrieval techniques is increasing day by day. Some of important applications for CBIR technology could be identified as art galleries [21], museums, archaeology, architecture design, geographic information systems, weather forecast, medical imaging, trademark databases, criminal investigations [19], image search on the internet. 2. Block Truncation Coding (BTC) Block truncation coding (BTC) is a relatively simple and basic image coding or compression technique [14]. Many advanced coding techniques were developed based on this technique. It was initially developed in 1979 for grayscale image coding. In this technique, the image to be compressed or coded is divided into small non-overlapping blocks of size 4x4 pixels or of size which gives a reasonable resolution. Coding is done on one block at a time. A binary bit-map is created for each pixel within the block based on the block average mean. If the pixel value is greater than the mean pixel value of the block, then value of 1 is marked in the bitmap in the respective pixel position. Value of 0 is marked if the pixel value is less than the block mean value. As a next step, the bitmap table is divided into two bitmap tables called “upper mean” and “lower mean”. Upper mean bitmap table is created for all pixel positions having 1 as value and lower mean bitmap is created for all pixels having 0 as value. The upper mean table will take the original pixel value for the pixel position that has value 1 and 0 for rest of the pixel position. Similarly, the lower mean bitmap table will take original pixel value for the pixel positions that has 0 values and 0 for the rest of pixel positions. 3. Thresholding Methods In BTC first the average of the image (referred as „threshold‟) is taken and then it is used to divide all image pixels into two groups, greater than average and lesser than average. The means of each of these two groups per colour plane are considered as feature vectors for BTC based CBIR. In conventional BTC the threshold is computed by taking mean of all image pixels per plane which here is referred as Global thesholding. These means per colour plane when concatenated together form feature vector of respective image to be used in Global BTC based CBIR. As shown in figure 1 there can be other possibilities of computing the thresholds for dividing the image data into two clusters (greater and lesser than the threshold). The approach of local thresholding considers each 2x2 pixel block separately to compute the threshold (as shown in figure 1.b) and further all the pixels having value greater than local thresholds are grouped as upper cluster and other pixels having values lower than the local thresholds form lower cluster, resulting again into feature vector having six values with lower average and upper average per plane, used for Local BTC based CBIR.

For intermediate-4 thresholding, the image is divided into four quadrants (as shown in figure 1.c) and threshold for each quadrant is considered separately, to divide pixels of each colour plane of the image into upper and lower clusters respectively; resulting into feature vector of size six values (two per colour plane, upper average and lower average) used in Intermediate-4 BTC based CBIR. In the similar manner if the image is divided into nine non overlapping equal parts (as shown in figure 1.d) and threshold over each part is considered to divide the pixels in that part into upper and lower clusters, intermediate-9 thresholding is used. The generated feature vector with upper mean and lower mean per colour plane of the image is used in Intermediate-9 BTC based CBIR.

Figure 1. Proposed Thresholding Methods to be used in BTC

4. CBIR using Global BTC level-1 (BTC-6) [3, 4, 5, 18, 22] In original BTC the image is divided into R, B, and G components and the inter band average image (IBAI) is computed, which is the average of all the components(R, G, and B) and mean of inter band average image is taken as threshold. By using three independent R, G and B components of color images to calculate three different thresholds and then apply BTC to each individual R, G and B planes. Let the thresholds be MR, MG and MB, which could be computed as per the equations 2, 3 and 4 given below.

MR 

1 m n  R(i, j ) m * n i 1 j 1

(2)

X

MG 

1 m*n

 G(i, j)
i 1 j 1

m

n

(3)

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 09, No.06, June 2011

5. CBIR using Multilevel Global BTC [1][2] V
MB  1 m*n

 B(i, j)
i 1 j 1

m

n

(4)

Then the three binary bitmaps are computed as BMr, BMg and BMb respectively as given in equations 5, 6 and 7. If a pixel in each component (R, G, and B) is greater than or equal to the respective threshold, the corresponding pixel position of the bitmap will have a value of 1 otherwise it will have a value of 0.
1, if ....R(i, j )  MR BMr (i, j )  { 0,....if ...R(i, j )  MR
1, if ....G (i, j )  MG BMg (i, j )  { 0,....if ...G (i, j )  MG

In Multilevel BTC [1,2] the colour averages are found at different levels of Block Truncation Coding. The increase in the level of BTC results into increased feature vector size. The feature vector at a particular level of BTC is used for retrieving images from large database. In the paper the multilevel BTC is applied on local and intermediate thresholding methods.

(5)

(6) Figure 2: Multilevel BTC

1, if ....B(i, j )  MB BMb(i, j )  { 0,....if ...B(i, j )  MB

(7)

Two mean colors one for the pixels greater than or equal to the threshold and other for the pixels smaller than the threshold are also calculated [15]. The upper mean color UM (UR, UG, UB) is given as follows in equations 8,9 and 10.
UR  1

 BMr(i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

*  BMr (i, j ) * R(i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

CBIR using BTC-Level 2 (BTC-12) In BTC- Level 2 the image data is divided into 12 parts using the six means obtained in BTC-Level 1. Here the bitmap are prepared using upper and lower mean values of individual colour components. For red color component the bitmap „BMUR‟ and „BMLR‟ are generated as given in equations 14 and 15. Similarly for green color component „BMUG‟ & „BMLR‟ and for blue color components „BMUB‟ & „BMLB‟ can be generated.
1, if ....R(i, j )  UR BMUR(i, j )  { 0,....if ...R(i, j )  UR 1, if ....R(i, j )  LR BMLR(i, j )  { 0,....if ...R(i, j )  LR

(8)

(14)

UG 

1

 BMg (i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

*  BMg (i, j ) * G (i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

(9)

(15)

UB 

1

 BMb(i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

*  BMb(i, j ) * B(i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

(10)

And the Lower Mean LM= (LR, LG, LB) is computed as following equations 11, 12 and 13.
LR  1 m * n   BMr (i, j )
i 1 j 1 m n

* {1  BMr (i, j )} * R(i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

(11)

Using this bitmap the two mean colors per bitmap one for the pixels greater than or equal to the threshold and other for the pixels smaller than the threshold are calculated [15]. The upper mean color UM (UUR, ULR, UUG, ULG, UUB, ULB) are given as equations 16 and 17. m n 1 UUR  m n *   BMUR(i, j ) * Iur (i, j ) (16)   BMUR(i, j ) i 1 j 1
i 1 j 1

LG 

1 m * n   BMg (i, j )
i 1 j 1 m n

* {1  BMg (i, j )} * G (i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

ULR 

1

(12)

 BMLR(i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

*   BMLR(i, j ) * Ilr (i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

(17)

LB 

1 m * n   BMb(i, j )
i 1 j 1 m n

* {1  BMb(i, j )} * B(i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

(13)

And the first two components of Lower Mean LM= (LUR, LLR, LUG, LLG, LUB, LLB) are computed using following equations 18 and 19.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 09, No.06, June 2011
LUR  1 *  {1  BMUR(i, j )}* Iur(i, j )
i 1 j 1 m n

 BMUR(i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

(18)

LLR 

1

 BMLR(i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

*  {1  BMLR(i, j )}* Ilr(i, j )
i 1 j 1

m

n

(19)

precision and recall as statistical comparison parameter for the BTC-6, BTC-12, BTC-24 and BTC-48 techniques of CBIR on Global thresholding, Local thresholding and Intermediate thresholding types. The standard definitions of these two measures are given by following equations 20 and 21.
Pr ecesion 
Re call 

Number _ of _ relevant _ images _ retrieved Total _ number _ of _ images _ retrieved

(20)

These Upper Mean and Lower Mean together will form a feature vector for BTC-12. For every image stored in the database these feature vectors are computed and stored in feature vector table. CBIR using BTC-Level 3 (BTC-24) Similarly the feature vector for BTC-24 can be found by extending the BTC till level 3 as shown in figure 1. Each plane will give the 6 elements of feature vector. For Red plane we get (UUUR, LUUR, ULUR, LLUR, UULR, LULR, ULLR, and LLLR). CBIR using BTC-Level 3[1] and BTC-RGB-Level 4 [2] Similarly the feature vector for BTC-24 can be found by extending the BTC till level 3. Each plane will give the 8 elements of feature vector. For Red plane we get (UUUR, LUUR, ULUR, LLUR, UULR, LULR, ULLR, and LLLR). Also feature vector of size 48 can be generated by extending this process of BTC to next level.

Number _ of _ relevant _ images _ retrieved Total _ number _ of _ relevent _ images _ in _ database

(21)

8. Results and Discussion
The proposed BTC-CBIR methods are applied on image database of 1000 images at four different levels of BTC such as BTC Level-1, BTC Level-2, BTC Level-3 and BTC Level-4. For each level of BTC the four assorted thresholding methods as global, local, intermediate-4 and intermediate-9 are considered to get 16 variations of BTC based CBIR methods. The average precision and recall values of 1000 queries per CBIR method are computed and considered for performance comparison. Figure 3 shows the average precision and recall values plotted against number of retrieved images for Global BTC-CBIR at level 1 (BTC-6), level 2 (BTC-12), level 3 (BTC-24) and level 4 (BTC-48), where the distinction in the performance of all these techniques is not very clear.

6. CBIR using Local and Intermediate BTC
In the CBIR using local BTC, the feature vector is found by using the local thresholding based BTC. Here the image is divided into 2x2 pixel blocks, to find the local average of block. This local average is treated as threshold value for generating the bitmap of respective block, by comparing the local threshold value with each pixel value of that 2x2 block. After completing the bitmap for each plane of image the BTC can be applied to generate the local feature for BTC-Level 1. This can be continued for extracting the local multilevel BTC features using BTC-Level 2, BTC-Level 3 and BTC-Level 4. In CBIR using intermediate BTC, the either of intermediate-4 or intermediate-9 thresholding methods can be used to prepare intial image bitmap, which further can be considered for application of BTC to generate the intermediate BTC features of various levels of BTC.
Figure 3: Performance comparison of discussed Global thresholding based BTC-CBIR methods using Precision-Recall crossover points

7. Implementation
The implementation of these CBIR techniques is done using MATLAB 7.0. The CBIR techniques are tested on the augmented Wang [17] image database of 1000 variable size images spread across 11 categories of human beings, animals, natural scenery and man-made things. To compare various techniques in RGB color space, performance is evaluated based on precision and recall. The efficiency of CBIR technique is evaluated based on accuracy, stability and speed. To assess the retrieval effectiveness, we have used the crossover point of

Figure 4:Crossover points of Precision-Recall plotted against number of retrieved images for Global BTC-CBIR methods

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 09, No.06, June 2011

The height of crossover point of precision and recall curves plays very important role in performance comparison of CBIR methods. Ideally this crossover point height should be one. Higher the value of this crossover point better the performance is. Figure 4 shows the zoomed version of graphs in figure 3 for crossover points of precision and recall curves. From figure 4 it is evidently observed that BTC-level 3and level 4 outperform the lower levels of BTC for CBIR using global thresholding. Figure 5 and Figure 6 shows the bar graphs indicating the heights of crossover points of precision-recall curves of respective proposed BTC-CBIR methods.

Figure 6: Performance comparison of discussed BTC-CBIR methods using assorted thresholding methods for respective level of BTC

9. Conclusion
The BTC based CBIR methods have been actively researched and proven to be better. Even recently the multilevel BTC-CBIR techniques have been proposed for better image retrieval. But in all these BTC-CBIR methods the global thresholding was considered. The paper presented the appraise in performance of BTC-CBIR methods using intermediate thresholding methods. Here in all four assorted thresholding methods (alias local, intermediate-4, intermediate-9 and global) are used for BTCCBIR in consideration with four levels of BTC from level 1 to level 4, resulting into 16 variations of BTC-CBIR. The experimental results have shown that the intermediate thresholding helps in performance improvement of BTC-CBIR as compared to conventional global thresholding used in earlier versions. The BTC level 3 along with intermediate-9 thresholding method has given the best performance for image retrieval.

Figure 5: Performance comparison of different levels of BTC-CBIR for respective thresholding methods

Figure 5 is serving the purpose of performance comparison of different levels of BTC for respective thesholding techniques proposed. From figure 5 it can be observed that for each thresholding method (except the intermediate-9 thresholding) the best performance (Highest precision-recall crossover point value) is given by Level 4 (BTC-48). The increase in performance from BTC-6 (Level 1) to BTC-24 (Level 3) is gradual in nature while the performances of BTC-24 (Level 3) and BTC-48 (Level 4) have very slight difference. This proves the worth of multilevel BTC over the conventional BTC (BTC level 1) with BTC level 4 being the best in CBIR. Figure 6 gives the performance comparison of proposed thresholding methods used in BTC for respective levels of BTCCBIR. The best performance (Highest precision-recall crossover point value) is given by Intermediate-9 thresholding of BTCCBIR for all levels of BTC. So the overall conclusion that „to improve the performance of BTC-CBIR methods the combination of BTC-Level 3 (BTC-24) with intermediate-9 thresholding has to be used‟ can be drawn based on the experimentation.

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Thesis , Master of science in Informatics, Norwegian university of science and Technology, Department of computer and Information science, June 2006. Rafael C.Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods,” Digital Image Processing,” University of Tennessee, Second Edition, ISBN 81-7808-629-8, Pearson Education Pvt. Ltd.,2002. http://wang.ist.psu.edu/docs/related/Image.orig (Last referred on 23 Sept 2008) Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, “Color Based Image Retrieval using Amendment Block Truncation Coding with YCbCr Color Space”, International Journal on Imaging (IJI), Volume 2, Number A09, Autumn 2009, pp. 2-14. Available online at www.ceser.res.in/iji.html Dr.H.B.Kekre, Tanuja Sarode, Sudeep D. Thepade, “ColorTexture Feature based Image Retrieval using DCT applied on Kekre‟s Median Codebook”, International Journal on Imaging (IJI), Volume 2, Number A09, Autumn 2009,pp. 55-65. Available online at www.ceser.res.in/iji.html M. Flickner, H. Sawhney, W. Niblack, J. Ashley, Q. Huang, B. Dom, M. Gorkani, Hafner, D. Lee, D. Petkovic, D. Steele, and P. Yanker. Query by image and video content: the QBIC system. IEEE Computer, 28(9):23–32, 1995. Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, A. Athawale, Adib Parkar, “Using Assorted Color Spaces and Pixel Window Sizes for Colorization of Grayscale Images”, ACMInternational Conference and Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology (ICWET 2010), Thakur College of Engg. And Tech., Mumbai, 26-27 Feb 2010, uploaded on online ACM Portal. Dr.H.B.Kekre, Sudeep D. Thepade, Shobhit W., Miti K., Styajit S., Priyadarshini M. “Image Retrieval with Shape Features Extracted using Gradient Operators and Slope Magnitude Technique with BTC”, International Journal of Computer Applications (IJCA), Volume 6, Number 8, pp.2833, September 2010. http://www.ijcaonline.org/volume6/number8/pxc3871430.pd f

Author Biographies Dr. H. B. Kekre has received B.E. (Hons.) in Telecomm. Engineering. from Jabalpur University in 1958, M.Tech (Industrial Electronics) from IIT Bombay in 1960, M.S.Engg. (Electrical Engg.) from University of Ottawa in 1965 and Ph.D. (System Identification) from IIT Bombay in 1970 He has worked as Faculty of Electrical Engg. and then HOD Computer Science and Engg. at IIT Bombay. For 13 years he was working as a professor and head in the Department of Computer Engg. at Thadomal Shahani Engineering. College, Mumbai. Now he is Senior Professor at MPSTME, SVKM‟s NMIMS (Deemed to be University). He has guided 17 Ph.Ds, more than 100 M.E./M.Tech and several B.E./B.Tech projects. His areas of interest are Digital Signal processing, Image Processing and Computer Networking. He has more than 320 papers in National / International Conferences and Journals to his credit. He was Senior Member of

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IEEE. Presently He is Fellow of IETE and Life Member of ISTE Recently ten students working under his guidance have received best awards and two have been conferred Ph.D. degree of SVKM‟s NMIMS (Deemed to be University). Currently 10 research scholars are pursuing Ph.D. program under his guidance. Sudeep D. Thepade has Received B.E.(Computer) degree from North Maharashtra University with Distinction in 2003. M.E. in Computer Engineering from University of Mumbai in 2008 with Distinction, currently submitted Ph.D. Thesis to SVKM‟s NMIMS (Deemed to be University), Mumbai. He has about 08 years of experience in teaching and industry. He was Lecturer in Dept. of Information Technology at Thadomal Shahani Engineering College, Bandra(w), Mumbai for nearly 04 years. Currently working as Associate Professor in Computer Engineering at Mukesh Patel School of Technology Management and Engineering, SVKM‟s NMIMS (Deemed to be University), Vile Parle(w), Mumbai, INDIA. He is member of International Association of Engineers (IAENG) and International Association of Computer Science and Information Technology (IACSIT), Singapore. He is reviewer for many international journals. He has worked as member of International Advisory Committee for many International Conferences. His areas of interest are Image Processing Applications and Biometrics. He has about 110 papers in National/International Conferences/Journals to his credit with a Best Paper Award at Int. Conference SSPCCIN-2008, Second Best Paper Award at ThinkQuest-2009 National Level faculty paper presentation competition, Best Paper Award at Springer Int. Conf. ICCCT-2010 and second best research project award at Manshodhan-2011. Shrikant P. Sanas has received B.E. (Computer) degree from Mumbai University with First Class in 2008.Currently pursuing M-Tech from Mukesh Patel School of Tech. Mgmt. and Engineering. SVKM‟s NMIMS (Deemed to be University), Vile Parle(w), Mumbai. Currently working as Lecturer in Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology. Nerul, Navi Mumbai. He has 02 papers in International Journals.

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