BASIC ELECTRONICS

La bor a t or y Man u al



Enrollme nt No. :_______________

Name of t he s t ude nt :_________________________________



Governme nt Engine e ring Colle ge , Rajkot


L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1





CLk1IIICA1L

Th is is t o cert ify t h a t Mr / Mis s
_____________________________________________ En rollmen t No.
______________ of B.E. (E.C.) SEM-III h as s at is fa ct orily complet ed
t h e t erm wor k of t he s u bject BASIC ELECTRONICS pres cr ibed
by Gu ja r a t Tech n ologica l Un iver s it y du r in g t h e aca demic t erm
________________.



Dat e: Sign at u re of t h e fa cu lt y


8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

INDEX
Sr.
No.
Name of t he Expe rime nt
Page
No.
1. To obs er ve s ine wa ve, s qu a re wa ve, t r ian gu la r wa ve a n d ra mp
wa vefor ms on t h e C.R.O. a n d t o mea s u r e a mplit u de a nd
fr equ en cy of t he wa vefor ms .
1
2. To obt a in V-I cha r a ct er is t ics of PN ju n ct ion diode

3. To obt a in V-I cha r a ct er is t ics of Zener diode

4. To obt a in ch a ra ct er is t ics of ligh t depen da n t r es is t or (LDR)

5. To bu ild a n d t es t pr a ct ica l cir cu it of LDR (Mea s u r e volt a ge a t
differen t poin t s )

6. To obt a in ch a ra ct er is t ics of s emicon du ct or ph ot o diode

7. To obs er ve wa veform a t t h e ou t pu t of h a lf wa ve r ect ifier wit h
a n d wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or . To mea s u r e DC volt a ge, DC
cu r r en t , r ipple fa ct or wit h a n d wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or

8. To obs er ve wa veform a t t he ou t pu t of fu ll wa ve r ect ifier wit h
a n d wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or . To mea s u r e DC volt a ge, DC
cu r r en t , r ipple fa ct or wit h a n d wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or

9. To obs er ve wa vefor m a t t he ou t pu t of br idge rect ifier wit h a nd
wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or . To mea s u re DC volt a ge, DC cu r ren t ,
r ipple fa ct or wit h a n d wit h ou t filt er ca pacit or

10. To obt a in ch a ra ct er is t ics of ligh t emit t ing diode (LED)

11. To obs er ve wa vefor ms a t t he ou t pu t of cla mper cir cu it s

12. To obs er ve wa vefor ms a t t he ou t pu t of clipper cir cu it s

13. To obt a in common emit t er cha r a ct er is t ics of NPN t r a n s is t or

14. To obt a in common ba s e cha ra ct er is t ics of NPN t r a n s is t or

15. To obt a in common collect or cha r a ct er is t ics of NPN t r a n s is t or

16. To u n der s t a n d wor kin g of t r a n s is t or a s a s wit ch . To dr a w DC
loa d line for given cir cu it .

17. To obs er ve in pu t -ou t pu t wa vefor ms of common emit t er (CE)
a mplifier . To mea s u re ga in of a mplifier a t differen t frequ en cies
a n d plot frequ en cy r es pon s e

18. To obs er ve in pu t -ou t pu t wa vefor ms of common collect or (CC)
a mplifier . To mea s u re ga in of a mplifier a t differen t frequ en cies
a n d plot frequ en cy r es pon s e

19. To mea s u re ga in of t wo s t a ge RC cou pled a mplifier .

L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
20. To obt a in ch a ra ct er is t ics of field effect t r a n s is t or (FET)

21. To mea s u re ga in FET common s ou r ce (CS) a mplifier

22. To t es t in dividu a l cir cu it pr epa red by t he s t u den t
(Get cir cu it fr om t he fa cu lt y, bu ild it , dr a w cir cu it dia gr am
a n d t es t it in t h e la bora t or y. Wr it e t es t r es u lt s in t h is
pr a ct ica l)

Instructions to the students:
x Draw circuit diagram of your practical in the given space as per circuit
available in your laboratory
x Write readings in the observation table
x Draw waveforms in the given space
x Simulate circuit using circuit simulator if hardware is not available in the lab
x Every student must construct at least one circuit as per his choice or as given
by the faculty
x Write answers of the questions given in lab manual in worksheet section. Use
text book, reference book or internet to find out answers of the questions
Suggest list of circuits that student will build individually
x DC power supply using IC 7805, 7812 or LM 317
x Burglar alarm
x Automatic street light switch
x Siren using LM-555 timer
x Automatic water tank overflow alarm
x Automatic Emergency light
x Sinusoidal waveform generator
x RC coupled CE amplifier
x IR (Infrared ) Switch
x Overvoltage under-voltage protection switch
x Simple intercom circuit
x DTMF Encoder/decoder circuit
x Telephone ring generator circuit
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

EXPERIMENT NO. 1
AIM: To obs er ve s in e wa ve, s qu a re wa ve, t r ia n gu la r wa ve a n d r a mp
wa vefor ms on t he C. R.O. a n d t o mea s u r e a mplit u de a n d fr equ en cy of t he
wa vefor ms .
Int roduc t i on:
C.R.O. (Ca t h ode Ra y Os cillos cope) is t h e in s t r u men t wh ich is u s ed t o
obs er ve s igna l wa vefor ms . Sign a ls a r e dis pla yed in t ime doma in i.e. va r ia t ion
in a mplit u de of t he s ign a l wit h res pect t o t ime is plot t ed on t h e CRO s creen .
X-a xis repr es en t s t ime a n d Y-a xis repr es en t s a mplit u de. It is u s ed t o
mea s u re a mplit u de, fr equ en cy a n d pha s e of t h e wa vefor ms . It is a ls o u s ed t o
obs er ve s ha pe of t h e wa vefor m. C.R.O. is u s efu l for t r ou bles hoot in g pu r pos e.
It helps u s t o fin d ou t ga in of a mplifier , t es t os cilla t or circu it s . We ca n
mea s u re a mplit u de a n d fr equ en cy of t h e wa vefor ms a t t he differ en t t es t
poin t s in ou r cir cu it . Th u s , it h elps u s for fa u lt fin din g pr ocedu re. In du a l
ch a n nel C.R.O. X-Y mode is a va ila ble wh ich is u s ed t o cr ea t e Lis s a jou s
pa t t er n s
La t es t digit a l s t or a ge os cillos cope dis play volt a ge a n d frequ en cy dir ect ly on
t h e LCD a n d does not r equ ire a n y ca lcu la t ion s . It ca n a ls o s t or e wa veform
for fu r t h er a na lys is . Mor e det a iled s t u dy on C. R.O. will be cover ed in EMI
la bor a t or y (SEM-V). In t h is pr a ct ica l, we will mea s u r e a mplit u de a n d
fr equ en cy of t h e differen t wa vefor ms like s in e wa ve, s qu a re wa ve, t r ia n gu la r
wa ve a n d ra mp wa ve.
Proc e dure :
1. Con n ect fu n ct ion gen er a t or ou t pu t a t t h e in pu t of C.R.O. a t ch a n nel 1
or a t cha n nel 2
2. Select pr oper cha n nel i.e. if s igna l is conn ect ed t o cha n n el 1 s elect
CH1 a n d if s igna l is con n ect ed t o cha n nel 2 s elect CH2
3. Adju s t Time / Div kn ob t o get s u fficien t t ime per iod dis pla cemen t of
t h e wa ve on t he CRO s cr een .
4. Wit h fin e t u n in g of t ime/ Div ma ke t he wavefor m s t ea dy on s creen .
5. Us e t r igger in g con t rols if wa vefor m is n ot s t a ble
6. Keep volt / div kn ob s u ch t h a t wa vefor m is vis ible on t he s creen
wit h ou t clippin g
7. Mea s u r e P-P rea din g a lon g y-a xis . Th is r ea din g mu lt iplied wit h
volt / div gives pea k t o pea k a mplit u de of t h e a c i/ p wa ve.
8. Mea s u r e h or izon t a l divis ion of on e complet e cycle. Th is divis ion
mu lt iplied by t ime/ div gives t ime per iod of t h e i/ p wa ve.
9. Ca lcu la t e frequ en cy u s in g for mu la f = 1/ T.
10. Not e down you r r ea din gs in t h e obs er va t ion t a ble
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11. Dr a w wa vefor ms of s in e, s qu a re, r a mp a nd t r ia n gu la r in t he given
s pa ce.
:: WORKSHEET ::
Obs e rvat i on t able :
Funct i on Vert ic al
Divi s ion
(a)
Volt / div
(b)
Amplit ude
(p-p)
V=a*b
Horizont
al Div
(c)
Time/ d
iv
(d)
Time
T
=c*d
Fre q.
F=1 / T
Sin e
wa ve



Squ a re
Wa ve



Tr ia n gu
la r
Wa ve



Ra mp
Wa ve



Draw obs e rve d wave forms :
Sin e wa ve: (Amplit u de : ________ Fr equ en cy: _____________ )







8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Squ a r e wa ve: (Amplit u de : ________ Fr equ en cy: _____________ )







Tr ia n gu la r wa ve: (Amplit u de : ________ Fr equ en cy: _____________ )







Ra mp: ((Amplit u de : ________ Fr equ en cy: _____________ )









L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Conc lus ion:
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Que s t i ons :
[1] Wh a t is t he u s e of C.R.O. ?
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[2] Wh a t is t h e h ighes t fr equ en cy t ha t ca n be mea s u r ed by C.R.O. a va ila ble
in you r la bora t ory?
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[3] Wh a t is h ighes t volt a ge t ha t ca n be mea s u red by C.R.O. ava ila ble in you r
la bor a t or y?
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[4] Wh a t you will do t o mea s u re volt a ge wh ich is grea t er t ha n volt a ge limit of
t h e C.R.O.?
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[5] Wh y AC/ DC in pu t cou plin g pu s h -bu t t on s wit ch is given ?
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[6] Wh a t do you mean by du a l cha n nel C.R.O.
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

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[7] Wh a t t ype of deflect ion mech a n is m u s ed in C.R.O. t o deflect elect r on
bea m?
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[8] How t o t es t whet h er C.R.O. pr obe is in wor kin g con dit ion or n ot ?
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L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
EXPERIMENT NO. 2
AIM: To obt a in V-I ch a ra ct er is t ics of PN ju n ct ion diode
Int roduc t i on:
Th e s emicon du ct or diode is for med by dopin g P-t ype impu r it y in one s ide
a n d N-t ype of impu rit y in a n ot her s ide of t h e s emicon du ct or cr ys t a l for ming
a p-n ju n ct ion a s s hown in t h e followin g figu r e.
Ac c e pt or i o ns
p t ype n t ype W
n
-W
p
0
De pl e t io n re gi on
J unc t i on Do nor i ons
Ele c t ron s Hol e s
x

At t h e ju n ct ion in it ia lly free ch a r ge ca r r ier s fr om bot h s ide r ecombine
for min g n ega t ively ch a r ged ion s in P s ide of ju n ct ion (a n a t om in P-s ide
a ccept elect r on a n d becomes nega t ively ch a r ged ion ) a n d pos it ively cha r ged
ion on n s ide(a n a t om in n -s ide a ccept s h ole i.e. dona t es elect r on a n d
becomes pos it ively ch a r ged ion )r egion . Th is r egion deplet e of a n y t ype of free
ch a r ge ca r r ier is ca lled a s deplet ion region . Fu r t h er r ecombin a t ion of free
ca r r ier on bot h s ide is pr even t ed beca u s e of t he deplet ion volt a ge genera t ed
du e t o ch a r ge ca r r ier s kept a t dis t a n ce by deplet ion (a ct s a s a s or t of
in s u la t ion ) la yer a s s h own dot t ed in t he a bove figu r e.
Working pri nc i ple :
Wh en volt a ge is n ot a pplied a cr os s t he diode, deplet ion r egion for ms a s
s h own in t h e a bove figu r e. When t he volt a ge is a pplied bet ween t h e t wo
t er mina ls of t he diode (a n ode a n d ca t h ode) t wo pos s ibilit ies a r is es depen ding
on pola r it y of DC s u pply.
[1] For wa r d-Bia s Con dit ion : Wh en t h e +Ve t er mina l of t h e ba t t er y is
con n ect ed t o P-t ype ma t er ia l & -Ve t er min a l t o N-t ype t er mina l a s s h own in
t h e cir cu it dia gr a m, t h e diode is s a id t o be for wa r d bia s ed. Th e a pplica t ion of
for wa r d bia s volt a ge will for ce elect ron s in N-t ype a n d h oles in P-t ype
ma t er ia l t o recombin e wit h t he ion s nea r bou n da r y a n d t o flow cr os s in g
ju n ct ion . Th is r edu ces widt h of deplet ion r egion . Th is fu r t h er will r es u lt in
in cr ea s e in major it y ca r r ier s flow a cr os s t h e ju n ct ion . If for wa r d bia s is
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

fu r t h er in cr ea s ed in ma gn it u de t he deplet ion region widt h will con t in u e t o
decrea s e, r es u lt in g in exponen t ia l r is e in cu r r en t a s s h own in idea l diode
ch a ra ct er is t ic cu r ve.
[2]Rever s e-bia s ed: If t h e nega t ive t er min a l of ba t t er y (DC power s u pply) is
con n ect ed wit h P-t ype t er min a l of diode a n d +Ve t ermin a l of ba t t er y
con n ect ed t o N t ype t h en diode is s a id t o be r ever s e bia s ed. In t h is con dit ion
t h e free cha r ge ca r rier s (i.e. elect r on s in N-t ype a n d h oles in P-t ype) will
move a wa y fr om ju n ct ion widen in g deplet ion region widt h . Th e min or it y
ca r r ier s (i.e. –ve elect r on s in p-t ype a nd +ve h oles in n -t ype) ca n cr os s t h e
deplet ion region r es u lt in g in min or it y ca r r ier cu r ren t flow ca lled a s r evers e
s a t u ra t ion cu r ren t (Is ). As n o of min or it y ca r r ier is ver y s ma ll s o t he
ma gn it u de of Is is few micr oa mperes . Idea lly cu r r en t in revers e bia s is zer o.
In s h or t , cu r r en t flows t h r ou gh diode in for wa r d bia s a n d does n ot
flow t h r ou gh diode in r ever s e bia s . Diode ca n pa s s cu r ren t on ly in on e
dir ect ion .
Expe ri me nt Proce dure :
x Con n ect t he power s u pply, volt met er , cu r r en t met er wit h t h e diode a s
s h own in t h e figu r e for for wa r d bia s diode. You ca n u s e t wo
mu lt imet er (one t o mea s u re cu r r en t t h r ou gh diode a n d ot her t o
mea s u re volt a ge a cr os s diode)
x In cr ea s e volt a ge fr om t h e power s u pply fr om 0V t o 20V in s t ep a s
s h own in t h e obs er va t ion t a ble
x Mea s u r e volt a ge a cros s diode a n d cu r ren t t h r ou gh diode. Not e down
r ea din gs in t he obs er va t ion t a ble.
x Rever s e DC power s u pply pola r it y for rever s e bia s
x Repea t t he a bove procedu re for t he differ en t va lu es of s u pply volt a ge
for r ever s e bia s
x Dr a w VI cha r a ct er is t ics for for wa r d bia s a n d r ever s e bia s in on e gr a ph
Ci rc ui t diagram (forward bias )

1 N4 0 0 7
-
A
1 K
V
+
+
DC POWER
SUPPY
0 -3 0 V
-


L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Ci rc ui t diagram (reve rs e bias ):
-
1 K
-
1 N4 0 0 7
A
DC POWER
SUPPY 0 -3 0 V
V
+
+

:: WORKSHEET ::
Obs e rvat i on t able : (Forward bias )
Sr. No. Supply volt age
(Volt )
Di ode volt age
(Vd)
Di ode c urre nt
(Id)
1. 0
2. 0.2
3. 0.4
4. 0.6
5. 0.8
6. 1
7. 2
8. 4
9. 6
10. 8
11. 10
12. 15
13. 20



8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Obs e rvat i on t able : (Re ve rs e bias )
Sr. No. Supply volt age Di ode volt age
(Vd)
Di ode c urre nt
(Id)
1. 0
2. 2
3. 5
4. 10
5. 15
6. 20
7. 25
8. 30

Dr a w V-I cha ra ct er is t ics of PN ju n ct ion diode:












L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Conc lus ion:
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Que s t i ons :
[1] Lis t impor t a n t s pecifica t ion s of t he diode
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[2] Wh a t is brea kdown volt a ge? Wha t is t h e br ea kdown volt a ge of diode
1N4001 a n d 1N4007?
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[3] Wh a t is t he h ighes t for wa r d cu r r en t in t h e diode 1N4007 an d 1N5002?
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[4] Lis t differen t t ypes of t h e diode
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[5] Lis t a pplica t ion s of t h e diode?
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8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

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[6] How t o ch eck diode wit h help of mu lt imet er ?
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[7] Wh a t is t he r ea s on for r ever s e s a t u r a t ion cu r r en t ?
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[8] Wh a t is t h e for wa r d volt a ge dr op of s ilicon diode a n d ger ma n iu m diode?
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[9] Dr a w idea l cha ra ct er is t ics of diode.








L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
EXPERIMENT NO. 3
AIM: To obt a in V-I ch a ra ct er is t ics of Zen er diode
Int roduc t i on:
Th e Zener diode is des ign ed t o oper a t e in r ever s e br ea kdown r egion.
Zener diode is u s ed for volt a ge r egu la t ion pu r pos e. Zener diodes a re
des ign ed for s pecific r ever s e br ea kdown volt a ge ca lled Zen er br ea kdown
volt a ge (VZ). Th e va lu e of VZ depen ds on a mou n t of dopin g. Br ea kdown
cu r r en t is limit ed by power dis s ipa t ion ca pa cit y of t h e zener diode. If power
ca pa cit y of t h e Zener is 1 W a n d Zener volt a ge is 10V, h igh es t rever s e
cu r r en t is 0.1A or 100 mA. If cu r ren t incr ea s es mor e t ha n t h is limit , diode
will be da ma ged. For wa r d cha ra ct er is t ics of t h e Zener diode is s imila r t o
n or ma l PN ju n ct ion diode.
Expe ri me nt Proce dure :
x Con n ect t he power s u pply, volt met er , cu r r en t met er wit h t h e diode a s
s h own in t h e figu r e for r ever s e bia s . You ca n u s e t wo mu lt imet er (one
t o mea s u r e cu r ren t t h r ou gh diode a n d ot h er t o mea s u re volt a ge
a cr os s diode)
x In cr ea s e volt a ge fr om t h e power s u pply fr om 0V t o 20V in s t ep a s
s h own in t h e obs er va t ion t a ble
x Mea s u r e volt a ge a cros s diode a n d cu r ren t t h r ou gh diode. Not e down
r ea din gs in t he obs er va t ion t a ble.
x Rever s e DC power s u pply pola r it y for for wa r d bia s
x Repea t t he a bove procedu re for t he differ en t va lu es of s u pply volt a ge
for r ever s e bia s
x Dr a w VI cha r a ct er is t ics for r ever s e bia s a n d for wa r d bia s in on e gr a ph
Ci rc ui t diagram (reve rs e bias )

A
+
1 K
V
-
-
Ze ne r
Di ode
+
DC POWER
SUPPY
0 -3 0 V



8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Ci rc ui t diagram (forward bias ):

+
1 K
-
Ze ne r
Di ode
+
V
DC POWER
SUPPY
0 -3 0 V
-
A

:: WORKSHEET ::
Obs e rvat i on t able : (Re ve rs e bias )
Sr. No. Supply volt age
(Volt )
Di ode volt age
(VZ)
Di ode c urre nt
(IZ)
1. 0
2. 1
3. 2
4. 5
5. 8
6. 10
7. 12
8. 15
9. 18
10. 20
11. 22
12. 25
13. 30



L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Obs e rvat i on t able : (Forward bias )
Sr. No. Supply volt age
(Volt )
Di ode volt age
(Vd)
Di ode c urre nt
(Id)
1. 0
2. 0.2
3. 0.4
4. 0.6
5. 0.8
6. 1
7. 5
8. 10
9. 15
10. 20
11. 25
Draw V-I c harac t e ris t i c s of Ze ne r diode :











8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Conc lus ion:
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Que s t i ons :
[1] Wh a t is t h e br ea kdown volt a ge of Zener diode u s ed in you r pr a ct ica l?
Wh a t is t h e power ca pa cit y. Wh a t is t h e ma ximu m cu r r en t t h a t you ca n
pa s s t h r ou gh it ?
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[2] Ca n we oper a t e n or ma l PN ju n ct ion diode in br ea kdown r egion for
lon ger du ra t ion ? Give rea s on
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[3] Wh a t is t he s pecia lt y of Zener diode s o a s we ca n oper a t e it in br ea kdown
r egion for lon ger du r a t ion
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[4] Wh a t is t he differen ce bet ween Zen er brea kdown a n d Ava la n che
br ea kdown ?
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_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[5] Dr a w Zener r egu la t or cir cu it t o obt a in r egu la t ed DC volt a ge 6.8 V.
Con s ider in g in pu t DC volt a ge in t he r a n ge fr om 10V t o 30V. Con s ider
loa d r es is t a n ce of 10KO.






[6] Det er mine ma ximu m a n d min imu m va lu e of Zener cu r ren t if va lu e of
s er ies res is t a n ce is 1 K, loa d res is t a n ce is 2K a n d in pu t va r ies fr om
10V t o 30V. Zener volt a ge is 5 V.
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[7] Dr a w ou t pu t wa vefor m in t he cir cu it of qu es t ion 5, if we a pply AC wa ve of
10V a t t he in pu t .
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8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

EXPERIMENT NO. 4
AIM: To obt a in ch a ra ct er is t ics of ligh t depen da n t res is t or (LDR)
Int roduc t i on:
Ligh t depen da n t res is t or is device in wh ich r es is t a n ce depends on in t en s it y
of ligh t . Res is t a n ce of LDR decrea s es a s ligh t in t en s it y in cr ea s es . Typica l
exa mple of LDR is Ca dmiu m Su lfide ph ot o cell. Typica l r es is t a n ce for br igh t
ligh t is 200 O and for darl condiiion ii is around 10 MO. Hovcvcr, iLcsc
va lu es depen ds on s ize a n d ma t er ia l u s ed for t he con s t r u ct ion of LDR. LDR
ca n be u s ed a s a ligh t s en s or . We can con s t r u ct a u t oma t ic s t reet ligh t
con t r oller , bu r gla r ala r m, a u t oma t ic br igh t n es s con t r oller for t elevis ion et c.
a pplica t ion s u s in g LDR.
Proc e dure :
x Con n ect ed t he cir cu it a s per in s t r u ct ion fr om t h e fa cu lt y
x Con n ect t he va r ia ble AC s u pply t o t h e la mp. See a s we cha n ge AC
s u pply, ligh t in t en s it y ch a n ges .
x Now a dju s t t he la mp in s u ch a wa y t ha t it s ma ximu m ligh t fa lls on
LDR.
x Va r y AC s u pply wh ich will ch a n ge t h e ligh t in t en s it y a n d recor d t h e
r es is t a n ce va lu e in t h e obs er va t ion t a ble
x Dr a w t he AC Volt a ge ver s u s cu r ren t flowin g t h r ou gh LDR & ca lcu la t e
t h e dyna mic r es is t a n ce of LDR for ea ch s et t in g of AC volt a ge.
:: WORKSHEET ::
Ci rc ui t diagram:
(Dr a w cir cu it t ha t you h a ve u s ed du r in g pr a ct ica l)













L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Obs e rvat i on t able :
Res is t a n ce a t da r k con dit ion : ________________________
Res is t a n ce a t n or mal ligh t : ___________________________














Conc lus ion :
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________


Sr n o. AC Volt a ge
(La mp in t en s it y )
Res is t a n ce of LDR
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Draw graph of Int ens i t y variat i on ve rs us re s i s t anc e











Que s t i ons :
[1] Wh a t is u n it of Ligh t ? How you mea s u r e Ligh t ?

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[2] Wh a t do you mean by ph ot ocon du ct ive cell?
_____________________________________________________________________
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[3] Lis t a n y t wo pra ct ica l a pplica t ion s of LDR.
_____________________________________________________________________
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L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
EXPERIMENT NO. 5
AIM: To bu ild a n d t es t pra ct ica l cir cu it of LDR (Mea s u re volt a ge a t different
poin t s )
Ci rc ui t diagram:
(Dr a w cir cu it dia gr am a va ila ble in you r la bor a t or y)







Obs e rvat i ons :
Volt a ge on t he t er min a l of t h e LDR when r ela y is OFF:
V1 = _______________ V2 = _______________
Volt a ge on t he t er min a l of t h e LDR when r ela y is ON:
V1 = _______________ V2 = _______________
Explai n c i rc ui t operat i on i n brie f:
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8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

EXPERIMENT NO. 6
AIM: To obt a in ch a ra ct er is t ics of s emicon du ct or ph ot o diode
Int roduc t i on:
Th e s emicon du ct or ph ot odiode is a light det ect or device wh ich det ect s
pr es en ce of ligh t . It is u s ed t o con ver t opt ica l power in t o elect r ica l cu r ren t .
PN ju n ct ion Ph ot o diode ha ve P t ype a n d N t ype s emicon du ct or for ms
ju n ct ion . Th in P t ype la yer is depos it ed on N t ype s u bs t r a t e. P-N ju n ct ion
h a s a s pa ce cha r ge r egion a t t he in t er fa ce of t h e P a n d N t ype ma t er ia l. Ligh t
en t er s t h r ou gh P-layer a s s h own in t h e followin g figu r e. Th is diode h a s
r ela t ively t h in deplet ion r egion a r ou n d t h e ju n ct ion . It is r ever s e bia s ed t o
in cr ea s e widt h of t he deplet ion region . Ph ot on s of ligh t en t er in g in P-la yer
ion ize elect r on -h ole pa ir . Ph ot on genera t es elect r on -h ole pa ir in t he
deplet ion r egion t hat moves ra pidly wit h t h e dr ift velocit y by t h e elect r ic
field.

PHOTODIODE





Res pon s ivit y is impor t a n t t ech n ica l t er m r ela t ed t o t he ph ot odiode. It
is r a t io of ph ot ocu r r en t t o in ciden t opt ica l power . Res pon s ivit y of t h e
ph ot odiode is pr opor t ion a l t o widt h of t h e ju n ct ion . Ph ot o diode is u s ed in
fiber opt ic commu n ica t ion a t r eceiver s ide. It det ect s in coming ligh t fr om t h e
fiber en d a n d con ver t it in t o elect r ica l s ign a l. It ca n be a ls o u s ed in remot e
con t r ol r eceiver .
Expe ri me nt Proce dure :
x Con n ect t he power s u pply, volt met er , cu r r en t met er wit h t h e
ph ot odiode a s s h own in t h e figu re
x Apply 10V fr om t h e DC power s u pply
x In cr ea s e AC power given t o la mp t o in cr ea s e in t en s it y
x Mea s u r e r ever s e leaka ge cu r ren t (ph ot o cu r r en t ) of ph ot odiode for
differen t ligh t in t en s it y
x Dr a w gra ph of ligh t in t en s it y ver s u s ph ot ocu r r en t .

L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Ci rc ui t diagram:
PHOTODIODE
A
DC Vol t age
1 0 V or 2 0 V
12V
+
LAMP
AC 230V
-
1K

:: WORKSHEET ::
Obs e rvat i on t able :


















Sr n o. AC Volt a ge
(La mp in t en s it y )
Ph ot ocu r r en t
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Draw graph of Light ve rs us phot oc urre nt :











Conc lus ion:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Que s t i ons :
[1] Wh a t is t he differen ce bet ween LDR a n d ph ot odiode? Wh a t t ype of
con ver s ion t a kes pla ce in ph ot odiode?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[2] Is ph ot ocu r ren t depen ds on wa velen gt h of in ciden t ligh t ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________


L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
EXPERIMENT NO. 7
AIM: To obs er ve wa vefor m a t t he ou t pu t of h a lf wa ve rect ifier wit h a nd
wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or . To mea s u re DC volt a ge, DC cu r r ent , r ipple fa ct or
wit h a n d wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or
Int roduc t i on:
On e of t h e ver y impor t a n t a pplica t ion s of diode is in DC power s u pply
a s a r ect ifier t o con ver t AC in t o DC. DC Power s u pply is t h e impor t a nt
elemen t of a n y elect r on ic equ ipmen t . Th is is beca u s e it provides power t o
ener gize a ll elect r on ic cir cu it s like os cilla t or s , a mplifier s a n d s o on . In
elect r on ic equ ipment s , D.C. power s u pply is mu s t . For exa mple, we ca n ’t
t h in k of t elevis ion , compu t er , ra dio, t eleph on e, mobile a s well a s mea s u r ing
in s t r u men t s like CRO, mu lt i-met er et c. wit h ou t DC power s u pply. Th e
r elia bilit y a n d per forma n ce of t he elect r on ic s ys t em pr oper des ign of power
s u pply is n eces s a r y. Th e fir s t block of DC power s u pply is r ect ifier . Rect ifier
ma y be defined a s an elect r on ic device u s ed t o con ver t a c volt a ge or cu r ren t
in t o u n idir ect iona l volt a ge or cu r r en t . Es s en t ia lly rect ifier needs
u n idir ect iona l device. Diode h a s u n idir ect iona l pr oper t y h en ce s u it a ble for
r ect ifier . Rect ifier broa dly divided in t o t wo ca t egor ies : Ha lf wa ve r ect ifier a n d
fu ll wa ve rect ifier . In t h is exper imen t , you will con s t r u ct h a lf wa ve rect ifier .
Working pri nc i ple of half wave rec t i fie r:
In ha lf wa ve rect ifier on ly ha lf cycle of a pplied AC volt a ge is u s ed.
An ot h er h alf cycle of AC volt a ge (nega t ive cycle) is n ot u s ed. On ly on e diode
is u s ed wh ich con du ct s du r in g pos it ive cycle. Th e cir cu it dia gr a m of ha lf
wa ve rect ifier wit h ou t ca pa cit or is s h own in t he followin g figu r e. Du r ing
pos it ive ha lf cycle of t h e in pu t volt a ge a n ode of t he diode is pos it ive
compa r ed wit h t he ca t h ode. Diode is in for wa r d bia s a n d cu r r en t pa s s es
t h r ou gh t h e diode a n d pos it ive cycle develops a cr os s t he loa d r es is t a n ce RL.
Du r in g n ega t ive h a lf cycle of in pu t volt a ge, a n ode is n ega t ive wit h r es pect ed
t o ca t h ode a n d diode is in rever s e bia s . No cu r r en t pa s s es t h r ou gh t h e diode
h en ce ou t pu t volt a ge is zer o.

8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Ha lf wa ve rect ifier wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or con ver t AC volt a ge in t o
pu ls a t in g DC volt a ge. Filt er ca pa cit or is u s ed t o obt a in s moot h DC volt a ge.
Con s t r u ct followin g cir cu it t o per for m t h is pr a ct ica l.
Prac t ical Ci rc ui t diagram:

2 3 0 V AC
i n pu t
-
1 2 V
+
-
V
+ C
1 N4 0 0 7
1 0 0 0 u
1 0 K
A

Lis t of compon en t s :
[1] Tr a n s for mer In pu t : 230V AC, ou t pu t : 12V AC, 500 mA [2] Diode 1N4007
[3] Res is t or 10K [4] Ca pa cit or 1000µF [5] Toggle Swit ch
Con s t r u ct cir cu it on t h e gener a l pu r pos e PCB. Keep t oggle s wit ch OFF t o
per for m pra ct ica l of h a lf wa ve r ect ifier wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or a n d ON t o
con n ect filt er ca pa cit or .
:: WORKSHEET ::
Wave forms : [1] Wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or :
In pu t Wa vefor m a t s econ da r y of t ra n s for mer :




Ou t pu t wa vefor m:




L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
[2] Wit h filt er ca pa cit or :
In pu t Wa vefor m a t s econ da r y of t ra n s for mer :




Ou t pu t wa vefor m:





Obs e rvat i ons :
[1] Wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or
AC In pu t volt a ge (r ms ) Vr ms = ___________
DC ou t pu t volt a ge VDC = ___________
DC cu r r en t : IDC =______________
AC ou t pu t volt a ge (Ripple volt a ge) Vr : __________
Ripple fa ct or : (Vr / VDC) = ______________
[2] Wit h filt er ca pa cit or
AC In pu t volt a ge (r ms ) Vr ms = ___________
DC ou t pu t volt a ge VDC = ___________
DC cu r r en t : IDC =______________
AC ou t pu t volt a ge (Ripple volt a ge) Vr : __________
Ripple fa ct or : (Vr / VDC) = ______________


8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Conc lus ion:
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_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Que s t i ons :
[1] Define r ipple fa ct or
_____________________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[2] Wh a t is t he effect of loa d res is t a n ce on r ipple volt a ge in pr es en ce of filt er
ca pa cit or ?
_____________________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[3] Wh a t is t h e effect of va lu e of filt er ca pa cit or on r ipple volt a ge?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________


[4] Wh a t is t he PIV neces s a r y for t he diode if t r a n s for mer of 24V is u s ed ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[4] Wh a t is t h e ma t hema t ica l r ela t ion s h ip bet ween r ms in pu t AC volt a ge a nd
DC ou t pu t volt a ge in h a lf wa ve rect ifier wit h a n d wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
EXPERIMENT NO. 8
AIM: To obs er ve wa vefor m a t t he ou t pu t of fu ll wa ve r ect ifier wit h a n d
wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or . To mea s u re DC volt a ge, DC cu r r ent , r ipple fa ct or
wit h a n d wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or
Int roduc t i on:
Fu ll wa ve r ect ifier u t ilizes bot h t h e cycle of in pu t AC volt a ge. Two or
fou r diodes a re u s ed in fu ll wa ve rect ifier . If fu ll wa ve rect ifier is des igned
u s in g fou r diodes it is kn own a s fu ll wa ve br idge r ect ifier . Fu ll wa ve r ect ifier
u s in g t wo diodes wit h ou t ca pa cit or is s h own in t h e following figu r e. Cen t er
t a pped t ra n s for mer is u s ed in t h is fu ll wa ve rect ifier . Du r in g t h e pos it ive
cycle diode D1 con du ct s a n d it is a va ila ble a t t h e ou t pu t . Du r in g n ega t ive
cycle diode D1 r ema in s OFF bu t diode D2 is in for wa r d bia s hen ce it
con du ct s a n d nega t ive cycle is a va ila ble a s a pos it ive cycle a t t h e ou t pu t a s
s h own in t h e followin g figu r e. Not e t h a t direct ion of cu r r en t in t h e loa d
r es is t a n ce is s a me du r in g bot h t h e cycles hen ce ou t pu t is on ly pos it ive
cycles .











Advant age s of full wave re c t ifie r ove r half wave re c t i fie r:
x Th e r ect ifica t ion efficien cy is dou ble t ha n h a lf wa ve rect ifier
x Ripple fa ct or is les s a n d r ipple frequ en cy is dou ble h en ce ea s y t o filt er
ou t .
x DC ou t pu t volt a ge a n d cu r r en t is h igher h en ce ou t pu t power is h igh er .
x Bet t er t r a n s for mer u t iliza t ion fa ct or
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

x Th er e is n o DC s a t u ra t ion of core in t ra n s for mer beca u s e t he DC
cu r r en t s in t wo ha lves of s econ da r y flow in oppos it e direct ions .

Di s advant age s :
x Requ ires cen t er t a p t r a n s for mer
x Requ ires t wo diodes compa red t o one diode in ha lf wa ve rect ifier .

Prac t ical Ci rc ui t diagram:

A
-
+
1 0 0 0 u
1 N4 0 0 7
V
1 N4 0 0 7
1 0 K
2 3 0 V AC
i n pu t
C
1 2 -0 -1 2 Vr m s
+
-

Lis t of compon en t s :
[1] Tr a n s for mer (cent er t a pped) 12-0-12 V AC, 500 mA
[2] Diode 1N4007 ---- 2 No. [3] Res is t or 10K
[4] Ca pa cit or 1000µF [5] Toggle Swit ch
Con s t r u ct cir cu it on t h e gener a l pu r pos e PCB. Keep t oggle s wit ch OFF t o
per for m pr a ct ica l of fu ll wa ve r ect ifier wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or a n d ON t o
con n ect filt er ca pa cit or .
:: WORKSHEET ::
Wave forms :
[1] Wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or :
In pu t Wa vefor m a t s econ da r y of t ra n s for mer :





L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Ou t pu t wa vefor m:





[1] Wit h filt er ca pa cit or :
In pu t Wa vefor m a t s econ da r y of t ra n s for mer :




Ou t pu t wa vefor m:





Obs e rvat i ons :
[1] Wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or
AC In pu t volt a ge (r ms ) Vr ms = ___________
DC ou t pu t volt a ge VDC = ___________
DC cu r r en t : IDC =______________
AC ou t pu t volt a ge (Ripple volt a ge) Vr : __________
Ripple fa ct or : (Vr / VDC) = ______________


8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

[2] Wit h filt er ca pa cit or
AC In pu t volt a ge (r ms ) Vr ms = ___________
DC ou t pu t volt a ge VDC = ___________
DC cu r r en t : IDC =______________
AC ou t pu t volt a ge (Ripple volt a ge) Vr : __________
Ripple fa ct or : (Vr / VDC) = ______________
Conc lus ion:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Que s t i ons :
[1] Wh a t is t h e fr equ en cy of AC compon en t a t t h e ou t pu t of fu ll wa ve
r ect ifier ? Give rea s on .
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[2] Wh a t is t he differ en ce in DC ou t pu t volt a ge in h alf wa ve a n d fu ll wa ve
r ect ifier for t he s a me AC in pu t ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[3] Wh a t is t he PIV n eces s a r y for t he diode if t ra n s for mer of 24-0-24 V is
u s ed ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[4] Wh a t is t h e ma t hema t ica l r ela t ion s h ip bet ween r ms in pu t AC volt a ge a n d
DC ou t pu t volt a ge in h a lf wa ve rect ifier wit h a n d wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
EXPERIMENT NO. 9

AIM: To obs er ve wa vefor m a t t he ou t pu t of br idge r ect ifier wit h a n d wit h ou t
filt er ca pa cit or . To mea s u re DC volt a ge, DC cu r r en t , r ipple fa ct or wit h a n d
wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or
Int roduc t i on:
Th e Br idge r ect ifier is a cir cu it , wh ich con ver t s a n a c volt a ge t o dc volt age
u s in g bot h h a lf cycles of t he in pu t a c volt a ge. Th e Br idge r ect ifier cir cu it is
s h own in t h e followin g figu r e.












Th e cir cu it h a s fou r diodes con nect ed t o for m a br idge. Th e a c in pu t
volt a ge is a pplied t o t h e dia gon a lly oppos it e en ds of t h e br idge. Th e loa d
r es is t a n ce is con nect ed bet ween t he ot her t wo en ds of t he br idge. For t he
pos it ive ha lf cycle of t h e in pu t a c volt a ge, diodes D1 a nd D2 con du ct ,
wh erea s diodes D3 a n d D4 rema in in t h e OFF s t a t e. Th e con du ct in g diodes
will be in s er ies wit h t h e loa d r es is t a n ce RL a n d hen ce t he load cu r r en t flows
t h r ou gh RL. For t he n ega t ive ha lf cycle of t h e in pu t a c volt a ge, diodes D3 a n d
D4 con du ct wher eas , D1 a n d D2 rema in OFF. Th e con du ct in g diodes D3
a n d D4 will be in s er ies wit h t he loa d res is t a n ce RL a n d hence t he cu r ren t
flows t h r ou gh RL in t h e s a me direct ion a s in t h e previou s h alf cycle. Th u s a
bi-dir ect iona l wa ve is con ver t ed in t o a u n idir ect iona l wa ve.
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Th e cir cu it dia gr a m of t h e br idge r ect ifier wit h filt er ca pa cit or is s h own
in t h e followin g figu r e. When ca pa cit or ch a r ges du r in g t he fir s t cycle, s u rge
cu r r en t flows beca u s e in it ia lly ca pa cit or a ct s like a s h or t cir cu it . Th u s , s u r ge
cu r r en t is ver y la r ge. If s u r ge cu r r en t exceeds ra t ed cu r r en t ca pa cit y of t he
diode it ca n da ma ge t he diode. To limit s u r ge cu r r en t s u rge res is t a n ce is
u s ed in s er ies a s s h own in t he figu r e. Simila r s u r ge r es is t a nce ca n be u s ed
in h a lf wa ve a s well a s cen t er -t a pped fu ll wa ve rect ifier a ls o.

Br idge r ect ifier pa cka ge (combina t ion of fou r diodes in for m of br idge) is
ea s ily a va ila ble in t h e ma r ket for va r iou s cu r r en t ca pa cit ies r a n gin g fr om
500 mA t o 30A. For la bora t or y pu r pos e you ca n u s e 1A pa cka ge.
Advant age s of bri dge rec t i fie r:
x No cen t er t a p is r equ ir ed in t he t ra n s for mer s econ da r y h en ce
t r a n s for mer des ign is s imple. If s t eppin g u p a n d s t eppin g down n ot
r equ ir ed t ha n t ra n s for mer ca n be elimina t ed. (In SMPS u s ed in TV
a n d compu t er , 230V is dir ect ly a pplied t o t h e in pu t of br idge rect ifier ).
x Th e PIV of t he diode is h a lf t ha n in cen t er t a p fu ll wa ve r ect ifier
x Tr a n s for mer u t iliza t ion fa ct or is h igher t h a n in cen t er t a pped fu ll wa ve
r ect ifier
x Sma ller s ize t ra n s for mer requ ir ed for given ca pa cit y beca u s e
t r a n s for mer is u t ilized effect ively du r in g bot h AC cycles .

Di s advant age s of bri dge rec t i fie r:
x Requ ires Fou r diodes (Bu t pa cka ge is low cos t )
x For wa r d volt a ge dr op a cr os s t wo diodes . Th is will r edu ce efficien cy
pa r t icu la r ly when low volt a ge (les s t ha n 5V ) is r equ ired.
x Loa d r es is t a n ce a n d s u pply s ou r ce ha ve n o common poin t wh ich ma y
be ea r t hed.



L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Prac t ical c i rc ui t diagram:

-
A
DC
Ou t pu t
D1
+
C
D3
D4
V
D2
+
2 3 0 V AC
i n pu t
-

Lis t of compon en t s :
[1] Tr a n s for mer 12 V AC, 500 mA
[2] Diode 1N4007 ---- 4 No. or 1 A br idge r ect ifier pa cka ge
[3] Res is t or 10K [4] Ca pa cit or 1000µF [5] Toggle Swit ch
Con s t r u ct cir cu it on t h e gener a l pu r pos e PCB. Keep t oggle s wit ch OFF t o
per for m pr a ct ica l of fu ll wa ve r ect ifier wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or a n d ON t o
con n ect filt er ca pa cit or .
:: WORKSHEET ::
Wave forms :
[1] Wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or :
In pu t Wa vefor m a t s econ da r y of t ra n s for mer :




Ou t pu t wa vefor m:




8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

[1] Wit h filt er ca pa cit or :
In pu t Wa vefor m a t s econ da r y of t ra n s for mer :




Ou t pu t wa vefor m:





Obs e rvat i ons :
[1] Wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or
AC In pu t volt a ge (r ms ) Vr ms = ___________
DC ou t pu t volt a ge VDC = ___________
DC cu r r en t : IDC =______________
AC ou t pu t volt a ge (Ripple volt a ge) Vr : __________
Ripple fa ct or : (Vr / VDC) = ______________

[2] Wit h filt er ca pa cit or
AC In pu t volt a ge (r ms ) Vr ms = ___________
DC ou t pu t volt a ge VDC = ___________
DC cu r r en t : IDC =______________
AC ou t pu t volt a ge (Ripple volt a ge) Vr : __________
Ripple fa ct or : (Vr / VDC) = ______________

L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Conc lus ion:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Que s t i ons :

[1] Wh a t is t he ma t h ema t ica l expres s ion for r ipple fa ct or . Wh a t is t he r ipple
fa ct or of br idge rect ifier wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[2] Wh a t is t h e ma t h ema t ica l r elat ion s h ip bet ween r ms AC in pu t a n d DC
ou t pu t fr om t h e br idge r ect ifier wit h a n d wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or ? If
t r a n s for mer of 24V is u s ed, wha t is t h e DC ou t pu t volt a ge wit h a n d
wit h ou t filt er ca pa cit or ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[3] Wh a t is t he PIV n eces s a r y for t he diode if t ra n s for mer of 12-0-12 V is
u s ed ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[4] Wh a t is t he efficien cy of fu ll wa ve br idge r ect ifier ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 0
AIM: To obt a in ch a ra ct er is t ics of ligh t emit t in g diode (LED)
Int roduc t i on:
LED is s emicon du ct or ju n ct ion diode wh ich emit s ligh t wh en cu r ren t
pa s s es t h r ou gh it in for wa r d bia s con dit ion . P t ype of s emicon du ct or
con s is t s of la r ge n u mber of h oles wh ile N t ype of s emicon du ct or con s is t s of
la r ge n u mber of elect r on s . At zer o bia s (n o volt a ge acr os s ju n ct ion ),
deplet ion region exis t s a n d it s epa r a t e ou t t wo r egion s . When LED is for wa r d
bia s ed, ba r r ier pot en t ia l redu ces a n d deplet ion region becomes n a r r ow.
Elect r on cr os s es t he deplet ion r egion a nd r ecombines wit h h oles . Simila r ly
h oles cr os s es deplet ion r egion a n d r ecombine wit h elect r on s . Ea ch
r ecombina t ion of h ole a n d elect r on pr odu ces ph ot on (ligh t ) Th e in t en s it y of
ligh t emit t ed depends on t h e n u mber of min or it y ca r r ier s a va ila ble for
r ecombina t ion . Wa velen gt h (or fr equ en cy) of emit t ed ligh t depen ds on ba n d-
ga p ener gy. Th e ligh t emit t in g diode wor ks by t h e pr oces s of s pon t a neou s
emis s ion .
Ligh t s ou r ce ma t er ia l mu s t ha ve dir ect ba n d ga p. In a direct ba n d ga p
s emicon du ct or ma t er ia l elect r on a n d h ole r ecombine direct ly a cr os s ba nd
ga p wit h ou t need of t h ir d pa r t icle t o con ser ve momen t u m.
Ligh t s ou r ce ma t er ia ls a r e ma de fr om compou n d of gr ou p-III (Al,Ga ,In)
a n d gr ou p-V (P,As ,Sb) elemen t .Th e wa velen gt h gener at ed by t h e LED
depen ds on ba n dga p ener gy a n d ba n dga p ener gy depen ds on dopin g level of
a bove elemen t s . Let u s u n der s t a n d rela t ion bet ween frequ en cy of emis s ion
a n d ener gy.
Ph ot on ener gy is rela t ed t o t he emit t ed fr equ en cy by t he LED.
Ph ot on en ergy
O
hc
hf E
(beca u s e
wavelength
light of Velocity

O
c
f )
Wh ere h = Pla n k’s con s t an t = 6. 625×10
-34
J -S
c = Velocit y of t h e ligh t = 3×10
8
m/ s
O = Wa velen gt h of emit t ed ligh t


L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Expe ri me nt Proce dure :
x Con n ect t he power s u pply, volt met er , cu r r en t met er wit h t h e LED a s
s h own in t h e cir cu it dia gra m.
x In cr ea s e volt a ge fr om t h e power s u pply fr om 0V t o 20V in s t ep a s
s h own in t h e obs er va t ion t a ble
x Mea s u r e volt a ge a cros s LED a n d cu r ren t t h r ou gh t h e LED. Not e down
r ea din gs in t he obs er va t ion t a ble a n d a ls o obs er ves ligh t comin g fr om
LED.
x Rever s e DC power s u pply pola r it y for rever s e bia s
x Repea t t he a bove procedu re for t he differ en t va lu es of s u pply volt a ge
for r ever s e bia s
x Dr a w VI cha r a ct er is t ics for for wa r d bia s a n d r ever s e bia s in on e gr a ph
Ci rc ui t diagram (forward bias )

DC POWER
SUPPY
0 -2 0 V
A
1 K
+ -
+
-
LED
V

Ci rc ui t diagram (reve rs e bias ):
DC POWER
SUPPY
0 -2 0 V
A
-
1 K
LED
+
V
-
+






8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

:: WORKSHEET ::
Obs e rvat i on t able : (Forward bias )
Sr. No. Supply volt age
(Volt )
Di ode volt age
(Vd)
Di ode c urre nt
(Id)
1. 0
2. 0.5
3. 1
4. 2
5. 5
6. 10
7. 15
8. 20

Obs e rvat i on t able : (Re ve rs e bias )
Sr. No. Supply volt age Di ode volt age
(Vd)
Di ode c urre nt
(Id)
1. 0
2. 2
3. 5
4. 10
5. 15
6. 20





L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Dr a w V-I cha ra ct er is t ics of t h e LED:











Conc lus ion:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Que s t i ons :
[1] Wh a t a r e t he a pplica t ion s of LED?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[2] On wh ich fa ct or s color emit t ed fr om t h e LED depen ds ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[3] Give t ypica l va lu es of LED volt a ge a n d cu r r en t ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 1
AIM: To obs er ve wa vefor ms a t t he ou t pu t of cla mper cir cu it s
Int roduc t i on:
Diodes a re widely u s ed in clippin g a n d cla mpin g cir cu it s . Cla mpin g cir cu it s
a re u s ed t o cha n ge DC level (a vera ge level) of t he s igna l wh ich a dds or
s u bt r a ct s DC va lu e wit h t h e s igna l. In cla mpin g, s ha pe of wavefor m rema in s
s a me on ly offs et va lu e (DC level) will cha n ge. Pos it ive cla mpin g a dds pos it ive
DC level in t h e s ign a l wh ile n ega t ive clampin g a dds n ega t ive DC level in t h e
s ign a l. Ca pa cit or is widely u s ed in t he cla mpin g cir cu it . Typica l cla mping
wa vefor ms for t h e sin u s oida l s igna l is s h own below for pos it ive cla mpin g
a n d nega t ive cla mpin g.












Cla mpin g cir cu it is u s ed in video a mplifier of t elevis ion r eceiver t o res t ore
DC level of video s ign a l t o pr es er ve overa ll br igh t n es s of t h e s cene. Cla mpin g
cir cu it is a ls o u s ed in offs et con t r ol of fu n ct ion genera t or . Zer o offs et mea ns
n o DC va lu e is a dded in t h e AC s ign a l.
Ci rc ui t ope rat i on:
Typica l cir cu it opera t ion of t h e pos it ive cla mpin g a n d nega t ive cla mpin g is
given below.
L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Pos i t i ve c lamping:

Con s ider t ha t 4V pea k t o pea k s igna l wit h zer o offset is a pplied a t t he in pu t
of t h e cla mpin g cir cu it . On t h e fir s t nega t ive ha lf cycle of t he in pu t s igna l,
diode D t u r n s ON beca u s e a n ode volt a ge is gr ea t er t ha n ca t h ode volt a ge.
Ca pa cit or cha r ges t o t h e n ega t ive pea k volt a ge let u s s a y -2V in ou r
exa mple. Th e va lu e of R s h ou ld be h igh s o t h a t it will n ot dis ch a r ge t he
ca pa cit a n ce. Aft er complet ion of nega t ive cycle, pos it ive cycle s t a r t s a n d
diode t u r n s OFF. Capa cit a n ce volt a ge is in s er ies wit h t he inpu t volt a ge. As
per t he Kir ch off’s law ou t pu t volt a ge will be a ddit ion of in pu t volt a ge a n d
ca pa cit a n ce volt a ge. In pu t s ign a l is pos it ive s win g of +2V a n d ca pa cit or
volt a ge is +2V. Th u s du r in g t h e pos it ive pea k of t h e in pu t volt a ge t ot a l
ou t pu t volt a ge will be +4V. We ca n cons ider t ha t du r in g t h e pos it ive cycle
ca pa cit or a ct s like a ba t t er y a n d a dds +2V in t h e in pu t . Wa vefor ms a re
dr a wn here con s ider in g idea l diode, n o lea ka ge in t he ca pa cit a n ce u n der
idea l s it u a t ion s wh ich will be differen t in pr a ct ica l s it u a t ion s .
Ne gat i ve c lampi ng:

In a n ega t ive cla mpin g cir cu it pola r it y of diode is r ever s e t h a n in pos it ive
cla mpin g. In ou r s ign a l in pu t s win gs fr om -2V t o +2V (pea k t o pea k 4V).
Diode t u r n s ON du r in g t h e pos it ive cycle a n d cha r ge is s t or ed in t he
ca pa cit or . Ca pa cit or will ch a r ge u p t o +2 V in ou r exa mple. Du r in g t h e
n ega t ive cycle t h is volt a ge will be in s er ies wit h t he in pu t volt a ge a n d gives
t ot a l ou t pu t -4V du r in g n ega t ive pea k of t h e in pu t s igna l.

8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Expe ri me nt Proce dure :
x Con n ect fu n ct ion gen er a t or wit h CRO. Set s ine wa ve wit h 4V pea k t o
pea k. En s u r e t ha t offs et volt a ge is 0.
x Con n ect t he fu n ct ion gener a t or a t t he inpu t of t h e cla mpin g cir cu it
x Obs er ve ou t pu t wa vefor ms on t he CRO for differen t cla mpin g cir cu it s
a n d dra w ou t pu t wavefor ms .
:: WORKSHEET ::
Draw c i rc ui t diagrams (as pe r c i rc ui t available i n t he laborat ory or
c i rc uit c onne c t e d on bre adboard):

















L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Wave forms :
[1]In pu t Wa vefor m:






Ou t pu t wa vefor m for cir cu it 1:






Ou t pu t wa vefor m for cir cu it 2:







Conc lus ion:
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Que s t i ons :

[1] Dr a w ou t pu t wavefor m for t h e followin g cir cu it s if in pu t of 4V pea k-
t o-pea k wit h zer o offs et is a pplied.


C1
D2
+2V
10K
4 Vpp








C1
D2
+2V
10K
4 Vpp










L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
EXPERIMENT NO. 1 2
AIM: To obs er ve wa vefor ms a t t he ou t pu t of clipper cir cu it s
Int roduc t i on:
Clippin g cir cu it is u s ed t o s elect for t ra n s mis s ion t h a t pa r t of a n a r bit ra r y
wa vefor m wh ich lie a bove or below s ome refer en ce level. Clippin g cir cu it
“clips ” s ome por t ion of t h e wa vefor m. Clippin g cir cu it a r e a ls o r efer red t o a s
volt a ge limit er s . Clampin g cir cu it pr es er ves s ha pe of t he wa vefor m wh ile
clippin g cir cu it does n ot pr es er ve s ha pe of wa vefor m. Clippin g cir cu it u s es
s ome r efer en ce level. Wa vefor m a bove or below t h is r efer en ce level is clipped.
Clippin g cir cu it s a re a ls o kn own a s volt a ge limit er or a mplit u de limit er or
s licer s . Some clipper cir cu it s a re expla ined h ere.
Pos i t i ve c yc le c li ppe r c i rc ui t s :
Pos it ive cycle clipper cir cu it s a re s h own in t h e figu re wit h s er ies a n d s h u n t
diode. Tr a n s fer cha ra ct er is t ics a n d ou t pu t wa vefor m for s in u s oida l in pu t is
s h own .











For s e rie s di ode :
x Wh en vi(t )<0, Diode D is in ON con dit ion , in pu t wa vefor m is a va ila ble a t
t h e ou t pu t .
x Wh en vi(t )>0, Diode D is in OFF con dit ion , in pu t wa vefor m is n ot
a va ila ble a t t he ou t pu t a n d ou t pu t r ema in s zer o.

8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

For s hunt di ode :
x Wh en vi(t )<0, Diode D is in ON con dit ion wh ich bypa s s t he s ign a l t o t he
gr ou n d a n d h en ce in pu t wa vefor m is n ot a va ila ble a t t he ou t pu t .
x Wh en vi(t )>0, Diode D is in OFF con dit ion a n d a ct s like a OFF s wit ch ,
in pu t wa vefor m is a va ila ble a t t he ou t pu t .
For n ega t ive cycle clipper , pola r it y of diode is rever s e.
Se rie s diode pos i t ive c li ppi ng wit h pos i t i ve re fe re nc e :
In t h e cir cu it s h own in t h e followin g figu r e, DC r eferen ce volt a ge is
u s ed. Th is is u s efu l of we do n ot wa n t t o clip en t ire pos it ive cycle bu t s ome
por t ion of pos it ive ha lf cycle.

x Wh en vi(t )<VR, Diode D is in ON con dit ion , in pu t wa vefor m is a va ila ble a t
t h e ou t pu t .
x Wh en vi(t )> VR, Diode D is in OFF con dit ion , in pu t wa vefor m is n ot
a va ila ble a t t he ou t pu t a n d ou t pu t r ema in s zer o. Th u s por t ion of ou t pu t
cycle clips a s s h own in t h e wa vefor m.

Se rie s diode pos i t ive c li ppi ng wit h negat i ve re fe re nce :
If wa n t t o clip en t ire pos it ive h a lf cycle alon g wit h s ome por t ion of t h e
n ega t ive cycle t hen n ega t ive DC refer en ce ca n be u s ed a s s h own in t he
followin g figu r e. In t h is ca s e on ly s ome por t ion of nega t ive cycle pa s s es t o
t h e ou t pu t .



L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
x Wh en vi(t )<-VR, Diode D is in ON con dit ion , in pu t wa vefor m is a va ila ble a t
t h e ou t pu t .
x Wh en vi(t )> -VR, Diode D is in OFF con dit ion , in pu t wa vefor m is n ot
a va ila ble a t t h e ou t pu t a n d ou t pu t r ema in s con s t a n t equ a l t o VR. Th u s
en t ir e pos it ive cycle a n d s ome por t ion of n ega t ive cycle below –VR clips .

Se rie s diode ne gat ive c li ppi ng wi t h re fe re nce :
Nega t ive clippin g can be a ch ieved by ch a n gin g pola r it y of t h e diode.
Nega t ive clipper wit h n ega t ive r efer en ce volt a ge is s h own in t h e followin g
figu r e. Th is will clip s ome por t ion of nega t ive cycle.

x Wh en vi(t )>-VR, Diode D is in ON con dit ion , in pu t wa vefor m is a va ila ble a t
t h e ou t pu t .
x Wh en vi(t )< -VR, Diode D is in OFF con dit ion , in pu t wa vefor m is n ot
a va ila ble a t t he ou t pu t a n d ou t pu t volt a ge r ema in s con s t a n t wh ich is
equ a l t o –VR.
Shunt di ode pos i t i ve c li ppi ng wi t h negat i ve re fe re nce volt age :
Sh u n t diode pos it ive clippin g wit h n ega t ive referen ce volt a ge is a s
s h own in t h e followin g cir cu it . Th is will clip en t ire pos it ive cycle a n d s ome
por t ion of n ega t ive cycle a s s h own in t he wa vefor m.

x Wh en vi(t )<-VR, Diode D is in OFF con dit ion (open cir cu it ) a n d in pu t
wa vefor m is a va ila ble a t t he ou t pu t .
x Wh en vi(t )> -VR, Diode D is in ON con dit ion , in pu t wa vefor m is n ot
a va ila ble at t h e ou t pu t a n d n ega t ive volt a ge –VR is ext en ded t o t h e
ou t pu t . Ou t pu t volt a ge r ema in s con s t a n t equ a l t o VR. Th u s en t ir e pos it ive
cycle a n d s ome por t ion of n ega t ive cycle below –VR clips .

8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Shunt di ode ne gat ive c li pping wi t h negat i ve re fe re nc e :
Nega t ive clippin g wit h n ega t ive r efer en ce volt a ge ca n be a ch ieved by
r ever s in g pola r it y of t h e diode. Some por t ion of n ega t ive cycle clips .

x Wh en vi(t )>-VR, Diode D is in OFF con dit ion (open cir cu it ) a n d in pu t
wa vefor m is a va ila ble a t t he ou t pu t .
x Wh en vi(t ) < -VR, Diode D is in ON con dit ion , in pu t wa vefor m is n ot
a va ila ble at t h e ou t pu t a n d n ega t ive volt a ge –VR is ext en ded t o t h e
ou t pu t . Ou t pu t volt a ge r ema in s con s t a n t equ a l t o VR. Th u s en t ir e pos it ive
cycle a n d s ome por t ion of n ega t ive cycle below –VR clips .

Expe ri me nt Proce dure :
x Con n ect fu n ct ion gen er a t or wit h CRO. Set s ine wa ve wit h 6V pea k t o
pea k. En s u r e t ha t offs et volt a ge is 0.
x Con n ect t he fu n ct ion gener a t or a t t he inpu t of t h e clippin g cir cu it
x Obs er ve ou t pu t wa vefor ms on t he CRO for differen t clippin g cir cu it s
a n d dra w ou t pu t wavefor ms .
:: WORKSHEET ::
Draw c i rc ui t diagrams (as pe r c i rc ui t available i n t he laborat ory or
c i rc uit c onne c t e d on bre adboard):
Cir cu it 1:






L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Cir cu it 2:







Cir cu it 3:






Cir cu it 4:








8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Wave forms :
[1]In pu t Wa vefor m:






Ou t pu t wa vefor m for cir cu it 1:






Ou t pu t wa vefor m for cir cu it 2:











L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Ou t pu t wa vefor m for cir cu it 3:






Ou t pu t wa vefor m for cir cu it 4:







Conc lus ion:
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Que s t i ons :

[1] Dr a w ou t pu t wa vefor m for t he followin g cir cu it s if s in u s oida l s igna l of
6V pea k-t o-pea k wit h zer o offs et is a pplied a t t he in pu t . Con s ider
r efer en ce volt a ge VR = +2V





8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL









Consider Zener voltage 2.5V









VR = -3V












L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
EXPERIMENT NO. 1 3
AIM: To obt a in common emit t er cha ra ct er is t ics of NPN t r a n s is t or
Int roduc t i on:
Tr a n s is t or is t h r ee t er mina l a ct ive device ha vin g t er mina ls collect or , bas e
a n d emit t er . Tr a n s is t or is widely u s ed in a mplifier , os cilla t or , elect r on ic
s wit ch a n d s o ma n y ot h er elect r on ics cir cu it s for va r iet y of a pplica t ion s . To
u n der s t a n d oper a t ion of t he t ra n s is t or , we u s e t h ree con figu r a t ion s common
emit t er , common ba se a n d common collect or . In t h is pr a ct ica l, we will
u n der s t a n d common emit t er con figu ra t ion . As t h e n a me s u gges t , emit t er is
common bet ween in pu t a n d ou t pu t . In pu t is a pplied t o ba se a n d ou t pu t is
t a ken fr om collect or .

We will obt a in in pu t ch a r a ct er is t ics a nd ou t pu t ch a r a ct er is t ics of common
emit t er (CE) con figu r a t ion . We will con nect va r ia ble DC power s u pply a t VBB
a n d VCC t o obt a in cha ra ct er is t ics . In pu t volt a ge in CE con figu r a t ion is ba s e-
emit t er volt a ge Vbe a n d in pu t cu r r en t is ba s e cu r ren t Ib. Ou t pu t volt a ge in
CE con figu r a t ion is collect or t o emit t er volt a ge VCE a n d ou t pu t cu r r en t is
collect or cu r ren t Ic. We will u s e mu lt i-met er t o mea s u r e t hes e volt a ges an d
cu r r en t s for differ ent ch a ra ct er is t ics . Collect or t o emit t er ju nct ion is r evers e
bia s ed a n d ba s e t o emit t er ju n ct ion is for wa r d bia s ed. Th e CE con figu r a t ion
is widely u s ed in amplifier cir cu it s beca u s e it pr ovides volt a ge ga in a s well
a s cu r ren t ga in . In CB con figu r a t ion cu r r en t ga in is les s t ha n u n it y. In CC
con figu r a t ion volt a ge ga in is les s t h an u n it y. In pu t res is t a n ce of CE
con figu r a t ion is les s t h a n CC con figu r a t ion a n d more t ha n CB con figu r a t ion .
Ou t pu t r es is t a n ce of CE con figu r at ion is mor e t h a n CC con figu r a t ion a n d
les s t ha n CB con figu r a t ion .
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

:: WORKSHEET ::
Ci rc ui t s e t up for i nput c harac t e ri s t ic s :
Q1
1K
VBB
A
Vbe
100K
V
Vcc
Ib

Expe ri me nt Proce dure :
x Con n ect cir cu it a s s h own in t h e cir cu it dia gra m for in pu t
ch a ra ct er is t ics
x Con n ect va r ia ble power s u pply 0-30V a t ba s e cir cu it a n d collect or
cir cu it .
x Keep Vcc fix a t 0V (Or do n ot con n ect Vcc)
x In cr ea s e VBB fr om 0V t o 20V, n ot e down rea din gs of ba s e cu r ren t Ib
a n d ba s e t o emit t er volt a ge Vbe in t h e obs er va t ion t a ble.
x Repea t a bove pr ocedu r e for Vcc = +5V a nd Vcc = +10V
x Dr a w in pu t cha ra ct er is t ics cu r ve. Plot Vbe on X a xis a n d Ib on Y a xis .

Obs e rvat i on t able :

Tr a n s is t or : __________
Sr. No. Vc c = 0 V Vc c = +5 V Vc c =+1 0 V
Vbe Ib Vbe Ib Vbe Ib
1
2
3
4
5
6

L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Input Charac t e ri s t ic s :








Ci rc uit s e t up for out put c harac t e ri s t ic s :
Vbe
Vcc
1K
V
100K
A
Vce
VBB
Q1
Ib
Ic
A

Expe ri me nt Proce dure :
x Con n ect cir cu it a s s h own in t h e cir cu it dia gra m for ou t pu t
ch a ra ct er is t ics
x Con n ect va r ia ble power s u pply 0-30V a t ba s e cir cu it a n d collect or
cir cu it .
x Keep ba s e cu r r en t fix (In it ia lly 0)
x In cr ea s e VCC fr om 0V t o 30V, n ot e down rea din gs of collect or cu r r en t
Ic a n d collect or t o emit t er volt a ge Vce in t h e obs er va t ion t a ble.
x Repea t a bove pr ocedu r e for ba s e cu r r en t s Ib = 5µA, 50 µA, 100 µA.
In cr ea s e ba s e cu r ren t by in cr ea s in g VBB.
x Dr a w ou t pu t cha ra ct er is t ics cu r ve. Plot Vce on X a xis a n d Ic on Y a xis .


8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Obs e rvat i on t able :

Tr a n s is t or : __________
Sr. No. Ib = 0 Ib = 5 µA Ib = 5 0 µA Ib = 1 0 0 µA
Vce Ic Vce Ic Vce Ic Vce Ic
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Out put Charac t e ris t ic s :













L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Conc lus ion:
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Que s t i ons :

[1] How t o ch eck t ra n s is t or wit h h elp of mu lt imet er ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[2] How t o ch eck t ype of t r a n s is t or (NPN or PNP) wit h h elp of mu lt imet er ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[3] Define cu r ren t gain of t h e t ra n s is t or in CE con figu r a t ion . Wh a t is t he DC
cu r r en t ga in you obt a in in t h is pr a ct ica l?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 4
AIM: To obt a in common ba s e cha r a ct er is t ics of NPN t r a n s is t or
Int roduc t i on:
In a common ba s e con figu r a t ion , b a s e t e r mi n a l i s common b e t we e n
in p u t a n d ou t p u t . Th e ou t p u t i s t a k e n fr om c ol l e c t or a n d t h e i n p u t
vol t a ge i s a p p l ie d b e t wee n e mi t t e r a n d b a s e . Th e b a s e i s gr ou n d e d
b e ca u s e i t i s c ommon . To ob t a i n ou t p u t c h a r a ct e r i s t i c s , we wi l l
me a s u r e col l e ct or cu r r e n t for d i ffe r e n t va l u e of c ol l e c t or t o b a s e
vol t a ge (VCB). In p u t cu r r e n t i s e mi t t e r c u r r e n t Ie a n d i n p u t vol t a ge
is Ve b . To p l ot i n p u t c h a r a ct e r i s t i c s we wi l l p l ot Ve b ve r s u s Ie .
Cu r r e n t ga in for CB c on fi gu r a t i on i s l e s s t h a n u n i t y. CB
con fi gu r a t i on i s u s e d in common b a s e a mp l i fie r t o ob t a i n volt a ge
ga i n . Ou t p u t i mp e d a n ce of common b a s e c on fi gu r a t ion i s ve r y h i gh .
CB a mp l i fie r i s u s e d i n mu l t i - s t a ge a mp l i fi e r wh e r e i mp e d a n ce
ma t c h i n g i s r e qu i r e d b e t wee n d i ffe r e n t s t a ge s .

Ci rc u i t di agram t o o bt ai n i n pu t c h arac t e ri s t i c s :
VEE
Vcc
V
Veb
A
10K
Ie
1K
Q1

Ci rc u i t di agram t o o bt ai n o u t put c h a rac t e ri s t i c s :
Ie
A
1K
V
A
VEE
Q1
Vcc
Ic
Vcb
10K



L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
:: WORKSHEET ::
Expe ri me nt Proce dure t o obt ai n i nput c harac t e ris t ic s :
x Con n ect cir cu it a s s h own in t h e cir cu it dia gra m for in pu t
ch a ra ct er is t ics
x Con n ect va r ia ble power s u pply 0-30V (VEE) a t emit t er ba s e cir cu it a n d
a n ot her power s u pply 0-30V a t collect or ba s e cir cu it (Vcc).
x Keep Vcc fix a t 0V (Or do n ot con n ect Vcc)
x In cr ea s e VEE fr om 0V t o 20V, n ot e down rea din gs of emit t er cu r r en t Ie
a n d emit t er t o ba s e volt a ge Veb in t h e obs er va t ion t a ble.
x Repea t a bove pr ocedu r e for Vcc = +5V a nd Vcc = +10V
x Dr a w in pu t cha ra ct er is t ics cu r ve. Plot Veb on X a xis a n d Ie on Y a xis .
Expe ri me nt Proce dure t o obt ai n out put c harac t e ri s t ic s :
x Con n ect cir cu it a s s h own in t h e cir cu it dia gra m for ou t pu t
ch a ra ct er is t ics
x Con n ect va r ia ble power s u pply 0-30V a t emit t er cir cu it a n d collect or
cir cu it .
x Keep emit t er cu r ren t fix (In it ia lly 0)
x In cr ea s e VCC fr om 0V t o 30V, n ot e down rea din gs of collect or cu r r en t
Ic a n d collect or t o ba s e volt a ge Vcb in t he obser va t ion t a ble.
x Repea t a bove pr ocedu r e for ba s e cu r r en t s Ie = 1mA, 5 mA a nd 10mA.
In cr ea s e emit t er cu rr en t by in crea s in g VEE.
x Dr a w ou t pu t cha ra ct er is t ics cu r ve. Plot Vcb on X a xis a n d Ic on Y
a xis .
Obs e rvat i on t able for i nput c harac t e ris t i c s :
Tr a n s is t or : __________
Sr. No. Vc c = 0 V Vc c = +5 V Vc c =+1 0 V
Ve b Ie Ve b Ie Ve b Ie
1
2
3
4
5
6
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Input Charac t e ri s t ic s :










Obs e rvat i on t able for out put c harac t e ri s t i c s :

Tr a n s is t or : __________

Sr. No. Ie = 0 Ie = 1 mA Ie = 5 mA Ie = 1 0 mA
Vc b Ic Vc b Ic Vc b Ic Vc b Ic
1
2
3

4
5
6
7
8


L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Out put Charac t e ris t ic s :













Conc lus ion:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Que s t i ons :

[1] Wh a t is ea r ly effect ? Ha ve you obs erved ea r ly effect in you r exper imen t ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[2] Compa re common ba s e a n d common emit t er con figu r a t ion
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

[3] J u s t ify t h e s t a t emen t : Common ba s e a mplifier is u s ed a s bu ffer
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[3] Wh a t is t he va lu e of ph a s e s h ift bet ween in pu t a n d ou t pu t s ign a l in
common ba s e a nd common emit t er amplifier ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________




L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
EXPERIMENT NO. 1 5
AIM: To obt a in common collect or ch a ra ct er is t ics of NPN t ra n s is t or
Int roduc t i on:
In common collect or con figu r a t ion , collect or t er mina l is common bet ween
in pu t a n d ou t pu t . In pu t is a pplied bet ween ba s e a n d collect or . Ou t pu t is
t a ken fr om emit t er a n d collect or . Volt age ga in of CC con figu r a t ion is les s
t h a n u n it y. CC a mplifier is u s ed t o pr ovide cu r ren t ga in . It h a s ver y h igh
in pu t impeda n ce a nd ver y low ou t pu t res is t a n ce hen ce it is u s ed t o con nect
low impeda n ce loa d t o s ou r ce wh ich is ha vin g h igh ou t pu t impeda n ce. Th u s ,
it ca n be u s ed a s impeda n ce ma t ch in g. Emit t er cu r r en t is a ppr oxima t ely
equ a l t o collect or cu r r en t , h en ce ou t pu t ch a ra ct er is t ics of CC con figu r a t ion
is ver y mu ch s a me a s CE con figu r a t ion. However , in pu t cha r a ct er is t ics of
CE a n d CC a r e qu it e differen t .
Ci rc u i t di agram t o o bt ai n i n pu t c h arac t e ri s t i c s :
VBB
Vcc
V
A
Q1
1K
100K
Vcb
Ib

Ci rc u i t di agram t o o bt ai n o u t put c h a rac t e ri s t i c s :

Vce
V
Ie
Q1
Vcc
A
A
VBB
100K
Ib
1K

8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

:: WORKSHEET ::
Expe ri me nt Proce dure t o obt ai n i nput c harac t e ris t ic s :
x Con n ect cir cu it a s s h own in t h e cir cu it dia gra m for in pu t
ch a ra ct er is t ics
x Con n ect va r ia ble power s u pply 0-30V (VBB) a t ba s e-emit t er cir cu it a n d
a n ot her power s u pply 0-30V a t collect or emit t er cir cu it (Vcc).
x Keep Vce fix a t 0V (Or do n ot con n ect Vcc)
x In cr ea s e VBB fr om 0V t o 20V, n ot e down rea din gs of ba s e cu r r en t Ib
a n d collect or t o ba s e volt a ge (Vcb) in t he obs er va t ion t a ble.
x Repea t a bove pr ocedu r e for Vce = +1V a nd Vce = +2V
x Dr a w in pu t cha ra ct er is t ics cu r ve. Plot Vcb on X a xis a n d Ib on Y a xis .
Expe ri me nt Proce dure t o obt ai n out put c harac t e ri s t ic s :
x Con n ect cir cu it a s s h own in t h e cir cu it dia gra m for ou t pu t
ch a ra ct er is t ics
x Con n ect va r ia ble power s u pply 0-30V a t ba s e cir cu it a n d collect or
cir cu it .
x Keep ba s e cu r ren t fix (In it ia lly 0)
x In cr ea s e VCC fr om 0V t o 30V, n ot e down rea din gs of emit t er cu r r en t Ic
a n d collect or t o emit t er volt a ge Vce in t he obs er va t ion t a ble.
x Repea t a bove pr ocedu r e for ba s e cu r r en t s Ib = 10µA, 50 µA a n d
100µA. In cr ea se ba s e cu r r en t by in crea s in g VBB.
x Dr a w ou t pu t cha ra ct er is t ics cu r ve. Plot Vce on X a xis a n d Ie on Y a xis
for differ en t va lu es of ba s e cu r r en t s .
Obs e rvat i on t able for i nput c harac t e ris t i c s :
Tr a n s is t or : __________
Sr. No. Vc e = 0 V Vc e = +1 V Vc e =+2 V
Vc b Ib Vc b Ib Vc b Ib
1
2
3
4
5
6
L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Input Charac t e ri s t ic s :










Obs e rvat i on t able for out put c harac t e ri s t i c s :

Tr a n s is t or : __________

Sr. No. Ib = 0 µA Ib = 1 0 µA Ib = 5 0 µA Ib = 1 0 0 µA
Vce Ie Vce Ie Vce Ie Vce Ie
1
2
3

4
5
6
7
8


8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Out put Charac t e ris t ic s :













Conc lus ion:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
Que s t i ons :

[1] Wh a t is t he in pu t a n d ou t pu t impeda n ce of CC con figu r a t ion compa r ed
t o CE a n d CB con figu r a t ion ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[2] J u s t ify: It is bet t er t o u s e common -collect or a mplifier bet ween common
emit t er a mplifier a n d loa d-s pea ker .
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[3] Compa re volt a ge ga in a n d cu r r en t ga in of CC a mplifier wit h CB a n d CE
a mplifier .
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[4] Wh a t is emit t er follower ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 6
AIM: To u n der s t a n d wor kin g of t r a n s is t or a s a s wit ch . To dr a w DC loa d line
for given cir cu it
Int roduc t i on:
Tr a n s is t or ca n be opera t ed in t h ree r egion : cu t -off r egion , act ive region a n d
s a t u ra t ion r egion . Wh ile u s in g t ra n s is t or in a mplifier cir cu it , we a re u s ing
a ct ive region . If t r an s is t or opera t ed in cu t -off a n d s a t u r at ion r egion in
a mplifier , clippin g of wa vefor ms will occu r . Wh en we u s e t r a n s is t or a s a
s wit ch , on ly t wo r egion s cu t -off a n d s a t u r a t ion a re u s ed. In s a t u r a t ion
r egion t ra n s is t or a ct s a s ON s wit ch . In cu t -off r egion , t ra n s is t or a ct s a s OFF
s wit ch . We a r e u s ing on ly t wo poin t s of DC loa d lin e wh ile u s in g t r a n s is t or
a s a s wit ch .
Ci rc ui t diagram:
10K
Ib
12V
A
SW
Q1
Ib
LED
1K
V
+5V
A
Vce

Expe ri me nt Proce dure t o obt ai n i nput c harac t e ris t ic s :
x Con n ect cir cu it a s s h own in t h e cir cu it dia gra m for in pu t
ch a ra ct er is t ics
x Adju s t collect or s u pply Vcc = +12V a n d ba s e s u pply VBB=+5V
x You ma y u s e ba se volt a ge s u pply s wit ch in s t ea d of s wit ch s hown in
t h e cir cu it dia gr a m.
x Mea s u r e ba s e cu r r en t wh en s wit ch is OFF (It will be zer o). Mea s u re
collect or cu r r en t a nd volt a ge bet ween collect or a n d emit t er . LED is off
beca u s e t ra n s is t or is in cu t -off r egion ,
x Now a pply ba s e volt a ge +5V, LED will be ON. Mea s u r e collect or
cu r r en t a n d collect or -emit t er volt a ge. Tr a n s is t or is in s a t u ra t ion
r egion .


L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
:: WORKSHEET ::
Obs e rvat i ons :

[1] Swit ch off (VBB=0): Ib = _________ VCE = __________ Ic = ________

[2] Swit ch ON (VBB=+5V): Ib = _________ VCE = __________ Ic = ________

Dr a w DC loa d line an d s h ow s a t u ra t ion a n d cu t off poin t s :












Conc lus ion:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________





8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Que s t i ons :

[1] Wh a t a r e t h e a pplica t ion s of t r a n s is t or a s a s wit ch ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[2] Wh a t s h ou ld be r a t io of collect or res is t a n ce t o ba s e r es is t a n ce wh ile
des ign in g t ra n s is t or s wit ch ? Wh a t is h a r d s a t u r a t ion ?

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[3] Dr a w ou t pu t wavefor m when followin g wa vefor m is a pplied a t t h e bas e
cir cu it .


In pu t wa vefor m a pplied a t ba s e:



Ou t pu t wa vefor m:


v
v
L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
EXPERIMENT NO. 1 7
AIM: To obs er ve in pu t -ou t pu t wa vefor ms of common emit t er (CE) a mplifier .
To mea s u r e ga in of a mplifier a t differen t frequ en cies a n d plot
fr equ en cy res pon s e
Int roduc t i on:
Common emit t er a mplifier is u s ed t o a mplify wea k s igna l. It u t ilizes
ener gy fr om DC power s u pply t o a mplify in pu t AC s ign a l. Bia s in g of
t r a n s is t or is done t o t ie Q poin t a t t he middle of t he loa d lin e. In t he cir cu it
s h own , volt a ge divider bia s is for med u s in g r es is t or s 10K a n d 2.2K. Du r in g
pos it ive cycle, for wa r d bia s of ba s e-emit t er ju n ct ion in crea s es a n d ba s e
cu r r en t in crea s es . Q poin t moves in u pwa r d dir ect ion on loa d line a n d
collect or cu r ren t in cr ea s es t imes t ha n ba s e cu r r en t . ( is cu r r en t ga in ).
Collect or r es is t or dr op IcRc in cr ea ses du e t o in cr ea s e in collect or cu r ren t Ic.
Th is will r edu ce collect or volt a ge. Th u s du r in g pos it ive in pu t cycle, we get
n ega t ive ou t pu t cycle. When in pu t is n ega t ive cycle, for wa rd bia s of ba s e-
emit t er ju n ct ion a n d ba s e cu r ren t will redu ce. Collect or cu r r en t redu ces (Q
poin t moves down s ide). Du e t o decr ea s e in collect or cu r r en t , collect or
r es is t a n ce volt a ge dr op IcRc redu ces a n d collect or volt a ge in cr ea s es . Cha nge
in collect or volt a ge is mu ch h igh er t h a n a pplied ba s e volt a ge beca u s e les s
ba s e cu r r en t va r ia t ion ca u s es la r ge collect or cu r r en t va r ia t ion du e t o cu r r ent
ga in B. Th is la r ge collect or cu r r en t fu r t her mu lt iplied by collect or r es is t a nce
Rc wh ich pr ovides la r ge volt a ge ou t pu t . Th u s CE a mplifier pr ovides volt age
ga in a n d a mplifies t h e in pu t s ign a l. Wit h ou t emit t er r es is t a n ce ga in of
a mplifier is h igh es t bu t it is n ot s t a ble. Emit t er res is t a n ce is u s ed t o pr ovide
s t a bilit y. To compen s a t e effect of emit t er r es is t a n ce emit t er bypa s s ca pa cit or
is u s ed wh ich pr ovides AC gr ou n d t o t h e emit t er . Th is will in cr ea s e ga in of
a mplifier .
CE a mplifier does not pr ovide con s t a n t volt a ge ga in a t a ll fr equ en cies .
Du e t o emit t er bypas s a n d cou plin g ca pa cit or s r edu ces ga in of a mplifier a t
low fr equ en cy. Rea ct a n ce of ca pa cit or is h igh a t low fr equ en cy, hence
emit t er bypa s s ca pa cit or does n ot pr ovide per fect AC gr ou n d (Emit t er
impeda n ce is h igh ). Th er e is volt a ge drop a cr os s cou plin g ca pa cit or a t low
fr equ en cy beca u s e of h igh r ea ct a n ce a t low fr equ en cies . Ga in of CE a mplifier
a ls o redu ces a t ver y h igh frequ en cy beca u s e of s t ra y ca pa cit a n ces . Au dio
fr equ en cy t ra n s is t or s like AC127, AC128 wor ks for a u dio fr equ en cy r a n ge.
It does n ot pr ovide la r ge volt a ge ga in for fr equ en cy gr ea t er t h a n 20 KHz.
Mediu m fr equ en cy t r a n s is t or s a re BC147/ BC148/ BC547/ BC548 pr ovides
volt a ge ga in u p t o 500 KHz. High fr equ en cy t r a n s is t or s like
BF194/ BF594/ BF200 pr ovides ga in a t r a dio frequ en cies in t h e MHz r a n ge.
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

If we a pply la r ge s ign a l a t t h e in pu t of CE a mplifier , t r a n s is t or dr iven
in t o s a t u r a t ion r egion du r in g pos it ive pea k a n d cu t -off r egion du r ing
n ega t ive pea k (Q poin t r ea ches t o s a t u r at ion a n d cu t -off poin t s ). Du e t o t h is
clippin g occu r s in a mplified s igna l. So we ha ve t o a pply s ma ll s igna l a t t he
in pu t a n d en s u r e t ha t t r a n s is t or opera t es in a ct ive region .
Ci rc ui t diagram:

10uF
10uF
+12V
22K
100uF
1K
4.7K
CRO
BC547
Function
Generator
100

Expe ri me nt al proc edure :
x Con n ect fu n ct ion gen er a t or a t t he in pu t of t h e a mplifier cir cu it .
x Set in pu t volt a ge 10 mV a n d frequ en cy 100 Hz.
x Con n ect CRO a t t he ou t pu t of t h e a mplifier cir cu it .
x Obs er ve a mplified s ign a l a n d mea s u r e ou t pu t volt a ge
x In cr ea s e frequ en cy fr om t h e fu n ct ion gen era t or a n d r epea t a bove s t ep
x Not e down r ea din gs of ou t pu t volt a ge in t h e obs er va t ion t a ble for
fr equ en cy ra n ge fr om 100 Hz t o 10 MHz
x Ca lcu la t e volt a ge ga in for differ en t fr equ en cies a n d ga in in dB. Plot
fr equ en cy res pon s e.


L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
:: WORKSHEET ::
Draw c i rc ui t diagram from t he board available i n t he laborat ory:








Obs e rvat i on t able :
In pu t volt a ge: Vi = 10 mV
Sr. No. Frequ en cy
a t t h e in pu t
Ou t pu t volt a ge Vo Ga in A = Vo/ Vi Gain in dB=
20log10(A)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Dr a w fr equ en cy res pon s e of CE a mplifier (you ca n a ls o u s e loga r it h mic
gr a ph or u se log s ca le)












Conc lus ion:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

Que s t i ons :

[1] Wh a t will be emit t er cu r r en t in t he given cir cu it dia gr a m in a bs en ce of
in pu t AC s ign a l?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[2] Dr a w DC loa d line of CE a mplifier circu it . Sh ow Q poin t on it .











[3] Dr a w ou t pu t wavefor m when followin g wa vefor m is a pplied a t t h e CE
a mplifier cir cu it
In pu t wa vefor m a pplied a t ba s e: (Pea k t o pea k volt a ge is 2V)
Ou t pu t wa vefor m:




8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

[4] Wh a t is ba n dwidt h ? Wh a t is t he a pproxima t e ba n dwidt h of CE a mplifier
t h a t you ha ve u s ed du r in g you r pra ct ica l.

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[5] Wh a t is t he effect on ga in of a mplifier if va lu e of Rc in crea s es ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[6] Wh a t a r e t he differen t bia s in g met h ods ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[7] Wh a t ha ppen s if emit t er bypa s s ca pacit or is r emoved fr om t h e cir cu it ?
_____________________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________________
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L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
EXPERIMENT NO. 1 8
AIM: To obs er ve in pu t -ou t pu t wa vefor ms of common collect or (CC) a mplifier .
To mea s u r e ga in of a mplifier a t differen t frequ en cies a n d plot
fr equ en cy res pon s e
Int roduc t i on:
Th e common collect or (CC) a mplifier is a ls o kn own a s emit t er follower . It is
u s ed a s a cu r ren t a mplifier . Volt a ge ga in of CC a mplifier is les s t ha n u n it y
wh ile cu r r en t gain is ( +1i. CC anplificr Las LigL inpui inpcdancc and lov
ou t pu t impeda n ce. Th er e is n o pha se r ever s a l bet ween in pu t a n d ou t pu t .
Ci rc ui t diagram:
Function
Generator
SL-100
10uF
+12V
39K
27K
10uF
2.7K
CRO

Expe ri me nt al proc edure :
x Mea s u r e Emit t er volt a ge in a bs en ce of inpu t AC s ign a l.
x Con n ect fu n ct ion gen er a t or a t t he in pu t of t h e a mplifier cir cu it .
x Set in pu t volt a ge 1V a n d fr equ en cy 100 Hz.
x Con n ect CRO a t t he ou t pu t of t h e a mplifier cir cu it .
x Obs er ve ou t pu t s igna l a n d mea s u r e ou t pu t volt a ge
x Dr a w in pu t a n d ou t pu t s ign a l
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

:: WORKSHEET ::
Draw c i rc ui t diagram from t he board avai lable in t he laborat ory:








Obs e rvat i ons :
DC Volt a ge in a bs ence of in pu t s igna l: VE = ______ V
AC In pu t volt a ge: Vi = 1 V
In pu t Wa vefor m




Ou t pu t Wa vefor m






L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Conc lus ion:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

Que s t i ons :

[1] Wh a t will be emit t er volt a ge a n d cu r r en t in t he given cir cu it dia gra m in
a bs en ce of in pu t AC s ign a l?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[2] Wh a t is t h e equ at ion of cu r r en t ga in in CC a mplifier ? What is t h e cu r r ent
ga in of CC a mplifier u sed in la bora t ory?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[3] Ca n we con nect lou d s pea ker in s t ea d of emit t er res is t a n ce?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

EXPERIMENT NO. 1 9
AIM: To mea s u re ga in of t wo s t a ge RC cou pled a mplifier
Int roduc t i on:
To a ch ieve h igher ga in , we ca n u s e mu lt i-s t a ge a mplifier wh ere ou t pu t of
on e a mplifier is con n ect ed t o in pu t of n ext a mplifier . Amplifier s a re
con n ect ed in ca s ca de a r r a n gemen t s o it is a ls o ca lled ca s ca de a mplifier .
Ou t pu t of fir s t a mplifier is con nect ed t o in pu t of secon d a mplifier by
cou plin g device like cou plin g ca pa cit or . Dir ect cou plin g or t r a n s for mer
cou plin g is a ls o u s ed. Ca pa cit or cou plin g is u s ed t o cou ple AC s ign a l fr om
ou t pu t of fir s t a mplifier t o in pu t of s econd a mplifier . Cou pling ca pa cit or does
n ot pa s s DC s ign a l s o DC bia s in g of s econ d s t a ge is n ot a ffect ed by fir s t
s t a ge a n d vice-ver s a. In t h is pr a ct ica l, we will u s e ca pa cit or cou plin g wh ich
is a ls o kn own a s t wo s t a ge RC cou pled a mplifier . Typica l cir cu it dia gra m is
s h own below:
V3
+12V
22K
100uF
V2
1K
100
BC547 BC547
22K
V1
Function
Generator
+12V
10uF 1K
4.7K
CRO
10uF
100uF
10uF
100
4.7K

In t h is cir cu it dia gra m, ou t pu t of fir s t s t a ge is con n ect ed t o in pu t of t h e
s econ d s t a ge by cou plin g ca pa cit or of 10 µF. RC n et wor k is for med by t h is
cou plin g ca pa cit or a n d volt a ge divider bia s of t h e next s t a ge. In pu t s ign a l V1
is a mplified by fir s t a mplifier . Amplified s ign a l fr om fir s t a mplifier is V2
wh ich is fu r t h er amplified by s econ d a mplifier . Ou t pu t s ign a l fr om t he
s econ d a mplifier is V3. If ga in of a mplifier 1 is A1 t h en V2=A1V1. If ga in of
a mplifier 2 is A2 t h en V3=A2V2. Fr om t h is r ela t ion s h ip, V3=A1A2V1. Th is
t h eoret ica l overa ll ga in of ca s ca de a mplifier is A = V3/ V1 = A1A2. However
pr a ct ica lly over a ll ga in is s ligh t ly les s t han A1A2 beca u s e of loa din g effect of
s econ d s t a ge on t h e fir s t s t a ge. Overa ll ba n dwidt h of a mplifier will decrea se.
L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Expe ri me nt al proc edure :
x Con n ect fu n ct ion gen er a t or a t t he in pu t of t h e a mplifier cir cu it .
x Set in pu t volt a ge V1=1 mV a n d fr equ en cy 100 Hz.
x Con n ect CRO a t t he ou t pu t of t h e fir s t a mplifier cir cu it a t poin t V2.
x Obs er ve a mplified s ign a l a n d mea s u r e ou t pu t volt a ge a t V2
x Fin d ou t ga in of fir s t a mplifier A1=V2/ V1.
x Obs er ve a mplified s ign a l a t t he ou t pu t of s econ d a mplifier a n d
mea s u re ou t pu t volt a ge a t V3
x Fin d ou t ga in of s econ d a mplifier A2=V3/ V2.
x Fin d overa ll ga in of a mplifier A = V3/ V1= A1A2
x In cr ea s e frequ en cy fr om t h e fu n ct ion gen era t or a n d r epea t a bove s t eps
x Not e down r ea din gs of ou t pu t volt a ge in t h e obs er va t ion t a ble for
fr equ en cy ra n ge fr om 100 Hz t o 10 MHz
x Ca lcu la t e volt a ge ga in A1 a n d A2 for differen t frequ en cies a nd ga in in
dB. Plot fr equ en cy res pon s e.

:: WORKSHEET ::
Draw c i rc ui t diagram from t he board available i n t he laborat ory:









8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Obs e rvat i on t able :
In pu t volt a ge: V1 = 10 mV
Sr.
No.
Fr eq. a t
t h e
in pu t
Ou t pu t
volt a ge
V2
Ou t pu t
volt age
V3
Ga in
A1=V2/ V1
Ga in
A2=V3/ V2
A=A1A2 A in
dB
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Dr a w fr equ en cy res pon s e of CE a mplifier (you ca n a ls o u s e loga r it h mic
gr a ph or u se log s ca le)










L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Conc lus ion:
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

Que s t i ons :

[1] Wh a t a r e t h e a dva n t a ges of mu lt is t a ge a mplifier ?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

[2] Wh a t will ha ppen if we in crea se in pu t volt a ge in t wo s t a ge RC cou pled
a mplifier u s ed in you r pr a ct ica l t o 10 mV?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
[4] Wh a t a r e t h e differen t cou plin g met hods ? Wh a t is t he a dva n t a ge a n d
dis a dva n t a ge of dir ect cou plin g?

_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
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_____________________________________________________________________
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8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

EXPERIMENT NO. 2 0
AIM: To obt a in ch a ra ct er is t ics of field effect t ra n s is t or (FET)
Int roduc t i on:
Th e Field Effect Tr a n s is t or (FET) is a t h r ee t er mina l device. Th r ee t er mina ls
a re Dra in (D), Sou r ce (S) a n d Ga t e (G). In FET, cu r r en t flow is du e t o on ly
on e t ype of ch a r ge pa r t icles , eit her elect r on s or h oles . So FET is kn own a s
u n ipola r device. Th e na me “field effect ” is der ived fr om t h e fa ct t ha t t he
cu r r en t is con t r olled by a n elect r ic field s et u p in t h e device by a n ext er na lly
a pplied volt a ge. Th u s FET is a volt a ge con t r olled device wh ile bipolar
t r a n s is t or is cu r r en t con t r olled device.
Th e Field Effect Tr a n s is t or (FET) ca n be br oa dly cla s s ified in t o followin g
ca t egor ies :








In t h is exper imen t we will obt a in ou t pu t ch a r a ct er is t ics of N-ch a n n el FET
u s in g CS ( Common s ou r ce) Con figu r a t ion . It is a ls o kn own a s dr a in
ch a ra ct er is t ics . Ba s ic con s t r u ct ion of N-ch a n nel FET a n d it s s ymbol a re
s h own in t h e followin g figu r e. When ga t e t o s ou r ce volt a ge VGS is zer o, N t ype
ch a n nel is open s o dr a in cu r r en t will flow t h r ou gh it . As we in cr ea s e
n ega t ive volt a ge on t h e ga t e t er mina l, VGS=-1V, -2V, -3V et c., dr a in cu r ren t
r edu ces . Th e r edu ct ion in dr a in cu r r en t is du e t o redu ct ion in widt h of
ch a n nel. As we in cr ea s e n ega t ive ga t e volt a ge, widt h of deplet ion region
s pr ea ds in t h e cha nn el. Deplet ion r egion (genera t ed field du e t o r ever s e bia s )
does n ot h a ve char ge ca r r ier s s o widt h of ch a n n el will r edu ce. As we
in cr ea s e nega t ive va lu e of VGS, penet ra t ion of deplet ion r egion (field) will be
mor e a n d mor e du e t o wh ich cha n nel becomes n a r r ower . At on e poin t dra in
cu r r en t redu ces t o zer o when en t ire ch a n nel will be clos ed du e t o
penet r a t ion of deplet ion r egion . Th e va lu e of VGS a t wh ich dr a in cu r rent
r edu ces t o zer o is ca lled cu t -off volt a ge VGS(off). Nor ma lly Dr a in cu r ren t
IL1
IIL1
I
MC5IL1
M IL1
N
IL1
Þ
IL1
D
MC5IL1
L
MC5IL1
N
D MC5IL1
Þ
D MC5IL1
N
L MC5IL1
Þ
D MC5IL1
L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
r edu ces t o zer o a t VGS=-Vp. Th u s VGS(off) = -VP wh er e VP is pin ch -off volt a ge.
Pin ch -off volt a ge VP is t h e va lu e of volt a ge VDS a t wh ich dr a in cu r r ent
becomes con s t a n t .

Ci rc ui t diagram:
A
10K
1K
0-10V
V
Q2
Ig
A
Id
0-12V
Vds

Expe ri me nt Proce dure :
x Con n ect cir cu it a s s h own in t h e cir cu it dia gra m for ou t pu t (dr a in )
ch a ra ct er is t ics
x Con n ect va r ia ble power s u pply 0-10V a t ga t e cir cu it a n d 0-12V a t
dr a in cir cu it .
x Keep ga t e t o s ou r ce volt a ge zer o (VGS=0).
8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

x In cr ea s e dr a in s u pply Vdd fr om 0V t o 12V, n ot e down r ea dings of
dr a in cu r ren t Id a n d dr a in t o s ou r ce volt a ge Vds in t he obs er va t ion
t a ble.
x Repea t a bove pr ocedu r e for differen t ga t e t o s ou r ce volt a ges VGS = -1,
-2, -3, -4 et c. Not e down r ea din g of Ga t e t o s ou r ce volt a ge a t wh ich
dr a in cu r r en t r ema in s zer o. Th is is cu t -off volt a ge VGS(off).
x Not e down pin ch -off volt a ge for a ll va lu es of VGS.
x Dr a w ou t pu t cha ra ct er is t ics cu r ve. Plot Vds on X a xis a n d Id on Y
a xis .

:: WORKSHEET ::

Draw c i rc ui t diagram of t he c i rc ui t avai lable i n t he laborat ory:





























L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Obs e rvat i on t able :
FET: __________
Sr. No. VGS=0 V VGS = -1 V VGS = -2 V VGS = -4 V
Vds Id Vds Id Vds Id Vds Id
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
Out put Charac t e ris t ic s :












8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Conc lus ion:
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Que s t i ons :

[1] Compa re bipola r ju n ct ion t r a n s is t or (BJ T) a n d field effect t r a n s is t or
(FET). Dis cu s s r ela t ive a dva n t a ges a n d dis a dva n t a ges .
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
[2] Wh a t is pin ch -off volt a ge? Wha t is t he r ela t ion s h ip bet ween dr a in cu r ren t
a n d pin ch -off volt a ge?
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
[3] Wh a t is t ra n s -con du ct a n ce? Define t r a n s -con du ct a n ce for FET. Dr a w
t ypica l t r a n s con du ct a n ce cu r ve of FET fr om t h e obs er va t ion s you h a ve
t a ken for ou t pu t ch a r a ct er is t ics .
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Tr a n s con du ct a n ce cu r ve:










[4] Fin d n u mber s of a n y t wo J FET a n d it s s pecifica t ion s fr om t h e webs it e
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

EXPERIMENT NO. 2 1
AIM: To mea s u r e ga in FET common s ou r ce (CS) a mplifier
Int roduc t i on:
Common s ou r ce FET a mplifier is u s ed t o a mplify wea k s ign a l. Sma ll AC
s ign a l is a pplied a t ga t e t er mina l via cou plin g ca pa cit or . Ga t e r es is t a nce
pr ovides self bia s . In pu t AC s ign a l pr ovides va r ia t ion s in Ga t e t o s ou rce
volt a ge VGS. Beca u s e of ch a n ge in VGS, dr a in cu r r en t Id a ls o ch a n ges . If we
a pply s in u s oida l in pu t s ign a l, s in u s oida l va r ia t ion in dr a in cu r r en t pr odu ces
s in u s oida l ou t pu t a t dra in t er mina l. Du r in g pos it ive in pu t s ign a l, VGS
in cr ea s es wh ich will ca u s e in cr ea s e in dr a in cu r r en t . Dr a in volt age
decrea s es du e t o dr op a cr os s dr a in res is t a n ce in crea s es . Th u s we get 180
0
ph a s e s h ift bet ween in pu t a n d a mplified ou t pu t s ign a l.
Ou t pu t volt a ge fr om FET a mplifier ca n be given a s :
Vou t = -gmVgs RD
Wh ere, gm = t r a n s con du ct a n ce of FET
RD = Dr a in res is t a n ce
Vgs = Va r ia t ion in gat e t o s ou r ce volt a ge du e t o in pu t s igna l
Min u s s ign in t h e equ a t ion in dica t es , 180
0
ph a s e s h ift . Ga in of a mplifier is
r a t io of ou t pu t volt age t o in pu t volt a ge.
D m
R g
Vgs
Vout
A
Beca u s e of t he non -lin ea r t ra n s con du ct a n ce cu r ve of FET, CS
a mplifier dis t or t s la r ge s igna ls . It ca n a mplify s ma ll s ign a l wit h ou t
in t r odu cin g n on -lin ea r it y in t o it . For la r ge s igna l, it in t r odu ces n on -lin ea r it y
ca lled s qu a r e la w dis t or t ion . Th is is du e t o pa r a bolic t r a n s con du ct a nce
cu r ve of FET. Swa mpin g r es is t or ca n be u s ed wit h s ou r ce t er mina l t o
pr ovide loca l feedba ck. Th is will s wa mp ou t n on -linea r it y of t he
t r a n s con du ct a n ce cu r ve.
Differen t t ypes of bia s in g t ech n iqu es a re u s ed for CS a mplifier . Ga t e
bia s is s imila r t o ba s e bia s in BJ T, s elf bia s , volt a ge divider bia s , cu r r en t -
s ou r ce bia s et c. Cir cu it dia gr a m of CS a mplifier wit h s elf bia s is s h own h ere.


L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Ci rc ui t diagram:
+12V
100uF
100K
CRO Function
Generator
1uF
270
4.7K
1uF

Expe ri me nt al proc edure :
x Con n ect fu n ct ion gen er a t or a t t he in pu t of t h e a mplifier cir cu it .
x Set in pu t volt a ge 100 mV a n d fr equ en cy 100 Hz.
x Con n ect CRO a t t he ou t pu t of t h e a mplifier cir cu it .
x Obs er ve ou t pu t s igna l a n d mea s u r e ou t pu t volt a ge
x In cr ea s e fr equ en cy of t h e in pu t s igna l a n d r epea t a bove s t eps for
differen t fr equ en cies
:: WORKSHEET ::
Draw c i rc ui t diagram from t he board available i n t he laborat ory:








8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

Obs e rvat i on t able :
In pu t volt a ge: Vi = 100 mV
Sr. No. Frequ en cy
a t t h e in pu t
Ou t pu t volt a ge Vo Ga in A = Vo/ Vi Gain in dB=
20log10(A)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Dr a w fr equ en cy r es pon s e of CS a mplifier (you ca n a ls o u s e loga r it h mic
gr a ph or u se log s ca le)










L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Conc lus ion:
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Que s t i ons :

[1] Wh y ga t e bia s is n ot pr efer red for FET a mplifier ?
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[2] Fr om t h e da t a s h eet of FET 2N5951 IDSS=10 mA a n d VGS=-3.5V.
Ca lcu la t e t he dr a in cu r r en t of FET for VGS=-1V, -2V a n d -3V ?
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[3] Ca n we u s e FET a s elect r on ic s wit ch ? If yes h ow?
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8ASlC LLLC18CnlCS LA8C8A1C81 MAnuAL

EXPERIMENT NO. 2 2
AIM: To t es t in dividu a l cir cu it pr epa r ed by t h e s t u den t

Name of t he c i rc ui t :
Ci rc ui t diagram:








Li s t of c ompone nt us e d:






Tot al c os t of c ompone nt :




Quali t y of s olde ring:
(Rema r ks by t he fa cu lt y)
L C bLlA81MLn1 uCvL8nMLn1 LnulnLL8lnu CCLLLuL 8A!kC1
Te s t i ng proce dure :
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Re s ult s :
(Res u lt s depen ds on cir cu it dia gra m, pr epa re obs er va t ion t a ble, dra w
wa vefor ms a s per you r cir cu it dia gr a m, at t a ch mor e pa ges if n eeded)







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