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Deflection of Flexural Members Macaulay’s Method 3rd Year Structural Engineering

2007/8

Dr. Colin Caprani

1

Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

Contents

1. Introduction ......................................................................................................... 3 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2. General............................................................................................................. 3 Background...................................................................................................... 4 Discontinuity Functions................................................................................... 9 Modelling of Load Types .............................................................................. 14 Analysis Procedure ........................................................................................ 17

Determinate Beams ........................................................................................... 20 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Example 1 – Point Load ................................................................................ 20 Example 2 – Patch Load................................................................................ 27 Example 3 – Moment Load ........................................................................... 31 Example 4 – Beam with Overhangs and Multiple Loads.............................. 34 Example 5 – Beam with Hinge...................................................................... 42 Problems ........................................................................................................ 52

3.

Indeterminate Beams ........................................................................................ 55 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Basis............................................................................................................... 55 Example 6 – Propped Cantilever with Overhang.......................................... 56 Example 7 – Indeterminate Beam with Hinge .............................................. 61 Problems ........................................................................................................ 73

4.

Indeterminate Frames....................................................................................... 76 4.1 4.2 4.3 Introduction.................................................................................................... 76 Example 8 – Simple Frame ........................................................................... 77 Problems ........................................................................................................ 85

5.

General Beam Analysis Program..................................................................... 86 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Introduction.................................................................................................... 86 Development.................................................................................................. 87 Solution.......................................................................................................... 92 Program.......................................................................................................... 96 2 Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

1. Introduction

1.1 General

Macaulay’s Method is a means to find the equation that describes the deflected shape of a beam. From this equation, any deflection of interest can be found.

Before Macaulay’s paper of 1919, the equation for the deflection of beams could not be found in closed form. Different equations for bending moment were used at different locations in the beam.

Macaulay’s Method enables us to write a single equation for bending moment for the full length of the beam. When coupled with the Euler-Bernoulli theory, we can then integrate the expression for bending moment to find the equation for deflection.

Before looking at the deflection of beams, there are some preliminary results needed and these are introduced here.

3

Dr. C. Caprani

and x is the distance of the point along the beam.2 Background General Deflection Equation From the Euler-Bernoulli Theory of Bending. at a point along a beam. Hence. we know: 1 M = R EI where: • R is the radius of curvature of the point. • I is the second moment of area at the point. for large R: 1 d2y = R dx 2 Where y is the deflection at the point. and 1 R is the curvature. 4 Dr. Mathematically. • M is the bending moment at the point. the fundamental equation in finding deflections is: d2y Mx = dx 2 EI x In which the subscripts show that both M and EI are functions of x and so may change along the length of the beam. is can be shown that.Structural Analysis III 1. Caprani . C. • E is the elastic modulus.

C. we need to know how to determine the flexural rigidity.Structural Analysis III Illustrative Example Consider the following beam with material property E = 30 kN/mm 2 : For this and subsequent problems. we need to begin by getting an equation for the bending moments in the beam by taking free body diagrams: 5 Dr. EI. whilst being aware of the unit conversions required: bd 3 200 ⋅ 6003 I= = = 36 × 108 mm 4 12 12 EI = ( 30 ) ( 36 × 10 ) 8 10 6 = 108 × 103 kNm 2 In which the unit conversions for this are: ⎛ kN ⎞ ⋅ mm 4 ) ⎜ 2 ⎟ ( mm EI = ⎝ 6 ⎠2 = kNm 2 2 (10 mm per m ) To find the deflection. Caprani .

C. Caprani .Structural Analysis III For the free-body diagram A to the cut X 1 − X 1 . ∑ M about X 1 − X 1 = 0 gives: M ( x ) − 40 x = 0 M ( x ) = 40 x For the second cut ∑ M about X 2 − X 2 = 0 gives: M ( x ) − 40 x + 80 ( x − 4 ) = 0 M ( x ) = 40 x − 80 ( x − 4 ) 6 Dr.

7 Dr. to find the deflection we use: d 2 y M ( x) = dx 2 EI ⇒ y = ∫∫ M ( x) dx EI But since we have two equations for the bending moment. we will have two different integrations and four constants of integration. C. Caprani .Structural Analysis III So the final equation for the bending moment is: 40 x 0 ≤ x ≤ 4 ( portion AB ) ⎧ M ( x) = ⎨ ⎩40 x − 80 ( x − 4 ) 4 ≤ x ≤ 8 ( portion BC ) The equations differ by the −80 ( x − 4 ) term. Going back to our basic formula. which only comes into play once we are beyond B where the point load of 80 kN is.

C. is defined to be zero when the term inside it is negative. the integrations could be quite involved. It recognizes that when x ≤ 4 the value in the brackets. The idea of the special brackets is routed in a strong mathematical background which is required for more advanced understanding and applications. explained above. Therefore for even ordinary forms of loading. is negative. every extra load would cause two more constants of integration. 8 Dr. So we next examine this background. Caprani . The solution is to have some means of ‘turning off’ the −80 ( x − 4 ) term when x ≤ 4 and turning it on when x > 4 . ( x − 4 ) . whilst trying no to loose sight of its essence.0 ) The above is the essence of Macaulay’s Method.Structural Analysis III Though it is solvable. So a Macaulay bracket. and when x > 4 the value in the brackets is positive. This is what Macaulay’s Method allows us to do. [⋅] . and takes its value when the term inside it is positive: x≤4 ⎧ 0 ⎩x − 4 x > 4 [ x − 4] = ⎨ Another way to think of the Macaulay bracket is: [ x − 4] = max ( x − 4.

Whereas usual functions of variables are continuous. C.3 Discontinuity Functions Background This section looks at the mathematics that lies behind Macaulay’s Method. Notation In mathematics. There are two types. these functions have discontinuities. and we will clearly define how we will use them. Caprani . But it is these discontinuities that make them so useful for our purpose. discontinuity functions are usually represented with angled brackets to distinguish them from other types of brackets: • Usual ordinary brackets: • Usual discontinuity brackets: ( ⋅) ⋅ [⋅] ⋅ {} However (and this is a big one). The method relies upon special functions which are quite unlike usual mathematical functions. because of the discontinuities these functions have to be treated carefully.Structural Analysis III 1. However. Therefore. we adopt the following convention here: • Ordinary functions: • Discontinuity functions: ( ⋅) ⋅ {} [⋅] 9 Dr. we will use square brackets to represent our discontinuity functions. This is because in handwriting they are more easily distinguishable than the angled brackets which can look similar to numbers.

Caprani . because when it is plotted we have: 10 Dr. 2. Mathematically: when x ≤ a ⎧ 0 n ⎪ Fn ( x ) = [ x − a ] = ⎨ n ⎪( x − a ) when x > a ⎩ where n = 0.. for example. So. C. after point a the function has a defined value. and the function then represents the brightness in the room: zero before a and bright after a.1. Before point a the function has zero value. point a might be the time at which a light was turned on. we have: ⎧0 when x ≤ a 0 F0 ( x ) = [ x − a ] = ⎨ ⎩1 when x > a This is called the step function...Structural Analysis III Macaulay Functions Macaulay functions represent quantities that begin at a point a. When the exponent n = 0 .

Structural Analysis III For n = 1 . C. 11 Dr. Caprani . we have: ⎧ 0 2 ⎪ F1 ( x ) = [ x − a ] = ⎨ 2 ⎪( x − a ) ⎩ when x ≤ a when x > a And so on for any value of n. we have: when x ≤ a ⎧ 0 1 F1 ( x ) = [ x − a ] = ⎨ ⎩ x − a when x > a For n = 2 .

So in the light switch example the singularity function could represent the action of switching on the light. the function represents a unit force at point a: 12 Dr. for example. are: 1.Structural Analysis III Singularity Functions Singularity functions behave differently to Macaulay functions. When n = −1 . Mathematically: ⎧ 0 when x ≠ a n Fn ( x ) = [ x − a ] = ⎨ ⎩∞ when x = a where n = −1. The singularity arises since when n = −1 .. C.. very important for us. Caprani . They are defined to be zero everywhere except point a. −2. we have: ⎡ 1 ⎤ ⎧ 0 when x ≠ a F−1 ( x ) = ⎢ ⎥=⎨ ⎣ x − a ⎦ ⎩∞ when x = a Two singularity functions. −3..

Caprani . ∫ [ x − a] 0 x n [ x − a] = n +1 n +1 Singularity functions ( n < 0 ): ∫ Fn ( x ) = Fn+1 ( x ) 0 x i.Structural Analysis III 2. When n = −2 . ∫ [ x − a] = [ x − a] n 0 x n +1 13 Dr. C. the function represents a unit moment located at point a: Integration of Discontinuity Functions These functions can be integrated almost like ordinary functions: Macaulay functions ( n ≥ 0 ): Fn+1 ( x ) ∫ Fn ( x ) = n + 1 0 x i.e.e.

4 Modelling of Load Types Basis Since our aim is to find a single equation for the bending moments along the beam. we need to know how different load types will relate to the bending moments. located at point a. Caprani . we will use discontinuity functions to represent the loads. C. is represented by M [ x − a ] appears in the bending moment equation as: M ( x ) = ∫∫ M [ x − a ] dx = M [ x − a ] −2 −2 and so 0 14 Dr. The relationship between moment and load is: dV ( x ) dx dM ( x ) dx w( x ) = and V ( x) = Thus: d 2M ( x ) w( x ) = dx 2 M ( x ) = ∫∫ w ( x ) dx So we will take the double integral of the discontinuity representation of a load to find its representation in bending moment. However.Structural Analysis III 1. since we will be taking moments. Moment Load A moment load of value M.

we turn on a new load that cancels out the original load. giving a net load of zero. Caprani . to cancel its effect beyond its finish point (point b say). located at point a. C. beginning at point a and carrying on to the end of the beam. This is because a Macaulay function ‘turns on’ at point a and never turns off again. 15 Dr.Structural Analysis III Point Load A point load of value P. is represented by the step function w[ x − a ] and so appears in the bending moment 0 equation as: M ( x ) = ∫∫ w[ x − a ] dx = 0 2 w [ x − a] 2 Patch Load If the UDL finishes before the end of the beam – sometimes called a patch load – we have a difficulty. as shown. is represented by P [ x − a ] appears in the bending moment equation as: M ( x ) = ∫∫ P [ x − a ] dx = P [ x − a ] −1 −1 and so 1 Uniformly Distributed Load A UDL of value w. Therefore.

Structural Analysis III Structurally this is the same as doing the following superposition: And finally mathematically we represent the patch load that starts at point a and finishes at point b as: w[ x − a ] − w[ x − b ] 0 0 Giving the resulting bending moment equation as: M ( x ) = ∫∫ w[ x − a ] − w[ x − b ] dx = 0 0 { } 2 2 w w [ x − a ] − [ x − b] 2 2 16 Dr. C. Caprani .

Integrate Equation 2 to obtain an expression for the deflections along the beam. Substitute the value for Cδ into Equation 3.Structural Analysis III 1. Substitute for any unknown reactions. to give Equation 4. i. giving Equation 5.e. 17 Dr. Us known displacements at support points to calculate the unknown constants of integration. • Cδ is the deflection where x = 0 . C. EIy . and any unknown reactions. Caprani . Thus our final deflections will be in units of m. Note that the constant of integration notation reflects the following: • Cθ is the rotation where x = 0 . and has deflection constant of integration Cδ . b. Solve for required displacements by substituting the location into Equation 4 or 5 as appropriate. d2y 2. the start of the beam. and our rotations in units of rads. The constants of integration will always be in units of kN and m since we will keep our loads and distances in these units. Integrate Equation 1 to obtain an expression for the rotations along the beam.this is Equation 3. dx 3. Substitute the calculated values into the previous equations: a. 7. EI dy .5 Analysis Procedure Steps in Analysis 1. dx 4. Equate M ( x ) to EI 2 . c. Draw a free body diagram of the member and take moments about the cut to obtain an equation for M ( x ) .this is Equation 1.this is Equation 2. 6. Substitute the value for Cθ into Equation 2. 5. and has rotation constant of integration Cθ .

Therefore: dx A local maximum displacement occurs at a point of zero rotation The term local maximum indicates that there may be a few points on the deflected shape where there is zero rotation. 18 Dr.Structural Analysis III Finding the Maximum Deflection A usual problem is to find the maximum deflection. C.max ) . This is dx dy is the rotation. For example: So in this beam we have θ = 0 at two locations. Sometimes this can be done algebraically. but often it is done using trial and error. Once the x is found that gives θ = 0 . we know that this is also a local maximum deflection and so use this x in Equation 5 to find the local maximum deflection. The overall biggest deflection will be the biggest of these local maxima. y2. y1. Given any curve y = f ( x ) . The overall largest deflection is ymax = max ( y1.max . to find the location of the maximum deflection we need to find where θ = 0 . or local maximum deflections.max .max and y2. Caprani . giving two local maximum deflections. Thus we need to solve the problem’s Equation 4 to find an x that gives θ = 0 . we know from calculus that y reaches a maximum at the location where no different in our case where y is now deflection and dy = 0 . Lastly.

we orient the x-y axis system as normal: positive y upwards. anti-clockwise rotations are positive – all as shown below.g. we will assume there to be tension on the bottom of the member by drawing our M ( x ) arrow coming from the bottom of the member. 19 Dr. Caprani . a cantilever) where it is apparent that tension is on top of the beam.Structural Analysis III Sign Convention In Macaulay’s Method. C. When it comes to frame members at an angle. positive x to the right. By doing this. we just imagine the above diagrams rotated to the angle of the member. we know that downward deflections will always be algebraically negative. We do this even (e. In this way.

Caprani .Structural Analysis III 2. we have: 20 Dr. Determinate Beams 2. and calculate the maximum deflection: Step 1 The appropriate free-body diagram is: Note that in this diagram we have taken the cut so that all loading is accounted for.1 Example 1 – Point Load Here we take the beam looked at previously and calculate the rotations at the supports. show the maximum deflection is at midspan. C. Taking moments about the cut.

Caprani . Hence: M ( x ) = 40 x − 80 [ x − 4] Step 2 Thus we write: M ( x ) = EI d2y = 40 x − 80 [ x − 4] dx 2 Equation 1 Step 3 Integrate Equation 1 to get: EI dy 40 2 80 2 = x − [ x − 4] + Cθ 2 dx 2 Equation 2 Step 4 Integrate Equation 2 to get: EIy = 40 3 80 3 x − [ x − 4] + Cθ x + Cδ 6 6 Equation 3 Notice that we haven’t divided in by the denominators. for example. we can follow the 40 kN reaction at A all the way through the calculation. 21 Dr. This makes it easier to check for errors since. C.Structural Analysis III M ( x ) − 40 x + 80 [ x − 4] = 0 In which the Macaulay brackets have been used to indicate that when x ≤ 4 the term involving the 80 kN point load should become zero.

Structural Analysis III Step 5 To determine the constants of integration we use the known displacements at the supports. • Support C: located at x = 8 . That is: • Support A: located at x = 0 . deflection is zero. using Equation 3. i. we keep its value. y = 0 at x = 0 gives: EI ( 0 ) = 40 3 80 3 ( 0 ) − [0 − 4] + Cθ ( 0 ) + Cδ 6 6 Impose the Macaulay bracket to get: EI ( 0 ) = 40 3 80 3 ( 0 ) − [0 − 4] + Cθ ( 0 ) + Cδ 6 6 0 = 0 − 0 + 0 + Cδ Therefore: Cδ = 0 Again using Equation 3 for the second boundary condition of y = 0 at x = 8 gives: EI ( 0 ) = 40 3 80 3 ( 8) − [8 − 4] + Cθ (8) + 0 6 6 Since the term in the Macaulay brackets is positive. Caprani . Note also that we have used the fact that we know Cδ = 0 . y = 0 . deflection is zero.e. Thus: 22 Dr. y = 0 . So.e. i. for the first boundary condition. C.

Thus.Structural Analysis III 20480 5120 − + 8Cθ 6 6 48Cθ = −15360 0= Cθ = −320 Which is in units of kN and m. we re-write Equations 2 & 3 to get Equations 4 & 5: EI dy 40 2 80 2 = x − [ x − 4] − 320 dx 2 2 Equation 4 EIy = 40 3 80 3 x − [ x − 4] − 320 x 6 6 Equation 5 With Equations 4 & 5 found. as discussed previously. Caprani . Rotation at A We are interested in θ A ≡ dy at x = 0 . we can now calculate any deformation of interest. Step 6 Now with the constants known. hence: 23 Dr. C. using Equation 4: dx 40 2 80 2 ( 0 ) − [0 − 4] − 320 2 2 EIθ A = −320 EIθ A = θA = −320 EI From before we have EI = 108 × 103 kNm 2 .

using Equation 4: dx 40 2 80 2 (8) − [8 − 4] − 320 2 2 EIθC = 1280 − 640 − 320 EIθC = θC = +320 EI = +0. but opposite in sign. as shown: 24 Dr. C. Caprani .003 rads 108 × 103 θA = The negative sign indicates a clockwise rotation at A as shown: Rotation at C We are interested in θ C ≡ dy at x = 8 .003 rads So this rotation is equal. Again.Structural Analysis III −320 = −0. to the rotation at A.

Location of Maximum Deflection Since the rotations are symmetrical. C. x = 4 ) is zero.Structural Analysis III The rotations are thus symmetrical as is expected of a symmetrical beam symmetrically loaded. Caprani . we suspect that the maximum deflection is at the centre of the beam. 25 Dr. Using Equation 4: 40 2 80 2 ( 4 ) − [ 4 − 4] − 320 2 2 EIθ B = 320 − 0 − 320 EIθ B = θB = 0 Therefore the maximum deflection does occur at midspan.e. but we will check this and not assume it. Thus we seek to confirm that the rotation at B (i.

33 δB = EI EI δ B = In which we have once again used the Macaulay bracket. the location of the zero rotation. In summary then.Structural Analysis III Maximum Deflection Substituting x = 4 .9 mm δB = Since the deflection is negative we know it to be downward as expected. the final displacements are: 26 Dr. C. into Equation 5: 40 3 80 3 ( 4 ) − [ 4 − 4] − 320 ( 4 ) 6 6 2560 − 0 − 1280 EI δ B = 6 −853.9 × 10−3 m 3 108 × 10 = −7. Caprani . Thus: −853.33 = −7.

Hence the free-body diagram is: 27 Dr. C. except this time the 80 kN load will be spread over 4 m to give a UDL of 20 kN/m applied to the centre of the beam as shown: Step 1 Since we are dealing with a patch load we must extend the applied load beyond D (due to the limitations of a Macaulay bracket) and put an upwards load from D onwards to cancel the effect of the extra load.2 Example 2 – Patch Load In this example we take the same beam as before with the same load as before. Caprani .Structural Analysis III 2.

Structural Analysis III Again we have taken the cut far enough to the right that all loading is accounted for. we have: M ( x ) − 40 x + 20 20 2 2 [ x − 2] − [ x − 6] = 0 2 2 Again the Macaulay brackets have been used to indicate when terms should become zero. Taking moments about the cut. C. Caprani . Hence: M ( x ) = 40 x − 20 20 2 2 [ x − 2] + [ x − 6] 2 2 Step 2 Thus we write: M ( x ) = EI d2y 20 20 2 2 = 40 x − [ x − 2] + [ x − 6] dx 2 2 2 Equation 1 Step 3 Integrate Equation 1 to get: EI dy 40 2 20 20 3 3 = x − [ x − 2] + [ x − 6] + Cθ 6 6 dx 2 Equation 2 Step 4 Integrate Equation 2 to get: EIy = 40 3 20 20 4 4 x − [ x − 2] + [ x − 6] + Cθ x + Cδ 6 24 24 Equation 3 28 Dr.

Step 5 The boundary conditions are: • Support A: y = 0 at x = 0 . C. So for the first boundary condition: EI ( 0 ) = 40 3 20 20 4 4 ( 0 ) − [0 − 2] + [0 − 6] + Cθ ( 0 ) + Cδ 6 24 24 Cδ = 0 For the second boundary condition: EI ( 0 ) = 40 3 20 4 20 4 (8) − ( 6 ) + ( 2 ) + 8Cθ 6 24 24 Cθ = −293.33 Step 6 Insert constants into Equations 2 & 3: EI dy 40 2 20 20 3 3 = x − [ x − 2] + [ x − 6] − 293. Caprani . notice that we haven’t divided in by the denominators.Structural Analysis III As before. • Support B: y = 0 at x = 8 .33 dx 2 6 6 Equation 4 EIy = 40 3 20 20 4 4 x − [ x − 2] + [ x − 6] − 293.33 x 6 24 24 Equation 5 29 Dr.

30 Dr. Caprani . Comparing it to the 7.9 mm deflection for the 80 kN point load. • Calculate the end rotations. we see that smearing the load has reduced deflection. Problem: • Verify that the maximum deflection occurs at the centre of the beam.Structural Analysis III To compare the effect of smearing the 80 kN load over 4 m rather than having it concentrated at midspan. as may be expected. C. we calculate the midspan deflection: EI δ max = 40 3 20 4 20 4 ( 4 ) − ( 2 ) + [ 4 − 6] − 293.00704 m EI 108 × 203 = −7.04 mm δ max = δ max This is therefore a downward deflection as expected.33( 4 ) 6 24 24 = −760 Therefore: −760 −760 = = −0.

except this time it is loaded by a moment load at midspan. as shown: Before beginning Macaulay’s Method. Caprani .3 Example 3 – Moment Load For this example we take the same beam again.Structural Analysis III 2. we need to calculate the reactions: Step 1 The free-body diagram is: 31 Dr. C.

Continuing: M ( x ) = −10 x + 80 [ x − 4] Step 2 0 d2y 0 M ( x ) = EI 2 = −10 x + 80 [ x − 4] dx Step 3 Equation 1 EI 10 dy 1 = − x 2 + 80 [ x − 4] + Cθ dx 2 Equation 2 Step 4 EIy = − 10 3 80 2 x + [ x − 4] + Cθ x + Cδ 6 2 Equation 3 Step 5 We know y = 0 at x = 0 . we have: M ( x ) + 10 x − 80 [ x − 4] = 0 0 Notice a special point here. Refer back to page 14 to see why this is done. Caprani . thus: EI ( 0 ) = − Cδ = 0 10 3 80 2 ( 0 ) + [0 − 4] + Cθ ( 0 ) + Cδ 6 2 32 Dr. C.Structural Analysis III Taking moments about the cut. We have used our knowledge of the singularity function representation of a moment load to essentially locate the moment load at x = 4 in the equations above.

Caprani .Structural Analysis III y = 0 at x = 8 . thus: EI ( 0 ) = − 10 3 80 2 (8) + ( 4 ) + 8Cθ 6 2 80 Cθ = + 3 Step 6 EI dy 10 80 1 = − x 2 + 80 [ x − 4] + dx 2 3 Equation 4 EIy = − 10 3 80 80 2 x + [ x − 4] + x 6 2 3 Equation 5 So for the deflection at C: EI δ C = − EI δ C = 0 10 3 80 80 2 ( 4 ) + [ 4 − 4] + ( 4 ) 6 2 3 Problem: • Verify that the rotation at A and B are equal in magnitude and sense. • Find the location and value of the maximum deflection. 33 Dr. C.

we need to calculate the reactions: Taking moments about B: ⎧ ⎛2 ⎞⎫ − ( 40 ⋅ 2 ) + ⎨(10 ⋅ 2 ) ⋅ ⎜ + 2 ⎟ ⎬ − 8VE + 40 = 0 ⎝2 ⎠⎭ ⎩ VE = +2.Structural Analysis III 2. determine the maximum deflection.4 Example 4 – Beam with Overhangs and Multiple Loads For the following beam. Caprani . taking EI = 20 × 103 kNm 2 : Before beginning Macaulay’s Method. C. ↑ 34 Dr.5 kN i.e.

5 − 40 − ( 2 ⋅ 10 ) = 0 VB = +57. and so not in the diagram. we begin by drawing the free body diagram for Macaulay’s Method: Note the following points: • The patch load has been extended all the way to the end of the beam and a cancelling load has been applied from D onwards. its effect is accounted for in the reactions which are included.5 kN. i. 35 Dr. Caprani .e. Though the 40 kNm moment is to the right of the cut. ↑ With the reactions calculated. • The cut has been taken so that all forces applied to the beam are to the left of the cut.Structural Analysis III Summing vertical forces: VB + 2. C.

5[ x − 10] dx 2 2 Integrate for Equation 2: EI dy 40 57.5[ x − 10] = 0 2 2 So we have Equation 1: 2 2 d2y 10 10 M ( x ) = EI 2 = −40 x + 57.5 3 x + [ x − 2] − [ x − 4] + [ x − 6] + [ x − 10] + Cθ x + Cδ 6 6 24 24 6 Using the boundary condition at support B where y = 0 at x = 2 : EI ( 0 ) = − 40 3 57. C.5 3 10 4 10 4 2. Caprani .5 3 ( 2) + [ 2 − 2] − [ 2 − 4] + [ 2 − 6] + [ 2 − 10] + 2Cθ + Cδ 6 6 24 24 6 Thus: 2Cθ + Cδ = 160 3 (a) 36 Dr.5[ x − 2] + 10 2 10 2 [ x − 4] − [ x − 6] − 2.5 2 10 3 10 3 2.5 3 10 4 10 4 2.Structural Analysis III Taking moments about the cut: M ( x ) + 40 x − 57.5 2 = − x2 + [ x − 2] − [ x − 4] + [ x − 6] + [ x − 10] + Cθ dx 2 2 6 6 2 And again for Equation 3: EIy = − 40 3 57.5[ x − 2] − [ x − 4] + [ x − 6] + 2.

5 x − 481.5 dx 2 2 6 6 2 And Equation 5: EIy = − 40 3 57.5 2 = − x2 + [ x − 2] − [ x − 4] + [ x − 6] + [ x − 10] + 267. C. Caprani .5 3 x + [ x − 2] − [ x − 4] + [ x − 6] + [ x − 10] + 267.5 3 10 4 10 4 2.5 And: 2 ( 267.7 6 6 24 24 6 37 Dr.Structural Analysis III The second boundary condition is y = 0 at x = 10 : EI ( 0 ) = − 40 57.5 3 3 4 (10 ) + ( 8) − ( 6 ) + ( 4 ) + [10 − 10] + 10Cθ + Cδ 6 6 24 24 6 Hence: 10Cθ + Cδ = 6580 3 (b) Subtracting (a) from (b) gives: 8Cθ = 6420 3 ⇒ Cθ = +267.7 Thus we have Equation 4: EI dy 40 57.5 2 10 3 10 3 2.5 3 10 4 10 2.5 ) + Cδ = 160 3 ⇒ Cδ = −481.

the overall maximum deflection will be the biggest of: • δ A .the deflection of the tip of the cantilever at F – again got from Equation 5 using x = 11 . bending moment. • δ F .the deflection of the tip of the cantilever at A – found from Equation 5 using x = 0 . C. and then substituting this value into Equation 5. in order to better visualize the beam’s behaviour: So examining the above.the largest upward deflection somewhere between the supports – its location is found solving Equation 4 to find the x where θ = 0 . and deflected shape diagrams. 38 Dr. • δ max BE . we solve for the shear.Structural Analysis III Since we are interested in finding the maximum deflection. Caprani .

**Structural Analysis III
**

Maximum Deflection Between B and E

Since Equation 4 cannot be solved algebraically for x, we will use trial and error. Initially choose the midspan, where x = 6 :

EI

dy dx

x =6

40 2 57.5 2 10 3 10 3 2.5 2 ( 6) + ( 4 ) − ( 2 ) + [6 − 6] + [6 − 10] + 267.5 2 2 6 6 2 = −5.83 =−

Try reducing x to get closer to zero, say x = 5.8 :

EI

dy dx

=−

x =5.8

40 57.5 10 10 3 2.5 2 2 2 3 ( 5.8) + ( 3.8) − (1.8) + [5.8 − 6] + [5.8 − 10] + 267.5 2 2 6 6 2 = +0.13

Since the sign of the rotation has changed, zero rotation occurs between x = 5.8 and x = 6 . But it is apparent that zero rotation occurs close to x = 5.8 . Therefore, we will use x = 5.8 since it is close enough (you can check this by linearly interpolating between the values). So, using x = 5.8 , from Equation 5 we have:

EI δ max BE = −

40 57.5 10 10 4 2.5 3 3 3 4 ( 5.8) + ( 3.8) − (1.8) + [5.8 − 6] + [5.8 − 10] 6 6 24 24 6 +267.5 ( 5.8 ) − 481.7

EI δ max BE = +290.5

Thus we have:

39

Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

δ max BE = +

290.5 290.5 =+ = +0.001453 m EI 20 × 103 = +14.53 mm

**Since the result is positive it represents an upward deflection.
**

Deflection at A

Substituting x = 0 into Equation 5 gives:

EI δ A = −

40 3 57.5 3 10 4 10 4 2.5 3 ( 0) + [0 − 2] − [0 − 4] + [0 − 6] + [0 − 10] 6 6 24 24 6 +267.5 ( 0 ) − 481.7

EI δ A = −481.7

Hence

δA = −

481.7 481.7 =− = −0.002409 m EI 20 × 103 = −24.09 mm

Since the result is negative the deflection is downward. Note also that the deflection at A is the same as the deflection constant of integration, Cδ . This is as mentioned previously on page 17.

Deflection at F

Substituting x = 11 into Equation 5 gives:

EI δ F = −

40 57.5 3 10 10 4 2.5 3 3 4 (11) + ( 9 ) − ( 7 ) + ( 5) + (1) 6 6 24 24 6 +267.5 (11) − 481.7

EI δ F = −165.9

40

Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

Giving:

δF = −

165.9 165.9 =− = −0.000830 m EI 20 × 103 = −8.30 mm

**Again the negative result indicates the deflection is downward.
**

Maximum Overall Deflection

The largest deviation from zero anywhere in the beam is thus at A, and so the maximum deflection is 24.09 mm, as shown:

41

Dr. C. Caprani

C. and does not apply to the full beam AB since there is a discontinuity at the hinge.5 Example 5 – Beam with Hinge For the following prismatic beam. The Euler-Bernoulli deflection equation only applies to individual members. • The deflection of the hinge. • The maximum deflection in span BE. Before beginning the deflection calculations. The discontinuity occurs in the rotations at B. find the following: • The rotations at the hinge. since the ends of members AB and BE have different slopes as they connect to 42 Dr.Structural Analysis III 2. Caprani . B. calculate the reactions: This beam is made of two members: AB and BE.

However. • Rotation at A is zero. C. From the previous examples we know that each member will have two constant of integration. • Deflection at D is zero. we have the following knowns: • Deflection at A is zero. and thus. Caprani 43 . However. there is also compatibility of displacement at the hinge in that the deflection of members AB and BE must be the same at B – there is only one vertical deflection at the hinge. there will be four constants in total. Span AB The free-body diagram for the deflection equation is: Note that even though it is apparent that there will be tension on the top of the cantilever. Thus we can solve for the four constants and the problem as a whole. To proceed we consider each span separately initially. for this problem. Taking moments about the cut: M ( x ) + 360 − 130 x + 20 2 x =0 2 Dr. we have retained our sign convention by taking M ( x ) as tension on the bottom. • Deflection at B is the same for members AB and BE.Structural Analysis III the hinge.

y = 0 : EI ( 0 ) = 130 3 360 2 20 4 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) + Cθ ( 0 ) + Cδ ⇒ Cδ = 0 6 2 24 At x = 0 . Caprani . C. the calculations proceed as: M ( x ) = EI d2y 20 2 = 130 x − 360 − x 2 dx 2 Equation (AB)1 EI dy 130 2 20 = x − 360 x − x 3 + Cθ dx 2 6 Equation (AB)2 EIy = 130 3 360 2 20 4 x − x − x + Cθ x + Cδ 6 2 24 Equation (AB)3 At x = 0 .Structural Analysis III Hence. θ A = dy = 0: dx EI ( 0 ) = 130 2 20 3 ( 0 ) − 360 ( 0 ) − ( 0 ) + Cθ 2 6 ⇒ Cθ = 0 Thus the final equations are: EI dy 130 2 20 = x − 360 x − x 3 dx 2 6 Equation (AB)4 EIy = 130 3 360 2 20 4 x − x − x 6 2 24 Equation (AB)5 44 Dr.

Structural Analysis III Span BE The relevant free-body diagram is: Thus: M ( x ) + 100 [ x − 2] − 50 x − 50 [ x − 4] = 0 d2y M ( x ) = EI 2 = 50 x + 50 [ x − 4] − 100 [ x − 2] dx Equation (BE)1 EI dy 50 2 50 2 100 2 = x + [ x − 4] − [ x − 2] + Cθ dx 2 2 2 Equation (BE)2 EIy = 50 3 50 3 100 3 x + [ x − 4] − [ x − 2] + Cθ x + Cδ Equation (BE)3 6 6 6 At B. Caprani . Thus: 45 Dr. C. we can calculate the deflection from member AB’s Equation (AB)5.

Representing the deflection at support D. C. y = 0 for member BE. we know that at x = 4 . Caprani . so from Equation (BE)3: 3 100 3 ⎛ −1707 ⎞ 50 3 50 EI ⎜ [0 − 4] − [0 − 2] + Cθ ( 0 ) + Cδ ⎟ = (0) + 6 6 ⎝ EI ⎠ 6 Cδ = −1707 Notice that again we find the deflection constant of integration to be the value of deflection at the start of the member.Structural Analysis III EI δ B = 130 3 360 2 20 4 ( 4) − ( 4) − ( 4) 6 2 24 −1707 δB = EI This is a downward deflection and must also be the deflection at B for member BE. Thus using Equation (BE)3 again: EI ( 0 ) = 50 3 50 3 100 3 ( 4 ) + [ 4 − 4] − ( 2 ) + Cθ ( 4 ) − 1707 6 6 6 Cθ = +327 Giving Equation (BE)4 and Equation (BE)5 respectively as: EI dy 50 2 50 2 100 2 = x + [ x − 4] − [ x − 2] + 327 dx 2 2 2 EIy = 50 3 50 3 100 3 x + [ x − 4] − [ x − 2] + 327 x − 1707 6 6 6 46 Dr.

Structural Analysis III Rotation at B for Member AB Using Equation (AB)4: EIθ BA = 130 2 20 3 ( 4 ) − 360 ( 4 ) − ( 4 ) 2 6 −613 θ BA = EI The negative sign indicates an anticlockwise movement from the x-axis: Rotation at B for Member BE Using Equation (BE)4: EIθ BE = θ BE 50 2 50 2 100 2 ( 0 ) + [0 − 4] − [0 − 2] + 327 2 2 2 +327 = EI Again the constant of integration is the starting displacement of the member. C. The positive sign indicates clockwise movement from the x-axis: 47 Dr. Caprani .

• The maximum deflection is at E – to be found. The deflection at E is got from Equation (BE)5: EI δ E = 50 3 50 3 100 3 ( 6 ) + ( 2 ) − ( 4 ) + 327 ( 6 ) − 1707 6 6 6 +1055 δE = EI And this is an upwards displacement which is smaller than that of the movement at B.e.Structural Analysis III Thus at B the deflected shape is: Deflection at B Calculated previously to be δ B = −1707 EI . we must identify the position of zero rotation. Maximum Deflection in Member BE There are three possibilities: • The maximum deflection is at B – already known. C. zero rotation can only occur if the rotation at the other end 48 Dr. Caprani . at B) we know the rotation is positive ( θ BE = + 327 EI ). To find the maximum deflection between B and D. Since at the start of the member (i. • The maximum deflection is between B and D – to be found.

and are as calculated previously: As a mathematical check on our structural reasoning above. Hence we find the rotation at D to see if it is negative. C.Structural Analysis III of the member (rotation at E) is negative. we attempt to solve Equation (BE)4 for x when dy = 0: dx EI ( 0 ) = 50 2 50 2 100 2 x + [ x − 4] − [ x − 2] + 327 2 2 2 50 50 100 2 0 = x 2 + ⎡ x 2 − 8 x + 16 ⎤ − ⎣ ⎦ 2 ⎡ x − 4 x + 4 ⎤ + 327 ⎣ ⎦ 2 2 49 Dr. from Equation (BE)4: EIθ D = 50 2 50 2 100 2 ( 4 ) + [ 4 − 4] − ( 2 ) + 327 2 2 2 +527 θD = EI Since this is positive. there is no point at which zero rotation occurs between B and D and thus there is no position of maximum deflection. Caprani . Therefore the largest deflections occur at the ends of the member. However. we know the rotation at E is the same as that at D since DE is straight because there is no bending in it.

Structural Analysis III Collecting terms. Thus: δE = 2 ⋅ 527 1054 = EI EI Which is very close to the previous result of 1055 EI . we can check our calculation for the deflection at E using the S = Rθ rule for small displacements. we have: ⎛ 50 50 100 ⎞ 2 ⎛ −400 400 ⎞ ⎛ 800 400 ⎞ − + − + 327 ⎟ 0=⎜ + ⎟x +⎜ ⎟x+⎜ 2 2 ⎠ 2 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 0 = ( 0 ) x 2 + ( 0 ) x + 527 0 = 527 Since this is not possible. there is no solution to the above problem. as follows: 50 Dr. −1707 EI : As an aside. C. This solution has been put into Excel to give plots of the deflected shape. That is. there is no position x at which dy = 0 . and thus there is no maximum deflection between B dx and D. Thus the largest movement of member BE is the deflection at B. Caprani .

50 2.1 552.9 520.25 2.7 -2537.6 427.75 2.0 132.75 8.50 4.0 527.75 4.4 -1090.50 2.(dy/dx)/EI 400.3 -1955.5 -1250.3 0.0 527.8 791.0 1000.1 333.0 403.9 -2225.50 -405.00 10.3 -2.7 -2323.50 1.0 -600.25 4.7 -1282.0 -2042.75 3.6 -2654.75 2.0 -0.8 264.50 9.6 427.00 8.7 -3208.25 8.75 6.8 -2.0 y BE -3548.0 800.00 0.9 -560.8 -3055. Caprani .75 5.1 352.3 341.1 -1542.25 -567.75 -518.50 5.1 383.00 -486.25 7.75 -597.4 527.00 1.75 -354.25 -448.4 -1401.75 3.25 2.25 1.3 528.2 -1371.4 -159.8 -1.75 10.1 -1553.00 -1000.50 1.5 -1706.25 5.0 0.0 -3.0 -4000.1 -986.50 0.8 -3.00 1.25 3.0 -400.50 1. C.0)^2/2+327 = 50*x^3/6+50*MAX(x-4.50 7.00 0.00 -200.3 -92.0 y for AB -3000.4 -641.6 633.8 487.9 -1.00 3.00 1.00 4.0 -10.9 -2.6 1.25 6.0 600.75 1.0 200.0 -1188.50 6.9 -0.0 527.75 2.2 -241.50 0.7 -2427.0 450.50 -606.0 -3.00 y AB 0.0 527.6 327.50 3.0 366.5 -130.00 dy/dx AB y AB dy/dx BE y BE Equation used in the Cells = 130*x^2/2-360*x-20*x^3/6 = 130*x^3/6-360*x^2/2-20*x^4/24 = 50*x^2/2+50*MAX(x-4.00 8.0 0.4 470.50 4.5 -1458.8 525.7 0.00 dy/dx for AB dy/dx for BE (4<x<10) dy/dx for BE (x<4) 2000.3 1055.Structural Analysis III Macaulay's Method .75 9.00 5.7 -390.50 5.0 527.7 -261.6 383.1 352.50 -545.75 6.0 -2.9 502.3 328.75 1.50 3.0 Distance Along Beam (m) y for BE (4<x<10) y for BE (x<4) 2.00 2.6 -761.25 0.25 3.00 4.5 396.1 -442.0)^2/2-100*MAX(x-2.0 678.0 527.75 7.50 -164.50 8.1 483.75 4.25 2.Determinate Beam with Hinge X global 0.50 0.00 6.0 -800.25 4.25 -234.00 3.8 -2913.8 -1.6 333.00 4.50 2.75 -86.0 341.00 5.00 6.00 -298.0 Distance Along Beam (m) 2.00 2.25 1.0 516.0)^3/6+327*x-1707 51 Dr.0 527.25 0.00 6.0 -336.3 366.7 dy/dx BE 727.0 512.5 923.8 -819.75 5.00 X for AB 0.00 7.0 -2000.0 Deflection -y/EI 0.9 -1707.3 -3372.6 -2132.00 9.0 659.00 0.0)^3/6-100*MAX(x-2.5 -1788.3 403.75 3.3 -876.3 453.00 8.25 3.00 4.0 328.50 3.00 X for BE dy/dx AB -4.2 -3.75 1.5 -517.7 -1.0 0.25 5.0 Rotation .25 0.25 -611.00 -585.00 2.9 -42.8 -1871.0 527.3 591.00 3.3 -1102.0 -685.00 10.75 4.25 1.00 -613.25 9.7 -0.0 -958.0 -2779.0 -1625.

and the deflection at C. 20 kN/m A 4m C 2m 50 kN B 2m 3. the rotation at B. Caprani .6 Problems 1. 12 kN/m A 50 kN C 6m 52 B Dr.34 mm). (DT004/3 S’04) Determine the rotation at A. Take E = 200 kN/mm 2 and I = 8 × 108 mm 4 . θ B = 361.46 mm. 15 kN/m A 6m B 2m 40 kN C 2. Take E = 200 kN/mm 2 and I = 8 × 108 mm 4 .Structural Analysis III 2. The symbols w. (DT004/3 A’04) Determine the deflection at C. L and P have their usual meanings. δ c = 900 EI ). (Ans. 0. 5. Check your answer using δ C = 5wL4 384 EI + PL3 48 EI . for the following beam. (Ans. Take E = 200 kN/mm 2 and I = 8 × 108 mm 4 . for the following beam. 4.67 EI . C.0775 rads). (DT004/3 A’03) Determine the rotation and the deflection at C for the following beam. (Ans. θ A = 365 EI .

Caprani . C. Take E = 200 kN/mm 2 and I = 8 × 108 mm 4 .01 m and find the value of the maximum deflection between A and B. 12 kN/m A 3m B 3m 50 kN C 3m D 5.55 mm) 15 kN/m A 3m 3m B 2m C 80 kNm 53 Dr. (Ans. θ B = −240 EI .1 mm ↓ ). 20 kN/m A 4m C 4m B 6. (Ans. accurate to the nearest 0. -2. (DT004/3 S’06) Determine the location of the maximum deflection between A and B. for the following beam. θ A = −186. 2.95 mm ↑ . 2.35 m. (DT004/3 S’05) Determine the deflection at B and D for the following beam.Structural Analysis III 4.67 EI .35 EI ). δ C = −533. Take E = 200 kN/mm 2 and I = 8 × 108 mm 4 . Take E = 200 kN/mm 2 and I = 8 × 108 mm 4 . (DT004/3 A’05) Verify that the rotation at A is smaller than that at B for the following beam. 15. (Ans.

for the following beam. 697.5/EI) 20 kN/m A 80 kN C 6m B 54 Dr. (DT004/3 A’06) Determine the location of the maximum deflection between A and B. +360/EI. the rotation at B. (DT004/3 S2R’07) Determine the rotation at A. 15 kN/m A 6m B 2m 40 kN C 8. Check your answer using δ C = 5wL4 384 EI + PL3 48 EI . The symbols w.01 m and find the value of the maximum deflection between A and B. 80 EI ). Caprani . L and P have their usual meanings.40 m. C. accurate to the nearest 0. for the following beam. 2. -360/EI.Structural Analysis III 7. (Ans. (Ans. and the deflection at C. Take E = 200 kN/mm 2 and I = 8 × 108 mm 4 . Take E = 200 kN/mm 2 and I = 8 × 108 mm 4 .

or known displacement. whilst at a fixed support we know that both deflection and rotation are zero. 55 Dr. It simply falls to us to express our equations in terms of our unknowns (constants of integration and redundant reactions) and apply our known displacements to solve for these unknowns. we will again have the same two unknown constants of integration. we will always have enough information to solve any structure. For example. Rotation constant of integration. C.Structural Analysis III 3. Considering indeterminate structures. Caprani . This is best explained by example. thus solving the structure as a whole. the structure simply is not stable. but keep in mind the general approach we are using. we have seen that application of Macaulay’s Method gives two unknowns: 1. Form what we have seen we can conclude that in any stable statically determinate structure there will always be enough geometrical constraints to find the two knowns – if there isn’t. for each extra support introduced. However. and is a mechanism. Deflection constant of integration. in addition to the extra unknown support reactions. These unknowns are found using the known geometrically constraints (or boundary conditions) of the member. at a pin or roller support we know the deflection is zero.1 Basis In solving statically determinate structures. we have an associated geometric constraint. 2. Indeterminate Beams 3. Therefore.

and solve for the bending moment.2 Example 6 – Propped Cantilever with Overhang Determine the maximum deflection for the following prismatic beam. Before starting the problem. C.Structural Analysis III 3. consider the qualitative behaviour of the structure so that we have an idea of the reactions’ directions and the deflected shape: Since this is a 1˚ indeterminate structure we must choose a redundant and the use the principle of superposition: 56 Dr. shear force and deflected shape diagrams. Caprani .

Caprani .Structural Analysis III Next. being careful to properly locate the moment reaction at A using the correct discontinuity function format: M ( x ) − ( 6 R − 900 ) [ x ] − (100 − R ) x − R [ x − 6] = 0 0 Since x will always be positive we can remove the Macaulay brackets for the moment reaction at A. C. and we then have: d2y M ( x ) = EI 2 = ( 6 R − 900 ) x 0 + (100 − R ) x + R [ x − 6] dx Equation 1 From which: dy (100 − R ) x 2 + R x − 6 2 + C = ( 6 R − 900 ) x + [ ] θ dx 2 2 EI Equation 2 And: 57 Dr. and draw the free-body diagram for Macaulay’s Method: Proceeding as usual. we take moments about the cut. we express all other reactions in terms of the redundant.

dy = 0: dx EI ( 0 ) = ( 6 R − 900 )( 0 ) + Cθ = 0 (100 − R ) 2 ( 0) 2 + R 2 [0 − 6] + Cθ 2 Applying the final boundary condition. Applying the first boundary condition. As can be seen the added redundant support both provides an extra unknown reaction. y = 0 : EI ( 0 ) = ( 6 R − 900 ) 2 ( 0) 2 + (100 − R ) 6 ( 0) 3 + R 3 [0 − 6] + Cθ ( 0 ) + Cδ 6 Cδ = 0 Applying the second boundary condition. 2. y = 0 : EI ( 0 ) = ( 6 R − 900 ) 2 ( 6) 2 + (100 − R ) 6 ( 6) 3 + R 3 [ 6 − 6] 6 0 = (108 R − 16200 ) + ( 3600 − 36 R ) 58 Dr. C. no deflection at A – fixed support. at x = 0 . and we have three knowns we can use: 1. no deflection at B – roller support.Structural Analysis III EIy = ( 6 R − 900 ) x 2 2 + (100 − R ) x 6 3 + 3 R [ x − 6] + Cθ x + Cδ 6 Equation 3 Thus we have three unknowns to solve for. we know that at x = 0 . at x = 6 . Caprani . as well as an extra known geometric condition. 3. no rotation at A – fixed support.

To find the local maximum deflection in Span AB.e. where x = 9 . or between A and B.Structural Analysis III Thus we have an equation in R and we solve as: 0 = 72 R − 12600 R = 175 kN ↑ The positive answer means the direction we assumed initially was correct. Caprani . we have. C. we see from the qualitative behaviour of the structure that it will either be at the tip of the overhang. we solve for its location using Equation 4: 59 Dr. C. We can now solve for the other reactions: M A = 6 R − 900 = 6 (175 ) − 900 = +150 kNm VA = 100 − R = 100 − 175 = −75 kN i. from Equation 5: 150 2 −75 3 175 3 ( 9 ) + ( 9 ) + ( 3) 2 6 6 −2250 δC = EI EI δ C = This is downwards as expected. For the deflection at C. ↓ We now write Equations 4 and 5: dy −75 2 175 2 = 150 x + x + [ x − 6] 2 2 dx EI EIy = 150 2 −75 3 175 3 x + x + [ x − 6] 2 6 6 Finally to find the maximum deflection.

5 Therefore from Equation 5: 150 2 −75 3 175 3 ( 4) + ( 4 ) + [ 4 − 6] 2 6 6 +400 AB = EI EI δ max AB = δ max The positive result indicates an upward displacement.Structural Analysis III EI ( 0 ) = 150 x + −75 2 175 2 x + [ x − 6] since x ≤ 6 2 2 0 = 150 − 37. and the overall solution is: 60 Dr. as expected. Therefore the maximum deflection is at C.5 x x= 150 =4m 37. Caprani . C.

is the ideal redundant. C. Caprani . find the rotations at the hinge.Structural Analysis III 3. This is a 1 degree indeterminate beam. V. and the maximum deflection in member BE. Considering first the expected behaviour of the beam: The shear in the hinge. since it provides the obvious link between the two members: 61 Dr. Once again we must choose a redundant and express all other reactions (and hence displacements) in terms of it. the deflection of the hinge.3 Example 7 – Indeterminate Beam with Hinge For the following prismatic beam.

Next we calculate the deflection curves for each member. Caprani .Structural Analysis III For member AB: ∑ M about A = 0 M A − 20 ⋅ ∑F y =0 42 − 4V = 0 2 VA − 20 ⋅ 4 − V = 0 ∴ M A = 160 + 4V ∴VA = 80 + V And for member BE: ∑ M about E = 0 ∑F = 0 y 6V − 4 ⋅ 100 + 2VD = 0 V + VD − VE = 0 ∴VD = 200 − 3V ∴VE = 100 − 2V Thus all reactions are known in terms of our chosen redundant. C. again in terms of the redundant. Member AB The relevant free-body diagram is: Taking moments about the cut gives: M ( x ) + (160 + 4V ) x 0 − ( 80 + V ) x + 20 2 x =0 2 62 Dr.

Hence we have: 20 dy ( 80 + V ) 2 x − (160 + 4V ) x1 − x 3 = dx 2 6 EI Equation (AB)4 EIy = (80 + V ) x 6 3 − (160 + 4V ) x 2 2 − 20 4 x 24 Equation (AB)5 Member BE Drawing the free-body diagram. C. we know that dy = 0 . since at x = 0 . These may be verified by substitution into Equations 2 and 3. y = 0 we know Cδ = 0 . Also. Caprani . and taking moments about the cut gives: M ( x ) + 100 [ x − 2] − Vx − ( 200 − 3V ) [ x − 4] = 0 63 Dr. Equation (AB)1 is: M ( x ) = EI d2y 20 2 = ( 80 + V ) x − (160 + 4V ) x 0 − x 2 2 dx And Equations (AB)2 and 3 are: dy ( 80 + V ) 2 20 x − (160 + 4V ) x1 − x 3 + Cθ = 2 6 dx EI EIy = (80 + V ) x 6 3 − (160 + 4V ) x 2 2 − 20 4 x + Cθ x + Cδ 24 Using the boundary conditions. Therefore we know dx Cθ = 0 .Structural Analysis III Thus. as shown. x = 0 .

Hence: V ( 200 − 3V ) 4 − 4 3 − 100 2 3 + 4C + C 3 ( 4) + ( ) [ ] θ δ 6 6 6 EI ( 0 ) = 64 Dr. C. Caprani .Structural Analysis III Thus Equation (BE)1 is: M ( x ) = EI d2y = Vx + ( 200 − 3V ) [ x − 4] − 100 [ x − 2] dx 2 Giving Equations (BE)2 and 3 as: 100 2 2 dy V 2 ( 200 − 3V ) = x + [ x − 4] − [ x − 2] + Cθ dx 2 2 2 100 3 3 V 3 ( 200 − 3V ) x + [ x − 4] − [ x − 2] + Cθ x + Cδ 6 6 6 EI EIy = The boundary conditions for this member give us y = 0 at x = 4 . for support D.

we have y = 0 at x = 6 .Structural Analysis III Which gives: 4Cθ + Cδ + 32 400 V− =0 3 3 (a) For support E. giving: V ( 200 − 3V ) 2 3 − 100 4 3 + 6C + C 3 ( 6) + ( ) ( ) θ δ 6 6 6 EI ( 0 ) = Thus: 6Cθ + Cδ + 32V − −800 = 0 (b) Subtracting (a) from (b) gives: 2Cθ + 0 + 64 2000 V− =0 3 3 Cθ = − 32 1000 V+ 3 3 And thus from (b): 1000 ⎞ ⎛ 32 6⎜ − V + ⎟ + Cδ + 32V − −800 = 0 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Cδ = 32V − 1200 Thus we write Equations (BE)4 and 5 respectively as: 65 Dr. Caprani . C.

Caprani .Structural Analysis III EI dy V 2 ( 200 − 3V ) 100 32 1000 ⎞ 2 2 = x + [ x − 4] − [ x − 2] + ⎛ − V + ⎜ ⎟ dx 2 2 2 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 EIy = V 3 ( 200 − 3V ) 100 32 1000 ⎞ 3 3 x + [ x − 4] − [ x − 2] + ⎛ − V + ⎜ ⎟ x + ( 32V − 1200 ) 6 6 6 3 ⎠ ⎝ 3 Thus both sets of equations for members AB and BE are ion terms of V – the shear force at the hinge. the deflection at B is got from Equation (AB)5 for x = 4 : EI δ BA = (80 + V ) 6 2 2560 32 640 = + V − 1280 − 32V − 3 3 3 64 = − V − 640 3 ( 4) 3 − (160 + 4V ) ( 4) 2 − 20 4 ( 4) 24 And for member BE. Now we enforce compatibility of displacement at the hinge. the deflection at B is got from Equation (BE)5 for x = 0 : V ( 200 − 3V ) 0 − 4 3 − 100 0 − 2 3 + C 0 + C 3 ( 0) + [ ] [ ] θ( ) δ 6 6 6 = Cδ = 32V − 1200 Since δ BA ≡ δ BE ≡ δ B . in order to solve for V. we have: EI δ BE = 66 Dr. C. For member AB.

5 kN The positive answer indicates we have chosen the correct direction for V. The rotation at the hinge for member AB is got from Equation (AB)4 67 Dr.5 = 90.5 ) = 168.5 kN ↑ • VE = 100 − 2 (10.5 kN ↑ • VD = 200 − 3 (10. C.Structural Analysis III − 64 V − 640 = 32V − 1200 3 160 − V = −560 3 V = +10.5 ) = 79 kN ↓ Deformations at the Hinge For member BE we now know: Cδ = 32 (10. Thus we can work out the relevant quantities.5 ) − 1200 = −864 And since this constant is the initial deflection of member BE: EI δ B = −864 δB = −864 EI Which is a downwards deflection as expected.5 ) = 202 kNm • VA = 80 + 10. recalling the previous free-body diagrams: • M A = 160 + 4 (10. Caprani .

5 2 168.3 2 2 2 +221. Caprani .5) + 3 3 And so the rotation at the hinge for member BE is: EIθ BE = θ BE 10. knowing V gives: Cθ = − 32 1000 = +221.5 2 20 3 ( 4 ) − 202 ( 4 ) − ( 4 ) 2 6 −297.Structural Analysis III EIθ BA = 90. for member BE.3 (10.3 θ BA = EI The sign indicates movement in the direction shown: Also.3 = EI The movement is therefore in the direction shown: The deformation at the hinge is thus summarized as: 68 Dr.5 2 100 2 ( 0) + [0 − 4] − [0 − 2] + 221. C.

we see that we must have a point of zero rotation between D and E since the rotation at E must be negative: 69 Dr.3 2 2 2 +105. From Equation (BE)4: EIθ D = 10.3 θD = EI Therefore since the deflection at both B and D are positive there is no point of zero rotation between B and D.5 2 168. Caprani . If there is then we have a local maximum deflection between B and D. C. Examining the deflected shape. We check the rotation at D to see if there is a point of zero rotation between B and D.5 2 100 2 ( 4) + [ 4 − 4] − ( 2 ) + 221. • A deflection in B to D. • A deflection in D to E. and thus no local maximum deflection. If there isn’t such a point. then there is no local maximum deflection.Structural Analysis III Maximum Deflection in Member BE There are three possibilities: • The deflection at B.

845 m Since 7.155 m is outside the length of the beam.845) − ( 2.5 + − 0=⎜ ( −8 ) + ⋅ 4 ⎞ x ⎟x +⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎠ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 100 ⎛ 168.3 ⎞ ⎟ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 0 = 39. C.5 2 100 0= x + ( x − 8 x + 16 ) − 2 ( x 2 − 4 x + 4 ) + 221.5 2 168.5 100 2 2 x + ( x − 4 ) − ( x − 2 ) + 221.155 m or 4.845 m .5 100 ⎞ 2 ⎛ 168. 70 Dr. since it is positive. the maximum deflection in member BE is the deflection at B. Caprani . with the knowledge that 4 ≤ x ≤ 6 : EI ( 0 ) = 10.845) + −864 ( 4.5 = 7.5 +⎜ (16 ) − ⋅ 4 + 221. and hence maximum deflection occurs at x = 4. as expected.5 168.5 DE = EI Which is an upwards displacement.5 ⋅ 1369.5 x 2 − 474 x + 1369.5 100 3 3 x + ( 0.5 3 168.3 Thus we solve for x as: 474 ± 4742 − 4 ⋅ 38. Since the deflection at B is greater in magnitude.3 2 2 100 ⎛ 10.845) + 221. we know that the zero rotation. Using Equation (BE)5: EI δ max DE = δ max 10. 864 EI .3 2 2 2 10.5 2 168.3 6 6 6 +40.Structural Analysis III We are interested in the location x where we have zero rotation between D and E.3 x= 2 ⋅ 39. Therefore we use Equation (BE)4.

Structural Analysis III The final solution for the problem is summarized as: This solution has been put into Excel to give plots of the deflected shape. Caprani . as follows: 71 Dr. C.

6 34.8 -0.75 -263.50 -295.0 0.50 0.25 3.5 -42.75 0.6 -236.9 -919.0 -400.1 229.7 -1201.0 0.6 198.0 1.4 -117.0 0.0 0.5 -3.25 1.1 -467.3 0.75 0.0 -700.00 6.0 Rotation .0)^2/2+const1 = V*x^3/6+(200-3*V)*MAX(x-4.0)^3/6+const1*x+const2 y for AB y for BE (4<x<10) 2.00 3.7 -86.9 -1144.25 0.75 4.8 -569.6 -789.0 0.8 -50.00 10.3 -346.0 0.25 0.0 3.0 2.6 -0.75 -293.0 0.7 -360.0 0.0 0.Indeterminate Beam with Hinge X global 0.0 0.50 1.0 -900.1 237.5 33.0 0.4 -1575.0 -200.0 0. Caprani .75 1.00 -100.0 -300.1 -697.50 9.0 -500.7 -974.0 6.0 5.3 -1.75 3.00 4.7 221.0 5.1 -1030.4 -1.2 -30.0)^3/6-100*MAX(x-2.0 1.0 3.25 0.0 2.00 9.3 -2.00 2.0 Distance Along Beam (m) Equation used in the Cells = (80+V)*x^2/2-(160+4*V)*x-20*x^3/6 = (80+V)*x^3/6-(160+4*V)*x^2/2-20*x^4/24 = V*x^2/2+(200-3*V)*MAX(x-4.8 268.25 0.00 10.50 8.3 -1786.0 5.0 2.0 0.00 dy/dx for AB dy/dx for BE (4<x<10) 100.9 -428.25 9.75 6.4 -226.0 4.00 1.(dy/dx)/EI 100.0 5.7 y BE -1861.25 8.1 -497.0 300.1 -23.0 -715.00 0.3 244.00 8.50 4.0 Deflection -y/EI -300.0 254.50 0.9 -583.7 173.00 0.50 0.8 241.0 0.3 -1713.0 -808.0 3.3 -407.9 24.9 242.1 39.2 -70.50 7.0 -6.0)^2/2-100*MAX(x-2.3 226.9 -1320.3 -296.2 285.0 2.25 -282.0 -13.75 -47.7 222.75 0.3 -640.00 -288.50 0.0 21.25 5.75 7.00 4.25 3.0 0.0 -200.4 -180.5 40.0 0.50 0.0 4.7 -864.0 0.0 -600.0 0.0 0.0 0.25 0.50 6.25 6.0 0.3 -642.50 -90.0 200.3 36.1 -2.00 0.1 -1444.2 -1509.75 10.0 -0.00 4.9 0.50 0.0 0.0 3.7 -1.75 0.25 -232.6 224.6 261.6 -753.3 221.75 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.00 0.7 -1643.0 -3.0 0.25 0.6 232.25 0.75 0.4 -2.3 222.0 4.4 -864.00 0.25 0.00 6.7 -1260.6 -31.1 142.6 276.25 -297.25 7.1 -3.0 0.50 0.75 8.25 1.00 0.00 0.6 221.0 -400.75 0.8 -130.0 0.50 0.9 -526.50 3.00 1.50 2.6 229.5 233.50 3.0 1.75 -188.00 X for AB 0.00 -297.00 X for BE dy/dx AB -4.5 226.00 dy/dx AB y AB dy/dx BE y BE 72 Dr.75 5.7 -3.75 2.50 5.00 0.3 -285.00 -160.3 68.0 1.7 -1381.00 -249.2 9.0 -169.9 218.0 Distance Along Beam (m) 2.4 242.7 12.50 -212.4 233.6 -1.75 1.8 -2.00 6.0 0.50 1.00 7.0 4.25 -127.0 -1000.00 0.6 224.0 0.75 9.0 0.25 2.00 2.25 4.0 105.00 -100.00 8.25 2.0 0.0 -800.50 -274.1 247.50 2.Structural Analysis III Macaulay's Method .0 y AB 0.75 3.2 -52.4 -50.00 3. C.0 dy/dx BE 305.3 237.00 8.00 5.75 2.1 -1087.3 295.

(Autumn 2007) For the beam shown using Macaulay’s Method: (i) Determine the deflection at C. find the reactions and draw the bending moment. C.4 Problems 1. 100 kN A B C 3m 9m 3.Structural Analysis III 3. (Summer 2007) For the beam shown using Macaulay’s Method: (i) Determine the vertical reaction at joint B. wL2 8 . Determine the maximum deflection and rotation at B. For the beam shown. (ii) Show that the moment reaction at joint A is MA A w L B R 2. (ii) Determine the maximum deflection in span AB. 73 Dr. Caprani . shear force. and deflected shape diagrams.

For the beam shown. 5. and deflected shape diagrams. For the beam shown.Structural Analysis III 4. find the reactions and draw the bending moment. find the reactions and draw the bending moment. Determine the maximum deflection and rotation at B. shear force. and deflected shape diagrams. C. shear force. Determine the maximum deflection and rotation at B. Caprani . 74 Dr.

B. C. B. For the beam shown. and deflected shape diagrams. find the reactions and draw the bending moment. and C. shear force. For the beam shown. Determine the maximum deflection and the rotations at A. Caprani . 7. and deflected shape diagrams. and C.Structural Analysis III 6. shear force. Determine the maximum deflection and the rotations at A. find the reactions and draw the bending moment. 75 Dr.

1 Introduction Macaulay’s method is readily applicable to frames. The method is applied as usual. virtual work. For more complex frames other forms of analysis can be used (such as moment distribution. Both statically indeterminate and determinate frames can be solved. but there is one extra factor: Compatibility of displacement must be maintained at joints. Once these are known. In practice. just as it is to beams.) to determine the bending moments. C. but the members must remain connected. Mohr’s theorems. etc. Caprani . • We must (obviously) still impose the boundary conditions that the supports offer the frame. Indeterminate Frames 4. 76 Dr. Macaulay’s Method is only applied to basic frames because the number of equations gets large otherwise.Structural Analysis III 4. This means that: • At rigid joints. this means that the rotations of members meeting at the joint must be the same. the defections along individual members can then be found using Macaulay’s method applied to the member itself. • At hinge joints we can have different rotations for each member.

Choosing VB . C. Caprani . Therefore we need to choose a redundant. find the horizontal deflection at C and draw the bending moment diagram: Before starting. assess the behaviour of the frame: The structure is 1 degree indeterminate.Structural Analysis III 4. we can now calculate the reactions in terms of the redundant by taking moments about A: 77 Dr.2 Example 8 – Simple Frame For the following prismatic frame.

C. Caprani .Structural Analysis III M A + 100 ⋅ 3 − 6 R = 0 M A = 6 R − 300 Thus the reactions are: And we can now draw a free-body diagram for member AB. we have: M ( x ) − ( 6 R − 300 ) [ x ] + Rx = 0 0 78 Dr. in order to apply Macaulay’s Method to AB: Taking moments about the cut.

↑ Thus we now have: 79 Dr.Structural Analysis III Thus: M ( x ) = EI d2y 0 = ( 6 R − 300 ) [ x ] − Rx 2 dx Equation 1 Giving: EI 1 dy R = ( 6 R − 300 ) [ x ] − x 2 + Cθ dx 2 Equation 2 EIy = ( 6 R − 300 ) 2 [ x] 2 − R 3 x + Cθ x + Cδ 6 Equation 3 Applying y = 0 and dy = 0 at x = 0 gives us Cθ = 0 and Cδ = 0 . C. y = 0 because of support B.e. we know that at x = 6 . Therefore: dx EI 1 dy R = ( 6 R − 300 ) [ x ] − x 2 dx 2 Equation 4 EIy = ( 6 R − 300 ) 2 [ x] 2 − R 3 x 6 Equation 5 Further. Therefore: EI ( 0 ) = ( 6 R − 300 ) 2 0 = 3R − 150 − R ( 6) 2 − R 3 (6) 6 R = +75 kN i. Caprani .

Caprani . we need to look at the deflections at C more closely: 80 Dr. C.Structural Analysis III And the deflected shape is: In order to calculate δ Cx .

From S = Rθ . • A deflection caused by bending of the cantilever member BC. we know that: δθ B = 3θ B So to find θ B we use Equation 4 with x = 6 : EIθ B = 150 ( 6 ) − 75 2 (6) 2 θB = −450 EI The sense of the rotation is thus as shown: 81 Dr.Structural Analysis III From this diagram. denoted δθ B . C. Caprani . δ canti . it is apparent that the deflection at C is made up of: • A deflection due to the rotation of joint B.

C. The cantilever deflection of member BC can be got from standard tables as: PL3 100 ⋅ 33 900 = = = 3EI 3EI EI δ canti We can also get this using Macaulay’s Method applied to member BC: Note the following: 82 Dr. Caprani . and that the rotation at B is aiding this movement. since we know that C is moving to the right.Structural Analysis III The deflection at C due to the rotation of joint B is: ⎛ 450 ⎞ δθ B = 3 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ EI ⎠ = 1350 EI Note that we don’t need to worry about the sign of the rotation.

only turned through 90 degrees. Therefore: dx EIy = 100 3 300 2 x − [ x] 6 2 And for the cantilever deflection at C: 83 Dr. Taking moments about the cut: M ( x ) + 300 [ x ] − 100 x = 0 0 d2y 0 M ( x ) = EI 2 = 100 x − 300 [ x ] dx EI 1 dy 100 2 = x − 300 [ x ] + Cθ dx 2 EIy = 100 3 300 2 x − [ x ] + Cθ x + Cδ 6 2 But we know that y = 0 and dy = 0 at x = 0 so Cθ = 0 and Cδ = 0 . • The axis system for Macaulay’s method is as previously used. Thus negative deflections are to the right. C. Account must be made of the rotation of joint B.Structural Analysis III • Applying Macaulay’s method to member BC will not give the deflection at C – it will only give the deflection at C due to bending of member BC. Caprani . as shown.

Structural Analysis III EI δ canti = δ canti 100 3 300 2 ( 3) − ( 3) 6 2 −900 = EI This is the same as the standard table result. Further. C. the total deflection to the right at C is: δ Cx = δθ B + δ canti 1350 900 + EI EI 2250 = EI = 84 Dr. as expected. Caprani . since a negative answer here means a deflection to the right.

Structural Analysis III 4. δ Bx = 200 EI (direction not given because to do so would influence answer). C. δ By = 666. δ Dx = 400 EI (again direction not given because to do so would influence answer). 2. shear force. Verify the following displacements: θC = 200 EI . and deflected shape diagrams. find the reactions and draw the bending moment. For the prismatic frame shown. and deflected shape diagrams. For the prismatic frame shown.3 Problems 1. find the reactions and draw the bending moment.67 EI ↓ .67 EI ↓ . δ Dy = 766. 85 Dr. Verify the following displacements: θ B = 100 EI . shear force. Caprani .

D. and adopts the usual mathematical notation for discontinuity functions. (2003). and is not examinable.1 Introduction This section is entirely optional. and any number of loads of each load type.ie. variable cross sections. as well as points loads. since it is unlikely to be used in hand calculations. and Halpern. L. Turcotte. Chapman and Hall/CRC. Spring supports are not allowed for.Structural Analysis III 5. Its purpose is to bring together what has been learned into a form that is readily programmable for a general beam analysis program capable of handling multiple loads and load types. Boca Raton. and will not be covered in class..caprani@dit. General Beam Analysis Program 5.. Caprani . H. The development is mathematically quite rigorous. Florida. Possible construction errors in the vertical positioning of support locations are included. The development allows for varying distributed loads (or ramp loads) of any length. 86 Dr.. In this book the authors present a MATLAB program based on the following development.B.H. or extend this development to include other loads or support types – colin. Please let me know if you develop your own program. Advanced Mathematics and Mechanics Applications Using MATLAB. Any number of spans can be analysed. The primary reference for this material is: • Wilson. as can any form of cross section. but most usefully. Moment loads are not considered. 3rd Edn. C.

Structural Analysis III 5. C.2 Development We will consider the external loads as point loads. Caprani . We describe these loads as we ( x ) . From the basic equations of beams: w= dV dx Hence: Ns V ' ( x ) = we ( x ) + ∑ R j x − rj j =1 −1 In which R j is the reaction at the internal support j. given by: Ve ( x ) = ∫ we ( x ) dx 0 x Using the next basic equation of beams: 87 Dr. located at x = rj . or linearly varying distributed loads. of which there are N s internal supports. uniformly distributed loads. Integrating this expression to get an expression for shear gives: Ns V ( x ) = V0 + Ve ( x ) + ∑ R j x − rj j =1 0 In which Ve ( x ) is the total amount of load up to point x.

Hence we have: E ( x) I ( x) 88 Dr. C. given by: M e ( x ) = ∫ Ve ( x ) dx = ∫ ∫ we ( x ) dx dx 0 0 0 x x x At this point we make use of the basic result: d2y Mx = dx 2 EI x And write: y '' ( x ) = k ( x ) M ( x ) In which k ( x ) = 1 and is the flexural flexibility of point x. Caprani .Structural Analysis III d M ( x) dx V ( x) = Hence: Ns M ' ( x ) = V ( x ) = V0 + Ve ( x ) + ∑ R j x − rj j =1 0 And carrying out the integration gives: Ns M ( x ) = M 0 + V0 x + M e ( x ) + ∑ R j x − rj j =1 1 In which M e ( x ) is the area of the shear force diagram up to point x.

integrating once again to obtain the deflection gives: y ( x ) = y0 + y0' x + M 0 ∫ ∫ k ( x ) dx dx + V0 ∫ ∫ x k ( x ) dx dx 0 0 0 0 x x x x + ∫ ∫ M e ( x ) k ( x ) dx dx + ∑ R j ∫ ∫ x − rj k ( x ) dx dx 1 0 0 x x Ns x x j =1 0 0 The constant of integration introduced are: • M 0 .the left end of beam bending moment.the left end of beam slope. • • y0' .the left end of beam shear. we need to express the general loading.the left end of beam deflection.Structural Analysis III N 1⎤ ⎡ y '' ( x ) = k ( x ) ⎢ M 0 + V0 x + M e ( x ) + ∑ R j x − rj ⎥ j =1 ⎣ ⎦ s Expanding the terms: Ns y '' ( x ) = M 0 k ( x ) + V0 xk ( x ) + M e ( x ) k ( x ) + ∑ R j x − rj k ( x ) 1 j =1 And now integrating to find the slope gives: y ' ( x ) = y + M 0 ∫ k ( x ) dx + V0 ∫ x k ( x ) dx + ∫ M e ( x ) k ( x ) dx + ∑ R j ∫ x − rj k ( x ) dx ' 0 1 0 0 0 x x x Ns x j =1 0 And finally. 89 Dr. C. we ( x ) and the terms that depend on it. y0 . In order to solve this. • V0 . Caprani .

• Uniformly distributed load: occurs when Pj = Q j in the linearly varying load type. starting at position p j and ending at position q j . of starting value Pj and ending value Q j . The general expression for load is thus: we ( x ) = ∑ Fj x − f j j =1 Nr Nf −1 + ∑ ⎡ Pj x − p j ⎢ j =1 ⎣ 0 − Qj x − q j 0 + Sj ( x − pj − x − qj 1 1 )⎤⎥⎦ In which the slope of the linearly varying load. • Linearly varying load: N r in number. C. Caprani . of which force Fj acts at position f j . is: Q j − Pj qj − pj Sj = From this general expression for load. we integrate to find: Ve ( x ) = ∑ Fj x − f j j =1 r Nf 0 N S 1 1 ⎡ + ∑ ⎢ Pj x − p j − Q j x − q j + j 2 j =1 ⎣ ( x − pj 2 − x − qj 2 )⎤⎥⎦ )⎤⎥⎦ M e ( x ) = ∑ Fj x − f j j =1 r Nf 1 N ⎡P +∑ ⎢ j x − p j j =1 ⎣ 2 2 − Qj x − qj 2 90 2 + Sj 6 ( x− p 3 j − x − qj 3 Dr.Structural Analysis III We consider it possible to have the following types of load: • Point loads: N f in number. S j .

Structural Analysis III We introduce the following notation so that the equations are less cumbersome: K1 ( x ) = ∫ k ( x ) dx 0 x K 2 ( x ) = ∫ ∫ k ( x ) dx dx 0 0 x x L1 ( x ) = ∫ x k ( x ) dx 0 x L2 ( x ) = ∫ ∫ x k ( x ) dx dx 0 0 x x I1 ( x ) = ∫ M e ( x ) k ( x ) dx 0 x I 2 ( x ) = ∫ ∫ M e ( x ) k ( x ) dx dx 0 0 x x J1 ( x. rj ) ' 0 Ns j =1 91 Dr. rj ) = ∫ ∫ x − rj k ( x ) dx dx x x 1 0 0 Thus we have for the slope: y ' ( x ) = y + M 0 K1 ( x ) + V0 L1 ( x ) + I1 ( x ) + ∑ R j J1 ( x. rj ) = ∫ x − rj k ( x ) dx x 1 0 J 2 ( x. Caprani . C. rj ) ' 0 Ns j =1 And for the deflection: y ( x ) = y0 + y x + M 0 K 2 ( x ) + V0 L2 ( x ) + I 2 ( x ) + ∑ R j J 2 ( x.

.3 Solution s The previous equations have N s + 4 unknowns: V0 . to solve the previous equations. Therefore. y0' . C. M 0 . • Deflection. with a displacement of value yi .. RN . Some common forms of end conditions are. • Moment.r ) = y Ns j 2 i j i − I 2 ( ri ) This equation applies for 1 ≤ i ≤ N s and so there are N s such equations. The remaining four unknowns are found by specifying the end conditions of the beam. we need N s + 4 equations. We know that at a typical internal support we have a known deflection (usually zero).. 92 Dr. for example: • Pinned end: moment and deflection are known to be zero. y0 and R1 . • Fixed end: slope and deflection are known to be zero. • Free end: moment and shear are known to be zero. At each end of the beam there are four possible knowns: • Shear. we have: yi = y0 + y r + M 0 K 2 ( ri ) + V0 L2 ( ri ) + I 2 ( ri ) + ' 0 i j =i +1 ∑ R J (r . So considering internal support i at location ri ..r ) Ns j 2 i j Solving so that the unknowns are on the right hand side gives: y0 + y r + M 0 K 2 ( ri ) + V0 L2 ( ri ) + ' 0 i j =i +1 ∑ R J (r . • Slope. Caprani .Structural Analysis III 5.

Structural Analysis III Thus. At the left hand end. For the right hand end. only four of which need to be specified. C. rj ) = y ( L ) − I 2 ( x ) Ns j =1 To work this out further. Note that any of the equations corresponding to the eight possible conditions can be used in 93 Dr. any condition specified will give the appropriate value for V0 . M 0 . we have the following four equations: Right-hand shear known: Ns V0 + ∑ R j L − rj j =1 0 = V ( L ) − Ve ( L ) Right-hand moment known: Ns M 0 + V0 L + ∑ R j L − rj = M ( L ) − M e ( L ) 1 j =1 Right-hand slope known: y0 + y0' + M 0 K1 ( L ) + V0 L1 ( L ) + ∑ R j J1 ( L. rj ) = y ' ( L ) − I1 ( L ) Ns j =1 Right-hand deflection known: y0 + y0' L + M 0 K 2 ( L ) + V0 L2 ( L ) + ∑ R j J 2 ( L. or y0 . y0' . we will take the two end supports to be pinned. for the two ends of the beams there are eight possibilities. Caprani .

Structural Analysis III

place of the first four equations as appropriate to the boundary conditions. Hence, the

**N s + 4 equations can be written:
**

0 ⋅ ∑ R j J 2 ( 0, rj ) = y0

Ns j =1 Ns

1 ⋅ y0 + 0 ⋅ y

' 0

+ + + + +

0⋅ M0 1⋅ M 0 1⋅ M 0

+ 0 ⋅ V0 + 0 ⋅ V0 + L ⋅ V0

+ + +

0 ⋅ y0 + 0 ⋅ y0' 0 ⋅ y0 + 0 ⋅ y0' 0 ⋅ y0 + L ⋅ y 1 ⋅ y0 + r1 ⋅ y M 1 ⋅ y0 + ri ⋅ y M

' 0 ' 0

0 ⋅ ∑ R j J1 ( 0, rj ) = M 0

j =1

∑ R J ( L, r )

Ns j =1 Ns j 1 j

= 0 − M e ( L) = 0 − I2 ( L) = y1 − I 2 ( r1 )

K 2 ( L ) ⋅ M 0 + L2 ( L ) ⋅ V0 + K 2 ( r1 ) ⋅ M 0 + L2 ( r1 ) ⋅ V0 +

∑ R J ( L, r )

j =1 Ns j 2 j

' 0

∑ R J (r ,r )

j =2 j 2 1 j

+

K 2 ( ri ) ⋅ M 0 + L2 ( ri ) ⋅ V0 + K 2 ( rN ) ⋅ M 0 + L2 ( rN ) ⋅ V0 +

s s

j = i +1

∑ R J (r ,r )

Ns j 2 i j

= yi − I 2 ( ri ) = y N − I 2 ( rN

s

1 ⋅ y0 + rN ⋅ y0' +

s

RN J 2 ( rN , rN

s s

s

)

s

)

**The above equations can be written in matrix form:
**

Ac = b

**In which A is the matrix of known coefficients on the left hand side of the equations;
**

c is the vector of unknowns and b is the vector of knowns on the right hand side of

the above equations. These equations are thus given by:

94

Dr. C. Caprani

**Structural Analysis III ⎡1 0 ⎢ ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎢0 0 ⎢ ⎢1 L ⎢ A = ⎢1 r1 ⎢ ⎢M M ⎢ ⎢1 ri ⎢ ⎢M M ⎢ ⎢1 rN ⎣ ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ 0 ⎥ J1 ( L, rN ) ⎥ ⎥ J 2 ( L, rN ) ⎥ ⎥ J 2 ( r1 , rN ) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ M ⎥ J 2 ( ri , rN ) ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ M ⎥ J 2 ( rN , rN ) ⎥ ⎦ 0
**

s s s s s s

0 1 1 K2 ( L ) K 2 ( r1 )

M

0 0 L L2 ( L ) L2 ( r1 )

M

0 0 J1 ( L, r1 ) J 2 ( L, r1 ) J 2 ( r1 , r1 )

M

K K K K K

0 0 J 1 ( L , rj ) J 2 ( L , rj ) J 2 ( r1 , rj )

M

K K K K K

K 2 ( ri ) K 2 ( rN

M

L2 ( ri ) L2 ( rN

M

J 2 ( ri , r1 )

M

K

J 2 ( ri , rj )

M

K

s

s

)

s

)

J 2 ( rN , r1 ) K J 2 ( rN , rj ) K

s s

⎧ y0 ⎫ ⎪ y′ ⎪ ⎪ 0⎪ ⎪M 0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ V0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ c = ⎨ R1 ⎬ ⎪ M ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ Ri ⎪ ⎪ M ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ RN ⎪ ⎩ ⎭

s

⎧ ⎫ y0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ M0 ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −M e ( L ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ −I2 ( L) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ and b = ⎨ y1 − I 2 ( r1 ) ⎬ ⎪ ⎪ M ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ yi − I 2 ( ri ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ M ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ y N − I 2 ( rN ) ⎭ ⎪ ⎩

s s

**And so the unknowns can be solved for:
**

c = A −1b

95

Dr. C. Caprani

Structural Analysis III

5.4

Program

The preceding method is clearly ideally suited to computer calculation, especially since many of the integrals are difficult to establish algebraically. A general program for the solution of continuous non-prismatic beams, based on the preceding method, thus follows the following procedure:

1. For the particular problem, define the following: a. Number of loads, types, and values; b. Number and location of interior supports, and their displacement (usually zero); c. Four end conditions, deflection, slope, moment and/or shear; d. The length of the beam and the EI values along it; e. The number of integration points along the beam.

2. Perform the following preliminary calculations: a. Establish the vector of integration points x where the calculations will be made, and at each of these points calculate: i. k ( x ) , Ve ( x ) , and M e ( x ) ; ii. L1′ ( x ) = x ⋅ k ( x ) ; iii. J1′ ( x, rj ) = x − rj ⋅ k ( x ) ;

1

iv. I1′ ( x ) = M e ( x ) ⋅ k ( x ) ; b. Using the trapezoidal rule or similar, integrate the above expressions once to find: i. A ‘rotation’ matrix: θ = ⎡ K1 ( x ) L1 ( x ) J1 ( x, rj ) I1 ( x ) ⎤ , and ⎣ ⎦ again to find: ii. A ‘deflection’ matrix: y = ⎡ K 2 ( x ) L2 ( x ) J 2 ( x, rj ) I 2 ( x ) ⎤ . ⎣ ⎦ 96 Dr. C. Caprani

rj ) . y0 and R1 . Solve for c = A −1b . rj ) . ' 0 Ns j =1 d. linearly interpolate between the appropriate values to find the values for K1 ( ri ) etc. y ' ( x ) = y + M 0 K1 ( x ) + V0 L1 ( x ) + I1 ( x ) + ∑ R j J1 ( x. M ( x ) = M 0 + V0 x + M e ( x ) + ∑ R j x − rj . 97 Dr.. choose the appropriate expressions to write the first four rows of the A and b matrices. RN are now known. post-process to find: s a. Given that V0 . 1 b.. Based on the boundary conditions.. Assemble and solve the equations for the unknowns: a. Ns j =1 e. 4. j =1 c. C. y0' . ri . For the support positions.Structural Analysis III 3. For the remaining N s rows of the A and b matrices. y ( x ) = y0 + y0' x + M 0 K 2 ( x ) + V0 L2 ( x ) + I 2 ( x ) + ∑ R j J 2 ( x. using the values for K1 ( x ) etc already found. Output results to plot or text file. fill in the values using the interpolations carried out. d.. b. V ( x ) = V0 + Ve ( x ) + ∑ R j x − rj j =1 Ns Ns 0 . M 0 . c. Caprani .

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