f~wgi cwgwZ weÁk-lb (Morphometric Analysis) m¤úÁK© Professor of Geography, Cambridge University Richard J.

Chorley Gi e³e¨ nÁ´Q- The need
for the precise description of the geometry of landforms, particularly those of domnantly fluvial erosive origin, has been a recurring theme in geomorphology.This topogrphic, hydraulic and hydrological unity of the basin provieded the basis for the Morphometric system of R.J. Horton(1954), as elaborated by Strahler(1964), and it is now employed as a basic erosional landscape element. -Introduction to fluvial processes, 1977.

b`xgvjv AeevwnKvi Aa¨qÁbi KviYK) b`x wbq ¿Ábi Rb¨; L) cvwb mieivn Ae¨vnZ ivLvi Rb¨ I M) cvwb PÁµi Ae¯¶v Rvbvi Rb¨|

AeevwnKvi Åewkó¨ weÁk-lbwewfb b`x weÁ vbx AeevwnKvi Åewkó¨ÁK wewfb fvÁe weÁk-lb KÁiÁQb| Horton,(1932) Ges j¨vsÁeb(1947) AeewnKvMZ w`K ‚_ÁK b`xÁK weÁk-lb KÁiÁQb| Djg¨vb (1967) b`x Ges DcZ¨Kvi w`K ‚_ÁK b`xÁK weÁk-lb KÁiÁQb| Rb÷b, µm Ges ‚MÖ b`xgvjv AeevwnKvi cÖwµqv ÁMÖMix I Iqvwjs b`xR f~wgi c mg~Áni weÁk-lb KÁiÁQb| LvZ weÁk-lb AeevwnKv mviYx b`x LÛvsk cÖ¯¶ ÷ªjvi Ges ‚Pvwj© AeevwnKvi cÖwµqvLÛvsÁki AvqZb AeevwnKv b`x LvZ b`x I AvK«wZÁK cÖ¯¶Á´Q` weÁk-lb KÁiÁQb| GjvKv msjM AvqZb AvqZb AvqZb
Ö `N©¨ AvK«wZ AeevwnKv `N©¨ AeevwnKv AvK«wZ AeevwnKv eÜziZv ev AeevwnKv Xvj b`x LvZ `N©¨, b`xgvjv NbZ¡ RvwjKv AvK«wZ, b`x AvK«wZ b`x LÛvsÁki Å`N©¨ eµZv b`x LvZ AvK«wZ c Á¯¶i `N©¨ cÖÁ¯¶i AvK«wZ eÜziZvi cÖ¯¶Á´Q` MfxiZv

eÜziZv|

RvwjKv b`x LvZ eÜziZv ev eÜziZv, b`x RvwjKv Xvj ev LvZ Xvj

b`xR f~wgi c weÁk-lb1964 mvÁj ÷ªjvi b`xR f~wgi c‚K mvavibZ wbg wjwLZ wZb fvÁe weÁk-lb KÁib 1| b`x AeevwnKvi mij iwLK c K«wZ, 2| b`x AeevwnKvi AvqZwbK cÖK«wZ I 3| b`x gvjv AeevwnKv Ges b`x LvZ RvwjKv eÜziZv| 1| b`x AeevwnKvi mij Ö iwLK cÖK«wZt A) UÁcvjwRÁKj `ÄwóÁKvY-b`x ch©vq µg (Order) wØfvRb AbycvZ (bifurcation ratio) Av) R¨vwgwZ¨K `ÄwóÁKvY b`xi Ö `N©¨ (Stream Length) b`xi Mo Ö `N©¨( Average Stream Length) b`xi Å`N¨© AbycvZ (Stream -Length Ratio) AeevwnKvi AwfKl© ‚K¾`ª ‚_ÁK `yiZ¡ (The Distance to the centre of Gravity
of the Drainage Basin)

`xN©¨Zg AeevwnKvi e¨vÁmi Ö `N©¨ b`xi Ö `N©¨ I DcZ¨Kv Ö `ÁN©¨i AbycvZ

b`x AeevwnKvi AvqZwbK weÁk-lb (Areal aspects
of the Basin)

K) b`x AeevwnKvi AvqZb (Area of the Basin) L) AeevwnKvi b`x NbZ¡ (Drainage Density of the Basin) M) AeevwnKv I AvqZÁbi cvi¯úvwiK cv_©K¨ (Basin ±
Area Ratio)

N) AeevwnKvi AvK«wZ (Shape of the Basin) b`x gvjv AeevwnKv Ges b`x LvZ RvwjKv eÜziZv (Relief
aspects of the Basin)

K) b`x LvÁZi Xvj L) AeevwnKvi Xvj M) AeevwnKv eÜziZv

N) b`x `N©¨ I XvÁji m¤úK©

K) b`x ch©vq µg (Order)

nU©Ábi b`x ch©vq µg

mvs¸ b ` x e v¾` i e vb c Ög c h © _ vq 2 q c h© vq 3 qc h© vq 4 _ ©h© c vq

mvs¸ b ` x e v¾` i e vb

Strahler Gi b`x ch©vq µg

c Ög c h vq _ © 2 q c h vq © 3 q c h vq © 4 _ c h vq © ©

mvs¸ b ` x 1 1 1 1 1 9 19 2 1 18 2 1 1 1 14 1 2 1 12 1 1 1 1 1 12 5 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 e v¾` i e vb 28

1 2 5 2 1 1

ÁkªÁfi b`x ch©vq µg

wØfvRb AbycvZ (bifurcation
ratio)

b=

Nu Nu+1

GLvÁb, b= wØ-fvRb AbycvZ, Nu= ‚Kvb ch©vÁqi b`x LvÁZi ‚gvU msL¨v, Nu+1= cieZx© ch©vÁqi b`x LvÁZi ‚Kvb ch©vÁqi b`x LvÁZi ‚gvU msL¨v (Nu) wbY©Áqi Rb¨ wbÁg v³ m ‚gvU msL¨v|

(k-u) Nu= Rb
GLvÁb, k= AeevwnKvi D´PZg ch©vq msL¨ u = b`x avc ev ch©vq

K
Dc © ` Kv Zv s c vn vo R Z vw b W
b` xi

b` x eµ Zv= i

b` x ` ¨ i © © DcZ¨Kv ` ¨ i

` ©

L

ev e
K · e v R v i ÁR j v

n w

Kv

C
g Án k L vj x ‚PÁb j

`

v
C` vI

I
b` x

b

` x

K · e vR vi D c ÁR j v

L) AeevwnKvi b`x NbZ¡ (Drainage Density of the Basin) t ‚Kvb GjvKvi b`x ¸Ájvi ‚gvU `N©¨ÁK H GjvKvi AvqZb Øviv fvM KiÁj AeevwnKvi b`x NbZ¡ cvIqv hvq|

§ Lk D!
Ak

GLvÁb, D =AeevwnKvi b`x NbZ¡, ™Lk=‚Kvb GjvKvi b`x ¸Ájvi ‚gvU `N©¨, Ak =AeevwnKvi AvqZb| DcÁii wPÎ I mviYx ‚_ÁK K·evRvi ÁRjvi 35 wKwg `N©¨ wewkó C`MvI b`x AeevwnKvi AvqZb 142 eM© wKwg I b`x ¸Ájvi ‚gvU `N©¨ 516.2 wKwg|

b`x LvÁZi Xvj t b`xi Drm nÁZ ‚gvnbv ch© ² D´PZv I Abyf~wgK `~iÁZ¡i AbycvZÁK b`x LvÁZi Xvj ejv nq| b`x LvÁZi Xvj ‚K wgUvi/wKÁjvwgUvÁi cÖKvk Kiv nq| f~`ÄÁk¨ Xvj DÁj-L ‚hvM¨ f~wgKv cvjb KÁi _vÁK| Xvj wb®½vkb aiY wba©vib KÁi Ges f~-cÄÁôi cwieZ©b NUvq| Xvj AeevwnKvi DwŒ¢`, cÖvYx, emwZ , ‚mP, cwienb, AbycÖÁek, cvwb aviY, cvwb cÖevn BZ¨vw` wbq ¿Y KÁi _vÁK| wewfb ch©vÁq b`xi Xvj H mgvb _vÁK bv| mvavibZt 1g ch©vÁq b`xi Xvj ‚ekx _vÁK Ges b`xi ch©vq I Xvj wecixZ fvÁe m¤úK©hy³| wPÁÎ C`MvI AeevwnKvi b`x LvÁZi Mo Xvj 5.65wg/ wKwg| L Xvj (S) =
K H = ‚gvnbv nÁZ Drm ch© ² D´PZv(198 wg) n w g v L = b`x LvÁZi Abyf~wgK `~iZ¡(38 wKwg)|Kw C`MvI b`x AeevwnKv,K·evRvi e 8w v

198w g
2

K ·

e v R v i ÁR j v

C
g Án k L vj x ‚PÁb j

`

Mv
C ` MvI

I
b` x

b

` x

A

e

K · e vR vi D c ÁR j v

K¨vwjÁdvwbq©v wek¦we`¨vjÁqi f~ÁMvÁji mnÁhvMx Aa¨vcK Leal A. K. Mertes b`xLvZ m¤úÁK© eÁjbRiver, any body of fresh water flowing from an upland source to a large lake or to the sea, fed by such sources as springs and tributary streams. The main parts of a river include a channel, in which the water flows, and a floodplain a flat region of a valley on either side of the channel . - Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2008.

÷ªjvi(1964) Gi gÁZ b`xLvZ nj cÖevwnZ cvwbi kw³i dÁj MwVZ GKwU mi³ ev PIov, Mfxi ev AMfxi, ‚mvRv ev evuKv, Lvov mylg Xvj wewkó GB c_ hvi ga¨w`Áq axi ev cÖej ‚eÁM KLÁbv mweivg ev KLÁbv Aweivg fvÁe cvwb cÖevwnZ nq| Bnv KLÁbv Ggb mi³ nq ‚h GK jvÁdB cvi nIqv hvq Avevi KÁqK gvBj ch© ² cÖk¯¶ nÁq _vÁK|

the River Severn

Meanders on the Severn (middle course)

mvaviY fvÁe b`xi ‚h ¯¶vbw`Áq cvwb cÖevwnZ nq ZvÁK b`x LvZ eÁj| AvK«wZ I Ö ewkÁó¨i Dci wfwË KÁi b`x LvZ ‚K KÁqK fvÁe fvM Kiv hvq| George Harry Dury Introduction to Fluvial Processes cy¯²ÁK GÁK AvU ‚kªbxÁZ fvM KÁiÁQb| ‚hgbmwc©j (Meandering) webywb (Braided) mij (Straight)
Straight- simulating Deltaic- distributary Anabranching Reticulate Irregular.

Channel Length (ft.) SINUOSITY = -----------------------------Valley Length (ft.)

mwc©j b`xLvZ (Meandering channel) t b`x LvÁZ Pjvi cÁ_ ‚h mvg m¨ c~Y© eµZvi m wó KÁi ZvÁK mwc©j b`xLvZ (Meandering channel) eÁj| Dbwesk kZvãxi ga¨fvM ‚_ÁK mwc©j b`xLvZ(Meandering) Gi msL¨vZvwË¡K w`K wbÁq cÖPzi MÁelYv nÁqÁQ| 1954 mvÁj cvwbweÁ vbx ivÁgj b`xi mvg m¨ c~Y© eµZvi ‚ ÁÎ Meander kãwU cÖ_g e¨envi KÁib

A Braided channel is one that have development into sevsral channels which successively meet and redivided. - Leopold Wolman & Miller.

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