Layered Space-Time Coding/Decoding

‡ STBCs don't have any multiplexing gain but they possessed a diversity order of ideally MTMR for improving the link quality by combating deep fades . ‡ LST codes provide Multiplexing Gain by transmitting independent data streams from each Antenna at the Transmitter side achieving multiplexing gain of order .

Encoding types
Vertical encoding Horizontal encoding (D-BLAST)


Horizontal Encoding .

Diagonal Bell Laboratories Layered Space-Time (D-BLAST) scheme .

Vertical Encoding (V-BLAST) .

Layered Space-Time Decoders (Receivers) Minimum mean square error(MMSE) Maximum likelihood decoder (ML decoder) Minimum mean square with successive interference cancellation (MMSE_SIC) Minimum mean square error with ordered successive interference cancellation (MMSE_ OSIC) .

‡ Where matrix H. b) Zero-Forcing Receiver: ‡ It behaves like a linear filter and separates the data streams and thereafter independently decodes each stream. is the pseudo inverse of the non-square .a) Ml Decoder : ‡ Optimal decoding (zero power losses as ) ‡ Provides MR diversity . ‡ AS MT increases complexity of the receiver increases.

(SIC) algorithm is usually combined with ‡ V-BLAST receivers. It then proceeds to the next row ‡ To reduce BER more and more we have to decode the received signals according to their strength (SNR like SC deversity) OSIC. ‡ to improve the performance .c) MMSE Receiver: Noise is enhanced so we minimize error : Solving : d)Successive cancellation receiver (SIC): ‡ As a result of multiplexing . ‡ this nonlinear detection scheme first detects the first row of the signal and then cancels its effect from the overall received signal vector. . ‡ OSIC :improves the quality of the decision and reduces the chances of error propagation.MSI exits.

V-BLAST decoding with ZF and OSIC .

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