Variation of Light Intensity Affects the Rate of Photosynthesis in Hydrilla verticillata1

Vicente D. Limsan Jr. BOTANY 1 (Introduction to Plant Science Laboratory) Sec. T-5L

February 1, 2008

scientific paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements in General Botany 1 laboratory under Mrs. Therese Lina A. Honrade, 2nd sem., 20072008.

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Plants use pigments (green pigments) called chlorophyll to trap the light energy. 1993).2 ABSTRACT The external factor. Some kinds of organisms. It begins when the chlorophyll within the chloroplasts is activated by the light energy coming from the sun (Wallace. The effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis was determined by counting the number of oxygen bubbles produced under high and low light intensities. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants (green plants) use energy from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates. capture the sun·s energy and make molecules that store the energy. The low light intensity showed the least number of oxygen bubbles (10 oxygen bubbles/min). INTRODUCTION All organisms need energy for their life processes which is vital to survival. The high light intensity showed the most number of oxygen bubbles (21 oxygen bubbles/min). During the light reaction. 2001). such as plants. in this case. several important events take place.. the higher and faster the rate of photosynthesis. It is divided into two phases. 1992). the light (light-dependent) reaction and the dark (light-independent) reaction (Smith and Smith. and the variation of its quality affects the photosynthetic rate. The sun is the source of energy that keeps you and all other organisms alive. Light energy is then converted into chemical energy for use in splitting water and making ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) ² an energy that enables plants to do biochemical processes such as photosynthesis (Solomon et al. the higher the light intensity. The number of oxygen bubbles produced measures the rate of photosynthesis. Chlorophyll absorbs light primarily in the blue and red regions of the . the light intensity is crucial in the photosynthesis. Therefore.

It maintains the carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) ratio in the atmosphere. The product of photosynthesis is a source of food for some consumers mostly the organisms who eat plants. If there are more light (light intensity) present. The light intensity. It is also the source of fossil fuels that we burn everyday that took millions of years to form. This study was intended to determine the effects of the light intensity in the rate of photosynthesis in Hydrilla verticillata. 2000). the faster the rate of photosynthesis. This process occurs in the organelle of a plant cell called chloroplasts ² where different pigments are found.. Institute of Biological Sciences. then the greater probability plants perform photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is an important biochemical process. Plants are the producers of all living organisms (Campbell et al. As discussed above. . plants trap light energy to be able to perform the process of photosynthesis.3 visible light (Solomon et al. 1993). the higher the light intensity. is the main variable factor of the photosynthesis experiment.. Therefore. on the other hand. UPLB on February 2008. Plants feed themselves without consuming organic molecules. This study was conducted at Room C-112.

we prepared three (3) set-ups.4 MATERIALS AND METHODS In testing the effect of light intensity in the rate of photosynthesis in Hydrilla verticillata. The plant was set inside the funnel covered with test tube and place in a beaker with water. The process was repeated three (3) times and calculated the average number of oxygen bubbles (OB). The first set-up was placed in a box in the dimmest part of the room. This was done in every set-up and calculated using the following formula: A table showing the calculation of the number of oxygen bubbles and a graph showing the relationship of the light intensity and the rate of photosynthesis were plotted and analyzed.µ The light intensity in the first set-up is 0 lux. Oxygen bubbles that were produced by the plants were recorded in every 30 seconds and doubled to measure the number of oxygen bubbles produced in a minute. The third set-up was placed under high light intensity. two (2) study lamps were used that measured 2050 lux. In the second set-up it was placed under low light intensity. The light was measured by a light-measuring gadget in ´lux. . The light source in the second set-up was a study lamp that measured 1860 lux.

In the third set-up under high light intensity.5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The result of the experiment showed that in the first set-up the least amount of oxygen bubbles. plants need light energy from the sun. Oxygen release by aquatic plants may sometimes be visible as bubbles in water. This would mean that the higher the light intensity. the higher the rate of photosynthesis. as evidenced by the oxygen bubbles (Solomon et al. the intensity and availability of the light to the plant particularly in the leaf will directly influence the rate of photosynthesis (Smith and Smith. the lesser number of oxygen bubbles was produced by the plant. it yielded an average of twenty-three (23) oxygen bubbles per minute. (See Table 1 and Figure 1) To be able to undergo the process of photosynthesis. 2000). Thus. And the lower the light intensity present. . Light intensity is one of the factors that affect the process. the greater number of oxygen bubbles was produced. The higher the light intensity present. Light energy provides the energy required for the conversion of CO2 into simple sugars (Carbohydrates). The plant is actively carrying on photosynthesis.. which produced nothing. The second set-up with low light intensity yielded an average of nine (9) oxygen bubbles per minute. 1993) as in this case the Hydrilla verticillata.

Number of Oxygen Bubbles produced by the plant (Hydrilla verticillata) in different light intensities Trial x y z Average Set-up 1 0 0 0 0 Set-up 2 10 8 8 9 Set-up 3 26 22 22 23 Figure 1. Relationship of Light Intensity and the Rate of Photosynthesis .6 Table 1.

23 OB/min. While the third set-up yielded the most number of oxygen bubbles. the higher the light intensity. The control set-up yielded the least number of oxygen bubbles (0 OB/min) followed by the second set-up that yielded nine (9) oxygen bubbles per minute. the higher or faster the rate of photosynthesis. Therefore. Increasing the light intensity will hasten the rate of photosynthesis. .7 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The effect of varying light intensity in the rate of photosynthesis of Hydrilla verticillata was determined. The first set-up shows the slowest rate of photosynthesis while the third set-up shows the fastest rate of photosynthesis.

Biology: The World of Life. Thomas M.A. J. L. 191. p. 86. 188-189.. Eldra Pearl. p. pp. 127. 1993. New York: Benjamin and Cummings Pub. N. 6th ed. Smith. 6th ed. Martin and C.B. 3rd ed. p. Wallace. 6th ed. Mitchell.G. Co. Co. and Robert Leo Smith. Ville. 1992. 2000. California: Benjamin and Cummings Pub. 2006. 2001. Inc. 5th ed. Smith.8 LITERATURE CITED Campbell. Ecology and Field Biology. Elements of Ecology. Co. New York: Saunders College Pub. Biology. New York: Benjamin and Cummings Pub. D. Biology. . Reece and L.106 Solomon. R. 185. New York: HarperCollins Publishing Inc. Inc. Berg. Robert Lee and T. Smith. p. W. Inc.B. Robert A.

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