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PREPARED BY : CLASS ROLL NO SEAT NO COLLEGE : : : : GEETANJALI COLLEGE ACADEMIC YEAR 2005- 06 SUBMITTED TO SAURASHTRA UNIVERSITY RAJKOT SAMEER THAKKAR S.Y.B.B.A
Prof. Nirav S. Joshi
INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT ON
PREPARED BY : CLASS ROLL NO SEAT NO COLLEGE : : : : GEETANJALI COLLEGE ACADEMIC YEAR 2005- 06 SUBMITTED TO SAURASHTRA UNIVERSITY RAJKOT SAMEER THAKKAR S.Y.B.B.A
Prof. Nirav S. Joshi
hereby under sign being a student of SYBBA Geetanjali College. Rajkot.DECLARATION CERTIFICATE I Sameer Thakkar. Rajkot declare that the project work presented in this report is my own and has been carried out under the guidance of Prof. Nirav S.SCIENCE & COMMERCE (BBA). Geetanjali College . Joshi of GEETANJALI COLLEGE OF COMPUTER. This work has not been previously submitted to any other university. Date: Place: Rajkot Sign: Sameer Thakkar.
. In the following pages. I have made my sincere efforts to mention the knowledge I gained during the training. It includes analysis of various departments of the company. Thus this project contains exact and compact information by a practical training of the company. This company produces various types of Bearings. LTD.PREFACE This book contains a project report on company named KASUMA BEARINGS PVT.
I thank Mr. Lastly I would like to thank all my parents. and company members at large who had directly or indirectly helped me in this Project Report. . Date: Place: Rajkot. Nirav S.Kamlesh Timbadia the director of the factory who has provided all the necessary information and to Prof. Joshi who has guided me and her support was instrumental in accomplishing this report.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Any accomplishment requires the effort of many people and this work is not different.
Particulars General Information Production Department Personnel Department Marketing Department Finance Department Future Plans SWOT Analysis Suggestions Conclusions Bibliography ` . 8. 9. 7.INDEX Sr. 10. no. 5. 1. 6. 3. 4. 2.
Whenever we want to know a particular firm we start it with the History of the Firm. . 10 years ago.e. Only that can give us the true picture of any Firm’s progress since then. (P) Ltd began in 1995 i. The History and the developing stage of Kasuma Auto Engg. It has annual turnover of more than 8.5 crores. More than nearly 170 workers and more than 30 qualified engineers. Kasuma initially started with a local network of distributors of bearings. (P) Ltd is as below: Kasuma Auto Engg.HISTORY AND INTRODUCTION OF THE FIRM Kasuma Auto Engg. (P) Ltd needs no introduction to people who have been involved in any manner with the bearings because it has been one of the leading firms in this field. Initially it was started as a small-scale industry but from then the company has expanded three times larger than it was. as we already know that the present world is having cut throat competition. but this could not stop Kasuma from achieving its goals & to rising to new heights.
. Kasuma has produced more than 4000 series in bearings. The firm holds a good grip in the market for having the international standard quality and method of working. & by this it has proved itself to be one of the leading industries in Asia. which is a success in itself.Kasuma then started manufacturing for international market.
is specialist in bearing manufacturing and marketing it all over the world. It is located at Shapar which is a welldeveloped industrial area near Rajkot [Gujarat] INDIA. (P) Ltd. “Kasuma” is well known and widely accepted brand name. Their innovative engineering and the policy of making the best product has kept it a step forward than other bearing industries. As on . is one of the leading bearing manufacturing units in India. They have been manufacturing quality bearings with application of best available raw materials in steel ‘Grade SAE 52100’ on Hi-tech machineries and strict quality control.COMPANY PROFILE Kasuma Auto Eng. Kasuma Auto Eng. (P) Ltd.
Peugeot. Leyland. Iveco. Double Row Taper Roller. “Kasuma” has won wide appreciations in Indian replacement as well as export markets. Scaina. Trailler. Canter. Angular Contact.date they ‘Kasuma Bearings’ matches all leaders for high quality and performance in bearings manufactured with advanced System and technology with latest measuring and testing instruments and strict quality check have assisted them to achieve defect free production in large volume with the production capacity of more than 6 million bearings annually. Plain Spherical. Chevrolet. Bed Ford. . Land Crusher. Cylindrical Roller. Thrust and Pillow Block Bearings etc. Opel. ZF. Volkswagen. Marine Engines. Spherical Roller. Double Row and Plain Ball Bearings. Tractors. Passenger Cars and many more vehicles. Hino. Matador. For replacement market we manufacture bearings for Tata. Needle Roller. Minidor. “Kasuma” has a vast range of more than 4000 series of bearings including all type of Taper Roller. Major applications of these bearings are in Automobiles.. Ford. And Heavy Earth Movers & Industrial. LCV. Mercedes Benz. Man.. Massey Ferguson. We offer a comprehensive and unmatched range for overseas markets John Deere. Zetor. Ball Bearings like Deep Groove. Land Rover.
”Kasuma Auto Eng.Mitsubishi. “Kasuma” brand is a well-known brand in Indian market as well as demanded in overseas markets. They sincerely look forward to establishing business relations with the customers both at home and abroad and welcome the suggestions. They have developed wide range of Clutch Release bearings. Toyota. Their innovation is still on the way to meet new challenges and is developing all kinds of bearings aiming innovation and welcoming any inquiry with the sample or Specifications [Drawing] to fulfill your requirements. They always welcome new clients who look for best quality and accurate specification of bearings. Mazda and many other models ranges. (P) Ltd” is ISO 9001 [ANSI/ISO/ASQ Q 9001] & ISO 14001 certified co. . it is also under process in acquiring TS 16949 certificate which is the most superior of all the ISO certificates. by BVQI – USA accordance with Quality Standard in all type of Bearings.
New Jagnath Corner. Rajkot – 360 001 . Timbadia 6-A. Shivanand Apt.. Timbadia 4-C. Panchratna Palace. Bhavanipur. 3/11 Jagnath Plot. Amrut Prabhat Apt. 20. Rajkot – 360 001 Bharat N. Dr. Kolkata Sunil C. Tejani 201. Girish Mukharji Road.LIST OF DIRECTORS Kamlesh N. Yagnik Road..
AWARDS AND ACHIEVEMENTS .
Chakkala.COMPANY BIO . Veraval [Shapar] Dist.com / kasuma@sancharnet.DATA Name of the Company Company’s Logo : Kasuma Auto Engg. N. India E-Mail Address :kasuma@vsnl. Mumbai – 400 099.com .kasumabearings. 8-B. 4/5/6/18. 219. Plot No.in Website : http://www.H. Rajkot Gujarat – India Registered office Address : Vit Bhavan Opp. Gondal Highway. Rajkot – 360 002 Export office Address : Parts International G-2 Nahar & Seth Industrial Estate. Gondal Road. : Factory (Works) Address : Mahavir Industrial Estate Survey No. Andheri (E). Gurukul Temple. (P) Ltd.
+91–22– 8226972 Fax Number : Factory Office +91 – 2827 – 253200 +91 – 281 – 2366230 Export Off.Phone Number : Factory +91–2827– 252403/253474 Office +91 – 281 – 2363371 Export off. +91 – 22 – 8242641 .
PLANT LOCATION Kasuma Auto Engg. The construction area of the Firm is approximately 60. ft. Kasuma Auto Engg.000 sq. (P) Ltd is located about 17 km from the Rajkot city in the Industrial sector near Shapar on Rajkot-Gondal National Highway.000 sq. The land area of the Firm is approximately 80. (P) LTd . ft.
OBJECTIVES OF THE FIRM Objectives lie at the very heart of strategy implementation. they also provide managers with specific targets for the coming year’s performance. Higher Exports: The company aims at increasing the exports. In the process. . (P) LTD is as follows: Satisfy Customer: An ultimate dream of the company is smiling customer. Continuous Improvement in Quality & Productivity: The company is trying to improve their quality & productivity in order to minimize the loss. The objectives of KASUMA AUTO ENGG. They identify precisely what must be accomplished each year to achieve an organization’s strategic goals. which keep the business flourishing & developing day by day. The company believes that satisfied customers are the assets of the company.
. Deep groove ball bearing Angular contact ball bearing Double row ball bearing Plain ball bearings Spherical roller Plain spherical Cylindrical roller Pillow block bearings Clutch release bearing.TYPES OF PRODUCT BEARINGS:Ball bearings Roller bearings Thrust bearings Tapered roller Double Row Taper roller Needle roller.
Liners Bore diameter ranging from 65mm to 260mm Liners • Bore diameter ranging from 65mm to 260mm Connecting Rods Within the range of 50mm to 400mm center distance cylinder • .
ORGANISATIONAL CHART Chairman ↓ Managing Director ↓ General Manager ↓ Departmental Manager ↓ Assistance Departmental Manager ↓ Workers .
5. Production Planning Raw Material Used Production Process Machines Used in the Firm Production Control . 6. 4. Particulars Introduction & Definition to Production Dept.INDEX Sr. 2. 1. no. 3.
Engineering as a profession is centrally linked to one or the other aspects of production or conversion linked in turn with ‘sciences’ on one hand & ‘society’ on the other. Given a set of natural resources & an idealistic or acceptable norm of ‘fairness’ or both. • Production also refers to the addition of marketing surplus. the allocation of production responsibility and compensation in terms of consumption capacity. . • Production is creative process with infinite variations. In addition. • Production is the main activity that almost all the industries perform with the intention of making profits by selling the goods that are manufactured.INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION TO PRODUCTION • Production is transformation of raw materials to the finished goods. is the central concern of the administration & management at all levels. what goods/services are to produce & what are the most efficient means (technology/ technique) to do so constitute some of the other dynamic aspects of management.
including agricultural sector and other service sectors.Increasing scientific understanding of nature. its efficient utilization by technology. and a never-ending demand for sophisticated range of goods/ services have led to differentiation of human endeavor towards specialized processes/ industries/ institutions for the production and distribution of those goods/ services. . One can conceive ‘industrialization’ as an organized industrialized application of science and technology not only in the manufacturing sector but also in the economy as a whole.
a general idea of the process by which it can be made and a sales forecast for the discernable future. material.” The production planning thus: • Is a management technique • Acts as a preparation activity • Forecasts possible difficulties so as to eliminate or minimize them • Sets the production targets • Aims at making optimum utilization of an organization’s resources by deciding the line of action well in advance. et al.PRODUCTION PLANNING Definition According to Lawrence L Bethel. It starts with a product concept capable of being manufactured.. “Production planning takes the given product or line of products and organizes in advance the manpower. machines and money required for a predetermined output in a given period of time. .
it can be stated that production planning is concerned with what. how. Production planning is done every month. the production is on the fixed amount basis. Here. In KASUMA AUTO ENG (P) LTD production planning is one of the most important functions performed by the director. which is produced during the whole month. here there is fixed amount. Like in some other companies production depends on the quantity of order pending and then the production planning & process is carried out. fixed at the beginning of every month. Here the production planning is done by the director. . But. when and where the work is to be carried out.In short.
RAW MATERIALS Material: Steel for bearing is SAE-52100. • Dimensions: Kasuma adopted international standard for dimensions & tolerances. which is internationally approved bearing material with oxygen content within 15 PPM only. • Heat Treatment: Bearing races & rollers are hardened and tampered with 58 to 62 HRC. Retainers are made from low carbon steel called rolled sheet. Steps Involved in the Process of Raw Materials: • Chemistry: Materials checked by metallurgists for chemical analysis and microstructure. Rollers are made from imported wire coils. .
incoming material inspection.• Finishing: The Raceway or track of both the rings & rollers are super finished and passed through honing process to achieve micro finishing and great luster. semi finish and final assembly by well experience technical staff. Quantity to be purchased is decided on the production plan. • Inspection: Kasuma adopts full proof technique for inspection at various stages like raw material. depending on the material. The raw material is purchased every month according requirements and planning. . to the Selection of Raw Material is based on the superior quality and the prices prevailing in the market. The purchase planning of the raw material is done by the director of the company. Purchasing of Raw Materials: KASUMA AUTO ENG (P) LTD purchases raw materials from different places.
PRODUCTION PROCESS • Forging The First & foremost step for the production of bearing is Forging of the steel bar for the exact size of the bearing ring. . The process of forging is showed below: First picture: It is the first process for the forging in this picture it is easily understandable that the steel bar is cut to the appropriate size.
This is the last step of forging.Second Picture (Right top): In this step the cut piece is heated at 58 to 62 HRC. And at a temperature of 9000C Third Picture (Left Bottom): In this step the hot metal is given the appropriate Shape. Fourth Picture (Right Bottom): In this step the size of the forged metal is checked in all dimensions. .
Annealing, Turning & Heat Treatment It is the second step in the process of manufacturing bearing. This step is always conducted after forging. The process of annealing is explained as under:
In the process of annealing the forged bearings are set as shown in picture 1 & 2. Then the bearings are heated to check the hardness shown in picture 4. Then the set bearings are turned by checking the dimensions as shown in picture 3.
Roller Component The pictures below show the manufacturing process of roller components:
The rollers are manufactured from SAE 52100 material coils. The coils are cut in to pieces according to the need of the size of rollers as shown in picture 1 and 2. Then they are properly oiled and polished as shown in pictures 3 & 4 respectively.
Cage Component First the die of the cage as per the size of the rollers is prepared & then the cage slots are punched and the cages are manufactured as per the pictures shown below:
Grinding & Polishing Picture 1: It shows the face grinding & face polishing process. Picture 2: It shows the outer surface (track) grinding & track process.
Picture 3 & 4: It shows the grinding of the track of the inner ring & its polishing process. . SOON AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE ABOVE PROCESS ALL THE COMPONENTS ARE SENT TO THE ASSEMBLY DEPARTMENT WHERE THE NEXT FACE OF THE PRODUCTION OF BEARINGS START.
Assembly House Picture 1: It shows all the components of bearings being assembled together. stamping department. Then after they are forwarded to the .
Laser Stamping Picture 1: KASUMA uses advanced laser technology to mark their product with various information and markings as per their customer requirement and specifications. Picture 2: It shows the beam of the laser machine marking on a bearing. .
.Oiling & Packing Picture 1: In this process rust preventive oil and other chemicals are applied in all the bearing in order to prevent them from getting rusted then they are packed in air tight packets in order to prevent them from humidity and other climatic changes. AFTER THIS STAGE ALL THE GOODS ARE PACKED AND THERE IS NO CONTACT WITH AIR.
Box & Cartoon Packing Soon after the oiling and picketing process is completed all the goods are sent to the packing department where they all are packed in the boxes and they are stored in the stores or packed in the corrugated boxes and made ready doe dispatch. .
In all there are eight Automatic & fifteen Semi-Automatic machines present in the firm. .MACHINES USED IN THE FIRM Automatic Grinding Machine This machine is manufactured by P. It is mainly used for Grinding & Turning of bearings.M.T.
All the programming is done according to the requirement and specifications. . its production capacity is about 3000 pieces per day. Automatic Laser Marking Machine This machine is completely operated with a computer.Semi-Automatic Horizontal Face Grinding Machine This machine is used for face grinding of the face of the Inner & Outer ring of the bearings. It is also the latest of its kinds.
.Production House In all together KASUMA has more then 20 automatic machines and 23 semi-automatic machines and the arrangement of all the machines on its shop floor is so as to minimize the movement of the raw material from machine to machine. as it saves a lot of time and energy.
at the same time has a fundamental effect on the utilization and efficiency of production resource. . For the present purpose. then the whole organization will do well. The benefits that can be obtained from production control are. Thus production control continuously monitors all the activities related to the production and compares the actual performance with the planned performance. considerable. therefore. It finds out the deviations between the both and takes necessary rectification steps. Production control is at the heart of any manufacturing organization. If it is done well. It is influenced by the external environment and it would be unproductive to design systems which are not responsive to the environment. In KASUMA AUTO ENG (P) LTD production control is performed continuously.PRODUCTION CONTROL There are several definitions of ‘Production Control’ which are occasionally disconcerting. it is suggested that the ‘Production Control’ covers all the functions and activities which affect the process orders and.
• Reduction in production cost. • Implement reduction in shop-floor lobour. raw material stocks and finished goods stocks. • Maximize added value. • Show improvement in cash flow by reducing work-in-progress. • Effect reduction in overtime. .The main objectives of the production control are as follows: • Orders to be produced within the given period of time. Production Capacity The production capacity of the Firm is approximately one million of Connecting Rod & Cylinder Liner & approximately six million of bearings annually. • Increase production by calculated amount. • Increasing the productivity of the labor.
13.Sr. 1. 3. 11. 9. Particulars Introduction to Personnel Organization of personnel Department Recruitment Selection Induction Working Hours & Shifts Training & Development Promotion & Transfer Performance Appraisal Wages & Salary Administration Benefits & Services Insurance Policies Grievance Handling Procedure Format of Employee Profile . 12. 8. 7. 14. 2. 6. 4. 10. no. 5.
computers. development. plants. etc to make a firm modern. Definition “Personnel management is the planning. directing & controlling of the procurement.” . recruiting. compensation. These resources are unproductive without human effort. organizing.INTRODUCTION TO PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT The sole of an organization is its Human Resources. Therefore human resources are one of the most valuable assets for an organization because it is through the human efforts organization goals can be accomplished. automatic equipments. offices. selecting. organization & social objective are accomplished. Organizations require the services of a large number of personnel. All the activities of an enterprise are initiated and determined by the persons who work in the institution. maintenance & separation of human resources to the end that individual. integration.
. The purpose of all these functions is to assist in the smooth and successful accomplishment of basic objective. `Thus we can say that no industry can be render efficiently so long as the basic fact remains unrecognized that it is principally human. It fulfills its functions not by efforts of some impersonal force but human energy.The above definition is a comprehensive one & covers both the management function and the operative functions. It is not a mass of machines & technical processes but a body of men. Its body is not an intricate maze of mechanical devices but a magnified resources system.
line executives discharge personnel functions. a separate department is organized for the purpose. where personnel activities are of complex nature. responsibility & establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in establishing of objectives. in small companies.ORGANIZATION OF PERSONNEL DEPARTMENT An organization is a group of individuals who co-ordinate into different levels of authority and segments of specification for the purpose of achieving the goals & objectives of the organization. defining and delegating authority. But in large companies. .” The internal organization structure of personnel department varies widely in different companies depending upon their size. For example. Definition According to Allen. “The organisation is the process of identifying & grouping the work to be performed.
(P) LTD follows line organization structure as authority descends from the top of hierarchy to its bottom level and responsibility runs from bottom level to the top of hierarchy.KASUMA AUTO ENGG. .
through advertisement in newspaper. KASUMA AUTO ENGG.RECRUITMENT Recruitment process starts after the identification of vacancies to be filled up. It is concerned with the identification of sources from where the personnel can be employed & motivating them to offer for the employment. managerial staff & lastly through Gate Hiring: It can be presented as under . through personal relation of workers.e.” Thus the first step in recruitment is the identification of sources of manpower supply. Definition “Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees & stimulating them to apply for the jobs in the organization. (P) LTD fills up vacancies through promotion of people available in the organization & through the selection of people from outside i.
Recruitment Internal External Advertisement & Personal Relation Promotion Policy .
Procedure of Selection: Screening of Applicants: First of all the personnel manager will check all the information contained in application from the concerned. The basic idea is to solicit maximum possible information about the candidates to ascertain their suitability for employment.e. in order to ensure that whether it meets the standard or not. . If it meets. Interview. then suitable candidate is called for the further selection process i.SELECTION Definition Selection is a deliberate effort of the organisation to select fixed number of personnel from the large number of applicants. Selection process is frequently described as “Negative Process” In contrast to the positive programme of recruitment since more candidates will be rejected than those hired.
etc. candidates further planning. . suitable candidates are selected & they are informed about their selection and asked to present themselves on the specified date. Approval: On the basis of the above steps. Interview: Here an effort is made by the personnel manager to get overall information of the candidate visually like candidates work experience.
it is a welcoming process-The idea is to welcome a newcomer. Process of Induction: • Firstly information is given to a newly appointed person to whom he has to give a report & the place of report. . the respective manager welcomes the employees. however its small. In other words. policies & the objectives of the organisation.INDUCTION Definition Induction is a technique by which a new employee is rehabilitating into the changed surrounding and introduced to the practices. but is meaningful and has significance as a part of total organisation. make him/ her feel at home & generate a feeling of belongingness. • Thirdly. • Secondly. it gives overall information about the department in which he/ she is designated.
It starts from 8:00 PM to 8:00 AM Firm works six days a week. for lunch and for tea and snacks in regular intervals of time. . in other words the company works for 24 hours a day.It starts from 8:00 AM to 8:00 PM Night Shift : . There are two shifts everyday i. except Thursday. The two shifts are as follows: Morning Shift : .e. The employees get some time for rest.WORKING HOURS AND SHIFTS The working hours of the each and every employee are 12 hours a day.
There is continuous environmental pressure for increasing the efficiency and if the organisation does not respond to this pressure. Training imparts skills & knowledge to employees in order with which they contribute to the organisation efficiency & be able to cope up with the pressures of changing environment. Development is a long-term educational process by utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which managerial personnel acquire conceptual & theoretical knowledge for general functioning of the unit.TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Definition Training is the short-term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skill for a definite purpose. the only choice is that of methods of training they are going to implement. Organizations do not have choice whether to train its employees or not. it may find itself losing whatever share of market it has. .
On the job training Off the job training First of all the company identifies the needs and then they provide training. If the employee is semi skilled and which is fit for the particular job and has some experience for that job then that employee is grouped into on the job method. If the labourer is unskilled and if he does not have any experience then it is grouped into off the job training method.e. (P) LTD imparts two types of training i. .KASUMA AUTO ENGG.
PROMOTION AND TRANSFER Promotion & Transfer are activities through which an adjustment in the size of workforce of an enterprise can be made to cope with the changing situations. Such adjustments in workforce may be needed to meet special situations such as changes in organizational structure involving regrouping of jobs changes in the jurisdictions of the departments & relocation of individuals. These functions can be accomplished informally or formally. jobs & departments. . Usually formal systems are adopted to secure operative consistency & efficiency.
KASUMA AUTO ENGG. This promotion encourages the employee to work harder and with full enthusiasm. (P) LTD promotes almost all the employees every year in their respective jobs. .PROMOTION Definition Promotion is the term which covers a change and calls for greater responsibilities along with authority and usually involves higher pay and better terms and conditions of service & therefore a higher status or rank.
section. (P) LTD does transfer its employees from one department to another. shift. KASUMA AUTO ENGG. . plant or position to another at the same or another place where his salary. Thus this unit has a transfer policy but only certain extent. status & responsibility are the same. It generally does not involve a promotion. demotion or a change in job status other than movement from one place to another. But there is no transfer of employees from one unit to another as they do not have another unit.TRANSFER Definition Transfer is a horizontal or lateral movement of an employee from one job. department.
According to this rank. The basic purpose in this merit rating is to ascertain an employees’ eligibility for performance. transfer. appraisal by result. further training. salary increase.e. discharge. (P) LTD. performance appraisal system is undertaken by work performance i. An employee who performs well in terms of result is ranked first and accordingly other rank is given.e. Performance Appraisal is also described as merit rating in which one individual is ranked better or worse in comparison to other. quality or merit. based on result of work performance.PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL Definition Appraisal is the evaluation of worth. etc. other decision will be taken i. In this organization context performance is a systematic evaluation of personnel by superiors or other familiar with their performance. . etc In KASUMA AUTO ENGG. decision of promotion. training & development.
Fixed rate system: According to this system an employee earns the fixed amount of salary irrespective of the time spend on/ for the job. etc. Different Kind of Wages Time wage system: According to this system an employee earns by the amount of time the employee spends for the work. Salary refers to the weekly or monthly rates paid to clerical.WAGES AND SALARY ADMINISTRATION Definition Wage refers remuneration paid to the employee hourly or similar period of time. heads. administrative & professional employees. Office staff. etc. This type of wage system is suitable for the top-level management. for dept. Usually this method is applicable only for the labour staff. .
Piece rate system: According to this system an employee earns the amount of money with regard to the amount of production done by the employee within the given period of time. This type of system is usually applicable to the production staff. Wages and salary are distributed to the employees on 7th of every month. In KASUMA AUTO ENGG. (P) LTD the Administrative staff and Office staffs are entitled to get the fix amount of salary (Fix Rate System). But on the other hand the production staff and the different departmental heads are entitled to get the amount of salary for the time spend by them for the given work (Time Rate System).
BENEFITS AND SERVICES
Management is concerned with attracting & keeping
employees, whose performance meets at least minimum levels of acceptability and at keeping ‘absenteeism’ and ‘monotony’ to tolerable levels. The provisions of ‘Benefits’ & ‘Services’ are important in maintaining the employees and reducing or keeping monotony & absenteeism low.
Definition According to Cockman employee benefits are defined as “Those benefits which are supplied by an employer for the benefits of an employee & which are not in the form of wages, salaries and time rated payments.” Normally all the companies provide benefits in the two terms i.e. Monetary Non - Monetary
KASUMA AUTO ENGG. (P) LTD also provides benefit schemes to their employees, which are listed below: Bonus Provident Fund Scheme Loan Facility Overtime Benefit Free Lunch facility. Traveling Allowances Music for entertainment. Services In addition to the above benefits KASUMA AUTO ENGG. (P) LTD also provides a wealth of services that employees find desirable. The organization provides these services at no cost to the employee or at a significant reduction form, then what might have to be paid without the organizations support. These services include : Quarters & Housing Facility Company Uniform Safety Measures Facility Canteen Facility Medical Service
LIC Oriental Insurance .INSURANCE POLICY Kasuma has facilitated all the employees with the facility of insurance. All the employees are not only secured with one policy but with two policies. All the employees are insured with two different companies.
the men on machines. etc . the departmental heads.TOTAL NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES In KASUMA AUTO ENGG. qualified engineers. This number includes the lobour staff i. supervisors.e. The number of employees consists of both men and women. (P) LTD total number of employees is 170.
. This company provides Provident Fund Scheme to the employees. (P) LTD has employed 170 employees.PROVIDENT FUND SCHEME According to the rule. that organization has to adopt the Provident Fund Scheme As stated above. KASUMA AUTO ENGG. if any organization has 20 or more employees working then. The company cuts 12% from their basic monthly salary/ wage.
a complaint affecting one or more workers constitutes a grievance. promotions. . whether valid or not.GRIEVANCE HANDLING MECHANISM Definition A Grievance is any discontent or dissatisfaction. whether expressed or not. against the quality of the plant or the parts used in its machinery or the food available in the canteen. payment of overtime work. The complaint may be relate to the quantum of wages. believes or even feels to be unfair. Broadly speaking. working conditions or a complaint against a foreman. seniority. the mode of payment. unjust or inequitable. arising out of anything connected with the company which an employee thinks.
.D Managing Director Till now no complain relating to the behavior of the employees or any of their seniors has been received.PROCEDURE OF HANDLING GRIEVANCES If any problem is faced then the complaint is passed through a proper channel (vertical communication) is used. And this is possible only due to proper co-ordination and communication between the management and the workers in the organization. Helper / Worker Operator Foremen Supervisor H.O.
EMPLOYEE PROFILE NAME IN FULL: ___________________________________ AFFIX YOUR RECENT PASSPORT SIZE _______________________________ PHOTOGRAPH NAME OF FATHER: AGE: ____________ DATE OF BIRTH: __/__/____ DESIGNATION: __________________ DATE OF APPOINTMENT: __/__/____ PERMANENT ADDRESS: _________________________________________ _________________________________________ PLACE: _______________ PIN: ____________ CONTACT NO: ___________________ .
WORK EXPERIENCE (if any):_______________________ ________________________________ REFERENCE: _________________________________________________ ________________________________________ _________ DATE: __/__/____ ________________________ (SIGNATURE OF APPL.) FOR OFFICE USE ONLY: REMARK: _____________APPOINTED BY: ________________ .EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION: ______________________ PRE.
2. 4. 6.INDEX Sr. Particulars Introduction & Definition to Marketing Organization of Marketing Department Market Segmentation Marketing Research Promotion Section of Marketing Department Transportation Procedure for Export order & Goods delivery . 1. 3. 7. 5. no.
” . Definition Marketing is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others. Concern for marketing must penetrate in all areas of enterprises. a well-known author in the area of Marketing. taking a view of the whole business organization and its ultimate objectives. if the business unit desires long-run success – a belief handed down to prosperity by sound marketing people.INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION TO MARKETING Marketing is in essence. “A human activity directed towards satisfying needs and wants through exchange processes. According to Philip Kotler. Marketing emphasizes that ‘Customer is the King’ and his satisfaction must be the ultimate aim of the business activity. Marketing has been defined in several ways by different writers.
A need has to be converted into a want for product/ service through adequate marketing strategy. wants and demands. value and satisfaction. and marketing and marketers. A human need is a state in which a person feels deprived of something. exchange. . products. transactions and relationships. The American Marketing Association defines marketing as’ “The performance of business activities that directs the flow of goods and services from producer to consumer or user. such as promotion. wants and demands. Wants becomes demands when backed up by purchasing power. markets. A useful distinction can be drawn between needs.” The following key concepts of marketing emerge from the above-mentioned definitions: needs. Demands are wants for specific products that are backed up by an ability and willingness to buy them. utility.
servicing to customer etc. We can say that marketing department is an agent between the product to the ultimate consumer and therefore marketing department has various functions like product planning.ORGANIZATION OF MARKETING DEPARTMENT Definition Marketing department has to perform various functions rightly from production to sales to ultimate customers.. Managing Director Direct Marketing Distributors Dealer . marketing research.
MARKET SEGMENTATION The concept of market segmentation is based on the fact that the markets of commodities are not homogeneous. . income. taste or interests. as the sole customer only provides taste by providing their drawings & this company manufacture industrial products according to their drawings. all consumers cannot be satisfied with the same product. mode of purchasing or other attitudes are concerned. age. So. Although the company is giving their own opinions about their drawings in order to facilitate ease to customers. is producing industrial products based on customer drawings so the company does not have to identify customer’s tastes. Two consumers of the same commodity are never in conformity with each other as far as their habits. In order to facilitate the marketing of his product the marketing manager. nature. KASUMA AUTO ENGG. (P) LTD. Such selection of sub-sets as a homogeneous group is called market segmentation. Thus in Marketing Department of this company there is no concept of market segmentation. sub-divides a market into homogeneous sub-sets of customers having common in one set so that the customers may be served better with a distinct Marketing Mix.
e. The firm is doing marketing research by themselves i. Marketing research is very useful to the organization because based on facts. top management. . What are the customer’s desires? What does customer wants? These are the burning problem before marketing executive. management does not produce what it can sell but it puts the goods in the market whatever is desired or required by the consumers. Marketing research helps in gathering the useful information in this regard. They have started their bearing plant after researching. On the basis of market research they have come into conclusion that there will be more demand of bearings. recording & analyzing the data about marketing problems to facilitate decision making. decisions can be taken promptly. Definition Marketing Research is a systematic gathering.MARKETING RESEARCH In Modern marketing system.
SECTIONS OF MARKETING DEPARTMENT PRICE PRODUCT MIX MIX MARKETING MIX PROMOTIO N MIX PLACE MIX .
It is the engine that pulls the rest of the market programme. nothing to price.) • By this process the excess oil is dried up & anti-rust layer of oil is formed.PRODUCT MIX Product is the most tangible & important single component of the marketing programme. Product acts as a vehicle by which a company provides consumer satisfactions. Packing Process Packing is done in such a way that the product is not damaged & reaches the customer in good condition. oiling & cooling (1 hour approx. Without a product there is nothing to distribute. nothing to promote. • First of all the finished product is brought in the inspection room. • The inspected product is passed through the demagnetizing device. washing. • Here all the final dimensions of the product are double checked. . • Then the products are arranged series wise in a plastic wrapper.
Labeling & Marking KASUMA its product in two different brands i. • Finally the product is sent for box packing. where the set of 5 pics are packed in a single box. Kasuma brand is used mainly in local markets whereas FATE in international market.• The products are properly sealed in a Polly bags to keep it moisture free.e. Kasuma & FATE bearings. • There are also other modes of packing like can packing or shrink wrapping according to the specifications of the customer or need of the product. .
Pricing a product is one of the most important and critical areas in marketing management. Pricing policies means to determine the product at how much cost it can be sold.PRICE MIX Definition Price is the powerful marketing instrument. It determines the price to be charged from different customers for the same product in different areas. As a marketing weapon pricing is the big-gun. It is also the standing answer to the firm to recurring problem of pricing. Price mix also aims at price discrimination on the basis of the market. .
bike. .T *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** **** 4% Distributor Rate 16% 5% 40% Incentives KASUMA provides 2% as incentive to the distributor on the target sale. The firm does not give the incentive amount as cash but it gives the distributor a gift depending on the rate of target sale. Add: Excise Add: C.DISCOUNT POLICY Following is the discount policy given by the firm to the distributor: MRP Price Less: Discount Less: Cash Disc. For example if the target sale achieved by the distributor is higher than the firm gives a car. and an overseas trip to his family and so on…..S.
picture of factory building & of other department like . For which the firm gives advertisements in the automobiles magazines. it participates in various exhibitions in India as well as overseas etc & has appointed some distributors carrying broachers & company’s profile which include company’s objectives & its history. KASUMA AUTO ENGG. it is the member of the Trade India website. Sales promotion is an important instrument in marketing to lubricate the marketing efforts. Sales promotion is a bridge or connecting link covering the gap between advertising & personnel salesmanship.PROMOTION MIX Definition Promotion is the co-ordinate & self-initiated efforts to establish channels of information & persuasion to facilitate or foster the sale of goods or services or the acceptance of ideas or points of view. which can pay rich dividends. It aims at stimulating consumer to purchase at the point of sale & dealers effectiveness at the retail channel of distribution. (P) LTD also undertakes sales promotion activities. It is not expenditure. the two wings of promotion. it is an investment.
price discounts.. C. etc. with them.D. quality requirements. gifts. manufacturing capacity & in what range they can manufacture etc. machinery. .laboratory. product catalogue. The firm also does sales promotion through their website.
KASUMA AUTO ENGG. It is a medium by which the manufacturer motivates the customer to purchase the product.com/) .ADVERTISING Definition Advertising is a non-personal relationship of the manufacturer with the customer. Like Auto Expo Exhibitor book. Yellow Pages. (http://www. The firm also gives advertisements through Internet. etc. Auto India.kasumabearings. (P) LTD also gives advertisements regularly in the magazines related to automobiles.
DISTRIBUTION OF SAMPLES KASUMA AUTO ENGG. . (P) LTD sometimes distributes samples to different parties who are interested in purchasing the products or even sometimes during the company’s participation in different fairs automobile fairs the company distributes different samples in the form of advertisements.
000 approx.2003 – 7. Expenses for Sales promotion & Advertising Year 2001 – 2002 – 6. 20. 5. (P) LTD conducts the point scheme for the customer. 000 approx. Year 2002 . 50. 15. 30 & 40 When the customer purchases the bearing he/ she can encash the coupon in exchange with the equivalent amount of money with the distributor.ATTRACTIVE SCHEMES KASUMA AUTO ENGG.2004 – 8. 50. It works as follows: At the time of packing of the product the following coupons of points are kept inside – 3. . 000 approx. 00. Year 2003 . 10.
In other words. its channels of distribution for its industrial product is as follows: Kasuma Auto Engg. (P) Ltd Industrial/Automotive Distributors Industrial/Automotive Dealer User of Industrial/ Automotive Goods TRANSPORTATION .PLACE MIX Channels for Distribution The entire function of getting goods into the hand of the customer is often referred to as distributions. It is the channel through which goods are made to move as smoothly as possible to the desired place. The term channel of distributions is used to denote the middlemen engaged in moving goods from the place of production to the place of consumption. the route & pathway through which goods flow from the place of production to the place of consumption is termed as “Channels of Distribution” As KASUMA AUTO ENGG. (P) LTD produces industrial production.
so it transports goods from one place to another through trucks. which are heavy in nature.As KASUMA produces industrial/automotive goods. In case of exports the goods are transported through waterways (Sea) .
K.PROCEDURE FOR EXPORT ORDER AND GOODS DELIVERY Export order is received through e-mail or Fax. Only if the quotation (prices) is approved by the party and a confirmation is received from him then the required order is sent to the production department. KASUMA exports goods to the following countries: U. Germany. U. After all the samples are approved the goods are sent to the Export office at Mumbai. Many more. After the production a sample from the lot produced is sent for approval to the customer who has ordered those goods. Dubai. Kasuma exports its goods around all over the world. In short. Then the firm sends the quotation for the order/ Enquiry.A. Malaysia. Singapore &.S. From the export office all the export formalities are done & only after that the goods are sent to the concerned address through sea. . Saudi Arabia. Italy.
9. 7. 2. no. Particulars Introduction & Definition to Marketing Organization of Financial Department Financial Planning Capitalization Capital Structure Management of Fixed Assets Management of working capital Inventories Dividend Distribution Profitability Leverage Ratio Analysis . 5. 4. 1.INDEX Sr. 3. 8. 10. 12. 6. 11.
Finance “guides & regulates investments decisions & expenditure. “Money is an arm or a leg. Finance is the common denominator for the vast range of corporate objectives & the major part of any corporate plan must be expressed in the financial terms. Finance Management provides the best guide for future resources allocation by a firm. Financial Management today is recognized as the most important branch of business administration. The path of success is greased with money. while the treasurer . The old concept of finance as treasure ship has broadened to include the new concept of controller ship. you either use it or loose it” Kenneth Midgley & Ronald Burns state: Financing is the process of organizing the flow of funds so that a business can carry out its objectives in the most efficient manner & meet its obligations a they fall due. To get the best out of the available funds is the major task of finance manager.INTRODUCTION AND DEFINITION TO FINANCE Finance holds the key of to all activities.
keeps track of the money the controller duty is extended to planning analysis & improvement of every phase of the company’s operation which are measured with a financial yardstick. .
The highest earnings can be assured only through sound financial plan. The place of financial department in the organization chart depends generally on the size & the nature of the business. It is necessary to have control on inflow & outflow of cash so that necessary funds may be available as & when they are required. A finance department organizational setup in this company is given below: The nature of finance isDirector so peculiar that it may even affect the very existence of the concern & therefore the firm has not decentralized the Financial finance Manager functions Chief Accountant Managing & so the control & administration of the finance is in the hand of the Managing Director. A faulty financial plan may ruin the business completely.ORGANIZATION OF FINANCIAL DEPARTMENT Organization of finance department means the division & the classification of various functions which are to be performed by the finance department. sound planning is necessary to achieve Sales Tax Accountants Excise . FINANCIAL PLANNING Financial planning means deciding well in advance what is to be done with regard to finance. So.
.the long term & short term objectives of the firm & to protect the interests of all parties concerned.
Proper capitalization refers to the total amount of capital required in the long run for smooth functioning of the business. An improper capitalization refers to the concept of over capitalization & under capitalization Over Capitalization .CAPITALIZATION Capital plays an important role in any business. It may also mean the total accounting value of the capital stock. surplus in whatever form it may appear & the refunded long-term debt. It is not an easy task. In both the situations. The amount of capital at any time should not exceed nor should it be less than the amount required. It requires proper capitalization. the company will be loser. Definition Capitalization of a corporation comprises the ownership capital & the borrowed capital as represented by long term indebtedness. At the time of incorporation of a business. it is the first problem before the promoters to decide how much capital is to be required & in what form. A financial plan is to be prepared for the purpose estimating the short terms & a long-term needs of finance to the company.
A company is said to be over capitalized when: It is in the position to pay dividend or interest on shares & debentures at fair rates. Its book value is higher than real value. Under Capitalization A company is said to be under capitalized when: It is not in the position to pay dividend or interest on shares & debentures at fair rates. Its book value is lesser than the real value During the first year of the firm had to face loss due to high interest burden and huge depreciation & thus it was marked as under capitalized but than after its best effort it captured both domestic & international market which helped the company to overcome the problem of under capitalization.
Thus we can conclude that KASUMA does not face any problem of under or over capitalization.
structure is in the word “TOTAL” & “PROPORTION” Capitalization refers to the word total & capital structure to proportion. Capital structure is decided with regard to debt & equity. The question to proportion arises because if the company issue only owned capital than it cannot satisfy the main objective i.e. to maximize shareholders wealth & if the company issues a very more part of borrowed capital than it has to pay compulsory interest & it reduces the shareholders wealth as it is charge on profits so the company has to chose a mixture of debt & equity in such a way that it accomplishes the objectives i.e. maximization of shareholders wealth. Thus the mixture of debt & equity is known as Capital Structure. KASUMA’s Capital Structure is as follows: Owned Capital Equity shares – 1, 28, 06, 192 Borrowed Capital Unsecured Loans – 35, 35,810
MANAGEMENT OF FIXED ASSETS
Every business requires fixed assets for the running of the business activities. Fixed assets are those which are fixed and permanent in nature & they are used by business in its control operation. In any manufacturing organization fairly a large portion of corporation funds is invested in fixed assets to generate healthy returns on investments. Thus it is necessary that fixed assets are managed effectively & efficiently.
The company maintains its fixed assets on standard practice recommended by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI). The company is providing depreciation as per straight-line method for the full year as per rates given in Schedule 14 of the Companies Act, 1956
The management of current assets & the management of fixed assets are important because the fate of most of the business very largely depends upon the manner in which their working capital is managed Objectives of Management Working Capital Maintenance of working capital at an appropriate level.MANAGEMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL Definition Management of working capital means the problem of decision regarding availability of liquid funds for meeting the day-to-day expenses in the working of the firm. Availability of ample funds as & when they are needed. The Net Working Capital can be found out as below: Net Working Capital = Current Assets – Current Liabilities .
For a company manufacturing consumer product. . the inventory level will be higher than that of a company manufacturing industrial product. which the company is manufacturing for sale & components or raw materials that make up the finished product.INVENTORIES Definition Inventories are stock of the product. But question arise why there is need to hold inventories. The various forms in which inventories exist in a manufacturing company are – Raw material Work in progress Finished goods However the levels of three kinds of inventories for a firm depend on the nature of its business.
Precautionary motive: It is necessary to hold of inventories to guard against the risk of unpredictable changes in demand and supply forces & other forces. . Speculative motive: It influences the decision to increase or reduce inventory levels to take the advantage of price fluctuation.General motives for holding inventories: Transactions motive: It emphasis the need to maintain inventories to facilitate smooth production & sales operation.
the company has kept its eye on needed of common raw materials & on very frequent orders & accordingly it fixed some standards of that specific raw material. For this. However as the company is manufacturing industrial as well as automotive products. . However a question arise in the company what kind of raw materials are to be stocked as different raw materials are needed for manufacturing different industrial products as per customer drawing raw materials are needed for manufacturing different industrial products as per customer drawings. stock of finished product & semi finished product are less in comparison to that of the consumer industries. the company’s main inventory is raw material & other i.Management of Inventories in KASUMA This firm is maintaining the management of inventories.e. If the stock or raw material is less than the standards or it is nearby the standards the company gives order promptly.
DIVIDEND DISTRIBUTION The company has not paid any dividend but the company had ploughed back its profits for new expansions & to double its production capacity. Therefore the financial manager should continuously evaluate the efficiency of its company in terms of profits. Profits are essential. Profit is the ultimate output of the company. PROFITABILITY A company should earn profits to survive & grow over a long period of time. . Profit is the difference of the revenues & expenses over a period of time.
. which they do not. the leverage is called favourable. operating and financial leverage: Operating leverage: It may be defined as the firm’s ability to use fixed operating cost to magnify the effects of changes in sales on its earnings before interest and taxes.LEVERAGE The employment of an asset or source of funds for which the firm has to pay a fixed cost or fixed return may be termed as leverage. The earnings available to the shareholders as also the risk are affected. Financial leverage: It is defined as the ability of the firm to use fixed financial changes in EBIT on the firms earning per share (EPS). If earnings less the variable costs exceeds the fixed cost or earnings before interest and taxes exceed the fixed return requirement. the result is unfavourable leverage. There are 2 types of leverage.
4 EBIT 35.OPERATING LEVERAGE YEAR 3.19 YEAR 3.4 SALES 76432000 122469000 04-05 .90.45. = 18.000 04-05 EBIT 3545000 100 CHANGE 645000 ?.000 41.
OF SHARES 735000 1100000 EPS 0.4 4.5 EPS 0.83 .67 0. OF SHARES 911000 1100000 EPS 0.FINANACIAL LEVERAGE: 03-04: = PROFIT AFTER TAX NO.83 = = = YEAR 3.67 = = 04-05: PROFIT AFTER TAX NO.
.EPS 0.88% change in EPS.16 (?) = 23. CHANGE 0.67 100.88 From the following calculation we concluded that if 1% changes in EBIT leads to 23.
.33 04-05: 12538577 45824811 = 0.27 As the ratio has decreased. the liquidity position of the company has deteriorated.RATIO ANALYSIS (1) CURRENT RATIO: CURRENT ASSETS CURRENT LIABILITY 03-04: 20032297 60243479 = 0.
.(2) NET PROFIT RATIO: NET PROFIT SALES X 100 03-04 735000 76432000 = 0.96 X 100 04-05 911000 122469000 = 0.74 X 100 DECREASE: Improper management.
(P) LTD has the following future plans: .FUTURE PLANS KASUMA AUTO ENGG.
Kasuma is already undergoing the audit for ISO 9000:2000 /QS-TS 16949 certificate which they would be acquiring by the end of March. To acquire fully automatic CNC machine operated by robots.. To purchase more dimensions measuring instruments. Expansion of machining department. Expansion of factory premises. .
Highly experienced. • Lack of human resources for performing complicated and regular paper work. International Standard Technology.S. Weakness: • Sales Promotion activities are quiet weaker in the Southern India. Global Scale of Operations. T Analysis Strengths: • • • • • • Cost Efficiency. Threats: • • Increasing Competition in local as well as international market. O. They can still reduce the cost of production. Increase in the prices of the raw materials. Good contacts and personal relationship of the Managing Director with the leading automobile Companies. skilled and motivated Human Resources. Opportunities: • • They can make their product range wider. Large Number of Product Range. W. .
in life theoretical knowledge plays an important role in taking practical decisions.CONCLUSION During my project work with KASUMA. I personally experienced commitment of working to achieve planned activities in the field of manufacturing. . Production. There is vast difference between the two. Administration. During this project I also learnt the difference between theoretical & practical knowledge. and other departments. Company’s work is result oriented and provides their efforts to get customer satisfaction and more business.
The production capacity should be utilized 98% 2. They should take frequently industrial participation exhibition in to National/International explore them to get more business. Require more computerized more daily work by incorporating softwares. 4. Require infrastructure for technological up-gradation 3.SUGGESTIONS 1. .
A.BIBLIOGRAPHY Production Department: Personnel Department : Chunawala Patel C..Mamoria [Personnel Management] Philip Kotler S.B.Sherlekar [Marketing Management] Khan & Jain Ravi Kishor [Financial Management] Marketing Department : Finance Department : .
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