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WickramSinghe_SovereigntyRightsAidRegime

WickramSinghe_SovereigntyRightsAidRegime

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-11From Human Rights to Good Governance: The Aid Regime 1990s

Ntra Wickramasinghe

When nineteenth-centuryi.deas of rhecollapse of colonial rule to the notion and the birth of the the "wbire rnan's burden" needed a newjustificaricrr' - and the aid was born, South Asia today is part of the interdependent world that after Wol'ld War U from the Bretton Woods of .1944 providing for the establishment of the World and the International Fund, For example, rhe unduserializatiou of Pakistan pendence has. largely depended on foreign aid and investment, The economy of Bangladeshalso rests on foreign aid, which have failed significJntiy to that nation's abysmal standard ofliving, Sri Lanka all revenues from the sale of primary products - garments have replaced tea as the export - displaying a. similar network of external economic ties and dependence.' The movement of capital, ideas, and persons has reduced the real importance of statehood and eroded the significance of nominal state ",,,,,,,,.,>,·,,",,1"\, The volume of aid to the Less Developed Countries (LDes) has grown at a phenomenal rate, In the early aid from aU sources was less than $11.8 million, Supported by a U.N .. campaign member states to give at least 0,7 percent ofG.N,P. as aid •.today's disbursements amount to $60 billion." .Asthe volume of aid ,,, ec; taxpayers in developed countries began to demand that their COI1rributions should not support regimes that failed to respect the human
t, , " ..

-305 -

The New :World Order

rights of their citizens, They alsoIearned that funmany instances aid was not trickling down to the people." This has led in recent decades to an increasing concern for human rights issues 111 the principal donor countries, By "human rights" is meant those civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the International Covenants that were promulgated by the United Nations and to which most countries of the world have subscribed. In signing these covenants states accept that human. rights are an mternational responsibility and that governments are accountable not only to their own citizens but to the world community as well. They willingly concede a share of their state sovereignty .. Marry now recognize that considerarion of human rights should and does affect the provision of aid and development assistance." As will be shown, the human rights discourse is itself subject to national security interests, and is in the process of being displaced and supplanted by another and! more pef'Verse ideological discourse, that of "good governance;' which is {asit becoming a new orthodoxy in official Western aid policy and on Third World thinking about development." The issue of human rights and foreign policy will be examined briefly before considering the linkages that existed between aid and human rights in the context of bilateral and multilateral aid relationships until rhe end of the 1980s" Consideration win then be given to the shin that has occurred! from a total lack of concern for human rights on the part of multilateral aid. agencies and from a primary concern for individual human rights on the part of donor countries to a more complex and interventionist approach embodied in the notion of "good governance" and "political conditionality.' In this new approach the aim is nothing less than to change the world-system. by reforming the fundamental institutions of the recipient state, Human Rights, and Aid: Negative Linkages in the 19So.s
Human Rights and Foreign Policy Kautiliya, the ancient Indian political theorist, conceptualized six different categories of policies for handling interstate relations: peace, war, indifference, strengthening one's. position, subordinating an any or vassal. and duplicity. Concern whether development assistance should be linked toa country's observance of human rights sterns firom perplexity among the public in aid-dispensing countries over the duplicity of their government's aid. policies, which at certain rimes

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priorities in foreign aid were conditioned national concerns. as James C. including the provision of milk buns to school children."" Turner has pointedly "the most the new world order is that except for Soviet p!reeminent threat to U.S. was (in the words of a State Department honest. and legislation was to reflect this. lies dead in the water ..s. the United States has had to reassess and its aid programs... Carter'. Congress. now lies in orruc "7 The end of the War loosed U.R. from itsrnoorings. Sri Lanka was at this time ruled by the left-wing govemrnene of Sirimavo aranaike... although the success of this upgrading was not until after Carter had left office.. aid was given to friendly non-Communist those forming a buffer the Soviet Even serategically insignificant countries were affected.. An important shift occurred under President jimmy Carter who. . . building on efforts ofthe U.. requiringa Indeed.S. ".S.. The first subsumed the second . The United States reacted immediately by to Sri Lanka. there has been a series of ideologically inspired shifts in aid Throughout the Cold War. Clad wrote. Human rights became a factor in his administration's decisions about providing economic aid..S."? The second shift in U. Since the end of World War Il.. established the macy of human rights as a distinct concern.S. which nationalized Western oil and other facilities.. "after 45 years foreign bilateral assistance program. But the belief that human rights must to national security interests imposed limitations on the policy.S."" cOinmunism to contain.From to illustrate the . creating an important policy and foreign aid. U. Before the of the U. aid orientation occurred when Presi-307- ..

.S."'-'U crusade successor.. French protege Mobutu Sese Seko in Zaire owned 51 Mercedes-Benz cars when he dismissed 7... The degree and nature of the distortion varies from donor state to donor state.". promoting.A.S. received by democratic and to the gulf between rhetoric and reality. outside the circle of democratic communities.U. President George Bush. It can be that during the Cold War the linkage between aid was a single element in a multi pronged foreign covert international war was practiced on many elected governments deemed unsupportive of U. aid linked to human rights was deemed as a instrument. Iran in 1953" Guatemala in 1954. European cOLIn tries to rid themselves of refugees. Brazil from 1 and Nicaragua from 1984 are the most striking 12 In these cases.D.... President Bin Clinton's policy considerations and economic motives often override human rightsconcerns.<l. This contributes to the cynical application of human standards for reasons of political expediency. Despite such outrages. also but with less impunity than '-'-'_"I'. Negatille Linkagesaud Aid Among the instruments available within the framework of development cooperation for the purpose of influencing. turning a blind eye to human abuses when committed by friendly counas in France's in Emperor Bokassa's murderous in Central Africa . his government remained for many years one of the most favored recipients of Western aid in Africa . In countries where intervention was nossmie or not crucial.'AHV.000 school teachers the Zairian school system on the grounds that there was no money to pay their salaries . such as Switzerland.. O.The Ne» World Order Ronald rights . the United States organized or aided covert interventions involving violence because it was felt that American national was at stake. and -308- . Indonesia in 1957. must refrain from even mentioning the human rights situation in the country of return... The influx of refugees from the south into Europe has added a twist to the human rights issue. Mosa Western European donorcouneries (with the of Nordic have followed the pattern of the United States. between aid and human rights in the 1980s has been described as "11 Ll.

measures" atiion and violations of Negative measures consist are many gradations: can be \"U'IHIJiJIU\J rraenrs in observance of human aid may be withhekl.."·. Multilaterai aid to Sri Lanka is of two types: r". Sri Lanka has been under a state . One what happened m Ethiopia.py.. most 011 the nature of its susceptibility to this form of that the withdrawal of assistance to worse hardships for the population... . Most foreign aid is pledged at the nlp'Ptlna~ Srl Lanka Consortium. which is the behalf of the major donor countries... "'''''r·t""" bum:not in war-ridden Bosnia. Arbitrary arrests and detentions for common.. Both gram aid and . Sri Lanka's recent past has been marked by u~ . The Sri Tamil militant groups are in violent acts foreign investment and try the of human But the government's commitment to initiative in a market economy has 6 percent: in the 19905. to emergency relief The discontinuation of aid was one of factors contributing to the famine of 1984.."''''''....·.luembel' donors then meet to consider these requests and coordinate their aid policies..-v"".~ .. In the case of Sri Lanka. the United organizations... extrajudicial massacres.<r". from Western Europe.. such has become Since 1983 the country has been the theater of a bitter ethnic war that is compromising the economic recovery that 1977 after a long period of stagnation and brought a decade on protectionism and import substitution. y of torture and deaths in custody.r" 309- .. financed by . The Sri Lanka government sends the World Bank an annual request outlining its needs.. This growth Ius been fueled public investment program.nr on concessionary terms. The on the credibility of the and. Following the regime and a brutal period of purges... 'Western donors cut off long-term development assistance in the <lid......

In the North European countries where interest in human rights has been strongest and its translation into political acts most immediate.many donors decided not to increase their for 1990-91.. and the International Covenant on EcoSocial and Cultural Rights they agree in effect to cede a part of their Governments have agreed to answer to the U.. The fact placing conditions on aid-giving governments put pressure on Sri Lanka toimprove its human rights record is not seen as a 1055problem many human rights activists .JUiations and the Prevention of Terrorism Act 1-1 as . the forces are still invested with powers under the Emergency Ref.. a prominentjournalist. But "'>. has been taking human rights considerations into account since 1986 and Denmark since 1987 .]I response to the human situation and partly because of nonutilization of funds . AU governments have to submit regular five-year reports to the United Nations. the main concern has been to avoid accusations of sovereign interThe states' formal position has been that aid should relate to needs and not to the conduct of their governments. In the new left-of-center government Chandrika Kumaratunge lifted the emergency in the South. Commission all Human Rights may receive representations and it deems send working groups and rapporteurs to investigate the situation 111 a country.a substantial portion of the aid provisions (funds earmarked for the " . Donor pressure since April after the death de Soyza... and the of the government had a difficult time at the hearings.N.15 Indeed argue that nations subscribe to the International Covenant on Civil. a Working Group on Disappearances visited Sri Lanka.."".. and Political Rights. Donor countries.310- .Ir"·. rely on the reports and statements of both international organs and nonsrate-Ievel organizations before forming their policy on aid. is a group of persons electedby the parties to the covenant and as individuals.The New IIVor. Commission on Human Rights and to the Human Rjghts Committee. IU.. The first institution is composed of about fifty members governments selected by the United Nations Economic and Social Council.lLU' ••dU'UH of the north and northeast provinces for 1989-90) were because of the situation -. In the north and the east. The Sri Lanka government agreed to accept and implement most of the group's recommendations and {luther visits in order that an external evaluation could . set up under the Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The second. Sri Lanka's turn was in 1991.. In 1991.ldOrder except for a of five months. has resulted in an improvement in the human rights situation. and especially the Nordic states.

the government acts with a certain amount of circumspection. Margaret Thatcher became the first European leader to attempt. the government appo:intedia Pres. <lind Pacific countries under the Lome Conventions. The question today is whether the U~lted Nations has a mandate to make its aid conditional on the human rights -311- . by the time of the Lome rv Convention of 1990 arrexplicjt reference to.N.. initially rejected by A.. been fairly successful at linking human rights. the European Union has" because of its high level on internal cohesion. .. Task Force.C.. they are not articulated using rights language. . the context of E. aid could no longer be avoided.ani:!:21. Aid l:s N.countries. to build humanrights conditions into. U. and developmentrA recent example is the freezing of L011''le [V funds to Sudan by the European Commission based on a recommendation resulting fronl a..well." More recently. The reason gi." Other org.21.N. human rights in. . European Pariiamenrary resolution. system that deal specifically wllith human rights (the Human Rights Commission.DP) have adopted development policies based on h~mal1 needs.tions conc~["ned wieh theadvancemenu and promotion ofhftnn. Although that attempt was.venwas the existence of widespread human rights abuses.C.~e~££ect~d. if unsuccessfully. development assistance . Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Development Program (UN.. channeled in an indiscriminate way to countries governed by regi~es that violate human rights. those that come under the broad heading of the promotion of social and economic rights.an rights such as ASIa Watch and the Jnremanonai Commission ofJuristsexern't simi!!'u pressure on the governmenr. IS The fu:st ~urnan Development Report did show some innovation by trading the newly minted concept of "economic development' for the concept of "Imman development. In 1985. In the field it is clear that human rights considerations are not taken into account 'in the context of U . In the period before the aid.. the General Assembly. HI~rnan Rights al1d Development: Parallel Processes There is a dear division of tasks and responsibilities between the agencies in the U. Although mulrilareral institurions of the United Nations such as the WorM Health.P .ldentlaJConunission on Disappearances to 1:11\lestigatetom!:llaints and set up ~ HUllUU Rights. Among other measures. rneeting. . The concern that donor.. the Caribbean.l\riU cut OJ[ :reduce aid puts the government in a situation where it is answerable to them as." .leaders as an unwarranted infringement on their domestic sovereignty. the provisions for European Community aid to Afrm·](. and the Secretariat) and.

e . Trade sanctions have until now been applied' sparingly and only in very extreme cases of human rights abuses. qualified by its reference to "enforcement measures under Chapter VII" (i.y state or shall require the Members to submit such matters to settlement under the present Charter. is qu:iteexplicit: Nothing contained in the present Charter shall authorize the Unjted Nations to intervene in matters which are essentially within the domesticjurisdiction of an. one speaks of positive linkages.of good . an instrument to improve the observance of human rights in a recipient country." Arguably.N.."the Organization is based on the principle of the sovereign equality of all its members' . by formulating a mechanism by which the U . ..itive Linkages When aid is used as.N.The New War/dOrde:r situation in the recipient country. Article 4-] of the charter grants the Security Council the power to impose trade embargoes tor the maintenance of international peace and security.the collective voice of sovereign states in the context of deliberations of the legislative body of the General Assembly has often stigmatized certain individual states. Article 2(7) is. Thisentails intervening directly to rectify situations that are judged detrimental to a human rights regime. but this principle shall not prejudice the application of enforcement measures under Chapter VILI') Although Article 2(1) of the charter reflects very dearly the duty of states and!the organization to refrain from intervention in each other's internal affairs . assistance." N j Good! Governance and Aid Conditionality Pos. human rights agencies follow an integrated and principled approach that links development aid to human rights and is applied to all countries receiving U . What is necessary is to build on precedents and go beyond them. the chapter dealing with the powers of the Security Council to maintain or restore international peace and security}. of sanctions in the term of an arms embargo against apartheid regimes (for which the council took an inclusive view of "threats to peace" in order to act under Chapter VII) is another (on11L of collective enforcement of human rights obligations.312- . Article 2(7) of the Charter of the United Nations. The current: concept . the application.. such as Iraq's treatment of its Kurdish population. Indeed the prohibition in. development agencies together with the U.

lanka to "Country Program" status while assisting it in improving human rights and democratic freedoms. NGOs are seen as a dynamic alternative to bloated state bureaucracies. massive human rights abuses . in its attempt to put down the insurrection of the People's liberation Front OVP). which were likened to a "Trojan horse" being introduced by strategies in Sri Lanka to monitor and meddle in its internal human rightsaffairs. Individuals and groups closer to the zrassroots would be supported in efforts to promote ethnic harmony or to mote press freedom. Denmark cut off aid to Sri at the end 1989 when the Colombo government. together with the collapse of official Communist regimes and the resurgence of neoliberalism." The rise of the nongovernmental sector. The change in aid policy by the Danish government reflects this new emphasis. When aid was resumed in Denmark proposed to upgrade Sri. This is partly a response to donors' domestic constituents government utilization of foreign funds.involved in human work has increased over the last decade as the termenc channel their development in this nounced.P The last twenty years has seen It NGOs in Sri LankaY Most NGOs delivery with dements multilateral aid programs make NGOs. The new on the mental sector reflects the intellectual framework of wider in macroeconomic policy. privatization and the reduced role of states in all aspects of the economy and in the provision of services. which is equated with prodemocracy movements.. This meant that aid to developmental projects would be resumed once the first aim was achieved. NGOs. explain the -313- . The Sri Lanka government was indignant at proposals.The number of indigenous.

As with the International Monetary Fund (IMF). privatization. The "big five" control 42 percent of the votes and the industrial countries together 6. The bank primarily promoted planning and public sector initiatives providing for dams. This included povertyalleviation. The major difference lies. this also means that funds are conditioned on the recipient's adoption of certain economic policies. Until recently.05 were characterized by large-scale infrastructure developments that required lITlt1SSIVe investments in capital projects. for examp]e. in the decision-making authority of the bank. and other infrastructure projects in the developing world.as well as some technical assistance grants. :!. The World Bank became a great proponent of competition. inefficient bureaucracies and a changing global economic climate led to a balance-of-payments crisis in the early 1980.s and another change in development policy . The benefits of this accelerated growth could then trickle' down to the pOOL The realization that these predictions were not materializing led to a.change in policy and a concentration on "basic needs" in the 19705. veto . on the whole" shown very little concern for human rights issues. the balance takes the form of concessionary loans through the [DA.er new concern with "governance" and democracy" World Bank and some donor countries.estern states and allows for pohrical/ ideological motivations to influence fund allocation. The freeze Dill hank funds to China following the killings of June 1989 is also evidence of an awareness of the development/human rights linkage. the World Banik has 148 member countries. the same structural impediments to human rights/development linkage that existed in the U. Vietnam was not eligible for World Bank funds because ofa U.The New World Ord.N . At present. The majority of World Bank funds (roughly 70 percent) are disbursed as loans.." This concentrates power in the W. The 1. and markets. where voting power is weighted according to the size of the donor's contribution. Good GOlJemCWCf on the part ofthe and the World Bani: Tile Primacy of Bconomic Issues The Wodd Bank has..314- . schools. education. The underlying theory was that the LDC economies required a jump start after which they could "take off" following the growth pattern of European states during the Industrial Revolution.S. roads.. health and nutrition. Recent works critical of the World Bank highlight three major shiftsin its development policy.7 . Sprawling. 9505 and 196. In policy terms. some members have TI10re say than others.0 percent of the votes of the Board of Executive Directors.system also existed within the World Bank system.

The outcome is a disenchanted or secular modern.. a capitalist economy. as governance is said to involve distinct issues: poor management. ... and problems of information availability or transparency. "'2S The governance as the exercise of affairs. culture.""'nt~tl"n The W odd lack of concern for the has. published in governance was of development policy. never endorsed the notion of political this would constitute a derogation of its technicist In 1 a booklet was.·'r.315- .governance came in a argued the development problems is a crisis of governance. martial-law were fdt to be more stable and susceptible to improving economic development. The underlying assumption was that it is to have a technical "solution" to these problems of the form of political r". lack ofaccountability. been highlighted in an that correlates Wodd BankIoans and democracy for the Philippines and! After these two countries lifted martial Iaw. their shares ill the total loans the Wodd Bank declined." Good governance following features: an efficient public system and legal administration of public responsible to a human rights at of government. the modern project.J'F At the root of both modernization theories governance is the Weberian formulation that the world should move toward adopting the features of bureaucracy." Clearly. Interestingly.~ 29 structure and a free press . The World however. which is infused with Weberian undertones. the Protestant ethic and a scientific methodology. absence ofa for development. The ideology of good governance echoes and elaborates of the modernization theory of the 19605 that held that Western economic and political liberalism represented "the itself in operacion. has been largely and .

"34 Bilateral Ahi and Good Governance An agenda of political conditionality has always been present to one or another in superpower dealings with LDCs. and television. One of the drawbacks of both approaches is that they encourage the notion that modernity has institutions and that only ncu"P'n. rail networks. good governance means in effect less government. Council of Ministers in 1989 and elaborated by the French. if the purpose good governance is the development of such as banking systems modeled on the Bunoesearuc. After the breakdown of communism in Eastern Europe. is that while modernization theorists advanced democracy as the outcome of development. Rosenau points to the main differences: "Both refer to purposive behavior. and German governments the following year.P The main between good governance and modernization. not an aim but the means to a certain stage of development. growing out of new roads. to goal-oriented to of 'but government suggests activities that are 'backed by authority. it appears to be very similar to the ideology of modernization. its content had always involved reference to democracy and human rights.316- . British. The new agenda contained "governance issues'tas enunciated by the . Against these presuppositions Sudipta Kaviraj points out that modernity does not build institutions in an empty space. whereas governance refers to activities backed by shared goals that mayor may not derive from legal and formally prescribed responsibilities and that do not necessarily rely on police powers to overcome defiance and attain compliance. In the case United States." He sums up governance as "order intentionality. bridges. In this system.The NewW:o'rld Order 111 it permeates even works critical of the postcolonial state lin countries. the new orthodoxy postulates that demoin its limited form of good governance is a necessary condition Democracy/good governance is. political conditionality was adopted the E.C. Governments would still operateand stlliJl1 sovereign in a number of ways.I1. by police powers to secure the implementation of duly constituted policies. Comparing governance and government. TheWorld Bank is thus using the age-old script of the Industria] Revolution in its attempt to forge a New World Order where there he governance without government. Rather it reworks the logic of existing structures. 'but some of their be would be relocated towards subnational collectivities.tv is rational.

the States Asia are quite dearly dominated by a concern for They are: "to continue to support and prcruoee decreasing tensions between the states: a. assistance can be especially to the Sri in managing the transition to a market economy .<'1. Sri Lanka can be looked on as a case of the U.S. Ambassador Teresita Shaffer described the aim ofU.Bank. Both Sri Lanka and the USA1D subscribe to the vision of Sri Lanka as a democratic. and "'~I'ILlHIl.ei1t to improve the nation's human The USAlliD progJtam objectives fourSri from a set strategic goals that flow from a vision of Sri Lanka as a environmentally sound. Leftwich has of good governance is not the new technical anS. USAID proposes to new private-pubhc partnerships in development sectors. of democratic structures.S. especially in the area of the Sri Lanka govemmental sources rights are treated at a general level by the U. In this strategic vision. settlement with the Tamil in the country at and to economic relations and trade with Sri Lanka. with calls for refonns. to winding up of the issues raised by the Gulf War.?" f\(:corCYlinu: the Sri Lanka desk officer at State the policy towards Sri Lanka are IUII<:::<:". policy in Sri Lanka as being "to take of every opportunity to expand U'S. development in South Asia. finally. the three following subgoals are defined: an effective market economy. and an In contrast with its approach in previous USA]D has in the 19905 u. The focus is on led industrialization and private initiative.S.S.II. did not hesitate to make an reforms. newly industrializing It is felt thae U.'lMl~rto the difficult problems of but an intimate the emerama politics of the New World Order. or investmenrs..s .in the entation as promoted the Unired States. race toward acquisition of weapons ofmass promote and strengthen democratic institutions development." in the New World Order. -317 - .. that the United States is with the steps taken governn. At her Senate Confirmation in May 1992. greener NIC. and. protection of the environment and productive resource base.

Thiswas made possible by the conjunction of the Sri Lanka goven'lnlleur's economic policy and social objectives with those of the Ll.The New World . Is the equation that dear?' Interestingly. The underlying assumption is that development . where it has dear international obligations.taken here in its least controversial understanding. The questiorris whether the good governance policy preached by the World Bank is "good" in all cases." which is the beliefthat "good governance" as defined by the World Bank illsan essential condition for development m all societies. The Japanese had . 1:JiO linkage made between market friendly policies and human rights.is caused by good governance. case. the gradual withering away of the state as an economic actor at the macro level.order attempted to focus its projects on dear strategic objectives. as the expression of a nation's growing economic well-being.ms is.S. Is it the only way. government. no democracy.S. One is qualitative. though. evidenced by increasing quantity of." The European Community has clearlyarticulated similar concerns in its Resolution on Human Rights in theW orld and Community Human Rights Policy of 12 March 1993. and if not. approach. distribution of and people's satisfactionwith the national wealth . The Community Policy on "Positive measures and conditionality" asserts that "the Community can be a very positive force in promoting democracy and human rights. the structural adjustments prescribed by the World Bank for lLDCs face at present strong opposition from the Japanese. and thus no aid.318- . Thus the United States continues to promote both political conditionaliry and good governance as defined by the World Bank. In the U.ernance One of the central features of "good governance" through structural adjustment progr:a. Critique of Good Governance There are two necessary and possible dimensions in a critique of good governance."?" Unlike the U. there is. This ills important development because Japan is the second largest an contributor to the hank after the United States. Economic issues do not enter directly into rhe frame of reference.S. there is no respect for human rights. are there better roads to development? Let us take a look then at the kernel of the notion of "good governance. Development and Good GOi". there is an underlying assumption that without a free market.

debt management.1:11'1":01111"<:[> rh~H"nn'''' touches a vita! the govemmem in the aid to reth ink the as $lalld CostaRica paring tllem countries that followed authorlur&an routes to development.. and even growth rate.. has argued that democracies in the developing world can boast impressive economic records in terms of income distribution...""'<0"'(11 doubt: about the concern for the kind of'juridical structure -319'- . South Korea.." Might not his conclusions linking democracy and development have been different had he chosen as case studies countries such as Japan... Hong Kong and Thailand. which not conform to his criteria of democracy? The link between democracy and development is and cannot be encapsulated in a notion such as good govemance. Taiwan. NI)t surprisingly the concept of ' 'good governance" has been subjected to scrutiny by human rights activists ill Sri Lanka who have .

In an era characterized by the loss of paradigmatic guidelines.. system and the transfer of Western science and technology. Their works indicate that: the main problem ofpolitical development theories has been their tendency to conceive of political development in terms of two general dichotomies: modern vs.Thinking in terms of dichotomies or binary sets of categories prevents us from realizing that many states encompass within themselves many apparently contradictory characters and structures. which should be once and for all putaside. the linkage between economic growth and social advancement is not selfevident.. such as investment in rural development. there is nevertheless no doubt that the 'main objective of aid and development policies in the 1990s should be to assist integration irrto the global mainstream."ernaru:e s Totalizing Discourse a The second dimension of this critique of good governance is of a more fundamental nature . This particular aspect has been subjected to serious examination by scholars.rld Order necessary for the spread of market relations. and the alleviation of poverty. health. when all grand narratives or the totalizing or foundational theorizing of modernity havegiven rise to so many critical responsesra concept such as "good governance.We must ask ourselves why. For example. totally cast away during 'the great "development decades" of the U. in the developing countries who have investigated the power of the development myth and the creation of a Republic of Science where capitalism had lost its poetic power to a Baccnian-scientific world44 view . -320~ . democracy and authoritarianism.emance" falls within the tradition of dichotomizing models.P just as there is no clear causal relationship between democracy I good governanoe and development. education. At the same time." 5.0 anchored in Western history and tradition could ever have' been proposed • or flourish.. and democratic vs nondemocratic politicalsystems .Y'? For at developing country such as Sri Lanka. The concept of "good gov. aid and development policies will have to continue to serve their traditional objective of supporting long-term development programs for building infrastructures and financing projects ofsubstantial social benefit.tl' Wo.Tn its name modernizing elites have shed all sensitivity to indigenous systems of thought. Good Go£. nutrition.N.TI'te Netl. The development myth is a powerful one. civilian and military rule at the same time. Social scientists are increasingly stressing the need co get away from oversimplified models. the concept of "good governance" has not remained unchallenged. development and underdevelopment. traditional societies.

:lway economic sovereignty. One encouraging trend is that economists at the United Nations have ceased to use a naerowconcepc of "~'"''''~. those.''''''' as growth and have begun to concern themselves with the ~1u. In thilS arena" tile world financial institutions are hegemonic and have stripped . are beyond the control of national power holders.remains «"'"'' . They accept that "development must be woven around the not people around development. entails profound social reform. rather than formal liberties. This trend is reflected in the """. as preconditions tor oevetopment.. The most important decisions. and intrusion into individual liberty. Formal confined to the level offormal electoral in any attempt to build or '·"'.c""nr". The -321- . "46 A 1110re diflkult task convince the financial institutions that sound democratic instinnions are not enough and that the benefits must seep down to the The incidence of IMF riots in some countries has shown democracies cannot be created from outside and that a which is tooevidently dependent on external is liable to lose legitimacy at home. the economy.<o. the preservation of human rights.U 11':10'" . Conclusion To paraphrase Sugata Bose. "somewhere between Sri Lanka and world capitalism lies an interregional arena of social politics and political economy'r" molded largely by the politics of aid. of human rights."~'''' development indicators" such as freedom movement. improvement of life. governance a in in social relations follows. and ide:lis of good governance ..aillUau .

but there is reason to believe or at least to hope that as more people become aware that all states are interdependent in crucial areas such as the environment. lending institutions as well as aid agencies and develcpment programs would be "mindful" of the social. and the World Bank do not operate as if they form part of the same system. One can think of a world government in the spirit of Keynes' national economic stabilization formulation. Another imporranr reason is. the relationship between national goveruments and international institutions HIUSt cease to he a power relationship. Such a change can come from many quarters. One of the main reasons why the United Nations.48 The role of the United Nations as the conscience of the world has dedinedwhile the economic institutions have acquired supranational powers. The World Bank.N. but rather if one borrows the Hegelian metaphor. the U. These would be U. '19 If a reform of the Security Council takes place and if real effi)rts are made toeliminate wastage. and the World Bank have not succeeded in reducing conflicts. The outer circle would be formed by circles touching each other while remaining independent.The New JiVorJd Order solution is surely not to delink. Instead. there would be no place for single-track and technicist approaches such as good governance. to form a circle of circles delineating. or communication. cogent. There is a possibility that the United Nations fll:ly playa new role in the formulation of 2t harmonious. the IMF. and integrated approach to human rights and development. Inside this circle of circles would be an the sovereign states in perpetual movement and inreracting between themselves.enr programs. In this type of world order. arms control.3cljuStn1. for instance! does not involve the U.N. msriturions. areas of sovereignty.that the United Nations. the \Vorld Bank.N. cultural and political consequences of their intervention. for such a scenario to take place. the IMP. in the elaboration and subsequent implementation of economic stabilization and structural . the IMF. more civil society initiatives willemerge to push for human rights regimes in . which takes responsibility for managing: the world development through a participative and co-operative method of taking decisions so and resolving conflicts . and generating equitable world development IS that these international organizations were not created with ::Ri democratic structure. bringing about peace.. with its egalitarian premises js the best arena where notions of "good governance" and "political conditionality" can be discussed and where the smaller and weaker states could have a voice against the hegemonic tendencies that prevail in the aid regime.322- . and the EU and similar organizations. that of the watchguard of the powerful institutions that: lack sensitivity to the human dimension of development.

) South . j: 1196. 7. Diane F.their own countries and! for a more equitable rate ofexch<1Ju!:'!erun international aid and development '"' Notes 1.lu Report 19'94 (New Delhi: Oxford University Press. (New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Senior Policy Advisor. According to the Hururm De[lciopn1(. Martin's Press.C. 14. see EdV'i. the richest 40% of the developing world receives as much aid pt'!!:' capita as the poorest 40%. 1991)... :'1S1. "The Impact of Integration+Indiaand the World Economy in the 1980s." in Suglt::li Bose (ed. Others have argued in favor of aid as a catalyst for development. Katharine Tomasevski. Orerilichter. A Studyfor the Danish Centa 4 Human Rights (Nevil York: St. 8.tl. 9. Democracy and Development in the Third Wodd/' Third f¥orld QHartedy~ Vol.. Stone.'~994).1986). "New Mission :fot foreign Aid". 1(93). Clad! and Roger D. See for instance Robert Cassenand Associates.~) 5. 72-73: "Aid ]S not targeted at the poor. 3. pp. Interview with George Lister.. 4 March I 993" 10. Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs Bureau. Knopf." E:m:. For a lucid account of the notion of "world responsibility" as a rationale of American foreign policy. (Fall. 4. 338"'339.3.ig. 1989).1"1 Ai'a. Development Aid muJ Human R:(~'hu.. 6.As a result ofthese disrorrions. 72. jayati Gosh. j. "The United States Commitment to' International Human Rights' in Richard Pierre Claude and Burns -323 - .:: 60S. D'oes Ai'd Work? (Oxford: Clarendon Press."ard Said. Cul.m~dm:t" lmpen'alism (New York: Al£recL A. Stansfield Turner.fl'full>l/(lrld Capitalism. Donors send less than one-third of development assistance to the ten most populous countries. which are horne to two-thirds of the world's poor . '19(0). Critics of aid have emphasized the abuses and damagmgeffects on the recipient society.Isif~. 285-29L 2. Adrian Leftwich. "Intelligence for a New World Order. rs. "Governance. The rationale and role of aid has beensubject to scrutiny. No. :1993. 1992-3." Foreigrl Affairs.

Charter oj the United Nations and Statloltecif the International Court afJustice (United Nations. In other cases it is less a question of unwillingness than of inability .. op. South i\sia . 1993) 275-291-294 . . S. 34f~35:2. 22.). See for iru:tance. 9. 20. 33-54. Human Development Report 1994. Statement of . have not elaborated policies to deal A ) with the human rights/ development Iinkage. Weston (eds)~Humil1tf.7_." op. in delinking development aid and human rights.. l. Asian Cultural Forum. Comnaission on Human Rightli. Sri Lanka. This section draws from Sunil Bastian. "Human Rights and the Provision of Developrnenr Asslstance. 4."· Unpublished paper presented at the conference.). 15. which is Sri Lanka's principal donor has consistently refused to link aid with human rights.~. -324- .. O.7. Kettaneh. 17. 1990..8. Jmernatg:onal and NattOfUt/ Dimensions (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press..o. 1993" :432..'l1ania Press. 25. Report of theWo"king Group on Erifoyced or Involur#iI1ry Disappearatwzs (7-18 Oct.. "N. 1992. New York. ~8 (April 1988) :12-18. Universit'y of PennsyJ.. 76 . Dedaration on Human Rights (Bangkok. 48th session. Statement by Ambassador Neville jayaweera. 1992).C . Cmu:ltepoil'j:t (April-May 1994) : 26-28. 2& ed. Collective Intervention il''l Internal Conflict. 1993). 24.. B AS.. Christopher Clapham. South Asian regional organizations (A. David P.. "Democratization in Africa: Obstacles and Prospects. Some donor countries follow the example set by the U .: 606 ..t:t 1 11. Gillian Kettaneh. . Commission on Human 'Rights..G.gRestraint.A . Bangkok N.O. .s in DevelopInentj"The Thatched Pati. 14. Geneva.. G. Report of the Canadian H'umanRights Missio« to Sri Lanka..N". 1. Bradrnan Weerakoon of Sri Lanka Delegation. ·1 002 1.22.. Our Voice. Lori Fishler Damrosh. in the World Cortu:tlunity..Hufnan Rights drid Peace.R... Japan. Right:. (New York-Council on Foreign Relations Press. cit. 48th Session.D . 16" H. GHlian. t991. 1993).N.. Delegation of Sri Lanka. 12 Feb ·\ev.E. 1993) 23.A. Forsvrhe. Eriforcin. January 1992. "Human Rights and the Provision of Development Assistance. :5.' Third World QUflrteriy" ~! 3..An Agenda for the Nineties Oct.Mr. (Philadelphia. Adrian Leftwich. cit. Issues and Action. 21.. "The Civilian Impact of Economic Saneticns' in Lori Pishler Damrosh (ed.. 8 Jan. Ahungal1e.

lH'tiolulfl). Adrian Leftwich. Mass: Harvard University Press."'60~6l-192.:Frol'l'~ C. State Department. Harrison. 1993): 1i87- ExdwolIIJtt. Hm'l1ar~ DellJ'eJ'op'I''Jet~t R.U.er~'l'f1'M?nt: Order and Clwrrge in H/orld H.'1ii:zation (Chicago: Chicago University Press. Desk Officer. 31. m953).lSri tanka .: World Bank.DJSri Lanka. Vlorld Bank Loans and Democracy. Annual Budget Submission. April 1991.:613..cit.fitics. Rethinking Third' ~il!orld Politics (New York: Longman. 32. Table 4. 1989).AJ. Ibid. For more details see ltJ!(~'rld!1!r:!kl 1 B SlJIv.AJ.. Bank and [he Ne\l\L.314:1990. Development in Sri Lanka. (Cambridge University Press. U. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State. 7 March 199J..i'" (~r 38. Peter Gibbon.I~ . Apter.. and Cmuparative Perspectives (Englewood Cliffs. 37 . order and Change i.• 610-6 Th. 1993:28"'-35.~Pt)litics. Sode(h~'S:BI)o. June 1992. .D..VU. "Governance. T1u~p()Utl~csl?rIWoder. Got!e'fflance wUhout Go!. David E.325- 188..$. 15 March 1993.A. World Bank.D. NJ Prentice 1'-:1311. l\!!:!fiMlcilisrl'l mu~ Social COI'11Immicalion. Bureau of Near Eastern and South Asian Affairs.Strategic Framework PY 1992~ 96. "On State. Lipset.. Prall/ada.i'l'iis to SI4L~rail'ulble GfOII'!I:h (\It aslhihgton D."lrm:1 4fn~ca.. Mercury 1963): 403. ' 29. _Kim Hong Py(). S. 1. Illinois: Free Press.. D .c99.(.). See also Selig H.nWodd Politics. 33. 1966).. (Cambridge.r ["'quir)' in'to the POIIV1!c/atim'IS I~f NdllmU!/ifY. Statement of Teresita Shaffer. Rosenau and Emsr-Orrc Czempiel (eds). Roseneu. Daniel BeU.26" R.. TongK:~'\Xfrut'lJg:. P(J. op.: World Bank. ' 28. Sri lanka..uhillgton DX~. Human Rights Watch World Repor: 1993 (Washington. 39.9.!hicai 114'an (Paperback edn.ofAid. and sociologists who In the 19505 and 1960s put forward modernization theories one can single out the following: Karl Deutsch. 19(5).C. Hearings before the Sub-Committee on Asian and Pacific Affairs. Asia. The Bud Ideology (Glencoe. 30.. James N. 34. 72. Among the political scientists. "South Asia and the United States: A Chance for a Fresh Start.t 992):: 103.ory (March . Jan. FY-1994. Conversation with Alison Krupnick.-Sah. Leftwich. Of'.I.l':'lJ'ort 19941 76.t'TheWorld Pt. 35. A. Sudipta Kaviraj.M..S. Society and Discourse in India" in James Manor (ed. GiHJeFII(UI'(." Current Hist. 36.:14. m 960). Sri tanka Bureau. 2. 27. 1991). Herbold Green. cit .. 1992L 3-4.~"I' Language of Money". 1992):1. ..2. Talcott Parsons. London.uul Deveiop"J'lent (W'.S.' in James N. U..

. "Democracy and Development" inj.A Requiemjor Moderrtity (New Delhi: Oxford University Press. Jan. 48. Kallab (eds). Samir Amin. 357.ights Law'}ouma/. Sugata Bose. 42. 40.. Lewis and V . 44. and the financial institutions 'vilas established in 1961 with the formation of at "Liaison Committee" composed of the Secretary General of the United Nations. 17 (24 April. 50. Ibid . -326- .l. "The World Economy and Regional Economies. the President of the World Bank and the International Development Association and the heads of the predecessors of the U.D. The Committee never operated formally due to opposition from the World Bank. V.R. ill 1 (13 March. Human Development Report 1993: Human Development Indicators.P . 49 ..N. 7 (July-August 1992) : 28. They Vi/ere to meet periodically and no less than four times a year to coordinate development activities. 21. Krishna Kumar" "fund-Bank Policies of Stabilization and Structural Adjustment.N. and Vio. 46. Charles Abeysekere. Arjun Sen Gupta.P.fIeek/y. Sugata Bose.).. 1993) : 822.. 1 (note 37). 28. 1990)." in ed.mic and Political (. 1981. T.N.em:e.. A special institutional link between the U. 45. 43. "Aid and Development Policy in the 19905" Economic and Political Weekly.. 1986) :153-182. Science.P.D. 4L Atnl Kohli. April 1991.. andhistorical perspective" EcofUJ. 14(7~8) 1993: 286. in South Asia: Some Comments on Linkages. Development Strategies Reconsidered (New Brunswick: Transaction Books. 28. 1993): 453. 1990). : 47. Hegemon).Country Development Strategy Staremenr FY-1983.The l\lewWorhJ Ordes A review.: Sri Lanka . Human . "The Limits of Space: Human Rights and Foreign Aid" index em Censorsh ip. Ashis Nandy (ed. A global. De/inking: Towards a Polycentnc Wotld (London: Zed.

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