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Published by: Kunal Vaid on Jul 07, 2011
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By Kunal Vaid Prof. N.N Agnihotri (T3021217)

College Guide

Page | 1

Basic Illustration 02.INDEX TOPIC 01. Introduction 02.Filtration .High Speed Separators 06.Centrifugal Force 05.References PAGE NO. Separator Body . Filtration.Basic Processes .Modes Of Operation 07. 3 4 5 7 7 8 11 12 14 15 16 17 INDEX (IMAGES & TABLES) IMAGES 01.Driving Frames 08.Improved effectiveness 04.Applications 09.Details 05.Conclusion 11. Gravity Separation 03. Separator Bowl . Gravity Separation . 4 5&6 6 9 10 Page | 2 .Sedimentation 03.Stoke's Law 04.Details PAGE NO.Major Manufacturers 10.

Many times the need to separate it into its individual components arises. almost every element or compound is found naturally in an impure state such as a mixture of two or more substances. Mechanical Separation Chemical Separation Mechanical separation processes are usually favored over chemical separation processes due to their low operating costs.• Separation. the various physical aspects of the mixture drive the separation process. iii. In case of a solid. The choice of separation depends upon the pros and cons of an individual process. such as size. The separated products could differ in chemical properties or some physical property. iv. The mixture can be a solid-solid mixture. v. The mixture that needs to be separated can have particles in any states. Barring a few exceptions. or crystal modification or other separation into different components. a liquid-solid mixture. the various factors that govern the separation process are:Page | 3 . Distillation Decantation Evaporation Filtration Sedimentation In case of mechanical separation. ii. a solid-gas mixture or a solid-liquid-gas mixture.an Introduction In chemistry and chemical engineering. separation is a process that is used to transform a mixture of substances into two or more distinct products. ii.liquid separation process. The most preferable separation processes are:i. a liquid-liquid mixture. The various basic separation processes include:i.

ii.i. either one or both of the components may be isolated. iv. Filtration Sedimentation Filtration Filtration is a mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass. but the separation is not complete. Oversize solids in the fluid are retained. iii. iv. where the fluid can be a liquid. solids will be contaminated with some fluid and filtrate will contain fine particles (depending on the pore size and filter thickness). Filtration is used to separate particles and fluid in a suspension. ii. Cake filtration Deep bed filtration Screening filtration Membrane filtration Page | 4 . Weight of the individual components in the mixture Density of the mixture Viscosity Size of the individual particles The major mechanical separation processes are:i. a gas or a supercritical fluid. 01 – Filtration Basic illustration The whole process can be further classified into:i. iii. ii. Depending on the application.  Fig.

gravity acts on it. centrifugal acceleration or electromagnetism.Sedimentation Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension or molecules in solution to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained. Sedimentation may pertain to objects of various sizes. The action of gravity causes the solid particles to settle down and the water is collected above. which can be separated. The process of sedimentation can be further classified into:i. This is due to their motion through the fluid in response to the forces acting on them: these forces can be due to gravity. ranging from large rocks in flowing water to suspensions of dust and pollen particles to cellular suspensions. Page | 5 . and come to rest against a wall. Floatation Gravity sedimentation Centrifugal sedimentation Separation due to Gravity/Gravity Sedimentation If a cloudy liquid is allowed to stand for a while. ii. iii.

02 – Gravity Separation Thus the two layers can be separated and the lighter layer (which in this case is water) can be removed manually. Fig. proper separation might not take place. 03. But in industries.Fig. time is a very important factor.Enhanced Techniques for Gravity Separation Page | 6 . The time required for settling to occur depends upon the:• Setting speed of particles • Distance travelled by the particles In case the distance travelled by the particles is less and the flow speed is high. This can be achieved by increasing the surface area of contact for the mixture. Insertion of large number of plates inside the tank causes the mixture to travel large areas at high velocity thus causing effective separation. This may lead to the mixture still being unfiltered. The process of separation has to be done in quick succession with high efficiency.

then a terminal velocity also known as settling velocity is reached when the buoyant force in combination with the frictional force completely balances the gravitational force.Stoke’s Law If the particles are falling into a viscous fluid by their own weight. The resultant settling velocity is given by:- Page | 7 .

These mechanical devices utilize high speed of rotation to cause effective separation of two media under action of forces which are approximately equivalent to 5000 times the force of gravity. Centrifugal force is the reaction force to a centripetal force. such as circular motion.Centrifugal Force. This centripetal acceleration is provided by a centripetal force. high speed separators are manufactured. Based on these principles of stoke’s Law and Centrifugal Force. In accordance with Newton's Third Law of Motion. the mass exerts an equal and opposite force on the object. This is the "real" or "reactive" centrifugal force: it is directed away from the center of rotation. and is exerted by the rotating mass on the object that originates the centripetal acceleration. which is exerted on the mass by some other object. A mass undergoing curved motion. constantly accelerates toward the axis of rotation.Basic Principle of Operation Centrifugal force represents the effects of inertia that arise in connection with rotation and which are experienced as an outward force away from the center of rotation. Page | 8 .

In some cases. Page | 9 . The useful separated mixture is collected via the outlet pipes. The mixture to be separated is fed into the bowl via the inlet pipes. The processes are highly efficient. Electric Motor The separator unit is driven by an electric motor. Inlet and Outlet Pipes The inlet and outlet pipes are the supply pipes to the separator body. The actual separation process takes place inside a separator. The waste is discharged out of the bowl body and is collected else where ii. the separator is provided without an electric motor and requires an external power source to work. Electric motor is not necessarily a part of the separator. High Speed Separators The basic structure of the separators is as shown:It consists of the following major parts:i. Separator Frame The separator frame is the heart of the separator. Time required for the separation process to happen is very less.The huge advantage these machines have over conventional separation techniques is :• • • They can perform separation of very minute particles. iii.

Page | 10 . Assembly The assembly consists of the motor (if provided). the belt or gear drive and the spindle.Fig. 04 -Basic Separator Body The separator frame further comprises of:a. Separator Bowl The separator bowl rotates at thousands of rpm. The actual separation takes place inside the separator bowl b. This assembly is responsible for the actual rotation of the separator bowl which causes separation inside it.

A. Lock Ring It is used to hold the bowl body with the bowl hood D. Due to high rotation speed the particle have the tendency to move downwards. Bowl Hood It’s the upper part of the separator bowl C. Page | 11 . E. Distributor It’s the part which leads the supply of feed to the bottom of the plates. Bowl Body It’s the lower part of the separator bowl B. 05 – Details of Separator Bowl The basic structure of the separator bowl is as shown:It consists of the following parts which are responsible for the separation of the particles. Disc Stack It’s the position where actual separation takes place.Fig. Due to the action of both the forces the particles move below the plates and are thus separated from the feed. The feed enters the places between the plates and here separation takes place. The action of centrifugal force causes the particles to move towards the bowl frame.

Clarifier In clarifier mode. Page | 12 . the main aim is to clean the light liquid phase which forms the major chunk of the mixture and needs to be retained. 2. the feed enters through the inlet pipe and the cleaned liquid leaves through the outlet pipes.Modes of Operation The separator can operate in various modes depending on the type of separation process to be done and the type of mixture to be separated. The space between the disc stacks and the solid bowl is known as the Sludge Space and it’s the area where the solid particles collect. In this process. The modes of operation are:1. the separator is used to separate solid from a liquid phase. In this mode of operation. II) Reduction in the feed rate By reducing the feed rate. In case there is large amount of solid particles present then the separation process may be hampered as proper rotation of the feed is not possible. the viscosity of the mixture decreases which allows ease of separation of the mixture. The separation process can be made more effective via the following means:I) Increasing the temperature By increasing the temperature of the mixture. enough time is given to the separator to separate out the particles. Purifier In this mode. The solid particles that are present in the mixture remain inside the separator bowl and are removed by hand after the process is complete. a mixture of solids and two different liquids (heavy liquid and light liquid) is separated.

the disc stacks have holes in them.the vessel in which separation takes place . This region is known as the NEUTRAL REGION. a mixture of two or more liquids (heavy liquid and light liquid) is separated.at speeds of between 4. Concentrator In this mode. each having both a particular separation function and a different method of discharge specially suited to the process liquid in question. a region also arises where the light liquid meets the heavy liquid. Due to this the light liquid phases out nearer to the centre of the bowl due to lower density and the heavy liquid collects near the periphery due to its heaviness. This allows ease of separation of the two liquid phases.The basic structural difference in the “Purifier” separator is the structure of the disc stacks.500 and 9. The mixture may or may not contain any solid particles. But it should not be too far away or near the disc stack. I) Worm gear drive Horizontal parts Page | 13 . This could also lead to hindrance in the separation process. Since in this mode of operation. the heavy phase needs to be collected. 3. Driving Frames High-speed centrifugal separators have either a Belt-drive frame or a Gear-drive frame to drive the bowl . For best separation results. therefore the holes in the disc stack are nearer to the centre of the bowl so as to phase out the light liquid phase. the neutral zone should be towards the periphery of the bowl. In the “Purifier” mode. Due to presence of two liquids with different densities. In this process the output is the collection of the heavy liquid phase which is present in large proportions in the mixture.000 RPM. There are a variety of bowl types available.

splashing oil over the bearings. but the heavy stationary separator bowl has considerable inertia. This is of transitory nature and disappears once the critical speeds have been passed. Power is transmitted from the motor through a coupling pulley to the worm wheel gear via a drive shaft supported by ball bearings in the base of the frame. Slippage in the clutch during this period naturally generates heat. Friction clutches Most separators have centrifugal friction clutches to ensure that the separator starts smoothly. but this does no harm unless an explosive product is being treated. In these cases.In most separator types. a rigid coupling and an explosion-proof motor must be used. Brakes Page | 14 . Vertical parts The vertical bowl spindle is driven by horizontal shaft. Special motors have then to be used that can withstand the extra long starting period required to bring the bowl up to full speed. They also absorb the vibrations that occur during run-up and run-down when the bowl reaches a speed corresponding to the resonant frequency of the bowl assembly. The base of the frame forms an oil bath in which the worm wheel turns. the vertical bowl spindle is driven by a worm gear from a horizontal drive shaft known as the worm-wheel shaft. Rigid coupling For large and ex-proof separators it is necessary to have a rigid coupling between the motor and the worm wheel shaft. so that ”running up” may take as long as ten minutes. Oil mist to the top bearing is sucked up by an oil fan on the spindle. The springs in the top bearing allow for small radial movements of the bowl due to uneven loads (such as sludge deposits). The normal standard electric motor comes up to full speed almost immediately. with the exception of certain large machines with type (1)-drive.

If for some reason rapid braking is required (as on latex separators). It is operated either manually by a lever or by compressed air.Latex Page | 15 . rotor resistance. a flat belt with pulley and a spindle cartridge.Breweries . and the starting current would in most cases be too high for the power supply available. this would reduce the starting period by two thirds. Applications The important areas in which the separators find their applications are:. Control torque motors These differ from normal standard motors of the same kW rating in respect of dimensions. insulation class. warning devices and instruments The base of the separator usually carries a mechanically-driven revolution counter button which rotates at a speed proportional to the speed of the bowl.The most usual type of brake consists simply of a spring-loaded shoe acting on the conveyor pulley of the worm-wheel shaft.Distilleries . cooling system (e.Milk . fan size) and other details. Regulating. an eddy-current brake is supplied. II) Belt drive: (R10 and R18 frames) These separators have a frame with a vertically mounted CT-motor . the mechanical stresses involved would be too high. These special motors are also known Control Torque Motors or CT motors. However.g. If direct starting could be used.Heavy fuel oils .Oil refineries . slip (speed). CT-motors have to be started in star-delta.

Vegetable oils Major Manufacturers The manufacturing of separators is a job of expertise.. II. Therefore not many companies venture out. It is used to break down hard emulsions. Centrifugal separation involve high efficiency with extreme compactness. The major manufacturers of separators already existent in the industry are:-Alfa Laval -Westfalia -Pieralisi -Mitsubishi Conclusion I. Page | 16 .

Avallone.Centrifugal separation also has the capacity to separate particles down to 0. Theodore Baumeister.5µm.III.Journal of Fluids Engineering (2005) By Sébastien Poncet. Pages: 787 2. Marie-Pierre Chauve Volume: 127. Roland Schiestel. It has the capacity to separate two liquids up to 2µm. Eugene A. Lionel Simeon Marks (2006). IV . Page | 17 . Issue: 4. References 1 . Ali Sadegh.

S. Modi Page | 18 . Introduction to classical mechanics. Separator Manual Alfa Laval By Den Lille Rǿde 5. Fluid Mechanics By P. McGraw-Hill Professional.Marks' standard handbook for mechanical engineers (11 ed. ISBN 9780070966178 4. Tata McGraw-Hill. G. 3. Separator Manual Westfalia 6.). Takwale. Puranik (1980). R. and P.M.

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