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In personal computers, a motherboard is the central printed circuit board (PCB) in many modern computers and holds many

of the crucial components of the system, providing connectors for other peripherals. The motherboard is sometimes alternatively known as the mainboard,system board, or, on Apple computers, the logic board.[1] It is also sometimes casually shortened to mobo.[2]
Motherboard for a desktop personal computer, showing the typical components and interfaces that are found on a motherboard. This model was made in 2008, and follows the ATX layout (known as the "form factor") usually employed for desktop computers. It is designed to work with AMD's Athlon 64 processor.

Prior to the advent of the microprocessor, a computer was usually built in a card-cage case or mainframe with components connected by a backplaneconsisting of a set of slots themselves connected with wires; in very old designs the wires were discrete connections between card connector pins, but printed circuit boards soon became the standard practice. The Central Processing Unit, memory andperipherals were housed on individual printed circuit boards which plugged into the backplane. During the late 1980s and 1990s, it became economical to move an increasing number of peripheral functions onto the motherboard (see below). In the late 1980s, motherboards began to include single ICs (called Super I/O chips) capable of supporting a set of lowspeed peripherals:keyboard, mouse, floppy disk drive, serial ports, and parallel ports. As of the late 1990s, many personal computer motherboards supported a full range of audio, video, storage, and networking functions without the need for any expansion cards at all; higher-end systems for 3Dgaming and computer graphics typically retained only the graphics card as a separate component. The early pioneers of motherboard manufacturing wereMicronics, Mylex, AMI, DTK, Hauppauge, Orchid Technology, Elitegroup, DFI, and a number of Taiwan-based manufacturers. The most popular computers such as the Apple II and IBM PC had published schematic diagrams and other documentation which permitted rapid reverse-engineering and third-party replacement motherboards. Usually intended for building new computers compatible with the exemplars, many motherboards offered

main memory. it also connects the central processing unit and hosts other subsystems and devices. In modern terms this would includeembedded systems and controlling boards in televisions. and peripheral buses non-volatile memory chips (usually Flash ROM in modern motherboards) containing the system's firmware or BIOS a clock generator which produces the system clock signal to synchronize the various components slots for expansion cards (these interface to the system via the buses supported by the chipset) . and peripheral devices may be attached to the motherboard as plug-in cards or via cables. but unlike a backplane. which provides the supporting interfaces between the CPU and the various buses and external components. etc. An important component of a motherboard is the microprocessor's supporting chipset. although in modern computers it is increasingly common to integrate some of these peripherals into the motherboard itself. This chipset determines. like a backplane.additional performance or other features and were used to upgrade the manufacturer's original equipment The term mainboard is applied to devices with a single board and no additional expansions or capability. controllers for video display and sound. provides the electrical connections by which the other components of the system communicate. washing machines. A motherboard specifically refers to a printed circuit board with expansion capability. and other essential components connected to the motherboard. to an exte       sockets (or slots) in which one or more microprocessors may be installed[3] slots into which the system's main memory is to be installed (typically in the form of DIMM modules containing DRAM chips) a chipset which forms an interface between the CPU's front-side bus. main memory. A typical desktop computer has its microprocessor. Other components such as external storage. A motherboard.