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The extent to which the instrument really measures what it is intended to measure. The validity of the test concerns what the test measures and how well it does so. A valid measurement tool does a good job of measuring the concept that it purports to measure. It is important to remember that the validity of an instrument only applies to a specific purpose with a specific group of people. For example, a scale is not considered simply “valid” or “invalid”—but it might be considered valid for measuring social responsibility outcomes with college freshmen. Factors Affecting Validity _ Unclear direction. _ Reading vocabulary. _ Difficult sentence construction. _ Poorly constructed test items. _ Use of in appropriate items. _ Medium of expression. _ Difficulty level of items. _ Influence of extraneous factors. _ In appropriate time limit. _ Inadequate coverage. _ Inadequate weight age.
a. Content Validity Content Validity means the extent to which the content of the test is truly representative of the content of the course. Content Validity Establishes that the instrument includes items that comprise the relevant content domain. (For example, a test of English grammar might include questions on subject-verb agreement, but should not include items that test algebra skills.) b. Concurrent validity Concurrent validity (simultaneous, parallel) is the degree of which the test agrees with or correlates with a criterion which is a set up as an acceptable measure. The criterion is always available at the time of testing. (For example, researchers give a group of students a new test, designed to measure mathematical aptitude. They then compare this with the test scores already held by the school, a recognized and reliable judge of mathematical ability. Cross referencing the scores for each student allows the researchers to check if there is a correlation, evaluate the accuracy of their test, and decide whether it measures what it is supposed to) Weakness: Concurrent validity is regarded as a fairly weak type of validity, and is rarely accepted on its own. The problem is that the benchmark test may have some inaccuracies and, if the new test shows a correlation, it merely shows that the new test contains the same problems.
Most universities use high-school grade point averages to decide which students to accept. validity has two major aspects– reliability and relevance . This leaves a hole in the data.c. Thus. Validity includes reliability. the basic assumption is that a high-school pupil with a high grade point average will achieve high grades at university. They are degrees of each. Construct Validity The construct validity of the test is the extent to which the test measures a theoretical trait. and the predictive validity relies upon this incomplete data set. by definition. go on to produce a score on that particular criterion. Predictive Validity Predictive Validity is evaluated by relating the test to some actual achievements of the students of which the test is supposed to predict his success. there is no single validity index for a test. It refers to whether the operational definition of a variable actually reflects the true theoretical meaning of a concept. Validity is sometimes defined as truthfulness while reliability is sometimes defined as trustworthiness Neither validity nor reliability is an either. (For Example.) Relation between validity and reliability. In this process. a slightly abstract label. The most common use for predictive validity is inherent in the process of selecting students for university. A classroom test should be both consistent and relevant. Construct validity is a measure of whether your research actually measures artistic ability. and individuals who are not selected cannot. Construct validity defines how well a test or experiment measures up to its claims. (For example. d. The future outcome of the testee is predicted. so the researchers must always make some assumptions. Predictive Validity is also the degree of accuracy of how test predicts the level of performance in activity which it intends to foretell. in an attempt to find the brightest and most dedicated students. due to low grades. you might design whether an educational program increases artistic ability amongst pre-school children. A test that has some validity for one purpose may not at all be valid for another. ) Weakness: Predictive validity does not test all of the available data. this approach does not test the students who failed to attend university. Since a single test may be used for many different purposes. In the university selection example. this combination of characteristics is called validity. personal preference or financial concerns.
a. The test – retest method involves two separate administrations of the same instrument. means and standard deviation. METHODS OF ESTIMATING RELIABILITY a. Internal-consistency method This method is used with psychological tests which are constructed of dichotomously scored items. c. and the results for the two sets of questions are similar. algebra and trigonometry. Test-retest method The same measuring instrument is administered twice to the same group of subject. designed to measure the aptitude of the student in that particular area. Usability Usability means the degree to ehich the measuring instrument can be satisfactorily used by teachers. An educational test retaken after a month should yield the same results as the original. sticking with exams.) III. b. d. ensuring that there is a correlation between the results. and involves testing the same subjects at a later date. internal consistency measures two different versions at the same time. Split-half methods The test in this method may be administered once but the test items are divided into two halves. Parallel-form methods Parallel or equivalent forms of attest may be administered to the group of subjects. Reliability Reliability is the extent to which a test is dependable. such as calculus. The Test-Retest Method is the simplest method for testing reliability. and selects a group of test students. instructions should be complete and precise. ease in administration To facilitate the administration of measuring instrument. If there is a high internal consistency. The two halves of the procedure must be similar but not identical in content. For each section of the exam. supervisoirs and school administrators.II. and the paired observations correlated. then the new test is likely to be reliable. In other words the test agrees with itself. (For example. difficulty. As a rule group test is easier to administer than individual tests. geometry. self consistent and stable. they actually ask two questions. number of items. imagine that an examining board wants to test that its new mathematics exam is reliable. .
d. Context and Objectives)..must be printed clearly in an appropriate size.3 Scoring directions are fully understood. Scoring is easier when all the examinees are instructed to write their responses in one column in numerical form or word with separate answer sheets for responses.e. This can be possible by accurate reflecting of range of expected behaviors as desired by the course objectives. To keep fairness in evaluation. the form and structure of the examination.1 construction of the test in objective type b. ease of interpretation and application Results are easier to interpret and apply if tables are provided. This means that students should be provided information about evaluation such as nature of the materials in which they are to be examined (i. proper mechanical make – up. Fairness Evaluation must be fair to all students. IV. length ofthe examination and the value (in terms of marks) of each component of the course.b. it is also desired that students should know exactly how they are to be evaluated. c. . All scores must be given meaning from table of norms without the necessity of computation. low cost e.2 Answer keys are adequately prepared b. ease of scoring Depends upon the following aspects: b.
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