Student’s Manual for Effective Studying

By TP Pilapil

“Consult not your fears, but your hopes and your dreams. Think not about your frustrations, but about your unfulfilled potential. Concern yourself not with what you tried and failed in, but with what it is still possible for you to do.”
-- Pope John XXIII, theologian


o two people study the same way. What works for one person may not work for another. Everyone is different. For some students, studying and being motivated to learn comes naturally, while to some, additional effort is required. However, there are some general techniques that seem to produce good results. Success in high school or college is dependent on our determination to study effectively and efficiently. Success in studying does not just happen. It takes, among other things, dedication, commitment and motivation. It needs an active participation from the concerned student. This book aims to provide condensed guidelines and techniques required to be an effective, efficient and successful student. Effective students accept personal responsibility for creating the outcomes and quality of their lives. They discover life’s purpose to motivate them, characterized by well-defined goals and dreams which they consistently plan and take effective actions in pursuing them. Effective students become lifelong learners, finding valuable lessons in nearly every experience they have. They develop emotional maturity, characterized by optimism, happiness and peace of mind. Above all, they believe in themselves, feeling capable, lovable and worthy human beings. This material relies on hard work and determination. This is written primarily for high school and college students. Studying independently, away from the watchful eyes of their parents, these students need to develop a good system of studying in order to be an effective learner. In this day of information explosion, they need to study at peak efficiency. This is also written for parents. They have great influence in developing the student’s attitude towards studying. They provide input to students and this book is geared to help them understand better what the students need and should do in order to get more of studying. Teachers and school counselors can also make use of this book. Success or failure of a student reflects the teaching capability of a teacher. It is not enough for the teachers to improve their teaching efficiency. It is also important that the teacher learns how to improve the learning capability of the students. This book is written based on common sense and experience. To make use of this book, one must desire to possess a mind that is always open, malleable, teachable, and enthusiastic for newness. This book does not promise immediate results. Most techniques presented here involved character change for self-improvement. Changing character for the better needs time, hence, require determination and perseverance. These depend on one thing, and that is your willingness to improve and do well in school. You are the one who is responsible for your education, and effective

study skills can help you only if you do your job. So, invest in your future. Use this book to start changing. Take the first step and the next one will be easier. Go for it and start now!

Hitting and Setting Goals

hy do we need to go to school? Why do we need to study? When we are young we go to school because our parents wanted us to. But as we go older, we need to understand why our parents are doing it. We need to find the reasons why they get upset every time we show resentment in studying. For now we should be aware that success in life depends on how we prepare for it. It depends on our attitude towards studying, acquiring knowledge or learning new things. Knowledge is not acquired by chance. We need to work for it. Our parents try their best in developing our attitude towards learning. They tried to expose us to the right environment. They choosed our toys, our books, our friends, our school and even the way they talked to us were properly planned, especially when we were still very young. They believed that our capability of learning new things depends on our attitude towards it. But as we grow older we gradually take control of our life. Defining our targets and structuring ways to hit them has now become our prime responsibility. 1. The importance of setting goals With very few exceptions, nothing worthwhile in our studies really happens by accident. But what if it is as simple as deciding where you want to go and planning the route to get there? Goal setting is the process of deciding where you want to go in life and then mapping out a series of small steps to get you there. Success in studying is something we make for ourselves. Luck has nothing to do with it. Hitting a target starts with defining where the target is, knowing what is it then aim for it. All successful people set goals. Some may have a structured routine, others a “vision”. Some may not even consciously set goals at all. But the process is all the same. Successful people know what they want, determine the steps that will get them there and then they implement them. "Long-range goals keep you from being frustrated by short-term failures."
--James Cash Penney, retailer

By setting goals, you will use your time more productively, perform better and more efficiently and with every goal you achieve, your self-confidence will increase, motivating you to aim ever higher. If you have goals, you have purpose. If you have purpose, you have direction. If you have

Perhaps to be selfemployed. You may even find some shortcuts. provide motivation and are means to measure progress. They get us where we want to go. not what others want for you or for themselves through you. You are limited only by your imagination. plans produce action. Make sure you have a map before you start out. Lack of these two factors result from insufficiently defined and studied goals. It is what you want that is important. Begin defining your goals by writing a master list. spiritual. Be positive. They are like road maps. 3. Perhaps it is to be at the top of your profession. 2. you do not waste time on activities and things that will not get you where or what you want. Some criteria for goal setting Now that we have a vision for our life. Planning is a blue-print of something we want to achieve or make happen. You may decide to take some side trips along the way. But if you leave without a map at all.direction. Think of a single master goal and then subdivide it into several sub-goals. personal life. You are the architect of your future. For example “to be successful in life and retire at 50” could be your master goal and “completing a college degree” could be one of your sub-goals. education. it is time to start crystallizing our dreams and expressing them in terms of specific objectives. The best way to get good results is through proper planning and consistent implementation of what has been planned. Think of categories such as career. Think of it as setting out on a long journey to somewhere you have never been before. How to set goals The major cause of student’s failure to complete their studies is the lack of focus and determination. Visualize yourself living your ideal life. financial. physical. Don’t censor yourself. What kind of house do you want to live in? Where do you want to live? What type of car do you want to drive? What exciting destinations do you want to travel to? There are no limits. Before beginning the work of actually setting sub-goals and supporting tasks it is important to understand the criteria for setting effective goals. you may just waste the entire journey driving around in circles and achieve nothing worthwhile. family. Goals focus attention. . Goals create purpose. pleasure and attitude. purpose generates plans of action. Goals provide direction and motivation for any undertaking. consistent action creates good habits and good habits produce good results. social. Don’t put limits on yourself. Would you even put the key in the ignition unless you had a destination in mind and a map to get you there? Your studies and eventually your life is the longest and most exciting adventure you will ever take. The first step to setting effective goals is to know what it is you want. but you’ll at least reach your destination eventually.

Financial aspect can also dictate where we will study aside from choosing the best school in terms of quality and reputation.Be specific. Furthermore. We have to concentrate on the positive aspect of our well-being. then we need to research various careers. family and friends and take general survey courses to see what interests us. Director." --George Lucas. Make it challenging. . Do not set something for a goal if you can achieve it without doing any extra effort. what subjects we can learn more easily than others. We need to check which school they are available. what is available where and what is in the market. Make it realistic. We need to know who we are. we need to research which career are available where. Also. they must also be challenging if you are to gain any real benefit from them. Will our studies be financed by our parents. know that education is just an instrument of achieving it. which activities we love to do most. Make your goals specific. you will not know whether you have achieved them or not. Star Wars movie First. etc. you’ll stop at the first giant hurdle. "You have to find something that you love enough to be able to take risks. jump over the hurdles and break through the brick walls that are always going to be placed in front of you. ourselves or through scholarship. There are many career goals we can choose from. we need to consider also our financial capability. 4. How to choose goals In schooling. Second. it must also be something that you can achieve as a result of your own efforts and not something that depends on someone else doing something. we need to consider three areas. While it should be challenging. Whatever you set as a goal must be within your power. These three areas include us. We go to school because we want to be someone someday. seek ideas from counselors. choosing goals sometimes mean choosing a career. While your goals must be realistic. we must already have a short-list of careers we may possibly be considering. If they are fuzzy and ill-defined. your subconscious won’t perceive them clearly enough to act on them. what are our strengths. By now. If you don’t have that kind of feeling for what it is you’re doing. If we don't have any idea what we want to do. teachers. we need to consider ourselves. you will not be able to internalize them in a way that will allow you to decide on precise actions to take to achieve them. Whatever you want to achieve in the future. To choose the right one for us. At this stage.

To be practical. a goal should be fixed. it is changeable or could be improvised. we need to be flexible with ourselves. Take a moment to think though what you will need to achieve those longer term goals. "Nobody can be successful unless he loves his work. hence. For longterm or “life-time” goals. The objective of starting long-term and working backwards is to break each objective down into manageable steps. The end result should be a daily “to do” list. establish your own business at 30 and let it grow. We’ll concentrate on the positive aspect of things. And the best way to prepare for this competition is to start early – right at the start of classes. it is necessary for us to learn how to like what we don’t like. For example. etc. we might find ourselves in a dilemma. Likes and dislikes are not something that is fixed within any individual. For example if you want to retire at 50. In this case. Now we have chosen which career we will pursue. breaking your objective down into more manageable sub-goals. Hence. we need to check what is hot in the market. you will need to work backwards. This is because finding a job itself is a competition. TV pioneer 5." --David Sarnoff. got the degree they desired but still find it difficult to earn a living. we might be forced to decide to study a career we don’t like. we need to do our best. what help. be depth free at 40 so that you can retire at 50. etc. After considering these three areas. with too few jobs for too many job seekers. We will learn more on how to be a top-notch student and stay at the top in the later chapters of this book. only to find out in the end that such career is already too saturated. The goal plan Now that you have written down your master goal list and understand the criteria for effective goals it is time to begin translating your list into a goal plan. you need to define where you will be at 40. Remember. Starting with your master goal. at 30. Think about what skills you will need to acquire and how to get them. But it is not possible to work efficiently in something we dislike. we might find out that the career we like to pursue is too expensive or is not available locally.Third. Many students choose to study the career they like. what information and knowledge. But is choosing a career already enough? Many people achieved their goals. We should never decide on any career until we learn how to like it because this could greatly affect our performance in school. It is controlled by our mind. express each sub-goal in terms of a long-term objective. at 20. assistance and . or the career that would possibly give us a good-paying job is not the one we like. Changing goals along the way could be disastrous simply because time spent will never come back. To win this competition. You may want to complete your degree at 20 and start working.

you can be sure that you're investing your time and energies in activities that will bring you long-term benefit. Then try and anticipate obstacles and plan a way around them." Cecil B. You will feel secure in the knowledge that you are taking care of your education. let it go.collaboration. Movie Producer But along the way you will encounter unexpected setbacks. you have now a clear direction of where you are going. Hitting your goal Now that you broken down your long-term goal into a daily task. what resources. If so. Remind yourself constantly of your objectives. is not to let them derail you from your course. 6. Write the reasons why you want to achieve a particular objective next to the objective in your goal plan. Write your goal in a poster-size paper and post it in place where you can see it frequently. . Unless you are committed to improving your life nothing will happen to you. determination. flexibility. With a daily task list. Be flexible. you can build these things into your goal plan. It also includes putting yourself in the best position where you can clearly see the target. Setting and achieving goals is a lifetime process. The trick. You may find you get bored doing the same things day after day or any task not achieved. Designing a goal plan and sticking to it requires commitment. These activities will bring structure and purpose to your day and eliminate time wasters. though. If this happens to you. Over the course of a lifetime you will go through many changes. "The person who makes a success of living is the one who sees his goal steadily and aims for it unswervingly. These are all perfectly natural and normal. Don’t let your objectives lock you into a path you don’t want to go down. then perhaps they are not good enough reasons. Prepare for all foreseen contingencies. There are four keys to staying on track: commitment. This is what separates the success from failure. Success is attainable only if we concentrate on our goals not on the obstacle. What was important to you ten years ago may not be a priority any more. You will learn there is a certain feeling of satisfaction and sense of accomplishment in completing a task. Once you have a clear idea of what you will need. Soon you will find yourself becoming discriminating in what you give your time to. If the target moves you need to re-position yourself. DeMille. change it. Preparing to hit a target does not just consist of making sure your gun is loaded. Read them every morning and evening. Maybe the objective is not something you want badly enough. If your reasons don’t compel you to keep striving. discipline.

Never give up. Anyone can give up when the going gets tough but it is those who keep going in the face of setbacks who are ultimately victorious. Your success is in your own hands. just hang on and keep going.Learn how to discipline yourself. Discipline yourself to carry out those tasks every day even if you don’t feel like it. When you suffer setbacks. Determination or persistence is what separates the winners from the losers. Many of the tasks you have to do on a daily basis to achieve your longer-term objectives will be laborious and may become boring. Reach out and take it! . Never ever let anyone else make you doubt whether you can achieve your goals.

Others have learned how to manage their time effectively so that they have time to play. we need to have studying time everyday day. Generally. system. It’s a wrong attitude to study only in preparation for exams. preparation. etc. Proper scheduling A good student should set aside a special time each day for studying. time with friends. we have to make studying a habit. The object of all work is production or accomplishment and to either of these ends there must be forethought. choosing the right place to study and pacing your work. time to eat and sleep. As much as possible. the difference between low performers and high performers lies in the number of hours devoted each week to studying. This is important for conditioning our mind and making studying a habit. We need to find which time in any given day is suited for studying. A general rule is to budget about 3 to 4 hours of study for every hour of class." --Thomas Alva Edison. Consistency is very important in scheduling our time to study.. then we are prepared to take any exam any time. The general idea of studying is to prepare ourselves for future “encounters” with the teacher. Scheduling study time and following it strictly with consistency and self discipline is a requirement for better grades. say. This is a nice schedule when followed strictly. Consistency means we study even after some exams. inventor 1. This is what we call “proper scheduling”. It should be the time where we are usually free from any distractions and when we are usually not sleepy. These aspects should include proper scheduling. 7 to 9PM everyday. If we follow our schedule diligently and go to school well-prepared. . and honest purpose. Seeming to do is not doing. planning. We can always give ourselves a break but if we are serious in getting most of studying. intelligence. Following a study schedule strictly doesn’t necessarily mean cutting ourselves from other activities. But we can only follow a schedule strictly if we have self discipline. as well as perspiration. and still have sufficient time to study. "Being busy does not always mean real work.Effective Studying ffective studying requires good planning which should consider several aspects.

club meetings. studying is more important to us than any other things. religious services. Proper scheduling Choosing the right place to study Preparing yourself Effective Student Concentration Get organized Repeat and recall Pacing your work In determining which hours are best for studying it is important to bear in mind that we probably perform better at different times of day. prioritize the list." -. but never move it to the following day. eating and sleeping time. They are not the slaves of time as long as they use the time they have wisely. clothing designer . Create favorable conditions. There is no difference between us and them as long as we do what we are supposed to do as students. Maybe our best period of concentration is in the morning. perhaps just before lunch or late in the evening when everything is quiet. Preparing yourself Preparing ourselves to get most of studying has three requirements. Better move the schedule earlier than later.Kenneth Cole. Try to choose hours for studying when you know that you can get some peace and quiet moments and concentrate on what you are going to do.Prepare a Time Chart (Weekly Schedule). 2. sports and other activities in which you know you will be participating and which will be taking time out of your daily schedule. and stick to it. "How you see yourself is the way you’ll end up being. You can move your study time to accommodate any important event. most students who are high-performers in school learned to use time to their own benefit. As students. Fill in the time blocks with your known time commitments such as classes. generate a positive attitude and develop good techniques. Generally speaking. Make a list of what you intend to study.

these will also appear difficult you. Get to know your classmates. But before we teach ourselves to have positive attitude towards anything. share notes and thoughts about the subject which should result in better performance in school. Each individual must develop his own technique for every subject. Most of us vary in many different ways and subjects are different from each other. It is normal that we like some subjects and dislike others. It is not possible to get better grades if we ourselves believe we are losers and not capable of doing anything. your mind is already tired. Preparing ourselves to be effective students requires that we need to be masters of ourselves. Or to get most in reading .Create favorable conditions. We need to make the subject meaningful to us in some ways. So it is very important that we know how to develop a positive attitude towards anything. This technique may not be applicable to subjects which don’t require problem solving. no single technique can be applicable to all. Remember. For example. So study easier subjects first when you are still fresh. Make use of everything coming your way. an hour here. When you study difficult subjects first. From here we can develop a system where we can get most of studying. especially if we don’t like it. Choose a location where you can concentrate. Generate a positive attitude. Get to know other students in your classes who are also concerned about learning and getting better grades. It's important that we develop a positive attitude concerning the act of studying. We can draw support from each other and help each other. Break up times as much as possible. solve problems as many as you can. It can easily get exhausted. We need to think we are winners and act like one. by the time you finished studying it. We cannot reach a goal we have not set. Develop good techniques. the best way to study mathematics effectively is to practice solving problems. regardless of whether we like them or not. Avoid or remove distractions. hence. and when you study the easier ones. Consider that your mind is not a machine. Make this a habit. we need to face them all. We need to know where we are fast and where we are slow. We need to stop thinking “they are better than us” rather. we need to make ourselves believe that we can be whatever we want to be. Loud music or any TV reduces effectiveness. Creating favorable conditions generally means making a study schedule in such a way that it can be easily followed. whether it's something you can use now or later. Other subjects may not be so easily integrated into our life. But in order to get good grades in all subjects. college or university once (most likely) so we should not waste our time. an hour there. We are already aware of the fact that some of the things we will be studying can be directly used in our eventual employment or in graduate school. Plan to study specific times each week. Try to find something in every subject that you can personally use. we need to have a positive attitude towards ourselves also. we'll only be in high school.

Some like to work in their bedroom at a desk. It needs to have comfortable chairs. Some people can study more effectively in the first 1 hour only of a continuous studying. review them now and check if any were answered by this time and how. It will force you to organize the material in a way that is natural for memory improvement. Pacing is a goal in itself. figures and summaries. you need to find your own rhythm. If we can concentrate on what we're studying we can absorb more in less time. Some people can learn more in a four-hour study period than others. Every 20 to 30 minutes. This will make reading easier and less tiring on your eyes. It should be a place where you can concentrate. Vocalize important parts. schedule a study break to recall what you have studied and to check through it once more. create a onepage summary sheet. Having a special place to go where all we do is study can help towards creating an environment which aids in concentration. any noise should be predictable and of low volume to avoid distractions. It is a break to refresh your mind of what you have studied so far. check key words. etc. Remember. you may be able to increase the effectiveness of your studying. 3. . this is not a break to relax and take your snack. If you can not fine one. Feeling comfortable is an important part of effective studying. then create your own. when they have a "special" place to study. Look for your special place. Pacing your work All people are capable of learning but not all people learn at the same rate. Some students can easily get into the mood for studying. If you yourself are efficient only for the first two hours of continuous studying. clean. then you need to have time breaks every two hours. At most. others read in bed. no bad smell. For intensive memorization. You need to determine at what rate you work now. and can study longer and study more efficiently. good writing surface at right height. It should be relatively quiet. some do their studying at the library and even have their own special studying room. Use repetition to increase absorption.textbooks. create questions for each major topic. you may need to survey first the section or chapter. while other could study effectively for the first three hour of continuous studying. not crowded. The area should be comfortable. It should be well lighted. conducive to learning but not sleeping. If you listed down questions. then decide at what rate you would like to work in the future. 4. Choosing the right place to study Most successful students usually devote one place where they do nothing other than to study. As a student. Through practice. If your goal is to double your effective study time then increase the amount of time you study a little each week until you are satisfied that the time given to study is sufficient for completing your studies on schedule. You will not tire as easily as you might with poor lighting. read and answer these questions. create flash cards and practice often.

we find it difficult to concentrate. Storing and recalling information is what studying is all about. There is no point to waste a whole study session to accomplish little. Don't waste valuable time looking for books. Get organized Create your own system of organizing yourself. Be mentally aware of which things are placed where. it is beneficial that we take a break. notes. Repeat and recall Effective studying means effectively storing information into one’s mind and recalling them once needed. walk around. stand up. having 2 to 3 minutes break in between. If you catch yourself daydreaming stop it immediately. 7.5. Sometimes. Do not day-dream. concentrating as hard as you can. of other information. . think of something else but then get right back to the job at hand. Concentration To concentrate properly on a subject matter and keep paying attention is vital to the learning process. information should be hammered several times to effectively store it in place. then gradually build up to longer sessions. Storing information is best accomplished by repetition. Drumming a fact into your head repeatedly is still the best and fastest way to remember something. and above all. keep it there. Looking for a pen amidst cluttered papers can be time consuming sometimes. After you have assembled the items you need. 6. Without reinforcement through repetition. put them where you can reach them easily. Like a nail. Having knowledge of something means being able to recall any stored information when the need arises. To take a break. When this happens. however. Have a consistent place for everything. Try a short span at first. This means that we need to study a subject or topic several times when necessary in order to effectively digest it. our stored information may soon be gone or be forgotten. Have everything needed for study handy beforehand.

A positive mind anticipates happiness. expect only favorable results and situations. progressive ideas. but that which guides them – the character. Importance of positive thinking to students Most students don’t do better in class because they believe they are. If you choose the former you gain a great and beneficial power. . instead they are usually dependent to other students.Kenneth Cole. health and a successful outcome of every situation and action. Positive and negative thinking are both contagious. People do not change their attitude and thoughts overnight. and their results are very obvious. and circumstances will change accordingly. words and attitude bring up negative and unhappy moods and actions. Their confidence in themselves is their motivation or driving force to move on. poisons are released into the blood. This makes it very difficult for them to try new things. Their lack of self confidence is their usual stumbling block towards getting good grades. unhappiness and more negativity. It may take some time for the changes to take place. Consistent application is necessary." --Fyodor Dostoyevsky . the constant guarding of the mind against negativity.Positive Thinking hinking positively means admitting into the mind only thoughts. it finds. but eventually they do. frustration and disappointment. When the mind is negative. joy. Think positively. Negative thinking is the way to failure. It does not matter what your circumstances are at the present moment. words and images that promotes growth. instead they strive to find “how’s” to their every “why’s”. the heart.Writer "How you see yourself is the way you’ll end up being. expansion and success. the generous qualities. Most people are not successful because they think they can not be one. Poor performers on the other hand believe that their capability is very limited when compared to other students. It is the expectation of good and favorable results. Students who are good performers in class believe in themselves. which cause withdrawal feelings. 1. Whatever the mind expects. They don’t bother themselves with anything they can not do. "It is not the brains that matter most. Some students continue to get poor grades because they concentrate on the obstacles rather than concentrating on their goals. clothing designer Negative thoughts. Thinking positive requires vigilance." -.

In general. students who are positive thinkers or those who have a great deal of self confidence are motivated to spend more time in studying while those who lack self confidence usually find studying boredom. in every lecture. hence. . enthusiastic or dull. They undergo a process of change. almost every lecture is boring. "If you think you can. A positive thinker is comparable to a person who while climbing a mountain is enjoying the scenery. Persistence will eventually teach our mind to think positively and ignore negative thoughts. For some. We have to teach ourselves how to get motivated. It is just not possible for someone to learn while at the same time thinking that the subject matter is too difficult to tackle. Set goals and priorities for what you think and do. positive commitment to oneself. 2. whether we know it or not. It is as if there are two pictures in front of us. We don’t wait to get motivated. and we choose to look at one and disregard the other. If we want good grades. And if you think you can’t. For others. In fact. This will lessen the inflow of negative ideas into your mind. concentrating only on the positive aspects of anything. We can not change the lectures according to our own taste. learning is drudgery. you can. We can be positive or negative. The negative thought will try again to enter our mind. your progress will be faster. and then we have to replace it again with a positive one. Concentrate on these ideas to get motivated. we need to look for one or more interesting ideas. The biggest difference between people is their attitudes. To be positive. Then we get what we deserve. For many. we should believe we deserve it. gradually rejecting negative thoughts and accepting or entertaining only positive ones. look for positive people to associate with. you’re right. This requires commitment. The first one does not easily gets tired hence. Not every lecture will be pleasing to our ears. something required on the road to a job. Founder of Mary Kay Cosmetics In every class. Once a negative thought enters our mind. Avoid negative thinkers." --Mary Kay Ash. while a negative thinker likens to a person who while climbing a mountain is cursing the mountain itself. we have to be aware of it and endeavor to replace it with a constructive one. learning is just okay. They are made. We are in control. has a great possibility to arrive at its destination in still great shape. Creating positive mindset People do not become positive thinkers by chance. learning is enjoyable and exciting. active or passive. We need to make adjustments within ourselves. We need to keep our mind focused on important things.

the people we meet. They dislike and avoid anyone broadcasting negativity. If you feel inner resistance when replacing negative thoughts with positive ones. do not give up. Always visualize only favorable and beneficial situations. Prepare questions not only for things you don’t know but also for those you already know. All of us affect. With every idea you learned. . This is why we need to be around with positive persons and shun negative ones. whether positively or negatively.Before attending any class. as this helps to think positively. This will deepen your knowledge of the subject matter. If you persevere. Positive thinking is power in itself. rather. Don’t bother yourself with every negative reaction from your friend. or through body language. Disregard any feelings of laziness or a desire to quit. When the attitude is positive we entertain pleasant feelings and constructive images. This will increase your knowledge and strengthen your positive mindset. This happens instinctively and on a subconscious level. prepare questions for the teacher. you will transform the way your mind thinks. through thoughts and feelings transference. and see in our mind's eye what we really want to happen. Your questions will invite more questions from other students. People are more disposed to help us if we are positive. Smile a little more. tackle it positively. good and happy thoughts in your mind. but keep looking only at the beneficial. Use positive words in your thoughts or when talking with others. explain it to your friends.

It is the responsibility of the student to do his part in the learning process. direction. 2. direction and monitoring. students should become more self-sufficient. Be an active learner. as time goes on. the student should become a teacher to himself. If you want to be a good and responsible student. Yet some were able to complete their course in twice the usual time duration. time and energy is being wasted. The first student controls his own learning process while the second one used the “free-wheeling” style of learning. If you are used to be in school where “spoon-feeding” is the way of teaching. Make a general program of the whole course. author 1. even at the very early stage. The role of the teacher should be reduced to giving scope. . As we grow older the participation of the parents become less and less. social activist. then learn how to feed yourself.Student’s Responsibilities efore we decide to go schooling. It is very irresponsible on the part of the student to go to school and wait to be fed. especially when the students enter high school or college where in general they prefer more independence. The learning process Education is a two-way activity. Finally. However. the teacher provides example. Students’ responsibilities Take control of your own learning process. Some students managed to complete a five-year course in four years time. There is no such thing as free education even if we are on scholarships or even if the teacher is doing the teaching as a volunteer. "I long to accomplish some great and noble task." --Helen Keller. Originally. The parents usually prepare the students how to behave in school. it is important to know what our responsibilities are as a good and responsible student. Whether he is being paid or not. be your own teacher. what subjects to take in what semester. The fact is the teacher is exhausting his energy and time for the student’s sake. more self-directed and more self-critical. It is important to realize at this point that it is the student’s future that is at stake here. When the student is in pre-school. evaluation and help. education already consists of an active participation between the student and the teacher at school and between the students and parents at home. Control your own learning process. but it is my chief duty to accomplish small tasks as if they were great and noble.

You can not do anything unless you believe you can do it. You need to know what success means to you. Take control of your own learning process through good planning. Your teacher will be glad to know you are interested to learn in his subject. Do not compare yourself with others because whether you like it or not there are always things where others are better than you. develop yearly goal. Some students consider it an opportunity to help others because they also learn more things in the process. You may also seek extra help from your friends and classmates. Learn how to optimize the use your resources. It will increase your knowledge in the process. Seek extra help. Rectify your failures to your advantage. Act like a competent adult. It is the responsibility of the students to seek extra help. An adult makes his own decisions and thinks independently. Concentrate on open-ended questions. Seek extra help from your teacher. An adult takes responsibility of all his words and actions. Concentrate on your positive aspects and develop it. make it a success and use it to achieve goals. Explore your self. Ask questions. It will only show that you are not listening or participating actively in class. people define success as an attainment of a certain goal. check which subjects are prerequisites to which subjects. If you like the subject. even if you already know the answers. But most good performers have developed their own learning techniques. Do not repeat the questions of other students. monthly goal. Define success in your own terms. You paid them to teach you. discover what your strengths are then make use of it to your advantage. Develop your own personal learning strategies. learn how to spend less time in it so that you will have more time to other more difficult ones. Some questions will invite follow-up questions from other students. Feel good about yourself regardless of your abilities. make use of your payment. Accept and develop only positive ideas. Always ask questions. Most teachers are required to allocate consultation time for the students. Then out of your general goal. check which subjects are more difficult than the others. Treat yourself like and adult. Concentrate on positive questions. with respect. Monitor your success. why you go to school to study. Think and act positive. questions that could encourage participation of others and could invite more questions.Organize the subjects. etc. act like an adult and others will treat you as an adult. make use of it. Screen ideas that enter your mind. Usually. Most students . Define your general goal. Identify your negative aspects and make way to rectify it to your advantage. Most students consider studying as a simple reading and memorizing activity. weekly goal and daily goal. techniques that enable them to get more by exerting less.

They are also well-informed hence. we also learn. It is the student’s responsibility to develop good techniques for efficient studying. It shows your professor what you know. The source of learning avenues is endless. So if you are serious in learning. know and study in advance the next topic. In some classrooms. interview other experts. use as many books as they can. you’ll also end up having a free lunch. in helping others. Help others in need. In trying to answer those questions. They can open their notes. This is a wrong attitude. But in general. competition is intense and there is a tendency for those good performers to shun helping others. we will discover some of our mistakes and other weak points and learn that there are still areas that we have not studied in detail. Partial credit is always better than no credit. Homeworks and assignments are two very important learning tools that most students take for granted. do your homeworks and assignments diligently. . whether it is announced or un-announced. because some teachers give up to 10% credits from class attendance. Aside from learning more out of helping others. Helping or teaching others doesn’t mean losing something because we gave it to others. So. Attending class is the best way to learn what you’re supposed to learn. As learners ourselves. hence we are always on the lead. Some students attend class just for the sake of showing up. Students who actively participate in class and attend class regularly perform well in any exam. Some students also seldom attend classes especially if the teacher is not very particular with class attendance. you need to prepare. students like these seldom get good grades unless they really get perfect scores in exams. To actively participate in class. you need to be punctual in attending classes. only very few students do their assignments diligently while others just wait and then copy. including group projects are very important tools for learning because it gives the students the opportunity to learn at their own pace and strategies. Always turn in your homework even if it’s not completed. especially our classmates. Do homeworks and assignments. etc. This is wrong because to be successful students we need to get good grades in all subjects. what your professor will put on the exam. So. unless you have exceptional intelligence.spend more to subjects they like. when we teach others. Attend and actively participate in class. In most cases when a teacher gives an assignment. and what’s expected of you in your homework. Assignments and homeworks. Organize tutorial classes. can do assignments and homeworks correctly and submit them on time. we will be facing a lot of questions from our classmates. for taking exams and for solving problems.

. not just harder. Continue improving yourself. Do that and you will learn more and get better grades.Work smarter. Concentrate and prioritize doing activities that will yield the greatest benefit. Cut out some of the non-productive activity in the learning process and focus on that which is productive.

we will notice that we can actually take control in its development. If we can control it then we can choose which habit we want to develop. To most of us. like adjusting first his seat and checking the mirrors before turning on the ignition switch. Developing learning habits means overhauling ourselves. But it doesn’t happen like magic – that if we follow what we outlined to do then the habit will automatically develop." -. he mentally prepares a list of things to do to start driving or while driving. They attained it by making training and studying a habit. musicians develop musical skills. improving good habits we already have.John Dryden. When a driver first study how to drive. check how . Our subconscious mind is continuously collecting information from the environment and stores it in our brain. he will be doing these things automatically without consulting his mental list. when to do it. writer If we study closely the process how our habits are developed. it is developed without the person actively knowing it. managers develop managing skills. Our subconscious mind works through repetition. Our brain works that way. then we should not be reading this article. They endured long and tiring training/studies in developing effective skills. Improving and managing learning styles Improving and managing learning styles consists of planning. The development of a habit of a person is influenced mainly by the environment where that person is exposed to. 1. learning new ones and throwing out those which we think detrimental to our goal. we choose what to do. We need to identify them. monitoring and evaluating our own learning styles.Building Good Habits f studying things is our habit. In order to find success in schooling. how to do it. Each of us may have different learning styles in any subject. Building good habits can help us to be effective in studying. check which ones are effective and which are not. Athletes develop athletic skills. and then our habits make us. There is no magic formula. It is purely natural development. "We first make our habits. In other words. learners therefore need to develop learning habits. How? By choosing our environment – we choose our friends. This is how successful people hit their goal. etc. Observe also other students. habits are something that is developed in a person naturally. Usually. look left and right before crossing a street. But when he is already used to driving. etc. we actively give direction to our life.

" -. The choice is endless. check how you do in reading. They discuss together. Try them and identify which one fits on you. From time to time. time-management. We need to know other styles so that we may have several options to develop our own effective learning styles. Also prepare some filler activities. Keep improving your learning styles and make it a habit. basketball coach "He. Without your active participation. nothing will happen to you. Develop the habit of accommodating only positive thoughts. The point is you need to know what to do in any given situation. asking each others questions. Others study in groups or find study partner or partners. big goals and do positive actions towards it. Other stays in their room and study quietly. 2. note-taking and/or problem-solving.they study effectively. Though you paid the school or teacher. Other prefers outdoors and study alone quietly. Try different learning environments. Positive thinking It is your responsibility to educate yourself. writing. Be flexible.John Wooden. Others browse the internet to gather more information. You need this to develop self confidence and self-esteem." -. Do not consider learning as a burden. who every morning plans the transactions of the day. when you are in a group. but they are just instruments for you to learn. Always budget time to every activity and follow it faithfully. Don’t limit yourself to only one option. Checking means you have to try them. Others don’t start studying until they gathered all the information available. For example. Make a daily schedule and identify mentally which time could be squeezed and which one needs to be expanded. Check which one is effective to you. So take charge of your future. Many high-performing students use any style applicable in any given situation. carries a thread that will guide him through a labyrinth of the most busy life. Take charge of your own education. writer 3. activities you can do in times you . Make use of what is presently available. Others form groups to study together. rather enjoy yourself learning. Try different learning avenues or tools. Set goals. listening. Time management Develop the habit of managing your time. and follows that plan. "Do not let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do. do not wait until you are alone in order to study. Others gather as much books as possible.Victor Hugo. Keep monitoring and improving your learning styles and skill.

critical thinking is concerned with their evaluation. Spend your time wisely. Develop this habit. Critical thinking involves logical thinking and reasoning including skills such as comparison. Critical thinking involves skills that enable the student to sort. fluency. It affects how you see yourself . Creative thinking is generally considered to be involved with the creation or generation of ideas.are vacant. good plans. nice goals. This requires will power and determination but if you have self discipline you are in control. Asking questions It’s a part of our natural process to grow up. It’s the art of asking questions. experiences or objects. You can always make good schedules. 5. patterning. originality. Self discipline Our parents. guardians and teachers try their best in instilling discipline in us. metaphorical thinking. modification. elaboration. associative thinking. especially our teacher. Develop the habit of self-discipline. To be successful problem solvers. subject or topic. Always make yourself busy. your emotions and actions boosts your confidence and esteem. try to be creative and critical at the same time. 6. Self discipline builds your confidence . You will need this kind of attitude for making decisions and solving problems. classification. cause/effect. deductive and inductive reasoning. It allows you to stay focused on your goals.being in control of yourself. It involves the skills of flexibility. processes. The aim of creative thinking is to stimulate curiosity and promote divergence.your self image is so much better when you know you can succeed and change. forecasting and planning. analyze. webbing. and refine creative ideas. imagery. 4. Time is expensive and never comes back once spent. etc. forced relationships. analogies. It affects your ability to make foresights. but there’s one aspect in a child’s life which we need to retain. You can cut out bad habits and create new good ones. Creative and critical thinking Critical and creative thinking can be described as qualities of good thinking processes and as types of thinking. Creative thinking involves creating something new or original ideas. attribute listing. It is needed in identifying main ideas and . But nothing will really happen if we ourselves don’t take positive actions. brainstorming. especially in dealing with other people. With self discipline you can change your life anyway you want to. but you can never follow or attain them unless you know how to discipline yourself. In every situation. sequencing. Ask questions like a child and make it a habit. students must possess a balance of creative and critical thinking skills. It enables you to stay in control of yourself and of your reactions to any situation.

focusing concentration. Doing this means we are pressing the time. This will keep you informed of all the rules regarding absences. It is also useful in generating interest. Always have your calculator on your desk and have your text book out. The whole subject is discussed here. lack of time. work along with him/her. Make it a habit of reading the class syllabus and handouts the teacher passes out in any meeting. Additional works will be assigned to you from time to time. Make it a habit of being in the classroom a little bit early. For example. Create a step by step process with time allotments. exams. always call or see a classmate after the class to find out what you missed and if your teacher assigned anything that will be due when you return. Identify obstacles.supporting evidence. motivation. Make a planning in developing this new habit. Make it a habit of getting to know well three to four of your teachers. You do not absorb 100% of what you hear and this is a reality. lack of self confidence. This is how losers and winners are distinguished. This lets you know what the subject is all about. assignments. If you do have to miss a class. Make it a habit of being an active participant in the class. Keep track of your progress and evaluate your self from time to time. Justify to yourself how important it is to your life or your studies. Identify which one you need to develop. how the teacher is going to handle it and what is expected of you. Whatever or whoever he is. Try to eliminate them. Being late means the time is pressing us. Always try to create a good relationship with your teacher. you will . It is needed in expanding our knowledge. even if you don’t like him/her. Make extra reading to cover up your losses. Make it habit of doing your homework the same day it is assigned to you. improving memory. This first classroom instruction is usually devoted for orientation. If the teacher or any of your classmates is making some sort of computation in the board. If your absorption capability is only 50% and so do with your friend. Teachers often do problems out of the book as examples. You do it while it is fresh in your mind and while you still have plenty of time to try different materials and methods. Being early in class brings many good things in us. Create new habits Always study your environment. Make it a habit of attending and never missing a class unless you are really sick. There is a big difference between the time “beating us” and “us beating the time”. then you loss 75% of what is being discussed in the class when you are absent and just rely on the input of your friends. Make it easy to follow and implement. do not wait for results. check the habits of other successful people. etc. etc. You can always borrow notes or ask your friends what was discussed in the class. This will make you more active rather than passive. procrastination. Doing it later will force you to squeeze your time and effort. Make it a habit of attending and never missing the first class meeting. 7. etc. Implement and follow your schedule faithfully. but let us accept the fact that there are always communication losses.

ask questions and show your interest. but you will also be getting to know people who have first hand experience of what you are studying. Mind always your existing habits. accept what is available. Make this a habit.need him in the near future. Experience and exposure is what you need now. Study the lives of other successful people. Not only will you be doing something more mentally stimulating. Don’t care too much about salary. . Just be active in class. You don’t have to invite him/her for dinner. Make it a habit of getting summer jobs that are related to your course of study. improve those needing improvements and eliminate those that need to be eliminated. Observe always your environment to scout for effective habits. show your enthusiasm. identify their good habits.

There . You should make out daily plans for a week at a time. allot time requirements for each activity and define priorities. Time management means listing all your activities. Then in every subject we are taking in any given semester. author Family. The flow of time cannot be delayed and cannot be controlled. and unless it is managed nothing else can be managed. Listing of activities does not just mean setting down and listing down every activity that come into our mind which we think needed in our endeavor. then to daily goals. and then starting on the first one. Don't miss an important meeting or exam because you forgot. we need to break it down in such a way that we will know what we will be doing in any given year. breakdown complex activities into several minor activities to make them manageable. The only way to make use of time is to manage it properly. we need to have a goal. etc. we need to set time limit. Any given year might compose of one. determine which activities cannot be done without completing the other. We again need to know what subjects we need to load in any given semester. "The secret of getting ahead is getting started." -. Whatever our goal is.Time Management ime is one very important resource we have which we rarely give due consideration." --Mark Twain. Drucker. or simply a list of monthly activities for such subject. You don't need to waste time or make life more difficult by being disorganized. If for example we choose to study a four-year course. when are we going to achieve it. Student’s life is busy and full of challenge. The secret of getting started is breaking your complex. writer So from one single complex goal. we need to make monthly targets or monthly goals. "Time is the scarcest resource. two or three semesters. Don't leave it to a chance that you will study whenever. It is abundant to those who are doing nothing and scarce to those who are doing something. friends. we break it down to goal per year. before we embark into all-out studying. Schedule study time. If necessary. goal per month. We again need to breakdown these monthly goals into weekly goals. goal per week and goal per day. overwhelming tasks into small manageable tasks. work and play will compete with your education for time and resources. 1. Listing of activities As discussed in chapter 1.Peter F. goal per semester.

Defining priorities means re-arranging the list according to its importance. Assigning time durations to each activity does not just consist of closing the eyes and jotting down whatever time duration which come into our mind. You can always revise your schedule as circumstances warrant. plan time for study. With what is left. up to a level we consider manageable. For the yearly schedule and schedule per semester. lecture. thus needs to be prioritized. we have a list of activities with corresponding time assignments. and so on. However. What do we do next? At this point we need to consider that not all activities are equally important. though all of them should be done. The more units the subject has the more important it is. Next. and other work in which you engage. lectures. A schedule should take into account every class. Also allocate a period for sleeping and relaxation each day. There are really subjects which we are fast learners and there are some that are simply more difficult.has to be a system we need to follow that could simplify the studying process. 2. . Though we don’t buy time. The weight of any subject is usually given in terms of “units” which corresponds to the number of hours of classes each week. There has to be some criteria we need to consider. social event. A six-unit subject is two times heavier than a three-unit subject though they may require the same length of time to study. it should consider breaking the main objective into several major activities. Whatever this system is. We need to familiarize ourselves with our own natural capabilities. we have to consider that time is not free. try to allocate at least three to four hours of advance study for every hour of class. we need to set the priorities by ourselves. Thus a six-unit subject means you have to attend six hours of classes per week. Indicate times for classes. social. We assign longer time durations to more difficult subjects. and work time. 3. This gives you a rough estimate of the time available. Some subjects need to be taken first before the others. we need to consider the time available. and this set up is usually controlled by the school. You must focus on the "free time" available and how you will use it. We need to assign time duration into major activities and all its sub-activities. The problem is how to determine that an activity is more important than the others. First we need to consider the activity versus ourselves. and then each major activity into several sub-activities. As a rule of thumb. priorities are usually defined by pre-requisites. weekly and daily schedule. consider the weight of the subject. then we need to assign time durations in such a way that we have enough time to study all the subjects. First. labs. laboratory. Define priorities Now. It needs to follow a system too. for monthly. Time assignments Time management does not stop at listing or breaking down of activities. Setting priorities means deciding which activity we have to do first before others. If we have exam the following week. There are basic activities such as classes and so on that has to be incorporated.

In effect. Yearly and semestral goals Schools usually have a prepared prospectus for every course of study. consider easy subjects and prioritize them. To be a successful student. There is a need for us to constantly monitor our current standing for every subject. Monthly goals Monthly schedules are prepared every semester. need more concentration. week. which . There are still a lot of criteria that we can consider. Initially. The point is. a listing of subjects that need to be taken by the student every semester. it is enough for us to follow this yearly/semestral schedule. It’s a matter of arranging which to do first. prioritize means assigning them more time to study. we can do it more quickly and our brain does not exert much effort thus. After all. This time. we need to get good grades in all subjects. Most difficult subjects are heavyweights (having big units). We make monthly schedule for every subject. 4. Most of us like easy subjects because this means easy work but we should always consider that we need to do all the activities.Second. A good schedule should be flexible and should permit revision. by taking more subjects than required in any given semester. This is prepared once we have finished enrolling the subjects we need to take in a semester. There is always a danger of not finishing all the activities we plan to do. and even take summer classes. Subjects which we are performing poorly at any given time need special attention. we may find it necessary to revise this schedule. whether we like it or not. in their senior years they are forced to take all difficult subjects in a semester. Scheduling of activities Now. preserving our energy for the more difficult ones. hence it is important to define priorities. So we should not trap ourselves into spending more time on easy subjects just because we like it. Here. consider your current standing. the school was able to come up with this prospectus. all subjects are important. month or year. consider difficult subjects and prioritize them. They end up completing their course of study ahead of time. Through research and years of experience. However. as we go along with our studies. prioritize means doing them first before studying or doing the more difficult ones. A good schedule should be well-balanced. Some students also are wise enough to re-arrange the prospectus given by the school. Fourth. with easy and difficult subjects distributed evenly. we have a list of activities with corresponding time assignments. This could end in a disaster. since the activity is easy. Third. and we also know which one to do first or which activities are dependent on other activities. But prioritize does not mean assigning more time to it. hence. But we still don’t know which to do in a given day. Some students however. abuse this flexibility and find themselves enrolling those easy subjects first. though not equally.

We list down all the routine activities we need to do in a day. 5. we can easily measure our progress and detect possible problems. daily schedule should be flexible enough to our own advantage. When we budgeted two hours for a certain activity and we finished it in less than two hours. We are social beings and our life will be very boring without social activities. etc. We know what will happen if we don’t follow the schedule. we know we have to do it because there is another activity schedule for eight o’clock. take a bath. Like any other schedule. time for relaxation and entertainment. listing down the topics to be taken up. Weekly goals Monthly schedule is broken down in a weekly basis. Don’t waste time. Also. Also. Daily goals Weekly schedule is still difficult to implement because it is still too general. If we schedule the activity to be done at seven o’clock. Daily schedule should also permit revision but revision should be done mentally. we group together the activities we need to study in any given week. Daily schedule is prepared so we may know the activities to be done in a day. Our instructor will usually give us the subject outline at the beginning of each class in a semester. With all the activities scheduled to be done in a specific time. Monthly schedule should be flexible enough to permit revision once the need arises. we will be forced to follow it diligently because we see the whole picture.chapter or chapters will be done this month. then we can insert in our study periods. attend classes. From this list. how many major exams will be given and the tentative dates of the major exams. it should be prepared in such a way that progress can be monitored and corrective action could be taken once our actual progress lags behind the schedule. our goal would seem difficult or may be impossible to achieve. From this data we can prepare our monthly schedule. our productivity is improved and possible problems could easily be rectified without spoiling other activities. With detectable problems. we can achieve our goal one step at a time. Study periods should be distributed throughout the day to avoid overloading our mind. weekly schedule should be updated every week to take into account the actual progress. with corresponding time when to do them. We need to have time being with friends and/or relatives. with no specific timing. etc. Advantages of proper time management Converting impossible into possible At first. From our list of activities. meetings. Measure progress With a well-defined schedule. . procrastination could be eliminated. etc. we will know which time of the day we are free. time for worship. Eliminate procrastination With a well-prepared schedule. In preparing weekly schedule we need to consider also other activities aside from studying. we go directly to the next activity. eat. But by breaking down our goal into sub-goals up to a more manageable level. We set the time we wake up in the morning.

know which time is best for you to study.. Know your self. the brain is still processing the information. Some tips for proper use of time Know yourself There are times of a day when we are mentally alert and when we are mentally down. Poor health is therefore a waste of time when it comes to studying. while waiting for a bus or while waiting for your turn in a bank.g. Poor health means poor mind. some during morning. Use your power times to study. use that time for mindless tasks. and yet some at early dawn. need more time to learn. use the down times for routines such as laundry and errands. You can open them anywhere when you find extra time. Be health conscious Have enough sleep. exercise regularly and have proper diet. Make your study materials handy and portable Write your notes and other study materials in flashcards." This type of studying is efficient because while you are taking a break. Make this a habit. Some students are effective at studying during night time. Poor mind can not study efficiently hence. Distribute study time Study in shorter time blocks with short breaks between. . Choose study areas that are conducive to studying This will allow you to reduce distractions which can "waste time. e." If there are times in the residence halls or your apartment when you know there will be noise and commotion.6. This keeps you from getting fatigued and "wasting time. so that you can put it in your pocket or handbag. small notebooks or a loose sheet of paper.

Some students also prefer not to attend classes especially if the teacher is not very particular with class attendance. Write down ideas and put them in words you understand. Rarely will you discover the objective by reading the textbook. you need to be punctual in attending classes. Note what parts of the readings made sense to you. . Toastmasters International 1. If there is a word or phrase you don't know. Participate actively in class. and which ones did not. write it down. To actively participate in class. The importance of note taking is to maximize retention and for easy recollection of the lecture. It is advisable to write down keywords or phrases only. Smedley. Develop your own style of taking notes. So. most often during the first week. 2. The biggest mistake students make is that they don’t know what they’re supposed to learn in their classes. your chances of real success are proportionately increased. Usually the professor reveals that in class. ask your instructor if you can record the lecture. students like these seldom get good grades unless they really get perfect scores in exams. and when to remain silent." --Ralph C. You can ask the instructor about it or look it up at a later time. In general. Be prepared to take notes and raise questions. Read assigned pages/chapters before coming to class. It will be these things you will want to pay special attention during the lecture. you need to prepare. especially during study time. If you try to keep up with a lecturer by taking down every word you won't be able to understand it. Preparing for class Make it a habit of attending class well-prepared.Classroom Instructions ome students attend class just for the sake of showing up. if you know how and when to speak. Knowing the objectives will provide a framework for your studies for the entire semester. know and study in advance the next topic. If you think you need every word. hence get good grades. Students who actively participate in class and attend class regularly perform well in any exam. unless you have exceptional intelligence. "Whatever your grade or position. Don't take down every word. Taking Notes Students don't always recognize how important it is to take good notes.

Review again. Don't write too much or too little. Don't write complete sentences. Convince yourself it's important. Add and edit the notes for accuracy and to make them read more clearly. Make an attempt to understand how the various parts fit together. create a short outline about the lecture. On the other hand. You may use notebooks or loose papers. Review them while they are fresh in your mind. Good note taking requires motivation. When you listen to a lecture. Your main job in taking lecture notes is to be a good listener. Preview material before lecture. don't be too lazy to the extent of missing some points. formulate questions as you listen. Be flexible. Don't talk to others regarding other matters during lecture. As you write notes. and then later reorganize them in your own words. Write down the information presented in as organized a way as possible. ask the teacher what will be covered next time. as passive spectators. readings and assignments. As soon as possible. Loose papers are considered best because you can insert handouts and other notes into them. 4. Generate interest and motivation. make sure you understand what you're writing. Getting most from lectures Some students watch lectures like they watch television. Think about how your notes relate to other parts of the class. Review the last lecture notes. If you wait weeks or even a day or two before reading your notes you will have lost a lot. Come to class with all homework finished. Copy anything put on the board. concentration and a systematic method of recording information.As soon after class as possible. Try to develop and keep your own set of abbreviations. This recitation is one of the best ways to strengthen understanding. Taking accurate and concise lecture notes is essential. except for definitions or quotations. Within 24 hours. Get them down. review the outline first. Teachers usually try to integrate lectures. You can also arrange and re-arrange them as you like. thumb through the chapter on the topic for the day. To be a good listener. Add comments. Don't let the lecture become meaningless material. Sit in front of the room. . It is more likely to show up on tests. It takes too much time and effort and you can not catch-up with the lecture. review and edit your notes. review your outline and notes. you must learn to focus and concentrate on the main points of the lecture. Always put a date in your notes. Check the notes of your classmates to see if you missed any important items. After class. Within 7 days. Be active and be prepared. You may find it necessary to edit this list from time to time. then the notes. Cover your main notes and recite key points out loud. You will need this in increasing your notetaking efficiency. 3. Effective note taking Be physically and mentally present in class.

sit near the front of the class. even if you don't verbalize them out loud. Both are naturally curious. it is assumed that you know how to ask good questions. You’re alert. Curiosity and questions are the motivation and means of learning. important points and materials are referenced here and repeated." You may go into advanced form of questions as you go deeper into the topic. To help avoid distractions. Be active in class to be less affected by distractions. Pay attention to the course outline or syllabus. when. Twenty-four hours after a class. The two most effective groups of learners are children and scientists. or “what if” scenario. These are the familiar questions starting with "what. clarify ideas. Refresh yourself always about the object of the lecture. apply it. curious. or in other ways become aggressively involved in cementing the material in your memory. . and aware of what’s being said and what’s going on around you. Learn how to use basic forms of questions. why. 6. While you’re taking notes. who and how. you will remember only about 10 percent of what you heard unless you repeat it. Listen with aggressiveness Be physically and mentally present in the class. where. Note taking also aids in increasing your absorption efficiency. discuss it. Dealing with distractions Distractions in the classroom are sometimes cannot be avoided.5. stimulate interest. Effective listening also needs the use of your mouth. either in class or after class. It will help you focus on the lecture. Most teachers will be glad to clarify for you. Generally. The secret to aggressive listening is to make your mind like a radar. These are the questions in the form of “cause and effect”. 7. and there are far less distractions at the front than any other location. Be aware how the lecture fits with the objective. How to Use Questions Questions can be used to organize information. By the time you get to high school or college. Both seek answers to their every question. Don't be afraid to ask the teacher if there is something you don't understand. Examine and probe the topic carefully in order to gain full understanding. Average students are able to recall about eight times more of the content when they become involved than when they just listen. improve listening skills and improve test-taking. generate some questions and have them ready to roll. Ask questions to clarify a point. Be like children and scientists. Learn how to listen aggressively. You're less likely to miss something important.

Learning to read effectively is an important study skill. Some need to read and reread the topic several times before he can fully absorb it. It aids in the retention of information and serves as a necessary addition to the information you gain in class. Survey the material and the information contained therein. Every line in here is important. you need to develop techniques to improve your absorption efficiency. Look at the table in some detail. As a student. "Employ your time in improving yourself by other men’s writing so that you shall come easily by what others have labored for. Doing this gives you an idea of what the author thinks is important.Effective Reading earning how to read and retain what you read is critical to being a successful student. Read the preface. Read all the headings and subheadings. Try to absorb. There have to be some questions which answers you are trying to search. what the author thinks is important for you to know and how the information is organized. But what. You can improve your reading skills by making the following changes in your current style. You need to be finding something in what you are reading. Try to know in advance what the book is all about. is it that you are looking for? You need to be motivated. Still. Make a note of them. Some students can easily absorb what he is reading. Now you can read the main text with a better idea of where to focus your attention. You want to learn as much as possible. Start reading the parts of the book which give overall picture of the whole book. They are the ones you need to concentrate your subsequent study efforts on. Read the table of contents. most students give it no thought whatsoever. exactly. If the text provides a glossary at the end of each chapter read it next. Textbook authors go to great pains to select appropriate titles for their books and chapters. Don't read a textbook like you would a novel from the front to the back. also to make the information flow in the most logical and natural way. Just reading one paragraph after another with tidbits of information strewn .” --Socrates 1. Reading textbooks Read the summary and conclusion first. It often contains hints on why the book was written. Be motivated You might be very enthusiastic to start reading the first chapter. Before reading the main text turn to the end of the chapter and read the summary.

Try to read them if you have time or if you can get hold of them. read this first then go to the summary and conclusions section at the end of the article. and there. referred to as abstract of 100 to 250 words. and only then. Take notes. photos and inserts. Then. you are reading a textbook. or copy word for word. Take notes as you read. . wanted them to jump out at you. any independent and dependent variables. writer Like the textbook. Sometimes. It will give you a broader understanding of how the author summarizes and integrates information. Reading research articles For some introductory and many advanced courses you will be required to read related published research articles. wastes a lot of time. purpose or hypothesis of research. Those are sample questions you are required to answer correctly as affirmation of your learning progress. the author will list some recommended readings and references. textbooks give sample questions at the end of each chapter or near the end of the book. you stay alert. Try to make a wild guess of the answers in advance before you start reading. Having questions in your mind which need answers you are now ready to read with purpose. Too often students tend to skip over these. at the end of the book. check if they are consistent with the hypothesis and conclusion. how these variables were measured.” --Mark Twain. Take note of the author(s). Unlike novels. however. not a novel. Pay special attention to graphs. Do not try to re-write the book. This will definitely arouse your curiosity and that assures that you become properly motivated. are you ready to start the textbook with chapter one. tables. title. Like your textbook. Be aware of how the current chapter relates to other parts of the book. read them before class. Look them up now. especially if they are assignments. In the end you may get nothing you need or get many things you do not need. Read a recommended reading or reference. Fortunately. The author. you empower the learning process. Use a highlighter to mark up important points. key findings. Research articles usually include a summary. "The man who does not read good books has no advantage over the man who can not read them. Then think about how the reading relates to lectures and assignments.

Broaden your background knowledge by reading newspapers. Try to anticipate the author and predict future ideas and questions. or statements that summarize the main elements of the passage. this is a lifetime project. graphs and inserts. Only highlight or underline main ideas. key terms. Think about how this research is related to other readings. Use cross-referencing while you read. abstract. Keep reading. You can do this by reading first the preface. You might carry around a pocket dictionary and use it to look up new words. Keep building up your vocabulary. you have to highlight. magazines and books. Just reading a book once is not enough. keep a dictionary to check for words you don’t understand. Create motivation and interest. As you read. Also. Before reading the main text. keep a paper and pen handy to take down notes. the faster is your comprehension. Often. 3. look for transitional words. To develop a deeper understanding. If you see a point on a page that relates to something you have read previously. Become interested in world events. The stronger your interest. table of contents. Study pictures. If you're wrong. Try to develop a systematic reading style. try to develop questions which answers you need to find out in reading the main text.Pay special attention to tables. Or. concentration and good study techniques. Also. lectures and assignments for the course. names of important people or dates. These are what the author thinks are most important. introduction. Keep pouring ideas into your mind. graphs and headings. summarize and review important ideas. you can keep a list of words to look up at the end of the day. use a highlighter to highlight some important lines in the book. phrases or paragraphs that change the topic. Always keep a dictionary with you while reading. If you are reading your own book. the first sentence will give an overview that helps provide a framework for adding details. For most educated people. Improving reading comprehension Reading comprehension requires motivation. try to learn why the book is written and what is being achieved. this reinforces your understanding. . Try to find out why your instructor wanted you to read it. don’t overdo it with your highlighter. you make adjustments quicker. make notes in the margin of each page referring to the other page that has related information. Try to survey the book first. As you read the main text. If you're right. summary and glossary or index. Good writers construct paragraphs that have a beginning. You need to be interested on what you are reading. mental frameworks for holding ideas. middle and end.

Controlling your environment in this way will help you concentrate and get more out of what you are reading. while others prefer to read mentally. Make sure that the place where you want to read is conducive to reading. Verbally summarize what you have read to help improve your retention.After reading the main text. Some can read a book while the mind wanders away. Review what you’ve read frequently. Go through your notes. 5. Make sure all the problems are solved before you move on to the next chapter. review mentally what you have learned from the reading. Write down any areas that were confusing or if you had questions about and ask your instructor as soon as possible. Right reading environment Before you start reading. form a study group with others or visit your instructor. If you have trouble solving the problems. . you need to add “practice” stage for solving problems during the review stage of your reading. a place where you can concentrate in your work or where you can not disturb anybody if you wish to read aloud. Then review the book to find out what you have missed. Others find it beneficial to read aloud. or over-tired. It is important to monitor your attention. you are likely to understand even less in the following chapters. it is important to prepare yourself. Try to find which way you can concentrate effectively. and that you keep distractions to a minimum. Make sure that the room is well-lighted. 4. In addition to the steps in reading other textbooks. Try to stay focus on what you are reading. Make sure that you aren’t hungry or too full. Reading problem-solving textbooks Reading mathematics and science books involve problem solving to acquire mastery of the subject. If you move on without understanding the prior information. concentration and effectiveness.

Do your assignments ahead of time. if you are prepared to face unscheduled exams. They usually don't do well on their tests because they were not prepared. Confidence makes us relax before.Ta k i ng E x a m s ost students can be found in hallways or at their desks just before an exam hurriedly going through their notes or texts. You'll walk into exams relaxed and ready to perform well. assignments." --George Patton. Keep a record of assignments. Be prepared. relaxed and have increased your odds of performing better. home works. Passive students are those who used to wait for actions then make reactions. "By failing to prepare. you are prepared. US Army general We are talking here about exams that are scheduled and/or unscheduled. field trips and anything else that is related directly to your class work. These include daily quizzes. be an active student. you are preparing to fail. etc. do your home-works diligently. There is no specific technique to handle unscheduled or scheduled exams. You'll have enough time to show your professor your written work and still have the time to modify it if there is such a need. Active students are those who are making actions. In other words. There is only one formula in getting more in any exam aside from having good health. No matter how you look at it. Being prepared builds up confidence. Being relax gives us focus." --Benjamin Franklin . tests. Unscheduled exams are those given by teachers when he feels he likes to. This is the only way to get good results in any exam. The point is. You are not supposed to be one of them. papers. during and after the exam. Keep a pocket-sized or notebook calendar with you in all your classes and when you study. You can almost see the desperate and panicky look in their eyes. prepare your outlines or term papers and projects ahead of schedule. short tests. chances are you are also prepared to take that scheduled exam Don't let yourself get into this situation. Scheduled exams are those major exams that are announced in advance. "Most battles are won before they are ever fought.

they learn very little and their health could be affected. Learn how to handle every situation to your benefit. etc. etc.1. in turn. his background. A class does not just consist of a teacher giving a lecture alone. It is the student’s responsibility to know who his teacher is. Preparing for short tests or quizzes The best preparation for any exam is to be prepared for class everyday. Readings should be kept up with and read before the class. rather. The teacher may give a short quiz any time and the student should be prepared for this. It consists of the active participation of the both parties. we should already have a picture of what will be discussed in the class. Concentrate on the positive aspect of anything. Sometimes. More often than not these skills are tested on exams. the student is not performing well because he doesn’t like the teacher. taking exams with no enough sleep. In the first day of classes. we need to have good grades no matter if we like the teacher or not. well prepared. if he used to give assignments. Sometimes. the students and the teacher. homeworks. if he is generous in giving grades. Teachers usually make assignments and exercises to teach specific skills. Make sure to attend every class. Preparation The key to getting good results in any exam is preparation. But the fact is exams are a part of our student’s life. Teach yourself how to convert into positive whatever negative feelings you may have. etc. what is his grading system. our learning rate will be faster and we should not have trouble if the teacher gives any test any time. our performance in class is affected by our personal feelings towards the teacher. Chances are. how he give grades. quizzes. Whatever our goal is. . A majority of students prepare for major exams only. Ask other students who have experience with him being his teacher. Do the assignments and exercises. They seldom perform well in any exam. We need to know whom we are dealing with. the teacher usually gives an orientation. We need to review our goal. In this way. Good preparation. This will help us in our every encounter with the teacher and this will greatly affect our performance in the class and our grades. Review your notes. Leave time for review. Read your assignments. We should not wait to be asked questions. Classes are supposed to be a two-way activity. studying overnight the whole week. Be an active student. Follow your study schedule diligently. how often he gives short exams. A week or less before any major exams they go into extensive preparations. He usually tells the student how he handles the subject matter. leads to confidence and being relaxed.. if he is very particular with attendance. Before attending a class. Neither students nor teachers like exams. what is the coverage of the major exams. The day or two before an exam should be for review not to do the readings or assignments. we should prepare as many questions as we can before attending any class. Many students don't read the assigned readings and few read the suggested one.

Taking the exam Do not go to the examination room with an empty stomach or with an overloaded stomach. as if you are taking the real exam – no open books or notes. Monitor your efficiency. One secret in preparing for any exam is to be actively engaged on the subject matter. Review your notes. Relax. Put time allotment in every question or topic. Make an effort to avoid making any last minute reading and especially avoid talking about your prospects with other students. papers. then study more. Try to get enough sleep at least two nights before the exam and especially the night before the exam. some not. you'll find your teachers are cooperative and appreciative of the fact that you care enough about your participation in class to come in and clear this matter up for yourself. review the areas where you perform poorly. Talk to your teachers. Check all the things you need to bring. we are also prepared to take any long exams. not carbohydrates (they can make you sleepy). pens. don't chat with others. calculator. An accidental lower score may only confuse and upset you. You may find it useful to form a study group with your friends then take the mock exam together. resting and relaxing. the possible topic. chances are. You can only get depressed recalling the topics you should have paid more attention to but for some reason have not. We need to review the coverage of the exam. Make your own test questionnaire. Some teacher will include your assignments or homeworks in the exam to check if you were really the one who did them. Then answer your own questionnaire diligently. Take a rest. etc. 2. Never take any mock exam the day before the test. It would be counter-productive. Check also if the exam would be an open books/notes exam. . Think positive. It’s examination time. you will learn more. Preparations are over. Do not bring notes or books to the examination room unless your teacher tells you that the exam would be an open books/notes exam. As a result. try to know in advance what type of exam he will be giving. But this is not enough. This will give you an idea what type of exam he will be giving. Monitor your health. bring extras. Check if you already have studied them all. Some teacher will announce the type of exam. the possible question or whether the exam is difficult or not. pencils. The day before the exam should be devoted to review. snacks. Keep to yourself and remain confident that you have done every preparation necessary. check if you missed anything. In general. Eat a light high-protein meal. Be early to the test. relax and be confident in having done all that preparations. Coverage of scheduled long exam is usually announced in advance. try to anticipate questions. Review your assignments and homeworks.Preparing for major exams If we are prepared to attend every class everyday. Your friends will ask some questions and you will find out that there are still areas which you need to study more.

For example. Your job is to pick the alternative that is more nearly true than the others. Read multiple-choice questions the same way as for true-false. If you are not sure of the answer. do not start immediately without surveying first what the exam is all about. if wrong answers are penalized. don't make any guess unless you can reduce the choices to two. Don't "write around" the question but answer it directly. Make sure your answers are clear. Read the questions very carefully and be sure you understand them fully before selecting the correct answer. Glance through the test briefly and budget time mentally according to points assigned to questions. Usually. and you might not have enough time and energy to answer those easy ones. Check which part of the exam you know best. Your mind might be cleared about its correct answer as you go through with the other questions. Indicate your answers exactly the way the directions state. Easy to read and well-written grammatically correct answers almost always receive higher grades than poorly written grammatically incorrect answers. The general rule is not to get carried away on one or two questions to the extent that you cannot answer the other questions in the time allotted. put a marker indicating that you have not answered it yet. be sure to number your answers exactly to match the questions. leave the question for a while. and then expand your argument. go on to another question. you can always come back to it later if you still have time. Go on to the next question. This is to make sure you don’t miss anything. In guessing. organize your ideas before writing your answer. You can come back to it later if you still have time. Essay type questions Read all the questions first and budget your time. only one alternative is correct. Always start answering with the easy ones and do not spend much time on the questions you are not sure of the answer. even though the answers themselves are the same. Your energy might be exhausted and your valuable time might be wasted. use the elimination technique. If the exam allows you to choose from a number of questions. .Before starting the test When the go-ahead signal is given to start the exam. Read the directions word for word and make sure you understand it. If you answer the exam in chronological order. Make your first sentence answer the question. Do the easy questions first. Multiple-choice questions Multiple choice questions are essentially true-false questions arranged in groups. You can come back to it later when you have answered all the easy ones already. chances are you may be answering difficult questions first. Use guessing only as a last resort and make sure there is no penalty for guessing. Good handwriting and correct grammar is also very important in essay-type exams. Discard first those choices which you are sure are obviously not the correct answer before making your guess. If you get stuck. Put this on a scratch paper then label or number it according to its importance. Then for each question. The important points here are budgeting your time and preserving your energy. Determine what the scoring rules for the test are and follow them to your advantage.

you must have practiced with problems like this at home already. And remember. Mental block Some people develop a mental block when the exam paper hits their hands. Check with the formula if you can arrive at the answer with the given data. List down the data given and what is required. Make sure your teacher can follow your solution. This can happen to anyone no matter how prepared you are. Try to identify key words in each list. read the problem again. Know the practical limits. If you think the data is lacking. Sometimes you are not allowed to box or en-circle your answer. Before you start answering. give it your best guess. Do not spend too much time in one problem. . Read all the questions briefly before you start answering. Be careful in writing the final answer.Math or science problems Before you take any math or science exams. along with extra pencils or pens. Don’t waste any time trying to beautify your solution. try to spot which problem or problems appear easy to you. Label every step or equation you make. Always start with the easy ones and solve it as fast as you can. Check the instructions again. For example if the problem is asking for a speed of a man running and you arrived at an answer greater than 100 mph. proceed to another problem. This is one way of simplifying the problem. Write legibly. you have to budget your time well. Try to go on with the other questions first. Clarify with the teacher first if formulas are supplied or whether you are allowed to use calculators. most difficult problems usually have more points assigned on them. Like other exams. Be systematic with your solution. Always read the entire list of alternatives before selecting the match. A man could not run that fast. Close your eyes and try to recall any moment when you were very confident of yourself. you might be required to make assumptions. something must be wrong with your solution. but use guessing only as your last option. If you get stuck in one problem. Don’t worry and don’t panic. Other problems which appear difficult to you might require more time. In taking math or science exams. Before you take exams of this type. Sometimes answers will just pop-up in your mind as you go along with other questions. When this happens. You need to know by heart whether your answer is practically correct or not. You must have developed a system how to deal with this kind of exam. Try your solutions first in a scratch paper before finalizing it in the test paper. Present your solution in a step by step fashion. Other types of exams The methods used to answer true or false and multiple choice questions apply to matching questions as well. just relax. You might not be able to complete the whole exam. be sure that you have studied the theory and principles in detail. You can go back to it later if time permits. Read the problem very carefully. always bring a lot of scratch papers. leave it. If you don't know the answer. Use your common sense.

Recall how you did your assignments and try to feel you are actually doing it. You can do it! Now open your eyes and start. Read the examination paper and select the easiest question to start with. nobody can help you but yourself only. . worry and panic will just make the situation worst. It’s examination time. Then give yourself the 'go ahead' signal. You are alone. Your composure will slowly go back. Deal with the present situation positively with confidence. Remember.

It is composed of a tutor to share information to other students. The tutor learns because he prepares for his assigned topic. and get involved with tutorial activities. It is simply a group of students teaching other students. Get involved with tutoring Be an active learner. The most important advice to students who need help is. Don’t wait. Because the learning environment is informal. In other words. 1. The tutor can be a teacher or just a fellow student. clear it up quickly. and tutee or tutees who receives such information. Tutoring is one of the best ways to learn. What makes tutoring even better is the fact that it is usually free of charge with less time constraints and pressures. . another withholds what he should give. assigned their respective topics. take positive actions. Everyone needs a tutor at some time.just at the right pace. no time restrictions. It is usually composed of students actively seeking knowledge. Sometimes. tutoring is a learning matrix wherein every participant learns. He even learns more when the other members ask him questions which can make him think hard for answers. "One man gives freely. If you're having trouble. each member given the task to be a tutor. both for the tutor and the tutee. they invite other students to attend their tutorial class. usually. Some students just form a group and organize tutorial classes. don't wait too long. yet grows all the richer. The tutees learn from what the tutor teaches and from the questions ask by the tutees themselves.Making Use of Tutoring utoring is a method of learning that’s gaining popularity among students. and only suffers want" --Proverbs 12-24 What makes tutoring work is the one-on-one involvement and focused help . They may invite a teacher friend as a tutor or seek volunteers from among the group to act as tutor. and sometimes they just limit the tutorial class to their members. It is far easier to stay up with a class than it is to catch up. Associate with other students who are actively pursuing their dreams. some students who find it difficult to participate in the usual student-teacher class can easily participate in tutorial classes.

rather than telling them how to do it.and getting. Therefore. but you still need tutorial classes when it is available. View tutoring as a form of . Don't come if you haven't read the book or tried the homework.and reap anew. One good thing with tutorial class is that.Participate in tutorial classes. His knowledge is still very limited. Participate actively. A tutorial class should be more on a hands-on exercise or a work-shop type rather than discussing theories. In sharing you will learn more.” -. Focus on quality. Do your homework yourself and seek help if needed. You must sow it -. Being a tutee Do not take tutorial classes for granted. somebody has sacrificed his resources for your benefit. Though it is usually free of charge. It should be more on problem solving and questions and answers session. a topic should be thoroughly learned before jumping to another subject matter. it can be tailored to suit our needs. You cannot hold on to riches. Because there are no commitments to complete a topic at a certain time frame. it can be organized. it is worthwhile to share your techniques to others.Robert Collier. Everyone can be a tutor at some time. You will get more out of tutoring through active participation. You might not be attending a tutorial class as a tutor but you should know what you need from this tutorial class. So. The tutor's role is to help you do the work. 3. if there are no tutorial classes available. get involved with tutoring. writer. You must use them and get other riches in return. Remember. Either way. Do not ask the tutor to do your work. If you are not satisfied with your performance in class. talk to your classmates and organize your own. Let them do the work rather than you do it. rather than quantity. rather than waiting to be fed. publisher You may or may not be satisfied with your grades. The tutor should focus on guiding or showing the tutees what to do. He should prepare in advance to appear knowledgeable in front of the tutees. Do not attend a tutorial class without preparing yourself. you should seek outside help. the tutor is just a student like you. You cannot hold on to your seed. The goal of any tutor is to provide an encouraging environment that helps the students learn better and easily. A tutee will learn more easily when praised rather than criticized. 2. "You cannot hold on to anything good. You must be continually giving -. Being a tutor The role of the tutor is similar to that of the teacher – to let the tutees learn. If you have good grades. Prepare as many questions as you can think of and attend tutorial class with a positive attitude.

everybody learns. To get the most of it. . students should follow a more active and more responsible role in the learning process.cooperative learning. Everybody contributes.

praise God. If you find sleeping is difficult. Make sure your bedroom is conducive to sleeping. Make sure your bed is comfortable to you. If you have health insurance. Schedule your sleeping time and follow it diligently. etc. As a result. say. Talk to your doctor about preventive actions needed. and if you have it. tuberculosis. and value it next to a good conscience. Make sure to sleep in a comfortable quarter. Don’t just wait until you feel sleepy. a blessing that money cannot buy. Have enough sleep Some students postponed studying until the exam is only few days away. with geographically diverse populations now converging on campus. Say good night to your worries and shut the bedroom door on them. Others find studying too difficult because they easily feel sleepy when studying. "Look to your health.Isaak Walton You may consider getting immunized. measles-mumps-rubella. heading to more challenges and adventures. meningitis inoculations. and tetanus vaccines. literally. But there are also less known health hazards which could not be prevented through immunization which we need to address. Others spend several hours in the bed and still can not find sleep. for health is the second blessing that we mortals are capable of. hepatitis B vaccine. they end up having sleepless nights and they rarely make good in any exam. For freshmen or students who are away from their family for the first time. In intellectual terms. . Immunization and other preventive shots do not work unless we actively pursue good health. Do something. it needs your active participation. Most people sleep best in a room that's a bit cooler than normally desired when awake. Both need self discipline to get most of studying. Have just enough sleep and make it a habit.Health Maintenance eading off to school means heading off to a new environment. In health terms. 1. regardless of whether there are exams or not. a yearly flu shot. This is the reason why studying should be done regularly. Remove all factors that could undermine your sleeping. Getting immunized put our health safe against most known disease which could undermine our learning capability or which could keep us away from school. make sure you carry a valid insurance card at all times and know how to use it. this can be stimulating. Maintaining good health and preventing illness need our active participation. this means learning to care for their own health. it simply means exposing yourself to more health risk. Sleeping is too easy for some and could be too difficult for others." -.

Eat just enough good food. and the muscles of the body. Eat just enough. not your craving. seeds and grains. Make exercise a habit. things to do. After another 30 minutes or so. you will not succeed. High protein meals give high energy and are best eaten in the morning. Physical fitness involves the performance of the heart and lungs. Include daily exercise in your schedule. vegetables. don't try to force or control anything. Fitness can be described as a condition that helps us look. Do not skip eating or postpone it at a later time. get up after 30 minutes or so and do something you like or need to do. Continue studying or read something. 3. It enables us to perform up to our potential. etc. Eat enough good food Eat just enough good food. In other words. Too much or too little is counterproductive. nuts. As the vehicle does not run without fuel. Another popular time to . Do this regularly. 2. Put "exercise appointments" on your calendar. If you can not sleep. Let your mind take control. To be useful.Sometimes we find it difficult to sleep because our mind is actively wandering away. Make use of your time. High carbohydrate meals produce sleepiness and are best eaten in the evening. Eat to live. if your body so chooses. the exercise has to raise heart and breathing rates. Stop thinking. And. Be patient. Allow yourself to sleep. Eat healthy foods. emphasize on fruits. You need to be aware of it. The late afternoon workout provides a welcome change of pace at the end of the work day and helps dissolve the day’s worries and tensions. try sleeping again. you may as well be productive. fitness influences to some degree qualities such as mental alertness and emotional stability. When it’s eating time. If you can't sleep. intense conversations. Exercise must become one of those things that we do without question. since what we do with our bodies also affects what we can do with our minds. so is your mind without proper nourishment. or stay awake. stop what you are doing and eat. concentrate on sleeping. The goal is to increase the blood oxygen level reaching the brain. The hour just before the evening meal is a popular time for exercise. Stick to a regular time every day. like bathing and brushing our teeth. Follow your schedule diligently. You can't force yourself to sleep. don't live to eat. The decision to carry out a physical fitness program requires a long term commitment of time and effort. Do physical exercise regularly Physical fitness is to the human body what fine tuning is to an engine. problems. Let your mind rest. Forget about those scary movies. Do not take food that contributes more harm than good to promote good health. Unless you are convinced of the benefits of fitness and the risks of unfitness. feel and do our best.

your attitude is something you can control. But the reverse is also true. Your exercise schedule should correlate to your study schedule. we need to choose something we like to do which suits us physically. 4. Vitamins and minerals Vitamins help store and release energy and maintain your bones. increases energy and endurance. Best of all. which can often be avoided by taking supplements. you can do it. Your thoughts can be defeating. and health. If you set your mind to something. Vitamins and minerals are vital for good health. . Exercising with someone else can make it more fun. osteoporosis. tendons and ligaments flexible so it's easier to move around. It helps relieve stress and anxiety. before the work day begins. cancer. and they can be very powerful. They also aid in protecting you from heart disease. Some minerals also provide the raw materials your body needs to build and maintain body parts such as your bones and teeth. diabetes and obesity. Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients: substances required in small amounts that are nevertheless vital for normal growth. and a host of other diseases. high blood pressure. helps us sleep better and helps us maintain a normal weight by increasing our metabolism. then try a daily vitamin and mineral supplement for three months to see if you feel better. Positive thoughts can motivate healthy behaviors. It contributes to our mental well-being and helps treat depression. Positive thinking and good health Your thoughts are in your control. You need to find out what you need or if you really need some. Some people need them occasionally. Deficiencies in vitamins and minerals can produce serious health problems. Some people need them most of the time. Some people never need vitamins and minerals. To start and stick with an exercise out is early morning. blood. body function. and nerves. such as eating right and being active. 5. Vitamins help you to digest your food and make new cells. A "can-do" attitude may be just what it takes to jumpstart a healthier lifestyle. Chances are when you choose to think positively. If you get sick or have low energy levels or eat mostly processed food. Regular exercise reduces the risk of heart disease. you'll feel better about yourself and be able to perform better in whatever you do. A good goal for many people is to do physical exercise 4 to 6 times a week for 30 to 60 minutes at a time. You have the choice to have a positive outlook. It keeps joints. Minerals play an important role in controlling the actions of certain hormones and enzymes in your body. It also helps to a get a partner.

Sometimes when under stress. . Smile easily. exercising and cultivating a positive attitude. As with any problem. A positive self-image is crucial for success. laugh often. such as becoming more physically active or limiting your sugar intake. 6. you have to take care of yourself. and be friendly and helpful. By dealing with your stress in a positive manner. Get some water and help your body return to its normal state. school. you start to sweat and your heart begins to palpitate. friends. if you can't control something. you may also forget to drink. The good thing is you don't have to put up with the negative effects of stress. it can be improved. Your mouth gets dry. Try to improve each day.Positive thinking can help you achieve and maintain healthy behaviors. you may feel like there is no way you can overcome your problems. Fortunately. Uncertainty puts an extra burden on the body's adaptive system by keeping a person in a constant state of worry and tension. But remember. You believe you'll just have to cope until the situation improves. in order to feel better. you can turn around a negative situation. money. lovers and self-esteem. It's not hard to do. worry won't help. When you are under extreme amounts of stress. Overcoming stress The major cause of stress is uncertainty. Start dealing with harmful stress by transferring doubts and worries to a list and by relaxing. You know how it feels when things get tough. uncertainty about jobs. You can fight back and come out on top. Drinking water can greatly improve how you feel. Sometimes it is actually best to put aside a stressful problem until a later time when it can be dealt with more effectively. Practice positive thinking and positive self-talk. This can lead to dehydration and even more severe symptoms. Visualize yourself being the person you want to be. health.

all in a point-and-click interface.Making Use of the Internet ith cyber technology. you need to learn some basic word processing and spreadsheet software as well. Some learn from their friends. These are basic tools you will need in computer-based learning. To get most of studying through the internet. You don’t have to attend formal education for this matter. Above all. Most schools have computers with internet access for the students to use. Learning computer is like learning how to play a guitar. However. Apart from learning the basics of computer. learning is no longer limited to the classrooms or libraries.PC World. this should not be considered and obstacle. we need the following: "The Web. learn and understand how your studies can benefit from this technology. you need to keep using it to gain mastery. We can also contact and communicate with anybody from any part of the globe to discuss or share any information. Computer skill There are many ways to acquire computer skill. To acquire and retain the skill. learn and understand the electronic mail system and how you can make use of them. The fastest way is to have your own computer and learn by yourself. 2. and the reach of television . ." -. is the technology that delivers on the promise of the information superhighway. It combines the impact of the printing press. Learn and understand also how the internet works and how you can benefit from it. . you will know what you can get from them. Having an internet access needs additional budget. By understanding how the computer and internet works.. June 1995 1. This can be best learned through your own initiative. we can now obtain unlimited information anytime with just a click of the mouse from the comfort of our room. With computer and internet access. You may start with Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel as your initial word processing and spreadsheet tools. On-line access A computer set is quite an expensive tool. Learn how to upload or download files.. the interactivity of the telephone. You will need more as your computer-based knowledge increases. some took computer classes while some learn by themselves. or its future descendant.

Sometimes. With internet. all we have to do is open yahoo or goggle then search “quadratic equation”. etc. unless we ourselves really don’t want to learn. Lack of books or lack of reading materials is no longer a valid reason to keep us from learning. Our time is limited hence need proper budgeting. . it is most likely that we will lose control of using our time. or we could be gathering a lot of information that we no longer have enough time to process them.For those who have their own computers. group meetings can be done without leaving your room. World-wide-web by its name is very wide – it covers the whole world – at our fingertip. or use MS XP built-in) to keep hackers out of your computer. Motivation Internet could be a very powerful tool for your studies. you may need also a good anti-virus software (McAfee or Norton) and Firewall (Zonelabs. group meetings can not be done due to physical constraints. The computer will return with thousands of results. 3. Be an active learner. With the use of email. with our unlimited access to whatever information we want in the internet. many will appear to be very important to our studies. However. For example. Gmail. As an optional tool. Our mind will be craving for more information. We could be losing our valuable time. When we search some information in the internet. we don’t have any more reasons not to learn. you need to have at least 56K modem and email account. Learning is easier and more effective with shared-document conferencing where postings and comments can be in the same document and where groups can jointly construct assignments. Don’t wait to be told. if we want to know how to solve quadratic equations. Free email accounts are also available from Yahoo. So with internet. we will be presented with so many article. Documents can be shared around very easily. Learn how to create your own motivation. 4. Most internet subscription already includes an email account. However. Learn how to work independently. its power is dependent on how motivated we are of learning how to make use of it. we can obtain information from experts without disturbing them in their busy schedules. some we really need and some we just want but not necessarily need in our studies. Self-discipline Time is one very important resource we have which use needs thorough planning. MSN. Most of these free email accounts are more than enough for the students’ need and can be accessed in any computer connected to the internet. do not be dependent heavily on others.

We should not attempt to gather “everything” to the point that we could no longer handle them to our own advantage. we need to set limits in gathering information from the net.Self-discipline is what we needed here. Also. We need to follow it. we know how much time is allotted for web-surfing. We should not use our scheduled time for gathering information not needed in our studies. From our schedule. .

The only way to make use of time is to manage it properly. they are not always available. You are using money which is not a fruit of your own labor. food supplies. money. Concentrate on stocking healthy foods." -. as a student. To build the foundation of our future we need to be aware of the resources we need and learn how to utilize them properly. 2. Time management is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. Food supplies Stocking food supplies is connected to our eating habits. don't live to eat. Act like an adult and don’t expect anybody to do the planning for you. Budget preparation could also be an opportunity to influence change in our personal habits and guide our overall direction. The flow of time cannot be delayed and cannot be controlled. so it is worth planning. Emphasize on fruits. Baruch.Bernard M. supplies. "Whatever failures I have known. Let your mind take control. A budget must be well-planned. It is your reference point for all the resources needed in building the infrastructure. 1. vegetables. Always remember. . whatever errors I have committed. seeds and grains. notes. This means the budget is considered an investment. Time Time is one very important resource we have which just come and go freely. Budget your resources well. even if you belong to a rich family. not your craving. whatever follies I have witnessed in private and public life have been the consequence of action without thought.Managing Your Resources t is difficult to build a structure without a blueprint. etc. Too much flexibility could result in overspending and could kill the budget. not a cost. The resources which the student should utilize properly depend on the individual but will usually include time. Eat to live. Use your resources wisely. Financier Budgeting means tight monitoring of all the resources we need with little to no flexibility in adjusting it. books. you are possibly not earning your own money yet. nuts.

Check also if the books are available for rent for the whole term or if they are available only for short term borrowers. concentrate only on the books you need. Budget your stock well to avoid unnecessary out-ofschedule shopping. and when the book arrives. Be careful. it might not yet be available. We need books all the time. If you indeed need to buy the books you need. This may take time. Before the start of every semester or school year. say for a week. Always refer to your schedule. Stock enough food. not you want. Make sure they are complete and well organize. do not borrow or rent. it is also possible that we let our classmates borrow our notes. Check if it is worth buying the book even if the library has enough copies of it. Sometimes. borrowing or renting them. We can obtain books by purchasing. and we might find it necessary to order them somewhere. 4. you need to use your own book. Make this known to your borrowers. . plan in advance. and maybe by the time we need to use the book. we might no longer need it. the books we need are not available in a local book store. 3. Sometimes we need to borrow notes from our classmates. First. hence. Check which bookstores they are available. be aware of the books you need. Do not put yourself in a situation where you still have to find food when you need one. You also need to consider your own studying habit. Be aware about your study times and scheduled exams. be aware of your ideal consumption rate. But first. apply your time management. sometimes from other countries. Read them frequently to keep the lectures and reading fresh in you mind. if you are shopping weekly. Minimize time spent on shopping. Make sure that your notes are available to you when you need them. You might find it necessary to adjust your eating habit to suit your budget. Notes Notes are one of the important resources the student must have. etc? Also. check your school library if it has enough books for the class. Books and other reading materials When we study.Schedule shopping. With this information you can decide if you need to buy books or not. Check also your library if it has enough reference books. determine in advance what are the books you need and where to get them. Check also your friends who have taken the subject already about reference books they can recommend. we need to rely on somebody’s work. You also need to consider the importance of the subject with regards to your chosen field. How often do you receive money from home. Be aware of the rate of inflow of money. If you used to write something in the book while reading or studying. Coordinate with your teacher regarding books requirement. These are gathered and accumulated through lectures and reading.

. sometimes we need to borrow books from our classmates. just a way of making it sure that your supplies will last as intended. At the end of the semester. a waste. hence. monthly and weekly budgets.Whether you buy. Nothing is more frustrating than discovering you are out of glue or your markers are all dried up. you are not in control of the inflow of money and you should consider that just like other resources. Bond papers on the other hand are handy. Don’t be extravagant in using your supplies. you can bring only what is needed. if given a chance to save. Keep your supplies away from the site of your friends. money is not always available. 6. Concentrate on what is needed. revise it. If you find your budget is too lax. rather than wants. As with bond paper versus notebooks. straight edge. and you can keep your notes together using a ring binder. This is not selfishness. in which. Establish yearly. it’s nobody’s fault. Being a student. at the end of the semester. hence. save any extra money you may have. Money Whether you get supports from your parents. your budget should be based of. 5. If you put yourself in a situation wherein it’s already time to study and you are still looking for your study material. Have enough stock of notebooks. In most cases. self supporting or on a scholarship. in the order of priority. borrow or rent a book. you use only what you need. The same with notes. you can have your notes bookbound and it can last longer. budget your supplies well. Purchase good school supplies and keep them in stock. pencils. Make a list of probable expenditures in advance. Supplies Stay well stocked. etc. The book must be available by the time you need them. it is also possible that we let our classmates borrow our books. pens. paper. plan in advance. Just like your other resources. Hence. experience suggests that it is better to use bond paper for taking notes than notebooks. but yours. This means that when you go to school. glue. most notebooks are not fully used. just as you are beginning the project that is due the following day. you need to budget your money and spend them wisely. Be aware of the usual inflow of money. Make sure that your books are available to you when you need them.

He was a recipient of the MSU Full Scholarship grant for his Civil Engineering degree. Asian Institute of Technology. Thailand in 1990 to .About the Author TP Pilapil is a practicing Structural Engineer and presently residing in New Zealand. COMMENTS ABOUT THIS BOOK For any comments about this book. please email: tppilapil@gmail. Mindanao State University. Philippines in 1979 to 1984 and the King’s Scholarship grant for his Master’s degree in Construction Engineering and Management.

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