# Name

__

Date

_

Activity 6-5

SERIES RL CIRCUITS

Series RL circuits are encountered very often in electronic equipment. When an ac voltage is applied to this type of circuit. the current is the same through each component. However, the voltage drops across each component wiU be distributed according to the relative value of resistance (R) and inductive reactance (XL) in the circuit. The total opposition to current is called impedance (Z). Resistances and reactances in ac circuits both oppose the current. The impedance of an ac circuit is expressed as

2. Calculate the following values of the circuit. a. Inductive reactance: XL ;;;;2nf L _____ 2 b. Impedance: _____ Z

=J R2
2

+ X/ =

_

3. With a YOM. measure the following values: a. Voltage across the resistor:
________ V ae VR =
_

z=- v I
or, for a series RLC circuit, Z
=

b. Voltage across the inductor:
________ V ac

VL =

_

.Jr-R-z-+-(-X-[-_-X-C)-2

4. If an ac milliammeter is available measure the current in the circuit. If not, calculate as 5. Complete the impedance triangle in Fig. 6-58 for the circuit you constructed by using the calculated values of R, XL' and Z. The symbol represents the phase angle of the circuit.

OBJECTIVE
1. To observe the characteristics of a series ac circuit which has resistance and inductance.

e

EQUIPMENT
Ac voltage source Resistor: Inductor:

6. Calculate the voltage drops in the circuit. a. VR
=

IT

X

R ;;;

V ac

I kQ
4.5 H

Multimeter (YOM)

b. VL ;;;; IT X XL = V ae 7. Show that the voltages are related in the following way by using the values you calculated and

PROCEDURE
1. Construct the series RL circuit shown in Fig. 6-5A. Apply 15 V ac from an ac power source. R
lK

VT ;;; 15 V ac: VT;;; ____________

J Vi

+ Vl = V ac.

_

XI. '"

n

II
FIGURE .. '" FIGUREI-5B 131

measure the current in the circuit. 2. If an ac milliammeter is available.4F Multimeter (VOM) 5. Calculate the following values of the circuit: a. 6-6B for the circuit you constructed by using the calculated values of R. Construct the series RC circuit shown in Fig 6-6A. Apply ]5 V ac from an ac power source. In circuit calculations. In a capacitive circuit. Voltage across the capacitor: _______ Vac Vc = __ EQUIPMENT Variable ac voltage source Resistor: lOOQ 4. Impedance: Z =:.: -------_Q b. the smaller reactance value is subtracted from the larger value to obtain the total reactance (XT) of the circuit. current leads voltage and in an inductive circuit. VR = R = b. Complete the impedance triangle in Fig. these reactive values act in the opposite directions. XC' and Z. b. measure the following values: a.Name _ Date _ Activity 6-6 SERIES RC CIRCUITS Series RC circuits are used in many types of electronic equipment. the characteristics are similar to those of a series RL circuit. If not calculate the current as IT = VRIR : IT = ac rnA. When an ac voltage is applied to this type of circuit.: ~R2 + Xc2 =:. Calculate the voltages IT X X PROCEDURE I. To study the characteristics of a series ac circuit which has resistance and capacitance. Voltage across the resistor: _______ V ac VR = OBJECTIVE I. voltage leads current. 6. With a YOM. drops in the circuit as: V ac V ac a. Capacitive reactance: Xc I =0 2rrfC =:. Capacitor: 10 J.: --------------Q 3. Vc = IT Xc "" loon VT C 10jAF R R= n Xc = il 15 V ac FIGURE 6-8A FIGURE 60SB 133 . Therefore.

b. Phase angle (6) = inverse tangent (VL/VII) c. This value should be equal to the circuit power factor (pF "" cosine (8): cosine 8 = _ _ 7..apparent power True po_ . Compare the calculated and measured values of the following: Value Calculated Measured 9. Phase angle (6) power c. 2.SD ANALYSIS 1. 6-5D using your calculated values of true power. True power b. Apparent mVA > IT X » VB = IT X mW VT == _ _ IT V.<t VL 3. Determine the phase angle of the circuit by using the following trigonometric methods. Determine the power factor of the circuit as: mW p f_ true power .. 6-SC using the calculated and then the measured values of vT• YR' and VL. Complete the voltage triangles for the circuit in Fig.__ = _ fIGURE. "" 10. Determine the cosine of the phase angle (9). '" __ V ac v . Phase angle (6) = inverse tangent (XL/R) .. and reactive power.V ." __ Vac VR : __ Vat calculated values Measured values FIGURE 6-5C 8. What is meant by power factor? 132 . Why must the voltages in a series RL circuit be added by using a right triangle? _ 6.. Reactive power"" mVar IT X Vl. Calculate the power converted in the circuit: a. = mVAR = inverse tangent (vat/watts) =----8 S. What are some factors that could cause a difference in your measured values and the calculated values? 4.. a. apparent power. Complete the power triangle for the circuit in Fig.

Show that the voltages are related in the following way by using the values you calculated: V T = ANALYSIS I..:nverse tangent (XcIR) ::: i b. apparent power. Calculate the power converted in the circuit: VR::: IT X ____ ____ _ V V mW Vc = ____ ____ V V 10..: V ac. True power = IT b. Phase angle (8) Reactive power = mVAR inverse tangent (watts/ VA) 3. Determine the cosine of the phase angle. 8. 6-60 by using your calculated values of true power. and Veo a.. values of Vp VR. 6-6C for this circuit using the calculated. Apparent mVar power X » then the measured 9. Phase angle (9) .VR. Phase angle (8) inverse tangent (VJVR) = c. and reactive power.__ Vac v c = -- Vat Vc = __ V at Calcu lated values Messu red va lues FIGURE 6·6e 7. T rue power = __ mW 2. Compare the calculated and measured values of the following: Calculated ____ rnA Measured ____ rnA J V/ + V/ -. Determine the phase angle of the circuit by using the following trigonometric methods: a. This value should equal the power factor of the circuit: cosine FIGURE 6-60 e= _ 134 . Determine the power factor of the circuit as: Pf = ----'---- true power apparent power 4.. Complete the voltage triangles in Fig. Complete the power triangle for the circuit in Fig.

EQUIPMENT Ac voltage source Resistor: Capacitor: Inductor: 100 Q 2. Voltage across the resistor: _______ Vac VR = A lOOn VT 15 V at FIGURE 6·7A 135 . we must analyze these circuits by using right triangles to show the relationships of the values. Apply 15 V ac from an ac power source.'R-2-+-(X. Voltage across the capacitor: Vc _______________ V ac h. 6-7A.Xc = ---------------Q d. C apacmve reactance: = 2nfC 1 = b. Inductance reactance: XL = 2nfL = ---------_Q c. Impedance: Z = ". Since the effects of the capacitance and inductance are 1800 out of phase with each other. OBJECTIVE I.. measure the following values: a. and inductive components. capacitive. To study the characteristics of a series RLC circuit. With a VOM.F 4.5 H = Multimeter (VOM) PROCEDURE I. Construct the series RLC circuit shown in Fig. Total reactance: XT = XL . Voltage across the inductor: _______________ ----------------Q 10 ". a. VL = V ac c.---X. Calculate the following: X c .Name __ Date _ Activity 6-7 SERIES RLC CIRCUITS In this experiment you will study the characteristics of an ac circuit that has resistive.-)2 = L c 3.

xT= n Xc = __ n R= n FIGURE 6. True power: IT VR = b. Inductive power: IT x VT -- a. If not. Complete the power triangle in Fig. Vc:. 6-7B for the circuit you constructed by using the calculated values of R. If an ac milliammeter is available. XC' Xu and Z. Capacitive d. 6. Complete the impedance triangle in Fig. S. Calculate the power converted X in the circuit: W a. calculate as: IT = VRIR: IT == rnA. Calculate the voltage drops in the circuit as: X X X - 8.7B VLA __ ViIC VL= __ ViIC VC= __ VK v«: __ Measured values Vc Calculated valu8\$ FIGURE S·7e 136 ---_- -------------------------------- . Apparent mVA c. Complete the voltage triangles in Fig. measure the current through the circuit. and reactive power.VC)2 = V ac to. apparent power. 6-7D for the circuit by using your calculated values of true power. VL = R == Xc = V ac reactive power: YARe mVAR reactive power: mVAR VARL = IT X VL X IT IT Vac V ac V ac XL = Vc d. 6-7C for this circuit using the calculated and then the measured values and VTO V~ Vu and VC' 9. c. Vx = VL = = e. Show that these voltages are related in the following way by using the values you calculated: V T = reactive power: mVAR VART '" IT X Vx == J Vi + (VL . Total _____ '" IT VL 7.4. VR == IT b.

Compare the calculated and measured values of the following: Value Calculated rnA 4. Phase angle (9) :::. Determine the phase angle of the circuit by using the following trigonometric methods: a. Determine the power factor of the circuit as ( f) = FIGURE 607D p true power apparent power ANALYSIS 1. Determine the cosine of the phase angle.-----3..mVAR 2. the phase angle 137 .: __ VARI.Iwatts) VARc= mVAA :::..IR) "" b.inverse tangent (VAR. Phase angle (8) = inverse tangent (V/VR) :::: mVAR True power mW & c. This value should equal the circuit power factor: cosine 8 :::: S. As total reactive power increases.Name: __ OM. How does the circuit of this experiment show power factor correction (reduction of phase angle by add- Measured mA V V V IT VR Vc VL ink capacitance?) _ V V V 6. Phase angle (9) = inverse tangent (X.