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Instructor Guide

UMTS UTRAN Optimization

UM4801-IG.en.A4
Issue a
October 2005

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Contents

About this information product
Objectives

........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Reason for reissue

.............................................................................................................................................

xiii

.......................................................................................................................................................................................

xiii

............................................................................................................................................................................

xiii

............................................................................................................................................................................................

xiv

Related documentation
Related training

xiii

.....................................................................................................................................................................................

How to use this information product
Conventions used

xiii

How to comment

xiv

........................................................................................................................................................................................

Course plan prologue
Course plan prologue

.................................................................................................................................................................................

xv

Part I: Optimization concepts
1

Introduction to optimization
Overview

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What is optimization?

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Why optimize a network ?

...................................................................................................................................................................

2

1-2
1-4

..........................................................................................................................................................

1-6

..........................................................................................................................................................................................................

1-8

When to optimize a network ?
Exercises

1-1

Information sources and tools
Overview

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-1

Gathering information
Overview

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Key Performance Indicators

................................................................................................................................................................

2-2
2-3

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
UM4801-IG.en.A4
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
iii
Issue a, October 2005
See notice on first page

Contents

Drive test

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................................................

2-6

................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-7

Customer complaints
OMC-U tools

2-4

Analyzing information
Overview

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

Data analysis software
Exercises
3

............................................................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................................................................................

2-9

2-12

Common optimization problems and their solutions
Overview

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RF coverage problem

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3-1
3-2

Cell breathing problem

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3-4

Pilot pollution problem

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3-6

.......................................................................................................................................................................................

3-8

Near-far problem

Around-the-corner problem
Handover problem

Exercises

..................................................................................................................................................................

..................................................................................................................................................................................

3-9

3-10

...............................................................................................................................................................

3-11

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................

3-13

Missing neighbors problem

4

2-8

UTRAN Signaling
Overview

.........................................................................................................................................................................................................

4-1

Protocol architecture of the air interface
Overview

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Protocols of the air interface

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4-3

.............................................................................................................................................

4-5

...............................................................................................................................................................................

4-7

Radio interface protocol architecture
Service access points

4-2

Air interface protocols
Overview

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................

4-11

........................................................................................................................................................................

4-12

RRC Connection and Signaling Connection
Signaling radio bearers

4-10

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
UM4801-IG.en.A4
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Issue a, October 2005

iv

............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... UM4801-IG..........................................................................................................................................en....................................... 4-18 Part II: Optimization process 5 Optimization process Overview ........................................ October 2005 See notice on first page .............................................................................................. 5-19 .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5-2 Optimization process phases ...................................................................... 6-6 ......... Call availability ............................................................... 5-1 Lifecycle ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ............................... 5-18 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 5-16 ............. Drive test optimization process .............................................................................................................. 5-20 Information gathering Information analysis Exercises Part III: Optimization and troubleshooting 6 Call availability and optimization Overview .................................................. 6-7 Determination of accessibility problem Network level accessibility Overview Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6-1 Call availability Overview ...................................... 5-13 Perform system verification ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Cell Search & RRC SIB decoding Cell selection .......... Planning and preparation (site readiness) Optimization planning ........... Cell re-selection failures .........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents Radio bearer establishment Exercises .................................................. 6-8 6-9 6-10 6-12 ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Proprietary v Issue a............................................ 6-3 6-4 ........................ 5-4 5-7 5-9 5-11 Perform cluster optimization ........................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... 4-15 ..................................................................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-11 .....................................................................................................................................................en....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... October 2005 vi ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-36 .....................................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a... 7-13 ...................................................................................................... 6-18 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Radio link failures analysis due to synchronization issues RLF and Radio Link Restore in the Uplink 7-1 ....................................... 6-28 Call reliability Overview .............................................................. 6-37 No answer from UE Code starvation Exercises 7 ......................................................... Dynamic bearer control failures 6-29 6-32 Radio link reconfiguration failures ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents RACH access procedure failures ......... 6-20 ............................................. Introduction .......................................................................... 7-12 RLF failure: Pilot pollution and Around-the-Corner problem RLF failure: Poorly defined neighbor list 7-10 RLF failure: Improved Aggregate Overload Control ............................................................................................................................................................................ Lucent Technologies ................................................................................................................................ Dropped calls analysis ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6-34 .. 7-9 RLF and Radio Link Restore in the Downlink RLF failure: Poor RF coverage RLF failure: Poor PSC plan 7-2 .....................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG............ 6-14 RRC connection establishment analysis Overview .................. 6-21 Introduction to RRC connection establishment Call admission control failures Radio link setup failure ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .............. 7-6 ........................................................................................................................................... ......................... 7-5 ...................................................................................................................................................................... 6-23 .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6-33 Radio bearer establishment failures ............................................. 6-26 RRC connection setup failure Paging failures 6-17 RAB establishment analysis Overview ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6-35 ......................................... 7-8 ..............................................

....................................................................................................................................................................... 9-10 9-11 .... Network level retainability KPIs Exercises 7-14 ................................................................................... 9-14 Transport resources dry-up No UE answer UE reject 9-4 ..................................... 7-19 Call quality and optimization Overview .............................................................................................. Soft/Softer Handover failure classification ....................................................................................................................................... 9-1 Soft/Softer Handover Overview ......................................en.......... 9-8 ........................................................................................................... 8 7-18 ......................................................................................................................................................................................... UM4801-IG..... 8-11 Call mobility and optimization Overview ................................................ Network interface outages .............................................................................................................................................................................. Network level quality KPIs .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Node B resource dry-up .........................................................................measurement and reporting ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-8 Downlink Block Error Rate (BLER) 9 7-16 ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ Incorrect translations settings ...................................................................................................................................................................... 9-20 ................................................................................................................ Incorrect translation settings -Overview .................................................................Proprietary vii Issue a.....................Contents Failures on RLC .......................................................................................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-17 9-18 .................................................................................................................................................................................. 9-13 ................................................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ................................... Quality of Service (QoS) Exercises 8-1 8-2 8-4 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8-6 .....................................................................................................Neighbor List Selection Algorithm Incorrect translation settings ............................................ Poor RF conditions 9-5 .........Active Set Update procedure 9-16 .................................................. 9-12 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-21 Incorrect translation settings ......................................... Soft/softer handover failures in non-CELL DCH state Soft/softer handover failures in CELL DCH state 9-3 Hardware or link outage ............................................................................................................................................................................... Uplink Block Error Rate (BLER) ...................

.................................................................................... 10-19 KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-30 Handover procedure failures Release procedure failures Location and Routing area update Overview 9-31 Location update failure ................................................................................... 10-9 ........... 10-24 ............................................................ 9-23 .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 9-34 ............................................................................................ October 2005 viii ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10-30 .............................. 10-1 KPIs for the Circuit Switched domain Overview ........ 9-26 ........................................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a..................................................................................................................................................... 10-3 KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain ............................................................................... 10-35 KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Packet Switched domain KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring Overview KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring in the CS domain ........................................................................................................................ 10-18 KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Circuit Switched domain KPIs for the Packet Switched domain Overview KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain ........................................................................................................................................................................... 10-36 KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring in the PS domain ................................................................................................................................................ 9-32 Routing update failure .............................................................................................................................................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG........................................................................................................ .............................................................Contents UMTS to GSM handover Overview ................................................................................................................................................... 9-36 Exercises 10 ...............................................................................................en.................................................................................................................... UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators Overview ..................................................... 10-14 .....................overview Relocation failures 9-22 ............ Lucent Technologies ..... 10-4 KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain ....................................................................................................................................................... 10-38 .............................................................................................................................. 9-25 Inter-system handover failures ...........................................................................................................................................................

.............................................A4 Lucent Technologies ..................................en......................................................... UM4801-IG............................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ....................Contents Exercises .............Proprietary ix Issue a.......................................................................................................................................................................... 10-40 Index ........................

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....................... 10-10 RRC connection establishment 10-11 GMM attach ........ 10-15 ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10-21 .................................................................... 10-25 ...............................................................List of figures Part III: Optimization and troubleshooting 10 UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators .................................................................................. 10-32 10-16 Normal PS E2E call release............................... 10-32 ....................................................................................... 10-20 .............................................................................................................................................................. 10-16 ......................... 10-15 RAB assignment and PDP context activation ............ 10-25 10-12 RAB assignement and PDP context activation 10-13 Paging and RRC connection establishment 10-14 GMM attach 10-6 ................................................................................................. 10-10 ................................................................................................................................................. 10-16 ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Proprietary xi Issue a............................................................... 10-11 .......................... mobile-originated and mobile-terminated................................................................................ 10-5 10-1 RRC connection establishment 10-2 MM and authentication 10-3 RAB assignment and call connect 10-4 RRC connection establishment 10-5 MM and authentication 10-6 RAB assignment and call connect 10-7 Normal CS E2E call release.......................................................................... 10-20 .......................... .................... mobile-originated and mobile-terminated 10-8 CS E2E uplink radio link failure detection 10-9 CS E2E downlink radio link failure detection 10-10 ............................................................................................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ....................................... 10-33 ............................................................................................................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page .......................... 10-17 PS E2E uplink radio link failure detection 10-26 10-18 PS E2E downlink radio link failure detection ............ UM4801-IG......................................................................................................................................................en........................................ 10-5 ..................................................................................

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... October 2005 See notice on first page ....... Conventions used Acronyms are explained on their first appearance in the text.................... Administration and Maintenance for +24 V.......................................... Administration and Maintenance for +24 V.. .... Operations...Proprietary xiii Issue a.... How to use this information product Use this course documentation in combination with the latest user documentation................ 401-382-760R0301 .About this information product Objectives This document is designed as a reference for the participants of the training course UM4801.A4 Lucent Technologies ......... UM4801-IG....... Operation........... 401-382-462R0301 Flexent ® UMTS Modular Cell Outdoor.en.... 401-382-360R0301 Flexent ®UMTS Macrocell Indoor..... methods and tools Interpret performance data and traffic measurements to locate trouble spots Provide solutions for improving the performance Evaluate the effectiveness of counter measures...................... Related documentation The following related documents are available: • • • • UMTS Performance measurements definitions manual...... Reason for reissue This is the first release of this reference material......... Operation....................... customer complaints) Describe drive testing equipment........ 401-382-803R0301 Flexent ® UMTS Radio Network Controller........................ This course is designed to enable the student to: • • • • • Identify sources of performance data (measurement reports............ Administration and Maintenance....

.Proprietary UM4801-IG.......................................lucent-info............ .........com/comments/enus/) or email your comments to the Comments Hotline (comments@lucent.............. Related training The following related courses are available: • • • • • UM1001 UMTS System Introduction UM1911 UMTS Hardware Overview UM4304 UTRAN Signaling UM4305 UTRAN Processes and Parameter Settings UM4301 UTRAN RF Cellular Engineering......... Operation......... 401-382-961R0301 Flexent ® UMTS Microcell (Type M).....................About this information product • • Flexent ® UMTS Macrocell Compact.................. Lucent Technologies .......... 401-382-966R0301...................... Administration and Maintenance for +24 V... How to comment To comment on this information product.... Operation.... go to the Online Comment Form (http://www.......... October 2005 .. xiv ......................A4 See notice on first page Issue a..................... Administration and Maintenance for +24 V........en...com)...

.. Course duration The course takes five days................................... ..... for each student (maximum of two students per workstation)................................................................... or a Chalkboard with chalk Bulletin board and thumb tacks Power cords for auxiliary power Remote maintenance tools Personal computers.Proprietary xv Issue a........A4 Lucent Technologies ............................ UM4801-IG............................................................ Intended audience This course is designed for personnel involved in the performance evaluation and the optimization of UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Networks (UTRAN)..........................Course plan prologue Course plan prologue ......... The classroom The classroom should contain: • • • • • • • • Tables and chairs for up to 12 students and an instructor LCD projector and screen for Microsoft PowerPoint ™ presentation materials Flipchart with markers Whiteboard with dry erase markers and eraser........................................ ............en. Delivery method This course is to be delivered as a class-room based instructor-led course................................................. or workstations................................................................. Materials The following materials are required for this class: • • • One paper-based instructor guide One PowerPoint presentation One paper-based student guide for each student........................... October 2005 See notice on first page .............................

........... Lucent Technologies ............................. the instructor should remind students to discard any trash...... xvi ... On the last day of class..................................... At the end of the day.......A4 See notice on first page Issue a........ the instructor should be mindful of the appearance of the room.... the instructor should return the learning environment to its original orderliness..............................................................en...... if possible................Proprietary UM4801-IG................... October 2005 ....... ...................Course plan prologue Course plan prologue Training environment Each day....

UM4801-IG.. Common optimization problems and their solutions 3-1 Lesson 4...........................Proprietary I-1 Issue a.................. Information sources and tools 2-1 Lesson 3........................................................................................................... Contents Lesson 1..................................................Part I: Optimization concepts Overview .............................. Objectives After completing the following lessons..........................................................................................en...................... Introduction to optimization 1-1 Lesson 2............... you will be able to: • • • • • Define the scope of UTRAN Optimization Describe what KPIs are Describe the most common Optimization problems and their solutions Place the UTRAN protocols and channels in their architectural context Place the UTRAN protocols and channels in a call flow context................................ UTRAN Signaling 4-1 ...........................................A4 Lucent Technologies .. October 2005 See notice on first page .......................

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.................Proprietary 1-1 Issue a............................ you will be able to: • • • Describe what optimization is Explain why optimization is performed Explain when optimization must be performed................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ........ UM4801-IG..............................................................en.....................................................................A4 Lucent Technologies .......................1 I ntroduction to optimization 1 Overview ................................................................................... Objectives After completing the following lesson.......................................................................................................................... Contents What is optimization? 1-2 Why optimize a network ? 1-4 When to optimize a network ? 1-6 Exercises 1-8 ..........

............... but the costs involved would be very large... an operator tries to find the best configuration and use of the network...... Improving a network to meet one requirement can introduce a problem for another requirement....... This strongly depends on the requirements that an operator has and the priorities an operator assigns to these requirements............. Therefore the financial cost is a very important issue to decide: • • Which requirements can be met Which solutions can be implemented to meet a requirement....... Requirements can relate to: • • • • • Quality of service Traffic expectations and predictions Coverage area Capacity Current and future business strategies (network expansion..... An operator could probably meet many requirements.............................. Definition Optimize To make as effective..............Proprietary UM4801-IG...................................... Requirements and costs An operator weighs the requirements against the costs that are involved to meet the requirements and the priorities of the requirements.......................... Lucent Technologies .....................A4 See notice on first page Issue a............Introduction to optimization What is optimization? ................................. Most of the optimization takes place in the RF network........ The transmission network does not have many parameters or variables that can be changed to increase the effectiveness of the network............................ optimization means getting the entire UMTS network to operate according to the requirements of an operator..... Optimizing a UMTS network For a UMTS network...................... or useful as possible... Optimization therefore usually involves finding a compromise (or trade-off) between different ...................... Optimizing a UMTS network consist of optimizing: • • RF network Transmission network............................................................... perfect....... market shares...... October 2005 1-2 ...............en....... Requirements By optimizing a network................. Finding compromises Requirements for a network often contradict each other........................... profitability levels)...............

.. What is not optimization Optimization does not include all actions that make a network work better................................. UM4801-IG.........................A4 Lucent Technologies ... Increasing transmit power increases RF coverage but at the same time increases interference.................... Fault management only ensures the network operates as it is supposed to operate................................. An operator must decide what is more important and implement a solution that reflects that decision............ The starting point for optimization is a network that does not have errors....... ...........Proprietary 1-3 Issue a... such as replacing a circuit pack.... all requirements an operator has must be kept in mind.. When an engineer makes a choice to implement a solution.............. an engineer must ensure that a problem is not caused by an error or fault... October 2005 See notice on first page ........en........ Fault management actions........ is not network optimization............................... Example of finding compromises An operator wants: • • RF coverage over a large area Minimal interference.Introduction to optimization What is optimization? requirements....... Before starting the optimization of a network or trying to solve an optimization problem.........

............. Not optimizing the network will cost money.. October 2005 1-4 ..........Introduction to optimization Why optimize a network ? ...........en.......................................Proprietary UM4801-IG.............. introduction of new service Changes in environment New buildings.............. Good models (for example for traffic behavior and forecasts) can help predict changes and thus help in designing and optimizing networks...... Consequences of not optimizing Not optimizing a network means the goals of optimization are not met and the network does not “meet the requirements of an operator.............................................. the same requirements could be met with fewer resources...” Of course a network must meet the requirements of an operator................. but not meeting these requirements in the most efficient way costs an operator money............. Goal of optimization The goal of optimization is to fine-tune an existing network to meet the requirements of an operator in the most efficient way..A4 See notice on first page Issue a.............. snowfall................................... It never fully complies to the requirements of an operator..... By optimizing the network............. subscribers can experience: • • • Blocked calls Dropped calls Smaller RF coverage area .......................... in missed revenue because of blocked calls or subscribers changing to other operators Operational and maintenance costs. trees Most of these reasons can not be prevented or can only be prevented partially....................................... Lucent Technologies .............................. in the most efficient way.......... related to: • • Subscribers... Important! Optimization of an existing network must not be used to correct a bad network design.............................................................. Reasons for optimization Optimization is needed because a network is never perfect................... Optimization is needed because of: Reason Example Deviations from (planning) assumptions Changes in subscriber behavior (increased use of a service or a cell) Changes in operator requirements Increased market share................... Subscribers In a network that is not optimized........

.............Proprietary 1-5 Issue a............. October 2005 See notice on first page .............. The extra equipment increases maintenance and operational costs...............A4 Lucent Technologies .... Why optimize a network ? Blocked calls are a direct loss of revenue for an operator... so more equipment is needed.......Introduction to optimization • Lower voice quality • Lower data rates....................................... The equipment is not used effectively................... This increases the costs of fault management..... Operational costs A network that is not optimized is more expensive to operate..................................... Poor network quality can be a reason for existing subscribers changing to another operator and for potential customers subscribing to competitors.. UM4801-IG................... .............en............................ This directly translates into: • • • • Lower operational and maintenance costs Higher number of voice and data users Higher average data throughputs Higher Quality of Service for voice and data users..... Also more errors and problems can be expected in a network that is not optimized. Result of optimization An optimized network increases network coverage and network capacity....

..... operational network...........A4 See notice on first page Issue a........ Optimization is always needed because there are always: • • Deviations from (planning) assumptions Changes in subscriber behavior ...................................................................................................................en......................... October 2005 1-6 ..... There are always reasons for optimization...................... even though optimization methods and tools are similar during both phases..... adapting to the changes that take place.. typical optimization includes: • • Network design optimization Optimization based on drive testing....... This document covers in service optimization in a live................... Before a commercial network launch. Lucent Technologies ........Introduction to optimization When to optimize a network ? .......................................... therefore optimization in a live network never stops........... operational network.......................Proprietary UM4801-IG........................................................ Always The environment in which a network operates is always changing.......................................................................... Phases when optimization takes place Optimization during the network life cycle: Network design Planning Optimization Implementation N Acceptance criteria met? Y Network design & implementation Live network In service optimization Optimization is performed: • • Before a commercial network launch In a live.............. so the network itself must always change too..............

............ October 2005 See notice on first page ..............................Introduction to optimization • Changes in operator requirements • Changes in environment...A4 Lucent Technologies ....................................................................... When to optimize a network ? .....................................Proprietary 1-7 Issue a.................................................en.............. UM4801-IG...............

.................. b The starting point for optimization is an error-free network.....................Proprietary UM4801-IG................................................................... b .............................................................................................. Exercise 1 Which of the following statements concerning optimization is most accurate? a Optimization is an important part of the Fault Management process.............. Lucent Technologies . October 2005 1-8 .................................................................................... c Optimization is performed prior to a network launch..................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a..................Introduction to optimization Exercises ..........................en.................................................................

............Proprietary 2-1 Issue a........ October 2005 See notice on first page ........................................................................................................ you will be able to: • • • Describe the different information sources that can be used to detect optimization problems Identify the tools and methods to gather optimization information Describe the role of tools to analyze information..............................................en.............................................. Objectives After completing the following lesson......................................................................................................2 I nformation sources and tools 2 Overview .......... UM4801-IG........... Contents Gathering information 2-2 Key Performance Indicators 2-3 Drive test 2-4 Customer complaints 2-6 OMC-U tools 2-7 Analyzing information 2-8 Data analysis software 2-9 Exercises 2-12 .......................A4 Lucent Technologies ...............................................................................................

...... Protocol analyzers can be used to monitor and count messages on interfaces in the network....................... Lucent Technologies ............................................................. Objectives After completing this section.... Contents Key Performance Indicators 2-3 Drive test 2-4 Customer complaints 2-6 OMC-U tools 2-7 .......................en...............Information sources and tools Gathering information Overview .............A4 See notice on first page Issue a. Available information sources There are several tools and information sources that are used to gather information that is used as input for optimization..... These include: • • • • Key Performance Indicators................................................ Protocol analyzers are available from many different vendors.................................. October 2005 2-2 ...............................................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG................................................................. you will be able to: • • Describe the different tools and information sources that can be used to detect optimization problems........... Drive testing Customer complaints OMC-U tools Other tools Protocol analyzers can also be used to gather performance data........................................ Identify the tools and methods to gather optimization information...................................

.. Key Performance Indicators play an important role in detecting (optimization) problems......... The KPIs are used to determine if the network complies to the levels of performance that are needed................Information sources and tools Key Performance Indicators ............................................................................................. Changes in values of the key performance indicators................ such as: • • • • • • • RF coverage gaps Cell breathing Pilot pollution Near-far problems Around-the-corner problems Hand over problems (failures or ping-ponging) Missing neighbor cells in the neighboring cell list....... A KPI value can change suddenly...... are often the first indication of an optimization problem...................... UM4801-IG........ or gradually...A4 Lucent Technologies ............. KPIs that can be an indication of a performance problem that needs optimization are: • • • • • Handover failure rates Channel occupancy rates Dropped RRC connections rate RAB failure rates Radio link dropping rates...... refer to UMTS Performance measurements definitions manual.......en.....................Proprietary 2-3 Issue a. October 2005 See notice on first page ......................... ..................................... but both types of change can be an indication that optimization is needed.................................................................................................... Use of KPIs Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) are calculated using measurements that are gathered by the OMC-U..... Available KPIs For detailed information on all the available KPIs........ especially reaching thresholds.. Detected problems KPIs can be useful in detecting all the problems that were mentioned........................................ 401-382-803R0301.......................

......Proprietary UM4801-IG............... Regular drive tests are also a method for preventive maintenance to detect areas where services are degrading......... neighboring cells must be operational.................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.........en................................ During these tests................................. hand over......... When to perform Drive tests are performed during network deployment and in a live network.................... drive tests are used to check basic cell operation and to ensure clusters and the network meets customer requirements...... October 2005 2-4 ......................................................... voice quality)....... During network deployment...................................................................... After implementing a solution to correct an (optimization) problem....................... so cell selection..................... interference measurements and handovers can be performed and tested..........Information sources and tools Drive test ............. Lucent Technologies ....................... protocol messages) Network quality (call completion........... During optimization in a live network....................... a drive test can be performed to check if the problem has been solved. Components Components of a typical drive test system (picture provided courtesy of Agilent Technologies): .......................................... data rates....... drive tests recheck cell performance....... Purpose Drive tests are performed to measure: • • • RF spectrum coverage and interference UTRAN parameters (mobile measurements.

Automated tools help to sort out the information and draw conclusions from the information.................Proprietary 2-5 Issue a........... Analysis tools can project the collected data on a map that includes characteristics of the terrain........................ October 2005 See notice on first page ... ............A4 Lucent Technologies .......... Analyzing drive test data Data that is gathered during a drive test can be displayed in real time or stored on the PC for off-line analysis.en... This information is used to identify problems and the locations where the problems occur................................................ UM4801-IG........ On the map..................... and locations where handovers. Automated tools are needed because a large volume of information is collected... details are shown such as coverage strength. cell reselections or dropped calls occur..... that can be solved by network optimization........................................ Drive testing can also detect: • • Poor voice reception quality Poor data rates.................... The information must be analyzed to check for performance problems... Detecting problems Drive testing can be useful in detecting most problems that occur: • • • • • • • RF coverage gaps Cell breathing Pilot pollution Near-far problems Around-the-corner problems Hand over problems (failures or ping-ponging) Missing neighbors in a neighboring cell list.Information sources and tools Drive test Components of a drive test system are: • • • • • UMTS scanner/receiver UMTS antenna PC with software for logging the data UMTS terminal Vehicle with location/positioning equipment (for example GPS)............

. Lucent Technologies ..................A4 See notice on first page Issue a................................................. The problem can be the result of an RF coverage gap because of cell breathing...................... time or related to a resource........................................ paper) and the way trouble tickets are stored and handled differs between operators..... The form of trouble tickets (electronic.............. So further investigation of the problem is needed..... Example Customers complain regularly about dropped calls in a certain location....... Trouble ticket information Trouble tickets typically contain the following information: • • • UE type and model Type of problem (for example dropped call.................. Further investigation can determine that the dropped calls always occur when there is a lot of traffic in the cell.......................... Dropped calls can be an indication of an RF coverage gap or a neighboring cell list problem....................................................... Detected problems Although customer complaints are often not very specific.. they can be helpful to detect all optimization problems...................................................................................... Trouble tickets Customer complaints are typically documented as trouble tickets........................... Use of customer complaints Customer complaints can provide an indication of problems....en....Information sources and tools Customer complaints ... A customer complaint can be the trigger for further investigation using KPIs or drive testing.........................Proprietary UM4801-IG............. poor quality) Time and place of the problem............. October 2005 2-6 .... Customer complaints can point to a problem on a specific location.................... especially if multiple complaints can be related to one source.. .........

...... Use of OCNS OCNS is a tool that is normally used in a network without traffic... as long as the UE is connected to the tracing RNC................................. OCNS can be useful to detect Cell breathing........ OCNS can also be used to generate additional traffic in a live cell............... ........ OCNS simulates traffic during testing before a network is live................ October 2005 See notice on first page ............................................... UM4801-IG........ Detected problems RF Call trace can be useful to detect all optimization problems.............................................. OCNS is activated on the OMC-U and generates downlink interference to simulate traffic......................... The information is composed of measurements performed at the UE........... RF call trace RF call trace gathers radio related information associated to one or more cells................................ When an RF call trace is activated for a UE......................Proprietary 2-7 Issue a....................... The OMC-U administrator can define characteristics of the simulated traffic such as mode of operation (voice or data)................ Iub and Iu interfaces............................. number of users and average power of users... OCNS Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator (OCNS) is a tool that simulates traffic on the downlink. All measurements are stored at the RNC until the OMC-U requests a transfer to the OMC-U......................................................... simulating heavier traffic loads............. Use of RF call trace The operator can use information from RF call traces to: • • • Verify call establishment Check performance and maintenance of radio links Check radio link quality and coverage.en.......... the NodeB and the RNC.......Information sources and tools OMC-U tools ....... RF call trace collects signaling messages on the Uu. information about calls established by that UE is collected.A4 Lucent Technologies .......................... OMC-U tools The OMC-U offers the following tools that can be used in gathering information for optimization: • • RF call trace OCNS.

...............................................en.................................................. Objectives This section provides information about tools that can be used during optimization......................................................................................... October 2005 2-8 ......Proprietary UM4801-IG...................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.............................Information sources and tools Analyzing information Overview . you will be able to: • Describe the role of tools to analyze information............ After completing this section..... Contents Data analysis software 2-9 ............................................................................................................... Lucent Technologies .........................................................................................

... An engineer can easily try different options........................................ Inputs for analysis software tools Data analysis tools can project the collected data on a map that includes characteristics of the terrain....... cell reselections or dropped calls occur.... inputs are needed such as: • • • • • Maps (with terrain features and roads) Location and orientation of sites Parameter settings for cells................................en............................................ Predict effect of changes Optimization software predicts the effects of changes (for example in power level or antenna tilt)...........Information sources and tools Data analysis software ................ antenna tilts) Drive test data Performance measurements............ Output of analysis tools Data analysis tools can provide output on performance in different forms.............................................. antennas and sites (power........................ Data analysis software is used in: • • Network design optimization Live network performance optimization................... and locations where handovers.......................A4 Lucent Technologies .......... Benefits of data analysis software Data analysis software helps an engineer to: • • • • Identify and locate a problem Determine the source of a problem Find solutions Predict the effects of implementing a solution.... On the map....... UM4801-IG................... ................ October 2005 See notice on first page .............................. present it to an engineer and helps the engineer to draw conclusions........... The software also allows an operator to show the consequences of changes that are made to the network. but most commonly used are outputs in tables and graphical outputs................... The software helps to sort out the information.. This helps an engineer to determine what is the best solution to correct an optimization problem..................... Especially graphical output clearly shows problem areas in a network.................. Need for data analysis software Data analysis software is needed to process data because a large volume of information is collected. To show and analyze information................ details are shown such as coverage strength.......Proprietary 2-9 Issue a.............

...........en.................... Changes in the shade of the antennas indicate changes in antenna tilt.....................................Information sources and tools Data analysis software Typical output from data analysis software and illustrates a network before and after optimization: Before optimization Optimizated design The dark lines indicate areas that have no coverage........ The main input for many commercially available analysis software tools is drive test data................... Besides commercially available software tools........... ...Proprietary UM4801-IG..................... October 2005 2-10 ................................ But also other sources of input can be used................ also many proprietary tools are available...... Analysis tool availability Many tools are available for analyzing information.......A4 See notice on first page Issue a....................... Lucent Technologies .......................

..........................................en...............A4 Lucent Technologies ...................... October 2005 See notice on first page .................................. data analysis tools must support key capabilities such as: • • • • • • Interfaces to different vendors of drive test equipment.....................................Information sources and tools Data analysis software Key capabilities To be able to handle the large volumes of data from many sources with different formats.........................Proprietary 2-11 Issue a........................ protocol analyzers and measurement programs Open interfaces Multiple technologies Interfaces to databases to retrieve and store data Synchronization of data from different sources to remove timing variations Database querying and filtering to reduce data volumes............. ........ UM4801-IG.............

.................................................................................................. Lucent Technologies ....................................................................................................... October 2005 2-12 ..........................................................................Information sources and tools Exercises ............................................................... Exercises 1 Which of the following RF problems can OCNS help to detect? a Around-the-corner problem b Cell breathing c Missing neighbors d Pilot pollution b ...........Proprietary UM4801-IG................................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a......................en....................

... keep in mind that the possible solutions that are given may solve that particular problem........................ Contents RF coverage problem 3-2 Cell breathing problem 3-4 Pilot pollution problem 3-6 Near-far problem 3-8 Around-the-corner problem 3-9 Handover problem 3-10 Missing neighbors problem 3-11 Exercises 3-13 ............................ Since optimization usually is a trade-off...................................... October 2005 See notice on first page .............. UM4801-IG.................................A4 Lucent Technologies ... but at the same time may introduce a problem elsewhere........................................................3 3 ommon optimization problems C and their solutions Overview ........................................................ Objectives This lesson describes typical problem areas that can be addressed by optimization and provides possible solutions for the problem........................................................... you will be able to: • • • • Describe and define the problems Describe how the problem shows itself in a network Explain the consequences for the network and the users Suggest possible solutions...................................................... After completing this lesson..............................................en.....................................Proprietary 3-1 Issue a..........

.....Proprietary UM4801-IG..................................................... but lowers the impact of a gap.........................Common optimization problems and their solutions RF coverage problem .......................... Or to be more precise........................ maximize RF coverage.............. Pathloss and Ec/Io depend on the services and quality that is defined for a network and can be checked using drive tests..... it may be possible to move an RF coverage gap from an area with high traffic volumes to an area with low traffic volumes... the Ec/Io ratio and the Ec signal strength (connected to the pathloss) of the Primary Common Pilot Channel are used as accurate measures for RF coverage........... Optimization goal The goal is to close RF coverage gaps and maximize RF coverage......................................en.............A4 See notice on first page Issue a... Definition The RF coverage area is the area where two conditions are met: • • Pathloss < maximum allowed pathloss Ec/Io > minimum signal-to-noise ratio...... October 2005 3-2 .. Information sources The following information sources are used to detect RF coverage problems: • • • Drive test Key performance indicators Customer complaints.......................... Detection of the problem There are several ways in which RF coverage problems show themselves in the network... The user equipment may have strong receive power due to many overlapping sectors.............. Therefore................. This does not solve the RF coverage problem itself..... If RF coverage gaps can not be closed................................ but no pilot fulfills the above-mentioned coverage conditions........................................ These include: • • Dropped calls Failed handovers............ ........................ The user equipment receive power is not an accurate measure of pathloss for spread spectrum technologies....................... Increasing RF coverage must not mean other requirements such as interference levels are compromised................. Lucent Technologies ................... while continuing to comply to other requirements..............

.................................Common optimization problems and their solutions RF coverage problem Possible solutions Possible solutions for RF coverage problems are: • • • Antenna tilt or reorientation Power increase New antenna or new cell site......................Proprietary 3-3 Issue a.............................en.................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ............................................................ UM4801-IG..................A4 Lucent Technologies ... ..............

.................... so RF optimization must be performed on a loaded network......... which increases cell coverage... the Orthogonal Channel Noise Simulator (OCNS) can be activated on the OMC-U to generate downlink interference........ October 2005 3-4 ......en..... Cell breathing: Cell at 30 % capacity Cell at 60 % capacity Traffic needed during optimization Cell breathing occurs when the network is loaded................... The network can be loaded with live traffic or simulated traffic............ thus the coverage area shrinks............ Higher interference lowers the quality of service especially at the initial cell coverage border....... At the same time...... Lucent Technologies ............... To remain connected... On the uplink......A4 See notice on first page Issue a... Optimization goal The goal is to ensure that high load situations do not lead to RF coverage gaps.Proprietary UM4801-IG.. which may lead to pilot pollution or unwanted handover behavior................................................................. An increase of the network load increases network interference......... Definition Cell breathing is the growing and shrinking of an RF coverage area........................ power levels must increase... an attenuator attached to the user equipment simulates the loading................... To simulate (additional) traffic on the downlink..... When power can not be increased further............................... low load situations should not create large overlaps in cell coverage...... ..............Common optimization problems and their solutions Cell breathing problem ................. depending on the network load...................................................................... A low network load leads to low network interference.... a handover is needed......... This can result in neighboring cells not being used because the mobiles stay connected to the original cell and no handovers occur................................................. the network must have sufficient coverage and the network must be used efficiently............. In both high and low load situations.....

...... These include: • • • • • • • Dropped calls Poor quality.............................. Information sources The following information sources are used to detect cell breathing problems: • • • Drive tests Key performance indicators Customer complaints........Common optimization problems and their solutions Cell breathing problem Detection of the problem There are several ways in which cell breathing problems are manifest in the network.....A4 Lucent Technologies ..... October 2005 See notice on first page .......................en..................................Proprietary 3-5 Issue a................ UM4801-IG............................... – New antenna or new cell site........ ............. Change handover parameters Change neighboring cell list........ Possible solutions Possible solutions for cell breathing are: • • • Increase coverage area: – Antenna downtilt or reorientation – Power increase....... especially at cell edges (during high traffic loads) Appearance of RF coverage gaps (during high traffic loads) Failed handovers No handover to neighboring cells (during low traffic loads) Excessive or unexpected handovers (during high traffic loads) Pilot pollution (during low traffic loads)...........................................

... October 2005 3-6 ...................... Detection of the problem There are several ways in which pilot pollution problems show themselves in the network....... Problem areas with low Ec/Io ratios may be misinterpreted as pilot pollution areas and lead to iterative drive testing and unnecessary parameter changes in attempts to establish a dominant pilot..................... the problem area is considered as a RF coverage hole Sufficient Ec signal strength (low pathloss).................... The lack of a dominant pilot causes low Ec/Io ratios........................................ unused multipaths act as interference....Proprietary UM4801-IG. Coverage of the dominant pilot must be increased and coverage of the weaker pilots (which cause interference) must be decreased.........Common optimization problems and their solutions Pilot pollution problem .. upper floors in buildings.......................A4 See notice on first page Issue a....... Common trouble spots are bridges.. The user equipment uses a rake receiver to exploit multipath reception.... Present pilots which cannot be added into the active set cause interference.................. the problem area has pilot pollution..... Definition Pilot pollution is interference caused by overlapping pilots with similar signal strengths....................en... a six-finger rake receiver is fully occupied when receiving three pilots (each with 2 multipaths)............ Pilot pollution is also considered if the number of present pilots is greater than the actual active set size of the user equipment............. If a pilot has: • • Insufficient Ec signal strength (extensive pathloss).............. An optimization engineer needs to determine whether the Ec/Io ratio is poor due to excessive pathloss or pilot pollution...................... and large bodies of water............ Any additional pilots and multipaths are interference. These include: • • • • Dropped calls Handover failures Increased interference Decreased capacity............................................ street intersections............................... Since the rake receiver has a limited number of fingers................................ Each received pilot is accompanied by 2-3 strong multipaths............ Optimization goal The goal is to minimize pilot pollution.................... At the same time.... Lucent Technologies ... Another aspect of interference is multipath reception. ................ continuous coverage through the soft handover must be ensured...... elevated highways...................... Consequently.......

. October 2005 See notice on first page ................................................Proprietary 3-7 Issue a.................. ......................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ..................................Common optimization problems and their solutions Pilot pollution problem Information sources The following information sources are used to detect pilot pollution problems: • Drive tests.......en................................... UM4801-IG............... Possible solutions Possible solutions for pilot pollution problems are: • • • Antenna tilt and azimuth rotation P-CPICH channel power changes Change neighboring cell lists....................

...........Common optimization problems and their solutions Near-far problem .............................Proprietary UM4801-IG....... ................................................ These include: • • • High interference Node B always transmits on full power despite satisfying block error rates User equipment always transmits on full power despite satisfying block error rates........ Possible solutions Possible solutions for near-far problems are: • Changing power control parameters..........................en............... power control must be tightly controlled.. Definition Near-far problems occur when user equipment near the cell site transmits on high power.............................. The optimization goal is to ensure that all power control algorithms are working properly................................ Power control parameters are tuned only when there are obvious power control failures.........................................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a. Detection of the problem There are several ways in which near-far problems show themselves in the network.... October 2005 3-8 ............................ Fast closed loop power control is needed to direct mobiles to power up or power down very quickly....................... This creates excessive interference for user equipment that is located far away from the cell site............................................... Therefore.................................... Optimization goal The goal of the cell site is to receive all user equipment at equal signal strengths............ Information sources The following information sources are used to detect near-far problems: • • • Drive test Key performance indicators Customer complaints.... Lucent Technologies ...............................

...................................... The downlink degrades momentarily until the handover is performed or the downlink power control reacts to compensate the interference........en....... ................A4 Lucent Technologies ..................... October 2005 See notice on first page . When the user equipment goes into handover with the new cell site......................................................Proprietary 3-9 Issue a............ Definition Around-the-corner problems occur when user equipment travels beyond an obstruction where there is significant downlink interference from a new sector with low pathloss.... Known trouble spots are elevated highways and street intersections.......Common optimization problems and their solutions Around-the-corner problem .................................. UM4801-IG...... These include: • • High interference Unusual handover behavior................ Optimization goal The goal is to optimize the power control mechanism........ Information sources The following information sources are used to detect around-the-corner problems: • • Drive tests Key performance indicators... The around-the-corner problem is a continual and unavoidable issue...................................................................................................... The optimization goal is similar to the near-far goals..... Detection of the problem There are several ways in which around-the-corner problems show themselves in the network........................................................................................ Possible solutions Possible solutions for around-the-corner problems are: • • Changing power control parameters Changing handover parameters...................... fast power control is needed to quickly reduce cell site transmit power...............

.................A4 See notice on first page Issue a....en............................................... Detection of the problem There are several ways in which handover problems show themselves in the network............................................... Optimization goal The goal is to optimize handover performance by careful selection of thresholds and timers..................... These include: • • Dropped calls (because of handover failure) Ping-ponging (frequent handovers between 2 cells)........................... Also..................................... so excessive handover activity must be minimized..........Common optimization problems and their solutions Handover problem ................. Definition Unnecessary delays in handovers may cause uplink/downlink interference.. and increase downlink interference..................................................... October 2005 3-10 .............. Possible solutions Possible solutions for handover problems are: • • Adjust handover parameters Change the neighboring cell list......... Time delays due to resource allocation (channel units............................... Handovers require signaling resources....... transmission links to RNC........ Quick handovers are required when there are rapid changes in pathloss between the user equipment and the sector due to fading....................................... .Proprietary UM4801-IG.................. Information sources The following information sources are used to detect handover problems: • • Drive test Key performance indicators.............. OVSF codes) degrade call quality and reduce the throughput of data calls........ Lucent Technologies ................. unnecessary handovers due to non-contiguous UMTS coverage or pilot pollution lead to excessive handover activity......................

.............................. Uneven traffic distribution (UEs stay with a cell and are not handed over to a neighboring cell)... Missing neighbors are pilots that are not in the neighboring cell list......................... When pilots are received that are not in the neighboring cell list....... Information sources The following information sources are used to detect missing neighbors problem: • • • Drive test Key performance indicators Customer complaints..................... Received pilots must either be eliminated or declared in the neighboring cell list........................Proprietary 3-11 Issue a..... October 2005 See notice on first page ....... these pilots cannot be added to the active set and thus these pilots will cause interference.............. Optimization goal The goal is to optimize the neighboring cell lists................................ Detection of the problem There are several ways in which missing neighbor problems show themselves in the network..... so setting up proper neighboring cell lists is very important...en. Definition A neighboring cell list contains the cell identifiers to which a handover is allowed.. A handover can therefore only occur to a cell that is in the neighboring cell list of a UE.............. because it can not handover to another cell) Unusual handover behavior (no handovers are performed from one cell to another cell).......................................A4 Lucent Technologies ...... They must not be ignored................ The list is kept in the RNC and is transmitted to the UE..........Common optimization problems and their solutions Missing neighbors problem ............................... UM4801-IG..................................................... These include: • • • • Dropped calls (when neighboring cell list is too short and UE can not handover to another cell) High interference levels (UE transmits at high power levels to serving cell.................................................................................................... ........... The UE measures signals only from the neighboring cell list and uses these measurement for power control and handovers.......... It is important that all received UMTS sectors are either eliminated or declared in the neighboring cell list...

................................. Lucent Technologies ........................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.............en......... October 2005 3-12 ............Proprietary UM4801-IG.......... .......... Change RF coverage................................................................................... so pilots are not received anymore or pilot reception is improved: – Adjust power levels – Change antenna orientation or tilt..Common optimization problems and their solutions Missing neighbors problem Possible solutions Possible solutions for missing neighbor problems are: • • Updating the neighboring cell list to include or exclude a pilot.....................

............................................................. October 2005 See notice on first page ........................................................... creating excessive interference b 2 Which of the following may solve the around-the-corner problem? a Change neighboring cell list b Change P-CPICH channel power c Change antenna orientation or tilt d Change handover parameters d ............................................Common optimization problems and their solutions Exercises ...............................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ............................................................................. UM4801-IG............................en................Proprietary 3-13 Issue a........................................... Exercises 1 What is the consequence of cell breathing? a Improvement of quality at cell edges b RF coverage area shrinks with increased load c Interference due to overlapping pilots d UEs near the cell site transmit on high power.................................................................

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.....................................en................................................................................. October 2005 See notice on first page .Proprietary 4-1 Issue a........................................................................................................................................... you will be able to: • • Place the UTRAN protocols and channels in their architectural context Place the UTRAN protocols and channels in a call flow context........... Objectives After completing this lesson..................................................................................................................... Contents Protocol architecture of the air interface 4-2 Protocols of the air interface 4-3 Radio interface protocol architecture 4-5 Service access points 4-7 Air interface protocols 4-10 RRC Connection and Signaling Connection 4-11 Signaling radio bearers 4-12 Radio bearer establishment 4-15 Exercises 4-18 . UM4801-IG.A4 Lucent Technologies ........................................4 U TRAN Signaling 4 Overview .............................

.... Objectives After completion of this section.......................................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG................................ Contents Protocols of the air interface 4-3 Radio interface protocol architecture 4-5 Service access points 4-7 ..................................................................................................................................................................... October 2005 4-2 ....................................................UTRAN Signaling Protocol architecture of the air interface Overview ......................................................................... Lucent Technologies ........A4 See notice on first page Issue a.........en. you will be able to: • • • describe the protocols of the air interface match these protocols to their correct layer in the protocol architecture of the air interface explain how the layers communicate with one another by the use of channels..........................................

.......Proprietary 4-3 Issue a..... Secondly... maintenance and teardown)................................. such as segmentation and reassembly....................................... RRC provides the means for the transmission of NAS signaling............. acknowledged and unacknowledged............................ Radio Link Control The RLC provides functions related to data transfer...... error-correction and flow control....... It also transmits user data from the non-access stratum to the RLC layer and vice versa............................................................ it is used by the Radio Resource Management algorithms................... .2 NBAP FP PHY PHY SSCF-UNI SSCOP SSCOP AAL5 AAL5 AAL2 Phy-up NBAP STC............................... in-sequence delivery...............2 SSCF -UNI UDP FP IP GTP-U RANAP RANAP SCCP SCCP MTP3-b MTP3-b SSCF -N SSCF -N UDP IP SSCOP SSCOP AAL2 AAL5 AAL5 ATM ATM ATM E1/ STM -1 -1 STM STM-1 Control plane User plane UE Uu Node B Iub RNC Iu-ps SGSN Description The following table lists the protocols of the Uu and introduces the functions each performs.................................... UM4801-IG................en................ Packet Data Convergence Protocol The PDCP provides header compression and decompression of IP data streams..... October 2005 See notice on first page ..............A4 Lucent Technologies ................ Part Description Radio Resource Control The RRC controls the connection between UE and UTRAN (setup..................... Logical structure of the air or Uu interface (PS example) The following illustration shows the UTRAN protocol architecture (for DCH) with the protocols of the Uu highlighted..................... IP SM SM PMM PMM PDCP RRC RRC RLC PDCPGTP-U RLC MAC MAC Phy -up ALCAP ALCAP STC............... Finally............. Three modes are provided: transparent..............UTRAN Signaling Protocols of the air interface ...................

... multiplexing........ channel type switching.........................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.... Lucent Technologies ...........UTRAN Signaling Protocols of the air interface Part Description Medium Access Control The MAC prepares transport blocks for most efficient transfer over the air.. UE identification (on common channels) and transport format selection on a frame-by-frame basis..................................Proprietary UM4801-IG..en............................... October 2005 4-4 . The MAC is responsible for mapping logical channel onto the appropriate transport channel.................................................................... The functions include scheduling.......... .....................................

............... is not terminated in the UTRAN and thus not discussed in this topic....................................................... • • • The top layer (layer 3) is the network layer and includes the RRC and the user traffic below that is layer 2 or the data link layer. The PDCP and the BMC exist in the U plane only...................................... October 2005 See notice on first page . the bottom layer is the physical layer (layer 1). interfaces with Layer 2 and terminates in the UTRAN...............A4 Lucent Technologies ..........................................Proprietary 4-5 Issue a...............UTRAN Signaling Radio interface protocol architecture ............... such as Session Management (SM)Mobility Management (MM) and Call Control (CC).. belongs to the non-access stratum............... In the C plane... UM4801-IG..... ................................................ Layer 2 is split into the following sub-layers: – Medium-Access Control (MAC) – Radio Link Control (RLC) – Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) – Broadcast/Multicast Control (BMC).......................................................... A layered architecture The radio protocol architecture in the UTRAN is layered.. Higher-layer signaling..... Layer 3 is partitioned into sub-layers where the lowest sub-layer which is called the Radio-Resource Control (RRC).................................................... Layer 3 and the RLC are divided into Control (C) and User (U) planes...........................en.....................................................

... The connections between the RRC and the MAC as well as the RRC and L1 provide local inter-layer control services...... October 2005 4-6 .................. The SAPs between the RLC and the MAC sub-layer provide the logical channels. MAC and L1)...... Service Access Points (SAP) for peer-to-peer communication are marked with ovals at the interface between sub-layers................................ For this purpose separate Control SAPs are defined between the RRC and each lower layer (PDCP.................... MM) is defined by the General Control (GC). In the C-plane........A4 See notice on first page Issue a....................en......... RLC....Proprietary UM4801-IG. Lucent Technologies ...................................... Equivalent control interfaces exist between: • • The RRC and the RLC sub-layer The RRC and the PDCP sub-layer • The RRC and the BMC sub-layer....................UTRAN Signaling Radio interface protocol architecture Structure of radio protocol architecture The following figure illustrates the logical structure of the radio protocol architecture: C-plane signaling GC Nt DC U-plane information control Layer 3 control Radio Resource Control (RRC) control PDCP L2/PDCP DCP BMC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC Medium Access Control (MAC) Physical Layer (PHY) L2/BMC RLC L2/RLC Logical Channels L2/MAC Transport Channels L1 Physical Channels Explanation of overall protocol structure Each block in the previous figure represents an instance of the respective protocol. ....................... These interfaces allow the RRC to control the configuration of the lower layers...... The SAP between the MAC and the physical layer provides the transport channels...... Notification (Nt) and Dedicated Control (DC) SAPs........... the interface from RRC to higher layers (CC..........

................................... The transport channel service defines how and with what characteristics (with which QoS) data is transferred over the radio link. L a y e r M a n a g e m e n t Radio Resource Control (RRC) L3 SAPs Radio Link Control (RLC) L2 SAPs Medium Access Control (MAC) L2 SAPs Physical Layer L1 SAPs Air What are the different channels for? The different channels provide the following different services..........................................UTRAN Signaling Service access points ...... These categories are: • • • • Radio Bearers provided by the RLC Logical Channels provided by the MAC to the RLC Transport Channels provided by the PHY to the MAC Physical Channels provided to the PHY. Every transport channel has a transport format assigned to it which contains information such as channel coding. the BCCH provides system information to all users in a cell........... which provide different kinds of channels for communications.................. ............ interleaving and rate matching.Proprietary 4-7 Issue a............................................................................................... The physical channel service provides the means by which the UE is radio-linked with the Node B... The SAPs and their position between the layers are illustrated in the following figure...... UM4801-IG.............................................. These services are provided through Service Access Points.............. depending on which layer interface provides them.. For example.............. • • • The logical channel service contains the type of information that is transferred over the radio link.................................................. the DTCH carries the actual user data...A4 Lucent Technologies .. and use the services of the layer below..................................... Service access points The layers provide services to the layer above............................ The channels are divided into four broad categories....................en........... October 2005 See notice on first page .............

..................... one transport channel can be transferred over multiple physical channels .... or conversely... October 2005 4-8 .... The Radio Bearers map directly to the Logical Channels......................... Lucent Technologies ....UTRAN Signaling Service access points Channel mapping For each of the channel categories....A4 See notice on first page Issue a. there is a number of types......... each with different characteristics....Proprietary UM4801-IG....................... some are associated with traffic-carrying channels..... Multiple transport channels can be multiplexed onto a single physical channel............... There are many physical channels which do not carry higher-layer traffic................en.......................................... Physical channels Downlink Uplink P-SCH S-SCH Birirectional P-CPICH Logical channels Transport channels S-CPICH BCCH BCH P-CCPCH PCCH PCH PICH CCCH FACH S-CCPCH CTCH RACH PRACH DCCH DTCH AICH DCH DPDCH DPCH DPCCH DSCH PDSCH CPCH PCPCH Transport channels are mapped to physical channels as shown in the illustration above........................ The following illustration shows the relationships between channels linking different protocol layers..... and the Transport Channels map to the Physical Channels......... while others are necessary for cell discovery by the UE and channel estimation....... the Logical Channels map to the Transport Channels..................

.. and may well carry the DCCH............A4 Lucent Technologies ....................... so a UE which uses them must also have a dedicated channel set up and associated with them.. .................. and that the UE can stop ramping up its power....................... October 2005 See notice on first page .... or (for PCPCH) that a collision detect preamble has been received and resolved DPCCH carries power control information for associated channels as well as TFC indication for DPDCH and PDSCH.............. UM4801-IG.... The shared channels are power controlled...................... PCH and FACH can be multiplexed onto the same S-CCPCH or can each be transferred over separate S-CCPCHs............ and pilot and feedback information........................... Associated channels are used as follows: • • • PICH indicates in an efficient manner that information for a mobile will shortly be transferred on the PCH transport channel AICH indicates that an access preamble has been received.............Proprietary 4-9 Issue a........... This DCH can be of very low bandwidth compared to the shared channel..........UTRAN Signaling Service access points (multicode)......................en.....................

......en.................................................................................................................................................................................................. Lucent Technologies .......................................Proprietary UM4801-IG....................................................... Objectives After completion of this section........ Contents RRC Connection and Signaling Connection 4-11 Signaling radio bearers 4-12 Radio bearer establishment 4-15 ......................................................................................................... October 2005 4-10 .......A4 See notice on first page Issue a........ you will be able to: • Place the UTRAN protocols and channels in a call flow context.............UTRAN Signaling Air interface protocols Overview ......................

.......................A4 Lucent Technologies ............... Signaling Connection RANAP Connection RRC Connection Relay RRC UE RRC Uu Node B Iub RNC RANAP RANAP Iu SGSN\MSC .................................................. session management messages.................................... The following illustration shows the RRC and the RANAP connections that make up the signaling connection. or Mobility Management messages................................................... such as those used in handover signaling.......... the signaling connection provides the resources necessary for all signalling messages between the UE and the core network (MSC or SGSN)................................... Signaling connection An acknowledged-mode link between the UE and the CN to transfer higher layer information between the entities in the non-access stratum.............en.....Proprietary 4-11 Issue a..................... Such signaling messages could be for example.................................................................................................... Signaling connection Consisting of an RRC (signaling) connection and a RANAP (signaling) connection........... Definitions RRC connection An RRC connection is a point-to-point bi-directional connection between RRC peer entities on the UE and the UTRAN sides..................................... UM4801-IG................ such as a PDP context request........ The signaling connection is made up of an RRC and a RANAP connection...... October 2005 See notice on first page ..............UTRAN Signaling RRC Connection and Signaling Connection ..............

................... Signaling connection An acknowledged-mode link between the UE and the CN to transfer higher layer information between the entities in the non-access stratum (via RRC and RANAP).A4 See notice on first page Issue a............... Definitions Signaling radio bearer The radio bearers available for transmission of RRC messages are defined as “signalling radio bearers”............. DCCH: RRC Connection Setup Complete ...........................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG.... ALCAP Iub Data Transport Bearer Setup 5................. October 2005 4-12 ........................... Radio Link Setup Request 3.. RRC connection establishment in DCH state This example shows the steps taken during the establishment of an RRC connection in DCH state... CCCH: RRC Connection Setup 8................................................................................ CCCH: RRC Connection Request Select L1 +L2 parameters 2......................................... Uplink Synchronization 7....................................................................................... Lucent Technologies ....... Radio Link Setup Response 4...............en............................UTRAN Signaling Signaling radio bearers .......... Downlink Synchronization 6.......................... Node B Serving RNS UE Serving RNC 1............

........................................................................ ...... 8 The Message RRC connection setup complete is sent on a DCCH from the UE to the SRNC............ The request for the set-up of an Iub data transport bearer is acknowledged by the Node B.. ........................................ October 2005 See notice on first page .......................................................................................................................................................................................................UTRAN Signaling Signaling radio bearers Steps of the RRC connection establishment The following is a description of the RRC connection establishment process: ................................................................................................................................................. .........................en. 5 The Node B and the SRNC establish synchronism for the Iub and Iur data transport bearer by means of exchange of the appropriate DCH frame protocol frames downlink synchronization........Proprietary 4-13 Issue a......................................................................................................................................... .......... an NBAP message Radio Link Setup Request is sent to the Node B.................................................................................................. Signaling radio bearers per RRC connection 4 signaling radio bearers are set up per RRC connection................... • 2 signaling radio bearers for transport of RRC generated signaling messages.................................................................................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ...... ................................................................. 1 The UE initiates the set-up of an RRC connection by sending an RRC message Connection Request on the CCCH........................................................................ and responses with the NBAP message Radio Link Setup Response................. .................. starts PHY reception..................................................................... 7 The message RRC connection setup is sent on a CCCH from the SRNC to the UE.... the SRNC decides to use a DCH for this RRC connection............................ 2 After performing Call Admission Control (CAC)..................................................................................................................... When a DCH is to be set-up..................................................................... UM4801-IG............................................................ .............................................................................................................................................. allocates RNTI and radio resources for the RRC connection... 6 The Node B and the SRNC establish synchronism for the Iub and Iur data transport bearer by means of exchange of the appropriate DCH frame protocol frames uplink synchronization.......... Then the Node B starts downlink transmission........................................................... 4 The SRNC initiates the set-up of an Iub data transport bearer using the ALCAP protocol................... 3 The Node B allocates resources............................ .......................................................................................................................

October 2005 4-14 ......................... 1 signaling radio bearer for transferring NAS messages set to ″high priority″ by the higher layers (RLC AM) And 1 signaling radio bearer for transferring NAS messages set to ″low priority″ by the higher layers (RLC AM) Subsequent to the establishment of the signaling connection zero to several signaling radio bearers may be set up for transferring RRC signaling messages using transparent mode RLC (RLC TM entity)........A4 See notice on first page Issue a........................................................... Signaling radio bearer configuration at the UE The RRC on the UE side configures L1 and MAC and creates the new RLC entities with the parameters given by the network-side RRC...en.............................................. C-plane signaling U-plane information Radio Resource Control (RRC) control control control control Signaling Radio Bearers New RLC entities RLC RLC RLC RLC MAC parameters Medium Access Control (MAC) L1 Parameters Physical Layer (PHY) ....................... The following illustration shows the newly created signaling radio bearers after the creation of the RRC connection.....Proprietary UM4801-IG............... Lucent Technologies ......................................UTRAN Signaling Signaling radio bearers The 2 signaling radio bearers are for transferring messages thus: – • • • 1 for transferring messages through an RLC UM entity and – 1 for transferring messages through an RLC AM entity............

................ Radio Access Bearer establishment This example shows the steps involved in the establishment of a Radio Access Bearer........... Known by RAB identifier (RAB ID)........................... Radio access bearer The service that the access stratum provides to the non-access stratum for transfer of user data between UE and CN........... UE Node B RNC MSC RANAP RAB Assignment Request ALCAP ERQ (Establish Request) ALCAP NBAP RL Reconfigure Prepare ECF (Establish Confirm) NBAP RL Reconfigure Ready ALCAP ERQ (Establish Request) ALCAP ECF (Establish Confirm) FP DL Synchron...... NBAP RL Reconfigure Commit RRC RB Setup Request DCCH RRC RB Setup Complete DCCH RANAP RAB Assignment Response ................... FP UL Synchron............... October 2005 See notice on first page ...................................................................Proprietary 4-15 Issue a................................................................................... UM4801-IG....................... Consists of radio bearer service and Iu bearer service.........................................................................UTRAN Signaling Radio bearer establishment .............A4 Lucent Technologies .......................................................en................................ Definitions Radio bearer A service provided by the RLC layer for transfer of user data between UE and SRNC...........

.... 3 Once the RL has been reconfigured in the Node B............................. The Commit message indicates the Frame number at which the change should occur............................................................. 4 When the AAL2 connection is ready........................................................................................................................................................................... the RNC instructs the Node B to commit the changes it had prepared in the reconfiguration.. This includes the same CFN as indicated to the Node B.................................................. ...... The RNC does this via an RRC RB set-up request................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... This is done via ALCAP Establish procedures and is followed by FP synchronisation............................................................................ 6 Once the UE has configured the RB........... 5 The UTRAN has been configured for the new DTCH......A4 See notice on first page Issue a........................................................... ................................................................................................................. .......................................... .....UTRAN Signaling Radio bearer establishment Radio Access Bearer establishment process The following is a description of the Radio Access Bearer connection establishment process: .................................. October 2005 4-16 ............................... ...................... 2 The UE already has a Radio Link setup..........Proprietary UM4801-IG.................. The Node B confirms with RL Reconfigure Ready................................................. so the UE can now be instructed to set up the Radio Bearer........ that also includes the DL addressing for the GTP-U connection................ it returns a confirmation message in the form of an RRC RB set-up Complete............... the RNC sets up the AAL2 bearer to carry it.............................................................................................. therefore the RNC sends a RL reconfigure request to the Node B................................ 7 Reception of the set-up complete message by the RNC indicates that RAB assignment procedure is complete................. Lucent Technologies ............................................................................................................. 1 The SGSN initiates the process by sending a RAB assignment request to the RNC indicating the RAB configuration and also passing the UL GTP tunnel Paramaters................................................................................................. but does not implement the changes yet..................... this procedure requires that a DTCH be added to the configuration.............................. it indicates this back to the SGSN via a RANAP RAB assignment response. ..................................................................................... ................................en...................

........................................A4 Lucent Technologies ................UTRAN Signaling Radio bearer establishment Radio Access Bearer establishment The following illustration shows the newly created radio bearer after the creation of the Radio Access Bearer....................................................................... UM4801-IG.................... October 2005 See notice on first page .Proprietary 4-17 Issue a............. C-plane signaling U-plane information New Radio Bearer Radio Resource Control (RRC) PDCP DCP control control BMC RLC RLC RLC RLC RLC New RLC entity MAC parameters Medium Access Control (MAC) L1 Parameters Physical Layer (PHY) ............en..........................................................

............... October 2005 4-18 .............................................................................................................................................. Lucent Technologies ......................................................UTRAN Signaling Exercises ..................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a......... Exercises 1 Where is the NBAP terminated? a UE and Node B b Node B and RNC c UE and RNC d RNC and RNC b 2 What kind of channel is the FACH? a Physical b Transport c Logical d Bearer b 3 Which channel carries the pilot? a P-CPICH b PRACH c P-CCPCH d AICH a ....en...........................................................................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG..........................................................................

Part II: Optimization process

Overview
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Objectives

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:



Describe when optimization is performed during a network lifecycle and the phases
of the optimization process
Describe what site readiness entails
Describe the optimization planning phase
Describe the RF optimization execution phase.

Contents
Lesson 5, Optimization process

5-1

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
UM4801-IG.en.A4
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
II-1
Issue a, October 2005
See notice on first page

5

O ptimization process
5

Overview
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Objectives

After completing this lesson, you will be able to:



Describe when optimization is performed during a network lifecycle and the phases
of the optimization process
Describe what site readiness entails
Describe the optimization planning phase
Describe the RF optimization execution phase.

Contents
Lifecycle

5-2

Optimization process phases

5-4

Drive test optimization process

5-7

Planning and preparation (site readiness)

5-9

Optimization planning

5-11

Perform cluster optimization

5-13

Perform system verification

5-16

Information gathering

5-18

Information analysis

5-19

Exercises

5-20

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
UM4801-IG.en.A4
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
5-1
Issue a, October 2005
See notice on first page

Optimization process

Lifecycle
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Network lifecycle

Stages of the lifecycle of a network:

Network design

Planning

Optimization

Implementation

N

Acceptance
criteria met?
Y

Network design
& implementation
Live network

In service
optimization

Network lifecycle stages

This shows the stages in the lifecycle of a network and the place of optimization in the
lifecycle:
.................................................................................................................................................................................................

1

Create a design for a UMTS network.
The design is typically created using (RF) design software.
.................................................................................................................................................................................................

2

Optimize the design of the network.
The design is typically optimized for coverage or capacity using optimization software
that provides recommendations for:

Antenna tilt and orientation
Power levels.

.................................................................................................................................................................................................

3

Sites are planned and engineered according to the network design.

.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Lucent Technologies - Proprietary
UM4801-IG.en.A4
See notice on first page
Issue a, October 2005

5-2

.................... thus restarting this process.................. 6 When all sites are completed and tested..................................... The data from the planned site is used as input for optimization................. . ............................................................................................. October 2005 See notice on first page ........ This can mean that there are differences between the design and the planned site... final (drive) tests are performed to check if the network complies to the customer´s requirements............. This can mean that there are differences between the planned site and the completed site.................... the continuous process of in-service optimization now begins....... is used as input for optimization...... ........................................................................ the network goes live and commercial use can begin.............................. to test basic operation........................................... 5 When a site is completed.................................................................................................................................................................................. ............ Data from the drive tests................ The data from the completed site is used as input for optimization............................................................................... 7 In the live network.. In-service optimization can result in the need to update the network design to include new cells.... Refer to “Drive test optimization process” ......................................................................................................en................................. UM4801-IG.....Optimization process Lifecycle This translates the design into the real environment............A4 Lucent Technologies ..... drive tests are usually started........... If the customer accepts the network......Proprietary 5-3 Issue a.................... 4 During implementation the sites are built............................................................................................................................ together with installation and parameter data from the site.........................

................................................................. October 2005 5-4 .A4 See notice on first page Issue a................................................................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG........... Optimization process flow Optimization process flow: Begin Gather information Analyze information Optimization problem? N Y Sufficient information? N Y Identify reason Determine solution Implement solution Gather and analyze information Y Problem solved? N .................... Lucent Technologies ........................................................................................en....................................................................................... Site readiness checks must have been performed before optimization starts... Objectives This topic shows the stages of the optimization process in a live network...........................................................................Optimization process Optimization process phases ...........

............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................. 1 Collect information......................................................................... 3 Determine if a problem is an optimization problem......................................................... 6 Determine solutions for the problem.......................................................... 5 Identify the reason for the problem.......................... Result: Use automated (computer) tools to handle large quantities of complex data.................................. 4 If needed...........en.............. Result: Main information sources are: • • • Drive tests Customer complaints Performance measurements and KPIs. for example based on: • • • Cost of implementation Easy of implementation Chance of success.... October 2005 See notice on first page ................A4 Lucent Technologies ...................................................................................... .... gather additional information........ ....................................Optimization process Optimization process phases Optimization process stages The optimization process consists of the following stages: ........... ...................................... 2 Analyze information to determine if the network complies to requirements................. UM4801-IG......................................... ........... Choose the best solution........................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................................................... make sure the problem is not a fault................................. Result: For example........................................................................................................................................... Result: For example: • • • Capacity RF Coverage Cell breathing.................Proprietary 5-5 Issue a.......................................... Implement only one solution at a time.................................................................................................................. Result: Typically there are multiple solutions to solve a problem..... 7 Implement the solution that was chosen.

.......................Proprietary UM4801-IG...................................................................................... Focus on the problem and the solution that was implemented.................. the problem is solved. After an optimization problem has been solved......... detecting and solving other optimization problems............................ 9 When ................ Optimization starts when a network goes live and never stops.................en........................ ............. the problem is not solved.............. Restore the original settings when parameters were changed.................. go to Stage 6................................................ engineering and optimization and commissioning of new cells and sites............... ........................................... then ...... 8 Gather and analyze information................................................ go to Stage 1......... Lucent Technologies ....A4 See notice on first page Issue a............. ...................................................................... the optimization cycle continues........... October 2005 5-6 ..... Circumstances in a live network always change and therefore optimization can not stop.... Continuous optimization This process has a “Beginning” and no “End”........................Optimization process Optimization process phases Result: Implementation can range from a simple change of an OMC parameter to the entire process of design................................................................... planning....

............. 2 Plan optimization........................ Ensure the system and tools are ready and available for drive test optimization........................................................ 1 Perform site readiness checks............Optimization process Drive test optimization process ............................................. This ensures all cells are operating as required...................... These drive tests are performed to correct problems and to prove that the network meets customer requirements............... to ensure that the antenna system is properly installed (tilt....... equipment and personnel Define clusters Plan routes for drive testing.................. This includes: • • Define clusters (group of cells) Unloaded cluster optimization........... to identify RF coverage holes.............................................................. Site readiness checks include: • • • Spectrum clearance.............. 3 Perform cluster optimization using drive tests......................................... Stages The following is the optimization process that is performed prior to a network being commercially deployed: ................... ............... hand over regions and pilot coverage areas ...... azimuth.........................................................Proprietary 5-7 Issue a......................................... .............. to ensure basic functionality of a sector (call processing..................................................................A4 Lucent Technologies .......... October 2005 See notice on first page .........en.......... optimization using drive tests is usually performed.................................................... UM4801-IG.......................................................................................... hand overs)...................................................... to ensure no external interferences are present and sufficient guard band are obeyed Antenna checks.......... Objectives Before a network takes on live traffic..... cabling) Sector verification......................... This includes: • • • • • Check proper RF parameter settings Check proper initial neighboring cell list settings Check availability of tools......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

.............................. Result The network is now ready for live traffic testing which leads into commercial service.. 4 Perform system verification.................................................................................................. to prove the entire network (all clusters) meets customer exit criteria................................ ...... October 2005 5-8 ............................................................................. ............................... to measure effects of cell breathing • Cluster performance verification.............................A4 See notice on first page Issue a............ to prove network meets customer criteria.............Proprietary UM4801-IG......................................................................en................Optimization process Drive test optimization process • Loaded cluster optimization........... Lucent Technologies ..

...Optimization process Planning and preparation (site readiness) . the measurement data ........ configuration and parameter errors........................................................ It is desirable to have a high degree of confidence that the spectrum is cleared prior to any testing.................... the checks do not have to be made anymore..... Proper installation must be checked with regard to: • • • • Type of antenna Height of antenna Tilt and azimuth of the antenna Cabling........ Important: Site readiness checks are usually performed after a new network or new cells are deployed and before the network goes operational................................................................................... These checks ensure that all cells are operating as required.............. The sector tests are performed using measurement software including a UMTS test terminal............................. Once all data from the sector tests have beencollected.............. Antenna check Antenna checks ensure that the antenna system is properly installed. site readiness checks should be performed......... Introduction Before optimization is performed................... Spectrum clearance Spectrum clearance ensures no external interference is present and sufficient guard bands are obeyed.................................. Sector verification Sector verification ensures the basic functionality of a sector. UM4801-IG..............en................................................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ..... software. Checks Site readiness checks include: • • • Spectrum clearance Antenna check Sector verification. This includes basic call processing and handovers......... The sector verification tests are used to detect hardware.......Proprietary 5-9 Issue a....................... Detection of interference can be very time-consuming and difficult once the UMTS system is up and running.. Measurements are made on UMTS signal levels to verify that each sector is transmitting with the appropriate power levels and the correct scrambling code...A4 Lucent Technologies .... When they have been performed and satisfactory performance can be guaranteed..................

... Lucent Technologies ... October 2005 5-10 ...............................................en........Proprietary UM4801-IG.........A4 See notice on first page Issue a................. It is important to keep the drive routes and KPIs identical for performance validation and comparison purposes......Optimization process Planning and preparation (site readiness) can be post-processed.................................... Baseline driving should be performed prior to any RF optimization activity and involves measuring the Key Performance Indicators......................... ..... If sector problems do occur.............. they need to be remedied and the tests repeated until they are successful........................... Baseline existing system The objective of baselining the existing system is to collect the RF performance metrics of the existing UMTS system equipment....................................

......................Proprietary 5-11 Issue a..... Introduction The optimization planning phase ensures system and tool readiness for RF optimization before beginning the actual drive testing................................................. Validate initial neighbor lists An important step in the RF optimization planning phase is neighbor list verification......................................................................... The recommended strategy is to have a minimum number of neighbor relations in the neighbor lists.................................. validity and appropriateness.................A4 Lucent Technologies . Define clusters Approximately 15-19 cell sites should be combined into one cluster................... .. Tool readiness The drive test and post-processing tools need to be prepared for optimization.......... It may be worthwhile to utilize natural barriers such as hills and water bodies for cluster separation to minimize overlap and influence between the clusters.. Perform RF parameter audit At the beginning of the RF optimization process....... The actual number used is based on network expansion as well as on the topographical environment.................................. October 2005 See notice on first page ........................................................................... UM4801-IG........en........................... RF parameters must be inspected for consistency with the UMTS parameter catalogue...... The clusters are selected to provide a center cell site with two rings of surrounding cell sites as shown in the figure below.................. The complete neighbor lists in the UMTS network are required to compare the neighbor relations with network design plots... A little cell site overlap should remain between each cluster to ensure continuity across the boundaries..Optimization process Optimization planning .................................. Neighbor relations need to be verified for recent updates.....................

........ A border route is chosen by the way it crosses the cluster borders without going into the cluster areas............................. Total time to drive all routes in a typical cluster should be approximately 6 to 8 hours...............A4 See notice on first page Issue a....... Sector drive routes usually do not require customer approval.... The System Verification drive routes are used to collect the metrics for the Exit Criteria......... The routes are a combination of the cluster control routes and routes between the individual clusters.. The selected drive route should maintain a distance equal to 1/2 of the cell site radius.. ........... highways and hotspots............. A control route is a subset of the optimization route and should be limited to about 1 to 2 hours.... Planning drive routes for System Verification.......en...................... October 2005 5-12 ....................... Planning drive routes for Cluster Optimization The routes for Cluster Optimization should consist of major roads............................................ Lucent Technologies ............. One control route per cluster is chosen to verify system performance...Optimization process Optimization planning The following figure shows B 1 2 A 9 3 4 5 11 10 8 7 6 C Drive route planning Drive routes need to be defined for the following: • • • Sector Verification Cluster Optimization System Verification.........Proprietary UM4801-IG........... Planning drive routes for Sector Verification Each cell site is driven approximately around the entire cell site. Additional border routes are chosen to verify system performance on overlapping cluster regions.......

.. problem area identification............. The core activity is to provide system tuning..................... In addition..............................Optimization process Perform cluster optimization ..... Another benefit to smaller cluster optimization is that multiple teams can optimize different clusters simultaneously........ October 2005 See notice on first page ............................................. There is a better focus on the area optimized....................... Each team is able to maintain focus on its cluster with minimal impact from other teams...... It is recommended to finish the unloaded cluster tests for all clusters within the network or network sections before continuing with the loaded cluster tests............................................ UM4801-IG.....A4 Lucent Technologies ......... Introduction RF optimization execution consists of drive tests. and final drives to ensure completion of exit criteria............... as well as data collection and reporting....... The border exit drive is performed under loaded conditions in order to verify and confirm the exit criteria at the borders of the clusters............... They are uncommon in existing systems........ All cell sites in the network (or a network section) are switched on...... If live traffic exists.................... as smaller sector numbers make it easier to track the parameter changes and the impact of their performance......................... Each cluster is tested under unloaded and loaded conditions........................ smaller cluster optimization aids in speeding up the system tests for commercial operation. such as Greenfield or Overlay scenarios......en.... Design changes relating to cell site layout modifications or adding a new cell site may be considered if critical coverage holes are discovered during optimization...... Multiple cluster testing During multiple cluster testing the optimization teams working on neighbor clusters must coordinate activities especially regarding neighbor relations. After a small set of adjacent clusters pass the exit criteria............... loading conditions or possible overshooting sites. Optimization in equipped clusters can proceed simultaneously with installation of other clusters....Proprietary 5-13 Issue a................ This avoids a re-testing of already optimized clusters in case cell sites are later integrated.... such as Network Expansion or Additional Carrier System... Several factors make it worthwhile to optimize the system in manageable sized clusters.. cells in the tested clusters must be barred for all users except for the test users (optimization team)......... When to perform cluster optimization Cluster optimization should be performed for network sections that are fully deployed.... verification drives............................. ................ Fine tuning of the transmit powers is the most effective procedure in already optimized networks........... Antennae corrective actions are more frequent for new deployments. Cluster size Cluster optimization consists of procedures performed on geographical groupings of cell sites that are large enough to have meaningful multi-cell site optimization. a border exit drive must be performed......................

. a UMTS terminal... a measurement drive is performed under unloaded network conditions using the optimization route.. The drive test information highlights fundamental flaws in the RF design under best-case conditions..A4 See notice on first page Issue a......... Loaded cluster optimization The second cluster optimization phase is performed under loaded conditions............. WINDS as well as the post-processing tool LDAT3G.............. large water-bodies....... results in higher BLER... Antenna re-adjustments (e......g.. problem spots are identified and optimized. patterns/types or heights) are also occasionally performed..... results in lower mobility throughput....Optimization process Perform cluster optimization Cluster optimization tools The required data collection........ The unloaded drive test identifies coverage holes... which is especially useful for more in depth coverage analysis (e.. If the problem cannot be solved after three test drives...... In addition to the phone-based tool kit.Proprietary UM4801-IG...) 3 phases of cluster optimization Cluster optimization consists of three phases: • • • Unloaded cluster optimization Loaded cluster optimization Cluster performance verification Unloaded cluster optimization During the first cluster optimization phase............... handover regions and multiple pilot coverage areas....... The Agilent scanner is an important tool due to its multiple pilot measurement capability.en....... etc........ the scanner-based tool Agilent can be used during cluster optimization.. processing and analysis tools for cluster optimization are a phone-based data collection tool kit including CAIT3G..... which has the effect of shrinking the coverage area (cell breathing). un-even terrain........ Once the data from the first phase is collected.................. identify potential coverage holes.. This causes an increase of negative Ec/Io values. and more dropped calls.......g. The objective is to fix the problems observed by the field teams..... Loaded testing produces a rise in the noise floor.............. October 2005 5-14 ... down-tilts.......... bridges.. either a root cause analysis is performed or cluster optimization proceeds ... The first pass might lead to correction of neighbor lists and adjustments of the fundamental RF parameters such as transmit powers and/or antenna azimuths and antenna tilts....... This involves the fine-tuning of RF parameters such as the transmit power or handover parameters... It also spots possible overshooting sites (where interference is minimal) from areas belonging to neighbor clusters... It is not recommended to drive a problem area more than three times.......... pilot pollution) in challenging RF environments (e.......... azimuths..... Lucent Technologies ............ Problem areas may be re-driven after implementing changes... The drive routes for the loaded cluster optimization are exactly the same routes as those used for the unloaded measurement drives.g....

.... it is advisable to report the behavior and proceed with the next cluster.......... The problem cluster can be verified at a later stage...... If the cluster is not approved.......... such as location-specific problems like cell site equipment failures. UM4801-IG..... Approval with exceptions allows the cluster to be exited under the condition that any problems will be resolved during system wide optimization............. For such problems.............. loaded cluster optimization must be continued until the troubles are resolved..............................A4 Lucent Technologies .......Proprietary 5-15 Issue a........ The exit drive’s purpose is to verify and to confirm specific exit criteria demanded by the customer.. the cluster performance is measured against the cluster exit criteria............ Cluster performance verification In the third phase.......... ... time-intensive performance issues. A report specifying the reasons why the exit drive did not pass the exit criteria is required........ October 2005 See notice on first page ............ The approval to exit the cluster is based on the terms of the contract....en................................... The final statistics from the cluster exit drive are presented to the customer for approval........................ These statistics contain plots as well as data in tabular form.... It is generally not recommended to attempt resolution of complex....................Optimization process Perform cluster optimization with the next cluster....

........... The UMTS network is ready for live traffic testing leading into commercial service........... another drive test must be completed to ensure the surrounding regions are still performing properly.. Individual Cluster Optimization drives are used to fix existing coverage problems by adjusting transmit powers and neighbor lists............. System verification involves fusion of the previously optimized clusters and once again is required to demonstrate that Exit Criteria are met system-wide.................... System verification begins after all clusters in the UMTS network have been tested... October 2005 5-16 ......................................... additional tuning of system parameters will be required to accommodate uneven traffic conditions (e....... handover thresholds... The system drive routes should not be used for optimization................................................. Problem areas Specific problem areas identified by the system verification will be addressed on a case-by-case basis after the entire drive has been completed........... Lucent Technologies ...............Optimization process Perform system verification ..........g......... System drives do not allow changing parameters due to side effects... the RF Optimization procedure is considered complete... After any parameter changes are made.......... Ready for live traffic The final statistics from the system verification phase are presented for approval... A comprehensive drive test System verification is a comprehensive drive test covering the major highways and primary roads in the defined coverage area.................................................................en.A4 See notice on first page Issue a................ The procedures and analysis are identical to those used in Cluster Performance Verification..Proprietary UM4801-IG.............. .......................................... There is a focus on the problem areas identified during the Cluster Optimization (system verification driving routes)......... channel power parameters or other low tuning parameters may require modification... Optimizing a system route can result in very good performance on the system verification driving routes but poor performance elsewhere.......... Once significant loading with live traffic is present on the network........ traffic hot spots) and other dynamic effects which cannot be modeled with simulated traffic loading.... Performance data will be collected and statistics will be made to characterize coverage and performance over the entire network...................... In extreme situations.............. At the end of the system-wide drive test phase............... The main difference is the larger contiguous area of coverage..................... System optimization is a continuation of Cluster Performance Verification... The final phase System verification is the final phase of the RF Drive Test Based Optimization activity and it focuses specifically on collecting overall performance statistics.. It is performed under loaded conditions with all cells activated... The same tools that were used for Cluster Optimization are used for the system verification phase......

............ ................. October 2005 See notice on first page ........................ UM4801-IG................ Such items must be well documented with alternative solutions proposed.........................................Optimization process Perform system verification It is possible for problem areas to remain after system verification is complete................................. An example would be a coverage hole that will be fixed by a future cell site addition.................en..................A4 Lucent Technologies .......................................Proprietary 5-17 Issue a................

..... The main information sources are: • • • Key performance indicators Drive tests Customer complaints............en............. especially reaching thresholds are often the first indication of an optimization problem.................. Especially if multiple complaints can be related to one source..................................................... so multiple sources of information are needed.. Customer complaints Customer complaints can provide an indication of problems..... Information is needed to determine: • • • If there is an optimization problem Optimization solutions If the problem is solved...........................A4 See notice on first page Issue a... Drive tests can also be performed to gather general information about the network performance.... October 2005 5-18 ................... ........ During the more detailed investigation information from other sources is gathered........Optimization process Information gathering .. can trigger further investigation.... Lucent Technologies ............................................... Key performance indicators Key performance indicators (KPI) are used to determine if the network complies to the levels of performance that are needed....................................................... time or related to a resource.................. KPIs are calculated using measurements that are gathered by the OMC-U........... Information sources As much information as possible should be used as input for optimization. Drive tests Drive tests can be used to gather information in the network............................Proprietary UM4801-IG..... Information from one of these sources....... Changes in values of the key performance indicators...................................... A drive test can be performed to gather information about a specific problem or problem area...... Customer complaints can point to a problem on a specific location..........................................................................

... 4............................ This allows the engineer to link information and events to a common source..................... Using models. engineers are not able to handle the large volumes of detailed information that is available................. Data analysis software tools Because of the scale and complexity of a network........... October 2005 See notice on first page ................ 2................................. .................... that do not seem to relate to each other.......... Commercially available and proprietary tools are available to analyze information and determine impacts.. Software tools can also be used to determine the consequences of implementing a solution in the network.......... software can simulate the impact on the network of implementing a solution...................... analysis of the information determines: 1.................Proprietary 5-19 Issue a........... Engineers can use software tools to handle the information and determine if there are problems.................................. 3....................en....................................................... solutions that can solve the problem and predict consequences of a solution (in a general way)......... Role of an engineer The knowledge and experience of an engineer is an important tool in analyzing data.... The engineer can identify possible sources of a problem........ An experienced optimization engineer has detailed knowledge of how processes and protocols in a network work... UM4801-IG.....A4 Lucent Technologies .................. An experienced engineer can even relate events to a single source............................................Optimization process Information analysis ............................................. After information is collected. If there is an optimization problem The source of the problem Possible solutions for the problem Consequences of implementing a solution.......

...................................en................................ Lucent Technologies .........................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.................. c ..........................................Optimization process Exercises ......................................... what should be done? a A root cause analysis b Further drive tests and optimization until the problem has been solved c Cluster Optimization proceeds with the next cluster a................................... Exercises 1 What do sector verification tests verify? a Proper installation of antenna b Basic call-processing functions c No external interference is present b 2 What does a measurement drive performed under unloaded network conditions test? a Fundamental flaws in the RF design b Basic call-processing functions c Non-optimized RF parameters a 3 If............... after loaded tests................................................................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG............................................................... a problem cannot be solved after three test drives................................... October 2005 5-20 ......

.. Call availability and optimization 6-1 Lesson 7........................................... October 2005 See notice on first page .........Proprietary III-1 Issue a........... Call mobility and optimization 9-1 Lesson 10........A4 Lucent Technologies .................................... Contents Lesson 6....................... you will be able to: • • • • Suggest methods of dealing with issues affecting access................................................. UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators 10-1 ... Call quality and optimization 8-1 Lesson 9................................................................................................................................. Objectives After completing the following lessons.................................en...................................................... Describe methods of resolving Radio Link Failures Identify parameters that have a direct influence on the user´s perception of call quality Identify failure symptoms and suggest improvements for problems related to call mobility.......................Part III: Optimization and troubleshooting Overview ........ Call reliability 7-1 Lesson 8............. UM4801-IG...................

.

UM4801-IG.............. October 2005 See notice on first page ........................................................................................................................ you will be able to: • • • • Describe the call setup process Narrow down the failing issues to a performance area Narrow down the failing issues to one or more performance metrics Suggest methods of dealing with issues affecting access...................................................6 6 all availability and C optimization Overview .........................................................................................................................................................en.................................. Objectives After completing this lesson....................................................A4 Lucent Technologies .................Proprietary 6-1 Issue a..... Contents Call availability 6-3 Call availability 6-4 Determination of accessibility problem 6-6 Network level accessibility 6-7 Introduction 6-8 Cell Search & RRC SIB decoding 6-9 Cell selection 6-10 Cell re-selection failures 6-12 RACH access procedure failures 6-14 RRC connection establishment analysis 6-17 Introduction to RRC connection establishment 6-18 Call admission control failures 6-20 Radio link setup failure 6-21 RRC connection setup failure 6-23 Paging failures 6-26 RAB establishment analysis 6-28 Introduction 6-29 ...........

..........en..... October 2005 6-2 ............................................Call availability and optimization Overview Dynamic bearer control failures 6-32 Radio link reconfiguration failures 6-33 Radio bearer establishment failures 6-34 No answer from UE 6-35 Code starvation 6-36 Exercises 6-37 .................................................................................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG.......... Lucent Technologies .................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a...............

....................................................................................................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ............................................................................................................. Objectives After completing this section........................................Call availability and optimization Call availability Overview ......................Proprietary 6-3 Issue a.................................... Contents Call availability 6-4 Determination of accessibility problem 6-6 ........ you will be able to: • • Describe the basic call setup process Recognise KPIs which reflect the general satisfaction level with network accessibility...A4 Lucent Technologies ................ UM4801-IG......................................................................................en..

.............................................. With the RAB Establishment procedure........... ........ the UE has to successfully perform the cell (re)selection process as well as to gain network access using the Random Access procedure..... October 2005 6-4 ............... The call is successfully set-up only if both procedures are successfully completed........ Introduction Call availability is defined as the first main factor that identifies the user perception... Related transition states In order to allow the user to successfully originate or receive a call.......... With the RRC Connection Establishment procedure............... from a UMTS point of view..... Network level access phase During the network level access phase....... Call setup process The call setup process consists of different procedures depending on what kind of session/service type is required (for example CS or PS)..... all the requested resources are allocated by the Core Network and by the UTRAN in terms of Radio Access Bearers (RABs) while the UE stays in Cell_DCH state and acknowledges the resources setup.................. the UE executes the transition from Idle state to Cell_DCH state. entering the UTRAN RRC Connected Mode................... requests and acknowledges the resources setup..................................................................... Call setup failures Call setup failures can occur during the Network Attach procedures when the UE executes the transition from the power off to the Idle state.. Lucent Technologies .... These failures impact Call Availability as the user needs to get the UE to the Idle state before attempting call setup.............. Via the call set-up process............... the UTRAN and the Core Network allocate all the requested resources.......................A4 See notice on first page Issue a........................en.....Proprietary UM4801-IG.... the UE requests resources from the UTRAN and executes the transition from Idle to CELL_DCH state...........Call availability and optimization Call availability ........ RRC Connection Establishment and RAB Establishment procedure are the main procedures on the UTRAN side........................ of the UMTS network in successfully setting up a call...................... The UTRAN allocates resources in terms of radio links....................................................................... the UE must pass the following states: • • From the power-off state to the Idle state From the Idle state to the Cell_DCH state.....

... October 2005 See notice on first page ............. The UTRAN allocates resources in terms of radio links............. RAB establishment phase During the RAB Establishment phase................ UM4801-IG.....................................Proprietary 6-5 Issue a.......................................A4 Lucent Technologies ............................... the requested resources are allocated by the Core Network and by the UTRAN in terms of Radio Access Bearers (RABs) while the UE stays in Cell_DCH state and acknowledges the resources setup............................en.............................Call availability and optimization Call availability RRC Connection Establishment phase During the RRC Connection Establishment phase..... ............ the UE requests resources from the UTRAN and executes the transition from Idle to Cell_DCH state and enters the UTRAN RRC Connected Mode.........

.........................................Call availability and optimization Determination of accessibility problem .en............................................................................... Therefore... Each of the KPIs above is derived from multiplying the service type specific RAB Establishment Success Rate with the Successful RRC Connection Establishment Rate................... Abnormal accessibility rate values When one of the Accessibility rate values is very low........................................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a..........................................Proprietary UM4801-IG..................................... October 2005 6-6 ............................ Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • • • CSV Accessibility rate CSD Accessibility rate PSD Accessibility rate.............................. this can be caused by many different issues................. it is possible to analyze the general satisfaction level......... .......... it is advised to localize the issue by analyzing the performance measurements and KPIs separated over the accessibility call phases: • • • Network level access phase RRC connection establishment phase RAB establishment phase.............. of the UMTS mobile subscriber about the network accessibility.... Lucent Technologies ........................... Introduction In order to quickly determine whether there are severe problems in the UMTS network.......................... from a network point of view......

..........................................Call availability and optimization Network level accessibility Overview .................................... you will be able to: • • Describe the procedures relating to cell search.................................................................................................................................en.. SIB decoding.Proprietary 6-7 Issue a.... Contents Introduction 6-8 Cell Search & RRC SIB decoding 6-9 Cell selection 6-10 Cell re-selection failures 6-12 RACH access procedure failures 6-14 ....... Objectives After completing this section............................................................................. cell selection/reselection and RACH access Identify related KPIs and reasons for failures of those procedures........... October 2005 See notice on first page ................................................A4 Lucent Technologies .............................................. UM4801-IG........................................................

................................................................................................ Successful completion of both procedures is a basic prerequisite to succeed in any call procedure........................ Preliminary procedures failures In general any call-related procedure initiated via RRC messages sent by the UE to the UTRAN is preceded by two preliminary procedures such as cell selection/re-selection and Random Access Detection....................... Not visible for performance management Both the cell selection/re-selection and Random Access Detection procedures are not visible to the network before successful reception of RRC messages relevant for the specific call procedure.............. failures occurring during both procedures will not affect the value of any RRC connection performance indicators........................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.........................................Proprietary UM4801-IG...... ..............Call availability and optimization Introduction .... Therefore...... Lucent Technologies ......................................................................en.................................................................................................... October 2005 6-8 ......................................

.... This could be done using drive test equipment allowing the supervising of the three different stages of cell search... it starts to decode the RRC SIB messages on the Broadcast Channel (BCH)...Call availability and optimization Cell Search & RRC SIB decoding . Process Generally the process of cell search can be divided into three stages: • • • Slot synchronization by using the Primary Synchronization Channel (P-SCH) Frame synchronization and code group identification utilizing the Secondary Synchronization Channel (S-SCH) Scrambling code identification on the Primary Common Pilot Channel (P-CPICH)..........................................................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ....... ............. RACH access. October 2005 See notice on first page ....................................... and handover........... Both procedures directly affect cell selection and re-selection...... may affect the SIB decoding success rate........Proprietary 6-9 Issue a.............. SIB decoding issues should be examined using UE drive test equipment by recording and evaluating the SIB detection error rate... Introduction Cell Search and RRC System Information Broadcast (SIB) messages decoding precede cell selection and re-selection procedures.............. the power settings of the channels involved.................... P-CCPCH power setting Once the UE has successfully synchronized to the P-CPICH scrambling code of the NodeB......... P-SCH..................en........... which helps to identify the causes of unsuccessful cell search operation........................ the S-SCH and the P-CPICH power settings The behavior of the cell search algorithms is largely impacted by the power settings of the three physical channels involved in this process: the P-SCH............................. UM4801-IG...... the S-SCH and the P-CPICH..... The power setting for the P-CCPCH............................... If problems during the cell search procedure occur in areas of good coverage............... If this power is too low the UE may not be able to properly decode the SIB and can therefore not read the parameters related to several UE procedures such as cell selection and re-selection................ which carries the BCH information............................................. defined by corresponding UTRAN parameters................ should be examined...... thus some more details on this are provided here.........

..... i...................... Current UE measurements must exceed both thresholds before the UE tries to access this cell.......... this failure is not visible from the network.....................e.....Call availability and optimization Cell selection ................................. Two thresholds for quality and level of the received pilot are used within the cell selection criteria.............................................. the UE stays on “Searching” state that is visualized in the display................... Lucent Technologies ................. the UE will not try to attach to the network... Both thresholds are defined as UTRAN parameters: • • sIB3QqualMin sIB3QRXLevMin If the cell selection criteria are not fulfilled.. On the UE side........................Proprietary UM4801-IG...... Cell Selection was successful but the UE has either camped on a cell belonging to a different PLMN or failures occurred during the Registration procedure on the initially selected PLMN (e................... it performs cell selection... . This can be caused by incorrect parameters settings or by bad coverage........ the UE will not access the network on the RACH and is therefore not visible to the network....en........... If the UE enters the “Limited Service” state...............g.............................. Therefore...A4 See notice on first page Issue a........................................... due to Core Network issues).................... the behavior should be investigated using a measurement UE and executing the attach procedure in the location where coverage issues are observed............................... During this procedure the UE tries to find a cell of a suitable Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) which satisfies the cell selection criteria.......... All problems with cell selection can only be verified either using UE traces or observing that traffic is lower than expected and users are complaining about problems during attach.......... October 2005 6-10 ...................... Improvement suggestions If problems with the cell selection criteria within the RF-design coverage area are suspected: • • The parameter settings related to cell selection should be verified.. Failure Symptoms If the selection criteria are not fulfilled............... If all settings are compliant with the recommendations..... it will not send an RRC Connection Request message on the RACH set to “Registration”............. Introduction Once the UE has successfully completed Cell Search and SIB Decoding..

.......... October 2005 See notice on first page .................. UM4801-IG...............Call availability and optimization Cell selection • Measuring the current values of pilot Ec and Ec/Io in this location allows you to judge whether the cell selection criteria should be fulfilled in this area....... and may result in more dropped calls and unhappy customers....... Care must also be taken to ensure that the calls may be maintained at an acceptable quality with these lowered thresholds................... Otherwise........... ....................................................Proprietary 6-11 Issue a...........A4 Lucent Technologies ....................................... UEs will be allowed to get onto the network...... but will be unable to sustain sufficient quality................. it may be indicated to lower both quality and level thresholds even further to allow the UE to attach............... • Under certain circumstances......en.....

.... Overview Once the UE is able to select a cell and attach to the network.................. pegging the PM counter NumUraUpdateRequest................... it should continuously perform the cell re-selection process........ lower re-selection hysteresis values will make the effect of ping-pong re-selections more likely......... Failure symptoms If the hysteresis values are too high. Detailed root cause analysis of cell reselection problems can only be performed via UE tracing.......... The parameters should be changed according to the recommendations to rectify this issue... Two important parameters (sIB3Qhyst2 and sIB3Treselection) broadcast on the RRC SIB 3 message define the hysteresis of the measurement value Ec/Io and the hysteresis time................................................................UraChange..........Call availability and optimization Cell re-selection failures ........en................ an increased number of RRC Connection Establishment failures in combination with high hysteresis values for cell reselection can indicate cell reselection problems causing this behavior.................. Only if reselection appears at the LA or RA boundaries will a Cell Update be performed...... If an increased number of Cell Update requests are observed at an LA/ RA boundary................. Nevertheless............. October 2005 6-12 . this might cause call setup failures........... it can be verified in another drive test that the reselection hysteresis is high enough and that ping-pong reselections are extremely unlikely................................... Lucent Technologies .... the UE will start the URA update procedure........................... then the hysteresis parameters must be raised..... This should again be verified in a drive test and then checked whether it has improved after a parameter adjustment.... If the parameters for cell re-selection have too much hysteresis.....Proprietary UM4801-IG. Another performance measurement related to cell reselection is the number of Cell Update requests due to reselection....... ...................... and it is verified in a drive test that the reselection hysteresis is too small...... However. the UE will possibly access a cell which is not the optimal choice in terms of interference......................... Improvement suggestions Before starting the investigation......................... Reselection issues that result in lower call setup success rates may indicate a hysteresis setting that is set too high................................. If the UE selects a cell within a different URA............ After changing the reselection parameters............ On the other hand.........A4 See notice on first page Issue a....... this value should increase for hysteresis values that are set too low in cells at an LA / RA boundary when compared to a properly set cell with similar traffic....... it should be checked whether all reselection settings are compliant with the recommendations..

. October 2005 See notice on first page ...en........CellReselect........Call availability and optimization Cell re-selection failures Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • • NumCellUpdateRequest.........................................UraChange...................... ..........Proprietary 6-13 Issue a....... pegging the PM counter NumUraUpdateRequest............................................ the UE will start the URA update procedure.......UraChange............................. UM4801-IG......... The number of Cell Update requests due to reselection is pegged by NumCellUpdateRequest............A4 Lucent Technologies .CellReselect NumUraUpdateRequest..................... If the UE selects a cell within a different URA................

Call availability and optimization

RACH
access procedure failures
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Overview

The RACH Access Procedure is used in the following cases:



When
When
When
When

attaching to the network
setting up a call
answering to a page
performing a Location Update/Routing Area update.

The RACH procedure has been successfully performed when the RRC Connection
Request message is received by the RNC upon successful decoding at the Node B.
RACH procedure

The RACH is transmitted on the physical layer in two separate parts:
1. A certain number of RACH Preambles are sent. The power of the first RACH
Preamble is relatively low and is calculated using open loop power control.
2. Each of the following RACH Preambles are transmitted with an increased power
till an acknowledgment (ACK) is received on the AICH.
3. After receiving the AICH the UE transmits the RACH Message Part with an
embedded RRC Connection Request message.
The signaling flow of a basic RACH transmission procedure:
Ue

Uu

Node B

Iub

RNC

RACH Preamble
RACH Preamble

RACH Preamble

Access indication
(AICH)
RRC

RACH message
(RRC Connection Request)

RRC

NumBadRACHTransBlock
NumGoodRACHTransBlock

Timer settings

Guard timer T300 (determined by UTRAN parameter t300) and N300 (determined by
UTRAN parameter n300) supervises the transmission of the RRC Connection Request
message on the UE side.
Poor settings of timer n300 may result in insufficient retransmission of the RACH
message and poor settings for timer t300 may result in RACH messages being
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RACH access procedure failures

retransmitted too early or too late and thus affecting the procedures that initiated the
RACH access (for example call setup).
Upon reception of the RRC Connection Request message at the RNC, PM counter
NumRRCConnAtt is incremented by one. When the UE is not able to either
successfully attach to the network or successfully perform a Location Update, the Cell
Selection/Reselection procedures fails and the UE enters a ″limited service″ state.
Failure symptoms

There are four PM counters that may help to identify RACH Access problems:
NumRRCConnAtt, NumBadRACHTransBlock, NumGoodRACHTransBlock and
ChannelOccupRateRACH

NumRRCConnAtt is triggered on the RNC after reception of the RRC Connection
Request message independent of the establishment cause. Low values at a specific
NodeB of NumRRCConnAtt are indicative of problems; nevertheless this counter
cannot prove that there are actually problems because RACH Preambles discarded
by the NodeB are not counted. It may be that at a particular cell low traffic is
resulting in low values of counter NumRRCConnAtt3.
PM counter NumBadRACHTransBlock and NumGoodRACHTransBlock may be
used to arrive at the ratio between number of RACH TBs received with bad CRC
to total number of RACH TBs. A high value for this ratio may be indicative of
problems with the quality over the RACH.
PM counter ChannelOccupRateRACH is the ratio of total bits transferred on the
RACH to maximum bits available for RACH usage (service rate) per granularity
period. If this ratio is very high the resources on the RACH may not be sufficient.

Improvement suggestions

The fixes for improvement depend on the detected reason for the failure:
NodeB does not decode the RACH Preamble

Possible reasons:



The UE is not camping on an optimal cell due to incorrect selection/reselection
parameter settings.
Due to hardware problems the sensitivity of the RX path could be reduced
The power of the Initial RACH Preamble is too low. In this case it is necessary to
increase UTRAN parameter constantVal
The power required for RACH Preamble detection does not exceed
physicalRACH.preambleThreshold. In this case the three parameters
MaxRetranPreamble, physicalRACH.preambleThreshold and powerRampStep have
to be optimized

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RACH access procedure failures

The RACH coverage of the best server is too poor in terms of low Ec/Io that might
be caused by:

Pilot pollution: In this case the RF environment has to be optimized by e.g.
antenna tilting, variation of the power settings of single NodeBs etc.
The coverage of the best server is simply too low (low Ec/N0, RSCP or high
pathloss). In case of coverage issues it may be useful to lower the detection
threshold defined by UTRAN parameter physicalRACHpreambleThreshold or to
increase the CPICH power controlled by UTRAN parameter pCPICH.power. If
increases are made to the CPICH power, then care must be taken to balance the
powers for the rest of the channels (if required), so that a situation does not
arise whereby the user detects and uses a cell based on pilot power, but has
insufficient traffic power available to carry the call.

UE receives no ACK on AICH

Possible reasons:

The power of the AICH determined by UTRAN parameter aICHPower is not
sufficient.
The AICH is interfered with by other non RF-optimized NodeBs. In this case, the
RF environment has to be optimized by e.g. antenna tilting, variation of the power
settings of single NodeBs, antenna azimuth changes.

Lack of Node B resources

The UE receives a NACK on the AICH if the NodeB detects the RACH Preamble, but
does not have enough resources to process the RACH Message Part.
NodeB does not decode the RACH Message

Possible reasons:

The maximum allowed power on the RACH is set too low. In this case, the settings
of the two UTRAN parameters sIB3MaxAllowedULTxPower and
sIB4MaxAllowedULTxPower have to be optimized
The power settings configuring the DPCCH relative power of the RACH Message
Part is set too low. In this case, the power settings of physicalRACHpreambleThreshold and PowerOffsetPpm have to be optimized.
The power settings configuring the DPDCH relative power of the RACH Message
Part is set too low. In this case, the power settings of gainFactorBc and
gainFactorBd have to be optimized.
Unsuccessful retransmission of the RACH Message Part. Possible reason is not
optimal UTRAN parameter settings of t300 and n300.

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RRC connection establishment analysis
Overview
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Objectives

After completing this section, you will be able to:

Describe the RRC connection establishment process
Identify related KPIs and reasons for failures in scenarios related to the RRC
connection establishment process.

Contents
Introduction to RRC connection establishment

6-18

Call admission control failures

6-20

Radio link setup failure

6-21

RRC connection setup failure

6-23

Paging failures

6-26

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. RRC Connection Establishment starts with the successful receipt at the RNC of the RRC Connection Request message................................................ Note: For a mobile terminating call the paging procedure proceeds the random access procedure............. the RRC Connection Establishment procedure may be categorized into the following basic stages: 1.................................................... October 2005 6-18 .. An example of a mobile originated call flow: UE Uu Node B Iub RRC Connection Req (RACH) RRC RNC RRC CAC NBAP RL Setup Request 1 NumRRCConRej NBAP 2 NBAP RRC RL Setup Response RRC Connection Setup (CCCH over FACH) NBAP RRC 3 RRC RRC Connection Setup Complete (DCCH over DCH) NumRRCConEstFail RRC ..............en......................Proprietary UM4801-IG........................................ RRC Connection Setup...............................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.................................. Lucent Technologies ..... Call setup stages In case of a mobile originated call setup....................................Call availability and optimization Introduction to RRC connection establishment ............. This means that cell selection/re-selection as well as Random Access Detection procedures have been successfully completed......... Node B Application Part (NBAP) Radio Link Setup (including transport bearer and synchronization) 3................... Call Admission Control (CAC) at the RNC 2...... RRC Connection establishment procedure In general the RRC connection establishment procedure may occur in different scenarios such as: • • • Network attach (the UE is switched on and moves to Idle state) Location update MO/MT call setup (the UE moves from Idle state to Cell_DCH state).......................................................................................................................

..... Connection establishment failures The RRC Connection Establishment Failures may occur due to following reasons: • • • • • • Call Admission Control failures Radio Link Setup failures Transport Bearer failures RRC Connection Setup failures Paging failures Soft/softer Handover failures at call setup.................................Call availability and optimization Introduction to RRC connection establishment Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • • • NumRRCConnEstFail NumRRCConnRej Successful RRC connections establishment rate................................ Most of these failure causes are normally associated with poor RF conditions...... ............. SMS and Location Update. Low values of KPI RRC Connections Establishment Rate may also be due to RRC Connections Failures occurring during other procedures such as Network Attach.................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ........en............. October 2005 See notice on first page ........................ UM4801-IG.....Proprietary 6-19 Issue a..............................................

...... If the defined load thresholds for CAC are exceeded the RRC connection establishment request is denied and a RRC Connection Reject message with cause Congestion is sent by the RNC to the UE..................... Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • • • • • NumRRCConnRej Average transmitted carrier power Forward power overload duration Maximum transmitted carrier power Maximum received signal strength indicator................ Load measurements Other counters related to system load such as Forward Power Overload Duration........................ Load conditions for the downlink are based on the total transmit power of the cell............... If the values of this counter indicate that overload situations have occurred over long periods of time.......................... CAC may be one reason for the call setup problems experienced.........................................Call availability and optimization Call admission control failures ...........A4 See notice on first page Issue a.......... Introduction Call admission control (CAC) is used to prevent overload of the system.. ............................................ The uplink load measure is the measured RSSI value relative to the typical noise floor that was estimated using long term measurements............ Average Transmitted Carrier Power.................................................................................................. October 2005 6-20 ................................................................................... Abnormal NumRRCConnRej value The triggering of CAC can be partly monitored using the PM counter NumRRCConnRej that may be triggered not only in case of CAC but also in case of RRC Connection Reject message sent to the UE with unspecified cause.................. which would increase the probability for call setup failures..Proprietary UM4801-IG.. Lucent Technologies ............ Maximum Transmitted Carrier Power and Maximum Received Signal Strength Indicator may be used to verify that the load in the cell is fairly high...................en.....

the Node B reserves the necessary resources and sends back the Radio Link Setup Response message to the RNC..... Failure symptoms Via Radio Link PM counters such as NumRLSetupFail....... UM4801-IG............ e.......................... No Traffic Channel Resources available In order to allocate the requested resources.. This procedure may fail due to different reasons such as: • • • Notraffic channel resources available at the NodeB Faults either in the NodeB Faults in the Iub links...................................... it is possible to at least identify radio links unavailability issues along all radio link set-up procedures (that may occur along soft handover procedures as well as along call re-establishment)............. Upon reception of the Radio Link Setup Request message...A4 Lucent Technologies ........ Introduction Once the RNC has verified that the requested resources have passed the Call Admission Control check........ In general at least one radio link has to be set up.................................................................. If the establishment of at least one radio link fails......................Proprietary 6-21 Issue a. requested TX Diversity Mode not supported... e.....NodeBRes and NumRLSetupFail..................... no NodeB resources available........ the Node B sends back the Radio Link Setup Failure message to the RNC.......... .... the RNC requests the Node B to allocate these resources through the NBAP Radio Link Setup procedure........ Specific NodeB counters such as Total Channel Element Usage (ce_usage) and Dedicated Channel Element Usage (dedic_ce_usage) provide important information on the NodeB traffic and indicates if the NodeB capacity in terms of the availability of physical resources is close to the limit................en........ HW failure....... Miscellaneous Cause..........................Call availability and optimization Radio link setup failure ................................. In all failure cases the RNC sends back to the UE an RRC Connection Reject message with cause “unspecified”.......TransRes..... Transport Layer Cause due to unavailable transport resources..........g..........................g............... Protocol Cause due to semantic error.......... the RNC sends the Radio Link Setup Request message to the relevant Node B................... in case of soft/softer handover at call set-up more than one radio link has to be set-up... UL/DL Spreading Factor not supported......... number of UL/DL channelisation codes not supported...... October 2005 See notice on first page ..... Typical failure causes can be classified as following: • • • • Radio Network Layer Cause..........

......... RAB assignment is handled by Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP) on Iu links..... across an SSCOP connection.....A4 See notice on first page Issue a.... Traffic analysis focused on the critical Node Bs should be done by looking also at RAB sessions active and soft/softer traffic.......Proprietary UM4801-IG.............. so particular RANAP resources on transport/transmission layer impacts the radio link setup success............... Actual impacts could be caused by ATM QoS profile settings in the UTRAN and the transport network........... Open an Alarm entity of the RNC to which the NodeB is connected and check whether alarms for UCU cards are displayed........................................... As the Radio Link Setup Request is transferred over NBAP on Iub........ The POLL PDU is used to request.....................en...... Check with a protocol analyzer connected to Iub whether these PDUs are being sent.....Call availability and optimization Radio link setup failure Improvement suggestions Assuming that no faults have been detected at NodeB via alarm analysis... The STAT PDU is used to respond to this status request (POLL PDU) received from a peer SSCOP entity.... NodeB traffic card faulty Besides the RX-related problems....... the most likely failure cause is the one related to the unavailability of NodeB traffic resources..... Iub links down On Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol (SSCOP) POLL and STAT Protocol Data Units (PDUs) are sent regularly in uplink and downlink in order to check the link status.......... status information about the peer SSCOP entity...... radio link setup failures may be caused by a faulty Channel Unit in the UCU card... October 2005 6-22 .............. In order to limit the occurrence of this failure cause...... the availability of transport and transmission resources is critical for success......... If the PDUs cannot be seen.............. . the Iub link must be checked............. it is also recommended to carefully review the link dimensioning plan according to the link allocation strategies. Lucent Technologies ..

. If the RNC does not receive the RRC Connection Setup Complete message before T30001 expires......... UM4801-IG..................... the resources reserved on NBAP and ALCAP are released.... the RRC Connection Setup is not possible.....................Call availability and optimization RRC connection setup failure ... October 2005 See notice on first page ................................................ The process At this stage the RNC sends the RRC Connection Setup message.............. ...... the UTRAN initiates the RRC connection setup procedure to complete the RRC connection establishment.......................Proprietary 6-23 Issue a.............. This could be the case if the RNTI pool size is below the number of mobiles requiring RNTIs at the same time....................................................................... If V30001 > N30001................... resets timer T30001 and sends the RRC Connection Setup message again........................................ Before starting this procedure the Serving RNC (SRNC) assigns a Radio Network Temporary Identity (RNTI) to the UE..... resets counter V30001 and starts its internal guard timer T30001 (determined by UTRAN parameter uERRCConnSetupGuardTimer).............................. the RNC increments V30001 by one...en...... the RNC may start again sending the RRC Connection Setup message on the Forward Access Channel (FACH) depending on the status of counter V30001: • • If V30001 <= N30001 (that is determined by UTRAN parameter maxRRCConnSetupRetries). the RNC will send an RRC Connection Reject message to the UE.....................A4 Lucent Technologies .............. The performance measurement NumRRCConnEstFail is used to record failures occurred during the RRC Connection Setup procedure........ When the RNC receives the RRC Connection Setup Complete message sent on the Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH) before T30001 expires.... the RNC stops T30001 and the UE is in CELL DCH mode........................................................... If the RNTI pool in an RNC runs out of range.................... Introduction Once the NBAP radio link setup procedure has been successfully completed and the transport bearer has been established and synchronized........

..... Lucent Technologies ............................................................ Abnormal NumRRCConnEstFail value Possible reasons for failures in the RRC Connection Setup procedure: • Not optimal settings of the UTRAN attributes uERRCConnSetupResponseTimer and maxRRCConnSetupRetries • • The RRC Connection Setup message is not successfully decoded due to poor FACH coverage The RNC cannot successfully decode the RRC Connection Setup Complete message........................................en...A4 See notice on first page Issue a.................. Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • NumRRCConnEstFail...................... October 2005 6-24 ...................Call availability and optimization RRC connection setup failure The following figure shows the call flow of the unsuccessful case...........................Proprietary UM4801-IG..................................... ..

............................g.. RRC Connection Requestmessage is received at the RNC with value of the IE “Protocol error indicator” set to True........... This indicates that the RRC Connection Setup message received at the UE was either invalid or requesting an unsupported configuration...... – The power of the FACH determined by UTRAN parameter fACH... Improvement suggestions The suggested fixes will depend on the root cause..... UM4801-IG....... increasing the power (defined by parameter DPCCH_power_offset) to be used at radio link set-up on the UL DCH by the UE may help to increase the probability of successful decoding...en.....Proprietary 6-25 Issue a............................. Note that increasing the UL DCH power may increase UL interference............ In this case............ The RNC cannot decode the RRC Connection Setup Complete message successfully..... In this case..................Call availability and optimization RRC connection setup failure Failure symptoms The PM counter NumRRCConnEstFail is used to record failures occurred during the RRC Connection Setup procedure.................. .. antenna tilting..................A4 Lucent Technologies ..maxPower is not sufficient........ it might be useful to increase one or both parameters according to the dependencies and recommended settings provided in UMTS ParCat.. The RRC Connection Setup message is not successfully decoded due to poor FACH coverage... variation of the power settings of single NodeBs etc............... October 2005 See notice on first page .......... The reasons might be: – Pilot pollution: In case of pilot pollution the RF environment has to be optimized by e. Below are the possible root causes and their possible solutions: • • • The UTRAN parameter uERRCConnSetupGuardTimer and maxRRCConnSetupRetries are not optimally set................... Causes for a failure may be indicated as follows: • • RRC Connection Reject message is sent from the RNC to the UE with cause “unspecified” upon maximum number of RRC Connection Setup message retransmissions being reached.....

............ the PCH is carried by the AAL2 protocol over RACH (paging response in uplink direction)................... Note: Paging related PMs and KPIs are typically derived from the core network........................ In a successful case the UE receives and correctly decodes the paging message and sends back the RRC Connection Request message with the relevant cause to the UTRAN (this means Terminating High Priority Signaling for PS calls and Terminating Conversational Call for Voice calls)............................... However it may occur that the UE either does not receive or does not correctly decode the Paging message............... Paging procedure In case of an MT call the UE in Idle state has to be paged before sending the RRC Connection Request message........................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a............................................ Also issues on transport network may impact the Paging procedure as: • • • • Transport messages Transport Transport Transport over Iu interfaces RANAP protocol takes care of transmitting the paging over Iub interface.................................................................................................... PMs / KPIs indications The failure causes can be identified via UTRAN counter NumPageAttDiscard........en... Possible failure causes In general the possible failure causes are Paging Channel (PCH) congestion or poor PCH coverage......................... problems over the RACH (paging response in uplink direction)...... Note: Paging related PMs and KPIs are typically derived from the CN......................Proprietary UM4801-IG........... ........ Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • • NumPageAttDiscard ChannelOccupRatePCH....... PCH Traffic can be evaluated via counter ChannelOccupRatePCH........... Lucent Technologies ........... October 2005 6-26 ....Call availability and optimization Paging failures .......................... In all these cases the MT call is not successfully completed.............................. The RRC paging type 1 message is sent on the Paging Channel (PCH) by the core network (this means 3G-MSC for circuit-switched calls or SGSN for packet-switched calls) to all the UEs belonging to the same Location Area (LA) (in case of a CS MT call) or to the same Routing Area (RA) (in case of a PS MT call)............

Over dimensioning the PCH leads to a waste of resources..... Furthermore.................. If this failure occurs in the network due to PCH congestion....powerOffset1 and secondaryCCPCH....... To increase the UE’s probability of successfully decoding the PCH................................A4 Lucent Technologies .................. The Paging Channel (PCH) is normally dimensioned such that it meets the needs for the expected normal paging traffic and the performance requirements of MT calls........................ UM4801-IG.......Proprietary 6-27 Issue a....................en.... the pilot and Transport Format Combination Index (TFCI) bits within the S-CCPCH frames may be transmitted at a higher power by power offsets defined via parameters secondaryCCPCH........ October 2005 See notice on first page .. the implementation within UTRAN of UTRAN mobility states allows a further reduction of the use of the PCH as paging can be done on a cell basis or URA (UTRAN registration Area) basis rather than in all UTRAN cells of a particular RA or LA...... the power of the PCH should be increased via parameter pCHPower........... actions have to be taken to improve the Location Area and the Routing Area plan.....Call availability and optimization Paging failures Improvement suggestions If the identified cause is poor PCH coverage.........powerOffset2 respectively.. ....................................... ......................

....................................................Call availability and optimization RAB establishment analysis Overview ............................... you will be able to: • • Describe the RAB establishment process Identify related KPIs and reasons for failures in procedures related to the RAB establishment process...........................A4 See notice on first page Issue a....................... October 2005 6-28 ........................................................................................................................................................... Lucent Technologies ...........................Proprietary UM4801-IG..............................................................................................................en........................... Contents Introduction 6-29 Dynamic bearer control failures 6-32 Radio link reconfiguration failures 6-33 Radio bearer establishment failures 6-34 No answer from UE 6-35 Code starvation 6-36 ... Objectives After completing this section..

..................................................................................................................Proprietary 6-29 Issue a........... RAB establishment initiators The RAB Establishment procedure is initiated by the core network......A4 Lucent Technologies ...................................... This procedure is successfully completed upon receipt of RANAP RAB Assignment Response message at the core network............................................................................................ this means SGSN for PS calls or 3G-MSC for CS calls.... RAB establishment procedure As soon as the RRC connection establishment procedure has been completed.............. The RAB Establishment procedure is executed in case of call setup with: • • Packet-switched (PS) calls Circuit-switched (CS) calls.............................en.......Call availability and optimization Introduction ......... October 2005 See notice on first page ........................ ..................... UM4801-IG... the call setup procedure is finalized via the RAB Establishment procedure... upon receipt of an RRC/RANAP Uplink Direct Transfer message from the UE requesting either a Packet Data Protocol (PDP) Context Activation (PS call) or a Call Setup (CS call).......................................................................................

....................................... 4... PDP Context Activation (PS) or Call Setup (CS) Request by the UE RANAP RAB Assignment Request Dynamic Bearer Control at the RNC NBAP Radio Link Reconfiguration RRC Radio Bearer Establishment ...sum 4 NBAP Radio link reconfiguration prepare NBAP Radio link reconfiguration ready ALCAP Iub transport bearer establishment Node B RNC data transport bearer sync Radio link reconfiguration commit RRC Radio bearer setup (DCCH over DCH) NumRABEstFail.T3 5 RRC Radio bearer setup Comp (DCCH over DCH) RANAP RAB Assignment Response 6 RANAP Direct Transfer (PS ONLY: Act PDP Context Acc) RRC DL Direct Transfer (PS ONLY: Act PDP Context Acc) 7 RAB establishment stages The RAB Establishment procedure for both PS and CS calls may be categorized into the following basic stages: 1.......A4 See notice on first page Issue a.......Load 3 NumRLReconfigFail.........en....... 5................... 3..... Lucent Technologies ...............................RBSetupFail NumRABEstFail......................Call availability and optimization Introduction RAB establishment call flow An example RAB establishment call flow: UE Node B Uu SRNC Iu-ps Iub RRC UL Direct Transfer (PS: PDP Context Request CS: Call Setup Request) CN RANAP Direct Transfer (PS: PDP Context Request CS: Call Setup Request) 1 RANAP Direct Transfer (CS ONLY: Call Setup Request) RRC DL Direct Transfer (CS ONLY: Call Proceeding) RANAP RAB assignment request 2 ALCAP Iu transport bearer establishment DBC NumRABEstFail...................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG............. 2.................... October 2005 6-30 ..

. PDP Context Accept (PS) or Call Alerting and Connect Procedures............... UM4801-IG. RAB establishment Attempt failures The major RAB Establishment Attempt failure components may be classified as follows: • • • • Dynamic Bearer Control failure Radio Link Reconfiguration failure Radio Bearer Establishment failures Miscellaneous failures.................................Proprietary 6-31 Issue a.. Some of the failure causes listed above can be identified via specific PM counters as depicted in the signaling flow.................A4 Lucent Technologies ........ Since the only part of the UMTS network considered here is the UTRAN......... against the number of valid calls requested. Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • • Total RAB establishment success rate Total number of RAB establishment failures... The Total RAB Establishment Success Rate is the percentage of calls for all supported service types that successful established a RAB..... for example Code Starvation.............Call availability and optimization Introduction 6.... October 2005 See notice on first page ................................ RANAP RAB Assignment Response 7................en.............................. PMs / KPIs indications When RAB Establishment Failures occur then KPI Total RAB Establishment Success Rate is affected due to total number of RAB establishment failures that incorporates all the RAB Establishment Failure causes............................ .. the call is identified as a Radio Access Bearer (RAB)......................

............................. .. Maximum Transmitted Carrier Power and Maximum Received Signal Strength Indicator may be used to verify that the load in the cell is fairly high.......... then the root cause of this overload situation should be investigated........ Lucent Technologies ........... Average Transmitted Carrier Power................... Maximum Transmitted Carrier Power and Maximum Received Signal Strength Indicator may be used to verify that the load in the cell is fairly high................... 6-30))........................ the RAB establishment is rejected incrementing NumRABEstFail......en........... Other system load counters Other counters related to system load such as Forward Power Overload Duration............................... October 2005 6-32 .......Load Forward Power Overload Duration Average transmitted carrier power Maximum transmitted carrier power Maximum received signal strength indicator............... (See “RAB establishment call flow” (p.....................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG................. DBC failure will result in assignment of a lower data rate.......... Abnormal NumRABEstFail......... Introduction During RAB establishment the Dynamic Bearer Control (DBC) procedure is triggered.....................................................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.....Load............. In case even the lowest data rate can not be assigned.... then the root cause of this overload situation should be investigated................ Average Transmitted Carrier Power..........................Load value If the value of this counter indicates that an overload situation has occurred...... Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • • • • • NumRABEstFail.... If the value of this counter indicates that an overload situation has occurred.................................Call availability and optimization Dynamic bearer control failures .

...................................................... Radio link reconfiguration procedure The radio link reconfiguration procedure is initiated by the RNC on sending the NBAP Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare message to the Node B............. Upon reception................. October 2005 See notice on first page .... Introduction The NBAP radio link reconfiguration procedure is responsible for preparing a new configuration of all existing radio links related to one RRC connection within a Node B............................................. Radio link reconfiguration failure If the Node B cannot reserve the necessary resources then the procedure fails and an NBAP Radio Link Reconfiguration Failure message is sent back to the RNC instead of an NBAP Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready message.................................................................. UM4801-IG............ the Node B reserves necessary resources for the new configuration of the existing Radio Link(s) accordingly and sends back the NBAP Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready message to the RNC......sum............................ PMs / KPIs indications The RL Reconfiguration Successes can be derived as difference between attempts counted by PM NumRLReconfigAtt and failure counted by PM NumRLReconfigFail..................Proprietary 6-33 Issue a............ 6-30))......................................A4 Lucent Technologies ................ Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • • NumRLReconfigAtt NumRLReconfigFail.............................................................................Call availability and optimization Radio link reconfiguration failures .. .....sum................ (See “RAB establishment call flow” (p..............en.......................

...................................................................... All RB failure impact the value of KPI RAB Establishment Success Rate... Radio bearer establishment failures from UE Upon receiving the Radio Bearer Setup message the UE may not successfully allocate the required resources to set-up the new Radio Bearer..................................................... Possible reasons for Radio Bearer establishment failures are: • • A Badio bearer failure from the UE No answer from UE........ In this case the UE sends back the Radio Bearer Setup Failure message to the RNC and the Radio Bearer Establishment procedure fails.............. They can be identified via PM counter NumRABEstFail....... Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • NumRABEstFail.....................................en.RBSetupFail triggered when Radio Bearer Setup Failure message is received at the RNC................ October 2005 6-34 .................. Radio bearer establishment procedure The RNC sends the Radio Bearer Setup message to the UE that sends back the Radio Bearer Setup Complete message to the RNC upon successfully allocating resources for the new Radio Bearer.................. Lucent Technologies ............................................Proprietary UM4801-IG.......................... This is mainly caused by poor RF conditions..................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a........................... Introduction Once the required resources have been successfully reconfigured in the Node B.....................RBSetupFailure .............................................................Call availability and optimization Radio bearer establishment failures .. the RRC Radio Bearer Establishment procedure is executed in order to set up a new Radio Bearer at the UE......

...... No answer from UE failures Normal reason for this failure scenario is due to poor RF conditions...T3 is triggered when the guard timer expires........Proprietary 6-35 Issue a......... UM4801-IG.................................... The guard timer is configured by UTRAN parameter uERadioBearerSetupResponseTimer.... PMs / KPIs indications This failure causes degradation of KPI RAB Establishment Success Rate................................. ...................................... Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • NumRABEstFail.............Call availability and optimization No answer from UE . too low a setting of timer uERadioBearerSetupResponseTimer with respect to the UE response time may be the failure cause.........................en.......................... Introduction Upon sending the RRC Radio Bearer Setup message to the UE.......... The specific UTRAN PM counter NumRABEstFail.................. a guard timer is started on the RNC in order to supervise the reception of the RRC Radio Bearer Setup Complete message from the UE...................................A4 Lucent Technologies ..... which could result because of poor coverage or high interference................ If the guard timer expires and no message is received from the UE.... In addition.............................................................. then the Radio Bearer Establishment procedure fails and all the allocated UTRAN resources are released............................................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ........................T3..............

......... Introduction The number of times there is no channelization code available is counted using the PM counter NumRABEstFail............................................................Call availability and optimization Code starvation ....... If this happens quite often it can contribute to an increased number of failed RAB establishments..............................................CodeStarv................................................. Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • NumRABEstFail..............................Proprietary UM4801-IG........... Lucent Technologies .... October 2005 6-36 .....en...A4 See notice on first page Issue a...................................................................................................................... Chat applications are considered the most important cause of code starvation issues................................. ................CodeStarv......................................................................

.............en................................. 1 The fault in which card of the Node B could lead to a Radio link setup failure? a MCR b CTU c IOU d UCU d 2 Which of the following KPIs indicates RRC SIB message decoding failure? a NumRRCConRej b NumRRCConnEstFail c NumBadRACHTransBlock d None of the above d 3 Which process will insufficient AICH power level adversely affect? a Call Admission Control b RRC Connection Setup c RACH Access Procedure d Paging c 4 Give a possible reason for a poor success rate of RRC Setup Establishment? Select all that apply................................Call availability and optimization Exercises .................................................................. Exercises Answer the following questions................... a Radio Link Failure b RRC SIB message decoding failure c RACH Access Procedure failure d A radio bearer failure a....A4 Lucent Technologies ............. c ...................................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page .........................Proprietary 6-37 Issue a................. UM4801-IG... b....................................................................................................................................................................

.......................................en..................................................Load? a Dynamic Bearer Control (DBC) procedure b NBAP Radio Link Setup procedure c RRC connection setup procedure d RAB establishment procedure 1 .... October 2005 6-38 .............Proprietary UM4801-IG...............A4 See notice on first page Issue a...........................................Call availability and optimization 5 Exercises What could a low number of NumRRCConnAtt indicate? a RACH Access Procedure failure b Radio Link Failure c Call Admission Control failure d RRC Connection Setup failure 1 6 Which procedure may have a direct adverse affect on NumRABEstFail.................................................. Lucent Technologies .................

..............................................................Proprietary 7-1 Issue a..............................................................................................7 C all reliability 7 Overview ................................................................ Objectives After completion of this lesson................. October 2005 See notice on first page ........ UM4801-IG........................A4 Lucent Technologies ............................. Contents Dropped calls analysis 7-2 Radio link failures analysis due to synchronization issues 7-5 RLF and Radio Link Restore in the Uplink 7-6 RLF and Radio Link Restore in the Downlink 7-8 RLF failure: Poor RF coverage 7-9 RLF failure: Poor PSC plan 7-10 RLF failure: Pilot pollution and Around-the-Corner problem 7-11 RLF failure: Poorly defined neighbor list 7-12 RLF failure: Improved Aggregate Overload Control 7-13 Failures on RLC 7-14 Network interface outages 7-16 Network level retainability KPIs 7-18 Exercises 7-19 .....................................................................................................en. you should be able to: • • • • List factors that can cause dropped calls Describe methods of resolving Radio Link Failures Describe the Radio Link Restore and Deletion processes Identify causes of failure and develop stategies to solve them.........................................................

..... PS drops are generally not as severe for end users as CS drops.......... as opposed to the probability of dropping the call....................................................... .....A4 See notice on first page Issue a......... Introduction As soon as the call is successfully set up..Proprietary UM4801-IG. defined as the percentage of dropped RAB due to any reason against the total number of established RABs for all services....................en............ can be calculated...................................................................................................... A call drop is defined as an abnormal termination of a voice/data session due to any reason causing the user to re-initiate the session.......................... On the UTRAN side........................................... Where a drop on a PS session will still result in PDP context preservation...... the second factor influencing UMTS user perception is the probability of maintaining the call.................... and the end user will be able to re-establish seamlessly (with some delay).............................. October 2005 7-2 ....... KPI RAB Dropping Rate.............................Call reliability Dropped calls analysis ..................................... Lucent Technologies ...............................................

............ UM4801-IG........ caused by: – poor RF coverage – poorly defined neighbor list .......................................................Call reliability Dropped calls analysis Signaling flow The signaling flow of total RABs dropped: UE Uu Node B Iub RNC Iu-ps SGSN RAB 64 kbps UL and DL RRC RAB 64 kbps UL and DL RRC A dropped RAB connection due to any kind of failure Expiry of timer T_RL_RESYNC Cell_DCH Iu release request (UTRAN generated reason) RANAP RANAP NumRABDrop...............Proprietary 7-3 Issue a... When a Release Request message is sent..... Note: For PS calls the PDP context will not be released....................... October 2005 See notice on first page ................................sum Iu release command (UTRAN generated reason) RANAP RANAP RRC Connection release (DCCH) RRC Connection release complete (DCCH) NBAP RL Deletion procedure ALCAP release procedure RANAP Iu release complete UE_Idle On the UTRAN call handling procedures the dropped RABs are identified by either a RANAP Iu Release Request message or RANAP Reset Resource message sent by the RNC to the core network.......................................................en. Possible failing reasons The major components that constitute RAB Drops may be classified as follows: • Radio Link Failure.................... the resources on the UTRAN and core network are released......A4 Lucent Technologies .

.... Related PMs / KPIs The related PMs / KPIs are: • Total RAB dropping rate..................................................... .....................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a. October 2005 7-4 ............... Operator interaction (for example lock action) Inter-RAT handover due to supervision timer expiry (UMTS to GSM) URA_PCH time-out (due to the UE not performing a periodical URA update) Iu.....................en...... Iub and Iur link failure RRC Signal Connection Release Indication sent by the UE......................Call reliability Dropped calls analysis • • • • • – poor Primary Scrambling Code (PSC) plan – pilot pollution – DL power overload.....................Proprietary UM4801-IG................................................ Lucent Technologies ......

.......... Radio link states The three states of the radio link are: RL Restore Initial state RL Failure Out-of-sync state In-sync state RL Restore .................Proprietary 7-5 Issue a.......................................................................A4 Lucent Technologies .... The physical layer in the Node B and UE checks the synchronization status of every radio frame.................... October 2005 See notice on first page .................................................................................................................................... Introduction Radio Link Failures (RLF) due to synchronization issues can take place in both the downlink and uplink........en......................................................................................................................................................................Call reliability Radio link failures analysis due to synchronization issues ... UM4801-IG..........................

................ timer T_RL_RESYNCH is stopped and no further action is taken........................ in soft/softer handover status). When the Radio Link Restore procedure is triggered.....A4 See notice on first page Issue a.... Introduction The RLF and Radio Link Restore procedures in the uplink are supervised in the Node B by the NBAP protocol................ Lucent Technologies ................. When the RLF procedure is triggered......... October 2005 7-6 ............................. As each UE may have more than one uplink radio link allocated (e........ Node B starts timer T_RLFAILURE (T_RLFAILURE is determined by UTRAN parameter tRLFailure.....................................Call reliability RLF and Radio Link Restore in the Uplink ......... The NodeB indicates which radio link set has re-established synchronization..................................... The Node B stops and resets timer T_RLFAILURE upon receiving successive N_INSYNC_IND in-sync indications (determined by UTRAN parameter noInSyncInd)......................... RNC and the RLF indication Upon reception of the Radio Link Failure Indication with cause “Synchronisation Failure” the RNC starts timer T_RL_RESYNCH (determined by UTRAN parameter radioLinkFailureResynchronisationResponseTimer)....................g................................ the state of the radio link set changes to the out-of-sync state...... If the RNC receives from the NodeB the NBAP Radio Link Restore Indication message.........Proprietary UM4801-IG...... the Node B needs to monitor the complete radio link sets to trigger RLF and Radio Link Restore procedures. In this case....... N_OUTSYNC_IND by UTRAN parameter noOutSyncInd)...... the state of the radio link set changes to the in-sync state................. The Radio Link Restore Indication is sent in case the radio link set is previously in the out-of-sync state and N_INSYNC_IND successive in-sync indications are received...... the NodeB triggers the RLF procedure and indicates which radio link set is out-of-sync..... the Node B indicates the RLF to the RNC by sending a Radio Link Failure Indication on NBAP with the cause “Synchronisation Failure”............................................ ................ Triggering the RLF procedure When the radio link set is in the in-sync state and the NodeB is receiving N_OUTSYNC_IND consecutive out-of-sync indications..........en........ If T_RLFAILURE expires...............................................

.......... When a UE loses the radio connection in CELL DCH.... In this case................. If the dropped radio link is the last one the UE is connected to........................................Call reliability RLF and Radio Link Restore in the Uplink Removing the radio link Upon expiry of timer T_RL_RESYNCH..................................................................... the call is dropped and the RNC sends the RANAP Iu Release Requestmessage with specified cause “Release due to UTRAN generated reason” to the CN....... October 2005 See notice on first page .. The following two cases have to be distinguished: • • The UE has more than one Radio Link either to several cells or in case of a multiple link scenario to one or several cells..... the RNC starts the RRC Active Set Update procedure (which will not lead to a dropped call)........................en..........Proprietary 7-7 Issue a.................A4 Lucent Technologies . the UE may initiate a new cell selection by transitioning to CELL_FACH state/idle mode...... the RNC removes the particular radio link in the NodeB via the NBAP Radio Link Deletion procedure...................... UM4801-IG.....

.......................................................................................... If the dropped radio link is the last one the UE is connected to.....................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a......Call reliability RLF and Radio Link Restore in the Downlink ................... the UE starts timer T313 after receiving N313 consecutive out-of-sync indications for the established DPCCH physical channel....................................... the call is dropped............. The following two cases have to be distinguished: • • The UE has more than one Radio Link either to several cells or in case of a multiple link scenario to one or several cells................Proprietary UM4801-IG............................... If T313 expires....... the UE considers that the radio condition is terminated with an RLF............................................................. .................. Introduction The RLF procedure in the downlink is supervised in the UE by RRC.......... Lucent Technologies ..............en........................................ RLF and restore In the CELL DCH State...... two different cases have to be distinguished depending on whether the dropped radio link was the last remaining one or not.......................... 1 or more radio links As already discussed........... In this case....... October 2005 7-8 .... the RNC starts the RRC Active Set Update procedure (which will not lead to a dropped call)........ The UE stops and resets timer T313 upon receiving successive N315 in-sync indications.....

........ UM4801-IG................ Introduction Uplink or downlink synchronization may be lost due to poor RF coverage......................... Improvement suggestions Poor RF coverage may be caused by faulty hardware (e. Note that because of the cell breathing effect.........Call reliability RLF failure: Poor RF coverage ......... Note that the received Ec values are constant whereas the Io values changes with the cell load. Failure symptoms Poor coverage can be detected with RF Call Trace enabled (for UL measurements) and UE tracing (for the DL measurements)...............en....... the area where drop calls could occur may change with the cell load.........................................................................g................A4 Lucent Technologies ............................ Furthermore. Cell breathing can be detected by changes in the measured Ec/Io on the same drive test route.................................................................... .............................. broken RF cable or faulty antenna)....Proprietary 7-9 Issue a.................. Low Ec and Ec/Io values are expected in either UL and/or DL................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ............................................ high transmit power in the UL and/or DL direction is expected.................. Other reasons may be a non-optimized RF environment or simply coverage holes in the network........................... A protocol analyzer can discover RLF due to synchronization problems by identifying RLF messages................

.................................... In coverage overlapping areas both sites will interfere with each other in the DL because the PSCs of both cells are non-orthogonal.............................................. Another problem can also happen if two cells sharing the same PSC are relatively close to each other....................Call reliability RLF failure: Poor PSC plan .........A4 See notice on first page Issue a.... It may happen that the RNC is mixing up the two cells and requesting to add a leg to the “wrong” cell via the RRC Active Set Update procedure......en....................Proprietary UM4801-IG................. A protocol analyzer helps to discover RLF due to synchronization problems........ Failure Symptoms Layer 1 UE logging can reveal interference in the DL......................... but do not necessarily have overlapping coverage areas.......... Lucent Technologies .............................. ............................................... An indication for poor PSC planning might also be high BLER in a good coverage area.......... October 2005 7-10 ................................................................... Introduction A poor PSC plan can cause RLF due to synchronization if there are two cells sharing the same PSC that are relatively close to each other........................................................................................ Due to the high number of PSCs that are available for the network design it should be possible to create a proper PSC design for every network.....................

.............................. As a consequence..... .............................................Call reliability RLF failure: Pilot pollution and Around-the-Corner problem . Failure symptoms Pilot pollution and the Around-the-Corner problem can be discovered by Layer 1 UE logging (low Ec and Ec/Io values of the cells in the active set.................................................. This leads to poor Ec/Io ratios and....................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ........................................................... A protocol analyzer can help to discover RLF due to synchronization problems...... UM4801-IG............................................................ sudden drop of Ec and Ec/Io of the cells in the active set)............ Soft/Softer HO issues could also be the reason for pilot pollution..................en..............Proprietary 7-11 Issue a.. October 2005 See notice on first page ................. Introduction Pilot pollution means an excessive overlapping of pilots with no dominant pilot........ the RLF could fail due to being out-of-synchronization............................................................................ in combination with the Around-the-Corner problem.... to sudden drops of the Ec/Io......

.......................... Lucent Technologies ......................... The consequence might be poor Ec and Ec/Io of the cells in the active set........................................ ..... Failure symptoms Low Ec and Ec/Io values and high UE transmit power can be discovered............... October 2005 7-12 ................................... The call may drop caused by RLF due to being out-of-synchronization.................................................................................. Missing neighbors are currently not reported as “detected cells” to the OMC-U........A4 See notice on first page Issue a...........................en............Call reliability RLF failure: Poorly defined neighbor list .......... Introduction Poorly defined neighbor lists (too many neighbors or missing neighbors) can cause the UE to have radio links to non-optimal cells or to be unable to add a leg to an optimal cell...............................Proprietary UM4801-IG.............................................................................................................................................. To maintain the call the UE and NodeB have to transmit with higher power than required...

...................... Failure symptoms System Load related counters such as FwdPowerOvldDuration.............. Lower DL transmit power of the dedicated channel can be indirectly detected by a higher BLER..............................e.. Average Transmitted Carrier Power (i........................Proprietary 7-13 Issue a.. ......................... Maximum Transmitted Carrier Power (i............... With the help of Cell DM. ..............en.. The Improved Aggregate Overload Control (IAOC) has three main functions: • • • Ensures that the value of the demanded power remains within the linear range of the power amplifier Performs the amplifier protection based on power measurements Controlling the maximum overall transmit power on a sector-carrier............................. it can be seen that the DL transmit power is always lower than the maximum allowed DL power configured by UTRAN parameter maxDLPower..... Only after specific investigations and clear proof that IAOC misbehavior is causing RLF issues should settings of some IAOC parameters require optimization............................................................e...... A protocol analyzer can discover RLF due to synchronization problems Specific investigations on IAOC may also require use of the Cell Diagnostic Monitor (Cell DM) tool along a drive test in order to verify live when and where the IAOC steps in........ by checking whether the NodeB Transmitted Code Power suddenly decreases... max_tssi) provide useful indications on the DL power load measured on a per cell basis........... The function is located in the NodeB and is controlled by NodeB internal parameters.................................... Improvement suggestions Usually if Load Control algorithms such as Dynamic Bearer Control and Congestion Control are working correctly.................... It is hard to identify lower coverage caused by IAOC via RF Call Trace drive tests because the power of the CPICH is unchanged.......................... The IAOC may scale down the DL transmit power on the Dedicated Channels (DCH) if one of the three items above are out-of-range........ This will impact the DL closed loop power control mechanism that may lead to a RLF due to synchronization issues...... UM4801-IG........................................ IAOC should be rarely invoked by the Node B......A4 Lucent Technologies ..............................Call reliability RLF failure: Improved Aggregate Overload Control ............. October 2005 See notice on first page .......... ave_tssi)........

. Basic tasks The RLC is a layer 2 sublayer..........................g.............. If retransmitted timer protected PDUs are unacknowledged for a certain time: • • • Go either to SDU discard or RLC reset of the RLC connection between the two entities If SDU discard does not succeed.... Upon transmission.............. Error control Data transfer modes The RLC provides three data transfer modes: 1.............. go to RLC reset of the RLC connection between the two entities If RLC reset does not succeed...................... Unacknowledged Mode data transfer 3..................... 4095 for AM... ARQ uses the following mechanism: • • Status reporting on the RX: the RX sends a status report in STATUS PDUs containing a detailed list of received and missing PDUs........... it can be retransmitted................ If a data PDU is NACK..en.... the PDUs are retransmitted....................... RLC provides three basic tasks: 1......... 0... They can be sent periodically or unsolicited e.................. Acknowledged Mode data transfer RLC error recovery When timer protected PDUs are not acknowledged before the timer elapses...... {.......... STATUS PDUs have priority over retransmitted data.......A4 See notice on first page Issue a.. Lucent Technologies ............ In this case the RRC might be dropped and the UE performs a Cell Update and the IE “AM_RLC error indication” is set to TRUE.. Segmentation and reassembly 3...............127 for UM)................ signal unrecoverable error to higher layers............................Proprietary UM4801-IG..... RLC ARQ mechanism To identify each PDU has (for DL and UL and per RLC entity separately) an increasing SN (0..................................... the data PDUs are stored in a retransmission buffer when they are submitted to the MAC and PHY layer...... October 2005 7-14 ............... Buffering 2......................................................................... after loss detection Polling from TX: the TX can request a status report ......{. Transparent Mode data transfer 2....................Call reliability Failures on RLC ................

Call reliability

Failures on RLC

Window mechanism: a sliding window allows the TX to transmit new PDUs while
waiting for the ACKs till end of the window size.

SDU discard function: when the delivery of a SDU cannot be managed because of
repeated errors, the transmission of SDUs is stopped and discarded on both TX and
RX side.

Failures on RLC

These are RLC failure symptoms:

Retransmission of RLC identifiable as out-of-sequence RLC PDUs on Iub (extract
the particular call to distinguish from other RLC PDUs).
A dropped call due to an RLC error can be easily identified by a Cell Update
message with cause “RLC unrecoverable error”.

The following table lists problems that can be detected in interface traces and the
corresponding KPIs in the PM system:
Problem

Trace

Trigger

RLC Resets

Iub

Any occurrence of RLC Resets in Iub traces

RLC retransmission

Iub

Any occurrence of retransmission of RLC
PDUs per RLC session

SDU discard with
explicit signalling

Iub

Any occurrence of a Move Receiving Window
(MRW) command indicating a SDU discard
and/or a MRW-ACK

Dropped call due to
RLC error

Uu

Any occurrence of a RRC Cell Update
message with specified cell update cause (not
failure cause) “RLC unrecoverable error”.
There might be optional a failure cause
specified. The IE AM_RLC error might be set
to TRUE.

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Call reliability

Network
interface outages
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction

Hardware failures can occur on the different nodes of the UTRAN and the CN, but
also on the particular interfaces.
There are many reasons for outages; analysing the FM data can retrieve a good
indication for the failure cause.
Potential problems

Outages may lead to:




drops of the RAB and the RRC connection because of missing synchronisation
coverage issues
problems in the neighbour definition
problems in the cell/PLMN selection/reselection procedure
network accessibility might be limited.

Identifying outages

Outages can be easily identified when tracing the interfaces that have been out-of-sync.
Problem

Trace

Trigger

Iub out-of-sync I

Iub

Missing STAT PDUs on
AAL5 for more than 5
seconds

Iub out-of-sync II

Iub

Any occurrence of an
AuditRequiredInformation
on NBAP

Iu out-of-sync I

Iu

Missing STAT PDUs on
AAL5 for more than 5
seconds

Iu out-of-sync II

Iu

Any occurrence of a Reset
on RANAP

KPIs describing network outages

The most important KPIs describing the drops of the RABs due to network outages:
PM system

Formula

Precondition

Trouble
value

UTRAN

NumRABDropsNodeBFail /
NumRABSUM * 100

NumRABSUM >
X

>Y

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Call reliability

Network interface outages

PM system

Formula

Precondition

Trouble
value

UTRAN

NumRABDropsRNCFail /
NumRABSUM * 100

NumRABSUM >
X

>Y

UTRAN

NumRABDropsIubFail /
NumRABSUM * 100

NumRABSUM >
X

>Y

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Call reliability

Network
level retainability KPIs
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction

The retainability KPIs (all service types) is derived from the relation of total dropped
RABs to the total successful established RABs.
KPIs per service types

The KPIs per service types are:


Lucent Retainability KPI CSV, which is the same as (1 - RAB dropping rate for
CSV12).
Lucent Retainability KPI CSD, which is the same as (1 - RAB dropping rate for CS
data)
Lucent Retainability KPI PSD, which is the same as (1 - RAB dropping rate for
PS).

Related PMs / KPIs

The related PMs / KPIs are:


RAB dropping rate for CSV12
RAB dropping rate for CS data
RAB dropping rate for PS.

Abnormal KPI values

When one of the Lucent Retainability KPI values is very low, this may be caused by
many different issues. Therefore it is advised to localize the issue by analyzing the
performance measurements and the possible failing reasons. There are several possible
failing reasons of abnormal RAB disconnects.
Some of the important reasons are:


Radio Link Failure (RLF) due to RRC connection failures
Iu interface failures
Iub or Iur interface failures.

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..................................................................... 1 A RAB drop does not always lead to a user....................................Call reliability Exercises ...........................................Proprietary 7-19 Issue a..............A4 Lucent Technologies ......................en............................... October 2005 See notice on first page ......................................................................perceived dropped call because: a UE can maintain the call via Call Re-establishment procedure b The UE always has a backup RAB c The RRC automatically reconfigures new resources a 2 Where are the RLF and Radio Link Restore procedures in UL supervised? a UE by the RRC b RNC by the RRC c NodeB by the NBAP C 3 A dropped call due to an RLC error can be easily identified by which of the following messages? a Iu Release Command message b Cell Update message c RRC Release message b 4 Which of the following load control functions should have the highest parameter setting? a Connection Admission Control b Dynamic bearer control c Congestion Control c ............................. UM4801-IG..............................................................................................................................................

.

...................... Objectives After completion of this lesson............................................................................................................................................ October 2005 See notice on first page .................................................. UM4801-IG....................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ...Proprietary 8-1 Issue a..........en... Contents Network level quality KPIs 8-2 Uplink Block Error Rate (BLER) 8-4 Downlink Block Error Rate (BLER) 8-6 Quality of Service (QoS) 8-8 Exercises 8-11 ......................................................................8 C all quality and optimization 8 Overview ......................................................................................................... you should be able to: • • • • • Identify parameters that have a direct influence on the user´s perception of call quality Assess the quality of different UMTS services using KPIs State the possible causes of high BLER rate Identify QoS voice service parameters Identify QoS data service parameters..

............Proprietary UM4801-IG.......... Usually this also has an impact on the UL/DL throughput related KPIs....................................... In case of data call the poor quality may cause throughput degradation............... the UE and the Node B transmitted power should be checked respectively: • • If the UE and/or the Node B transmitted power has reached the maximum allowed value.................................. Introduction Although the call is successfully set up and maintained the user may perceive that the quality of the call itself is poor............ ................. In case of a voice call this quality degradation can be directly experienced during the conversation............. Lucent Technologies .....A4 See notice on first page Issue a.. or both......................... If the UE and/or the Node B transmitted power has not reached the maximum allowed value........................ CSD... In order to correctly identify the root cause of high UL/DL BLER values.............................................................. then the most likely root cause is given by poor RF conditions that are limiting either the downlink or the uplink.....................en.................................Call quality and optimization Network level quality KPIs .................................... Quality KPI UL and DL Block Error Rate (BLER) are the KPIs providing an indication of the quality of the UMTS call.....NumTransBlockErrUL × 100 [%] NumTransBlockTotUL The quality KPI is derived from the uplink block error rate for all services (CSV... then the most likely root cause is given by respectively UL and/or DL Closed Loop Power Control issues................................................ The Lucent quality KPI capture the uplink failure on RNC basis: = 1................ Poor quality reasons High values of the quality KPI indicates that the perceived uplink quality of the call is poor................ October 2005 8-2 ... PS).................

Call quality and optimization

Network level quality KPIs

Basic root cause analysis method for high UL/DL BLER issues:

High UL/DL BLER

Poor RF
conditions

Yes

Max UE / Node B
transmitted power
reached?

No

UL/DL
power
control issues

Note: It should not be assumed that UL BLER issues will also result in DL BLER
issues and vice versa. In several scenarios the system may be either only uplink or
only downlink limited due to unbalanced loads.
Related PMs / KPIs

The related PMs / KPIs are:


UL transport block error rate CSV
UL transport block error rate CS data
UL transport block error rate PS.

Other abnormal values

Other counters related to system load such as UL transport block error rate CSV, UL
transport block error rate CSD and UL transport block error rate PS may be used to
verify that the load in the cell is fairly high, which would increase the probability for
call setup failures.

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Call quality and optimization

Uplink
Block Error Rate (BLER)
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction

UL BLER is calculated at the RNC and normally should stay within a target quality
value that is defined depending on the supported radio bearers. For example for data,
the target quality value is currently equal to 5%, for voice it is equal to 0.8%.
Either poor RF conditions or UL Closed Loop Power Control issues may cause high
UL BLER values.
Poor RF Conditions

Poor RF conditions increase the probability of receiving blocks not correctly decoded
at the RNC. This means that if the UE transmitted power has already reached the
allowed limit, UL BLER may still show values higher than the target value.


RF coverage and interference: Ec/Io and Ec measurements jointly with Total to
Aggregate Ec/Io ratio
UE traces (RFCT) should be performed and data imported to an RF analysis tool:
UL BLER provided via RF Call Trace jointly with DL BLER provided via a
CDMA air interface tester
UE Transmitted Power and UE Peak Transmit Power Margin
UL TCP/IP Throughput with DL TCP/IP Throughput and DL Physical Layer
Throughput.

If the analysis of the metrics above show UL BLER degradation is caused by poor RF
conditions (poor RF coverage or high UL interference), correct the conditions as shown
in RLF section.
If not, issues with UL Closed Loop Power Control may be causing the problem.
UL Closed Loop Power Control issues

UL Closed Loop Power Control can be split in two loops, i.e. Outer Loop and Inner
Loop.
1. The Outer Loop, located at the RNC, is responsible for updating the SIR target
according to the measured UL BLER in order to keep the UL target quality value
(e.g. UL BLER equal to 5% for PS services) of the UL Dedicated Channel (DCH).
2. The Inner Loop, located at the NodeB, is responsible for sending the Power
Control commands to the UE upon comparison of estimated SIR with the target
SIR provided by the Outer Loop. The UE adapts its transmitted power according to
the Power Control commands received by the NodeB.
Specific UTRAN parameters are responsible for the proper working of both Outer
Loop and Inner Loop. Usually these parameters are expected to be optimized before
Network Deployment and not to be changed afterwards.

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Call quality and optimization

Uplink Block Error Rate (BLER)

Figure

The following graphic shows uplink outer loop power control.

Improvement suggestions

If Outer Loop is not quickly updating the SIR target, the UL BLER may show values
greater than the target value for long periods of time. Note that UL BLER values much
lower than the target value (e.g. 1% to 2% with a target value of 5%) may cause
quality degradation due to UE transmitting at a higher power than necessary, causing
higher UL interference.
If analysis of the metrics is showing that in some scenarios the SIR target is not
quickly updated (i.e. UL BLER values are not distributed around the target value)
according to the measured UL BLER this issue should be escalated to System
Engineering.
If throughput or voice quality metrics are showing degradation even with UL BLER
values distributed around the target value this means the UL BLER target value is not
properly set. Since this target value can be differentiated by service type (i.e. PS/CS
and different supported data rate), further investigations should be requested.

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8-5
Issue a, October 2005
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Call quality and optimization

Downlink
Block Error Rate (BLER)
.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
Introduction

DL BLER is calculated at the UE and normally should stay within its target quality
value defined for the DL DCH on a per radio bearer basis as for UL BLER.
High DL BLER values may be caused by:

Poor RF conditions or
DL Closed Loop Power Control issues.

Poor RF conditions

Poor RF conditions increase the probability of receiving blocks not correctly decoded
at the UE.
Assuming DL Closed Loop Power Control is working properly, if the NodeB
transmitted power reaches the allowed limit on the DL DCH, DL BLER may still show
values higher than the target one due to RF issues.
Detecting poor RF conditions

Different UE traces including a CDMA air interface tester, RF Call Trace running in
parallel. After importing all traces into an analyzer, the following metrics should be
analyzed and correlated:



RF coverage and interference: Ec/Io and Ec measurements jointly with Total to
Aggregate Ec/Io ratio
UL BLER provided via RF Call Trace jointly with DL BLER provided
NodeB Transmitted Code Power
UL TCP/IP Throughput with DL TCP/IP Throughput and DL physical layer
throughput.

If the analysis of the metrics shows DL BLER degradation is caused by poor RF
conditions, actions should be taken as recommended in the RLF section.
If not, the DL Closed Loop Power Control may be causing this problem.
DL Closed Loop Power Control Issues

As for the Uplink, DL Closed Loop Power Control can be split into two loops, both
located in the UE:

Outer Loop
Inner Loop.

The Outer Loop is responsible for updating the SIR target according to the measured
DL BLER in order to keep the DL target quality value (e.g. DL BLER equal to 5%) of
the DL Dedicated Channel (DCH).
The Inner Loop is responsible for sending the Power Control commands to the NodeB
upon comparison of estimated SIR with the target SIR provided by the Outer Loop.
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.....................en....................... UM4801-IG... Further investigations are needed............Proprietary 8-7 Issue a... if the NodeB Transmitted Code Power displays values close or equal to the maximum DL DCH allowed power... escalate the issue to System Engineering. If throughput or voice quality metrics show degradation even with UL BLER values distributed around the target value.......Call quality and optimization Downlink Block Error Rate (BLER) The NodeB adapts its transmitted power according to the Power Control commands received by the UE............. Note that this may cause decrease of DL capacity............ .. as each single user will be allowed to use more DL power on the DCH...... It should be verified that as soon as the DL BLER increases........................ DL BLER should have values distributed around the defined target value to ensure that the Closed Loop is working properly.......A4 Lucent Technologies ......... October 2005 See notice on first page .... the UL BLER target value is not set properly......... Detecting DL Closed Loop Power Control Issues Assuming that RF issues are not the cause.................. the NodeB Transmitted Power is increased and vice versa.. investigate using the following metrics: • • • DL BLER via CDMA Air Interface Tracer NodeB Transmitted Code Power via RF Call Trace.. Analysing DL Closed Loop Power Control Issues • • • If analysis of the metrics shows that the SIR target is not quickly updated........... parameter setting maxDLpower should be changed..................... Assuming that Outer Loop Power Control is working properly at the UE.................................

................... The RNC may or may not react to these Measurement Reports by doing an RB reconfiguration.......3..... Mean Opinion Score (MOS) QoS value Below 2.................... In this way.................0 Poor 2...... losses of connection or jitter... ....en.......... October 2005 8-8 .................. Lucent Technologies ......................................0 Excellent QoS – data services Mobile subscribers surfing the Internet or downloading files from their company’s network could face data quality problems in UMTS networks......0 to 3.......... For the voice quality evaluation.... Voice quality degradation such as echo or voice delay are reflected by this measure..................... Good voice quality can be considered when the MOS exceeds 3........................ The table below provides QoS parameters for voice services based on MOS....... the evaluation software can do voice quality classification for both directions independently.... The radio bearer can be dynamically assigned depending on traffic measurements or load.......... The MOS is defined by the ITU and ranges from 1 to 5... QoS – voice service Because of the asymmetry of the UMTS links.....0 Fair 3........0........................... The table below gives the QoS parameters for voice services....................................0 to 4..Proprietary UM4801-IG....................... For GSM Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) the theoretical maximum is 4................................... it is necessary to measure the UL and DL voice quality separately........................ The equipment compares the received voice samples with the transmitted voice samples......... The user may complain about low throughput rate....... the mobile might send : • • Measurement Report 4a (if traffic volume exceeds a threshold) Measurement Report 4b (if traffic volume falls below a threshold)........A4 See notice on first page Issue a....Call quality and optimization Quality of Service (QoS) ....0 Good Above 4...... QoS has to do with getting the particular service the user asks for: • • that the network allocates the correct resources and that the traffic mechanisms support the request during the traffic flow... Introduction “Quality of Service” is more specific than the more general term “quality”...... the Mean Opinion Score (MOS) is used....... Depending on the status of the RLC queue in the UE.................. Even the mobile state may be changed to idle mode/URA_PCH/CELL_PCH mode..................

..... UM4801-IG.................... ( UE traces (DL) and RF Call Trace (UL))........... .............................. RRC Re-establishment Another difference when describing the user perceived QoS for PS data services is a feature called RRC Re-establishment...Proprietary 8-9 Issue a................... After RRC Re-establishment...... A drop of the RAB and RRC connection does not (necessarily) mean that the PDP Context is removed from the GGSN or the FTP session drops.....Call quality and optimization Quality of Service (QoS) A smaller radio bearer can be assigned if overload estimations are made by the RNC. Low throughput on RLC.......................... the download stalls when browsing WWW or downloading data via FTP – May cause retransmission on TCP layer...... For the user the drop of the RRC and RAB is visible by stalling of the FTP transfer for the particular time-frame and because of low throughput rates. High BLER in the UL and/or DL.... Data service parameters The following table shows parameters important for data service QoS: Parameter Description Measurement Report 4a threshold Threshold defining when the Measurement Report 4a is triggered Measurement Report 4b threshold Threshold defining when the Measurement Report 4b is triggered Enable PDCP compression Defines whether or not PDCP compression is used Data service failure symptoms Poor data quality can be identified in TCP/IP protocol traces by: • • • • IP Packet loss (or packet corruption) – Will cause retransmission if TCP is used on the transport layer – Will result in a slow down of the throughput – Could cause a reset of the transport protocol.... e....................... In case of real time applications like video streaming or web radio the drop will be noticed by the user if the buffer of the application is emptied and no new data is received......... the FTP session can be resumed if the session has not timed out in between....A4 Lucent Technologies ...............en.. RLC retransmission and RLC resets (Iub traces)....g............. IP Packet delay – Will result in a slow down of the throughput – User experiences packet delay as jitter...... October 2005 See notice on first page .............................

..en................................. Bad RF performance................ .................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.....................Proprietary UM4801-IG. Lucent Technologies ........ October 2005 8-10 ...... Non-optimized RLC parameter settings and RLC resets............................... the network connection between GGSN and the server (in the Internet) or configuration problems on the (Internet) server.....................................Call quality and optimization Quality of Service (QoS) Data service improvement suggestions Poorly performing data connections can be caused by: • • • • Configuration problems on the client PC............ packet delay or packet corruption on the way between the GGSN and the RNC............. Packet loss.......

sum d maxDLpower b 2 Where is the Inner Loop Power Control located? a UE b Node B c RNC b 3 At the UE..........A4 Lucent Technologies ..................................................... UM4801-IG................................................Call quality and optimization Exercises ............................................................................................................................................................................................en........Proprietary 8-11 Issue a..................................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ... what does the Outer Loop Power Control do if the DL BLER is higher than the target BLER value? a Calculate a higher SIR ratio b Calculate a lower SIR ratio c Raise the BLER target d Lower the BLER target a ............................................................... 1 Which KPI provides an indication of the quality of the UMTS Call? a UL/DL SIR b UL/DL BLER c NumRABDrop...............

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... you will be able to: • • • • Describe the soft/softer handover process Narrow down the failing issues to a performance area Narrow down the failing issues to one or more performance metrics Suggest methods of dealing with issues affecting soft/softer handovers....................Proprietary 9-1 Issue a......................9 C all mobility and optimization 9 Overview .......................................Neighbor List Selection Algorithm 9-20 Incorrect translation settings ..............................A4 Lucent Technologies .............................................................overview 9-23 Relocation failures 9-25 ............... Objectives After completing this lesson..........................................................................................measurement and reporting 9-18 Incorrect translation settings ...............................en... Contents Soft/Softer Handover 9-3 Soft/Softer Handover failure classification 9-4 Soft/softer handover failures in non-CELL DCH state 9-5 Soft/softer handover failures in CELL DCH state 9-8 Poor RF conditions 9-10 Node B resource dry-up 9-11 Transport resources dry-up 9-12 No UE answer 9-13 UE reject 9-14 Hardware or link outage 9-16 Incorrect translation settings -Overview 9-17 Incorrect translations settings .................................................. October 2005 See notice on first page .....................Active Set Update procedure 9-21 UMTS to GSM handover 9-22 Inter-system handover failures ................................. UM4801-IG...........................................

......Call mobility and optimization Overview Handover procedure failures 9-26 Release procedure failures 9-30 Location and Routing area update 9-31 Location update failure 9-32 Routing update failure 9-34 Exercises 9-36 ..................................................................................................................... Lucent Technologies ................Proprietary UM4801-IG....................en............................................................... October 2005 9-2 ...A4 See notice on first page Issue a.....

................Neighbor List Selection Algorithm 9-20 Incorrect translation settings ........measurement and reporting 9-18 Incorrect translation settings ................Active Set Update procedure 9-21 ....... Contents Soft/Softer Handover failure classification 9-4 Soft/softer handover failures in non-CELL DCH state 9-5 Soft/softer handover failures in CELL DCH state 9-8 Poor RF conditions 9-10 Node B resource dry-up 9-11 Transport resources dry-up 9-12 No UE answer 9-13 UE reject 9-14 Hardware or link outage 9-16 Incorrect translation settings -Overview 9-17 Incorrect translations settings .........................Proprietary 9-3 Issue a......................................................................en......................... UM4801-IG..................................................... you will be able to: • • • Describe the basic handover process Describe Soft/Softer Handover failures in CELL DCH and non-CELL DCH states Recognize KPIs which reflect the Soft/Softer Handover procedures within the UMTS network....A4 Lucent Technologies ................... Objectives After completing this section............................... October 2005 See notice on first page .......................................................................Call mobility and optimization Soft/Softer Handover Overview ...................................................................................................................

......................................en..............................................................................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG................... Iur link Outages.................................................... Failures in CELL DCH state: – Poor RF Conditions – Incorrect translations settings – No NodeB resources available – – – – – No transport resources available No UE answer UE Reject NodeB/RNC Outages Iub.......................... Lucent Technologies .........................................................................Call mobility and optimization Soft/Softer Handover failure classification . October 2005 9-4 ............................ Classification Soft/Softer Handover failures are classified as follows: • • Failures in non-CELL DCH state: – Random Access Detection Failure – Call Admission Control Failure – Radio Link Set-up Failure – RRC Connection Set-up Failure – Incorrect parameter settings................A4 See notice on first page Issue a............................................................. ..................................

.................................. UE is in “forced” idle state due to unsupported URA PCH state (S/SHO at Call Re-establishment) 3..................... Upon evaluating the UE measurements........................................................en... Important! Failures in S/SHO in non-CELL DCH state are not identifiable via any specific performance measurement or key performance indicator! Scenarios The following scenarios might apply to Soft/softer handover failures in non-CELL DCH state: 1...... UE is in URA PCH state and the network needs to transmit data to the UE (S/SHO for DL Data Transfer in URA PCH) 4.............................. UE is in URA PCH state and requests to transmit data to the network (S/SHO for UL Data Transfer in URA PCH)....during the transition to CELL DCH state .Proprietary 9-5 Issue a................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ....................................................................... then it is possible that ........................ the UTRAN allocates radio link resources before sending a confirmation . the RNC decides whether the UE can enter the CELL DCH state already in soft/softer handover........... UM4801-IG.......................... Process In all four scenarios the UE sends intra-frequency measurements to the RNC within either RRC Connection Request or RRC Cell Update message..... October 2005 See notice on first page .... Introduction If the UE is in a state other than CELL DCH and it is located in Soft/softer Handover area...... UE is in idle state and initiates the transition to CELL DCH state (S/SHO at Call Setup) 2...................Call mobility and optimization Soft/softer handover failures in non-CELL DCH state ...... When the SHO algorithm condition is fulfilled..the UE goes directly in Soft/softer Handover (S/SHO)......................................................................................... The non-CELL DCH state is applicable to the following scenarios of S/SHO: • • • • • at Call Setup at Call Re-establishment for UL Data Transfer in URA PCH for DL Data Transfer in URA PCH for DL Data Transfer in CELL_FACH..

.............................. October 2005 9-6 ..............................Proprietary UM4801-IG............ Scenario 1 RNC messages for S/SHO scenarios in non-CELL DCH state Step 1: Resource allocation message Step 2: Link asignment indication message RRC Connection Setup RRC Connection Setup Complete RRC Cell Update Confirm RRC RB Reconfiguration Complete 2 3 4 Failures The following failures are possible in non-CELL DCH state: • • • • • Random Access Detection Failure Call Admission Control Failure Radio Link Set-up Failure RRC Connection Set-up Failure Incorrect parameter settings..................................................................Call mobility and optimization Soft/softer handover failures in non-CELL DCH state message to the UEs.............. Failure symptoms The following symptoms can be the root cause of S/SHO failures in non-CELL DCH state: • – – • • • • – Random Access Detection Failure: RRC Connection Request or RRC Cell Update messages are not successfully decoded at the RNC Pilot candidates for S/SHO never getting the chance to be reported to the UTRAN... Afterwards......en........ Call Admission Control Failure: Request to setup the call with more than one link is rejected due to overload Radio Link Setup Failure: Power resources available but NodeB fails in setting up more than one link RRC Connection Setup Failure: Resources successfully allocated at the NodeB but RRC Connection Setup procedure fails.................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.. Lucent Technologies .... An additional failure may be due to incorrect setting of related parameters as listed below: MaxNoReportedCellsOnRACH (maximum number of cells to be reported on RACH) – activeSetSizePS ................... the UTRAN indicates to the UE to which links the UE has to be connected before sending back a completion message.........................

........ Retrieve UE logs and from Iub traces the relevant RRC Connection Setup message and identify: either any failure-related message or any message not answered by the UE.... October 2005 See notice on first page ..A4 Lucent Technologies ...............................Proprietary 9-7 Issue a............................ Retrieve from UE logs as well as from Iub traces the RRC Connection Setup Complete message corresponding to the test calls....... • Proper settings of all parameters: – MaxNoReportedCellsOnRACH – activeSetSizePS – activeSetSizeCS – AddThresholdSHO should be performed to limit this scenario... Note: Causes...................... Improvement suggestions If calls are set up with too many pilots requesting to be in the Active Set....................................... Retrieve the relevant NBAP Radio Link Set-up (or Addition) Request/Response Connection Request and identify failure-related messages........Call mobility and optimization Soft/softer handover failures in non-CELL DCH state (Maximum size of the active set for PS applications) – activeSetSizeCS (Maximum size of the active set for PS applications) – AddThresholdSHO (hysteresis to be subtracted for reported pilot candidate cells to be included in the active set)....... ... identification techniques and fixes for these failures are covered in the “Call availability and optimization” part of this document.................en.......... this may result in failures caused by CAC algorithm or by unavailable NodeB resources................ If the percentage is lower than 100% the following steps are required: • • – – Evaluate the Ec/Io measured on the best cell................... UM4801-IG....... Identification techniques Evaluate success rate of S/SHO at call set-up: • • Retrieve from UE logs as well as from Iub traces the RRC Connection Request messages that include at least one reported pilot belonging to the Monitored Set in the Information Element measured results on RACH..........

............e....... event 1B is included in Measurement Report message). the soft/softer handover can be summarized as follows: • • • • • RRC Measurement Report message reports a soft/softer handover triggering event to the UTRAN NBAP procedure sets up resources in the UTRAN (case of setup/addition or replacement) RRC Active Set Update procedure executes the Soft/softer Handover NBAP procedure releases resources in the UTRAN (case of removal or replacement) RRC Measurement Control message evaluates the Monitored Set update upon Neighbor List Selection Algorithm (NLSA)................... In case of Inter-RNC soft/softer handover the two RNC involved are defined as Serving RNC (S-RNC) and Drift RNC (D-RNC)..................................... October 2005 9-8 ..en.........A4 See notice on first page Issue a..... Removal of a pilot from the Active Set (i........ Lucent Technologies ... there are three events for a soft/softer handover procedure: • • • Addition of a pilot to the Active Set (i.......................................................... Introduction If the UE is in CELL DCH state and it is located in Soft/softer Handover area....... performed as NBAP Radio Link Deletion procedure... followed by NBAP Radio Link Deletion procedure for worse pilot in Active Set.e..... Failures The following failures are possible in CELL DCH state: • • • • • • Poor RF Conditions Incorrect translations settings No NodeB resources available No transport resources available No UE answer UE Reject .......................................e............................................................ performed as NBAP Radio Link Setup or NBAP Radio Link Addition procedure for the best candidate pilot........... Important! Soft/softer handovers can be executed as Intra-RNC as well as Inter-RNC.Proprietary UM4801-IG. performed as NBAP Radio Link Setup procedure for the first pilot or NBAP Radio Link Addition procedure for additional pilots................................... event 1A is included in Measurement Report message).....................Call mobility and optimization Soft/softer handover failures in CELL DCH state .................................. Replacement of worse pilot in the Active Set by best candidate pilot (i........................................................................ event 1C is included in Measurement Report message).. Process If the UE is in CELL DCH state....................

.................................... identification techniques............................................ and improvement suggestions for both Intra-RNC and Inter-RNC Soft handover are described in detail in the following sections of this lesson.......................... .......................................Proprietary 9-9 Issue a............A4 Lucent Technologies ...Call mobility and optimization • NodeB/RNC Outages • Iub.. Iur link Outages.............. UM4801-IG.... Soft/softer handover failures in CELL DCH state Failure symptoms The various failures and their symptoms.................en..... October 2005 See notice on first page .................................

....................... .........................................................................................................................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG.........en......... Investigation techniques and suggested fixes for improvements are covered with Radio Link Failures in the “Call reliability and optimization” lesson.................... Introduction Poor RF conditions may cause issues along SHO procedure as well as in general on maintaining the call.........................Call mobility and optimization Poor RF conditions ........... October 2005 9-10 ............. Lucent Technologies ..................................................................................................................................................

.......Call mobility and optimization Node B resource dry-up ...... Improvement suggestions For Node B resource dry-up failures.................................... the following improvement suggestions may apply: • • • • – – Improve RF coverage Minimize Interference Minimize the impact of “round-the-corner” effect Adjust the uEActiveSetUpdateResponseTimer setting as best trade-off between: soft/softer handover delay minimization and UE response time requirements..... Failure symptoms and identification techniques Node B resource dry-up failures can be identified by the following symptoms: • • • The NodeB rejects the resource allocation request Increased Pilot pollution as the candidate pilot is not included in the Active Set Degradation of S/SHO Success Rate KPI’s.......................................Proprietary 9-11 Issue a...................................................NodeBRes identifies failure in the S-RNC on a per cell basis • NumRLAddFail.......NodeBRes identifies failure in the D-RNC on a per RNC basis..............................................................en..... .... UM4801-IG......................... October 2005 See notice on first page .............................................................................................................................. the RNC allocates the required resources at the NodeB over: • • either NBAP Radio Link Set-up for (soft handover) or NBAP Radio Link Addition procedure (for softer handover).......A4 Lucent Technologies .............................................................. Failures NodeB rejects the resource allocation request when no physical resources are available: • NumRLSetupFail.................. Introduction Upon successful decoding of Measurement Report message...

..................................................................... Improvement suggestions Capacity analysis focused on the Iub links traffic should provide recommendations for optimized Iub links traffic distribution. October 2005 9-12 ............. Failure symptoms The dry-up of transport resources results in a degradation of Soft/softer Handover Success Rate KPI’s The degradation of Soft/softer Handover Success Rate KPI’s are tracked in the following counters: • NumRLSetupFail.. Identification techniques The relevant NBAP messages Radio Link Setup Failure and Radio Link Addition Failure triggering those counters can be retrieved via Iub traces....TransRes on a per RNC basis in the D-RNC........... Introduction If the maximum supported capacity of the Radio Link is reached.................................................. Lucent Technologies ........... .......................................................en................................................... Failures The NBAP Radio Link setup or Radio Link Addition procedure may fail...............................................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.............. no transport resources (Iub links) are available.........................TransRes on a per cell basis in the S-RNC • NumRLAddFail................................Call mobility and optimization Transport resources dry-up ....................Proprietary UM4801-IG..........................

. Failure symptoms and identification techniques All the allocated UTRAN resources are released........................... A guard timer is started on the RNC to supervise the reception of the RRC Active Set Update Complete message from the UE........................... the RNC sends the RRC Active Set Update message to the UE with the RRC Active Set Update procedure.............................. ........................................ The timer uEActiveSetUpdateResponseTimer defines the maximum value of the guard timer..en........................................................ UM4801-IG...... Introduction Upon successful resource allocation in the NodeB.................................. Improvement suggestions • • • • – – Improve RF coverage Minimize Interference Minimize the impact of “round-the-corner” effect Adjust uEActiveSetUpdateResponseTimer setting as best trade-off between soft/softer handover delay minimization and UE response time requirements................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ................................A4 Lucent Technologies .Proprietary 9-13 Issue a................................................................................... this may also be a failure cause.......................... Important! If the setting of timer uEActiveSetUpdateResponseTimer with respect to the UE response time is too low................Call mobility and optimization No UE answer ............................................ Failures The Active Set Update procedure fails if the guard timer expires and no message is received from the UE or poor RF conditions exist due to poor coverage or high interference....

...Call mobility and optimization UE reject ....................... Lucent Technologies ......................A4 See notice on first page Issue a........................................... the RNC may mix up the cells when receiving the Measurement Report message from the UE....................................................................... the UE will correctly identify the code in stage 3 of the cell search process. The RNC then allocates resources to the wrong NodeB and sends an Active Set Update message to the UE with an incorrect configuration................................................ October 2005 9-14 ...................... Introduction Upon sending the Active Set Update message................... Incompatible simultaneous reconfiguration. Normally these failures are expected to occur seldom as they indicate incorrect configurations in either the RNC or the UE due to RRC signaling issues like delays or internal problems in UE or RNC................................................................. Identification techniques The following techniques will help to to identify the specific failure cause: • • Trace test calls via a protocol analyzer Retrieve Active Set Update and Active Set Update Failure messages from protocol analyzer Improvement suggestions Reorganization or optimization of the Primary Scrambling Code planning stategy: • • • Best trade-off between the processing load on the UE and the synchronisation time Effectively the performance of synchronisation procedure Assign code groups to neighbouring cells/sectors which have smaller cross correlation values with other codes of the group so that during initial cell search...... Failures If the Primary Scrambling Code (PSC) plan is not optimized and contiguous cells have same PSC............ or Protocol Error.............en.......UERejis triggered on receiving the Active Set Update Failure message at the UTRAN...................................... Failure symptoms The following failure symptoms will appear: • • Degradation of Soft/softer Handover Success Rate KPI’s NumIntraRNCSHOFail.............................. ............................... the RNC receives Active Set Update Failure message from the UE due to: • • • Invalid configuration......Proprietary UM4801-IG......

.................................. . UM4801-IG..........................................................Call mobility and optimization UE reject Important! The code groups which show poor cross correlation characteristics should be allocated as far away as possible....A4 Lucent Technologies ...................................Proprietary 9-15 Issue a..... October 2005 See notice on first page .............en.................................................................................

........... This is..g.................................................................................................................................. Lucent Technologies ................. for example a decoding failure in the UCU card of the Node B Identification techniques • • • Alarm Entity at the OMC-U GUI Collect UCU trace taken directly from the NodeB (monitor the channel elements of the NodeB) Collect FMS traces (internal and external messages of the RNC) and TPU traces (e....... however.. for example due to: faulty Traffic Card in the NodeB broken or unstable Iub link NBAP ATM bearer configuration........................Call mobility and optimization Hardware or link outage ........en................ Random Access Detection failure......................... Improvement suggestions Detailed descriptions on the various alarms to be monitored are available in the RNC and NodeB OAM Manuals........................................................ Introduction At the OMC-U it can be checked whether alarms will be reported for this NodeB.................... October 2005 9-16 ............... ........................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a......... Failure symptoms • – – • NBAP procedure fails........................ uplink power control testing) at the RNC.......... Failures At the OMC-U Alarm specific reports are displayed for a particular Node B or RNC................. in the area of Fault Management and not Call mobility optimization................Proprietary UM4801-IG...

the handover translation parameters can be categorized into four main thematic areas: • • • • Measurement and reporting Soft Handover algorithm NLSA algorithm Active Set Update procedure Important! Depending on the thematic area.................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ...... incorrect settings of handover parameters may cause different problems..................................................Proprietary 9-17 Issue a........... Overview In general............................................................................................................... Therefore..............................en......... it is strongly recommended to run a consistency check on these parameter settings before starting any detailed investigations... ..A4 Lucent Technologies ....................................................................Call mobility and optimization Incorrect translation settings -Overview ................................................. UM4801-IG.....................................................................

... If the strong interferer does not belong to the neighbors list then the pilot is not added to the Active Set. Active..............................filterCoefficient to low values speeds up the handover decision Setting of parameter reportingCellStatus.....e................................ the soft/softer handover has been triggered................... ...... Failure symptoms The following failure symptoms will appear: • • • Performance/quality degradation Decreased soft/softer handover success rate Further increase of dropped call rate.......................... Improvement suggestions The following suggestions will help to to improve the translation settings: • • Setting of measQty.............A4 See notice on first page Issue a.................... Identification techniques Drive tests including RF Call Trace will help to identify the specific failure cause: • • • Total to Active Ec/Io Ratio helps to identify high interference areas Record of the time when Measurement Report messages are sent...................en............... Introduction For specific issues............ Monitored or Detected) can trigger the event of adding a pilot to the Active Set and are being measured by the UE reportingCriteria1A.......... that is...........rcReportingInterval and reportingCriteria1C..................Call mobility and optimization Incorrect translations settings ...reportedCell allows UE to measure and report also Detected Set pilots helps to identify the strong interferers............................... Lucent Technologies ..... The analysis of the UE measurements on the Monitored Set pilots before sending the Measurement Report indicates whether the UE decision is fast enough compared to the specific RF scenario..........Proprietary UM4801-IG...............................................................filterCoefficient defines the length of the filtering period • reportingCellStatus.................................................rcReportingInterval define the report periodicity for reporting events Adding a pilot (1A) to or Replacing a pilot (1C) in the Active set respectively • NumUndeclHORejPerNcell is triggered when a detected cell not belonging to the neighbors list is reported by the UE in order to be included in the Active Set......................... a number of parameters may need to be properly tuned in order to improve the soft/softer handover performance: • measQty.....reportedCell • defines which set of cells (i................... October 2005 9-18 ...................measurement and reporting .....

......................... .. October 2005 See notice on first page ..........Proprietary 9-19 Issue a....en..................rcReportingInterval and to low values increases the probability that Measurement Report messages are successfully decoded at the UTRAN and helps to minimize the delay in the soft/softer handover procedure Setting of NumUndeclHORejPerNcell is part of the Handover matrix counters and can be imported in an Undeclared Neighbor List tool for neighbor plan optimization purposes................. UM4801-IG...............................Call mobility and optimization • • Incorrect translations settings .measurement and reporting Setting of reportingCriteria1A.....................A4 Lucent Technologies ......................................................................rcReportingInterval reportingCriteria1C...................................

........... A subset of the neighbor list defined and optimized during RF planning and optimization......................... This sub-list provides the updated monitored set list to the UE via RRC Measurement Control message upon S/SHO successful execution......... .... October 2005 9-20 .................................................. If several areas are showing a high number of detected pilots compared to the monitored list size: increase the value of parameter combinedNeighbourhoodListSize to minimize interference issues by including more pilots in the monitored set..................... Improvement suggestions The following suggestions may help to improve the performance with respect to the Neighbor List Selection Algorithm......................... located in the RNC..............................................................en..................................... Correlate the results of drive test analysis with the ones from system performance................................ The NLSApriority setting within the attribute outFDDAdjCells defines the search priority used in the NLSA.............Proprietary UM4801-IG...............................Call mobility and optimization Incorrect translation settings ............................Neighbor List Selection Algorithm .. or decrease the priority of weak monitored pilots................. parameter settings and handover traffic: • – – • – In order to identify which NLSA priority setting needs to be changed accordingly: either increase the priority of strong detected pilots.......... Failure symptoms and identification techniques The following failure symptoms will appear: • • Poor performance/quality of the call High dropped call rate in the RAB establishment phase........................ Introduction The Neighbor List Selection Algorithm (NLSA) is used to set up a list of the most effective pilot neighbors to be monitored by the UE to reduce UE’s response time to detect new pilots..A4 See notice on first page Issue a....................................... It is set on a per neighbor cell basis.. Lucent Technologies ........................

.............Call mobility and optimization Incorrect translation settings ................. The Active Set Update procedure fails if: • • – – the guard timer expires and no message is received from the UE....... ........ Introduction Upon successful resource allocation in the NodeB......... UM4801-IG................. October 2005 See notice on first page ........................................................................................... Failure symptoms and identification techniques If the Active Set Update procedure fails.............A4 Lucent Technologies .......... Important! If the setting of the timer uEActiveSetUpdateResponseTimer with respect to the UE response time may is too low..................................................................... or poor RF conditions exist due to: poor coverage or high interference... The attribute uEActiveSetUpdateResponseTimer defines the maximum value of the guard timer.. this may also be a failure cause.......................... A guard timer is started on the RNC to supervise the reception of the RRC Active Set Update Complete message from the UE............................Proprietary 9-21 Issue a......................................Active Set Update procedure ............................................. all the allocated UTRAN resources are released simultaneously..............en............................................. the RNC sends the RRC Active Set Update message to the UE via the RRC Active Set Update procedure........ Improvement suggestions The following suggestions may help to improve the performance with respect to the Active Set Update procedure: • • • • Improve RF coverage Minimize interference Minimize the impact of “round-the-corner” effect Adjust uEActiveSetUpdateResponseTimer setting as best trade-off between: soft/softer handover delay minimization and UE response time requirements....

........... Objectives After completing this section...................................................... Lucent Technologies .............................................. October 2005 9-22 ......................................................................Call mobility and optimization UMTS to GSM handover Overview ........................en..............................Proprietary UM4801-IG....................overview 9-23 Relocation failures 9-25 Handover procedure failures 9-26 Release procedure failures 9-30 ............................. you will be able to: • • Describe failures in UMTS to GSM handover procedures Recognize KPIs which reflect the UMTS to GSM handover.......................................................................................................................................... Contents Inter-system handover failures ..........................A4 See notice on first page Issue a..........

................................ The inter RAT-Handover can be performed for the following RAB combinations: • • One CS voice connection............. the UE has to send a routing area update request to the GSM network containing an indication that the GSM/GPRS network needs to continue an already established UTRAN CN context..................................en........................... For a UE... UM4801-IG...... The UTRAN initiates the Relocation Preparation Procedure at the Iu interface towards the MSC of the GSM network.. ..........................................................overview ............ When the CS handover is completed.................... Whether the UE is able to continue both the CS and PS connections in GSM/GPRS depends on its capabilities.....Call mobility and optimization Inter-system handover failures ......... The target cell selection is solely performed on network configuration data without any measurements of the GSM frequency..............................Proprietary 9-23 Issue a................ which is involved simultaneously in a CS connection and a PS connection.A4 Lucent Technologies .......................................... The UE must have established at least a Circuit Switched (CS) connection to the UMTS network...... Introduction A handover to another network system or inter Radio Access Technology (inter RAT) handover is always a hard handover with MSC involvement......................... October 2005 See notice on first page ...... Upon a handover failure the CS and PS connections are further served by the UMTS network if possible according to the radio conditions. the CS connection will be transferred to the target GSM cell first..................................... or One CS voice connection and simultaneous PS connection.............. which are located within a GSM network providing full coverage within a certain area and for UMTS/GSM networks overlapping only in their border regions.. Handover decision The inter-system handover algorithm for UMTS to GSM handover is developed for UMTS coverage islands....... MAHO Handover is triggered based on GSM measurements performed by the UE and serving cell measurements................. The Lucent inter-system handover feature supports various handover algorithms to provide optimum solutions dependent on customer needs: • • DAHO Handover is triggered based on serving cell measurements................................................

..... The ciphering or integrity protection cannot be configured....... However.....Proprietary UM4801-IG..... At this time......... On receipt of the RAB Assignment from the MSC................. the UE has a signalling connection in UMTS only.... UTRAN redirects the UE to GSM immediately on RRC connection request. The RNC does not receive a HANDOVER TO UTRAN COMPLETE message from the UE..overview RRC Redirection RRC redirection can be used to avoid call establishment in UMTS.....A4 See notice on first page Issue a. ....... Directed Retry Directed Retry allows for early handover to GSM before Radio Access Bearer (RAB) resources are assigned in UMTS... i.... The target cell id is not controlled by the RNC.......... Failure classes The inter RAT handover procedures may fail due to the following reasons: • – – – – – • – – – – – – – – – UMTS to GSM handover: The Relocation Preparation procedure is not completed in time The overall Relocation procedure is not completed in time.. Some of these failures are due to Network planning errors. Lucent Technologies ....................... The RNC fails to decode the ″RRC container″ within the RELOCATION REQUEST message........ If RRC redirection is active.... No S-RNTI 2 can be allocated..... The UE does not support the target cell frequency band.........en............e. the UTRAN rejects the RAB Assignment with cause ’directed retry’ and initiates the handover procedure to GSM.. The MSC cancels the relocation by releasing the Iu connection.............................. most of them are detected later in the optimization process...... others are the result of features that are not activated (yet). A failure is detected during the Relocation Preparation procedure...... The requested radio resources cannot be established........ GSM to UMTS handover: The GSM to UMTS handover feature is not enabled in UTRAN.. October 2005 9-24 ... the MSC does not initiate the Iu Release procedure... Receipt of an incorrect RELOCATION COMMAND message.... The UE fails to complete the requested handover.... No reduced range uplink scrambling code can be allocated....................Call mobility and optimization • • Inter-system handover failures .....................

........................ No relocation can be performed............................sum) / NumAttRelocPrepUMTS-GSM] * 100 ............................... ......................... Failure symptoms and identification techniques The following failure symptoms may appear: • • • Continuous relocation failure and high signaling load .....................A4 Lucent Technologies .......TRELOCprep too low RNC will cancel the relocation procedure although the relocation request may be still active in the MSC.............en.......... Signaling and processing effort is increased..................Call mobility and optimization Relocation failures ......hoRelocGuardTimer too low RNC will re-trigger a relocation very soon after the previous failed relocation..... Parameters The following parameters apply for relocation failures: • • • • hoRelocGuardTimer TRELOCprep TRelocOverall TRELOCcomplete.. October 2005 See notice on first page ......... Call drop ............ the RNC may already have requested the Iu release and the UE is not able to continue its call.......................................NumFailRelocPrepUMTS-GSM......................TRelocOverall too low If this parameter is set to a valuewhich is too low. KPIs The percentage of Handover Relocation procedures successfully completed is defined according to the following formula: Total Relocation Preparation UMTS to GSM HO Success Rate = [(NumAttRelocPrepUMTS-GSM ................................ Improvement suggestions The following suggestions for parameter values may help to improve the performance with respect to the Relocation procedure: • • TRELOCcomplete < TRELOCprep < hoRelocGuardTimer TRELOCcomplete < TRelocOverall........ UM4801-IG................................. the following can happen: If the handover to GSM fails and the UE wants to return to its UMTS connection....Proprietary 9-25 Issue a............................................................................ The probability is high that the relocation will fail again............................................

........... Failure Symptoms The following failure symptoms may apply during the handover procedure: • • • • • CS call drop GSM access blocking Call quality deterioration HO delay HO failure ............................................. which are used for successive handover attempts........... October 2005 9-26 ...... DAHO Database assisted handover (DAHO) is a terminology given to a handover where the decision for executing the handover procedure is based solely on precise knowledge of the network topology. If the handover procedure has failed for all suitable GSM target cells......... MAHO In certain networks or areas of a network it may not be possible to have a proper cell planning that allows for the usage of DAHO................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.Proprietary UM4801-IG..... Unacceptable Configuration for example blocking rate or timeouts Protocol Error............................................................................. the handover decision algorithm is invoked again.................................................en............................... The other two causes are expected to occur rarely and in general are not related to RF issues................ Therefore a second algorithm.... successive handover attempts are not executed............... If the handover fails because the UE is not able to establish the call in the GSM system due to insufficient radio conditions............................. Lucent Technologies ......................................................................... Handover algorithms The following algorithms apply to UMTS to GSM handover......................Call mobility and optimization Handover procedure failures .. Introduction UMTS to GSM The handover decision algorithm detects up to three potential GSM target cells.......... which is called mobile assisted handover (MAHO) takes into account the received signal strength of the GSM neighbor cells at the current location of the UE.................................. Failures The failure causes specified within the message are as follows: • • • Physical Channel Failure for example loss of synchronization between UE and NodeB due to poor RF conditions..

.....A4 Lucent Technologies ...timeToTrigger setting or umts2GsmQTriggerDAHO..... the call may drop..... the UE may have already moved out of coverage of the UMTS area and is not able to receive the handover command from the UMTS network.... October 2005 See notice on first page .. Loss of synchronization between UE and NodeB due to poor RF conditions...... high TRELOCprep setting lets the RNC wait a long time before it cancels the active relocation procedure....................................... low TRelocOverall setting RNC may already have requested the Iu release.................FailOutCS.........timeToTrigger setting respectively delays the trigger for the handover to GSM......Proprietary 9-27 Issue a...... UM4801-IG...... The relocation needs a too long time and.... Cause Explanation Suggestion RNC retriggering interval for HO attempt too long When the previous relocation request got lost. With respect to the time for the execution of the handover to GSM...........................en......PhyChnFail content High value of TRelocOverall setting lets the RNC wait a long time before it requests the release of the Iu connection in case that the Iu release procedure is not initiated by the MSC. The resources previously used by the UE are blocked during this time................... The solution is to check and evaluate the parameter and timer expiry settings according to the failure symptoms detected........... GSM fails and Iu release request is performed before UE can return to UMTS If the handover to GSM fails and the UE wants to return to its UMTS connection............. CS call drop HO to GSM triggered too late and UE leaves the UMTS coverage area before it has received the handover command from the UMTS Physical channel failure umts2GsmQTriggerDAHO. CheckIRATHO.... TRELOCcomplete < TRelocOverall High value of Adjust the time for which the triggering condition must be true before the UE sends an event triggered measurement report........... Identification techniques and improvement suggestions The inter RAT handover combines the handover between two independent networks......... Adjust TRelocOverall timer setting GSM access blocking Physical channels blocked ........Call mobility and optimization Handover procedure failures • Frequent HO • PS call drop.......... TRELOCprep < hoRelocGuardTimer RNC cancellation of active relocation too long When the previous relocation request got lost...... high hoRelocGuardTimer setting lets RNC wait a long time before re-triggering the relocation.... hence there is no KPI that can bridge this gap. as the radio conditions get worse.....

.. Adjust umts2GsmHOMeas. SRNC receives a relocation preparation failure from the MSC or handover from UTRAN failure message from the UE.. Lucent Technologies ............ or receives this message in CELL_FACH state..................................threshold trigger inter-RAT DAHO too late when the actual quality drops below the threshold specified for the quality of the own system (UMTS frequency)................ Not related to UTRAN optimization..................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG...............Call mobility and optimization Cause Handover procedure failures Explanation Suggestion Call quality deterioration Call quality may get unacceptably bad Low value of Adjust umts2GsmQTriggerDAHO.......... combinedGsmNeighbourListSize parameter setting HO delay selection from too long Neigbor list size combinedGsmNeighbourListSize causes the UE to several attempts to determine the best GSM target cell........ threshold parameter setting High value of umts2GsmHOMeas...gsmQualityThreshold triggers an inter-RAT handover although no GSM cell is available with sufficient coverage...A4 See notice on first page Issue a......... October 2005 9-28 .... handover from UTRAN failuremessage from UE UE does not support the handover scenario.. umts2GsmQTriggerDAHO... or fails to establish the connection to the target RAT system............... or receives an incorrecthandover from UTRAN command message.... gsmQualityThreshold umts2GsmHOMeas..................... parameter setting .. however. HO failure (call retained in UMTS) Relocation unsuccessful or not completed in time timer TRELOCprep or TRelocOverall expired...en....... UE receives an incorrectrelocation command message refer to Relocation procedures No GSM cell available Low value of Adjust umts2GsmHOMeas..... the failure can be confused with unsuccessful relocation symptoms. The handover may get delayed by some 100 milliseconds................

......... As the services by GSM are not 1:1 to those of UMTS..................... UM4801-IG.. PS call drop PS call is dropped in simultaneous CS/PS call UMTS to GSM handover disconnects the CS bearer and signaling connection from the UMTS radio interface and re-establishes this connection on the GSM radio interface. the UE is still inside the UMTS area.Proprietary 9-29 Issue a... the standard rules require that a handover is always performed for the CS domain........... Frequent HO Unnecessary handover High value of Adjust umts2GsmQTriggerDAHO....... If this function is not implemented......gsmFilterCoefficient Adjust umts2GsmHOMeas..en......... Hence the UE is required to attempt to re-establish the PS domain connection separately... This failure is UE specific.......... October 2005 See notice on first page .........A4 Lucent Technologies ......Call mobility and optimization Handover procedure failures Cause Explanation Suggestion GSM cell quality deterioration High value umts2GsmHOMeas........ thresholdparameter setting the handover to GSM although the quality of the UMTS signal is sufficient............NumFailHoUMTS-GSM................ the PS call will be dropped....................... gsmFilterCoefficient causes a long delay before the changes in theGSM RSSI value have effect on the filtered measurement result....... KPIs The percentage of UMTS to GSM Handover successfully completed is defined according to the following formula: Total UMTS to GSM Handover Success Rate = [(NumAttHoUMTS-GSM ................sum) /NumAttHoUMTS-GSM] * 100 .................... An inter-RAT handover to GSM may get initiated but it will not succeed because the GSM quality is no longer sufficient.........................threshold triggers umts2GsmQTriggerDAHO.... that is.. parameter setting Another scenario is that the inter-RAT handover to GSM is not triggered and the call may drop due to insufficient UMTS quality because it has not been recognized that a GSM cell has become good enough meanwhile................

................................. Lucent Technologies ....A4 See notice on first page Issue a.en.............................. failures are not expected to occur at this stage.......................... The only failure cause due to reasons other than UTRAN outages is given at the expiry of 3G-MSC timer TrelocOverall................... October 2005 9-30 .......... Introduction Upon successful allocation of GSM resources in UE and GSM RAN...................... Failure symptoms and identification techniques A specific 3G-MSC counter is triggered when this failure cause occurs............................. ............................... Improvement suggestions The setting of 3G-MSC timer TrelocOverall should should be checked against setting of the timers hoRelocGuardTimer and TRELOCprep............... Failures In general... the 3G MSC initiates the release of the UMTS resources in the UTRAN over the Iu Release Command Message...................................................................... It is assumed that no outages occur in the UTRAN........................................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG....Call mobility and optimization Release procedure failures ................................ More information will be provided in the final version of this guideline...............................................................

...... Objectives After completing this section.................................................... UM4801-IG....Proprietary 9-31 Issue a.................................................en...................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ...................................................................................................................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ................................................................................Call mobility and optimization Location and Routing area update Overview .......... you will be able to: • • Describe failures in Location and Routing area update procedures Recognize KPIs which reflect the Location and Routing area update process..................... Contents Location update failure 9-32 Routing update failure 9-34 ..................................

........................................................ Introduction A UE that has registered to the CS-CN-domain and it is in IDLE state. it requests a Location Update (LU).............................. A high number of periodical Location Update in particular areas require a careful review of the LA plan................... Note: With respect to the periodical Location Update by Mobility Management communication...........................Proprietary UM4801-IG.A4 See notice on first page Issue a........ The setting of timer T3212 can be increased............. Location Update failures results in increased number of LU retries and increased number of unsuccessful CS paging........................ The timer will be reset at any Mobility Management communication.. Lucent Technologies ..................... Failure symptoms and identification techniques The following symptoms may apply to Location update failures: • • • • • In general..........Call mobility and optimization Location update failure ............................................... monitors the Location Are Code (LAC) is broadcast over the Uu interface BCCH....... Failure due to timer T3120 expiry is often caused by delayed response of the MSC Radio resource release issues require observation of the RF conditions Additionnally..... a high number of LUs in particular areas may result in high signaling traffic and call failures....... October 2005 9-32 . Failures The following Location update failures may apply: • • • Location Update Reject message is sent back to the UE UE timer T3120 expiry Radio Resources release before completion of the procedure............en.............. LA Identifier inconsistency between UTRAN and CS-Core....... Upon expiry of the timer T3212 the UE performs a LU periodically............................. Location Update failure can be recorded by tracing the Air.... After a successful LU procedure the CS-CN stores the current Location Area per mobile in the VLR record of the UE........................................... the Iub and Iu-CS interfaces and retrieving the relevant messages............................. When the UE detects a change in LAC............................................. Improvement suggestions The following suggestions may help to improve Location Update failure issues: • • • Check inconsistencies of the Location Area identifier between LACs in the MSC and UTRAN......... ...

UM4801-IG........................en. ......................................A4 Lucent Technologies ......................................................................Proprietary 9-33 Issue a.......................................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ...................Call mobility and optimization Location update failure KPIs The Location Update Success Rate can be evaluated by three separated KPIs: • • • InterVLRGeolLUSuccRate = (succInterVLRGeoLocationUpdates /attInterVLRPerioLocationUpdates) *100% IntraVLRGeoLUSuccRate = (succIntraVLRGeoLocationUpdates /attIntraVLRGeoLocationUpdates) *100% IntraVLRPerioLUSuccRate = (succIntraVLRPerioLocationUpdates /attIntraVLRPerioLocationUpdates) *100%.....

........... After a successful LU procedure the PS-CN stores the current Location Area per mobile in the SGSN record of the UE....... Routing Area Update failures results in increased number of RAU retries and increased number of unsuccessful PS paging.. Failure symptoms and identification techniques The following symptoms may apply to Routing Area Update failures: • • • • • In general.. A high number of periodical Routing Area Update in particular areas require a careful review of the RA plan.... When the UE detects a change in RAC........ Failure due to timer T3330 expiry is often caused by delayed response of the SGSN Radio resource release issues require observation of the RF conditions Additionally................................... Upon a geographical trigger or the expiry of the timer T3312 the UE performs a RAU periodically... Routing Area Update failure can be recorded by tracing the Air..................................................... monitors the Routing Are Code (RAC) that is broadcast over the Uu interface BCCH................................... the Routing Area (RA) Update keeps the PS Core Network updated on the UE’s position....A4 See notice on first page Issue a............... Lucent Technologies ................... The setting of timer T3312 can be increased............ .... RA Identifier inconsistency between UTRAN and PS-Core.. Failures The following Routing Area Update failures may apply: • • • Routing Update Reject message is sent back to the UE UE timer T3330 expiry Radio Resources release before completion of the procedure....................................................... Introduction Similar to the Location Update......Call mobility and optimization Routing update failure ........ it requests a Location Area Update (RAU)............. The timer will be reset at any GMM communication.... A UE that has registered to the PS-CN domain and is either in IDLE state or in URA PCH state....................... October 2005 9-34 .................... Improvement suggestions The following suggestions may help to improve Location Update failure issues: • • • Check inconsistencies of the Routing Area identifier between RACs in the SGSN and UTRAN...................... the Iub and Iu-PS interfaces and retrieving the relevant messages................. a high number of RAUs in particular areas may result in high signaling traffic and call failures.....................en............. Note: With respect to the periodical Routing Area Update by Mobility Management communication.............................Proprietary UM4801-IG.............................

...........A4 Lucent Technologies ..............Proprietary 9-35 Issue a...................... UM4801-IG.......................................................................................................... October 2005 See notice on first page ............ An indirect impact is the evaluation of the volume of geographic RAUs that contributes to the load on the resources used during RAU with the following related KPIs: • • SGSN initiated inter SGSN RA update success rate = (succInterSgsnRaUpdate /attInterSgsnRaUpdate) *100% SGSN initiated intra SGSN RA update success rate = (succIntraSgsnRaUpdate /attIntraSgsnRaUpdate) *100% ........en......................Call mobility and optimization Routing update failure KPIs There is no direct impact from Routing area design to the RAU failure rate....................................

...................................................................................................................................en...... 4 3 What reasons would cause a call that should be handed over to GSM to be retained in UMTS? a Relocation procedure unsuccessful or not completed on time b No GSM cell available c RNC retriggering interval for HO attempt too long d PS call is dropped in simultaneous CS/PS call 1......... Lucent Technologies ................................ a Random Access Channel Procedure Failure b Active Set Update Failure c Radio Link Setup Failure d Iub link outage 1........................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a................ 3 2 Which failure symptoms can occur at a soft/softer handover? Select all that apply a Radio Link Setup Failure b Iur link outage c GSM access blocking d Increased Pilot pollution 1..................Call mobility and optimization Exercises ............................Proprietary UM4801-IG.................................... Exercises 1 Which of the following soft/softer handover failures can occur in CELL FACH state? Select all that apply................................................................ 2................. 2 4 Which feature of the inter-system handover algorithm for UMTS to GSM handover is used to avoid call establishment in UMTS? a Database assisted Handover b Moblie assisted Handover c RRC Redirection d Directed Retry 3 ... October 2005 9-36 ............................................

.............................. UM4801-IG.......................................................................................en........A4 Lucent Technologies ....... October 2005 See notice on first page . KPIs can be subdivided into: • • • • • Performance guarantee KPIs Network quality KPIs Operational KPIs End-to-End KPIs Quality of Service KPIs.... What are KPIs made of? KPIs can be computed from a number of performance and control counters on cell...........................................................................................10 10 UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators Overview ...................................................................... What are KPIs? KPIs are summarized quality and performance indicators which display a generalized overall performance or quality status of the network........................................Proprietary 10-1 Issue a... cluster and network level.............. Which KPIs are described here? The following KPIs are described in this lesson: • • KPIs for – KPIs – KPIs – KPIs KPIs for – KPIs – KPIs – KPIs the Circuit Switched domain: for mobile-originated call setups for mobile-terminated call setups for call drops the Packet Switched domain: for mobile-originated call setups for mobile-terminated call setups for call drops ................................ Objectives This lesson gives an overview over the key performance indicators (KPIs) for end-to-end call setup and Quality of Service (QoS) within the UTRAN cluster.........................................................................

................................... October 2005 10-2 ........UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators • Overview KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring – KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring in the Circuit Switched domain: – KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring in the Packet Switched domain: Contents KPIs for the Circuit Switched domain 10-3 KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain 10-4 KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain 10-9 KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Circuit Switched domain 10-14 KPIs for the Packet Switched domain 10-18 KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain 10-19 KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain 10-24 KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Packet Switched domain 10-30 KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring 10-35 KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring in the CS domain 10-36 KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring in the PS domain 10-38 Exercises 10-40 ........Proprietary UM4801-IG..................... Lucent Technologies .................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.......................................................................en......................................................

.............................................................................................................................................. October 2005 See notice on first page ................................................................................. UM4801-IG..................................en.................... Contents KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain 10-4 KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain 10-9 KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Circuit Switched domain 10-14 ..UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPIs for the Circuit Switched domain Overview ...........A4 Lucent Technologies .... Objectives This lesson section gives an overview over the key performance indicators (KPIs) for end-to-end call setup and Quality of Service (QoS) within the Circuit Switched (CS) domain for the UTRAN cluster....................................................................................Proprietary 10-3 Issue a..............................................................................

....................................................... Definitions for CS MO E2E call setups End-to-end perspective The end-to-end perspective is defined as the data transfer pathway from the User Equipment to the Circuit Core Network......................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain ................................... Overview This gives an overview over the key performance indicators for the mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain (CS MO E2E).......... Call setup success ratio The Call setup success ratio is defined as the number of successful calls divided by the number of call attempts.............. Mobile originated call A mobile originated call is defined when the first message has been sent by the mobile......en.... In this case the first message is “RRC Connection Request”. It includes all UE RRC connection repetitions as specified by N300 and T300 timers. Call attempt A call attempt is defined when the mobile has sent the “RRC Connection Request” to the Radio Access Network.....................Proprietary UM4801-IG........ Lucent Technologies ........................... Successful call A mobile originated call is defined successful when the last message before the speech or data phase start has been sent towards the User Equipment.... Formula The end-to-end Call setup success ratio is defined as follows: E2E CS MO Call setup Success Ratio = E2E CS MO Accessibility Ratio =1 - CC Alerting RRC Connection Request UE(part) + NodeB (part) + RNC(part) + CS_CN(part) + Others RRC Connection Request . In this case the last message is “CC Alerting”............................................................................................................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a............... October 2005 10-4 ............................................................................. Call setup accessibility ratio The Call setup accessibility ratio is defined as the remainder ratio from the number of successful calls divided by the number of call attempts........................

...................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain Signaling flow for CS MO E2E call setups Figure 10-1 RRC connection establishment UE RRC RRC connection establishment Uu Node B Iub RRC connection request (cause) RNC Iu-cs CN RRC NBAP Radio Link setup request NBAP NBAP Radio Link setup response NBAP RRC RRC connection setup RRC RRC RRC connection setup complete RRC RRC Measurement control RRC ................................A4 Lucent Technologies ..............................................en.............................................Proprietary 10-5 Issue a................................................................ October 2005 See notice on first page ............... UM4801-IG.........

.........Proprietary UM4801-IG..........................................en........UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain Figure 10-2 MM and authentication UE RRC Uu Node B Iub Initial direct transfer MM CM service request MM authentication and ciphering request MM authentication and ciphering response Security mode MM CM service accept CC setup RNC Iu-cs CN RRC SCCP Connection request SCCP SCCP Connection confirm SCCP RANAP Initial UE message RANAP RANAP RRC Downlink direct transfer RRC RRC Initial direct transfer RRC Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Security mode command RANAP RANAP Security mode complete RANAP RANAP Common ID RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RRC Security mode command RRC RRC Security mode complete RRC RRC Downlink direct transfer RRC RRC Uplink direct transfer RRC RANAP .........................A4 See notice on first page Issue a............................................................................................................... October 2005 10-6 .............................. Lucent Technologies .....

..SetupIncomplete RAB..A4 Lucent Technologies .............request NBAP NBAP Radio Link reconf........... October 2005 See notice on first page ......Proprietary 10-7 Issue a...........response NBAP RRC Radio Bearer setup request RRC RRC Radio Bearer setup complete RRC RANAP CC call proceeding RANAP RRC Downlink direct transfer RRC Downlink direct transfer CC connect acknowledgement RAB assignment RANAP request RAB assignment RANAP response Direct transfer RANAP Direct transfer RANAP Direct transfer RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RRC RANAP CC connect CN RRC RANAP CC alerting Iu-cs RRC Downlink direct transfer RRC RRC Uplink direct transfer RRC RANAP KPI parts for E2E call setups Parts Counters UE (part) RRC...........................................................T3 ........................... UM4801-IG....UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain Figure 10-3 RAB assignment and call connect UE Uu Node B Iub RNC RANAP RAB assignment NBAP Radio Link reconf.......................en........................RBSetupFail RABFailEstab............FailEstab........FailConnEstab...................................

......FailEstab..RRC.......NodeBRes SHO.CAC RRC.....FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide..CodeStarv RAB...DLIntfer RNC (part) VS...........FailConnEstab....FailConnEstab......ProcessorLoad General KPI counters for end-to-end call setup The following counters are valid for all end-to-end call setups: Counter name Part Description RRC. SHO.....FailEstabPSNoQueuing..........FailConnEstab...RBSetupFail UE Number of RB setup failure received from UE VS.... This is the number of T_RLS expiry.SetupIncomplete UE Number of T_U300 expiry no response from UE for RRC connection establishment - UE Number of RRC connection setup failure responded by UE RABFailEstab.FailConnEstab.Proprietary UM4801-IG.NodeBRes Node B Radio link setup failure response from NodeB for all causes except code and power shortage for SRB allocation RRC........FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide.............FailConnEstab.....FailConnEstab.....FailEstabPSNoQueuing.....FailConnEstab..RLSetupFailure RRC..A4 See notice on first page Issue a.TransRes RRC....TransRes ..CAC Node B Number of RRC connection reject that RNC sends to the mobile because of no more code are available RRC............T3 UE Number of T_RB expiry no response from UE for RB Setup RAB.FailConnEstab....en... October 2005 10-8 ...CodeStarv Node B Number of RAB establishment failure because of no more code are available RAB...........FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide...........UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain Parts Counters NodeB (part) SHO.........FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide.............................DLIntfer Node B Number of RAB establishment failure because of no more power is available RABFailEstab.....FailConnEstab........ProcessorLoad RNC Number of Call setup failed due to internal RNC reasons SHO..RRC............CAC RABFailEstab...... Lucent Technologies ..............RLSetupFailure Node B No response from NodeB for a signaling Radio link allocation (Signaling Radio Bearer)......CAC Node B Number of RRC connection reject that RNC sends to the mobile because of no more power is available RRC............

............................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain .............................................................................. It includes all paging repetitions as specified by UMSC counter and timer....... UM4801-IG...................... In this case the last message is “CC Alerting”.... Call setup success ratio The Call setup success ratio is defined as the number of successful calls divided by the number of call attempts.en................... In this case the first message is “RRC Paging Type 1”.................... Call setup accessibility ratio The Call setup accessibility ratio is defined as the remainder ratio from the number of successful calls divided by the number of call attempts........................................................ October 2005 See notice on first page .... Mobile terminated call A mobile terminated call is defined when the first message has been sent by the network towards the mobile..................................... Formula The end-to-end Call setup success ratio is defined as follows: E2E CS MT Call setup Success Ratio = E2E CS MT Accessibility Ratio =1 - CC Alerting RRC Paging Type 1 UE(part) + NodeB (part) + RNC(part) + CS_CN(part) + Others RRC Paging Type 1 .................... Call attempt A call attempt is defined when the network has sent the “RRC Paging Type 1” to the User Equipment...................Proprietary 10-9 Issue a... Overview This gives an overview over the key performance indicators for the mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain (CS MT E2E)............................................... Definitions for CS MT E2E call setups End-to-end perspective The end-to-end perspective is defined as the data transfer pathway from the User Equipment to the Circuit Core Network...................................... Successful call A mobile terminated call is defined successful when the last message before the speech or data phase start has been received.......................................................A4 Lucent Technologies .......

..UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain Signaling flow for CS MT E2E call setups Figure 10-4 RRC connection establishment UE Uu Node B Iub RANAP Paging Type 1 RRC RRC RRC connection establishment RNC Paging RRC connection request (cause) Iu-cs Paging CN RANAP RRC RRC NBAP Radio Link setup request NBAP NBAP Radio Link setup response NBAP RRC RRC connection setup RRC RRC RRC connection setup complete RRC RRC Measurement control RRC ....................................................................en............. October 2005 10-10 .................... Lucent Technologies .........................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.........................Proprietary UM4801-IG.............................................................

....................................................................................................................................................Proprietary 10-11 Issue a..... UM4801-IG.......................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain Figure 10-5 MM and authentication UE RRC Uu Node B Iub Initial direct transfer MM paging response MM authentication and ciphering request MM authentication and ciphering response Security mode MM CM service accept CC setup RNC Iu-cs CN RRC SCCP Connection request SCCP SCCP Connection confirm SCCP RANAP Initial UE message RANAP RANAP RRC Downlink direct transfer RRC RRC Initial direct transfer RRC Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Security mode command RANAP RANAP Security mode complete RANAP RANAP Common ID RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RRC Security mode command RRC RRC Security mode complete RRC RRC Downlink direct transfer RRC RRC Uplink direct transfer RRC RANAP ....en................................ October 2005 See notice on first page .................A4 Lucent Technologies .

.............................SetupIncomplete RAB...................FailConnEstab.....A4 See notice on first page Issue a.. Lucent Technologies .en.... October 2005 10-12 ....................Proprietary UM4801-IG.......................................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain Figure 10-6 RAB assignment and call connect UE Uu Node B Iub RNC RANAP RAB assignment NBAP Radio Link reconf.........T3 .....response NBAP RRC Radio Bearer setup request RRC RRC Radio Bearer setup complete RRC RANAP CC call confirm RRC Uplink direct transfer CC alerting Uplink direct transfer CC connect CC connect acknowledgement RRC Uplink direct transfer Downlink direct transfer RAB assignment RANAP request RAB assignment RANAP response Direct transfer RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RRC RANAP RRC CN RRC RANAP RRC Iu-cs RRC RRC KPI parts for E2E call setups Parts Counters UE (part) RRC.....................................FailEstab................RBSetupFail RABFailEstab.........................................request NBAP NBAP Radio Link reconf..........

Proprietary 10-13 Issue a.............ProcessorLoad General KPI counters for end-to-end call setup The following counters are valid for all end-to-end call setups: Counter name Part Description RRC....FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide...RRC..NodeBRes SHO.......... October 2005 See notice on first page ......DLIntfer RNC (part) VS..ProcessorLoad RNC Number of Call setup failed due to internal RNC reasons SHO.. This is the number of T_RLS expiry...FailConnEstab...FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide.............................DLIntfer Node B Number of RAB establishment failure because of no more power is available RABFailEstab....FailEstabPSNoQueuing...TransRes .FailEstabPSNoQueuing.........SetupIncomplete UE Number of T_U300 expiry no response from UE for RRC connection establishment - UE Number of RRC connection setup failure responded by UE RABFailEstab.........CAC RRC....... UM4801-IG...........CodeStarv RAB..FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide.... SHO..RLSetupFailure RRC..............FailEstab....A4 Lucent Technologies .........UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Circuit Switched domain Parts Counters NodeB (part) SHO.....RLSetupFailure Node B No response from NodeB for a signaling Radio link allocation (Signaling Radio Bearer)..TransRes RRC.....FailConnEstab...FailConnEstab.FailConnEstab...FailConnEstab..FailConnEstab.......CAC Node B Number of RRC connection reject that RNC sends to the mobile because of no more code are available RRC.....FailConnEstab..........CAC RABFailEstab.......CAC Node B Number of RRC connection reject that RNC sends to the mobile because of no more power is available RRC.....CodeStarv Node B Number of RAB establishment failure because of no more code are available RAB..FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide.........FailConnEstab..........en.RBSetupFail UE Number of RB setup failure received from UE VS.RRC........................NodeBRes Node B Radio link setup failure response from NodeB for all causes except code and power shortage for SRB allocation RRC.FailConnEstab.......T3 UE Number of T_RB expiry no response from UE for RB Setup RAB...

.............................................. Call retainability The Call retainability is defined as the number of call drops divided by the number of call successful calls................................................................. Overview This gives an overview over the key performance indicators for the end-to-end call drops in the Circuit Switched domain (CS E2E).............. In this case the last message is “CC Alerting”.... Call drop A call is defined as dropped message when an Iu release procedure is performed after the“CC Alerting” for abnormal call release with the “Iu Release complete” message.... Successful call A call is defined successful when the last message before the speech or data phase start has been sent towards the User Equipment......... Formula ....................................................................................................................... October 2005 10-14 ................................ KPI for CS E2E call drops The KPI for CS E2E comprise the following parts: CS-E2E-call drop KPI Parts CS_MO_E2E_Call_Drop RF (part) UE (part) NodeB (part) RNC (part) CS_MO_E2E_Call_Success CC Alerting ................... Lucent Technologies ..................................... Definitions for CS E2E call drops End-to-end perspective The end-to-end perspective is defined as the data transfer pathway from the User Equipment to the Circuit Core Network..............................................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Circuit Switched domain ...........................Proprietary UM4801-IG.................en....................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.....

...Drop........DL_RLF RAB.....................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Circuit Switched domain The KPI parts for CS E2E comprise the following counters: CS E2E call drop Parts Counters RF (part) RAB....Drop....A4 Lucent Technologies ................................................... mobile-originated and mobileterminated UE RRC Uu Node B Iub Uplink direct transfer CC Disconnect CC Release Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Iu release command RANAP Iu release complete RANAP RRC RRC Uplink direct transfer RRC RRC RRC Connection relelase RRC RRC RRC Connection release complete RRC Radio Link deletion request Radio Link NBAP deletion response CN RANAP Downlink direct transfer NBAP Iu-cs RRC RRC CC Release complete Iu Release RNC NBAP NBAP RANAP ...... October 2005 See notice on first page ........CauseRLF No...........Rel......RelPS.......Drop.UEInactivity Signaling flow Figure 10-7 Normal CS E2E call release.....CauseRLF RAB............Proprietary 10-15 Issue a.. UM4801-IG..................Rel.......................RelCS...UETransDrnc RAB..Drop.........TRelocOverall UE (part) RAB.....Rel....OpInterv RNC (part) RAB.............Voice....UESigConnRel NodeB (part) RAB..Drop...Data........RelCS.. of call drop during hard handover inter-frequency IRATHO.en...Rel.....

.................................Data.................Drop...UESigConnRel UE Number of call drop initiated by the UE.. RF RAB............ RAB.RelCS............UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Circuit Switched domain Figure 10-8 CS E2E uplink radio link failure detection UE RRC Uu Node B RNC Iub Iu-cs CN No response Radio Link failure indication NBAP Iu release Radio Link deletion NBAP RANAP Iu release request RANAP RANAP Iu release command RANAP RANAP Iu release complete RANAP RANAP SCCP release RANAP NBAP Radio Link deletion request NBAP NBAP Radio Link deletion response NBAP Figure 10-9 CS E2E downlink radio link failure detection UE Uu Node B RNC Iub RRC Cell update (”RL Failure”) RRC RRC Cell update confirm RRC Iu-cs CN General KPI counters for end-to-end call drop The following counters are valid for all end-to-end call drop: Counter name RAB..Drop.....DL_RLF Part RF Description Number of call drop because of Downlink radio link failure RAB..en.........Rel......................Voice......Rel.A4 See notice on first page Issue a... Lucent Technologies ........................CauseRLF..........Drop.................CauseRLF Number of call drop because of Uplink radio link failure (Calculated) RF Number of call drop during hard handover inter-frequency............ RAB................ October 2005 10-16 ..............................RelPS...Proprietary UM4801-IG.RelCS...OpInterv NodeB Number of call drop for NodeB generated reasons ..

......en.................................... October 2005 See notice on first page .................. Individual counters for CS E2E call drop The following individual counters refer to the CS E2E call drop: Counter name Part Description IRATHO.Drop......UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators Counter name Part RAB....Rel.....Rel.................... UM4801-IG.....................UETransDrnc... KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Circuit Switched domain Description Number of call drop for RNC generated reasons..........TRelocOverall RF number of call drop during hard handover inter RAT .............................UEInactivity............................A4 Lucent Technologies ..............Drop.............. RNC RAB....Proprietary 10-17 Issue a.....................

....................en....................................................................................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPIs for the Packet Switched domain Overview ........................................................................................... Objectives This lesson section gives an overview over the key performance indicators (KPIs) for end-to-end call setup and Quality of Service (QoS) within the Packet Switched (PS) domain for the UTRAN cluster................. Lucent Technologies ...............Proprietary UM4801-IG........................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.................................. October 2005 10-18 .......................................... Contents KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain 10-19 KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain 10-24 KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Packet Switched domain 10-30 .................................................................................................

...........................................................A4 Lucent Technologies .................................... Definitions for PS MO E2E call setups End-to-end perspective The end-to-end perspective is defined as the data transfer pathway from the User Equipment to the Packet Core Network............................ Overview This gives an overview over the key performance indicators for the mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain (PS MO E2E)..................en................................ Formula The end-to-end Call setup success ratio is defined as follows: E2E PS MO Call setup Success Ratio = E2E PS MO Accessibility Ratio =1 - SM Activate PDP Contect Accept RRC Connection Request UE(part) + NodeB (part) + RNC(part) + PS_CN(part) + Others RRC Connection Request ........ Call setup accessibility ratio The Call setup accessibility ratio is defined as the remainder ratio from the number of successful calls divided by the number of call attempts....................... Call attempt A call attempt is defined when the mobile has sent the “RRC Connection Request” to the Radio Access Network............................................................................................. October 2005 See notice on first page .......... In this case the first message is “RRC Connection Request”..UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain .... Successful call A mobile originated call is defined successful when the last message before the speech or data phase start has been sent towards the User Equipment...................... Call setup success ratio The Call setup success ratio is defined as the number of successful calls divided by the number of call attempts........................ In this case the last message is “SM Activate PDP Context Accept”.................. Mobile originated call A mobile originated call is defined when the first message has been sent by the mobile................. UM4801-IG..Proprietary 10-19 Issue a.. It includes all UE RRC connection repetitions as specified by N300 and T300 timers...................................................................

...... October 2005 10-20 ..................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG....................................en...............................................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain Signaling flow for PS MO E2E call setups Figure 10-10 RRC connection establishment UE RRC RRC connection establishment Uu Node B Iub RRC connection request (cause) RNC Iu-ps CN RRC NBAP Radio Link setup request NBAP NBAP Radio Link setup response NBAP RRC RRC Connection setup RRC RRC RRC Connection setup complete RRC RRC Measurement control RRC ......................A4 See notice on first page Issue a................................................................. Lucent Technologies ....

................................. GMM attach (request) RNC Security mode SCCP Connection request SCCP SCCP Connection confirm SCCP RANAP Initial UE message RANAP RRC Downlink direct transfer RRC RRC Initial direct transfer RRC GMM attach (complete) Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Security mode command RANAP RANAP Security mode complete RANAP RANAP Common ID RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RRC Security mode command RRC RRC Security mode complete RRC GMM attach (accept) CN RRC RANAP GMM attach (authentication and ciphering) Iu-ps RRC Downlink direct transfer RRC RRC Uplink direct transfer RRC RANAP ............... UM4801-IG....................................................A4 Lucent Technologies ..................................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain Figure 10-11 GMM attach UE RRC Uu Node B Iub Initial direct transfer paging resp................... October 2005 See notice on first page ..........Proprietary 10-21 Issue a.............................en.......................................

..............en.............A4 See notice on first page Issue a.. Lucent Technologies .FailConnEstab.............................. October 2005 10-22 .........................SetupIncomplete RAB.... comprising: UE (part) NodeB (part) RNC (part) PS_MO_E2E_Call_ Attempts RCC Connection Request KPI parts for E2E call setups Parts Counters UE (part) RRC................Proprietary UM4801-IG...........................FailEstab...response NBAP RAB assignment RRC Radio Bearer setup RRC RRC Radio Bearer setup complete RRC RANAP SM PDP context activation (accept) RANAP Downlink direct transfer RRC CN Iu-ps Direct transfer RANAP RAB assignment RANAP request RAB assignment RANAP response Direct transfer RANAP RRC KPI for PS MO E2E call setups PS-MO-E2E-call setup KPI Parts PS_MO_E2E_Call_Success SM Activate PDP Context Accept.UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain Figure 10-12 RAB assignement and PDP context activation UE SM PDP context activation (request) Uu Node B Iub RNC Uplink direct transfer RRC RRC RANAP RANAP NBAP Radio Link reconf.................request NBAP NBAP Radio Link reconf.................................T3 ............................RBSetupFail RABFailEstab........................

.......CAC Node B Number of RRC connection reject that RNC sends to the mobile because of no more code are available RRC.DLIntfer Node B Number of RAB establishment failure because of no more power is available RABFailEstab.RBSetupFail UE Number of RB setup failure received from UE VS....... SHO....NodeBRes SHO. This is the number of T_RLS expiry..RRC........... October 2005 See notice on first page .RRC.............CodeStarv RAB.....................CAC Node B Number of RRC connection reject that RNC sends to the mobile because of no more power is available RRC.FailConnEstab...FailConnEstab....FailConnEstab......RLSetupFailure Node B No response from NodeB for a signaling Radio link allocation (Signaling Radio Bearer).TransRes .......CAC RRC.T3 UE Number of T_RB expiry no response from UE for RB Setup RAB......FailConnEstab.....SetupIncomplete UE Number of T_U300 expiry no response from UE for RRC connection establishment - UE Number of RRC connection setup failure responded by UE RABFailEstab...........ProcessorLoad General KPI counters for end-to-end call setup The following counters are valid for all end-to-end call setups: Counter name Part Description RRC......FailConnEstab..UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-originated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain Parts Counters NodeB (part) SHO.............TransRes RRC...................FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide.FailConnEstab.....FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide..A4 Lucent Technologies ...............en.......FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide.FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide..CAC RABFailEstab...FailConnEstab.............FailConnEstab.Proprietary 10-23 Issue a....FailEstabPSNoQueuing.........FailEstabPSNoQueuing.FailConnEstab.FailEstab......RLSetupFailure RRC.CodeStarv Node B Number of RAB establishment failure because of no more code are available RAB...............NodeBRes Node B Radio link setup failure response from NodeB for all causes except code and power shortage for SRB allocation RRC.....DLIntfer RNC (part) VS....ProcessorLoad RNC Number of Call setup failed due to internal RNC reasons SHO................ UM4801-IG...

............................................................ Formula The end-to-end Call setup success ratio is defined as follows: E2E PS MT Call setup Success Ratio = E2E PS MT Accessibility Ratio = 1 - SM Activate PDP Contect Accept RRC Paging Type 1 UE(part) + NodeB (part) + RNC(part) + PS_CN(part) + Others RRC Paging Type 1 ..........................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG..........................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a....................... Overview This gives an overview over the key performance indicators for the mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain (PS MT E2E)..................... Call attempt A call attempt is defined when the network has sent the “RRC Paging Type 1” to the User Equipment...UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain ........... It includes all paging repetitions as specified by Packet Core Network counter and timer.. Mobile terminated call A mobile terminated call is defined when the first message has been sent by the network towards the mobile....... In this case the first message is “RRC Paging Type 1”............................................................................ In this case the last message is “SM Activate PDP Context Accept”......................................................... Call setup success ratio The Call setup success ratio is defined as the number of successful calls divided by the number of call attempts.........en.................................................... Definitions for PS MT E2E call setups End-to-end perspective The end-to-end perspective is defined as the data transfer pathway from the User Equipment to the Packet Core Network........... Lucent Technologies ...................... Successful call A mobile terminated call is defined successful when the last message before the speech or data phase start has been received... Call setup accessibility ratio The Call setup accessibility ratio is defined as the remainder ratio from the number of successful calls divided by the number of call attempts..... October 2005 10-24 ...

.............A4 Lucent Technologies ...............Proprietary 10-25 Issue a...................en...................... UM4801-IG.UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain Signaling flow for PS MT E2E call setups Figure 10-13 Paging and RRC connection establishment UE Uu Node B Iub RANAP Paging Type 1 RRC RRC RRC connection establishment RNC Paging RRC connection request (cause) Iu-ps Paging CN RANAP RRC RRC NBAP Radio Link setup request NBAP NBAP Radio Link setup response NBAP RRC RRC connection setup response RRC RRC RRC connection setup complete RRC RRC Measurement control RRC ............................................................................ October 2005 See notice on first page ....................................................................................

.................................................... Lucent Technologies ..........en................ October 2005 10-26 .......................................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain Figure 10-14 GMM attach UE RRC Uu Node B Iub Initial direct transfer paging resp............................. GMM paging response RRC GMM attach (request) Initial direct transfer RNC Security mode SCCP Connection request SCCP SCCP Connection confirm SCCP RANAP Initial UE message RANAP Initial UE message RANAP RRC RANAP RRC Downlink direct transfer RRC RRC Initial direct transfer RRC GMM attach (complete) Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Security mode command RANAP RANAP Security mode complete RANAP RANAP Common ID RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RRC Security mode command RRC RRC Security mode complete RRC GMM attach (accept) CN RRC RANAP GMM attach (authentication and ciphering) Iu-ps RRC Downlink direct transfer RRC RRC Uplink direct transfer RRC RANAP ...............A4 See notice on first page Issue a................................................Proprietary UM4801-IG......................

........................................................................................................request NBAP RRC Radio Bearer setup response RRC RRC Radio Bearer setup complete RRC RANAP SM PDP context activation (accept) RANAP RRC Downlink direct transfer CN RRC RANAP RAB assignment Iu-ps Direct transfer RANAP RAB assignment RANAP request RAB assignment RANAP response Direct transfer RANAP RRC KPI for PS MT E2E call setups PS-MT-E2E-call setup KPI Parts PS_MT_E2E_Call_Success SM Activate PDP Context Accept....... October 2005 See notice on first page .......Proprietary 10-27 Issue a....................................en...UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain Figure 10-15 RAB assignment and PDP context activation UE SM PDP context activation (request) Uu RRC Node B Iub Uplink direct transfer RNC RANAP NBAP Radio Link reconf........... UM4801-IG.request NBAP NBAP Radio Link reconf............................. comprising: UE (part) NodeB (part) RNC (part) PS_CN (part) Interfaces (part) Others PS_MT_E2E_Call_Attempts RCC Connection Request PS-MT-E2E-call setup Parts Counters UE (part) RRC_Fail(T_u300) + RRC_Fail(from_UE) + RB_Fail(from_UE) + RB_Fail (T_RB) + Rel_PS(T3350) + Rel_PS(T3360) + Rel_PS(T3385) ..A4 Lucent Technologies .................................

.TransRes RRC........NodeBRes SHO..........FailConnEstab..FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide......RRC...RBSetupFail RABFailEstab.ProcessorLoad General KPI counters for end-to-end call setup The following counters are valid for all end-to-end call setups: Counter name RRC....... ..FailConnEstab.......FailConnEstab..........FailConnEstab.......SetupIncomplete RAB.......en.........FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide.... October 2005 10-28 .DLIntfer RNC (part) VS...........RLSetupFailure Part Node B Description No response from NodeB for a signaling Radio link allocation (Signaling Radio Bearer)...T3 NodeB (part) SHO........................FailConnEstab.....A4 See notice on first page Issue a. This is the number of T_RLS expiry...CodeStarv RAB.....FailConnEstab..........FailEstab................Proprietary UM4801-IG.........UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain PS-MT-E2E-call setup Parts Counters NodeB (part) RRC_Fail(Err_NodeB) + RRC_Fail(T_RLS) + Reject_RNC(RRC_code) + Reject_RNC(RRC_pwr) + RAB_Fail (code) + RAB_Fail (Pwr) + RAB_Fail(Err_ NodeB) + RAB_Fail(T_RL_R) + NodeB_Errors RNC (part) Sccp_Fail(Timer) + RAB_Fail(TRabAssg) + RNC_Errors PS_CN (part) Reject_PS_CN............ Lucent Technologies .....................RLSetupFailure RRC..CAC RRC... + Sccp_Fail(blckg) + Abnormal_Release_ before_PDP_accept Interfaces (part) Iu (Fail) + Iub (Fail) + Iur (Fail) Others Any other call setup failure which excludes the above mentioned but occurs after RACH and before PDP context accept KPI parts for E2E call setups Parts Counters UE (part) RRC................CAC RABFailEstab..FailEstabPSNoQueuing............................

.....FailConnEstab....FailEstabPSNoQueuing..FailConnEstab..........CAC Node B Number of RRC connection reject that RNC sends to the mobile because of no more code are available RRC......... October 2005 See notice on first page ................SetupIncomplete UE Number of T_U300 expiry no response from UE for RRC connection establishment - UE Number of RRC connection setup failure responded by UE RABFailEstab.FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide.....en....CodeStarv Node B Number of RAB establishment failure because of no more code are available RAB..UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators Counter name SHO..................................RBSetupFail UE Number of RB setup failure received from UE VS..NodeBRes Part KPI for Mobile-terminated end-to-end call setup in the Packet Switched domain Description Node B Radio link setup failure response from NodeB for all causes except code and power shortage for SRB allocation RRC.RRC....T3 UE Number of T_RB expiry no response from UE for RB Setup RAB........FailEstab.............................................Proprietary 10-29 Issue a.........FailRLSetupIubUTRANSide......TransRes .FailConnEstab...............ProcessorLoad RNC Number of Call setup failed due to internal RNC reasons SHO..CAC Node B Number of RRC connection reject that RNC sends to the mobile because of no more power is available RRC....................... UM4801-IG...............FailConnEstab....DLIntfer Node B Number of RAB establishment failure because of no more power is available RABFailEstab...........A4 Lucent Technologies ...........

.................................................................. Lucent Technologies .............................................. Overview This gives an overview over the key performance indicators for the end-to-end call drops in the Packet Switched domain (PS E2E).............UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Packet Switched domain ......................................... Call retainability The Call retainability is defined as the number of call drops divided by the number of call successful calls...................................Proprietary UM4801-IG.......................... Formula KPI for PS E2E call drop The KPI for PS E2E comprise the following parts: PS E2E call drop KPI Parts PS_MO_E2E_Call_Drop RF (part) UE (part) NodeB (part) RNC (part) PS_CN (part) PS_MO_E2E_Call_Success SM Activate PDP Context Accept .. Call drop A call is defined as dropped message when an Iu release procedure is performed after the“SM Activate PDP Context Accept” for abnormal call release with the “Iu Release complete” message....................... October 2005 10-30 ..........en............ Successful call A call is defined successful when the last message before the speech or data phase start has been sent towards the User Equipment.............................................................................................. In this case the last message is “SM Activate PDP Context Accept”...................A4 See notice on first page Issue a.................. Definitions for PS E2E call drops End-to-end perspective The end-to-end perspective is defined as the data transfer pathway from the User Equipment to the Packet Core Network........................................................

......DL_RLF No...UESigConnRel NodeB (part) RAB.Drop......................AttDeactPdpContextSgsn.......UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Packet Switched domain The KPI parts for PS E2E comprise the following counters: PS E2E call drop Parts Counters RF (part) RAB.TimeoutOutPSUTRAN UE (part) RAB.................UEInactivity PS_CN (part) SM......................................................................UETransDrnc RAB...Proprietary 10-31 Issue a..A4 Lucent Technologies .......en.....38 ..IRATHO..Rel..........RelPS......Drop....Drop......... UM4801-IG....................Drop..... of call drop during hard handover inter-frequency VS.................. October 2005 See notice on first page ........OpInterv RNC (part) RAB..Rel...Drop.Rel....Rel............

... UE RRC Uu Node B Iub Uplink direct transfer Request SM deactivate PDP context Accept RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Direct transfer RANAP RANAP Iu release command RANAP Iu release complete RANAP RRC Uplink direct transfer RRC RANAP Request GMM detach RRC RRC Downlink direct transfer RRC RRC Uplink direct transfer RRC Complete Iu Release Direct transfer RRC Uplink direct transfer RRC RRC Connection relelase RRC RRC RRC Connection release complete RRC NBAP Radio Link deletion request Radio Link NBAP deletion response CN RANAP Downlink direct transfer RRC Iu-cs RRC RRC Complete Accept RNC NBAP NBAP RANAP ................................... mobile-originated and mobileterminated........... October 2005 10-32 ................................................................... Lucent Technologies .................en.UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Packet Switched domain Signaling flow Figure 10-16 Normal PS E2E call release...............A4 See notice on first page Issue a....................Proprietary UM4801-IG...............................................................

DL_RLF Part RF Description Number of call drop because of Downlink radio link failure RAB.Rel..................Drop.RelCS......OpInterv NodeB Number of call drop for NodeB generated reasons ...Drop................... UM4801-IG. RAB.....Drop..............................Data...... October 2005 See notice on first page ......UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Packet Switched domain Figure 10-17 PS E2E uplink radio link failure detection UE RRC Uu Node B RNC Iub Iu-ps CN No response Radio Link failure indication NBAP Iu release Radio Link deletion NBAP RANAP Iu release request RANAP RANAP Iu release command RANAP RANAP Iu release complete RANAP RANAP SCCP release RANAP NBAP Radio Link deletion request NBAP NBAP Radio Link deletion response NBAP Figure 10-18 PS E2E downlink radio link failure detection UE Uu Node B RNC Iub RRC Cell update (”RL Failure”) RRC RRC Cell update confirm RRC Iu-ps CN General KPI counters for end-to-end call drop The following counters are valid for all end-to-end call drop: Counter name RAB............Proprietary 10-33 Issue a............................. RF RAB.....en.............RelPS.CauseRLF.....................................Voice.............CauseRLF Number of call drop because of Uplink radio link failure (Calculated) RF Number of call drop during hard handover inter-frequency.............A4 Lucent Technologies .. RAB......RelCS........UESigConnRel UE Number of call drop initiated by the UE..........Rel...

.............en.....Drop...UEInactivity.................Drop.........UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators Counter name Part RAB... RNC RAB........TimeoutOutPSUTRAN RF Number of call drop during hard handover inter RAT SM......................................... Lucent Technologies ........................ Individual counters for PS E2E call drop The following individual counters refer to the PS E2E call drop: Counter name Part Description VS..Rel....... October 2005 10-34 .......................UETransDrnc...A4 See notice on first page Issue a........AttDeactPdpContextSgsn.................Rel.IRATHO.... KPI for end-to-end call drops in the Packet Switched domain Description Number of call drop for RNC generated reasons.........................Proprietary UM4801-IG...........................38 PS_CN Number of call drop for PS CN generated reasons ...

................................................................................................................................. October 2005 See notice on first page ......................................................................................................... UM4801-IG.en...........................................................................A4 Lucent Technologies .....................................................................................................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring Overview ............................Proprietary 10-35 Issue a.. Objectives This lesson gives an overview over the key performance indicators (KPIs) for Quality of Service (QoS) monitoring within the UTRAN cluster.............. Contents KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring in the CS domain 10-36 KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring in the PS domain 10-38 .

...en.............. audio) Interactive class (for example web browsing) Background class (for example file transfer)................... In this case the delay is referred to as “RAB setup time”..................... Quality of Service Quality of Service (QoS) is used to measure a specified set of performance attributes that are typically associated with a particular service....... The most important measurable parameters used are: • • • Delay The interval between transmitting and receiving packets between two reference points........................... Delay variation In this case the delay variations are referred to as “Achieved Bitrate distribution” and “Transfer delay distribution”....................................................................................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring in the CS domain ................. October 2005 10-36 ......................................Proprietary UM4801-IG.................................................................................................. Lucent Technologies ................................................................ There are four different QoS classes which must be considered: • • • • Conversational class (for example voice) Streaming class (for example video............ Loss rate In this case the loss rates are referred to as “SDU error ratio” and “Residual bit error ratio”.. KPIs for QoS monitoring on network level KPIs for QoS monitoring in the CS domain per RAB (i) Conversational Streaming Delay in sec <1 ~1 RAB(i) setup time without queuing X X RAB(i) setup time with queuing X X Achieved Bitrate distribution X X Transfer delay X X SDU Error Ratio - X Residual Bit Error Ratio - X ..................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a......................

...UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring in the CS domain Formula When more than one cell is the active set.. for each cell the following KPI must be available per traffic class: CS RAB Assignment Success Rate (i) = CS RAB Assignment Success (i) CS RAB Assignment Attempt (i) i = Traffic_Class (conversational........................................................Proprietary 10-37 Issue a....................... UM4801-IG.................................................. streaming) ..........A4 Lucent Technologies .......en................ October 2005 See notice on first page .................................................................

....................... Delay variation In this case the delay variations are referred to as “Achieved Bitrate distribution” and “Transfer delay distribution”.. audio) Interactive class (for example web browsing) Background class (for example file transfer)................. Not guaranteed values .............Proprietary UM4801-IG................................................ KPIs for QoS monitoring on network level KPIs for QoS monitoring in PS domain per RAB (i) Conversational Streaming Interactive Background Delay in sec <1 ~1 < 10 > 10 RAB(i) setup time without queuing X X X X RAB(i) setup time with queuing X X X X AchievedBitrate distribution X X - - Transfer delay X X - - SDU Error Ratio X1 X1 X1 X1 Residual Bit Error Ratio X1 X1 X1 X1 Notes: 1............................................................................... In this case the delay is referred to as “RAB setup time”............. Quality of Service Quality of Service (QoS) is used to measure a specified set of performance attributes that are typically associated with a particular service......en................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a......................................... The most important measurable parameters used are: • • • Delay The interval between transmitting and receiving packets between two reference points............... Loss rate In this case the loss rates are referred to as “SDU error ratio” and “Residual bit error ratio”.............................. October 2005 10-38 ................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring in the PS domain ............................ There are four different QoS classes which must be considered: • • • • Conversational class (for example voice) Streaming class (for example video.......... Lucent Technologies ..........................................................................

. background) ...............................Proprietary 10-39 Issue a....................................... for each cell the following KPI must be available per traffic class: PS RAB Assignment Success Rate (i) = PS RAB Assignment Success (i) PS RAB Assignment Attempt (i) i = Traffic_Class (conversational.............................. October 2005 See notice on first page .... interactive............UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators KPIs for Quality of Service monitoring in the PS domain Formula When more than one cell is the active set............................................. UM4801-IG......... streaming....A4 Lucent Technologies ........en...................................................

.................................................................................................................................. Lucent Technologies .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. a High DL BLER values b High number of call drops c Cell reselection failures d Iub links down 4 2 How is the CS_MT_E2E_Call_Success ratio calculated? a SM Activate PDP Context Accept / RRC Connection Request b SM Activate PDP Context Accept / RAB Failure Sum c CC Alerting / RRC Paging Type 1 d CC Alerting / RRC Connection Request 3 .........................UTRAN end-to-end key performance indicators Exercises ............................. Exercises 1 Give a possible reason for a poor success rate of the PS_MO_E2E_Call_Success KPI.........A4 See notice on first page Issue a....................Proprietary UM4801-IG.................. October 2005 10-40 .............en......

........... 6-33 NumRLReconfigFail................................... 6-14 .................... 7-18 O Optimization costs............ 6-20 Forward Power Overload Duration.............. 1-2 ............................CellReselect.. 6-14 CSV Accessibility rate.. 6-14 ChannelOccupRateRACH.......UraChange..................... P Pilot pollution problem.................. 6-14 NumCellUpdateRequest............................................. K KPI............... 6-4 Not optimizing Cell breathing problem..... 2-3 NumRRCConnEstFail............... 7-18 ......................................................................................... 3-1 C Call availability............. 3-1 PSD Accessibility rate........................................................... 3-1 .................. 6-32 .. F Forward power overload duration..........Index A Around-the-corner problem................................en......................................... 6-6 ....T3... 1-2 ... 6-18............... 6-14 H Handover problem........... 6-32 Maximum transmitted carrier power.... 6-34 NumRABEstFail.............. 6-6 NumGoodRACHTransBlock. 6-23 NumRRCConnRej.......................................... 3-1 ...... 6-36 NumRABEstFail.................................................. 6-26 ... October 2005 See notice on first page ..A4 Lucent Technologies ...... 3-1 Average transmitted carrier power........................... 1-2 Lucent Retainability KPI CSV.............................. 6-26 NumBadRACHTransBlock............................................... 6-35 NumRLReconfigAtt...........................Proprietary IN-1 Issue a... ...........................RBSetupFailure.............................. M Maximum received signal strength indicator......................Load. 6-12 ........ 8-2 N N300................................................. NumRABEstFail.................... 6-32 NumRABEstFail..... L Lucent Retainability KPI CSD.......... 7-18 Lucent Retainability KPI PSD.............................. 6-34........ 6-32 Optimization requirements..................... ......... UM4801-IG................... 6-32 Missing neighbors problem.................... 3-1 Consequences............... 6-6 NumPageAttDiscard....... B BLER..... 6-20.................................... 6-18............ 6-12 CSD Accessibility rate................................ 6-20.......CodeStarv................................. 1-4 ChannelOccupRatePCH...................sum......... D Definition of optimization.................................. 6-33 NumRRCConnAtt........ Near-far problem.... 6-20 NumUraUpdateRequest...........................

.... 3-1 ..... 6-29 Reasons for optimization......................................................A4 See notice on first page Issue a................... 1-4 RF coverage problem............................Proprietary UM4801-IG....................................................................................... 7-18 RAB dropping rate for PS........... 8-2 .............. 6-29 T_RL_RESYNC.... Lucent Technologies ....Index ................................ 8-2 UL transport block error rate CSV............... 6-29 Total RAB dropping rate......... S successful RRC connections establishment rate............................... R RAB dropping rate for CS data..................... 6-34 UL transport block error rate CSD........ October 2005 IN-2 ............................................................................................. 7-18 RAB establishment........ U uERadioBearerSetupResponse.... T T300............ 8-2 UL transport block error rate PS................ 7-18 RAB dropping rate for CSV12......................................................... 7-2 Total RAB establishment success rate............ 6-18 .....................................en.......................... 7-2 .... 6-14 Total number of RAB establishment failures...............

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