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Bio 102 Section 09 Lisa Ivester
Title: The Role of Phytochrome in Germination of Lettuce Seeds Abstract: Phytochrome regulates many responses to light by a red . (Roux 1984) Phytochrome regulates responses to light in many different types of plants. begins with light absorption by a pigment in the plant.far red conversion mechanism. (Campbell et al. Results are as follows. 1 under the red light. 4 under far red light. The purpose of the experiment is to determine the role of phytochrome in lettuce seed germination. which is growth and development in a plant. (Casal 1993) It was discovered by studying seed germination. (Campbell 2009) The USDA discovered the specific light spectrum for light induced . The seeds are exposed to the light for 15 minutes and then checked on the second day after the initial experiment and again on the eighth day after. the concept lettuce seeds had a higher rate of germination than the two starr lettuce seed. called phytochrome. 2009) It is known to be involved in germination and flowering response of long-day plants. Introduction: Light is critical in a plants environment for much of the plants growth and development. Also. These results of the experiment supported the hypotheses. Light control is very important for the plant. The hypotheses tested were that germination will occur in far red light if the variety of seed is concept and also that germination will occur in red light if the variety of seed is two starr. 9 lettuce seeds germinated under white light. and no seeds germinated under the dark control. Dark light is used as a control while results are checked in green light.(Roux 1984) Photomorphogenesis.
Pr exposed to red light is converted to Pfr. plants synthesize phytochrome as Pr. a polypeptide component is joined to a no polypeptide chromophores by a covalent bond. A prime example would be. (Campbell et al. In complete darkness. The study was performed to provide further insight into lettuce seed . Campbell et al. the germination response is inhibited. This conversion triggers the responses in cells that lead to germination. meaning there is more Pfr and germination is triggered. Likewise. which is why germination does not occur without light exposure. are interconvertable. inhibits germination. A phytochrome has two subunits. 2009) Pfr triggers developmental responses to light in plants. when the red light seeds are exposed to far red light. 2009) The photoreceptors that caused the opposing effects of the two lights are phytochromes. in a lettuce seed. the pigment will remain mostly in Pr form. 2009) In nature. 2009) The chromophore is photoreversible. (Sparace 2010) The two isomeric forms are Pr and Pfr. In these subunits.lettuce seed germination in the 1930s. 2009) The red light wavelength of 660 nm has the most effect on the germination. Sunlight contains red and far red light. by light. but Pfr converts faster than Pr.(Campbell et al. 2009) The experiment was conducted to test the role of phytochrome in lettuce seed germination. (Kendrick and Spruit 1973) Phytochromes interconvert between two forms when responding to red and far red light. Chromophores are the light absorbing part of the subunit. (Campbell et al. Far red light. The pigment has been proved to be a chromo protein that exists in two forms that. Pr being the isomer form that absorbs red light. at 730 nm. (Campbell et al. (Campbell et al. (Sparace 2010. and Pfr the isomer form that absorbs far red light.
A dark cabinet for storage is also needed to conduct this experiment. filter paper was placed in each dish. (Sparace. (Sparace. water and foil. Eight petri dishes were labeled according to the seed variety and type of light treatment. 2010) The experiment was conducted in a dark room. filter paper.germination under the effects of different lighting. One of each kind of lettuce seed was exposed to one type of light.” The date of the experiment is also labeled on the petri dishes. It was also hypothesized that if the lettuce seed variety was two starr then germination will occur in response to red light(but not far-red light). The filter paper was thoroughly moist. eight petri dishes. using a green safelight to see. approximately one hundred lettuce seeds. It was hypothesized that if the lettuce seed variety was concept then germination will occur in response to far red light. It was performed to determine how different types of lettuce seeds react to the different lighting also. The null hypothesis fro this second variety is that if it is two starr. green safelight. Materials and Methods: Materials used in the experiment to test the role of phytochrome in lettuce seed germination are as follows. Two to three droppers full of water were added to the petri dishes. For example. The null hypothesis is that germination will not occur in the seeds exposed to other types of light. the seeds in the petri dishes were exposed to the light regimens. Next. one petri dish containing . Next. 2010) Twenty five lettuce seeds was added to each of the four petri dishes. then the germination will not occur in response to red light. Four were labeled “concept seed variety” and the other four were labeled “two starr seed variety. but water was not accumulating in the dish.
and so on for the two remaining light regimens. (Sparace. the seeds were checked for germination.2010) The percent germination for each treatment is calculated based on the results. Table 2: Concept Seed Germination Records Date 2-3-11 2-8-11 Dark control 0/25 concept 0/25 concept Red light 0/25 concept 0/25 concept Far red light 1/25 concept 2/25 concept White Light 2/25 concept 7/25 concept . The dishes were wrapped in foil immediately after being exposed to light. The total number of germinated seeds were counted in each variety. Table 1 in the results section illustrates the light regimens. one petri dish containing concept seeds and one dish containing two starr were exposed to red light.concept seeds and one petri dish containing two starr seeds were exposed to white light. Likewise. The data was put into a table for better visibility and organization. It is crucial to check the seeds under a green light because seeds will germinate if checked under white light. The seeds were stored on a level surface in a dark cabinet. Results: Table 1: Seed Exposure to Light Dark control Time of seed exposure Ongoing exposure: kept in dark. Red light 15 minutes Far red light 15 minutes White light 15 minutes Table 1 illustrates the light regimens used in the experiment and the amount of time the seeds were exposed to the light. 2010) After forty eight hours. (Sparace.
On February 3. On February 8. On February 3. Table 3: Two Starr Seed Germination Records Date 2-3-11 2-8-11 Dark Control 0/25 0/25 Red light 0/25 1/25 Far red light 0/25 0/25 White light 1/25 2/25 Table 3 illustrated the results of the two starr seed variety on the dates checked.Table 2 illustrates the results of the concept seed variety on the dates checked. one of the two starr seeds that had been exposed to white light had germinated. Table 3:Percent Germination Overall Dark Control Concept 0% Red light 0% Far red light 8% White light 28% Two starr 0% 4% 8% 8% Table 3 shows the results in Tables 2 and 3 as percentages of seed germination. one two starr seed that was exposed to red light had germinated and two that were exposed to white light had germinated. while two of the seeds exposed to white light had germinated. only one seed exposed to far red light had germinated. and seven of the concept seeds exposed to white light had germinated. . on February 8. By the second check. two seeds exposed to far red light had germinated.
The Pr in the seeds were converted back to Pfr. inhibit seed germination. which is two days after the experiment took place. The results after the second reading. on February 3. The last light that the seed is exposed to determines the response of the germination. The Pfr in the seeds were converted to Pr. The wavelength for red light is 660 nm. which resulted in total germination of all seeds. wavelengths 730 nm. The results were not 100% accurate. 2 concept variety seeds and 1 two starr variety seed has germinated under white light. the seeds were exposed to white light. stricter light settings should be used to be sure the seeds are not exposed to white light etc.Discussion: After the first reading. Another option for future experiments is to used more . 1 under red light. more seeds could have been tested. and none in the dark. which triggered the plant response to germinate. Also. (Campbell et al. on February 8. Future experiments could add other factors into the experiment such as humidity control or temperature control. which inhibited the germinating response. 2009) The seeds that were exposed to the red light germinated more so because the red light increases germination percentage. To be more accurate. These results supported both of the hypotheses. 4 seeds were germinated under far red light. The plants were only read on two dates because after the 8th of February. 2011. The seeds that were exposed to far red light did not germinate because the far red light. only the far red and white light treatments had produced any results. 2011 were that 9 seeds germinated under white light. 1 seed of the concept variety that was exposed to far red light had germinated. 2011. on February 1.
P. Stanley J. Molecular Roux. 52: 327 . January 1984. 8th Edition. and Spruit.29.68. “Biology 102 Laboratory Manual. Vol. MS. Kendrick. K. 34: 25 . Casal. Literature Cited: Campbell. 2010. BioScience. Vol. Plant Physiology. Phytochrome Properties and the Environment. Biology. . 1973. 1993. Pearson Education. J. Pendleton.J.E. 2009.331.” (Tri-County Technical College Press. C. Neil A.) Pg 836 . Vol. Novel effects of phytochrome status on reproductive shoot growth in Triticum aestivum L.) pg 64 . et al. Custom for Tri County Technical College (Boston. SC. 123: 45 . Sparace. New Phytologist.837.51. R. Ca2+ and Phytochrome Action in Plants.seed varieties.
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