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By Latt~ Mahiimahopadhyaya Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar,

M.A., Retired Professor of Sanskrit, Gujarat College, Ahmedabad; Hon. Professor of Sanskrit, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona and

J. M. Shukla,
M.A., Ph.D.,
Retired Reader of Sanskrit, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad - 380009


Oriental Institute. Baroda



First Edition :1961 Second Revised Edition: 1977 Third Edition (Reprint) : 1986 Copies: 2000 FOREWORD The first edition of "A DictionGlJ' of Sanskrit Grammar" by Mahamahopadhyaya Professor Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar was published in 1961 as Gaekwad's Oriental Series No. 134 by the Oriental Institute under the authority of the M. S. University of Baroda. In 1977 its second revised edition by MM. Professor Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar and Dr. Jayadevbhai Mohanlal Shukla was publish~ ed with an addition of "about three hundred new entries" (Preface to the second edition .by Dr. J. M. Shukla) as Gaekwad's Oriental Series No. 134. Within a very short span of time the edition went out of print indicating its importance and utility as a reference-book.

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There has been an incessant demand for this book and we are happy to bring out its third editioa. . I tender my'most sincere feelings of gratitude to Professor Dr. M. N. Desai. Vice-Chancellor. M. S. University of Baroda for his keeo interest and for providing facilities for the reprint. I am grateful to Professor RaiJ:il~1 Parikh. Vice-Chancellor. Gujarat Vidyapeeth. Ahmedabad for his interest in this work by persuading the Navajivan Press to accept the printing of this work. "A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar" by photo-offset process. We are thankful to Shri Jitendra T. Desai. General Manager, Navajivan Press. Ahmedabad. for his cooperation and for expediting the printing. I am also thankful to Shri P. N. Srivastav. Manager. M. S. University of Baroda Press and also Shri N. N. Shah. Technical Assistant and my other colleagues in the Oriental Institute for cooperation and fo9' expediting the I publication of this work.

Copies can be had of:The Manager, UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS SALES UNIT, M. S. University of Baroda Press, (Sadhana Press), Near Palace Gate, Palace Road. Baroda-390001

Vadodara 24 March. 1986


Re-printed by Photo-offset process at the "Navajivan Press. P.O. Navajivan. Ahmedabad-380014" for Shri P. N. Srivastav, Manager, The Malu!/aja Sayajirao University of Baroda Press (Sadhana Press), near Palace Gate, Palace Road. Baroda and published on behalf of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda by Dr. S. G. Kantawala, Director, Oriental Institute. Maharaja Sayajirao University of " Baroda. Baroda. March, 1986.


PREFACE TO' THE SECOND EDITION Within a few years after the. publication .of 'A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar', the book became out of print. With continuous inquiries pouring in about its availability it was thought necessary that a second edition should be made available to the serious students of Sanskrit learning. Hence, a request was sent to the Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda for the issue of a second edition. He readily accepted the request . Prof; K. V. Abhyankar:, my revered teacher asked me to revise all the entries, add a few more references to the existing entries and further add about three hundred new entries. lreadily accepted his suggestion. The new entries are mostly of the nature of semantic terms. Before the printing of the book was taken up a tragic event took place. Prof. Abhyankar, with Mrs. Abhyankar, their two brilliant young grand children. and an aged servant, met with an unnatural and tragic death. Sanskrit scholars in India and the West were shocked at this unprecedented vagary of Destiny. Prof. Abhyankar was the most authoritative of the grammarians active in India. He enriched research in VyakaraI,).asastra by his scholarly works like Vakyapadiya, Mababh~adipika, Paribhii!?asamgraha ~nd others which are indispensable to students of grammar. I express my deep and sincere sense of gratitude to Dr. A. N. lani, the present Director, Oriental' Institute, Baroda, for planning the completion of printing of this book in a record time of about ten months. But for his zest and vigour the work would not have been completed so soon. I am particularly thankful to Shri Siddhartha Y. Wakankar, Research Officer of the Oriental Institute, for scrupulously correcting the proofs of. this work. I thank the lUthorities and workers of the M. S. University Press for expediting the pri ting of the present work.

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~~ ijJ{~ij tii~r~ ~~ ijq~r II ~ "

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q;l~r~r~~ 3iTq~ 'ij~~ II ~ II

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~~ ~r~t1r ~ J{~~~~IJW( I

~~ ~~cr: ~~ ~~I:;rf;r~ ~aif. II G, II

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J. M.




INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST EDITION Object of this Dictionary No apology is needed for undertaking the compilation of the present 'Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar', which, although concise, is expected to meet the needs of Sanskrit stholars and research students of Vyakaral)a and other Sastras by serving as a useful reference book in their study of, . and research work in, any branch of Sanskrit learning. The many independent treatises in the several Sastras and the learned commentaries upon them, as atso the commentaries on classical poems and dramas; are, in fact, full of grammatical explanations of words and constructions, involving a liberal use of grammatical expressions and technical terms at several places. The elementary knowledge . of grammar which a' scholar of Sanskrit possesses, is not found sufficient for his understanding fully the grammatical references in these books, especially so at present, when the practice of sending young boys to the Sanskrit Piithasalas to study the standard classical works with commentaries along with some standard elementary treatises on grammar, has already st,opped. The number of Sanskrit Pal)Qitas and Sastrins, who had to obtain a sound footing in grammar before they undertook the study of the higher texts of the several Sastras, and who, therefore, could be consulted by young scholars and research workers in the several Sastras, has also diminished considerably. The' usual Sanskrit Dictionaries such as those of Monier Williams, V. S. Apte and others are found of no avail in supplying explanations of the grammatical technique which confronts modern scholars at every step in their critical reading of the several Sanskrit texts. Under these circumstances, it is only the technical dictionaries of the type of the present 'Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar' that can render a valuable assistance to scholars and research workers in their reading of the higher Sanskrit texts in the Several Sastras. Beginnings of Sanskrit Grammar Every science bas necessarily its own terminology and a special vocabulary. The remark is true with respect to Sanskrit Grammar or Vyakaral)asastra which has. developed as a science during the last two thousand years and has got several technical terms and numerous words with a special grammatical significance. The origin of grammar can well-nigh be traced to the Period of the Brahmal)as i.e. about 1000 B.C., when Vedic scholars began to discuss the meaning of the inspired Vedic hymns by carefully showing disconnected, the words of the Vedic hymns and noting down the differences in accents as also the changes caused by their coalescence in the continuous recital or the Sarilhitapatha. They also tried to expla'in the sense of the. Vedic words by tracing them back to the roots of suitable senses and laid down rules for their proper and correct pronunCiation. These three pursuits viz. (a) the discussion of the features of the Pada text,

.- .

layiiditya, Vamana, Kaiyata, Haradatta, Bhattoji, KOI}.QabhaHa and Nagesa, developed by their substantial contributions, the work of PaI}.ini as a science to such an extent that the number of smaller and greater works :well nigh rose to eight hundred and that of the authors to four hundred. . The grammar of PaI)ini, which is looked upon as the standard one 'at present gives about a hundred technical terms, more than two hundred sufIiXes, about two thousand primary roots and more than five thousand special words arranged in more than two hundred and fifty classes according to the special grammatical p~culiarities shown' by .each class. The number of indepedent primary words, besides these :five thousand special words, if roughly estimated, may exceed even twenty-five thousdan. Besides these primary roots, primary nouns, affixes and technical-. terms in the different Sastras, there is a vast number of secondary root, and secondary nouns, which is rather impossible even to be approximately determined. Nature and Scope of this Dictionary The preparation of a comprehensive 'dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar, a subject which has been developed fully by Sanskrit Grammarians for the last two thousand_years, is certainly a stupendous work which can only be done by a band of grammarians who have got a sound footing in the subject. In the light of what has been said above, the present dictionary is only an honest and humble attempt in that direction, made by the compiler who was inspired to- undertake this rather arduous venture by his close study of the subject for more than sixty , years according to the traditional method of the East, combined with the critical and comparative method of the West. As the work was done single-handed,' and finished within a limited time with a view to making it available to students and scholars of Sanskrit at as early a date as possible, the number of books consuited was a limited one. The number of entries is more than four thousand out of which the important ones are in the form of short articles supplying very briefly the necessary information from the different sources with quotations from or references to the original works. All the standard works in grammar have been carefully consulted including the available Prtitistikhya works, the Maluibhii~ya, the KiiJikii, the Vtikyapadiya, the Siddhiinta-Kaumudi and others. The Kiilantra, the Sdkatdy:ma, the Jaitrendra, the Haima and other grammars, as also the different Paribhii~a works have been consulted, at important places. Minor works and commentaries are not consulted as, the important words and topics occurring therein have been mos:ly included here on account of their occurrence in the major works. Atention is, of course, paid to grammaical importance and. significance, and only such words and such senses of them as have a grammatical significance, have been included in the present dictionary along with affixes, augments, substitutes and t::chnical terms mos'.Iy given in Pal)ini's grammar. Names of authors and books, printed as well as found in a manuscript form, have been included as far as practicable in the present work. A scrupulous attention has been paid to the Prtitistikhya works, the Mtihtibhti~ya and the KiiJikii which are looked upon as supremely authoritative in the_field of Sanskrit grammar. It must be admitted that the scholarly index works of Dr. Bothlingk and Dr. Renou

(b) the derivation of words, and (c) directions regarding the proper pronunciation of the Vedic words, were carried on with vigour with a view to preserving the Vedic texts intact, and the treatises dealing with these three branches were respectively called by the names Prtitistikhya, Nirukta and,Sik$ti, all of which could rightly be. called Vyakarat)a or Grammar, as they were devoted to determining the correct words as distinguished from the incorrect ones. Although a number of.books were written by Vedic scholars in these three branches, not .more than five or six Prtitisiikhya works, a solitary Nirukta, work, and a few Sik~ti works are the only available works at present. Development of Sanskrit Grammar In course of time, on the analogy of the derivation of words, an analysis of the word into its constituent elements such as the base, the 'affix, the augments ~nd the modifications, was undertaken by grammarians. This separation of the different elements of a word constituted Vyakarat)a or grammar, which wa,s devejoped as an art by ancient grammarians like Apisali; Sakatayana and others before Pal}ini. It was Panini who carried it to perfection, and his work, the A$ttidhytiyi, compact yet exhaustive, and laconic yet clear, is simply a marvellous product of art by a man of amazing intelligence. As a result, the works on grammar by all ancient scholars who flourished before PalJini disappeared in course of time leaving only a few quotations behind them. Pal}ini 'Was followed by a :ilUmber of grammarians who wrote popular treatises on grammar, based, no doubt~ on PaQini's grammar, some of which, in their tum came to have auxiliary works, glosses and explanatory commentaries. These different treatises, written by Sarvavarman, . Candragomin, Devanaudin, Palyakirti Sakatayana, Hemacandra, KramadiSvara, Jumaranandin, Supadma and others with their auxiliary works and commentaries, came to be looked upon as different systems of grammar. These treatises present two kinds of treatment: some of them are arranged .in Siitras in the same manner as the A~!adhytiyi of Pal}ini which treats one after another the several grammatical elements such as technical terms, padas of roots, case-relations, compound words, krt affixes, taddhita affixes, substitutes, accents and euphonic changes; while others give a topic-wise treatment following in that respect the ancient grammarians before Pa1;lini such as Indra, Vedic S~katayana and others who treated one after another the different topics of grammar such as the euphonic changes, declension, conjugation, compound formation, nouns derived from roots, nouns derived from nouns and the like. The special feature of all these grammars was that they entirely omitted the Vedic peculiarities and accents.

Sanskrit Grammar as a Science The subject of Sanskrit grammar was first treated as a science by the two epoch-making grammarians, first by Katyayana, a few centuries after PalJini, and then by Patafijali, the exponent of Katyayana, who lived in the second century B.C. It was carried to perfection by the stalwart grammarian Bhartrhari of the fifth century A.D. Later grammariaus, prominent among whonl were

were found very !lseful in providing references to. standard, grammar works, The abbreviations for the titles of books consulted and those of grammatical terms are given separately at the beginning of the present' Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar '. Names of books and authors have been sometimes given in the Roman script and sometimes in the DevanagarI script. Conclusion 'Acknowledgements are due to Mr. M. N. Chapekar, .Aryasanskriti\ laya, Poona, who has given ample co-operation in getting this Dictionary printed in the shortest possible time. For faciiity of printing, accents of Vedic passages and words are not shown, nor italics h~ye been used for Sanskrit terms written in the Roman script nor the breaking of a ~ord atthe end of a line is done scrupulously at the end of a syllable or a const\tuent part. In spite of all possible care, some slips have crept in for which th~ indulgence of the reader is craved. It is expected that Sanskrit scholars will make'fulluse of this work and offer their valuable suggestions for future undertakings of this type.

HINTS FOR THE USE OF THIS DICTIONARY, Words in this dictionary are arranged in the serial order of the Sanskrit alphabet which. is ,curre~t everywhere, viz. the .fourteen vowels beginning with at ~nd ending with and then the thirtythree consonants consisting of the five ,guttural, the five.palatal, the ~ve cerebral, the five dental and the five labial conson~ a~ts and then the four semi-vowels and the four sibilants. '~is taken as a co~ bination o(~ and ~, arid ~ as one of;;r" and OJ.. .



Words are given in their noun-base (ItTffltrrf<fcli) such as at~'Ii, at'Iitf. etc., without the addition of any case affix.

A sincere sense df gratitude must be conveye4 to Dr. Bhogilal J. Sandesara, the Director of the Oriental Institute, Baroda, at whose initiative the project of this 'Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar,' undertaken some years ago, but postponed from time to time, was not only pursued with vigour, but completed and turned into a volume in the Gaekwad Oriental Series. '
601-2 Sadashiv Peth, Laxmi Road, Poona 2. Var~apratipada, Sake 1883. 17-3-61.

3. At places of option where anyone of the all.usvara and the parasayar.Qa could be llsed, the anusvara is consistently used, and a place after'the vowels and before the consonants is assigned to it in the alphabetical order. For example, the words containing anusvara such as ~rt, @nij, ~q,~~T, ~ffiiT, ~. ~1(6RU1 ~~lT, ~, ~iT. ~ffi' etc., are all placed after 6 and before ~ 6~'Ii etc.
4. Each word entered, has got only one paragraph assigned to it, although the explanation of the word may cover sometimes a full page or more. 5. The meaning or meanings of a word are given immediately after it, and therefore no capital letter' is used at the beginning of the word with which each meaning begins.



6. The various senses of a word are given one after anot~er with serial . numbers placed before them. The several senses of a word are arranged as far as possible in their <;hronological order of origin.

7. The various senses are usually illustrated with quotations from standard authors with full references a,s far as possible,. From among the Priitisiikhya works, the JYcpriitisiikhya is generally quoted, while from among the numerous grammar works, the Mahiibh~ya and the Kiisikil are quoted profusely.
. 8. The first figure in references, which is generally the Roman one, refers to the main section such as the' adhyaya or the Ka.QQaor the Patala, while the next one refers to the subordinate sections, such as the stanza or the Sutra or the like. When there are three figures they refer to the adhyaya, the pada and the Sutra in the case of PaQini, and'to the MaQQala, the Sukta and the stanza in the ~ase of the ~ksamhitii 9. men a particular form is ilfustrate:l, the Hiustration begins with the abbreviation ' e.g. '; while usually, when the sense given, is illustrated, the explanation or the quotation, in Sanskrit begins with the abbreviation 'cf',


Padamafijari = Padamafijari, a comm- Sring-Prak. - 8pigarapraklia of entary on the Klisiklivrtti by Bhoja. . Haradatta. T. Pr.=Taittiriya PratiMikhya. paI,l. 8ik. =8ik~li of PaQini. Tait. SaIilh. = Taittiriya Samhita. Par. EMs. = Paribha~libhaskara of Tattvabodh. Tattvabodhini by Haribhiiskara Agnihotri. Jiilinendrasarasvati. Par. 8ek. = Paribba~endusekbara of TattvacintiimaI,li =TattvacintamalJ.i of Nagea. GaJigesopadbyiiya. Paramalaghumaiijii!iii = Paramalaghu- Tribha~yaratna = commentary on the mafijfi~1i of Niigea:bhatta. Taittiriya Pratisiikhya. Pari. Sang. .Paribha~asai:hgraha by U ddyota = Mababb1i~ya-Pradipoddyota K. V. Abhyankar. by NageSa. Phit.Siitra = Santanava's Phitsiitra. U:Q. Siitra=UJ;liidisiitrapaficapadi. Pradipa = Kaiyata's Mababba~yapra- Ui;l. Siitravr. = Ui;liidisiitravrtti by dipa. Ujjvaladatta. Puru~ottam=Puru~ottamadeva's PariUpamanyu = Nandikesvarakarikabba~iiv!'tti. bba~ya by U pamanyu. R. Pro =~gvedapratisakhya by Sau- Uvvata = Uvvata'sBha~ya on the naka (Sanskrit Sahityapati~ad Priitislikhya works. Edition, Calcutta.) V. Pr.. Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. R. T.=~ktantra Prati1ikhya. VaidiklibharaQa = commentary on the R. V., ~gveda, ~k. Sar:hb.=~gvedilTaittiriya Priitisakhya. saIilhita. VaiyakaraQabhii~aI}.a = KOQQabhatta's SabdakilUstubha = Sabdakaustubha of Vaiyakara1)abhfi~a1)asiira. BhaHoji Dik~ita. Yak. pad. = Vakyapadiya of Bhartr8iik.=8akatliyana's 8abdanusiisana. hari. 8lik. Pari. = 8likajliyana Paribbali- Viik. Pad. tika = Commentary on patba. Bhartrhari's Viikyapadiya. S. K. Sid. Kau.=S}ddhantakaumudi. V., Vart;= Varttikas on the Siitras of Siradeva = Siradeva's Paribba~aPaI).ini as given in the Mahiibhii~ya vrtti. j(Dr. Kielhorn's edition.) Siva Siitra=Miihesvarasiitras. I Vya<;li= VyiiQiparibhii~iisiicana. '

i 1. As the senses given in such dictionaries are more or less technlcai or

conventional, the literal or the usual sense of the words is given only when it is allied to the conventional sense. 12. Sanskrit words are generi:llly given in the Devanagari .script; when, however, the Roman script is used, the diacritical marks which are in current use at present, are employed. 10. Each of the different senses of a word or of the uses of a word in different ways, begins with a separate number ( 1 ), ( 2 ), (3 ), etc,;. when, however, . the same sense is given with different shades of it, by word~ which are practically synonymous, no separate numPers are given, the shades of sense being separated by a colon, or by a comma. .

LIST OF WORKS AND AUTHORS CONSULJED ( In .order of abbreviations used) A. Pr. = Atharvaveda Pcatisakbya. Atadbyayi = paI}.ini's A~tlidbyayi. Bb. Vr. = Bba~avrtti of Puru~ottamadeva. BMr. Sik~ = Bbaradviija 8il~~li. C. Vy., Can. Vy. = Candcei. VyakaraI}.a. Dhatuvrtti = Miidhaviya Dbliluvrtti. Durglicarya = Durgadi.rya's commentary on the Nirukta. DurgasiIilha = DurgasiIilba's KatantraSfitravrtti. Durgh. Vr = Durghatavrtti of SaralJ.adeva. Hem. = Hemacandra's Sabdanuasana. Hem. Pad = Hemacandra's Paribha~apatha as given by HemahamsagaI}.i. Jain., Jain. Vy. = Jainendra VyakaraI}.a by Piijyapada Devanandin. Jain. Pari. == Jainendra Paribh1i~avrtti by K. V. Abhyankar. Kaiy., Kaiyata = Kaiyata's Mahiibha1?yapradipa. Kaliipa = K1ilapa- VyakaralJ.a~iitra. Kas. k Kasika of J ayadityaand Vam.;. ana. Ras. viv. KasikavivaraI}.apafijikli, known by the name Nyasa. Kat. = Klitantra Vy.a.karaI,l~/Siitra. Kat. Pari. Durg. = Klitantra Paribh1i-' ~avrtti by Durgasirhha. Kliv. Prak. = Kiivyaprakasa of Mammata. Laghumafijii~a = Laghumafijii~a of _ , Niigesa. M. Bh. = Mahiibhii~ya of Patafijali on the Sfitras of PaI,lini (Dr. Kielhorn's edition ). Mahabbii~ya Vol. VII = Tbe Volume of the introduction in ~lariithi to the Piitaiijala Mablibha~ya, written by K. V. Abbyankar and published by the D. E. Society, Poona. Mababha~yadipikli = commentary on the MaMbhli~ya by Bhartrbari. Muktiivali = Nyiiyamuktavall of Vivana thapaficiinana. NandikeSvara = Nandikesvarakarikii. Nir. = Nirukta of.yaska. Nylisa=KliSikavivaraQapafijikii, a commentary on the Kasikiivrtti by Jinendrabuddhi. 1'.; Pan = P1iQini's A~tadhyayi.


. /'

A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar

abl. ablative case. above. a reference to, some preceding word, not necessarily on the same page. acc. accusative case. adj. adjective. adv. adverb. Ahn. Ahnika of the Patafijala Mahabha~ya.. aor. aorist. Atm. or Atmanep. Atmanepada. caus. causal. , d. confer, compare. com. commentary. compo compound. condo conditional. conj. conjugation. dat. dative case. desid. desiderative. dual. dual number. ed. edition. e.g. eXE'~p1i gratia, for example. etc. et cetera, an'd others.' f., fern. feminine. freq. frequentative. fut. future. gen. genitive case. gend. gender. gr. grammar. i.e,. id est, that is. imperf. imperfect. impera. imperative.



indo indeclinable. info infinitive. ins., inst. instrumental case. krt. krt (affix). lit. literally. loco locative case. mase., masculine gender. ms. manuscript. neut. neuter gender. nom. nominative case. Pan. paJ"lini. p.p.p; past passive participle. Parasmai. Parasmaipada. pari. paribha~a. part. participle. pass. passive voice. perf. perfect. pers. person. pI. plural. pres. present tense. pron. pronoun. sec. second. sing. singular. subj. subjunctive. suf. suffix. tad. taddhita affix. Vart. Varttika (on the Sutra of PaQini ). Ved. Vedic. vide see. V. I. varia lectio, another reading. vOC. vocative case.

case; (12) remnant (81) of the (I) the first letter of the alphabet negative particle ,<lS(, after the eliin Sanskrit and its derived bngua. sion o~ the consonant n (i1J by ges, representing the sound a (81); ij~qr <{Sf: P. vi, 3.73 (13) remnant ( 2) the vowel a ( 81) representing in grammatical treatises, except when of the U Qadi affixes 8TiI" ~ , 'ii, Cfiii. , e,q,G. prescribed as an affix 0[' an augment or a substitute, all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation td (...!-.) (I) nasal utterance calJed '~~ and written as a dot above or nasalisation or, lengthening; (3) I the vowel preceding it. cf. ~'i\l1!! personal ending a (81) of the perf. I ~ ~~ lifo ; it is pronounced after sec.pI. alld first and third pers. sing.; 'a vowcl as immersed in it. The ( 4) krt affix a (81) prescribed espe-:anusvara is considered ( I) as only dally after the denominative and a na5~lization of the preceding secondary roots in the sense of the vowel being in a way completely verbal activity e.g. ~!5f, f'CfiCl1, ~!5T, . amalgamated with it. cf. T. Pr.-V. "ii"iiT etc. cf. 81 S1~<im. etc. (P. III. II, 31; XV. I; XXII. I4; (2) as 3. 102 - 106) ; (5 ) sign of the aorist a nasal addi tion to the preceding mentioned as an (m:.) or can ('C!~,) vowel,' many times prescribed in by PaI).ini in P. III I.48 to 59-e.g. grammar as nul ( !l~) or num ( !1~) aPIl1G:., Ol'tftifi~; (6) conjugational which is changed, into anusvara in sign mentioned as sap (~'!.) or sa which case it is looked upon as a (~) by PiiI).ini in P. III.I.68, 77. sort of a vowel, while, it is looked fl.g. +Fffa-, etc. ; (7) augment am upon as a consonant when it is ( Ol~) as prescribed by P. VI. 1.58; changed into a cognate of the e.g. i\I!T,' i\~1Im-; (8) augment a# following consonant (q~l39uT ) or re( 6!~) prefixed to a root in the imtained as n (iI). ct. P. V III. 4.58; perf. and aorist tenses and in the ( 3) as a kind of consonant of the conditional mood e.g. 81<!iffi., 81~_, type of nasalized half g ('I.) as des81~"<iC!. ct. P. V1.4.7 I; (8) krt cribed in some treatises of the' affixa .(81) prescribed as 0l:S:,;;r-;; ~, '" -'" ..... Yajurveda Pratisakqya; cf. also R. 6fU.t, 6!"l., Ol~, 'ii, <9, ~, Of, e, G, OJ, etc. Pro 122 V. Pr: 14.148-9. The vowel in the third Adhyaya of PiiI).ini's element of the anusvara became A~tadhyayi; (9) tad. affix a (81) more prevalent later on in Pali, mentioned by PaQini as 81"!., 81 '1:,Prakrit, ,Apabhramsa and in the 6!u:( , 81 etc. in the fourth and the spoken modern languages while fifth cbapters of the Aljitadhyayi' of I the consonantal element became Pii.I).in'i; (10) the samasanta affix a more predominant in classical Sans( 81), as also stated in the form of krit. ~ q~ ffiCI~r~~ l(m the samasanta affixes (\S''<f 81'C...... , t<r ! '"" " ~'fI\: I -<rr~"fliqur; ~) ~~{: q'<l., '6f, all[ and aq) by PaQini in ' fc'rii>w.~'C!.i\9~ I S1<ll<m<lmii>T 1. 28. V. 4. 73 to 121; (II) substitute a (0liR) accented grave for~ before ~~ the same as ~fuB+rTtl or case-affixes beginning with tbe ins. 81'f<i<ffiifm or Sfci1!9qt:ilm~lf pres crib.



11l' -----2
ed by the rule ttCffcml:"fit'G~'li~fu~ J~~ P. 11.2.1 and the following P. II. 2.2 and 3; e.g. ttM:, aJ1RCIiT<i:,


ai~, also aTif:!Tf<l:'II1l, a class of words headed by ~ which have' their last vowel accented acute when they stand at the end of a tatpuru~a' compound with the word >rB as the first member, ct. P. VI. Z. 193.
~: (:) (I) vi?arga, called visarjaniya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots, One below the otl!. r, exactly of the same size, like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly expressed by Durgasirilha. ct. 01': ~fu f9~~rfiij: I
31'fil\ ~\f ;:j'iJlT(OlTil': I ~ffiY'f~l1l~RrcfOll f9~~;:ft<j$lt ~9fu (S;<irEri[ on <fi~ ).fq~fr is always a dependent letter inCluded among the Ayogavaha lettels and it is looked upon as a vm,vel when it forms a part 01 the preceding vowel; while it is lc.')ked upon as a consonant 'l,rhen it is changed into the Jibvamiidya or the Upadhmaniya letter. \ :;; ) a term uSed for nominative in a,ncient grammar-treatises.

Kat. 1. I t is a voiceles.s breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( tt.) or Ph ( qi). It is looked upon as a letter (Cfo1), but dependent upon the f<?llowing consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant.



name given to the 1~om. case in the Taittiriya Pra#siikhYa. cf. - 31:'liT\ ~fu ll:.r+rTfq+!'ffi~?;JOl<I:. T. Pro I. 23. representing the letters 01', ~, a, ~ and ~ in PaI}ini's Grammar ct. P. VI. 1.12, lor; VII. 4. 2. (2) sign ( f<t'lil:I1l) of the benedictive in Vedic Literature in the case of the root '!'Re.g. f!l'at "'i ~<i' P. III. 1. 86 V.2; ( 3) remnant' of the termination 01''li'''l:, P. V. 3. 7 1; (4) substitute ( 31TW) 31~~ for the last vowel of the word l'2l:'fTi'l (P. IV. I. 97) e.g.


~ (I) condensed expression (~~\)

and O1'N'li(Ol; stated with respect to the indirect' object, governed, by roots, possessing two objects such as!W:, <i~and others, which in the passive voice is put in the nominative case. The indirect object' is called ak~thita because in some cases there exists no other caserelation as, for example, in q]-\<f 'It <il~ or fu!'J~ or mOlCf9i q;:~ 9.'C'fu; while, in the other cases, the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they , exist. as for instance in 'IT ~F\:'f 11'''1:, arr<!Cf~fi;: crt ,,~~; see O1''lifirlf "'i P. I. 4.51 and the Mahabha.!?ya thereon. cpo also 31q]'<Wllfit f9;ITl;f9il!fI~NCf:' HeUi. on Vak. Pad. III. 7.70.
, .

'IN;~''I~~f9('I'+Ro'r ~~I~~TRl!ffa;;jFi{Uj<I:. I

~<i<lS!ilsT<1R<t'tj;f 'e'fTgl'fUi' crw.mifiliT3: II

atq:;4~<ifit ~ an object governed by

an intransitive root by virtue,of the activity of a transitive root whicp is supposed, as for instance, in tilBIi1~ where the word ;;1.j1tq which governs <irij- as an object, is suppressed; cpo Yak. Pad. III. 7.67.
<fii4>rni4>f fSn<:rT the acti vi ty of a transi- tive root like that of an intransitive root by virtue of the suppression ,of its object as, for instance,in <'{eft' Cflffu I and the like. cpo Vak. Pad.

III. 7.88. '

I6ICfiI'iildJ17'lq name


~qQ not shaken; tremulous; said with respec't to vowels in Vedic utterance, kampa being looked upon as a fault of utterance. ct.
O1''liMCfT<! I 'lil'qi{ Y'fTti <:9'\Tf~oUl;f: ~ , ~OlR<iFlf +!9'm I CflItR"e,'1 ~ '!~: I R.

of the commentary by Harinatha on the Paribba~er.dusekhara (qlt~~@'{) of Nagesabhatta. "

~ (01'9il+ffifu) an invariable (f<r~)


~ (I) affix 8F-ii substituted for the

at X ~ (

fu~rli;#r"I, represented, by a sign like the Cl'ii in writing, as stated by Durgasimha wbo remarks Cf'fi[~<fu1f ~ij[~<i$lt +rcrfu. The Jlhva miiliya IS only a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the gutteral letter 'Ii, or~. Itis looked upon as a letter (Cfo1), but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. e.g. f4e~ ;:: 'liUfu.


affix ~ given in PaI)ini:s Grammar as-u~~ as in an~, qrrM-'liT (P. III. 3 I II); u~~ as iii ~:, +!r~r ij:;jfu fcrq~'liT ( P. HI. I. 133: III. 3. 10, 108); ~~ as in <1!fCli: (P. V. 3.8)); ~~ as in f.l~:, l:T:;j'li~, <i169'li: (P. 11 r. 2, 146; IV. 2. 39, 53. etc, ); ~'l. as in 119'li:, ~~: ; i!!i1i9i:, 'R'h:. III. I. 149; IV. 2.61 etc. letter of the word ~l:'fTQ.: prescribed along with the tad. affix lPf. by P. IV.!. 97. e.g. ~rl:'fT\'If.ii;


Pro Ill. 3I.


a case-relation excepting that of the subject to the verbal activity. cf. 01'~1t "'i 'liH~ n<i~ P. III. 3.19.

euphonic change ( ~fl:'f) such as the dropping of the consonant r (\) when followed by r. ct. R. Pro IV. 9" ~~<lt 'C<i~ l{rNarQl:'fT I;~T 'liT1ir.t<iffi \3'mfq~T' e.g. ~cir ~tfu, tlwffi O1'~T {l!f: R. V. 1. 180.I. ,

~ intransitive, without any object, (said with regard to roots which canno.t possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). The reasons for supples, sian are briefly given in the weHknown stanza; l:'flci'k'Tf'Cf~ ~"kll:'fff<:r~.
~~G:.I llRl%:d2j9~rCf: 'liB'Oi'ts 'liffr'lir&n<ir II Yak. Pad. III. 7.88. In the

~ substitute (Ol'f&:qr) for the last

lil1 X ~ (x) Upadbmaniya represented'

by a sign like the temple of an elephant as stated by Durgasimha who remarks .. ~~~Rr<fo1 aQ\:1iETI<reW

affix prescribed before the last syllable of pronouns and indeclinabIes without any specific sense for it ( P. V. 37 r) e:g. ~cfc!i:, ;:r;;~: etc.

~~ not' mentioned by any other

case-relation such as 01'qnu;:r, ij-sroif

case of intransitive roots, the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same ,individual viz. the agent or 'liQT cf. Cfiiil'~~ 'lif<mmiTTti'lip.'li: Vak. Pad. III. 7.67. An !indent verse describing the senses in which a root is intransitive is as follows :

the letter a (01') inclusive of all its eighteen kinds camed by shortness, length, protraction, acceutuation and nasalization in's grammar, in cases where a (Sf) is not actually prescriLcd as a ter. mination or an' augment or a substitute, cf. O1'~~BCful~ ~lll~<i: p; I. 'I.73. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet t Cfo1~1l1ojr<i) in all PratiS1ikhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Var:r;l.Opadesa, as meutioned in the E,k Tantra cf. ~ 31T it 31[ ~ C>?: ~ Si "1\ <ri: l{ \3' an: I \<i~f: I


~OlY'fm: I ,., . 31: ::: 'li ::: qr: I ~ ~ ~

tJ ~ at art Q;Cf~~ etc. R. T. I. 4


not causing any verbal activity; different from the karakas or in-


struments of action such as the _agent, the object, the instrument, the recipient (~sroi'f), the separated (i3ilff<Uij) and the location, (i3i~IlJ) ct. M. Bh. on 1. 4.23, 29 and 51 and on II. 3.1. expression is used in connection with gramma tical operations like mCf.~ or <t\~~ only in cases :where it is necessary i.e.. where a!ready there is no hrasvaor dirgha ct. ar~'iiTft ~'ffq ~l'lmcgl.1 w:r1:lT I arf4<{&:nt oi\iifu I M. Bh. on VI. 1.127. ,The rules of Grammar, !ike fire, are applied to places where they produce a change.

improperly which does not, serve 'any useful purpose. cf. ~T arq~;oJijT ~~: Uvata on -R. Pr. XIV: 6t<.
~ not possessing the mute htter k (~) g ('!.) or (~) and hence

earlier writers.

For the etymology

. of the term see Mahabha~ya i3i&:lt i'f &:It fCf~I~, ar~t ~us&:l\"l: I <lui qT!i: ~fI..~ fcli+r:q!IqFcl:~'lij-1 M. Bh. Ahnika


~ riot a grammatical positive operation: e.g. elision (~rq.) ct-. em '9 Wq lJ;~ ~ I <3fc!if<i Wq: I l\LBh: on I. 3.2.


(I) not limited by any timefactors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. ( 2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatani, parok$a occurring ,in the ancient Pratisiikhya and grammar work's. The term a/talaka is used by the writers of the Kasikavrtti in connection with the grammar of PaQini. ct. "qTfUI;:~q~lFfi~ c<rr<gllJ~" Kas. on P.. II. 4.2 I explained by the writer of the Padamafijali as '{CfffUr c'l1<g1lJTfir ~Cf<rrta:
~qft+!Tl:fl~'ffiTf.r ffi\~~ I

short expression for the grammatical maxim ~~: tfrfUrrfr:Ir: which means If the followers of PaQini do not insist on the taking eff~ct of a IUle wh~n its cause or causes disappear." See Par. Sek"Par. 56.

not preventing the.guQa and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, if they occur. e.g. ~{~ ~~ ~qtll mi~: tl1!i1~fct I M. Bh. on P. LI.I. Vart. IQ.

an ancient work of the Pratisakhya type, attributed to A.pisali a.nd discussing the chanting of Sama-gana.

definite, known or specified definitely. d. 3T'I",qftmurr.:rm~f.rr i:jf'i'.I'IiT llqfrff <J p;~ ~'lT~CiiU: qftl'lr1l]~CGJ~ M. Bh.1. 1.72.

e:r~l(q~ffffl name given to the dvipada viraj verses divided into padas of five syllables . .ct. ~~i ~: i:liRr~ tlOff i3i~~ij6qiU: I ~ tmf&:lUrtfTlUffiT~~IS1lR~: R. Pro XVII. 50.
af!.tfHf+!BiI'<!1 alphabet; traditional enu-

~ word or expression without the necessary euphopic changes d.

9~~t '9 Q:<fi'l'I~ ~ '9 ar~~


V. 3.84 vart. I. OIWd:$md" words ending with a breath~ ing or visarga which are nqt looked upon as placed immediately before the next word and hence which have no combination with the following vowel e.g. ~ ~r arlf"Ji: R. V. IX. 3.1.

, ~~ ,not a result Of a verbal activity; the expression is Useu in connection with qualities (on a substance) as opposed to the activities found in it. ct. i3il~<JlIHf.!i<jl;oJ~ ~s tl;:iqiifa~: M. Bh. on IV. I.44.
5Ta;t~'d1~10l a class of words headed by ar&:l"1~ which take the tad. affix {hak (i{91) in the sense of ' resulting from' e.g. arr&:l~fu1n ~{O{, ;oJ~qflfa~, ''lrmcr~ etc. d. P. I V+1g.


different from the KaJapa or the revised Kiitantra Grammar d. Ii1fiJJ~~'liTCinq<t o'l1~ Kas., on P. H.4.21.

Oliiifm:r non-technical; not formed or

not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the applicatioI;l of affixes to cr I,lde bases and so on ; natural; assignf'd only by accident. ct. the gram. maxim .riiF-l+t<lr: ii&if 'iil~~q(.ti<J: whIch meanS H in cases of doubt whetheral~ operation rders to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par, Sf'k. Par. 9 also M. ,Bh. on 1. 1.23. and Viik. Pad. II. 366.

1Il&:R a letter of the alphabet, such as., a ( 3T ) or i ( i{) or h ( ~) or y (<i..) or

the like. The, word was originally applied in the Pratisakhya works to vONels (long! short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavaha letters which were tied down to, them as their appendages. Hence a:r~<: came later on -to mean a syllable i.e. a vowel with a consonant or consonan ts preceding or following it, or without, any con- I sonant at all. ct. ~ ijt<jJ: ~+rlrm: I ~CfuulTl'l~ <UEll alllr i3ia;rofUr ~. Pro 1. 17I9 ct. Q;'iiI1jJ\f, El1lJ\{ etc. The term ak!?ara was also applied to any Jetter (quT), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf. the terms Q;<li{&)'\, WI:<f&:l<:, ~+rTijJa.R used by Pataiijali as also by the

~' not marked by the mute letter k (~) and hence not disallowing gUJ;Ja or vrddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, cf. ~(aj'i,<j)!R<ll'lfilifu P. VI. I.S8; <U~TsfollCf: P. VII. 4.83.

lit. non-krt; an affix applied to a root, but different from the ~Q. affixes. ct. ~tlT~1:lfijiji,i'ti{jei: P. VII. 4. 2 5. '
not established; said of a gram- ' matical operaticn which has not taken place e.g. ~'iiT~~ M. Bh. on V. 2.100; V. 3.84. aiso ~srtlijr M. Bh. on VI. 4 62.



'~<!n'R: doing or accomplishing what is not done or accomplished; the

an epithet applied to the pronunciation of Veda words

meration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (3T). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still,qualitatively they are much the same. The SivasiHras, on which PaQini's , grammar" is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty-five class-consonants and 4 sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothoBgs ( tlIUi'fl1jJ\) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (tFIl'l'&:I<:). The four- semi-vowelsy, v, r, t, ( <{ "{, \. ~) called antastbiivarQa, the twenty-five class-consonants or mutes called sparsa, and the four ii$m~lD ietters S, ~, sand h ( iR ~ ~ ~) are the same in all the Pratisakhya and grammar works although -in the Pratisakhya works the semivowels are mentioned after the class consonants. The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the im:lusioQ

of the Ayogavaha leiten, and their number. The Ayog a v1i.ha letters are anusvara, Visarjaniya, jibvamfiJiya, up3.dhmaniya, nasikya, four yamas and, svarabhakti The.l}k Pratisakhya does not mention I (t:a), but adding long a (an) i ( t) fi (6))

- Ahnika 2-end.
~: 9;~!J' ~Ri <!+l'<n'<ffl1 ar!'J\(1liT+CfT<! Q;Cj I ot~o~<lT9:iro \tl: I ST9lTU ~ tlcrT 'if95,! B1'ff ~~if6I1f~o~\T<I+n<rf oft <rf<l~r l1qm ar!'J{tI+l'I+<rr<i: '<f ;;<!t'q~


cf. ~~fu: Kat. II. 1.8; aj'{rOOS'!iR: Kat. II. 1.50.

Sekh. Par. 72; M. Bb. VII. I.I V1i.rt. I3.

I 11..2.3.




~ffar-=i\ID\'fi9Q. 5Tfm:rtUsm itFctffo<IT ~ I tiffi9;U<ftIi<!!l'lrfa~~ ~ <term- I ~mfqoU '<iR<l ~qil ~ ~~~ I M. Bh.

ar~'{~ name of an ancient work and (:Jt) to the short vowels, on grammar attributed to Gargya; mentions 12 vowels, and m'ection- I cpo raO:{1~ iflrl'r ~: lIT+nM'Ii arT'<if~: I ing 3 Ayogavahas (';; ~, ;:: l{ and at) ar~ ar~{~:i <rf+l' o<!I'Ii\uT s:rm~~ I -quotalays down 48 letters. The. ~k I tion attributed to HaHi.yudha in Tantra Pratisakhya adds the vowel i Vrddhatrayi. I (~) (short as also long) and I mentions I..j. vowels, 4 semi-vowels, ar~ forming a part or a l'yilable just as the anusvara (nasal utter25 mutes, 4 sibilants, and by addance) or svarabhakti ( vowel-part) ing 10 aycgavahas viz. 4 yamas, I nasikya, visarjaniya jihvaIlJii.!iya, I . which forms a part of the preceding syllable. ct. ar~qru O<f~<f '<if!'JUSR: upadhmiiniya and two kinds of R. Pro 1.22, also ~llfui: 'lctl1fll!'JUWIl:. anusvara, and thus brings the total R. Pro 1.32. number to 57. The Rk Tantra makes a separate enumeration' by e:r~~.rr~ unitary import; the putting diphthongs first, long, meaning of a sentence collectively vowels afterwards and short vowels I understood. still afterwards, and puts semivowels first before mutes, for pur- ~ (r) absence of any other recourse or alternative. cf. 8l1T~r ~ poses of framing brief terms or & q(t+!T1'fT<l>ll<rif. Puru~ottamadeva pratyahiiras. This enumeration is Pari. vrtti Pari. II9; (2) which is called van;lOpadesa in contrast witb not a word termed gati. d. 'i:i<lf4frtq the other one whicb is called var!}.-I <It;i{rfc(of-iIffi~~cr6'f'fa-: P. VIII. 1.57. oddesa.. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya adds protracted vowels and lays~l' ' c' ' \, non-communicativeness, in"'' ' ' ' ' ' <\' down 60 letters; The Sik~1i. of ability to communicate adequately Pal).ioi lays down 63 or 64 letters, the.intended meaning. d. lRt;Ul'fUlTCfT while the Vajasaneyi-Pratis1i.khya <af%ffi~ 9:itlmi ll'ifff I ar~TQ. IVI. Bh. gives 65 letters. d. V. Pr. VIII. on II. 1.1; d. also 8l1Tli9:i: f<r'it~: I-25. The alphabet of the modern arr.r~ra: I Indian Languages is bassed on the VarlJasamamnaya given in the a1'nur non-secondary, principal; cf. ~'f~@:rnl%i~ 'qrc<mor ~<1(iq+j'a-cf'<fi! ~\O Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. T?-e PraM. Bh. on 1. 4.5 r. tiSakhyas call this enumeration by the name VarI).3.-samamnaya. The I or~ uncomprehended, unincluded Rk. tantra uses the terms Ak~arasa-I ct. iTFJ:~hm-;ulifUJT ~fffir~6<1ffq~;nmfff I mamnaya and Brahmarasi which ct. also ~ ~~S! a~alqUJf<1m'<ff ate picked up later on by Pataiijali. !j~ Padamafijari on KiiS VIII. cf. mS<!ll!'J\l+rI~r<lt Cf1'ffilTl~I<!: 9;f6ra: 357

a:r~~lIl1l a class of words headed by the word aj'mq" to which the tad. affix arm is added in the senses of' given there' or 'done there' e.g .. arfmq~cf. 3T'l.!.q<gor 8lfutR1~<! aqB~<!T<1<J:.P. V. 1.97 Vatt. I. .
~R~ an ancient writer of Vedic grammar mentioned jn the Taittiriya PratiSiikhya. d. 9:i'i'ifr'i\~ ( f<t~{lT: ) ar~:rr~<IT: (+l'~q ~M <1 arlqj~) T,' Pr. IX. 4.

~)q elision of" the vowel a, i, U, r or ! ( ar, ~, 'Er, ~ or t:a) which prevents Sanvadbhiiva ct. lrn~p., 'Cf~'ih<1~ P. VII. 4'93, as also <n.~fil'~R'lfc(m~ VIr. 4.2 where the elision prevents the shortening of the penultimate vowel if it is long.

li!fnI4if4I~if an ancient writer of Vedic grammar; mentioned in the Taittiriya Pr1Hisakhya. d .. qrfu~<!q<;<l
( 11ij- a~T'1j'i\: <;q(taW ciT ~T'ij: ~(tcf <1T'i'<lij- ~fu q )

Tait. Pro XIV. 32.

w.n~Trul"""ll~ . analogy


conveyed by the expr,ession 'liffifilT implying permission to the agent to do certain other things in a sacrificial session when, as a matter of fact, he is only permitted to work as an agent at the sacrificial action ( arm9:i<:Ul), by virtue of the reply ~<i' to his request made in the sente!lce anTI '!i\qlfUT. ct. ann'li\CfrfUTr<:{B1<i llfcj6ijl0 M. Bh. on. II. 2.2 t.

unvoiced,' merely breathed; a term applied to the surd consonants, s, ~ s, and visargawhich are uttered - by mere breathing and which do not produce any sonant effect. d. T. Pro 1. 12; R. Pro T. II. The term jit (~) is used for these letters as also for the first two consonants of a cIassin the Vajasaneyi-Pditisakhya cf. ID ID lImn Rim; , . ~611'fU1~ ii<Ft"f. V.. Pr. I. 50.5 r. The vikara.r;ta before Jun affixes, substituted for the' affix cvi (Fq) in the case of the roots mentioned ' by Pa.r;tini in Sii.tras Ill. 1.52-59; ( 2 ) the VikaraI).apratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by P1i.l)ini in Siltra III. I.86; (3) krt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter '\ and the roots ~, ~ and others P. III. 3 104I06. e.g. m:r, SI'if, ~r, ma:r etc.


the original SaIilhita text as opposed to pratglI)a (lfqUllj) or padapatha, (~Cf/o) which is the recital of separate words. not forming part of the regular text; cpo arfcjd~9:iiql~rn I %f'9G:l~ ~~r~s<!mfu I Kaiyata on M. Bh. on Pa. IV. 4.89. a modern scholar of Sanskrit grammar, the autbor of" India as known to PaI)ini ".



~ t Vasudeva-SaraI)a AFaValf1.),


~~ not marked with the mute letter 1i (~ ) signifying the absence of the prohibition of the gU!Ja ~i the vrddhi substitute. cf. arfir-ffi ~lljllfuitl:T: (Cf'ffiO<I: ) M. Bh. III. 3.83 Vait. 2. In the case of the ( arr") unmarked with n (:), it signifies a sentence or remembrance of something cf. Cf1Of<1~I1\llj<ild~;~ e.g. <liT ~ ~ <F<!~, <liT o:ci f~ ffiI. cf. M. Bh. on I. 1.14. .
SiW .( I) tbe crude base of a noun or a ver"? to which affixes are added:



a term in the K1i.taritra grammar for a word ending in i ( 11: ) or u ( a )

~ non-inclusion, non-comprebension. cf. fct~ ~fcj~~~ Par.

a technical term in pal}.ini's grammar fot the crude base after which an affix is prescribed e.g. \:f'm in 3lrQrr'f, or 'ii in 'iitt~<im et~. cf. ~ ~Clf.r~~f?: 5j~~S~ P. 14I3; ( 2) subordinate part constituent part ct. lfUWfi{ in ~<!Flf.si5' lRTWCf~~ P. II. I. 2, also f.rllClif*@r.:if IfRtlT1flijJf Par. Sek. Par. -93.10; ( 3} auxiliary for an operation, e.'g. a:mi~, iif~U'/ etc. d. ~lf~ ~~~~ filfir'ijlt'f ~ Par. Sek. Par. 50; (4) element of a word or of an' expression ct. ~IjCfI~ "'lTSj'q{: R. T. 19 0 , ~ :q ,!!~OCjRt R. T. 127. ;;CI~ ~mFl: T. Pr.2r.r.

~ih:fit:' .~. a:rF:!fitt~: amT~:; Padamafija~i on P .. II. 2.12. ~'S'iitf0if retaining its gender although used as an adjective.

~'S'iirt.rlut Class ~f words headed by ~

to which the fern. affix a:rt is added, sometimes inspite of the - affix t being applicable by other rules such as ~Wl1f.r~<irn. P. IV, 1.63 and other rules in the section. e g.

c!. P. IV. 1.4.

~, ~'iiT; ~~,. \:IfWr~, ~t!T, 1i:,!T.

li$lfcita?i", author of the Cintiima'!Zi. . prakiisikii a gloss on Cintiima'!Zi, the well known commentary by Yak!?avarman on the Sabdanfisiisana of Siikatayana. A}itasena was the grand pupil of Abhayadeva;' he . \ lived in the l"2th century A.D.
sr~ure:itUt class of words headed by the word ~ whicb do not allow lengthening of the final vowel by P. VI. 3. II9. although they form technical terms e.g.~, 9fr.c1qd{ etc. ct. Kas on P. VI. 3. II9
sr:tim'ffi See under ~Cf~lli%i .

'1'W<ft'r. considered 'as auxiliary or part

of another e.g. '{"l~m:, q-ijfCfiUCf: ; ct. ~~ lRTif9~~ P. JI. 1.2 and the' Vartika thereon "'l~fit ~

~TW9'\ tlCfmm ~0Cjll:.'



an operation prescribed in the section named ailgadhikarll, comprising the fourth quarter of the sixth book and the whole of the seventh book of PiiI).ini.

sense of an agent, to a root with an 1 (~.) specially mentioned as not antecedent word ( \3lJ1P.{) standing interfering with the substitution of as its object. e.g. ,~wm::, see P. '!Z (ll.!.) for n (i!.) e.g. frlf\uri, a:rrQ11l, III.2.1; ~:, see P. III.3.12. etc. See. P. VIII. 4. 'Z; (2) augment a (~ ) with an acute accent, ~ a term applied to all taddhita which is ,prefixed to verbal forms in snffixes collectively as they begin the imperfect and the aorist tenses with a:raz cf. P. IV. 1.83. and the conditional mood. e.g. a:r+rre:.,~, m1~ See P. IV. 4.7 1; ~ the minimum standard of the' ( 3) augment a (a:r() prescribed in quantity of sound, which is not perthe case of the roots ~ , ~~ etc. beceived by the senses, being equal to fore a Sarvadhiituka affix beginning one-fourth of a .Matra; cf. a:ru1Rg with any consonant except y ( ~ ), ffismlU{ ~ morr g :qgucrr'l1t:l.1I see e.g. a:r~, ~, ~~, ~ etc.; T. Pro 21.3; V. Pr. 1.60; A. Pr. III. see P. VII. 3, 99, 100; (4) aug- 65. :B.k. tantra, however, defines ment a (~) prefixed sometimes ~ as half-a,.matra. ct. ~ (RT. in Vedic Literature to affixes of 1.4 1 ). the Vedic subjunctive(~) e.g. me(, i!f'~ etc. see P. III. 4.94. &t!!!~...tI:a the rule prescribing cognateness (tHCfIRt) of hitters. The 6Ii)'Cl' tad. affix a:ro prescribed after the .... term refers to' PiiI).ini's siltra word 'li<lCJ:, by the nile <ii<lfii'l ~SO~ ~f~HI9ol~ "iTIR'!l<i: P. I. 1.69. The cf. 'ii<lfur ~ <fill?;: ~: Kas.on P. terms i/~~~m and liI'i_ are used in the same sense. V.2.35

~n a large section of paI).ini's

covering five quarters (VI. 4.1 to the end of VII) in which the various operations undergone by crude bases before various affixes etc. are prescribed.
~Wi4IRt'IQi class of words headed by

61111 tad. affix a

(a:r) with the mute

.... tad. affix *i applied in the sense of pitiable or poo~ to a word. preceded by the word \:I1f when the whole word after sq is dropped. e.g. <!qG( \:I~ *i) see. P. V. 3 80


author of '1c;~~IifUl; who was a Tamil BrahmaQa by caste. (I) tech. term in PiiI).ini's grammar for shGrt a:r, cf. nlf{~E~ P. 1. 1.70; a:r~'~: P. 1. i.2; (2)' personal ending at for l( ( i;~) of tbe 1st pers. sing. Atm. in the Potential, P. III. 4.706 ; (3) case-affix in th-e case Ofij6~ and ~ for abl. sing. and pI. P. VII. 1.3,32; (4) tadaffix illtJ:. ( a:r) prescribed after ~ in the sense of the loco case before which fit;r. is changed to ~, 15 being the tad. formation; cf. P. V. 3.12 and VII. 2.105; (5) substitute am. ( ~q) for <iS~. forming the present and future participles in the Para- / smaipada active voice d. ~: ~ m:;fro P. III. 2.124 and!iij' P. III. 3.14.


to which the tad~ affix O<li.. ( ~) is added in the sense of comparison (i[cfr~ ) ; e.g. ~~'f ~!l~: cL Kas. on P.V. 3. 108. the short term or pratyahara in paI).ini's Grammar representing a vowel, e.g. ~ (ending with a vowel), a:r~N (vowel coalescence or combination).

letter i'i (sr,), prescribed (i) after the words \:IEli! and others in various senses like progeny, dyed in; produced in, cOme from etc. P. IV 1.86, \ ii) after the words fori{ and others iIi the sense of grandson and other descendents. P. IV. I. 104 For other CdseS see P. IV. 1 . 141, ,161; IV. 2.12, I4 etc. IV. 3.7 etc. IV. 4.49, The feminine is formed by adding i (~) to words ending with this affix. ~ which have the vrddhi vowel substituted for their i~itial vowel which gets the acute "'>.~~;z accent also" e.g. a:rRli!:, "m~\l, ,a:rr~IfIii:,




~~ impossible to amend, not to be discussed. cf. ttcf iii '~ ij:'

~ (I) token term standing 'for vowels and semi-v.owels, excepting

(I) token term (S{~) for. all vowels and semi vowels which, when prescribed for an operation, include all such of their sub-divisions as are caused by length, protraction, . accent or riasalization. cf. ~ <iIh~ "it>RCI<i: P. L 1.69; (2) token term for the vowels a:r, ( and ;g. in, I all Panini's rules except in the rule I 1. given above e.g. see. ~~ ~ ctt~: P. VI. 3. III; iitscrr: P. VII. 4.13. and a:rui'ts~. P. VIII. 4. 57; ( 3 ) tad. affix a ( a:r) prescribed generally in the variot;ls. senses such as' the offspring, , 'dyed in, , belonging to' etc. except incases where other specific affixes are pre- ~ non-Atmanepadin verbal affixes n: .. mi.. P. III. 4.78, Can. I. 4.II, scribed ct. -sn~SllJ. P. IV . I.83; Sak; I. 4.IOI. . ( 4.) kr. affix a .( a:r ), applied, in the



QttfilC?: not taking that much time

on P. VI. r.8SViirt. 26. See ~

only which is shown by the letter (vowel) uttered, but twice or thrice. as required by its long or protracted utterance; the expression is usedin connection with vowels in HiQini's alphabet, which, when used in PliQini's rules, except when ptescribf'd or followed by the letter ~, includes their long, protracted and nasalized utterances; cf. ~8. ::qr~: I. 1.69.
Sjijq:ojiij.\:T<Ii not having the same mute

~ below." ~ personal affix of the third pers.

pl. Atm. in the Imperative ( ~.J; cf. P. III. 4.90. ~,passing over a word in th~ i6lmO without'repeating it; passing beyond, cf. ~ ~: R. Pr., X.7, which means catching a word for repetition by coming back after passing over it, e.g. ~~ 3fqre: 1 ~ !lRr ~iU~ I .or lila- ~ I ~ '~'i;r I

significatory letter. but having one or two additional ones, cf. ~ ~ ~~i'<l~ m:uI"I: (Par. Sek. Pari. 84).
~ij' an affix which is not a taddbita

a:&i I

srm::ii4IQ", one of the varieties of-in ~m~ P. 1.3.8; M. Bh. on I. 3.4; V. 3.l e c. I


f;:-ct, the first variety of--the Aticchandas metre, which see above; this'Atijagati. consists of 52 syllables. e.g. om-iii: ;;U~ &lq'lIC1~q~ ~k. Saroh. 8.97.13 ct. sr~mfrr~mt eT ~qm~U R. Pr. XVI. ~o.'

implying no specific., pur.pose; not intended to teach anything, 1li~'if~ ; e.g. ~~{tl1t{w~ Kas. and Si. Kau. on ~lfur ~Ill:j~~ P. 1.2.32; cf. also3f~ (the use of ~ does not necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in PiiJ;,lini's rules) M. Bh. on P. 1. 2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribh1i.~a by Vya<;li and8akatayana. The author of the Mahabha~ya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vya<;li and the earlier grammarians. See also M. Bh. on ~+I.. P. II.

wftt~~ ex:tended appliciltion; transfer'

or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or 'attributes of one thing to another. AtideSa fn Sanskrit grammar is a very common ieature prescribed by PaQini generally by affixing the tad. affix ~ or 'i<l. to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another, e.g. ~ ~ P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atidesa is npticed even without the affix +Rf. or 'itt.. e.g. ~~..n~UJil:. P.1.-2.I. Atidesa is generallY.seen in all grammatical terms which end with' vadbhiiva ' e.g. ~~f.fcmt'i ( P. I. 1:56-59), W'~ (P. VII. 4.93), ar~l<i (P. VI. 1.85), dj~da"AI" (P. V. 4.50) and others. Trilocanadiisa on Durga's commentary on Kat. Sii. II. 2.60 gives five kinds;





SI'~ ( ~) tad. aff. :3ffil3, applied to the words ~UJJ ~{J tR a,nd aJiif\; e.g. o::&!uffit 'ima-; ~{ff arrlffi:, troi't ~,
~ufT'!~, 0l'i{Q lIHIffi: Ol'iwrr~am

cr. P. V. 2.28,29.


:q firfij~~~~1

atdl~ ..ql~ conveyance of only the properties of one to another without, conve} ing the actual form, described as the 'significance of antadivadbhava. cf. if eft ~~ M. ;Bh.

Out of these atidesas, the ~~ is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there is a full representation i.e. substitution of the, original form called sthiinin in the place of the secondary form

called adesa. This full representalooked upon as a serious fault j e.g. tion is called ~~ as different anmratft illIll~ P. VI. 1.66 Vart. 3. from the usual one which is called ~ too much, 'rather' unnece5sary; <fil<Ii~~, ct. M. Bh. on I. 2.1; VII. e.g. ~ 'iiflt<i~ ~ f.n<I~, M. Bh. on 1.96; VIII. 1.90 VaIt. I and VIII. 1. 1.38, ~! ~ M. Bh. on I. 1.95. Vart. 3. Regarding the use of 4. 63; VI. 1.145; ifTRrqg SI~~ ~:1. ~ there is laid down a gener~ Bh. on VIII. l.4. dictum erijf"~~ ~~TC1~~:~ when an ,operation depending on iifttihfi surplus, redundant; ct. Nir. I V. 20; see Kaiyata on M. Bh. on the general properties of a thing P. V. 1.13I. could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on ~~ quite distinct; used with resspecial properties should not be pect, to pronunciation iflfuo<.!:ffi if taken by virtue of the same; e.g. :qftRlifdi'l~ <ilJf~ I cf. T. Pro X VII. ~cm. in P. III. 3.132 means as in 8. the case of the 'general past tense and not in the case of any special iiftt ..q'Ed quite apart, used with respect to lips which are widely apart past tense like the imperfect (3fif~i'fi{) ( fcifm) in the utterance of long ~r or the perfect (tRt~). See Par. Sek. and cf. T. Pro II. 12, 13. Pari. 10!; M. Bh. on P. III. 3.132. There is also a general dictum arrfct- '~fa the same as amrsre;r, which itl'~~-whatever is transferred see above. Extensive application by an extended application, need 'with respect to a rule which applies not be necessarily taken. See Par. to places where it should not apply. Sek. 93.6 as als~ M. Bh. on P. I. See Par. Sekh on Pari. 28, Pari. 8j; 1. 123 . Viirt. 4; 1. 2.1 Vart. 3; II. also Padamafij. on {{lis. II. I.32. 3.69 Vart. 2 etc., Kaiyata on II. 1.2 and VI. 4.22 and Nyasa on P. 1.1.56 Sl'fd'l!iep{1 a variety of Aticchandas metre consisting of 60 syllables. and P. 1. 2.58 Vart. 3. The dictum e.g. ij!!1fI clTffJ:rfitfor: ~k. Samh. I. 137. arr~~~~ is given as a PariI. cf. R. Pr. XVI. 82. bha~a by Nagesa ci. Par. Sek. 93.6. .m~RI one of the varieties of Atic- ~ excess or excellence as shown by the affixes o~ and 0'1 cf. troIll~handas consisting of 76 syllables. ciTlIlrfu~ V. Pro V. 2; ~lWim~<!Rf e.g. ~ ~ lW'lr if, m~ ~15'ifiTr: ~k. a~@:.Ri~I~ OG~ M. Bh. On VI. Saroh. I. 127.6. 2.139; VII1.I.7I; (2) desire as ~~ a variety of the Gayatri shown by the affix ~~ in PaJ;,lini's metre consisting of 20 syllables, cf. grammar; cf. <{Ill OJRi"~ R. T. 126. R. Pr. XVI. 22. ' iIt~ excellence, surpassing; the ~ absence of any possibility; See same as 3f~<{ in V. Pro V.2 cf. ffl:nfutffu. cf. P. III. 3.139 Can. 3ffuiUl~ dlIfom~r P. V. 3.55, also cf. I3 I07 . ~~~8T!;! f.l~<Uit~r<I~ I <:t~sffir fit'i~JC!f +!'iRr +rgerwf: M. B h. 0 n V. ~ intense effort; characteristic 2.94, where Olffi:alC{if means 3lRriU<{. effort as required for uttering a Patafijali, commenting on P. V. 3.55 vowel with f<!ijillffi{ff. clearly r~marks that for 3fm, or Q~ over-application of a definifor djfo~if, the old grammarians, tion (OJr.resN fcj~ SI'!1%: I) which is out of fancy only, used the term


as it was a current term in popular usage; cf. ~: ~f.I';Pl:ff: ~ <if<i'i'.. $J<l~ SI'li~ arfcro<j ~fu Gfci~ffi'~ '" . ~ ~Rr M. ah. on P. V. 3.55. SlM'ECI'l!l excess of contact, which to a certain extent spoils the pronunciation and leads to a fault. ~ is the same as 5::~q~, the letter co being called g;:~g on account of excess of contact. This excess of contact ( ~) in the case of the utterance of the letter \. results into a fault as it practically borders on stammering; ct. a:;~1;;ffim 'i:i R. Pr. XIV. 26.

~ personal ending of pres. 3rd per.


pl. substituted foqr(Qji'fj ), the a:r of W ( Qjrq) being changed into II; ana ii. being omitted; see~: (P. VJI. I.3) ~~Q ( 1 ..4) and f2"oa:rt~ tf<{lilt~ (P. III. 4.79). &Ifll::aa(ia complete contact of the verbai activity (fili<!T); cf. P. V. 4.4. ~<.4 ..d:4til' constant contact ; co~plete contact, uninterrupted contact. cf. ~<U1t 'q P. II. r.29; II. 3.5.~ ~<.4 ..a(q~q complete or abJSolute denial or concealment offacts;cf. ~~I ~t!it 'q I PIll. 2.IIS, Vart;,. I.

Pa'Qiniin aq~S!Cffi: (P. VII. 2.62) instead of 6l'i[1 the correct one; cf. ~<ltli.SJTfU'r +!Cffro M. Bh. on t. I.I and I. 4.3;

p.resent. See M. Bh. on 1.1.60 Vart. 4 and Kaiyata thereon.

Ul}adiaffix <mi prescribed in UQadi Siltras 39}"396 e.g. see .~q~, a:ri:j:l!~, a:rt'iij~ etc.

~snftr;m~ the Pratisakhya work of the Atharvaveda believed to have been written bySaunaka. It consists of four Adhyayas and is also called ~~Frcnr.

~ name given to the class of roots belonging-to the second conjugation, as the roots therein begin with the root .~ The word Qjfrt~fff is also used in the same sense; d. a:rfrt>r~~<I; ~: P. II. 4.72; cf. also Qji'{t~ii[.m(iili'{I~ given by Hemachandra as Paribh1i~a 6r corresponding to the maxim ~9'Ii\UIT ii9~~-=!~~ I in the system of PaQini.
~ UI}.adi affix ~ e.g.~\'i'..! ~; cf.
e E

~T<i (QjRrFfH also) name of' t~e seventh musical note in the singing of Samano cf. ~1!>r~dT<i~~:q~ +rri{rffi~I<if: T. Pr. XXIII. I3.
~ transfer of. a consonant in a Stobha. See ~eq~SJ.

past liappening, cf .~~ ifilf: I amrffi~ ~. firt~<i.l fir:~ I Kas. on P. II. 1.6. rather. too little, an expression 'Used by Pataiijali idiometically cf. an~~~'ClIij- M. Bh. on 1. 1.69 etc; having a very slight contact ( with the organ producing sound ), as in the -case of the utterance' of a vowel.

krt. affix ~ with \3' acce;oted, applied to roots marked by pag.ini with the mute syllable ~ 10 the sense of verbal activity; e.g. ~~: Jt!<!~:; cf.fuIT~ P. HI. 3.2:;. q



~ See :~frt above.


. lili.~

~dl('<41 ~ p~tency which is known

by the name' past' and which stops the note on of present:cp. Yak. pad. III. 9-51 and ;;Y;:J:!~~'fIii[~ ~ Qj~~ 9 F!~<f (~.)


conjugational affix of perf" 2nd pe_rs. dual Parasmai. substituted for the personal ending ~ cf. ;po II~. . 4. 82 ' ending with the short vowel a:r j d. P. VIII. 4.7; a term applied to nouns of that kind, and roots of the tenth conjugation which are given with the letter a:r at their end whIch is not looked upon as mute (~) e.g. 'Ii~, iTU1, etc. Mark also the root titer described by qa~~ as a:rc::ro cf. fqferwo: M. Bh. on I.r.56., and II. 4.43. -

aug. Qj1\.. added to the word ~ before the negative particle if; e.g ~1~M~lfff:, ~ff1~ cf. P. VI. 3.70.


short term used by paI}.irii fo signify together the five affixes 'tii'ig, ~g,\, ~:qg't, +!g'{ and Cfg!.; cf. ~. ~rm<-T :qp:nm: P. VI. 4.14.

~ a variety of A ticchandas metre con_sisting of 68 syllables. e.g. a:r~r (,j'if( ilftrnrr !FiliI: ~k. 5amh. 8.UI.I.
.:3<il<J1R4 4i O{ the group of prepositions

not seen properly; douptful; indistinct; said with respect to a letter which is .pot distinctly deciphered in the Samhitapatha; e.g. O'a: (~. 5amh. I. I07.3); the last letter if.. of (fo:. is deciphered in the Pada-:patha . which is given as mi:. if: d . Qj~ify >r~iT ~ ~o:. >ri'{~'Ii: R. Pr. X.IS.
cf. Qj~S<i

not having the same force; not belonging to the same type out of the four types of rules viz. tR, ~, a:r;q1:i and a:rq<l~. cf. a:r~: ~'I::[1 if <:r'ifu Jainendra Pari. 66. . e!ti<?!lfc1~ (~) a compound having its members in different cases, ct. Vak.pad. III. 14-478; <i~ 'liT<l~ ~: W err <:rm W (~. ) ~ personal ending of perf. 1st pers. . dual. cf. ~~f ~~~lU]~+!T: P. III. 4. 82. ~ kJ"t affix ant. applied to the root >$1 in the sense of past time. cf. ~~ P. III. 2.104.


beaded by a:rftr which are compounded with a noun in the acc. case; cf. 8R<j1G;<i:'l!!~ f~<j<jr M. Bh. on P. II. 2.18.
l$j~iiji1~'q characterized by a sharp utterance; a name of the grave accent. ~~ very closely uttered. uttere4 with Close Hps and jaws, (said in connection with the utterance of the vowel a:r ); cf. T. PI'. II. 12. See ~~~g. ~ also 3ffci change of a vowel into short a:r. ~ possessing or baving a short Cf vowel in it; ~rchaicform used by

wrong place, not a proper place; 'q TJfur: I M. .I3h. on P. I.I.I3 and l. 2.I.

~ absence of fault; absence of ~Oi a term in andent grammars , inconvenience. The expression tW:<Iand Pratisakhyas meaning non~ ~ often occurs in the Mahaappearance ofa phonetic .member ! -bh1i~ya; c::f. M.Bh. on I.3.62; I. .jlij'<iti'{~I~ ~q: (V. Pi:. 1.141), explain. 4;108, etc. ed as ~q~~Cf by ~Ocfe. Late! on, ~ substitute for case affixes ij and the idea- of non-appearance came ~ added to words ending with the to be associated with the idea of affixes em:: and Ga+i and to the words expec~ation a~d_ ~h~ ?efinitio~ of a:r;:<:!, ar.:<lCR and~. ct. P. VII. I.25. ~q gIven by ra!J1fll lD the words ~ Iq: (as based evidently on ~ tech. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the the Pratisakhya definition) waS present time a! the day in quesexplained as nODoappear-ance of a tion, the occurrence of the imletter or a group of .letters where mediate past or future events in it was e-xpected to have been

~l: tI~(qCfiT: stl~ij, (V. which is generally expressed by the Pr.1. 33.) aorist ('~) or the sfuiple future l ~); the other two corresponding blfitt4i,,"UI (I) support; a grammatical tenses imperfect and first future relation of the nature of a location; (viz. ~ and SR) being used in place of verbal activity. cf. connection with past and fUture ~P. I. 4.45; (2) one of the events respectivcfy, provided the six or seven Karakas or functionevents d.o not pertain to that day arie5 of verbal activity shown by which IS in question; ct. '<rr~' the locative case. cf. ~a~~~ :q ~' M.Bh. on P. III 2.102 Vart. 6. P. II.5t36; (3) substance, 'dravya" 'l1'illdH{l~ P. VI. 4. II4. Vart. 3; (2) d. ~ifi,iJlqtf"f ~<j'<rrtFii ItRr. ~~ term for the tense showing imme' I M.Bh. on H. I. I. (4) fcI~ijTq, diate past time called ~ in topic under discussion, cf. Vak. PaJ;rlni's grammar e.g. :qT<itit 81m I pad. II. Il6 and III. 7. 148, 155. ;rt CfiTifT~Kat. III. 1.22, Hem. Ill. 3II. ~ governing rule consisting of a word ( e.g. trc<i<l:, 1:TTffi:, ~tITiffi:etc. ) bll(64"iIRlil. not expressive o! any or words (e.g. ~ltSltf~'li1Q" ~cR<l' substance which forms a place of a: etc.) which follows or is taken as residence (of qualities and actions); understood in every following rule cf. d'~ ~~ f<t5rfu~t :qTit~~ upto a particular limit. The mean(P. II. 4. 13); l[t<lfRCfRfim ~ I ing of the word ~ifiT\ is discussed M. Bh. on II. 1.1. at length by Patafijali in his Mahiibhii~ya on II. I. I, where he has ~ lit. not made up of two elegiven the difference between ~ ments, and hence, produced with a and qft;rtlIT; ct. 81NCfiR: srffi<Uir mrsingle effort, an expression used f.i~~l t-1 ~m <Uit <itit '3qfflg~ I qft+!ffi for simple vowels { tI>{Tiil~\) such as ~&:~~n ~ B~ ~lT~Hlf~;g~~m 81, 1[, ~, ':K, ~, and simple consonants sr~ I See also Mahabhal?ya on ~, ~, it.. etc. as distinguished from 1. 3.l1i I. 4.49 and IV.!. 83. The diphthongs (tJr1:'i~) such as \1;, tt, word or wording which is to repeat arr atr and conjunct consonats iii, ~ in the subsequent rules is believed etc. which appear to have been to be shown by PiiQini by chatermed ~<iWr cf. 81'lmit9\T~fti!{t~ racterizlDg it with a peculiarity of R. Pr. XI. 3. utterance known as ~'ifti)lij'1\ or 6fi~q'~ not preceded by (two or' ~ft~ii ~"fR1Il~: The word which is repeated in the following Sutras more) prepositions; i.e. preceded is stated to be OJ"Niid'. Thl'! Sabdaby only one preposition. cf. ~Eis. Kaustubha defines adhikara .as G;~rmfr~<j' P. VI.4.96 prescribing ~::itqfijt<lT~ Oll\1:iT\: a{f!:T'liR: Sab. short 81 for the long <liT of the root Kaus. on P. 1.2.65. Sometimes the ~rct before the krt. affix er. e.g. sr~:. whole rule is repeated e.g. sr~:' P. ~ (I) additional or surplus actiIll. 1.1, ~<j' P. VI. 4.1, tll1ffi(iffi': vity which a rule in grammar someP. V. 4.68, while on some occaSIons times shows; a:rN'li: cm: or 6lN<fi a part only of it is seen repeated. CfiT~if..; Cf.M. Bh. on I. 3.U; Kas. on The repetition goes on upto a parti.. III. 2.124; Bh. Yr. on III. 4.72; - cular limit which is stated as in ( 2) surplus subject ~atter e.g. 81f6~;rre:. P. V1.4.22, SIT!II'JiiUmmn:

P. 1. 4.56. Many times the limit 1Ifi~ in a sacrifice; at the time of a is Dot stated by the author of the sacrifice (~~U<j'). cpo ~ in Siitras but it is understood by the same sense. cf. Vak. pad. II. virtue of a counteracting word. 254 occurring. later on. On still other occasions, the limit is defined by 1i$f~~qil~ imperfectly uttered as regards contact. It may mean 'a slighted or the ancient traditional interpreters imperfect utterance of a final mute . by means of a sort of convention which wavered between the sonant which is called ~ft1tql'lRt~[. This and the surd (ct q~ :q I .Atharva ~l\ or governance has its influPratisakhya I. 9 ) ence of three kinds: (I) by being valid or present in all the rules ~ tad. affix applied to the pronoun ~ which is changed into ~ before 0 which come under its sphere of in the affix and then elided by P. VI. flue~ce, e.g. fuiffi{, or 81~ (ii) by 4. 148, or changed into Of in which showing additional prqperties e.g~ case ~ or ~ could be looked the word a{!f\GJif being applied to upon as tad. affix:. cases where there is no actual separation as in Bf'li1~<j': qj(!~~'li[ ~N determination to begin an a{~T:; (iii) by showing additional ~ctivi~y with a view to getting its force such as setting aside even f~it. ct. ~ +m~: Stf3l1{cfcnro tI ~qr subsequent rules if opposing. These ~~ ~rn, ~e stlT~6' ~ three types of the influence which Cj'ffi<j':, a{l:'i~ 9JR.-:q:, 81(~ f.ltfu:, a word marked with .~ and f.!~T~: ct. M. Bh. on 1.3. 14 hence termed 81Nc!iR possesses ar.e and I. 4. 32. called respectively mliJ'iiRilRr, ~ 'lifir and 81f~ 'liT\. For details see ifbC4I~I~ name of a class of words M. Bh. on I.3.II. This an!:T'liRor headed by the word ~RiiiJ. to which governing rule exerts its influence the tad. affix oat. is added in the in three ways: ( , ) generally by sense of ~ If<j': ' i.e. found therein, proceeding ahead in subsequent or existing therein. e.g. 8111l<j'IRiiCf.l'(, . , rules like the stream of a river, ~~, etc. cf. M.Bh. on IV. '3'60. ( ii) sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more, and &l'~ Seuperimposition, as that of a ( iii) rarely by proceeding backword upon the object denoted by it ward with a lion's glance; cf.rei[{q-. which leads to their identity. ct. ~AA ~ WI~~~ "f I iJG'rnsr'l~ Yak. pad. III. II. 10. ~ iittciro 81N'liTumr :qd'T: II Jurisdiction, r~gion ~l1ij~: ;;yffl:~~ll~.) of application: ct. Yak. pad. II. 79 and srfffqT~ :a~. O<j'T'li~~~T ~~~ superimposition; a relation between a word and its sense according f"T'm: I aIDl~S~ :U~!:T'liR: PUQ. to the 'grammarians; cf. Vak. pad. on Yak. pad. II. 79.. II.24 0 ( 2) appendage; cf. <liT~~"<tiq~1 ~4iIH{~ a superintending aphorism, ~ ~~Rr.J: R. Pr. XV II. 43. which gives no meaning of itself



where it is mentioned, but gives its meaning in the number of apflOrisms that follow; e. g. the rules ~:, q\1Ii! and <liT!<U'ij1li! P. 1If. I. I, ~. 3 or t!tijQT. P. II.I4

~~ supplying the necessary element. ct. ~li(if(~~'lJlf<l~ ~~~ CflCf<l~'im\t KiiS. on P. VI. I~ 139.,

Siva Siltra

cf. also Nir. 1.,1. I3 and M.Bh. on I, Viitt 14.

~~'nf~:a' ( variant for if~l~a') surperimposed, imagined as existing. cpo a:p;'lT~~T ~ ~fui!riT&Joi: I ~ ~m: ~ +!I<!~~ cir.:I<i: II Vak.-pad. 1. 3. Of'c.<r 'Iii~~ krt affixes substituted 1D the place of g+J:" of the infinitive in Vedic Literature (P. III. 4. 9.), e.g. fq<.j1:~; when 0fI'~ is substituted, the initial vowel of tbe word becomes ~<m!. e. g. ~lfT"l\I;~ I
~ an: ar~: ~;~: ~q~: cf.

SI;rvCl~ a grammarian who wrote a commentary Balamanoramii on Siddbiinta-Kattmudi. '
IlIi91R1'{ (I)

'i/5'Ufi;:otI+TI1:11: arQfu'4T<iT'a +!foj5<iRr M.Bh.

Par. Sek. on Pari. 52.; M.Bh~ on 4.2 Vart. 22.



on III. 3.19. also on III. 2.1, V. 5. IV. 2.1. See Kas. on III. 1:22, III.




a word without the negative particle (c:r"() before it. e.g. ~~f5r. ~fu, a sutra in ApisaWs grammar quoted in M.Bh. on IV. 2.45 see also P. II. I.60, VII. 1.37.

uncerebralized; not changed into a cerebral (Jt~~) letter, cf. ~ ~Tqfu~ffl": Uvata on R. Pro

~~CP ~os:e~ing-"

added to IV. 34 the word ;:fu?r in the sense of the liII.,Rtf~e not resulting from any ex dyed in " to form the word r:iW, cf. tended application or ~, cf. P. IV. 2. 2. Vart. 2; (2) added to SiFt<iT$l'4 9lc:rmm +r<rffl" M.Bh. on IV. the word ar"ll~ in the sense of' proI. lSI. duced in ' cf. a:rtlT~r: ~ M.Bh. . ijOj"{<OiR\;.Rt absence of the verbal on IV. 3. 34 Vart. 2; ( 3) added after the affix ~<! in the same sense activity in all ways or respects; ~ ~~~ -l'>~ incomplete activity; e.g. fu~not as QI<i e.g. 16;'11<11 ~rrr:, tiCII<i. :~WT: cf. '" ...!I. ~ completely cut, cf. arc:r;:~m <remr. ~l~ <11" QI<iP.{"l:. P. V. 3.48. P. V. 404Iil1v1' sub:.;titute for the affix ~ (~~ ~ period of time not pertaining ~~,~, ~,~ and others of which to 'the day in question; used in only~ remains). d. ~~T P. VII. connection with past time, to I. r. e.g. cliRUJf, ilJ<:UJT, Cfi<:UJi!.. ~~, express which the imperfEct is c:r~c:r:, tlT4ffi!~ etc. generally used; also in connection ~ ( I) substitute 6iil as Samasanta with the future time to express at tbe erid of a Bahuvrihi camp. which the first future is genf'rally in the feminine for the last letter'of used e.g. ~: 3T!f"ffi" ~: Cii':!f etc. d._ the word i3i'<T~, and for that of ~ P. III. 2.II1, II3: Ill. 315, 135; in all genders e.g. ~~ (by apply~ V. 3. 2 1. ing ~ to ~~l:T<i..), ~mf'cfo'CfT, ~l:Ti9T; r j"ijilj<.~ without any mute significad. P.V. 4. I3 r. 132; (2) substitute tory letter attached; ~ltm<rr arii.. for the last letter of tbe words is the short name given to the amlq, qfl:T etc. before the affixes of maxim~' ar~'<TCfi!:I~ q ~~~ the instrumental and the, following :na-n=' S ee ~. Bh on I .3.I; V' M ..,,,, -'-, .2:9. cases beginning with a vowel e.g. There is a reading iIi the -Par. Sek. armf, <{!;If, ar~1lIT etc. cf. P. VII. 175: ~~ for ar<l~~, in' ( 3) substitute ~ for the last letter which case the . l!itm<rr is called of the word ~fuf, of words ending in f.'iG<r;'<T<mIt+!m. See Par. Sek. Pari. S!\, as also of ~i1lI. and others before 8I. tbe nominative sing~ affix~. e.g. til3T, . ' ~ a grammarian who wrote a comCfiCit, ~~FlT; cf. P. VII I. 93, 94. mentary Kamadhenu-sudharasa on Bopadeva's Kiivya-karnadhenu. He no arT.!. or vowel in It, cr. ~ gT a:r'"if, v;it <j~fff<it~ms'R lived iIi tbe sixteenth centuIY.

lilA: tad. affix ar (ar<{.) ( I

immediate, contiguous arc<!CIrno. d. ~q;au: ~<P.lf: P. I. 1.7, also lfRr\<li\1{:P.-VI. 2.49; d. <!f<li\1t ~<urr: V. Pr.I.48.; (2) nearest, as compared witb others of the same type; cf. a:r:q<![ arrRRT ~T lUfR: 1:lJ ~ffl" ~I!<i~ M.Bh. on 1.1.43; cf. Par. Sek. arqi\1~ fetRt<!f l!~fu ~ffiq.q) 1fI, which means that a prescriptive or prohibitive rule applies to tbe nearest and not to the distant one Par. Sek. 61, Can. Par. 30.

~f.:!~ that ~hich is not applied; lit. (an operation or vidhi) which has not taken place or which has not been effective; d. Sl'~ a:Jilfl!f.!~'U~<i lTfuq~q f.ti[i%: ~<r<l1 Cfi~i!T<!fu:' f.!~~<i M.Bh. on I. 1.5; IV. 1.37. I I Cf. also il 'qyqfuf.!~ Cf~<:~ arofl\tmtTllffl" I nO! f.!m'Ui'tcr ~~'iFI;:atj[~ M.Bh. on VI. 4.22; VIII. 3.15.
~~i'f not conveyed or expressed by another i.e. by anyone of the four factors viz. verbal affix, krt affix, taddhita affix and compound. The rule 3Ti!fi:rit~ (P. II. 3.I) and the following rules lay down the different case affixes in the sense of the different Karakas or auxiliaries of the verbal activity. provided they are not shown or indicated in any one of the above-mentioned four ways; e.g. see the acc. case in Cfii Cfi~m, the inst. case in <n~'l] <TIffl", the dat. case in ~cra:'Ul<i rrt G:"tmt, the abl. case in !:IJIlP.{Ill'iUm, or the loc. ca!;e in ~r.crt lj'qffl.


non-final d. arq;;:<iiElCfiJ~ ar~<i~it~~<! when a clIange does not concern a i . I final letter then it concerns tbat I which immediately precedes the I final, . ~ar. Sek.Pari. 95. d. also M.Bh. on VI. 1.13 Vart. 5. not different, the same;

t1;Cfi~~fcr~l{il;:~9cr. "that which has got

. a change regarding one of its parts is by no means something else; Par._ Sek. Pari. 37.
_ . a;il~ being I

the same, being I looked upon as not different. see', 3Ti!-<! above. I

~i\' inability to express the mean~


ing de-sired. The expression c:r CII fre'luently occurs in the Mahabba~ya referring to such words Or phrases as could be formed by rules of grammar or could . be used according to rules but, are ar.t~Cji (I) without any signification; lit. having .no meaning of thero~ not found in current use recognized' selves, i.e. possessing a meaning by learned persons' or SCholars; : only when used- in company witIl d. a-c'qf.,m'<TI.:r <i'IlR~ Ci~Cf, arrl.jS!' g I other words or parts (If words which <l~~ ~9~Cf I Padamaiij. on III. bear an independent sense; (the 2.1; also cf. arc:rful::fli!lt:;.. - o<j'N'Ii<:UJlc:rT ! I word is used generally in connection CJ8;:ft~;i l!iEI~<!fu, <lO!' ~9fu\TIc:r+Jfu oS!'! with prepositions) ; e.g. a:rf-irqfr 3l<l~,i,r ~<iNCfi<:Il~N +!9E~ ~llntl:, ~~'~fu; P. 1. 4.93, d. arq:qli\1\9lm19c:rl:'tirl Nyasa on n. 2.24; for examples of '<1T.;if~ f;f.<!Tl1NU: 1 ~jl:::fc!~~ "f19ffl" <j~r ~~ ar.rfu\:1~~~ see also M.Bh,aT~!?{!UJr: _

a wording whiGh does not contain a.ny reduplicative syllable; all epithet applied to such roots a5 are not to be reduplicated a second time before affixes of the p~rIect, as they are already reduplicated; cf. ~ \:lT~+<mH<i P. VI. I.8.


q<}: II M. Eh. on P. I. 4.93 ; cf. Vi fiI<i<rr atffim arlqrM<I~IUd ~~<jif: Nir. !. 1.3; d. also ar"l~ a:r;jlq~{i~filr Kas. on I. 4.93, explained as a:r;j~mflwrlG: ij~Cfilfq~~ ij c'l:qfmcrr~m ~ by ~Tml\; (2) meaningless, purpose:' less; cf. SlilIUJ~ff 31f'q19T G:~qFcffl!fffU1: ;mn <lRij ~ Sj1l]<lm ~ I oSlT;;a9'iI ~"Ilt<l' ij:ii~. ~ Fii !!i!!t<iffl ~~iIj M. Bh. on 1. 1.1, as also Bm~Wifl'if ~ FJ:i~~ q~m <:I'~ij~;fi ~m.M. Bh. on P. VI. 1.77. See for details M. Bh. on 1.2.45 Vart. 12; III. 1.77 Vart. 2 and Kaiyata and Uddyota thereon; ( 3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some niplitas%'qij r.rIffOT: tIT~:, %"1<1 "1 fir<~Cfil: Uv. on R. Pro XII. 9; f.flf(m<lTi'j~~fit mfuqfcl:CWi<r,. P. r. 2.45 Vart. Ii d. also ~ ~fcr f.rqTOi!fij~ P. IV. 4.132. Vart. I, ~~!ffffijf':' ijiJ;R P. V. I.1I3' Vart. I, also II4 Vart. I.

rules which have no opportunity of taking effect ( without setting 'aside other rules) supersede" those rules; M. Bh . on V.4.I54, also Par. Sek. on Pari. 64.


absence of any opportunity of taking effect, scopelessness; considered in the case of a particular' rule, as a criterion for setting aside that general rule which deprives it of that opportunity; cf. arq<f.!il~ Fr{q"1iT~fcf 'IT iijll::f~~. This a:r;jqCfil~t9 is slightly different from lllqqf(H'i or particular mention which is defined usually by the words tlTilIr<{fqN<iffilT: I f9~'if9f"f(qqJ;:::: I

III. 1.4, VII. 2.10, VII. 4.9. The substitutes caused by an ardhadba tuka affix are, in fact, effected by virtue of the prospective application of the lirdhadhatuka affix before its actual application. (2) repeating or going on without interruption cf. Vak. pad. I. 106. .

a:rfi!~ttri: m<I<i1: ~r~ ~ I Par. Sek. Pari. II3.

&I"1IC11a::a~ not a close reiation; distance; cf. i1ii~ ~f.!!ff0li~ ~11iWi
ii'ff~ ~~!Q ~9 ~~ qfiq:m~ I

M.Bh. on



~~~f(Qi that sarhhita text which

has an order of words in it, which is different from what obtains in the Pada-patha, and which appears appropriate according to the sense intended in the passage. There are three places of such combinations of words which are not according to the succession of words in the Pada-patha, quoted in the. R. Pre ~f~r~~q Fifuf tI~TQ 1$.k. Samh. V. 2;7. i'j'\f <if $ \!. ~k. Samh. X. 64.3; ifU "'f ~~ ~C(j~ ~k. Samh. IX. 86.42. cf. ~err a:rqm~~&-ol: I if ila-qf ~~IUJf lJG:T!!~~tij. ~~~ U vva ta on R. ~r. 11.78.

tech. term used by the. authors . of the Prlitisakhya works for freqnentative formations such as ~!tq:, "iTmqo:, etc. ; cf. A. Pro 4.86.

~ormi~ (a wOld) whose formation and accents have not been explained; cf. Nir. IV. I ; V. 2.

~~ not depending on another for the completion of its sense; cf. ij Cj~ijT9iI~~ P. III. 4.23, and Nyasa thereon which explains (ij'i'jT9ilf as i'j' f9~ 8lTCfil~,?;ff 8T~~T \<l' oRIiii... .
<I'f<'Il~Ri not capable of presenting (on


~~ synonym, synonymous, COnveying no different sense, e.g: tli: tl~: ~ ~6!li'j~f<m:<r,.1 M. Bh. on P. V. I.59; arN "i ~rn: ~~<i l{6!lij\qRr\<r,. M. Bh. on P. 1. 1.56, also fcli~ fm i'jPI I i3~:t frfR!mfi'r&-crm(<I~rl;:cr'(<r,. I <lF1, ~!lfG:!!:ffisRTfl:i ~fo ffi9G:i'jf~ Uil I M.Bh. on P. ir. 3.1,.

~if~i..d~qIRiif: not

conveying different sense, arij:qRr\':UR~T M. Bh. on 1. 4-93.

lit. having no parts; impartite; without any concern with the individual component parts; application in totality; cf. f~ g \'f+ITq~~~ l!iifcii{<rFct~'1f:.rr ~fcfi9i~~ P. VI. 1.84. Vart. 5 .and Bb1i~ya thereon; a:tWI~. ~H~ ari'jq~~i'j' ~!!l~~: ~<lTtl. I a rule in grammar applies to all cases where its application is possible; it cannot be said to have its purpose served by applying to a few cases only.

its mere utterance) any tangible form or figure; the word is used in connection with a techni~al term ( ~~) which presents Its sense by a definition actually laid down or given in the treatise; cf. 8TifT~R'r: ~~ I 8lT~RllliCf: ~&ril: M. Bh. on I. I. r.
iiitOm without any known cause; inst=:. inctive cf. a:r;jTlTI1~ tlIS<=<l16: tll1<i: ~6.m I Yak. pad. II. u8 """ Cjil~-

$fif~ absence of proximity, absence of cognateness; cf. ~ ml <a~'1ii<iT m~~ ~fcr clJq9'qi'j'~'!iRt i'j', 31i'iT<cr<iTit9iln9ilU ij I "M.Bh. on Siva Siitras 3-4
annl:lf having or possessing no apya

atii~ absence of consideration; dis-


anrf~ opp. of arl'1{q; an operation

not concerning a single letter, e.g. ~lfIiil~~iTsij~"..rr P. I. 1.56 and M. Bh. thereon; cf. ~1l'Tf.rqG:r~T 1R9a1fq~ Klit. Pari. 39. .
~EtCi)Jrr .having no occasion or scope

fault of having no end; end a lessness; d. Q;'1ijt<li1<i~:qy ~'m ~<I CfilltuiT Kav. Prak.; cf. lliCJ~cj l!f.f;; ar:qr~~m %iJ~~ij frf~;;a: 9i~;;<I: Wtl. I o~ "i oICft6fli'j' w,rr ;!j.:rlm f,fi~~ I 31~ m %qf~~ %rr~:r il:6!li'j''1~rI if. Bh. . on II. 1.1.
9~Ti!f(~f<il 31~: M. Bh. on 1. 2.30,

regard; cf. 'i13't 'i:l~ P. II. 3.3 8.

~ non-initial; e. 8li'Il~~ t!~'qi'j'~ P. III. 4. 102, Vlirt. 4; also M. Bh. on VII. I. 3.
<!fiilnri! not replaced as a substitute;


or object; intransitive (root); cf. "i~;;aQ1{f~~ 8Ti'jlt<{flt ~~ Candra 1.2.97 standing for "i~~~~ ar~it9ila;., ~~ P. III. 2.148.
Sfifiq. (I) non-vedic; not proceeding from any ~~i, or Vedic Seer, cf. ~ ~~<I~lrm arrrlq P. 1. I.16; also Ras. on the same; cf. fctfl'l~!:!1iR~ci" i'jTf{ I 31illq 1tfo9i~UJ: M.Bh. on VI. I.129; ( 2) pertaining to the Pada-patha which is looked upon as aiilTq i.e. not proceeding from a.ny Vedic Seer; cf. 31<ntl ~~O]: I tI "i ~~\ arT~'m!~, Uvvata on R. Pro III. 23: cf. also A. Pro III. 1.3. cf. also :;:m ~Sifl~ a:r~Rit q(O: <if<iT 1tm ql<j~R'r,

. e.g. <I:


of applicatior;t; used in connection with a: rule the whole of whose province ofappIication is covered by a general rule, and hence which becomes technically useless, unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule; .c;:f. lli<f99iTm ~ 'fit'<T<if <rf\:T9iT ~

Ofil'ql~Iif indefiniteness; cf. ~l:/~rrr-

~ffir9mcr: M.Bh. on ~.

Vart. I.

III. 2.3Vart. 2, Vart. 10.

~~\<l' fc!~ srf(f 1.57 V1i.rt. I, and VI. LIZ

~~ (I) undetermined, indefinite;

see M. Bh. quoted above on ~Ti!; ct also an~hrr~r: ffi~ ~ 8Trr9f~a-!! 1l~!'J I M. Bh. on I. 1.56; .

<ii<it~ ( I) original, not such as is substituted; e.g. ~Gl'{F{<:+r~<ifI~~ P. VII. 2.86; ( 2 ) absence of statement, ar~ e. g. iii~R ~11<l~ ~1~~liliQ P. III. 4.67 Vart. l;C f. the Pari.

+i{cU 1.16

as do not allow the augment !( (i{~) to be prefixed to an ardhadhatuk'a affix placed after them. For: such Kiirikas see Sid. Kau. on VII. I.S as also KiiSika on VII. 2.10; ( 2) a short treat.ise enumerating inI I verses the roots which do not admit the augment !\~ before the iirdhadhatuka affix;es. The work, is anonymous, and not printed so far, possibly composed by a Jaina writer. The work possibly belongs to the Katantra system 'and has got short glosses caUe~ o'll~, arCRlft;W<RUl;mr, -gcquft- and the like 'which are anonymous.
~~ occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied, the latter being looked upon as 3lli!~ which does not do so. Tbii I nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Pa:ribhii~as 43 49 in the Paribha~endusekbara.


'+WI~ I Kasika on P. I.

explained in the'




i1Tff arf<l<la-~'!iT ~~ift;:rr

err M. Bh.


krt affix in the sense of curse, e.g. at:;\\qf.l~ ~o ~R(; d. an~ ~ <>rfu: P. III~ 3.112. This affix arfif gets its 'l. changed i.uto ll!. after Sff i or ~ of the prece~jng preposition I .as In ~: ; d. Kas. on VIII. 4.29 ;

on P. IV 1.131.

~iil~ samasanta affix after the word ~IT and some other words prescribed by P. V. 4. 124-6, e.g. 'M/f[lljl:Hlt,
~,"jl:l'T, ~&!omT.

iffiftt~ an underived word; an ,ancient term used by authors of the Pratisakhyas to signify I original' words which cannot be SUbjected to f<lci:qq.

~~ (I) not admitting the augment i{~ to be prefixed to it; the term is strictly to be applied to ardhadhatuka affixes placed after such roots ST~'iiTRC!iTf.I~~ a short commen tary by K~amamaQ.ikya on the work as have their vowel characterized Anitkarika, which see above. by a grave accent (ar!l?Umq~); the term arfu~ being explained as arfiimR 'aWrw~ not separable into two padas qualifying the arN1:Trg'!i afflx;( 2 ). or words by means ofavagraha; in a secondary way, it has become d. ~<r ~<if.!1f4; R. Pro V. 41; cf. customary to call such roots <>rf<i2;,. also R. Pro IX. 2S, XIII. 30. See as do not allow the augment ~2;,. to ~~<i below. be prefixed to an ardhaclhiituka affix placed after them. Such atf.R~ (I) not nitya or obligatory; optional; (said of a rule or pariroots are termed aJ:~;:;:I~ verily bba~a whose application is volunbecause they are po~sessed of a,n tary). Regarding tlIe case and conanudatta vowel. e.g. ~, ~, fu, iJiI.. jugational affixes it can,' be said l["l. etc. as agains t +t. ~, n, W, 'l, ere{ , that those affixes can, .in a way, Ifi~, "!ii.?:, etc. which ~ave their 'vowel characterized by aI). acute. be looked upon as nitya or obliga(i3;:;:I'tf) accent. For a complete list tory, as they have to be affixed to of such roots see the well-known a crude nomLal base or a root, stanzas given in the Siddhiintathere being a dictum that no crude base ",ithout an affix can, be used, kaumudi incidentally on antlf~q~ as also, no affix alone without a .,?f: P. VII. 1.5. ~~.ct41ffi~G'~ 0: base can be used. On the other T<l\fffi: ~'lm: II ~ II ~i!jq'qgftr hand, the taddbita and krt affixes ft~CR...fcr~ , 'clla<lr' ~N<i\ ~ ~ as - as also compounds are voluntary also some lists by ancient gramas, instead,of them an independent marians given in the Mahabba~ya word or a phrase cari be used to on .t;'liT'9 i3'~~~l~o.. P. VII. 2.10 convey the sense. For a list of or in the Kiisildi. on the same rule s!1ch nitya affi.xes see M. Bh. on V. P. VII. 2.10. 4.7; (2) the word atfu~ js also ~~l (I) name given to Stanzas used in the sense of not-nitya, the giving a complete list of such roots word f<l~ being taken to mean


sr~ not necessary to be specifically or implicitly stated, as it can be brought about or accomplished in the usual way; e.g. a~l ~ff f:a6<i ~181<itqrf@i\'~ I a-~ <'f~6'!it:f.If<i1IT~ M.Bh..on VIII. 1.15. See also M. Bh. on VI. 1.207. and VII. 2.27

:a:r~ whose, sense has not been specifically stateo; the word is used with reference to such affixes as are not prescribed in any specific sense or senses and hence as are looked upon as possessing the sense which the base after which they are prescribed has got; cf. ar~l!ftlf: Sf~<iT: ffi~ +r9frQ~affixes, to wilich no meaning has been assigned, convey the meaning of the bases to wnich they are added; cf. Par. Sek. Pari.II3; cf. also M.Bh. on III. 24, III. 2.67, III. 3.19, III. 4.9, VI. 1.162.
a:rf.i~ an undesired consequence or result; cf. arli!e "! mmRf :ni '9 if ffi,,<Ifff 'M.Bh. on I. 3.1; also d. <'flli!l!f1ql m&nl'lf~: M.Bh. on VI. r.2.
e:rfq~;r ignorant or inattentive to what the Grammarian intends or desires to say. cf, a'll m~+rm'iji;r, i3lli!~=1t Cf~: !{Om I ~6'lffi" li;er '9g;:rt'll: tQ: M. Bh. on VIII. 2.I{j6.

orfiiajl=l:Tii without support,

without any real object as its foundation cf. Yak. pad. I. 138.


not serving as a cause, not possessing a causal relation; e.g. ~li!1IT~~o1r ~f<l~ o~ra-~ Par. Sek. Pari. 8S. See also M.Bh. on I. I.39.

~ krt affix, termed W also forming the pot. pass. part. of a root; d. ff;'l~T;:fr<i~: P. III. 1.96. e.g. see the forms '!i,oIT4, olh'l, the mute \. showing the acute accent on the penultimate vowel.
~ (1) imit'ation; a ...vord uttered

STfir<:rn not subject to any limitation; d. ~~<!T fu<iOT:, i3l~l arf.l<Ia-r:, f.r<rcri:, ~<ir ~: M.Bh. on II. 3.50. In the case of f<l<illfclltr ( a restrictive rule or statement) a limitation is put on one or more of the constituent elements or factors of that rule, the limited element being called f.J<!a-, the other one being termed orf<!<io; also see' Kas. on II. 2.30.


in imitation of another; an imitative name; cf. 8T~uj '9lfrrffiq,<\P. 1.4.62 ;

orfir<rn~ whose sex-especially whether it is a male or a female-is not definitely known from its mere sight; small insects which are so. The term ~il.:r in P. IV. 1. 13I is

3l!!'!i\U1 ft '%l!ffimSJ~':l;~ <i~1 <;;Tiif.;f,~~~, Siva siltra 2 Vart I; ct. also Sfi!l~ ar!!!fi~oT <liifffi an imitativ~ name is like its origi~al Par. Sek. Pari. 36; also M. Bh. on VIII.' 2.46; (2) imitative word, onomatopoetic word; cf. ~ Iil~: ~ifFr: ~~W{ i{m I t:tct a- arl!!: I 3lifl\{Ulitail"ITl'l:, M.Bh. on I. 3.48. cf. also ~rn: ~m ~~\Ilj~ Nir. IX; 12.

~~ dragging (from the preceding rule) to the' following rule taking the previous rule or a part of it as understood in the following rule or rules in order; the same as Ol!!'lRl; cf. 8l'!!<mOIMlij'!iT{: Ras. on II. 4. 18, III. 2 .26, VII. 1.48; cf. also the Paribha.!jl8. '<IGiie ~-that which is attracted from a preceding rule by the particle '<I is not valid in the rule that follows; Par. Sek. Pari. 7~t

tfG~rarr ~ '<I srUt~: Vak.


1.23. where the word ~ _is eX plained asVartika by the commentator.


other than ~+r or the first person; cf. &'mflm- ~q-ijil~+ro!',. P.VIII 1.53 and KiiSika thereon.

;:ft~RI:, ~ilrm:~fur: P. 1. 2. 29-3I, T. Pro I. 38-40, V. Pro I. I08-lIO. Anuc;Iatta is defined by the author of the Rasikiivrtti as (j~~~rii+nut ~~r in+r fuf~+!<l'ir
~~ ~, </iIlOf1fCl\~ ~ :q ~: ~'ij: .


cf. 8l'~tfiTI +!rht\~ ~WtRr ;:fRr:ii!i\rfill

:U~ M.Bh. on I. 2. 29.30. Cf. also '3'{('ij!llG'ffiI!ll i;Cj'~a-!ll SI<j: ~\r: I 8l'r<lT+r~~miii~~ ~<i;:aSijU3T<iT: II R. Pr.

(I) prototype; -image,


sn~lJl<Its~a:r -~ W <mq~:1 ~s~~ tfI1P:i1Tff:'l~ 'l:q~ /I

~m non-production of an element of a word such as an affix or an augment or the like; cf. 9TCj''EI~ '<IGmCj~ii.. P. III. 1.2, Vart. 7, ~ ~qfucJf sr~ ~:qr ffi;a~ P. III. 1.94 Vart~ 2, also $6lU~!l '<I~'G: (fill'q:) P. III. 1.26 Vart. 3.

Vak. pad. 1.5. (2) supposition as the same, false identification (sr~9+rffii1"{ I ~. ) cf. Vak; pad I. 86

" ~

(I) imitation opposed to natural (~~q-) cf. Kaiyata on M.Bh. on a:nta"OJ,. (2) image, prototype (~{) cf. Vak.pad. 1.5.


a'ttracted from a previous rule as is frequently done in pal}.ini'; rules. See the word 3T!!<fi~Uf above.


not actually stated or expressed in a rule; cf. '<I'!i1US!!'ffiffiP'q<jll:T: Kas. on II. 4.18, III. 2.26, VII. I,48; also cf. Nyasa on P. II. 2; 9.


right or regular order in a Vedic recital, calleditilf.e.g. 9T<!Ct: ~:q.


enumeration (in the right order as opposed to ci!!o:tlll); e.g. 8l':q - Will~~{~ ~lllf.t Ol!!;nl'[lfr ~q~ -M.Bh. on II. 1.58; also- on IV. 2.70; wrbal forms of the root lifi<{, with O!!! occur in this sense very frequently; e.g. ~ ~t 8l'!!Sfi~S<iTI'f:; so illso the p.p.p. 8l'f!itiTrcr occurs frequently in the same sense-. lit. that which follows Tantra i.e. Sastra which means the original rules of a Sastra; technical term for Vartika used by Bhartrhari; d. ~s:n1!Jt


non-udatta, absence of the acute accent; one of the Bahyapra;. yatnas or external/efforts to produce sound. This sense possibly cefers to a stage or a time when only one accent, the acute or ~1'G was recognized just as in English and other languages at present. This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and all the other vowels WElre uttered accentless i.e. ~. Possibly with this idea in view, the standard rule '~~~ ~~ was laid down by pal}.ini cf. VI. 1.158. As, however, the syllable, just preceding the accented (~) syllable, was uttered with a ~ery low tone, it was called ~tH, while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they. happened to be consecutive and more than two, the.syllable succeed';; ing the ~ was given a mid-way tone, called ~lta-; cf. '37{('G~'G~<i ~~a-:. Thus, in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones 'i<~'G, ~~ and ~ltff came in vogue and accordingly they - are found defined in all the Pratisiikhya and grammar worksj' cf. '3:;'~<l~I\I:p

III. I. The term anudatta is translated by the word 'grave' as apposed to 'acute' ( udatta,) and , circumflex' (svarita); The term is used in the sense of 3Tii'.. + '3cm1: i.e. '61~m!r.rrG:T'ij: I d. P. VI. I. 16r, 190. (2) a term applied to such roots as have the:_ vowel 3Tf!G:J'ij or grave, the chief characteristic of such roots being the non:.admission of the augment If before an ardhadbatuka affix placed after them. (See 8l'~).
<ili'ji{i'ij(ii[ quite a low tone, completely

chief feature nf. such a root being that it takes only the Atmanepada affixes; e.g. ~, ~. etc.; d. 8l'f!RI~ am~~ P. I. 3.12; such a root. in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit, takes the affix ~;:r. e.g. Cj:-!i1:, 9!:fo:r:, etc. provided the root begins with a consonant; ef. 8l'f!iU~a-a:r ~&:: P. III. 2.149

~~'ln (a ro<;>t ) . pronounced originally i.e. pronounced in the Dhiitupatha with a grave accent; see the word "GGJ'ij above; cf. ~.wq-~:UCj'~~ltlJ;rr+rf!illm~)q) i8W f~fu P. VI. 4.37. See. also the word 8l'f.f( above.

~ (I) reference, mention, statement referring to a preceding element. cf. <i:qH:i'i'<jilf!&:~r: tllllil'l<I;, P.I. 310; cf. a:rm;aq'q.Tlij: m;afuffi- .~~_ ~!5UfliiT+rf!it:u: M. Bh. on I. Vart. 3 ( 2) declaration; prescription; the same as offitit:u. cf. ~'l:q<f"c<fIGJ~ ~~nf.iCj''' Ol!!~ ~,,~ l!"Rr illll'rp. I. 1.56 Vart. I; ( 3) a grammatiCal operation cf~ <ii!l"T~~il~~: ~ I ' tfl1~ ~N~lIl'l~ WRi. Sid.' Kau. on :p. 1.3.10. See the word 8l'~ in this sense d. ~~la-filTllil~) (j:qy_ ~ V. Pr. I. 143.,


~:'I~, 6l~, ~rn:, ~ft:r, ~fur

grave; generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudatta vowel whicli is immediately followed by an acute (~ ) vowel. When the three Vedic accents were subdivided into seven tones viz. ~l'ij, ~~q;re and ~Rr correspondfng to

the seven musical notes, the ~I~{ was the name given to the lowest of them all. Ol!!<mICR: was termed ~ also; d. ~1'd~Cj'Rdq\~ ~m:: P. 1. 2.40; cf. also M.Bh. on I. 2.33.
lif~'aT a term meaning

'having a . grave accent,' used by ancient grammarians. Cf. F.ii~Wri~~w '3d'"'~T M.Bh. on I. 2.33. eatory letter is uttered with a grave accent; a term applied to a root I characterized by an indicatory . mute vowel accepted ~ave, the

- ~ 9T I ~6IlulI+!t!'1I~C<ji'jIil.:

a fore-sound; a preceding addi,tional sound which is loolced upon as a fault; e. g. ~lllf1twhen pronounced as "'~l!lf+r. This sound is uttered before an initial sonant consonant. It is also uttered before initial aspirate!; or visarga. cf. ~9~ql&:: !I\~ 8l'T~t, ~

R. Pro

XIV. "I8, 19.

~q~ lit. one whose mute signifi-

Ifi~"'f~iifi (a letter) uttered through

the nose and mouth both, as different from anus,viira which is uttered only througl1':the nose. cf. 5<.cii1lm<film~= P.I. 1.8, and M. Bh,

.1 hl.



thereon. The anunasika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes (i e;g: :;:r Uj iT,:rl) as also _. ....., "",,' "" ~'" vowels aJ', 1{,;:J and semi-vowels when so pronounced, as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only. ( e. g. itf, aft, etc. or ;!;~, cl!i, ~ etc. in ~iffi, ~;~t8,:, ~mtil: etc.) The aJ'~ <rrfflCfi or nasalized vowels are named \WCJUi and they are said to be consisting of three matras. d. O1I'llICicr~SSl<J:iUI~ aJI'ifl<iT O1lsGCilfflCfit~ ~U~ I n~ ~T<fi<!5T <{~< R. Pro 1. 63,64; , d. also aJ'1It1m: ~m<rr~1iJi OGCitffl<filf.'r T2;~qT~ T. ,Pro XV. 6. Trivikrama, a commentator on the Ka t. Sfitras, explains ~t!<fi as 01~ q~T<I. illRt'fll~~r.l ~'ifl~ ~f ~~!!iltffl<fil: I. ~ W3~ICi !!~ qIllTmffl<fil~lCl!!~IIJi1'R<i~:1 OGtI~ont~cw.ltffl'fln:~~~ OG~~ ~<i" ~~t! and remarks further T{Cfhni{3ffu~B~lF<flolT 1 Com. by Tr. on Kat. 1. I. 13. Vowels which . are uttered nasalized by Pa.Qini in his works viz: {iSiq"16, l:l1~6, i{Ujq"16 etc. are silent ones i. e. they are not actually found in use. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance, their nasalized nature 'being made out only by means of traditional convention. e. g. tN, ~q~ etc. cf. :aq~~~1ff1<fi ~P. 1. 3.2; cf. also srftl~If6Cf<iT: qtTiJrcfr<it: Kas on I. 3.2.
<!T~;:m~ a commentary on lRfI~ (<filfuqu'.

FlCiUj,qWm by ~~fu). The work is believed to have been written by ~rs;~. It is not available at present except in the form of references to it which are numerous especially in Siradeva's Paribba~av!tti.
~ discord, absence of validity, incorrect interpretation; cf. SI'~.
f~~g M.Bh on



varieties of it such aSFl'iT\, ~\, aJ'~,~mUj,mnmUj,~~,~and ~ being called merely .as iif(1U~.


SG'st<iTiT subs'equerit

utterance; lit. as in the case of the roots 'i!i, l'l and OR! in the periphrastic perfect forms; cf. 8l1;:11{<iq~ f.sTI$~1I<W1\<i, P. J. 3. 63; ~lolTf<te<{!!,!{<UIJ:

on account of the analogy of the 0JWFe<{ ~,tied down at sacrifices to the post and subseq~entJy slaughtered.



1. 49.

Ill. 4.4.

at~qq'~t+nii1 impossibility of being ex-

plained; d. nSi ffI-n<iT aJ'~~mCiT<it

rom:~T ~~fffl:., Nir

~~'tf application after an application as in the case of ;;JIm ( genus)

which having been completely applied to one individual becomes applicable to anQther similar individual. cf. Vak. pad. III. I.14.
~~ a letter or letters added to a



impossible to be explaine.d, not consistent; cf.aJ'~Tt<j!!qq;a{~T < 1 aWir Si1<i~i!~ I Nir. 1. 15 lit. to be recited_ after? the Pada text of the Vedic . SarilhiUi.


( ~~m)

~ii not subordinated in wordrelation, principal member; d. aJ'!!q~ P. IV. I.I4and M. Bh. thereon; cf. also Par. 8ek. Pari. 26.

~lStJfu subsequent occurrence. d. gli<iT<iTlGiir6tfm ~iU<rt ~~IT'<T'i: 1 Vak. pad. 2.362 a

&T~fillStJ~"l',. (I) Occurring subsequently. Words which come to be used after the principal word as &:~, for instance, for &:Cf~ or <i\+rT for ~<1T+rr. cf. vak. pad. II. I2I, I24. 360. _ (2) Produced afterwards; the word is used in connexion with sounds which remain in the brain after a word is heard. cf. Vak. pad. III.


an effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as q;Ui5, ffiS3 etc. which is looked upon as an external effort or bahyaprayatna. aj~5I1'{[Ci is one of the three main factors in the production of sound which are ( I) ~rCi, (2) <fi~ or , aJ't<'CFm:sr<it<l and (3) OG5I1'{[Ci or cn~ S[<I~Ci' d. ~:q-Til'fRITlII<R;r.:~ CfITlT_ ;;r(<i;:ij- Can. l The commentator on T. Pro describes aJ'!!S1c{TCi as the ~,Uj or ;:J~ilCfiRITl, the main cause in the production of articulate sound; d. aJ'~q;ft<i~ ~C1 qUi: l{Rt aJ'!!S1a:Til~; d. also OG~<i~ ~~5I1'{[.:r lI<itil iH<i~:; U vvata on R. Pro inn. r. Generally two main varieties of <im3f<iir are termed OG51<{Til which are mentioned as (i) ~3f&:Til (emission of breath) and i!T~~ (resonance), the other

word before or after it, only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an affix ( e. g. fCf~, 01~"l, aJ'~ etc. ) or (b) the substitution of ~1Tl, '[fu or ~S1t!RUj vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. These anubandha letters are termed lffl, (lit. going or disappearing) by PaQini ( cf. ~s;;J!!ilTfficn lffl, etc. 1.3.2 to 9), and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached, the word in usage being always found without the Jro.. letter. For technical purposes in grammar, however, such as aJTfct~'i or aJ'"rff~9 of affixes which-are characterized by i(~letters, they are looked upon as essential factors, ct. ~T aJ'!!i!F<TT:, Q;<fiT~T:, etc,' Par. 8ek. Pari. 4 to B. Although '1Tfiliiir has invariably used the term Jro.. for am<rrl:l letters in his Sfitras, Patafijali and other reputed writers on Pal)ini's grammar rigpt on upto Nagesa of the IBth century have used the term 01!!q.'<T of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of ~~. The term OGiF<l was chosen for mnte significatory letters by ancil?nt grammarians pr9Pa,bly ,

a grammarian ~f the twelfth century who wrote a work on grammar called tlH;;m-sr~ or f,ffiCfnSlmT. The traditional founder of the Sarasvata School. The name of Narendracarya is associated with Sarasvata school by K~emendfa, Vi tthala and Amrta bharati. Possib,. 1yNarendra wrote sfitras. Anubhiiti added Vartikas and settled the text. which was known after him. He has also written l:lTtfl6 and ~<imSlf,n'lT. The grammar is a short one and is studied in some parts of India.

not allowing the addition of the augment ~ ( i.e. letter ~) after the last vowel; The term is used, in connection with the present part. affix, by PaI)ini in his rule ~!F!!m ~;;r(~ VI. I.I73.


inference, suggestion, d. aJ'~Cf<iT f,n<rr fii~nT iir~g~ 1 t!ffi['i!!'lTCiIJ-<iT M.Bh. on 1. 3.1.

~ in the natural order (opp. to srftlit+r), cf. ~s.-q!'{l~l:l<U~Im: in R. Pro II. 8.'aT-J-+rB~ is a term applied . to Samdhis with a vowel first and a consonant afterwards. Of~3'f'ef\l combination according to the alphabetical order; a kind of euphonic alteration ( ~N ) where the vowel comes first. e;g. ~Cj\~ aJ'm: where ~ is changed to ~; v,:q: &:q: = U;q &:q: d .. R. Pro II.B. (See aJ'!!~+r-). See aJ"~~~B~ below.

Of~ continuation or recurrence of

a word from the preceding to the . succeeding rule; the same as anuvrtti; d. 0G'i~~ -Ill[ iifc:r<l: 1 i! 'qr~~ilT &:q ~ 1 fcii nN 1 ~~~qrcfim M. Bh. I. l.3., V.24


27 26

~~ to be observed, to be obeyed; d . ., <i>~ ~ ~~:, ~"t.lht <i>1\3~cr~~ M. Bh. on III. T. 109.


repetition of a rule already laid down or of a statement already made; d. 5l'munvcRT'IiRf\<! O/~~ 'UQ~ B1i'r~m~'1Ta:: Kas. on II. 4.3; Vak. pad. II. II5

:s:r~ operation in conformity with what is found. The expression ~rt{~ [!!r:');fcrN: is often 'found in the Mahabha$ya; d. M.Bh. on I. 1.5, I. 1.6, I. 1.21, III. 1.9, III. 1.13, VI. 1.6, VI. 1.77, VI. 1.79, VI. 4.128, VI. 4.141, VIII. 2.108.
~~ repetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules, which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation. The word is of common use in books on HiQini's grammar. This continuation is generally uninterrupted like the stream of a river C'ffllOOmcmJ; sometimes however, when it is' not required in an intermediate rule, although it proceeds further, it is named +i~'litS3~G'l~. In rare cases it is taken backwards in. a sutra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called "fCf'lirt.

on; d. ~t:filiffiClf ~f~<r. Kat. IV. 1.13. The term O/!!Ef~ is defined in the Klitantra grammar as c,!~~: Ol~i:. The term is applied to the nasal consonant "!" preceding the last letter of a noun base or a root base; penultimate nasal of a root or noun base; Kat., II. I. 12. ( 3) resonant sounds 'helping the manifestati ln of~; cf. Vak. pad. 1. 106 and ffi.
~~, name of one of the main seven

said afterwards, generally in imitation; cf. ar.t'ffi'lT~ O/'l"ll<l: 1 O/'t ~<f(rCjs! M.Bh. on IIL2.109.

senses; cf.~l1iij'fiT:4~ir.1 Uddyota on P. VI. 3. xog.

vedic metres which are kriown by the name 5l':mqfu:e~. It has eight letters in each one of the four pad as. It is sub-divided into fSItf(~~'l:. and "l'g6flGW~,!:: foItf(<G;lI~q. has further divisions like ~~ffi:j~fcr ( 8, 12~ 12), fqtft~'Ii+i\!<!T (12,8,12), and \3Cf~ ~fcr (12, 12,8). ",!~eCfT<Ge:s1'!.. has divisions like q(~~~ (7, 7, 7, 7 ) and +ri[lCfa:qf;S'tji ( 5,.5, 5, 5. 5, 6). ct. l,{kpratisakhya XVI. 27-,-3.
~~ independent mention, a second


time, of a thing already mentioned, for another purpose; cf. 'arer~~'!' ll:m ~~l;r ~~(WlIWi'n{: P. 1. 1.53 Vart. I.

<fl'3l'ift[a- according to the Samhita

text of the Vedas; d. Q;aWI ~ i("'3fr:f O/&m amB~~+. Bhartrihari's Maha.' bba$yadipikii, p. 9; ct. also R. Pro XI. 3 I, also :( V. 33, where the word is explained as ~(ffOlii't11J by Uvata.
liII'~~ffi recapitulation; grasp (by. the mmd). d. fctW(f~'lT:!~H:: 1 M. Bh. on P. 1.1.52 (ami'm: ~qOO~: 1 \31lIT0' on +lIe,! on 1.1.52).

traditionp.l instruction; treatment of a topic; e.g. 3l:ef 'U"-:J:G~lTij'IlJ M.Bh. on 1.1.1. where the word is explained as O/~f~e<j;:ij- ~ c!lcCf{'lfra- O/;rii ~fu 3l!'!m6i1~ I d. .lso c'lT'li\11J~ ~"l;+i"'1~ ilTI1 'UlI~~{ilmfcr 1 Dipika and Pradipa.


(I) lit. attaching, affixing; augment,' 3l!'j;"f~'!:a- O/ijl 3l~:; ( 2) a term br the nasal letter attached to the following consonant which is the last, used by ancient grammarians; cL 3lrtlffi~ ~Ef;f~~crr~<1<I. d. P.I. 1.47 Vart. 2 and M.Bh. there-

resonance following the utterance of a letter; cf. O{r~ g eI'fij- ~~5F~1ij'fG~TiI': <{iI<;rfiI~1t'lQ.1 Svopajfia on Vak. pad. I. I06. see above under



~~ not ending in a diphthong; cf. ~~~Par. 5ek. Par in 7. ar.t~'IT statement or mention imme-, diately afterwards; the same as the ~T~~ undetermined, indefinite; word amit~ used by PiiQini in 1.3.10, t;~~'fiTf.oet <j~1l111J~ 6'11~~Iii[ld. mrnrml1'i~) <j:efTm<I.1 ar~~; 1l111J~ ~ct;ft~: M.Bh. on T. 2.30, also q~~~; Uvata on V. Pro I.r43. M.Bh. on VI. 1.37; not invariable, cf. ar~'liTm ~T~-, M.Bh. on VII. ~~~ having no ekase$a topic in it; 2.102, VIII. 3.34. a term applied to the Daiva Gram mar which does not discuss the ~<ii not possessed of any definite ekase!;la topic to which Piii;lini has cause; aF!m~<fit ~~q: M.Bh. on devoted ten rules from 1. 2.641. 1.20 also on 1. 1.59 and 1.2.64. to 73. <ll~ final, phonetically last element ~~~ having many vowels or remaining, of course, after the syUables in it; the same as Ol;rifiT~ mute significatory letters have been of Pal)ini; cf. Hem. III. 4 46. dropped. cf. ar~~~(i;1\3olt;:(f: M.Bh. on I. I.2Vart. 6. ~PiR having many syllables in it;\c!iT1\3~<lt~'1w:!1i1l~cfr Kat. II. 2.59. :aro:~ lit. bringing about as the final; an affix (which is generally &;~~ having many vowels (two or put at the end); ancient term for more) in it; ,?pp. to ll;Clil~; a term an affix; ct. Q;~: 'iiTltff "l <!'liT~\R:: "ll;:crfrequently used in Pal)ini's gramifi~ 1 :m;ij-: ~~ "l' 6'IiRT~ "lIN ir. I. 13. mar meaning the same as O/~<[~ or af.lifiT~~, which see above; cf. 'P. ~:CWiOR'hq lit. essence of the mind; internal. Thinking principle. d. VI. 3'42, VI. 4.82. O/<Q:'ii{11Ja~'1~ <f(~3T'l(ft '1a: I a~B11J ~~ (I) not forming an integral ~+iTf<t~~;;feCf f<!cr-ijij- i\ Vak. pad. I.Il4. part, the same as O/ij'cr'!~; ct. ar~: .,. . . ~i19,!crT' ll:~:4: Par. Sek. Pari 4 ~:~T<i ht: mterlor operatIOn; an operation inside a word in its ( 2) absence of any definite view formation-stage which naturally cf. ~~ I ~qf "l'lt'lT~,!ij- ~If(~'l~ becomes a12taraliga as contrasted '!F(f: I 1IT+illH '3'f:efqTS!+.1 +r+m<l itRl 'iii I with an operation depending on M.Bh. on VI. 1.7. two complete words after their ~irOliT"4 ,( I) possessed of a plural sense; formation which is looked upon as referring to many things. d. O/iij'fiT:qbahiYaliga. ~eli~li<ft M.Bh. on P. VII.2.98 also a1;:Q:~ inside a word; explained as e:j~r<:I\iI'l~ ~~ifi~q: P. I. 2.64 Viirt. tf'G;~<I ~~ by ~crG; d. ~~mf:q&:~'li IS; (2) possessed of many senses, V. Pro IV. 2 d. also "fi'a:tI<t W<a'Q,!: cf. 3liij'fiT<:It 3lN 1:TI(fcfl +TCIR M.Bh. on R. Pro II. 13. P. VIII. 2.48; also cf. <!ffiCliTl!{\f.r t;cfilffQ1((~ afi''!m~Sfim~TI1: Nir. IV.I. ~:q'(cr insertion of a letter or phone ,Indeclinables also have many tic element such as the letter Cii,

<ll"l'~' statement with reference to what has been already said; the same as anvadesa, which see below.

~i~ possessed of many laHers; lit. possessed of not one letter, cf.
O/~~~ 6~ P.

I. 1.55.


between ~ and a sibilant, or the letter C{. between tIt and a sibilant; cf. ST~~~ ~ fotl!lT, qRl5t. 'i{ .~Mft; . cf. P. VIII. 3.28, 29, 30, 31; cf. ij-s~ff:mrr: O!~d'Eif("1~ R. Pro IV. 20. inside the foot of a verse explained as 1fI~ fll;~ by Uvata; cf. ~~Sia':1fI~. P. VI. 1. U3. rence; or the. like. rhe word is usually explained as a Bahuvrihi. compound meaning' 0JiG: armf.r fiI~ 'ijffir 1I~' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which consequently is termed <f~\W ). aml\W, in short, is a rule. whose causes of operation occur eariier in the wordiDg of the form, or in the process of formation. As an arremt rule occurs to the mind earlier, as seen above, it is looked upon as stronger than any other rule, barring of course CllqcHa: rules or exceptions, if .the other rule presents itself simultaneously. The Vartikakara, hence, in giving preference toarrCf\W rules, uses generally the wording ~rCf~lIW!R1. which is paraphrased by CllCf\$\' q~\$\'flt. <iI~: which is looked upon as a paribha.!?a. Grammarians, succeeding the Varti- . kakara, not. only looked upon the q-~~ operation as weaker than 0JiG~\f, but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the ~ operation had taken place. They laid down the Paribha.!?a Cllmt <iI~ +Fffi~ which has been thoroughly discussed by Nagesa i!l his Pa~i bha!?endusekhara. The 8RiUff is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians: (1) h~ving causel;i of application within or before those of another e;g. ~"1: from the root fu~ (fu + ;a + "1') where the <:ill'.!.' substitute for l( is Cll~ being caused by ;a as compared to gUl}.a for ;a which is caused by "1', (2) having causes of application occurring bea fore those of another in the wording of the form, (3 ) having a smaller number of causes, (4) occurriDg earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word, (5) not having ~ (tech-

nical term) as a calise of its application, ( 6) not depending upon two words or padas, ( 7) depending upon.a cause or causes of a general nature ( ~Tfll~~ ) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( f.jl[fflit~ ).
~~~ the phrase is used gene:rally for the qitlffl'H ' a:rfuit Gl~~'


~icr inclusion of an element (of sense) in what has been actually assigned. e.g. ~~lI'RfIRr I ;awIlI<ITfer lItcro:.l Clliffmf<!aol!i!l"ls'.5!' Wr: Kas. on P. I. 3.84, CllrcrlfTfcruolI~~ftr: B1fi~it +fCIRrI U:;j~9T Ka. on P, III. 2.95.
8PG~ separated by a dissimilar element; cf. ~ 'i'fTrtrfW' a:r>nm: P. IV., 1.93 Vart. 5. OCj~;rr;:Clmnfit ;a;u'Glcq~: ~'6: ~ltctfITq~ij- T. Pr. XIV. 30; cf. also R. Pr. III. 9. ' 13I;:aq-:m''f supposed condition of being at the end obtained by the single substitute (tm~) for the final of . the preceeding and the initial of the succeeding word. cf. 0JiG1F{.,{'i:"Il <TI<iit9iTW: Btt.cfw-er<ro:. q~Cla,. t<:ila,. , Sid. Kau. on ~rmf<::Cf'i:<iP. VI. 1,84. ,

at~:~~, at=a:~T

alw written as semivowel; cf. O!~: I P-lRr ltRr ~Rt V. Pro VIII. 14-15; cf. :qctWrff:~~: ex'plained by;gqa- as ~i(6~T+Ri: fI"~ m~fu O!iff:~: R. Pr. I. 9, also 'RT~d~"'Rffi~T: . T. Pr. I. 8. The ancient term appears to be O!;;:er:~~r I. used in the Pratisakhya works.. The word 0JiG:~~"1r+I:. occurs twice in. the Mahabha!?ya from which it cannot be said whether the word there is :o:r.ct:t~ m. or Cll;;:~i!l"T I. :The term ~~ or ~:!fT is explained by the commentators on Katantra as ~ m~ ~~1"1t~ arrij- R'i~fcr I
<iF;('R~, 0JiG~~




described above. See the word The qft+!NT has got a very wide field of application and is used several times in setting aside difficulties which present themselves in the formation of a word. Like ma~y other paribha~as this paribhii~a is not a paribha~a of universal application.

~Wil'ttl<mq the strength which an antaranga rule or operation possesses by virtue of which it supers~des all other rules or operations, excepting an apavada rule, when or if they occur simultaneously in the formation of a word.

I. also SliQ~: semi-vowel; see unger Cllrcr:ti!l".

at~~ having the last vowel circumflex, e. g. lI~l!~cwFt I d. Cj~o~a,....

fff{i!f"~fu;: I

KiiS. on P. VI. 2.37.

interval between two phonetic elements when they are uttered one after another; hiatus, pause; qUJ\;Q~ 'R~, RT. 34; also fctwI) qui<u1'i~~t<jB~ij- Vyasasik!?a; (2) space between two phonetic elements. e. g. ~~.m: explained as ~\~ (between two vowels) by Uvata cf. arr~~~~* N+trflttmUJ: Nir X. 17. Cllrtr~'fci'fi1~';~lIq~Wl!fu ~~fcr ~: I Durga's comment. a highly technical term in pal;,J.ini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. The term is not used by Pal;,J.ini himself. The Vartikakara has used the term thrice (See I. 4-2 Vart. 8, VI. I. 106 Vart. 10 and VIII. 2.6 Vart. I) evidently in the sense of 'immea diate', 'urgent', of eadier oceura

characterized by the nature of an antaranga operation which gives that rule a special strength to set aside other rules occurring together with it. very close or very cognate, being characterized (1) by the same place of utterance, or (2) by possessing the same sense, or ( 3 ) by possessing the same qualities, or ( 4) by possessing the same dimension; cf. q:q1~rctWt: P. I. I.5o a nd Kas. thereon <llTiff4 ~l~>lmuRf: I ~: ~!tIi{" Sl~d: CjQ~ 'tffiIT ~RlII:! Cfffiumt~ffi: I WIer: lIT'!i:, ~JiT:, \JiT: I
SlmUJd: Sl1I 6+{

at;:al~q::itl<i condition, attributed to a



single substitute for the final of the preceding and initial of the succeeding word, of being looked upon either as the final of the preceding . word or as the initial of the succeedingword but never as both (the final as well as the initial) at one and the same time; cf. \3'~lICi anwr i!FCflWrif. Sir. Pari. 39 also M. Bh. on I.248

affix of the impera. 3rd pers. pl. Atm., substituted, for th~ original affix iff, e.g. 1J;\:TiQ~

.. SF!."<iTt\II

~a affix of the pres. 3rd pers. pl

. Gi~

a group of words mentioned inside another group of words ( i(11J); d. 9;9Tfltf4ClI'i!l<d{I0j) "!~ij-, ;;:r +91~T I1l<afJUJ: lias. on Ill. I.55; also

Par~smai. substituted for the original affix fu, e.g. wrfrff, If'lf;er. .

affix of the impera. 3rd pers. pl. Parasmai. substituted for the oeiti9rgp ~~iS.

<iil1191f~lJ~!WQij1T(: Kas~ On



gina1 affix ~, e~g.


yet siQlilar to it; cf. iffSr'ffl,'fCfIF<lo t!iimfl:jcfi~ Cf<JT liN'IRr: I arnl&ltlJllI<Ftc~'fiT


affix of the pres. 3rd pers. pl. II Atm. substituted for the original, affix iff, e.g. t!;l~, q~. '

~~ a word with its last vowel I accented acute. Roots, crude noun I ~~ irregular; cf. ~~Fll3llm <{[!'Itt, I ~mfitcii Sl<UlT1F<ll<:<ll\q ~~; KiiS. on bases and compound words genee l P. VII. 3.34. ' rally have their last vowel accented acute; cf. fit'q: ( mR1'lifc\~ ) \3'''{Rl! a;~~ (I) having another purpose or ~mr. Phit. Sutra 1.1; 1:'lTIfr: (P. VI. signification; cf. arr<IT~ Sll!:i& arr!lf~ I.x62) arrCf \3'({Ri: ~m.; ~mffi.<! (P. VI. I <1cfRr M. Bh. on I. 1.23; (2 ) another 1.223) arrCf \3'~: ~rn.1 sense which is different from what is expressed; cf. aTr<jllqf ~f.i1:~: Can. S1~ (I) final letter; aT;:~ <1cfl'!~i!, \.
(2) final consonant of each of the five groups of consonants which is a nasal aT<t<ll~Tffi'li: R. T. 17.

~&l1J'(t!'!~ awft<l~ I ill6\' ~ElITi:ff<l ~ OlqRr I M. Bh. on P. III. 1.12.-


upon the sense conveyed by them, ~'6lUi!t q~~l{~FI<l:. I ( 2 ) continua ance, continuation; cf. 'il[CfW~~ il:m f.lN<r~ ~~ ~ 91 3jf<llmli{ <1cfm a:riI ~ff~:, a:J<l ff~~ ~ffi M. Bh. on

1. 2.45 and HeHiraja on Yak. pad. III. I.67 and M.Bh. on I. 2.32 .

P. II. 1.1.
<i'i;;:0f1'~ given in accordance with the sense; generally applied to a technical term which is found in accordance with the sense conveyed by the constituent parts of it; e.g. B~i!T+f~i~n, d. li~c<lT: ~~<lT: <!i~ tJ:ffit 5!<U;;r.:rl'!;:q~~~r <I<JT fq~~Cf M. Bh. on

lit. explanatory. The word is used in connexion with tlie science of grammar, when it qualifies the word 'Sastra.' When it qualifies the word' Vakya ' it refers to what is termed sn:mT9'T<f<l. d. Yak. pad.

II. 362; III. 14. 6r5.

~~, what is to be explained by

its division into a base and an affix; the word aTrq~<I as qualifying the word ~~ is taken to mean fit for use', which can be used , d. Yak. pad. 1. 24; III. 1 4.74.

II. 2.46.

~ ~~!J'{r: other grammarians. This

P. I.


expression, twice mentioned by Patafijali may refer to Katyayana e <fi';:~<=l~ a grammarian of the seven whose YarD I on P. VI. I.I44 teaches teenth century, possibly the same I exactly what the others are stated as the author of Tarkasarilgraha, I to have taught.' who wrote a commentary on, Ai?tadhyayi called Mitaki?ua a'1d ~~~ reciprocally dependent and Pradipodyotana, a commentary on hence serving no purpose; same as Pradipa. mCfUl3l<l which is looked upon as a fault. d. arr<Itr<l~l3l~ ~~Q.I -~1~: ~'6:{: ~ a technical term of J ainendra ~~l!:ici :cr~1tq~ M.Bh. on IV. 1.3. gram mer for PaI}ini's >r<Jl'!9;<l'l. cf. ms:W!:ms~<q6l'!~1I Jain. Su. I. 2.152. I ~;::r~~~ a com'bination of letters according to the order of the letters at~~G: option~lly; lit. in another'll in the Alphabet; a samdhi oreuphoway; cf. CJo1m aTr<jCRCf: V.P. V. IS. nic combination of a vowel and ~dt~<iT;r" optionally; lit. in another a consonant, called aT;:CfctRar~l'!mq way. The term is very common in where a vowei precedes a consonant; rules of Pal)ini, when~ the terms 91 and aT;:9'!)ilHI~+reN where a consonand W'mqr are also used in the same ant precedes a vowel, the consonant sense. in that case being changed into the third of its class; tJ:'l \<1 ~ :cr ~~ ~ ~~q ,another sense, sense different +TCfm Oli~<1!i!'ijt <i~<I: I ~i'faa~\;f<u~i,;;"rl'!T: from what has been expressed by Slm<Mm~ Rtr<l~ Cf !J;q II R Pr. II. 8.g the wording given; d. ~liG:T~ e. g. u;tj' ~:, ~ ~: and others are P. II. 2.24; also arr<!'RT~ll'c'fI;U ~l'!~: instances of 3jf~\T~IT~M where M. Bh. on II. 1.6. fiffitT after the vowel is dropped; ~~ connected with the word arr<!; while {[sq'il;s" a:rm: is an instance of connected with another; e.g. aTr<jr 31r'f!';J\Slffi;t+ffi~ where the c~)llsonant ~ ~l+ftfcr I .. if ~ i'J'ICi1r2j~: I ~ precedes the vowelar. ' Cf.~~ I ~+ft M. Bh. on P. II. 3.22. <lrj0'''l<i (I) construing, construction; :al;;:~'in~~ an object which is arrangement of words according to different from what IS ment,ioned, their mutual relationship based

~l;lq~ A technical .term used in accordance with the sense of its constituent parts; e. g. ~~i!1+r, ~<jr, aTc<l<i, \3'litF4iif, 'liT\'!i, 'li+lSlCf'C/;:fiil, ~~+!r9', SlE<I<I, 'lqqa: etc. All these terms are picked up from ancient grammarians by Pal)ini; d. CfSf +ii[(<lT: :H;m<lT tJ:CfCl. 5!<i1~iI~ \ a:rrCl'<T~~ <llqT f<I~l~Cf I ~<ll<1~ aTif<lT B~ I d. M. Bh. on I. r.2.3 ; also d. M. Bh. 011 I. 1.27, I. 1.38, I. 2.43, I. 4.83. II. 1.5, III. 1.1, III. 1.92 etc.

aggregation of a secondary element along with the primary one; 'l%'li~<I IIMrilPlo\l\:Sl\;fFr Cf<G~~ifT"<IR1<r lTIifCfr aTrClT'C/<:(: Nyasa on P. II. 2.29. One of the four senses-of :cr, e. g. fOl!';Jl+!G 'IT 'Cflif<l; d. t<;;!';J~~ 'T+<!Cf 1i;mtnq~<i' Sl~~Cf ~f:'1 \ also M. 'Sh. III. 1.1.

<31;:crq~ relaxation or wide opening of the sound-producing organs as done for uttering a vowel of grave accent. d. aT"<IqBii; 'TF-ll1J'(T f<I~~Cfm Tait. Pr.

~;n (I) lit. reference to the anterior word or expression; d. aTrcn~ ~~<I (f.I: ~~ in T. Pr. VII. 3, 0l''IiR~<I in V. 8) T. Pr. 1. 58; (2)
,reference again to what has been stated previously; d. il:~"<IR~'U~C((~. ~~cft<lT<U aTrcn~~~ 1.hfitCfl~'li:q<j+rTsr<I:. P. II. 4.32 and Vart. 2 thereon; ~ q~T ~'C/RlI1+rI~l'{i~n~~: f<i m't I ~q91f+!~ 'l~ ~ ~-a~if SlffiqTfct~ f~ STffiIil':{ifl'!"<IT ~i([: Kas on the above.



'i'{;:qTfflq; a word attracting a previous

wo~d such as the word:cr, in the Sutra texts.

tIl;:q~'ii a word capable of attracting

a word or words from previous statements; d. 'CfTtft~<I.qT~'U<tr T. Pr. XXII. 5 ; same as aT"TT'!i~.

restatement; expression of what is already in existence,\explanation of what is known or current. The word is med in connexion with grammatical explanations by finding out the base and the affix or affixes, augments, substitutes of words which ,are already in use etc. d. Yak. pad. II. 170, 23I, 440 , 448; III. 14, I7I,272.tcf. also Kaiy. on

Of'!. (I) krt

affix a:r, in the sense of verbal activity ( +!l9' ) or any verbal relation ('!il\'!i) exceptitzg that of an agent, ('f.~) applied to roots ending in ~ or \3' and the roots ::iff, ~, [ etc. mentioned in P. III. 3.58 and the following rules in preference to the

were either Vartikakaras before 'h~:, '1\:, ~~:, <19:, Ki'ityayana who critically examined etc. ct. P. III. Pii1).ini's siitras and to whom Katya3 57-87; (2) compound-ending <!itt, yana was indebted or they may be . applied to Bahuvrihi compounds the glammarians who explained the in the .feminine gender ending with Vi'irtikas. Sometimes we find the a PiiraQa affix as also to Bahuvrihi compounds ending with ~~ precee~pression O1~~: I ded by aml. or iifrn, e. g. Cf*,nmqliil+!T ~ achievement; cf. tM551Tm tlt<lT !i<iT~<i:, 3Tiff~1t{:, Cj~Tll: li2::. cf. P. V. lifi.tlQriR: <!i\1'l<T: see EM. on (ij'q-qiI ti:ftClT 4 n6, I I 7. a technical term of P. II. 3.6. Jainendra grammar for ficlT<lT of Pi'il)ini. d. Jain. Siit. I. 2-I58. ~ a letter which is phonetically r badly or wrongly pronounced. cf. ~i;f (i) deterioration of the place ~at:!liGJ7ffi ~ll1i<jui :q +!~ff<r.1 ., oi<i lf17; Or instrument of the production of m!Wfur tf1'C[~ltq fchf~qHI.. paI).. Sik. 50. sOilnd resulting in the fault called R\~ ; C!. \<rrO'{'fi\1JJ<U\li91llUJ ~~ <iTt! ~q arqCf~ a special rule which sets aside \3"cq~~, R. Pra. XIV. 2. (ii) drawthe geperal rule ; a rule forming an in,3 back a word or words from a exception to the general rule, which succeeding rule of grammar to the is termed r'I~ or 511t<f e. g. ~litliI preceding one; d. 0qi!(<lfa' o~~ 9;\~T 91: III. 2. 2 which is an exception of q:q91~: I M.Bhi'i. on P. II. 2.8 (iii) the general rule 9i<lUCl'!! III. 2. r ; cf. inferiority (in the case of qualities) ~<i <r!mm <It f9N\R+~~ tl ~ <rr~ +!qfu, <i 'i:f i\aj1;<i 5191QTQ91t:lT i: I (i v) ~~ o~ooii <Urn +!Cfm-;, Par. Sek. Pari ~~(CfQ91q~<l<r.1 P. III. 4. I04, Var. 57; for details see Par. 'Sek. Pari. 2. Kaiyata says <!i'i91q-: <!iqClTq:: I which 57-65; ct. i<fl~ffI~ri'!~ mft~,1 rl[ClT Nagda explains as 'li~51fua;:g:;:M'91fll'3"fflm: mrTICfcTCl: mrrf<l'EfClTf9I:T<I: I ~ 91~: ~:::~ etc. aRtrfcl'Ef<!T: fc!\:T<I: \ ~tt1i1UJ rn~f.j.fu'liOT~ :1iT.Wmi.1 O1'Irnmerii l:!'R=j"f \'Jttlm: 51Cfijrij~ a descendent, male or female, i{t<I~: \ R. Pro I. 23 and com. thereon; from the son or daughter onwards ( 2) fault; cf. ~~Q, ~RlqiWIG:rQ, upto any generation; ct. o~~ ... R. Pr. XIV. 30 on which \3"Cf2: P. IV. 1.92. remarks ~TUJTl1liCfRT ~'qr: tlf.o 9;i'!~~ degraded utterance of standard ~m <!imw~ffT,91\!~m . correct forms or words; corrupt atqqrcr-=lIT~ the convention that a rule form; e. g. 'IT;ft, and, the like, of laying down an exception supersedes the word .n, d. m::rr~ ~~ m;ft I the general rule; cf. ftl~ ?-NClT'I:i<fl~i'! ~lm .nffT .nqymr ~Cf+iW-l: a:mtm:! P. I. 3.9 Vart. 7. M.Bh. on 1. I.I; cf. ~Q({~ij)- <U iiT~fu ll"~~~~ \ Ollqst1iTrn~f.o f9~M' Slqql~iijJ\q~tCf the convention that a special rule is always stronger than fiI~ro<m. Yak. pad I. 149; ct.~51'lifu\li~~: (VyaQisiHra) on which the general rule. cf. 51e<rI<::~~ PUI).yaraja says tlcW:I ~ <!iq-slm<l tlT~ <lTif,,\ 51e<r means 8q cf. <!iT, ~r. ~. 51'liffi: cam. on Yak. pad. I. 149. T. I. 22. 'usual affix EPf. e. g.
~q:, liCf:, !ll[:, {<!<i:


~(t!cf~ , !{~!1qrtU O1liCfrq:f951ffittI:TT'S[ tlqiitm
~6<ffu I

M. Bh. on 1. I.,54 Vart.


that which has already happened or taken place; cf. r<:il~ - ~

~1V-ffT I ~o:

i[CRT: I tt'Ef :q <iTt!

ar[V.lliq'llQ,,\ anfct\Slllir<:i1<:<Jf ~ <lSI'

marked with ~and hence it prevents the gUQa or vrddhi substitution for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate vowel if it be 01. e.g. ~: o~:, ~~fro where no gUQa takes place for the' vowel \3' cf.
tlT~'9lg9il1fq((.. P.

f<ii~((1l~ ~~ M. Bh. on III.,2. 102


I. 2.4. _

corrupt form of a correct word, called ;:~~ a Iso; cf. ~:qjt ~ <rT ~ <I;';:li~;;;';:: M. Bh. on 1. I. I. <!i~ 9Tttr

~ (I)

~!H1G..<iTli~~ +!f9 6/lfu \ ClT'<!1,jhfre<lT

ClT:qq;~(51~\R!m+l1l M. Bh. on V. 3. 55. ~Cf'<l'<i'fiT~\'llTU]Tt{"..<j:qT sr<nif: \ Kauti. Arth. I r. 10. 6I.


not in conformity with the rules of PaQini's grammar; cf. ftreCl~ cr+ItfTfUl;:fti{ g +!Cffff M. Bh. on 1. I. I.

before; cf. 'M.Bh. on I. I.20, I. 1.46; (2) not preceded by any letter or so, cf.01~!tIUJ <!irf.t: 1vLBh: on I. I.2I; (3) a rule prescribing something not prescribed before; cf. 001 <!i't9'f fctN~g f.r:Im~ l{fa- ~ Q;q' fctw~f<le<!fu 0'{ ~1i: M.Bh. on I. '4.3., III. 1. 46, III. 2. 127, III.3. I 9
8iT'I+r!.\l <iTll <!i~: ~~~<i:

not - existing


~1G;Tii detachment, sepanl.tion, ablation; technical term for <!ilim<l'fiR'fi which is defined as ~,!,il1tW'tSqT?Jii<r,

in P. I. 4.24 and subsequent rules 2 5 to 3I and which is put in the ablative case; ct. arqrif.\' 'C[liil+l't P.

lit. unmixed with any (letter); a technical term for an affix consist. ing of one phonetic element, i.e. of a single letter. d. <!i'l'ffi tt'li(~trel<I: P. I. 2.4 t.

a;q~ relation

II. 3.28.
QTqN (I) point of departure, separation; ct. ~Cft{trFttfla:lii<r. P. I. 4.24; (2)

i fs.uit&JT

of dependence; d. M.Bh. on IV. 2.92.

Sf1ft;a:R' separation, division, detachment (01C!t;jSro fct~TiJ: I) cf. Yak. pad. I. 24; II,IO, 269, 44z; III, 13. 6, 14. 145. The word is used, rather technically, in the sense of the separation of the base from the affix. The word also means a separated part of a word, such as_ the base separated from, the affix, or the affix separated from thl'! base to which an individually separate sense is attributed by grammar-ians cf. O1i!I:ilt<l 9ii1q-<j(~~'fI 9.~q-<t fiIb~6<f I Helaraj~ on Yak. Pad. III. LI.
SIit~ lit. taken away (as a part)

disappearance; cf. ~~<um~efi!1'i1rClff \Tli~ \3'~<U\t<iq-r<j: I o~:q-r \ ~CJ~~'t(T m<t 91.t 91-aaj<r. I ~'ffiq~ ~c::~fi\' ., WRl M.Bh. on IV. 1-36.

awT~ without any purpOSe or object,

d. mi'tf.!!!l<::~<lT:::tfI<l<nitGQ, useless; Nyasa on P. I. 4.80.



also; in addition to; <!iN is used sometimes to mean absolute of or unqualified by any condition; ct. ~~mfti ~<irij- \ <!iN~Q~: wnq-rfl:Tajfu'i:fT\1~: I ~'fjqq<tl<tfq


I 1:119T q'til'T \

a:rtR ar{& 'another

says. Patafijali uses this expression eighty three times in Mahabha~ya. It refers to opinious of other grammarians. They

Slq'n'{f.tSi~ a ~onfl.ict with a special rule, ,when the special rule supersedes the general rule; cf. ' aretrC<i~ , ~ ~e~q:\ ~ ~aWt: \{WI' '~

on P. III. 2.75, III. 2.IO.I~ VII. 1.38; cf. O1fit!l~1iI Q<lf+r'<l'HT~ \ Durgasimha on Kat. II.3.64.



not marked

~ith the mute letter

f~om the whole; part of the sense ofa word taken out -from the composite sense possessed by the whole word.

tf,' A Sarvadha,tuka affi)'; not marked with mu.t~ tf is !Q~ked upon as

~r~Q, srr:q~Q A famous- versatile writer of th~ 'sixteenth cen-


-tury A.D. (153Q-r6oo), son of a Dravid BrahmaJ;la. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedanta, Mimarnsa., Dharma and Alarnkara sastras; many of his works are yet in manuscript form. The and TiIiantasef?asarilgraha are the two prominent grammatical works written by him. PaI)Qita Jagannat!la spoke very despisingly of him.

M.Bh. on 1. I. I, also ~~I~P;J1Il+tq~ M.Bh. on I. 1.24.
~~ prescribing
a:r;:jr~6'fll'mfc!~: ~ml3lfm~'<T:.

an operation which otherwise cannot be had. commentary on the Sabdanusasana Grammar of Hemacandra.

~1I (I) non-employment of a word in spite of, the meaning being available; d. ~Tq~sz;;fum ~RfI:fq<uit P. III. 3. 154; ( 2) non-employment cf. ~'mT:qTqTl15t~: a standard dictum' of grammar not allowing superfiu- Ous words which is given in M.Eh. 'on P.I.1.44 Vart. 16 and stated in Ca.ndra and other grammars as a


4.24 Vart

Of~iIf..~ a reputed J ain Grammaria~

of the eighth centu;y who wrote an extensive gloss on the ~~ur. The gloss is known as ~:'trl(ol:{(Cfi{1l1+!'mftl of which ~if.Ni<t~~l~ appears to be another name.
at41TOf absence; absence of any following letter which is technically called avasana. cr. 'fc!{TmS1j~l'ffl::.l cruTI<!fll+TT<!tSCftlT<i~: ~TG:. S. K. on P.


atsmrr.hntl'T see above a:r5tlaFFf,(i!f.

Ofmfs' (I) non-occurrence or' non-

<l{.!>I~Rt'El'l'{tOf non-retention of the ori-

ginal word accents; cf. 0>'1 ~ iIm:JfjlifeREWci" tl'+tftlAft<;:I'Ufcf ~niITm M. Bh. On VI. 2.49. See the word 5t~~9\.



(I) impossibility to obtain the correct form; (2) abs~nce or want of apprehension, cf. ~Ti1t :;:r{5tmqffi: llltilrftl' M. Bh. on I. I. I, 1. 1.44 Vart. 8.

not-fonnd in actual use among the people altho~gh mentioned in the sastra-texts; a mute indicatory letter or letters . d. am<lr'l't i{G:. Sak. 1.1.5 Hem. 1. 1.37 Jain. I. 2.3 and M.Bh. Pradipa on III. 8.3I.
.non-applica tion of a' rule of grammar or of a technical term;

realization of a grammatical opera. tion or rule-a:rmfai:I~: M. Bh. on 1. I.56 Vart~ 8;, (~) prohibition of the occurrence' of a rule or operation, cf. a:rmHCJT I a:r~Cffcl'('fU 'IT mrS: ~T Iffuf?jla'la- M.Eh. on I. 1'043,

1. I.63~

1. 4.IIO.
vowel d. O1cIT
at~~ that


~ffi<;:~ P. VI. 1. II3.

ar.n'CfCii' not coming in the way of

rules otherwise applicable; the word is used in connection with f.tqraq i.e. cOI!-stituted or announced forms or specially formed words which are said to be 31iiIll:TCfi i.e. not coming in the way of forms which could be . arrived at by application of the regular rules Siradeva has laid down the Paribhii~a


which does .not convey a masculine sense; a' word which is not declined in the masculine gender; a word possessing only the feminine gender e.g. @?f/T, ~ etc. d. O1my.r('f~~'fifiEI P. VII. 3.48.


useless prohibition; unnecessary prohibition; d. 31i1~'Ii~ 5tfa-ih'r: <>fJffu~l:T: M.Bh. on 1. I.6; 1. 1.20.; 1. 1.22 etc.
(I) lit. absence of any affix; an affix such as fui'!.. or fem:.. which wholly vanishes; d. fqqft'1'a-: Olml:{l:{: fqqil: M. Bh. on I. 1.6; ~~hml:{l:{: CfiUi[: M.Bh. on 1. 1.58; (2) that which is not an affix. d. 815rc<t<l~m: ~W m ~q'1.. M.Bh. on 1. 1. 61, 1. 1.69; (3) that which is not prescribed, "l'fcil:ft<Il1l<r, 31qc~m<r; M. Bh. on 1. 1.69.

cf. a:r;'l"i ~if9"efqlG:. ti!I'tI~ ~WS5tt!~: M.Bh. on P. 1. 1.1 Vart. II.

at!iiB~ No1t wellfknown;

t;;ci' '<iT5tm:jj,t;f

secondary .( used in connection with sense)'


atffl~fu a variety of long ~etres called a:r~<i; it consists of 100 syllables. ct. O1fu~:'-~clT arm:. ftq~ R. Pr. XVI. 60.
at~ the first of the



clrurtCj+(Par. Sek. Pari. IS.

Of~f.g; abse.nce of clear sense or interpretation; cf. ~mtr~f<l'l<;:qmfu:


fcrqr('fqrfq. +TCf~('f

M.Bh. on I. 1.1. Vart. 8, 1. 1'.38 Vart4.

atm8'~q same as a:r5tltffi?lmq-r one of

defending the form !!\fo<r in spite of PaI)ini's specific mention of the word ~:Clur in the rule :9,UUlsi'Rii!!O IV. 3. 105.
at41'ffi not-forming an integral part of another; qui~e independent ( used in connection with augments). cf. T'li !fcwi 'iCiTiCi 011it~CJG:. tRTilt:cmftCJ?l,'+T'tii: M. Bh. on 1. I. 47, I. 1.51. ~ o~h\'tii: M. Bh. on . VI. 1.71, VI. 1.135, and VII. 2.82.


(I) non-principal, subordinate, secondary, cf. aHr\:lrq!!q~i1illm. M.Bh. On 1. 2.43; (2) nonessential, non-predominent, d. ~if~~S5t~ P. II. 2.19 and the instance !!~ur ~liIo: fqm I Kas. on II. 2.19.

the three. kinds of optional application of a rule; ct. f,:re-'8~I~ +TcWo 5tlt~ a:rlf{t~ \'I>t'l~ ~fff I M.Bh. on P. I. I.44 Vart. 20; optional application of a rule prescribing an operation; e.g. ;;n<Tfla-r'4>tTllT P. VII. 2.6; VII. 3.90 a:r!!~hU P. 1. 3 43.
~~l:{:r\tl:{Fi. I Olf+tqT<;:<!m ~~. +tTUTq~~

two utterances of a word which characterise the krama method of recital; e.g. in the krama recital of 5fU1 ~U etc. II ur: I <!:f<'~ I the first recital Jf U1: is called a:rf+l'!ili. or q~1i Cf"l<r while q ~ is called ~m1fcr"l<r, cf. 01~ ~fci\:lfclm"l~ ~FI~~'U{'IiTf\ct >tilt R. Pro XI. 2I. .


<l{llt'SflCi depr~ssion or sinking of the voice as required for the utterance of a circumflex vowel.
~~ a word standing as identical

with the object denoted by it d.

WS'lf+!t'l~B0/91~qll~ 'l<tl I ;:Uca:~<II~


fiTcH I 3nrrnf~q{qT'Dfttr9 Kas. on 1. 4.53. fcr+rr'TI ~'i.~ I ~qm: ~~qt<ft I

a:r~mf<r+rNl:{~ii'tlJf<l'1G:. I :a:rm8'~ prescription of a new thing. cf. aon~THfcre1R 5tlHlffu~:


not found in popular or current use, e.g. the words ;;nli, a-{, '<i'!i etc,


i3l'CRei <U~t!:j<r~!!~l:{l:

M.B,h. on VI. 4.17 I Vart. 2.

grammarian who ~ '8~~tf ~"ef~ I Vak. pad. II.I28. wrote 5tlSn<iT~;:jlf, based on the Sabda-I ~usasana VyakaraI)aof the Jain a:rllt'CIT the activity of a word in showing its sense, the power of denotaSakatayana. His possible date is tion; a relation between the word the twelfth century A.D. and its sense, viz. the object ~n:r.:rfuC!J<n a Jain writer of the 402; denoted by it. cf.Vak. pad. thirteenth century who wrote a



also cf.
aTf+M"rcUflt\,l'<!CCjT"<!Cj l"'l'h+lfcf~~: ~ar;:'if: aTf~l~iR ~~O<!lqjl.ll1 fc!<i~ ( !!U<{. ) 1 31f<lFI'i/tolt +lCffu -I aTf+lf.J~~ i(tlIfufil'ifT<l: arRfquftll: i(t<!~: 1 <NT <I: ~o a:r~;11~~ 1 <I: tq.jtlFlT I The _ 1,{k.


atilt~""m an

ancient lexicographic work quoted by Mahesvara in his commentary on Nir. 6.14 as aTfu'9F1'f>~R: qofu"9Yll1T: ~mT'fi13: I Medhatithi also quotes the work_ d. on Manu Smr. II. 140 ff:.tT '<!lfu'i/T<f-

Pratisllkhya explains the term aTf+lfilI:TT<f somewhat differently; cf.

<lif+lfi!I:TTcf '[i:ffiftrr<fT ';tf~Tro:~:qJiIFI1i9~ l.~ I tfI:TRUT ~Cf\rir ~~ ~tf~\'i:\<!T<1n:1fq
,<!T9t11~R. Pro VI. 17, 18. explained

~ I -I


Qlfli'Cllif~T function

of denotation which is effected in language by the use of words related to each other . cf. Viik. pad. II. 106

denotation, expression of sense by a word which is looked upon as the very nature of a word. The expression arf<l'i/T;:j ~: ~:!T+lrFclt:j)'I. (denotation of sense is only a natural characteristic of a word) frequently occurs in the_ Mahiibhal?ya; cf. M.Bh. on L 2.64 a:rf+lf.!'<TTiI: I ~ '<! '!.CfYi'ff13~~ +l9Rr 1 R. T.-ZI. Valt. 93, - n. 1.1, cf. <f~8~ <iC["l1ri{f o<:<r Cj~f+l'91<f~: (R. Pro XIlI.7) where Qlfli~fu development of _an activity; the word ~fiNr<f means GfS9"'l'<f. manifestation; cf. i\~!i 'h.t"'l'ra:ilT<!t Although aTf<T'ifl<f means activity of 6:<1rt:'f.~llrfuf.t~fu+fCjfu M.Bh. on denotation -and - aTfu\,l'<! means VI. :1.84. denoted object, both are found used synonymousJy. Patafijali on ~film that which has already I. 2.5 r. Vart. I. understands a:rf+N<! entered on functioning or begun to as principal sense and aTf+l'9Ff as function; d. .;=rm<lO ~~t ~Tilt original sense. ~Ii'l~!:!:a:rfufi!fif!!filt fi!f+I~fcTq 3F9T~ fsF.~ I M.Bh. on II. 1.1. d. ~ll1i9ta:t m+l"l:q' object or thing denoted by aTf+rf.tfcl~~ tfa1@:~13r(Y:, M.Bh. on II. a word; sense of aword; cf. a:rf'lf3.46; Pari. Sek. Pari. 62. \,l'<!Cjfu~lTCf"'l<fTf.r +lCfRr M.Bh. ori II. alflifilIDif is an ancient name ofvisarga. 2.29 d. Kasika on P. VIII. 3.86 which alflitil"lTif lit. that which is placed Among the derives the word. near or before; the first of the Pratisakhyas it occurs only in doubled class consonants; a mute Atharvaveda Pratisakhya :1;42. or spar~a consonant arising from Abhinil?thiina seems to be the true doubling and inserted before a form. mute; cf.a:r~C["l1UJ: lR: 5{:ql1:a:rf+rFI'ifT<f: ~~tf\l~Bl tI~:qjq: (T. Pro XIV. 9.) ~filftrQ used in connection with a explained by ftim 611\ti! as ~tf~t'Rti:\eil~T tlfi'<T or euphonic combination in '!,611UJ: 1{\: >[Il'll aTllTll';CR<! .;q:U.;<! ~Ij'JiI';~: . which the vowel ai, as a first or a.

~l;ITiJ designation,

~o92: here means the first of the doubled letter which, although the second letter is attached to it, is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. aTfur.p:fr., - means, in short, something like 'suppression.' T-he ~k. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains <lif+lfil'ClT<1 as the first of a doubled consonant. d.-

'<! ~I:T1\rir iJ~~~~ ~\rir +rCffu I oa:a<t. 31fufi!I:Tt;:j i1Tl1 I <I:qT ~tf lIT ~J{ fJ;T fJ;T I '!fi. B (.IG.(./~ ~lf ~ !l:(<{~ aTf+lf.tI:TTc:rr \I aTfufill:TT<1 possibly according to


by '3'092: as ~q~qUUJt ~~filt Cf~t9T

'<! ClllJTilT

second member, is absorbed into the other member. e.g. \q~Cj':+am-= \~<us, also i:\l~S~, where aT of 31~ is absorbed or merged in aft of \~<lt or ~ of ~; cf. tfR!~: Slr~'[ij: I ~;,fi'r+lcrfrr ~f<t\'fim~S~ ~~:; R. Pro II. 13 to 235; cf. ~: tre:Rl1C(f& P. VI. I. 109.

Qlfli~:q'lm- expression; cf. -<lit:r-tll1T~ ~~

tIll'rilTf+lO<:fI&lt +lCfRr o;;:mm- +rCfRr I mo<!~q: I;:i ft\oC{~<{i Nir X. 16.

~fflQ lit. carefully directed towards.

The word is used jn connexion with a word which is carefully directed towards its -power of denotation with a view to communicating the i':ltended sense. cf. Vak. pad II. Aoi.




~filfflQ~t name given to the circnmflex vowel which is the resultant of the aTfuf.t~~.
Qlm~T~ (I) ~>rT:q'G~ a kind of euphonic combination -where the nasal letter iJ.. is dropped and the preced ing vowel (3TT) is nasalised e.g. G:'~T <r: I ~9T <iTg I (2) view, purpose, intention; cf.r~ >;7Jml1T:qF{';llTf<lITT~ lfl'!fo, i({ <r +l9tiTRr; M.Rh. on I. :1.27; cf. also ~'1ftof5:r(f; ~r+lq'B'r f;;n!U~ p. 1. 3 72.


alflimftofr name of a metre in which

two feet have ien syllables and the other two have twelve syllables;


'" '" "'.. "::;" q\t:;J:;JTiTC!: tfr?:<!r CfRltlll"1t1rftijlt R.

Pro XVI. 66.

an~~mr provided with a svarita or

circumflex accent. -

~~ expressed ( used in conr.ection

with the)ense of a word) r;ffiilCflf+rf<rr ~Il] M.Bh. on -I. 2.64. T.3.I; expressed actually by a word or part of a word, sallIe as 'hNa M. Bh. on I. 4.51.

a;f~!:I of Kashmir, who restored the

corrupt text of 1\Iahabha~ya, cf. Yak. pad. II. 484-496.

Qlf~T;r fimT(?;~H' a grammarian who wrote a Vrtti on the Karakapada of Goyicandra'scomment~ry.

Qlfli~aT;:;r:q'tf~ theory of the denotation by words possessed of individually separate senses giving rise to a different kind of sense known as ('mlf<l when they are taken _together~ This view propounded by the Bhatta school of Mimiililsakas is opposed to the other view viz. a:rrrCfolm'ifT<1q&:r propounded by the PrabMkara school. d. Vak. pad. 11.1; II. 4r, 42.

8ifliForti:l inclusive extension to a particular limit; inclusive limit;


a:rr~ lI<!Ti:\lfuFclIl<U: P. II, 1.13, aTl~ li<l~lf+rFcl~<ITftfo Cfm;;<!~ M. Bh. on

a:rfufcl.;n +lTCf Go:t I a:rll1fcrR!\~!jTfa: I tlTGfitti-r cJ(l~ Kas. on P. III. 3.44.

I. 4.89; ( 2 ) full or complete extension f?n!jT~UJI+llt 'f.m;i4<f ~I:T: I cf.

al~T~lif absorption of a vowel when

two long vowels of the same kind come together e.g. or 31[q: = orq:, aTqtll aTf=a:r<n:rr, the resultant vowel _being pronounced specially long consisting of one more matra, which is evidently, a fault of pronuncia-tion. cf. 31[?:rc:i 31[\;+1:; fct~t':r fcr~R;5 CfT
~ o!jRT'ij~ 1 aTfuo<!IH aTf+l*l(f o<!T~

being what it was not before,

cf. f,;:rf9~ 3l1i"~FiUCf::ti!,JI+r.. P. V. 4.50



a;~~ not bringing about a difference;

not making different; nondiscriminant; cf"~lIJT aT~~l: Par. Sek. Pari. 109 d. <f!1 '<! lIr a:r~ "lfcr '<! ~lIJT i[~~ M.Bh. on I. 1.1.

aTflt6ij\'i:\JiI~ Uvvata on R. Pro

~e~ a connection of unity, as

noticed between the nominative case affix of the subject and the






ending fu of a verb, which produces the sense.

doubled expression in Par;tini's grammar, cf. ~~-a:r<!~QlI" P. VI. I.6; (2) the seven roots with ~ placed a~ the head viz. ;;j~, :;Jt<!. G:f\i\T, "i9il<i., iITRi, 00 and ~ which in fact are reduplicated forms of <Rl.., <I, m-, <rni_, ~, '<IT and eft.

relation of non-difference as stated by the VaiyakaraJ)as

between an adjective and the substantive qualified by it. e. g. ~ ff(qz;I<J:. is ex plain ed as ;:ft<ilrfl:llff(~.

a:r+m<}f'5' inclination towards an action;


a:r+<:r;:cr:{ interior;. contained in, held

in; d. ar+<Rf~eil l3!jGT~ a:rer<{'i: 1 ij{<fT '!~: ~'qi.'5~er<:!tr: }f'q~fu M. Bh. on 1. 1.56.


(BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar I785-I870 A. D.) an eminent schplar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a number of Sanskrit a:r+qm lit, doubling or reduplication; technically the word refers to the scholars in Grammar at Satadi. He fir5t portion of the reduplication, has also written a g~oss on the which is called the reduplicative Paribhasendusekhara and another syllable as opposed to the second one on the Laghu-Sabdendusekhara. part which is called the reduplicated ( V ASUDEV A SHASTRI Abhyansyllable; cf. ~["<!Te: P. VI. 14 kar 1863-1942 A. D.) a stalwart ( 2) Repetition, the second part Sanskrit Pa:Qdita, who, besides writ'which is repeated; d. &TS'\'<!IB" ( R. T. ing several learned commenta;ies 165) explained aSG:1!\1~: a:r-.=lfffi ~~ 1 on books in several S3.nskrit -Sast{?:tq2:RiI S::~li..effi I; (3) repeated tras, has written a commentary action; d. a:r<!Te: ~<l: 9;ii: <!i~mCJ:re: named' Tattvadarsa' on the PariKas. on P. 1. 3. I. bha~endusekhara and another named 'GuQharthaprakasa' on the a:r+<n~ omission of any sound; a fault Laghusabdendusek hara. of utterance. (KASHlNATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar, I89a-1976) a scholar of <!1+~~ lit. accumulation or addition Sanskrit Grammar who has written of sense brought about by the +!m+ll~<!-~eJ'i<lTlgog, and ~~qf\+nqraddition of adjectives or qualifying and compiled the qf\+nqT~ words. d. Vak. pad. III.!4. go, and the present Dictionary of 96, 98 cf. Cf~ llRr ffi~T~'q<FJ:. BtWtSanskrit Grammar. Cfil<lT+!<frc'll<r, 1 Nirukta 1. 2. It also means mere show of- additional <!1+q~ substitute for dat. and abl. pI. o o~ knowledge cf. <:!1! w:q1lt!i'Of 31,<\111 ll@,,<r affix +'ffl. after the words ~Qlia:. and l:ffi:TI'{i'{~<!im ~crtrfrfelf~m~ CfT'q<iim llfu W<:H,,; d. +<!~s+<I<l:. P. VII. I30 .+<I<J:. %~~ CfG:+~<imsrl:.1 Sabda Kaustuis also noticed as a different reading. bha on I. 2.45 where %f!l:la.. refers to d: M. Bh. and Kasikii. on VII. Nyasa.

tendency to do an act; d. ~T<n: &ilf{+"<!I'irei{Ol~ ~~I P. V.4 I 7 a:rm!j<ID" ~'!fu~re: (M. Bh. on V. 4. I 9) is the explanation hi the Mahabha~ya, while qrii:9;;:<!+!~"<!I'!fu: (Kas. on V. 4.!7) is the one given in Kasika.


a:r+rT~q. A Jain grammarian of- the ninth century who wrote the gloss known alS arntCfClRl on the Sabdanu sasana of Sakatayana; the CJ.RI is 61mfu ~ fct'fiT<l~<!T ~erfu 1 a:rmfu quotedby +!ll:T'i in his '<TTgCJ:fu. It has Wft<!lfct+ffi.~q~~ I (3) augment 61 a com; called Nyasa, by P(abhaapplied to the penultimate vowel of candra. ~;;r., & i'R (P. VI. 1.58,59 and VII. '" I99) (4) substitute for 1st pers. a:r+iTm also arnt~<lf%, a gloss on the grammar of Sakatayana. See OJ+1Tl:f5ing. affix rn1!., by P. III. 4 101 (5) q~ above. . Acc. sing. case affix ar;r~
( 2) a Significant term for the accusative case Showing change or substitution or modification; cf. :at f9~<{ T. Pr. _ 28 explained as I.

sr+R' called

I i

an ancient grammarian mentioned in the <!i~1i by ~~q. He is believed to have written some works on grammar, such as q~R<ii~a5oT, his famous existing work, however, being the Am .. ~ ako!1a or Namaliilga nusasan a.


Si+<iilijiK! a commentary on Nagesa's Paribh1if?endllsekhara named so, as it commences with the words a:rr.n<!isfr etc.


a Jain grammarian and a pupil of Jinadattasiiri, who lived in the fourteenth century who is believed to be the writer of "{<!~"'t1:I!j'E'q<!,; 'fR:+!~ etc.

utterance (of words) accompanied by water drops coming out oof the mouth; a fault of utterance or pronunciation; ffl3TQ.. felS;.n ~+!<i<I..' It is explained differently in the ~k. Pratisakhya; ct. aTtm+<rt i'{~ 61+a"~<I.. (R. Pr. XIV. 2) held tight between the lips which of course, is a fault of pronunciation; d. ::jffi


a:rg tad. affix 61<J:. applied in Vedic

Literature to fcli<I.., words ending in '11;, indeclinables and the affixes m: and O+!; e. g. Slat ii<!Til: srni: Cf~; cf. OT!I :q ~ P. V. 4.12.
a:r~a-+m:ffi a grammarian who is believ-

at~ (

f.liht. ~~ -ema+r:.IT
1. ll~WTf~;n.

fclq.f;qc{<J:.. M.Bh. I.

I) substitute for the causal sign


fiJI before aw{, a:r;:ff,61I etc. by P. VI.

4-55 (2) sub!;titute for vowel by P. VI. I78. of the root

before a

ed to have written ijcTIMCfil or ~'M;:ft, a gloss on the 1:I~0<if'ROT.

~Blffi called also ~fu, a cornmen tary on the 1f.,fi<jlcKrffcU of \m:q"i\~~.

~ the substitute 61<!. for the finalt

:m by P. VII. 4.22.



a:r+rT'ijifTr~i\l ~~T a f'<!~r work of the White Yajurveda. It follows V1ijasaneyi Pcatisakhya. sn:r~ also called arntEJ1'!ftr is an extensive commentary on Sakatayana grammar (sutras). It is believed that the gloss was written by the Siitrakara and fathered the commentary cn 61m~9q- I a Rastrakuta king of ninch century.

tad. affix a:r<! substituted optiona,lly for ff<! after fu and f'Of by P. V. 2.43. e.g. f;:<I<J:., rn:a<!+f..; S!<!<I.. f,ja<!"(,


, ~ substitutes for inst_ sing affix <!T in Vedic Literature. e. g. ~~<!T, ilTq<!T. cf. M.Bh. on VII. I.3,0.



a:r+~ repeated, redoubled word or

~ (I) a technical brief term inPa:Q-

wording or part of a word. The term a:j"l:{~ is applied to the whole


ini's grammar including vowels, sembvowels l the letter ~ and nasals;

non-mixture of words where the previous word is in no way the cause of ( any change in) the next word. a:r<f{qir wm.a.lOJ<I.. -Uv. on R. Pr. XI. 12 e. g. alrnm~ where the i'liliqj(j is a1m. ~~ 1


a;~~ '

a term applied to the odd feet ~ ~ of a stanza; d. wm'if!(!tIU 1fl~:;jT, ~~na:m I tIT mi1~~ ilTli R. Pr. XVI. 39.

of the foot of a verse; cf. m~~T R. Pro XVII 16. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (lR). A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises; cf. ar~: lRi1lifr ~; cf. also ar~: "rr'.{<1,. V. Pro III. 2, explained by <JoEf2; as ar~Yfu~
'[~m~~ ql!l.~IC'l~ ~oq:

~",<lT& the letters -or phonetic elements ~~~T{, wBiy, ~~I'i.~l!, ;3'qeltr<TIl! and <:(TI' called so, as they are always uttered only in combination with another phonetic element or letter such as ar or the like, and never independently; d. al'!iT{rFtC'lT 'iolBm~:~i1 ~ftrr: B;:O: ~. ~ff arlc~<T ~ ar41iTcmn: Uvvata on Vaj. Pro VIII. IS. These ar~iT'iTif letters possess the characteristics of both, the vowels as well as consona,nts ; d. ~f(~TifT<lT
+!?;:~ ;3'q~~: Cfi~o<i:

rrql rr~~ .t+~ ~Tl!a-s~~f5 qql There is no difference pf opinion

llj(cf W;;r.:r<I..1

~g ~+!T

crt'I~ ~~;;r.:r<I:.1 M.Bh. on fu'i~'>! \'(l!9\:~'

<fR a technical term for Ardhadhatuka

affixes in the Mugdhabodha grammar;

~m.:rfr'ti a word, the coalescence of

which is not nasalized, as the word

arr in lFitiIT cRol!<I:. as contrasted with ar~ aft arq:; cf. R. Pr. XI. IS.

a Visarga which is not rhotacized; the term ar~fit:r is used in the same sense.

. ~a not rhotacized; not turned

into the letter \:; d. f.i~;:fi~s~fit:rr <U~'{~: ~~;;::<i: 8lT9iR<I:.1 R. Pro II. 9.

~f-a: a group of words given in P. IV. 2.S0 which get the taddhita affix ~ (ar;n) added to them as a diturarthika affix e.g . arlfuP1l;n<I:., m~Oj;n1l. etc. see Kasika on P. IV.

stt the strong blowing of air from

the mouth at the time.of the utterance , of the surd consonants; d. Vaj. Sik!?a 280.


&T~ (I) lit. signification, conveyed sense or object. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a deter_minant

regarding the. fact that; out of the four standard kinds of words <r1+r, . an~m, <Jql3ir and fqqro, the 'first two kinds qF'{ do possess an independent sense Of their own. Regarding possession of sense and the manner iri which the sense is con veyed, by the other fwo viz. the Upanrgas (prepositions)' and Nipatas ( particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar. Although . pa1;).ini has given the actual designation lR to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes, he has looked upon toe different units or elements of a Pa4a such as the base, the affi", the augment and the like as p:l5sessed of individually separate .senses~ There is practically nothing in PaI)ini's siitras to prove that Nipatas and Upasargas do not possess an in"; . dependent sense. Re: Nipatas, the JUte '<i11l;<ils~l'~~, which means that '<i and other indeclinables are called Nipatas when they do not mean B;:'I", presents a riddle as to the meaning . which' '<i and the like should convey if they do not mean B;:'I" or i(Oll i.e. a substance. The Nipatas cannot mean +!19 or verbal activity an,d if they do not mean B:;:'I" or i(O<i, too, they will have to be called 8li1~;j; (absolutely meaningless) _ and in that case they would not be


f ,

termed Pratipadika, and no casecf. ' arful:iTof ,IIil: ~Tmf.!~' Vlirttika affix would be applied to them. No. 33 P. I. 2.64. For .mffcti9 . To avoid this difficulty, the Varti. see Vakyapadiya of Bhartrhari n. kakara had to make an effort and 16S-2a6. ' he wrote a Viirtika f.!lfTtR:<:J '8liI~1:~ as llTfuqfctCf.<9"i. I P. I. 2.45 Var. 12. As ~~ purpose Of existence a matter of fact the Nipatas '<i, 9T noticed in every object innature~ and others do possess a sense as cf. Vak. pad. III. II.I4 which says: shown by their presence and abl< Ju~t as purposeful activity of the elements of the three gUI)as whiCh sence (a:r.Cf<i and O<jm~9i). The sense, however, is conveyed rather in a a~e :uwa!s found mixed up, is quite different manner as the word B'ilr, . distInct In each case, so it is cqgnised in the case of all objects. or B~I<:J, which is the meaning conveyed hy '<i in U~: ~~U]~, cannot comprehension of sense; d be substituted for '<i as' its synonym 3l~q:~~s{<ITrr: ar~ ~ii!IT<!F!611T+ltfq in the sentence \:111: ~u]~. LOOking ~: J{~~~h M.Bh. on P. I. I.44, to the different ways in which III. I.7 etc. their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand, and st~OT use of the word 'ar~ ': .d. by affixes, prepositions and in dear<lQifol ~q<j~r:qrii: M.Bh. on 1. I.II. clinables on the other' hand, Bhar. trhari, possibly following Yaska ~ genus Or general nature and Vya<;li, has developed the possessed in common with others . theory Of'ilTQ'fifcf as contrasted with by individual objects, on which 'iT:q9ifcf and laid down the dictum the corresponding genus of the that indeclinables, affixes and ~ord denoting: the object is superprepositions ( ;3'qBrIS) do not directly Imposed cf. Yak. pad. III. I.6, convey any specific sense as their 8, II. . own, but; they are mere' signs to show some specific property or ~~ mention or specification of sense. cf. ar9l!<l1IW~+I~fq~'<T: Cfi-aC<:J: excellence of the sense conveyed M.Bh. IV. I.9 2 by the word' to which they are attached; d. also the statement aN~~ underlying principle in the . 'i1 f.!~r ;3'~l]y ar~musltfct :rrI9iGTifcl: USe of a word in language; the deSire qTm~9Tff~~ cli+ilq~<fl'I<4ler9iT +!9~ I on the part of a speaker to communiNir I. 3. The Grammarians, just cate his thought. cf. Vak. pad. I.I3. like the rhetoricians' have stated ,ar~'l~ f.l9 !tIT I i1 g ~o: l:q~ilOj that the connection between words ! 'El'ElPIm 9T I f.l9~q f( ~~qllT<r and their senses is a permanent ' filC!flTiI~ I ( ~ ) one (f.!~), the only difference in their views heing that the rhetori- aNq((iOlI{lJlqmWn 'a well known maxim or Paribba.!?ii of grammarians fully cians state that words are related stated as ar~9'~ur i1Tq~9i~ 3:I~"i.,. no doubt permanently, to thei; deduced from the phrase ar<l9,qifOJT~ sense by means of ~ or COnvenfrequently used by the Viirttikakara. tion which solely depends On the The Paribha~ii lays down that wiI! of God. while the Grammarians 'when a combination of letters say that the expression of sense employed in Grammar, is possessed is oilly a natural function of words', 6 of a sense, ,it has to be taken as



P9ssessed of sense and not such a \ one as is devoid of sense. '
~~FI conveyance or

CfiTIFi~ aN ~fu; M.Bh. on IV. I.78; ct. also aN ;;'i<.JI: tfICfiT(.( 31~ ~ IHI9T<.J I d. ~91~ ~m~ ~91~ 5!~<.J ~fu 31!:1l:'lf.!Cf~ ;;'i~cft~~sqfrm: Cf-a~ I ct. also Sabdakauslubha, p. 2. '
~'mf{ when the vowel, which pos-

expression of sense, ct. a:rqn+r<ni'r~: ~':n+nfcrCfi<I, P.1. 2.64 Vart. 33. It is only a nature of words that they convey their sense. 'This statement of the Vartikakara is taken as a standard dictum which is fully consistent with the doctrine of ~lir~m<j(9. the intended -sense out of the various senses that arise in the ~ind., Such factors are syntactical connection in a sentence Cfl'Fl, 5JCfi\Ul, situation context, the meaning of another word ( 31~ ), propriety (anRlc<.J), place (~~), time (~), association ( ~Wl ), dissociation (fcr5{<jl'l ),company (~T~:q'ij), hostility ,( fcrUN~fT ), evidence from another sentence (iB;y) and the proxilllity of another word (~;;~llT ~ ~N), ct. Yak. pad. II.3T4.


half of a matra or 'mora'."

31'<T+lISll~EJ~<r ~~l;:&


~~ a factor which determines

Par. Sekh. Pari. ' I22,signifying that not a single element, of utterance in Par;tini'sgrammar is superfluous. In other words, the wording of the Siitras of Par;tini is the' briefest possible, not being cap~ble of redu.ction by even half a mora.

t .

sesses it, forms the first' half of a ~ftff vowel. ~ " ~la:r~ a class of words which take the taddbitaaffix 31~( 31) in the sense of the affix *l'l'!q: i.e. in the sense of pos'session; ct. OT~fffi 31~ filj~ a:r~8: I ;:r{~: i a:rr\ii~'lIlJ~<!, I <r~lIf~~1l1 ~;;?:<r ffll:cTIfu'tTri'r (in:. ~~f?rlf i\fi!;;'l+r,. KiiS. on P. V.2. I2 7

to the last letter of the wording put in the genitive; d. <rT<r$fi~~2! filN{<l+<jl~~~ M. Bh. on 1. 1.65;' ct. arWSvt<j~ I lifg'tf.!~~~re a:r~~: ~ijlq: S.K. on P. 1. 1.52.

a:rcitG' absence of elision of an affix etc. ct. ~q: aretq: +rci~ CfT1f~ I U~: 9:~lif ~m I
M. Bh. on II.
~'" " ~<:i"iI%(!ilif[


a 5!nm: or a short term signifying any letter in the alpbabet of Par;tini , which consists of 9 vowels, 4 semivowels, 25 class-consonants, and 4 sibilants. that which is not a proper (i)~1lJ i.e. Siitra; a Siitra which does not teach definitely; a Siitra which cannot be properly applied being ambiguous in sense. ct. o4l~'lr<rm, f9~5!ferqf~~fit ~~~flFl. Par. Sek. Pari.

the dissolution of a compound not in, the usual popular manner. e.g; u;;r~: dissolved as ~r;;r~ :s~ ~~'i ~, as contrasted with the irf.mfcr~ viz. (T~: ~: I see also arNl[ft dissolved as l[ft ~ in' the 31~fcfi'iiFet:::)~
(I) the word 31~ actually used in Par;tini's rule e.g. a:r~m ~~ S1't<!<j: P. I. 2.4I. (2) the wording as~, or wording by mention of a single letter; e.g. SiR!' '{!1:TTl'!~9t~: P. VI~ 477

a:rm:rrrnCf) taking for its utter,ance the

time measured by the utterance of half a matra or mora; a consonant, as it requires for its utterance that time which is measured by half a matra (miitra being the time required for the utterance of short a:r j; cf. R. Pro 1. 16; T. Pr. ' I.37; V. Pro 1. 59 in P. II. 4.3 r which are declined in both-the masculine and the neuter" genders; e.g. a:r'4:;i:, 31~; 'i.!i:, <[,:q+r,.; <;[;r:, ~~, etc.; d. 31~'i:TT: ,~ ~




'( I) not used in a secondary

31 5.
a:r~Cf the condition of being needy, desire to possess, described as a cause of being entitled to do a thing. ct. Yak. pad. II. 79. a:j~ a fault in the utterance of a vowel of the kind of abridgment of a long utterance. 31~~ ex_plained as ~~~2!T~-half the utter ance of the short vowel; ct. ~I.!m:n '3C{T~11m~9+r,. P. I. 2.32. ct. also n~2!T~<:n(T!fU~T~cru <.JI'Ri lm<.J Tai. Pro 1.44.

a:r~'i:I'~ a group of! words given

sense; ( 2) not accomplished by the regular application of a grammar rule; d. f.!qmtl: Blf f.!~~rfit AAa:(i)T~<ii CfiT~.mff K8.5. on III. 2.59.
at~W (I) not possessed of a definite gender; d. a:rr~l1~(rI'T;;'l'l~;fr '+19m M., Bh. on T. r.3~, II. 4.82, (2) 31re~ ~~cU (SId. h,au. on P. VII.2.90).

feebler effort required in the pJ;oduction of sound or in the utterance of a letter d. a-uj~<lqTa: 'l~<lt(<Eqn{: (5{<jc<r:) Tait. Pr. XX. I2.
. not of frequent occurrence In the spoken language or literature; the term is used in connection with such words as are pot frequently used; d. W~~qSl'<ltIlT: ~mt1J1fiqta:'iir: I <iffta-~,;:fT: "i12:<! 311~llJTiJ ;;jr'l~ir <D~ifl:ftfer Nir. I. 14. '





P. II. " ~



a term used for the Jlhvamfiliya and Upadhmaniya into which a visarga is changed whim , followed by the letters ~, ~, and the letters ~~. respectively. half morae. Acc'Jrding to P. I.2,3? the initial part of Svarita is adhahrasva. In the contexts of long and prolonged ( pluta) vowels, it is used in, the same way i.e. the,ir initial portion will have one morae; cf. also Vak. pad. II. 308.

, i

'~Cf:q;; not po;;sessed of a definite

a:r~ the half of a sho~t vowel having

gender and number; a term generally used in connection with 1'llc<!<jS or indeclinables.

a'f(?1ffl{ur (I) non..:aspirate letters; let-


sign of Anunasika, d. 31~ 311 31q ~.{~ 31~'qr~m;~cfol~::{ I Nyasa : on I.r.8. I a queer combination of half the character of one and half


"' absence of elision or omIssion. , ~(i:nrr~ a compound in which the case-affixes are not dropped. The Aluk compounds are treated by Pfir;tini in VI. 3.1 to VI. 3.24.
,a:r~ii,l an operation, which, on the

ters requiring little breath from the mouth for their utterance as opposed to mahapral)a; (2) non-aspiration; one of the external articulate efforts characterizing the utterance of non-aspirate letters.

of an, ot,her, Whi,C, h is, looked upon 'I as a, fault; cf. <r ~il.lii'hi\f;;jft4(i)"<i Iilf~~re the acute (;a~) accent '!fu1r 'lI~~'lfu ~9u~fcr I (i'ij~ I 31<T ,;;'i<.JI: , which becomes" sp,ecially i3({!'6 or

strength of its being enjoined by means of the genitive case, applies

having a. smaller numb~r of vowels in it; such a word is generally placed first in a Dvandva compound; d. 1'll<m"';r(<(" P. II. 2.34. 3l<E'iT"'at. ~ <i9fer t(i)~r<jm..n; aj(iqr"'Cf{ is the saine as aj(iql"'''liused in" the

SJ&i~T~ or awq~~~ ( mit. II. 5.. 12 ).

siikhya defines 31'i~ as the' separation of two padas joined in Sa~hita. ( A. Pro II. 3.25, II. 4.5). In the recital of the pada-patha, When_the word-elements are uttered separately, there is a momentary pause measuring one miitra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. (See for details Vaj. Prato Adhaya5 ). ( 2) The word or'F-I~ is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or meIT' Jers that are compounded together See Kasika on P. VIII. 4.26; cf. also o~
(lUt~) l{~q;::il9>:j1f: <i*f &:9T<JCf ~m ~-<ia-.


Katantra '

~m~ an operation requil:ing a smaller number of causes, which 'merely on that account cannot be looked upon as 3RfU\. The antaranga operation has its causes' occurrin'g earlier than those of another . operation which is termed 9~~ cf. 9~~Ii'ff\j\j~,d 9~~~T1iqT-, it~tcr<U: ~il~IS~T~ I o~ a:rfut 9~i'j~~qlit~ 'tt!rq Ef1.trtll Par. 8ek. Pari. 50.

according to Tait.- Pro while, it is equal to one mora according to the other PriitiSakhyas.
~ substitute ~a:r~ for the firial ail of the word iiT; d. 31'i~ ~~GT<JCR<f, P. VI.
I. I2 3,

~~~l ~ activity residing individually separate in various parts. The word is equivalent to the maxim Sli:~cf; CfFi<Jmtlfflm: 1 a~d is in contrast with tlwrn- Efl'f<JQRt!l1TfH: I which can be stated as tI~r~T f>ii<iT. cpo Vlik. pad. II. 372-75, 378



something which need not be specifically prescribed or stated, being already available or valid; cf. q:m<JT6+rW 31~>:j~~<i; or~Rr~ 6lq'tl<lTo. P. I~. I.30 V. I.

~ the letter 31; the first letter of

the Sanskrit alphabet, comprising all its varieties caused by grades, (~~, a;\q, t'Cf) or accents' or nasalizahon. The word Ciul is used in the neuter gender in the Mahabba$ya ; d. tI~~<;~T<l+19ul<r. M.Bh. I. I.9, +IT W~qo'\ ~Q.. M. Bh. I. I.48 Vart. I'; ct. also M~Bh. on I. I.50 Vart. 18 and 1. 1.5 I Vart. 2; cf. also 13~+1'iol 5f<U1t ~Cf-r. Siradeva Pari. 17.

~ elision or omission of a single phonetic element or letter; d. amtqrS<l: P. VI. 4.134.

<if~N an operation prescribed with

ayq~ .a short gloss or commentary on a standard work.

reference to one sirigle letter; cf. ~:nr.r'i;::l&:~iIS<tw.:r~ P. I. I.56.


TaL Pro I. 49. The term a:r'F-I~ is explained in the Mahabha$ya as < separation, or splitting up of a compound word into its constituent parts; d. ~r<rit'i>:jit ~~<ffi" fc!CfTl1~ li."m 1 (M. Bh. on IV~ 2.36); also cf.
<i~q>:jif: STunfa' I q ~P;JUr<l qffiU 3T~ EfZ<iT: 1 q~<lT+r ~P;J1T(il~E~<r. I <i~I~P;Jfl't

~~~ lit.

limitation, specification, specific knowledge cpo Vak. pad. III. 14II, 297.; 31if'C~ Fci~IJj', (~~)


occasion; possibility of application; d., ffi ~1Jji[~1 't~WIT'i9iRT:l 'i:j'lI;:f-

(I) restriction; limitation; d. 31'!fI:TH::UJm<J:qrqft;:~: 1 <iT'i~~ ~l&1Tl'JT<lT +rVSl~q Kas. on P. II. 1.8. ( 2) deter-

Ii?: 'l\c1oij~ (M. Bh. on Ill. I.109)

'<IFFt: ~'li{ ~lEf9i ~fa 1

m+r<i' ,flmffi

mination cpo Viik. pad. II. 268; cpo also 31Cfl:TT\UT f.ful<J: I PUl) ya.


I l112im 1 1\1.

Bh. on I. 1.3. VarL

I i

<ifOf"JfII split up into constituent parts,


ct. Nyasa on P.lII. I.II9. cf. also Ii?: <i~ 31'i~: f;;n<J~ 1 Durga. on

Kat. IV. 2r27.

<ifOf::ri[{ I) separation of a compound

word in, to its component elements 1 as shown in the Pada-Patha of the Vedic Samhitas. In the Pada-patha, I individual words are shown sepa- I rate1y jf they are combined by I Sarhdhi ruies or by the formation of a compound in the Samhitapatha; e.g. ~Na-r. in the Sarhhitapatha is read as ~\:sfua-r.. a:rEf~flJa fiH~~"l TRiqa- ~fa- or<F-llr: 1 In writing, : there is observed the practice of : <ifOf::lI'[r<t(I+f the interval or pause after placing the sign (s) between the the utterance of the first member of a compound word when the two parts, about which nothing can be : said as to when and how it members are uttered separately. originated. The Atharva:-PratiThis interval is equal to. two moras

where the Bha$yakara has, definitely stated that the authors of the Padapa tha ha ve to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar. ( 3) In recent times, however, the word a:r~~ is used in the sense of the sign (s) showing the coale-. scence of or ( short or long) with the preceding or (short or long) or with the preceding tJ; or ail e.g. f~~Sil<i':, 3:i~ISS~. ( 4 J The word is also used in the sense of a pause, or ari interval of time when the constitUEmt elements of a compound word are shown separately; d. tlfflB9>:jU ~~'itl+r9il~: (V. Pro V. I). (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible.

<li<i~ limit, which is either exclusive

or inclusive of the particular rule or word which characterizes it ; cf. tlcflll &:~ & o+1'iN Slrn- a:r~ '+fEfftt M. Bh. on I. 3.3.
<ifOfM+re: object of limit; cf.

<i{Of~ifa:r name of a Sarhdhi when a class consonant, followed by any conson-, ant is not changed, but retained as it is; d. <;q~T: '# c<!:!ll'lT~~t'd! a:rR~T fitCfTi:rt 31'l:iI'TlT Cfer,.R. Pro IV.!; e. g. al1~~ Q~:qTlI. R. V. I. II3. 16, Cil'j~ t (R. V. VII. 99.7) a:r;;nq~9;Sj: ( R. V. X. 85.14).

a:jl~2MW (v. 1. a:rmfiUe~)

~ "i:t~Rr+rr~ 31'im'ifa- Kas. on P. V. 3.37.

<if<iej'Of member

or portion, as opposed the total or collection (tI!!G:T<i) to which is called 3TCf<lFci<r..; d. a:rEf~95fm~: \1!!<n<J5fmfucf~'lm Par. Sek. Pari. 98. The conventional sense is more powerful than the derivative sense._

I 1


accent occurring in tbe case of a part of a compound word; accent for a compound word within a compound word. cpo Vak. pad. III. 14. 57, 6r.

a term occurring in the Linganusasana meaning < possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' i. e. possessed of all genders. Under a:r'ifue~'T are mentioned indeclinables, numerals ending in , or ~5 adjectives, words ~nding with krtya affixes i. e. potential passive partici- ' pIes, pronouns, words, ending with the affix a:r<l in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words <lifer and ~5q,\: (See<r Satras 182'I88); necessarily; the expression

1iITq~Ofm the genitive case signifying or showinga part; cf. Ef~<i(/n&:~5f<;l{~ <ufWi'iCi'i'i2}' ~ M.Bh. on 1.1.2I.


a:rEfii:<f ~~ fq~<ill. is very frequently

used in the Mahabhii~ya when the same statement is to be emphasized.


- - - - _..

archaic usage; ,cf. a:rfif<tfuiir iir~~: I fitf~: Z:~: I M. Bh. I. I. Ahn. 2; also 1\1. Bh. on 1. 1.3; III. 1.36, V II. 1.3 etc.
arRcrf?;la-_ 'Ii~lur qg't <tqm M. Bh. on II.

atl!RJfi'f pause, cessation, termination; d. mrms'leFIl(. I CJUfT<rrl1<tr'l: 3l"geT~:

\<1m.. S. K. on P.





at;r~-Tr stage, condition; stage in the formation of a word; e.g. :a-q~~r'l<':~T, (?;r9<':~T, etc.
~-m of a uniform nature; cf. ~~

atRi+rm absence of division, equilibrium cpo Vak. pad. I. 128. atRi+rfiTqa.:ra view of grammarians according to which there are words which are looked upon as not susceptible . to derivation. The .terms . 1ll<3~q~ and 3T~r:ra~ are also used in the same sense.'
aflq~~;:~:n?f a maxim mentioned by

3.52 ; (2) unnecessary; supedluous; the word is especially nsed in connection with a word in a Sfitra which could as well be read without that word. The word 1ll~ is sometimes used similarly.
. Sif~q absence of specification; d. 'TTllT?:T!ll[trr~qf<litq: ~1. Bh. I. I.20 V;irt . I; Par.Sek. Pan. 106.

WfR~oT 'lUfl:, CJCfgf&1URl:'l"fqT1{ <!~ firf~~l{;:a-, M. Bh. I. 1.70 V. 5.




deficient in one. or more syllables. The word is mostly used in connection with a Vedic Manha.


-atqrnr)iTf~ one who is not conversant with the proper use of language; cf. aT~ mS91"<UiTf~" W:(fl;:f (W{ ~~l(.i M. Bh. 1. I. I.
atf;r~~reT~ meant

not sP;cified, mentioned without any specific attribute; d. ~llt?r !fllF,; 3l"f'l~fi'lo: lIqm M. Bh. on I. 1.9; d. also Katan. VI. I.63.


for not preventing the application (of a particular term) to otbers .where it should apply. The word is frequently used ,in the Kasika; cf. 3TJlT"l'aer1. I <!?-fiR:: Brm:(!ll[lJfrfct~aT~; I Kas. on P. IV. 1.4, also see Kas. on III. I. 133 ; III. 2.67,73; IV.I.7 8.
imm~table. The term is used

Pataiijali in connection with the word 3l"Tfcr-li where the taddhita affix o~ (i[oIi), although prescribed after the word arR in the sense of 'flesh of sheep ' ( 1ll~: llTe<r), is actually put always after the base 3Tfct9i and never after 3TR. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to, or similar to the base, and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use. d. a<u: ~~~l: ~Frr<lT'l~
mt~<r R!litStf\:{!lr~~q-ftP~f9~ljffi

Si~Ri absence of, or prohihitjon oJ, a 1 4. 10 5. v[tti or composite expression; nonformation of a composite eXtfession; ~6<:f~~~ name of a treatise on ind. em'nN9i\:UfF1T B~Sjl<!r'ij\:miTT~~ M . declinable words attributed to Bb.Oll III. 1. 8. Siikatayana.
at'l? lit. not beginning with the vowel 3l"T, V: or arT; a word which has got no 1llT or U; or as its first vowel,
. ~~T~~qlJT

term alld includes in it all such words as~, 3l"~\, J;jTff\. etc. or composite expressions like arel{~<tl::rel1ffi or such taddhitanta' words as d~ not take any case affix as also l<rdanta words ending in "i.. or u:, it, :;IT, ~r. He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. r. 1.37 to 41; d. B~:tr ~ w~;I e'lTIj "f &<tRn;I I 9'tj~~ "f B~g 'l'if a~fu ffil:c'l~ Kas. on P. 1. 1.37 ar.d Gopatha Bra.hma.l).a I. 1.26. ( 2) non-]csing, remaining intact; an indeclinable whi~h shows no vari;tion of form by the application 'of any gender or case,affix; cpo Viik. pad. III.




frequently in the Mahabha!?ya in connection with letters of the alphabEt which are considered '.nitya' by Grammarians; d. f<'l~;I "f ~<sit~
CJ!2t~Z~"frtaf<t~ ;;f*~oa!'1<!q-T<ltqsr;:rf~9iT~f<t: M. Bh .. I. To Aho 2; d. also f<'l~ql{yl{'ll'<fr ffi~~<s'{: I 'lcCJ!2t?iE9i?r"lrf<.'l!!
<t1~;I 'l-a-~

&9i:(~q I ffl~T 3T~liilil'ita- f9"l~ 3Tf:r'li.~<S'U~tq-fu~'lffi a:rrR9imrn- I M. Bh.

1 !

as for example ,~, 1llfu~9i etc. lFfiim, <iil'~r ~"T etc; cf. IH'tjm'{~l~ fil;~ Cj~<!l<I:. P. IV. I. 160. also

P. IV'j

a ~ork on the meanings of indeclinable words written in the ~ixteenth century A.D. by Vitthala Se~a, . grandson of Ramacandra Se!?a, the author of the Prakriyii Kaumudi. called on acccunt of the words forming. the compuund, being similar to indeclinables; e.g. f.!ilf?;l'li"i.., 3l"f'=1l[ft, 'l~llfff, 'IT'l;ssJT'l"i.. etc.; d. ar.rc<ji!1lli4 <1'lm~;;(j<ft+ri9: l'.1.Bh. on II. 1.5. The peculiarity of the compound is that the first member of the compound plays the role of the principal word; d. 1f,<fq~T<tI1'4T~S c<j<ft'mcr: l\f. Bh. on II. }.6.


ar~+!1q name of a compound so

on IV. I. 88; cf. also M. Bh. on IV. I; 89; IV. 2. 60; IV. 3.13[, V. 1.7, 28; VI. 2.II.
atmfiil'a' name of a fault ill pronoun-

M. Bh. on I. 1.1.

~#iM non-application, non-prescription (jrrcr'4T<l); d. 3T~rr~~ !i<liW 1ll&N-

r:ii2i'j'Tlj 1\1. TIh. on VII. 1. 30; Par. Sek. Pari. 92.

arRi~ without the application.of a car,e termination. The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Panini without any case-affix in his Sutras; sometimes, such usage is explained by commentators as 'an

cing a word where there is the absence of a proper connection of the breath with the place of utterance; '3l"fq(!;f+'Ia: CJUJ\;:er\1~r.'r'if:' Prac1ipa on M. Bh.I. 1. I. There is the word aJCf<ill+iif;:'f which is also used in the same sense; cf. 3:!f f.n:~IiCf<?if+iEr iirtal(.o .M.Bh~ on I. I. I :
I1I1fqq~ absence of keenness to state;

inarticulate; d. 1llc<i'ffiT~'Ii~Uf~<jro il:ClT P. VI. 1.98 also P. V. 4.57; 1ll<:<!'ffi 3l"q~~~u1<i. Kas.on P. VI. I.98; (2) a fault'of pronunciation; ct. ;:nmc'l't5 <i "fT<S'lv.1'icr <1UJT!1.<U~(,( I



:a:{6~q"'l'1 absence of separation, com-

pJete mixture cpo Vak. pad. III. 3.8.


ignoring, disregard, cpo Vak. pad. I. 137 and ~ull; '3Tf<!CJ~T'lT ~<::uqr~WI
QrrcRrll9i!Itfl'O\Fli1iffi q ffi<UCf<!TiT: I

i unseparated, undivided, ill- i of intervention sf'parable, mixed; d. qT';<!tf'i'ffi~'l 3l"99~ 1 at6<f<i'titil' absence between two things by something nt~: ;q:;rT i{o~;I M.Bh ..' on Siva-sfitra I dissimilar; close sequence; ct. 4. V.9 whereon Kaiyata remar,ks 1llO\Nlrcn<f-f; ~ ~!Efi c<!9'4T<!<ii <tCJffi M.Bh. ' e'llli['ffi ~?:: I *<!q'{-ffi 1llr<t'if~fufct"-!'l1'i9ifclT on I. 1.7. Vart. 8; ct. also ~q <iI'if'1~<l!lliil eB;;'U'l~q-l(. I
<rF<!q'41.:r a-<r C<!qfult?r

:a:{6W-f (I)

~r.r~ti' (I) not taken technically into consideration, not meant; d.

indeclina bl e, lit. invariant, not undergoing a change. Pii.l).ini has used the word as a. technical

M.Bh. on . VII 3.44, VII. 3.54, VII. 4.1, VII. 4.93. Theterm 1ll;;(jqTC{ also is used in the same sense. .




abser;ce of proper disposal; absence of a proper method regarding the applicatidn of a rule; cf. ~<!""f;;~<llq; !F1U~fu 'il#hlio<jCj'i;:qT lilrumM.Bh. on I. 3.00 V. 5.

ca~e-affix &l3, after



the words see P; VII. r.27.


at~lfa" insufficient extension, as opposed to 61[;j"::<jrfu or over application; cf. B~1t:TINo;qf+r'"'lTU~ I 3'!::<jI~fct::<jl~ B"+r9"If?:-i'ltfqR&:Hr~<I:. I Padamanjari on II. 1.32.

atmfu:i incapacity to pronounce words correctly; d. ar~;qr 'fi<jrf~~ Of1&jlJl:jr :j\O'fi 1{Rr sr<r~ VLO'fi 1{Rr ~'tfi<I:. M.Bh. on Siva-sutra 2. .

-----------_._----,----------------meeting or an accidental circum- a:rnT~ a metre having eight .syllables stance; e.g. 6jJ~.+I: 61r~ll<f.~ cf. in a foot; d. 'f[<j:ft ~r ~~~I';:ln I Q~ f.,#!~ ~.n<JRqlin I P. V. 1.38. arnTl';:lU~<!: 00: 'qf<fl~ 9T q-~n: R. Pr.
_ i XVI. 9. another name for the famous: WOI k of Hil)ini popularly called I ~ name of a metre of four feet cons.isting of 64 syllables in all, 12 syllathe A!?tadhiiyi; ct. 61~T9"I:<jl<jr: tfR- I bles in the odd feet and 20 in the llTIJiIR<l ~~~G{ arn;j; qlfUl;:fi~+I: I ;:::~<t ~<.jr-I <jqll:t<i+I: I f!!jill If.l'{l~if.?.+I: I Kas on P. V. even feet; e. g. fsl'fi~{.!! ~firE{: etc. J .58; ( 2)- students of Pal).ini's R. V. II. 22. 1. grammar, e.g. "Te'fil: tflfil'1<i'l<:!l; d. ~i) ~: Eight varieties of the ~,Slr'E'i:f irt:T'<1rQ \ Kas. on P.IV. 2.65. recital of the vedic texts viz. :;J<::l, ~t!+r a term used by ancient, gram~r~, f~r, WI, 1:9~, ~~, ~~ and!:l<i. marians for the vocative case .. ~ (I) case affix of the nominative ~i+rWC1'.T name of a commentary on and accusative plural and the abla': " the KiHantra Vyakaral)a by Rarr.tive and genitive singular (;;j~, iffil, akisorac~\kra vartiri. &fB and :S:1l); (2) taddhita affix Bl~ (61ft!) added to ~, 31'<1\ and 6jCj', by srnt\.<:ilm name popularly given to the . P. V. 3.39; (3) compound ending Sutrapatha of PariiI)i consisting of 3'!13 (61fu"f.,) applied to the wordsli:orr eight books (adhyayas) containing I "and it'<1r standing at. the end of a in all 3g81 Siitras, as found in the I Bahuvrihi compound (P. V. 4. 122); traditicnal recital; current at the ( 4) UQiidi affix 3ffl, prescribed by time of the authors of the Kasikii. the ruJe ~<t'<1m+msl}if.. andsubEequent Out of these 3981 Sii tras, seven are rules (628-678) to form words ~uch found given as Vartikas in the i as l1ii<i, tl~ etc. (5) e.nding sylLbl,~ Mahiibha~ya and two are found in ! 8ffl, with or without sense, of words Gal)apatha. The author of the in connection with which special Mahabh8.~ya has. commented upon I operations are given in grammar; only 1228 of these 398 I Sutras. I cf. P. VI. 4.I4 ; cf. also Blfcrq~tl1llr Originally there-were a very few


unnecessary to be prescribed or laid down.; cf. i'r.i;~ti<l ~~rIlI111lli:9rQ, P. I. 2.53; also ~If 3'!me~ ~T;nl~<j~9r ~~G{ M.Bh~ on II. T.36.

an intransitive root; a techni. ~ a class of words headed by the word 61iil1~ to which the taddh. in the Candra Vyakara~a ita affix \ is applied in the four (c. \: y. I. 4. 70) as also - In , senses specified in P. IV. 2.67 to Hemacandra's Sabdanusiisana; d. ! 70 ; e.g. 61iiIH:, <3l'P..<I:., <!IH<I:., qlj:{~:; ",::<jlt<l~<j ~r~"';l'Z qT I ff:?r{'fill'fi'i;1:j ffiTU~ 'fti!l..<I:. etc. cf. P.IV. 2.80. Bfij qt 1=/:':11 ~~<jfflil::(ir CIT ~1i'(.1 <! '"'IT'I;I:j cal



f~; I 'IT?Jfct ff51tlfct ~Sl: I m1\.l~ ffff1\.l~ CIT 'l~71: 'i;ql:jl'{q Hem. IV. 1.19.

at"!l'q~~a class of words headed by 611llqf~ to which the taddhita, affix BlOT.. (61) is added in the senses mentioned in rules before the rule ato!!~oa- underi-;ed, ;:n:nalysable; CLI ~<! ;Uc<jfuo P. IV. 4.2. which are '3"1llT-:{<lrS~(rmll;1 IilTfft:Tl~'filfu M.Bh. I. technically called the Priigdivya1.61 Viirt. 4; Par ..Sek. Pari. 22. tiya senses. e.g. d'[r.sqtfQ~, iTT1llW<I:., 'frtw<I:. etc. . '3io~~r.r~ same as 61~qfuql';:l: See" above the word 61;~qf~t:TI';:l. a;"!l'~irHI"iUT a commentator who wrote

at~~qfuq~ the view held generally by grammarians that alI words are not necessarily susceptible to analysis or derivation, an alternative view opposed to the view of the etymologists orNairuktas that every word is derivable; cf. tffiiJr~i:q~fu t:T1\.l ll;~fct ;aet;:~~~ FI~fqo<I:. Pa,rL Sekh. Pari. 22; 'IT;r'fi '3"t:Tp.:t<'I: 'I;Cj~q~ 'iTT~Pr 3'!;~~t:Tfuq~ VyMi's Samgraha.

at~~m: compounds like WiI<TTB which cannot be strictly correct as '"'IITiiBfflB, but can be 1'j9fBl1ltl if the word o?:<1 in the rule 'q~F~l ~:qhT qft';~o~~~~tr: be understood in the sense of 'meant for' a particular thing which is to be formed out of it; d. fct~Rr: >r:!.t~fu :?rr.;.sqqrBrG;f<!Tfftflt~r<l<I:. M.Bh. on II. 1.36.

at~ (I)

Pratyahiira or a short term standing for all vo\vels; semivowels, and the fifth, fourth and third of the class-consonants; all letters excepting the surds and sibilants; (2) substitute 61 for the word ~ before affixes of cases b.:ginning with the instrumental, and for t;a<t. before the tad. affixes Sf and illI,; see P. II. 4.32 and 33; ( 3 ) substitute 61 for the gen. sing.

a gloss on Pli1).ini's Al?tadhyiiyi in the Tamillanguf!gp,

~:aT~ - ( I) a class of words headed by the word 61.sq to which the affix l1i~ (6jJ<j<!) is added in the sense of mSl( grand children etc.) ;e.g. 61TlIlt<!'l:, ;;JfOT<j<!:, afrffi[G{<!: etc.; d. P. IV. r. lIO; (2) ~ class of words headed by the word ar.sq t6 which the taddhita affix <jQ, is added in the sense of a cause of the type of a


Rj~or :;:n.,~ '"'I o~T~ ~!fr.?'" di.fferences of readings also, as i Par. S"k. Pari. 16. observed by Patafijali ( see Mbh on I. 4.I); but the text was fixed by ~ affix 61tl mentioned in thl" Nirukta Patailjali which, \"ith a few addi- . in the \vord 61CjB (3'!~ "Te) d. arm tions made by the authors of the ;:rrj:{'fi~1ll: I tR111'a[;:;~tiifro Nir 1. 17. Kasikii., as observed above, has traditionally corne down to the r ~~ll not possessing any noben of present day. The Al?tiidhyayi is! number; the wo::d is used in con~ believed to be one of the sixVed- : nection with avyayas or indeclinaanga works which are committed to i bles ; <.j~'l fu "Tw,Wl1c<!I:jl't9~lfllP.! aI. memory!by the reciters of :B.gveda . Bh. on II. 4. 82. The text ofthe Al?tiidhyayi is recited ; without accent!:'. The word 61f!ll:<jrft" I ~q; a term for the C'andra Grammar, as no samjfiasor technical terms was current in Patafijali's tim~;. cf. ,I are used therein; d. "'II'::, '"'ITlt:rr<t fue~c:nl~Y 61f!ll!<jFj'J: M. Bh: on VI. II






~ not used as a technical term or - name of a thing; cf. 'i<tlR'T9\~ul1=a-. UlR':p:HJfut iXjqt~~T;ffi~I~ P. 1. I.34.
ion with a word which cannot be compounded with another word, although related in sense to it, and connected with it by apposition or by a suitable case affix, the reason being that it is connected more closely wi th another word; cf. tlTq.?J<ffili~ "Clm M. Bh. II. 1. ;I.; e. g. t he words 9.i and f8rn": in the sentence

. ~~~ absence of a syntactical connection ; cf. ,un q~: I "l~" q~: I 31Rili~<!T<;:s! t1liTtU .,

O!f~ (I)

separated neSs as in the case of two distinct words; (2) absence of co-alescence preventing . the sandhi; cf. R. T. 68, 70.

m~litlli~ Ol'fmm Tq ~ ?:if: q~T t1TP':!'l~ I ~., off!: I ~~T I <l:ifT ~~ffi ~ftfu I M.

<1f96!jfu I.

"ii~litIl+!~~~ I

Bh. on II. I.30.


~Jifthe s'afi!.e asORtr.r"ii~; see above;

e. g. +R:T
~;:i\ ;

{iff <qnnT'IT~ff.



~ failure to understand the sense; cf. ifO;:~T lUij~<i)siiF.iIRCIT'lIlqT ~ifi M. Bh. on I. 1.23 Vart.

a:m'+r~~~ acompound of two words,

'which ordinarily is inadmis~ible, one of the two words being more closely connected with a third \~ord, but which takes place on the authority of usage, there being no obstacle in the way of understanding the sense to be conveyed; e. "g. il:1i~=a~l{ ~~~~~ I itq~~ <ntl+rr~f I 81~l{~~I~ ~@I~, 81${r:am~'t iill~liT: M. Bh. on n. I. I.

dissimilarity in apparent form -( although the real wording in existence might be the same) e. g. :!"II!., Gll!., ~ll!.; cf. .,r~J}:rrl:T'[.Qlilili~t<i<:I:. t Par; Sek. Pari. -8.


ar~ (I) VJ)adi affix 81li; (2) tad.

affix arli. See above the word aTli.
~::q samasa-ending .affix "above the word ::sm..

om~:J;'i Impossibility of occurrence ( used in connection with an operation); cf. q19~ ~~<ihT T;(q f<r!rfc!~: I l'ii ffff!: I 81ijlJCi)ftr I M. Bh. I. I. I2 Vart. 3; (2) impossibility of a statement, mention, act etc. cf. arij~CI: ~~fq arlqTil:~'H~ M. Bh. on II. I. I. .



at~;a: invalid;. of suspended validity

~if absence of the conjunction of

consonants; - d. aJij<iTI1T~~ f;t~ p. I. 2.5.

not compounded, not entered into a compqund with another word; d. t1qN 81t111l'ff~~ Hem. II. 3.13. (I) absence of a compound. /

~~ -absence of clear understandiDg,

nescience, misconception; cf. Yak. pad. U. gr.

for the time being; not functioning for the time being .. The term is frequently used in PaJ)ini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented or held in suspense, in connedio'n \viththeir application in the


\3qfll1t~111~fq uUqit~~ P. VIII. 4. 14 ; ( 2) an expression conveying the

~ absence of juxta-positioii, absence of connectedness; d. <jftt mqt~ ar:qrijttT~T ~ arT'{<l i{m "~ffe~li.. M. Bh. on I. 3.1.
Uf~ (I) absence of t1~q or entity;

~~ ~: ffli<ia- "'n~ ~fu "f9ffiXl<:I:. I

sense of a compound word although standing in the form of separate words; cf. 'i:j'T~ 1l:"aq'i:j'it 81t1qNfq
"'!T!lt~qtl.j<!T~f.1i ~<:i1 q~li.. M.

m- . on n.

SmURr I 81ifW;'f~lil<lr IlTw<i'


( 2) other than a substance i. e: property, attribute, etc. cf. IH<;:<j: artl~qq"iifT f.rq-I~~T +T9Rr M. Bh. I. 4. 59; cf. also tltse~'f!Tiitmj11J: M. Bh. on IV. 1.44. cf. also :;:rp.;<ITStl't~ P.

I. 4.57.

not having the same outward form or appearance; e. g. the affixes 3lUZ, 3l'i:{., 11J, 81or., 01, and the like which are, in fact, ~:r ad they ha~e the same outward form viz. the . affix aT. 3lUZ and <m. are ~Bf:j:q; d. 9TstI~~sfuJ<lI~ P. III. I. 94.

~~ (I)

syntactically noJ cQnnected, e. g. u~: and~: in the sentence m~T~: ~) ~~~ I (2) unable to enter into a compound word, the term is used in connecta

8i~?i+rFffi not admitting all caseaffixes

to be attached to it; cf.

fctm-Qi: P. I. I. 38 ; <ro1~
I. 1.38.

t1<tfir+r:ffi~qfu: ~,,~: I iiff: <ja: as! <!Of I Ras. on

ptoc~ss of the for~ation .of a word. The term (31m;a) is also used in conri~ction with rules that bave applied or operations that have taken place, which .are, in certain cases, made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place, which ordinarily have-been prevena ted by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidated. paJ)ini .. has laId down this invalidity on three different am:r;a.~ invalidity of a rule or operaoccasions (I) invalidity by the tion on - account of the various rule 'i~;!;~ . VIII.2:I. w~ich considerations sketched above. makes a rule 01< operation in the See 81fu:a. second, third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the at~ft~'f1'l:T the same ,as Antaranga Paribh8.~a. or the doctrine of the Atadhyayi invalid when any 'pre- . invalidity of the bahirafiga operaceding rule is taibe applied, (2) tion. See the . word. aJre4! above. inyalidity by the rule aJm;a'f~l~lQ,

which enJoms mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the . .Abhiya section beginning with the rule aJm~m~ ( VI. 4.22). and going on upto the end of the Pada (VI 4.175 ), ( 3) invalidity of . the single substitute for two letters, that has already taken place, when ~ is to be substitued for ~, or the letter Q. is to be prefixeCl, cf. lif(qg;cfit~ m~: (VI. 1.86 ). Al though- PaQini laid dO,wn .the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation, in case of conflict, supersedes the preceding rule, in many cases it became necessary for him to set that rule aside, which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given above. Subsequent grammarians -found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subsequent rule which t~ey did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of PaI,lini. The author of the Viirttikas, hence, laid dO\vn the doctrine that rules-which. are nitya or antaranga or apavada, are stronger than, and hence supersede, the ariitya. bahiranga and utsarga rules respectively. Later grammarians have laid down in g~neral, th,e invalidity of the bahiranga rule wheu the antaraIiga rule occurs along with. it . or subsequent to it. For details see Vol. 7 of Vyakaral}a _Mahabha~ya ( D. E. SoGiety~s edit!on) pages 2I7a 220. See also Pari. Sek. Pari. 50.



For details see the ParibM~il "asiddham bahirarigam antaraIige" Par. Sek. J;>ari. 50 and t4e discussion thereon. Some grammarians have given the name arm;alJR+!rlfT to the Paribha~a arfat 1j"~\WIl~ as contrasted with ammi' ~~wr~ ~lj: which- they have named as <r~~W

'-,- - - - - - - - - - - of 'direction', e.g. ~~m:., i3Jl:l~ etc. cf. fctCf~~: ~~lf~lIT+<l\' fcl:~~~~ ~rfff: P. V.3.27.
~ ar, arr, and 3fI 3. This term is used

untoned; a word without an accent, as different from a word ,which has, an accent, but which is not ~ uttered with that accent;

atfcfif a word used in

the sense of 'original source' or mine for Maba,bhal}ya by commentators in phrases like tq2+!~, 3fFiiU'ffi ~lf'i~ I word stated previously in the context e.g. the word "'1' in . the rules of pur:Jini.

in ~k Tantra d. ar~ ~<i+(, R.T. 94. 6R~ possIbly means 'belonging to ar i. e.' all' the three grades ~ <ft~ and ego of ar.'

ar~'I\'liI01TlT~: ~~: M.Bh. on VII.

I.2, VII. I.89.

d. ar~.ntiT (ll~'Iiifct . awcr~(f ~~r

artm (a word) attracting_ another

ar~t<tftG the

circumflex accent prescribed by PiiI).ini in the three Padas 2, 3, 4 of adhyaya VIII called Tripadi or Asiddhakiil)<;l.a. This Svarita is not the original Svarita but enclitic or secondary. See also P. VIII. 4.66, 67. '

at~t! less in contact with the vocal

organ than the semi-vowels; the term occurs in Hemacandra's' Grammar (Hem. 1. ;3.25) and is explained by the commentator as ~!ffi~r SJ~~~~r~'ICfifU. aR'1l!! stands for the letters <r and' 1j" which are substituted for the vowels tt it and 'ili't <itr when followed by a vowel; d. also Sak 1. I.I54.

art (I) the long form of the vowel 3f called <ftEl', consisting of two matras,


~ the augment oro:. seen in Vedic " , Literature added to the nom~ pl. case-affix. ;:r~. following a noun- Ii base endmg In 3f; e.g. ~m:, it1j"r~: , in vocal etc. cf. a11;s;r~{i1~ p. VII. r5 0 , 5f. i SI1E'l'l! not thecontactis with anyconnecorgan; term nsed in tion with the effort required for ar~~ substitute 3f~ for the last letter the utterance of vowels, ~{<fr~ and of the word ~<J.. before the .g<liTIll~ri'l !, sibilants when no specific contact ~ffixes, i.e. before ~!,le firs.t fi~e~case with a vocal organ is necessary; affixes e.g. !Illl<J.:, !jJ:jIBr etc., cf. !It!,s~~ P. YII. r.S9. cf; {<f\G{<fro~'l2 'ii\1lT ~+(, R. Pr. XIII. 3. ar~~ Dl)adi affix am. (3f~<I:.) by trci':. l:lTg<'<lfSS1<J.:, 'i'm0 <!: Dl). Sii. 628; d. i'f at~+rt{ first person; the term is used in i!~1ffr i'f?r,n: I ?tR1{ti'>!~!f(r('f: Kas. on the sense of the first persOll jn the P. VI. 375 grammars of Hemacandta and ..,..;:;. . Sakatayana. cf. sftfUl Sj'lwi~;!1~~(<t "l'" -( I ) k r t a ffi x lD th e sense 0 f th e I '3 . fi m lve ( :gt:rl!f In Ved' L'I tera't" -')' ( Hem. III. 3. I 7), ' lD IC


ture, e.g. ;;IT'IU; cf. g+!~ Wi'le- o a:f~:rq~ a term used for those P. II~. 49. (2) as a loc .. sing. is ~Orhpounds, the dissolution of which cannot be shown by the used 1D the sense of 3ft!ffre- In com , mentary works and in Gal)apatha. members of the compound; e.g. ijff~ cf, +!9Rr~ 'Ii~{<fq;;:f9qitfi'r ~~: I ar~~!i unblended, unmixed, just as the; d~~r I ~f+rcT ~1R<iT: ijff"ftRt I M.Bh. seuse of one word with that of on V. 4.5. another according to the view of


scholars who follow the lJ1{9TG:lJ&;!. cpo Vak. pad. II. 248; 249.

~ A term used for the perfect

tense; cf. ~ '<l'!if\lTt<I<i~~ (R.T. I9r).
SR:Ef not homogeneous; asavarI)a. cf. 1[cf00rct: ar~ ~~ <{1j"~+(, Hem. 1. 2.21,

&1~rffi tad. affix a1~(Q.. in the sense

of the base itself, but called f9~fffi, prescribed after: words in the sense

also 6R~ Sak. I. I73.

in contrast with (r) the short <IT which consists of one matra and the protracted arr~ which ccnsists of three matras; (2) substitute a1r of two matras when prescribed by m<iiJ~ (or tll9il~ also) expectant of the \'I'ord <fteT or '[f;!;: for the another word in the context, e. g. short vowel 3fj (3) upasarga 3fT 'J1li and o!fTif~ in a1W 'J1li ~,a1$f e,mr\ ~ ( 3fI~) in the sense of limit e.g, arr . if~ ~fr~m :;{~11' Kas. on a1W~'ffi 'l%lU?:Cfif B~ (P. 1. 4.r.) a11~11l~ <1'f.: fff5'l'hl~B:, (P. VIII. 2.96). tfTfUl~: Kas. on II. r.l3. arr <i~Ir('fm atT<fiTiWT expectancy with regard to (M.Bh. on 1. 1.I4'); (,r) indec1in sense-completion, generally in com able 3fI in the sense of remembrance pounds such as trFlil~,f.!\i'lili etc. e.g. arr tt<t !! ffr<je-; cf. ~"f"l:~ f;r:;!fr<rtit cf. 3f<.:tlfRff'm;r.'a'r iftlfi1: trr'!il~<r. M. Bh. l{<!hrfllfit~T "'f <1: I QJ[llrcf f.s:~ fit~T;:I'i!f on III. 2. II4. ~~lI'(<IT\ft:Q. M.Bh. on 1. r.14; (5) aug men t 3fT (3f( ~ ) 'as seen in "'f<:T"'f,(, SJT<iiliit~ a word for ,which there is 'expectancy of another word for 9?J'I"{ etc. cf. M.Bh. VI. r.I2 Vart. 6; (6) augment aTT ( 3f1~) prefixed the completion of sense. to roots in the tenses' $'3:;;:, ~:;;: and atT~R the letter 3fI; d. 31cfir\~ &<[ffiq~~ ~j (7) substitute arT prescribed awliRtJf[IJ!I;!j-: I M. Eh. I. I Ahn. 2 for the' last letter of pronouns before the tad. affixes ~% 'l~, 'l?J atT<iiw.<f; (i) a variant for a19i~'!i, cp., Kas. on Pa. II. 4.2I (ii) Extendand 'I"Q.. as in (1Til~, (fT'l~ etc. ' ing to _the Kalakavana near the ( 8) feminine affix 3fI (2.'iIJ.., ;SW. or confluence of Ganga and Yamuna. "'f1IJ..) added to nouns ending in, 3fr; ( 9) substitute a1T ( arT or 3fTQ., or :sr atT~ tad. aff. 3fliitif.. affixed to the Or 3f:~) for case affixes in Vedic word t1;'f. in the sense of 'single " literature <flU <!rm~T, -ntn 9.r.t olfl; etc. I alone '; cC t;{'liI~rffif.l'l!l[tlifT~ P. V. att indeclinable 3f1 prol)ounced nasa3.5 2 lized, e.g'. am- :orr 3lq: M.Bh. 1.3.2. , m~~~ a g(OUP of 43 roots of tbe ~re: class of roots . ~eginning with ~~ see above the word 3fT sense (5) the root ~Q.. and ending with ~~ ~ the substitute a11'!.+(., for tllOI: of , which are Atmanepadin only; the gen. pI. after the words ~+!~ and 3mi\. e.g. ~1SIiI<ii, 3ftiij'li+(,; cf. mt.fu lit. form; individual thing; d.

atJCi)t:ri~ a class of words headed by the word 3fI'litl to which the taddhita affix ~ ('Ii) is applied in the _sense of clever or expert; e. g. a1f.1iQ9i:, (6~:n:, ~f.!'Ii: etc.; d. a1Ffi"fTfcl:+<!: 'liif.. p. V. 2.64.

P. VII. I.33.

~'W{T a11~ .a{(t(f: S(~ii'r fil;<ft <!~l!T~QA't<1 ~ rJl{

Bb. on III. I.4o Vart. 6. The word is derived as an~ij- tIT a:rlitifu: and explained as B~("+r:; d. .anf>ii<!ij- o<!;;<jij- 31<1<1T ~fu 31Titifu: B"~Tif!!'&Ir Nyasa on IV. 1.63, ~ 2) ~eneral form which, in a way, IS eqUIvalent to the generic notion ~or genus.; cf. ~~~:m~8:&+r: I 31CluITitiTCI~~~T WfijClut> ';!lfre<!fu lVI. Bb. L I. Ahn. I ; ~(3) notion of genus; d. also <i~llf a~

arrf~ ~fcr M. Bh. on III. 2


~'lm M.

178; (2) a ~erm used for the circumflex accent or ~ftCi as it is uttered by a zig-zag motion of the organ in the mouth caused by the air prod ucing the sound; cf. a:rT~ <I'm
m~lrrij;:f lTlSJIUTf 'lT~~~ ~ <!

~ftff: Uvvata on


\3'Ccrn ~

Pr._IlI. I.

becoming while nouns (<I'Tl1Tfil) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with 'every process and entity; cf. 'i'lftffl~ m'lijT<l'<ITrilT'qg Nir. 1.; arrl~ffif<ljtll<l'T+r~: tI~T I
,ar;'tCfiCfiT~~IF?rftfu Cfire'1aqrifq~UT :n+!<ltllfn
ff~l: ff!i<!Ttq~ I LaghulT/afijii~ii. When a krt. affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a' word ending with a krt. affix in the sense of bhava or verbal activity is treated, as a noun and; - regularly declined; cf.~) ~l~ . !\O<{'l~ ~fu M. Bh. on II. 2. I9 and III. 1.67, where the words 'lRf, ~, q-1Cfi and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words enaing with krt. affixes such as q;, i!if<f[, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be, in'a way, looked upon as iikhyatas; cf. a:rO<{<!i!im ~l~ VaiyakaraI).abhii~aI).a .

cf. ~~a<fr "lTW~~, CfUlWni1:::, ufi\:q;: P. III. 3.108 Vart. 2.3. 4. where such
appendages to be add,ed to the roots or'letters are given. The word ~ is an old word used in thf:) Nirukta, but the term, 311<JrgCfi appears to be used for the first time for such' forms by Haradatta; d. ~ftffi ~ , <ti~, 31[i(;:g~Cfil~ ~ut<l' 'frl'tliJ: Padam: aiijaIi on VII. 2. 3I. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed a:r!i("gCfi which is placed s.econd i.e. after the original by virtue of the convel)tion a:rT'I;;:~<I'['1;:ij- f<!~~:, although, in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first - which is called abhyasa. A nice' distinction can, however, be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viZ;. a:rTiFSI, ~, ~~'lTtl and 311"1ij which can be briefly stated as follows: The former two do not form a reguiar part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word;'besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the ~Q. wording, besides serving this purpose,is of use in causing some ,grammatical .operations. 31"'lT~ is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, agama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.

f~~;<rf~~ f~~E'lF~~mmr<Ili& ~ ~~: I

~t"-lllf I 31TitiRf<lTij lilT. M. Bh. 1. I. Ahn.

m~ a: zig-zag motion of the organs producing sound caused by the air; see anfi\)a above.

I; (4) a metre consisting of 88 letters; cf. R. Prato XVI. 56, 57.


a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned ar.d room: is left to inClude others \vhich are found undergoing the same operations; cpo
~tnjTq:<!: i!iUTRf<:I: I ~uljT<{<!: QZqrij- iti~ UitiTer'lUl: I M. Bha. on II. 159.

designation, conventional name; cf. &:=r~w ~~fq ~ftr ~'lfIlT~'lt ., ~fcr M. Bh. on I. I. I.; cf. also ~l'I~(m~~~ P. 1. 1.35; d. also 'lut: 'iiTU:QU qUT~ Tai. Prato 1. 16. verbal form, verb; cf.


ijT~<!Ta:#t'i ~1:'fTilTf<l' <l'r~ N ir. 1. I; 'qrcnR~f.:r <l'rij~Tffiq-tlfrf<'f1fRiT~ M.

Haradatta 'defines the word as

~r<i'tlR~l~i1 31iitifu~l~ir

'lUI: 31li!ifu'lUT: I

Bh. T. 1. Ahnika I; also A. Prat. XII., 5,. a:rf.fil\ a:rl~ q-<{[fi\:~ M. Bh. 1._ 2.37Vart. 2, ~<!Rlll~ f?nclrtll~Sid. Kau. on II. 1. 72, f.!i<!r-, qr'q<ii~~<!Tff V. Pr. V. I; cf. ~IW:a'l'!i lT~cmf ~t# ilTlT m6<!ij- 1'+rRll:l~i1 [et'lT<{~lff+!rOO~!ln'l+r: V. Prat. VIII. 52;

Padamafij,ui ,on H. 1.59. Some of the Ganas mentioned by FaI).ini and in Unadi and Pbit-siitras also are .AkrtigaI).as, e. g. 31~W;:'IUT, +(i9fet~~fct-l 'IUT ~it;<jTf'ti(1Jl, fu;;n~'1!Jj, q-'q(f<{i(UI and others. Theword Vrt which is p.ut I at the end of a GaDa to mark ItS , close does no1. occur in tho;e GaI).as which are looked upon as .AkrtigaI).a~. cpo a:rE3~UTl<{litifu'lDlls<'+r: I Ka. on Pa II. 1.48.; cpo a:rTitiRF1UT!l:IT<i~ I ij-<l
a:rq-ftrliul~~B+(l[: I <! 311~~[ 31l9\l~UT ~l'('lij- ,
~ ~'lUT: I

Svo. on Gal)aratnamahodadhi. cpo also '~Ir:ftcitS:if c<!'l~<if


i.nlh'l<!~' n:!f[

"'lri'<f~~ it"Tlft ~liJo<t

i9l\:lifa:.' I a Karikii attributed to

<lTTa.n~mT~ directly

or expressly' mentioned in the fourteen Pratyabara Siitras of paI).ini; a letter actually mentioned by Pa1;J.ini in his alphabet '~car,:, '~~' etc. required to complete the sense; cf.

an~8' (I) taken as understood, being

cf. also Athar. .Prat. I. I. 12, 18;1.3.3: ,6; II. 2. 5 where akhyata meao~ vei-bal form. The word also meant'in ancient days the root also' as differentiated from a verb or , a verbal form as is shown by the , lines CfaTijnf+!<::l:'fifu tl~<f. ~nt if., ~(cf '~ "lig: R Pr. XII. 5 where ~ 31T<l'<!lff ' and 'l:TTg' are used a.s synonyms; As the root form such as -iti, ~ etc. as distinct from the verbal form, is never' found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb. In the passages quoted above f~om the Nirukta and the Mah1ibhii~ya referring to the four kinds of words, the word iikhyata could be taken to mean root (\TIg) or verb (f.!i<!Tq-<{). The . akhyiita. or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being

~s'I'&m a work dealing with verbs written by Anubhiitisvariipadirya on the Sarasv3.ta VyakaraI).a.

m~'nm~"P a work dealing with verbs,_

and their activity by Kr~lJa-Sbastri AraQe, a great NaiyaJrika of the 18th century_

a treatise on verbs discussing verbal forms by Vangasena.

<lTTll'11"P lit. adventitious, a.n additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form e. g. 'lfi\:, t;N, etc.; d, , ~fr~'j:f'lv'F<!f 'q P. 1. 2. 6; d. also ~19<i11'Jut ~~~~QI,,9fit'qftgn~f.r+<!~~"l. P. III. 4. 16, ~fq'!it: Cfi~"l.:. P. III. 4. 17 and a- number of other siitras where ~ or is added to the root;


atFT+r augment, accrement, a' word element which is added to the primi~ tive or basic word during the,process

of the formation of a complete ~~ name of an ancient writer of word or pada. I The agama is an Vedic grammar and Pratisakhya adventitious word element and works; d. R. Pr. 1. 2. hence differs from adda, the substi~1Jl an ancient scholar of Nirukta tute which wholly takes the plac;:e quoted by Yaska; d. 0Ifa:i Sl1!: I OI~ of the original ( or an?:f~ilJ. - Out of ftffi an!lI<!UJ: Nir. 1. 9. the several agamas mentioned by PiiJ.1ini, those that are marked with alT~ (i) the preposition <ijl. See the mute ~ are prefixed, those, marked w.ord Sll above. (ii) substitute 3fT with "ll, are affixed, while those, for a case-affix in Vedic literature. marked with;r., are placed immediately after the last vowel of the Qt!if an operation prescribed hi the section,called aQgadhikara, in the word. The augments become a part A~tadhliYl of Pii.Qini, made up of and parcel of the word to which five Padas consisting of the fourth they are added, and the characterquarter of the 6th adhyaya and all istics of which they possess; cf. the four quarters of the seventh .<rof{liTffi<\~ofT~~mOC\...mrUr.! ;;IfHra-, also adhyaya. 3ilwr~ 'l.:.~ ~. U;Ne\'c<!T: 31rlllTri'ft 31fi(fl'p:lf1r~fue~~ Par. Sek. Pari. M. Eh. on 1. 3.60 Yurt. 5; d. also II. Those grammarians, who hold i crrUJTGJ~ <r~4t ilCfm Par. Sek. Pari. 55; the view that words are unproduced ' also M. Bh. on III. 2.3. . and eternal, explain the addition of au augment as only the substitu- 0I'1~ tad. affix Sll applied to the word r.:~UJT and ~'Q~r; ct. P. V. 3:36, 38. tion ofa word with -an augment in e.g. ;;:fa:iUJr <Tam; <ftlt! ~::rlJmr<t: Kas. on athe place of a word without an au o V. 3.36; 38. ment; cf. 3fl~:<rmnfiit ~f-ll;~frn <!ii'f11l;:r1fiTi'ft ~11f{ll'lil: M. Bh. on 1. 1.20; I.I.46. ~{ (I) 'customary usage of putting The term agarna is defined as aJ~ll{ or employ_jng words in rules; d. fcill/liTi'f~ .9"ul: ~q~m: 1 3lTlJRjliTi'!g~q OIr<n<!T'i:lTU~~lffif;a:, P. 1. 1.1, Vart. 4. t'mB aJTlfli ii(fu ;C~ff: Com. on Tait. d. also, fq;Ft~'i:IT{1fctm I OI'T'<IT<!TIllTffqPrat. 1. 23. cf. ff;qr an~C{.w~: I 'i:lTU~ I '<'l'5~'l1'i:1T<!T 6l,~TfUl ~~f.ff 1M. Bhii.. 1. lor. (2) behaviour; d. OIflT~qElmq fii'fiRAirq~i'fl~ I ~:f,<;g ~qI1Ti'fr;;:T'i:lR P. III. 1.10; cf. also llBWl itq: ~9"TtfC/iqlllT~ I Durga on Kat. f.rcH1n 3lT'<IH:<:faI M. Eh. on VI. 3.109. 1. It.I; also Kas~ on P. VI. 3.109 which cites a similar verse; cf. also ~ltftI;q: denom. affix ftm. applied to DUrga on Kat. II. 3.1 and Hela. any pratipadika or .noun in the on Va-Pa. III. 14.564. sense of behaviour; d. ~~>rrfuir~1'.I . OII'i:lT~ fui<!. Cf'ffie<l: OI~ iT~ilfu ~~ ~~ abase to which an augment is M. Bh. onIIl. I.II; ct. ~{'>ra.."C:/ OIT'<IH:added; cf. t!:CfijfG" qiB 3frlTliT~ OIliff?ri'f": fff.'filTcrT'ij Par. Sek. on Pari. 52. M. Bh.1. I Ahnika 2. . a;r;;rr.:r preceptor, teacher; a designaa::t<i[fl.:r a class of roots forming a subtion usua.11y given to Pii.Qini" bv division of the CuradigaI)a or the : Patafijali in the Mababha~ya; tenth conjugation beginning with ' th.e usual expression ff~ltfC{ffi OIT'i:lI~: q~ and ending. with lJ?i which are as also 3fr~lPlfu~rqqm; also ct. only atmanepadin;e.g. ~G', <iifC{~, ~'WfrliT'<IT<!T: tL"IlfliT ~~'l1 f.tCf~<lfro. cf. OI~q~, ~~. also the popularljdefinition of an'<lr<i given as "fir~C{ C{~ srr~ OIFct'i:lT~Cf ffiPJUJ+I..1 ~illqC{ fu~\11 ;;+!T'i:lT~ 5f':ll\jtr I"

by the word ~ when substituted' for another vowel; as for example in the rule ~'<I ;w~sfufu and the follo\virig; cf.P.. vI. 'r.45, 57; (2) substitute for the ablative affix ~ after words ending in 31; d. P. VII. r.12; (3) substitute 3flo:. for a case affix in Vedic Literature, e.g. if jijTGI'l1I~f.r<:<Dm Kas. on VII. I.39.

~~ necessary

a partisan of the preceptor PaQini or the Siitrakara who is looked upon as having approximately the same authority as the Siitrakara; cf, OIT'i:lTiiitmq OII~-q Cf'ffiO<l l{fu I Kaiyata on 1. 4.105, Vart. 2. qualification to teach the Veda with all its pat has having the necessary knowledge of accents, matrli.s and the like. Cf. Ql'{SIillFctiil,,:m Cfu1Sfillfcr'i:ll\jUJ: I '-"!D1F-Ilfii~ q:m- if:;:~I'i:lT~~q,,;r. 1\ R. Prato 1. 8.





OI'~ Atmanepada third person dual

ending, technically SUbstituted for 'fiR by P. III. 4.79. '


tad. affix anq: applied to <ftl{, a:T1R and&"&rUJ by P. V. 3.34.

:mt'd~lq; applied by

an~m~ a class of words headed by the word 6lT~n which do not have tHeir final vowel accented acute by P. VI. 2.146 when they are preceded by the prepositions 51', qt! etc. although they are used as proper nouns. e.g. anfi:rCl;r., f<l~'<I:, !tVle~; cf. Kasika on P. VI. 2.14 6.

extension or tr\lnsfer of epithet as opposed to atltf~. See the word <!iFcl~; the tenn is often used_ in connection with rules or operations which do not apply or occur by the direct expression of the grammarian; d. <!f~ anfu~f:<T~ fq;~<1 m~<fi ~ 'fll:.~ff. 1\1. Eh. on 1.2.1.; d. also <!i(T~l'ii<1f.i~-.:r. Par. Sek. Piui. 93. 6 a tad-affix in the sense of excellence; a term applied to the affixes o;:r and l{g as also a~ and ~C{'i. prescribed by HiI}.ini by the 'rules ~Tq~ n<1f4g~T aud m:9"'<Ii'ffii<1"<lrqq~ ~<lfl~T Sf. P.V. 355, 57~ This superlative affix is seen doubly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. e.g. ~ma-.rr:r 'fi<1UT Yaj. Sam. 1.1; cf. also aG:"ffT'EI <;clT~ ~i'&"fB ;;:;fr"r 7..1gffl{T~fcr PN. 3.55 Vart. 3

straightforward, easy to follow on account of being direct. cf. Vak. pad. I. 12; an5':;;~: ~tfT~;; ~1iMf{l'! f.tfl:Rl;r.1 (i[)


~ (I) augment an prefixed to roots beginning with a vowel in the imperfect, aorist and conditional, which is always accented (~<tRi); d. p. V!. 4.72; (2) augment an prefixed to the imperative first person terminations, e.g. Cfi\<lrfiJI, 'fi~ etc.; cf. P. III. 4.92; (3) augment' &li'fum1:fttel;YrQ a word ending with an an to be prefixed to case-affixes atisayika affix; cf. 3f{t'ffilf<!'iil;:ffm:CfI~ which are ftl'~ after nouns called '~ffi '3Trfu~IlFiifit ~C{~M.Bh. on V. nadi; e.g.~; cf. P. VII. 3.H2. 355

I i


~ tad: affix. (ana-) in the sense of <iA'1V-f the substitution of long 3f{ posseSSIon a.dded to th.e word <1lT! ".. \ . pfescribed by the term 3ilo:. as in . -... e.g. CfT'iW-: d. P. V. 2.125 3f~'<I \3qit~sfura- and the following d. P. VI. i.45 etc. . ... _.O!'lq: (I) long an asdifferentfrom short or protracted 01 prescribed by the am~ the innermost principle, the essence, in grammar the ultimate word '!fu or in the case of 01, or

word principle. cpo Vak. pad. Ill. I.2I; III. 9.89. orm:A:: agent or Kartr as in the terms <:1(~ or ~+n"IT, cf. !i!IJ anHtiI: <i~"!. III. 1.8.
I<I: etc. cf. CfiqftCJaT

-.-- ---. -.-- -------,-----

EJ5TliQ t!'6: P.VI.

behaves like the original" (~r~1{T:

ar<rfWl:'[r P.I.r.56 ); . the application

a:riit;~ .at~iUCJ,


~R~ a ,technical term for the I affixes called a~ (ff, anaTIl. etc.) and the affi.'{ 3Hii (~Tii"!., 'iffiiiU., '!ir.i'"iJ, I an~ belonging to the second concalled so possibly because, the ! jugation or class of roots which fruit of the activity is such as I begins with the. root at<\.; d.~CJlfu: generally. goes to the agent (am:j:j~) ~~CJ .:j~ +Jf9v.rfu "r.u~~ Pur. when these affixes are used. Con-! Pari. 67. trast this term ( Atmanepada) ! with the term Parasmaipada when ~ (I) commencement, initial; .ct. att~~~UJ arrn-: M.Bh. on I. I.2I (2) I the frnit is meant for another. For of the kind of, similar; ~~(:. an explanation of the terms see P. VI. 3.7 and 8. ~iJ, commencement of an action !:l11+filq~i(, a root which always takes d. anf~a: f:n<jT~UJ: anre;Cfi1l Kas. on arrfrl:Cfi-f!faJ 'ej: Cfiiilt "fl P. III. 4.71. the Atmanepada affixes. ( See above ). ~ possessed of the mute indicatory ~ a technical term used for letter an signifying the non-applicasuch roots as speak .for the agent tion of the augment if (~?;) to the himself; the term an~"f means past-pass. part. term Cfa. e.g. ~qOUJ the same as ~he term ar!(sf.'tq~ from the root fsrfP;;'fiU; similarly fi~~, The term ar[ffl~';jl"f is not mentioned f<:I~ etc. ct. arrRaJil P. VII. 2.16. by PaI)ini; but the writer of the Vartikas explains it, cf. an(ll~m{j'- i m~f.1f. the Vrddhi substitute prescribed for the first vowel of a word m+rI'!f~~~<rIil;r, P. VI. 3.7 and to which a tad-affix, marked with 8 Vaet. I; cf. aiso ~qft.:rJil 1qmcn the mute lettef :sr, or., or ~ is added; ~<jICfi(~I{(~j:j~'!f~ .."t<r l;<i9ft~m, Kaiyata e.g. mql1CJ, ttl&! etc.; ct. ff~6:r~mR: on VI. 3.7. The term is found in the P. VII. 2. II7j lI8. Atharva-PratiSakhya. Ill. 4.7. It cannot be said whether th~ term m~ (I) prescribed for substitution; came in use after Pal}inior, alspecified for an operation; ct. mt though earlier, it belonged to some g aHRli!~ ~9'q'iiflil. M. Bh. on VI . I. school other than tha t of PaI)ini or, ISS; ct. also M.Bh. on VI. 1.158 PaI)ini put into use the terms Vart. 3; M.Bh. on IV. 3.23 Viir. Atmanepada and Parasmaipada for 5; ct. also arlfaJ!I~CJl"f: l{.~: M. Bh. the affixes as the ancien t terms on 1. 1.57; (2) indicated or stated; Atmanebha~a and Parasmaibhasa arrre:m ~ CJlI1t:. were in use for 'the roots. .

~ name of an ancient grammarian who is quoted- by Sabdakaustubha on P. I. 2.6. Atreya is believed to have prepared the padapatha 'of Tattiriya Samhita.

of this maxim is called ~l~CJiUCJ; for purposes of this ~~9il:I'f the elision ( ~q) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute; d. '3t:{1qr~1Rlq <;i!fT~~CJHi, Kas. on P.I. I5 8 Grammarians many times I look upob. a complete word or a I' word-base as a substitute for. another one, although only a letter : or a syllable in the word is changed i into another, as also when a letter : or syllable is added to or dropped i in a word; ct. q'q'g, lfo/g .. ~~m: I : Cfi~<I: I ar[~ ~: ~ arr~1{T: I ~ 'ifft<jl- I f~Cj~ I M.Bh. on I. 1:.55; cf. also l ~~ 6'f'1t{I~1 m;!'T~~~ qrf~: M.Bh. ! on P. I. 120; d. also at<rTlfIlCfiFfT ~FTIt'IiT ~m: M.Bh. on I. I.20; (2) indication, assignment; d. <It<r~:

consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial ~r the final o~e according to req ~irements for operations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Botli these notions-the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe ar~ in the case of a single letterj ct. ar[~qW~<J:.l ar[~~ If'f atiO!(Ci %[fflilM.~

+rCJm I ~i!fT Cfiijo~~ 'SRlI<jI~~ <tcmr ~mql{CJ~fit ~1qf ffiil.l Kas. on

a:r-m:::Rl, q~~mlE<f, ~: ~ftamfa~:.

R. Pro I. 30 -32; d. also ar~1{T: \3'~: . com. on T~i.-Prat. II. 20; cf. also I a:r<rT~ arFtlCfiH: V. Pro IV. I3 I , where' Uvvata remarks ~Sj ~\3't{RIT~:

~\TUJT ~;:~. an~ .,

SI~"<i: I d. also


I!;CfiJU fiimf.<i~:


P. I. I.2I; cf. also ~!ij I ~ arrfrl:CJG:~ CfiT<l +rCJm I T. Pro I.55. This arl~rermCJ of Pal)ini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadesivadbhava by virtue of which" an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letteF, affects likewise that which stands alone." cf. Pari. Silk. . Pari. 30

arR:r the SUbstitution of an; e. g. ffi[~ ~, +r'ITi% ~ cf . arrffi'n~: P.VI.3.9 0

~ possessed of the vowel an' containing the vowel arT;. e.g .tfICfi::

~'IT substitute as opposed to stbanin, the original. In PiiI).ini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that "the substitute

A. Pro II. 1.2, where ~ is pre- i scribed as a substitute for a case- : .OIT~ the initial word of a sentence which according to some constitutes affix and t~ and ~~ are cited as examples where the acute accent is sentence (CJl'F/); cpo ~~~~all:l ij:q<:ffi(lrq[q;fi{i(f: ~~2 ~~1 CJl'F/I:i: 1 also prescribed for the substitute ~. (~U<i. on Yak. pad II. i7 ) ~~ that for which a subst~tute ~ a word beginning with an is prescribed; the original, sthanin; acute-accent i.e. which has got the .. d. ~TI1~I: cf. also M.Bh. on first vowel accented acute; words P. 1. I.5 6. in the yocative case and words l:!t1~ (I) - premier; d. 1t~111~ tf(WIT-i formed with an affix marked with ( c<jTCfi~lI1'n+t<ii ) furn.mqTiilP-fllJl<I: Vak. a mute OI. or <J:. are adyudatta! d. P. pad. I.16; (2) preceding, as oppOSVI. I.I97. 198; for illustrations in ed to suc;ceeding (\3''ij\); d. ~~ detail see P. VI. I.I89-216. Qti~~: V. Pro I. IOO; (3) original; d. ~l~f.mQif specific mention of a ar[~q~Rr: TRI1~Rr: (original base) word with the accent' udatta or Bba$a Vrtti. IV. 1.93; (4) first, acute on the first syllable; cf. preceding, ari~ ~it i[ OC{91~ m~: ~: arT~1.U'6f.tM 'iift~ M. Bh. on 1.1.56, M.Bh. on III. I-9r. VI. I.I2.

llifTl:1R ~eceptacle or abode of an action; 'cf. 3:rrfu<!~ al'~ f?n<!T: iR<lTl:Tl~: Kas.,

iog the present participle; (2) krf. affix <iiFi~ applied to atmanepadi roots in the sense of past time forming the perfect participle; d. &12': <fi~T P. III. 2.IC6. ' I.I6r Vart. I, VI. 1.166 Vart. I, VI. \ alT~!+nf.rq:; obtained or made out by 1.167 Vart. 3. , inference such ~ as Paribba~arules ! as opposed to' Srauta rules such,as atTFi imp. 1st per. sing. aflix fu with I the Sfitras of Piit;\ini; cf. a:rT~mf.:t* the augment Slf prefixed, which has i ~rfu~9llGf<lCf;:i't: Kas., on VI. r.8s; also got its <J::. changed into Ol. by P. VIIl. ! d. <ll@l1lm~riI~:~I'+!T9~q~fit ~Ttf~T;:<jT, I 4. 1 6 i 1t~+rr'R<!' il ~l<r: Par. Sek. on Pari. II; ! cf. also ffn' "f '!.,cf~C<!~ ~c<l~~il a:rl~ an~ the augment a:r1"l:., added to the l1Tf.!<P-!T 31~r GfN t!;<itf"fCf: Pari. Sek. on words ~i{, CfflIl, '-lCf and others before 'I Pari. 50. uft , 9~T;:ft d. I the fern. a~x~; e.g. iF1D

on P. ,I,. 4.45 also M. Bh. on III. 3.121; the Prakriya Kaumudi mentions four kinds of adharas; cf.
~cr~<fi: tlrfrft!:it fqq<ff e<!TH ~~NH:,!!lg'<li

Prak. Kau. on II. 3.36.

aTliIW substitute :anc:r.. in the place oftbe,;r restriction of' the verbal

activity with respect to the object on which it rests. cpo Vak. pad. II. 463; ~Tl:TlU 9i\1l1~: ~w..rrl:Tl"'t::nN
,<fi~Rn: \ (::{o<!.)

, last letter ( !fi ) of the ,:first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words showing blood-relationship which' end with the vowel !fi; e.g., ,l[lmqmRr, +mnfcrcm d. P. VI. 3~25, 26.

~ll9iUCf~~ .. a:r~EJi p. IV. 149

m~'Tf, power of supporting things as is possessed by al'T<fiW which sup-


ports everything. cpo Vak. pad. III.

7- 1 5 1
Q1ll:iRt~:r.{+ner a non-differential rela'tion ( Sl~tl<1) between the person al ~ndings mtI.. ~ etc. 'and the noun

- in the nominative case which is ,t};le subject of the verb31 activity; relation of a thing and its substratum; cf. f<l qTdlmf\'l(f<lllil :4'<lI(9!:lijf~~F9<! \<!


anf'e(q:;q superfluity, superiority, notion

, of surplus; d. <I~IM:Cf<i 91'l1:n!:l: tI: M. Bh. on II. 3.46, II. 3.5 0

(I) close proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature; ar.J;:~ +fT9: a:rr<F(f~; d. qr;;;FFcM Gffu'~9~'Ij('Lm: M.' Bh. 1-402.Vart. 21; Par.Sek. Pari. 5r. This <;lose proximity of one letter ,or syllable oI so, with another, is actually i.e. phonetically required ,and generally, so found out also, but sometimes suchproximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule '{cfsrrm~ll.. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. d. Efi~ ~f.Nmii\il1T<l~~ ~~~IFIF"~ G1~~~tit, EIiT~~ Er.rqm~::f "nfir ~T~ G1~T ~ I <IS! ~,~~9Ti1;:(f~ 0<{l::.TT<!6<1Tli: M. Bh. on VIII. 3.13. cpo also G1~<! ~<rr~1ifq;:.qr ~H~~<!Tfcr (W! ffi.\ Sll1lm~811~<lTm<!rcr<ili<fiT~~ \ Uvata


nasalization; through the nose, an additional '\ property possessed by vowels 'and, , ~he fifth letters of the 5 Classes (~, I ~Rf<i proximity.; ~lose affinity; close 5f" Ol., 'if" <l,,) d. a:r@i1Tmqij ~qTl1M:iT ~1l1: ! relationship.' There are four kinds , I of such proximity as far as words M. Bh. on I. 19 ,i I in grammar are concerned:R e: the ' ~I~~ serial order,' successive or~er I organs of speech (~~H<l(f:) as in 1l,CZ'Iof grammatical operations or the !l+C, regarding the meaning ( '31l<ffi: ) rules prescribing' them as they as in 9r(fll~~9m-:, regarding ,the quaoccur; d. a:rT~~i re:al'rai1, M. Bh.on lity (~1l1) as in tfT'Ii: D<r:, and regardV. 3.5; cf. also G1~9 "f1~~<l1 a:r:V<lt ing the prosodial value ( !:l1l11l1 ) as in SWl;l1T9~~Gf ~O:~'nlifq I Cf[i1. <fil~<::f!l +rfcra:r!!~~, '3P!.+<I!+r:.; cf. 31;r<fifet~ a:rr;:q-~ ~I<ll~ Cfo~~ M. Bh. on P. I. ~.57. ~1l15i~T1l1~~ Par. Sek. Pari. 13. cf. also Kas. on 1. 1.50. Sil~~ successive order, as prescribed , bv tradition or by the writer; d.

I utterance I


closest affinity; d. 311i,\:;{<lne:- /' qf:4-l1~~TC~!I a:rtra<:o.'1l?3i1lfB<fi~tl~: M.Bh. on VII. 2.84, as also a:rtriRal'!jll fu~+c M. Bh. on VII. 1.96 Vart. 6.

~<l~'3f[u]TIiG~U] tll1T<lTp{lUlllr '!.,cffuqm: \

roW:9~FoT ~;FT<fi1+.:4T \ ~f'UlfiTUfu'u<!: ! M. Bh. II. 2.34 Vart. 3; also 91111<'1Tl1@'{,O~ I, m&llll~~fEl?;:~i\T: I M. Bh. on. II. 2.34 Vart. 6; d. tRl~'{;;i1l1 srw'I!Tc:r.. ~'<fr<l WIT(\, \ !{~ a:rT !{~ I ~l~ :rrl\:an ~~<u:; il g 31T d~ ~iJ<lr: R. Pr. II. 2; cf. also al'T~1f~<lTq: fu;s~ Sira. Pari. 6.



a sub-division of roots belong- \ ing to the ~<r1l1 or tenth conjugation beginning with ~:sr.. and ending with li'l. which take the Vika[at;\a flJj~ optionally i.e. which are also i conjugated like roots of the' first conjugation; e.g. <lr;;p.:fm, <lr;;;<\a-, <lr;;;fu; , tlN<lfct.~, ~.



on Vaj. Pra. VI. 14. (2) closecon~ nection by mention together at a common place etc.; d. tl9i~T<l;:(f~ <fiT<!il1l<l"M. Bh. on 1. 1.27; name of a Buddhist grammarian, the author of the work named Candra-VyakaraJ;la Pad dhati.

word ending with anc:r.. which has the consonant dropped and the preceding a:rT nasalized; e.g. WIT !{cf ~:Rk. Sam. VIII. 35.20, lil[f ~~: ~k Sam. VI. 19. r; cf. clJ9T~iZ tl1Hi1CfT~, 3Tlmsft f.:t~+c P. VIII. 3.9, VIII. p 3.3; d. also &:;:0 ',,-~ !{t;:f "" a:rT<I:tra:T: '<.<iT 'ClaT q~'UGI: R. Pro IV. 26,27. being different, difference.
3Ti'\<! <=119: 31<<I<=IT9: I (fiJ: ~T~ ~'l:5f. \ a:r:q9T Sl;:<lr <=IfC<!: 3l;:<1~ (fl:<! <=IT9 s:frr <=Ilit ~<lor..l Kaiyata on P. V. 1.124. <=IT9~~: '!i<!~n'9<'1: ~m-~ !j)'111<fiR~F<!(9<l" I



::iI1~~ a thing placed in another or I depending upon another, as opposed to adhara or the container; cf. a:rl;;r<!&lf&i<!1;;;l\:j Bttl~9~~ffif!1l1: M. Bh., ~~ abgence of any utility; sgpe:r on P. IV. 1.44. fluity; absence of any object or purpose; d. ~~T<lI1j-~ ~re!T~ , an~ (I) kit. affix (~T<l~, or '''IT<l;a) re:ac<mr,IM. Bh. on P. VI. 1.86 Velrt. substituted for the lakara ~?;:and 5 d. also P. VI. 1.158 Vart. 4; VI. applied to atmanepadi roots form- I

att~~~m the samhiHi-patha or recital of the running Vedic text in accordance with the constituent words; e.g. ~: ~q F-i(\, f<ff<tq+c or ilU :TI~ 9T '!.,qU]+c, as opposed to ,the '!l1<rr~~~ which is actually found in the traditional recital e.g. ~<'I~ ~q AACl+c E,.k samh. V. 2.7 or i1U 9T:TI~ '!.,qU]+c ~k sarilh. X. 64.3. See

Nagesa. The word is 'freely used in l\CBh. e.g. 1. 1.62. Va II, V. 259, Va. 4.

, R. Prat. II. 43

a-'fi11 (I) common term for the fern. ~Ildings <!1tI.., ~It:l and 'Cllt:l given by

PaI)ini iQ Adhy. IV, Piida I; cf. 3fOCl'1.jJlUt~q-: P. II. 4.82. P. IV. 1.1; P. VI. 1.68; d. also P. VI.3.63. P. VII. 3.44; P. VII. 3.106, II6; P. VII. 4.15. etc.; (2)' a brief term for case-affixes beginning with the inst. sing and ending with the loco pI. cf. aic:rTt<l9i: P. VII. 2. II2. .
~Cff~ (I) production; resulting of something into another; change;

Sab. Kau. on 1. 3.22 ; Wis. on VII. 3.95; Kaiy. on II. 3.17; Durg. on Wit. 1. 2.1 etc.
f.!~; d. Q;9ilWcrrf<l 8ll9ilW!l~ Ath. Pr. II. 1.4; (2) Similarity of accent of words in the Sarilhitapatba and Padapalba; (3) followed by d. A. Pr. II. I.I4; (4) distres.s; d. mon~ 'i:f, P. VIII. awrTl:lC'fl1T<!f1=T: ~T . !f<TICflil:"fii: 1 Kasika. (5) ar[iiN! c:rPl" ~~CiiI. ;zr-;'tl,;ra~T ~ffl:aT <,!crfil" I A th. Prati. 1. 1.3.

Kas. on P. I. I. 9. See also <tt;U- ~ 1

arr+<lrnU ~lij etc. Si. Kau. on I. 1.9. an important Sik~ii work

composed before the _ninth ,century A. D. and attributed to Apisali, a grammarian earlier than and referred to by Piil)ini.

~~:em:r change~ prescribed in connection with tbe31~TB or reduplicative syllable; cf.'3T+<tltlfc!9il~ 8n-=<trtl: M. Bh. on III. 1.6.

d. iR-!~ ~,q.:<!Tq-fu: "-Rr: +!.*r~Tqf'Q: +!.~ ;:<I+lICf: V. Prat. I. 142 and Uvata's com. thereon; d. also <i+rT11R! explained as <il1+ITcr R. Pr, VI. 9. ( 2 ) modification; cf. 8lrq-~~ JIflffiit C'fffirt CfT. R. Pr. XIII. I; (3) contingency, undesired result.

augment an!!. added to the words t1.t'!!, ~ and ~ before the affix flit'Cf,,; cf. M. Bh. on III. 1.25 and Viirt. I and 2 thereon; e. g. t1il!1N<ifu, 8l~T

~ a rule given in the section



S1l~~' augment (31IlJ.)

patronymiC affix such as 3l~ and others. The term 3lTq-t'!!, which is the same as the usual term arWi iu m<lT~~ P. IV. I, is found sometimes used in the Varttikas and in the Mahiibba!iya; cf. ;;rrWlr;;:~<!~~!jli:~TiT f~<TI ~<!~~: P. IV. 1,163 Vart 6.

suggested in the place of arr~'{i by Patafijali to be' prefixed to the affix M'Cf,,; cf. IvI. Bh. on III. I. 25.

called 8lr4T~W-ii~!1{ extending from P. VI. 4.22 to VI. 4. 175, wherein one rule or operation is looked upon as I invalid to another one; cf. arfB~~ ;;r[+lTQ:. P. VI. 4. 22 and M. Bh. thereon; d. also <IT<!CfT 8lfufcl:m lf6: ll:t'!!fq arr+IT'Cm<!i1~ Vyac;1i Pari. 38.


attlt~cffi" depending upon apother cpo Vak. pad. II. 168 ~+I?r Cflf+!!:"flC'fi.<f <1>lt\lir g C'f CMt<!~ I amf~ W ~t1il f.'r~:

an+ft~ repetition of an action ; d. tftC'f:9:'<i 8lFftq1lZ;~ Ras. on III. 4.22; d. M. Bh. III. 4.24; VIII. I. 4 ; VIll. 1.12.


(I) augment -3i( prescribed in connection with the words T.f!1~, and a:;~rr before the case-affixes called t1;;f;I~~Tc:r; cf. T.fg:r:.,];i)~l<J: a-;::T'Q: P. VII. I. 98; (2) the affix ;;r~ added before R~ ora perfect termination by rules 9iH!fil!l<!F-\l<J:, .~11;~ reg- and the follov,;ing (P. III. I. 35-39)' as for instance, in <liTeT"I"?!;, i!!iirtT.f1ii, '{<It''l~,~jiRf'i:f9,n::, f<i+l<rtT.f<liT~ etc.; (3) geni. pl. case-affix ar,~ as in [1'l"~T~ J q/~'tl~, with ~ prefixed in W11iJJT<l:. etc., and with ~. prefixed in ~~"ft<J:, etc. ; ( 4) loco sing. case-affix 3lFf.. substituted for i{ (fs: ); d. 1Hr+r, C'f'1l1'k ;:fi.<!: P. VI. 4. II6.
tance; (2) an invitation which may or may not be accepted; d. ~f!:"f Fnr-SJiJJJlF~UJT\ijrn~Il*l!f[~~~ B~ P. III. 3. 161 whereon IvI. Bh. remarks 3l~ Fnr-';f!1{p:f<';f'lT<tr: it ~T;f: 131~ Bf.'!~~C'f f.'rl1<';ful+!<fffi ~m~~~ C'f 8lTl1~';f"FI.. 1~tTIfur ~~q: I ~~fu~Tfu Frl1<SJoiJ +I<!Rr BFr~c:rlfq- T.fl+rrSJUJOf.. 1 GW <im<tTl1a: 'liticcj" Cif~iJJ~ 1 3lTl1i-"1:Ur 9iHiT.fl<;:: 1 lvI. Bh. on P. III. 3.r6r.


atl~ son of at.:rra~, the author of

Sphotaniriipal)a ('17th cent. A. D. ).
mrq~~ (I) a work-of ;;rrfit~~, possibly his grammar; d. ;;rrfq~<1>l1'<fuf M. Bh. on IV. 1.14; (2) a student of .Apisali's grammar; arrfci;zr<1>!jIfr~ arrttrq/<!>T $Irl'l1lfr lVI. Bh. on IV 1.14; 8lTfqq/<1>tfTfiJI<fi<IE~ril<l~Cf1ft<rr; M. Bh. on VI. 2.36 ; d. n:.rJ "Ilfq~<!>T: q-tfil'rrfi<lT: tR#cr8l1lTii'l!!qC{f~C'ffct9iH::~Cfl'i~C'fiiI.1 arT~~g !fl~C'f . itq: ~<!f1i9iqiJJi<!.. 11

to be obtained by an activity; (the same as vyapya). The term is used in connection with the object of a verb which is to be obtained by:.the verbal activity. The word arlt<l" is found used in the se'nse of Karman or object in the grammars of .jainendra, Sakatayana, C/andra and Hemacandra; d. C'andra II I. 43; Jainendra 1. 2. II9 ; Sak. IV. 3. 1:20 ; Rem. III. 3. 31. ;fence, the term t1Tt<i is used for a transitive root in these grammars.

arr~ .an operation prescribed by a rule in the section called m+fr<i!fifl~iJJ. See ~f+!r-c01~ above.
d~:r*fii(OI a section of Piil)ini's grammar from VI. 4. 22 to VI. 4. 129, called arr<l1<l", as it extends to the rule +!l;<i VI. 4. 129. including it ; but as the governing rule +I~ is vaHd in every rule upto the end of the Pada, the m<l1~!f~rrr also extends

atT+r;::;rUl (I) calling out from a dis-

anrq~ an ancient grammarian men-

atTq.:Q ending with the fern. affix 3lr tioned by PaI).irii and his commenta(~!!., ~g. or "II!!.); d. CfTii;:a': P. II. tors like Patafijali, HeHiraja and. 4. 30 Vart. 3 others; d. crr ~t<jTfq~: P. IV. 3.98; n~( 'ifI~af~ttr: M. Bh. on IV. 2.45. attOlN' (I) similarity of one phoneEc for various references to this great element, for instance, in the case and reputed grammarian see Ujjv. of1l; with 8lr resulting from Samdhi; on Ui),adisiitra I. 18; Mahii1;>hii~ya e. g. :snlf<iT ~lRr iw:Jr 8l9i: where dipikii, P.49; Nyasa on Pii 1.3. 22; 3i;;r[ilf and fir~T stand for ~ and

siT;rf;:;rQ (I) a word in the vocative sing. d. BT+rf<';fo'1.P. II. 3.48; a tech. . amfT~c:cr invalidity or supposed term in PiiI)ini's grammar, the pecuinvisibility of one rule with respect liar featuLes of which are 1iUWClitICf to another. in ~ the section called ( d. P. II. 1.2), 3lfc!llil.,Cjm ( cf. P.3lT~1<t!fif.<::U]. See 8lT+IT'C"EYref above. i VIII. 1.72), fa:tCf (cf. P. VIII. 1.8), i ~+<t~~ -internal effort made. in 3lT~~'QcCf (d. P. VI. 1.198), t1Cf~r producing a sound, as contrasted I ~cCf (d. P. VIII. 1.19), splitting of with the external one called en&l!f<l(.f. I 11; into 3lT and 1l:, e. g. 3lH into 3lm ~ ~ ( d. P. VIII. 2. 107 Vart. 3); (2) There are :our .kinds o! .. i~tern~ll Vocative case, d. aTI9il<:: arrlif<~: efforts descnbed III the Kaslkavrttl.; ! >flJ,!il: ~k. Prat. 1.28; Vaj. Pro III. cf. "It<!l<;: 3Tr-=<t;:cr~>f<!(.fr: t1<!o1~<jJl1r-8l1<!~ 139 ; II. 17; II. 24 VI. I. -~fl!!crT~ ~~'a!!m, ~m, fc!'lffiTI ~m I

upto the end of the Pada. See 3TI+!Tabove.





!SIp:!: the substitute Ofl'I.. for TJ; before a v<lwel; e.g. ~l~<ii:" for ~+arfi: cf. t!;~T<lT<l': P. VI. 1.78
<IWI' (I) the affix an<l applied to the roots ~'l., Ii'l. ang others' endi~g wifh which they are looked upon as roots; d. P. III. 1.28; P. III. 1.32. The affix is applied optionally when ardhadhatuka affix is to follow; e.g. _ifl~, mar; cf. P. III. 1.31; ( 2) augment; cf. dlsffi <l'oT't<l BIf:;jif: R. Prat. XlV. I Uvata.

a. word connected' with

the verbal activity possessed by

arrllfr'3fff e.g. ~~, in .~o~'ili!"l.; cf. 3Hllffi <iT 1iflg91~T f;nClT ~HClT: <ii~

Kaiyata onP. II.



a short gloss on the Siitras of Pa1).ini, called HilJini-siitra-vrtti. He also wrote Akhyataoviveka and Karakavada.
. aTRT~q: the word OfT\IQ;, which is stated

<m+l .."q a word in the vocative case;

lit. a word possessed of the sense of invocation; cf. OfTl1,,:;<{+nii't~ <l'~+{F!: ~OG: 3l1li"::<:i: Sak. I. 3.88; cf. also OfJli";1lij- <l~"i:Tl1';lF1:. com. on Hem. II. 1.25.
a11m~ tad. affi.'{ Oflm"l. in the sense of


to have two opposite seDses ' near' and distant' cp.' Vak-pad. IlL 14. 2 76
~ tad. affix applied to the


'I:'hi<:: when the whole word refers to

a year, e.g. quit in the last year; d. B.V. 3.22 Vart. 2.

possession, applied to the word ~ ~ d. ~'llill'a'l1<{ P. V. 2. 126.



a:nml'jf completely mixed; d. arrill~~ClT<i'llR~ B'i:<{ij- B ~cr ~~ ~~, .nN

1:j'{~ I CI!~T I ~iJ<fcfi ~~ OfTrn~=!~ 1';)1\'i~Tj' "l~ij- <'fit~;,;;~1i't<'f M. Bh. on VI. 1.85 ; similarly Oflm'$lt9, <J1lill~1~cr etc.


tad. affix (Ofl"C) added to the affixes ~ i. e. CI'{ and mr which are placed after indeclinables; e. g. fCfiCl<::I"C q:qR\n'{I"C etc. d. P. V. 4.1I. a

tension of the limbs or organs producing sound, which is noticed in the utterance of a vowel which is accented acute ( ~ ) dlT<iTm m'3ffTllT ~.~lWIiqu1 cIT; com. on Tait. Pdit. XXII. 9; d. e;il~'T~ 'TfflfUlT<J:: crmf.:rilRi Uv. on R. 'Prat. III. r; cf. also '3>"~'Tll;t ~'fu:{<I com. on Vai. Prato 1.31; cf. also dlMrm ~'l'li~ <::9~~:Cf.<::lfdj :a'61Wf M.Bh. on P.
I, 2.29.

an~ krt. affix applied to the ro~ts ~'

and 9ret in the sense of habituated etc. e.g. ~'{1~:, 9~:. d. P. III. 2.173
~'T1i{1::r attribution or imputation of properties which leads to the secondary sense of a \\'ord; cf. dlsrftr;.aT a~mflt Ci~~Uql~~<jij- Par. , Sek. on Pan. 15.

4.II7. The main utility of the ardhadMtuka term is the augment i( (~ ) to be prefixed to the ardha. . dhiituka affixes. The term arrifl:!rg~ was in use in works of the old ValyakaralJas; d. dl<19l 3lT~T~ 9~lill -<liTe; an'<Tl:!Tg~e;! Bf~ ~if'f~ ___ f~!! ,nftrn~ ~m~ ~~t! M. Bb. on II. 4.35. It cannot be said how the term ardhadhatuka originated. Probably such affi~es or pratyayas, like the krt affixes generally as' could be placed after certain roots only Were called ardhadhatuka, as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sarvadhatuka on account of their being found in use after every root.

~~~ old term for 3lT~'9rgCfi;



m~~ krt. affix <J11~ befor~ which ii1T

is changed into ~; cf. , Of'I.. ,dlT41"d 1"'9 I<;~ Rri{e~~ P. VI. 4.55. (causal

orm'loT\~ same as 3lf-.rf.t'Cf(if; see above




~Q (r) iterative;


defined as

repeated q;,;;"C cf.





a.rWt Vaj. Prat. I. 146;( 2 )

the second or latter portion, of a repeated word according to Pat:lini; cf. ffi;'l' (fi~!fm'l' )q'{I1I~fu'CI*{ P. VIII.I.2. The AmreQita word gets the grave accent and has its last vowel protracted when it implies censure; cf. P. VIII.I.3 and VIII. 2.95. Haradatta has tried to explain how the term dll~~ff meanS the first .member; cf. <'fi! arr~~ff~'6~
Slftr~: ~if

aTR' substitute dll'{ for 51\' in the words fllq and lllq; e.g: fitm::rliTm::r; cf. P. VL333

reEuItant from sense; made up of sense; dltr.;'l' ~1l+r.. 811~; cf. CI<;:Tfitff' ~mctlll:q<:lllT"I!:Io:a;r" Par. Sek. on Pari. 37.

au~T1VP~ the topic or section in PalJini's grammar where operations, 'caused by the presence of an ardhadhatuka affix ahead, are enumerated, beginning with the' rule 0fT1:l'<TTg% VI. 4.46 . and ending with <'f(iliN VI. 4.69. Such operationl) are summed up' in the stanza ajffi
6t1:jt <l6tq.aT fUi6tlf.aT 5!'<lf"lif'+( I arr~lf ~f<:fl\~ 'it f'itacr'\.~19.aT dT~j M.Bh. as

tad. affix. (an<::) applied to the word i1t'9T in the sense of offspring according to the Northern ,Grammarians; e.g. oTNH::, ( optional forms , iii~ and ~ acc. to others); cf. P. IV. 1.129, 130.;; ,

~~!li~ combination of the meanings (of the base and affix); see the word arr~ above. ~r!q) . a term used in contrast to the term ~1<t'c11gCJi for such verbal and krt affixes, as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter~, d. ffi~~Q;, tll~l:!lg;lf.01.I arr{pqTg<ii ~1i: T P. III. 4. II3 and II4. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive m~od are termed ardhadhiituka, d. P.IlI. I 4. lIS, II6; while both the terms ; are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature; d. P. III.

also Kiis. on VI. 446.

~ derived from

srI$:: dll~~a- fl}:fuHl'ffifliRt I \1t<l1l~ g; ~'6~ qR+r16<Jij- I +{~I'!i'{lil

tad. affix applied to the words a:nd '[i({, e.g. ~'{Cfi:, ~<tRCfi:; cf. P. ~Tl1T'{Cfi'l: P.V.2.122 Vart. 3.

~T'tfI~U~ Padamafij. on VIII. 1.2.

m; ~~R"I+lR:J

an iterative compound; cf. anGtfB+ffi1 g; I A. l?rat. III.. 1.5.

au~ KRISHNASHASTRI a reputed Naiyayika of Banaras of the nineteenth century, who wrote, besides many treaties on Nyaya,

the hOly sages; founded on' sacred tradition, such as the Vedangas; cf. ~ 'tf ~1Wl1fq "!l1l~ R. Prat. XIV 30. The word is explained as ~94q16 by the corri. on Vaj Prato IX.2I, and as Vaidika ,sarildhi on X. 13. PatanjaH has looked upon the pada-patila or Pada-text of the Sarilhitas of the Vedas, as anarl?a, as contrasted with the sarilbita text which is arl?a; cf. an~<l~"C in the sense ~ff!<!T"C R. Prat. II. 27; cf. also 1Wii1"t.tfl1 ~~~"C M.Bh. on l~I.I. 10 9.

~l~ tad-affixes ~. OO!. etc. as also
the senses in which the affixes are applied; given in the section of PaI).ini's grammar P.V 1. 19-71.

~ repetition, e.g. Q1{l'l-Rl:, see com.
qn Vaj. Prato IV. 21; cf. also an'lRffi: ~RWtcf +lCfm M.Bh: 1. I. Ahn. 2.
atml!' nearest, most proximate; cf. fc\"1f,m ~~T6'l\<I: V. Pr. 1. 142; d. also the sutra antl'Ji: Sak. I. I'7, explained as ~~~ur>llnurTf~~~e'ii{: ; d. also a:JTWi!: Hem. VII. 4.120. cf. Yak. pad. I. II; cf. also arre'i! ~H~!l;q1f,rfr I .aq1f,I<fi4~'-l\tiffi I!m:rfu: ~rnr I~.

an~ the

case affix in Vedic literature e.g. 913~llf~o KM. on VII. I.39.

benedictive mood; cf. P. III. 4. I04, called regularly as 31r~ftf~"{.

~ tad-affix added to the word ~~ i~ the general sense of direction but when distan<;e is speciaUy meant; e.g. ~fflJUJ~ 9~m, '{~I~ '-+fOfrlfil:,. See Kas. on an~:q ~ P. V337


tad-affix (8l(6) applied to the word CfI:;Ci')n the sense of 'talkative' e.g. CfI'<Iji;5: cf. P. V. 2. 12 4.

1l11~OJt'tl (I) name of a work on gram-

~q; name of PaQini. d. 'QTfilTf.T~lf&:'iir



~. tad. affix in the sense 'n~ ~li{if' e.g. ~fhJm:, <JWIm:; P.V. 2 122.

krt. affix (a:rm) applied to the roots ~'ii!! ~~ qq: etc. e.g. ~'ll[lfl:. ~~lfT:, f'l1(l: etc. cf. P. III.2.IsB. incomplete
~, 9'<1~ M.Bh.


pronunciation, d. on I. r.8.


tad-affix applied to the word ~li, d. ~t/19" q~ffr M.Bh. on V. 4 30.


necessary notion or thing; d. Kas. on III. 3.17.

alh:l9~lf~ I ~ii+l19 8ll9~~

mar written by Tiiranatha called Tarka-vacaspati, a reputed Sanskrit scholar of Bengal of the I9th. century A.D. who compiled the great SanSKrit Dictionary named CfT'<I~ wand wrote commentaries on many Sanskrit Shastraic and classical works. The grammar called an~1if is very useful for beginners; (2) name of an elementary grammar in aphorisms written by WI~'!iffi~m, which is based on the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva. There is a gloss on this grammar named SuddqasubodhasiitrarthavyakaraI;la by Ramesvara.

close proximity of a word with . another; d. uir ~~~~ anlfuCf~l~ ~ .1{9 ~qr'q: I Pari. Bhaskar Pari. 97.

~~-Rn a variety of q,,{Rn metre of 40 letters with Bletters in the first

and second quarters or pad as and I2 letters in the third and fourth quarters; d. anffiRq~fui: R. Pr. XVI. 40. For instances of 31R('ff~ q"{Rn see E-gveda siikta 2 ., MaI;lQala

tIlTltijIM'lif~ a class of compound words headed by the word an~ffim in which tbe past pass. part. is optionally placed first. e.g. anmoTm:, am~r~a:; :;Jffi9:~:, ~:oJm:. The class anrn~Tfu: is stated to be "1~ijur, d. Kas. on P . II. 2.37.

~fitQ (I) pla~ed after, following, which follow: cf. 31r~~nfqffi'1fl1~;" 'iffii'fl"I:, Uvvata on R. Pr. IV. I. ( 2) properly placed at the end e.g .. ~6~'{ ~ fB1:~~. (3) another flame for "1fufrl emr, d. Ath. Pd. I. 48.


0I1"'1~ lit. based upon the insertion and extortion of the sense in tl;1e various parts of a word. d. Yak. pad. II. 79. cpo f[1ifT ~~';lfrfl:f.fiR: ~Il:~itlf~~~if I nSf ~r~~itlf 31rqTqt~r~1f,: I
i.'ilfcl;~: I (!rUlf.)

(1) relation of dependence; d. "1TlJIll1fce:tcf +tFc!5lfffi M. Bh. I. I.12

Vart. 4; (2) substratum, place of residence; d. ~UT9'<Ii'frilf :rr-<>G:ri!T+rTlJI~m

~w:r:qi'frRr +Ii/fro I ~ Cf~<I: I ~r ~iT I ~~: Cfi:~: I M. Bh. II. 2.29.

. sn~




. '1Fnf<fm~fu?lfm~<ffltrffi: I-~.

. d. Yak. pad. III..8 26; III 13. 1 7; III 14.323. d. also m~it tj'GJ~T

a:rrf.i~ having a fixed gend~r as

. opposed to 31ifrf.t~rew possessed of all genders; d. 8lrtij2~ "fIm: Ilf~lJqrocr . 5i'Cfij-ij- if o~~ :oJ~Rr.lM ..Bh~ on I. 2.5 2; e.g. the word 5j'liTur in 5j'l'jf'JT ~(:.

OI1~!~:g.:.&q characterised by a definite

number, e.rg. the word 1{1f, which denotes_a_definite singular number. cf. Vak. pad. III 14.2BB.

~1~tq'ifmfu~lT~ an authoritative Pratisakhya work attributed to Saunaka, the teacher of Asvalayana, belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Ba~kala Sakhiis of the ~gveda. It is widely known by the name E-k-Pratisakhya. It is a metrical composition divided into 18 chapters called Patalas, giving special directions for the proper pronunciation, recitation and preservation of the E-ksarhhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities. It has got a masterly commentary written by U vvata.

(I) place of articulation, the mouth, cf. awr.z;!l~i'f Cfur1~ I(m 311~iI:, M. Bh. on I. 1.9; ( 2) found in the place of articulation; e.g. the effort made for the utterance of words; d. an~. +!CfliTt<i<I: M. Bh. on I. 1.9, also ';'lmR>r~(i'fq1ij1f,liT~<rI:. Laghuvrtti on Sak. I. 1.6.

(I) tbe vowel!!', representing all its eighteen forms viz. short, long, protracted, acute, grave, circumflex, pure and nasalised;e.g.!( in lf~fo :q P. VI. 4.128; (2) UQi.idi affix 1(; (3) tad-affix ~ applied to Bahuvrihi com pounds in. the sense of exchange of action 0!' as seen in words likefu:;fui ego ~1~~, ~~11S, m.!!~re etc. d. ~, 9ilTolffcr~~ . P. V. 4.127, also V. 4128;' (4) krt. affix f:ji\( ~) cf. \jtj'311 qr: fcl;: p. III. 3.92; (5) augment ~ (I(): see ~~; ( 6) conjugational affix~~ of the 1st pers. sing. Atm.

It,( )

~~ a sub-division of the :'!nf<t (Xth conj.) roots, beginning with the root 3:ll3.. and ending with the root ';Cfit, which take the VikaraQa fUl, i.e. which are conjugated like roots of the tenth conjugation, only if they are transitive .in sense. ,

tad-affix (311lf) in the general Sai~ika ~enses, e.g. belonging to,

produced in, etc., added to the word a'6\, e.g. alr'6U{ cf. a'6U'm!O:. Cfifo"~: I; M. Bh. on IV. 2.I04.

.( I) short wording ( SI~llfR) for the vowels ~, \j, SR and n; d. ffi liur~ P. VI. I.77; ~:q ~.~~l~ P. I. I.48; I(cit ~llF[,il1 P. I. I.3;' ~'~ur: ~5i'eRU1<I: P. I. 1.45, ~g:J9UT ~~~ ~wr~ P. VI. I.127, ffi" l5ffiSS'<u iJl~ P. VI. 3.61; (2) krt. affix ~(if) applied to the root form to cite a root e.g. qf~,:oJRr etc. cf. ~~fuI'tTI 1ifrg~~ P. III. 3.10B Vart. 2; (3) krt. affix ~~ applied to the roots ~.ot and others in the sense of verbal activity e.g.

!ifel:, AA:, firlt:

3.IOB Vart. B.

d. ~~ ~l:ITfu:"lf:



~<i'trihiTl'.IT the Paribha~ii rule rit ~ -Po I. 1.3; cf. ~1l'J_~ ~qlb:rr.nq~Tc:mt.lf.!) Il;'f ~~ ~ ~~ ~a: Siradeva. Pari. 93

lffff is ~<r. Tbe term is an old one
d. ~k. Prati. 1.35. 5f'-Rl~fi'~~ I Uvata explains the term ~ as ~!lCf!:!&~ The term ~q came to be used later on. d. fuHltqft~~Q~ ~;fitsf<rq~~ I The whole phrase is also called

(I) substitute for the affix (; given as 'l!, oor.. or f5:ro by paQ.ini; d. 6t~~: P. VII. 3.50; (2) taddhita affix ~.~, ~, IitCfii( mentioned in the' Vartikas (In P. IV. 2.60; (3) krt. affix \f<fi applied to ~i( e.g. ~: cf. ffi CJ'fa-~: P. III. 3.125 Vart. 3. the same affix as 'l! meptioned by the ~R in the Vartikas on P.IV.260. tad. affix it'fi applied to compound words with q~ as the latter mem ber ' e.g. '~qf~; d. Wq~~~qGJa: P. IV. 2.60 Vart.'

i{$f!.l' a separable word as opposed to


part 9f a compound word' which is separated or may be separated irom the remaining part when the word is split up into its constituent parts. 'Generally the word is applied to the first Pllrt of a compound word when it is split up in the recital of the padapathil. The iIigya' word is shown by a pause or avagraha after it, which is shown in writing by the sign ( s ):


( I) augment it prefixed. in general, in the case of all roots barring a , few roots ending in vowels except E!i and ~ and roots ~, etc., to ,su~h affixes of non-conjugational tenses and moods as begin with any consonant except { and cr.;, cf. *fl,q- ~~. ~~: P. VII. 2.35 to 78 and its exceptions P. VII. 2.8 to 34; ( 2 ) personal ending of the third person sing. Atm.


~ (I) short wording or pratylihiira for all vowels except at and the I consonants it, cr., cr., \, ~; d. \l:UJ: Ii: I P. VIII. 3.39, also P. VIII. 3.57. 78 1 ( 2) krt. affix I[ applied to roots such as ~ am. etc. in the sense of verbal . activity. e. g. 311~:, anffi:,_ a:rr~; cf., il.1l'J~TiF{+lI: P. III. 3. 108, Vart. 6.


and the ~ letters are applied to roots in the Dhlitupatha. nouns in the Ga1}.aplHba, as also to affixes, augrrents and substitutes prescribed in grammar. Only at a few places tbeyare attached to give facility of pronunciation. Sometim~.s ,the ~ letters, especially vowels. which are said to be {Cf" when uttered as nasalized by HiI}.ini, are recognised only by convention; d. sr~Ifuif<lT: qrfcrl ;:fi<rr: (S. K. on P. L 3.2). The word~,which literally means going aw~y 'or disappea~ing, can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. *f<mftJ~ilia: I arqCfllCf~ 1ICI:. ftJii (Rtrn:iF{oc<l+i: I ~,uaif'i'mff q fffgftr gt<i~ ~~~: I ,

ita:. for different purposes


d. ~1f1l~ fl+rm-r 'i:fT~~ ~fff ~1f<!+I..1

t<iiq~ lqt. affix applie'd to /Sil_ e.g. *fl<afil't'f'fi cf. ~J Cf'f'i~: P. Ill. 3.125 Vart. 4.

ilW4ftIfu fcrm~lI B;pl com, on Tait.

Prato r. 48. ffi9!:1t tfG:iliW'Fl: Com. on T. Pro I. 48.

the letter ~ with all its 18 varieties ( !{+'F.R).

~~~ the presence of the word il.~ ( vowels lf, ~, ~ and w: ) in a rule, where the operations ~1l'J and 'lfu are prescribed by putting the words ~1iJ and 'lfu:; e.g. fm'"l" 'lfu: ql'.~ijqit!! P. VII. 2.1; cf. ~<iT ~~'t P .I. I.3.
~~OT~ the substitution

(I) short wording or pratyahlira for vowels except are d. ~il:~ ~ll ~Si[<~: P. III. 1.36; cf.alw VI. I. 104. VI. 3.68. VIII. 4.3I, 32 ; ( 2 ) Samaslinta affix it after Bahuvrihi compounds showing a mutual exchange of actions. e. g. ~~&r, <{l151C{fOG; cf. ~,~ClJfu~I~ P. V. 4. 127 also 128.

... I

of the vowel called 'l~ i.e. the vowel *fT, U: or prescribed specifically for the vowel~ called il.~ i.e. 1[, ~ 5!\ and ~. e.g. o~I1I~~1iJT ~: P. 1. 1.3. Vart. II; cf. also !{<z;5~IJj'lfuqtt~tmCf('( Siradeva Pari. 2.



the same as IUltl. See below. The word U\' is used for Il:\\-E{ in the Atharva Pratisakbya d. ;:fNtufu:~'if.r ~tG'~~ <uq ~~ '"l" A. Pr. III. 3.12.

~wir (or ~2if) is' binding' e.g. in ~~Wlfer ~: ,~1 here ~mr with.

( I) krt. affix (~), in the sense of verbal activity applied to any root, the word so formed being used in the fem. gender and in connection with narration or in interrogalion; e. g. 'lit~' CfiTRW-!iiElr: I tiqT CfiTftw!iT~ I cf. PaI,lini III. 3. 110 ; ( :2) krt. affix in the sense of verbal activity applied to the r90ts <i~ and others e. g. CfTf4:. CfIm: etc. cf. P. Ill. 3. 108 Vlirt. 7; (3) tadaffix ~ in the sense of offspring applied to a noun ending in 31; e. g. <tT~: cf. P. IV. I.


(I) attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken I <;;.' I language; d. 31ttl1lift l{Cl, Slik. 1. 1.5. Hem. I. 1.37. The ~ letters are applied to a word before it, or after I it. and they have got each of them I a purpose in grammar viz. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formatiqn Of the I complete word. PiiI,lini has not given any d,efinition of the word i{Cl, but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as ~; (d. ~~crrm'ii~. ~ I etc. P. I. 3.2 t08) and stated that tbese letters are to be dropped in actual use; d. P. 1. 3.9. It appears that grammarians before PaI,lini bad also employed such ltClletters, as is clear from some passages in the Mablibba!?ya as also from their us~ in other systems of grammar as also in the UI}.adi iist of affixes, for purposes similar to tho~e found served in Panini's grammar. Almost all v.owels and consonants are used' as

I a letter or a group of letters I


In PaI,lini's 'grammar. the mute vowelar applied to roots,indicates the placing of the Atmanepada affixes after them, if it be uttered as anudlitta and of affixes of both the pad as if uttered svarita ; d. p. 1. 3. I2, 7 Z. The mute vowel a:rr signifies the preven tion of ~G[<rll before the pastpart. affixes; d. P. VII. 2. IO. Similarly, the mute vowel ~ signifies the augment if., after ,the last vowel of the root; cf. P. Vr.!. I.58;~ signifies the prevention of the augment l: before the past part. affixes cf. P.- VII. 2.14 ; :a- signifies the inclusion of cognate letters; cf. p. L 1.69, and the optional addition of the augment ~,before t'iTi cf. P. VII. 2. 56 ; '3': signifies tbe optional application of the augment ~; d. P. VI I. 2.44; ~ signifies the prevention of ~wr to the vowel of a root before the causal affix, d. VII. 4.2 ; w: signifies the VikaraQ.a 6l~ in the Aorist cf. P. III. 1.55; Q; signifies the prevention of Vrddhi in the Aorist, cf. P. VII. 2.55 ; air signifies the substitution of i( for ('( of the past part. d. P. VIII. 2.45; lJ.! signifies the prevention of ~UJ and l{fu, d. P. I.



~m~ a grammatical operation caused

1.5 ; <a. signifies the addition of the substitution for the ~ho]e ~If.!il. cf. -augment ~~ ( +rJ and the shortening P. I. 1.55; ~ signifies the addition of the preceding vowel; cf. P. VI. 3. of the fern. affix ~ (;t-t~) d. P. IV. 65-66; iT. signifies the prevention of 1.41; ~ in the case of affixes signi!JUT and i[~, d. P. 1. 1.5; er.. signifies fies ~ to the base before them, ~c'i, d. P. VII. 3.62; ~,applied to cf. P. 1. 4.16. Sometimes even with affixes, signifies the' prevention of out the actual addition of the mute letter, affixes are directed to be !JUT and CJ:f:ir; cf. P. L 1.5; it causes ~~~Il~T&::a in the case of certain looked upon as possessed of that roots, cf. P. VI. 1.16 and signifies mute letter for the sake of a gramaj"THI~~ if applied to roots; d. P. I. matical operation e. g. miil:Tlgclilifiiq: 3.12, and their substitution for the P. I. 2.4; aj"~<TIfW-' fclier. P. I. 2.5; last letter if applied to sub!1.titutes. filler. P. VII. 1.90 etc. (2) the ShOlt cf. P. 1. 1.53. T!. signifiest he actm; vowel If as a substitute; d. me accent of the last vowel; d. P. VI. I. i!:,,\~~: P. VI. 4 34. 159; or. signifies :a+r<iq'.t i. e. the plac- ~~ tad. affix If(f in the sense of ing of the affixes of both the padas I found' or ' produced in " which is after the root to which it has been affixed to words Ql\'liT,9;~tf, ~~ and affixed; cf. P. 1. 3.72; ~in the case of others; e.g, ffI~Cf, ~~~; ~t@Q, an augment signifies its application ~:fu!Cf etc.; cf. ~~ ~Tff oT~l~"~ to the word at the beginning; cf. P. i!:oT!. P. V. 2.36. I. 1.64, while applied to a nominal .... base or an affix shows the addition ~cr~{ possessed of interdependence; depending upon each other; d. of the fern. affix ~ (t'ltr.), d. P. IV. 1. i!:Cf~crt 'IiI~if6~ Ciindra Pari. 54. IS -; ~ signifies the elision of the last Grammatical operations a(e of no syllable; cf. P. VI. 4.142; OJ. signifles avail if the rules stating them are CJ:f:a, cf. P. VII. 2. II5; q:signifies~ff mutually depending on each other. accent, cf. VI. 1. 18r, as also that The word if~~.:r\ has the sense of ,variety of the vowel (~~, ca~ or ifa~ffi:I~"I here. tgCf) to which it has been applied cf. P. I. 1.70 ; ii. signifies 311'g<n'6, cf. ~~ mutual relationship with each other. Out of the four senses P. VI. I. 193 ; tr. signifies ~~T'6 accof the indeclinable 'i:I' viz. 6ff1l"l, ent d. ~~r s;Ifi:'qffi P. III. 1+ as . ar..ql'q~, ~atcR:~f( and 6j:j1i[{{, the also :::i?J'6 for the vowel before the Dvandva compound is formed of affix marked with tr. cf. P. VI. 1.192; words connected in the last two if, signifies in the case of an augment ways' and not in the first two ways. its addition after the final vowel. The instances of ii:i'.! in the sense of cf. P. I. 1.47, while in the case of a : ~~o{4tif are 'cjcfl3fa:{~=<lT:, g~~l~ root, the shortening of its vowel etc.; d. K~s. on P. II. 2.29; cf. aJso before the causal affix fUr, cf~ P. VI. g~:!ij ~~l:T~~'fa- if;<l:f ~g~ ~~Il:T 4.92 ; \. signifies the acute accent '6~~;:l{~~fit g~tftrr~ I{Rr M. Bh. on II. for the penultlmate vowel cf. P. VI. 2.29; cf. also ~cRO\4tif: '6 ~'.tT :afs\iffi19'1.2I7; w: signifies the acute accent ~'i~ +rcrfct Siradeva,Pari. 16. for the vowel preceding the affix .... marked with ~; d. P. VI. 1.193 ; iR ~twr depending upon each other; implies in the case of an affix its d. mQu~"IlfUr 'i:I' 'IiIlltfal or Sf'iilEqratIlcll:TTgWf; cf. P. III. 4. II3. while o~l:TI I cfr<!tf.t qJ ~;rTlTIr<I +!'iRr I M. in the case of substitutes. their Bh. on I. I.I. See ~~o\ above.


by ~q: i.e. by a mute letter which is purely indicatory; cf. Q;cf offl:' ~l{i +!T'l'l<{'iif i!:tB~T or +!fcjf<lm M. Bh. I. 3. 2 . See ~above.


P. III. 2.24-7; (2) lq:t

affix i{~ (fal~) prescribed by P. III. 3.170 e.g. 31'f~Cfi1iT, :a~GJ<ft.



the substitution of short ~ by ':<ire;jffi1l P. I. 2.17, 'TIle ii:<{&:'l~: P. VI. 4.34, etc. characterization; ~ indication by a mark; e.g. ~~f'rn: d. {f~~~~trr 'i:I' ( 'i;f\<!T) P. II. 3.21.

(1) substitute for the inst. case ending in 6ft (GT) after base.s ending in 31; d. m:fus~llmilm:<!T: P. VII. r.I2; ( 2) tad. aff. i{"f affixed to 1{cT e.g. tff:qf+r: 'if~~: d. P. IV. 4. 1 33.


f{iI't substitute


~G krt affix mentioned by Pal)ini ill

VI. 4.55 as causing the substitution I of Ol~ for ful before it; e.g. if;;:~ti!:, ~i!~~: M. Bb. on VI. 4.55.

lfo\ for the last vowel of the words 'ii~l:jlufT, ~+!m, ~~i]T and others before the affix 19 i.e. tt;~ prescribed after these words in the Eense of offspring e.g. 9iTlE<lTflTl~~:, Bh!lfiJ~~:, <fir~~~: etc. cf. ~l:jfUi!jT<U<iT ~.,&: P. IV. I.I26, 127.



, I


krt affix, added to the roots "f., ~, ~ tad. affix ~ in the sense of possession applied to the word ~ which ~ etc., in the sellse of instrument; , is changed into f'i:l'9i, e.g. f'i:Jf;f;or: d. d. aT~~Z<ii!Bi['iH ii:sr; P. III. 2. 184-6. ~, fql'9,. RlCfiF:r 'i:I' P. V. 233. e.g. aj"R~, ~fcIsr'1. l3fo!SI'+!. etc. The' words ending in ~'iif have got the ~ (1) krt affix lfo\ applied to the acute accent on the last syllable; roots ~ with fcr, ~ with ~ and the cf. P. VI. 2.144. roots fu, i, f&:I and others, e.g. fel~<fr, ~;ft, ;;j<fr etc. cf. P. HI. 2.93 ~~lifcii a letter which is termed lfit; and III. 2.156-157; (2) tad. affix see il,'a. above. il:"l affixed to the word qi'Wt+~ in ~~4T a Chinese SCholar-pilgrim (634the sense of ' covered with' (cf. P. 713 A.D.) spent many years in IV. 2.IT, ), in the sense of collection India and travelled in the country to the word l3~ e.g. ~re;:ft cf. P. IV. in many parts. During 691-692 2.51, to the word 31i!JlI&llTl in sense , A.D. he wrote his Record of Bud- ! , student of ' e.g; 3T!!$!T&JUft d. P. IV. dhist Practices ~ent home from the I 2.62, to the words Cfiil~ and ii~T'Il cf. Southern Sea', He has given a!1 P. IV. 3.III. to the word "'tot cf.P. detailed .account of the Sanskrit IV.4.23 and to the Word$ll~ d. P.grammanans. i v. 2.85 and eT~Iq: d. P. V. 2.91 in specified senses and in the general ~~ augment i{~. e.g.~l'im~:, aT'ifo~:; \' sense of possession to words ending cf. 'imft~'!i P. V. 2.53. ' ,in aT, ct. P. V. 2.Il5-II7 !'Ind to ~ possessed of the mute indicatory certain other words d.P. V. letter If; e.g. the roots "fR, f9f&' and , 2.I28-37 the like, in whose case the augment i ~~'!! krt affix ~~. by III. 3.44 followed !!~ ("1.) is affixed to the last vo\yel; invariably by the tad. affix 0lOJ. by cf. I\nrnt !!~ l:TTm: P. VlI.I.58. P. V. 4.15, e.g.13RTfellTl~,t1f~ta-i!~. ~ (I) krt affix i{ applied to the roots ii,~,~, and ~ when they are pre-, ~~lqffi author of ' qfr~T " a com men t ary on the Paribhii~endu-Sekhara ~eded b! certain words like ~ etc. of Nage.sabhatta. In certam senses; e.g. ~+<i<iift:, ~~:,




~l!l~iWf Author of Anunyasa, a commentary on. Nyasa on Kasika, by Jinendrabuddhi. Many quotations. from Anunyasa are found in Paribba.!?avrtti. of Siradeva. The word , Indu is often used for Indumitra, cpo 1t;~l1r<{lcPt l\~~~: mlllW-E) mrlif: I Pari. Vr. of Siradeva Pa. 36. He is also quoted by ViHhala in his commentary Prasada on Prakriyakaumudi where quotations are given from a gloss named Indumati written probably by Indumitra on the A~tadhyayi. cpo also Ujjvaldatta on UI)adisil. II. 8 J..

in the base. The treatment was later on followed by Sakatayana and writers of the Katantra school. For detail nee ~ababba!?ya ed. by D. E. Society, Poona, Vol. VII pages 124-127.

substitute for the last ~ before a vowel generally in the case of monosyllabic roots ending in ~and the word <til'l'; e.g. 'RI~?i:, f.!<tr f.r<1:, f<til<rr fum:, d. arRr ~\iflg~t CCflItCj~~ P. VI. 4. 7j-80.

'iifq, fWfim, ~U, ~,~,~, ~Cf etc. e.g. it~~, ~1ii1~, cifq~, ,~, g~

etc. d. P.V. 2.99, roo, 105, II7.


substitute for ~ 'before an affix called 'vibhakti '; e.g. ~; d. P. V. 3.3. Varttikas and tlie Mahabba~ya and other treatises in the senses of ( I }a desired object (2) a desired purpose, (3) a desjred statement, 4) a desired form i.e. the correct form; d. ~~lfl;t ~fit '19Rr:!VT.Bh. I.I. .A,hn. I.' ~'1f.!i1'!l~mfu: Pari. '" k P l' 114. . ;:,e. ar.


author of Gil<;lhaphakkikapra-' kasa, a gloss on the difficult passages in Siddhantakaumudi. He also wrote SarhvadacintamaIJi, a small treatise on roots'and their meanings and a commentary called Kaustubhagul)a on Sabdakaustubha.

it;q"f case-ending for inst. sing. in Vedic Literature; e. g. ;affl'<iT, (([fcilfl; d. P. VIi. 1.39. and Vart. I ther~oD.

ill! a word frequently used in the

author of a commentary on



name of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before PaQini; d. the famous verse of Bopadeva at the-commencement of his Dhatupatha ~:!Ilrs{: 'iiT~~fq~~

a technical term of Jainendra grammar for Pal)ini's ~T cf. QTt!TliTt'Rl'6:a~ "l'1 Jain Sil. 1.2.158. This Sutra also speaks of technical terms ~Il:., 'iiT, tTT, +IT, err. of Jainendra for PaIJiIii's ~Hli1, tfi'i+ft, "11ft, qmliT and 3f~f:lT respy.

~ ted. affix applied to <:: (letter \) in the sense of the consonant \.; e.g. 'PIakrti and Pratyaya is attributed to-Indra. cpo ~ktantra Vyakara'i)a ~Ili:; cf. uR\fi: P. III. 3. roB Vart.4 I. 4.; cpo also ;;mli~ ~ lllfir I Sake Sil. I. 2.37. Indragomin is sam~ ~ augment 1f addedto the base "Q;lT(~ . ' as Indra. No work of Indra is avail-. after the last vowel, e. g: lior~; cf. . able at present. He is nowhere '!lTI~ 1f'l. p. VII. 3. 9 2 quoted by Pal')ini. Many quotations believed to have b!'eil taken froml.! ~ or ~+!~, tad.' affix 1flii( applied his work are found scattered in to the words 'l~, ~~, +r~, ~, ~, words showing colour . and words grammar works, from which it ap. pears that there was an ancient such as iG, qftcl~, ~, ~, ~lT( etc system prevalent in the eastern in the sense of 'quality' or attripart of India at the time of FaIJini bute '; cf. Pal). V. 1.122, 123. Fpr which could be named U;~T'li~lf.\l:fff, changes in the base before the to which PaIJini possibly refers by affix. ~lii( see P. VI. 4.I.54-163. the word 3fT"l'F!. From references, it appears that the grammar was of ~. krt. affi?L ~ applied to words showing '1[Cf or verbal activity; the type of 3f~, discussing various. e.g. trrf.lifIO{" ~rFlI1'l.; cf. '1TCfllt<llflv:mfct topics of grammar such as alphabet, +!CCf:mo~; Kas. on P. IV. 4.20~ coalescence, declension, context, compounds, derivatives from nouns ~. tad affix ( ~) in the sense ofi<pitY'j and roots, conjugation, and changes e.g. ~~:, ~&r:i:; cf. P . V. 3.79.

~T'li2'T~i1: I tfTfiil;:(jfI~~ ;;Jli~fiW[ ~'iir: II The division of words into

~ a technical term in the J ainendra VyakraIJa for ~tff+ft (the loca tive case).

indicatory ending of roots, I signifying the application of the aorist sign ",al (~) opti~mally; e.g. 5!f"l({e(, or a'{"Iffirn. from the root f+!ill (fum. in '" Dbatupatha), d. also orfe~~q:, OR'iij'tq: from fu~ ( fufl::{); Cf., ' P. III. 1.57. j{;2'1!""a::r'liP.4=mlii6i:'otr lil a short treatise on ..q : grammar ascribed to J ayadeva. ~ tad. affix (.i{\) in the sens_e of possession applied in Vedic Litera- i(!Tr~ a class of words headed by the ture; to making the word arra~'6 word ~ to which the taddhita e.g. ,,~~: ; d. P. V. 2. 109 Vart. 3. affix ~ (ltr.r) is added in the sense of af.\'q i.e. 'by him' i.e. ~~tad. affix- (iR) in the sense of by the agent of the activity possession applied in Vedic Literadenotedby the past pass. pa:rHciples ture to itl:TT making the word8lT~((['6 ~ and others; d. :t2t <iva, 'tiff ~i~ e;g. d. P. ilf!:l~: V. 2.109 Vart.3. etc. Kas. onP. V. 2.88. ~q: a root ending with mute indica~fl! a word generally used in the tar~ ending ~ See ~ _. _ statements made in the Mab3.-

i:tt. mute

I (


~ (~,) substitute for the perfect

3rd pers. pI. Atm. affix lff; e.g. "l'f<it;
i3i~~ etc:; cf.

P. III. 4.8r.

tad. affix applied to the words others iQ the four senses prescribed in p. IV. 2.67-7 0 ; e,g. <iiTfu~:. ar.lllfc~~:, rreT~:; d. p~ IV. 2.80.
'iiT~, arlll~~, rrel~ I and

bba!?ya, similar to thos.e of . the Siltrakara and the VarttIkakaras, which are 'desired olies' with a view to arrive at the correct forms of words; cf. 3fT~ ~Tilfrn<it if ftq~:, .l'{~<iff I1;ff~ ~qfi:rfff M.Bh. on II. 4.56.

~~ (I)

tad. affix ~ .(~) in the sense of pitS; e.g ~~:, <(~~! cf. P- V. 3.79. The tad. affix Eli( making the word arr~<U;ij is-- also affixed in the same sense. See 1M. (2) tad.affix ~ (~'i:{) making the word ar.=aTa:1~ in the sense of possession, prescribed after the words tfi;;, ~ll~,

the superlative tad. affix ~ in the sense of a'{Rffil~;:r or alm~ (excellence). The commentators however, say that the taddhita affixes Qll' and~, like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations, are applied without any specific sense of themselves, the affixes shQ\ the sense of the base. itself (W~); e.g. ~~:, ilftg:; ~~fI:,


q~g:; 1fiiRt~~,

- ---------_.
tone of that vowel; (2) substitut~ t for the vowel an of the roots iff and UIT before the frequentative sign <!~ as for example in~, ~~f, ct. P. VII. 4.3t; (3) substitute t for the vowel at' befote the affixes ~ and ~, as, for' instance, in ~i9'htqfff !I~'T<ifo etc.; .d. P., VII. 4.3 2 , 33; (4), substitute t for the vowel an at the emf of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel an of bases' ending in thecQnjugationalsign qT,e., g.
m+ft"~, ~;'I': etc.; d. P. VI. 4. II3;

<litcrn:, m: etc.; d. P. V.3. 56-64. The affixes ~~and :ru are applied only to such substantives which denote quality; cf. P. V. 3 58. " '
the same as

~~ (a root) possessed of long ~_as

a mute indicatory ending meant for prohibit,in g the addition Of, the.aug~ \' ment ~ to the past part. termtnat ticns (i and oE/;;(; e.g. ;;>~:, ;{\H: etc. ; . ~q~ an external effort (Cf(~'lT~tiI)

atarangiQi. He is believed to have' been a pupil of ~i'j'i({ and iived in the latter part of the 16thcen~ry A.D. in the production of soundcharacterized by the emission of breath,. when the cavity made by the coids of the throat is kept wide apart, as, found in the uttt::rance of the consonants~, /f., and 13.
(iJIIRIt<j;:C{) in ~he productIon 0. ~ourrd characterlzed by only a shgnt contact of the cords of the throat, made in the utterance of semi-vowels; cf. ~Ii~;;~!iI;:ff:~Ti!FI. S. K. on P. 1. I9



~~;g(\' a desirea 0 b' , ]ect, ~I ..



possession of t_he same properties for causing grammatical operations as the tad. affix Il:BV(. possesses, as for instance, the elision of the syllable, beg'inning with the , ' Jast vowel (ra-~!f), SUbstitution of the masc. base, for the fem. base " (~E/~Tq) etc., before. the denom. affix fu-,'q"; e. g. l1;ff<iR' in the senEe of ~~ 3l'T''l2; similarly lT~ijfff tR:<IRr, ~~ffr; ,cf. M. Bh.on. P. VI 4. 155 Vlirt. I.

\ h' con- , W,,!C ; 10 necti,on with tra~sitive reots, gets \' .. h the designation .CfilJ' wh:n t ; ag:~t \ has a keen deSIre for It; cr. '!ignfctiffair 'li<t P. 1. 4. 49. I






affix !{6!1J=et.. applied; in the sense of I possessed of habitualbehaviour, action, or splendid accomplishment. ' to the roots ~, fi!\I$, , ~~,<1(qtr., etc. e.g. ~R~~:, :::f(qfa~:, ff~~~:, 'qf~: etc.; d. P. III 36- 138. .2,1 sense of the infinitivE', e.g. aro<lfi:ie~; cf P. III. ,po.

(5) substitute~' for the lac. case affix l{(rn:) in Vedic Literature, e.-g. ~~ formrn<in ,'lffi ,iT, ~i<ii ~mft. :U~T<l+C,; d. Kas. on P. VII. L39; (6). tad. affix ~ in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance 'in \~;-~+i~:~ cf. KM on. P. V. 2. 10 9; (7) the' fern. affix ~ (.t.M:., :s'l/f. or ~); cf. P. IV 1;58, 39, IV I.40~65, IV. I.13.


tad. affix flit! added to the word in sense of possession; e. g. \ li~IH.1: cf. P, V.2.114. .
, 'I

I ~~'l\!' an exte.rnal effcrt

I I ~~Tftr

~:q substitute for the tad. affix, ~ ; e. g. ~<J:, ilRil<!! etc; cf. P. VII. 1.2 and




. '

~~ afftx

~ tad.

~~ kTt ,affix In Vedic Literature in the



I) SUbstitute ;Hi for the vowel of the roots, ;:fT, m <:;i, I4'T, , 'FI: dc. before the desiderative, affix ~V(.; e. g. f1m:lfu, fcm,1~, anR,tsf etc. cf. p. 4.54; (:2) ul)~di affix :{l;!, e. 1".



affix ~ added to ~Rn and <:ifu, g. ~T~t;n: fern.' ~~; <:mihi:; cf.. P. IV 4.59; ( '2) tad. affix ~'?i.~ added to ~ and <?trn:iJ in the 'sense of comparison, e.g.;n~r<ii:, ~1f~<fi: (~f.'!;n:), d. Kason P. V. 3.IJO; ( 3) tad. affix ~ added to 1if~<:I"e. g. erIFft'fi:; d. Cf~@~q,<ij i'fi9''Of P. IV, 1.85 Vlirt. 5.6; (4) tad. affix ~~.lll'.. in Vedic Literature added to 9~" e.g. CfIFft'li:; cf. Kas. on P. IV. r.8s. Vart. 7; (5) tad. affix t'iiV(. added to zcrrfr e.g. fiilEir:t1T.+l:; d. P. "V. I.33

~~ tad-affix ~<!'jif., showing super i-

the root 5Rtr., ~ ! showir:g the application of the Atm-! , I anepada affixes; e. g. >R<:fi<!ii; cf. P. ! HI. 1. 29.

t<I added to

! i

stag.! of the quality of a ' thing or of an undertaking \vhich is ,almost complete, to ~bow which, the tadaffixes Cfi~q, a:~C{ and ~m<i are applied to a word; e. g. ~'fi'N:, q~-

~<!: qs:~~:,



~ effort made for the production of ,sound; cf. antf'tlf JtTTBilT 'lT~T crT Cl'f'Tfl[T<if;';+!<f crl~.tTl ~ffI'IT<f. ~eT<!T+c R. Pr, ~~wr. the same a!:; ~<j~ which see above.,
~ry tad-affix added to the word

ority or excellence of one individual over another in respect of a quality, ,added to a substantive expressive of quality; when the substantive ends in the affix q, that affix q is removed; e. g. t81<i1il:., ;;><fi<jr-I,; i1tr<il~. ~t;ft~m (~~:)j cf. P. V. 3.57~64' .

d. I"' Uv. 3 67


tqmq: an external etIort characterized

by slight resonance or sounding of throat cords when they slightly touch one another.



alternative affix mentioned in the lVIahiibba~y8 in the place of i 1is~l'i.; . d. M.Bh. on III, 257 See

t.;:. augment


~ ~ the Jo~g vowel,~ which is technically meluded In the vowel ~ in Pa7;lini's alphabet be,ing the long

~ prefixed to a 5arvadhatuka (strong) affix beginning with a consonant after the roots ~, ~, ~g;. and others e.g: '31~'t~, ~fa-, {(I<fiP.i', ~qlq:~ "1erI<Wc etc.; ct. P. VII. 3'93-98.

long voweU as differe~t from l!' or , ~ E! prescribed as a substitute; d. . P. VI. 327; VI. 3.97.

l;:r ( [) labial vowel standing for the I ~, substitute ~ for -s:q before the I long i3'i and protracted i3'i ~ in Pat:lini',s Itad-affixes [~ '!~ and E/g; e.g. {'L~ , i grammar unless the consonant C!. is ! ~~1U: also ~t:1J:, cf. P. VI. 3.9 0 affixed to it, ~ standing for the 1. i short;.; only; (2) VikaraI)a affix i;I ~~<f,ticr author of 'Dhatumiila 'i a of the 8th conjugation (':f"lrre;if11l) short metrical treatise on roots. and the -roots Moor. and ~0'i ; cf. P. III. I. 79-80 ; ( 3) substitute ( ;.;) for the ~~;:~ author of ( I ) a gloss on Kaiy- '! vowela:r of $, e. g. ~;'I':, ~iifrer before ala's Mahfibha~ya-pradipa, and (2) ! weak Sarvadhatuka affixes, cf. P. VI an independent treatise Sabdabodh- I

in the sense of possession; e. g. 3j'u-gr{: ; d. "lllilslu:$r<fr(~1\4T P. V. 2.III.

4.IIO; (4) krt. affix \'J' added to T'$~~ a word with its meaning (in bases ending iIi tl~ and the roots the neuter gender) unchanged when ~{i, f*l/lf,f9e:., ~'J.. as also to bases used in the masculine gender; geneending- in in the Vedic Literarally an adjectivaJ word; ct. Candra ture, e.g. f;;ffi1~: fu~h fcl<~:, ~:,~~:; I Vyak. 1. 4.30. ct. P. III. 2. 168-170; (s) UI}adi . affix a' ( acrr..) e. g. CfiR!:, cn~:, tlT!'!:, etc.; ~.:r a word or expreSSIOn whose sense has been already expressed. The d. UI}adi 1. I; (6) mute vowel \'if expression \'l"ffil~r.rrli~<TIrr: is frequently added to the first letters of a class used in the Mahabba$ya and the of consonants in Par;lini's grammar Varttikas and cited as a Paribhii~a to show the whole class of the five or a salutary conventional maxim letters; e. g. ~, 72, ~, g, !I which I against repetition of words in the stand for the Guttural, the palatal Paribha~apathasofVYaQi (Par:5I), the lingual,. the dental and the labial Candragomin (Par. 28) and 1Git8.nclasses respectively; ct. also P.~T ~: tra (Par. 46 ) and KaJapa (Par. 415 ) P. VIII. 4.41; (7) \'J' added ~to ~ gramn:-ars. showing the conson'ant ~ as nasalized n; d, ~: V. Pr. III. 133. . . ~'miw:rm see ~'ffir~. -

. grammatical work Si!?yahitavrtti or \ Si~yahitanyasa, a gloss on D urg avrtti of Durgasimha, which was sent to Kashmir and made popular with I a large sum of money spent upon it, by his pupil- Anandapala. !?ya and elsewhere in connection with the words of PaQini, everyone of which is believed to have a purpose or use in the Sastra-;\vhich purpose, if not clearly manifest, is as~igned to it on the strength (~rJ:T~q) of its utterance; cf. ~!\UJt1r+r~!jh~ (J%:c:<l't: ) \'J'ccf q <lFc\6<{fcr M. Bh. on III. 4.89 V. 2; cf. also M. Bh. on IV 4.59; VI. 4. 163, VII. I.I?, "50, VII. 2.84 .. In a few cases, a letter is found '.lsed by PaJ)ini which cannot be assigned any purpose but whi,ch has been put there for facility of the use of other letters. Such letters are said to be ~l\UJrl:T; cf. ~f;l:T: l~inT<-: ;j=Efr\UJT~: I ell!!<j<=l:T: I Kas~ oil II 4.36. F<?5 gR:-. 1 ~<-: a~'Cf1\UJl::1:; "'iinl<-:: <:'1<:r<1-: I !Cas. on III. :to 43. The expressions l1~S!<alit: and ~Cf1lTll:!: in the Mahabha~ya mean the saine as a~RUJr,q-:.




~~ a technical term for <Jql:1T, the pen, .

ultimate letter in the J ainendra i Vyakaral}a; cf. a~~:s=: Jain. V. 4. 28 . : and ~qr;:(tJ~~ I. 1.66. ' the higher tone also called a1fRl i or acute; d. ;:fi"'i11~1Q. R. T. 55, also . l1;~ ~'m: Wf,;q~ tJ~~'iWifW?:<lT: R. Yr. III. 19; cf. also the terms ~~fo R. T. 61, l1;~~ R T. 62, aTl'il,'Ef, a:r.=m~'9<fi. etc.
~~~U <fl Cf'l~'liH: P. I. 235




short term for the vowels ~; e. g. afir~"'it tl't<'fF!~~S'9mT: - P. VII. 1.70, also .o.~'ll: fif.fcr P. VII. 2. II, 1{fflic.v.rr;:eflQ. 'ffi: P. VII. 3, Sr.
<I,!'.F. and


I ~, af-mwf.r

~:;:~: ~ or acute: see a~ above; cf.

~';:Ii~Q pronounced or uttered; the phrase ~~ft(HII:<lm'l: is used in conn-

a short anonymous treatise on case-relations, com- pounds etc. written mostly in Gujarati.

(I) the krt. affix <I~.or. applied to ; ~FfT~ a short grammar work, the roots ~'I" qQ., qa;. and others, e.g. : written by tlr~~, explaining decle~!!'li:, CfiTtI'li: etc. with udatta accent : nsion; cases and their meanin~s , . 0 on the first syllable; cf, P. III. 2. compounds, etc. and giving a list of 154; ( 2) tad. affix ;a"li (a'Of.or.) added Prakrta words with their Sanskrit to the word Cfiff'l. e. g. CfiT~<ii l:T!:F ;- cf. equivalents. Ras. on P. V. 1. 103. ~2Tlfc{ a class 1)f words headed by the ~~ the same as. a''li. See a-'li; word a'l~ to which the taddhita affix ~<fi (zEJ:!) is applied in th~ sense ~ prescribed, taught, lit. said (al" of 'one who studies and under" ~eadY). ~!T is _a familiar exp~ession " stands'; ct. '3q:!i+rifri't ~'\ 9T ~rN~Cfi;, 10 the Mahabha~ya and the Varttisimilarly ~Cfif<lfaCfi: Kas .. on P. IV. kas referring usually to something I 2.60. already expressed. Sometimes this

expression in the Mababbasya , refe. rring to something which is not already expressed, but which could be found subseq~ently expressed, leC).ds -to the conclusion that the .rVrahabhii;;yakara had something like a ' Laghubha~ya ' before him at the time of teaching the Mahabh1i~ya. See Kielhorn's Katyayana and Patafijali, also Mahii.hha~ya D. S. Ed. Vol. VII, pages 71, 72.


a writer on Vedic phonetics and - euphony quoted in the Taittirlya Pratisakhya; cf. ~<{~tJ B'{<f: Tai. Pra. VIII. 22.

~ charaCterized by the m_ufe indicatory letter~, ~ or <:t; see aEJ:!.

:a-!:l~J~ or \'J'l:lroi:rI~ writer of a gloss on the Nirukta, called 'Niruktabha~ya', believed to have: lived in the 18th century A. D;' writer also of


~'<.rl;:l"q diverse; d. a'Efr9~'i~!! <l"l{'"cf Nir. 1. 3.4. ection with the mute indicatory letters termed ~Q. in Par;tini's gram- . a~'Edd specially accented; ~1'QC!\; d. mar,. as these letters are not actua~~t ClT CfT:\~'liT\; P. I. 235 ally found in use in the language and are therefore supposed to vanish ~~ a technical term of J ainendra which corresponds to PiiQini's~. cpo immediately after their purpose has Jain. Sil. ~~. r I. 1. 62. been served. The phrase' ~'EfRn1recf m~~'<il:' has been given as a ~'1~ the famous commentator OIl Paribba!?a by Vya<;li (Pari. II), in the Ur}adi siltras. His work is called the Candra VyakaraQa (Par. :I:4 ), in UQadisiltravrtti, which isa scholarly the IGitantra Vyakarana (Pari. 54) commentory on theUQadisiitraand also in the Kalapa VyakaraJ)a pat ha , consisting of five Fadas. (Par. 71). Patanjali has used the Ujjvaladatta is believed to have lived expression a'Wrur5f'e~m.,: in connecin the 15th century A. D. He quotes tion with ordinary letters of a word, Vrttinyasa, Anunyasa, BhagavrttI which have existence for a moment etc. He is also known by the name and which also vanish immediately Jajaii. He mentions CandraIinga after they have been uttered; d. sUtra and is qnoted by Padmana.bhaa~rurS!~cfrn~: <a~9flt CfUJt: ...r, <fUjI CjUl~tJ datta. B:rl<l: M. Bh. on I. 4. 10 9. , ~':[ (1) short term ( 5l(l.j~1~) for vowels ~:qfur~"'<T~'l:. vanishing immediately eKcepting a:r and~, semivowels,nasai after utterance. See :a~R(f. consonants and the consonants ~ , ~ and +J:.; ct. +!<! <lsIT ~l <iT P. VIII. 3'~~ijf pronunciation, enunchition (in , 33; (2) the particle a'; cf.. \'J'~ "'i q~ the Sastra ). The phrase \3'Wr<-:UJffi~~lQ. P. VIII. 3.2!, also ;a'51: P. I.1. 17. is often found used in the Mahahh1i.-

different rules; cf. .Piil).ini \3UTl<i:<U P. III. 3.I and Ol+?fllir!l;ittJTT<\~: III. A. 75. Pat~fijali. apparently ascribing the collection to SakataYana, as seen from an interesting passage .of M.Bha. on \3UTlc:<i) ~~ I . . augment ;:r affixed to the roots ~ has given a very interesting discusand ~ before the krt affix 'li cf. CI~ sion about these UlJadi affixes and ~'1~q~~Rfff O\1i~oltll:l ([R ;a~ stated on the strength of the Vartt6i?; ~lrffT9JlTm f<ll[((~~ Kas. on P .. VII. ika, o;itUllfa;>riaif.:r:, that these affixes 234 and the words given iri the UlJiidi collection should not be considered ~ the affix :aUT.., causing 'lRl: on accoUQt .... as genuinely derived .. The derivaof the mute letter UT, prescribed after - tion is not a very systematic and the roots iii, err, 1[(', f;;J, fil, ~'R.., fflEJ: and logically correct one and therefore ~ by the rule ~;rrqr~fil~qf?:tlfl!q~lj I for practical purposes, the words aur.. which is the first rule (or Siitra) i derived by the' application of the of a series of rules prescribing variaffixes \3UT.. and others should be ous affixes which are called ul).adi ., looked upon as underived; cf. \3'I1JT1:taffixes, the affix ;aUT.. being the first <ITso~mnfir >rRrQlm:<fii.r.r. M. -Bh. on. P. ~f them. e. g. <fiT'!:, <H~:, ~9TS;, tiT!! etc.; I I. I.I6, III. 4. 77, IV. I. I, VI. I. ct. UlJadi I. I; , , 62, VIT. I. 2, ;VII. 2. 8 etc. There ~ affixes headed by the affix ;:rur.., is a counterstatement also seen. in which are similar to lqt affixes of . the MahiibbaHa ;:!"trfr~ o~tq'~Hr.r, rePiiI)ini, giving derivation mostly of presenting the other view prevailing such words as are not derived by at the time; cf. M. Bh. on II.I. I. rules of PaQ.ini. No particular sense 133; but riot much. importance such as agent, object etc. is mentiseems to be attached to it. The oned in connection with these affixes different systems of grammar have but, as PaI)ini has stated in ': Ol~ljr different collections of such words ~;itUTl<:;<r: " P. III. 4.75,the various which are also known by the term Ul).adi affix<;s are applied to the UQ.adi. Out of the .collections belon-. ' various roots as prescribed in any ging to PalJini's system, three colleKiiraka sense, except the ~1l?:1"T and ctions are available at present. the the arcn<i:[C'fj in other words, anyone collection into five piidas given in of the senses, agent, object, instruthe printed edition of the Siddhanta ment and abode, is assigned to the Kaumlldi, the collection into ten UQ.adi affix as suits the meaning of Piidas given in the printed edition the word. Although some schol&:rs of the Prakriya-Kaumndi and the believe that the UlJiidi affixes are collection in the SarasvatikalJthiigiven by a grammarian later than bharaI).a of Bhoja forming Padas I, Piil).ini as there are words like ~, 2 and 3 of the secQnd Adhyaya of c{r.m: and others included in the list the work. of UlJiidi words and that there are " ... . many: interpolated Siitras, still the. ~rn a work UlJiidi col~ection must be looked the \3'lITfcl;words referred to - above, upon as an old one which is defini. with meanings assigned to them. . tely mentioned by PaQini in two There are two such compositions

one by Ramatarkaviigisa or Ramasarma and the other by Ramacandra Dik!jlita; a third one is by Ramatarkavagisa to Mugdhabodha; and by Padmanabhadatta on SaupadmaulJadisiitra vrtti. .... ,..., ,,' ~t1a:~lIt{qtG.q; word form or crude base, ending with an affix of the UQ. class, which is looked upon as practically underived, the affixes UlJ and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar; cf. \3'trfT~s~f.r >rrfcrqfi{Cfirf<I I o!!~tfay;;:fifff 'TIl9'il1-lJ<lf\~ I ll1fU1~Wf ;;~qf~q~ Qj)ffi- ~~ f.I~~o-c. Pari. Sek. on Paribha!]a 22; 75'. Modern scholars ascribe it to Siikatiiyana. Ul)iidi siitras are found in the works of Bhattoji (Siddhiin-ta ,Kaumudi), ~veta:vanaviisin (Com. on UQadisiitras), Niirayal)abhaHa (UlJiidi khal)ga in Prakriyasarva. sva), Perusiiri (AuI)iidikapadarJ)ava), Vltthala (Prasiida) and soon.

~ a class of words headed by the word ~ which have their final vowel accented acute ('3"itR!)'; C. ?EY: +~:, ~q:1 .Q;t ~CiT ~~.~m: Sfm: I Kas. on P. VI. 1. 160.

:aulI~';(~'4(qttfr the text of the Ut;l.adi .

Siitras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written py 'TITCfi<!FFl'. It is printed at the end of the Prakriya Kaumudi and separately also, and is alsoavailabl~ :in manuscripts with 'a' few differences. Patanjali in his Bbii.~yaon p;, III. 31, seems to have menti~ned ~akat ayana as- the author of th,e U1;liidi Siitras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there Wasat that time, a version of the siitras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one, completely different from these, .as scholars believethat there are many interpolations and changes, in the versions of Ul)adi siitras available at present

~,!f"ff or ~'~~"ff is a commentary on UJ;ladisiitras by ~vetavan avasin, son of Aryabhaita .

~~, ~ft{~w:no a collection of

Siitras which begins with the Siitra prescribing the affix ;aur.., after the . roots~, CiT, qT, fu ~qa:.., tll'q: and ana,; cpo '3Uirn: ~?f I. i. For the different ~urrre:~Sitf::gqttfr the text of the UlJadi Siitras divided into. five chapters versions ofthe text see ;:r'IJTT1:. Similar siitras in Katantra, ApiSali, Ciindra, which is poss~ssed of a scholarly Sakatayana, Haima,' Goyicandra, commentary written by 'Ujjvalaand Padmanabha systems of gramdatta. There is a commentary on mar are also called UlJadisiitras. it by Bhattoji Dik~ita also. Some scholars ascribe the author. ~rre:~i[fu a gloss on the U1;l1i.di ship of UlJiidisiitras to-palJini. The Sutras in the different versions. technical terms. ~~, <tIq, ~ff, '3''tl'6, Out of the several glosses on the \3'!f4T, .mq, B>r8T\UT, and 8f+<lTtI are used UQ.1i.di Siitras, the important ones in the same sense as in Pal)ini. The are those written by Ujjvaladatta, anubandhas are similar. Katyiiyana Govardhana,PufU1?ottamadeva, shows that particular rqles of PalJini Riimacandra Dik~ita and Haridatta. viz VIII. 3.50; VII. 4.15; VII. 2.78; There is also a gloss called UlJ1i.diVIII. 359, do not apply to Ubadi. sutrodgh1i.tana by MiSra. Ther~ is a UlJ1i.di IV. 226 goes against PaQini. gloss by Durgasirhha on the KiitanVimalasarasva:ti (I4th; century) tra version of the UlJadi Siitras. and Durga ascribe UQadisutras to Vararuci Katyiiyana~ Magha ascri- '3Q.. (I) Short vowel \3 iIi Plil)ini's bes U t;l.adi to PaQini cpo Sis. XIX. terminology ; cf~ P. 1. I.?O,


IV. 1.44, V. I. III; (2) tad-affix ~ applied to !fcf and 'I.cfff~ for which 'I\. is substituted; e. g. tflJ':'(:. cpo P. V. 3.22 Vart. .
~~Tf~ a class of words headed by the word ~'li\, to which tht:. taddhita affix ~ is added in the four senses, the affix being popularly biown as '"iTg<:i~lh; d. i3"Clhtl<l~, "~'FofT<l~ etc.; Kas. On P. IV. 2.90.

~~ (I) production; cf. Cfull(lfRi: production of a phonetic element T.Pr. 23:1; (2) production of a gramm!J.tical element. snch as the application of an affix or addition of an augment or substitution of a letter or letters during the process of word-foruui.tion; cf. <rT1flhT\~.,f ~~: tl~ tll1T'f'<Fr ~n<J.i i;f~Etf~:Pari. Sek. P~r. 75 '; M. Bh. II. 2.19. Vart. 4.
~\l?f not

consistent with what is taught in rules of a Sastra; d.

~~S1q;::;r<ntlT tl,,~Rl: tl~or;:1:jqr 1"~~fq~Cf

oil mfa u~r.ftfa"q~:rrT Sisufalavadha If. ~Tf~ a class of words headed by the wor.d \:lffi!', to which the tadd-. hita affix ~'lJ (6" )is added in the sense of ~if i[\fq (takes away by m'eans of); cf. If\fu~~T;:ff(>rIQur CJ~~ I i3(fl~if i[\fa ar"IffifWli: I alr:fitlh: I I\ as. on P. IV. 4.15.. .

author of l\fitavrttyarthasarngra"ha, a gloss on Hinini's sutras, whoadded a commentary to it. He lived in the seventeenth century. He belonged to Gujarat.


author of :Qhun<;lhika on Haimabrhadvrtti (Priikrta portion . only) . the acute accent defined by PaI..1ini in the words \:l~'-1:Rf: P. 1. 2. 29. The \vord \:l~: is explained by Patafijall in the words' ar[<!fm ;;;:I~<l 31~ m<i ~fff ~:~lfUr ~~' where a:rT<lTl'I ('TI".:f~!ll[ restriction of the organs), <n~Z{ ( ~!\:lQT rudeness) and ~~ 31~m t 'fiOO\<I ~'[crm closure of the glottis) are given as specific clJaracteristics of the acute accent. The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple" word as also a . compound word-and when a vowel in a \\'ord is possessed of the acute accent, the remaining vowels have the dlffiJ'Q or the grave accent. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess ~ny independent accent. They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. The acute accent 'corresponds to what is termed , accent ~ in English and other languages.

a variety of the Krama described in the Pditjsakhya work~.





(1) the best, the highest, the last; (2) the last letter of the consonant I!Iasses, the nasal; d, A. Pro II. 4.14; R. Pr. IV. 3; cf. also ar~'Q11 meaning non-nasal; ( 3 ) thei3"'QI1~'f or the premier or the first person constituting the affixes m, q~ and" l'I(1, and their substi tutes, d. P. 1.
10 7.

to be produced, to be placed after; 'to be annexed; (caus.) to" produce, to get annexed, to add; d. iit~~<115r lh!;ftlTl>;:lIfa Apisali's Vart. quoted. in M. Bh. on P. IV. 2.45. author of a commentary on paI.:1ini's Liilganusasana. It is doubtful whether he was the same as i3"(lT<?>+J:! or +J~(t:[<?>, the famous astrologer of the tenth century.


~~mr a claES of words headed by the ! word \:!ttl to which the taddhita affix! dlOI., instead" of the usual affixes dlur..i and others, is added in the sense of ! an offspring; d. anttl:, afr;::;qTil: etc. I IGis. on P. IV. 1.86. .
~~ that which follows; a term frequently used in the Pratisfikhya works in the sense of ' following' or ; tf~ ; cf. ~tCfU~tI~[;:j)- ~T~ V;%'fl~ j explained by the commentator as . 311i:l1il i3"t:[fuCJufutl~r.,: To- Pro II. 47; d. also ~'fiH .<!?:lr <f,0ZtllT" explained by" the commentator as 5ffCIil~ ~ lR+t~ tIfa R. Pr. I I. It; cf. also oil<n'Q~~ ~<l P. VIII. 4.67.

! i

~;rq: possessed of "short '3'; . ~lq: P. IV. 3.151. ~{ (1) following, subsequent, e. g. I


d . .m'fil:ir

i3"'Q\tf;;;:, the latter part of a compound"' ~(:I'fi a general rule as contrasted with word; (2) end of-a word, 'Rl"ff; ct. I a special rule which is called arlT'fl~ i3"'ij~ tf~:t':~ q~'n.,: Com. On T. Pr. I or exception; cf. <iEWTrlT~r~lT<m) III. 1. ~Tif. Hema. Pari. 56; ~<I CJrlT'fl?;fef1:r4 ncr ;;!(8;f[fu~f.t~~ Par. Sek. Pari. ;a-~~<m~ subsequently, . then, after63; Sira. Pari. 97 ; cf. also tatEFltlm<Twards; d. oF( \:l'Q~lhT<?>i1l:t il!lI. M. Bh. ! iWr <lj"q'rI?:]:. For the Cfll:!!'fN'fi+r1Cf relaon r. 1. 1. tion between \:lttIf[ and arqcn;:;: and its i details see Nagesa's Paribha!;lendu;:S'Q'{~ in subsequent rules; d. B'Q~r~- i sekhara on Paribha!;las 57 to 65; d. CJfcr<l~ M. Bh. on r. 1.23. also ;:<ITiI(1:j~ICJ: ar'i91?:]~~cfilflF( explained ~~ the latter member or portion hythe commentator as ;:<IIllT ;;!(6rer o~ a c~mpound_ word as contrasted I ~l[rfc'ttrclr ~1:j1l: ~r 31~f.t!f <IT f<t1:j<:f: I wItb '0tf?:; d. tfffi~~~~~ A. Pro rflCJ:. '3'EtlITUJ i1l~I~~ ;;fr.fl<llF(1 ar'i<fl?:rr. 3. II; cf. also arffiJ'Q~tf'l: P. VI. ~'1i{ ~'fT ace-reT: ~'f~;:?t iR<I<r: R. Pro 3. I. . I. 23.




. 1 ~r'.:r serving a purpose in subsequent I

rules; of use in a subsequent rule; , . ct. <U1lfc't'+fflT i3"'Q\:1<r:, 'RCJl~1lJ!feU~ M. Bh. on I. 2.22.

ulterior form. "

I ;:ri'~n;rl<RT

elevation of tone.

a sentence making a general statement as contrasted with a sentence making a specific statement ( f~~"f'fl'f<:f ) which generally forms an exception and hence is called the 31QCflc{'fffZ{. cpo Vak. pad. II. 347 and <i(8CrCJr"P-i' 8fl1~!\:l1J]~ I (Pun).

writer of an extensive gloss (Nyasa) on Haimabrhadvrtti. His pupil Devendrasuri wrote Haimala- i gbunyasa and is an abridgement of i ~~ raised acute, a tone slightly . Udayacandra's work. " higher than the acute tone which ~~ surnam"ed Piithcika who wrote is mentioned in c:)Dnection with the a commentary on the Laghusab. first half of a circumflex vowel: d. dendusekbara nanled. Jyotsna and o~?:]'Q~<mll~!i\l~it9 CfT R.P. III. 2. a very critical work on Paribha!;l1i.s similar to Sirade\'a's Paribh1i.!;l1i.vrtti; '!~~~~ conventional understanding about a particular 'towel in the the work is iucomplete. wording of a sutra being marked ~ffl autbor of a treatise giving! acute or udatta, when ordinarily " rules for" the determination of the : it should not have been .so, to imply pada or padc:s of roots; the treatise tbat a Paribbii~a is to ~e applied is m:med tfG:Om~Hi.".:f%T~lhlifl9iT. He; for the interpretation of that Sutra~ was a Jain grammarian, and one of d. acn'Q"~~ft'3:g~ P. VI. I.I3 Vart. 14, also SIra. Pari. Il2. the pupil:! of Sadhusundara. )






~V<i: ~ crT anro~ I Similarly 3Tl'\i'il0J: an accent made up of Udatta, Ras. on P. V. r.IZg. 1. e. an accent which is a reduced udatta. It is called also 3T~. It is I mentioned in connection with an i ~ alleviation, ease. relief; name given tt- a Samdhi in the Pratissacute vowel following ~ in the khya works when a';'isarga and a Padapatha. according to Ki'il}va's . short vowel aJ' preceding it are chanview; d. ;atlJ~<i'tV<:jSl rfi'i:f ~ ~G;T'QI ged into short aJ', (e. g. <:I: ~: ~GJ'Q<i't: q<iulRVCl'Sf ii(fu ifoRllll~ tRt <ft'q = CI ~~:), as also when the vowel ~~'m~ ~ ~qfu ~\'f U;q +lcr<ft~: com'I' t( 01' 3i1 is changed into ;jJ being on V. Pr.]. 150. ' follo\ved by a dissimilar vowel; e. g. Oi~ + ~rii:: = 3ffi ~;;:ii:;- d. R. Pro II. TO ~~ the same ast1;ifo~fu. accentless I! tone, mentioned in conn~ction with the latter half of a circumflex vowel' "3l\3OOIiti41:{i[fu name given in the .B.k. Pratisakbya to the Udgrahasamdhi as also with a grave vowel or vowels if not followed by another acute I where the vowel ar is followed bva Ipng vowel; e.g.,~: ~~ = lli ~-R. circumflex vowel; ct. m~~crttm<io. !

~ referred to; pointed out, sub~lcate :Trrm3TlH!l'~~; cf. '3~Iffur.r-


as contrasted with the. pre- ,

T&~m<,!<jr\ifqp,'lQl~Q. ~q'n*f q<r~1T[ c r . - '

111~.1 o~:qr

~ fir ~rffi 3T~fu;ij~~, ~~

fif Cj~(>r~~<r.~ crT I ~CI in gram-

Vak. pad. III. 9-56. Time has two powers by which it bring~ about the emergence or disappearance of objects. The power that makes objects visible is called permission ( 3f+<rW) .

mar refers to the sUbjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate . ~ a technical term in the Jainendra Grammar for the terms !I.. and Sj-. -part. In the sentence 'l~~ra., the i3Il. 9T1ffl. J case is strikingly an opposite one ; a:l. 85. !t~ <i~ijrct~lfil ilif1l11l: and the, explanation given by PataiiJam. Pari. 20. jali !s very interesting; cf. \'f~~

~. ~$ili!ftr ~'<ftir. ~




P. VIII. 4.67.

Pr. II.



similar to udatta althOUgh not exactly acute, which character, izes the latter half of the circumflex vowel; d. ~GJ"a"e~I.l:; T. Pr. I. 42. planation of}n .interpretation;
<l'f.!;f.l:l'HII1j:jtl'lUlJl{II1 -sr.n;;{~f\'f

l 'd~4IicH'( Dame given to a ilarhdhi in , the Pratisakhya when the vowel I orarr is changed into Of e. g. 3T



.~+'<j: = 3T'I'i~+CI:


~O'( a grammatical example in ex-I

= lJ~i! ~~HCI cf. R. Pro U. 1I.


+ ~ti\<i'


elevation; named aJso


P. VI. I.II.


characterized by short ~ as a ! indicatory vowel, (I) By VIrtue of thIs mute ~ added to it the ' word ~, for instance, 'signifies along with 'l! its cognate consonants <a. ~, ~~ description; mention of qualities; Il" and ~ also; cf. ~~t8~u1~ 'i:fl~<r: d. qrQIl1<I:, M. Bh. on 1. 32; the P. I. 1.69. (2) Roots marked with' word is used in contrast with i:;tPW ~ as mute get the augment i( optioor direct mention; d. lli: !Ii!~i{;~lltf~~ nally added before the krt affix mTj <i't~q: I 3T(,'!j~m~!Itf<t~r ~~: mqUJ e. g. ~flWfl .and ~T;;t'H from the root !I'~: I SI(,'!j~ fficr<n~!I~~: Q~I:j'T I <lIm~, ( ~g ) by virtue of the rule

I ~;g.H


(I) elision, a term used in the sense of ' lopa ' in the ancient grammar works; (2) name of a commentary by Jayanand:l. on the Haima-linganusasana.





"3 in...

P. VII. 2.56.

~<I ~C\..'lt ~Cfl:j'f.r q;Ul en ~qfct~ffi I a:r<j: <uftf& I 8 q(,'!j~q~r~ 1 ;;rr.rfW ir

p:ssession of short 0 as the penultimate letter, e. g. ~l:l"CI

mftfu 1 ~iJr. SIr(f1l'l!I'~: 1 CI~l:j'r I 'iifalect @:j~l~ I itqq::l ~ +lcrr~i;fiWg l!:re- 1 ~ ~~I:j':
qgf~9:':l'1<i itq~W~~fu I


P. VII. 3.4 1

ii. a class of words headed by the word ;;ruq; to which the taddhita ~ffix Olcr.. is added in the sense of nature Of' profeSf:>ion '; cf. i3IDSj-

f*,f,<fl ...{iW itq~"a" i(fu

dlwft'. ~ ~ ~~: 3Tltilo


~TtIJlI1~ 1 ~~~ ~ il:q~ l{re- I M. Bh. on 1. 3.2; (2) spot, place, passage of occurrence; ~,~ ;a~~:; cf. <I:V~~ ~qft+!(1io:r: Pari. Sek. Pari. ~.

word;;rtfcl\ after which the taddhita affix, added in the sense of ij):;r ~f.t~"1TCf relationship between the (~rand-children etc.) is optionally subject and the predicate where ehded, provided the word is to be generally the subject is placed first used in the plural number; cf. ;aqin a .sentence; d. \3~ljq'i:f<i tpf Fci~~(cf lliii5lli!iT: ~~freT:i also ;;qi!iT:, arrtfifoT('fo: IWI,I d. alEo !j'l<n~efr'f.m Fci~6CI. I ~~:i ~W-fir:, ~{lfijir~irr:, ;\il!i!iT: 1iTf!lIi1{: I ('i~Cf ;;~<i ~1.lII1(crllq m~lj<I:, padava_I' K a s on P. II. 4. 69. kyaratna bra . nCf)R' help given in respect of sense ~l~ the word always refers in gra- , to a word by another word connectmmar to the famous commentary I ed with it. cpo Vi'ik. pad. III. 7. 1 3, 1 4, 149 ;;rqi!iT~ a-~: (~<;;f.) by Ni'igesabhaHa written in the first! decade of the dth century A. D. on the Mahabha$yapradipa of Kaiyata. ! ~ a fault in the pronunciation of The Uddyota appears to be one of letters, noticed sorretimes in the the earlier works of Nagesa. It is utterance of a letter adjoinin'g such also ~alled Vivaral)a. The com men- i a letter as is coloured with a musical tary IS a scholarly one and is looked! tone O? account of the proximity of u,P0n as a final word re: the exposi- j the adlacent letter which is uttered hon of the l'vIahiibhi'i~ya. It is belie- i in a musical note and which thereved that, NagEsa wrote 12 Uddyot'as ! fore is called' lfiftd"; d.>riftcr: flrlfand 12 Sekharas which form some I cr~Rd': ~ <rqm;t: ~lft!fli1l1fi\'f~\ffi: I a~thoritative commentaries on proKalyata s Pradipa on M. Bh I ~_lnent works in the different Ahnika I. . ;:,astras. = ~ a term used by the ancient gram... .......... ~1lfl~+rt !lame of a commentary marians in the sense of the Parasmaion the 'Tantrapradipa' of Maipada and the Atmanepada affixes treya Rakl?ita, which latter is a comHelaraja" observes "~~ijq<{~ me~tar~ 011 Ji.nendrabuddhi's Nyasa iilj~HI: ifo:ffll>rl~\'ffumti{~) ~qy. ~: . WhICh Itself IS a comrr:ent?ry on fiiiq{~r~ t11~ ~ ~ ~ t9f'qT~liq;y\'f: I Jayaditya's 1{i'isikEi. ?n Vak. Pad. III. 12.1. The word ~~ . IS not found in Pat}ini's A!?tadhy- .'. Th e V" . . .appearance of an object; com. "rtbkak1i.ra has used aYl. the mg mto existence. According to worum his Varttika ~tf!llVlfui{\'fe.t on
M. Bh. on 1. I. I.

+n\'ii5Tl'f ari'i:ftii~CI ~qator: I *fIW[$lli arl'i:flii: lliffl: ~ll!j't<l +l~~~ 'l~mf~: 3Tfi~

~~ a class of words headed by the


- P. III. 2.127 evidently in .the sense \ ~q'Effif lit. an injury; destruction, error. of Pada affixes referring to the The word is used as i3q~cr!KclT'i<I, ;'3'tfAtmanepada as explained by tTlaoi ~Fl+f,. The former means an Kaiyata in the words ~ 3Tltll~ instructing sentence e.g. when a boy q::'::~<ir ~~: 1 The word occurs in i~ asked to protect curds from the Slokavarttika. ~f8~q'il[~~c:rUl1\t crows, he certainly protects it also quoted by Patafijali in his Mabafrom dogs and the like. cpo Vak. bhii$ya 011 c<itl:l<It ~~.ii5~ P. III. 1.85, pad. II. '312. where Nagesa writes ~~W't Bl'1:,fm~ 1 ~l[ ot>rmfafcifi'lifj ~<;trqGJt+!~qa: i3q- ~'<:ll{ (I) taking a secondary sense; ~~ ~!'{!IJI<It~ij' I The word is implication; lit. moving for a sense found in the sense of Pada in the I which is near' about; the,same as Mahabhiisya on P. III. T,40. The!I <il"~. The word OIm is.~xplained ' . commentator on PU$pasutra eX-I as i3I:R!T~, employment or current plains the word as aq"J,iicf B+fti'f lfO<I~ usage, by Pat afijali; cf. 3fT"'lmQ.\ :{fa ~l[:. The author of the, KiiSika 'I aTI'<lT<i~urm;1f':llmr.. I M. Bh. J. r. I. Vart. on P. VI. 2.134 has cited the read4; (2) substituti9n of the letter (i, ing "iIJlT~rlj~l~'li[l-i1:. instead of "iIJlYcft- I for &Bfr; cf.I1t'!<i'li[ultq"'l~3; "'l, P. IV. rljsrTfuj1:n~<f(: and made the remark ' I.I Vart. 7. cpo also f9~<ft<i1Nff.l'fi'lt: o~tf!N ~fa 'llN.:oi=iCf l(ClT"'lI<ilqql~1JI <J~:t. i <:I<IiR1if~: :a-Q"'lR ~t1t"fT ~l: f9~QT I This remark shows that in ancient i Nyasa on P. VIII. 3.48; cpo also, times aq'ir meant 'fB<I<a i.e. a word : <I~:n"f<IiH: <:I9i1U CIT <!iqq~: :a-q"'l1~~~<Ii: I in the genitive case. This sens~! Upalekhasutra V. 6. gave rise to, or' W?S based upon, an i allied sense, viz 1 he meaning of ' ~qSn known by. oneself, by one's kno\\'!edge (3~[il) without any '1:niT' i.e. possession. Possibly t\1e direct instruction from another; cpo sense ' pos~ession ' further developNiltqm ~1<![q~Hq+f, I cpo also i3~l<iCf ed into the further sense' possession ~Rr i3~) ... qTfiiJ~~ 'HW!i\IJI+f, i qrfili~~lf of the fruit or result f.Jf self or ~l~il >rq-+T >fUi'P.!+f, 1 Kasika on P. others' referring to the fa~ affixes

;:mwHflG:;::mfl'iii srl:"!lir >r<r~+f, Pari. Sekh. on Pari. 97, as !lIso M. 8h. on ~g+/fa '<l P. III. 1.26. The relationship known as :a-q;;\T~<Itq;;\TCf'!imCf occurs several times in grammar which states the inferiority of the dependent as noticed in the world.

~a:~ instruction; original en'unciatien; first or original precepts or teaching; ct. i3q~~ aTT.m!i:lHI1I+f, S. K. on the rule i3qa:~~qlfu'!i :m.. P. I. 3.2. ct. CfIJl~i[m;lf~~ <Ii~;<i:; M. Bli. on Ahn. I. Vart. IS. For difference between <Iq~ and '3"&:~ see :a-~~; d. also 3q~m~~t!lq~: I :rrl~<rl'f!f[fu, fl..'!fqTO': ~ma{ KiiSikii. on P. I. 3.2; ct. also VyuQi. Pari. 5; (2) employment (of a, word) for others d. aqa:~: q~I~: sr<ItlT: 1 Bl'1:IB-'i 2 ~:a<jf <j<!J ~[~:rrfu o<!J qm~~~: lUiS. on 3l~t~~ P. I.

~~F.tI'l. such a word as is lound in the

original instruction.


~q'ailcfu:r a letter or a phonetic element substituted for a visarga folQ lowed by the first or the second letter of the labial class. Visarga is simply letting th~ breath out on he mouth. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class, its pronunciation is. coloured by labial, utt'erance. This coloured utterance cannot be made independentiy;, hence this u tte'rance called ' i3qlll1l"fl<I' (similar to a sound blown from the mouth), is not put in, as an independent letter, in the CfUT131l1~r'-! attributed to . +/~}j;j~. Patafijali, however, has referred to such dependent utteranCes by the term aT<l\ITClIi[ClUT. See Sl<ItilCfll[; d.:::'!i!{Rr ~rli~l:I: I ~&Il~;t ;;J;;:llm-i1:. 1 ~q ~t!!ql:l'll<:f\<!: 1 aql:llT~il :;r.:<::tll-i1:. 3l<i'mcTnr is also called OI'<lN13IT. See
~~ proposition,


occurrence in the original statement before the application of an~ .a~xes etc., d. o;ql1t9.q~~<riU<lr Cf<fClo<i., lVI. Bh. on P. 1. I.56, Vart.23 I


which posstssed that sense. The old sense ''I"Bo/(l' of the word' :a-q!Ii[' having gone out of use, and the sense 'qG;" having come ill vouge; the word ''1"91' must have been substituted for the word' aq'iif' by some grammariaps before the time of the Kasiklikaras. As Patafijali has dropped the Sutra (VI. 2.134), it cannot be said definitely whether

II4 2 I.

~~F.tIcta:;:r.:r st~tement to .the effect

that a word should be looked upon as occurring in the original instruction although it is not there. See :a-%~. d. ~f;'f'CfI~q'tmqil:"l'<i m!f'-!foi\:.<l~+f, P. VII. 1.58. Vart. I. .

statenient. The remark' fcrq'll :a-:fr<i1B: ' is of frequent occurrence in the Vyakaral)a Mabiibhii$ya in connection with statements that are defective anq. have to be refuted or corrected; cf. M. Bh. on P. I. I.2f, 46,50; r. 2.5 etc.

. lit. origin; one that originates, ... augment, i3lf;;jT<iij' aTtlT i3q;;;c:r: I The word is used in the sense of ' additional phonetic element'; cf. \3'lf;;jil 3Tllfli: M.~Bh. on Sivasutra 5; cf. also 9UT01ltl:l<iTqyijtlf;;jqf?r~eq~:[<n-i1:.1 Si\:a Satra 5 Vart. IS. The ~k Pratisakhya gives <:i. in ~<J~rr:: as an . P IV instance of i3tfJTil. d. R. r. 37. In the Nirukta '3lf;;j<iis given as the



name of a sauldhi which is described as i3<\'i1i[<i-i1:. in R. Pr.; e.g. il "K~ See ~'irif.

the change of reading took place before Patai'ljali or after him. , ... sense of the prefix '\3'q'; ct. ;;iR~q;;r;:r<1": ~~g~~ name of section twelv~ of The com. on the Nirukta explains the third klil)Qa of Vakyapadiya Qf the word <Iq;;jc:r as SllN<f<i. Bhartrhari. ; :aq,:n~"1, cause of acceptance; inducing Ii ~qm~ a terril. used by later gram-k dIll 14. marians in connection with such a aceep t anee. ep. Va. pa. II4. rule on which another rule depends

~q'::H penuitimate letter, as defined in

the rule aT~i'(l:Il~l<f i3tf4T P. 1. T .65, e.g. see ~q'Cf, cftCTlq'Cf, ~"iq'<l, OI'liTUq'Cf etc.; lit. :a-q,ftl{ij' f<!'<ftl:lij' BT that which. is placed near the'last letter.

Ttf'CI1~M'l. a word or a noun which has , got'the penuitimate letter omitted cf. aT., :a-q'CfT~fir.W:<Im:~T<l:. P. IV. 1.28.

\3qqa; lit. a word placed near; an adjoining word. In Piil)ini's grammar, the term aq~ is applied to such /, words as are put in the locative case by Pal)ini in his rules prescribing krt affixes in rules from Ill. I.go to III. 4 end; cf. i1~qcrt B8+ft~ P. III. 1.92; e.g. '!ilT1Ur in '!iBU<i1ll.. P. III. 2.I. The word is also used in the senEe of an adjoining word connected in sense. e.g. ~511~1f\f~ as also Sllrffi "f +/<'<l\qqito P. I. 4.105, 106; cf. also ~<liq-f<it f?n<iT<iT!Iq-qit '<1rci1~Ftl5<!fa- '!if~ g!Iil~T ~9cr: KM. on P. n f. 3.10; ct. also ~o~lJ;:<l\;:<ItqlRl!i:l P. I. 3.10, mt:~qqG.:m, ~"<lrnP. 1. 3.7r,as. aiso aqt!'G.:l1ta~ P. II: 2.19; and 'Tra-<iiT~rlf. lft\~,'G', P. VI: 2.139. Kaiyata on P.

III. I.92 Vart. 2 explains the word ~q-q~ as ~q)!i1Hft or ~cit~rfut tt<t ~q~. The word \3"q~ is found the Pratisakhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change; cf. 'q crT Il: aT{
lfc:f ~ffif.f 'Of~li:ftf.f am!i<iRRli W'fimfilTo

a technical ter:m used in the , works j in the sense of . words which proceed from a rule to the following rules up to a particular stated limit; cf. ~rcr~ ~f<i f.i~~ T. Pr. I. 59 explained by .the commentator as \:!1fi!'C<i~ ~fcr ~: I

manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or etymological work and ~hose pupil came to be known as an~'1.




f9m~a~11J; I

I ~~ an

~a.<!..Nir. X. 17.

iitr~qiUf.T ~f.T


Uvata on V. Pr.

g~~r~: I



VI. 23.
~~fcI~ a, grammatical operation c<J.used by a word which is near; ct. ~q~~~r "iT<il~lf?:::jll:oi P. I. I.72 Vart 9. also a{Rl5ftlW ~qq:::~~ P. IV. I.t. . Vart. 8 where ruJes such as ! l1ljOT,. .. and the following aTe referred to as ::rq~Fetf\if, the words 'fit'lfUr, \'QrGf, enul, etc. being called :::q~ by the rule a-~tq~ Ba+ftwll.; P. Ill. I.92.

~rcr ;;r"<i~ I ;;rqif'~ <i~ ~'3f' if



~~ the fourth oat of the seven stages or places in the production of articulate speech, upamsu being the first stage; d. ij~!I1fRmr. 'rait . Pr. 23.9 explained by the,commentator as: ij~ q-{81le<{~~m:o~ I ClSf
5l'~~f<i: ~~:
I::.~':" 1f<:{~{elj~i1I"1"11fi'l;;r ~<iQ

a well-known term in Rhetorics meaning the figure of speech . simile' or' comparison '. The word j is often found in the Nirukta in the! same sense; cf. a{~m ;;rqm: I ''li'( ~aq: mt!~~ , ~fR :rrF~: I Nir III. 13. Generally an inferior thing is compared to another that is superior in

ancient. gr~mmarian and Mimamsaka believed to have been the brother of Var!?a and the pre ceptor of paJ;lini. He is referred to, many times as an ancient writer of some Vrttigranthas.




standard of comparison. The word is found in the PaI)inisiitra ;;rtfP,T<iTfu Bl'iTiCjCf"l~: P. II. J .55 where the Kasikavrtti explains it as ;;rq;:ft<l~~(~1fTll~ I

implication of something by means of a mark or sign; significant object or mark. cpo Yak. Pad. II.IS; 'In. 14, 85. "qcljl'i1i1+!fulXll!it~ I Heliiraja. ance, of one word with another; d. 'Of ~Q~ ~.iitr+t~q;:m Oifctfi+Itfaar.Cl({ff ;;rqOOa, I M. Bh. on Vr.1.7 2, The word ;;rqfsgli! is also found in the M abiibhii.!?ya in the same con text.

~~'i immediate contact, as for inst-

~q~m$ a case termination added

to a wQrd on account of the presence of another word requiring the addition' cf. the well-known Paribha~1i. ;;r~~+Rfi: 'iiT\'fifcp~ftJl<11. Par. Sek. Pari. 94; and M. Bh. on I. 4.96 ! stating the possession of greater I force in the case of a karakavibhakti than in the case of a'n upapadavibhakti.

the compound of a word, ! technically termed as '3"q~ by PaQini according to his definition of the word in Ill. 1.92, with another word which is a verbal derivative; ~ (I) the famous comme)tator cf. ~HfcliT~: Cil1<:<fiH'::. Here technicallyi - on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikesvara which are . the comp~und of the words !-;;<r, Cll1{ known by the name Cl~lII<:'ii[ft'iiT etc. which are upapadas is formed and which form a kind of a comwith 'fiR, before a case-termination mentary on the siitras of Mahesvara; is added to the nominal base 'fiR; ( 2) a comparatively modern gramcf. l1R1'iif\<iitCfq~ri'lt ~~: Bll: BIlTB'i~ sn~ marian possibly belonging to the ~~q~: Par. Sek. Pari. 75. nineteenth century who is also a-q-t:~ misconception, erroneous named Upamanyu and who has written a com men tory named knowledge. cpo Yak. pad III. 3.57 TattvavimarsinI on the famous ~'f: a{lfI1ll<irf?:mfin~: I also cpo Kaslklivrtti by Jayaditya and ~'i: Of(~~<iIlf'fl1<{YG:~ ~'fifil~ I Vamana.' Some believe that U pa.. (~.)


:a-~~ a short work ill SlUra style ascribed to Bnaradvaja Brhaspati, one of the three ancient teachers of Vedic recital. Vy1i.<;1i in hii! Vikrtivalli refers to him as his teacher. He may be taken to be a contemporary of paQini. The work discusses "fiI1. one of the eight variaties of the Vedic recital. The work ~ or ~@ may be understood as <fill. The work, along with i1\'({qc::qTO"f'<li j.; edited and translated by Prof. K. V. Abhyankar, Poona 1974.

~o an object which is compared.

The word is found in PaI)iriisiitra ~ iT~f+t: P. II. 1.56, where the KiiSika paraphrases it by the word ~ and illustrates it by_the word ~ in ~<i"EJoljl$l.
~ an object which is to be compared. See ;;rqma-.
~a.1UI' implication,

:a~~;y mention,

indication; a thing indicatory of another thing. His defined,as ~'1>rfutn({Cf.~ ~Etffi:51R11fIG;Clitq~ I The term is yery frequently found in commentary works in connection with a word which signifies something beyond it which is similar to it; the indication is generally inclusive; d. Kaslki1 on +l~igmt P. I. 3.68 ~l'il~11J!I~~~ f.I~m1ir M ~q I as also ~'!:f!ll[oi {i ~~ ;;rtf~~tIf\~+( KM. on II. 4;80. The verbal forms of <?l'i!' and ~l'i!' as also the words <i>~~srr.., ~~<l. ~a;:IQ etc. possess the seDse of expressing the meaning- not primarily, but secondarily by indication or implication'.


generally of the type of the annExation of some words to words already given, or ~ of some limiting conditions or additions to what has been already stated. The word is often fonnd at the end of the statements made by the Varttikakara on the siitras of paI)ini.; cf. P. 1. I.29 VaIt. I; 1. 1.36.vart. 3 etc .. -The words crl'C<! and '1'ffic<{ are also similarly used. The word is foundsjmilarly used in the Mahiibba!?ya also very frequently. inclusion of .something, which is not directly mentioned; cf. 5l'm;a~q ~~;rai'( Kas. on P. I. 3.48, also !{RI'ii<:oi ~fct\:1li'll+It'l~qT~1f~:::[{I~+( Kas. onP. VII. 4.65.


:a-G'i6T1f~ a substituted word element; cf. mq-: ~ffi ~lII I lmli<j~: ~: q"fj:;r-

~il' (I) union; cf. CWI~T~:g; 'fi+!Iq-g.nrrmo'fiT +tCffrapreposi tions are signs to show that such a union with another'sense has occurred in the case of the noun or. velb to which they are prefixed.: Nir,' 1. 3.;

( 2) addition; cf. tIf~l1Iur fu u~nm:ur ,;r{r<ll!;!,ml1: ,!"ii<:<!: ~<!\<r. :M. Bh. on P. IV. 2,21. Vart. 2.
\3'q~ drawn close; cf. ang'r tI.q~~erQ~ T. Pr. II. 14. The root \'l"lRt~ is used in the sens~ of finishing in the MahabhB.$ya; d. '4:t1f ~~efit qol ~li{~
fctR:~i~ qol ~8"~~ er;:rr<!gq[1.I:r<! f[cft<f: lf~:r'l~ iFfY q:cft<l~:ql 'tl'r,,~: \ M.Bh. on

sr means beginning or
., ~ \3'qtlllT "1~r~<!lCfm<g ~r9'i'fr: q<tl~T q;;:l~: msltlt


tIf~lf'aU3Itm ~T<gT<!.,: I .


<FiFer I +iqrcftffi iJ\'~: I a'lf tJ;!:!

~ crrm~m<i1~l!]f9Cf,~U\+(,

P.I.4. r09 Vart. 6.


compound"d together, joined together by speci3l grammlttical connection oIled BliP,'!; d. C'f i1!iq<Pi: qN~~: f&r<ff '1i\~ I ~qtl~r~W~ 'l<f~ I M.Bh. on vn. 1.1. Vilrt. IS.

~n preposition, prefix. Th~ word

originally meant only' a prefixed word'; d. l3tq'tlii3 rr[~ R. Pro XVI. 38.' The word became technically applierl by ancient Sanskrit Grammarians to the words If, qu, ::Irq', til(. etc. which are always used along with a verb ora verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity; d. \3'q~l1i: f:ji<fp{!?( P.I. 4.59. These prefixes are necessarilycompounded with the following I word unless the latter is' a verbal I form; d. '~'l1fulfl<{<!:' P. II. 2.18.\! Although they are not compounded with a verbal form, these preposi- , tions are used in juxtaposition with it; sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervel1~ion of ona word or more. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of , the loot. cp. \3'q'fllTtIl 'clrc:r~r q<l>l~:;r ;:ft<j~ (arr<j: lfd'tll?' I Y.L..) I iJ'Wltlfi::<l>'il~~ tlliJ~Uj <j:,f\l'+iliH II Some scholars like Sakatayana hold the view that separated from the roots, prefixes 'do Dot express any specific sense as ordinary words express, while scholars like Gargya hold the view that prefixes de express a sense e.g.


Nir. 1.8. It is' doubtful, however, which view PaI)ini himself held. In his A.tmanepada topic, he has melltioned some specific 'roots as some specific senses when preceded by . some specific prefixes, (sec:. P. I. 3.20, 24, 2540, 41,46,52,56, etc.), which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses, while. prefixes are simply instmm)'!ntal in indicating or showing them. On the other hand, in the topic of the Karmapravacaniyas, the same words sr, 'Rl etc. which, however, are not termed Upasargas for the time being, although they are called, are actually assigned some specific senses by PaI)ini. The Varttikakara has defined ;3-!1tlii as t.fimfci-:W-r<F. \3"11:1<1: P. I. 3.T. Vart. 7, leaving it doubtful whether the \3'q't'lir or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root, or without possessing any independent :oense, it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. Bbartrhari, Kaiyata and their followers including Nagesa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipatas, which include sr, tRl and others as U pal.'argas as well as Karmapravacaniyas, do not denote any sense, but they indicate it; they are in fact .mCfCfi and not 9l'<f<F.. For details see Nir. I. 3, Vakyapadiya II. 190, Mababha!?ya on 1. 3.1. Va.rt. 7 and Pradipaand Uddyota thereon. The ~k PratiSakhya has discussed the question in XII. 6-9 where, as explained by the commentator, it is

stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attached. It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication, the words 'IT'tl'<F. in stanza 6 and fq~q~, in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively; d . \3'!1t!'IT M~m~~9T'<f<!il: ~tro
~:<:jTrna~ 'frIqTerl:; ~'lf'qCfillT~<!ICf~rr~m fqlUq~~, ~'tqlfu'cl1<l<ii C'frlT f.!qm: im'I~:

positions explaining their meanings with .illustrations.

~rQ a treatise on upasargas by

Bharatamalla in Century A. D. the Sixteen th

;g~0l (I) adjective,

R. Pr. XII. st. 6 and 8. For the list ofupasargas see R. Pr. XII. 6, T. Pr. L 15, V. Pro VI. 24, and S. K. on P, 1. 4.60.


the vie~ or doctrine that prefixes, by themselves, do not possess any sense, but they indicate .~ the sense of the verb or noun with which they are connected. For details see Vakyapadiya II. 165-206; also vol. VII. pages 370-372 of VyakaraI)a Mahabba!?ya ed. by the D. E. Society, Poona. connection with' a. prefix; joining of th~ prefix. Some scholars of grammH hold the view tl~at the Upasarga is prefixed to the root and lhen the verbal form is arrived at by placing the. desired terminations after the root, While others hold the opposite view; cf. '{cf 'cli g : tlll:'!~.u~~;;<f~ 'qaJl5;tf~i\Uj I .O\~.~ '{cf 'clTg'l!1tlillJi ~<!~ tfalltel\:l if.\'t<!ls: Siradeva's Paribha$a"rtti Pari. 131,132 ; cf. also vol. VII. Mahabba~ya, edited by the D.E. Society,Poona, pages 371-372.



subordinate mem ber which does not get the treatment of the principal member, e.g. iIt~<V:ijq~"\<l p. I. 2.4S, 8l~tl~1Q P. IV. 1.T4 ~)q~;:ft<tdT~i'I ., ~9\<t<i: S, K. On P. I. 1.29, also P. I. I.27 Vart. 2; (2) a word referred to by the word which is put in the nominative case in rules of PaI)ini prescribing compounds, e.g. <F.12 (in the compound <F.efmr: ) which is referred to by the word '/[m<!T in the rule '/[at'lT fmrmter o P. II. 1.24 which pre~ scribes the Acc. Tatpuru~a compound. These words are given the first place in a compound; d. sr:qmf.I~~ tlliftl ~'3~C1~ P. I'. 2.43, ~'3;li;'r ~l(. P. II. 230; (3) a word which has one and the same case when a . compound in the different cases is shown as dissolved, e.g. the word cfir:wicrr in the compound fclE<hl~n~: . which keeps its ablative case when the compounds f<! 5:hRllf;:ar;r", f<!e4ir'inf;:ar,n, f~Eciir~T;:ar~ etc. are dissolved; d. li;9if9'+if:ffi =qf'{~f.,qm P. I. 2.44. attended with a prefix, genemlly used in connection with roots; e.g. :ji\:T~il:ijq~u~iIT: < P. 1. 4.38 where the K1isika has explained the word as ~ttfr~;g.
~ ~


;sq~ii"n~ a treatise on u pasargas, by



;Sq~~oenr a treatise on upasargas by

Gadadhara Cakravartin.

~q{:liif.lCRO'/ a shor.t anonymous work

on the nature of upasargas or pre-

introduction of the necessary changes i~the wording of the base, such as elision, or addition or sub= stitution or a letter or letters as caused .by the addition of suffixes. cpo <!'lffii Bt~<F.1~;j; {1~!:! ~Rl911U f+i'alii iffi'lr~~1eiR<!f.-er,1 Svo. on Vak. pad. 11349



' . ue occurrence; presence b y VIr tIlT""";' "'T"': :J:~{q" Com. on T. Pro "' .. ., '1 '1 , '" of anuvrtti i.e. recurrence or contiXXIII. 5 Duation of a word in the rules that ~Ra (I) sibilation; substitution follow; d. :u~ 'q{t<!~if <fi'r..u of a sibilant letter fora visarga; ;;~yq{\: ~if'ltcr<Fll~~c:m ~~ ~ ~~q~ d. tffiTfT'<I~ ''q" R. Pro XI. 19; (2) :M. Bh. on I. 3.II. Vart. I. name of the samdhi, in which a visarga is changed info a sibilant letter; cf. ~~;flTfT'<IIUi: tI WIf: R. cally in the sense of the word ~ii which is used in the Krama and Pro IV. 14 which corresponds to other recitals wheu Vedic reciters pal).ini VIII. 3. 18 and 19 show separately the' two words \:f'TI'1:l'R' change of Visarga into s (~J; compounded together by uttering sibilation of Visarga, -e. g. ~'i]: the compp.und word first, then trfu: = ;;j&lIJ(~trfu :. The words :atr-m~ the word ~m and then the two and <lTfT'<Iit(f are found used in the compound words" e. g. ~..?lCfi '! ll.m samesense by ancient Grammarians. ~-..?l9i I W+rTCfW ~m ~<iT-cr8T. The See <lG'-m\; cf: tImlfli! qTll ~ tft<f, Kasika defines the word \3ilt~(f as ff~ owi' mllCfma;j tI~ ,.:.<l1:fl'<IR ~l'{IlJ((fa:{ tI!!cn~RCJ~f trtt ~<1 ~~ arcJ~ij- ott. m;a;r., arT'<It<!T C<j~~~'I<jf: R. Pro <itf~~' ~a-'<fOG:: IUs. on VI. Y. 12 9 VIII. I2. The E:k-Pratisakhya explains the' word rather differently, but in the \:f~ (I) hypothesis, presumption, same context. The word'after w,hich acceptance (2) determination of the sense of a word along with ~fq is placed is called upasthita e.g. the ~ord ~ in ~ ll.m or f.rmCfw limitations put on it by the extrain fcjmqW ll.m as contrasted with ordinary powers possessed by that ~"Ri i. e. the word without l .m, e. g. wOid. cpo Vak. pad.' III. 133 cpo
<tl{ or ft<iTCJW, as also

see <It'fi''(f; the word is generaUy found used in the grammars of Sakatayana and Hemacandra.

\:f~a a word used rather tE~chni-

;a-qjq means or instrument which is used in the accomplishment of an ' objective, but which is abandoned as soon as the objective has been achieved. cpo Vak. pad. II. 38, 108, ;a-~ahner lit. speaking or showing. 237; III. 13 29; III. 14. 77, 78. both the padas or voices; possessed of both the padas viz. the Parasmai;a-q'fl}'lif recourse, resort. cpo Yak. pad. pada and the Atrilanepada, The III. 3.58; cpo \jtfT$iqr ~~>fIq;r., word is found commonly used in .ij-rr 'q" mlI[ ~l!fl;;:~<1l1~T ~9l[Rlfl!IllCfff\fu , the Dhatupatha of paJ;lini.
;a-~IIT'iTT . presenting

\j~<rlfRrfti[ <iCJfu P.I. 1.23, V1i.rt 4. Pari. 8ek, Par. 9 where the word ubhaya refers to both the senpes-the ordinary one ( at~+r) and the technical one (~~ )-e. g. the meanings (i) numeral, and (ii) words~, i(lI[, etc. of the word B'lf!ff;

a difficulty in


both the ways, cpo ~1IT\j<i~~tfRTT M. Bha. on VI. 1.68. Kaiyata and Nagesa,have' taken\j~(f: and ~l~ (B'~I:f, CJT~9ifci or ~~) as the two constituent words. \j11<!6: and G'l~, however, appear to be the two such words, cpo ~l!IT 9il~ii:~: ~G'{9igr ~'l1Um ff~<i' cit"'l': ~~i:f at~ 'q" <1 ~crmr ~~: , Uddyota on VI. 1.68. cpo also ffJ:~1:'ft \~ff~(f: IfRIf 9i~m I Apastamba Sulba sutra 15.9.
~~9fu I

in both the ways lit. in both the places; cf. \j~<isr 'q" P. I. I. 44 Vart. 22., The word \j<i<!Sj'f.r~I"'l'r is used 'in grammar referring to the option (fcf<lI'iT) which is ma as also at'ifTH; cf. M.En. on P.I. 1.26 Vart.22.



contrasted with ~l!Imqf~Ci i. e. the whole word f<rm~f ~fu ta.mscrl:IT which is also called ~a or fir~a; (2) occurring; present; cf. 9iT~~ B'~TG'itmlPi.' ~~ CfiT~ <ffl)q-ft~a-l\!!~;r. ,Par. Sek. Pari. 3..

:u~fu~iI.T~fcf<1 3:1&.~!!~~ I

(~~. )

::itil~ lit. one near 0r. before the last;

-the term is generally used in connection with words havi~g two or more syllables, where it means the vowel before the last (vowel); cf: <ltl\'efIt fu~ P. VI. I. 217 and <Utf1:Tlt\:' ~~tl\'UllT~a:t. P. V. 1.132 where the writer of the Kasika, explains it as fSj'5f~iftC1IlliCll!!'Uir ff~ wfttr!!tl\'Ull~" giving \+luft~ and Cf~<fi<f as examples where the long ~ is upottama; cf. also T. Pro XI. 3. and Nir~ I. 19 where the word refers to the third out of the four feet of the verse cpo also commentary on Ath. Pra.

a deilOtativ~ word; a word which directly expresses its sense. cpo Vak. pad~ 1. 44. cpo \jtfl<n<lf lit. near the first; second.

'fl'<l9i:' (~.)

:atf~~ (I) with, preceded by; e. g.


in both the ways (in the case of an option, of course); d. ~~_ ~l!fT P. III. 4.II7 where the word ubhayatha refers to both the alternative uses e. g. Sarvadhatuka and Ardpadbatuka; so also vidhilin and asirlin; cf. Kasik~ on P. III. 4.I!7. The term ubhayat~a is descri.bed a,S synonymous with" bahulam ' or , anyatarasyam' or 'va' or eke~am'; cf. Gfg~a\ffi!f'..:r<rl!II CJT Q,;~ fum M. Bh. on P. I. 1.44; Vart. 19 ; d. alsoOj'1:."<fr'lI;:ij-'r.~~T \+l\Rr R.Pr.

ctTEfIG'fti, ~,=<nG'~; (2) sticking to, conneCted with, '\3G'i3fq-(f '; cf. Durga oJ? Nir. V. 12; (3) coming to be placed near or in juxtaposition with the preceding word; cf. STTCJr.ffiq-~dro:. tlff: R. Pro II. IS.
\:fqi~ lit. inaudible. The word is ex-

;aq'lf'il condition, limitation, determi-

XV. 8.

nant, qualification: e. g. '<i fu \3G'liit~ifTferirqfu,' ~tflJ(~ crT ~;Uq~ lVI. Eh. on I. 3.2 as alEo on V. LI6 ; cf. also ~1[ ~ mt"'l' \3G'rf<f4ltfl~ij- -m~ liR=~<1 <lf9oo'l+I:' M.Eh. on III. 1.7;3qi\,.~~~~;:r ,a

;a-~m a hiatus or a stop which

occurs between two 10ng.,vowelled syllables; the term \3"~erT is a conventionai term in the Pratisakhya literature. The term \j~~~r is similarly us~d in connection with short vowels.

plained in the technical sense as the first place or stage in the utterance of speech where it is perfectly inaudible although produced; The first out of the seven positions of voice in Vedic recital. cf. <itf~ ~fu

commentary work quoted in Ujjvaladatta's Ul).adisiitravrtti I. 78.

'3'~'I'i a supporting

assertion or statement; cf. ~~<lttl\11:~G:. M.Bh. on I. 2.64. Vart. 38-39.


lit. near the last; penultimate. The word is' generally found used in the Candra VyakaraJ;la.

\:f~ a restriction understood in

both the ways; cf. m~ ~~Fr<!liRl:.1 \3"t{~m<ltl;; I ~lf{ 11,<f >r~<j': Sj!jj-mo"I.:

'3'miilffi both the alternatives; both

the senses-; double signification; cf.


~~ljll1:Cf 'Of !if~fu~m I M. Bh. on P.

these words stand at the end of Bahuvrihi compounds; d. ~~\<{ ~ffii: similarly fs:rlj~(q~:, Kas. on P. V. I. 151.
~~ produced at the breast ~. d. ~'q~

III. 1.2, Vart. II; cf. also ;M:. Bh. on VI. 2.148.

(I) double voice-the Parasmaipada as well as the Atmanepada; (2) both the words or members (in a compound); cf. ;:n:r<iq;u~srn.n lr-'1l::j !{iis. on P. 1. 257
Padas; a root to which both, the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada terminations are affixed; e.g. roots ili, O!T, !!'<i.. etc.

R. Pr. 1. 18, explained by the commentator as ~Rro"fTllY: ~ i[lIiT~ f.f~~f <r<:;~ctr ~f.CT I

"a'+r<i~ a root conjugated in both the


a case or a matter in which both the alternatives occur, as for. instance, the genitive case for the subject and the object of a verbal
<Ii+lfUT I ;:r+l<rt: ~nfR; :ll"i1a: a"f <litl~cr I'\gT

. ~ opening (of the hole of the throat); the words ;:r~m .~<J~ are used in the sense of ' opening of the glottis' which is described as. a characteristic condition of the utterance of a vowel accented grave or ~; d. aTf<iTm <miUlj~:rT~~(~~: ;grfcrI ~~<{ I 8li'Cf,n::lrrr ljT<l:<J~(i:rr ~.;~fff I <t~:'litlfrrl ~ M. Bh. on <t~\~<tI~: P. 1. 2.3 0 ; cf. T. Pr. on XXII.. 9, 10.

a~rivative noun (w.trcr); d. ;:r~:qnu

l!~licl.. ~fcr W<lff+l~

~~ a ~ariety of the Vedic metre

il9t ~ij: aTmtfICil%<i i<as. on P. II. .3. 66 .

':3'+{~ possessed


<Ii<lR I 8lTilll!f

of both the kinds of properties; cf. <i w<fr!!+r<i9l'l:, tI <Ffi<iT+l1~t ~+l~ ~ftCT l{fn M. Bh. on P. 1. 2.31; cf. also <:f+l<lcrl'l.. ';<Jfur: V.

. iifm in which the first pada consists of twelve syllables imd the rest of.. eight syllables. d. R. Fr. XVI. 33. ' ~ (a9~) substitute for the vowel a belonging to the Vikarar;ta "g, to roots and to the noun ~ under certain conditions; d. 3Tf"Ef ~;Tg~iit G91R:<i~<J~r

<:'lJTifI<l:: q(i:nt q~lt ~:; d. Kas. ( I) substitute for &r, ending of on P. VII. 2.34. the third pers. pIu., in the perfect tense and in the present te1Jse in ~ ( I) samprasarar;ta' vowel <!'i subthe case of the roots fc!<t. and ~. e.g. I. stituted for the "i. of Cfli!. under cer~: andaTls: d. P. III. 4.82-84; tain conditions e.g. ~:, cf. em- ~ ( 2) substitute ~a. (~) for f~ in P. VI. 4.132; (2) substitute 6i for. the potential and the benedictive ~ before certain affixes; e.g. ~er:, moods, as also after the aorist sign ~ ~<JT, '1J1r firer: etc. d. ~n: ~;Hm?f; and affer roots of the third conjuga-. 'Of P. VI. 4.19, 20. ' tion, roots ending in 8lf and the root fil<t., e.g. tf?r~: ~f!!: 8l<!iT~:, 8lf.r- ~ (I) long vowel i:!i which cannot be +l~: 31!:, 3Tfof~:, etc.; d. Kas. on III. combined by rules of samdhi with 4.108-lI2. (3) a technical term the following vowel when it comes of Jainendra standing for PaIJini's at the end of the forms 9f the dual 1J..; cpo Jain Suo I. 1.62. number; e.g. tll~ 3l"f etc.; cf. ~<t m:<J'<Fr :II"~~ P. I. I.II,aS also ~~ ~~ UQadi affix '3"!i. appliedot rota the "Ef tlH+<i~ 1. 1.19; (2) long vowel'iii> ~ to form :;r~; cf. :;r~ffi: Ur;t. sutra. substituted for the short ;:r of the 27 2 root m{ before an affix beginning , with a vowel e.g. fii'ltrfn; cf. ~q<n<if a-ftf that which should be taken out mtr: P. VI. 4.89. from a whole; cpo Vak. pad. III

14. 8 ;>.

substitution of the long vowiel iili; see M. Bh. on P. I. 1.12, VI. I.H5

long vowel vowel.

13i, i3"

being the short

3i~ marked with the mute indicatory letter iSi; d. ~~m<ifu'i.l!m~~m crf I
prescribing the ~ddi.tion 6f the augment It optionally in the case of e.ta;q: roots P. VII. 2.44.
i:hoi deficient, wanting; often 'in com-

P. VI. 4.77.
\S"q'a: also ~'fZ or G:3T2: a reputed Kasmi-




':3'+{~~1 expression of the sense by a

word in both ways, by denoting the gnus as also by denoting an individual object. cpo Yak. pad. III. 14.

~ the augment <:f affixed to the last

vowel of 9'<i.. by P. VII. 4.20; e. g.



rian scholar and writer who was the son of Vajrata. He wrote many learned commentaries, some of which are known as Bha$yas. Some of his important works are E-kpratiSakhyabha~ya, Vajasaneyi pratisakhyabha$y~, Vajasaneyisamhitabha$ya, Vedarthadipika etc.
~~ (af6I]',~) name of the second of

tad-pm ~, with udatta accent on the last vowel, affixed to the \ word ""er when it refers to protu- . berant teeth; d. P. V. 2.66; e. g. i

~:lt~ a class of words headed by

the word ~ to which t~e sarna- i santa affix <Ii (if,q,) is added, when.,] _~c.=ZYL20-26.

the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name :ll"jjf~~'il. The Usnik metre consists of 28 syllable's' divided into thre!; pttdas of 8, 8 and 12 syllables. It has got many varieties such as ~\af6U]{, ili~~ and others; for details see R. Pro

~<J fi!~~TN<!ir ~R~ R. Pr, XVII. I. . krt affix iifiili added to the root ;;rr~ to form the word ;;rr~; ct :;rT~: ~~1l~ f9~) a variety of the metre Brhati which has three padas of P. III. 2165. , twelve syllables each; d. S!<rt e:l~ fern. affix 6i prescribed after mascu., l!';l!T: til iVl:c1~~ f.t\l~ R. Pro XVI. 33. line nouns ending in the vowel 6i and denoting a human .being as also ~i~ a class of w;rds headed by the words <!'itT i3"~n etc. ending in the after some other specific masculine . taddhita affix ~'f, which are given bases; cf. 6i~: P. IV. 1.66 and the the designation ilfu provided they following sutras. e.g. !'f,~:, q~, .lII~, are related to a verbal activity, and ~~:, +li\0[1~: etc. ' as a result, which can be compoundid with krdanta words ending in . R" also agama 6i and i3" prescribed /1 after the roots q and '1 before the t<i1, !!~, etc. cf.; ~lj, i:!i~\'I~ etc. affix ~ or e.g. l:l<iem: ~t en . 'Ka~. on P. I; 4.6I.

augment 6i added to the 3T~<if8 or the reduplicative syllable of the root q~ which is doubled before the affix <Ii which is used instead of q ( EfST~ . <Ii: ); e.g. ~qG:.

pounds e.g. tff?Ji1, ~i1, Q;<iiti1; d. b~~: ~qE8<ft~<u~ R. Pc. VIII. 28; t1;1f,i!q'lTM-<!iT




tad. affix applied to the words emf and <if~ in the sense of ' unable to bear'; e.g. eml~:, <if~.i; see Kas .. on V.2.I22. aspiration letters, spirants called breathings also; the name is given to letters or sounds produced with unintonated breath through an open position of the mouth; ~!. W<lol'(liijll]l<I. M. Bh. on P. 1. 1.10 "\ art, 3. The word refers to the letters ~, "l:., <3'.., it, visarga. jihvamiiliya. upadhmiiniya and anusvara; cf. i3\5 lil tff~~iI 'Wrf qll]T i3\61Hll]: R. Pr. 1. 12; cf. also T. Pr. 1. 10. / where a visarga is changed into a breathing (6i~l1il). It .has got two varieties named o'lltf'a where the visarga is changed into a breathing as for instance in <{~~+r:, while it is called ~o ( passed over) }Vhere it remains unchanged as for instance in <I: ~~:. <I: tfli'.!; cf. R. Pr. IV. II.


the letter Off with its 18 varieties made up of the f$t'f. <{ter, to, and tilWlrR'liii varieties and characterized by the three accents. ':K and (ii are looked upon as cognate in Pal)ini's grammar and hence, ':K could be looked upon as possessed of 30 varieties including 12 varieties of (ii.

~i'li"'ll~ a class of words headed by OfflFFi' to which the taddhita affix a:jUf.. ( a:j) is affixed in the sense of 'produced therein' (o;:'f <iii:)" or , explanatory of' (q~ Q'H~<ir<'l:); d. !:F,ll<i~ +rtf:, !:F,<!<R<i Qc:j~ iiT 31T~<lVj: ql"fil!l~FI:, a1"'1'1f<l"~:, ~&:I: etc. Kas. on

the Vedic seers. For details see R. Pr. X VI. 1.5.


P. IV. 3 73.

taddhita affix a:jOJ:. in the sense of , descendant' applied to names of ancient sages, by the rule ~?l:jCfi 'ifEll]~<j"<i!l{ P. IV. I.II4; e. g. cnR'l3: , . ~.!f!IW."f:.


~1Sl=!'~~ name of a combination or ~~

'5R'if.;:;;r a 'work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 siitras. It covers the same topics as the Pratisakhya works and is looked upon as one of the PcatiSakhya works of the Sarna Veda. Its authorship is attributed to Sakatayana according to Nagesa, While atrf?:ij~ is held as its author by some, and ijjJ1'qI<!<'I by others. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pal)ini's A~tadhyayi especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of <3'.. and "l:. to "l:. and Uf.. respectively. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pal;lini's work.
~mffim~ one of the. PlatiMikhya works belonging to the Asvalayana Sakha of the :B.g Veda. The work available at present, appears to be not a very old one, possibly written a century or so after PaI,lini's time. It is possible that the work. which is available, i.s based upon a few ancient Pratisakhya works which are lost. Its authorship is attributed to Saunaka. The work is a metrical one and comists of three books or Adhyayas, each Adhyaya being made up of six Patalas or chapters. It is written. just as the other Platisakhya works, with a view to give directions for the properrecitation of the Veda. It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvata and another one by Kumara who is also called ViglUrnitra. See

~~m verse-pause equal to 3 matrakalas or three matra units. ct. ':Klieru+r: ~\lm w"lf~f<I<::r+r~13+rr<'ltf?:fq~i% f:lU+r: ~+rT* W:rl"f tJ;'fi+rTm'<l+rT;:'f an:1![;;~ll]



long variety of the vowel


T. Pr. XXII. 13. According to B-k. Tantra it consists of two matIaS.


short vowel Of., before which the preceding vowel is optionally left as it is, i.e. without coalescence and shortened also if long; ct. ~: P. VI. 1.128. possessed of short Of.; cf.

(roots) ending in SIt which have the vowel SIt changed into i{\ by the rule Sltff !i:;alaT: P. VII. 1.100; e.g.

fcf.'(m, Fliijfu.

~ short vowel


~<iTlll~~ P. VII. 4.90. Vatt.

i'i taken to be a cognate . of Off, and described ~s a vocalic form of the.letter~.



modification of a word. in a Veclic Mantra. so as to suit the context in which the mantra is to be utilised, generally by change of case affixes; adaptation of a mantra; d. Oij[:
1 if





1 ~ 'q 319~4" <j~ll~hT <I:q'(<!:,.f f9q!tll]if~l]r: I M. Bh. on P. 1.1.


~q: possessed of the mute indicatory letter ':K, signifying in the Grammar of Pal;tini the prevention of the ~hortenjng of the long vowel in the reduplicated sylJable of t.he Causal Aorist form of roots which are marked with it; e. g. OI11ffi(i 3TCf911iRl:,~ \'fj<j<il'i:lt(.. etc. d. ifl~TNm~~~ P. VII. 4.2.

~re:q: (roots) marked with the mute indicatory letter (ii, which take the substitute31- ( a:j~) for ~, tbe Vikar al).a of the aorist; e. g. aT'Iml, a]'1~ . cf. 9;ql~!;lql~~~i1: .q.~tr~~ P. III. 1.55

q; diphthong vowel


~ a class of words headed by the

word<f to which the taddbita .affix iii is added in the four senses prescribed in the rules IV. 2.67-7 0 ; e.g.<!iii:, r<lWl:liii: etc. d. P. IV. 2.80.

'5R' fourth vowel in Par;tini's alphabet; possessed of long and protracted varieties and looked upon as cognate ( Biio1) with (ii which has no long type in th.e grammar of Fal).ini; cf. R. Pro 1. 9; V. Pr. VIII. 3. ( 2) uI,ladi suffix ':K applied to the .,root ~ to form the word ~~;e.g. Bli~BT e B1:CN: ; cf. B~ ~~f.~B Ur;t Sft. II.
, ;!OX.

sp,;fiit""<lI"~~ the metre of the Vedic seers. T~e seven metres-llTC{S]1, ;;nEl1l11, ~~g,({.
~, q~Rn, f<!~({. and

"l'RIT consisting respectively of 24. 28, 32, 36, 4 0 , 44 and 48 syllables are named *ffl"g~a:. as contrasted with the metres ~, 3Tr;;nt:{i:'! and ;jf[~~, which, when com-I bined together. make the metres of

t-: made up of 01 and l{, and hence having ~~<T as its place of origin. It has no short form according to Pal).ini. In cases where a short vowel as a substitute is prescribed for it in grammar, the vowel ~ is looked upon as its short form. Patafijali in his lVIababha.!?ya has observed that followers of the Satyamugri and RilQayaniya branches of the Samaveda have short tJ; (It) in their Samaveda recital and has given ~~ OI.!f!ti'!6'. af,,'i<IT ~: ~ as illustrations; cf. M. Bh. on I. 1.48 ;


in a part '0 statedbriefiy as ~~ ~Ilq~'iq, Pari. 8ek. Pari. 37. The maxim is given in all the different schools of grammar; d. Sak. Pari. I7; Candra Pari. IS, Kat. Par. Vr. I, Jain. Par. Vr. II, Hem. Pari. 7 . etc. . short vowel which measures one r.n~tra, or mora; cf. T1:~~ $~: S<l,101'Uf<'! :q I Alh. Pro 1.60. .. !l1entary on. R. Pro X. 2; cf. also V. Pro IV.. 144-145 where T<:'fi<ioJ is defined as 1;(1j)>TllCi'!f.;~<t capable of being produced with 'a singleefi'ort. P1iI}ini gives the term a''i'fa to an affix made :up., of one single letter;. cf. a{'f<ffl t(~~ J:f&<i: P. I. 2,{I.

( I) Singular number, ekavacana; cf. ~ ;:ir if +r&:~ ~iI~. V.Pr . II. 3; the term is found. used in this sense of singular number in the Jainendra, Sakatayana and Haima grammars; ( 2) single (vowel) substitute (1;(~~:=rr) for two (vowels); cf. tl;1ii: ,!::fq~~: P. VI. I.E'4; a:r~1ii1!if T. Pro X. 1; (3) many, a certain number; (used in pl. in this sens.e), cf. ~ ~ If"r<Rr M. Bh. on P. I. 4 2r

~~, consent to a part of the

whole, . admission of one part as correet.

,%:i)~ transitive verbs having one

object, as contrasted with fa;n;r91; cf. Kiitantra IV. 6. 62.
'%ffi~ possessed of one verb; given

one and the same individual substance; cf. the words ~'fii\oiJwr 91P-!cCf M. Bh. on P. -1. 4.23, ~ S\a~f<l\:jFr on P. VnL I.5!, ll;'fii\O<lrqfu~~rfr given, as a definition of mtr M. Bh.on P. 1. 4.1. made up of one word; consisting of one word; cf . a:r<r91 w~itiq<l,1~

as a definition of a sentence; cf. P. II. I. I. Vart. IO, explained by Patafijali as tJ;'fi~ 'iT'f~~;fr +T'lcftfu ,
ilI ...


'imo!i~ I

W~re: I ."

tlj<p:n~rRr I

a:rc~ 'i~<l~: I a:rq


~~<jfu 91~


M. Bh. first

~fci~ in the same direction, given as the sense of thetad. affix m:{ by Pal)ini; cf. ~~1iifu.~ I crfu~ I P. IV. 3. II2, II3.


a part or a portIon of the whole; cf. 1;(1j)~~fqii'j1l<F~'iq: Pari-Sek. Pari. 37 ;alsd M. Bh. 8iva-Siitra2 Vart. 4; 1;(1j)~~!1'i-5~ M. Bh. on P. VI. 1 . 93 Val t . 5; cf. also ~1ii~~T<if?r ffi~ ~ R. Pro IX. 10.

Ahnika; ( 2) a continuous word paraphrased as angU$q;'{ and ~111'1'R by commentators; cf. ij-<iI<!r(Rf eniij'fi~q, V. Pro II. 18; (3) every individual word: cf. ~q. ijiqa m:~'fi. WRr R.~~ R. Pro XI. 18.

made up of a single word; d.

OTcl'Rr ~cr~'fift:lf'af?r . 1;('fi'iu1 ~ t!;CfiW ~ tJ;'fifr 'l.'t!imfu 1M. Bh. on P. I. 1.21 Vart. 5; (2) made up of one
foot (:q~tr! or tfT<{); d. 11;1ii l;('fiq~~o ( R. Pr. X VII. 24) explained by the commentator as ~qt ~r l:rl'lJ<iT~~lc!Jii'{t tJ;'fi:1:fT~: <i~T: tiT tJ;1iitf~1 ~

~q;~~~ (a thing or a 5ub::1tance) composed of parts; cf. the term tJ;~~~. tlBT6 Or l;('fi~Iffi~q, used in connection with compounds of words such as ~, q~ and others with' words showing the constituted whole ( tJ;~~fu'i.) prescribed by the rule 'i<iqU'<lU~~'tm~1iil~~ P. i1. 2. I ; ( 2 I a partisan; cf. the word m;&T~~cmr~'i.. used often by commentators.

~'C~5" I



combined together; cf. R. Pro . com. l;('fiql~: ll;cfi'rlim:~ a:r~~<i.;niT ~'l' +rT'fft'l~; R. Pr. XI. 25 also XVII. 20.

~+l1fCf'1:: (vowels) combined by rules of Sarhdhi; cf. ~ll'<j~'fi~T~if(~ R. Pr.

~<f~~ the maxim

that a thing, is called or taken as that very thing although it is lacking


22. .


(I) possessed of ope matra or mora; ( 2) a term used for a

q.tli~~o/q1 a view or doctrine propound'ed by Qne o~:the many ancient sages or muhis who'are believed to be'the . f,oundei~ a' Sastra; a view propounded orJy by PaI}ini~ to the . ~~. an ~xpressiori giving one idea, either a single or a composite one. exdJiision on(atyiyana and Patafi A positive'statement and itsnegaiali; d. TJ;'fi!if.lW~ ~:qr t~um~~.l{fu' tioD, so also. a general rule arid its <nir ~~;;<j, :;;ijciRircrfel+!T'ifSil'ijiy Durexception are looked upon aSlllakghata-Vrtti I. 1.5; see also 1. 4.~t. ing a single sentence on account of II. 3.18. . . their mutual expectancy - even though they be sometimes detached tt~ij (I) cornbination of two Siitras . into one; d. ~1:jCfrQ,1ii<ITrr: 1iiRell~ 'Af.l;u~ from each other; cf.feI~~"fITf ~5:'iJi 'Iliff{ mRr M. Bh. on III. 4.67; ct. . ~~~1l1 ;r1ffM. Bh P. 1. ! 3. I. 4.59. also fuq~'iTifCjlilTmtr Aql:"2jfq~"II<!i~~t'iT V. 2.25; (2 ) one and the same ~.'fi'il'flja'i!'i :>Tfc{: I G~ql9'Cjm. q~ Siltra; cf. Q;1ii<U~f.'iffl:milt ~i[ 'iT l1ir~: ~~ <jlf;:,1[I~: Pari. 8tk. Pari. 17; d. also ~"II~ii'{ ! ~ijl~l<til\i1 'fiT~lJiR~q~ ". 'l~"I10 'F-I1~<U'<l': I Par. Sek. on Pari. 3. Such T1,lfiej)ilf.lReT<lT~t~<rn::Ul!!~~<ifer P. I V. sentences art', in fact, two sent1.27. Vart. 2, Pari Se!,;. P~ri. 39. ences, but, to !!ovoid the fault of qT~, caused by qT'I'li'l;:;:, grammarians ~~T~~ cparacterized by i.e. m~n~ hold them to be CQttlpGsite single tioned in one and tbesame 'rule; cf. sentences. ~~iT<r.!\JtiT g~,th'i(?r M. Bh. OD P. I. ,I,(2: Vart. 10. - See also M. Eh. on ~~~ a padahaving the same case P. VI. L37. in the various dissolutions of the compound word; e.g. the word ~~ singular; affix of the ttr~lr.ft in the compound word - sil gular number in PiiI}Tn~s' gramfqr.f.t~rfnr:, which stands only in the mar applied 10 noun',bases (SlIP.itf~!t) I aolativecase ifJ~l=lT:, although the and roots when the sense of the word fuE;fiFa, which stands for the singular number is to be conveyed' I, ; word f.:m:, could be used in many the singular Sf'flSe can be of the I cases:. The word f<i<!crr-l'+lm i's aJso form of an individual or collection used in the same sense. or ge~us. The word I'l.'fiq"iii'{ in t~e i ~echD1caI seme of singular number I ~ single vrtti Or gloss on fhe ~ 18 fou?d. used in the PratiSa.khyas,1 Vedic as well as classical portions and Nlrukta also. J I of grammar. Puru$ot.tamadeva has , I used this term in his Bba~avrt'ti to ~~ or "ttiji'HH"I u:;e or treatment of I the plural sense as if it is singUlar; contrast his Vrtti (<IT''Il~) with the K1i.Sikavrtfi and the Bhagavrtti d. t(lfiqw<i1S<i~: I wrmi:1ii~qli'f: M. Bh. which deal with both the portions; on II. 4.12. Vart. 5. cf~ J1<lftt ItE:q1ii'fij~~' Bhii~a vrtti ~tfi~ol. (a pad a ) made 1:1P of a single on 1. 1.161 ct. also Bha;;avrtti OD III. _ letter;:cf. tt'll<fOi ~ eff Ii f{fcr; 'C.Op;\o 4.99, IV. 3~2:a and VI. 3.20. lI;if.l!f'6 1J 7



is possibly med by Puru~ottama -deva in the sense of ~t!% or~ fl~ i.e. the ,comma;; chief gloss on I both the portions. .

(for ~ 'q 3lt "l), ~ (for e 'q <fl( ) and m<r: fern. <If'"IT fern. Il'JIIT: masc. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females. Pii~ini has devoted 10 Siitras to this topic of Ekase~a. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. Patafijali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic. Some critics hold that the topic of t{~"Ef did not exist in the priginal A~tadhyayi of PalJini but it was interpolated later on, and adduce the long discussion in the Mahiibha$ya especially' the Piirvapak1?a therein, in support of their argument. Whatever the cas.e be, the Varttikakara haR commented upon it at length; hencl'l, the addition have been made immediately after Panini, if at all there was any. For details see l\Iababha~ya on I. 1.64 to 73 as aiso, Introduction p. 166-167, Vol, 7 of the l\!ahiibhaSYil published by the D. E. SOciety: Poona. the continuous utterance of Vedic ~ a single substitute in th!;l. pl,ace of two original units; e.g. ttJh the sentences; cf. ttq;;f('r ~T~ and the place of or and ~, or, afT in. the place foil. P. i. 2.33-40 and the ]\'Iabaof ar and \3'. The. adeSas or .,sIlPstibhii!;ya thereon. In his discussion tutes named ~~q al:)d q~q- are on I. 2.33 Patafijall has given three I09ked upon as ekadesas in paI}.ini's alternative vi6WS about, the accent grammar althuugh instead of them; of Ekasruti sylJables: (a) they the omission of the latter and former possess an accelit between the ~re vowels respectively, is prescribed ( acute) and 3l~!{Rf (grave), (b) in some Pratisakhya works., ~UJ and they are in the same accent as is tf are sometimes single substitutes possessed by the preceding vowel, .for single originals, whi,le, they are (c) Ekasruti is looked Llpon as sometimes ekadesas for two original the seventh of the seven accents; vowels e.g. q~"\., liiilr;::;;:, ~f:9", d. ~ITT ~+~I!i~re~.rc~ltC!i5m ~Rr, ifi~, {ft;r.-o: etc; see P. VI. V:ffn~ ft!<{~ I ...~R ~u W-fRr I ~:, I.87 to III, ct. also A. Pro II. 3. 6 ~ff{:, am~:, 8l~<iaO\~, .~fto: ~ft~ ~ ~'ij: ~~<r fernie:, u;~ffi: q"lii~IECt{ an accent prescribed for tlR+r: I M. Bh. on P. T. 233 the singie substitute,_ as, for instTfi~{


a word having one seDse only, as opposed to e:r~ many words having the ~ame sense or synonyms which. are given in f.l~ as also in



il~Nff.r ~f.r.

ffii<lffi~rne<ff1T; Nir. I V. I.

~~ a kind of composit~ formation

1n which only One of tbe two or more words compounded together subsists, the others being elided; cf. ~; ~eil~ ~ f.1'1~~ ll&lll:1 'l&lll:1 W I IG'i si ka on tl~r:nU]rij~tf t{'f.fct<rmf P. I. 2.64; cf. also e~qe!!?.14JiU fq+!~f ~'cfi'<{~ I t('fi~r~ fti;a: ti'!J'PlR<!
'IT''lifi: II tfl1F![~f<it 'q f+r~~IU]f 'iCJ~'fi


;UrTI 'I'mC<T: I 9'f.~~ ~~~ ~~.~it 9.f I Bhasavrtti on P. I. 2.64. There is a di,ctum of grammarians that every individual object requires a sep~rate expression to. convey its presence. Hence, when tbere i~ a dual ~ense, the wOld has to be re- Q}f;~qr.\~~ statement by subsistence of peated, as also the word has to be one word out of many. The phrase n1 ultiplied v.. hen there is a plural -is very often used in the Maba. sens~. In current spoken language, bh'i~ya where the omission of an hQwever, in such cases the word is individual thing is explained by med only Ol]ce. To justify this saying that the expression used is SIngle 'utterance for conveying the a composfte . one including the seme of piurality, Pa1)ini has laid omitted thing along with the thing omvn a general rule tI~,qI'JII~"f~t:j t('fialready expressed; cf. t{iii;U!iff<!~iBf~ I fi+r:ffir and many other. similar rules I' tl'IT<tTf.r 'q tl 9f;,{Tf.r "l ti'9T<tlFi I M. Eh. '(0 cover cases of plurality not of on I. 1.27, on I. 1.59, I. 2.39. as ene and the same object, but plural- , alsoon 1. 3.I Viirt. 5, 1. 4.I01. Vart. liy caused by many objects, such 3, II. 1.1. VaTt. 19 etc. as pituality caused by ideas going in pairs or relatiolls such as parents, .~~ that which has got the same brothers and Eisters, grand-father accent or tone; utterance in the aDd grand-soD, male and female. same tone; monotone. The word is For example, see the words 'l&llfU, ll&lll:1 applied to the utterance of the voca'l~r; similarly ~&lr: for many trees, tive noun or phrase caUing a man from a distance, as also to that of fq-~[ for +miT 'q fCrm"l; ~r for i:1;<ft 'q the vowels or syllables following a ~q~5 ct. also t~e words iq~, "i!1cRr, . ifl;r~r (for ifiiq and ilTicriiljU]), ~ Svarita vowel in the Samhita i.e.

possessed oi one vowel, monosyllabic; a term used by Hemacandra in his grammar for the term t{1f.l"l:{, of paI}.ini; cf. 3-Tl~~ U;~9~ Hem. IV. !.2, which means the same as t1;'f.T~~ ~~lHl! P. V 1. I. r. the beginning; cf. TJ;1f.{6I~ ~~s~\t<jl"\. P. VI. 359 two single consonants; e.g. vowel or in tI"l.., ,,"\.) ...~, etc. the \


ance, by rules like \3'lU~9Ro~~lJj: and the following rults P. VI. 2.4, 5 and 6.


q;tii!!.~IR\ having a single consonant at


~~ (a vowel ) placed between

I -Lv

part, portion. Augments or Agamas in the Vyakarana Sastra are _Joked upon as forming" a part of the word to which they are attached; d. e:r5!f <i~ :amF~<!~, foii ~ Q't<J tt<!iifflf +!'Ita O!M~~iii[iCf: I ".l(iilrct({\m~ll:q: I M. Bb. on I. 3.9, Vart. 9; d. also ttiiiTfflT: Par. Sek Pari. 5. separated or intervened by one single thing, a letter or a word; e.g. ~f4'~m ~9?.~, where ~e:=a fellows <lfl~ with one word q"lRt intervening; cf. a.;Tli t;'fiJiO<:l1T~frsRn:!<1fra% P. VIII. I.55. the letter ttj looked upon as a diphthong (~~~\) made up of the letters or and. i{. The combination of the two constituent parts is so complete as cannot allow any of the two parts to be independently working for sarildhi or any other operation with its adjoining letter; d. qro<!qii~<J arq~~ ~~\ff i\~M. Eh. Siva Siitra ~ Vart. 9.


consisting of one single syllable; e.g.. ~, ~, ql"<l,. etc.; cf. tJ;iiiT~"m;a) ~,ij-: ~8"!lt "l qUT ~~ 1\1. Bh. on P. V. 2.IJ:5, as also on VI. 1.168, VI. 4.16I. possessed of a single vowe1~ monosyllabic; cf. ~I'<it ~ ~~~~ P. VI. 1.1.

't'<tIl...-qIi{ name given by Siradeva and other grammarians to the first pada of the sixth adhyaya of PaJ;lini's Al?tadhyayi, as it begins WIth the


~ f{ ~



~~ (I) possessed oIone sense' as contrasted wi til, <i~~,m<T etc~ (2), synonym, d.ifit<iT W~l "Cfc!if~fll<if;ff I, I
Rh. on I. 2.45Vart. 9; ('3') possess:d of Cl composite sense; d. tun?!' S,,"i:tf>l~t~ III. 13h. on II. I.I Yurt i. The words Q;'lilllq and "Cfc!iflkr derived from the word U;ilil~ are often found used in the 'sense of possession of a composite sense ' U;iiil<T~!j' 1If.i: ~1~oT, 'i);<fir~4 tt<:Iil.;r(~ 'IT; d. ~JiTB~!j'1iT~(~T~g~T~J a.rqmfu: nr. mi. all' P; L2~4z viirt. ~; cf.also the: word ~iiiJ~~Jq; (4) potent, to 'be connect~d;~qtt; cf. 1)l1:.ffIl'T t;1l'ilt<'i;r: ( z::I0!;:<i~) 'C. Vy.'IL 2.X: ( 5) analogous ~ljI<l'r~{I1J: cf.,'t;/fiN
I 'V:'Ii:
ff"i~T ~~: ~iIi: ~~(Cl; .tI{~{: 1 ~L

krit Grammar wlii>flomi.:ihedin the

I9 th cenbjry and ~'ho e~ited the .iGitantra'Vyakar~I)a with the commentary' of Dutgasitilha and many 'appendices in 1876 as_ also the GalJaratnamah?dadhi' ." "'~; :Jha.mana.
~ a brief term,'( SI'&mIH) for the two diphthong letters "l:( .. and aU; d.

'<r~~: IGis. on P. IV.

d. a1so <r.{lit~ Cf~: I ~~: M,Bh. on'P. IV. 2. 104.

2. I04;

I ~ totad. affixfound inthe senseLiterature ~in of unable beC!,r, Vedic

only; e.g. mila: ct. rn'il~ff~m'l?:j: I. P. V. 2,122 Vart. 7.

t?:Ei:q: marked' by the mute indica tory

'lettert;. Roots marked witt indi, catory t; do not ~allow 'if;[ for their '.vowel in the aorist;, e. g~ a.r{<i'm,. a:r6~; d. P. VII. 2.5.
~F.:r tad. affix t;I~ applied to' the


tl;~~!!~:P., VI. I.69,!;(~: lj':{Fap.'\fff

1.109. etc. '

~ a:,sho~t, ter~(.~~i{ ') ,in Paoini's

" graminar'st~i{~ing 'for diphthongs or lett~I:'S Q;',ti- aIT.aTr; e.g." P;~~i:jT<!Tq: P. Vlt \7 8 , !;l,;:;.:j';~ll.. t5~,'IT~ P. 1. 1,48. [Edgerton,'Di.'; Franklin] an American Sanskrit scholar and ,author of' BuddhIst Hybrid S~ns ,'krit Grammar and Dictionary. ' the voice is indistinct, and the \vord pronounced is not distinctly heard; d. t1;ttitti:;:dl'f<t~!!: I fofj+r~l=/l'liH:: ar~1';;R 'll:m~::r fu: Pradipa On fi1. Eh.'r. LI, expiained' as 3!'f<l~Il!!: ~~!: ~W'if: da- ' ~Ti:jq: by'Nagesa in his Uddyota.,
~ tad. affix Q;'~ applied to the word lil", in the general ~iit'fi senses; d. !1'"l~ ~0ll': I f!lt~:iij~T[I1S: Kas. on P. IV3.I7

pronoun q~ when the word refers to a day; d. qd~Ii'ar[firqt~&t Kas. on

q;;:r {I )a.'p'article in the sense of re". gUlation (fir'll'! ); cr. t;ij'efil~: fet+r~; fiI<im~: M. Bh. on' V. 3~58;' ( 2 ) ,det~rminant indeclinable; ct. I.l;ij ~~<i~r; cf .~!!~ij~{u]T~~ 1 , <j~ f<I~~cr 1. <;rln"U!J1J]9;;i~f~~fuM. Bh. on V.35 8.

P. V.


:q~r~ ~ll'ri1JN-'li~~ Hem. Vy. III.

1.22;cf. alsQ"t;'!if~ "l' I ,Sak. II. r.4.

'tfI~=fi ,~

~m,,: a.r~: 6i~'ii\uj



tad. affi.x ~applied' to the pronouns l(Cf, ar;;l.f;' a:r;:ljo{, '~ff{, a.rq{, "filt; \3'~ahd ;;J'tT{ when the words so formed referto'a day; e. g. 'I.~~:, a:rnr!: etc.; d. P. V. 3.22:

'lr':lIa<.J~q l{~ t;'1~Hiii\I1J~~ !1<U;;jii~O M. Eh. on P. III. 4.24.

me of the word !J;i:j ; d. iH'fiO!.

tt~{ i)'the 'substitute ~ fo~ the perfect affix 0, sul;>stituted for the -virhole
cr by reason of .the indicatory letter

~~f+lT<i un10n of meanings; bne of

the , t~vo ways in which ,the-'word tllli~ is e~plained; d. !;('iiI\'-I1mcit in \?IF('C<jif~r <iT 1M. Bh. on II.

~a' A fault in, pronundation when

q;'olT'<t tad. affix t;'iT substitq.ted for the tad. affix 'iff optionally, when appli'ed to the words fit and fs! e. g. ~l:1r, l'ifT,~, fsI'ifT, ~'ifl, ~~; d. Kus. on

~ at~~c::hed to t;; cf. f~;r@~~~~~,

~ possessed of 'one single phonetic element or letter; ~f. a.r'l'ffi !;("lil<i 1I~!j': P. I. 2.4I. -

P. V. 3.40.

and3i~~~He~~;q P. III. 4.8r and I. 1.55; (2) affix 'I;(' applied'to the' root ~&l. in Vedic' Literatrire'; , d. <lr<i';;r~ I <l'19<F!Tcre;qfli?l~: Ka5. on P.

III. 4.15.
~~mcessary tobe sought; necessary to be prescribed; cf. ~HHI;;<a~ft;~. ~U]' ift~fita'o<rr M. Eh. on 1. 1.3. Vart. 8.

~~ fusion, mixture, union, combination (of 2 or mure letters); cf. ~~qfcr u;;:fihr~ '3""iI~ tl""<jo!~.H~, R. Pr. III. II. ~'hlT'i is said to he resulting from the coalescence called iSl'fuf.!~o tlF'if, ct. R. Pro II. 16, 17.

~" the vowel t;; P.I. J.r.:r! '


fi~~,~ ~

Some scholars. This word is used !(~iiW limitation 'of the kind; "such and such J (words etc.); It limits a by Katyayana seven times, at the word to a particular passage; cpo end oIhis Vartikas. Pataiijali while ~~ :ti[tr(~crTq~ql~ I <t~ff'fir qcofu commenting on them supplies I{~Rr Q;q;nfit~ 11Ji +i''lRr arm <If;:<:Jl!JT I C~m. on 'they maintain'. By this expression Ath. ha. II. 28. cf. A. Pro I. Kfltyayana wished to point out that the particular rule of PaQini ~ the substitution of'!;l,;; cf. lif~i:J;'f may be regarded as optional. cpo ~ ( P. VII. 3. r03) ita' Q:~~ SHrum Vartikas on Pa. I.2.38, II. 1..1; etc. M.Bh. on P; V. 3. 10 . ~ (Eggeling Julius) a well-known ~ tad. affix applied to the indecliGerman-scholar of Veda and Sansnable ~{; e. g. ~<j: ~: I cf. ~:

q;<rli tad. affix t;<l' applied to \3''e\:, a:r'if{, " and ~11J optionally instead of the 'tad. 'affix 3HVr in the senses of ~~, ~:u and 9i~, e. g. '3'Utur, <Rlw: <Rl\'Rl:.. Words with thisQ;'<l' at the end govern the, ace. case of the word syntactically connected with them. e. g. ffSlfrnt 'if.,qfcnJ~[il. ~tl1J Kalidasa : Megpadiita;cf. Q;'<{QI f~~r P.II. 3.3I.


~ a term used in the Jainendra Vya-

diphthong vowel1l:; composite form of a:rr and t;, also terIQed i[~ in PalJini's grammar.

karal}a for the- term ~01 of Paoini standing for the vowels ar, ll; and ail; cf. Jain. Suo I. 1.16 ;s{~<1{ tl;l( I
q;qi ending added to the consonant <:

~CjS' given in the group of ekapadas or solitarily stated words as contrasted with anekapadas or synonyms. See l1;i!iTR above.

when a mention of it is to be made; , cL T. Pro I. 19; e. g. tl:fi:. '

~tra treatment as one single word

especially found in the case of com'pound words (tllO!rm'1iq~) which, as a re~!Ult of such treatment, have only one accent (acute), and on'e case affix after the whole word; ct.
~ ~qfi\' ~~~'1 m~O!~q'ii:<mIi~.

't~ (I) krt. affix ~Ii~ e. g. '~ lil~T:' cf. P. Ill. 1.96 Vart. I; (2)
UQ.adi affix t;~Ii, applied to q'i( d. 1:f"l11;~, UQ. S. IV. 37.

iliq~~~~Fct~ :q M. Bh. on P.

to have" been written under instructions of Indra. The work is not available. Patafijali mentions that Brhaspati inl\tructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and stili did not finish his' instructions in words '; (!If. Bh. r. 1:. I). Tbe Taittidya Saruhitii. mentions the same. Pal)ini has referred to Eonle ancient grammarians of the East by tlle word IH'ifI:J( witho';1t mentioning their na mes, and' scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the ""ord m"ll"l{.: The Brhatkathamafijal i remarks that Pal)ini's . grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Some scholars believe that Kalapa grammar whiCh is available today is based upon Aindra J just as Candra is based upon Pal)ini's grammar. References to Aindra Grammar are found "in the commentary on the Siirasvataprakriya in the Kavj!.~alpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahabharata by Devabodha. 'Quotations, although very few, are given by some writers from the \vork. Akalanka in his Tattvartharajavartika I 5 quotes an Aindrct siitra. All these facts prove that there was an ancient prePiiQinian treatise on' Grammar assigned to' ~ which was called Aindra-Vyakarana, For details see Dr. Burnell's I Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol. VII pages 1 24-126 of Vyakarana l\Iahabba~ya. edited by the D. E. SoCiety. Poona. to form the word ~i cf. :;:p.:ifirnJ
1!;\~ ~

I ~~: ~1il;,; {if: {<l'!fil;, Si.


I.29. See t;iilr~.

P. IV. 1.128.

Rau. on P. VIII. 2.45.

i.t~~~ possession of the sam~ tone or accent; uniformity of tone or

accent. See the word t;ii3P.r above; also see P. 1. 2.39 vat-t. XJ 2: VIII. 1.55 Viht. ,I.

Tl<ii1~ a class of words headed by

~( [Gustav Oppert 1836-1908] a.

German scholar of Sanskrit '.'vbo edited the Sabdiinusasana of Siikatayana.

ttcs~ hav19g ollly one principal accent (Udatta' or Svarita) for the whole compound word ,which is made up of two or more individual words; d. :\1. lib. on P. 1. 1.29.

'" the word ~ to which the taddhita affix mn is added in the sense of place of residence ; e.g. ~ +r'ffi"l{. ; ~li1\l<itlj<=rE!o~ ; cf. K as. on P. IV. 2.54. substitute for the case affix ft:rfJ: 'after words ending in "31; d. file ~. P. VII. 1.9 to II.

winJ. See alt<iif\ above- ..n~




con~ists of matras, cf. <ij~'HSI ~ Jl9~ T. ~ ... Pr. t8.1; lm.n~~ says that a'il~ has anyone of the thlee accents, while ~ says it has >r~<l t!;~~g i.e. absence of any accent.


~~ possession of a single composite s~i:lse (by all words together in a compound); d. ~~mr~ f!;ifilt;l!fu.~if<=rl<1r iiO'Jm, M. Bh. on I. 2.45 Vart IO; cf. also M.Bh. on 11. 2.29 Vart. 7; ct. also 0i\l1 ;n~<fi~ll:q e~n~ 'f~~ Hem. III. I.18 where the commentator explains ~iiTt:4 as t;'lil~l<=rT9: In the com. on Hem. III. 2.8 'ttiir~~ is axplained as ~q~.
~, short te,rrI1 (!;re~lm:)' standing for the two diphthong vowels V: and afr; d. ~ <;~r-:l!t li".iRiI~t tt:lt g QI~l!l~, P. VII. 3.4; cf. i'!:~~iRn:~lI~re:. M~ Eh. On P. 1. r.48. The short substitdes of ~ and are land \3' when prescribed; cf.' P. 1: r.48; so also the protracted forms of Q: and air are protracted l{ and '3"; ct. P. III. 2.I06. They are called fr;:{Cl~ vowels in the :ttk. P'riHisakhya. Sakittayana says they are ~>lI~.

Wt(iffi a scholar of grammar of the


(I) diphthong vowel made up of the vowels or and '3", termed as gUI)a in P1i!)iniJ s grammar and prescribed sometimes in the place of the vowel <l"; (2) affix iir applied to the root <Ft or '11 to form a noun; ct. alr'tlU ' <'I1>lii\l11: Nir. II. 5.

nineteenth century who wrote a Vrtti on P~iJ.Jini siitras called lirf"lffl~'Ii'lf~. He has written many works on tht! Piirvamitlllirllsa. and other Sastras.



the syllable arr called by the term >tI1Jij and generally recited at the beginning of Vedic works. Pataiijali has commented upon the word briefly as follows; ~~ en aN~~~
'iT :::(iZi!~!!~~ 1:f<n1!l~~"f~Cf ;;lTI~ j~i1fJ!~ f'll'I'l1'l!':Wnlt 'n fil~fu ~ >l1l1"i ~<jl~~a- 1\1. Bh. on VIlI. 2.89.

lit. lip; the place of origin (~T") . of the labial letters called ~tplmrfi<l iflf! i.e. the vowels '3', Q;; the consonants fl., 'ii, <1.., ~, "l and Hie ~q'111<tt<1 letter ; ct. 6il(q~rOil~gr Sid. Kau. on ~ljl<:ijs{lIM ti'loi'l,. P.I. 1.9, also
;;qr-rrqlUlT ~B

V. Pro T.



mwr lit. produced upon the lip; a letter of the labial class; letters alr, an, q" ~, i(., ~ if. and It. are given
'3", ffi,


~ the vowel

:m; ct. :ma. P. I. 1.15, 16

as ~Sij letters in the

~ the vowel Q;; cf. ~Q~~~ M. Bh. on P; III. 4.93.

~ the substitution of it for t!Z by the rule lUi Q; prescribing the substitution of the' vowel Q,:' for ~ in the case of the imperative first person terminations; ct. P. II!. 4.93.




a term used in the J ainendra Grammar instead. of the term i[~ of Pal}ini Which stands for err, i}; and cf. P. I. I,I.


for Nipatas like and others with a view that t.he vowel at their end should not coalesce with the following, vowel. The PIa tiSiikhya works prohibit the coalescence ofalr in ~' the case affix the loe. dual. many cases with the succeeding vowe.l; cf. R. Pr. 1.70 ; V. Pro I.94-

pre~cribing ~~~


Rk J'r1itiSakbya, d. R. Pro 1. 20. See the word arrliJ above. For the utterance of the letter Il, tips of the teth are also employed; hence the letter et is said to have ~ as its ';~R.

affi:i, of the gen. and

.m~ marked with the

name of an ancient school of grammar and of tl)e treatise also, 1?eJ,onging 'to that school, belisved

~~' taddhita affix ~ applied to the word 'tWiii in the sense of offsprin~

indicatory ietter roots marked with. the mute letter alr have the Nj~tha affix (j or Q9Q changed to ~ or OiCftr,; e.g. ~:, ~:i1wr.; <tr.,:, <tr<l'!~ etc. ct. alt~lll P. VIIr. 2.45; d. also ~ err!&:6"~:


~r (!) the vowel elf; diphthong vowel

made up of arT and aU; (2) the substitute for the final letter '3" of the word ~ before the fern. affix ~; ct. ; qfi iiil1tfi, *liitlft, mI: Kiis. on


P. IV. 1.38; (3 ) case ending of the ~om. lind acc~ dual called _~ also.
fll'iil'llT crfa"f<J~r il snarffi M. Bh. on IV. 2,66. " , ~ an ancient sage and _scholar of Vedic Grammar who is believed to ha ve revised the original text of the *,~!nf~r~n~<! oj t. eSarna-Veda. d. Sab. Kails. 1._ I. t.


~~W!q; subsequently stated _by way . of addition or - modification as done by the V5.rttikakaras; d.
;;lrqf~<Jff.r'iit<j Ol~[q<lP::: I ;;;:n:r.Olj'iif '~<J:



a' term u~d' by ancient grammarian5--i6~ the affiiarr of the- nom. and the acc'-d~'al: Thevo\v~i f(m) is substituted for ~(iri"thecase of nouns of the feminine and neuter gender~ ;_cf. ~: 1.18,19_

Kas. cnP. IV. 2. IL9; d. -also IGiS, , on V. I.Z9 and VI. 3.4L

mp. VIr.

~"'it$lHI4U( an ancient

anR~ propriety,wilich is one of the

factors to decide the sense of a word in doubtful cases. cp._ Yak. pad. II. 314, 3 16 .

a.T~ the caseendingotr of the ace. dual; d. P. IV. 1.2.

sage whose doctrine oHhe permanence of words in the sense is seen quoted -in the Nirukta, 1. i. "~~ilf.l~ cr"'f<!lll5;;q"U<JOll, I cpo also CfFi<Jt<J ~r f<!~<Jt:r ... crmt ~T~qU<JrJ]T I Vak. pad. II. 343 and Svopajfia on it. It refers to the origin of the Sphota doctrine.


(Aufrecht, Theodore) a German scholar and compiler of Cata40gus Catalogorum. He edited Ul)adisiitras,

ill~ an affix

~ enumerated; actuaIIy stated; mentioned in the ~~o: ~ ~i~~Of,'Il: cf. <! g :iir~&1'!ifi'tq class of affixes called ~Tfu: in treatises Nir.1. 4. of paI).ini and othH grammarians; ! ~1~ resulting from "3'lf"'fn: or ~; cf. ;:rgRr: Iff~UuIIre:<!i: f.!;q~<J: IGis. o'n i metonymical. _
P. VI.'3.7S; fits~r 3tlon~r ~
M. Bh. on Siva' Siitra word a-OlT~ above.

See the

~~ mentioned in the original

statement; cr. 3fr Oi:!i[ll'r ~[qi.tfu'iir~'f. I IGis. on 6!J]lmf F-j~ P. 1. 1.24; d. also :m~~CjiJ:j'I~fltCji~Rfq~<!i~'4q tl3:!l"fil::: Par. Sek. Pari.-lw . ' logist referred to by Yaska in his Nirukta pos$ibly as a commentator dn fq~; d. f.FFoi t!;q tim) f.rifl1<!lfuE{02:9' 3"i:<!~ iltqrqll;:qcr: Nir. 1. I. line 4. figurative; metaphorical application or statement; cf. (f;tt:I~) jTj~Ii\\<!T il:OO-qlT!Cfi'f. Nir. VII. I3 forming or stand'ing as a means 14580. cpo



a collection of words called mOlIfq:'-f,; The work is a verse commentary on Ul)adisiitras in five Padas, a name given to his work by q;~ of the 18th century.


produced from the chst; the Visarj itniya and h (~r{) are looked upon as aTTn, and not Cji~ by some I ancient phoneticians; d. ilif~<JT: TJ:ffr i['iiT~f.tB~;:fr4r '3~:~~TilTFci~cr com. on R. Pro I. 18; d. also l[C!irtq~~~m' WO{~lmm ~~:<t:.1 ~~(t~ fcr~I;:ftl{TC<fi06if-1 ~ ~~r+t~, a phonetical element or ~~~ II Pal). Slk~a. 16. I unit called Jihvamiiliya,' produced ~~ produced from the chest. See at the root of the tongue, which is optionally substituted in the place of the Visarga (left out breath) sIT.rr substitute for the nom. and directly preceding the utterance of " acc. case endings applied to the - the letter ~ or ~ and hence shown numeral 3fe'l.; d. a:ref+"q ~~? VII. as ~~. See 3f -:, ~ above on page 2. " 1.21. I

or fttllr; lit. let~ing out breath from the mouth; sound or utterance caused by breath esrc&ping from the mouth; breathing. The Visarjaniya, jJ.lst like the anusvara, is incapable of being independently tittered.' Hence, it is written for convenience as 3f: although its form for writing purposes is only two dots after the vow~l preceding it; d.81: i@r fqB~;:fr<I: I 3f'iiT{:{i[ ~~~: l{m ~mfr ~il~l]1wfir~0l1 fq~;:fr<I~~ ii'TN I Kat. Vyak. I. 1.16. See ar:above on page 2.




Sllq~~name of an ancient etymo-

~~~ beginning with a stanza of the

( I) the letter aTT included in the I u; and atr, and hence j . called '!~ in Pal)ini's grammar, ( 2 ) substitute for the case-ending ~ (f~) in paI).ini's grammar; d.P. VII. 3.II8, I 1 9 . ' 1_

U~I).ih metre; d. '3fi1T[1fll{.cf: affii~~: Slm~; atlfW1~ ~'i:<!i:j- I <.j~f <.jlnf~

~~if: Uvata on R. Pr. XVIII. 5



~ vowels 3ff,

I afm~




pertaining to the ulteriOl:: member of a compound; cf. an~{q~~ ~;'<!t~ (P. VI. 3.6r) ~ g~ ~fI;Htm M. Bh. on 1. 1.62.


cp~ Viik. pad. III,



aitq~ resulting from immediate contact; immediately or closely ~q the mbstitution of the vowel aIT; types cf. P. VII. 3.I I 7- II 9._ I connected; one of the three given of ~<!i~1T[' or location Which is ~fflq; an affix or an operation re- 1 as the sense of the locative case; d. suIting from the general rule(~air); 8l~'Rt:ir orrii ~Ii: -:E<.jllfciii{, anq~1.fl<I:, d. orq-~~"#f ~ +f.iR\tafii<h: t"acr: M. ~Fl'~fu. :lfit~1T['Rr I "fRr 'i1ff.t~~fu I Bb. OIl. IV. I.16.[; d. abo l?ji'f'smaa M. Bh. Vr.. 4~7&~


~crH or r.asal (I) looked upon as a phonetic element, independent, no doubt, but incapable of being pronounced without a vowel preceding it. Hence, it is shown in writing with 8l although its form in writing is only a dot above the line; cf. ~ ~11ffi\: I 3f'iiR l(i[ '31\l[I~~ l{ffi ~l::it cr1T[l~tCf~+l9m Kat. Vyak. I. 1.19 ; (2) anu5vara,showing or signifying Vikara i. e. 3ffilll and used as a technical ternl for the second Ntif-ti or the accusative case. See the! word sf above on page I.


a-q-.,+n<fr<J lit. blowing; a term applied to the visarga when followed by the consonantcr.or~. The upadhmaniya is looked upon as a letter or phonetic element, which is always connected with the preceding vowel. As the1lpadhmaniya is an optional substitute for the visarga before the letter cr. or~, when, in writing, it is to be shown: instead of the visarga, it is sho,wn as '(5', or as co, or even as X just as the Jihvamilliya; d. ;a-qelH<Ji:j- ~~1<J~ :{m, a-q wfiq em<li:j~a~i:j- ~fu crT .com. on Kat. 1.; cf. also 'litf(+<JT SlFl{ffcref1Bi'm ftl~l~<IT q1:+n<frcfr S. K. on P. VIII. 2.1.

t=;:a. ii'lTltlif<f, a nasa I_ Ie tt er or utterance

-included among the CiT~til91if letters ing nasal consonant and hence it is analogous to anus\:1ira and yuma c~lled CiT<fhY'ITir. The nasalization is !e ttCf8. 1 t is mentioned in the shown in script as "'<. followed by the Vajasaneyi Pratisiikhya as ij i(m consonant; e. g. liW-IJf'Jfit, -iIPl'.....u, ;:if~~!j: on which U vvata makes etc. The pronur,ciation of this yama or _twin letter is seen in the Vedic the reihark :ij"'!!P..'fS~1<.<11'-!t ~:. The B.k-Prlitislikhya mentions iilfu<fll, <Ii:!. recital only; tf. qfi?~ ... if.~lf: ~ and ""l~::'m: as rflfu'i<l or nasal letters, a(Bi~1T t{q <{llT: S. K. on P. VIII. 2. while Uvvata dtfines .ure!f<! as a I. d. ~ ~ ~ ~ iffa- <1m: ~~ffi~T lettPf produced only by the nose; +!CJ"f~:; V. Pr. VIII. 24. cf. i't.'l~lfB!ii<lr :j''ElT~lirOU CfIllT illfu<f<!: Uvvatn. on R. Pr. I. 20. The TaittiriyJ. Pra.tiSflkhya calls the letter it <i!.. ( i ) the consonant Ii!; the first conas na;;j]{ya when it is follo';,;ed by sonant -of the consonant group as the consonant il. or Ol.. or "I:. and gives also of the guttural group -; (2) "llil"I:., ::ijlf\'~ and ~ as instanc;es. substit ute ~ for consonant,s ~ and i; The Pal)iniya Sik!?a does IIot menbefore the consonant <1; d. V. P. 1ion <nfWFI as a letter The Mahfi2.41. For the elisi?n (&iii) of ~ on bha~ya mentioDs OlTft'tif<i as one of account of its being termed ~ see the six ayogavaha letters; cf. ~ P. 1. 33 and 8.
-~Fl\~lWH\TI: I fcrtl:r.fcllftl{j~<i'tql::mrIt<!m tc:m:I~illf13'!<i~+rT: 11. 13h. on Sivasiitra ; ~ - ( I)

itiQfa::i4 i rfih a Jain grammarian who wrote a commentary by .r.ame ~'.t '<Ifil(<ii\:;!t on the t!T\HaO<ll'1i{Tr!.
!fitf!il~ a class of words hE-ailed by""the word ~f, the word Sl~ after which in a compound, de,es not h~ve the acute accent on its first vowel, e.g. m~;; cf. P. VI. ~.87.
~~ a class of words peaded by_~,


etc.; cf. lUiS. Gll P. IV. a closs of words headed by cno'T- to _which the taddhita affix ;;mr (;;{r~'<l:,.' is added in thE' SFrSf' of a ro~t 'e.g. ~~; cr. Kas. on P. V. 2.24;
2.~0; (2 I

q;oe:iliil.l( nam~ of ~ commentarv on

N1i.gesa's Paribhal]endusekhara by ~ia;lDudeva, known also as Mantudeva or Manyudeva. who was a pupil of Pii:yaguI,lQ.e in the latter - half of the 18th century. Th .. com- mentarY'1s named Do~oddl!ara.:!-a also.
Cfi.GO glottis; cavity in the throat. holding vOGal cords; the place of thil production of the sounes31, 2TT a.nd if; d. '~~<iT: ~ V.Pr. I.7!; cf. also- ~S'IiT{: ~!!jWHe~[ '<I R Pr.

to whicb the taddhita affix 1Il0l.. is added in the miscellaneous ~~'Ii t senses, provided the worel, tQ which the affix "'.or.. is to be added, is the name of a country; e.g. '!f.i!l~~ :;no: a:rrrq1fi:; similarly mfi!1Ft<!i:, u;P{<J!'Ii:; cf. Kas. on P. IV. 2.133:
!fiCfi tad. caturarthika affix 'Ii (- I) by " . IV. 2.80 after words headed by CRT&: e.g. q~Il{'Ii:, tP3T~'Ii:; (2) by P. IV. 4.21, after the word ar:rm~ e.g.- anqm~'Ii:

1. 18.

5 Vurt. 5, where some manuscripts. read .nfljif!j for - o!i~lfa<fq while in some other manuscripts - there is neither the word 31Gi'fr~ nor i'flfft<f'!J. It is likely that the anunft~ I , ... sika-colouring . given to the vowel I prec;>ding the COllsonant ~. substi- ' tutcd for the consonants 11, il. and dhers Ly P. VIII. 3.2. to IZ, was looked up-m as a separate phonetic unit and called OlTfe'f<l as for ins-tance. in B''f.:tT, liT ~~B1: ,Bm~iN etc.

"" <l+r, a Idter

called <111 ,which is u; t, reo] partly through the-nose. A class consonant excepting the hlth', wben followed by the fifth viz. io;, 'i" Ill., <f,. or "I:. , gets doubled ill tt!e ""die rtcita.l, when the s(-cond of the doubled consonant which is coloured by the following ndsal consonant is called <111. This <Ff letter is not independent. It necessarily depends upon ttie follow,/

tad. affix <Ii applied to the words of the ~~l! group in the four sen!:es called '<ITgrm~ e. g.~ll'li:, a:rij~'Ii:, ~~: etc, cf. P. IV. 2.80; ( 2) tad; affix 'f. applied' to nouns in the sense of diminution, censure. pity etc. e. g. 31."t[;r,:,<i~'Ii:, 9;l.1'1i:, d. P. ,V. 3.70-87; (3) tad. affix <Ii in the very sense.of the word itself ("'il~) e. g. 31f<, <iT9if,:, 'iifril'li:; cf. P. V. ':p8-33; (4) UI,ladiaffix 'Ii e. g 'li~, ll!fi, Zl!fiI, t1;'li', it'li; - ifil'li, tfi'li, ~~ etc. by UI,ladi sihras HI. 40-48 befote which the augment l!~ is prohibited by P. vn. 2.9; ('5) krt affix -'11 (CiT) where <j,! is dropped by P. 1. 3.8, applied, in the serise of agent, to certain roots mentioned in P. III. 1.135, 136, 44,III. 2.3 to 7, IlL 2.77 and III. 3.83 e.g. ~'f:,
_~!<::~:, "J:~, <jj+;re~:, ~q:, 't~fcr~;;!', W~IT:"

- ~ the consonant 'Ii; d. qll1ttcm:! P. lIf. 3-108 Vart. 3.


gutture-palatal. The diphthongs Q; and -0; are called Kal)tha talavya. as they are produced hi the KaIJthatalu-sthiina. mentioned; directly

krt affix (3f) affixed to the root

'lfJ, preceded by ~<\, aa:. etc. by P. IV. 2.60 e.g. ~n~~:, <lTVU-: etc., fern"

Cf.U~'tfi formally mentioned.

by P. IV. u5.
~. :j'~

tad. affix cg affixed to ~, and OlCf by P. V. 2.29,30 ; e.g. Sf<P.: etc.


~Wl',!!fi1Jti1N diphthong!'>



tad. affix 1f,~ affixed to the word in the sense of collection by P.


gutturo-labial, tLe and :3Tr are called l{arHho~thya as they are produced at both the KaIJtha and the Ottha Sthanas.




e.g. ~:q~r.


!;!UIl":; etc.; (6) substitute'll for the

~~ a class of words he~.lded by the word <!iGi~ which, although adjectivaJ, are optionally -placed first in the Karmadharaya coin pound, e.g. I <lim~~fP.fu: ~l~'lisi\:; d. ,Kas. on 2.3 8 _ I . !



- _ ~ ul pro d- .1 -.. t'Be 11Hoal or t , j e uceucat. glottis; the vowel ~, visarga and the cor.sonant ~ are called <f.'l6tT in the Pliitj~iikhyas, while latu grammarians include tbe gUiturnl con, sonants ~; ~, ~; ,"E!.. and <{ an;Ol1g tlie Kal.lthya letters; d. ~~~fg'3:ii*o -<ll<iT <li1T.5: Sid. Kau. on 1F~1l1'!:<l>lq(~ ~qljlOJ;. P. I. 1.g. See <!iU2i. .

v;ord- -~ before a case affix; cf. P. VII. _2.103; (7) the Samiis~nta affix tfR (!fi) at the end ofBahuvrihi coinpounds as _prescribed by P. V. 4. 151-160.

~ . l!fi"'II'G. {1:)

. '1 'b a Class ot. WOiG" lea d eCl y;! ~tft{ a group of '.':ords which ~lre q . '!iiI to v:h ich the taddhita affix CiTTll<'l headed.b:; the word CfiU~ and which (f'lioI.) is applied in the four senses are either nouns or roots or both, given in P. IV. 2.67-70; e.g. 'Ii{1I]f<iF!:



to which the affix <lCjJ is added to arrive at the secondary roots', e.g. q;~~fa', ~~~; flulT~fa', r;,uft~~, +iir<li:T ( 2 ) the Samasanta 'd1: ,at the end of Bahuvrihi compounds e.g. "'{~ ~9i:, Gf~<::fo:g'fiT, qHmilq;:, q~'f.<iq;:, d. 1'. V. 4.151-154. For its prohibition, Sfe P. V.4. 1 55-I60. .

Bh. on I. 2, 32; cf. also 3B,~;:::T<ll ~BB'I\n:. ~lcrr\1, <!i<:I1Jf9;:<J<lln:. 1 :;j'l<j\r 'l th~~~ij qnlH!J]I'C"!' qiil'+im, T. Pr. XXlII. 2 where karal)a is described to be of five kinds 3B,W'{1<l ( i. e. ~?: or resonance ), ~\1~ ( contact), ~~rrr, .<!i\l1J~r<j<l and q!t+il!J]; cf. a:I9il<:\<:l \1TCjn:.-~<% '11;::::, ~Wr: 'i;U~, ~1<T~: <r.\UJT9;:<Jl.J: ansr, q!tmrrr +[l"ll~.lii>: la:I!};q?:l'11fu:f~: qiiilf'i:r: Cfi\ITJ;f!J]7<lT ~~~4 :;nl.j~ Com. on Tai. Pro XXI-II. 2. The Vajasaneyi FratiSakhya mentions two karal)as ~'l<:rand f9l[~; cf. "[ lii<:lfr ~af9l[:rl~ ~l<ltolerff: v. Pr. I. II; (4) use of a word e. g. itrnen1.rrr, 9~q;{!J]<J:.; cf. l%g~f~cT '11+[ I a:I<llq !l.f(j'i.~: M. Bh. on. P. VI. 1. 129.
~~~ tuming the 'iqstrument of the prod~ction of 'sounds towards the activity of production. cpo Val.. Piid. I. 123. cpo 'M:UJI<1t ~-q1'C"!'1~ R<il'l: a:j~Cjr a:IiQ:<!i<:I1J~<I . !f~+im F-! r <ll\1: 1 ( {. )





arr~ "'ll<lmll ~ +i;:~ \:l'Tfcr+lTflHl': II Kas. on P. III. '1.27.

~::nre: a class of words forming a

portion of ttJe class' of words called 'I'Ililt, and headed by tbe word q;0"l', to the derivatives 'of which, formed by the a'ffix <lot: by the rule 'Im(it--<j} <I~ (P. IV. 1.105), the affix 3jtlJ.. is added in .the miscellaneous senses; e.g. ''fijOilT: ~1"l1:; similarly <l'len!?;JT:, ;Ulq;~l:, a:I'Ita<l:, ~fti<lr'lT:, etc.; cf. P. IV. 2.II1 and II. 4.70. '
~ a grammarian (or a grammatical

~~ krt. affix a:j<I:, in Vedic Literature

in the sense of the infinitive, e.g. ft'mi! in alfir ~ ~ql fci<tli! <IT'V~'l'l:.; d. P. III. 4.12.

vibratio,n of the larynx produces the sound.



work? ) who has referred to Haniiman as ninth grammarian; cpo com. on Ramayal)a VII. 36'44-45. '

a fault in uttering an accented vowel especially a vowel with the c~rcumflex accent which is not properly uttered. by the Southerners as remarked by Uvvata ; d.-q;.qir "1m ~Tfi.JCl''ll~q: 1 \1 '<l ~Ftor <n&iUlR<ll<lt <'P-fm- 1 \1 "'I 9"V,: 1 Uvvata on R.Pr. III. 18. See, q;-q'1 above.

fruit or result of an action withqut . depending on any other instrument; cf. ~qCfi3f: q;;:Jl P. I. 4-54, explained as a:j~ufilit </: f;n<ITqffi~I' ~91C'fC~ fci9P{<1~ m<fiH<f; ~B~ +!9m in the IGisika on P. I. 4. 54. This agent, or rather, the word standiflg for the agent, is put in the nominative case in the active voice (cf. P. 1. 4.54 ),in the instrumental casein the passive voice (cf. P. II. 3. 18), and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun, (cf. P. II. 3.65).

the affix <I of the passIVe vOIce - where ,the object functions as tbe s~bject ; e. g. <!'3:! in ~<{~ %~m:: ~<i; d. a:I"!': <n~<lN; P. yI. 1.95 and the Kasika thereon.. .


~~ a class of words 'beaded by

the wordq;f3f to which the tafl. affix 'Q;<jq; (~~) is applied in the miscellaneous senses; e.g. CfiI~l{q;:, ::nlT<jq;:, <K1i7;~q;: (from ~~r); d. P. IV. 2.75. '

~1fG the same as q;;'1<l.

E{i~Ciil.;rr experience (of something) by

<Wo~",C'jT<!l<I:, P.

q;~~ a class of words headed by the

word q;:ql to which the affix ~'l1 ( o~ ) is added in the sense of good therein' (Cl'3f Bl!!!'); e.g. q;Mq;:, ~\1fo~en:, mfiJlq;:, an~i:t~,q;:; d. P. IV. 4. 1 02.

"b;41i5'ltftr a class of words headed by the word q;;eft:;j'~ the affix a~ placed' after which is elided, provided the words q;;q[:;J and others are names of countries; e.g. q;;~:;j':~~:, ~:, 'ilq;:, '!!9;:r: etc. d. P. IV. 1.175.
<ii~UT (I) Ii t.


<ii1:.<A:,krt affix a:je~ of the infinitive in Vedic Literature: cf. li~ "" "'~. ~ PIlI .4.9. BB ... ~<j~.'e'!\~... \19<l:.

( I) uJ),adi affix as in the words u;'I), i'!q;, ;U~q; et c.; (2) tad. affix q;, as given by PaI;lini siitras IV. 2.131, IV. 3.32, 65, 147, IV. 4.21; V. 1.22, 23,5 1 , go, V.2.64, 65, 66, 68-75, 77- 82 , V.35 1 , 52, 75, Sr, 82, 87, 95,9 6 , 97 V. 43, 4, 6, 29-33. ( I) krt affix, en presc~ib~d after the root ~ e.g. Cfil~l; cf. P. III. 2.7 0 ;

instrument; the term signifies the most E'fficient means for accomplishing an act ; d. f;n<lTfuir <!Q'. . !1:f2lqq;l~ W<i&!cT m;:n~if,i1ir '!)Ref; <!i<:!J]B;f( -irqm Kat on ;ql"Ten~+i' q;<':!J]<J:. P. I. 4.42, e.g. ?:T~ in ?:1~ g<nIa-; (2) effort inside the mouth. (2iT+<j;:\1\">I<Ri1) to produce sOllnd; e.g. touching of the particular place (~:q-T'1) inside the month for uttering consonants; d. <:ra~ ~G''ilT<lT en<:U1<I:, M. Bh. on P . I. LIO Vart. 3.; (3) disposition of the or'gan which produces the sound; d. -'I1'!l;1'1F.Umm1f W~'-l': en<:!J]mf~'i!<liT L 'Q;o-.:"!' '1rfiJlf.i~T +<jr(f~~ ~ ~Tm- 1 Com. on R. Pre XIII. 3; d, also ~T<icj;\UJG~l<lTf.i M .

~fctuft or q;f~uIT name of a svara bhakti .i. e. behaviour like the vowel ~, r.oticed in the case of the consonant ~ when followed by the sibilant ff.; i::f. 9i~ur" <::~<lt~Ft <!i~OIT ii>liq;r~<1t: 1 if~uIT ~;Utll<!t '<l ~lftm ~'ilq;l<::~: II ~?!: CR"rn: 1 liifiruit li~l: Corn. on T. Pr. XXI. 15. See .<l{+lfui.

the. agent himself; cf. '~<:IT*"<I: III. 1.18.



~ s~nse

(an affix) applied in the of the agent of an activity; +!'lcfrfu +ller: I Cliil;11'cT<law:T ~!</: 'lV1. Bh. on P. 1. 3.1. Vart. 7.

~~ (a root) whose activity is G

- found functioning in the subject; cf. <:J'S{ f~T~(i~~1if"i:~<t 9iCt!t Kaiyata on P. III. 1. 87:Vii1t. 3. Such roots, although transitive, do, not have any Karmakartari construction by the rule q;+Tq(~!J]T g~rsn<i: P. III. L87 as e. g. !ll+f ~fcr it9<:::q: has no ~9iCtR construction; d. ~~Tq9lfi1t q;~~~~<llUJt 9T 'li'1T q;~'l" +!erelfa' 9:q..<1~ 1 'liI~:qmCj'fij'1f <n<!l;:qf;n<jlUJT ,n q;ffi ~q.l1T ~fu 1\1. Bh. on III. 1.87. \'art. 3.

q;fuJTI name

of a svarabhakti i. e. behaviour like the vowel."T\ noticed in the case of the consonant \. when it is followed by ff. e. g. 9\i%::. 9iftuft is named q;~?! also.

~ti. Efift~ ancient technical terms for the future tense; the word <fiit~'l;:cfris more frequently.used.

~~ produced at the root of the

ear; the utterance of a circumflex vowel is described as Karl)amuliya.

q;~ .agent of an action, subject; name

- of a karaka or instrument in general, of an...action, which produces the

~mCi~( a root) \yho~e action or G happening is noticed furi'Ctioning in the subject; e. g. the root ~~. cf. q;~~+!T9q;~TiI (.m:fcr:) M. Bh. on 1. 3.67, $lif+!lCjq;~ ~fu: (;W'cTTg:) M. Bll. on V. 3.55; Valc. pad. III. 14.168.

cp~ (I) the topic or the region
of the subjp.ct (2) the portion of Vakyapadiya IlL III. 7. 101-I28 where the nature of the agent of an activity 15 discussed.
cpifll!:lllf meant for the agent of the action. The word is used in connection with the fruit or result of an action; when the result' is for the agent, ro_ots having both the Padas get the Atmanepada terminations; cf. ~Raf:;Pi: ~fusn~ f,n~T~ P. 1.

the word !'fill may mean ~f.1i<rT. - The word <!ill\'m<r in that case could mean '<!ill itG:Cfi~T, QT \fI~<rf6' <w;IT !'fill\:fR<r:' a compound which gives a specification, of the thing in hand. a word; e:g.- illj:jl~lIm~~ Cfillrtffi'lmin the nominative case. e.g. <g: ~olliT +!CfFo Nir. I. 3.4; where Dur~:r, tg: ~:r:, ~('!!:, srrm?:Cfi: IlTt/: etc. gacarya explains karrnan as ' sense' It is called Sif+lfua: In such cases; (~). . cf. P.lI. See the word <liilf+!fucr above. The object or Karman ~~ijl4i~, lit. noun ~howing action, . which is ~~effifiT is describ>d to be participle. of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is .obtained ~SWeq.,'1'1 a technical term used in -from the activity. It is called ~ connection with a preposition which when a transformation or a change showed a verbal activity formerly, is noticed in the object as a result although for the present time it of the, verbal activity, e.g. ifitlJIf.; does not show it; the word is t!sed +!<;rflCfi~fu, ~ f+iilfu etc. It is called. as a technical term in grammar in mt<i when no change is seen' to connection with prefixes or a'tfefrs result from the action, the object which' are not used along with a only coming into contact with the . root, but without it; cf. 9.~ Si't<ffiCliff: subject, e.g. Ilnl ~fcr, ~ ,W1m Cfi;lSl"l"'l;:ft<iT: i(re- M. Bh. on P. I. 4.83 ; etC: I t is callEd f.t~~ when the object e;g. ~~ ~ ~a Il'lti mCicffl:., af,:q~cf is brought into being unqer a <U;j[H::, an ~~ <j~: 1fIfcrt~:; ct. KiiS. specific name; e.g. 1:Ii <!iUm-, ~ 'on' P. 1. 4.83 to 98. cpo Dipika' of 1Rm- , cf. fi!~~ 'i:f 'i:f mti{ :1ijfu Bhartrhari p. I3, 1. 19-20, and' also f!i{\:TT +Rl;x:. I a~fcSQ'cr+l<l, Padamai'ijari HeHiraja on Vak. pad. III. LT. on I. 4.49 ; d. also Vakyapadiya lII. 7.45 as also N}'asa on 1.4-49. l!fi~q the activity of the agent or karta of an action represented as The object which is not ~fi;tIffi!ll is al!;o subdivided into four kinds object or karman of that very action, for the sake of grammatical e.g. ( a) ar.ftftacr (Ilfll 11:ca"l:,) Ilii ql!<im-, (b) anc::ffit~q !tTt<{. orl{Q\iI, operations; e.g. f+!lZt ifiIi ~Cfl!~: 9ifttCIa- tg: m~. To show facility or Si~+!<r e.g. (~iR5'l:) '~i!.~ of a verbal activity on the object, a'tfeqia', (c) Siill~<iTa- or a:JCfi~ e.g. when the agent or karta is dispenscrf~ in qM <!RlZt Clijl'fl<l, . ( d ) . ~'ltlifi ed with, and the object is looked e.g. Sif;JIif,. cfrOllRr, IlTl'IiTfufufq~~; cf. upon as the agent, and used also Padamapjari I. 4.49. The comas an agent, the verbal terminations mentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra VyakaraI)a mentions seven Rt, cr: etc. are not .applied in the sense of, an agent, but they are kinds 5fl t <i, f.l~ff, 'f.icM, f;tf;n<iRfICfi, applied in the sense of an object ; iftecr, lIlcfrfttRr and ~iI" defining consequently the sign of .the voice Cfi<T as Cfi'5ft ~<il <i, ~ aiI,'~ is not Si (~tt.), but <i (~) and the ~; cf. ~tlj<l, Jain. Vy. 1. 2.120 verbal terminations are cr, oUffiot: etc and com. thereon. ~ii{j:j~ is (aii{) instead of Ta-, ffii etc. In given therein as an instance of popular language the use of an f<l"l<l~; (2) The word ~ is also expression of this type is called used in the sense of f'fi<iT or verbal Karmakartari-Prayoga. For details activity; cf. ;a~'i\:cjCfiijfiTr P. I. 3.24; see M. Bh. on ~t<ii~UlT ~~: P. ~mut 'fff: emR:q P. III. 4 7f, Cfi~ft III. I.87. Only such roots as are ifi~Ollffiil:l~ P. I. 3.14. (3) It is also ~~ifi or~!fi i.e. roots whose used in the sense of activity iIi verbal activity is noticed in the general, as for instance, the sense of


~~ ( t ) IJbjt'ct of a transitive verb, defined as '.something which the. agent or the doer of an action wants i primarily to achieve. The main feature of Cfiil~ is that it 'is put in i the accusative case; cf. ~~ <fi~, Cfiilfi1r f~<iT; P. I. 4.49; II. 3.2 3.7 2 ! Pal)ini has made CfilT a technical term and called all such words object of lhe transitive verb ~ . I I karma'n' as are connected with a which functions as the ~ubject when i verbal activity and used in the tbere is a marked facility of action '; accusative case; cf ~!:Iffiill e. g. ~ is karmakartaIi-objec t , Q~~ 'i:ft;:f\fc~ ; a:JCfifu~ "i and if~ functioning as subject, in q;;:<lZt an~: ~tlTilrit~~Cfij:ji~O']llIfOT, Cfini ~ iii P. ~Ci<ri'tCf. The word Cfi~9\ii is used also 1. 4.4<)-52; cf. also <iiI, f:!i<l5- q~ CfilT for the ~~ srl:jtif where the object, Wit. II. 4 I3, ~tllot:Jain I. 2. 120 on which the verb-activity is found, and ~~~ CfilT Hein. II. 2. 3. Someis turned into a subject and the times. a karaka, related to the verb which is transitive is turned activity (f;;n<tT) as sampradana, into intransitive as a result. apadiina or adhikaniI)a is also treated as karma, if it is not meant or CfiiiiUl4lt( dname given by Siradeva and desired as apadana, sarilpradana etc! other grammarians to the second It is termed a:JCfi~~Fl\il in such cases; Pada of the third adhyaya of PaI)id. 3l'qT;Ui'fl~f;t~Cfi~it1td~f&Jm:lCfiffroot: ni's A!?tadhyayi, which begins with Kas. on 1. 4.51. See the word arcnNcr the sutra Cfi~Ul!ur, I II r. 2. I. above. Karman or object is to be Cfi$r~Rir name technically given to a achieved by an activity or &i<iT; it compound-formation of two words is always syntactically connected in apposition i. e. used in the same with a verb or a verbal derivative. case, technically called l3j:jli'flN~'.lJ When connected with verbs or showing the same substratum;' d. verbal derivatives, indeciinables or 5{~(j'f: ~FiTc:nf\:1Cfi<:tr): cnlil:Tf\<i: 1. 2.4 2 words ending with the affixes ~, 'tfi, The karmadharaya compound is 'RiCig, 1'i'1:., etc., it is put in the . accusative case. It is put in the looked upon as a variety of the tatpuru!?a compound. There is no genitive case when it is connected sa tisfactory explanation of the with affixes other than those menreason why. such a compound is tioned above; d. P. II. 3,65,69. termed Cfill'Cm:'l. Sakatayana defines \Vhen, however, the karman is exKarmadhiiraya as fq~Iif'!T Oll~'iTft pressed (Sif+!f~n) by a verbal termiu::Cfi[~ cnlil:Tl\<lllf where tpe word firo'.jOj nation (R!~), or a verbal noun is explained as c<iF!iicn or ~ (distintermination ('litr.), or a noun-affix guishing attribute) showing that - (cr~), or a compound, it is put





object and not in the subiect can have this Karmakartari-Pra'yoga.

fically for objects i.e. prescribed in the. case of objects which are described to be functioning as the subject to show facility of the verbal action; e.g. the vikaraI)a ~ 'or the affix ~rn:.; ct. Cfillqrter W1:T<T: ~lf llt<lCfitCTT Cfill~I?F,<T!UJt CIT <1'1 fr;:r! Cfig:!.f. -TICI'lila:! c{1ql1.{<!: IvI. Bh. on I. 1.44.

which is referred to in the PUl}ini Siitra '!imftr<i)or. P .. IV. 3.108. For det~ils see Cfire"'!. a commentary on the karaka of the KaJapa grammar as- I cnbed to the famous commentator I . Durgasimha. ' karman, but looked upon as karman only for the sake of .being used in the accusative case; subordinate karman, as for instance, the cow in iTt ~r .ufi1:l'. The term was used by ancIent grammarians; cf. f9qfffi g <{('fill C!' CfiC!<ir~: .M. Eh. on P. r. 4.51. See ~it<I,.

q;qTtf~~ operations prescribed speci-

~~~R" exchange of verbal ~ctivity;

reciprocity of action; Cfilte<j~l\ means f;r.lllC<Jfirm: or i?n<!TJ'WF!Il; cf: 'liat{ Cfilt;;<Tmrn P. 1. 3I4; aiso Cfilt-' a<jfu~~ UJ'"!.. fu<!11'l:. 1 o<lT'I>lilm. o1l1t~~ Kas. on P. III.. 3.43. The roots having their agents characterized by a reciprocity of action take the Atmanepada terminations; d. P. L 3.14 .



iijii?ilq<it~~ a commentary on the



~~ author of the commentary

A kind of svarabhakti.


Cfiqur extension; protraction, .defined . as kalaviprakar!?a by commentators; a peculiarity in the recital as noticed in the pronimciation. of ?; when followed by'"!.., or ~ when followed by ~ e.g. q?;'9j q~l;:r. d. Nar. Sik. 7.19.

Cfi~~f'clif prescribed in the sense of an

object; a term used in the jllahabha~ya in the sense of affixes used in the sense of ~ object' as contrasted with <f,~~f\:T<! or +iT'I8P:lCT; e.g. the affix foli in the word f<!f-ir, explained as f<!~<l~ l(m f<!f<r: or in the word +irer ~xplained as +iF<l9- <I: 1;'1 +!ler:;cf. f;r.<lf ~Cf fQ +ilolliT, ~'Flferffi~ g ~+r:. III.13h. on P., I. 3.1. See similarly the words tfl!ll[lt 1\1. Bli. on II. I.5I and . :aqN M. Bh. on V. I. I3.


q;fu:qfSr;~ (roots) having their verbal

activity situated in the obJ' ect. e .",. , 0' the root Wf+<:<!; in ar=r(i!J]f;a ifI+r:. or the root ~ in 'Ii~rfu Cfi~; d. ~~+ilCf<f,r<!t Cfilt~~fin<!l11]t '9 P. II I. I. ti 7 Vart. 3.

CfIii5' a fauit of pronunciation consequent upon directing the tongue to a place in the mouth which is not the proper one, for the utterance of a vowel; a vowel so pronounc'ed; cf. B''ii'f: Cfi-m IOBa: .. ~li~ l{f;:r I d. also f<I,!'ijCfi~Tftc!imClol~<T Q"ii!lrqf~ CfPt<:flm M. Bh . .Ahnika I.

~T~"i. the author of the work referred to as Kalapa in the :MahabM~ya which perhaps was a work on grammar as the word ~Tq mentioned with the "ord li~T'IlffiCfi'l'f: in the lVIababha!]ya, d. M.Bh. on ~1f4<u~ P. IV. 3. 108. Kalapin is mentioned as a pupil of Vaisampayana in the lvIahabha;;ya; ct. ~~;ql'l!"l"['1rtjt ~tfT lvI.Bh. on P. IV. 3. 104.

Sabdaratnadipa 6n the Sabdaratna of Hari Dik;;ita.

~l~-:fi aUlh~r


of the Laghusarasvata, a small grammar work. He livedin the 18th century A.D.

~~l~ author of

~~iJlCtCfi (.roots) having their verbal

action or happening noticed in the object; e.g. the root arl<i and m in <ij~re<{fcr ?(f1<!<!Rr where the function of the root bears effect in the object boy and not in the movements of the object as in the sentence '<TT~lf '1<iUJfu. See Cfilt~fl!i<l &bove as also . M. Bh. on III. 1.87 and Kaiyata on the same.

(I) part, part of time looked upon as a power, subordinate to the main power viz. Cfi~ or time cpo Yak. pad. III. 9.57, 680)'( 2) Name of a commentary- by Vaidyanatha on Laghumanjii!]a of Nagesa. . .

an old grammarian mentioned CfiiNl o41ft( a class of words headed by by Ujjvaladatta, who has written a the word ~lu!T to which the tadcommentaf" Oll' Amara Kosa ' J I dhita affix D:<T (~ ) IS added,_in the sense of I offspring' and, side by Cfi~ the tad. affix Cfiiiqli. added to any i side, the ending :q (:!{<l~ ) is substisubstantive in the sense of slightly I . f . I tuted for the hst l~tter of those In enor, or almost complete; e.g. i ~:; ~~:; cf. P. V. 3.67 and I words; e.g. Cfil~fU'J~:, .ffi+!TFi~<T:j d. Kas. on P. IV. 1.26. , . Kasika thereon. .



the HaimaliilganusasanavivaraI)3, a commentary on the. Linganusasana chapter of Hemacandra's grammar. He lived in the 16th century A.D.

~if, ~ supposition, assumption;

d. ~~.,'iT 'i:f

Kas. on P.lV. 3.

fugi'l2:li,'i~A~~';(,' 110; d. also aRCfi-


the class of guttural consonants c9nsisting of the five consonants %


~~"Iin\J<Tf arw :a~mm:. Pari. Sek. on. Pari. 94.

~~ a treatise on rcots writt~n

by Bopadeva, the son of Kesava and the pupil of Dhanesa who lived in the time of Hemadri, theYada~a King of Devagiri in the thirteenth century. He , has written a short grammar work named Mugdhabodba which has been very popular' . in Bengal being studied in many Tols or PathasaIas.

~r:r ("!i~lqc<T!Cfi\UJ)

<p~ lit. karman and others; a term

often used in the l\Iahabha!]ya for karakas or words connected with a verbal activity which have the object or karma,karaka mentioned first; llqr CfiBl1.{<!lt<!~l: ~,,"<!l ~ i'f~1 _ m~+r:. M. Bh. on I. 4.21.

alternative name given fa tbe treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have lived in the days of the Siitavuhana kings. The treatise is popularly known by the name Katantra VyakaraI)a. The availabl~ treatise, viz. Kaliipasiitras, is much similar to the Katantra Siitras having a few changes and additions only here and there. It is rather risky to say that Kaliipa was an ancientsystem of grammar

iiiqq.,I\\6jjill brevity of thought; brevity

of expressicli; minimum assumption.

See the word~.


tad. affix

~. See ~.

iii~qi?iijr name

of a commentary On Bbattoji's Praudhamanorama by KmH\wisra.

~ the same as karman or object


of an action especially when it is not fully entitled to be called

epfq~;riTqrr a cummentary On the KavikaJpadruma, written bv the author (~q~CI) himself. It is known

-by the name Ka vyaldl.madhenu ; (2) a commentary on Kavikalpadruma by Ramatacbvagisa. \ 3) a com. by Ramarama on }(avikalpa(huma.
;p~"tri-~ author 01 a small treatise on

present. Its last chapter ( Caturtha- cpffi;:-srtrf3'{Cf)f a name usually given to Adhyaya.) is ascribed to VilranicL a' compendium of -lh!;:- type of . As the arrangement. of topiCs is VivaralJa or gloss writ ten by Tril~ entireiy . dlfferent from Pii.1)ini's canadasa of the eleventh century order, in spite of considemble res ern, ('n the famous commentary on the bhnce of Sutras and their wordir:g, Katantra. Siltras by Durgasin,ha. it i~ probable that the work was' Scholars of I(atantra grammar by based on PaQini but compo!:ed on name K~sala, Tri:vikrarna, Jinaprath<: models of ancient grammarians' bha, Ramacandra have written a viz. Indra, Sakatayana a . d others Pafijika on Durgasimha's Yrtti whose works, although not available which is named Pradipa. Another DOW, were available to the author. scholar, Trivikrama has' written a gloss named Uctdyota. The grammar Katantrais also called KaIapa. A comparison of the Katantra Siltras and. the Kalapa Cimr.::~qft~'(qTQ'lCi name given to a text Siitras shows that the ore. is a consisting of Paribbal,iasiltras, be. different version of the other. The lieved to have been written by the Katantra Grammar is also called Siitrakara himself as a supplemenKaumara as it is said that the tary portion to the main grammar . original instructions for the :Many snch lists of Paribba~a~iitras grammar were received by the are available, mostly in Ir.anuscript author from Kumara or Karttikeya. form, containing more than a hundrFor detail., see Vol VII Pataiijala ed Siitras divided into two main 1\1ahabha~ya published by the D.E. groups-the Paribhal,i8siltias and Society, Poona, page 375. the BaIabalasutras. See qft<T[qlB!!~ ed. by B.a. R. I. Poena. qilao:~<f'Tgtfr (I) a commentary on the Katantra Siitras written by Govnrdhana in the 12th century. qHQ;:~~TI:TI~ (I) name of a gln~.s on the Paribh8~apatha written by A.D.; (z) a commentary on tbe Bhfl,'amisra, probabJy a lIfaithila Katantra Siitras ascribed to GUliPandit whose da~e is not knuwn. gdasarman. He has explained 62 Paribba~as CfiTa;~1f<fiT a gloss on the corr;men-I derivil'g rHany of them from the tary of Vararuci on the 'lifff'Si'tL.'>f. Katantra Siitras. The work seems a"eribed to Hari Dik~ita of the 17th to be based on the Paribbii.1}a works century if this Had Dik~i1a is tbe by Vyadi and others on the system srme as the author of thE Sabda-I of PaI)ini, suitable changes having Tatna. ueen made by the writer with a view to present the work as belongiIiTa;:-sr~ ascribed to Durgasirhha, ing to the Kiitantra school; (2) the famous commentator of the name of a gloss on the Paribha~a Katantra Siitras who livtd in the I patha of the Katantra school exnimlh or the tenth centmy. , plaming 65 Paribha~as. No Dame of the author isIound in the ~oona CfiT~T~<lfufr=l;y a cammen tar y ascrib- II cd to Ramanatha and called rnanmcript. The India Office , I Library copy has given Durgasirhha Manorama on the Katantradbatu- I as the ariU.or's name ;'but it is vrttiof Durgasirhha. See 9iTa;;:::f-/ doubtful whether Durgasimha was \:ll~~r~a bove .

~~ name of an ancient writer of a Pr1i.tisakhya work who held that Visarga' before the cqnsonant <:l. is drvpped only when < followedby a surel consonant; cf. Tai.

Pro IX.



grammar called Sarasatvari. He Jived in the se,. ,enteenth._ century A.D. He was a resident of Darbhariga. Jayal<r~I,la is also given :s the name of the author of the Safasatvari "'rammar and it' is possible that J:yakrg1u was given the title, ~r another name, Kayicandra.


~ name of an

name of a Buddhist grammarian who wrote a commentary OIi the \ . Ca,ndrasiitras, named Balabodhini.

ilfiWf,. krt affix 31<l. found in Ve?ic ~\t_era'l ture, in the sen::e of the mfimtlve; , e.g. ~Fild ~p;m: (f~fi.:lfm('r'r.)d, P. III. 4.13, 17. The word ending in this <n';l'l:,becomes an indeclinable;
cL 'RClTru!;!9i';l<!: P. L r 40,

.~ krt affix

in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature; e.g. iN, -rn1lB-; cf. KM. on P. Ii I. 49 class of compound-words, htaded by 9i~'Ii in which the visarga occ,m ing "t the end of tbe first i member is noticed <13 changed into '1 agallist the usual rules ; e.g. ~:, I if.fn<:'fiff: ,;jIg,63,'lif:, ti"H9iT~:, \:l~l'liq~-r. I an~i~ dh,-rs; ct. P. VIII. 348. As I t hi.:, 'Ii~'Ii[R<r1Tf is said 'to b~ ;;:rl~fu'l:, simildr words can be sa"d to be III ! the 'lit'liITGJrITf althoush tlley are not actually mentioned in the '11Tfrm;. I


~~ a.


cpT a

tEchnical term used in the i Jainendra VyakaraI,la for the term ~lft used in PUIJini's grammar.



tad. afilx 'filUs prescribed _after i words like <rqt, ?!iTf, 'fiil in the sense .of BILl[ ; cL ~~<{: (v. l. 1:.qTf.;;~<i:) Ciilull:, Kas. on P. IV. 2.5 I

important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the A~tadhyayi of pa1)mi. It ign~r~s many unimportant rules of PaI,ll~l, adjus!s many, and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of PaI,lini. It probably be~ IOn'-'ed to Aindra system as opposed b . to l\laheSvara system. It is also explained as Kasakrtsnatantra. .It la \ s down the Siltras in an order di'fferen~ from that of Pa1)ini dividina the work into four adhyayas de~ling with technical terms, samdhi Iules, declension, syntax, compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes) conjugation, voice, and verbal derivatives in an order. 'J.he total number of rules is 14I2 sup- \ plemente9- by many subord.ina~e rules or Varttikas. The treatIse IS believed to have been written by . Sarvavarman, called Sarvavarman or Sarva or Sarva, who is said to have lived in the reign of the S1i.tavah" na kings. The belief that P8I,lini refers to a work of Kalapin in his rules IV. 3.108 and IV. 3.43 and that Patafijali's words <@i:Pill:. and *iliHC/TTa'lill:. support it, hasnot,much strength. The work was very popular especialiy among those Wh,a wanted to study spoken SanskrIt with ease and attained for several years a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especi,illy iIi Behar, Bengal and Gujarat. It has got a large number of glosses andcommeptary works, many of which are in a manuscript form at



the author of it. See qlt~p;JT{j!ll[ ed. by B. O.R. I. Poona.
Cf;lQ';;!' ascribed to Sripatidatta,


------_._._-----a work on the Katantra Siitras ascribed to Ramiinatha Vidyiiviicaspati of the sixteenth century A.D. a work, explaining the various forms of nouns and verbs according. to the. rules of the Katantra grammar, a!';cribed, to Bhavasenaoftbe fifteenth century. gloss on the Katantra Sutras. ascribed to a scholar named Chucchukabhatta. commentary. on Durgasiritha's KiHantravrtti by. Mok~esvara in the fifteeenth century A.D. I
cpm;:~Ii'Q1~rnamed A~tamarigala

I ,

whose date is not definitely known; from a .Dumber of glosses written on tbis work, it appears that the work was Once very pop.ular among students of the Katantra School.
~qftf~~:;:rf;~ a gloss on the Katantra-Parjsi~ta ascribed to a scholar named Ramadasa~cakra': vartin who has written another work alsoilamed Katantravyakhyasara.
q;1Q'~qf{~lriTcm a



on Durgasitl1ha's Katimtravrtti, .written by Ramakisora Cakravartin who is believed to have written a grammatical work ~r<i~~lT'IiIfuCfiT. I

<!iT6~~ijiRf a short

Cf;lQ"..;Jf.{ijiii by Jinaprabhasuri of the

a work of the type' of a summary written by Ramadasa Cakravartin of the twelfth century.

gloss on the Katantra-Parisi~ta written by a Katantra scholar PUl)<;larlkak~a. on the

KiHaZltraparisi~ta, by Goyicandra

il>1Q'~~~irmo a

thirteenth renttiry is a general work on Kiitantra grammar~ A grammarian called Ciirlttasirilha has written a commentary ( avaciiri I on it.
<fi1~fElq~ a

CfiTa;:;r~r~, an

in thc twelfth century.

CfiRI~qRM(rfl<1;g:r.a~~ a gloss on the Katantra-parisi~ta by Siva-

commentary on the Kiitantravistara of Vardhamana by Prthvidhara who lived in the fifteenth century A.D.

old 'i/rtti on the I{atantra Siitras ascribed to Vararuci who is, of' co'urse, different from Vararuci Katyayana. The VrHi appears to have been occupying a position similar to that of D urgasiIilha.

ramendra,-who is believed' to 1)a ve written a gloss on the Sutras of PaDini also.

q;T~;:~Slf;n;qr a name given to the Kii-

tantra Sutras which were written in the original form as a Prakriyagrantha or a work discussing the various topics such as alphabet, euphonic rules, declension, derivatives from nouns, syntax, conjugation', derivatives from roots etc. etc.
Cf;l~.mftq a grammar work' written . by a scholar named KasaJa on the IGi.tantrasiitravrtti by Durgasirpha. See 'IiIQ;:~qf~r.

CfiT~~ a famous commentary on Durgasirilba's .IGitantravrtti written by Vardhamana a Jain Scholar of the twelfth century who is believed to be the same as the author of the well-known \vork Ga1)aratnamahodadhi.
~'ifu name of the" earliest com-

il>1~"ij~ a treatise on the Katantra Grammar believed to have been written by Vidyananda, or Vijayananda who lived in the eleventh qmtury.

to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark &<lff~m . &,1&l1llRlll: made by. PatafijaJi in connection with the statemtnt lll!l'T ~I~~~%~' which is Katyi:ryana's Varttika. Katya refers to Sakatayana and Sakalya (see Vaj. Pra. III. 9 ) and mentions Vajapyayana ( 1. 2.64. Va. 35). VyaQi ( on P. 1.2.64 Vii. 45) and Pau'~karasadi (on P. 8.4.48). The authorship ofPratijiiasutra and Bha~jkasiitra is attributed to him. lie is called Vakyakiira and Madhyamamuni. Some scholars say that Vararuci was also another name given to him, in which' case the Varttikakara VararQci .Katyayana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Katantra grammar are ascribed. For details see 1\rahiibhii.~ya Vol. VII. pages 193-223 published by the D. E. Society, Poona. See also CflffiCfiqlo below.

an ancient writer of Nirukta quoted by Yaska in his Nirukta.

'li'R'!4' ( I)

<p~f<?;itf'C!ifr a short explanatory gloss on the KiHantra Siitras by Jagaddhara of Kashmir who lived in the fourteenth century and who wrote a work on grammar called Apasabdanirakara1).a.

mentary on KIHantra~iihas. The commentary ascribed to Durgasirilha was popular as proved by a number of commentaries upon it, one of which is writtel} by Durgasirhha himself. Some of these commentaries areSi~yahil a or N y~sa by Ugrabhiiti, lGitantrapaiijika by Trilocanadasa, Katantra,vistara' by Vardhamana, Klitantrap"risi~t4ika of PUI;l<;larIldik~a and a gloss by another Durgasirilha.

,mother name sometimes given to Katyayana to whom is a5cribed the composition of the Varttikas on Pal)ini-siitras; ( 2 ) an ancient writer Katya quoted as a lexicographer by K~irasvamiD, Hemacandra and other wliters. Pataiijali honours him by the words
'1lTifji~mr~41ll"s ~ I

affix alFf forming perfect participles which are mostly seen in Vedic Li terature. The affix 'liliI"t. is technically a suLstitute for: the fu;~ affix. Nouns ending in 'iiTiI"I{.govern the accusative case of 'the nouns ,connected with them; e.g. Brn ~!l911ll:; d. P. III. 3.106 ~lDd P. I~. 3.69. augment an"'!:. applied to tr-u!hI:. just as ~i5 applied, e.g.; anfmla-4 ~. rr~ rvi. Bh. on V. 3.72.




13M. on III.


I <l>li"S1'~Je~tqoTr a

gloss on <fTtffllM~ written by GU1).akirti in the feurteenth century A.D.

the well-known author of the Varttikas on the sutras of PUDini'l He is also believed to be the author of . the Vajasaneyi Prati- j' 'iiT+fif~ abridgment of <fi(~<fil;r:qi1 of Bopadeva; the word is also used as sakhya and many J~iitra works named after him. He is believed a short form for CfiMCfill'I~.

option; permission to do as desired; liberty of applying any of the rules of grammar that pr~sent themselves; ct. G~ <fim'"iT~ ~~l+irUr.r err R~ffi; fq~~si ar~<r 'iT M. Bh. on P.I.I.27 Vart. 6.

<iif+r:~~:n~1:[R~ a commentary' on, ,the Kavvtikamadhelluby Ananta, ,son of CintamaIfi who lived in the sixteenfh century A. D.
CliTmJ:: 0pUQnal"ty; a t will; d. 9ilfTIlRrfct~=rt err M. Bh. on 1. 1.57.

9i~'f. and 9it! to express wbich the


in the sense of ( desiring for ones~H applied to nouns to form denominative 'roots; e. g. ~~9iI';<!fu; cf 9i1 1 <Rj P.,III, I.9. works ,and, by Katyajiana also in his Varttika, which is added to a letter or a pbonetic element for convenience of mention; e g. l{9iH.::, ;a9il~;; d. qut: 9itiJ~iJ cl')'11~; q!f,9iIU iif?t~T TaL Pra. 1. 16; XXII. 4-; d. also V. Pr. I,37. It is also applied to syllables or wOidsin a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the WOld; e.g. <Iff U;q9i!\~om;::<!:jrq \f!\:U]+T, Vyak. Par\bha~a; d. also the words "'I9iI\::, N9ill::; (2) additional purpose served hy a word such as an adhikara word; d. 3fN9i: 9iT~: I 't.cfR,Qmit'tTl "I Qft(1c<rT ~;;rf.CT M. Bh. on

<iiH' an affix, give,n in 1he Prati~iikhya

ca!;e affixes, orVibbaktis q~, "i'g~, fiRm. l!'fi<!T, r~ijt<!T and ;r~m are respectively used which, hence~ are called Karakavibhaktis, as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktisi, which show a relation between two substantives ~nd,hence arelboked upon as weaker than the Karakaviohaktis; cf. ~QQ"P-r+r~: 9iR9iP-r+rR.<iil<l'd{ Pa ri. Sel;:. Pari. 94. The topic explaining IGirakavibbaktis is IO'oked .upon as a very important and, difficult chapter in treatises of glammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealirg with karakas only~ For the topic of Karakas see P. I. 4.23 to 55, Kat. II. 4.8-42, Vyakaral)il Mahabhaya Vol. VII. pp.Z62-264 ,published by the D. E. Society, PoDna.
CliRCliClilftCliT possibly another name for the treatise on Karakas known as 9i1\:9i"'1';n written by Puru~ottamadeva , the reputEd grammarian of Bengal who lived in the latter half of the twelfth century A.D. See 9iI\9i"!!li.

The verse portion of the Karakacakra of which the pro~e portion appears like a commentary might be bearing the 'name Karakakaumudi. '

ci~ a \vork on Karakas ascribed to Bhairava.


CliR'~fir~ case affix goveriled hya verb or verbal derivative as constrasted with ;31:J1l'G:~+r~ a case affix governed by" a nOUD, not, possessing . any verbal activity. Seethe word 'llH:ifi a.bove. See also the word ~~~~'qi. . ~ti~mWi the dictum that " a IGiraka case is stronger than an Upapada case, e.g. the accusative case as required by the word qfT~t<I, which is stronger than the dative case as required by the word <i+f:. Hence the word gf<i'3f4 has to be used in the sentence gf<i;;j~ <lli~ and not the word ~o!<jr<! cf. ;a<[q<:{RWfa-': 9i1\9i~+rf?r~;qtft Pari. Sek. Pari. 94. '

a treatise on, the topic of Karakas written by CakrapaIfise~a, belonging to the famous Se~a family of grammarians, who lived in the seventeenth century A~D.

<iiHCfif.lal~ a work diccussing the various Karakas from the Naiyayika viewpoint written by the well-kno\vn Naiyayika, Gadadhara Chakrav,artin of Bengal, who was a pupil of J agadiSa and, who flourished in the 16th century A. D. He is looked upon as one of the greatest scholars of Nyayasastra. His main literary work was in the field of Nyayasastra on which he has written several treatises. ~(<t>qR...@ar a work dealing with Karakas ascribed to RudrabhaHa.
<t>T{CPq~ name given bySira4eva and other grammarians t) the fourth pada of the first adhyaya of PaI).ini's A~tadhyayi which begins with the Sutra 'lil\ifi I.4.! and which deals with the Kanikas or auxili'aries of action.

~~T~ an anonymous elementary

work on syntax explaining the nature ~nd function of the six Karakas.
<iiRClim<ii known

P. I.


CliR'CP~ a work on the Katalltra

grammar discussing the Karaka lit. doer of an action. The , portion. word is used ill th,e tpchnical !iense of 'instrument of action'; d. 9iJ\9i- <iil~~u:g., also c1.Jled ~~r(9i<a01F! riJ~~ r.rm~q<!1<r: I . 9ilvii ~g1tffi qpqt+fOZ<'{ which is a portion of the 'oVl':. I 9i\1l' ~g: I fffi~T<!r: Kas. on P. I. author's bigger ,york named ~ 4.23; d. also9iH9i ~fff ct~lftl~~: I flNofi 'q'<i'q'~9iT. The work is a discourse iif~-a-ofi 9iR9iti~ iT<fm I ].1. Bh; on P. I. on the six kalakas written by 4.23. The wonl ' ldhaka' in short, I l\laIfikaJ)tha, a grammarian of the means 'the capacity in \\'hich a ; Katalltra school. He has also thil;lg h:ccmes instrumental in brinwritten another treatise named gingabout-an action'. This capacity Kiirakavidira. is looked upon as the sens of the case-affix'3s which express it. M. Clil~~ (I) written by Puru~otta Blla. Ahu. I rders to seven Karamadeva a reputed grammarian of kas; cpo fltml:~m: BRP-r+r'qi;q: I cpo Bengal who wrote many works on also IIi. Blla. Dipika. p. 13. There grammar of which the Bha~1ivrtti, are six karakas given-in all grammar the Paribhal?avrtti and Jfi1ipakasatreatises. 3fQT"Fr, ~>!'D'l, 3fN9i\:01, 9i\Ill, i muccaya deserve a special mention.

as 9iR9i1fl<:{ also; a short work on the meaning and relation of words written by JaY!I-ramabhaltacarya who lived in 1he beginning of the eighteenth century. The work forms the concluding portion of a larger work .calJed 9i1\'fi~ which was written by roiJ+rT'Uj+r~"i'[i{. The work Cf.l\9i1fl<:{ has a short cpmmentary written by the author himself.
the same as 9iR9i1fra:o<rT~T written by ;;;<!lJ+['+!~r~. See 9iR9i-


(I) a treatise discussing the several K1irakas, written by Kr~Ifasasbi Arac;1e a famous Naiyayika of Benares who lived in the eighteenth century' A.D; (2) a treatise on syntax written by JayaramabhaHacaryawhich is called 9iT~9ifcf.!9i also, which see below.

~~;:'Cf)tuTQ a short work on syntax by Rabhasanandin, a BU'ddhist grammarian of Bengal who lived in the tenth century.

<m~"i:lIl~ (I) a work on Karakas as-

'~ a verse or a line or lim s in metrical form giving the gist of the cribed to MaIfikaI).tha. See Karaexplanation of a topic; cf. ~&:rI'HtSf kakhaIfQ.anamaIf9ana above. (ii) lif~l:'t'i"'l9i:.<@l9i 9itR9iT: Padavyavasthaname of a work by CakrapaIfise~a. sfitrakarika of Udayakirti.

q:;Tfta _( I)

-a commeot"y in ve<se


which should be done, used in connection with a grammatical operation; d. "IiffI t((~ t11i+ft"liI~I~: I ar1r6lf ~~('fW ~f.f o:r.m~1'tm-1 R. Pr. XIV. 16; d. also ~!fR1it~ q-t <f.[~~P. 1. 4-2; (3) a grammatical operation as for instance in the phrases ~:nr4. ll)~, ~~~ etc.; d. alsollfUf!P~1iclt tr~!t "Ii[tru!f{Y:Jll: Par. Sek. Pari. IS ; ( 4) object of a transitive verb; d. ~'1: <f.r4 Sak.

presentation or manifestation of the time which is called +!T;jT or 9i!<i51l1':lT, varions objects in the Universe. lit. measurement of time; (2)_ degree of a vowel,the vowels being ~ctSTiiTi:if time in general; unspecified looked upon as possessed of three time; d. <t-a-ifl~ ~~: <f.f~F{~ <! degrees 1IJ{<l, tfIfi, and ~ff measured . !fImm- I Kas. on P. IiI. 3.142. ' respectively by one, two and three matras; cf. ~ritS'i!j:{~tfIf{t9ff: P. I. 1 Ii't~r+r~~ name of the commentary by Bopci.cieva Oll his o\\,n work ifi~ 2.27; t 3) time notion in general, : 'fI,;!qa+i". See "Iifct~q~l1. . expressed in connection with an activity in three \vays past (~), ctr~~ ancient grammarian referpresent (Cj~I1!i1), and future (+r~~), ted 19 ineariier grammatiCal works to show which the terms~; ~-a-i:rT'lT I like l\Iahabhii!?ya ~frq~jii'.~ I "IiT~~1 and +l~(ir..m were used by ancient (Paspasiihnika ). Bopadeva nifers gni.i:nmarians; cf. the \vords ti~ifirg, to him, in the beginriing of Kavi<!ij{ifif<i5; also d. .qrfUJ~::{Cfil<i5;fi kalpadruma, as one of the eight CCfI"Ii\Il'l;i: Ita';. on P. IL 4.2 I; (4-) grammarians. iGiSika suggests, by place of recital ( qr;5't~) depending the words f;f'.fi<iit~~t'.r(1 (P; V. ori the time. of recital; d. q ~;f;t<i5: 1.58 ). that the .\vork of Kasakrtsna ~ifil~ ~: (V. Pro III. 3) a dictum had three arlhyiiyas. In the Wt{U]T1{ similar to PaI).ini's. ~~Iffi:aii: P. and ~~ GaI)as we get the name VIII. 2.I. (5) See Yak. pad. III. Kasakrtsli<;t. According to Helaraja g. I to I14. on V~k. jytd. ill. 14.564 Kasakrtsna did riot aCCf"pt the sutra ?:~~ I P. _ ~ 'l- word riot sanctioned uy . i:ules V. I. II7; of grammar. The ,-vord probably refers to the corruption taking place q;J~~~c; 'iIlg'n;:;a Jist of roots written in connection with the use of a wOl,:-d by Kasai<rtsna-, a pre-Piil)inian on account of lapse of time; d. grammarian whuse four sutras of a "IiT<i5~f '31lf~~t: Durgh. Vr. on II. 2.6. ! Satra patha work are available. The Dhiitupatha is available with a comsignifying time; cf. mentary by CannaYira l~avi in fri~:fr"lir: !f('l<JT ~ ?; m?; i?:~ lt~~ll:. Kannaqa language. The work C:iiT~'i~~T a Siksii work (Madras which has another name Sabdamss. no. 891, 892 ) composed before I kalapa, has 130 satras. Hhas nine the thirteenth century. It has 'a gaI)as, the ~it(<iTf?: having ,been in. commentary named KalanirI}aya.- I cluded under i>l?:IT't class. There are dipika of 1\Iuktisvaradirya. about 250 reots in the work, 500 more than those in PfiI)inlya Dhiitu<iii'~ difference in the time of utterpatha. ance ; cf. ~ff,,<!it fct9R~If?:m I if ~q: liTm~ a class of words headed by the <f.1i;i;w.:I<tftr I M. Bh. on Siva Satra I. word 'fI~ to which the taddhita affix ~~ interval of time; cf. 3lr;:<i'1fS"~ i(<i5 is affixed in the four senses stated , S! CfiI<i5'<1~<j'lTllln; I <;;<j9T<r1~ I qtr.i in P.IV.2.67-70 e.g. "IiTf.1~, <f,~m~<l" etc.; d. Kiis. on P.IV.2.80. t M. Bh. on Siva Sutra I. _

Bhii.!?ya-Vartikas: ancient term for the causal VikaraI)a, ( fill'i:J',. in PiiQini's grammar and q in IGitantra); (2) causal or causative as applied to roots ending in flJ]'<l:,.or words derived from such roots called also' I)yanta ' by the fOllowers of PiiI)ini's grammar; cf. ~~ "Iilful" 'tTlc9~ Kat. III. 2.9, explained as 'tTTt9<1~<JT<!m !!~ W +r'lre 'tTR9";,j- 13 "'i "IirR-cr~~"Ii: I C!>. also tl;it: "Iirlta- 'i'f ar~ ~ 'i'f I 1.13. the word "Iira~r:;jq, which are all dvandva compounds, and which have their first member retaining its own accent; e.g. "Ii1-a-ifir;;jqJarr~I'I"IiT: etc. d. Kas. on P. VI. 237


~CfiT~ along with the operation; d.

~~rrtjft+rTll'~, rules laying down technical terrr.s and-regulating rules are to be interpreted along with the rules that prescribe or enjoin operations (provided the technical terms occur ill those rules, or; the regulating rules concern those rules). See Pari. Sek. Pari 3.


Efml.mqjqyr~ a class of wo~ds headed by

<nir~<:f the originr.l instructor of the

Katantra or I(iilapa Grammar to Sarvavarman who composed the Satras according to inl'\piration received. -by him. The Kutantra, hence, has also got the name Kaumara VyakaraQa.
Cfinr.rrmCli the word is found used in

~(!;trR:+rTr:rr one of the important

regarding the applica- . tion of the Paribhii!?a rules. See "IiT~"Ii[ii5. For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 3.
~11<:l~ Paribha~as,

Yaska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word m'li{\ whc:re it means 'belonging to nouns derived from roots ("Iiil<!r+r)' like tfT'i'f"Ii, "Iiq"li etc. The changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words Le. words showing action are termed "Iir-.r.ntrlCfi~<JiR; d. "Iiil~ i1TI1 Cfiil"<!111 I crfu!CJ: +r9: "Iil~'llm"li: Durgavrtti on Nir. I. 13.

looking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake ofoperations that are caused by the presence of the original; the word is used in contrast with ~::mfuit~ where actually the original is' restored in t.he place of the substitute on certain conditions. For details see ~:rahabha!?ya. on ft;:cf'l~R P. I. 1.59






(I) brought into exist~nce by activity (~<jllT f.r,!~ <f.1~1I:.) as oppos- . 'iiT(!; notio~ of time created by different ed to fi1{Y:J eternal; d. !l;~ 9u]1~ ~T-'I{Rl . contacts made by a thing with <f.1<J::. i1 <f.fqr~ R. Pr. XIII. :}; cf. aha other things one after another. qSI 'i'f ll~<rlttr <f.f<lf: (~<GT:) (iP.lTtit ~~~ . Time required for the utterance of M. Bh. on I. r.44 Vart. 17; (2) ; a short vowel is taken as a unit of

the word or wording that undergoes the operation; ct. wIT ~ '!i1FrUJ: 9iT~1l'l +!fcrn;;<j~ M. Bh. on I. I. r. Viirt. 7, also <f.r~I1!l+lCj<J::. m <f.1<ir .f;;jt?r~ff<fT <!T~<i1 Par. 8ek. Pari. ro. .


q;1~~'IT V~k ..pad. I.U, g..1-1l4. fhe .... sectlon dealmg WIth tIme as the 5upreme force in the matter of the

om~l"IiT ( I ) name given to the reputed

. gloss (IlRl ) on the Siitras lif PaI}ini written by the joint authors Jaya-


:Vfiin~nri.:iri' the' ~7th century A.D; Nbthiri g deflnit:ely' can , be 'sa'id~' as: ,to ... whi'!::h;, :pottion ,was written by;-]ayadity'a'arid which by Vamana, or: the, wtiol work :was 'Som~ scholars jointly 'written. 'believe th~t the work w'as caJied Kaslka as it was written in the city of Kasi and that the' glo~s on the "first five Adhyayas was written byJayadityaand :tbat on the last three by.,Vamana. Although it is written in a, scholarly way, the work forms an excellent belp to beginners to understand the sense of tbe pithy SOtras ofPaniI}.i. ' The work has, not only deserved but ,obtained, and" main tamed a very prominent position among students and scholars of,PaQIDi's ~ram mar in spite Qf other works like the Bha~avrtti, the PcakciyaKaumudi, the Siddhanta Kaumudi andotbers written by equally learned sC,hcilars. Its wording is based almost on the, ~lahabha~ya, wbich it has ftill~\ved, aVOIdirig, of course, the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in theMahabha~ya. Traditionally it is called Q;ifiiRr because it is a common treatise on Vedic and classical grammar. It has' derived great help from Candravrtti. It appears that many commentary woik13 were written on it, the wellknown among them being the KiisikavivaraI}.apafijil<i:i or Nyasa written by Jinendrabuddhi and tbe Pada- , m<;LDjad by Haradatta. For details see Vj akdraI}.amahabhii~ya Vol. VI! pp 286-87 published by the D.E. Society, Poona. (2)' The name Kaslka is sometimes found given I to their commentarie,; on standdrd WOlks o~ Sanskrit, Grammar by scholdrs,' as possibly they were written at Kasi; as for instance,
a) Kffsikipn VaiyakaraJ;labhO~ana san!. '~b)7 Hari :bik~ita, and' ( b ) . K8:~ikaon Paribha~endu~ekhar~ by 'Vaiayanatha payagU~Qe. ' Literature added to roots endiQg ;in an, tbe root~, and th'e roots ,iJ~. "'~' and,~ ~ e.g. q-fil,: Wi; ~R:, \;i/VIl: etc., ct. P. III. 2.171; (2) a term used in the J ainendra VyakaraI}.a for t~e' term ~~."

tute for tlie .first vowel in the word to which they are added.
~at marking'wiihthe mute letter'fillqrr, also 'calle~

Nyasa, . the well-known commentary written byjineridrabuddhi on the Kasik. of Jdyaditya and Vamana, See 'Kasika above. a commentary Kasikii, by Ramiuriisra. ' on


a formderlved from' thepro,noun fcli~~ ct. fclim~,f~i~ !Iil~i1 fff[~~ Sf~lf~, 'tf '\ Kas. on P. VIII. I.48.

'J,or 'looking upon as marked with mute i!! for purposes mentioned above; ( see ~~<l bove ). The" word is often used in the Mahiibha~ya; see M.Rh. onI~ 1.3,5,46; I. 2. 5.~c.

~ krt ~ffix ~ prescribed along with See
.~ above. The affix ~ causes the' acute accent on the first vowel of {he' word ending wifh it, while tbe affix 'ki '( if) has itseif the acute accent on itsvowe). ~.

~<iiT<lRH.:nt a commentary on' the Kasikavrtti named a:r~ffi{,rn- by ViiraI}.avatesa-sastrin :or VaraI}.ava" nesa~
~, '"arne' of an ancient gramma-

nan quoted by paI}.mi, possibly an , author of some Pratisakhya~ork now lost.

'f\\i;~f$I~ a c1as~ of words headed by the word ~q;, which get their final vowel lengthened when: the wordFTR' is placed after ihem as a second member of a compound, ' provided the, word so for~ed 'is used as a proper noun; e. g. ~~_ ifiIfilft:, o!!IfI;:!TFT~:; d. Kat onP.' VI. 3. 11 7. .' ,.

~~iRT name of an anonymous gloss on, theCiindra VyakaraI}.a. '

ifitiMl~ a class of words headed by the words 9lTfu, 'i.f~, and otbers to which the taddhita affixes oor. and R-6' are added in the miscellane~us senses; e. g. <!irf~cfa; <!il~ ,~~1 , -.., <lP.t<!if etc.; cf. Ras. on P. IV. 2.Il6. The fern. affix '~ is applied when the affix '60{, is added to the word CfiTfu; cf. P: IV. ,1.15.

q;mrft{ a class of words headed by

,the WOld q;rg after which a word standing as a second member in a compound gets the grave accentfor it, e. g. <!irgl'c<!\'lf'ii:, tf{SlII1l!lqcn: etc. cf. P. VIII. I.67'

fc!; (1) krt affix !{ prescribed after ~ roots 'With a prefix attached; e.g. >r~: SfRr: cf. P.III.3.92, 93; (2) krt. affix l{ looked upon as a perfect termination and, hence, causing reduplJcao tion and accusative case of the noun connected. found in V~d~c

headed by the root ~, viz. tbe five roofs ~,~, II. 'i, a;nd ~ a~ter which tbe desideratlve SIgn, I.e. the affix~. gets the , . '" ,!, augment ~ (~);, e. g. ftr'!iR~fa', ~ (, I) .mar~e,d wl~h the m~t~ l~tt~r I:, WrRu>ifu'. ctKas. on P. VII. 2.75. 'l!whlch IS apphed byPaQIDl to '\ ' , affixes, for preventing' gUQa and f.f;~uftt, ~rftt a, d,ass ,of words vrddhi substitutes to the pre- I, headed by meaningsp!U e ki~d ceding !!.~ vowel ({, '3, !!j\ or w:); of scent, whIch get the taddhlta d. f~ 'ii, P. 1.1.5; (2) ,con- i affix ~ (gO{) applied to them sidered or Ioo~ed upon, as marked i when the word so formed means with mute indicatory iii for, pre-: ' 'a dealer of that thing;' e. g. venting gUI}.a; d. 3ffi'<ITm~ fcliq: 'ffl;~ftq;:, f9:,<{],Rcfa;' cf; Kiis. on P. and the following P. I. 2.5 etc. IV. 4.53. The affixes of the fiist type are for cm~~r.t Kielhcrn F., a sound scholar instance 'ffi, '!t<l'T, f'RIii;, and others. of Sanskrit Grammar who brought The affixes of the second type are out excellent editions of the Patanj. given mainly jn the second pada of alaMahabha!?~Ta and the Paribha~ the first Adhyaya. by PiiQini. Beendusekhani. and wrote an essay sides the prevention of gUI}.a and on the VaJ;ttikas of Katyayana. In .vrddhi, affixes marked with ~ or a number of articles' in Indian affixes called~, cau~e SariJprasaAntiquary he' discussed topics like raQa (see P. VI. 1.15,16 ), elision Gonardiya and GOQikii.putra, Kasiof the penultimate 0{ ( P. VI. 4. 2 4), ka.'s indebtedness to Candra gr!1melision of the penultimate vowel mar, Piijyapada and Sakatiiyana ( P. VI. 4.98,100), lengtbening of etc. For details see Patafijala Mabiithe vowel (VI. 4.15 ), substitution ulia~ya Vo!. VII. p. 4o~ D. E. , of 6i ,( VI. 4.19.2I), elision of tbe society edition, Poona. final nasal ( VI. 4.37 ), substitution of all ( VI. 4.4z). The taddhita ~ ( I) guttural class of consonants, i. e. the consonants % <a" ll:., 11i.., '{. affixes which are marked with The vowel a- added to ~, signifies mute i!' cause the Vrddhi substi-

~ a clas;; ~froots



the class of,~. e. g. ~~;, ~ ferol!ru. ~7.. tad. affix ~lll added to words of 352, IVII. ~l VII. 4.62, ~:~: in t~e sense of C ripened VIII. 230, ~'i;:5fe~rll~ ~:; VIU. 62 condition', decoction etc.; e.g. ifI9ct. 3f?Jf~HWjj~ iq{~<!:P. 1 ~69; . ~Uf:=tfh:t.,t IfT~: d. P., V. 2.24. ( 2) substitute ~ for N;~ cf. P~ VII. ~\::;Y~q nal1Je of an ancient gram10 2. 4. m'l.rian who Jived possibly~fter ~ aug!Dent'l!'( I) addeq to., at Pii.Qini apd befIJre Pata fij ali and the end of a word before a sibilant who is referred to in the Mah1iG ietter; e.g. m~~ij-; cf~ VIII.3.28; , bhii~ya as giving an alternative ( 2) added to the wdrds ,lH'tal:d form for the standard form of cer.. 3fF.rtm: before the affix ~CJ:. ~ for the tain words; ct. ~1Jj~9T~'iW:i'T~ ~lifT :a~ forinationof the words cmr;fi'r and '<1lT11lT :M. Bh. on III. 2 14; cr, also i31Rr3r~. cf. P. V. 2. 12 9; (3) add~UI~~T~q<;('inr ~ ,infr.,{: I ~ft I f<t~ ed to words of the.,~ group before Q;q: :M. Bh. on VII. 3.1. the tad. affix ~ (~<!), e.g . .,:g;f.r<!~, . .=A f P IV 2.~p. ~i1f name of7an ancient Vrttikara on g'U'fll<!~; c " the Sfitras of Pii.Qini, mentioned 'in ~Ffirn a commentary. by Siva. tpeir works by Kaiyata and. Harabhatta . on Haradatta's'~ Padadatta; cf. Kaiyata's Pradipa on P. maniari. ; cL 1.74. also Padamaiijari on 1. 1.1. the =f.ifIlTffi:m~l! named Piirl?adavyakhyii.
~~:n{1~do;tiau~ffi a phrase used in the .


( cause ) ; cf. T~ill'ij~~<!~~ ~;<!f![Il~ I ~Ii~~'ilf!r ~ q~IU +T9fiff, ~m~T

~;:ftfu' I 3ff:~:q.~~~~, I



gloss on the Cfirer':lf by Durgasirilha : to give along with the definItion of. ~qtr~ a class of words headed by the f<i~~;fr<! or f<itltr a graphic descripword 'fi'i to which the taddhita affix tion of it as shown in script; d. ~ (1111 ) is added in the sen~e of . i1q~ Kat. l. I.I6 com. or descendant ; e.g. ;fi1~:'W~: etc. cf. Kas. P. IV~ I.ISI: ~~fif a class of words ( I ) consisting . of ~<::, ~W, ;:<!iltl:T etc. to which the , ~~ a kind of svarabhakti ; see ifif~uft. taddhita affix 6-i'i.. is applied in the four genses given in P. IV. 2.67-70; ~~ a grammarian possibly of the Katantra school. He is said to e.g. li!Ire.Cfi+(, ~<iil1." etc.; (2) con have written a work called Katansisting of ~":{ mii<!, \::q<iil~ etc. to traprakriya. Bha~toji his Sabdawhich tbe taddhita affix ~<ii (6il!) is kaustubha on 11.3.36 quotes ~frapplied in the senses referred to in 9Iif<!ll'iI~ g ~6"l"ll:~:rl~ "mliT 3T~qr: ( I); e~g. 'fi~f?:'fi+I., U:.r<iiIR<m., etc, cf. ~~<fi't iJil:" I Kiis. on P. IV. 2.80.

onP. VII.




(I) a cornmentary on Na:gesa's substitutionpf the consonants 'Laghumafijii~a by KH.Qamisra; the "li class or g'llttural conson~nts. ( 2) a commentary on' Niigea';s Paribhal?endusekhara by Durbalii~ ?FID derogation; 'consideration of carya. inferiority.; the sense of derogation ~~Ift( a class words headed by ~ or the lik,e which is conveyed by a to which the taddhita llffix 3fI<!" substantive in addition to its own (:e~) is applied in the Sf;nse of ~ sense, the affi ~ ( <ii) being added '" iQ the sen~e of the substantive itself Le. grandchildren etc. e.g. 'fi1(fif<!.,T:i ' - on P . I~T. 1.9. (~'iT~ ) cpo Vak. pad. Ill, 1.4I. f c. K as. t





~;~ a class of words h~aded by ~,;:+rq{r in \"hich the word 'iT" at the end of the compound is changed into 1fT" and further changed into qi\.. befo~e the feminine affix t e.g. !'!i++rq{r, ~qq{t, ~q{r, tnitp1} etc.; d. Kiis. on P.V+ 138, 139. r

~~T1?iTRir a. class of words headed by

the word T6 to which the taddhita affix 3T<fi (~) is applied in the sense of C made by " proviqed the word so formed is. used as a proper noun; e.g. i'r61~; 'il<ia<li+f,; ct. Kas. on IV.3. II8.


~+rT"fI;::q~!q a maxim regarding an

~i!r~ a group of roots headed by the

root ~ of the VIth conjugation after which an affix which is neither

~N~n.l~ffi the rule~~t1~ (P.

V. 3.74) of Pa.Qini which prescribes the affix ~(<ii) in the selnse of derogation.

.~ nor MQ. becorr,es f~; and CiS a result prevents. the substitution of !lUi or 'i~ for the preceding vowel;

~~Tf~ a fatuous grammarian of

the eighteenth century who wrote some works on grammar of which the IfR<lf!!l+nW is au independent t rea t' on Pan"bh-Ise a~as.

~ffi, ~ftg~ 1 d. m~Tf~:~:<jTS~.

f;iFn:, I. 2.I.
~~~ name given' by Siradeva and
later grammarians to the second pada of the first adhyaya of PaQini's Mtadhyayi, as the pada begins with the SUira iJ1~~F-urfi6n:, P. I.

a word containing a guttural letter in it; d. ~iir :q P. VIII. 4.13,

~~R' ' ( I)


tad. affix

~r\ 'added to a:{'i,



d.P. V.2.30.

Kartikeya who is believed . to have given inspiration to the Katantra-sfitrakiira to write the Katantra-Siitras; (2) named Vi~.Qu. mitra who wrote a commentary On

ascetic brahmin who has grains only in (or measured by) pots. ;frfa, P. VIIf. 42 Viiri. 4, 5: Such a person is called ~;+l1<nr: ;;l'W-f<l: I If he has grains stored else- ~~.g name' of a grammarian who where also he cannot be called wrote aCOlllmentary on the Katan~;:+l1l:TF<!:. [The roots fui\.., f+ii\.. have travrttipafijika ; see'fim;:3f.~~'fiT. another lelter as~, over and above ~~T~~ the maxim regarding the ~ which is also ~n:,. Henc;e!!~ will person sinking in a well. When a 11;)t be a substitute :to these roots person sinks in awell,be is soiled which would have been the casc I wUh dust and dirty water. But according to P. VII. r.s8 j. ! when at the' proper depth he gets I clean water, he be~omes cleaner with ~ krt. affix ~ a pplied to the -roots II the help of that water. Similarly ' f.T<l.:, f+ri\.. and fui\..; e.g. f<i~<.:: I ~~ I when a person learns corrupt words f-~~~<r.1 cf.-lUiS. on P. III. 2.162., he accrues great demerit. However, ~ a term found in the Briihma.Qa with the knowledge of correct \vords, works and used by ancient gramhe is not only free from the earlier marians for t the present tense', demerit but also to the stock of his merits. cpo M, Bh. Paspasa~~~ effective or efficient, as opposed hnika, vart. 9. to dormant, as applied to firill'ij

~~EfFf interventi(;}Il by a Jetter of the guttural class;. d. <!<H~rn~~ >rfu'tt~ q'io c<!: l>r~~ 'iSlE<]: lil'C<1: >rTEfT-



121is" mostly used in this sense in grammar works; e.g. 1~ ~<f '\!iff,~fi'(; <lT~ii{r1::'fiier~<fil~9GO{. Par.Sf:'k. Pari 6.
~ artificial; technical, as opp,osed

~ (I)

rootti in the of actiyity ;, ( 2) ,pratyiiharaor short form-for the, three .roots iti,~ and 3i'd, cf;itilijl!1~:a;';<:Rf~fZ P. IlL 1. to.

g~neral ~ense

I !

\Per. lit. activity ; a, term used in the

grammars of PaJ}.ini and olhers for affixes applied to roots to form . / ...... verbal derivatives; cf. ~~~ I liflGr: nl~I<I,~) ~~~<fil=t ffl'll''iMer: ~~l:f: ~ \<ilit.1 Kas. on III. J.93. The krt affixes are given exhaustively by HiJ}.ini in Siitras HI. 1:91 to IlI;4 II7. ~ and er~:f appear to be the ~r~ a class of words such as'~er. firer, +ler, ~er, i3''ffi and others with which ancient Pte-PaIJinia!1' terms used the words ~i11r, ~, 'i:T, ~os, U~ and in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya others are compounded, provided works in the respective senses of both the words forming the com~ rool-born and noun-born words pound are in the same case; e.g. (ii~;n and;n according to ~iiffr:, TJ;"iliiffi:, ~s~~r: etc. d. Kas. PiiI)ini's terminology), and no.t in on P. II. 1.59. the sense of mere affixes; d. ~>r~rm: 'itimt~<fiqre,<fir: Nir. 1.14; ,3i~fq ~~ lit. which has got its purpose ~~<lr liflg,+<lr ~lfm: 'liffi "l:Il~q.~ Nir. served; a term used in connection II: 2; 'Rri(iti'tlfuereJ:Jr61 ~~+I:. V. Pr. , with a rule that has been possible 1. 27; also d. V. Pr.' VI. 4. to be appiied '( without clash with Patafijah and later grammarians another rule) in the case of certain have used the word 'if.~ in the sense, instances, although it comes into ,of wer; d. lfm<iiT~;f.tqrre:rr,t ii~: tI{ conflict in the case of other ins- '" tlliTtI'l'tl'ij ~I~ ~~q~: Pari. Sek. Pari. ; tances; cf..~ ~ffi~t~T, 'R'f~~~ tRllf 75. The krt affixes ,are given by ; 6~ftr ~rnl+I:. Kiis. on P. IV. 3.5! PiiI}ini in the senses of the different : The word 'tl'~m!:l is used almost in Karakas SJ1iTi3J<f, \t~i3J<f, ''fi{UI, <>1~<fi\1ll:, : the same sense. <fi~ and ~, stating in general terms i that if no other sense is' assigned to i ~ lit. that which should be done; a krt affix it should be understood ! the word ~ is used as a techn ical that 'linT or the agent of the verbal term in. grammar in the sense of aciivity is the sense; cf. 'iiaR ii~ I : krt affixes which possess the sense ~~'ilffir~~T <fTful "i~iqmgt Wis. on i should be done.' Pal).ini has n'Ot III. 4.67. The activity .element i defined the term ~<i, 'but he has possessed by the root lies generally I introduced a, topic (3iN<fiR) by the name ~ (P. III. 1.95), and mendormant in the verb3.1 derivative tioned krt affi~es therein which are nouns; cf. ~r~~ <iron ~9il:'ifcr, to be called !it<i right on upto the ~<rr'i~fit I M. Bh. on V. 4.19 and mention of the affix ~. in P. VI. 2.139. , III. 1.133; cf. itit'!iT: >rI~ 17~: P. III. ~ (I) a term used by ancient grain-I! 1.95. Tbekrtya affixes, commonmarians in the sense of t past-tense'; ly found in use, are ~, ar.TI<t and <i ( 2) effected, done. The word, (i/Q.. lfCIt'f..and ~).

!idi~dSl~fw a definition of the term filfq in the sense of a rule which occilrs after certain another rule is, applied, as \vell as' before that rule is applied; cf. ii~It13% ffii.<i1J I omff+lP-iE<fO{. I Pari. Sek. Pari. 42; , cf. also <fi!!T 9;i1~<i ffiP-l: I ~~tlfftt<irn: I M.Bh. on Vr. 4.62.


ii~q~11t lfm-~~qffq ~OJ~' 'which occurs first as an expression ofthe to derivative . In g~ammar, the Varttikakara (P. L 4.13 Vart. 9) 'iiterm ~11 means' technical 'sense " and has been, later on given as a a"Scontrasted with <>1~~;r t ordinary Paribha,?a by later grarilII~arian's sense '.; cf, ~~ii~<U: ~f?;l'r <iiT~\t5ft<i<!: ,( Pari. Sek. Pari. 28). The ~ari Par. Sek. Pari. 9. Vak. pad. II. bha~a is referre:l to as ~iIf[UJqftOWff 371 etc. in iat~r grammar works especially ~=!mT'!iHHN~~ a term popularly commentary works. ~ d b used by grammarians for the m~llIT . short ' . Y or 'maXIm th a t ou t 0 f the' two I ~i:I&."I'1I'1.+rJt:ff a,. term use . ' d' d I the grammanans, for. the maxIm senses, the t.echmcal and the enve 1 tq , P ones, the technical sense should be P ~1G"';;n~ ~<{l ,i:I~. , dr. preferred; in rare cases, th~ e {. an. 2 ee ~i[{UJ; other too, is preferred; cf. Pan.! ~~fI a short tieatiseby a grammaSek. Pari. 9' Irian nallied m~SII~ who lived in the I fifteenth century. The work deals ~ tad. 'affix iifCf~ applied., to with, verbal derivatives. numerals to convey the sense of., repetition, e.g. l!1il~:~: Ct. ~qrcrr: ~ the elision of a kft affix; the word is found used along with the f~l+qT'lRmOJ~~'i~ P. V. 4 17 ' ' words Sfitifcr>f~Jqftj:, and ~ffi-q~ <fiT{<ii ~'{ the same as ~~q&:s{iifu~ the ~'iffi' in the Varttika 3l~TilI~ retention of its accent by the second ~l-q~ i{m ~ ~~qRl: ~Rrcr~ member of a tatptiru~a compound, CfiT\<!iby means of 'which the phrase if the first mem ber is a word term<ii~ eTler<!fa is furmed for the sentence ed Gati or Karaka, by the rule ~'ilifl1T'tI~. iJta-<iiT~cijqqGJQ. ~ P. VI. 2. 139; ct. ~ the dropping or removal of the arc<I<ff.Cf<r ~~: M.Bh. on VI. 2.5 2 ; verbal noun (ii'fo'Cf ) after the words ct. f9~ffiqRCf~: M.Bh. VI. 252 sr, tf\T etc., when they are compoundVart. 6 .. ed with the following noun; e.g. the dropping of ~er from the ex.., ~ the word ending with a krt affix; pression fro: <!ii~~: when it the term ~ is found used in the compounded into ffi 6cfit;(frficr: I ct., siitras of Panini for: ~"{ro; cf. ~~o ~if f<!~~r~:,P-i<ri{[arffi: M.Bh. on t1+l'ffii~ ,P. 1.2.46. The term ~er P. I+I. Vart. 18. for root-nouns, or nouns derived 'from roots, is found in the Atharva- ~~ a class-of words headed by pratisakhya (I. 1.10, II. 3.8, III the word ~TSII to which the tad2.4). the Mahabhii~ya and all the dhitaaffix ~ (~iur..) is, applied in the later work~ on grammar. See the. four senses given in P~ IV. 2. 67-70. wordil~ e,g. <fiT~!!ft'<J:> am\2't<J:; cf. Kas. on P. IV. 2.80. $ expr.essed by a krt affix; d.

IT"rut I


~~ffi II. 2.I~,



~<RjCf~'ifu M.Bh. on P. III. 1.67, IV. 13. VI. 2,I39

~ also

mention of a krt i.e. of a word ending with a krt affix. The word mainly occurs in the PadbMl2a

tlie the foremost of tbe seven Yamas; d. ~!Ij'~~<fqdTq"lf!~i\Tfu li=lT<!T: Tai. Pr. XXIII. 14.


an alternative name for welloknown grammar-work

5f~P-firffcU. written by Ramacandra Se~a.- See :Slf;fi>:!TcfirffcU:
'l'wrqfo~G' called also ~~UJ, a scholar of Sanskrit Vyakaral)il. who ,vrote ~+!T'Ifcrifu, a commentary oil the Prakriya-Ka'umudi of Ramacandra Sesa. It is variously calied tR)ffn'lT;i<!T~fu or)fifitirr or s!f,n~rq'liT1IT. '


cf. Kas. on P;IIL4.I4.

Litera,ture; e.g. <'!f<ilTJt

= "19TfI~er;,;~

if.;:(f krt. affix i.;i:<! in

the sense of ii~ in Vedic Literature; e.g. rt,!~(JI1: I ~~o~:; cL Kas~, onP. iII,4. 14.

i1i~trt krt .. affix


a schola~ of grammar and riyaya of the lith century A,D; who \vrote many ccimllieritaty \'vorks some cif whicbare ( I j a' commentary . calied RatnarQ.ava 'ori the ~ isolated; a term appiied to a letter or a word \vheh it is not combined Siddhanta-Kaumudi, (2) a comwith another letter or another mentary named Kalpalri.ta. on word in a compound; cf; ~fu:f.r;t BhaHoji's PrauQhamanonimii, (3') a ~Cj~I<I: I ~Cj~I'li 11~13ff~r<!iQ. Kas. on commentary mimed. Bhavadlpa on P.V.:j I2 4; (2) simple (word Bhahoji's Sabdakausttibha, (4) a without an affix. added; cL ~~9'ijr cominentary on :Nagojibhatta'~ .ni:rcr~ft ~'i~~' a:r~;qcrrct IF; . 1.2.45 Laghumafijii~a by hilme Ktificika, Vii rt. 7; also W~':1[i'IT ~'ii~9<I: I <f and (5) a commehtary on Vaiya. ~~r: ~'f~fu-:ri 9'1 M.Bh. on P; Lij:4 ka.niQ.abhii;;al)ci ..

1:I;R;I1, in the sen~e of ii~; e.g. 11~~1tr 1t11fT:: cf. ~~11\ ;a111i~<!I*t . P. vliH. (2) Ul).l1di affix ~~I1~1 cf. 11'1" i;;~I1,1 tf~f'iH1'!{, 5ft<l<!: I 11~~m q~\G<U: I Ujj. on Ul)a. IV.37'

acted as w{ttr 'Or light, as without it, ~ll: a reputed grammarian who _the MaMbbii~ya of Patafijali would wrote an extensive explanatory have remained unlit, that is un- I gloss by name VaiyakaraT;labbii~ana intelligible, at several places. Later' on the VaiyiikaraIjasiddhantakaa grammarians attached to ~ al- . rika of BhaHoji Dik~ita. Another most the same importance as they work Vaiyakaral)abhii~anasara did to the Mahabbii~ya and the which isin a wayan abridgment of expression aSlw m'G~~: has been the Bbti~ana, was also -written by often used by commentators. Harahim. KOI}.QabhaHa lived in the datta's Padamaiijari is indebted to beginning of tbe I7th century. Hehis work. Many commentary works was the son of RaIigoji and nep were written on the Pra9ipa out hew of BhaUoji Diklllita. He. was of which NageSa's Uddyota is the one of the few writers on the most popular. The word ~<lG came Arthavicara in the VyakaraT;lasastra to be used for the word +rl[(+r[E<l>r<ftqand his Bhu~aT;lasara ranks next to which was the work of Kaiya tao the Vakyapadiya of 1;3hartrbari. For details see Vyakara1,).a MahiiBesides the Bhii~aQa and BhulllaI).abha~ya published by the D. E. sara, 'KoT;lQabhatta wrote two inSociety, Poona, Vol. VII. pp. dependent works viz. Vaiyakaral;la. 389-39 0 siddhantadipika and Spbotavada.

~m a commentary on the Mahiic

bh1i1?yapradipa of Kaiyata written by NilakaT;ltha of the Draviga coun': try .. NilakaT;ltha lived in the 17th century and wrote works.on various subjects.
';"'IaAi!/ilroCfiT a commentary Mabiibha~yapradipa vf
.I>. .

~QJTm~ an aHerr.ative name of 'h~UJr.rSj.

See 1l;6UJfi'I"f

~<r i.vTiter ot a commentary named

~'!iT~ on ihe Sik;;a of PiiQ.ini. iived in the 17th century;

named I'I'!auni, who wrote ":I. com~ ~~~ writer of the commentary named 9;~~R: on the grammar. m~ntary named 'J<!tM<fr on the gf$a~R ifitten by Goyicandra. Siddhiinta-Kaumudi at the end of , the 17th century A.D. ~ krt affix i); used in Vedic Literature I as noticed in the forms ll~ U~ ~~~J<ii!!fii author of a comment-/ and o;r:.;ljfqe'i cL P. III.4.10. ary named Puru;;akfira on Daiva a grammar work. , ~~ iit. liositioll of questioning the utility; absence of any apparent ~lIDllffi"fqrii:. ( ~) a famous gramutility; d. %>i~'f<Hf.<i<rm ~~Rr f9iiM marian and logician of the 18th i11~1Ri ~ifr M.Bh. on I.4.3, III. century who wrote A.khyiHavivebi. 1.4 6; IlI,z. IZ 7, . III.3. 1 9; VI; 4.49 and Kfirakavada. See o;rH.~, VII.:l.26, and VIII+32. ~ a famous grammarian of the ~ Se;;a family who wrote a commen- tii<.R: name of the renowned commentator on the l\'lahabhii.$ya, who lived in tary named the GiiQhabhavavivrti the IIth century. He was a resident oil the Prakriya Kaumudi of Ramaof Kashmir and his father's name candra Se;;a. He wrote Sphotatatwas J aiyata. The' commentary on ~ tvaniriipaQ.a and Kr;;lJ ak. autiihala. the l\Iahabha~ya was named 11u+r!!!<{. <f."I,. krt. affix 1:1; in the sense of ~~ 5IcUcr by him,_ which is believed by (pot. pass. part.) fOUI\d in Vedic 1 later grammarians to have really

~QJT~r~~ son' of Govardharia. arid' su~- I



chl(ij~i(i~ a scholar of Sanskrit VyakaraQa who composed ~:r<'t1l'i\jjf.r a small treatise dealing with the declensiop. of nouns.

~J ~iF{1 iJ;m (1765-1837 A.D.) ~ .

on the Kaiyata written by Pravartakopadhyaya.

~CRIJt (1) a commentary on the

Mah1ibhii~yapradipa of' Kaiyata written by ISvarananda, in the 16th century; (2) a commentary on Kaiyata's Pradipa by RamacandraSarasvati, who lived in the 16th century.

was an eminent European Sanskritist who was responsible for the development of the study of Sanskrit learning in the latter half of eighteenth century in India. His maj or work is Miscelleneous Essays'. He has given an introductory account of Sanskrit gramo matical lit~rf.ture in "On the Sanskrit and Prakrit Languages I I Asiatic Researches -7 (1803, I99-

23 I ) .

cir~s~ an ancient grammarian referr- .

ed to in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya (T. Pro V. 38) and PaT;lini's Mfadhyayi. (P. II.4.?0 ).

~ a class of words headed by the word which get their final vowel lengthened When tbe word 9if is placed after tbem as a second member of a compound, provided the word so formed is used as a proper" noun; e.g. c61a(ICl ol" f;{$lliiT<J1l1i(.. cf. Ras. on P. VI. 3.II7

citm~J _~Gf (I) an alternative name of the K1ltantra VyakaraT;la given to it on the strength of the traditional bel~ef .tbat the original inspiration for writing it



was received by Sarvavarman f:rom Kumara or -IGirtikeya; (2). small treatises bearing the name Kaumaravyakara.!).a written by MunipuiIgava and Bbavasena. The latter has written KatantrarilpamaUi also.

of benediction when the word ending in Ciff, is used as a technical term, e.g. ~: in the sense ~r "Qjf ~m:. The krt affix ~ is also used similarly e.g. ~Rr: <iRr:; cf, Ras. on P. III. 3.174.



krt affx

nem. which

also is called

a commentary on Siddhanta Kaumudi by Bbiiskaracarya of Tanjore of the eighteenth century. a work by Panc;1ita~aja Jagannatha, criticising BhaHoji Dixita's Sabdakaustubha.


f.1in. It is prescribed in the active

sense of somebody who has done a thing sometime in the past. A word ending in it is equiv~lent to the' past active participle; e.g. ~. >li&l!Tf:; cf. P. 1. r.26. The fern. affix :t-l'i.. ( ~) is added to nouns ending in 'Ri'fg to form feminine bases; ct. P. IV. 1.6.


~iaJ'i~'ii! an ancient. grammarian referred to in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya; cf. T. Pr. XVIII.2.

C<i')QJ'14~.8i!'i a short Sik$a mannal belonging to the Taittiriya school of the Black Yajurv:eda and a comparatively recent compilation. The work in seventy-nine verses is attributed to KauhaJi.

a noun base ending in the kit affix 'Ri; past passive participle; cf.

~ BH+CFCf ~ tI~ tlli~~ I ~1r.r ~~:qff n ~ M. Bh. on II. 2.47.

~-T sense of <ffi" i.e. sense of the past pass. participle; d. <ftfem: 'ffi1~ 5Il~: !fm~ (tlJrel~), P, II. 2. 18,
Vart. 4.


krt affix n in various senses, called by the name FlSr in PaJ)ini's grammar along with the affix lfCfCffl". d. Cf(i!fCi9 ct FiID P. 1.1.26. The various senses in which 'in is prescribed can be noticed below: (I) The general sense of done in the past time as past pass. participle e.g. ~:,~"f. etc.; cf. P. III. 2.102; ( 2) the sense of the beginn!ng of an activity when it is used actively; e.g. 3T~: 1f.i ~:, cf. P. III.2.I02 . Viirt. 3; (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with mute oi. as also to roots in the sense of desire.. knowledge and worship; e.g. ffr"<l:, f~9uui:, l[~: as also mrt +m:, ~~:, ~ ~: ; d. P.llI. 2.187, 88; (4) the sense' of mere verbll-l activity ( mer) e.g. l[fuct<{, m~~, ~Cffi~'j ( used always in the neuter gender); cf. P. III, 3. !I4; (5 ) the sense

~~ krt affix fct added to roots in the benedictive sense to form ~~ or nouns in a technical sense; e.g. Wrff: in the sense of ~qRi.; d. K~s. on III. 3.174. 'in is also added in the same way. See'Ri.

~ lq't. affix fff added to roots to

form nouns in the sense of verbaction; e.g. "ii~:, ft~:, liffl: etc. ; cf. P. III. 394-97.
~ krtaffix f.r added to roots marked with the syllable : by Pa1}ini in his Dhatupatha; after this affix f.r, the tad. affix +r (liq,) in the sense of .~~ ( accomplished) is necessarily added, e.g. qf.j:Sj+r"f., ["iiFol"l"f. i _cf. P. III. 3.88 and P. IV. 4.20.
mY krt. affix cql added to roots (I)

I, I

the root, e g. ~r,. ~ ~19r; d. Offls- affix <! taking Atmanepada term i~ations after it, added in the sense p, III. 4.18; (2) in t.he sense of of similar behaviour to a substanexchange in the case of the root <'IT, tive. The substantive to which e.g.81qm~ ,{i'tj"~:; d. P. III. 4. 19.; t his affix ~ is added, becomes a ( 3) to show an activity of the past denominative root; e.g. Cfifcli: ~r time along with a verb or noun of <m, ~ff<t 9.E<fi\~, d. Kas. on P. III. action showing comparatively a 1.II-12, also on P. III. 1.14-18 . later time, provided the agent of the former and the- laUer activities .~ denominative affix (~<g1JI) in is the same; e.g. <R9T ~~, ~Tffi the sense of desiring for oneself, .men ~ ~~ffl; ci.P. III. 421. added to nouns to form denomi This krt affix is always a~ded to tive roots ; e.g. ~ffi; CRI"L. is also roots when they are without any added to nouns that are upamanas prefix; when there is a prefix the or standards of comparison in the indeclinable, ending in ~T, is always sense of (similar) behaviour; e.g. compounded with the prefix and ~$lfct ~<I:i cf. KM. on P. III. r.8, ~T is changed into <i (~!J..), e.g. S\'il.l~r, 10. It is also added in the sense of 5!fJt<I; d. wrffisqs:~ mf ~q,. P. vn. doing to the words Cffl~ qR:q~ and I.37. The substitution of <:! is at &fflie.g. i'{~m ~~, Cfftq~fct ~, will in Vedic Literature; e;g . ~o'! ~'lI'"jc:fc\-; ct.. Kas. on P. III. I.I? q"ffil <j>;I+rrir q!tl:Tl!Wl(9[ (instead of q~Tt<j), d. P. VII. 1.38. while q:qq krt affix <l applied to the roots ~ ~~d .<i~ in the sense of 'verbal . sometimes, <! is added after (9[ as an actiVity' and to the roots 81~ with augment e g. G;(ciT<i tlFcim N<i: cf. P: tIl{., 1iflt with.f.; etc. to form proper VII. 1.47, as also sometiil1es (Cl'f or (q~ is substituted for cqT e.g. ~ nouns e.g. ~, ~r. ~,Filim, etc., cf. P. III. 3.98 and 9.9; (2) jtq1"l.., ~E<ft ~: cf. P. VII . 1.48, krtya affix ;q in the sense of should 49 be done' applied to the roots C!", ~ and i[~ ( when preceded by certain creiR gerund; a mid-way derivative words put as upapada), as also to of a verbal root which does not roots with penultimate :n and the leave its verbal nature on.~the One roots ~, ii.", ~g and others; e g. hand although it takes the fozra o~ Lli&I~, i1l&l~, ~~'\.' ~<I, etc~ cf. a substantive on the other hand. Kas. on P. III. 1.106, 121. ~ krt affix ~ added to the roots 'El~, ~.affi.x <l added to certain nouns like <lJ.1i{, !["i. and ~!J.. in the sense of it~cr and others to form denomina. habituated etc. as given in the fuie tive roots after. which terminations an&i~~'tiO~5~el!fliTR~ P. III. 2.134; of both the padas are placed ~.g. e.g. ~:, ~11:; etc. of. P. III. 2.140 cm-~~ffl, ~r~en<I~; cf. Kas. on P. III.



krt affix +R: added in the sense of h;bituated etc. to the roots e:, ere. and ~; e.g. <;'1.11<::, q~\:, am1:: d. P. III. 2.134 and 160.
common term for the Cf'.!"L., Cf'.!~ and 1P-I't,. cf. 01: ~ P. I. 4. 1 5, alsl? cr. P. III. 2.!70 , VI. 450.


in the sense of prohibition conveya ad by the word or <99" preceding


Ul).a.di a.'<'i. ~ will i.e, energy 01" power; potency; the inner force which causes vocal expresSion. cf. Vak. pad. ~ 5 I ~ffl ~ ~~I4~1 I ~~ffit 3t-u.T'~m\1fu iiig: Y (~.)

~, ~

~~ a class of words headed by the word i:il!!, whiCh have their first


recital of Vedic passages, the recital by such a repetition being called Sfi"jqlO, which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of' words combined in the Samhitii by euphonic rules, substitution of letters such as that of or.. for "l:,- or of ~ for ~,' as also the separate words of a compound word (wnmCii~~); e.g. q;;T.RjT<f Sf I Sf iJT<!O ! writer of the.Padapatha is to follow the rules already laid down. The Jatapatha, the Ghanapatha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapatha as they are not men'tionedin the Pratisakhya works.
iji~ a class of words headed by the word lfill' to which the taddhita affix 0Ffi ( WI.) is added in the sense of , one who studies and understands '; e.g. ;n~:, lRCii:, +ft~:, fu~'ii: etc. cf. Kas. on IV. 2.61.

~tfuqfu lit. over-extension or excess '

vowel accented acute in a Bahuvrihi I .compound, provided the first member of the compound is the word ~; e.g. ~;ng:, ~>rtffi:._etc.; d. lias. on P.



VI. 2.II8.

Ii ,

(I) erial order or succession as I contrasted with <fmq~ or simultaneity. The difference between ~ I 'IT<lC'f Ft9": I ~9"~T<I I ~:;rr<l ~ I and <IT<lq~ is given by ~ in the ~ l(~ ~ I' cf. ~ ilJ"<!Tll'~' line ~ f?rn~'il~ ~q ~~ .q ~ I m~~t n<lr: I '3'~q-~\O<!rn:. a-~ Vak. pad. II. 470. In order to form ~tr.1\ R. Pr. X. I. For details a word by the applicatio~ of several and special features,_ cf. R. Pr.' ch. rules of grammar, a partIcular order' X and XI; cf. also V. Pr. IV. 182is generally followed in accordance 190; T. Pro XXIII; 20, XXIV. 6. with the general principle laid down in the Paribha.llia ttfur.r~rtRWltjCjrcn- ~ doubling. Irregular doubling is looked upon as a fault; cf. ~ 9"f ;;n!!~ret ~:, as also according to ar<!~~ R. Pr. XIV. 2S. what is stated in the siitras arm~ ~, ~srrm~<r: etc.; ( 2) suceeso ~.!il{ author c;>f a grammar named sion, or being placed after, specifio B'&lHflR who lived at the end of the cally with reference to indeclinables 13th century. The grammar work like tr;q, 'Of etc. which are placed was revised by Jumaranandin after after a noun with which they are whom it was called Jaumara Krama. connected. When an indeclinable also added a gloss on it which is is not so connec~ed, it is called fu'acalled Rasavati. . <!ill; cf. qftqr:1r 'Of fugfa- (P. IV. 4.36), '"lW f+J'ailill': s:r~T~ ~!ImFcr, Kas. ~1O recital 'of the Vedic Samhitii on P. IV. 4.36; also ~~'Of I by means of separate groups of two words, repeating. each word ex'Of~~ f+l'ailill': ~: ( VII. 277) amCiiqUfl~T ~~r<m KliS. on P. IV. 2.78 ; .cept the first of the Vedic verse( 3) succession of the saine consoline; see :nlf above. The various nant broughtiibout; doubling; rerules and exceptions are given in duplication; SIilT is used in this way I detail in Pata.-Ias ten and e~even of in the E.k Pratisakhya as a synonym the E.k Pritisakhya. Th~'Vedic of dvitva prescribed by pa1).ini; e.g. Samhita or Samhitap8,tha'is 's~p an foIT ~~ becomes an- ~9"T ~~; ~mir posed to b-e the original one arid the ~~ur<I:. becomes ffi"~ur<I:.; d. Padapatha prepared later on,-wIth ' '(;'l'.I!1~I(jqftlr fiWc<!~ ~<i'tlflf<t: tI ;nijlsa view to preserying the VediC text 1i:j~ ~'l:.1 etc. R. Pr. VI. I to 4; ct. without any change or modification also ~ ~ rn:+rtwrr f9fcf: ~r iifFcrno<!: of a . letter , or accent; cf..q 'i!5~ Uvvata on R. Pr. VLI. The root qa:<jiJ~ 'amcwri: I ~c:rfll' .i!5~<Ill. , sn+r. IA. is several times used in the M. Bli. on Ill. 1.109, VI. 1.207 and Priitisakhya works for rn:~, d. VIII. 2.I6, wherePat?-fijalj cleady also T. Pr. XXI. S; XXIV. s; says that grammar-rules are not to ( 4) repetition of a word in the follow the Padapa~ha. but, the

. 'l'

of action; the word is, however; used in grammar in the sense of . non-happening of an expected action especialiy when it forms a condition of the conditional mood (~); cf. ~~~~flllirifu: ~rerr: f;n"llrnQR1: Kas. on P. III: 3.139; ct. also q~
tlTl:'f<i' &i<rr<!T: ~~Fcr tlT\:I<rrfuqfu~ f?n<!Tffftffil;f1t +lW M. Bh. on III.


~~W contact with -the verbal activity (characterising all karakas) without which no sentence or statement stands. cf. Vak. pad. II. 425.
~ii'i having activity as the main

a consonant which is subjected to doubling cf. Sfi+~ <juT: 'i4+raJt ~;;ffi R. Pr. XVIII. 18.

fin~r action, verbal activity; cf. fiii"lTq Cf'OfcU \:IT!!: M. Bh. on 1. '3.1; cf. also &i<rrCfl'"l'iilil'@<lld<r: R. Pro XII. S. quot


ed by Uvvata in his Bhlilliya on V. Pr. VIII. So.; cf. also \31ffi;rr: ~l~it P. I. +S9, ~~uffi.~r: fili<!FlT: P. III. 2. ,I26; cf. also <RIN a-fct~ ~& ~~fiffi' tI ~o~: I ~~ mr qj11 tlr M. Bb. f?tw1'hiiS intended fruit of a Verbal Ahnika I. The ~ord +iT9" many activity; cf. ~!5Rr: Cii~r+r>rl~ f>fi<.IT~ . times is used in the same sense as P. I. 3.72. kriya. or verbal activity in the siitras ~qm association with a verbal aCtof PaQini. d. P. I. 2.21; I. 3.13 ; ivity ; cf. '3'li6'ft: &i<rrciFt P. I. 4.S9. ' III. r.66 etc.; cf. also ~mrr ~9":wrfff a statement frequent~T~ (adj. to ~1 ) lit. meant or in-:ly by the Maha.bha~yakara. Some tended for another action ;e.g"m'lTh scholars draw a nice distinction ilalRr where i!+fclf>fi<.IT, i!! intended for' between f>fi<.Ir and +IN, ~r meaning m"1<if%4I; cf. :g~~ ~T~ ~~~ dynamic activity and +1'19" meaning P. III. 3.10. fltatic activity; cf. a:rqft~qtlT1'1<ffif1;"Ir '~i<i;q.;' meaning or expressing. a . 1:ffi9":iT+wi: I ~qJt~t!T\:T<ffi(l;<Rg ,flfiilT verbal activity; a term generally Kaiyatats Pradipa on M. Bh. III. applied to dhatus or roots, or even 1.87. Philosophically ~ is defined . to verbs. The term is also applied as ~appearing in temporal sequto denominative affixes like. ~ ence in . various things. When tRIT which produce a sort of verbal does not so appear it is called ~. activity in the noun to which they 'f?ri~q a grammatical work on the are added; cf. ~T: !f<I"11C{<!: M. conjugation 9f roots written by Bh. on III. I.I9. . Vijayananda. f%:qifl~Eii]1 determinant or modifier of a verbal activ~ty; cf. F:1\<lIfiH'\lijuT fsfimg~ a grammar work quoted by ~ ~~ I ij~ ~ ~. q:qfer M. Bh. 'i~~ in hjs ifIllWI'~~N.

factor of d~notation; a verb; the word f:fi<!f31cTTq is given as a sort of definition of the word ~Rf which is found used in the sense of a root as also in the sense of a verb. cf. Yak. pad. II. 442.


on II. 1.1; nouns used as Kriyavise!?al}a are put in the neuter gender, and in the nom, or the .acc. case in the sing. number; d. %<iTfcI~'lUJTqt'liit~<f "l9;tl'liB'WOf 'q Pari. Bhaskara Pari. 56. conjugational sign.n ( ~r) is added; roots of the ninthcor..jugaJion.
~'T<ri~q a word used in the senEe of


~'l~, <:!"l'.., ~"l'..,~; etc. under

certain conditions; e.g. l'iillt9.~, "IiftCf<ji, <lTi[~, fil~; cf. Kas. on P. III. 2.58.60.

fi!i<IT~T( repetition or intensity of . a verbal activity; d. flijf~~~: ifri1: :

9;~ ~~lT~1


Kas. on P. III, 4.2.


nan:e given to the eighth I section of the Third Kanda of ... ~Cj;'03:. krt affix 'Ii added to the root Vakyapad~y~, which deals wIth e.g. ~:; ct. P. III. 2. 174. verbal actIvIty. . ~,q: I,+t affix Cl'r, in the sense of agent ~ krt" affix <i applied to the root m, added to .(!) a root preceded by e.g. +fl<i:, d, P. III. 2.174, an Upasarga or a Subanta Upapada or sometimes even without any :gCii03:. krt affix <i'Ii; e.g. ~:; d. (f+f<i:). preceding word; e.g. 5To/tf<'fT, '<fr91, SJiCfi'afi'r Cl9'(f0<i: P. III. 2.174 Varttika. tftC!T; (2) to the root VR, preceded ;n<if~Cj;' a root belonging to the class by an Upapada which is the object of roots which are headed by :fit of the. root i!'U, e.g. tfl<]:.<t!f; (3) to and which are PJPularly known as roots ~~!. and ~sr.. having ~:jj'r, as roots of the ninth conjugation; cf. their object,"9r;. ~~~:'n; ct. q~ g crrWii (i~T ~~T~'C'lft'1~ ::1i~u@t6'l1 PiiI}ini. III. 2.94-96. Padamafijari on VII. 2.48. ~~ krt affix C/~, taking the affix ~ iT~rfu: .a class of words headed by the (~1qJ in the feminine gender, added woid ";fitG to which the taddhita to the roots ~,. q~, ~ etc.; ~9ft, affix .<:r( ~Ij~) is added in the sense i1.<t{"(:, ~fr, iTtCffr; ct .. P. IlL 2 . oIa female descendant; e. g. ;ffi~, . 163"16 4. anfil~~<iT, ~'Ii~<iT etc; cf. Ka~. on P. c:r~ krt affix C/~, taking the fern. affix IV. 1.80. ~ (~) in the feminine gender, an ancient school of grammaprescribed in the sense of perfect rians who are believed to have tense, which is mostly found in written rules or Varttikas on some Vedic Literature and added to s_ome . rules of PaQini to modify them; roots only such as ~'t" <fB'" ~ etc. in the ;fit~<! school isq~oted in the . the spcken language; e. g. ;;J&!<n'l. Maha bha.~ya ; cf. tf~~M1ra~mfu 'q B'f<'fT qfqcr~ :ffitfitcn03:. <Krffi: '1TfiJTf.i~; cf. Wi.s. ;filf!1<1l: qof.(f I M. Bh. on P. I. r.3. . on P. III. 2. 107-109. ~~ a. class of words headed by the word ;fuN which do not take ft; a common term to signify krt affixes 'ffii;a:. and ffii both; cf,P. II!. the feminine affix ~ when they stand 2.134, VI. S.lIS. VI. 4.40; VIII. 3. at the end of a compo~nd; e. g. @5, VI. 4.15, VI. 4.97, <f.~qltl\;ffi'er, ~~IU, 'l~erf 1 etc.; cf.



'neuter gender by gramm~lrians later than lffi~R?; and the Varttikakara; ct. tlB'm1T ~~11~~!\TI'1f tllRZl~ EM!?a yr. on P. II. 2.2; tf~ rn: @]"iitC/+(, Kaiyata's Pi. on II. IS!; wrrlITw~ ~c:Cj~Wl~ Dmgh. Vr. on P. II. 4.17'

I m;


fEli~ (I) krt affix zero, added to the roots tl't" '1" furJ,., and others with a preceding word as upapada or with ~im&t<M' a Jain grammarian. who a prefix or sometime:;; even without wrote a small grammar work known any word, as also to the root i[~ as AnitkiirikavivaraI;1a ... preceded by the words >!&F(, ~ and ~cfm"<l;:1f ('q~~) or K>C. CHATl?\;f, and to the root ~, preceded by . I TERJI a scj:J.Olar of Sanskrit graml;!, cnil,\: etc., and to the roots 1i!, and . mar who' has written a work l on R, under certain conditions e.g. technical terms in Sanskrit~ who \jtfli1~, ~J >f'i:; q$Cl~, ~r, 'i~i[T, has edited several grammar works fl1f).u" arfu~Q.; ct. P. Ill, 2.61; 76, and the Candra VyiikaraQa and 77. 87~92; 177-179; (2) the deconducting the Sanskrit journal nominative affix zero applied to named Mafiju!iiii at Calcutta, any substantive in the sense of tehaviour 3l.<t!fu, <R+ffit etc.; cf. II'I.Bh. ~5l' lit. rapid, accelerated, short ; and Kas. on P. III. I. II. name given in Pratisakbya works
fE!iG/~ a substantive ending with the

and Linganusasana. It has been attributed .to K!?apal}aka. Ujjvaladafta refers to a gloss on UQadisutra by K!?apaQaka: Tantrapradipa refers to it.


krt affix fem. ( zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action em<!}. The words ending with this affix having got the sense of. verbal activity in them quite suppressed, get the noun terminations ~,an, ~ etc. and not m, 0: etc. placed after them; cf. . Wtfurnfif +frcIT i\0lJCR. +fClm. However, at the same time, these words unp.ergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because thekrt affix entirely disappears and the word formed, appears like a root; d. ~T '<Trgt=f q Kaiyata's Prado on VII. 1.70.

to a Sarildbi or euphonic combir.ation of the vowels l{, \j, "Ii, ~s with a following dissimilar vowel; cf. Uvvata Bha~ya On R. Pi. III. 10; d. also ffi <:!ll]~ P. VI. 1.77. The name K!?ipra is given to this Sarildhi possihlybecause the vowel, short or long, which is turned into a consonant by this sarildhi becomes :very short (i.e. shorter than a short vowel i.e. a semi-vowel). The word ~q is also used in this sense referring to the K!?iprasarildhi.

~~ ~&i:off a commentary on the Dhatupatha of PaI)ini writttenby K!?irasvamin


X{M. on P. IV. I.56. ;;;,li~lfll.~ a clasfl of ~oots headed by the root "iW (~) to which the

a Jain grammarian quoted in the well-known stanza ~R: ~ iT~IB~~o which enumerates the seven ge7ns of the court of Vikramaditya, on the strength of which some scholars believe that he w)as a famous grammarian of the first century B.C.<t Q~ O!\'t"ihg
~Wm:filuIT by

an abridgment of the author him~elf.

See ~uiT.
:~.fu:~Hm~_a grammarian of Kashmir

~ kit alero [;l.ffi~B

i.e. an am:r. of ie dmp!;)@d and Ktotb.iDG g'@ooruno D 8t.ld(,H~. to tb,@ roots

V@l'y l@~i@1.'


a system of grammar with Satra, Dbatu, Gal)a, UQadi

of the I rth century who wrote the famous commentary ~~uiT on. the Dhatupatha and a commentary on the NighaQtu. Kashmir tradition makes him a teacher of Jayapiqa of the eighth century. He quotes

.Candra Dhiitupatha and is' quoted by H(lmacandra and Vitthale.. He is referred to as Swami by MaIlinatha. He . lived between IU5rx65 A.D.
era'!"'. Ut;tadi affix~; cf. iF~~"<IT 6fl\<i,.

Ut;tadi III. 75. , glottis' or the bole of the throat ( i[<i5~ ) in the ancient Pditis1ikhya works.



Ut;tadi affix cf. UQadi III. 155.


liifq~fq~fq,,<!: fom:

the consonant




'+~ a class of wordings such as

arid the like in which the consonant .~ is not changed into UJ:. although the consonant ~' is preceded by =ti,' "'I(,! \ or '1, and intervened by letters which are admissible; e.g. g"c:rrfo, 1'!'rITfo, 'l<'fliil': etc. cf. Kas. on P. VIII. 4. 39. This class (~r~) is styled a~
~r, ~


krt affix ~ in the sense of ~PJ:: in Vedic Litera ture; e.g~ ~q. (+11f1i!f) Kas. on III. 4. 9.


~ second consonant of the guttural class of consonants possessed of - -'IlTt!G~if, ~ and f.tqr\ qualities.
'19 tad. affix, always changed into ~i'f, (I Lapplied to the word'~i1> in the sense of a descenqant, e.g. ~:, ~1~~J)ii:, cf. P. IV. r.I39; ( 2) applied to the words ar;m, 1lT\, lfl\l9~ and ~\lfR: in t he Sai~ika sense. e.g.

~ ~

a grammarian who lived in the sixteenth century and wrote a commentary on Sarasvataprakriya. author of a comtnentary on


!as!' (I) another name of the ~~. See the word ~sr above; (2) nl'lme given to the Svarita accent borne by the vowel following the semivowel which results from the K~ipra sarildhi; cf R. Pr. II. 8;. III. 7, IO; -VIII. 22; cf. ~9uir'lir~q~ ~sr ~: V. Pr. XX. I; cf .also ~cruif i!fcrr~: V. Pr. I. lIS; ;a-i'{1'm9~~: ~!f{1~ P. VIII. 2. 4.

~ hissing or whizzing sound given

a'S a fault in utterance of sibilants; cf. Pi~. ~) I:!qfir: I com. on R. Pr. XIV. 6.

tR1 (I) aorist vikarat;ta affix substituted for ~; cf. P. III. 1.45,46; e.g.

~~, anf~, ~o:. cf. Ka~. onP. III. I. 45, 46; (2-) krt affix ~ applied to the root ~ preceded by a pronoun ~uch as ~, ~ etc. e.g. ~:, ~: etc. cf. rt: 'ffi1lT ~: P. III. 2.60 Varttika. (3) affix tI applied to the root ilT{ or ~T or ~ to form the noun ~; cf. Cfi~ m~: 'Fa iffa' ~:

~ ~Nir. II. 2.

~:, tfIfrUJ: etc.; cf. P.IV. 2.93 and Varttikas 2, 3 .on it; (3) applied to words ending in the wor~ 91T ( which does not mean t sound' or I letter') in the sense of 'present there,' e.g. crlslt2fClll'IUJ:, ~mCflTIUJ:; cf. P. IV. 3.64; (4) applied to the words tlcf~ and ~, in -the sense of bearing' ,and to _ , ~~, <J~r~, and ~, e.g. ~:. etc., cf! P. IV. 4.78, 79, 130, I32, 133; ( 5) applied in the!; ense of favourable to' to the words am~, ~~or.r, etc. (P. V. 1.9), to ~Rt'!i, ( 32 ) to ~re;;fi, ~, tffSf and others (53-55), to tIlrr (85-86), . to U~, ~,~~ and cr!f (87-88) and ~,' and lf~qcl\ (9 2 ); e.g. ~:,anm: tmftoT:, m:,~: etc.; (6) to the words tI~ , <J~ff~ etc. e.g. acl'i1f+ffur: cf. P. V. 2.5 to 17; ( 7) to the words ~, ~~~ etc. ct. P. V. 4.7, 8. e.g. <lfI:i.s~: (8) @ is also .a technicalterm in the sense of elision or ~lf in the Jainendra' Grammar cf. Jain I. r.6:r. (9) The word @ is used the sense of



lut affix ~ in the s~me of ' agent' 'applied to the roots q", Ol'l., and ~ the pratyahara ~'l. standing for <lor. when preceded by certain -3~ the first and second consonants of words standing as objects. the five classes; cf~~t: ~<!: P~ VII. this affix <s~ the augment ffor. ( +!.) . 4.6; also cf. VIII. 3.6, VIII. 4.5~. is added to the preceding ;jqq'={ if it . .is not an indeclinable. e.g. fll<T9';:;-:, ~i' the pratyahara ~\ starlding for "tard consonants viz. the' first and "l~9C::: , fu~Cflf: qt,jlf: "ll~<!ll: etc. cf. . second letters of the five classes P. Ilr. 2.3 8-47' and the sibilants, before which, ~ ~ tad. affix ~if, applied to 1l~~.<i5 in at the end of a word becomesf<fl~fr, the ~ense of a descendent; e.g. and soft consonants i.e. the. third llT&ffoJt'<l: d. P. IV. 1.14 T, to !:l.lll and' fourth consonants of the five (P. IV. 2~94), to ~%~.and dl'131<t In c1asse-s become hard; cf.(g,("lffl"!<lrthe Sai~ika senses (P. IV. 3.! ), to ~8;:jrft<J: P. VIII. 3.15, and mft 'C! P. SIfn<ilif, !(a:~<r etc. (P. IV. 4.99), to VIII. 4.55. llTUJCf and 'C!~'!i ( P. V. I.II),. to :p;fc'q<il:. ( P. IV. 3.71 ), to +m! (P. IV. 3.81), ~ krt sffix aT addf;d to any root ... . preceded by the word ~Cfa:., ~ or ~, to words meaning corn in the sen;;e' and to the roots l( and ~ preceded of' a field producing corn' (P. V. by an upapada word forming either 2.1). to tlcf"'l;jil,. (P. V. 2.5), and to the subject or the object of the the words ii1g, 3l-'i:l, ~1i1>T etc. in, some roots, e.g. iM(Cfi'\: Cfi2J +1i:fClT, t"i'U~~ specified senses (P . V. ,3.18:23~. +19iiT; d. P. III. 3.126, 127. A vrddhi vowel ( ~r, 't!: or a:rr) 1S substituted for the first yowel of the ~ krt affix added to the roots ~cr(. word to which this affix ~or. is ap'( c~usal), "IlT, ~, ~, q~, re~, q~, plied, as OJ, is the mute letter appli[~, CfIJ., 11~ etc. preceded by certain ed in the affix ~ot. specified upapada words. The root ;ga~ tad. affix applied to Cfilli1>, ap:~ un-dergoes all the operations such as the addition of the conjugational etc. in th!'l sense of tl't1f, e.g. <f.1i<f,sign etc. before this ~'R on account \''1lT<iOJ:., 3Fm<il~lT<iOJ:., also to the words of the mute letter ~ which makes 'lll.1 and its synonyms, e.g. '[~~o.s:, <8'R a Sarvadhatuka affix, and the o'iI::C{O.s: etc.; c.f. KiiS. on P. IV. 2.38. augment OJ:. is added to the preced5 r. ing ;a-qtf'={ if it is not an indeciinable ~~ a class of words headed by on account of the mute letter <a.j the word ~fu~cnT to which the affix e.g..<il<li1'<il;q:, ~;:j\:T;q:, ifl~\:Tll:,{: Blot is added in the sense of colIecqfosffli;:;q: etc.; d. P. III. 2.28f tion; e.g. ~~.OJ:., ql~<i+I, ... .OJ:.;'c . +1g<l' 37,83. Kas. on P. IV. 2.45.

krt affix ~ applied to the root when preceded by a word standing 2S the object of theroot, ~ro~ vided an abuse is meant, e.g. '<IT~<!R ~T:fit~fo; cf. P. III. 4.25.


a technical term of J ainendra grammar, corresponding to itlf of. Pat;tini. cpo <fT~: ~OJ:.I Jain. Su. 1. 1.6r.



characterized by the mute letter applied to krt affixes which, by reason of their being fuRI:,. cause ( a) the addition of thene augmt


_~~ (~) to the preceding words O/~, and words ending in a vowel, and (b) the shortening of the long vowel of the preceding word if it is not an indeclinable; cf. P. VI.

and who lived century A.D. in . the twelfth of the words in the Gal}.apatha of . pal}.ini, written by Vardhamana, a . Jain grammarian of the 12th century, who is believed to have been one of the six gems at the court of Lak~mal}.asenaof Bengal. Vardhamana has written a commentary also, on his Gal}.aratnamahodadhi. BesidesVardhamana's commentary, there are otber commentaries written by iTl9{l., and iT~\PH.


M~~lo ( i ) lit. barren, cf. Sayal}.a on Sat. Bra. 8.3. 4 I; (2) a supplementary recital or enunciation which is taken along with the original enunciation or upadda generally in the form of the siitras. The , word is used in the Kasika in the sense of one of the texts forming a part of the original text which is called upadesa; cf. Rasika\:iq~a
af.f.l~~~: ;Umql'F-11~ ~tfl'O: fuI~!Il

third lettel;" of the guttural class of consonants, possessed of the pro.perties, ~I:f. ~i[Cf, ~ and ORq3f(Ul; some gramIllarians look upon the word f<Wcr. (P. r. 1.5) as made up ~, it., and ~ and say that the GUl}.a and Vrddhi substitutes do not take '. place in the vowels If, \3', !OR', and C" ':. if an affix or so, marked by' the mute letter it. follows.


.,~;m~fu a graphic description of

the Jihvamiiliya letter as found in script, given by Durgasimha; cf. <T'51$inl(~~df i3q11liT;:ft<i~ +['l'm Durgasimha's corn. on Rat. I. 1. 18. see ~. (\:iql::~) .
'lUT a class of words, as found in the


(on P. I. 3.2); cf. also ~TOr '''Hgm;: ~nfaq~'litniT ~tf1'Olil Padamafijari on Kasika 1. 3.2. ;Ul~TCf<lrrft~~;t WRuT f!.,SJtfl'O: fuiiil'lfI'O!Il I fuI~I'O: ~ngtfl'O: I

I There are such accessory treatises on Candra Sakatayana, Haima, Ratantra: Sarasvata, Mugdhabodha and Saupad rna.

f~ll~ krt affix i[~ in the sense of an agent added to the root ~, e.g. o/T~+!fcl'G~:, ~~l.*+!Fci~:; cf. P. III. 2.57. I

a technical term of Jainendra grammar, corresponding to ~f of Pal}.ini. cf. mrr: m: I Jain. Sii. I. r.2g. krt affix \:i'!ti in the sense of an added. to the root 'i, ejg. 3lT~FIT~'li:, IF[I'{+!I~'!ti:; cI. P. III. 2.57. See f@ E?J"6L..



krt affix Of;:{ applied to the root !Ii in the sense of an instrument when preceded by the words al1~, tj+!lT, ;;~;;; etc. provided the whole word is similar in sense to cvi-formation ( 'iol:j<T ), e. g. i3iIGir'fROJ+I: H+!<j~:t:r . ' ~ .,,' f J II c. I . I: 2.56; fern. 3iIGir~, cf. '1<>'E<isft'li'f~Wi~i'!rl!q~ P. IV. I.I5. Varttika

[GANGADHARA SHASTRI TELANG J (I) a stalwart grammarian and Sanskrit scholar of repute who was a pupil of Balasarasvati of Varal)asi and who prepared in the Jast century a host of Sanskrit scholars in VaraJ}.asi among whom a special mention could be made of Dr. Thebaut, Dr. Venis and Dr. Gailganatha Jha. He was given by Government of India the titles Mahamahopadhyaya and C.LE. His surname was Manavalli but he was often known as lIWrl:R~rr~lt ~6W. For details, s~e Mababha~ya. Vol. VII. D.E. Society Ed. Poona pp. 33, 34; (-2) an old scholar of VyakaraQa who is believed to have written a commentary on Vikrta~a~li of Vya<;li; (3) a comparatively modern scholar who is said to have written two commentaries both named Induprakasa'~ one on the Paribba~endusekhara' and the other on the Sabdendusekhara' , ( 4) author of the Vyakaral}.adipaprabba, a short commentary on tbe Vyakaral}.a work of Cidrupasramin. SeefT.r~~Tal~.

~~mrr writer of Kfitantra-kaumudi

possibly different from the reputed . Gaflgesa Upadhyaya who is looked upon as the founder of the Navyanyaya school of modern Naiyayikas,

I ,


siitras of PaI}.ini by the ,mention of the first word followed by the word e.g. ~uf?:, tj'l'Tfit, i5il:jffu:, ilO!i{I:Ot+l?l~R:rir1{ir also called ifUj~~., ~fu, a commentary on the ifU[' O-=f1fit, Of<{rfit, remf?: etc. The ten' \tCfl1it1:\:fl:T of Vardhamana written by . gal}.2s or classes of roots given by the author himself. See ifOJ~~~~N. PaQini in his dhlitupatha are given the' !lame Dasaga!)i by later gramiTUj~~I:.~ a metrical commentmarIans. aryan Vardhamana's Gal}.aratna~ the mention individually of the mahodadhi. The name of the several words forming a class or author is not available. .gaI},a, named after the first word iT~'f<'t~ a work of Bhatta Yajfiesaid to have been written by pal}.ini svara. It is based on the Svopajfia himself as a supplementary work on GaQaratoamahodadhi. to his great grammar called Mtaka .or A~tadhyayi, the Sik~a, the Dhatu- ~ a commentary on GaI}.apiitha patha and the Lioganusasana being of pal}.ini, written by K~irasvamin the other ones. Other grammaof the eleventh century. rians such as Sakatayana, Apisali, i'(1Jl~ a statement of the type of a Hemacandra and Supadma and Siitra in the GaI}.apatha of pal).ini others have their own gal)apathas. where mention of a word or words The gal}.apa ~ha is traditionally in the Gal}.apatha is made along ascribed. to . pal}.ini; the issue is with certain conditions; e.g. tt,<f* questioned, however, by modem 'RT'l'\O, ~l1mful:T<iT<.fl:jr<ir+r,. in the scholars. The text of gaI}.apatha t{'l'ffitifUl, and 'R:mTt~~i'!:, offi<il1~: is metrically arranged by some 3fl'Rmq: in the ~Ufit<TUI. Some of the scholars, cf. }j'fa'qrf?:a- fif ~ i'(Uf.iil\: gal).asiitras are found incorporated lfTfii'lIM .,"'I'm!{ffi I N yasa on VII. 4 3 in the Siitrapatba itself. ]'1:any later cf. also anfu:;Ull({! Sf'liRl~: q ~p.rfu~r grammarians have appended their 'iTUll;:q6fa'1 Rai. 1. I.34. It is likely own Gal}.apatha to their Sfitrapat ha . that GaI}.apatha formerly was a part of Siitrapatha but was separated i'(llt~'m{ a commentary on the later on. The most scholarly and . GaQapatha of Pal}.ini written by authoritative treatise on GaI}.aMannudeva who flourished in the patha is the GaQaratnamahodadhi nineteenth century. of Vardhamana. ~ (I) lit. motion; stretching out, lengthening of a syllable. The word ~+IiT~'cT a grammar work, conis explained in the Pratisakhya sisting of a metrical enumeration


works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel ~ or a- after it, e.g. i[l~ or iilFt for i[lj similarly an -if or 3'!T-Ft; (2) a technical term used by Pat;liniin connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called <rm, cf. P. I. 4. 6079. The words called gati can be 'compounded with the foHowing word provided the latter is not a verb, the compound being named tatpuruae.g. Sl''!;.i:i<I., e;frt-c<r cf. P. II. 2.18 ;. the word <riff is used by paI).ini in the masculine gender as seen in the Siitra <r~"ffi:: P. VI. 2.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix f~ to ~, the word being used as a technical term by the rule fu>=(ffir 'if ~~l~ P. III. 3.174 ; (3) realizatioQ, understanding; cf. a-ir<!<rRrrtii +fi:im Par. Sek. Pari. 9; tlt>ifcjCfiI+fr~ ~ci'~: Par. Sek. Pari 76; 3'!"~r fu qfhrr!:fr aTl~1<1~ Puru~ottamacleva Pari. Path a Ifg. denoting motion denote also knowledge" ; d. Hem. Pari. 12I.

'wit '; ef. ~.rr\9T~<rfcr+l'flTI ~lil:. Par. Sek. Pari. IU. The word ~~ is also sometimes used in a &imilar sense; cf. Q<l;" ~<i +fCffa' M.Bh. I. r. Ahn. I Vart. 2. .
otft~q greater effort or prolixity of

a popular name given to the scholarly commentary written. by Vaidyanatha PayaguQQe on the Paribha.!,?endusekhara. The commentary is called CfiTNr'IiT also, as it was written in the town of Kasi (VariiI).asi ).

over. The word which is passed over in the Kramapatha is called <rCil(~; e. g. fu:~t 'q' q~ <'1m ifITI i[~<U




;:r~: tI~q~n<{

~l'cif"iS'Ii:r~ the reputed Naiyayika

who wrote numerous works on the l'ifavyanyaya; he has written a few works. like c;!iCqRm~ <jf1tlfrf<i'ifI~, 'IiT\l'Iif.ioT<!, tlcf<'lTliFc!'q'T~, srt<l~f9'ij'j~ on Vyakara:t;la themes,_ although the treatment, as also the style, is logical.

expression which is looked upon as a fault in conneCtion with grammarworks of the siitra type where every care is taken to make the expression as brief a;; possible; cf. 3l'~liT';fT (1)1<I~<'I 9:~a;f ~qrf{U]l: Par. Sek. Pari. 122. The word iTr\Cf is often used for <rfr2ft(<j'.
"Tm~ a class of words headed by <rq to which the affix <:to!', (<!) causing Vrddhi to the first vowei of the word, is added in the sense of a descendant barring the son daughter; d. iJ'lTtfit<:<iT <lor. P. IV. 1. 105 and the instances <rr't:, CfI~1j:, ~<{Iwr~:, qrr,;&!: d. Kas, on P. IV. I. lOS.

ft1jtfrl1~ If'<fu:ri qCi~ <'ili: I In the Kramapatha 1:fo~ "fli: and <f11: are passed OVer and q~<rt is to be connected with tl'ftq~U<!. The words qa~ <fit: and <ili: are called galatpada; cf. <rCil(~lifq:ji'l'1j aj<r.~ ~ ~\:lT<i ~;nli; V. Pro IV. 197. There is no <r~~ in

iT<iTR< a class of words headed by the word to \vhich the affix <Iff;. is

that which should be under stood; the word is used in the sense of 3l''flirno!j"; aliI ~Cf;'ijT't;SRfC<j~ M.Bh. on 1. 1.9,

affixed in the senses mentioned in rules from P. V. 1. 5. to V. 1. 36 ; e. g. if;q+J;., i[f9 S2l<f., W~~, i{;:2l~ etc. ; d. Kas. on P. V. 1.2.
iTqJ'ii~m the



;rr+l'C!i' capable of conveying the sense; intelligible; the word is often used in grammatical works;' cf. tlNe(ic?tfq llli'll(CfT(E!.,rtl:; cf. also 3'!91i4 9\\<IRrlii5'Bg
+fm~q 3l'l3l1<Tt1111t1~ <ili'!i~<! tIT~~ Cf'iji;<!~ I

dvandva compound words <r'lT-'!l, '1'1T"f9'!i, <rm, ~rf99i, ~sw.r[Uf.1j<ii, ~tTI'i lif8~)fiTlo and others which are to be declined in. the neuter gender and singular number; d. P. II. 4.II.

aTICi<l'iR<f;l{Rm<rT a popular name given

to the maxi m <rfcl<!;r\9itq-q"l:TClT 'i!ifi;:: tlii tlliTl3Cf~ 5l1~ ~q%:; d. Par. Sek. Pari. 75.
;rrfCif.temr the grave (am~l~) accent of the 'If word before a verb with an a acute (a-i{l'ij) accent; d. femr- ~"'I~9fu P. VIn. 1.71.
;rrrn~i!m a compound with the preced-

3'!1i,~qlF!lf<! ~Ifq M.Bh. on II. I.r.


to be understood, not expressed;

"f 'Sf

ct. <!\<iT:?r ll+'l~

:v-..a:: Sl':!!;;:'l~ tI'ij';q:


com. on Hem. II.

;rrJqq: lit. j \lst like a foetus. The word "is used in connec'tion with affixes that are placed like a foetus in the midst of a word in spite of the rule that affixes are to be placed after; cf. q\!l:T' P. III. I. 2. The affixes 819i"'l... ZI'I, etc. are of this kind; ct.

<l+lfift{ a class of words headed by I.~e word <r;:ft which are formed by the application of uI).adi affixes if! the

'fi:{1jgl9'!<{<iT <1Cffr<i I <!l<fT lil:~ 'f~ll<fl ~i<ifl~: &1't:>r~<rr: srrRftr~'llffim41:~ <1CfRr

Siradeva Par.


Pari. 9r.

.,~ a class of words headed by the word <r~ to which the taddhita affix ~<! (') is added in the Saiiika or miscellaneous senses; e. g. <rifr<FI.., ClRWfr<!<f.; this class called 'gahiya' is looked upon as an~faif!T(, and hence the words ~~~ ~:;Y-4h~ and the like could be explained as correct; cf. Kas. on P. IV. 2.138.

ing gati word prescribed by the rule

~TfRilm<!: P. II. 2.18 ; ifFcttl111~ I f.i~

~W9:, f.i9T1.:rUJm: lVI. Bh. on II.


I l{rn~

sense of future time; e.g. <r1ft' !l1l1<i, 'arrmm, !Hl<f{m etc. d. Kas. on P. HI. 3.3. involving a special effort. ,The word is frequently used by the Yarttikakara and old grammarians in connection with something, which involves greater effort and longer expression and, hence, not commandable in rules of the Sastra worl{s where brevity is the soul of

~sq' a root denoting motion; the word ( frequently occurs in the Sutras of PaI).ini and the Mahabha~ya in cennection with some special operations prescribed for roots which are ore:!<T. There is also a conventional expression tI~ iJt<I~T i(fFIl~f: meaning 'roots

the word occurs in the Pratio sakhya wor~sin connection with the definition of tf"li'l1; in the kramapatha. The word ~"li'11 means bringing together two words when they are CO IT. bined according to rules of Sarhdhi. (See the word ~ij). In the Kramapatha, where each word occurs twice by repetition, a word occurring twice in a hymn or a sentence is not to be repeated for Kramapath~, but it is to be passed

:rlTli:;tT name of one of the main seven

Vedic metres. It generally has three padas of eight letters each. However illustrations of 'Sfg~q;;;:T, trnq<n, fij:qGJ and TJ;'llq~T ij'[<l~1 are known in ~gveda When a foot of the three-feet ifI<lsIT is found wanting in one syllable, we get divisions like ~f.r~o:. (7,,7, 7) ana-~~ff;. ( 7, 6, 7 ), ajrn-!fIG:~"JU. (6, 8, 7), Cf~r (6, 7.8), >rfflllT (8, 7. 6 ), qRl~ ( 6, 9, 9 ), <!CfP."<lT ( 7,10, 7 ) . and so on. cf. J,tkpratisakbya xvi.





iiFq an ancient reputed grammarian
'and possibly a writer of a Nirukta work, whose views, especially in connection with accents are given in the PratiS1i.khya works, the Nirukta and PaIJini's A~tadhyayi. Although belonging to the Nirukta school, he upheld the view of the VaiyiikaraI)as that all words cannot be derived, but only some of them; cf. Nir. I. 12.3 d. also V. Pr. IV. 167, Nir. I. 3.5, III. T4.22; R.Pr. I. 13; XIII. 12; P. yn. 3.99, VIII. 3.20, VIII. 4.69.
i1Fi5<f ~n - ancient grammarian and niruktakara quoted by PaIJ-in!; d. P. VI. 3.60, VII. I. 74, VII. 3-99, VIII. 4.67, d. also Nir. IV. 3. '

ten by 9~~, pupil of Bhattoji Dlk~ita in the 17th century who wrote many works on- grammar such as +l1l<!<1tn.:;ctr, ~1!Ictr etc.
" ;

;rfhfl~l1~ a grammatical wo~k writ~

term in PaI)ini's grammar standing for the vowels 31', Q; and cf. ~~ U1T[: P. I. f.2. For the various ~hades of the meaning of the-word ~1]T, see MaMbhii!}ya on V. I. IIg. "U1T[o{IaU<f

an-; This class of UTlllfit words is considered as <llTiiRllfTll; ct on P. VI. 2. 176.


TTJ~~T ( ~-Rr.:


a class of words headed by the word U~ to which the taddhita affix (Oof..) is added in the sense of 'good therein'; e. g. m~: ,~:, Cfi~lTIf!ffl ffi\:; cf. lOis. on P._ IV.

il!~:,f: 1 <m:~~9
'q"lT~lT(fal 'I


9~~ I

=) (potency) of a word which occupies a subordinate position. cf, Vak. pad. III. 7.Br.

~1lfcii~~ a term used by the ancient

grammarians for the ~l1T[iji~<J:. or indirect object of a verb having two objects. The word is found quoted in the MahabLa~ya; cf. EfiWa- (;51~:<i~~~: 'fiflRr'U' ~ur I ~ur ~1T[iji.wr 1 d. also ~1T[Cfi#fUr (;5T~f.rN: tilj~ M. Bh. on I. 4. 5 I.

~~ possessed of a quality ;cf.

4. 103

Cfi~G;,. ~ ~fUrf<l~qit +fCffcr 1 a'll':!fT qa-: l@ il:Rr 1 Cfi<nfq~ ~fiil<rT ~'&!q'fu.~lfl- I qa-\<j ~@ il:Rr I M. Bh. on 1; 4.21.


, 'IT<f a technical term for the term 3l1W (pertaining to the base in the grammar of PaJ)ini); cf. c!l1l1Y~'Tlcj il!~lf: Kat. Pari. 72.


a technical term of Jainendra grammar corresponding to ;:sq-afe in PaQini. cf. f,f;'!j1'llit f.i 1 Jain. SU.

1.2. ,130.


marked with the mute letter '1:.; affixes that are f.ia: prevent gUI).a or vrddhi in the preceding word; cf. f'FfS'm 'q P. I. 1.5; d. also M. Bh. I. 3. to; III. 2.139; d. also 'T'iiTUtlf'l' "'I~cf'i;ft f~f't~<!=r Kiis. on P.

I. 1.5.


writer of fctOl'tf<!litf.iul<l, a work on syntax.

;fiffi singing, utterance in a musical tone uttered with which a B,k

hyman cannot be called Saman cf. - Vak. pad. II. 107 and tflffi;I WfR<lfT ( 9;1lll',,). The word (tflfuor.) also means a faulty reading on the part of a reader who reads ina sing-song way. It is a fault of utterance.

(I) degree of a vowel; vocalic degree, the second 'out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. primary degree gUI)a degree and vrddhi degree e. g. ii, Q; and T;;- or;:s, alt and 31' is given as a gUJ)a of 31'; but regarding 31' also, three degrees can b~ stated 31', 31' and a:rr. In the .Pratisiikhya and Nirukta u;- is called ~1T[ or even UUJT'TIT but no definition is given; d. U1T[TI1I1RQciOlrfct ~a<r R. Pr. XI. 6; ~+I:. il:m f<hrrfifcr~: I ~f.ttqfq +fCffcr Nir. X. 17 ; ( 2 ) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as IfITB, ;;r:;: etc. ; d. R. Pr. Ch. XIII; ( 3) secondary, subordinate; cf. ~'f:, 31'~, ~: ~a- trlTl;;r~i: Durgadiya on Nir. I. 12 ;' (4) properties residing in a s~bstance just as whiteness, etc. in a garment which are different from the substance (il:C<J). The word U1T[ is explained by quotations from ancien t grammarians in the Mahiibhii~ya astl'eif ~~~~~fq 'i~;;;rlm~ ~<ia- I 31'1~<j'1llW!i<Ir~1ll WSB?(Cf~tiffiTIlT(: II aj'ljl; 31'flf 1 ;:S~<i&;fmq;:<j''\. [@t i\c<j'l;:a~6CfJtt 1 9T'9Cfi: tl~w.'WFIt il:clfT?:...rr ~IT(: ~qcr:; M Bh. on IV. 1.44; cf. also ~<S'l:~q-t~tRtll1C:\:H UIT(T~~" ~'l:. M. Bh. on V. I. II9 ; (5) properties of letters like ~('nwCf, ~'l, ~Cfltn~, 13~~, c{tq'l, tffiItCf, <llGi!rfu'f<!' etc.; cf. ~CfitCfTt\. UIT(~ 1 a:rr~;:HmCf<f <rTff ~IT(: M. Bh. on I. 1.1~ Vurt. 13; (6) determinant; cf. +f'ffcr Gfsiilr~r i'!,,!;l1l1tf~fi1+1fcr

~ffi a Jain writer of the thirteenth

century who wrote a cummentary named q'-laror~ffiiZtr:r1T[r on g;<fffiuRI.

. ~OTm~


a vowel, liable to take the gUI)a substitute e. g. ~, ;:S, "ii, ~ and . ~ (I) possessed of a special effort the penultimate <ll; cf. <r;:j fCfS1<i"f<tiU as opposed to (;5~; cf. crt\. ~~ +19m M. Bh. Ahnika I. (2) heavy, a ~TllmC<Jftcr i'!~ ~<jlt1:. I fi'a+J:, 1 ~gcr+I:. I technical term including ~ ( long) i\'lf !I ;; ~rf~'a: rn'a'lT~fCf 1 M. Bh. on vowel as also a ~~ (short) vowel I. 1.5. when it is followed by a conjunct ~i:iq difference in properties; d. consonant, (d. ~<U~ ~~ I ctrq 'q I ~<r:HmT i3'?:cfi 'lIlT m:<r ~~;<rt;t +f'lRr I P. I. 4.rr, 12) or a consonant after 6l;< mfl+rr<!ttc\g-~U]mRr 1 M. Bh. on which the word terminates or when I. 1.2. it ( the vowel) is nasalized; ct. Tai. Pro XXII. 14, cf. also R. Pro 1. 5. ~OT::.r=ero; lit. expressing quality; words expres5ing quality such as ~i8, ;:fr(;5, etc.; cf. :g1T[q'qi'fiill&1IJ'fIR<+<r:CfiiifiJr 'q P. V. I. 124. See page 369 VyakaraIJ-'l Mahabhii.~ya Vol. VII. D.E. Scciety edition, Poona.

~ofutQ subordinate, lit. which has become subordinated, which bas become submerged, and therefore has ' formed an integral part of another; e. g. an augment (3l1lTlT) with respect to the word to which it h~s -been added; d. <RllTm~~lt~fWl::: ::JlfUf;; az!W-~ I M. Bh. I. 1.20 Vart. 5 ; Par. Sek. Po;lri. I I

a word containing a U~ vowel in it; cf. ~~lll U~~: P. III. 1.36.


~~ij~~ name given to the fifth

section of the third kiilJ9a ofVakY!l-padiya, which deals with qualities which depend upon i\C<Jorsubstance.
iflJ1~ a class of words headed by the .... word ~1T[, which, when preceded by the word <lg in a Bahuvrihi compound, do n?t 'have their last. vowel acute; e. g. ~ ~:; ~~<: ~,

consideration of prolixity and brevity of expression; cf asrrc'!j<j "fICf~ ~~~~Ft<ITq-(;5et1~:gIT~Rt I M. Bh.. on




the same as U~fiID which see above; d. 1Fit<j'~Ci'Hi'ft ~9'9'9f < Siradeva Pari. 125. words with which it is conneted; e.g. the word 31'm in -s.<f I- U~ <Rir amr' <j1ic1: ~<i "<T~:. I cf. V. Pro IV, 176.

~ held up or caught between two

M. Bh. on P. I.

I.27 ; (

7) technical

I~ ,

~~ttRr."fi,*fim a short gloss on the difficult passages of Siddhantakaumudi of Bhattoji Dlk!?ita, by Indradatta.
3!,G'llq~fu a commentary on Rama-

known grammatical treatises such a"itct-%;r a grammarian who has written "S the VaiyakaraQabh~iiI).asara, a work on Katantra Grammar called L.agt;usabdendusekhara, paribhii$e-\ 'liT~~1E~ and also a comme~tary ndusekhara etc. He is believed to on the GaQaratnam'ahodadhi of have written a treatise on[ Vardhamana. A gloss on ~he UI).adi~iitras als~; .( 2) a grammarian siitras. is also assigned to Govar..: differelit from the above l'l"f!il:<f who dhana who is likely to be the same ha~ \,:ritten an expinnatQry work on as above. . ~he Pratisakhyas ;(3 ) a scholar of grammar, dIfferent f~orn the abwe ' "T~ writer of a'commentary known who' is believed to haw wri~ ten a , as a:mil<fi::rr by reason of that work gloss _ named . Vi1?amarthadipik~ Oil Ii .begi,linips with I h'e stanZa a:p:~'lfio. the Siirasvata at the .9,:1. the Paribhii$endusekhara of end uf the sixteenth centurv. '. . Naf'esCl.

aTI:;r lit. family. The word is used by

P1i.I).ini in the technical sense of a descendant except the son or a daughter; cf. a:rtR<i qr:;jq~fff iil~ P. IV. I.162. The word ir't'.iiTq(Cj is also used in the same sense. The affix, which is found many times in the sense of gotra, barring the usual a:j1lT,., is <l5I..; ct. iFT(~"<IT ~ P. IV. LIaS.

Prahiya Kaumudi by the famous S::~a family of grammarians. The date 'of this Kf~QaSfl?a is the middle of the sixteenth century. For details about I{ r~l)ase$a and the Se!?u family see introduction to Prakriyakaumudi B.S.S. No. 78.
Kr~Qase!?a of


iii~>k4~ affix in the sense of ifT<;j; ct.

Cj<lUBr <TI:;rq~Cj<!:

l'Wltfu' tI tl;<fi:


l\1.Bh. on IV. I.93.

a commentray ('if~) on abe siitras of PaI).ini by Saoasiva Misra who lived in the seventeenth century, a commentary on the LagbusabdenduSekhara by M. M. Vasudeva Shastri Abhyankar



iIT<1(T~ lit.


( 186 3-1942).

~G1~WfjTfficpJ name of the gloss on the

Tattvabodbini \vritten by Nila kaI).thavajapeyin, a pupil of Jiiiinendrasarasvati.

~<:nre: a class of words headed by the word ~~ to which the taddhita affix UA ( ~5I..) is affixed in the sense of an offspring' (31qi5!j ); e.g. <rT2lJ:, ~lJ: etc:; cf. Kas. on P. IV. I. 136.

~ included; d. m~TfG.'i.'.i{
Kiis. on P. III. 2.178.



inhabitant of Gonarda which was' the name of a district in the province of Oudh in the days of the lVIahabha~yakara according to some scholars. Others believe that Gonarda Was the name of the district named GOI)<;ta at pre.sent. The expression ~lCj ani[ occurs four times in the Mahabha~ya where it refers to a scholar of grammar in Patafijali's time;, cf. lVI.Bh. on I. 1.2I;I. 1.29; III. 1.92; VII. 2 I01. As Kaiyata paraphrases the' words m<l1\:I<!WITi'f as +rT~<!'fiR<mr, scholars say that mi1f{cll was the name taken by the Mahabha$yakara himself who was a r~sident of Gonarda. Hari Dik~ita; however, holds that mif{r<i was the term used for the author of the Varttikas; cf. Brhacchabdaratna.


a grammarian' who cO.mmentary VairlikabharaQa on i TaiUitlyapriitisakhya. He quotes Apisalisik~a. . i

\:'rote. ~ I :rtt~;:q ("l'lli;rm~) 'writer of Samasa\'ada,

'a short t,'eatise On the sense con"eyed by CiJHlpOUild words.
mf,t.:~m wJ,'iter of ' Sabdadipika " a

known also by the nelme .n<fi'<lil'( who has written several commentary works un the gram::' matical treatises of the Sarllk!?iptasara or Jaumara ;:choolof VyakaraI}a fonnded by' KramadiSvara' and J umar~nandin ~n the I2th century, the.\';'ell-knownamong theIn be-ing t he ~~HeH.i'r<fir, ~fq!H ~l~'iftm'fl~;;~<fil and aftcrqR~~. He is believed to have Jived in the thirteenth century A. D.

'commentary Oil the Mugdhabodha VyakaraI).a oi l:3opadeva.

~f({ a class of words to which the t addn i fit affix 3l'<fi (&'1) is added in the sense of passessi.'JII provided the ~ord so formed refer,; to ;;, chapter .( 3le<IT<!) or a section (aTi!9T'ii); cif. 'hTS!~:, :~!I-q.: etc.; cf. KiiS. orr P. V. ?6z.

;rjitft;n~' a Bengali scholar of Kii.tan~;a Grammar who is believed to have WI i tten Ka tantraparisi$tapradyota,

nl~ a t?.d. ,Iffix applied to words like itt aHd otliers in the sense of I a pla<TfIJ;jT1\:<i: t;~lOfit?:~. t{~<illi I IflCU-

ce '; cr.

1:flt?:,,:c:j ~1Rt~T;::.~ I

mi. ~r<T iTtiTtij, lll"lrnlr.(, lifumg<r. Kils. on P. V. 2._29.

It is very likely that words like GJi and others were treated as pratyayas by PaI).ini and Katyayana who folloVied PiiQini, because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never ilJdep:mdtmtly.
(r) a word sUbOl din ate in syntax or sense to another; adjectival; ;a-qt{"~;:ft~i; (2) possi:;ssing a secondo ary sense, e.g. the word in the sense'of ' a dull man "; cf .r11lT~<i<lt ~ 'liT~~~:. M. Bo. on L I.IS.

'\)qcr;1W;: a class of eight words headed

by t.he word mlf<fC1, the taddhita affix in the sense of m~ (j. e. a descendant excepting a son or a daughter) such as the affix Cj5I.. or a:j5I.. after which, is not elided in the plural number; e. g .rrtf9<lr:, m:: etc.; cf. Kas. on P. II. 4.67.

<li<ft~ sef mtft~. alt~:n~ a tad. affix applied to .nouns like :3:rlll,;a-~, etc. in the sense of a pai~ e. g. ~m~<rf{, a:j~~<F(: d. ~
m~~Kas. ~n

. mg,

:riTfi1J"fi~:;r a grammarian whose view in

connection with the cor~ectness of the expression ~:nJ!r~ 1.ilfi and ~ffll!l~ ~m<i is given by the "MahiibbaiyaMra in the words' both expressions are justified ' (;a-+r<!~r iTIfUl9iiS;:;r:). Nagesa has observed that mfUr<fiT~ is nobody else but the Mabiibba~ya Mra himself; cf. iTIfil1<fiT9:?'I: +!11'ilJ<fiR: ~~lg: I Nagesa's Uddyota On Mababha1?yapradipa on P. I. 4.51.

P. V. 2.29.

mtH~ (~<i) known more by the nickname of +I~il:"f or +l"gil:<f who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well-

m~~~~~~ a . well knowil German scholar who made a sound study' of PaQini's Sanskrit VyakaraQa and wrote a' veiy inJormative treatise entitled ' paQini. his place in Sans;, krit Literature. 9 He . lived in the lattei~ half.of the 19th century.




1.4. lOS; VI. 3.46 See also Par. sek'l Pari. IS; ( 3 ) secondary, as opposed to primary; ct. ifrOt ~M ~qtri(: q\:Tl~ .
rft~~li. I.

a fault of pronnnciation due to the utterance of a iettt!~ hindered C,Jr held back at the throat; ct. ~~~~ !I{iji't<:ra:. R. Pro XIV. 3; cf. also !I~ f.l~~dl=l'l<iSr;ijffil.1 !I~d": ~~~ ~d": I aj;<!'m lI:(CI~ I Pradipa on M. Bh. Ahnika 1. ' vowel of the root, is added in the ;;ensc of an agent; e.g. !Irtr" \3cRlliJ, I' ~~1.rr, iI'?I't etc.; ci, Kas. on P. Ill. 1.134 .. ,

, ' tV
2.27, 29, 93; (4) tad. affix \;f, !1-pplied to am, t!!lii: and 6B;J,in the sense . of 'present there', to t!~~! in the sense of ' possession '; tOitfij"Si without any change of sepse, and to ~ and !l!\ft'l~ in" the sense of' deserving '; cf.P . IV. 4.! i7. !I8, 1 35, 136, 14I, V. 1.7I; {s )krt affixOi . when the word to which it has been applied be'come~ a proper noun i. e. a noun in a specific sense or a technical term; cf. III. 3. lIB, II9. 12 5.
'EfciiR' the consonan t fJ; see 11:
'Cf'<l tad. affix lI:<!, as lound iu the word


the maxim that the primary sense occurs to the mind earlier than ilJe secondary sense, and hence words used in the pri" mary sense should be always taken for grammatical operation's 'in preference to wL'rds in a secondary sense. See the word <Ti1ll.



afault in the of a \ which makes it indistlnct hy beIng held up at the throat. See ma-.
~~, ~



Sii{ a sacrificial pot used for tbe pur-

~. krt affix 'G applied to ther~ots

'I1'ffii an <!oncient sage referred to in


pose' of drinking the Soma juice. The ward is used in this sense in sentences like ~ ~m which f, often quoted. cpo Yak. Pad. iII. I. 58, 6r. 70,85.
s:r&0l t I) teehhical term' for a word

and ~lf( in the sense 01 an agent; cf. ;<iSTftI~~.1ll <ffll: P. IlL 2.I39

the Priitisiikhya works as a Pditi-: siikhyakara; cf. T. Pro V. 38. His pupils are Gautamiyiil}..

~ (I) foqrth consonant of the gut:.

or q-rmq-yfct'li in Veda; ct. !I{OT~~ :;;r i '!~"t!fA- !I~ ~~~~:, ~: I 'ern:. fsr~lq~ I
'liT4~, f.:ri1l'Q~, ;a-q-ijP\:T i(fa- I ~fq Bi~'!.<f'll: aI'lil~! aj~<ilWifa I Com. on

~ros~ - a white ass; the word is quoted

like ~WJ8q or ~~<:r~T~ as an instance of words denoting the genus and not an individual. cpo M~biibha~ya on P. II. r.6g, and Vak. pad. IL 216; III. 14.39.


greatness of effort; prolixity as opposed to <?lfJCf; ct. q'!!~<i~r.,f ~'i .n~Cf"f"ff "Tm:<!~ Par. Sek. Par. Il5; cf. also tr.\ij-'l~'!Tml1fot+nii1 .m'!!Tif.. Par. SeR. Pari. 121. affix ~ (:s1t!.) is added to form the feminine base; e.g. <TIn, l=Irtft, If.rr, if~uff; the class contains a large number of \vords exceeding I'50; for deta iIs see Kasika on 1'. I V. 1. 41; (2) a small class ,of eleven words, headed 'by, the word ;fi~ whichdo not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tal purt!~a compound when they are placed alter th!;; p.repositioG ;a-q-; cf P. VI. 2.194

T. Pro 1. 22 ; ( 2) citlDg, quoting; ct. !:l{U19d"1 'qJfa-q-l~., if ~f.J-N: Par. Sek. Pari. 31 ; cf. also' ~lii~fa !Ii[O"frfiI Com. on T. Pro I. 24. (3) lIlention~ inclusion; (4) employment in a rule of grammar; cf. q-rfa-q-yfG:cl!lrUr rew~ro2~~Tfq- ~. Par. Sek. Pari.


;fmf({ a class of words to which the

citing or instructing the inclusion (!I'1ll) of certain other things by thl: mention of a particular thing; e.g. the rule ~fi.tS901'':!j "fT!:!i.<I<!: is a !IfU1Efi rule as it ad vises that tbe ci1 ing of t he letters aT' ~, , a, 'iIr, etc. includes the long and protracted forms of aT, lI:,;a- etc.; cf.

also !Ii[Ul'!i~~lj W'loq~~fiiiNT"<lf m<r~6cR1: Sid. Kau. on m;: t!~ <ft:r: I VI. I. lOr.

specifically mentioned in a rule, individually mentioned; cf.

!II1ll9d"r lJRrq~if ~Niflffirl

Sek. Pari. 3I. See the word ~i[Ul.


f;l1ii, tad. affix in the sense of possession;, ct. CfI'<IT Fllf.,: T ~! P. L


~ a class of foots headed bv the root whic.h the affi-l' ~ (furf~"), causing vrddhi to the preceding

....~foI<!; cf. !!:tffl4'<l.. ~~Sr f"ffiiitBl: P. V. 2.9 2 and Kiisikii thereon. tural class of consonants having the properties <fIotil!:lt'i, ~!l", itFU!~}I<Oi1t'i 'CfS! kft affix aT causing the substitution and m!:lq-l~: (2) the consonant fJ .of vrddhi for the preceding vowel at the begi~ning of a tad. affix applied in various senses as specified whiCh is always changed into !t<J,.; in P. III. 3. 16-42 , III. 3 45'55, cf. P. VII. I. 9; (3) substituie for III. 3. 120-I 2 5, e. g. tfR:, ~if:, an,,:, (at the end of roots beginning with 'n'i":, 8T'l!lI&::, m'n~:, 8Tq<:!"R:, ~(3: Ul1: etc. il as also of the root it{ under 'Ef"l:. tad. affix aT applied to the words J certain conditions; d. P. VI II. 23~, ~"Ii, ~!I, l{lSf, and to multisyllabic 33. 34; (4) substitute for tbe conwords in specified senses, causing !'!onant ct. 01 l=IglJ. placed after the the acute accent 011 the first vowel pronouns fcf.~ and ~+t: which again of the word so formed; ct. VI. 2.26, is changed into ~ by VII. 1.9 ; e. g. IV.4. lIS. V.r.68, V.379, 80. fii:.<tlif." lI:~lif.,; cf. P. V. 2.40 . 'SIif one of the eight varieties of the ~ (1) consonaut fl., aT being added at , modes of Vedic recitation. It is -,; the end for facility of pronunciation; defined as of four kinds~) ~~l{Jij ct. Tai~ Pro 1. 21; (2) technical at "f ~~<fi fu:l:!T <icfd": I -fJ" is explained term for the tad. affixes a~ and as O!;:cll~l{ qh1"flH~~~~a:.1 an~ aillJ., cf. P. 1. 1.22, causing the q~GJrf fJ<!l1I~;:ftfiitllJ: I Madhusiidani shortening of ~ at the end of ba~es Sik~a 55 defines it as ~'if:lT before it, under certain conditions, FcI~ ~t&iqG:!l'Elta:. 1 f~~2:l~: mOffi:' cf. P. VI. 3.43-45:. and liable to be . The recital Will be ab ba, abc cba changed into aWl and cr~ after abc;, bcc bbed dcb bcd, cd, dc, cde, f.!ii. verbs ending in t/;, and indecliedc, ede, (c), de. ed, def, fed, def, nables; d. P. V. 4.II; (3) tad. I ie ef ( f ) affix fJ (I{<!) in the sense of, ' a descendant' applied to &.I~, and in 'Cf~ tad affix f(<!, occurring in Vedic , Literature, applied to the word 'i!rg, the sense of' having t.hat as a d 1" deity . CI ::.~~ f . ._ e.g. all:{ :4. ~IICl"l\lt'l<r.. c. K-.t. on P . a~. applied to arqli!t-q; ,atqlCltq an a _0 . V.I.13 6 . to ilt-=ii: and to the words ~~ etc., \ e.g.~fli!<I:, 8Tqri1fl:~!!:, atqT.,FSf<!:, l=IWi{<Ii., , 'fa (I) a tech. term applied to noun tlf!<I: etc.; d. ,P. IV. I. 138, IV. : bases or Pratipadikas ending in fit



and OJ excepting the words tlRs ~~ a consonant characterized by and tffu and tiJose which are. term the property ~lif at the time of its ed <rtf; cf. P.I.4.79; (2) a conven- . utterance; cf. Qjtll~:qJ: ~~: tional term for ilSlji (a short vowel) ;n~I~~liJl elt1i<j"ro: M;Bh. on P. 1. 1.9. found used in the J ainendra VyakaraI)a. cpo W 'ti Jain. Sii.I.2.99. N affixes having the mute letter Ii. as for instance, !;jot., ~,'l:f'l'i, etc. which cause the substitution of a gattural in the place of the palatal letter , or 5l:. before it; e.g. (lim: .[11: cf. P. VII. 3.52.
~ (I)

bases ending in <if; cf. p. IV. and VII. 1. 12.
~ ,case-affix

2\ .

~'Tq: fern.

of the ablative case, changed into antr, after bases cnding in OJ and -into iRl. after pronouns; ct. P. IV. 1.2. VII. 1.12, IS of the locative case, changed into (a) 8iI~ a Her ba~es termed Nadi, fern. bases ending in an and the word cfi, ( b) into aIr after bases ending in If and 3:, and (c) into ftlfil. after bases of pronouns; cf. p~' IV. 1. z. VII. 3. II6,1l7. lIS, LI9and VII. I. IS, 16.

fifth letter of the guttural class of consonants having the properties


. m case-affix

eltlif, ilrrmql'(lif, smlfl~

ftG~ kr t affix ifii!. causing the substitntion of Vrddhi for the preceding vowel, as also to the penultimate I vowel8i, applied to the eight roots; ~~, o+(, ~~ etc., also to ~~, ~~ i .etc. and ~~ ~~, ~5' f~C. e.g.~m, ,. ~q<lif, ~\Fcjffi, Sf'1l1tft etc., cf. p. III.2.14 1 - 1 45.

om, m;

and a:rT!FIfRt!fll;( 2) theconsonannt ~ getting the letter <Ii as an augment added to it, if standing at the end of a word and foilowed by a sibilant, e.g. 511~ ct. ~: :!.!!! ~ ~~ P. VIII. 3.28; (3) the consonant ~ which, standing at the erd of a \vord and preceded by a short vowel, causes the vowel follow:ing it to get the augment ~ prefixed to it; e.g, m<I~; d. ~) .~t<l~ ~!!Ol. f.!~~ P. VIII. 3. 32.,
~ (!)

affix t which is . .( grave) added (a) to wordsendirig' i~ the vowel ~ or the consonanf~::' (cf. P. IV. 1.5), (b) to words end-: ing with affixes marked with mute"",: '3", ~ or ~; ct P. IV. I.6, :(c);. .. : : words ending' with affixes .~.q:l'ken.::'. :; . with mute ~ as also elldingwj{h~~'" affixes <a, 3lu{, 3l<il., !IlI5'E., ~~;. tr~lI.,~,~, ~and 'litlt. (Ct. P. IV;. I. IS) and to certain other words.: under certain cOI:1ditions ; ct. P. 1""\7< I. 16-24. . . . fern. affixtwhich isudatta, ~pplied to words'lll the class of words headed by .n~, a's also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with mute 't, as also to . \vQrds mentioned in the ciass headed by <lSi d. P. IV. I.41-:46 .. lt is als,? added in the sense of ' wife ot'to any word. d~noting a male ~person; cf. P. IV. !. 48, and tOgether. with the augment a:r@!!! Carr<J:). to. the words ~, q~ etc. e.g. ~;;lI:luiT, ~;:ft, <f< meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' d. p. IV. !.49. It is also added to words ending in <fittrand words ending in 'til and also to words expressive of ' iimos of the bod v ' under certain c~nditions; d. P. iv .. 1. 50-59 and IV. 1.61-65. augment ~ mentioned as ~ in KiiSikii., added to the vowel follow o ing the consonant ~ at the end of a word. See ~?;. case termination changed into <:j after bases ending in short . ar and into ~q after pronouns; cf. P. IV. 1.2, VII. I. 13, 14. noun bases ending with tbe fern. affix ~1 (:slit., ~'f., or ~); cf. ~q;m. R(!!cf +jWQjfff M.Bh. on p. I. L8g Va,rt. 16. a popular name given



~ (I)

~ (nQ~n bases or Pratipadikas) called or tenned ~ . See fEJ.

~ a tech. term applied to ttle roots l'(f and 1:TT, as also to those like ~ or 1 <U which become l'(f by the substitution of a:JT for the final diphthong vowel, barring the root 'DlI. (to cut) and ~ (to purify); ct. f1:TT ~l1I.



fifth consona~t of the guttural class of consonants which is a nasal (3Tiji!fm'li ). consonant; the. vowel a:r b~ing added at the end for facility of pronunciation; cf. T. Pro I.2I; (2)- a conventional term used for al1 the nasal' consonants in the Jainendra Vyii.karaI)8. cpo ;;:rrfuiii'lt is': I Jain. Su. 1. 1.4.

a conventional term for the first five case-affixes; d. lji~ 'ti Kat. II.
1.68. The term ~ is used in the Katantra VyakaraI)a and corresponds to the term tI~iflliWlif of paI)ini.

.~ a short term OT Pra tyahara standing for the letters ~. cr., '1:., ~, and ~,casualJy mentior,ed in the :Mahabh~h?ya; d.t!;~<j~g i9l~ is'aTI fJffia:~ ~~frIii~~fcr I M. Bh. on Mahesvara Sutras 8, 9.

affixes with !i.e mute letter . ~ attached i:o them either before or after,' with a view to preventing 'the gUQa arid vrddhi' substitutes for th~ precec;ling If; '3", ~,or ~,as for example, the affixes 'q~, 6l~ and others; (2) affixes' conventionally called fii:tr, after certain basE:s under certain conditions;* sfo:ul~ P. 1. 2. 1-4; (3) roots marked with the mute letter ~ signifying tbe application of the Atmanepada terminations to them; ( 4) substitutes marked with mute ~ which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which tl,ey are prescribed as substitutes; ( 5) case affiXeS marked with mute letter <1( which cause the substitution of guJ;l.a to the last vowellf or '3" of words termed N.
~ common term for the fern. affix t mentioned as G'1t!., ~ Or i!<a:. by

~ dative

krt affix ~ applied to the roots ,;!5"<iI., ';!Itl.. and fu~ in the sense of habit; e.g. ~t <Ii!I!, <ilijt ~re:, ir~,: q~:; d. KiiS. on P. III. 2.16r.


short term or Pratyahara for the cr., and i(. See ~ (3)


'tl"'r.:i an fxternal effort in the pronuncia-

tion of a sonant or a soft consonant which causes depth at the tone; cf. ~ S m1:fT: ~: ~'lm: etc., Sid., ~ ending of the genitive case singo ulal; \lI is sahstituted for iiI'!3, after Kau. on VIII. Z.I. .

augment ~i. e.l\(. tl(,or OJ:. prefixed to a vowel at the beginning of a word provided that vowel is preceded by ~, or. or ~ standing at the end of the preceding word. See ~ (3).

PaI)ini; cf. P. IV. 1. 5-8; IV. 15-39, 40 ..,.65 and IV. 1. 73 i


~VI. fe;n. affix ~ added to words in the

class headed by lUii~; cf. P. IV. I. 73. Words ending with this affix ~ have their first vowel accented



. grammeriaD3 to the first pada ot

the fourth adhyaya of Pat;lini's I A~tadhyayjas the pada begins with the. rule ~<!ltsrlful1~rn. IV. L r. I




<Il1Jiim i3ffiT1m

ifT\:1i6" Kat.

Pari. 75.
'<I''Ii'R the consonant "


krt affix Cf'l. in the sense of an agetlt referring to an activity of past time, added to the roots ij and! <t~;. e. g. ~(Cj'T, '1tcrRi); <:j\;lfi <t~ cf. P. III .. 2. rOJ.

the vowel 31 being added for facility of lltterance and clif{ as an affix to show that only the. consonant 'if.. is meant there; d. T. Pro 1. 16.2f.

{ I

first consonant of the palatal claso; of co;;Sonan t5, possessed of the propertiefl, J!{m. ar~q, amqlllj and CfiUOfq{ffiCf. ,at the beginning of an affix is mute e.g. '<1f.Of., cf. ~ p. L 37; words, having the mute letter , ( dropped), ha ve their last vowel accented acute e.g. <l'~~~ I <l'r!1~ I d. f'tiff: VI. 1.13. the vowel 31 being added for facility of utterance, ct. T. Pro 1. 2I; (2) a Pratyahara Or short term standing for the palatal class dconsonants , . ~, ~, i8:., and OI..; cf. ~"I~~rr~T V. Pro I. 66; (3) indeclinable '"l' called Nipata by Pagini; ct. 'til&"<t)s~I'~~ P. I. 4.57,; 'ti possesses four t1ff!ill<t, 31i'CfT'ti<t, ~(i\<fliJ' and t1liTil1, d. Kas. on II. 2.29. See also M. Bll. cn II. 2.29 Varl. IS for a detailfd explanation ,of the four senses. The indeclinable 'ti is sometimes used in the sense of ~ a determir;ed mention' or avadharat;la; cf. .Kas. on II. 1.48 and 72. It is also used for the purpose ~ of ~RI or 3'f!!<muJ i.e. dra'wing a word from the previous rule to the next rule; (ct. M. Bh. on P. VI. 1.90 ) with a cOllvention that a word drawn thus, does not proceed to the next rub ; d. '"il!!'l.i2 .n~ Par. Sek Pari. 78; (4) a conventional term for 31+<tm-( reduplicative syl- I lable) used in the J ainendra Vyakaral}.a cpo l{Cfll:1l Jain. So: 4.3.6. ;

a grammarian wh~- wrote a commt:TI tary LiIig1i.rthacalld rika on the ' SabdaliIigarthacandrika' of Sujanal-'at;lQita. have written a work named Dhatusamgraha.

:;:,jijiiif'ld+1Y a grammarian who is said to

~ "argument in a circle" , a kind .

'<I' (I) the letter "

of fault in the application of operations, resulting in confusion; a fault in which one returns to the same place not immediately as in Anavastha but after several steps: d. 9;qfd~~<l'ICf: !fcl{1~ ~Rr "Iifi'!liIlO2jCjWl' srlmRr I M. Bh. On 1. 3.60 Vart. 5 and Kai. on VI. 1.135.
:;:,j%i{'li' known by the name 'iil~

also, a small work on syntax attributed to~.

'<I'~ ( ~"') a g~ammarian of the Se~afamily of the latter half of the 17th century who held views against BhaHoji Dik!?ita and wrote ~ ;rcU~c:r, '!iT,C!iffi9 and 'iil\;n~"IT'. Known also as Cakrapar;lidatta, he was a pupil of Viresvaraand son of Se!?akr~t;la.
'<I'$lmor,. ( m~

a wellknown Bangali scholar who edited Nyasa. Dh1i.tupradipa, Bha!?livrtti and other works from Rajasahi, now in Bangladesa. between 1921 and I940'

'<I'f$~ a grammarian who has written a small disquisition on the correctness of the form ~. See

::r{qit\a Rt<iI<::.

a Vikarana affix of the'aorist sUb-I ~~imm.:r the tatpuru!?a. compound ." stituted f~r ~ after roots ending . with. t~e fi~st wO.rd in the d:tive in the causal sign fiJI, as also lliter case m Its dissolutIOn ,; ct. "Ig~l~lilij' the roots ~, ii and others; this "I~ t1Rr !{'~~5l'<i +rfqac~~ M. Bh. ... causes reduplication of the precedon II. 1.36 ing root fOlTTi; cf.. P. Ill. 1.48-5. ~f.;r consifoting of (our. matdis or e.g. <Ifi!.~, 31~f~~; cf. also P. Illoras, a short vowel consisting of VlI.4.93. . .. one matta, a long 'vowel of two ~ a grammarian who has written matras, and a protracted vowel of a work on the topic of the five three rnatras; cf. 3f['ff~CTf~lil'l'tigl=li~TUjt vr ttis The work is named "IW'!~ ;:l!f[fuqf ~ fslijI~"It!l=I~r 31l~~T +IT I M. Bh. on Siva siltra, 34 :;:,jw<!f:e- a short treatise written by 'tiW"" '<I'ij~'l{ a group of four; the word de~re, dealing with the topic of the n~tes the four kinds of words ifTli, five compact expressions or Vptis 31T~<il(j', :atr6<l and fulffii which are viz. ~, t1liffi, Q;Cfi~ _ and mentioned by ancient grammarians. tIl~l:Tlg. cpo ~fri{<ir.,(ir Cf'ti<im~crU<:jUT: a;! 'tig~<f ~~ or :;mr~m a scholar of gracUqqf?r I (fu<1. 1. 1.2); cpo also Vlik. '" mmar w~ has written. an indepad. J 1. 343. pendent work. on Sanskrit Vya- :;:,j;:if a famous Buddhist Sanskrit karat;la called ~<:jl1f."Uj;;i\"cHg. The grammariall whose grammar existtreatise is also known- as ~l~'i.~ or ing in the Tibetan script, is now "Il~:Qll;gUT. available in the Roman and Devanag ari script. The woik consists of "<itIT the indeclinable 'ti (with OJ. as a six chapters or Adhyayas ill which "mute letter added to it which of no technical ierrns or sariljfias like courEe disappears) possessing the f2' , -3 are found. There is no sectior, g sense of ~ or condition. e.g. a:r<l "I . on Vedic Grammar and accents. li~e<iffi d. KM. on P. VIII; 1.30 . Tbe work is caSed on PaQini's gram'l:t0Tt!. tad. affix 'i:j1I] in the sense of fcl'G mar and is believed to have been (known by) applied to a word written by Candra or Car.dragomin which refers to that tping by which in the 5 thcentury A.D. Bbarq;hari a . person is known. e.g. ~\llT'qOl:, \ in his Vakyapadiya reiers to him; ~"IUj:; d. p. V. 2.26. cf. tI rilill Gi"smlS(;f 'tj'i'i{l"lT<iT~fu: 9;": Vakyapadiya II. 489- A summary ~qfq~ writer of a Prakrta gram- , of the work hi found in the Agnimar. He was known also as 'ti;s( and; puralJa, ch. 248- 2 58. hence identified by some with Candragomin. :q;:If~ called also Cfi'i'T, a well-known commentary on Nagsa's Laghu'<lij~ (!) a term used by ancient gram- i sabdendusekbara by Bhairavaniisra marians for the fourth conson<lpts \ who lived in the latter. half of the wbich are sonant aspirates, telmed i 18th century and the first balf of ~'I. by P1i.1fini; cf.R. I'r. IV. 2. T. the nineteenth century. 6 . \. Pro I. 18, V.-Pr. I.5~. R. T. 17 ( 2) a musical note in Sarna singing~ '<t-:lt<blla a Jain grammarian' of the twelfth century A.D. who has '<lij~1 a term used by ancient gram- : . marians fOt'the dative case; i written a commentary named Subo~ dhini on the Sarasvata Vyakaral}.a. ti~ w:f ~~!{fa 'ti~~; Nir. I. 93 !





a famous Bud- I a school of Vedic Learning; ct. "<I{11Idhl::.t scholar and gramzparian who: ~: 'li6"M5(4(d>4: Kas. o~ P.IV. .!.46. flourished in the earlier pal t .of the I ~ lit. eaten UP. swallowed tip~ :rile fourth century A.D. His system of I word is used by Bhartrhari in the grammar with ~, fi1l1, ~, and -sense of I included' or 'contained ~:rwI!!~THli'j lists is complete. Hehas insiqe '(<T~'li:r). cpo -Yak. pad. rio accepted great help from pal.1ini, 270,326; cpo 'tfIW rrrlrar Si~!{Rff:fi7{J hispurposf! fur giving a new gram<j<;<j mt "<I~~~ 1l+r1~~~ I (guq.) matical system being to compose a new grammar which should be short :q~f~ having kriya or verb actiVity ( i~), dear (Fct<;q~) and complete hidden, in it. The term is tls~d by (7j~). His ~iitra-work WJth his Bhartrhari in connection with a own ,commentary is called Candrasolitary nounaword or a substantive vrLti which comprises uf six having the force of a sentence, and adhyayas~ His work, exceHcntl} hence which ca~ be termed a, ~ent edited by B Leibisch from Brestan cuceon accottnt, 'of the verbal omits ,'vediC siitras and sil tras on activity dormant in it. e.g. 1it~; accefH-L'!lil1artrhari cunsider,;; him ct. <HCf4 oi{1it +r.-<F(t ~q~ "<Iftcr&i!{~ reSPQIlsfi)!e lor restoration of MahaViikyapad. II. 326, and ~~crr rPl.W5fT b~~~y.~',;bp. Yak. pad. II. 478 ff. ar~Qffli7{J q~ ffi{+r"";ii:r~lq~' ~mcr.t . -;: .. , Cffci4 Sf~~} I Com. on Vakyapadiya ,"<i~~"a gpi~~l1a-rian who around 1500

form ~ from the root ii in the sense of frequency; e. g. ~.
"<I a

~~q or <q"~i/)m~

I~- compo~nt

"<I:fir~; eit+r<fttff eitmfu; cf. ~


words of a running text or of a compound word.

gaJ,.1a-sutra in the gai}a named adiidi' given by PiiI).ini in connection with Olfcl:srllftr~:~: ~q: P. II.

~ substitution of a hard consonant

or ~, 'l", Ii, for soft consona~ts and aspirates. Seethe word "<1\;

word ~ is similarly used for the frequentative whl!n the sign of the frequentative viz. <( (<:j~) is not elided. See ~Q.

4.72 ; cf. aisp"C\ctftalilffi <i~: Sfl=trf ~I Bhiiii Vr. onP. II. 4.72 The

I ~palatalgroup the class,


:;:ulfitc(Q name .of a Nirukta writer quot~d by Yaska; cf. Nir. III. 15.

of consonants of tbe viz.~,~, ii(., ~ and Gi...

~<f,;ftd.!,ij a form of the frequentative orinteusive. e.g. 3n~, ~~'l!1I~1!1J: I

The word ~ is used in the same sense in the Pratisakhya works. See the word "<I.
'qf!:liriur an ancient grammarian whose

ct. arrq..tI'hoIRffi ~~~Wd'~ I Nir.

II. 28 ; '<l)~lIm!1J {Iff :;;lt~~~Wa~ Nir. VI. 22. See the word "<I,f;fu;., '
~..rr (I) splitting up of a word into its component parts, which is gen~ erally shown in the Padapatha by ar<!3N (s) . .' The word. hence means ~ or recital by showing separately tr,e constitutent words of the Samhita or the running text of the Veda. The word is used almost in the same sense in the Mahiiphaya in respect of sliowingthe wor~s of a siitra separately; cf. ., ~ ~crof.! O<jl~rci ~: , ~ I


view is quoted by PaI}ini in his SUtra ~ 3 "ql~GR<i P. VI. I. 130. He was the author of a work similar to UQiidisfitras as can be seen from quotations of his words.

:-A41~<':yX:{ile a c:.ifilluentary in 'K~I).Ita:C;l.~;laiJguageor: Kasakftsna."

-II. 326.

-dl:ablpatba. ." . term (Pratyahara) tor [he-'tir~t letters (~, " ~'. ~"and 1:1.) of the five Sometimes as opined by rli~;n\t1If{~ second letterl' are substituted ioe t!le,e if a sibilant follows them, e. g. 3l1f9U:. 'ft:9\: I

~ft-a1~ which has got already a scope

of application; the term is-used by commentators in conaectiO;1 with a rule or a word forming a part of a rule which applies in the case of s?me instances and hence which cannot be said to be a<j\<f (superfluous) or without any utility and as a result cannot be said to be capable of allowing some conclusion to be drawri from it according to the dictum c4~ 6~q~ta- I ct. arm~ illl1;:CJ;J 'l'ftm~~iI;:Hli!1J <rfl:cffl Par. S~k. Pari. 65.

the same as ~ or "<Ill' or ~8, a grammarian who composed ' a compendium on grammar called


ttCl('h{ol;of\qlg and also a commentary

on it.
~ltK"!4 a treati,s~ on the grammar written by "ql~t1 in the Sfitra form, 'which was named ~l~gby him.


cf. S, K. on G'l1ir ~~EJJ ~ft 3;28.

~f. '<I<lT fiW<jr: ~f{ q:i6~\614.Rfii q~'l<i;.

fin aN



I ~ ~mo1 'ff<Fil"<iIm: , 'qflfc;qiifi(u( I{~d'ffi~~a- O<jr,~1ii +IiIRr M. Bh. on '"

the same as


"i''{ a short term! Pratyahar-a) for the


hard unaspirated surds and ST '(, . ...., The change of the second, _third and fourth ietters- into the first is called '<Itf: cf. 31""flij- ~~ -I <aft 'q- I

iWltIR I P. VIII. 4.54- 56.


tad. affix '41:)0 tne, ~ense of being (soaild so) iil the past t. e.' g. an~'ff:; fern. an~qff: cf. ~,'i't~ '<I~~ P.V. 3.53. " .

~ explaiqed asa synonym of the word :mm wruchijleans a branch or

a term used by - the ancient grammariims in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency; the term ~~ is used by comparatively modern' gramm'" . arians in tne same sense. The :qei\uff rtiots are treated as roots ~f- the adiidi ciass or second conjugation and hence the general VikaraJ,.1a or (~l ,is olllitted after them: -The 'Nord is based on .the scd pets. sing

Mahesvara Siitia -I Viirt. 61; (2) a repeated word; ct. ~~re:. !!U!r <l ~: q({Cf"li! mt "<I:ql~~<!iJ. Uvvata on V. Pro III. 20; ( 3) Ii discussion or a debate where consideration is given to each' single word; ct. lJ<I~t ~l:q~"<I'<If ~ Par. Sek. Pad. lIS-

~:~ the view that- there are four accents-the udatta, the anudatta, the svarita and the pracaya-held by the KhiiI).Qikiya and the Atikhiya Schools.

~ a tad. affiX prescribed in the


~W' rep"etition of a word in the Wllo ~. ::l'fmto etc. where the


severalPathas-appear to be called th~'~ a word in a compound is. repeated'. twice. i,n. t,he -.,~-eyeryword is repeated twice. in the. ~, six tim~. ,

four senses~~, ~ fiI~J ~~ and ~: mentioned by paJ,.1ini in .IV. 2.67~O; cf. ar~rfct ~liTg{~: ~~: ij ~:M.Bh. on IV. ~.92. . ,

:;:rqt In

"'l\ii(~lii thE:; affixes prescribed in the , four senseS mentioned in,P. IV. " 2.67-'10 T~t~~dh1ta. ~fi are


" I

given in the Siitras,IV. 2.71 to IV. 2.91. The term ~r~ is used for these affixes by commentators on Pal)ini siitras.

Cfi1=i{~:qRFlftcn: M.Bh. on P. I. 1.73. He is also the propounder (~CI'mT) of the CarayaI)iya school of KplH;la Yajurveda.

~~ word,; menti~~ed in the

class headed by '<{fSl<l1nj' where the i tad. affix ~or. is applied although the words 'i:fg<iu'i, ~ and others are not.~O]i:j'i:fii words to wpich ~or. I is regularly applied by P. V. 1.124. i cf. jjllilOJl~!I "flSI~Uljl~ijltlq'Ei~qTij-r. p. I : V. I. 124 V1irt. I.

~ a class of words beaded by 'i:f which are termed f.rmr by PaI)ini

e.g. "i, <it, if, U;q0(~, ~, lil~ etc.; ; cf. ~Stlt~. P. I. 4.57. For the meaning of the word attl'tCl see p. 370 - Vyakarirl).amah1ibha~ya~ Vol. VII. published by the D. E. Society, Poona.


"' ""~ krt affix arTii applied toa root, to signify habit, age or strength; e. g. a:rmrr.1 ~qIiI1llT: I 'ii'i'tf iirmurr: I ~'l!mf P milT: I c . . III . 2. 129.

'ilIPSf name of a treatise on

I grammar I

written by Candra, who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. The Grammads based upon . that of PaQini, but it does not treat Vedic forms and acce-nts. See the word "fPj{ above. For details see pp. 375~376 PataiiJali M;ahabha~ya. Vol. VII~ D. E. Society's Edition. -

scripts of which are found in Poona (BhaI)Qarkar Oriental Research Institute No. 21 of 1875-76) and Gottingen (University Library, Sanskrit 25). It treats of Sandhi I rules, Abhinidhana~ meter and ten pla~es of articulation. .~ ... . ~:r.r fulfilment of t~e ob]ec~ or the purp;os~.!he word IS used m conI nectIon with a rule of grammar. See :qf~~. OqN the meaning of the indeclinable 'i:f to convey which, as existing in I different individuals, the dvandva I compound is prescribed. Out of the " four senses possessed by the indeclinable 'i:f, the Dvandva compound is prescribed in two senses viz. l(a~ffiir and ~mm{ out of the four I ~tllifqr 3fi<iT~, I{d{a\4lir and @l'l{R; cf. 'ii:!ii~ ~~: I ~'i!Jiltr.n~ Ifm:~{~iJ': ~J:lTm l!firM. Bh. on P. II. 2.29; ct. also Ciindra VyakaraQa II. 2.48.

I "<.I1U!f1:IITif ~~ a com~l:te S~k~ii work belongmg to the Carayat)lya school I of the Black Yajurveda, the manu-

f.q:e::qr.:lf~T name- of a commentary on the Paribha~endusekbara. written by Vishnu Shastri Bhat, in reply to the treatise named ~F. See f<I~mf~~ For details see pp. 39. 40 of Vyakarana Mababba!?ya Vol. - VII. published by the D. E. Society, Poona.
~ substitute ~ causing vrddhi. in the place of the aorist. vikaraQa affix f~; prescribed in the case of all roots in the passive voice and in the case of the roots q", <{\ll., ~ etc. in the active voice before the affix ~ of tbe' third pers. sing. in the Atmanepada, which in its turn is elided by P. VI. 4.14. cf. P.llI. 1.60-66.
~ affixes or substitutes or.

of Nagebbhatta. A small grammar work called VyakaraQadipa or DIpavyakaraQa is also fathered upon him.
~ (1) view; theory. e.g. crrar~
~, cnaIfci~ffi

d. ~ilcr GfIQlijllil ..qf-q;ijfff, CiI'l'~ Par. Sek. Pari. 58 ;

( 2) a matter of scrutiny on a sns picion; cf .ftRrr "i-~~


Durghata Vr. on VI. 4.69.

f"" ..ijlillUl

(I) name of a commentary on the Siitras of the Siikatayana VyakaraQa written by ~~"\. It is also caIled ~'lfu. (2) name of a grammar work.

bases marked with the mute letter, signifying the acute accent for the last _vowel; e.g. ar~, ~, ~,etc. d. P. VI. 1.163: 164. " signifying the acute accent of the last vowel; ct. '<{ffrf f'iW!i~1l1tllll ~/:jY~a:l~t<f +rFcisl!fcr; M. Bh; on P. III. I.3 Vart. 16.

f.tIRlIi4li1isti,fll~ a commentary on the ~filT of C/aJiiitlOJ:., written by ~m in the twelfth century. Theother commentaries are Cintama'Qipratipada and CintamaQitippaQi. See

f~ questionable; contestable; which

~ marking with the mute letter


cannot be easily ,admitted. The word is used in connection with a statement made by a sound scholar which cannot be easily brushed aside; cf. t!;~ ~~~ iM'''ffit~IRqi ar~~
qT~ ~('1~fi ~ ~.



~ th~

name of a tary on the ~o~'ii\1lJ written by

! commen- !

tad. affix (arm) applied to the word ~~, in the sense of possession, optionally along with the. affixes CfiJ,. ~ and!t'ii. e.g. ~~:, ~Eflif, ~ and ffafir'ii:; cf. Kas. on V. 2.122.

name of a commentary on the Paribba~endusekhara by jj~

Par. Sekh. Pari. 93.5.




fern. affix <lIT, applied to word.s ending in the tad. affixes o:<j~ and 15Cj~; e.g. ~~ iiiRmf, ~~r; cf. Kas. on P. IV. 1.74. an ancient grammarian referred to by Patafijali in the. Mahii.bha~ya as a scholar who had a line of pupils named after him; d.

~'qa' desiderative formation; a term used by ancient grammarians for the te'rm ~. of PliI)ini on the analogy of the termsll'CFift, cfflm<iT etc. cf. OTT ~FiiR: ~q6i: :!l"~rn:: ~~eI'iJ '3'6\:, an~ m~fu at~~aJfUl: Nir. VI.

fqfcr consciousness, knowledge; the word is used in the sense of the word f~)n the Samkhya system. cpo Vak. pad. III. 14.325, 326.
~mn~ name of a commentary on

the group of palatal consonants viz. ~, Qf.., iH. and or.; d.' ~[ P. r. 3.", . =tit: ~: VIII. 2.30, ~r~: VII. 4.62. in .the sense of' well-known by'; e.g. f<l1lIi'3!:; cf. P. V. 2.26.

~ tad. affix ~~ applied to a word

~ a class or gronp of: roots headed

the Laghusabdendusekhara by Vaidyanatha payagul}.Q.e, one of the distinguished discipies of NagesabhaUa.

~~ named

by the root~, familiarly known as the tenth conjugation.

~m a grammarian who is supposed

to have written a gloss (l!re) on

the Sutras of PaJ)ini; d. fffl "i '!fij: qtfUlf.i~t ~~ f<lCRUi !~~~fct - ( V. 19 ~a:-) iii~7 Nyasa,

~~ in the sense of the desiderative; cf. ~~.ffi':. ~rm~~~: Durgacarya on Nir. VI. I.

also ~~~li who wrote a learned commentary named 'Fci'l+l'"t on the Paribha!?endusekhara


en the benedictory verse of Kaika: ~ mq ~T ~'lRT~, at the very beginning;

70, 91,92, III, Il2, 135, V. 2.17 V. 3. 105; <Q) to compound words in the sense of 1(9; e., g. C!il~I~, ~oft<l~ etc. ct. V.3. 106;, and ( IO) to words ending, in wand ~111ii in specified sellses; cf. P. V. 4, , 9, 10.
if<!riR the letter U, the word 1fiT{ 'being looked upon as an affix, added to tbe consonant ~ which, by the addition of at, is made a complete syllable; cf. T. Pr. 1. 16, ZI.

~$ (I) an objector; the word is

common in the Commentary Literature where likely objections to 'a particular statement are raised, without specific reference to any individual objector, and replies are given, simply with a view to mak- ' ing matters clear; (2) repetition of a word with ll"/it interposed; ct. ~: qft!l{: ~~~. See ~lfcfol and qftq{.

w the second consonant of the palatal

... class of cODl;onants (:qqir), which is possessed of the' properties 1IffiI, at~l:f, WSHUl and Cfi1l6fciIlOcliTRtQ. ~, placed at the beginning of affixes, is , mute; while ~ is substituted. for ~ standing at the beginning of tp.ddhita affixes; d. P. I. 3.7 and VII 1.2. ~ ~t the end of roots has got 'l. substituted for it; d. P. VIII. 2.36 .

~ a gloss on the Sutras of paI}.ini referred to by Itsing and Sripatidatta. ,Some scholars believe tha,t Patafijali's Mahabba~ya is referred, to here by the word 'iifU!, as it fully. discusses all the knotty points. Others believe that ~, stands for tbe Vrtti of ~ll~. In Jain Relithe' crude form of the word '<il{ gious Literature there, are some ~ith the mute consonant ~ added brief comments on the Sutras which to signify the addi~ion of ~ to are called ~ and there possibly form the feminine base e.g. ~; cf. was a similar '"lf61 on' the sutras of P. IV. 1.15. paQini. cpo ~TUJj ~fctr.ll~ I ,Vrtti on Va. Pa. 1. 23. Also cpo i;,<F.f 'q ,~~ a root belonging to the tent.h ~'ii1~UJ ~ra: ~ ,~,,<@t I M~dha. conjugation of roots (~); cf. tithi on Manu Smrti V. I58. arrll: Uff ~\I~ AA wrt ~9m I KliS. P. VII. 3.34. ~~ the sign i!j"' (<j~ of PaQini) Elf the frequentative or intensive. The ~~ the consonant ~ with "I. .prefixed, word is mostly used in the Katantra for which lil is substituted by '<l~: Grammar works; cf. 1:lrJlJi~I"rt~;Et~ \l@ti'1lmili 'q P. VI. 4.19. ~1~, Kat. III. 2.14, The ~ tad. affix a:rtCIif causing a vrddhi word ~ is used in the Maha- , substitute for the first vowel of the bba~ya in the sense of CIS-ref where word to which it is added. The affix Kaiyata remarks~: ~f'qTii$rr ~- I (~) is added in the sense of I a ~ftr cf. sri{tq- on M. Bb. on P. IV. I desq:ndant except the direct son or 1.78 Vartika. The word ~~ i daughter' to words ~ and others; means CI~i{l Pii.Q.ini's terminology , ct. P. IV. I 98. meaning a secondary root derived from the primary root in the sense ~E!'i the sign of the aorist (~) for of intensity. The word 'qcfifuniff is which generally m'l\. and <IIi{, Cffi, :q~ used for the frequentative bases in . and f~ are substituted in specified which ii, the sign of the frequenta- I case; cf. P. III. I'4~66. tive, is omitted. See~. ' : ~ tad. affix (of which nothing re~ tad. affix 11;9" applied to the word mains) to signify the taking. place ~;r in the sense of I unable to bear' of something which was not so e.g. ~9":, cf. P. V. 2.122 Vart. 7. before; after the word ending in ~9 the forms of the root ii, li. or ~ '<i'tEfiif14 a southern grammrian of the have to be placed; e.g. ~CI;(lftl ; ct. seventeenth century who bas comP. V. 4.50. posed in 430 stanzas a short list of the important roots. with their 'm{~ possessing the sense of~. See meaning. The work is called 1:11g~ cf. P. III. 2.56 also P. III. 3.127 Virt. I. ~.



~ tad. affix ~<i causing the vr<;1dhi tad. affix ~<i. added (1) to the 'substitute for the first vowel of the words ~~, mq: and to words ending word to which it is added. ~ot. is with tad. affix~; cf P. IV. 1.143, . added ( 1 ) to the \Yords ~ and 144 and 149; (2) to the ~vandva ,;rf<!Ci'j~ in the sense of SllWl; cf. P. compound -of words meamog conIV. 1.132, 134; (2) to the words stellations, to the words ~~, . 'i!)1{ITlI1, ar~ and others as a 'qTg\r~ artrliit<l, W~, '<lFn'lf:ir<ft,~'!l~, et.c. affix; cf. P. IV. 2.80; (3) to the as also to ~, ~, '1li etc. in words ftrfuft, <i\Qig, ~ and certain specified senses, d. P. IV. ! the sense of 'instructed by', cf. 2.6, 28, 29, 32 , 48 , 8 4, 90 & 91 ; P, IV. 3.102; and (.4) to ~he.word ( 3) to words beginning with~he I ~<1>Tg\ in the seDse of bemg ~ vowel called Vrddhi (<lIT, T;; or a:rt), national of' or ' having as a domIto words ending with crff, to words cile.' e. g. ~~:; ct. P. IV. 394 of the iT{ class, and to ~~ and ~ in the ~fi'l<fi 'senses, cf. P. IV. ~, ( I) Vedic Literat~re in gene:-al as round in the rule~ ~ WhICh 3. 1 14, 137-45 and IV. 3.1; (4) to has occurred several times in the the words fil,I't<1>, atij~, as also to words ending in <iir. in the sense of Siitras of PaI}.ini, cf. ~i<{t<iHi.~TfUT , present there' ; ct. P. IV. 3.62-64; lfcif.a' M. Bll. on 1. 1.1, and 1. 43; cf. also V. Pr. 1. I, 4; (2) Ve~ic ( 5) to the words ~'rt, <p:j~, Sarilhita texts as contrasted WIth dvandya compounds, ~~<! and the BrahmaQa texts; ct. ~Jf(fWlJl~ others in the sense of 'a ,book 'q 6~rfiJT P. IV. 2.66; (3) metre, composed in respect of', cf. P. ~V. metrical portion cf the Veda. cpo 3.88 ; ( 6 ) to words meaning warrIor ~(mCI:6fcf<ii(:~: ~usft6 ~;oj;f tribes, to words ~<ifficli etc, as .also ~ ~~: I Nyasa on P.IV. 2.55; ~ and mI in some speCified ~.~", IV cpo also ~:~1'ST ~'ijfcil~m senses; d. P. IV. 3.9 1 , 131 , .' i(f<I~1f&"1{I~ q{lIl~ I Kai. on IV. 255 14 Il7' ( 7) to all' words barnng 4,' . ' th those given as exceptIOns m e general senses mentioned in the sec. ~ Vedic metres. They are mainly se'ven others being their varieties. V. 1. 1-37; (8) to the w~rds 9:51, ~pr'tisakhya XyI. I to 8 divides ~, ~1Jj, words ending m 9~, them intq ~,({<f, ang{,anit, CJT$'l', ~srCfiti{ etc.@rr, ~m:{ and ~~unn m"f, lIl'fil, and iINl. Each one of th~ specified senses; cf. P. V. 1.40 , 6 9,

s_even principal metres viz. i1T<i'ft', ~lT.i~, 0!!I~'i.. 'l~, 'iff;:, ~~'i. and :;f1Fft can have the above divisions;

qTCj~~ ) who lived in the eighteenth



represented- by the coll~tion of Vedic bymns cpo Vak. pad. 1. 17; -cpo W~J<~ t!l!!f: 1 t!'Dn~ aTrq~

a grammarian who wrote a short gloss called <tiTo~~!fll% on the Ka tan trasfi tras.


~rf~'f.~~ff: I I (t )

";"1 ~ tlW{:mlt!l:J<'3"~:

~mq, Vedic language as contrast<:d

with 1t1'1T (ordinary language in use) ; cf. ~(jt:t ~~m tIT'<i ~~<O~Cijlf.! :q ~ffi8<f g wij-ir ~+!T"1t f,f;;JTilfff T. ~r. XXIV. 5.

third consonanj of the palatal class of consonants, posses~ed of the properties 'U"f, Ejrq, ~qlnlll and '1\00~<J:~'li1fuq. ar.. at the bfginning of affix!:'s is mute in PiiQini's grammar.

wrote a sort of refutation of Bhatto oji's commentary Prau<;lha-MaDorama on the Siddhanta Kaumudi, which he ~amed ~~<i but which is popularly termed ~~:q. ~<l. His famous work is the Rasagailgadhara on Alailkarasastra; (2) writer of a commentary on the ~k PratiSakhya by name Van;takramalakl1aI)a; (3) writer of Sarapradipika, a commentary on the Sarasvata VyakaraI).Cl. H~ has referred to his work KaustubhakhaI)<;lana in his PrauQhamanoramiikhaQQana.

Vitthala; (2) writer of a commentary named Vadighatamudgara on the Siirasvataprakriya.


a famous Beugalee Fcholar of VyakaraI)a and Nyaya who has written a small treatise dealing with syntax. The treatise is named CflRCnqR.


~~ one of the famous joint ~utbors - (:;f<:ilfctt<i. and qrll'ii) 'of the wellknown gloss (<iRI ) on the Siitras of i

a popular name given by grammarians to the ilrst pada (; f the fifth Adhyaya ofPaI)ini's A~ta dhyayi as the pada begins with the rule m~ ;fiten~: P. V. r. r.

::I the consonant ar.. with 61 added to it

for facility of pronunciation; cf. T. Pro I. 21. See~.

::rmfr one of the seven principal Vedic

metres. It has fourpadas of twelve . letters each. It has further varieties like ~~;ym (I2, I2, If, II), ~_ tfitI;;JiRft ( 8, 8, I2., 12, 12) and so on. cpo ~kpratjsakhya XVI. 5).

~ ing for ~, ~ ~, "

- I

a short term or Pra"tyahl'ila stand~ and f(,; cf. "?.90Cj>r:m~ P. VIII. 3.7.

a kind of Vedic recital wherein each word is repeated six times. ;;je[ is called one of the 8 kinds ("If!~iifo ) of the Kramapatha, which in its turn is based on the Papapatha; cf.;;je[ ~Tfu~ t~r ~'llm ~ ~~ Eli'!: I "Iir fq~lj: fi: 'lillf{,qf ll<frfilm: I ;;J2'f is defined as
O!!I~llfcr~+ljt mrt ~ q~ 'lili~. I w~it W'l'~: "I~it <.ji!n:nli~ I The recital of al\ti'<i<i: Wi~ tliit<l can be illustrated aSaTIlN<I:~, t!!lreI'<i<i:, aTIlf<lc/: ~, ~ q~, ~~, -~m, q~ ~, tliit.,- ~, q<{o'~ ~<l 1

~ tad. affix ~<:i added to the .word +!qG:, in the general ~W'li senses, e. g. +tqiflC/:; cf. P. IV. 2. tI5. The mute letter ~ has been attached to the affix ~ so tt>at -the base ~ before it could be termed_ pad a (cf. fum :q P. 1. 4.I6 ) and as a result have the ,consonant ~ changed into" by P. VIII. 2.39.

::rmfm. ( a'O!ilt1'i~R)

a famous Naiyayika who wrote Sabdasaktiprak,asika around I600 A. D.

Pat;lini, popularly called 'lilfu~fu. As the <tiT~'fiI~RI is mention~d by It-sing, who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya, as a grammar treatise written some 40 years before bis visit, the time of CJiI&!<n1'lfu is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.p. Some scholars believe that ::wnfct(Cj was the same as ::wntftG a king of Kasmira and <TIll"- was his minister. For details, see pp. 386-388 of the Vyakaral}a Maha bhal1Y a , Vol. VII, published by theD. E. Society, Poona: See


- ~ a grammarian quoted by Ujjvaladatta III. 70, "~it S;<l'l::lt!'I::"U0:{

~sfir q-ij-~"

a poet and grammarian of probably fourteenth century, who wrote a commentary named Katantrabalabodhini on the Katantrasfitras. Rajanaka SitikaI)tha, a descendent oC Jagaddhara wrote a commentary on Balabodhini.


lfRt ~l1IWIT '1~~'lj

~l~filsr: I

found in the Vedic Literature; Vedic; cf. rnrc:;t!f "IN ~" +!J1:J1<If ~ Bha~avrtti on P. IV. 4.143; ct. also W({tlitm( I ~~&NIll -.:.9ra,m 1t:rfff; M. Bh. on 1. I.S.

a poet and grammarian of Kas~ mira of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named ql~N<=ft on the Katantra SiUras.

a famous grammarian of the Mauni family who lived in Vara1Ja~i in tbe seventeenth century. . He wrote ~+!'f(Cj~f.rmC/, ~m.'i'jfu:<tiT, a commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi called ~N<fr which supple. mented Tattvabodhini and a commentary on the Madhya Kaumudi named~. He wrote a commentary on the Laghukaumudi also.

a Jain grammarian. of the fourteenth century who wrote a . commentary named ~ also named HaimaIiriganusiisana-vyakhya on the ~~~~ of Hemacandra. a short term (~R:) signifying the soft in aspirate class consonants
OI..,~,~, ~and ~

::Immr (I) the well-known poet and

a learned commentary on Nilgesa's l\Iababba~yapradipoddyota written by his pupil q;~~ (possibly the same as, or the son of, ~~<lI~

scholar of VyakaraI).a and Alamkara " Who wrote many excellent poetical' works. He lived in the sixteenth century. He was a pupil of VireD SVara, son of $'i~"1 and he severely criticised the views of Appaya Dikl1ita and Bhattoji Dik~ita. He

~ a grammarian, (of course differ- I ent from the well-known poet), to whom a small treatise on gramII:i~r by name ~e<jICfi\1ll or ~ IS I attributed.

substitution of a :;flU. consonant prescribed by paI).irii for any consonant excepting a semi-vowel 01' a nasal, if followed by any fourth or third consonant out of the class consonants, or if it is at the end of a piida; cf. P. VIII. 2.39, VIII. 4. 53 which see above.


.~ (I) author of ~ a commentary on T{ffUJfq~!iQ written by

~ the same as ~,


. affixes, called :omn~,are' prescribed by PaI}ini in the siit"ra o=f :;rrff: and the following; cf. P. IV. 3.25~37.

case terminati~n am: of the plural; cf, P. IV. r.2.


~q?iI' the view that :o!M, or genus

only, is the denotation of every word. T-he view was fi.rst advocated by Vajap)iayana which wa!' later on . held by many~ the, Mimamsakas being the chief supporters of the view. See Mahii.bha~ya on P. 1. 2.64. See Par. Sek. Pari. 40 see :o!lf~. . . \ ~~~ name given to the first sec- ! . tion of the third KaQQa of Viikya- I padiya. It discusses :;rrfu' or universality as the denotation of words. I

;:j~ case termination ilf~ of the nom. plural mentioned as ;;r~, by PaQini in IV. 1.2, but referred to as ;;jf6 by him; cf. P. IV. 1.31 and VII. 1.50.

~t~~ invalidity of a 13ahirailga operation that. has already taken"place by virtue of the Anta~

conveying practically the same idea, d. Nir. X. 163 and 4~ tad. affix added in- the sense of 'a root' to the wordsonuT, ~, ~, ~ and others; e. g. 'fi1J1;;j~ ~f. P. V 2.2 4.

;:j~l<iPlF.t~ n~me given to an alternate view about- the sense of words referring to the expression of ~ sense which is entirely diffe~ent.from the original sense; this secondary sense is found in cases of indication (~!ij1lW~) like ~rijt e1N: I and B~huvr.Ihi compounds like tftffiHR cpo Vak.pad. II. 228.

railga.paribhlWi~ ~if~~
that which is ' bahiranga ' is regarded as not having taken effect when that which is' antaraIiga' is to take effect. For details' see Par. Sek. Paribha~a 50.

~a technical term of Jainendra graa


mmar, corresponding to ~q~ of paI).ini. cpo ~ <Mt fi!: I Jain. sii. r. I. 45 in the Jainendra VyakaraQa.

! ~ a conventional term for ~3f6RUl used


I 'Stl(h+"ft~~ invalidity of a

grammatical operation prescribed by a rule in the::srr+ltlf section (P. VI. 4.


~~cnm ( ~ ) a composite expres":

the acute acc~nt for the last 1 VOWf I of a word ending with 'ffi of \' the p.p.p. denoting a genus; cf. P. VI.
2. <7 0 . . .


sion where the constituent mem- I bers give up their individual sense. \ ~n ~mpound words such as ~ m t e ~ente~c~ \f;;j~Ii'T;;<i the word \1~ gIves up lts'sense inasmuch as I' he, the king, is not brought; ~ also gives up its sense as every man is not brought. It is of course to be n?ted that although the sense is gIven up by each word, it is not ,co~pletely given up; d. ~. ffi~ ii~ ~ftt; M. Bh. on P. II. ! 1.1. VArt. 2. For detailed explanation see Mababhii.;;yaon P. II. I.I. Vart. 2. , ~(q b d . . a .an ?nment or giving up of propertIes 1D _the case of a word . lnclu?ed In a'lffl or composite expressIon; .cf. ~~t<lI..,ia&SI,!~: Durghata Vrtti on P. II. 2.6.

22 up to the end of the fourth'pada) . which, although it has taken place. . is to be looked upon as not having , taken place when any other operation in the same section is to take effect. See arT+!1<rrfffil.

~~ tad. affix :;rraTl! in the sense of ~ or variety; e~g, ll~mtlf:, ~\j;-, ;;ncfil!:; cf. Kas. on P. V. 3. 6 9.
Originally :o!laTl! was possibly an independent word, but as its use, especially as a noun, was found restricted; it came to be looked upon as an affix on the analogy of the affixes ~, ~'1, ~m and others.
~ name of a variety


mfu genus; dass; universal; the nolion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kind. The biggest or widest notion of the universal or . genus is ffilT which, according to the grammarians, exists in every object or substance, and hence, it the denotation or denoted sense of every, substantive or Pditipadika, although on many an occasion vyakti or an i~dividualobjectis required for da'!' a if' an d IS . act ua11y re. ' 1Y aIrs ferred to in ordinary talks. In the Mahiibha~ya a learned di~cussion is held regarding whethef Glffiris' the


.of the Svarita or circumflex accent; the original svarita accent as contrasted with the svarita for the grave which follows uponan acute as prescribed by P. in VIII. 4. 67, and which is found in the words l{iit:, ijor etc. The jatya svarita is noticed in the words a:.q:, iii, ;;'1~, <i\~T etc.; d.
;:r&ftIWn1l' fcr.n ~KTI
;;JR<l: I

affix marked with the mute letter or.; e. g. ~t ~, ~. the word ~ is not however found used in this sense; (2) a word supposed to be marked with the \ mute indiCatory letter or.. The word is used in this sense by the Varttikakara saying that such a word does not denote itself but its synonyms jcf. imt. tf<ITlf'f'q~q ~~ P. 1. 1.68 Vatt. 7. In the Siitra eu \1~!r'l~qt P .. II. 4. 23, the word ~I~ is. supposed to be fim., and hence it denotes ifcI, ~~ etc.; but not the word ~ itself; ( 3) In the Priitisakhva works ~ means the first two consonants of each class ( qir); e. g. ~,~, "i", ~. etc. which are the same as <s~.letters in paI].i~ ~ ~ ~ ni's terminology; d. liT ar sr~l1r 1-:1\1,.- V. Pr. I.5 o' ; HI. 13

I) lit.

:aa:l"G'~ ~fu!lt.l~ q~~ I ~&: \<if@'

~Tt ;;jffljm:q~~ q~ II' ;;j(~t ~~q :;r<{l~l

author of the Siddhftntaratna, a commentary on the Sarasvata Siitras; century \vho wrote a gloss on Katantrasfltras. It is named Katantravibhrarna on which there is a comm= entary named Avacur!J..i by Caritra "'imha.

\1IIU@am<ilq a short disquisition on the

correctness of: the word~, written by a grammarian named C'akrin; cf. +!if~~ . llN'f_~ftl~iit .'"l' q e~ I ~w:~fir~ ~ I ~ij'iiI~ ~1Wfil ~eF{1I~ .!:IflRT ~,'"l' ~: tIJl: .1/ (3fq'{ amr I colophon. ~~1<iflIm~ m~ ~~:Illj'e<f- .

denotation or ~ is the denotation. The word :mRr is deaned in 'the Mahabhru;;ya as follows :--3l11iRt!irarr

it ;;n~i=!R8(I~ ~1~~Ci<!: R. Pr. and com. III. 4

~ a grammarian of the thirteenth


G1~ tautologous, unnecessarily ~epeated; the word is defined anddlustrated by Yaska as ;-ei~8iiF<!Flf'q \

mrt ~ gt~.


born or produced there or then; one of the senses in which' the ctad.

on IV. i~63. For details see Bhattr.. hari's VakltapaQi,f8.

w.:rr<n\W;1.fI'tfR <liifu o~um ~ 11~~ l1li1ru~ru ;q~ Ni!. X.... 16.2. Fb. other "'defiilithms of ~he w9.d ~~

- ~ ,~~ a reputed BuddhIst

mmarian of the eighth ~ntury who




wrote a scholarly commentary on , the Kasikavrtti of J ayaditya and Vamana. Be calis' himself Bodhisa ttvadeSlyacarya. Tbecommentary is called P<!Tt! or 9if~9if~<r{IJllif~ and the, writer is referred to as ~<!iI\ in many later grammar w()rks. Some scholars identify him ""ith ~tf1G:~<l'l~ the writ,er of the ~_ &jJCRUJ, but this is not possibJe as ~~G:~ilf~ was a Jain Grammarian Who flourished much earlier.
~ verbal termination ~ substituted

for the original % ofthe third pers. pI. certain cases mentioned in P. Ill. 4-I08, 'IOg,IIO, III andII2.


~~ the transformation of minto

~~; the substit~tionof ~ for flr. The term is often used in the MaMbha~ya; cf. M. Bh. on I~ 1.57, T. I. 63, III. r.43 etc. See~.

See r' VyiikaraJ}a has no VedIC section dealing withVedic form~ oraccent.stl but it has added a sectIon on Prakrta just as the HaimaVyakaraQa.

~~ above.Th~ Jaum~ra

::mm:~~ a

supplement to' the Jaumara VyakaraJ}a written by Goyicandra. See cWftVi(. Jumaranandin of the original grammar verse called ~'I.1tl1\ written by Kramadisvara. The JaumarasaluskaraQa is the same as Jaumara VyiikaraQa, which' see above.


fiff~ mention as ~(l; cf. ~m~~:

~e<f:' M. Bh. on L 1.68 Vart. 7. See'~.. ,

class of roots headed by ~ after which the vikarat:,la sap is elided and the root is reduplicated in the .four conjugational tenses; third conjugation of roots.

aiItm~~OT the revised version by


used in the sense of ~~rij, the tip of the tongue., '

~~' name. of a grammar work

written by Piijyapada D'evanandin, also called Siddhanandin, in the fifth century A.D. The grammar is based on the A~tadhyayi of Pat:,lini, the section of Vedic accent and th~ rules of Pat:,lini explaining Vedic forms being, of course, neglected. The grammar- is called Jainendra VyakaraI}.a or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. The workis available in two versions, one consisting of 3QOO siitras and the ,other of 370 0 siitras. It has got many commentaries, of which the Mahiivrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For details See Jainendra VyakaraQa, introduction published by the BhiiratIya JfUin,lpith, VaraJ}asi.

,~~~ (r) havingthHoot of the

tongue as the place' of its' produc, tion ; the phonetic element or letter called ffi~rlI,ir~; (2) name given to that phonetic element into which . a visarga is changed when followed by ~or~; d. X <ii ifffl' ffiijflI,ir{j: V. Pr. VIII. 19, The ffiijr~Cj letter is called ~<r also; see Nyasa on 1. I.g. The ~k. Pratisakhya looks upon "K,~, f~rlI,ir<J, and the guttural letters as ~~~Il<l'.

<ntiil(lfff~ a root belonging to the

~r~~l'{UJ or the third conjugation.

~~q)f name of a commentary on Amarasimha's Amarakosa written by Sripati (Cakravartin) in the 14th century. ti!f.M(e'{~~ author of the well-known y called !attva~odhi~i on Siddhantakaumudl. He hved m the first part of the sixteenth centuryand was a junior contemporary of Bhattoji Dik~ita. The work summarises many points Mahiibha~ya and Prauc;lhamanorama. His teacher was Vamanendrasarasvati while his pupil was Nil~-' kaJ"ltha Viijapeyin.

ftt&nli~ produced at the root of the

tongue; the same as which see above.
~, augment

;;r. added to the root iif before the' causal sign fi1I'i:f" when the root means shaking; cf. cIT fct~<l'~ ~ P. VII. 3.38.


~~ a grammarian of the fourteenth century A. D. who revised and rewrote the grammar :a-&!mm and the commentary named ffiCfcft on it, which were comp"sed by ilil'JClJ1lR in the thirteenth century. The work of ~1H:iff.G;i1:.' is 1i:nown as ;;j{m~r~UJ.

name of a Commentary on the Jainendra VyakaraQa, written by Abhayanandin in the ninth century A.D. See~ C<:Jl<!i{1ll above.

a grammarian of unknown date who wrote PadaprakaraQasamgati on Katantra. a treatise on Vyiikara(,la written by Uumaranandin.

~I~ ( ~)

lit. indirect or implicit revealer; a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. The Sl1tras, especially. those of PaJ;lini, are very laconic and it .is believed that not a single word m the Sutras is devoid of purpose. If it is claimed that a particular word is V\'ithout any purpose, the object or it beiDg achieved in some other way, the commentators always tiy to assign some purpose

or the other for the use of the word in the Siitra. Such a word or words or sometimes even the' whole Siitra is called ~ or indicator of a particular thing. The Paribba~as or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication ( ~!fCJim;IJ ) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be lnl~ or without purpose, and which are shown as ~T~<ii after the particular indication (~tq<l') is drawn from them. The ~ is shown to be con" stituted of four parts, 'Cfi!j~, ~qq, ~<l~f{!ilTRen1::4 and ~SI'li<:>. For the instances of ]iiapakas, see Paribhii ~endusekhara. Puru!,?ottamadeva in his Jfiiipakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ~q<l' from the wording of Pat;lini ,Siitras. The weed ~q<!i and ~ are used many times as synonyms 'although ~<l' sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ~ or indicator. For instances of ~r!f<ii, cf. M. Bh. on Mahesvara Siitras 1,3,5, P. 1. r.3, II, 18, 23, 5 I etc. The word ~ in the rule q~ ~ is a well-known ~t!f<ii of the a1O:i'H:~qR'wn. The, earliest use of the word ~r!fCli in the sense given above, is found in the Paribh1i~asucana of Vya<;li. The Panbha~a. wOfks on other 5ystems of grammar such as the Katantra, the Jainendia and others have drawn similar Jnapakas from the wording of the Siitras in their systems. Sometimes a Jiiapaka is not regularly .constituted of the four parts given above; it is a mere indicator and is called cITl:'!'Ii instead of ~1ll''Ii.


a work glvmg a collection of about 400 Jfiapakas or indicatory wordings found in the Siltras of PiiQ.ini and the conclusions drawn from them. It yvas written by


PUfUottamadeva, a Buddhist scholar of PaQini's grammar in the twelfth century A.D.,. who was proo ];lably th~ same as the famous great VaiyakaraI).l patronized by Lak~maQasena. See ~r;!)'6l1itCf. '.

. -q:;ftr<!lT fi:j;a~ etc. M. Bh. on II. 3.~3 Vart. 3. ~. which ~ is changed into the COg-I nate of the preceding comonant ",hile l1L is changed into ~ optionally I cf. P. VIII. 4,62, 63.
~ a short term (5I~H) for any consonant except semi-vowels, nasals and fI.; d. P. VIII. 465.

~ short form of the word ~m, the

Vak. pad. II. 362.
eighteenth constellation (<1~). cpo . .

realizable, or possible to be drawn, from a wording in -the Sutra of PaI)ini in the manner shown above. See~.


'ijlq'1l~ii( redlized from the ~qq:; word-

ing; the conclusion drawn from an indicatory. word -in the form of

(I) name of a comm~ntary by Ramacandra possibly belonging to the 18th cen tury on the VajasaneyiPratisakbya; (2) name of a commentary on Nagesa's Laghusabdendusekhara by Udayankara Pathaka of VariiI)asi in .-the 18th century.

a short term (Sl(!!lNH) for con so_nants excepting semi-vowels and nasals; d. P. I. 2,9, VI. I.58, VI. 4.t5, VII. I.60~ VIII. 2.39 and VIII. 453. a short term (q~l\[H) for the fourth and tl;le third of the Class consonants; ct. P. VIII. 4,53, 54. short term (s:rt'lm~) for the fourth ('lff, <1, El", cg and 1:1) of the class consonants; cf. P. VIIL 2.-31,

possessed of the properties 'l1~G:lq, ~ii, ~ffi'T, ~11J! and 3f1~'fu~; ( 2) mute letter, charade.rized by which an affix signifies'lrn for, the preceding vowel; ~ of a t2ddhita affix, howevH, signifies 'lIt: for- the first vowel of the word to which the affix is added; (3) a mute letter added to a root at the end to signify that the root takes verb endings of. both the padas.
Of tad. affix 3f; cf. P. IV. 2.58, 106,-


and IV. 4.129 ..

~ a short term ( SR'QIflH) for the five

and the like. Such conclusions are not said to be Ul.iveraUy valid; d. ~q<firn: <1 ~~S1' Par. Sek. Pari. lIO.J.


\TcI'~fu st,anding for 'i=1<!1lfct, name of

a class of 30 roots headed by the root 'i"~ cUm arld given as 'tjW ~, ;;ro; ~ etc.; d. ;;:qfu>foCfi~)!II: P.

nasal consonants


or, ~,"{, ":lnd


, fs;

51f1Fi a cor.dusion or inference, drawn from a word or words in a Siitra with a view to assigning a pUipose t~ that or to those words which otherwise would have been without a purpose. The word is -sometimes used in the sense of ~qq:;, and refers to the word or words supposed to be without any purpose and therefore looked upon as a reasOn or ~f! for the desired. conclusion to be drawn. The words~\<i ~l~ -q<jI~<J;. occur very frequently in the Mababbli~ya; ~f. M. Rh. on P. 1. 1. II, 14, 19, 55, 68, I. 2.41 etc. etc.



m (I)
fourth consonant of the palatal class of consonants. possessed of the properties .,RGIf;n'i,. -~1'f, ~~~Cf, and liiWr[UJ~; ~ at the beginning of an affix in PaI)ini Sutras is mute; e.g. the affixes f~, lff etc. ; cf. ~, P. 137 verbal ending of the 3rd pefs. Atm. for ~ ( i.e, <!I<m~ ) ; ct. P. III. 4. 78 ; for the letter ~, ar.q: is substituted; d. ~;:o: p. VIII. 1.3. but !l~ in the perfect tense; cLP. III. 4. 8r and ~CJ:: in the potentiai and benedictive moods; cf. P. Ill. 4.85,

i(. -~

verb-ending of the 3rd pers. pI. Parasmaipada, subs tit uted for the <!I<IiH of the ten lakaras, changed to ~tl. in the potential and the benedictive moods, -and optionally so, in the imperfect and after the sign ~ of the aorist; d. P. III. <i.8.a, 83. 84, 108, log, lIO, I q, II2; (2) a conventional term for 3f0lj~ (indeclinable) used in the Jainendra Vyakara:r;a.

a tuute syllable prefixed to a root in the Dhatupatba of PaQini, signifyfng the additiQn ofthe affix er ( 'iji ) to the root, the sense of the present time; e. g. ~:,~: etc.; ct. Kas. on P. III. 2. I8J.


~ tad. affix i[rfi added to words headed by CfiRft as also to words meaning a village in the yahika country optic;maJly. with th~affix ;r;or;:in tile Sai~ika senses; e. g.<m~<m.

<mffitfiT, ~~'fiT, ~, :m~'fiT, 'iffi<Ii~.

~Cf concluded or proved by means

of a ~ word or wording; cf. if~: ~:ifffi~<TI CfIT~~~9 ~nftrn: M. Bh. on III. 4.37 Vart. 3.
~~ a

!i1'"!:. wording of the affix lff (see above)

suggested by the Varttikakara to have the last vowel ',of 3fr(f acute ~Y f:qn: (f>. VI. 1~163 ) the propert; .'q~9 being transferred. from the original lff to. arrer; d. Kas. ol'ii:q lff''.t9C\. 119Rr on P. VII. 1.3.
~ a short term

conclusion or formula to be drawn from a Jiiapaka word or words; d. the usual expression <Hernl fct;;rr~qqi%~r'lm<jc'l"{, statin.g that only so much, as is absolutely necessary, is to be inferred. indicated or !uggested; 'Wf1~;;r;W-<i;:jI~. (:qgl!Jf CiJ:i<rr) I i1f(of<i

~ a term, meaning' having ~ as ~((' used by the Viir~tikakara in COIlnection with those words in the rules of PaQini, which themselves as well as wor.ds referring to their special kinds, aJ;e liable to undergo the prescribed operation; d.

The affixes OOI. and m -are added to \. the word q:;l~ preceded by arrqc:... as l;lso by some other words; e. g.





etc .. ; ct. F. IV. 2. rr6, II7, IlS and Varttika on IV. 2.I~6.





'+!R<IT!r.F{ I

qf1'311r~iiiJ'lCJ:: l[frl:T \ lilfr~q:;: \ cm:~!fI11l1~1

f{Tltfiltii: m~req:;: I M. Bh. on P. 1. I. 68 Vart. 8.



C>rol'Tlm:) for the fourth, third, second and first con. ~onants of . t.tie five classes, a.fter

~ ( I)

the nasal (fifth c;onsonant.) of the palatal cl~s of consooants

~ (I) an affix marked with the mute letter or.; causing the substittition of vrddhi for the preceding vowel and acute accent fer the first vowel of the \Vord to which, it is added, but, causing vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which H is add~d in case the affix is a tad. affix; ct._P. VII. 2. 115, u6. !IJ; ( 2) a root marked with the conso" nant Ui,,~ taking verb-endings of both


and tne Parasmaipada and the Atnianepada kinds; e. g. critfu, ~,~~ffi', f<r~, .-n'turrfu, ~a- etc.; ~fuln~ fi!l<lIq}~ P. 1: 3.72. . a K~atriya too; e. g. ~ii:, ~:, .~~: ~~:, aiI;;'IT~: i d. P. IV. I.17I.

under certain conditions; e.g. sense of ' something given a~ w~ges e. g. ~: 3(~; cf. P. IV.;4.6J; (2) tad. affix If'I'i add~d t(j~and ~in the aiI~<! senses, e~,g.i!ifB'I'i:, ~ ; cf. P. V. 1.25, ,26~,
~ ma,rked or characterized:,bY'~e , mute letter~. For the, significance of the aqdition of~. see~, '. .

~'"l~:. 3l~"l\:, ii~~ (fcl'lff) ~<f1cg:,



etc.; cf. P. Ill.



a root ma~ked with the mutesyllable f<>r prefixed to i r ,signifying the addition of the affix :q; in the present tense. See f5r.


affix <! signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the . acute accent for the first vowel of ~ krt affix added to the root CIt in Vedic Literat.ure preceded by the the word to which it is added. It is words 'Ii~1I, SiTtr, ~IHI .or ll:e<!. e. g. added (I) to words headed by CJiOii'llifif:, gnI:f9Wa:J:, ifc<JCll~Cl:; d. P. 3irr~~ in the four. senses termed III. 2.65, 66. 'qfi~ e. g. srlrr'l.l~, '<TI~ii. etc.; cf. P. IV. 2.80; (2) to the word rrnfu: and .aTaij<ftlll'i compounds in the sense of' present there', e. g. mnltiIii,., qlft!I~lI~ etc. d. P. IV. 3.58, 59; ~ the first consonant of the lingual class (e'l{) possessed of the pro( 3 1 to the word' fcf<r<:: e. g. ~cr4; ct. perties S!lTtll~m{fil', 3l'~, f9i~ P. I V. 3. ~ 4; (4 ) to the words and aT<1Q3illllt'i. When prefixed or headed by ~ffl in the sense of affixed to an affix as an indicatory 'domicile of', e. g. ~rfOGcill:; ct. P. letter, it signifies the addition of IV. 3.92; (5) to the words s;:;iJlf, the fem. affix ~ (~); ct. P~ IV. aTI~~'I'i, if!!, etc. in the H.Ilse of d~ty I' 1.15. When added to the conju(~) or scripture (3n~rlj) e. g.~ gational affixes (W<!il<::) it shows that ~~, ar~~'flj~ '11~ etc.; cr. P. IV. in the Atmanepada the vowel of 3. 12 9; (6) to the word ~i[qfct in the last syllable is changed to 1.1;. d. the sense of ' associated with '; e.g. I P. III. 4.79. When added to an <rl~; (a:rft!:); ct. P. IV. 490; (7) i augment (aiIiJ'I1), it shows that the to the words ~~ and ~qJ<l{; cf. P. augment marked with it is to be V. I.q; (8) to the wO.rds aii!P{'f, prefixed and not to be affixed; e. g. a:r!9t1lof etc" d. P. V. 4.23; (9) to ~! g~ etc. ; cf.P. 1. 1.46. the word aTRW:r ; P~ V. 4.26; and ( 10) to the ,words in the sense of t'1 (wandering tribes foreaming 1:: (1) the consonant ~. the vowel 3f being added for facility of utterance; money), as also 'to the wOIds'meancf. all'fil~ o~~iiliil<I:., T. Pr. I. 2I; (2 j ing ~ra (kinds of tribes) as also to short term, (ST~~nm) standing for words ending with the affix -J!1iO:!,. <1:qiJ or the lingual class of consonunder certain conditi9ns; d. P. V. ants, found used mostly in the 3lIZ, II3 Pratisakhya works; d. RT. 13. V. ~~ tad. affix in the sense of ' a desPro 1. 6.1. T. Pro 1. 27; {3} tad. cendant' added to words beginning affix (aT) added to the word lfi<1:l<TI with aiI, V., aIr or ending with !i:, as in the sense '~ ;;'1m:' e. g. lfi<1'j<TI, also to the words cRI~ and ~ cf. P. IV. 3,34. Vart. 2; (' 4) lqt provided the;v mean a COllJ."1try and I affix (Cl1) added to the root ~

~ taddhita

tad. affix <! causing '!f:i< to tbe first vowel of the word to which it is added and the addition of ~ (i-ttl.) in the sense of feminine gender, added to words meaning warrior tribes of the Viihika country but not BrahmaI}.as or K;;atriyas, e. g. ~i\'FI:, ~~<R'r etc.; d. P. V.3 II4.


krt affix aT, not admitting ~ti"j or to the preceding vowel and causing ~ in 'the feminine (by P. IV. 1.15), added to the roots f(f, qJ and ~ under certain' conditions; e. g. tIllIrr:, ~uq:,tj~m etc. ; ct. P. IV~ 2.8, 52,53, 54,55.

~ deletion or elision of the final

syllable beginning with a vowel, as prescribed by' P1iI}.ini in certain rules; ct. ~~q: VII.I.88, ~:P. VI. 4.T43, ISS if\ijm~ P. VI. 4.T44 an~ sn;!!.m~Cf P. VI. 4~I45; .;




cononant ~. 'l'il~ being added for facility of utterance; d. ClvTIt'I'iI\; P. Ill. 3.108 Viirt. 3; cf also V Pr. 1. 17.

the samiisanta affix aT added to specified words at the end uf the tatpuru~:l and other compounds f. g. \I~lS:, tf9ii1T9if" ll![t<ltl'l:., B~~~, 31':<tRl'f"l.etc. cf. P.V. 4.91-II2.

~ tad. affix fie added to the preposition d1<! in the sense of 'lowering of the nose' (.iflm'I'iI<!T: if~) e.g. ~iiJfu~; d, P. V. 2.31.,., . . ..\

(I) mute syllable ~ prefixed to roots to signify the additjon of the affix

~ti the class of lingual consonants; the Eame as ~ in Piil)ini.



Case ending of thethird case.( tj.:ftill ) sir-g. number; cf. P. IV. 1.2. short term for affixes beginning with el' P. IV. I.4 and ending with 1SlI~ in P. IV. 1.78; ct. ~Rr-m
~~T!fl~ll:U]~ I <!l!f: ~Rr, arT filii)- ~\Iq:

in the sense of verbal activity; e.g. ?rq~:, 'lill~:; cf. P. III. 3.89; (2) the class of lingual consonants ~, Q;, ~,~ and crt,; cf. ~ P. I. 3.7. '



:fi:1. Bh. on I. 2.48 V.

augment ~ added to th~t in, connection' with which it is pre$cribed; it is prescribed in connection with ~ and !1l. followed by a sibilant, e'-g. SilJcrt, + ~IS: = 1i!lJ~rrn:; d. P . VIII. 3.28




ff:'minine affix 3fT added to mascu"'line Iiouns ending in aT by the rule ~r'lloe11J. IV. I.4 excepting those ncuns where any other affix prescri.. bed by subsequent rules becomes applicable. vowel; part of a word consisting of the final vowel in a word and the consonants following the final vowel; cf. ar-m<'C<!Tfct 12- P. 1. I. P4,

~t:.! tad. affix Ii.Ol{ added to the word I!'I'i meaning' a warrior tribe not of a BrahmaI;Ja nor of a Kliiatriya caste' in the sense of the word (~!li) itself; e,g. 91i!fioll:, ct. P. V.

3 IX 5

~ the final syllable beginning with a

tad. affix ii. causing 'Am for the initial vowel and the addition of the fern. affix t applied to the word m:i:r in the sense of ' having that as .... p. "'~ d " aelty ,e,g. tll;<j ~I'l:, tlT+t1 ~'iij d. P. IV. 2.30, tad. affix '3Tif to which the augment a is prefixed. making the affix tr<i,


~ (I) tad. affix tcli added to the words I>f(IllT, +rte and <iIT~ii in the



applicable to the words BT4',



~i~, ~ and indeclinable wcrds in

the Sai~ika or miscellaneous senses; e.g. tn4'crif:, P-rtcrif:~CfTCfifi( etc; ct. P. IV. 3.23. 24. . ~~ tad. affix added in the same way as G~ abovf', making only a dIfference in the accen t. When the affix 2~ is. added, the acute accent is given to the last vowel of the word preceding the affix,
J \

~ ~ tad.affix~,

causing vrddhi for the

initial vowel of the word to which it is added and also the addition of the fem affix t applied to the word :u+!T' in the s~nse {;{ .' fiicn{\ '. e.g. ;m+fi~ ~'!i; d. Kas. on P. IV. 3.142.
'fl~ having ~ as l{G:,; roots, that have
~ as ~ or mute, take the affix ar~, in the SEnse of verbal activity. See

the second consonant of the lingual class possessed of the properties IijrBr~SfiUir, 3ltiter, Fet'lQ'6IiOi:<I a nd Oj~ !lfURCf. Fer the syllable 0 at the beginning of taddhita affixes, the syllable \l.'l'i is substituted; if however the affix (beginning with 0 ) follows upon a word ending in l{<!, ~, '3", ~, ~ andG:, then cn is added, . .... instead of ~; e.g. 1:'fG!i:, 3TTcTIliji:1.ii: etc.; cf. o~'!i:, ~~:!J!'ffil~ffre:. Cb:, P. VII. 3.50,51. Some sc~olars say that, i{~_ and '!i are substituted for ~ by the siitras quoted above; ct. Kas. on VII. 3.50. '

. ~ (I) tad. affix 0; see ~ above for the substitution of ~ and 'l'i for 0: stands as a common term for 6<ij, OOJ:, oor. and O'i!l" as a Iso for g~ i il~, and !l"l.; (2 ) the consonant 0, the vowel aT being added for facility ot pronunciation, d. T. Pro 1. 2!.

a very common tad. affix ~, or Cb in case it is added to words ending in l{~, '~(i, '3", "R", ~ and G:, according to P. VII. 3.51, causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which iUs added . C5'J'l is added to ( I) ~qdT and other 'words in the sense of descendant ( aT~) e.g. "t9m:n:, <{jUS!:jrfuCb~, mfircn:, mlJFc!f~Cb: ~l!f.!'l'i:, d. P. IV. I. 146- I<l9; (2) to the. w.)rds ~~r, U'i:f<if etc. in the sense of ' dyed in ., e.g. ~~'iill, tr~~.+J:.; cf. P. IV. 2.2; ( 3) to the words ~Rral]d '3";:;:fJIm:. in the sense of ~o:r' made better', e.g. 'Um~, amf~ (9i instead of ~ substituted for ~ ), ct. P. IV. 2.18, 19; (4) to the words a,~<ioft, 3f-'!f"~ etc.; cf. P. IV. 2.22,23; (5) to words expre~si ve of inanimate objects, to the words ~o and ~~, as also to the wprds ~ and all!{ in the sense of ' multitude '; cf. P. IV. 2. 47. 48 ; (6) to the words ;oS!;. ~~ and words ending in fi~, iffiiQ etc., in the sense of ' students of' (~a cr~), ct. P. IV. 2.59,60,63; (7) to the woids :fo11<{ and others as also o ~=!iu as a '"I1gd'~9i affix; cf, P. IV. 2.80, 84; (8) to the words 'F~, "l<i~ and CferT in the Sai;;ika senses; cf.. p, 1V. 2.ID2, !IS, IV. 318; (9) to the words ~ and others in the sense 'generally present '; d. P. IV. 3.40; (10) to the words consisting of two syllables, and thp. words Wli ' ii1{ql!.IJ etc. in the sense of 'explanatory literary work '; d. P. IV. 3.72; (II) to words meaning , sources of income' in the sense of 'accruing from '; cf. P. 'IV. 3.75; ( 12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place, in the sense of ' ~ , d. P. IV. 8.96 ; and (13) to the words &:~ and ~ in the sense of belonging to', cf. P. IV. 3.124.

The tad. affix. ~ is added as a general termination, excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed, in specified senses lik,e

'~~,' '~if~f(f','~~'

bies or sometimes three, the rest being elided before the affix ~. e.g. ~Fc!ifi:, Cft?l9i:, filQ.9i:, ~~lfi: etc. from the words ~G;ij. ~, fit<!~,~, etc. ; cf. P. V. 3.83, 84. '

etc.; cf. P. IV. 4.1-75, as also to words ~, ~, cmr, fcic!i~T, fcrcrtrSl etc. in specified senses, ct. P. IV. 481, 102. ~ is also added as a general tad. affix or ~~~~, in various' specified senses, as prescribed by P. V. 1.19-63, and t6 the words ~, af<I:~,~, a:J~, a:J~,~, etc. and to the word t1;9i:UI~T, in the prescribed senses; cf. P. V. 2.67, 76, V. 3.r08, 109 ; while, without making any change in sense it is added to ~cn~i(, NiI<I, ~l'I<li 'ffi<I, (an~ being the word formed), ~, Cb!j~G:,; (cf. 8l~9i 'flT:otf~), ~~, f.l'~, 1l1~ and' others, and to the word Cfl~ in the sense of ~ expressed' cf. P. V. 4.13, 34, 35. The 'fem. affix illi.. ( ~) is added to words ending in . the affix 6~ to form fern. bases.

a popular name given to the fourth pada of the fourth adhy'iya of PaQini's A!?tadhyayi. The pada begins with the rule >I'I'I'qifal3'!! P. IV. 4. 1 prescribing 'the taddhita affix o~ in the senses prescribed in rules beginning with the next rule' ~ clJs<Im ~ ~ ~'J~ and ending with the rule' f.!q:,~ ?ffiffi ' P. IV. 4

73 o~ tad. ~ffix ~ or ~ ( by P. VII. 3.5 1 ) with the vowel aI accented acute applied to ( 1) ~?: and others as a Caturarthika affix; cf. P. IV. 2.80; ( 2) to multisyllabic words and words beginning with aq- which are proper nouns for persons; d. P. V. 3,7 8 80; and - ( 3) to the word ;;;;'!i~~T in the sense of l('ij d. P. V. 3. 1 9. The base, to which ~ is added, retains generally two sylla

tad. affix ~ or 9i (by P. VII. 3.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added, applied ( I) to mrRraI, ~ and 'l'i9f~ in the specified sens~s, ct. P. IV; 2.35, 41. e.g. 11NT\m<n, maq~'l'i etc.; (2) to words 9it~, '2tRt,' ~T and others, along with ~, e.g. 9itfutfIT, 9it~9it, also with f5ro to words denoting villages in the Vabika country e.g. ~1I9iR;<RI ~; as also to words ending in '3" forming names of countries in all the Sai;;ika sense~ cf .P. IV. 2.II6-120; (3) to compound words having a word show jng direction as their first member, to words denoting time, as also to the words :u\~, fq1Uf and ~, in the Sai~ika senses; cf. P. IV. 3.6, 7,. II ,IS: (4) to the words <jEff ( in Vedic Literature), and to i[l'!;:cr and cfBC'G in the Sai~ika senses; d. P. IV. 3.1921; (5) tOlFf(8\, a:J~uff, words having a:Rf: as the first member, to the word t1Tl1 preceded by q-~ or ~, to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acu' e, to words denoting sacrifices, to words forming of sages, to words ending in '1\ alld to the word ~~ in the specific senses which are mentioned d. P. IV. 3.50,60, 6r, 67, 68; 69, 78, 79, 97 ; ( 6) to the words m~1 J'llii'lT, ~, ~lT[, t[\.ftjI:T, compound words h'l.ving a multi-syllabic word as their first member, and to the words ~ etc. in the specified senses; cf. P. IV. 4.6, II, 38,52,58,64, 103; (7) to any word as, a general tad. affix (a~Fc!~Q), unless any other affix has been specified in the ,


specified senses
'~ !fi'ffiil. ' '~' ... '~',mentioned in the

of consonants possessed of the properties ifrcmvr.:rrif, 'liWr, Wla<fi1l'Ot'i, and ST<itllTl1lJ; (2) mute letter applied to affixes by Pii.!)ini to. show the elision of the fa" part, (cf. P. 1. 1.64.) of the' preceding word viz. the penultimate vowel and the consonant or consonants following it; cf. ~:; (~q: ~fcr SRWt tR) VI. 4.143. The syllable ftr of f<rofa is also elided before an affix marked with the mute letter ~. the word ~ ; e.g. <iiOU mlffi': 'i]': cf. P. V. 3.92 ,~~ ~<r-a: cf. P; V. 394
~ a class of words headed by the word G'Q\ which stands for GCRIOff i.e. words ending with the affix ~a\; similarly the word ~'which follows ;s;:r{ stands forG'dlItra. This class :;:rnufit is a su.bdivisioD of the bigger class called tl9H~ and' it consists of only five words viz. ~a. ~Cflf!iO aTOiI, aTr<ffi\ and l'l:ffi:; d. P. VII. I. 25 and I. 1.27.
~ tad. affix

'section of siitras V. 1.18 to II7 ; ( 8) to the words aT<I:~, G:l1,5, aT~ij, compound words having ~ or <IT as their first member as also to the words f.i~ and fiftCii~;, ct. P. V. 2'76, 118, II9.

cf. P. V. 4.57. The affix ~ is also applied to ~~, q:cft<I, to compound words formed of a nUqleral and the' word ~1ll, as also to the words ffi':i', fif~) Wl'f, r~, etc. when these words are connected with the root ~; e.g.


~i9iUfa ,.


ijWfu etc.; ct. P.V. 4.

tad. affix Il'!i or '!i (according to P. VII. 3.51), causing the addition of arr, and not ~, for forming the feminine base, applied ( I J to the word cTI and word~ with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over; ct. P. IV. 4.7; e.g. ~'!i: cUfqCfiT, <ijJ~: ~'!ir; ( 2) to the words 9~, :n<f, and f<ffl:i'l and optionally 'with ~ tO~1:f in the sense of maintaining (6-il;;fiqfa); cf. P. IV. 4.13, 14; (3) to the word srfaq~. words ending w.ith 8TlTR', to the word ~a, to words, showing completion (~UJ9l~). to the w~rds aN, l/liT, 9~, ~, tjUliTiS ond ~ in' specified senses; cf. P. IV. 4.42,70, V.l.21, 48, 49, 5 r, 84, V.2.85 and 109; ( 4) to words ending in aT as also to the words headed by iit~, and optionally with the affix ~ to g~ and, wjth the aflix q to iifi~ ill the sense of il,tI. ( possession ); cf. P. V. 2.Il5, n6, II7 and II9.

58 to 67.


(I) krt affix ar applied to the root by 3RT, aT'~, aT~ etc., as al -0 to the roots ~ and ~ under certain conditions; cf. P. III. 2.48, 49, 50, 97-101 ar.d to the root S!iif.. to form the word iffli, cf. P. VI. 3.75; ( 2) tad. affix ar applied to wor-ds ending in ~"I:., words ending in ~ and the word fcima- in the sense of 'more than' e.g. ~ ~(fl{.a ~- ' f.i~~, v:<iifci'ff<I:, cf. P. V. 2.45, 4.6.
ITt{, preceded

ana- affixed to the word f.?ii<!:. to show number or measurement; e.g. '!ifa jJfqjllJ\:,cf. P. V. 2.41. The words ending with the affix are termed ~<IT and "l~ for purposes of declension etc.; cf. P. I. 1.23, 25.


fern. affix arr added optionally to words ending in +1'1;. and to Bahuvrihi compounds ending in ~ to show feminine gender, the words remaining as they are when the optional affix Gil!.. is not applied; e.g. G:Tm, l;!1f<IT; cf. P. IV. I. II, 12, I3.


samasanta (aT) added to a Bahuvdhi compound meaning a numeral e.g. <flfG:m: ~fqt{n: cf: P. V. 4.73. tad. affix ar in the sense of ~ applied to a numeral to form an ordinal numeral; e.g. llifiT~~:, >f<U~:, cf. P. V. 2:48.

krt affix aT{ added to the root ~ in the sense of t instrument' or . , location' e.g. aTmR:, cf. P. HI. 3. 125 Varttika. affix <mi applied to t he word Jti0'911f and others at the end of a pada i.e. when the word ~T\f has got the tro:tl!f\. e.g. ~rn ~: I ~Q A~ d. P. III. 2.7I Vart. I and 2.
(I) verb-ending 3fT, causing elision of the penultimate vowel as also of the following consonant, substituted for the 3rd pers. sing. affix of the first future; e.g. 'iiffi; d. P. II. 4.85; (2) case ending arr sub stituted in Vedic Literature f9r any case affix a& noticed in Ved,ic usages; e.g. <rim 'l1ti0<fl~; ct. P. VII. I.39.

tad. affix i3fI+I1r added to the words ilf<! and fqQ; in the sense of father' ; e. g. ilTffllI\f:, tt!ffllI\f: ; cf. P. IV. 2.36 Vart. 2.

~ posseEsed of the mute letteI ~ added for the purpose of the elisio,n of f2: ( last vowel and the consonant or consonants after it) of the preceding word. See ~.



'~ marked with the mute letter ~. There is no affix or word marked with mute.~ (at the end) in PiiI)ini's grammar, but to avoid certain technical aifficuIties, the, Mahtibha$yakara has proposed mute ~ instead of ~ in the case of the affix l(~ of the first pETS. sing. perf. Atm. and ~ prescribed as Samprasara!)a substitute by P. V I. 4.132 e.g : ... ' !flJllH; cf. 1\1. Bh. on III. 4.79 and VI. 4.19.

tad. affix aT, causing vrddhi and fu;3!q, applied to iSr;mi. and~rR'<Rl:. to show the -{~ i.e. measurement or extent of a BrahmaI)a work; e.g. ~f.:r Sllijlllf[fir, "'Ilt'fli'WTr.r cf. P.V. 1.62.



~ (I) tad. affix <lpplied to aTi:fT"CR'ca1{lT, tamm etc. in the ense of "fda( observing); e. g. fa~~, cf. P. V. I. 94 Vart 3 ; (~) applied in the sense of' having as measurement.' applied to numeral words ending in '<Rl:. or ~'I" and the word fcft{ffcr; e. g. ffl'~~ m::n:, ~~~ffi:; d. M. Bh. on P. V.2.37 ~ tad., affix ~applied to the words i3l~, aTTRt, q!l1lq: and ~'ff in the Saisika senSES; e. g. STrnB~, aTTf.:tBO;:, ~q'l., ~<i; cf. M. Bb. on P. IV. 3.23 .
~;qi"'!... case affix ~T for lnst. sing. seen in Vedic Literature; e. g., l;Jmf'!flli; ct. Ras. on P. VII .. 1.39. ,


tad. affix aTail ih the sense of determination or selection of one out of many, applied to the pro. nouns ~, <iQ. and ffii,; e.g. Cfi:i+f: ; cf. P. V. 3.9.3, as also to ~ according to Eastern Gramm,arians; e.g. 1{<!i(11T1' +!<jot ~:; d. P. V. 3.94. tad. affix o(H in the sense of selection ont of two' applied to the words fcfi, '<rn:.and ffii:. as also to



tad. affix arr applied to dissyllabic words, used as imitation of sounds, or used as onomatopoetic, when connected with the root wor ~ or ~oa.. The word to which Gl, is applied becomes generally doubled;

(I) third letter of the lingual class

'e.~, ~~fu, ~1<1'1iCt. ~IQ.;

tad. affix '31f added to the -w()rd ~ in the sense of d~minutive : e. g.



affix ~ which is invariably followed by the addition' of ~ (+i1i,.), in the sense of t achieved by" e.g. q~<I:.; ~f.m~; _d. P. III. 3.88 and IV: 4.20. the vowel i(, excepting fI of the tad. affix ~. to words of the class headed by ~, to words ~il'i, fcI'iiuT , ~tftff1!i, 11" ~ey and to words headed by 'ii~<IruIT which get i{<i substituted for its last vowel ;' e.g. ~~:,
~T~:, +!TU~<I:, 'f~:,

a small oil-pot (~tl); - d. V.


it:v, 'Ire, ~fa.1,

'ii~, 6l~Q, arfu',

3: 89

~1fI, q;Tal, Q;uiT, q~, aJ'mw, '!fflfu, ~~qfu,

UI)adi affix ~ added to the root lIT to form the word ~~; d. tfTij~l;!i( UI)adi SiHra IV. 177 tad. affix ;;re in the Eense of , brother' applied to the word mq: ; e. g. m~: ; cf. P. IV. 2. 36 Vart I. tad. affix +Ri. as, a
~({; ii'S



tad. affix aJ''l; added td the words

rn~fct and ~il. in the tetrad of tad.


'ii1"l\<;\"i\"1:, 1:119"1',

m: ,
... ~.

senses; e.g. fIim:,~~: cf. P. V. 1.24


affix and
~ (I) fourth consonant of the lingual

'applied to the words

, ~1a; e. g. ~!Iii\Ti{, ij~<I:., i:ffi~; cf.

P. IV. 2.87.


tad. affix <I ( I) added in the sense Sarna introduced by" (~ ffili) to the word CfTlR'f; e. g. ~oir ~111 ; d. P. IV. 2.9; (2) added to tbe word Wa~ optionally with <lq: in the senSe of present there' (a3f~:); e.g. ~ra~:, d. P. IV. 4-II3.
t t


tad. affix <j added to the words' lTT~ and <i<tt in the sense of t present there' (a-:I <l'f: ), e. g. lTT:'</:, <rrl': ; d. P. IV. 4.1H.

tad. affix <I added along with ~ to the same words to which the affix ~ is added as also in the same sense, the vowel ar of ~ being \<I/'ta. See the word :soI above. case affix <IT seen in Vedic Literature e.g. ~~T ,,-C:;:<l19<1mq: d. S. K. on P. VII. r.39. krt. affix ~ with fern. affix t added to it, applied to the root ~. e. g. ~1 d. B'~ir ~</T<!~~~ ~'t M. Bh. on IV. 1.3. tad, affix

class of consonants possessed of the properties "lGJ~, ~1'f, B''i~ and +!~~; (2) the consonant ~ which is elided when followed by li( and the preceding vowel is length ened ; e.g. <riGr. d. P. VIII. 3,13 and VI. 3.1 II; (3) substitute Fil: for t' at the end of a lfC{, or, if followed by any conso:vant excepting a semivowel or a nasal excepting in the cases of roots beginning with ~ or the roots ~ , !I[ etc. as also <i[ and aJ'1[cf. p. VIII. 2~31, 32,33,34; ( 4) ~ at the beginning of a tad. affix which has got ~ substituted for it; cf. i[I~<I:, ~~<j:; cf. P. V. 3,I02.

G tad. affix G ( I



in the four senses;

) applied to the word in the sense of 'fit for' (W-i! tiT!3:) in Vedic literature; e.g. 00:; d. IV. 4.106;: (2) applied to the. word ~~ in the seDse of ~9; e.g. fu~i{ &N-'; cf. P. V. 3.102; (3) common term (G) for the affixes ~, ~ and G also, after the application of which the affix iftc!' ( ~) is added in the seDse of feminine gender; d. P. IV, LIS.


added to the words ii'S and :m&' ; e. g. <l~'i~~, :mll:~~; d, P. IV, 2.8t1.


~~ a root marked with the q


mute ,

syllable i (at the beginntng) to signify the application of the krt

tad. affix Q;<:/ causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word t6 which it is added. ~ is added in the sense of ~ (des cendanr) (1) to words ending in feminine affixes, to words endit:ig in

etc., d. Kas. on P. IV.I.II9-127; (2) to the words N~;s. and l:H'i6Ci~ with the vowel 'ljt I ~ tad. affix tl;~ii:. applied to the elided and to the", word ~~, e.~. word ~<I:. in the sense of t stuNq:~:ffi<:/:, +!Tq:cqil<i:, GJ~:, d. Kas. dents following the text of' e.g. on P. IV. 1.133, 134,142; (3) to '\ ~"': in the sense ~<ll the word 'ii~ in the sense of Sarna, ~ij ~; cf. Kas. on P. IV. 3.I09. to the word srfu, in the sense of , dedicated to a deity' (tiR<!. ~m)' ~ a commentary Qn Brhadvr tti as also to the words ~, I1tft, ClrouTm, by HeJ;Ilacandra. It is also known .awr~ and others in the Sai~ika as Vrddhadipika, Avac~ri, Avasenses; e g. ~ ~TI1, mil',,:, ~3I ciiIl;;lika. The author' of this work ~ etc. cf. KiiS. on P. IV. 2.8,33, is not well-known. (2), a commentary on Durgasimha's Katantravrtti. 97; (4) to the words tt<tt, ~, ~fq, ~rm, sfi~ and ~Tre- in the specified ~ tad .. affix Q;{ ('11;<1. applied in senses; d. P. IV. 3.94. IV. 4.77, the sense of offspring to the word V. I.!27, V.2.'2. <ttl:IT and optionally with ~ to words ~~, tad. affix "'A'f. applied (I) to the meaning persons having a bodily word ~ optionally along with </q: defect or a low .social status; e.g. and (f., when it is not a member of m~:, <I1fOR:cmr{:; <I1fUt<!:,OO:, d. a compound; e.g. i1~'ii:, ~~:, ~:; KM. on P. IV. 1.129. I3I. cf. P. IV. 1140;. (2) to the words 171 'f.fui and others in the Sai~ika senses as also to the words ~, ~!\i and "t (. I) fifth consonant of the iingual ~'lqr, if the words formed with the class of consonants possessed of the affix added, respectively mean dog, , properties, ifl1.U~~, ~er~ ~a<Jil1Otq, sword and oroam,=nt; e.g. 1fiT'~:' <l1~U] and ~m9'<I; (2) the mute ~'ii: (-'liT), ~~: (aJ'Rt:), ~<i<h: letter OJ:. indicating the substitution (areCfiR:); ct. Kas. on P. IV. 295. of vrddhi (d. P. VII. 2.II5-II7) 96 when attached to affixes; (3) the consonant 'o!.. at the beginning of ~ tad. affix ti;<:/ causing Vrddhi subroots which is changed into <I:.; the stituted for the first vowel of the roots, having OJ:. at the beginning base and the addition of the fern, changeable to ~, being called ultq1t:v; affix ttc!' ( i( ), applied (I) to words ( 4) OJ:. as a substitute for i( followmeaning quadrupeds' and words'in ing the letters Sfi', ~, \, and ~ directthe class of words headed by ~fg in ly, or with the intervention of (:onthe sense of aJ'qt<i; e.g. CfiTli~:; ilT2il:1:, sonants of the guttural and labial i{l~>.j:, <ir~<I: etc.; cf .p. IV. 1.135. classes; 'but occurring in the same 136 ; (2) to the word ~, words word, Such a substitutIOn of OJ:. for of the class headed by ~, the

~2:<!:, ~<l1iUi~<I:

s:~, ~fil:l:I., :a-rn1r, iiJ~, !ift@T, and qtffi in the varlous senses mentioned in connection with these words: e.g. ~~<j:, til~<I~, i1~~, ?lTff<l~, cKt~<l~ etc., d. Kas. on P. IV. 2.20, 80, IV. 3.42, 56,57, 94,159, IV. 4.I04, V. r.lo, 13, I7, V.31OI.


+ {)

"l:. is called UJfcfj cf. P. VIII. 4. 139.
For 11Rif in Vedic Literature; d. R. Pro V. 20-28, T. Pro vlI. 1-12. V. Pr. III. 84-88; (5), the consonant !If" added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant !If" at the end of the pn::vious word; d. P. VIII. 3.32. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas \ this augfi\ent !If" is added to the preceding !If" and looked upon as a part of the previous word.
GT (I) krt. affix ar, addedoptionaUy to

game! added to a word meaning , an instrument in the game '; e.g. ~lllGr, +Tr!f, cf. P. IV. 2.57; (7) tad. affix ar added to the word ffiOI and others in the sense .of 'habituated to' e.g. m:sr:, ~~:, qrihr:, -<f1~:;~f. P. IV. 4.62; (8) tad. affix a:r added to the words 3ll, ~m, tlcf, q~ii:., ;Q:,r1<ii~T"'!, ~~T, ~~r, ar"'!i, 'lfu and ar{lllj in the senses specified with respect to each; e.g. arT'.il:( ~~:) +lIm: (~rw,:), wf
(flcf~ ~OJ;,), tj'(r:,r:, ~T~rcmT'i!r ('!iT~+{),

m;;i m;;i

the roots headed hy \";'la: alld ending with 'h~ in the first conjugation (see ;;'f~rn above) in the sense of agent, and necessarily to the root iiR!.krt affix ar in the se(jse of reci~~, roots ending with an and the procal action, added to any root; roots <<{"l:" arl~, ~?J, ~ with 31m, W the affix 1l]'<L. is to get necessarily with 3l1f, 1l with "l9, W-[, f,,".~ and .>qij: , the affix arol. added to it followed by to the roots ~ alld ;:fr wit bout any the fem. affix ~ e.g. o'l1CJ>fitm, ;;(lTififltfi; prefix and optionally. to ~: e.g. cf. Kas. on P. III. 3.43 and P. V. \";'!~: or \;'f~:, 3l1f~lj1<r, ?J<f:, '<:jTlI:, oqt"f:, . arm19:, ~:, 3)~rlj:, ar'!tl1;Q:, 3l1fifH::, 414 ~ii:. ;gq:, 1fiT8:, GJ9:, ifr;Q:, ~: or mif:; om;c cerebralization; lingualization ; in the case of the root !l[ the affix the substitution of !If" for "l:. under 1l] is applied by c<riff~ofct<l"1l;JT, the certain conditions; ct. P. VIII. 4. word ii~: meaning a planet and the 1-39. See 1l]. word ;:jrvr: meaning a crocodile; d. Kas. on P. Ill. 1.140~I43; (2) krt 0"R<.i1'ffi{ a popular name given by affix 31 in the sense of verbal actio grammarians to the fourth pada of vity (+IT'!) applied along with the the eighth adhyaya of PaQinj's affix 3l1!. to the root 311:\.. with #I; e.g. A$tadhyayi, as the pada begins with !I(l": f<jffi:; cf. P. Ill. 360; (3) krt the rule {I;n~-;qf 1l]: l:FIFftfit and mainaffix 1l] prescribed by the Varttikaly gives rules abou~ 1l]~ i.e. the kara after the roots oif., ~~,~, substitution of the consonant ~ for <l"!';'[ and "'!\ with an; d. P. III. I.140 '(. Vart I, and III. 2.1 Vart. 7; (4) tad. affix ar in the sense of Siq~ addo 1J1~ krt affix ~, causing vrddhi to . cd along with 6~ also, to a word the final vowel or [0 the penultimate referring to a female descendant a:r, (r) added to any root in the ( .n'Jf~'t) if the resultant word indisense of the infinitive in Vedic cates censure; e.g. llF;{: iTlm<ii:; cf. Literature when' the connected root P. IV. 1.147, ISO; (5) tad. affix ar I is :{l'iQi e.g. aTffl ~. ~r f;l+l~ .,riU'G'f"l:.,; in the sense of3ltT~ added also with d. Kas. on P. III. 4.!4; (2) added the affix fl!ior., to the word ~ffi; I. to any root to show frequency of a ( 6) tad~ affix ar in the sense of ( a past act!OD 9 . when the root form

or ~r1fiii:., m;:: or ~r'!li(., 3lT:;i: or Si'i\c!1c:(, 91=!: or 'lRl+i1i(., 'and 3lT\1l1lT: ( l;!ili1t1: ); cf. Kas. on P. I V. 4.85,100, V. LIO, 76, 98, V.2.101 and IV. 2.104 Varttika.

ending with 1l]ij~ is repeated to convey the sense of frequency; e.g. ~, qr<itfr4 ~, cf. KiiS. on P. III. 4.22; (3) added to a loot showing past action and preceded by the word 3j1l, 3Pi+r or, optional,.. ly along with the krt affix mY; e.g. or aft! !!'ff<'fT $(C!Rr; d. KhS. on P. III. 4.24; (4) added in general to a root specified in P. III. 4.25 to 64. showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the root showing the main action, provided the root to which 1l]a~ is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word, such as ~~ or 3l{:.rT or ~OJ;, or any other given in PaJ,.1ini's rules; ct. P. III. 4.26 to Ill. 4.64; e.g. ~9T~ ~~, arr;q~t

an is substituted for
q~ in

llJe: after roots ending in arr; cf. P. VII. 1.34.

om" tad. affix m:l applied to the word ....


the sense of collection. The original Varttika is q'!{t:tI!If" P IV. 2.43 Vart. 3. Some scholars read 1l]ij: in the olace of ~!If" in the Varttika which is read a~ q1ifi 1lJ'd.~; by them. .

fill common term' for fUJil: ( signifying

Atmanepada) and fUJ'<L.; cf. tiRuTr ~~o P. 1. 3.07; titd~f2" VI. 4.5[; cf.' also P. 1. 3.86, 1. 4;52, II. 4.46, 5I; III. 2.137; VI. I.3I, 48,54, VI. 4.90; VII. 2.26, VII. 3.36 ~

VII. 4. I ,VIII. 4.30.

~ affix ll" causing vrddhi, prescribed after the root~, the base ending in ~ i.e. 'hTm being called a root; d. P. III. 1.30, 32. The mute letter <i{ signifies that the root 'hTfl'l is to take only the Atmanepada affixes e.g. 9li+r;Qa-, Si~'t'!i+rn.

~)g, ~9l{t~, ii!l~~ ~:s'(cffit, <!T'l'l'''11<l"-

ij~, tllt~'hT~



'hlfRr. 8~Ej'(~ iff.o, a-~tr.t c:m: etc.; ct. Kils. on


P. III. 4.26-64. When 1lJij~ is added to the-roots ct.'!" fII'f., l[i(.and others mentioned in P. III . 4.34 to 45, the . same root is repeated to show the principal action. The word ending in 1l]!!~ has the acute accent ( er.:l'ij') on the first vowel ( ct. P. VI. 1.194) or on the vowel preceding the affix; cf. P. VI. 1.193. .

filr;i.. . affix ~ causing vrddhi ( I

.... I

a term used ir.. connection with the compound of the 1l]ffWrff with its <fCTtfG.: which precedes; e.g 3I;:j"+!r;;f0J;" l!,~tP.t:{l~; ct. P. II. 2.20,

OW. personal ending

sllbstituted for and in the case of f<rcr.. and iI. in ~ or _the pres. tense optionally; d. P .. III. 4.82, 83, 84. The affix llJe: dn account of being marked by the mute letter !If" causes vrddhi to the preceding vowel; the vrddhi is, however, optional in the case of the 1st pers. (flltt.;) d. P. VII. 191:

ml!. and ~IJ.. in ~ or the perfect


) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( ::luta:'fUl) such as ~, F.rn: etc. e.g. ~~<:(Rr,;ffi:<I=a-; cf. P. III. 1.25; (z) applied to any root to form a causal base from it, e.g. <,"fCl<!m from <I, rm;QRr from ~; d. ~m "'! P. III. 1.26; (3) applied to the word~ij~, m~ etc. in the sense of making, doing, practising etc. ('!i\1l]); e.g. ~~ ~ ~~cffit, i:i0<i% (eats something or avoids it as an observance), ~ ~igIrn ~~m etc.; cf. P. III. 1.21 ; (4 ) applied to the words ~, tfT:{l". ~tf, <f\1lif, g(i;, itCh,~, ~, (Cf"i" cril~, 'qo1 and ~ in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in ll"; e.g. tli.'iT[Gc-lRr, tfTiU<lrn, etc.; ct. P. III. 1.25; ( 5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing"e.g. tdi ~ <r.llj'1~, etc.; ( 6) applied to a verbal

noun (~) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of th~ krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case; e.g. ciiB" ~fff for the sentence cii61f~, or ~ ii[i'1:T<ITcr for ~l:Tm'qe, or ~ ~T6<lfff, ~~m::l1<{ffi, ~UT cU;;j<lRr etc.; cf. Kas. on P. III. 1.26. Roots ending in fUl, (fill;;ji'ff) take the conjugationalendings of both the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada; cf. taRr~ P. I. 3:74.' They have perfect forms by the addition of an+,. with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root~, l!. or ~~ placed after ~Fr." the word ending with ~ and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e.g~ <m<lT 'q9iH: 'liR<IT 'q~ etc.; ct. P. III: 1.35, 40. They have the aorist form, with the substitution of the VikaraQa "'f~ ( ~) for ~ before which the root is reduplic~ted ; e.g. ar-;fiCji~, ap.ft~qG:. etc.; ct. P. III. 1.48, VI. I.II as also VII. 4.93'97.
~ roots ending in fUJ"'!,.; the term
$I( (i.e. the roots !i{,
~, ~.

;ie:1ii., <:l:TT etc. )


Kas. on P. IV. 3.15; (8) applied to the words qro:u<{ and fuiil{' fu1:'(, in the sense of 'students read~ ing the Bhik!?usiitras (of 1fRT:u<f) and the Nata siitras (of f~~)' . n:spectively; e.g. fflu:uftui't fOl!'3'l':, ~~) <r{;rr:. cf. IG'is. on P. IV. g.lIO. ,

~:; cf.

in the sense of an agent; e.g. mift, cf. P. III. 1.134; (2 ) applied to the root ~ preceded by the word ~ or ~ as i3'li'lG:; e.g. ~, ~~, cfo' P. III. 2.5 1; (3) applied to any root preceded by a substanti ve as upapada in the sense of habit, or, when comparison or vow or frequency of action is c'on-' veyed, or to the, root 1l<J:. with a substantive as i3'li'lG: e.g. \3OUj~,
~,.~~; I:CfTfU;f\"; ~~~I~, 3l'.&m;:m;;\T;' ~~f4ul a-~U':; ~
qy~ui't OfI~T:; &'{I;:f\<lm;:f\, ~)<r.f\c.!ilrrft,

applied in the sense of a descendant (0Itf{<l) applied to the words

~,. iFT, ~~;
~<l:, _~:


~ ~

etc., e.g.

~ elision of the affix fOT (fUl, or iUl&=.. see above) before an ardhadhatuka affix without the augm!'!nt ~ (~) prefixed to it; ct. iiRf.rf2: P. VI. 4.5 1 , and VI. 4.52, 53. 54 also. '

is generally applied to causal bases ofroots. See fUJ"l:

fOtq: (I) an affix with. the mute con\

sonant 01, added to it to signify the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate ~ or for the first vowel of the word if the affix applied is a taddhita affix; ct. P. VII. 2.II5-!I7 ; e.g. '>\01., UT, "lor.. fill etc.; ( 2 ) an affix not actuale ly marked with the mute letter 0l.1 but looked upon as such for the purpose of vrddhi; e.g. the Salva- I namasthana affixes after the words and 6fur, cf. P. VII. I.gO, 92.

cf. P. III. 2.78-82; (4) applied to the root ~ preceded by a word referring to the 'li~ of <Ill(qiiiI' as also' to the root Vi( preceded by a word forming the object (<ii~<J:.) of the root ~<J:., the words so formed referring to the past tense; e.g. amw~, flI<ic<jEffiIT, d. P. III. 2.85, 86 ; ( 5) applied to a root when the word so for~ed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor; ct. ~w, ~~, ~ cf. P. III. 4.169- I 70; (6) tad. affix ~, causing vrddhi for the first vowel, applied to the words Cfil~ff and cM~<ii . referring to ancient 'sages naIQed so, as also to words which are the names of the pupils of ~fil' or of WIiFI<r, as also to the words ~i1<ii, <il;;jif.i<l etc. in the sense of ' students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e.g.'

augment Ol., prefixed to the. initial vowel whell it follows upon the c~nsonant llf.. at the end of the preceding word; e.g. 13!JO'\!IIt:u:for 13!J0l. + ~:u: cf. P. VIII. 33 l patha by Fat;lini as beginning with
Ol. which $ubsequently is changed

~ a root mentioned in the Dhii.tu,;,


ufU{Felui: mfcli<t:,

~ possession of Ol. as a ~ute letter for the purpose of vrddhi. See the word fUJcr:.
fU\f.{ krt affix if<i:. signifying vrddhi ( 1) applied to the roots headed by

etc.; ct. P. IV. 3.I03-I04, !06; (7) applied to words forming the names of ancien t sages who are the speakers of ancient BrahmaI),a works in the sense of ( pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sanse of those <ii~ works; e.g.

to <t:. (by P. vi. I.65) in all theforms derived from the root ; e.g. - the roots 1J'{, , uft and others. In the ~ krtya affix <i which causes vrddhi and which has the circumflex accent case of these roots the initial ~ is ( I) applied to' a root ending with again changed into Ol. after a prefix 5i\ or any consonant to form the pot. like If or ffU baving the ll:ltter \. in it pass. participie; e.g. ~, ~, , and having avowel or a consonant~ etc. ct. KiiS. on P. IV. 1.124 ; of the guttural or labial cla!\s inter( 2) applied to a root ending in aveningbetweell the Jetter \. and the if a necessity of the activity is to letter~; e.g. SIUlrrm,;rUTJi!9i: etc. cf. be indicated, e.g. ~I~, 0I~<l Kas. on P. VIII. 4 T4 . qrc'lil;, cf. Kas. on P. IV. 1.125; cn'qre. a popular name given to the ( 3) tad. affix <! applied to the word fourth pada of the seventh Adhyaya qom~ optionally with <II!. and OOI. of PaI),ini's A~tadhyayi, which affixes; e.g. liflll~:, l;{~:t lfil1liffit<ii:; begins with the rule o]T ~~T:~~: cf. Kas. on P. V. 1.84. P. VII. 4.~. ~ kft affix ar.{ in the sense of 'skill!3~

etc. cf. Ka. on P. IV. I.15I; (3) applied in the sense of 8'flR'!l or descendant to words ending in~, to the word ~ and to words in the sense of artisans, e.g. 9lTft~:, ~U<l:,. o~<l:. ~:; d. Kas. on P. IV. 1.152; (4 )appUe ed in the Caturarthika senses to the words ti9lT'ff, <ii~, ~ etc., e g. ~lj~, <{ilf.'q(!<l~ etc" d. Kas. on P. IV. 2.80; (5) applied to the word ff/tq<t, and .optionally with the affix O'-li to the \vord U<!T in the spedned senses; e.g. fffttR ~I{~fu, ~ ~l~ ttm~:, i1fi:l~m W<I: ~~ <iT; d. KM. on P. IV.444.45. 101; (6) applied as a tad. affix called' tadraja', to the word ~ and words beginning with if e.g. c6R~: ~l;{E<I:; d. Kas. on P. IV. 1.172; ~:, \i{<NT: etc; are the nom. pi. fbrms.

~<{:, ~: I


<l\~: ~~

tad. affix<i (I) applied in the se!!lse of - : descendant' as also in a few other senses, mentioned in rules. from IV. 1.92 to IV. 3.168, appiied to the words rcmt, ~,<lirR~ and words with 1fffi as the ~l:{ in a "" compound, e.g. ... ~:, e:n~, ~1I;;jI4Wl. et~; cf. Kas. on P.lV. 1.84; (2)

ed agent' applied (I) to the root ~I to sing. e.g. "iT<!ii:, ifI<, d. Kas. on P. lB. 1.147, also m~:, anfi'tC!iT by P. III. 1.146; (2) to tQe root
~ (III. P. and III. A also) if 'rice' or < time' be the sense conveyed; e.g. ~'U ~:, l[(<r.l: ~t~: d. Ras. on P. III. 1.148.


@or lq:t. a,ffix filcr i.e. zero, c~using
vrddbi, applied to the root ~ and to ~alid "lit in Vedic Literature if the root is preceded by any preposi-: tion ( ;aqtlCT ) or a substantive as the upapada; e.g . a:rt+n~, Sl~ g~ ~; cf. Kas. on P. Ill. 2.62, 03, 64

fiiq~ krt. affi~ 'i. or zero, seen applied in Vedic .Literature to the root <it. precededby:ilio, to ~ preceded by :a<ll:i, to G:R.J:. preceded by ~ and to <!~ preceded by arq. e.g~.;qa<n l{i1{:, <1OfoffiT ~ii:, ~~{:, arcJ<!1:; ct. Ka . on 2'71, 72.

krt affix'aTiti seen always with the fern. affix aT{ applied to a root whf'n the sense conveyed is 'a turn or 'a deserving thing' or 'deb~' or , occurrence '; e.g. ll<lO: ~lTr~'lif, 8J~ffi +1qr-r, l{g+r&l'liA: , ~m~ "TI\<Ifu, I\g+1~'llf ::q~; ct. Kas. on p. Ill. 3.Ill.

the first consonant of the' dental class of consonants which has got the propertiesJl1ffi~~Tii, ~, ~ CJiUOt'l and ~fURCf. When u,sed as a mute letter by PaQini, (( signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so, which is marked with it; e.g. ~, 1[[~~, ~ cf. P. VI. 1.185. When applied a vowel at its end, (( signifies only the vowel of that grade only, possessed by such of its varieties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with a:., e.g. C!ffiI. stands for art with any of the accents as als:> pure or nasalised; a:mt. does not include OJ' or a:r 3 cf. aq<lt<lil~!I P. I. 1.70. The Ulle. of the indicatory mute (l. for the above purpo!ie is seen also in the, Pratisakhya works; cf. V. Pr. I. IX4 l{. T. 23,4. '

of the past pass. part. in popular use; (6) a technical term for the .. past participle affixes (cr) 'iji and 0<1(( ('q,CJg) called by Pal;lini; cf. P. I. I.26; the term cr is used for f.i1JT in the Jainendra VyakaraI.1a.


the consonant ~, the vowel ar and the word 'liR being, placed after it for facility in understanding; d. T. Pr. I. 17, 2!.

requiring the same time for utterance as for example one miUra for short vowels, two ,for long ones and three for protracted ones, although those vowels are nasalised or pure, or acute, grave or circUl.;nflex. See the word CftR'.

d'NIliMII~ occurring or presenting itself at the same time or simultaneously.

dlioq"l{ name

~ a class of words head;:d by ~fil'Im to which the taddhita affix 8J (arSJ:) is added in the sense of' a native place or a domicile '. The' word so formed has the acute accent on its first vowel; e.g. OW~: cmtit~\Ul:, d. Kas. on P. IV. 3.93.
~ (I)

of a commentary on Ramacandra's Prakriyakaumudi.


(I) personal ending of the third

( I) a very general krt affix aT'li, causing vrddhi and acute accent to the vowel preceding t he affix. applied to a rocit optionally with <r ( i.e. ~) in the sense of an agent e g. 'li[{9i: m{9i:; aiso CfiOT, 1[ftT; ct. P~ III. 1.133; ( :2 ) krt. affix 31cfi applied optionally with the affix W'I:. to a root when it refers to an action for which another action is mentioned by the principal verb; e.g. ~ ~ or iWf ~: cf KiiS. on gPtl~!Jt<rt

~i:qf~; P. III.,3IO; (3) krt affix 3I<li, necessarily accompanied by fern. affix aT[ added to it, applied to a root if the sense given by the word so formed is the name of a disease or a proper noun or a narration or a query; e.g. JfCji~1fiT,

5l"'tl1~, ~+rf&i'lil, m~+1~iiif,

cnrftclir, ct.

Kas. on P. III. 3.108,109. IrO.

pers. sing. Atm.; cf.P. III. 4.78, which is changed to ~ in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute f-i:!tit. for fEw 'in the aorist; cf. P. VI. 4.14; ( 2) personal ending substituted for the affix :it' of the Paras. 2nd pers. pI. in the imperative, imperfect, potential. benedictive. aorist and conditional for are substitutwhich . trnl, a<I and ed in Vedic Literature, and also for fq: in case ~ repetition of an action is meant; d. P. III. 4.85, 101 as also VII. 1.44. 45 and III. 4.2--5. cf. P. III. 4.85 ,and III. 4.101; (3) tad. affix a applied to the words <WI:. and lfI<J:. e.g. ~:, .,~:, d. P. V. :1). I38; (4) tad. affix a applied to ({~ when ~ is changed to ~; cf. <W!<'lt ~~ lUmq: a~ ~<I: I a;;u <1i~la; ~Ul~' ~ERZ! ~, KM. on p. V. 1.59; (5) general term forthe affix


a short term used for !he nine personal endings of the Atmanepad a viz. ('1', ~... ~~ which are themselves termed Atmanepada; d. a&'l<IT 9iRlFr~ P. I. 4.100; ( 2 ) the personal ending a of the 2nd pers. pI. ( substituted for ~. by II~. 4.IOI) looked upon as C!~ sometimes, ~~ name of a commentary on when it is lengthened in the Vedic the KiiSikavrtti by a grammarian Literature; cf. a~Rr ~T~lU~ ~~ named Upamanyu in the beginning !lfUFJ: I ~T ;mC!~ Ka. on P. of the nineteenth century A. D. VI. 3.133. , " ~m-r name of a commentary on the ~ the triad of senses ~, Paribh1i!?endusekbara written byM. C!~ and m~~~~ possessed by M. Vasudev Shastri Abhyankar in the agent' of an action, in connec1889 A. D. The commentary is tion with which the affixes~, more critical than explanatory, ~~ etc. are prescribed (cf. P. III. wherein the author has given the 2.184 etc.) which (affixes) hence purpose and the gist of the import" are called dl:i'4H~'h; ct. ar<i' ei~ ant Paribh1i!?as and has brought ft"~~9; ~ fcl'<ft~~ ; M. Bh. on P. III. out clearly. the differences between thl:: school of BhaHoji and the 2.146, e.g. <mT <nalii> school of Nagesa in sev~ral import~ ancient term for ~ and g~'tt ant matters. ~used by the Vartikakara; cf. ~. ijulTfu <j'q,0tl<i,1 f<l:ifi':lrt 6u1Tffi" I ~~Ii&tIl d'eg~'l name of an impo,rtantkind of compound words similar to the ~, M. Bh. on p, H. 4.54 Vart. compound word ~ i, e. ( m<{ II; III. 2.8 Viirt. 2; IV. I.5 2 ~;), and hEmce chosen as. the Vax't.3

~~ift name of the well-known commentary on Bhattoji's SiddMnta Kaumudi written by his pupil Jiianendrasarasvati at Benares. Out of the several commnetaries on the SiddMntakaumudi, the Tattvabodhini is looked upon as the most authoritative and at the s~me time very scholarly. It is supplemented by]ayakrglamauni on the topic of accents. Nilaka1;,ltha Vajapeyi has written Gu<;lharthaprakiiSikii on it.

name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before paI).ini. PaQini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition. He has mentioned the term ~ in II. 1.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II. 2.22 be caIled,~. No definite number of ' the suh-divisions of dt,9,<litf is given; but from the nature of compounds included in the ~-arN<!iR, the sub-divisions ~~RhdrS<!Ej cf.P. II. 1.24 to 48, Wrr~<t\{Oldt!!<!Ej cf. P. II. I.49 to 72, (called by the name ~; acc to P. I. 2. 42), ~T ~ (called fm by P. II. 1.52), 81i.f'lI'lttr!i'tiif ,or l1;Cf\&.~ldtg~ cf. P. II. 2.1-3. C<jM~~ d. P. II.' 2.5, ij~~ d. P. II. 2.6, ~(~ cf. tatpuru$a compound is optional as ' generally compounds are, depending 'as they do upon the desire of the speaker. Some tat- . pUTU1J2 compounds such as the' SiI~Ot~-eq or ~i:g~ are caned ~ and hence their constitutent words,' with the c~se - affixes applied to them, are not noticed separately; d. P. fIG 2.18; 19. In some cases ~ as a compound-ending (emtw=a") is added; e.g.~, ~~; d.P. V. 4.74; in some cases ~ (or) is added; cf. P. V. 4- 75 to 87; while in some other cases cr-(or) is added, the mute letter'~ signifying the addition of ~ (~) in the feminine gender; d. P. V. 4. 9I-IIZ For details see p.p. 270-273 Mlibabh1il?ya Vol. VII. published by the D. E. Society, Poona.



of ~ is not desirable, as it goes against arriving at the desired forms, and exceptions deduced from PaQini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians; cf. Par. Sek. Pari, 16, 23, 3I.; also Mababbal?ya on P. I. 1.72.

~{t(M a c~nvention similar to the

of PiiI).ini, laid down by the , Varttikakara laying down that' in case an operation is prescribed for something .followed by a single letter, that single letter should be taken to mean a word beginning with that single letter; d. <if~'!N WC{Ic{I'lSltii't ,P. 1:-1.72 Vart. 29; Par. Sek. Pari. 33.

~~ a term of the ancient pre-Pa1;liIlian grammarians used by Pal;.lini just like BCfifl~i'J '. or aro<!<{ without giving any specific definition of it. The te'rm occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and tbe Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya; cf. aT~ ofoll:G~9: Q;Cfitri:h(i:n~'ii qcffi ~ 'lci~qt lfR+!"<i ~<jm:. I "UEi:I:
~: I ~fu qT, ~ 'i'ql~m
<IT Nir. n. 2; also cf. m<{ii'ijfirn'<Igl!<!-

WlTm: ~~ Vaj. Prliti. I. 27. It

P. II.

d. P.rI. 2.18 and 1I!a"a~!Pilf ct P. II. 2.20 are

2.19, lf~~

found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works. Besides these, a peculiar tatpurul?a compound mentioned by P'I).ini in II. I.72, is popularly called ~t1Cfi1~. Piil;.lini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. f~ as ~<n~T ~: P. II. 1.23, and 'ii!ll:l1~ as mg~: ~ Cii'{lli: ~: P. I. 2.42. The Mababha;.;yakara has described ~ as i!l~~li\:j(ij~q:; cf. M. Bh. on II. 1.6, II. 1.20, II. 1.49, etc., and as a consequence it follows ,that the gender of the tatpuru~a compound word is that of the last member of the comp~und ; cf. qur~ ~g~f;;j<IT: P. II. 4. 26; d. also Of~qmrttt <ii:
q{9f~ ~<.IT_I.<!: ~~~:~

~lim: aN~l!&ffu I <.IT ~~ijSN1c1t ~~

~~, M. Rh., on II. 4.26. Sometimes, the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word; cf. P. 4. 19"'3x~ The


6~t'ld~~ a peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of PaQini, laid down by the author of the 'Siitras himself by virtue of wbich an adjectival word, qualifying its principal word, does not denote itself, but something ending with it also; d. ~i!' fcrl'\ffiIG."O~ P. I. 1.72. This feature is principally notiCed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule, but which occur in a large number of subsequent rules; for instance, the word s:rrmqRCfiid, put in P. IV. 1.1, is valid in every rule up to the end of chapter V and the words oro:, ;go:, <ls:r: etc. mean <3t~; t;:om:,. ~ etc. Similarly 'the words \:jTm: (P. III. 1.9I) and ~ (P. VI. 4.I) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to tbem, which are mentioned in subsequent rules, denoting not only those' words, but wor~s ending with them. In a large number of cases this feature'

~tiiji't'i~:mij" lit. connection with what is denoted by the constituent members; the word refers to a kind of Babuvrihi compound where the object denoted by the compound includes also what is denoted by the constituent members of the compound; ~. g. the compound word ~ in the rule ~oolif ~<f iiTIiWr includes the word~<f among the words f.\'Jil', ;g~l! and others, which alone form the 81~q<{l~ or tbe external thing and not merely the external object as mentioned i? PaI).ini's . rule af.{~lfG:T~ ( P., II. 2. 24) ; cf. ~qR1 q~ Oi\WliM~(iiijfq I ol'~T I
f"iF-fcll~t!I:{T<Fi I ~~lH ':l!\~"': 3f=g~ I

awfioRt o'\.~.rlJ1lij 5{=g~fr(i

M. Bh. on

1. 1.27' For details d. Mahabh1il?ya on p. I.' 1.27 as also Par. Sek.

Pari. 77.
~~"~ lit. made subordinated to (the principal factor) ; completely included so as to form a portion. The word is used in connection with augments which, when added to a word, are completely included in that word, and, in fact, form a part of the word; cf. ~lf~~uft~~ iJ..1W~ Par. Sek. Pari. II.

is to be noted that the word is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive. (3frfutr~) by the application of suffixes like or, <Ri. etc., and not in the sense,of words derived from roots by affixes like ar.!, fu etc. whiCh were termed ~, as possibly contrasted with the word o~cr used by Yaska in II. 5.' paI).ini has used the word crn..o not for words, but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. g. in 1. 1.38, IV. 1.17, 76, VI. I.6I etc.) In fact, he has begun the ehumenition of taddhita affixes with the rule crn..m: (P. IV. I. \ 76) by putting the term crfucr for affixes such as fu, ~'l~, a;ot. etc: which 'are mentioned thereafter. In his rule ~~ftmt!+fTtlTlij and in .the Varttika ~m~~r~Cf(C<l<lo .i T. 4.I Vart. 4I) which are similar to V. Pr. 1. 27 quoted above, tbe word of.lro appears, to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes, along with the word ~ which also, means words derived from roots, although commentators have -explained there the terms ~ and o~ for 'aI"l.<d and 'ofuffFff. The term Cff;[n is evidently echoed in the Sutra mtr ~d'll which, although it is not the first Sutra of the taddhita section, may imply that 'there were possibly long lists cif SCondary nouns _with the senses pi

secondary suffixes, and ~fur was perhaps, the first sense given _there. The number of tacidhita suffixes mentioned by PaI)ini is quite a large one; there are in f~ct IHO rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas Viz. from p. IV. 1.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyava. The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentfonedbycommentators are, Apatyadyarthaka (IV. 1.92 to 178 ), Raktadyarthaka (IV. 2.1 to 9I), Sai!?ika (IV. 2. 92 to IV. 3.133), Pragdivyatiya (IV. 3.134 to 168), Pragvahatiy~ (IV. 4.1 to IV. 4.74), Priigghitiya (IV. 4.75 to IV. 4.109 L Arhiya (V. I. I to 7t ), Thafiadhikarastha (V. I.72to V. 1.114), Bhavakarmarthaka (V. I. IIS to V. 1. 136), Paficamika (V. 2.1 to V. 2.93), Matvarthiya ( V. 2.94 to V. 2. 140), Vibbaktisariijfiaka (V. 3.1 to V. 3.26) and.Svarthika (V. 3.27 to V. 4.160). The samiisiinta affixes ( V. 4.68 to V. 4.1.(0) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.
~f~:~'lcm~ a work - on the taddhita section written by SlromaI)i BhaWicarya, who has also written fu~~WrlUI.

given in the rules of PaI)ini IV. T. I68-174and V. 3. lI2-II9. They are called ~ as they are appJied to such words as mean both the cquntry and the warrior race or clan (~fui~); cf. o~m~: ffi(r;;;: S. K. on P. IV. 1.168. The peculiar feature of these tad raja affixes is that they are omitted when the word to which they have been applied is used in the plural number; e. g. ~:, Q:~'fm, !l:~qm: ; similarly !(~~-C; d. P. II. 4. 62

IV. I.92 etc. The word is also explained in the sense of r important '.
tfP.4Acfi4 mime of the learned commentary written by ~~<R&io, a famous Buddhist grammarian ot the 12th century A. D. on the <iiT&lCfiTf~'iiT (;<jffi) of Jinendrabuddhi. The work is available at present only in a manuscript form, and- that too in fragment:>. Many later scholars have copiously quoted from this work. The name of t~e work viz. ~q is rarely mentioned; but the name of the author is mentioned as d~o, 'irS!~ or even ~ijlR:~. There are two commentaries on the ~ named <!'l~Sf+1l aqd ~Cfi. .

personal ending o-c substituted for ~ in the impera. imperf. potential, benedictive, aorist and conditional; d. P. in. +85, lor.

common term for the tad. affixes and \illIJ...

tad. affix 011 added optionally with the affix ~ ( ~ ) to f.r~Rt, ~ etc., as also to words ending with them, in the sense of ~ (completion ) and necessarily (f.!t4 to the words lUo, ~, ejm, wfff etc. e.g.

~ (I)

as above, sImilarly; the wurds ~!l O:iR( ( the rest as are frequently seen used by commentators; (2) the tad. affix ere:. in the sense of possession and not in the sense of measure etc. d. oaR\" ~ ~rmt ~ V, Pro V. 8.

~~:; ~:, ml1:

't'iiT'iflU:, ~:, ~:,

lcr1Ut, fSi1Ut etc.; cf.



V. 2.56-58.

~~ treatment of something asthat which is not that e. g. the treatment of affixes not marked with' mute fi or I) as marked with Ii even though they are not actually marked that way, cf. P. 1. 2. 1-4 ; also d. oi[cffir~S~Sfmf: P. I. 2.1 Vart. 4.

6C11~ a class of roots headed by the root -trOi.., which is popularly called the eighth conjugation to which the conjugational sign 13" is added; e. g. ocU.fij-, <RIm, ~~; d. P. II. 4.79; III. 1.79. ~~mt a class of words which is the same as ~ ; d. P. VI. 4.37. See

tad. affix 0+ added without a change of sense, i.e. in the sense of the base itself to noun-bases posses sing the sense of excellence, as also to vel bal forms showing excellence; e:g. 1311~:, ~;:ftcrem;, 8ltffilT:, tf'<lftra ~ cf. Kas. on P. V. 3.55-56. The affix Q~1l. IS termed ~ also; ct. P. I.

I 6'q

the essence, al!'o called o'(1if; ct.

<l~ ~~~ srl~~t~ o'fct iI ~ o~ ~-c I _Jcn ~q~~~ I 0~~'I'I: M.

Bh. on P. V.


(I) personal ending for 0 of ~he second pers. pI. Parasmaipada in the imperative in Vedic Literature; e. g.~!!Ot for ~o cL Kas. onP. VII. 1.45; (2) tad. affixes ~ and ~' i. e. which, with the augroent ~, in effect becomes Oif. e. g.

e~niii"lilG!the tad. affix Sl11l.. prescribed by the rule ~+'<lt ~~~. mt+<l: P. IV. 1.113; d. M. Bb. on P. IV. I.1I4.
~ (I)

tad. affix \'I<IIJ.. applied to a numeral ( ~<RT) in the sense of ~i( or possessed of parts'; e:g. ~ ar'i<l'ff i:'R'!I ~~, 1.ffi\i<I~, ~; ct. KM .. on P. V. 2,42. a:r<I is_substituted for Q<! optionally after the numerals fe: and ~ and necessarily after G'<l; cf. P. V. 2.43-41.


~m produced or brought into being -

~, ~,etc.; cf. P. IV. 323

by some grammatical operation ~ personal ending for 0 of the such as the vowel an in~: CfiRCIi, second pers. pl. e. g; G:<iffiii for w W'lifqjn:, etc. by the substitution of d. Kas. on P. VII. 1.45. See o<r. i[f:\l:, as contrasted with the original . . an in ~rl1 fit<rli! ~TT~r ~ etc.' cf. ~ a word frequently used 10 the Jcn ~i!fut '(,F~rfctc!~ ~~~ ~ ~CliT~- k Mahiib~a!?ya in the sense of f i~'ii~ +flC<I~ ~llt i!i[O"[~<n~rsr~ tended or ~9fqja. The word IS M. Bh. on I. 1.1. ~sed always In t~e ne~ter gender lIke lfl1lUFI:; ct. q.:sr ~: M. Bh. ~ the taddhita affixes aw.:., 6J1l1.., ~, on P. 10 2.33~ II. 2.34. ~ ~mn~ onP. 1.2039. III. 3.38, III. 4.21, WI, as also~,~,~. lRI, ~ and

tad. affix 0 added to the words tf~~ and +l~ to form the words qcffi: and~: ; d. P. V. 2.122 Vart. 10; , ( 2 ) personal ending -in Vedic Literature substituted for 0 of the impera. sec. pers. pl. e. g. ~t1 !:i1911lT: cf. Ras. on P. VII. I.45

~ tad. affix

. ,

addition of the mute letter after a vowel to signify the inclusion of only such varieties of the vowel as take the same time for t~eir utterance as the vowel marked With ~i cf. P. 1. 1.70. See~.

tad. affix \'1<1. See oq. m:IJ.. added to bases showA ing excellence (ar~Flif) when the excellence shown is between two persons; e.g. ar.r-lt: ~!!i+m:d~: ~1:rHffU, tRlfffiRFl:; ct. Kas. on p. V. 3.57. The affix m:1l. is called ~ ju!>t like ~; cf. P. 1.1.22.

~~. a commentary by Har!?akirti on his own Sarasvatadhiitupatha. He was a pupil of Candra-kirti who flourished in the sixteenth century.



on the last syllable; e.g. 91-G"0<iil:, cf. Kiis. on P. III. I.96. ians just 1ik~ a Paribh1i~a; cf. a:rf(Q ~ (I) repetition of action; d. mG:~~~~ I ~l1YP.r trl:~ ~ o(trF!~r+!t~u4 tfrq:!F~ KitS. on III. f'i:m M. Bh. on P. 1. -1.29; similarly 2.81 also awr4mecn I ~ omfR:, ~~'im: for <ia1<lTl1Yf.r qq:rf.1 M. Bh . ~~r I ( 2 ) foremost consideraon P. I. 1.30 or tH:rrffl~ ~ tIlTIti: M. tion; cf. ~~ t'i'ffi- ~ ~: Bh. on P. 1.2.43; (2 ) use of a I :aT.!~Tfilffi +jCffa Ras. on P. 2.59; word for that word of which there I ( 3) purport ( of a sentence), signiis the vicinity; cf. ~cn BTit~q: ficance, intention; cf. tlcit{/IWq"lli(<j\o ~ir ~S<jRn lliretllRltTI Cful: I <f1liTfq fftfcr Qi1ltq~~ Par. Sek. Pari. 2, 3. C@~ '!:qj M. Bh. on P. 1. 2.27 where the letter 8' is taken in the sense, of ! ~~ name given to the grave tim~ required for its utterance, .the ( ~) vowel which is aj<I3:11r i. e. reason being that sound and tIme which occurs at the end of the first go together; ct. also M. Bn. on P. , member of a compound and which 1. 2.70, IV. 3,48, V. 2.79; (3) use is placed between two acute 'vowels of a word for that which resides i.e. is preceded by and followed by there; cf. Ci~Rl~ Olfclli/:ffu M. an acute vowel; e.g. tl<isq~, ~lfRl:.; Bh. on V. 4.50 Van. 3. At all the I ci. ~;::ffi ;:<!9~mo<I: I V. Pro ,above places, the use of one word 1. 120. The tiith_abhavya vowel is , for another is by Lak!?aI)a. recited as a kampa (cn;q); cf. o~ ~ ~:st<i.I"Iq~mlO<lAFi+ld IfJtllf{fu:m'i~ prescribed in the sense of '~ <ro ;ft:q ~~IO<ffi': i'fiRlq:1 GT~ habituated '; a term used in con~T <l~~+q1~~ fu~<iif.'. Some nection with all affixes prescribed Vedic scholars hold the view that in the triad of senses viz. ~" the -orl1l*f[~<j vowel is not a grave GT~, ffitlT~R?-i in Siitras from P. (~'Q) vowel, but it is a kind of III. 2.134 to 180; ct. \i1:ei;jlrB<h~ ~9fur or circumflex vowel. Strictly 9il3~qfe!Nqtf~o P. III. 2.146 Vart. 3, according to PaI)ini "an anudiiUa Par. Sek. Pari. 67. following upon an udatta becomes, \:1m: ( !) the same as crm~ substituted Svarita "; d. P. VIII. 4.66, V. Pro for gaud ~ of the imperative sec. IV. 1.138; d. also R. Pr. III. 16. and third sing. Parasmaipada; cf. P. VII. 1.35; (2) substitute olq:for ~~<i (I) the nature of being meant ff of the imperative 2nd. pI. in for another; cf. :qg~~ Qiil;1lU, Vedic Literature; e.g. 'fl~ 'IT:;rlR<lr~ <rtImP'IFT"!. I ~'i<! <wi M.Bh. On P. ~q: cf. KM. on P. VII. 1.44. II. 3.I3 ; (2) meant fOli another; cr. ~1~ thi' affix mq:, See GTif. ( I). oa:~ ~ ffT1.{di<r" I '91!!~f<t~mr. "'lor,. I


tad. affix 0\.

See 0\.


tad. affix 0 ( r) adJed in the sense .... of collection ( 1;Il!..~) toJ.he words ~, ;;jq o/~ and tll[r<i and <nf also, e.g.


I i


~ (I) tad. affix ff~ showing direction by means of a thipg e.g.<i~~(f:, ~~:; cf: Kas. o~ P.lV. 3.II4, IS; ar~fo{ 3Frf~tq<r., 3l'1fFfCfr; tt~t'l11., 'l~, ( 2) tad. affixff<e: applied in the 5fM<I;; ~@:rr, ~~P.:.; ~9'~~, ~f@Ilt.; sense of the,abl. case and substitutetc. d. Kas. all .P. V. L119 to 136. I ed for the abl. case affix; ego ::!rmr:, WOids ending with the affix a~ are i anrr:~fcr, ~~r AAfcr; sometimes the always declined in the feminine affixJ.s applied instead of the instrugenaer with tht fern. affix 3l'f (2'IIl) mental or the genitive case also. e.g. added to them; d. ~; (=IT~: f<W-IfiI), ~'Qcr: <l o!jl1~ for i~~ i{ O<j~; ffi Lmganu5asana 17. ~<!ff: 3l'~CJtt.., for ~ 1l~ 3l'+i~ cf. Kiis. on P. V. 4.44-49. the class of de'ntal consonants viz, 0., ~, ~, Iif..' and or.; cf. fi.t~l:ffit G<iir-, G~ ( I) tad. affix O<i added to pro5ff-lq'<ITsoi~~ P. 1. 3.4 Vart. I. - " , nouns from - tI< upto ~, to the pronoun ~ and after qft and arf+i; e.g. ~~ lqt affix ~ for the infinitive affix <'h=r" ,.".. "1\1', "'''''3l'fuo'' cf.,Kas. on P. \.1\1-, .J ~ in Vedic Literature; e.g. G:~it V" 3.7 to 9. lTIm ~it; cf. P. III. 4.9. ~~~ a class of tad db ita a;ffixes ~ krt affix Q~ for the infinitive affix headed by the affix ff~ (crfue:.) as ii< Vedic Literature; e.g. ifi'ait, given by PiiI)ini in, his siitras Itom m,~; ct. P.llI. 4.9. \l9l!;Qrerftle:. P. V, 3.7 upto ~~T<H.: ~+~fuiWf.t 'iFt<r~, V. 3.17 ; cf. P. ~ (I) krt affi~ \i~ for the infinitive VI.' 3.35. The words ending with the affixes from. in P. V. 3.7 affix ~~ in Vedic Literature. The affix ~ has a peculiarity ~f a~cen~ upto t[[~! P. V. 3.47 (excluding namely that the word endmg In O''f ~I!.) become indeclinables; cf. has got both the initial and ending KiiS. on P. I. I.38 vowels accented acute t ~); e.g. . ' Bm~ qffi~, l[tffi GJCfCif 8'; cf. P. III. m': ( r) a technical te~m for t~e gemtive case affix used h thedJamendra 10 49,. an d VI- I "200' ( 2 ) krtya affix \ . , ffi. in Vedic Literature, e.g. liR~rffi~ ior Vyakara1J.a; (2) t e ta . a x ~ ....& 0 4 IA which is popularly called (if as the 'i 1'l.1iflffO<rr. c f . Ra-s' . on .1. III . . . . . . d ' notins ending in Cf~ i.a. 0' are e~<oj" krtya affix applied to a root to elined in the fern. gender with the form the poL pass. part. e.g. cnij~; feme affix 3l'f added them. cf. Kas. on P. III. 1.96,' ~ (I) use of a word for that ~64Q,. krtya afiixoo<j applied to a root word ( of whicb. the sense has been to form the pot. pass~ part.; the eonveyed); the expression ~. affix cro<!if. has the circumflex accent ~!:;:y~~ is .often used by grammar-

;;ji1cIT etc.; (2) added in. th: sense of 'the nature of a tbmg ( +ifil ) along with the affix (q opti~n ally, as also optionally alon~ wl~h the affixes l{ll~, 5l!0I,., etc, gIven 10 P. V. 1.I22 to 136; e.g. 3{-'!1~,

(I) personal ending of the third ....pers. dual Parasmaipada substituted technically Jor e:. (~R); ct. P. III. 4.78; (2) tad. affix ff, ( ofB or (ff8~ ). See qfu and ~m~.



i I


1 I






~~ tad. affix mRt in the very sense of the word to which it is applied occurring in Vedic Literature after the words ~if and ~Cj, as also af~er fuq =IT:!!" and in the sense of , .... . th ' bringing ,about' ana In e sense of m<i (presence) after the same words ~jCf, =IT"I:. and ajR.i!; e.g. ~rm:, ~Ciffrm:, ~i.'ffimr:; etc. cf. P. IV. 4.142144


a:rR,~'lc1t4 '~"l;. i31~~:I~ I dRll~- "lG:, I d. Kas, on P. V. 4.24; (3) being possessed ?f the same sense; cf (fIG:1l~~ a remark often made by Patafijali in Mahabha!?ya, See



possession of the same nature; , ommCl'(f[; d. ~~ 4mfcit~ 1 GroQ ~~S<!i!; Kiis. on P. II. 1.2.



who has written a commentary called SaraHi on the SiddMnta Kaumudi. He has edited many important Sanskrit works consisting of many ko~as.

being possessed of the same propert y ; cf. '<IgfiI: >j"'li'i'hnfuliB ~


~ft{ a class of compound words



I M. Bh. on IV. I.4 8 Vart.3.

restoration to, or resumption of the same form by the rule of SthanivadbMva, prescribed in P. 1. 1.56, called ~qrfuit:u as contrasted with ~<!fffi~: d. ~ m\t<jj:jfffm<j~ M. Bh. I on VI. 1.85 Vart. 26. . one uniform accent or tone, ~Cfi~fa", as observed at the time of sacrifices in the case of the recital of the hymns; cf. m<r~&lOlt'tcii ~~ijfU1 V. Pro 1. 130; ct. also P.L 2.34. roots (8th conjugation).



lit. produced from ffi the part below the tongue; the vowel It. :qqir, <I and i>J.. are called ffi~, palatal letters; cf. 1{~r.m- V. Pro 1. 66. These letters are formed upon the palate by the middle part of the tongue; cf. R. Pr~ 1.42, R. Pro H.36.

headed by the dvandva compound facnfilmcrin which the taddhita affixes added to the constituent members of the compound are dropped when the dvandva compound is to be . used in the plural number; aCfil<!Cj<lllJ ~crl<lVJC!!li ~"T:; cf. Kas. on P. II. 468.

"f. )~T and~. For details VaiyakaraQabhii~aI)asara.



Rt~f.I~ the grave accent for the whole word (Bcff.iEITff) .generally possessed by a verbal form when it is preceded by a word form which is not a verb; cf. ~m.: P. VIII.
T2 .. 8

~ tad. affix fu<n" added to the word

3l't. in the sense of the word itself <li~) e. g. ~~cf. ; P. V. 4.39.

m<1~ a root of the tanadi class of


~~ a small class of eight words to which the affix Of (Ctar.) is added in the sense of 'a product" or C a part' e.g. ffi~ l:T~:, cn~OI'l., etc.; ct, Kas. on P. IV. 3. 152.

ftI~ a class. of words headed by the

woros ffici;, ~Cf, ~ and others to which the taddhita affix <lfI<j~ (filio{) causing the substitution of vrddhi is added in the sense of a descendant' ; e. g. ~<!f.r:, ~T~: ; cf. Kas. on P. IV. 1.154.

ffiq: an . affix indicatory fying the that affix; etc.; cf. P.

to which the mute letter it, is added signicircumflex accent of e.g. the affixes <lit,. U<lit,

VI. 1.185.

~ the circumflex accent possessed

by an affix marked with the mute letter it,. See fffit.

personal ending substituted for OB. 'of the 3rd pers. dual in the imperative, imperfect, potential, benedictive, a(.rist and conditional;

palate; cf. ffi~Q~ ~!<iT ~ij

fu~ the augment R1:!!. added to the

words ~, 'i'T, ipJf and Bfl, when they are followed by the tad. afux aT (G) e g. ~l:T:; cf. P. V.2.52.

~:u ~ I B i{'fUW1 ~~ I ~~ Cfi\1l]'l.1 cf. T. Pro II. 22.


d. P. III. 4.85, lor.

mq: ( I) elevated, high; a place for the production of words; d. T. Pro XVII. II; (z) recital in a high tone which is recommended in the evening time; d. mtg fil"ll.tFf~ ('[<Wi, !ij~<Ij'{r tiS; 00 ~~~ com, on T. Pr.

conjugational sign or VikaraI}a

( errf~) added to a root .in the first

future before the personal endings' which becqme accented grave ( Of!1<{I~ ); d. P. VI. Y. 186; it has the augment ~ prefixed, if the root. to which it is added, is ~~. P. VI. 4.62.


r I



miB' the VikaraI)a ar~, See al~

ffi (I) personal ending ~ of the 3rd
pers. sing.; (2) common term for the krt affixes ~ and ~ as also for the urjiidi aqx fcr; see ~ and fu,,; ( 3 ) fern. affix fcr added to the word i!!q'l:. e. g. ~1?-: cf. P . IV. 1.77; (4) tad. affix fer as found in the words qijg and M,{11ti ct. Kas. on P. V. !.59; ('5) tad. affix added to the word ~in the sense of' a root', and to the words ~ and ~ in the sens~ of possession (~~); e.g. tjl\Jm:, Ciifrff:, :{TRr:, cf. Ras. on P. V. 2.25, 138.

aU't"'<'ollli6! a das;> of words headed by the word di"{"\'il alil~ containinp prominently the words ~, ~,~, ~Jf, ~, ~83T, ~\ and many otbers numbering more than ninety, to which the taddhita affil!: 11Rl' (~tF-!.) is added in the sense of containing: As this class, called ~f&', is looked upon as Ofl~<rOl, nouns with !iff added at their en{l, are supposed . to be included in it; ct. P. V. 2.36.
~~ called

tlwn'tRl:fffi" ; a Bengali modem Sanskrit scholar and gra mmariau.of the nineteenth century

ffi~ (I) a brief trm (~~Iiffi) for tbe 18 personal endings. Out of these eighteen persofal endings, which are common for all tenses and fu~ the personal ending of the 3 rd moods, the first nine facr.., cHi etc . pers. sing. mbstituted for ~ (<i"fiR) all called Parasmaipada, while the in the Parasmaipada, For subother nine cr, arr~ etc. are named stitutes for special cases, see AtmaDEpada and ('j~ also; cf, P. VI. 1.68, III. 4.82, 83, 84. om<!lcmJl~tR+r..; (2) a verbal form called also OfT<f~lCf<fi; cf. ffi~ ( fmrul.ilT a EOuthern grammarian who Of~ ~q~ I lf~ftI qom I V. Pr . wrote a short treatise called Pratyaharavicara on the pratyar. 27" h1iras like Ofar., liar. etc. in the ~'S<"a (I) a word ending in ta~; a grammar of PaI)ini. verb; (2) a popular name given to the section which deals with f~;j:fiW a southern writer of the commentary named on verbs in books on grammar' as the Siddhlinta Kaumudi of Bhat~ contrasted with the term ~ toji Dik~ita. which is us~d for the section deal-I jng with nouns. ~'" ra~lC1' (r) Concealment of properties; the word is used' always in fu;g~il~fUl a work dealing. .1ith contrast with the word arrfihu<i verbal forms written by mUJffol( manifestation ). cpo . Vak. Pad. ~~. HI. 8.26; III 9. II; III I3 - J.7,. ~ senses possessed by the personal III. 14 3.23 cp, ~~~q~ ~~.H 0. b' eneli ngs " vel's, VIZ. C!iRcn ( t or \ eml mfct'l1f9TsPr<jRiR9Ttqre~ I mu'l1TCl'll1 ''lI~:t

(-~.) (2) attribute of feminity, cpo Sarilgraha quoted by HeHiraja on Vak. pad. III. 13.1 "m{llT-l ~<'! ......>ITQ'i"I:T:_ RR:f+rT9: ~'1~ I

cf. P. III. 4.86; (3) tad. affix g in the sense of possession added, in Vedic Literature to em.. a'nd ~_~ e.g. 9i"g;:, ~v:g:, cf. P. V. 2.138; ( 4) uI)adi affix g; (g~) prescribed by the rule ffid'P'{lIilf+rRl~~fu +<i~ ( U Qadi Sutra 1.69). before which the augment l{ is not added e.g. Ug: ~'fg;:; etc. d. P. VII. 2.9.

~ a class of roots headed by the root ill.\. which take the conjugational sign 8l' (~) and which are popularly called roots of the sixth conjugation; d. P. III. 1.77.

in the grammar of PaI)ini. cf. Kat. II. 5.5.


(1) substitute prescri)::>ed

~ tad. affix fu added in Vedic Literature to the' word '!'Ii when superior quality is meant, e.g. 'Fl\ffi: cf. P.V. 4.41.
ffi~~ffi compound words headed by the word fcm~ which are termed as avyayibhav; compounds and treated. as indec1inab~~s; e.g~ ffi~, <l'~~ aJ'B'>rtff, ~ etc.;- ct. Kas. on P. II. 1.17. ffi~ utterance with a sharp tone characterizing the pronunciation of the Abhinihita kind of circumflex vowel as 0ppoEsed to the ntterance which is called ~ when the circumflex, called ITI~~, is pronounced; d. ~~-urrsf+rf.:rfelcr:

fI"J.. uI)adi affix g, added to the roots

-m, ~;~etc. See g; (4).

srft;1!~!{ii1rd(~ I mTI ~dU ~ ~~ ~ ~ffr \I Cfdl ~ff(: ~UiX!~ii1 . -~ I 1fIa:'!'ffi '~~li~~i!~ II Uvvata on V. Pr. 1. 125.


tad. affix - ~ in the sense of !f..(UJ added to the words rn: and ~ before which ~ is changed into 'i. e.g. ffclt<l:, ~: cL P.V. 2.54, 55; the tad. affix aliI:. (8l') is added to the words ending in ;ft<{ to mean a section e.g. fu:;ftciT liFT: d. Kas. on P.V. 3.48. sharpness of nasalization at the time' of nouncing the anqsvara and fifth letters recommended by tyayana. e.g. al~~....(~"lC'{:, ~~. d. T. Pro XVII. 1. the prothe Sai;:p.ijij-

augment q: added ( 1) to the -rQol ~ in the form ~, the pot. -pass. part. of ~ cf. P.llI. 1.132; (2) to the short vowel at the end of a root before a krt affi.x marked with the mute letter It. e,g. arllfftrn:., ~ cf. p. VI. 1.71; (3) to a short vowel before ~ - if there be close pro~imity (~ffi) between the two e g. ~fc't, ~; d. P. VI. I.73; (4) to the indec1inables ali .and liT as also to a long vowel be:fore~, e.g. ~<j'fc't,fcrql~,d. P. VI. 1.74. 75; (5) to a long vowel optiona1ly~ if it is at the end of a word, e.g .. ~~lIT, ~~T~, cf. p. VI. 1.76; (7) to the letter "'( at the end of a word before ~. e.g. ~"ll""'?, d. P. VIII. 3.3I.

~ a very small class of words headed by the word g,~ to which the taddhita affix iR'i ( ~) is added in the sense of possesssion ( liw'l ). The affix iR'i is optional . and the other affixes ~, ~ and If''Q are also added; e.g. g~:, il;cfr, ilffi:, ~; similarly ~~: etc.; cf"Kas. on P. V. 2.1I7.

for the last vowel of the word 8l'~ so as to make it declinable like words marked witli the mute letter '!R; ( 2) common term for the krt affixes q,~ and 1fi!.. pr.escribed in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity; the tad. affixes~<i, and u are seen placed after words ending in Q: in Vedic Literature before which the affix l! is elided; e.g. W:, ~; d. Kas. on P. V. 3.59 .



~~a rule prescribing the addition of the augment q:; e g. ~: ~~(lii~lgr;'1~9; 1ifu P. VIII. 2.2 See tl~. ~'@{ roots such as the root ~ and, the like, which have their vowel of the reduplicative syll:,'lble leng thened as seen mostly in Vedic. Literature; e.g. 1rJpn<!:, +rfllinii1:, !{lI:TT( etc.; ct. Kas. on P. VI. 1.7.

~ extrem~

krt affix il"\ of the infinitive ( 1) added to a root optionally with ~ when the root refers to an action for the purpose of which another action is mentioned by the principal verb; e.g. m~ ~fu or m~ j:f~ffi; cf. Kas: on P. III. 3.II; ( 2) added to a root co~nected with another root in the sense of desire provided both have the same subject; e.g., ~m m'fg~; d. P. III. 3.158; (3) added to a root connected with the words <!il~, ~1T<i, or ~<ilI; e.g. ~ <TIarg+!:., etc. ct. P. III. 3. 167; ( 4) added to any root which is connected with the roots ~, l:['i., ~, ~, ~, \<L, ~<I., ~, ~ ~ and iJ~ or its synonym, as al~o with 8l'i!I+{, or its synonym; e.g. ~Tfu .oll'fg"\, lICfm ~~, iilm oll'fg~, are <TIarg~, q<jfa: ~; ct. Kiis on P.

tad. affix t!, taking the fern. affix ( 1) added to a root optionally with 8l'l!i (~) in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity, the word so formed having the last vowel acute; e;g. 'lIcTf 9iT(C!i:; ilGf {TVfi:; ct. P. III. I.I33; ( 2) prescribed in the sense of 'deserving one' optionally along with the pot. pass. part. affixes; e.g. '1'1'1'1:, (g' 9i"IUliT ~l, '19'F('!iiliT ~,
~ (~),

~ ,a


~ ~. CfT~T,

cr&:rfi<:rr <l'T;

cf. Kas. on P. III. 3.169.

word ending in the affix <r'i. and hence .gettil1g the -guI)a vowel ( i.e. al) substituted for the final vowel 51\. before the SarvanamastMna (i.e. the first five) case affixes; d. Q%d' 8l'T~~i't lI~lim-, M. Bh. on VIr. 1.96.


III. 4. 65, 66.


~~ augment 'Q ( 1) added to the affix .

8l"I1 substituted for the ~ of ~ and

similar in articulation; savarI)a; cf. R. T. 168.

.treatment of a word as ending with the affix li"i. although, in fact, it does not so end; e.g. the word sfitg; cf. ~~~:; P. VII. 1.95; cf. also ~~liT'ICfiI~: mT milT' M. ~ "" Bh. on VII. 1.95 Vart. 10.

~ (t) short term (3T~m) for the dental consonants Q, ~, l.\., ~ and WI:. d: P. I. 1.69; (:i) personal-ending substituted for fu in the 2rid pers. imper; sing. Parasmaipada

G~; e.g. ~ffii1:,

~ (~)

tlT4Cfc:i:, cf. P. IV.

3.23; (2) added to the tad. affix applied to the word ~ in the Sai~ika senses; e.g. :m~:

d. P. IV.


having got the same substratum; denoting ultimately the .same object; expressed in the same case i the same as samanadhikaral}.a

~ a class of words to which the taddhita affix ~ is added in the four senses given in P. IV. 2.67 to 70; e.g. quI~:, ~:, ~: etc.; cf. Kas on P. IV. 3.80.





the third consonants out of the class consonants ;cr<lq:<TI1.I ; viz: <1:., ~, ~, it and '!.; cf. <I"lT Q;<TI<jl~PH q9iIllT aIT!!CllRl'FIcr::il~ ~L Bli. on P. 1. I.g. "

~R-1li'R1 called also QCft<llm!j~qWrrB as preFcribed by P. II. 1.30-35; e.g.

So~ayarya and

Q:cl1l.jlwniJ P. 1.


and the Maha-


the third case; affixes of the "!<:( (! ) krt affix Q; with the aciite third case (instIUmental case or accent on the first vowel of the QCftl.jlT9~'ffi) which are placed (I) word formed by its application, after nouns in the sense of an inapplied to any root in the sense of strument or an agent provided the , an agent' provided the "agent is agent is 110t expre:;sed by the perhabituated to do a thing, or has his :;0nal-endilig of the root; e.g. itCfG:%ii nature to do it, or does it well; e;g. ~i'l0I:., ~~;:H fuiif~; cf, P. III. 3- I 8; crFctm ;;'f<'[{1191?Ji(; '2:OSP-mR: ~rf.hnl.ji'll " ( 2) after nouns c-:mnected with Hr, +!cr~Q cr"l~~OI:., Cfi;:[T '-F.~; cf. Kas. on nouns meaning defective limbs, P. III. 2.1.)5; words ending with nouns forming tbe object of ~ with ~ govern the noun connected with 1:!<J:. as also nouns meaning ~g; or a them in the accusative case; (2) thing c:pa ble of producing a result; 1 the term ~, used as a short term e.g. ~UT t!~Tmr:, aIPtllJT ~jtJl:. +11'31"T ( q!l1rl~) standing for hrt affixes $lT;:ft~, T9'1.P-1T <I;a:, ci. Kas. on P. II. beginning 'sith those prescribed by 3.I9, 23; (3) optionally witb the the rule i?2:: ;aQ:;(jF!~O (P. III. 2.124) ablative after nouns meaning quaand ending with the affix lli( ( in P. lity. and optionally with the geniIII. 3.69.); cf. Kas. on P. III. 469. tive after prn.n0l111S in the sense of ~i'Rifl<r~Tfu~l<F<i called also W'11{1.j~: mfu~g, when the word ~g; is actually m(f<l and hence representing used e.g. qrfU5t~;:r ff'ffi: or qrfiJs'ti!~:; possibly all the different branches ~;:r ~.'fT' or ~ ~<l1:!fu; it is observed or SaklJiis of the ~6Uf<l:~i~?:, which is by the Varttikakara that when the not attributed definitely "CO a partiword ~ or its synonym is used in cular author but is supposed to a sentencE, a pronoun is put in any" haVe been revised from time to case in apposition to that word i e. time and taught by various acaryas W:!1 or its synonym -e.g. ~ii f.!fl'I~<'i, fci; who were the followers of tbe f.1fl1~ etc.; cf. KiiS. on P. II. 3 25, Taittiriya Sakba. The work is divid 27; ( 4 ) optionally after nOuns ed into two main parts, each of connected with the words 'l"l<;f1, fii'fT, whicll is further divided into twelve <lTiil, after the words ffilCfi, ~q, as sections c311ed adbyayas, and disalso after 'F, aIfi:i'lCfi and their synocusses the "cuiom topics such as nyms; e.g. 'l"l.it9~<'f etc. ~~ ff'ffi:, letters and their propf.rtirs, accents, ~11{ !lTIi~, ~~: >TRIo:; cf. Kas. on p. <, euphonic changes and the like, just n. 3.3 2 , 33, 35, 44; (5) optionally as the oth('r Pratisakhya work. It with the locative case after nouns is believed tInt Vararuci, Mahi~eya m~aniDg constellation when the tad. and AtreY;l wrcte Bha~yas on the affix after them has been elided; Taittiriya Pratisakhya, but at pree.g. ~Uf *I.ITffrWr ~ur 9:<'!u<m: lVIahasent, ollIy two important commentQ bbarata; d. P. II. 3-45; (6) opary works on it are available (a) tionally with the genitive case after the Tribha~yaratna " based upon words connected with g<il.l or its the three Bha~yas mentioned above synonyms; e.g, g<?-!l' itcr?:~<'f, g~ ~9as the title shows, written by ~~; cf. P. II. 3.72.

(b) the' Vaidika-.I bharaI),a written by GopiHayajvan. I For details see Introduction to I , Taittitiya Pratisakhya ' ed. Govt. I, Oriental Library Series, Mysore..



a kind of ~lto, or a vowel with a circumflex accent which follows un acute-accented vowel characterized by a vagraha i,e. coming at the end of the first member of a compouGd; e.g. i1rqnlFrTff ~crfufnm- <l~Sq~ Here the vowel a:r of q follo\ving upon the avagraha is called'hltfcml1~Ro; c~; a-a:q!l~~uf9ul1: V. Pr. L TI8.

" I

a class of words beaded by -the word m~1jre-, the taddhita affix in the sepse of ~"l:. ( grandchild) placed after which is not elided by p. II. 4.60; e;g. ~~: fqm, m<i90r<1<'f: ~:; Ras. on P. II. 46r. tad. affix til added to the words ffi. and ~rR showing time, as also to the word WI in Vedic Literature; e.g. ~~<'f~,~, q{(Rt<!, ~ (where <T is eJided); cf. Kas. on P. IV. 3.23.




%~~ a kind of svarita or circumflex-accented vowel, which follows an acute accented vowel; with the intervention of a consonant between the acute accented vowel and the circumflex vowel which (vowel) originally was grave. e.g. ~~, ~~, lr~, 9iT~; here the vowel T.l; is froO<j:sl'1~: ct. ~U CI.j:sli!~~:sl<,!:, V. Pr. T. II7. "

tad. affix (if, added to the word optionally with the" affixes oil!!. and @ before which ifCf is changed to 't; e.g. ~e:{, 'iOi'l, <'lofti'l; cf. P. V. 4. 30 Va.t. 6.

(I) tad. affix ~ standing for t<l~ and @.tI. which see below; (2) a technical term for ~ (a suffix or a termination) in the Jainendra VyakaraI)a.

~ tad. affix ~ added in the 8ai!?ika

~"l tad. affix ~~ applied in the sense

of oil to a word meaning the substance- from which oil is extracted; e.g. ~~ ~~qa-~; cf. fFl'iilZ ~ ~~~, KM. onP. V. 2.2g.
~)&'l'l:q~a- a southern :grammarian who has written a gloss called SJ'iil:aon the Siddhantakaumudi of Bhat{oji Djk~ita.

senses to the words ~OlT, q~liI. and ~~t{; e. g. 1lJf~T~:, qr~:, trnW'!:, ~T&1UT[fuI<f,T cf. P. IV. 2. S8.

tad. affix


added to the words

'31T and

aiM- in" the senses 'near'

-and ' above' respectively; cf. qcffi~~q-tI.!9iT, (f~i:/~l'IfI:WlCfiT, ct. Kas. on P. V. 2.34.
~fG: a term used for the class of

~" krt affixffrla_ in the sense of the infinitive (-g) seen in Vedic Literature; e.g. ~:tRrm'qfulr:. The word ending with iffll<i becomes an inde clinable.

pronouns headed by t<iit, which are eight viz. ~<!(, o~, <Tt\., Q;(fC\., aja:~. Il.~, T.l;9i and ~; cf. P. 1. 1.74, 1. 2. 72, III. 2. 60, VII. 2. 102. ~~~ a specific operation pre::cribed for the pronouns headed by C'!~, e. g. the substitution of a:r for , the final letter; cf. ~~fcl~r 'Of ~:jJ'1<r., M. Bh; on P. 1.r. 27 Viil't.6. "

J1~i~ a root belonging to the g~ class of roots ( sixth conjugation) which take the vikaraI)a aI (:a- )

causing no gUI)a or vrddhi substitute f~r the vowel of the root.

~, tad. affix ~ 't I) added a few,': specified. indeclinabl~s in the Sai!1ika senses; e. g. a:r11~:, ~; etc. ; cf. Kas. on IV. z. 104; ( z) added to the indeclinables ~+re" &ttl. and J!:!11. optionally along with ~ and 0; e.g. J!:!~<r:., J!:!~cr<i~, WCfRaCfi<f,; cf. Kas. on P. IV. 2. 105.

mute syllable ~ prefixed to them in the Dh1itupatha; e. g. ~+!, .l1fof;;rl1~; (2) a term signifying the plural number; cf. ilT ~ it ~';f ~il'iffi~ V. Pr. II. 3.

is found used in connection with a Bahuvrihi compound Irlade up of three words; cf. the term ~~ 'Ifi$ft~ ..
~ (I) a term usually used in con-


so, being the contribution of the reputed triad of Grammarians.

~ repeated thrice, occurring thrice;

a common term for the krt affixes ~ and ~ . ( P: 111. 2, 181-!86) in case the vowel if of ~"Sj is looked upon as equiv;:,lmt to an augment, as also for the' Ul;'ladi affix ~~ and the tad. affixes 'Sf and ';;~ (P. IV. . 2,51 and V. 3.IO); the tad. affix"Sj is added in the sense of tl~or coilection to the word e. g. ii);;u; d. Kas. on P. IV. 2.51.

lit. triad; a term used in the Mahabh1i!1ya in connection with the Vibhakti affixes i.e. case en9ings and personal endings which are in groups of three; cf. ~ ~ M. Bh.on P. 1,1,38; cf. alsl) ~f'i:j ~ ~ ~~ew ~1q: M. Bh. on P. I. 4.10I; cf. also M. Bh. on II. 2.23, V. I. 52, V. 1.58.




lit. triad,the three Vedas E.,gveda, Yajurveda and the Samaveda, whleh are believed to be of divine origin. The Agama and the smrti compositions, however, are believed to be in continuous existence ( liCfli[Tm~fcr<l Cf~'hlFff~) by tradition which, if broken, is restored by means of the seed which never perishes. cpo Yak. pad. I. 133.

~ lit. three kaI).das or books of Vakyapadiya, the Agama or BrahmakaQQa, the VakyakaQQa and the Padaka1;,lQa. Helaraja at the end of his Prakifi:)aprakasa pays homage to Bhartrhari by saying
"~~rf+rrft ~q ~utT ffltJ<tr ~oT I m:~ B~~ ~ i{lI: II"

f:;rcr-,.:ft the three views regarding the

interpretation of the negative particle occurring in a compound (of course changed into ~i or ~), the compound being understood as \'ffl~t<lq1:TTil or 8F'lItro~1:TTiiI cpo Yak. pad. III. 14. 254. fP. also f'cfiSI1:TT<iTs<l tll1Tij; I 'ftj\:qi'{l~; I ...81~Ifc{r!f>rI:TTiic ~uN +tFc\ 6<ifu I ... tt4qcul:b:r~ +tfcrc "<ire 1 ( M. Bh. on P. II. 2.6 )

nection with the last three Padas (ch. VIIi. 2, VIII. 3 and VIII. .4) of Panini's Astadhyayi, the rules in which are not valid by convention to rules in the first seven chapters and a quarter, as a'so a later rule in which (the Tripadi) is not valid to an earlier one; ct. ~~~<r:. P. VIII. 2.1 ; (2) The word according to Vardhamana, in GaJ}.aratnamahodadhi refers to Bhartrhari'sMahabh1i!1yadipika, on threePadas of 1st. adhyaya, of which only seven Ahnikas have been published so far. HeUiraja at the end of his commentary on Vakyapadiya, calls it Tripadi. (3) name vf a critical treatise on PaQini's grammar ( "The Tripadi" f written ,by Dr. H. E. Buiskool.
~H~ name of a commentary on

a' term used in the Pratisakhya works in respect of a word which is repeated in the krama and other artificial recitations. . ftlJ'lCfiVfl4 son of Vaidyanatha who wrote a small treatise on karakas

RtJ'l:q"'a scholar of grammar who has written a small work named aro<i<i~Rl on the uses of indeclinables

~~ a -grammarian who has

written a gloss on Katantrapaiijika, on the Kiitantrasiitravrtti of Durgasimha. He is quoted by Bopadeva and Vitthala.
fu~ pupil' of

Vardhamana who wrote a gloss called 'qf~~a' on the, Katantra-vrtti. Paribha!1endusel<hara written by Lak!1minrsimha in the 18th century.

f=;f~ name of a commentary on the

before the tad. affix ~r. ~~fu ~~r; , fu~ made up of a collection of three d. V. Pro V. 9 d padas or words; the war is used ,& (I) krt affix f'fii, always having the in connection with a ~k or a pore tad" affix +lQ'.. (:jf) added to it, apption of the kramapatha; d.<i<iR'n lied to the roots marked with the '~ f<jqc::q:!!fu T. Pr. 1.61. The word

tad. affix termed Vibhakti added "' to pronouns excepting m; and others, i . i and to the words ~ and fcli'f., when 'I the)' end with the loco case termination; e. g. ~~, a;l, ~;r etc.; CLI ~l. ~a_me of ~ commenta:y on the Kas. on P. V. I. la, 14. Panbbal.lendusekhara wntten by . _ Raghavendracarya Gajendragadkar, <;IT tad. affix SIT in the sense of somea resident of Satara and a pupil of thing donated, as also to the wgrds i NilakaQthasastri Thatte. He lived ~Cf, +!~llli, ~lf, s.~ and m<l", ending in in the second half of the eighteenth the accusative or the locative case; I and first half of the nineteenth e. g. m~ .rom, ~Cj'Sfr <itlm; cf. Kiis. century and wrote commentaries on on P. .V. 4.55,56. There is :lvagraha : important grammar works. . I

the TaittiIiya Pratisakhya written by Somayarya. The commentary is said to have beeD based on the three Bh8.1.1ya works attributed to the three ancient Vedic scholarsVararuci,'Mahi!1eya ar.d Atreya.

~ one of the seven principal Vedic

fim'r:;t consisting of three moras or matI as. The protracted or t9a vowels are said to consist of three ruatras as contrasted with the short , and long vowels whidl respectively consist of one arid two mail as; d. Kas. on P. 1. 2.27.

metres. It has four padas of eleven letters each. It has further varieties like a:rf+mTR.ufi" ( la, 10, I2, 12), fcfu~ ~T (10, la, 9, II), fcf\:l~~r (II, II, II, 8), ~ (8, I2, 12, 12 ), +{l:7t~rm 12, 12, 8, 12), :aqiWQt.


(12, 12, I2, 8), ~ ~rm (8, 8, II, 8, 8) and so on. cpo E-kpr atiSakhya XVI. 42-49.

~ all the three times, past, present and future ;cf. SIll: ~: l;iilTiffi: f~<r:., ~Cf ~~ I ~(tf ~OJJI Uvvatabhasya on V. Pr. I. IS. . . lrq~ a rule oran operation prescri1 bed by PaQini in' the last three quarters of his A!1tadhyayi. See. f.!ql<{t above.

~r.r (I) the famOl~s three anCient

. .

grammarians PaQini (the author of the Siitras), Katyayana (the author of the Varttikas), a.n,d Pataiijali (the author of the Mahiibh1i~ya;) ( 2 ) the grammar of PiiJ}.ini, called

195 194
~g tad. affix :q<r,. in .the sense of 1I'!il\

) augment


to the root

'" ~~

a collection of thI'e~ words (to express the snme sense); cf.. 3Jfrt '<1 ~~~ q >rififitffl I 3R~i. aRtfT/frG:. 3R~T ftiTr.@r M. Ell. onIII. I.44; d. also M. Bh. on P. I. 4.74, IV. I.88, IV. 2.60 etc. use of the three accents acute, grave and circumflex at the time of' the recital of the Veda' ~<!: ~<ro 1:/;q ~~9~: d. ''<1ri'!ci~'!l<{tqt ~'fT~ arr~<:fTiij+r..1 ~+r.., ~Kas. on P. V. I. 124. d. also ~~~cr<i q ~tffl trn <it <tt"l': I ~~q~ulf'C/Tij~ ~rrq'i!f~ I M. Bh. on P. 1. -2.JI.

( manner) added to the pronouns

~, and f'li<I:, the words ending in

a:r(l of the fourth conjugation Paras.



(I) second consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties JtfffiI~~lq, ~Ei'tll, f<t~(1'1illOt'f and l1lHlIlUR'f; (2) augment ~ ( ~) added to the .words"l~,. 'Iiftt, ~ and "'Ii'!\. before the PiiraI)a affix ~. e.g. "l'U1llt '!3Uf: "l'!J:, 1jifu:or:, 'i:ig~:; d. IGis. on P. V. 2.51; (3) substitute for the consonant I!. of sni{ before any COn!ionant except a nasal, and a' semivowel as also for the consonant ~ of ~:qT preceded by the preposition a<t; d. P. VHf. 2.35, VIII. 4.6r.

~:or<r,.. 'Ii~

:qil;. becoming indeclinables; d. P. V. 3. 2 4, 25.


before the affixes of the aorist. e.g. d. P. VII. 4. 1 7. affix til! in the sense of favourable for' (eWe ~il;.) added to the words ~ and a:r~; e.g. ~alJT <{~: I a:rFtial!T I d. Klis. on P. V. 1.8.

~~ tad.

~<?i, personal ending :or substituted for

m'!.. of the 2nd pefs. sing. Parasmaipada in the perfect tense as also in the present tense in specific cases; ct. P. III. 4.82, 83, 84.

personal ending of the 2nd pers. dual Parasmaipada, which is substituted for ~ of the lakara affixes;

ct. P. IlL 4.78 .



(a word) having three vowels or syllables in it; 511"l, or :;!j'i!'!i;' d. iEl~:;lI~<I ~fa 'i=m~+r.. cf. M. Bh . on VIII. 4.6. a grammarian of the nineteenth century, who resided at Wai in Satara District and wrote a commentary on the Paribha~enduse khara which is named ;;!j.<'r after the writer.

~ (I) person~l-ending

~~ a commentary on the Paribha$endusekhar by




cq tad. affix ('fin the sense of duty

nature or essence, prescribed optio~~ ally with the affix C!~ (ffi); e.g. "1.1tR9<I:, <TItif<r., ."1Jtfffi, maT; d ~ mCffi'lCf~ P. V. LIIg, also d. i:'ffiit" fJUf9"'1~ P. VI. 3.35 Vart. 10.

of the 2ndpers. pl. Parasmaipada, substituted for the ~ of the ten lakara affixes' ( 2) substitute (:q~) for the 2nd per!? s:ng. personal ending m'!.. in the perfect tense; (3) u:t;ladi affix (:q~) added to the r60ts !:fT, [, SK. etc. e g. t:/T:or:, a't~:, etc.; ct. UQadi Siitra 1I. 7; ( 4) U Qadi affix (<f:q-if..) added to the roots ~'~~, ;:fT etc.; eg.ff:or:, ~g, ;:ft:or: etc. d. UQadi Siitra II. 2; ( 5 ) u:t;llidi affix (:orrr.) added to tht:l roots \3~, ~,Il:., 'IT and::n. e.g. altg:, ~ etc. cf. U.I)3.di Siitra II.. 4; (6) a technical term for the term a:r<='l'& or the reduplicate syllables of PaQini (ct. air "1+<I~<I: P. VI. r.5), used in the Jainendra VyakaraQa. -

(I) tad. affix "IT in the sense of question or reason (~g) added to the pronoun ~ in Vedic Literature: e.g. '!i'.lf ~ "lTBif..; d. WiS. on p. V. 3.26; ( 2) tad. affix :qr (:qi~ according to paQ.ini) which gets caesura or avagraha after >wi, rrf, Fct1!f, . r{11 and ::ng; e.g. 'lIM~R1 >It<l::O:ifT, ~~fu rrfS:qT etc.; d. Vaj. PI'. V. 12 ; ( 3) tad. affix :q'j~ in the sense of r{<l added to the words }ft'i, If.r, FlJtf and !{11 in Vedic Literature, e.g. 'ci m<'f~TT I{.cf:ifT f<tJtf~:ifT; d. Kiis. on P. V. 3.Il1; (4) tad. 'dffix :ql~ in the seDse of manner (l191H) added to f<nif, pronouns excepting those headed by rn:, 'and the word CiTs;' e.g. ~cf:qT, d. P. V. 3.23. . tad. affix

<{ third consonant of the dental class of conS0nants possessed of the properties qT<n~ii<nq, ~'l B<lQ'fiU6t9 and ~Uffi; (2) consonant it. substituted for the' final letter of nouns ending wi th the affix <l~ as also for the final letter of ~, I$i and "1<l:gi( provided the final letter is at the end of a pada ; e.g. fctW<lT<I:etc.; cf. Kas. on P. VIII. 2.72; (3) consonant a: substituted for the final fr of " "roots excepting the root ~, before the personal ending fa'!.. of the third pers. sing.; e.g. a:r'Of~it. OT<ll~; d. P.


(I) the consonant ;::, the vowel a:r being added for facility of utterance or use; (2) a technical term used in the Jainendra VyakaraI;la for the term amij~ in the grammar of PaI)ini. a fault of pronunciation where the letters are uttered indistinct (aT~~). tad. affix a:fl prescribed optionally and l1T;;f in the sense of measlfre (5I111UT), with ~ ( ~ ) to be added further to form the fern. base e.g. :oJI!,!&Wl:., :;jl~~il, :oJl~I'i<I:, :;Jf!,!&flf, ct. P. V. 2.37 and IV. LI5; ?:flT.!'." is added optionally along with 6l0l. as also with irift1. al:td 111;;r to the words ~ and mC!"(. e.g. ~~~,
~ith ~~


See :orr.

~~ krt affix :q'!i added to theJoot tr

~ krt affix ~'l" in the sense' of the

to sing', in the sense of agent provided he is skilled; e.g. 'ITl!J9i:. d. P. III. 1.146. '
~~ tad. affix \!f added to the numerals

personal ending of the 2nd pers. sing. A.tmanepada, substituted for ~ of the lakara affixes.


potential pass. part. in Vedic Literac tu re ; e.g. '!itct l[iEt: I <!i<1 Oll<r.; also ct. Kas. on p. III. 4.14; d. also ~~ <IT '<1 Cfit'lf R. V. IX. 47.2.
~ tad. affix t'f before which there is

ending in if.. in Vedic Literature; e.g. tm:or:, ~'IR:or:, lfoh:r<!Tf.r tm:orTr.r mr~. d. P. V. 2.50. '



substituted for

ob::erved the caesura or avagraha in the recital of the Padapa~ha. ~.g. ~<l~Rr ~S~<J:..I d. V. PI'. V. g.

~ of the 2nd pers. pI. of the imperac

~+r (THIEM.E, PAUL) a souQd schoiar of the present day, well versed in Sanskrit Grammar and Vedic Literature, who has written a cl:itical treatise named" PaQinL and the Veda. "

tive Parasmaipada in Vedic Literature, e.g. if~ for <t~; d. Kiis, on P. VII. 1.45.' '

(r) augment


to the words

qy~ ~WI,.. ~111'!il+f.., ct. P: V.

tj'i., 'liRr, 'lirerr<r and ~; see ~ above;




~ _ one of the varieties of the Vedic \

recital. It is defined as

:n11~~erT I .

~~~9iI~ I ~R.Rr ~~r.,#i~~: I anijT~T:+1.jlOJ:,

:n11~ I 3T~'qf~er~s<i


C(qOT name

<fi\UIfil~:. Com. on T. Pr.

II. 43

wrote a commentary on _ BhoJa's I th e t ongue, e.g. th e I e tt ers ;;xc...:c , '. . ' _ I "<, ' .... , 'l. grammar-work Sara3vahkal)tha~nd ff<j~ i d. ~6mm C{C'a- V. Pr. 1. bharal)a. 6g. According to PiiQini's grammar ~ a class of words headed by the ~ (long) does not exist. Accord~ word <{~ t~ which the taddhita 1 ing to ,Taittiriya Pra.tisiikh~a \ isaffix <i is added in the sense of partly dental and partly lmgual; deser;ing '; ct. ~m ;;:~: Kas.1 d. T. Pr. II. 41, whil,e q is partly on P. V. 1.66. dental and partly la!:>Ial ; d. T. Pro ~ _., II. 43; cf. ~r fulijl~T: V~ Pr. I. tij,IU<a_p:j' the maxim regarding a per76 ; d. TtlT ~f'tir~imlfTlfltlf.ttrit ~~ SOD being called an ascetic pecause P . V II . 3.7.). he has ~ staff in his hand. Patafijali refers to this maxim while comment- ~~m('fi a brilliant Vedic scholar ing on !f{l/f+!9T~s~l\ I p. VIII. 2.83 and a great reforl1!er of the nineand its Vart. 13T~i\~<ifI.~ I When , teenth century belonging to Gujarat. a greeting remark is returned there He encouraged and firmly establishwill Lot be the proia ted last vowel ed on a sound footing the study of when the remark is with regard to Vedas and VyakaraI)a and ena low-born person or a woman cr a couraged t.he study of A:;;tiidhyayi, person making a sarcastic remark. Mahiibhiil?ya and Kasika:vpti. He The teacher used tffif in arm61:1'I~ t;N 'has written Iilany works on Veda ~ 3 ~ I because be thought the and VyakaraI)a. In a major work name of the pupil was ~~~, as he called Vediingaprakiisa, intended had a dish in his. hand. for the uplift of Vediingas, he wrote small treatises in the very words tdftiqq 8uflt a class of compound words I of PiiI)ini and Patafijali, and g?t headed by the word ~'l'<r~ which them translated into Hindi. Some are not compounded as tr"lTlrR~ of them are Namika, Avyayartha, which ends in the neuter gender and UQiidiko:;;a, Akhyatika and so on. singular number; e.g. 1{f!:'flf<r~, &fer- . ~~, -mniflffiT etc.; d. Kas. on P. G:<rrqwr a Jain \\Titer who wrote a U.4.14 treatise named. ~'l'm~, an abrid~ ,pJacewhere the utterance of dental gement of Sa,kata yana's Sabdanusaletters originates; d. ~ffiiff ~: sana. S. K. on P. I. I.g.

~~ ifRP:fUI' a

:. grammarIan

. I ~~formed at the the teeth,the tip of produced at dental; \:ho teeth by

of ,a commentary on KOI)Qabhatta's VaiyiikaraI)abhii~a I)asara, written by a grammarian named Harivallabha.

were relatives; ct.


'<fr+lin 19 l(T~<itIJ~

erT ~m ~: M. Bh. on P.

If. 3.96.

~qorr name of a commentary on the

Sabdakaustubha, written by Mannudeva or :tVlantudev..l of the nineteenth century. - ~ a , name given to the treatise on grammar written by o<rTEl'lT't which consisted of 10 chapters; d, ~~ ~<iTEl'l'cft<r'1. Kas. on P. V. 1.58. The \ word also means students reading the work 'W'l\; cf. <{~l!ir ~r~w.thn:, Kas. on P. IV. 2.65.
G:~ ( I) a section of g,rammatical


~T~~ lit. son of a female descendant of 1{~; name given to Pal)ini who was the son of <{T!tIT, a female de-

scendant of



~~: ~fl!iT


,1\1~ 'cfi"licr Pal). Sik. 56; cf. also B~ 13cflfG:T1WT a:r!tIT9:liR<! QTfuJ;r: M.Bh.

on P. 1.
~Iitf..\m a




JaiD' grammarian, who wrote a small grammar treatise named ~oa:~UJ.

.... f


q<=di(4\:q the letters tI:., 2l., 1\".., " and~; cf. @i(J'lqtij a<iiT~: R. Pro 1. Ig. The ~k. PratWikhya calls \. (~) also <{iid 't18t;q.

a Jain scholar who has written a grammar treatise' on the Sarasvata Gramm.1r called trT~.:rft~T. the Mugdha~odha Vyaka'raI)a Bopadeva.

~ also ,~ or ~lWl the dentolabial letter cr.; ct. a1m~

~3f writer of a commentary on


treatises dealing with the ten conjugations of roots. e,g~ the i:(liiRfrk{ . a Class of words headed by first section of the second part the word ?J+rfu to which the tadd('3''6tr~) of the Siddhanta Katihita affix ~ is added without any mudi; (2) name 'If the dhiitupa:tha cbange of sense; -e.g. GJ+!;:fi<J~, aTI61ft;q: of PaI)ini which gives ten classes cf. Ka~. on P. V. 3.1I6. of roots; d. ~~ <{qf.fOftqf<:'l'ftm ~ilNyiisa all I. 3.I. \ 'i:('R!1J~ explained by the commentators on the Pratisakhya works as i~ the ten classes or conjuga- i ( firmness) or <fi~m (hardness,) and tions of roots; ~'t. was a term for I given as a, characteristic of the acute !:'fTg; (root) in some ancient gramor ;:!GJ'Q' tone; d.m<rrm ~~ mar works. ~<m~~:9i{rfUT ~~<r, T. Pr. XXII. g, quoted in the Mah,iibhal?ya on P. 1.. a short. treatise. on the 2.29, where 1{RlU1.j is explained as roots belonging to more than one ~~ GJ~aT ~r I conjugation; the name of the author is not giv,en. ~~m~ a class of words headed by the word OO+m: which; although G:l tad. affix named' vibhakti' app~,they are tatpuru:;;a compounds, lied to the words Blf, Q;<fi, arr<!, ~,' retain the accenls of the first c:m:., o(f. and ~OJ:, in the'locative case; member of the compound i cf. 'P. e.g. tlW, <{emT, emf; ct. Kas. on P. VI. 2.42. V. 3.15, Ig, 20, 21. '\ ~ a technical term in the J ainendra G:l~1<iOT name, 'by which o<l~, . the Vyiikaral)'a for the term lIlJ:~ used author of the grammar work ~ by P1igini. is referred to. The word <{T~/<IU1 indicates that o1.jTf~ w'as a descendant ~ a potency by virtue of which of <{~, and, as PaQini is called <{T~, . 'space limitations are put upon thin~s in daily affairs cpo Viik. pad. critics say that Pa~ini and Vy1i.4i

~ tad. affix called fcr+TRn, applied to CR.. and ~OJ:, in the sense of the .locative case. e.g. OGJ<fi'l., ~i ct. P. V. 3.18, I9.'



- III. 6.3. /cp. ~crf tflllro mCfI1c'lfu~: ~lfuqf<t1iiT~~:

mrn:{ti~rtc::flifa ~m-!fI'1W! 'tWiN-11m <It


~Uj: B q<{T~t'I~tc::~qqHlyqr f.Wl~rrcro:n it~1 ~mtmnC'Qt f?.fiR~~ I (~<i>J.)

~~~ a w Jrd den )ting a

l1;:i\, and a:rfuffiii, the throbbing ( 1{tfH J of the latter and latter tone 'leads to the' perception iJf the former and former one ~ d. ~llf G.lfa:mq~'f: T. Pr. XXIII. ~5.


dire:tio n such as l{'f, =3~{ and the}ike, used as a substantive. e,g. t'fl t/T+rm:., or showing the direCtion of another thing being its adjective, e.g. ~11~r: rrrT; d. Kas. on P. II. 3. 2 9.

~ long; a term used in ccrinectioll

with the lengthened tone of a vowel described to be dvimatra as contrasted with ;.;~ having one malra and tCf having three matras; d. fmfCfT~ cttE'r: V. Pr. 1. 35, V. Pr. 1. 57, also 6i~:';~~~tCf: P. 1.2.27.
-let 1"4 I~

ft{cfg+ffii the

Bahuvrihi compouud prescribed by the rule ~i1T+TR;:CRW;, e.g. ~mT ( north-east) or ~q~11T ( north-west); d. HCf61lT8: fu!qfu!: B!ffiI:, Kas. on P. 1. 1.28. sixth Eection of the third 1iil06 ofVakyapadiya, which deals with the notion of space. "

~~~ given to the

. gramnlatical operatlOn where a short vowel is tumed into a IMg one, a .rule of grammar pre~cribing the lengthening of a short vowel.

~ a technical terfu of Jain~ndra gram, mar corresponding to ~:a of paQini. d. a:rPt-OC~: I Jain. Sii. I.I.hS. ~:f~1! a word, or words whose case

~~ a class of words headed by the

word f<t~ to wh:ch the tad. affix <I, (~) is added in the sense or ' produced therein' (0"1 <19:), e.g. fctf~ <lcf Vt~'1i{" similarly Cj4~1l:., i[O'l: etc. ; ct. Kiis on P. IV. 354.

affixes can be syntactically con nected only with some difficulty; cf. <I1i>ft~ B't~q~alt: ~1W1t(, ~"l,1 ~'II'W'lT'i:ft

Bf?!:!f:U~: a:r~:U~!il a1i?m~~:




g s;:f~eFct+fffit~qc::rf.T

Kas. on P. V. 4.1I3.

~lJ, before which

tad. affix added to the word +Pl'l is changed to 11\l'li!..; e.g. 11T1:1:jfrc::i1 =3'~r<ifa; cf. 111:<1 li"'~ Vtilfll. :;:u~mi. 1v1.Bh. on IV. 3. 6::>. conjugation, hea.ded by the root
~ ( ~fa), called also c{T"<I~Tfct cf.

ft(qtf~ a class of roots of the fuurth


produced by an incomplete contact of the <i\{UJ; the term is applied to the phonetic element ~ which is due to the incomplete contact of the org'an at the production of the letter ~; d. s;:~'i!~ f,t~'1;; Pal)Sik~a 5.


a technical term in the J ainendra Vyakarat;la for c{Tq ( long vowel) in Pat;lini's grammar. '

~s:r~t a commentary on CfH:<iqg::{~ by


~~~~ (I) a grammar work on DurgaslIhha's commelltatyon Katantrasutras; (2) Srivallabhavacanaca[ya on Haimalingallusasana, composed around ;:718 A.D. ,
~ the famous cummentator of the . Katantra siitras, whose Vrtti on the siitras is the most popular one. I t is called ~~!iifu or <i\~'lfu,


explained as <:~ or throbbing in utterance. Out of the seven fivaras or yamas ~!, q:!fl1, f~q, tr&T<r,

or cWrfMT'lf'G also. A work on Parischolar of the I2th or the I3 t h bhafJ3s named tfRmqT'J,fu, in which century. Paribha!?as are explained and established as based on the Katantra ~~i!~:ffi~~ a grammar work on the Vyakarat;la siitras, is attributed to formation of difficult words attria Durgasirhha. It is doubtful whether buted t~ ~~ or Bcfu~. this commentator Durgasirhha is the same as Durgiidirya, the famous ~~ name of a coml,nentary by , Kesavadatta-Sarm-an on the grama commentator of Yaska's Nirukta. mar work named 'ffi'1'JH6T{. There is a legend that Durgasimha . was the brother of Vikramaditya, ?'Gj:=~ a grammarian who wrote a ~ "'I ... 1.. the founder of the Vikrama Era. treatise on grammar ~<(C<jf'fi{1ll, Besides the gloss' OIl the Katat'ltra named after him. Besides this siitras, some grammar works such treatise, he has written. commentaras a gloss on the Ut;liidi Sutras, a ies on Nagesa's Laghumafiju!?a and gloss (cV'G) on Kalapa-VyakaraJ).a Paribhii!?endusekhara. Siitras, a commentary on Karakas named ~~1ii{t.r, Namaliilgiinu- ~a name of a grammarian who is said to have written a work on sasana and Paribha~avrtti are ,asgrammar named Sabdavatara. cribed to Durgasirhha. Some scholars believe that -the term 3l"li~ ~ sees;:~. tmr was only a title given to Durgasirhha for his profound scholarship, ~~ name of a commentary, on the Paribha~endusekhara of Nagesa, and it WaS Durgasirhha who was believed to have been written by the author of the well-known work GopaIaciii'Va Karhadkar, a gramAmarako!?a . marian of the I9th century and ~ a grammarian \vho wrote (a) attributed - to Bhimiidirya. This. a gloss on Bopadeva's Mugdhacommentary, which was' written to bodha, (b) a gloss named ~'tfil<!iT criticise the commentary WrittE!U on Kavikalpadruma and (c) gabby Vi!?I.,lusastri Bhat, was again diirl).avako!?8. criticised in reply by VifJI)usastri Bhat in his Ciccandrikii (~~1ii1). See '~~1 +12'. ~'Il'f.m:r a, grammarian who wrote a work on genders called ~ff~<l' ~ fault, objection; the word is used and also a commentary on it. in connection with a fault found witb, or objection raised against an ~ name of a grammar work exargument advanced by a writer, Plain,in g words which are difficult [ by his opponent or by the writer to derive according to rules of himself who replies it to make his PaJ).ini. The work is wIitten in the' argument well established ; cf. f.1~a style of a running commentary on CfTc{f <lifC'iq!lt ~-cnFI~m- 1VIaha. select siitras of PaJ).ini, devoted Prado on P. 1. 1.44 Viirt. 16. mainly to explain difficult formations. The a~thor of it, Sarat;ladeva, ~ tad. affix prescribed after the word was an eastern grammarian who, as in the sense of milk (~'9 ) along is evident from the number of with the affixes ~ and tIUtr optionquotations in his work, was a great ally, by the Varttikakara: e.g.





... .
a:rFci'{I<l;. I ~m~<l;. lfer 8Hlttl<l;.;" cf.

Pro II. 48, 49; cf. also ~'f~ VI. 2.14r.


P. "

~ a Jain grammarian of the 13th

century who has written a commentary .named (1;~ on the ~ :uTBif of Hemacandra. He has writ.ten many works on the Jain Agamas, of which a commentary on the Uttariidhyayanasutra can be specially mentioned. He is called ~~'iR also.


on M. Bh. IV. 2.36.


tmf<t~, KiiS. on P. n.3.56.

;;f~ ~ l!:Rr ~<:r~r q~ m;:t ~"


a class ')f words headed. by ~ to which the tad. affix <{ (6l!~) or l{+!if. ( lflif.!:qJ is added in the sense of nature (llTCf); (9 and Cl~ (Cfi) can, of course, be added optionally; e.g. ({l~, ~~I=IT,~fciOI" ~Cfi. See also

~~f.:6('l. called also tt,;;:ljQl<l: or 'i'lllQT~Cf

believed to have lived in the fifth century A.D. and written the treatise on grammar, of course, based on Piit;lini SO tras, which is known as ~~~--a<jFli\llJ or' ~<t'AAI<Iii{ltl ?ffiEif. The writer of this grammar is possibly mentioned as ~ in the usually quoted verse of Bopadeva: ~~~: <fil~fil~~ ;m~: \ ~ il~ ;;f!j~eTfct~T~:. a:'fq~ was a great Jain saint and scholar who wrote many works on Jain Agamas of which &ftlRlfu, the commentary on the mcrr"-l~f?riTIi"i'" is well-known.

~ name given to a work on grammar, presumably the same as ~

~~i1 written by \;"ljql"l"1Ki(.

See ~~e<fI'fi\OT.

~ (I) a fault of pronurtciation; cf.

!l;nr: . ~~llT"li{T:
<l1ffis~ E<i~cRMT:"



;;fl~, '111~,



etc.; d. Kas. on P. V. I.I23.


seen in use in Vedic Literature, or" Classical Literature, or in the talk of cultured people; said in connection with words which a grammarian tries to explain; d. ll"lfn Vy5.Qi Pari. Patha 68. or application of a rule of grammar in accordance with the words seen in use. See~.

~ lit. place; (I) original place of articuiation; cf. aR~ 9"T Cf:q.:f ~~-' q\<l, R. Pro XIV,S; (2) pla<;:e of
origin; '3~,!!~ii; (3) place of inferential establishment of a Paribha$a etc.IjR~:rI''!1~: ~~': Par. Sek. Pari. 2, 3; ( 4) passage of the Samhita text, cf .T. Pro I. 59.

M.Bh. on 1. I.1 Viirt. 18; (2) defectshown in connection with an expression Or explanation.

~~ name of' a commentary on

~agesa's Paribhii$endusekhara written by +!~Cf of the eighteenth century.

'{!~ taking place of an operation,

similar instance', generally quoted to explain effectively some rules or conventions laid down; cf. ~ "9T<Il1t<jftn ilmrn: B~ qTEflllffu:lmfaftfu I n~:qT iTm: ~a- ~~rcnmm M.Bh. onP. I. 1.7.

~qq~ a class of words headed by the word ~:q, the affix <n<I:. applied to" which in' the sens~ of a' statue, or applied for the formation of a' proper noun, is dropped. ~:, if~ Q~:, ~:, &~: etc; cf. Kas. on P. V. 3.~oo.

~\ tad. afflx ~~ in the sense of

slightly less, or almost similar, optionally prescribed with the affixes ~Q- and ~!j e.g. ~:, ~:, 12~~l:j: d. Kas. on P. V. 3.67.

c?t~ name of a commentary on

Nage!,?a's Laghusabdendusekhara written by +l~itr of the eighteenth century.

" W



discrepant, characterized by discrepancy ; cf. ljlilflt Cficrc::4 qU~) ID!Ttf'i'tl{ ~fr~G}lfl<T~ 3l<f g lS fct~~ SIl21'RT{ <llffiil TJ;9: M. Bh. on P. 1. 3. 1 9.

a grammarian who has written a disquisition on the philosop,hy of Vyakarat;la in verse, and added a commentary of his own on it which he has named as Bilr<:JljlfitT!ffi~.

~cU"f.~"i.. a Jain grammarian of the

, eighth century who is believed to have written a grammar 'Work, called Rl:&rrnB~n-~tliW6ii. It is likely that ~Tii~"\. is- the same as ~Cfi!f.<::-~lfIa: and the grammar work is the same as ~~~Qa:mm~, for which see ~frq.

~mR a compound word called ~

whose members are names of deities; the peculiarities of this Dvandva compound are (a) that generally there are changes at the end of the first member, by virtue, of which it appears similar to a word ending in the dual number, and (b) tbat Qoth the words retain their original accents. e.g. l{rS\1m~r, mml{.lfllJr, arnt~~Ho:!jt, m"~I~; for changes, d. P. VI. 3.25-31; ioraccent,cf. ~cr(fl~r.r 'qTiiTl'ff.:~ (f~il~rf.!) \' ll:i1lJ'iffiRr;:l!Ft:., ~;:l\f{(~tRft l{lff mM V.

(I) tad. affix in the sense of almost similar; see ~mlj\ above; ( 2) (words) current in popular use or language, although not sanctioned by rules of grammar; cf. ~~'f{: fl-::{fc!q~'ifT:~;:ij- M.Bh. on P. V~ 3.55; cf. ~~r ~2;;'lT: tll!:F~ !lmqrlilr:, Kaiyata on V. 3.55; probably Kaiyata had a difficulty in explaining the word ?~<! in the old way meaning' current in use', as many words called bad words, introduced from other languages were current at his time which he was reluctant to term as

tad. affix Ill, applied to ~ll.. in the sense of a day" when ~ is changed into a:r (arlit); e.g. 01~, cf. P.V. 3.22. Vart. 5.

om:[ tad. affix lilt:!, applied to the word ijmii when 6W<r is changed into Bj e.g. l:IIil:) cf. B~: tffi!f\rll'f+!: P. V. 3.22; cf. also t'lliTiR<i B~M ~~f.! . P.V. 3.22. Vlirt. I.

a technical term in the J ainendra VyakaraI).a for the term ~~ (the latter or the second member of a compound word) which is used in PaI)ini's grammar.

~Rt a p~pular name given to the third pada of the seventh adhyaya ofPaI).ini's A~tadhyayi as the pada begins with the Sotra itfct<fiTf'~~lfI~ CjI?;:d:Tm~~H:llmfl. P. VII 3. I. ~ a modern grammarian of the 19th century who has written a gloss on the A~~adhyayi of Pat;lini.

name of a system of grammar or a work on grammar the peculiarity of which is the omission of the ~~lf topic; cf. 01~ ~<t ~m.. I t is also the name of a metrical work On Dhiitupatha. conjugation

~rre: a class of roots headed by the root ~q:, the aorist sign ~~ aftar which gets (31) ~ substituted for it; e.g. 31~n~, aW!!ffi'[.; cf. Kiis. an P. III. 1.55. and I. 3.91.

~TfqCf. a root belonging to the fourth




of roots t itcnfctifOT); cf.



tad. affix '!l~ applied to the word in the sense of a ,day; e.g. '3li~!: cf.P; V. 3.22 Vart. 7.

indicative, suggestive; not directly capable of expressing the . sense by denotation; the nipatas and upasargas are s~id to be ' dyotaka' and not' Vacaka '. by standard gramrnariails headed by the Varttikakara; d. f.m~Tii~rfil SlTfctqFct~ P. I. 2.45 Varttika 12; .d. Kaiyata also on. the above; ct. also f.r1fRfT ~: %f'<R'il!/'l'l!/fflll:TTFrii: Vakyapadiya II. 194; 'l'RtCfT"fcIitcrnfit ~<{ (~11:TRIT:) 0<{9~1fTtl:!ij-, -<Jq~g a~ oC!i ~ com. on Vakyapadiya II. 1 90 ; cf. q~~lg;ciT1:lT<f ~tMlR'lij~'<T: .Par. Sek. on Pari. 50; ct. also ~
. ~lRT~ err'qCliT: ~ moCliT ~m ~:
Bh1i~ii Yr. on P. I. 1.37. The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka, d. ~T ofur-il'

1. 4.57; d. S. K. also on P. I. 4.57. ( 2) The word :i{e<{ is also found used in the sense of an individual object, . as opposed to the genus or generic notion (an'i\fu): cf. s{cl:ITfli'<TT;l O!!T~:, M. Bh. on P. 1. 2.64. Vart. 45. (3) The word :i{0<! is found used in the sense of Sadhana or means in Tait. Prati. cf. Q~' ~~O<!iti~'m[f~!!Tli: I :rro:::~TfUr ~T'<liiTf.! Cfu'lFl"<fT~: Tai. Pr. XXII. 8. as one thing differing from another. cpo ,,0:4 :q f[~'4 I qf~I1Tl~9'i ~fo~cmR9'i :q I o'lf[cf\<l iT'ij~91q~ ~C'I!iI!!t Ej~<i~ EjtQ;tre~ut Cl~ (Vak. pad. III. 5.5) ~~ I ~il g; m+lrr~:;j; S{C<i f.i~1 (~~. on Yak. pad. III. 2..1). The word ~U]B!l.~:U is significant; it suggests that the fourth section which is named ~<!ti\ol:!Bf!W formed. only a part of the ~UJ8!:i~~ (Vak. pad. III. 5. 1-9). and along with the missing Lak~aI,las8.JIluddesa, lhe number. of samuddesas or sections of the third KaQga was fourteen.'l'~
~~I~@C!iIfllF:uFct<r1 err ~~8g~?<! tjffi0:ST!I:~ if >rm;a: I ( cpo PUl}yaraja on Yak.

Pratisiikhya works and quoted in the Mahiibh1i~ya ;cf. ~~rff

Ejr~ ~ lle<{m :q ~Cit :q I ar+<!fByq


~ert ~I~ srcltm~ g l1b<!l1F( I ~IOTT~ii

~it. <IF-t ~+Offillli R. Pro XIII. 18, . 19; cf. ~ ~ !!OT<ft ~T EjUJff&rmrrrN9iT~


msfl'iffiT<lr<i:. I M. Bh. on P. 1.

~ 1ll>ljlWl'f .

<iuTIf&rmif[M-CliT~ 1.70


the view that an individual thing ( S{Cl:!) and not the genus (~ra-) is the denotation of a word. The ancient grammarian VyaQ,i was the first propounder of this view. cpo Yak. pad. IlL 14. 333. cpo :i{O<Iq~:
i\0l:!cr&:T~'i~: I (~~T.)

pad. II. 77-83.

?f~~1Tfu'elfii denotation of j\o<{ or indi-

Vart. 4. The utterance of a letter takes i rd'time niore in the ~'<iT!CJ:Ri than in the ~'lRr, while in the ~~'la'lfu it takes l rd more than in the 1l1:<iI1'lRt. In short, the utterance of the same letter takes in the three vrttis, Denta, Madhyama and Vilarribita. the quantity of time in propo~tion of 9:12:16 respectively.


if ~1:Wl 'i!'qCfi: I qrfil- ~qco~

~~ g ~: Vakyapadiya II. 206;

the case affixes are said to be any way, 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka '; cf. . errf,ijCliT mfoCfiT err ~i.mctr<lt ~lTWI: Vakyapadiya II. 165.

~~fflq; a grammarian who maintains that' dravya' or 'individual object' is the sense of words; ct. if ~1j!imqc{iT~91~ :i{o<l. ii q~T:.n, ~ 'RlT~~ CfHl.ilffii q~I~: I M. Bh. on 1. 2.64 Vart. 53. See :i{iXj.
1{O<:I'Ef"'l;J expressive of substance as thei'r sense as opposed, to ~:r~<i; d. <JlT<{9'qi'iT 1l.l~ ~~m:<!: S{C<l 'ql~'q I

vidualobjec.t as the sense of words as opposed to atlj!ifilP!f[q i.e. denotation of the general form possessed by objects C?f the same class; d. ll.1>Qrf+rl:1y;l oljT~; P. I. 2.64 Vart. 45 See i{O<!.

itiUl~T a kind of the position of the _ tongue at the Hme of pronouncing . the letter '!..

~ conveyance of sense indirectly or by suggestion, and not directly. See .mOCfi above.

iii short form for 3'!YS{t, the sixth constellation, which, although found used in treatises on astrology, cannot be looked upon as a COl'ect word, as immediately on hearing it, one does not remember the word

M. Bh. on P. V. 1.II9.; ~ (sense) conveyed by suggestion indirectly and not directly expressed, as in the case of karmapravaca- ~~<r-IW-i behaviour like a dravya as noticed in the case of the or niyas, the krt affixes and the tad . kriya found in a root after a krt affixes; d. 8T~ 1i5l!;Jut .m~ CfiQaffix is added to it; cr. 'i\~f,.:r~m ~T'i) ~'i"'l<ftCjlii~ Wifu Kas. on P. I. 4.84. ~C<f<rn:rfcr. M. Bh.on H. 2.19, III. ~ substance, as opposed to ~ pro1.67 etc. perty and~!U action which exist on dravya. The word ~ is used lf~~'l!T name given to the second section of th~ third KaI,lQ,a of by yaska. PaQini and other gram Vakyapadiya which deals with marians a very general sense substance (S{C<!). The substance in as something in completed formaits ~ssential nature which is per~ tion or existence as opposed to manent is discussed in this section. r bhava ' or kriya or verbal activity, The f~~rth section which is named and the word ~ is used by old <i~ir,ol:!~!!~~, containin'g only four grammarians as synonymous with verses, deal'; also with ':i{C<f' but with mer; cf. 't'fR<ITSffi~ i ~ firq~ reference to its individual nature <'l<Wc1 if ~~ ~, cf. KM on P.

"" utterance;

lit. rapid; the vice of rapidity in a fault of speech especially in connection with the utterance of vowels in Vedic recitai when on acco1J.nt of haste the utterance of letters becomes indistinct. cf.

name of a compound; formed of two or more words used in the sam~ case, showing their collection together; cf. '9T~ f[o'~: P. II. 2.29. Out of the four meanings of the indecli nable 'q, viz. B~<r. a:ri1'9</', ~~'l' and ti+u{t\, the dvandva compound is sanctioned in the last two senses only called~~<'1l (as in ~~<lI~~T etc.) and t!l1Tm~ (as in cniR9"'1~ etc.) respectively. For details see Mah1ibba~ya on II. 2.29. The dvana dva compound takes place only when the speaker intends mentioDG ing the several objects together I.e. when there is, in short, tl~9!5T or ~1JjCf'; d. ~1i~<i ~<'<if


lii~~uIT$(fT!%.cii ~ ~~ffi: ~~)ql1r. Ej<1r:! M. Bh. Ahnika I Vart. 18.

lffi'iN name of a treatise on grammar .

Q;9iT ~~q~~ I <iW wrm~t ORIijl!;il:o 9'.~}U: II Sr. Pro II. The gender of a word in the ~t!l1m is that of. the last word in the case of the ~~u

written for beginners by Bharatasena or Bharatamalla: of Bengal in the sixteenth century.


. ,;:.;:, while it is the neuter gender in the case of the wmm~.


one of the three Vrttis or styles of utterance. mentioned in the

tad, affix ;:<itl. in the sense of measure, prescribed optionally along with the affix~s G:t'j and 111"f;

d. i!!ili:S1mu1~ i!!ilia<!tl+I:; Kas. on :i? V. 2.37 ; fern. 6illa<!ij't, d. P. IV. 1.15.
roots in their cau~ar formation govern two objects out of which one object is the actual' one while the other is the subject of the primitive root., e.g. ifl:r<lm "ll11[9'ii ~Tll<{,; ~'<T<ifcr <'!TI1[1:l<E 'irt1~; d. Kas. on P. 1. 4.52. See for det~ils Mahabha~ya on P. 1. 4.52.

cbmpound e.g. ~if1:l1:Ti1: or ( c) has a collective sense e. g. qii~; d. oit:-: ffi~l~lnUt "f (P. II. 1.51) also d. Kas. and S. K. on P. II. I.St, 52.
~nG: popular name given by grammarians to the fourth quarter, of the second Adhyaya of Piil)ini's A~tadhyayi which begins with the sutra fa~i1<:(, II. 4.1.

also prescribed for the prepositions

Eft{, Sf, ~, ~,





'f{Rlft\ a class of words headed by the word 1;1\ which get the augment ~, (Le. ~ or placed before the letter" <t or q in them, instead ,of the substitution of vrddhi, when a taddhita affix marked with the " FiI~: mention by the emmute letter OI" ~ or'l! is added to fi !1;Cf>IIt"fli " ... them; e.g. <UqTt{ifi: Bf1:lfulifi:, ~r1:l~, ployment of a double consonant ~il<{, etc. ; d. Kits. On P. VII. 3.4. e.g. ~11:S!~ of P. VIIL3.5 has been understood by PiiQini as Bi1:<;!'1t2- as fit a term used for the dual number Patafijali informs us. in the Pratisakhya works; cf. on .:IT ~ ~C{ij- fo!~ifi9; V. Pro II. 3 where 'ffi:cm~m simultaneous occurrence of Uvvata bas explained the words two grammatical operations result~, f6: and t!;ifi as ~'f"fi1, lG:'f"fi1 and ing -into a conflict and creating a t!;ifi1:l"fi1 respectjvely. doubt as to which ofthe two should




the second consonant in the five groups of consonants, surd aspirate, cf. T. Pro 1. I! ; V. Pr. 1. 54, R. Pro VI. 15; it is called rn:c\1<!<;Ef~ also.

f[: doubled; the term is used in con

nection with reduplication in the Katantra and Halma grammars ct. Hem. IV. 1.1, Kat. III. 8. 10.

-rn:::!:{<:I'm, doubling;

putting a word or word dement twice; the \vords fu,t<f and fa~~i1 are used in the same sense.

take place first; d. faifiT~~ilr f%: Fctqmq1:T: M. Bh. on P. I. 1.3 Vart. 6; I. 1.12; etc. The term 'f9ll'ffiihr occurring in the rulef<r~miN lit ifiT~~ P. I. 4.2 is evidently defined in this way by the WOt<1 ~ifiT~<Wr in the Maha bha~ya.
'ffi:~ue a compound expression or word separated into two byavagmha in the Padapiitha; the word is misstated as S;@1lSby some Vedic reciters.

f~~~~ the reduplication of a root beginning with a vowel prescribed by the rule 3Hilit~~ P. VI. 1.2.
f~m the second case; the accusative case, mainly prescribed for a word which is related, as a karmakaraka to the activity in the sentence; d. P. II. 3.2 to 5;
~ doubling,

in some specified senses cf. P~ VIII. LI to I5. A letter excepting { and \' is also repeated, if so desired, when ( a) it occurs after the letter [ or \ which is preceded by a vowel e,g. 31ifi:aJ:l!;r.. etc. cf. VIII, 4.46 ; or when ( b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonar.t e.g. ~<pr, 1l~1ffl cf. P. VIII. 4.47. ,For . details see Kiis. on' VIII. 4.46~52. The word ftt~ is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number; cf. Kas. on P. I. 2.5I. The wordsmt'f, f6:~~ and f~m are generally used as, synonY,ms. PaQini generally , uses the word '6:. For fa('ii in Vedic' Literature d. R. Pr. VI. 1.4; T. Pt. XIV. 1-8; V. Pr. IV. IpI-II8.
~ft{ a class of words, which are

Fr!:~ a word used many times synonymously with !P:v.~; the letters~, ~[, and upadhmaniya {'()' q) are termed fa:'{1l1! or ~:~I!.

f[Cli~~ a term used in connection with

roots governing two objects or two words in the accusative case, e,g. ~[ in 'It cU-r.<r Ii'!!:; the term ~ according to the strict definition of the term viz., ificrti~~ ~ or 3f{C4 ~, applies to one of the two, which is called the >I~ or the direct object, the other one, which. in fact, is related to the verbal acti~ity by relation of any other karaka or instrument is taken as karmakaraka and hence put in the accusative case. For details see Mahabha~ya

iSnQ Kasildi, on P. I. 4.5t, Some'

fit~ name of a compound with a numeral as the first member. The compound is looked upon as a subdivision of the Tatpuru~a compound. The 9vigri compound, having collection as its general sense, is declined in the neuter gender and singular numQer; when it ends in ar the fern. affix i-t is added generally, e~g. qij!f['>f;r,., fq-~9'l;r,., qij'l~. The Dvigu compound also takes place when, a Karmadharaya com pound, having a word delloting a direction or a numeral a~ its first member, ( a) has a tad. affix added toit e.g. ~ifi~: (9;OO~:), or (b) bas got a word placed after it in a

reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in 'the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix aH~ is added to the root before the personal ending; e,g. q~q, "'FfiH:, i!!i~lCf. etc. cf. P. VI. LI, 2; (2) a root before the VikaraQa affixes f.<I::., ~~, P. and 'i:!~ e.g. !fl.1'lFti', ~:fit<j~, 'C!'fittFti', ~Ufcr, ~ etc. ct. P. VI. . l.9-II; ( 3) a word ending, in 31~ (11[~0;.) in the sense of repetition, e.g. ~Ht ~Ht q~-1t" m:;'j m:;'j ~~m cf. an+IT~1li:r ~ +riffl: P. VIII. 1.12 Viirt. 7; ( 4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action, (b) in the sense of repetitio~, ( c) sho'w-ing reproach, or scorn, or quality in the sense of its incompietepossession. or (d) in the vocative ;'case at the beginning of a sentence in some

, headed by the word rn:~fus and :vhich . are all Bah\lvrihi compounds, to which the affix ~ is found added as a Sam~santa affix e.g. ffB:foG:, ~qFc{ etc.; cf. Kas. on P. V. 4.128.

f~fcra' repetition of a 'word, or of a

letter or' of a root.

f~1Jj phonemic utterance a second time ; se~ f[-t<f. ~qqq: phonemicalJy repeated; W'f.


f~iq repetition, reduplication .. See


~ see .mt'l and fu:~fui; the word is

very frequently used in the Mahiifi:lS:r. cf. M; Bh. on I. I. Ahnika I, 1. 1.7,10,57, 59 etc.
bh1i.~ya instead of

f~'Cf~ a case affix of the dual number; dual number; a word in the dual number; ct. 1V1'. Bh. on 1. I.I!, I. 4.21 etc.; d. a~<,:~<It<l"f<i WI"fi1'i, Kas.

specified senses

reduplication it}

, on P. V. 3.57.

f~~r:trH a word in the dual number; "H. '\'lfJrc::<1!ll :rn:i:1"iili'o+!T~: R. Pro I. 28 ~li~re; ~be Cwo~d &:'i~. is' e:xpl~ined as ~cp:i~rf~~<i:' byUvvati.
. ;;:L

~'!l~ preceptor of Bopadeva. wrote PrakriyaratnamaQi.
who arranged tbesutrasqf PaQini according to -,the 1;(Qj~cLmatter . He. lived inth.e; l,el~venth century ~~~ tad. affix optionally substituted A.D., '. ' in the place of tbetad. affix ~T after " ,', " the words fu and [:;r; e.g. &:~T, ~~, \:j'T~ ( ;r Ja thing possessed of ,proper~ f-NT, ~~; d. P. V. 3.45.. ties,~ol:!; cf....m~"iti1, l:n:i'f+r1J<1~ 'ISas.. '" \ oil P. III. 3.77; d. also'the common ~'{IJI1~ a grammarian of the sixteenth ,- ' ~ , 'p" 's' k expression 'CJlij!lT~+!lGm:., at. e. century at the court of Udayaon Pari. 55, 66;79. ,82; (2) the sirilha who wrote a commentary on same as' dharma ili'rare: 'cases the sutras of PaQini which was according to the dicftirri ~<fqfBuIT~named ~<jl~~~~cr as also a com~:. ' '" ",' :. , '" ',' ,4 ""G:,q';:m:: ~.g. 9u;~, ".It 9:\IIJj;fi~il:fi[; d. mentary on the ;:,ik~a of paQini. . "p' ': Durglia,ta Yr. oil .IL 1.49. He

m group of two words; 'an expreseit:;:t <i:


sion consisting of two words; cf. Sf ~!i'H ~q'U!ll R. Pro VIII. 2.IO ; X. 3; XI. 37 etc. a word possessed of two v<?wels in it; dissyllabic words; the word is frequently used in Pal}.ini's A",tadhyayi and Patafijali's Mahabha~ya. Ka:sika Vrtti a,nd other works on Pat:tini's grammar.

f~qQ" a syllablecconsisting of two consonants; cf. ,R.) T;, 245.


fij,qu! (I) a rep~ated' cons'(~mant; cf. f1i:ifo1lt'li'cru'hm:., V. Pro IV. 144; (2 ) doubling, repetition; cf. ili~'i'f..91 :W'liTU f[qu'l~ T.Pr. IX. 18; cr. also T. Pro

XIV;!. R. Pro IX. i8.

f~, double" reduplicated; the word is frequentlytisedin connection with , doubling of consonants or words in tlie Pratisakhya Literature as also in the I{atantra,Sakatayana and ,Ha:irila gramma:rs d. R. Pro VI. I, XV.'5, y. Pro IV.IOI,R. T. 264; cL also Kiit. III. 8.10, Sak. IY. 1.43;

~ a crass of pronouns headed by the pronoun fu: to which the taddhita affixes called fq+rfu;, as prescribed by the rules of PiiQini in the rule q~ffil.'Z and the following ones, are not added. cf. P. V. 3.2.


. ';j:

::. ". '. .



'killd' of~'iRior interval of time in fheprontiIiciation of two consecutive vowels" \vhich as a result of two euphonk changes has a v.owel preceded by a vowel; e.g. <>I~~, \3" at~if, R,. Pro II. 44. ,


name of a Samdhi -made up of two spirants, or resulting in the , presenc~ of two spirants or D~man letters e.g. f<lj6'1"'in:, ~~6Tm; cf. R. Pro XI. 22.

defined as ':j\iil~>ra:FI, the tradi~ tional practices laid down by the sages for posterity; cf. ~~'liiltf>r~(i) ...m i{fu~:n <1T~: ?{niJrur <>I~~'CJ~ M. Bh. I. I. A.hnika I; cf. also ...m~T&l in ~ '<r ~m 1:l'~~1~ SI'i;Q~, M. Bh. on P. I. 2.64, as also ...m<l.~: in ~~-'IR <>I~lqllfu <iTfrr 'CJmr.,:;r'lilU: li6frff <>!!fqi~~6m qr,;<1i'ffi~[;;M. Bh. on I. 1.47; (2) religiousineritj cf. ~mq
it~<Trna:~lmij~'aCf<lif<i ~~lll: ~Sfc!t<1~,

'ill tad. affix (1) applied to a numeral

in'the sense of: a . kind (SlCfiT\). or .a , division of time; e;g. '1l;Cfi1:Tr,-rn:1:TT, ~I:TT , etc.; cf. P. V. 3,42, 43;( 2 ) ,applied to <Is to show divisions ot,a,short time; e.g. ergl:Tf f<l:crB~'~l and erg~T !iIB~ ~~; d. KiiS. on P. V. +20. oerlQ (I) a root; the basicwordpf a verbal form; defined, by the Bbal?yakara as f~Tq"iFlT mg: or even' as <lICfCf'<r.u- 'CJTg:, a word denoting a verbal activity, pal}.ini has not defined the term as such, but he ,has given a long list of roo~s under ten groups, named dasagaI)i,which includes about 2200 roots which , can be c~lled primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. The secondary toots can be divided into two main groups (I) roots derived from roots ('i/~l(f'l:) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( <TTll1:TTcrcr: ). The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions: (a) causative roots or frrl;;P(f, (b) desiderative roots or BiiI;:ff, (c) ifitensive roots or <jS'r(f . and <1'O;S3lJ'roj \vhiie rools derived from nouns or denominative roots canfurther. be.' divided 'into 'f<j~;:(f, Cfi~, "il:!S'ro, <!<1'f'"rff, fiJIs-ro, f'fCf<I~Q, and the, miscellaneous ones '( 5l<Kro1) as derived from'nouns like,'lillJ[ (9)1l~'1TfG:)

(I) fourth letter of.the dental class

( Cf'ilT) possessed, of the properties

iiU1l:G>r?:F-t, Eiler, CfiOC5tf'l(R'i and m[ISflur ; , ( 2) substitute ~ for th~ il. of "',il. before a ' j hal' consonant ,or at the end of a word e.g. ilJl'I., \3"qTil~; ,cf. P. VIII. 2.34; (3) substitute ' '1. for the letters Q and ~ placed after a fourth letter, e.g. ~+C, ~.'CJ! etc. cf. P. VIII. 2.40; ,

~~,posse$sed of two'vowels, dissyllabic; d. <i q,:: fa:~~ f.r@l~ T. Pro XVI. 17.

f~l;~lia' a term, used for, an .upadhm, a-I

, niy,a l~tter or a phonetIc element resulting from a visarga followed by the letter 't. or \l'i, See \3"q"m<ft<l. The word is also used sometimes for the pronunciation ~'of~. and coil. of ~.

li4', a

, See~:W,t!.
f@.ii~ possessed of two

consecutive consonants; d. Q~llT~~ rn:~~:7 P. VII. 4;71; cf. also M. Bh~ on VI. I~68~ use(l ad~ei bially for ml:TT In the sense of. ',.optioll ally , or 'in two ways '; cf. ~ ~i;~i~(!iqffiqfu:, M.Bh. on P. I. :1:.44 Vart. 15.


technic~l term in the Jaineridra Vyakaral}.a for the term 'iI~iTIll~rr'1 of PaQini ,used for the first five case '" a ffixes ii, an, aTfl., ~, '... an d l{ <lit (nom. and acc. pl. neuter gender); d. P. 1, 1.42,43. cf. Jain Su. &r~~i I.I3!

M. Bb. on P. VI. 1.84. cf. also ~~ ~il ~ ~:qTS'CJ.t: M. Bh. 1. I. A.hnika I; (3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or a word. e.g. cral'CJ<'i; d. Ka. on P. 1. 2.29; cf. also Kas. on P.ILI. 55, II. 3.33, VIII. I,4. d. also R. Pr; III 8, I3 XIV.I etc.; (4) the characteristic of being in a substance; in the phrase <>Ii{ qa-: the dharma viz. ~ is predicated of this' (i{::::~:rJ or, in other words the designation pot (Eg~T) is the predication; the explanation in short, can be given as E[Gt'!9TVJ:. ~ q~ll: or ~+!iii: i{~tjGJll:
~ittffil~ a Jain scholar caHed by the name <fum also, who ~vas 1 the author of 'CJIgSl@l<1q~'fiT and ~qFH11{ a well-known treatise on roots; d. .nqitcrij~3:I[~~T crTlFffit'~:1 'lill!~cr >ltl~ i:n~ifq ~~",~71: II He is believed to have been ~he first grammarian

~~ name of the author


a short' metrical treatise on roots named



for ~6 in the aorist, e.g. 91iTmi., ct. by t.he application of the affix ~'l! or P. III. 1.55; to signify the sub-from nouns like 13~, ~, qro, ~1J5, rna{, etc. by the application of the stitution of ~ for cr. of the past pass. affix B.~sides these, there are part. e. g. i?l~:, arrrft'Tl:,' ~:, ~: etc.; d. P. VIII. 2.45. Besides a fe~ roots formeq by the applica-: these, the mute syllables f5:r, S and ~ tion of the affix STrlf and ~ (~). AU" these roots can further - be are prefixed for specific purposes; cla;sified into Parasmaipadin or , ct. P. III. 2.187, III. 3.89 and III. Parasmaibha~a, Atmanepadin or 3.88. The term '<Tlg is a sufficiA.trnanebha!?fi and Ubhayapadin. ently old one which is taken by Roots possessed of a mute grave Pal}ini from ancient grammarians ( ST!!<tI"Q) vowel or of the mute conand which is found used in the sonant ~. added to the root in the Nirukta and thc: Pratisakhya works, Dhiitupatha or ~nding in the affixes signifying the' elemental (radical) base . for nouns which are all de<!~, '!~ etc, ~s also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanerivable from roots according to the padin; while roots ending with the writers of the Nirukta .works and affix fU;, as qlso roots possesse~ of.a. the grammarian Sakatayana; d.' mute circ~mfiex vowel ora' mute <wr 'q '<iTg"ElIiTi'[' f<l~'ffi e<Tm~ ~~ 'q consoQant . OJ.. applied. to them m<iill..M. Bh. on P. III. ~p. Some scholars have divided roots into are termed U'bhayapadill. All the six categories; cf. (ffl lffiT9: ~T rest are termed Parasmaipadin. There are some other mute letters (a) qftq'ftm: ~9R<T:, (b) 3fq~moT or' syllables applied by PaI)ini to 91fo';;ft6<T~Ir{<l:, "( c ) qftqRi(jWftqRinT: the roots in his DMtupa~ha for " (~~qRiOT:) ~!,~~H!~iR<n~<T:, (d) specific purposes; e.g. t!; at the end ~~'l'<Tffl'l: '3i1T'il"OT:, (e) <'lllf<T[QCf: to signify prohibition of vrddhi to 'fiU"1:;rT~;q:, (i) m<i<li1fll'clTf[Cf:- iil~l!~ the penultimate or in the aorist, e.g. Cfsr~:r<j':; c( S'p'tgara Prak. 1. For details see M.Bh. on P. 1. 3.1 as also ST~ cf. P. VII. 2.5; ~ to signify the optional subStitution of or or ~ PP.255, 256 Vol. VII. VyakaraI)afor the affix ~ of the aorist, e.g. Mah1i.bhii.~ya published by the D.E. an+lCfc(, or~t~; cf. P. III. 1.57; aSociety; Poona. (2) a 'technical term to signify the optional application of Jainendra grammar for 91'!i1l'li. , of the augment i{ (~) before CfcCfT e.g. ~fi'lm, ~fo'CCfT; cf. P. VII. 2. 56; 'e:I=t!.""c:eq~fuqrr a-short treatise on the roots of the different conjugations e; to signify the optional applicawritten by a grammarian named " tion of the augment ~ ( ~) e.g. iltm, Dhanafijaya. mr, ct. P. VII. 2.44; arT to signify the prohibition of the augment il~ 'e:l1g,<Si~ a grammatical work in in the case of the past pass. part. verse written by Varadaraja, the e.g. fP{9DUJ:, ''R'I'it:, cf, P. VII. 2.16; i{ pupil of Bhattoji Dik!?ita who lived to signify the addition of a nasd.l in the 17th century. Besides after the last vowel e.g. f.!r&:Rr Kihikavall, Varadaraja wrote ~ from f<lfct, cf. P. VII. I.S8;:j\ to <Mffcfr and l1e<riT!Ptf also. signify the prohibition of ~t<f to the penultimate" long vowel before -.::rm~ (I) name of a comment. fiJI" e.g. or~ffiQ:., cf. P. VII. 4.2; C'i: ary on the. Kavikalpadr1,1ma of to signify the substitution of ~ . Bopadeva by Rarp.aiarhkara; (2)



name of a commentary on the Kavikalpadruma by Durgadasa who wrote a commentary on the Mugdhabodha also.
l:TffltfTo (i) name given in general to

He has listed 1980 'roots and divided them into nine classes ( gaI)as). The work was first. published by J. Kirste in 1899 at Vienna.
'tlfflSl'lim a work dealing with roots

written as a supplementary work the several collections of roots given by Balarama-Pancanana to his generally with their meanings by own grammar named Prabodhagrammarians belonging to the Prakasa. various schools of grammar. These collections are given 'tlTij~ a work dealing with as HcesEary appendixes named verbal forms written by Dharma,. Khila to their grammars by the k'irti, ,!. Jain grammarian of the well-known grammarians of Sanseighth century. krit such as PaI)ini, Siikatayana . and others (ii) a small treatise on 'tlTij~q a wo! k dealing with verbal forms written by Maitreya Rakroots written by Bhimasena who !?ita, a Buddhist writer and a gave meanings to roots. paI).ini's famous grammarian belonging. to Dhatupatha contains two thoDs-" the eastern part of India who and roots which were actually used lived in the middle of the twelfth in the current . language. Whitney century. He is believed to have propounded all the roots were never I written many ~cholarly works in used but Buhler and Edgren opposconnection with PiiI)ini's grammar ed this' view. A numbH of Prakrit, out of which the Tantrapradlpa is Pfili and Desya lOOtS are also found the most-important one. The work in it. Dhiitupradipa is quoted by SaraI).adeva, who was a contemporary of 'I:1'ffltf~ a commentary on the Maitreya Ral{~ita. in his DurghataDhiitupatha by NageSa. vftti on P. II. 4.52. 'iil~'ffiFltJt (i) a word used by Kasika, along with NamaparayaI)a, is an l:lm+r~ ~alled also 'cllgtM:i(f attributed to a grammarian named Kiisinlitlia. old term signifying a ma,nual of root!'. Such manuals were current ~T a work on roots in verse-form even before Pal)ini. (ii) a gramattributed to a grammarian named matical treatise dealing with roots ISvarakanta. written as a supplementary work by Jumaranandin to his grammar \i(1il'l1+i~ a treatise dealing with work called Rasavati, which itself roots believed to have been written was a thoroughly revised and by Ramasirilhavarmau. enlarged edition of the Rasavati a commentary written by Krama- ~<iit a. work dealing with roots believed to have been written by diSvara on his own grammar n~me.d Nar'iyaI).a who was given the title Sari1k~iptasara. Jumaranandm 1S ~. He lived in the seventeenth believed to have been a Jain writer century; a work named-ffiUCfw,o<rTWI who lived in the fifteenth century, is also believed to. have been written ( iii) A work on roots by Hem~ " by him. candra with his own commentary.

. 27

~~~ a short list of the important roots from the Dhatupatha of PaQini, given in verse by '<ft~<!1"1 a gramm<:lrian of the 17th century. looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it, such as 1i1'ii, or ~F' does not get conjuga tional affixes, but it is regularly declined like a noun. Just as ~r~, ~&I, fuW, mT, and <fiRCll are given as lflfu~l:T, in the same manner f?!i<rr, ~, ~, 'i'Cfif 'or ~, and <fiRCll are given as l:fl~9~, as they are shown by a verbal form, although strictly. spe,ddllg verb3-l activity (f?niIT or "+lR) alone is the sense of a root; as stated in the Mababha~ya. For details see Vaiyak. Bh. Sara, where it is said that fruit (1lit7i) and effort ( o<lTliR) are expressed by a root, cf. ~ml:Tlg;:. The five senses given above are in fact conveyed not by a root, but by a verb or ~ or

------------._---_. ------------and old grammar works; ct. ~ ;ijq: V. Pr. I. 53, explained'by Uvvata as 9iTIUJT i3'ffi:I&T<l: lI\t7iir~'llH:lA1~: V. Pr. 1. 53 ; the term W corresponds to ~ of PaJ;lini; (2) personal ending fl:f substituted for flr of the impera. 2nd sing. e.g. ~fl:f, fu~, ~, ~fl:f, \Hfrl:f etc.; d. P. V. 4.101-103. .
~ a technical term in the Jainendra'

or l[i:i is one. For details see Bha~ya on l[ff:!f'l'<l: ~fiJ;g-~~, T. Pr. XVIII. 3.



an elision of a portion of a root; cf. if 1:lTg~ an~Tg%, P. I. 1.4 a general term applied to a treatise discllssing roots, but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Miidhavadirya, the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vij ayanagara kings in the fourteenth century, en the Dh1i.tupatha of Pat;lini. The work is gen~rally rem. ferred to as l!'l:f<fi<lT-tTTg~ to distinguish jt from ordinary commentary works called also 1:lTg'lfa written by grammarians like Vijayananda and others. a grammar dealing with verbs believed to have been written by VaIigasena. convent10nal name given to the fourth pacta of the third Adhyaya of Pli.Qini's A~tadhyayi which begins with the Sutra l:frg~lf.'~ lTffl<lT: P.II r. 4. r.

tad. affix ~q applied to the words and "Ill! in the same sense as those words possess ; e.g. ~\1(, ct. Kas. on P. V.4.25. '

mit, ~


VyakaraI)a for l:flg (a rooO which is used freely by the ancient grammarians and Pat;lini.


~~ a popular name given to the


second pad~ of the fifth adhyaya of Pat;linj's Ai?tadbyayi possibly becau 5e the pada begins with the Sutra -cwl!Tilt +rci~ ~ -a6I., P. V. 2.1.


't-'iROl ( ! ) suppression of a consonant, out of two successive consonants which is looked upon as a fault of recital; e.g. ijll1m when recited as Cf<lTm; d. l:fRU]~fEl:f: Uvvata on R. Pr. XIV. 6; (2) repetition of a ~itl~ enumeration or recital of consonant which is also a fault; e.g. roots in the Dhatupatha ; d. ~q. ;N<jtffis~ for ~fus%iq:; d. Uvvata qaJqll:f<laltqfa:~n: I tii I l:fm$~ mffiq~'lit~ on XI V. 6; d. also l:fH<l'ff: qVfit=f q~ 'Cf I M. Bh. 'on P. III. 1.I. etc. explained by Uvvata as ffi"ff~~ '<11'tci~ lit. meaning of a root, 'the verbal ~<lt,,~ .8Tr.u \:ffi l:fl~.m ~'ii1filT: ~ffil'r activity, named Wl<lT or, mtf; cf. wfRr where tTT\<lrff: means r lengthl:fl~'itf: #.\<iI; M. Bh. on Ill. 2.84, III. ening' or 'prolonging' ct. R. Pro 2.115. The verbal activity is deson XLV. 23; (3) the peculiar posicribed generally to be made up ()f tion of the mouth (~"TRUJ;rJ by a series of con tinuous subordinate which a double consonant is recited activities carried on by the different as a singl~ one, d. rn:9dt~Cji'ful<r~ ( l1.:CjioQ karakas or agents and instruments Si<IMP.t~t~) \:'f(\UJ1~ e.g. <ro.1~, W'f~:, of verbal activity helping the procf. V. Pro IV. 144. cess of the main activity. When the process of the verbal activity is N (I) a technical term used for sonant constants in the Pratillkhya complete, the completed activity is

(;) the augment ~ prefixed to the consonant :a following upon the consonant !i( or "l: occurring at the end of a word; e:g .IlIre~~, ;j~el~, etc.; ct. P. VIII. 3.29; (2) technical short term .for tTTij (root), the technical term is !'!'i., but the nom. sing. used is ~; (3) a technical term . standing for COBsonants excepting semi-vowels and nasals; d. ~A1 ~ta- Kat. III. 6 sr. The term is used in the Katantra VyakaraJ;ta. It corresponds to the term lff\ of PaI)ini. tad. affix called Vlbhakti tad. affix, applied to the word l!~~ ~hen ~ is changed into 31; ct. ~: ar~m9: !,!<lI 'Cf s:r~<l: Kas. on P. V. 3.17, a short term for l:fIg or root. See ~i!;.

q:rn;'name of a fault in the pronunciation of a vowel when on account of fullness of breath it appears as uttered long ( ~), although really it is short; d. P.1l~~\'1~ ~c;fifq- c{\<:i ~'i t7i~, Kaiyata on I. I. Ahnika I. Vart.18.

tad. affix Ilq!lOI. substituted for l:fT optionally after the word t;Cji e.g. ~"<!J{, tt'lil:fT; cf. P. V. 3.44.

Q1IIT1SOlii'flI{ a great grammarian who

composed an important work called Bhartrhari in his Dipika on Mababhii~ya (p. 261, 1. 20 21) refers to his opinion 1l~~~Rf;-ar~ 1(Cf'Nlfmttcr!<{"ct\~;~HaJ etc. He is also referred to by Bhartrhari in his auto commentary on Viikyapadiya (II. 208). Bhamaha (600 A.D. circa) in his Kavyalailk1ira (V. i) refers to a work called Il'-lfiiillr which is helpful in cro~~ing the ocean of grammar.

~~ a class of words headed by the word 1[!l' to which the tad. affix aT'll ( ~) is added in the miscellaneous (~fitcn) senses; e.g. l:fTl!'Ii:, <a1U5'll: etc.; ct. Kas. 'on P. IV. 2.127.

\,~ kr't affix

Il'i{ seen in VeJic Literature, substituted for tifT optionally; e.g. tI1~, ~l~ifr; cf. P. VI. 3.I!3.

or ~::q<i a kind of original grave vowel turned into a circumflex lone which is calledlf'Cf<l unless followed by another acute or circumflex vowel. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya has mentioned seven varieties of this t pracaya ' out of which ~i:j<{

(rJ fixed, !;tationary, as contrasted with moving ( ar~9 ) which is termed sm~ and hence put in the ablative case; d. ~+m~SqFUil<I: .P. I. 4.24; (2) repeated sound (ilT1{) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it OCcurS at the end of the first word of a split up compound word; cf. R. Pro VI. II and XI. 24.


asqOJ:. and referred to in' the same compounds; d. M. Bh. on P. I. 4.1 way, which (i e. <T.) when corri- I Vart. 19; also on P. II. J.T. pounded with a following word, is superiority, or changed into a:r' or aTiI,. or retained in i\$<'ECli(<Sj61~ the strength the accent caused by rare cases as for instimce in iim~, iJ5'fI i HtI which sei s aside the accent iilt1~, ii&!~ etc. cf. P. VI. 3.73-75 ; caused by the case affix; d. f~+!f.ffi ( 7) tad. affix ii (OjOJ:.) applied to ~~I~;;:t9U~<jT'i, P. VI. 2.158 Vart 13. the words ~ and ~ in senses given, from P. IV. 1.92 to V. 2.1 e.g. ~, ifG1~ (I) a class of words headed by tIT~~ cf. IV. 1.87. the wordifG to which the tad. affix a:rrC!i'! ( 'f.<J!) is. added in the sense of ,;j'Cil'R' the consonant if to which the iW;r (grandchild and further desvowel a:r and the affix 'lilt are added cendants) ; e.g. illGlCll1J:, "CfIUCll1J:; d. for facility of utt,erance; e.g. trl!ff IUs. on P. IV. 1,99; (2) a class il'liH i!fG:~ <ilcnft R. Pro IV. 8 ; ct. V. Pr. of words headed by ifG to, wbich, the I. 17.21. affix ~ () is added, together with the aogment 'li placed after the ;j'~ krt affix ii applied to the roots <jl5f.', word and before the affix, in the CI~, Cit(. and others in the sense of foorsenses prescribed ill P. IV. 2.67verbal ~ctivity; e.g. CI~:, in'C5fT, CI(.f: 70 ; e.g. ifGcIi'l<!~, g~<iiTCI~; d. Kas. etc. cf. P. Ill. 3.90, 9r. See ii (5 ). on P. IV. 2.91. if~ krt. affix il5l. applied t6 the roots ~ cerebralized; changed into OI... The ~l!., <rt. and'll!.. in the sense of ' ha bitchange of the consonant ~ into OI.. uated' e.g. ~~, 1fE~j see Kas. on is called iim- in the old Pratisiikhya P. Ill. 2.172. works; ct. ~W ~5l=[frrr :qrqa- R. Pro IV. 1,1. if~ the negative particle (ilOJ:.) which possesses the six senses which are sketched as t11~<i nG:<TIq!ij ~(cf crG:- ;j'Rt lit. inciination, bending down; the word is used generally in the tech~ I a:rst1'il~ ~UIil"IS" iF>fl!ff: Ej~stmm:1I nical seDse of 'cerebralizatiori' but and which are respectively illustrat, applied to the change of VI: into OI.. ed by the examples a:rfif~: ~~:, ~~ as also that of ~ into f{.; cf. ~~ ~ ifTRcr, a:rEg: tR::, ~~!IG:t G~l!r:, ~<v.rqt%~m-:, V. Pro 1. 42. The root 8l;fI&laU- qlff!N'li: and a:r~{:~: I See it ~ is used in the sense of 'cere(6 ) b~alizing' or 'being cereoralized '; very frequently in the PriHisiikhya ;rsm~~'l a compound with q as its first , works; e.g. the word iJ+<rcr- is used in member which is changed into a:r or the sense of ' is cerebralized '; and aFf.., or remain~ unchanged, the <'I+rClfu in th,e sense of 'cerebralizes' indeclinable;r (ilOJ:.) possessing any and iTIrn~ in the sense of ' causing one of the six senses given above cerebralization ';' cf., SRCfiRTG:iil ~ un'der if (6); e.g. ~:, a:riilll:,~: iflilm: ~U:, ~1, Cfo'{fT <rffl!l q;v.!I~~ R. etc.;. d. f. VI. 3.73-77 " Pro 1. 27: ij6,(HlI'l'f u compound with if (ilOJ:.) as its first mf:mber ; the term is found q;;fr a technical term applied in Pa1.1ini's grammar to words in the feminine used in the Mab1ibhii!2ya for both gender ending in ~ and .~ excepto the qo:m~~ as well as the ~~~I


(1) fixed; of a stationary nature; ~ the second out of the seven posict. :ffitsN~ "Cf majlTffilT~CffiTill~"<l': P. tions of voice in the Veda recital III. 4.76; also d. Vak. pad. III. 7. which are-~~, \,<fFT, ~+rG:, ~~t(., 138, 139; (2) notion of stability in ~, ~CI+r and crR. contrast with an object which is , \,,~ personal-ending of the sec. pers. pI. moving or being abandoned. ,Atmanepada in the present and \"qiiI a variety of vedic recital. It is perfect ten!>es. defined as ~l<n~: :rn tiRlifiaT5;'ijR... ~~ 1 q~ "Cf "l\~ Efl <l~ tfOif tI ~:




~: :m:-&.tEf\:fc/: ~
.I -


~ q~1

lif.. fifth consonant of the dental class

of consonants which is pos:ssed of l i t h e properties ~lf, iil~sroil, ~. ,~T I c/~+r ~m I ~fu ~l1J: I ~~ffi I ~, Wlff'iiUO'f:i and a:r~ftl'ic/. In 1 ::;. 1 pa1.1ini's grammar the nasa] consoff ~ I ~~f1_Tll_~_1 ,!!~~m~I nant"t (a) is added as an augment +rm I a:r.~~.-:~:!~fu lfI~Tllm I prescribed as !!~ or ~ which oriI I ginally is taken as"t. but afterwards ~~.~~:!.~ I ~ ~"l~ ~UR~ I !o1tm changed into ~m or 1ffi{CfuT as

;::~ ~~ I tITl'tit ~i[ I ~ U~ I ~I~ftr_

required, as for example in q<jfffi, it?ili~, ~n:mr, ~~ etc.; cf. P.. VII. ~ I ~itq ~ I qC{ra- ~itii I ~ ~ I 1.58-73, VII. 1.79-83; VIII. 3. 2 4 ; I -- ( b) is changed into D\ when -it aTIlflil"CI: ~ I directly follows upon "l\, "it, \. or 't. ~ ("I) sound; ct. ~F! wl~!fi<Ia--' or even _intervened by a vowel, a 'semivowel except ~, a guttural . ~C<t ~ ~ +IT 'liJ1:lT: M. Bh. I. 1. consonant, a labial consonant or an Ahnika 1 ; cf. also Vak. pad. I. 77 ; cf. also ~.m:: "~~:, "qf~: ~~~l1J:, M. anusviira; d . P. VIII. 4 1 . I -3I. Bh. on I. !.70 Vart. 5. \,cWr or sound (c"> is substituted for the final ~ of . 'd t b th . d' t ( a root, e g. lf~, ITti'l~ cf. P. V III. IS Sal e, e In lca or ~Cfi or oCl$fi ) of ~, the eternal sound. ct. 2.64. 6 5.
-. I ..... I

JIl~l1J: I CI#r ~fcfll ~ U~T I




Vak. pad. I. 44-100. ~a suggested, as opposed' to <Rfi expressed; the 'word is found frequently used in the Paribba~eIidusekhara and other works in connection with such dictums as are not actually made, but indicated in the Mahabbii!2ya.
~. personal-ending of the sec. pers.

"'i' (I) the consonant ~ (see ~ above)

pI. Atmanepada, substituted for ~ of toe 10 lakaras.


personal-ending in Vedic Literature, substituted for \,~ of the sec. pers. pI. Atmanepada;' e.g. 9l~\''IRl !or <iWi\''1~ cf. P. VII. 1.42.

with the vowel added to it for facility of utterance, cf. T. Pro f.21 ; (2) tad. affix <T added to words headed by ~ in the ,sense of possession; e.g. tfTllif:, ~: etc"ci. P. V. 2.100; (3) tad. affix it as found in the word ~tiTI derived from ~fcif{., 'ct. P. V. 2. 1I4; (4) u1.1adi affix <T as found in the word ~ ,-,IIC'{:; ct. KiiS. on P. VI. 4. 19; (5) the krt affix q~ as also ~ prescribed after the roots Cll5f., CI'Ri.., <!Q., ~, 'st~,_ ~~ and ~1ll!., e.g. ~:: Clf'l5'I1, Si~: etc., cf. P. III. 3.90, 91; (6) the mgative particle if given by Pal}ini

ing a few like &11, 511. $1", and others; it is optionally applied to words ending in if and <I, of course in the fern. gender, before case affixes of thp. dative, ablative, genitive and locative sing. The term was probably in use before PiiQ.ini and was taken from the fern. word <lett which was taken as a model. Very probably there was a long list of words like ilG: (<'f~~) ~{ (~~) etc. which were given as ending in ~ and to whiCh the affix ~ (i-tcl.) was added for forming the feminine base; the first word <f~ so formed, was taken as a model and all words- in the list and similar others were called iI-U-; ct. P. I.


~lil'an ancient grammarian who

has written a short -work in verses on grammar in general, which is named qf;cfcli1!l\<lilft!lI~. There is a scholarly commentary upon it written by ~?j.

capable See ilfu.

of being


~~rat~ a short treatise of 28 stanzas, attributed to an ancient grammarian ilfrG:%1!I{, which gives a philosophical interpretation of the fourteen SlUras attributed to God Siva. The authorship of the treatise is assigned traditionally to the Divine Bull of God Siva~ Set: if~1!I{' The treatise is also named

person; peisonal ending; the term is used in connection with (the affixes of) the three persons 3f~Ii, +l"<!11, and '<Rf!T which are promiscuously seen sometimes' in the Vedic Literature; d. ~qi!~urt~ c<it<!<!m-C:'C9RJ ... M. I Bh. on HI. r.8S.

held by the comparatively new Echool of BhaHoji Dik!}ita, as contrasted with those beld by Kasikakara and Kaiyata; the term is sometimes applied to the differences of opinion expressed by Nagesabhatta in ccntrast with Bhattoji Dik!}ita. For details see p.p. 23-24 Vol. VII. of the Pataiijala Mah1i.bba!}ya ed. D.E. Society, Poona. elided or dropped; a term used as a synonym of lupta' in some commentaries.

\\1te; a fault of pronuncIatIOn when a

~~ftq;TFcI<RGJ called also ilfrG:%r{\<Iilft~r

a gloss




",P1{4.1!I\<fiTWnt. See

~<i~ an old grammarian believ.ed to have been the original writer of the Sarasvata VyakaraI;).a, on the strength of references to him in the commentary on the Sarasvata VyakaraI).a written by ~ as also references in the' commentary on the Prakriyakaumudi by Vltthalesa. He is believed to have lived in the tenth century A. D.
~~~p.r the

~ name given to an' anu!}tup verse

. which has nine, ten and eleven. syllables respectively for the first, second and third feet; e.g. fif'i~ilr



R. V. I. 120. 4; d. R.

letter, although distinctly pronounced inside the mouth, does not b~come audible, being heldJup (ern:) by the lips or the like. The fault is similar to ~~\i ; cf. angr+<1r+r~'iii\i.m[ if,i;.~ R. Pr. XIV. 2.


same as m:~f1.ft. See

Pr; XVI. 29. The verse has got 32 syllables, but it has only three feet inste'ad of four.

;rmre: a class of, words headed by ilett,

.m and other
fern. nouns to which the taddhita affix Q;<I (~) is added in the miscellaneous ( ~fitcli) senses; e.g. ~~, ljT~<I'i., m:11Jl~~~, [51r<retCf etc. ; d. Kas. on P. IV. 2.97.
lqt affix iI applied to the root ~!J.. to show verbal activity: e,g. ~:; cf. P. III. 3.9 r.

~ name given to the class of roots beginning with the root 'lrG.:, which includes the roots 'lT~, ~<t., ~ '11:1:., ~~, and others as given in the GaI;tapatha. These roots have the affix ~ i.e. ar<r added to them in the sense of agent. e.g. ~<r:, 9l~q:, +R'1:; <frq:, :Um":, {liOl:, G:qU]:, ,",ilr<t<:r:, <I9i!: etc.; cf. P. III. 1.134.
~ lit. a word which is peither in the masculine nor in the feminine gender; a word in the neuter gender; d. R. Pr. XIII. 7, V. Pro


."citq elision of ~, which in PaI}ini's

grammar is sometimes taken as valid for certain grammatical operation:?, al).d otherwis;for other operations; cr. ~q: ~~~F<!~ \l:ifcr P. VIII. 2.2.
;;;~ a term used in connection with

the first nine gaI).as or conjugations given by PiiI;tini in his Dhiitupatha, the tenth conjugation being looked upon as a secondary conjugation.
<rcnf~cfu nflme given to the first nine

the maxim one losing a horse and the other losing the chariot, later on combining themselves with one's chariot and another's horse and getting their purpose served. Pataiijali reiers to this maxim while commenting ou ~3f<!r-rr 91 .,mWI:Rl!l'lq: I Var. 16 on ~~: I P. 1. I-SO. =R"'!iT{ tells . 3T<fiR that you do not ha\'e an original (~) and I do .not have a substitute (arriW); let us enter into com.

, II. 32; III. 138; d. P. VI. 3.75,

on which the Siddhanta Kaumudi observe3 iI lID" ~m'l:. .,.~~ I lID"~~~:
~m<ircn ~lffiTif(q: I

one that causes cerebralization; d. '{ttl iI;:\i! i!ta-~ ifR{~\lI. R. Pr. I. 27. See ilITr.

;;;.:qfci;~rn: (~) a writer of a supplement to Mugdhabodha. He lived in the eighteenth century.

~~{ a Jain grammarian who wrote a gloss ( ~ ) on the ~U ~RI.

or:i~ the special accent viz. the acute accent for the first vowel for nouns in the neuter gender excepting those that end in ~, as prescribed by .,.~<!~<!~rPr~~<! PhitsUtra II; cf. if~W +IT ~ M. Bh. on P. VII. 1.77.

Ahnikas or lessons of the Mahabhii!?ya which are written in explanation of only the first pada of the fnRt Adhyaya of PiiI;).ini's A!?tadhyayj and which contain almost all the important theories, statements and problems newly' introduced by Patafijali.

ii'l1 (I) tad. affix ill as also -nor. presQ cribed respectively after fer and ilor. (negative particle.,.) in the sense of separation; e.g. f9<rr, iIlilT; (2) case ending ill substituted for the ins. sing. affix C!T (called also arl~ in ancient grammars) in the masculine gender after vy.ords called f?r i.e. words ending in if or,::r excepting such as are called iIctf.

a term used for the differenthtion in views and explanations

if~ the most reputed modern scholar

of PaI;iinl's grammar, of the eightQ

.eenth century, who was well-versed when the air passes through them; in other ~astras also, who lived in cf. 9ufuq-~~m<ft ~~: ~: <iR: Benares in the latter half of the Uddyota on M. Bh . on P. 1. 1.9 ; cf. seventeenth and the first half .of also ~~. ~ <I: ~: mij- tl <iR~ +rcrfu T. Pr. II. 4; (2) sound, arti.. the eighteenth century. He wrote culate sound generally without sense many masterly comme.ntaries known by the words and~imr on the which Js momenta~y ; ( 3) the authoritative old works in the highest sound. See qu. different Sastra~, t he total list of Vfitm!~ having voice (<iR) as their his small and big works together main cause ; a term used in connecwell nigh exceeding a hundred. tion with vowels and sonant conHe was a bright pupil ofHari sonants which are caused by ifI<\; cf. Dik~ita, the grandson Of Bhattoji <iR: ~ ~\~9~ I OT!!~a- ~ Dik!?ita. He was a renowned qoT: B:ffi" OT!!~ ~UJi(., com. on T. teacher also, and many of the Pr. II. 8. famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present ~ (a root) beginning with "1;. in the are his spiritual descendants. He DMtupiitha as contrasted with one .beginning with OJ:: (Ollfct) whose OJ,. is, was a Mahara~triya BrahmaQa of of course, changed into "1;. when Tasgaon in SiHara District, who received his education in Benares. conjugational and other forms are For some years he stayed under arrived at; ct. ~';f c:rwrr ult~ iifa'the patronage of Rama, the king <iffi~iflfa'<!l~qPl<lCj~f. . M. Bh. on <: ... of Srngibera at his time. He was VI. r.65. very clever in leading debates in the varfous Sastras and won the . . possessed of <I~l; sonorous, resonant. See <llG. title of Sabhiipati. Out of his numerous works, the Uddyota on iQii"(q~ different words as opposed to Kaiyata's Mahabh1i~yapradipa, the . Bm<il'fi{.or a single word; cf. V. Pr. Laghnsabdendusekhara on the III. 80; T. Pr. XXIV. 3, XX. 3. Siddhanta Kaumudi, Laghumafiju!?ii and the Paribha!?endusekhara are "'I1R({\"ICfi absolutely necessary; being, in a way, inseparable; cf. ~~r~ quite well-known a.nd studied by ~T~q Bgtf B~I1fifUi1 <ilra~1i!j'fiCiRl. everyone who wishes to get profiM. Bh. on P. III. 3.18 on which ciency in paI).ini's grammar. For Kaiyat a observes ariffi:~~r ft.:n~ I details see pp. 21-24 and 401-403, arrcr~ <l~'lf. I cr~ qO!tlilm- .~~ ll~ Vol. VII of the Patafijala M:ahiiG:\n:fclli\I'G!j<fjRcrqqlflmtnrriIT ~lfImcr: I bh1i~ya ed. D. E.Society, Poona.




a denominative root; the term is also used for. <iIIN'Tg; cf. 1il.'a\:ng;1!ll1"f(gtilr<ft<i~ Nyasa On P. VI. 1.3. See th!:l word \:llg.

both as I 'ii+il&4id<a'@Ol similar in formVak.pad. a verb and as a noun; ct.

II. 318.
iff~ (vowels) which cause cerebrali.. zation; the ten vowels !:l\, 'lit, 1(, t, '3', iii, tr, alt,11:, aTI; cf. ~ cffi ~: ~ R. Pr. I. 27. cf. also R. 1'. 94. See the word ;;:rfa"~ The word mfcI~ is used for i!W\~ in the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya; ct. ~ m<ft V. Pr. I. 46; cf. also ~ ,,~ Kiit. I. 5.1:2 .

ifI1i<r.. noun,

substantive; one :"of the four categories of words given in the Nirukta . and other ancient grammar work~; d. ~ffilt ~iir q~re- :t\)l:ftIcTf.'IIfIGTaI, Nir. L I. The 'word is defined as tI~5l\:lTiniir illllrfil by stand~rd grammarians; d. Nir. L I.; d. 11so B~T~\:TT~ <ilR, R. Pr. XIII. 8 ; V. Pro VIII. 49 and com. thereon. PaI)ini divides words into two categories only". viz. ij~ and ffi;g.;:a- and includes ilTlii'l., ~if and Ii!CflOiunder ~. The 'defines ifIlIil. as followsOTil~Q~~(q'~\tfir ~:qlnl\:ll<ftiir

'1l~~1"- one of the older Sikf.i, works, treats of accents in the Siimaveda. It was composed sometime before eight century A.D.
~ I miir fu:fci\:lriir I ar(fc!~ ar.rr.. fcrgfii'SlIf.i :q I The word iJ1llii.. at the end of a !?a!?tbi-tatpuru!?a carr. pound
signifies a name or SamjDa. e.g. B<iqJ~. ~~"1;., ~"1;.; cf. also Bha~a"vrtti on ~t Cfi"~~~ P. II. 4.20 and ~~ ~Cio P. III. 2.46 <where the author ot the work explains the word ~ as <infl. The (word is used in the sense. of i a collection of words' in the Nilukta, cf. OTra'It~i'iflmfir, i:Ilqti!liH~ilfir, ~JiRilr+rtfir, i3'ifcfiilTmfir, etc.
ifl;ftfRF{lJt a work for the oral recital

(I) name o{ a grammarian who wrote a commentary onthe Mahiibha~ya.Pradipa; (2) a grammarian who is said to have written a gloss named SabdabhU$aI).a on the Sutras of PiiI).ini as also some minllr works named ~I!ilfr, ~ f.t~qur~ etc.


~ see iiT.

tad. affix


applied to the prefix

SJCf optionally with the affixes <ft2"ll.. and ~; e.g. SJCf~, <ll9~, <ll9~;

ilT~9Cf.i the same as <i~tl'fi~ or neuter gender; cf. <!Tie<ii ~~~ I <ii~ .<l<f <!litl~ M. Bh. on IV. 1.3.

ct. KM. on P. V. 2.31.

the genitive affix 8m!:. together with the augment "1;. prefixed to it ; cf. q@r P. VI. 4.3.

of nominal words; It may' have been of the nature. of a lexicon. Such works are refused to by KiiSika: ~r m~ alfi "l'rgifl~urr ~ I fci5l<fi'loit<i~. f; tIlW~t1t!: 1\ intra. verse I. No. such work is extant.

~~R:r.'i a treatise

(I) voice; resonance; tone; the sound .caused by the vibration of the vocal chords in the open glottis

;m:m a word. or noun derived from a noun, as opposed to .~ a word derived from a root.

in which words with their genders are given. The term il'l usually. used in connection with the great dictionary by 0TiR~ which is called ifll1~WG



also known as Melputtiir Bhat\:atiri, the most prominent grammarian of Kerala who lived between IS6o-1666.A.D. He has composed a number of Stott:as, Campus, Vyakara1J.a-works ani Mimiirilsa' works; His most prominent VyakaraI).a... work isPrakriyasarvasva, which follows a method found in Prakriya Kaumudi and Siddhilnta Kaumudi of . Riimacandra and Bhattoji Dik!?it respy. The work is divided into twenty sections viz. sariljfia; paribba~ii Samdhi, Krt, Taddhita, Samiisa, Stripratyaya, Subartha, Subvidhi, Atmanepada, tin, Larthavise~a sannanta, yailanta, yaIiluk, sub.. dhatu, nyaya, dhatu, UI)iidi, and Chii.ndasa. About eight commentaries on the work are known,but all of them are fragmentary.

hi , .


R:~~+l[: tlI111r<If9~m: ffi~ ~'iI~ Q;q
vrr~ .;~: I tI>lI&:CfT "<i'i~('f I <JiU tI>lI~CfT

a grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a treatise on grammar named SaIiivali, and a treatise on roots named DhatuparayaJ,.1a.
nCHary intervention; d. \
~i! qTiCfCfr.'r ti<'!

Kas. on P. 1. 4.2I.
f.j:~ deprived of Sarildhi; without any euphonic combination or euphonic change. ~ augment f<r as seen in the reduplicated syllable q;f.r of the aorist form q;~fii.tQ of th~ root ;n;a..; d. fii'~
=c~~ fu:~~Ii+<jT~H:!( ':I1<lfcl) firll"f!Tli?<! firl:fT~~ I 8J$fi;cfrre:~ <lf1SfT<ii<r.; IGis. on

WiRr (Nir. I. I) where tbe word is

derived from ~'\. or i[<'( or~. The word f.:i~ is taken/as synonymous with f.:i~+f by Durgadirya.



c2jqmaSN a.~mrnu<ile(,

$l) statement whkh is looked upOl} as a general statement of the nature of Paribha::j8. occurring in the Mahabnal?ya on P. VII. 2.3.

P. VII. 4.65.

errllT elision, the word is used in gramrna. as a synonym of 'lopa '.


~~~~i'f a place in the nose where a nasa11etter such as ~, OI" UI., ~, OF~; and anusvara get a tinge of
nasalization while passing through

it. The yam a letters e.g. the nasal ~, ~, il., EI.. get nasalization in tbe utterance of the words qfum.r:;.
~:, 8Jf-iJ:, ~a; cf. <1m VIlli quT: 5nfu~n~ Jf~: S. K. on P. VIII. 2.1.

cf. also <jI1~ffi~fu'fljT.,f 'lIftl~ V. Pr. 1. 74, R. T. 12.

<1i~ letters or phonetk elements

produced in the nose; d. Vllftm<lf <im~<!1~fucI<!T: R. T. 12. See
( VlTfWf<i )

a statement In the Vedic passage; a Vedic passage; sacred tradition or Vedic Literature in general; cf. the frequent expression it~N f<r<Tm i'fcIfc'r where R<T1i means' a vedic word, given as an instance '; it also means , Veda' ; d. f.:!lTli t1;<f <I;,rr \<lIe( T M. Bh. On VII, 2.64. Durgadirya says that the word is also used in tbe sense of ' meaning' ; cf. ~~ ~ ~~~~ Rrrm "<iqfr;;r Nir. III. 9. Durglicarya has also explained the word as <f>l<JRr +fi:'n~lil.. ~r:r<jfra ~ ~rrm:, those that make the hidden meaning of the Mantras veryc1ear.
a kind of sound whicb apparent ly is made up of a combination of three phonetic elements il, :tJ:. and Cflm'flj. It is a peculiar sound through both the mouth and the nose, although no specific place of production is assiglled to it; cf. 8Jfcl~Rr ~Tc::f.lrm:T I if~Riflfu'FIT <iT iilliR

toning down; the grave accent; the root f.n[~ in its various forms is used in the sense of toning down the voice and the wcrd:Rl~mf is used in the sense of tbe grave accent ( ~c:.l'Qf'f~) in the VyakaralJ3 and Pratisakhya works; The word was not in use in PalJini's time. It was first used by Vartikakara when the musical accents came in vogue. cr. also the words ~qRlEmf, tI~Rl!iffif, etc.; cf. ~>lr.Tcl1Cf~ Frtjm~e+R~Ii1\T~T: P. VII I. I.I8 Vart, 5.

evanescent audible words on Leaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature; cf. ~: lft-sU \:<rfu't'J~ olJT<jrrns;qm<j~; d. also ~fu~"<'irn l!1~'E'I Nir. 1. x; (2) constant; not liable to be set aside by another; d. 'a"lf~ ~l<i

fu<l'\., if ~~ f.:i~ I f.R;q-

.~~: !i1~<i"Ci~M!l:f(<1:

T. Pro I. 59, :IV. 14 ; ( 3) original as contrasted witb one introduced anew such as an augment; ct. T. Pro VI. 14; (4) permanently functioning, as opposed to tentatively doing so; d. Rill! mit f1ml~ R. T. 37 ; (5) unchangeable, permanent, imperishable; cf.

a:r4 fu~'<I~4'1 ~;;~N'qTre9: ~f.l~

~ substitute iii for the last letter of "the word '"ll<!f at the end of a Bahuvri_hi compound; d. ~'i~If<i:, ~Ifir: !Gis. on P. V. 4-134.
~q: less by one syllable; used as an adjective to a Vedic metre which syllable less than tbe


t1;<fi~~'ii: XVII. I.


the word is the name of has got one normal; cf. f.!1't:'llf~ !l~~ R. Pro


Olrf~ffii1 apparent

disappearance by withdtawal into the primary cause. cf. Vak. pad. III. 1.38. cf. also ffilq rn~"@l t<fcfif\UT!'!; ~~qCf<iT 8J,!~cn 9~<lf <rr~T if g ~<ltSt\T I ~>l~!'!; 'i:f .wr~ ~~q~~ii'liij: ~q: RRl:+!l9) ifT~ ~~~lj~: I (Relii..)

R. T. I I
f.;er\1~ a name given to a collection of words whicb are mainly Vedic. In ancient times such collections were possibly very general and numerous and the works or treatises On derivation sucb as tbe Nirukta of Yaska were. based upon tbem ; cf. iiI~q:
Efi~ijlq" I ~rrm ~lt +rerfra I ~+Il: wn~J ~irl~1l t!m~ffiK~ ~ifi'('fCf trCf ~rffi frFn:rif(ffiEIUGq :a-'C<jra ~~J1:r+fi:llq: I 8JN 'IT an&:<{-

~ (I) personal ending substituted for i1i (ftlqJ of the 1st pers. sing. in
the imper:itive; (2) a technical term in the Jainendra-VyakaraJ,.1a for the term iilqm of PaJ,.1ini.

f.t:~~ not possessed of any numbersense; the term is used in connectionwitb indeclinables ; d. 8J~~<j~

an affix pOEsessed of the mute indicatory letter <'(, the word characterized bv which has the acute accent 'on the vowel of the first syllable; e.g. m'l'q:, <!1t;;<i:, cf. Ras. -ii1CiOiqJl;q;r:c;:q possession of grea ter force; on P. VI. 1.197. the word is used in connection with ~~ the acute accent for the first rules that are called fir~. See ~ vowel of a word prescribed by ( 7) . paJ,.1ini's sutra vi. I. 197 ~"f(lHfitf<l~~1 f.:R<t~;mi an invariably effective com. f.!~ (I) eternal, as applied to word pound; the term is explained as or sabda in contrast with sound or ~Fct>l~ Rill!tlmtl; i.e. ~ compound whose dissolution cannot be shown dhvani which is evanescent (~). by its component words as such; The sound with meaning or without e.g. the dissolution of ~~'lll~: cana meaning, made by men and animals not be sbown as .~~ 9iT~:, but it is impermanen~; but t~e sense or idea awakened 1D the mmd by the must be shown as :p~ ~fu tI: I The

M. Bh. on P. VIII. I.4; ( 6) always or invariably applying, as opposed to optional; the word in this sense is used in connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply: cL :a-qq({t1mm f.r~[!:jijm:, lHlftI>lT\:I: 9:iff~~l'IT; M. Bh. on P. II. 2.19; ( 7) constant, as applied to a rule whicb applies if anotl!er simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effEct, 'as well as when that other rule does not take effect; d. EliRl~'i\dT~JfeWlil~HN frit(1T Par. Sek. Pari 46. The operations wbicb are nitya according to tbis Paribha~a take effect in preference to others which are not nitya '. altbough ., ~ p. they may even b e' para ; cr. q\!I'a~ 9~e( Par. Sek. Pari. 42.



the gafisamasa and the dative tatpuru~~ with the word Ol~ are examples of ~t<HH118. firm by the statement of the Varttikakara- "Iii~<'t<ii\<l' SlTRr'C[fct'lir9~ " P. I. 2. 45 Vart.IZ. Thus, the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not, becomes a difficult one to be answered. Although the :Rkpratisiikhya in XII. 8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive, still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense; cf. '~'Cfffif c:rm~CffiTfuqrerc:rIG;<f~</irc:rlmcR 'q t!T~<iif; on which Uvvata remarks ~'qC'f fcr'Cflm: ~Il~'fi(: ~'qC'f frl{~<iif: I The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation, and the conflicting views have to be reconciled. This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense btJ,t they indicate the sense. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas, it is said t1;1at the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by paI..1ini; it is a certain kind of relation and 'tbat too, is not directly expressed by them but it is indicated. Bhoja in his Splgaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as :-;;r:(fflfi\:S!'~J'Gp.rm'U~q::nm~c:rTtl~9~ffT
:qrr~1:T1m: a:rrewEi<:?'lRT~ ~T1f:?r5Cf~~ f<!'CfCl;:~<Tf<f~qr 17;er '9JG:<IT Fl'CfIClT: I

~rharian.nam~d Ti1a~wbo probably lived ill KasItJira . ':"". :~'S: . .. . . . . .. ,.. . ~. a word given, as it appears, . f.\q;:I:l'<r the word is uset!I:in the sense without trying for its deriv~tion, in of root-cause or support by Bhartauthoritative works of ancient grarhari in Vakyapadiya, cpo 1. 13; mmarians especially paI..1ini; cf. II.I'Z7, .132, 29'71 +~ ; III. 12.5 etc.GJfo~T<io:r1[lRu<il<!c:ro P; VI. '4.174, .'as also arqg~fq~o V.4.77 etc. etc. The fir+rtr (I) mime of the third out of the seven positions of voice in the phrase IiiqTCI'1IRtl:a+r. is very frequenVedic recital. (2) a of uttertly used by Patafijali to show that ance of words at the performance some, technical difficulties in the of a sacrifice. Seven such modes formation. of a word are 'not someare given in the Taittiriya Pratisiitimes to be taken into considera.khya; cf. ~'C[i~Ii:'!rii1~~'Cffo~~l\l1"'<!l1tion,. the word given by PaQ.ini GRifuT T. Pr. XXIII. 5. being the correct one; cf. M.Bh. on . . 1. 1.4, III. 1,22 etc. etc.; cf. also firf~r'Q CI) the formal cause of a gra. the usual expression .n~ f.'!qmmmatical operation; ct. fcrrn'UIOllif c:rTIii. The derivation of the word ~f+l~t<j'Olrer: I given as a Parifrom 'R( with fcr causal,' is suggest;' . bhii~ii by many grammarians like ed in the:Rk Prfl,tisakhya Where it: Vya<;'ii, Siradeva and others; cf. is stated that Nipatas are laid down also S!'~t~'C['C[<uqN~ ~ H~~ Flrn'Qf or presented as' such iq ;manifol~ M:.Bh. on In. 1 ..1 Vart. '2; (2) senses; cf. :R. Pr. XII. 9";' cf. also distinguishing sign <I: ~~l~</irfr OlCifu followed by almost all later grammarians. See Fl'CfTff.
Iq'Tg,tlN<rfi~T<lf S!'lt~~ mil\<! 'q I ~lq'fqCfiR111lf ~,f'q ~OI.:II M.

f~~ffilf a scholar of Sanskrit Grammar \Vho wrote glosses on the Mahabha~yapradjpa; on the Lagbusabdendusekbara. and on the Paribba~endusekhara. He was a resident of Benares where he coacbed many pupils in Sanskrit Grammar. He lived in the first half of the nineteenth century.

~~q illustration; d. 'FIlm~: ~l</i: ~l'Pl.JT ~~CWl M. Bh. on 1. 4.23 Vart.

15; cf.also ~ 1m ~ f<:t:::'~Ic:rrfir R. Pro 1. 22 .


a particle which -possesses no gender and number, and the case termination after which is dropped or elided. NiplHa . is given as one of the four categories of words viz. C'fTl1iL, Ol~!!rcr, B'rrefr and fclmr by all the ancient writers of PratiSiikhya, VyiikaraI..1a and Nirukta works; cf. Nir. I. 4, M. Bh. on I. I. Ahnika I, R. Pro XII. 8 etc. The word is derived from the root 'Cfq: 'with f.T by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Nipiitas B'11l1~, </iqPt~!lU~' and t[<::1~$it ; cf. Ol~ f.!'tfTfU: 1
\:!'Elrcr'ir5Cf~ fcr'CfffFa I ~111~ I OlN ~~!lU~ I arfi't t[<::~1Jll: I Nir. 1. 4.

Bh. Pradipa on P. V. 1.II4; cf. also M. Bh. on II. 1.27.

f.rtmi<r~{ the accent, with which the

~: 8J~llT( frlm~<r ~t .:fqf?!'Q!I'Cf~, i:tfuu ~{ffi Cif, M. Bh. on I. 1.26 Vart. 5.

He gives six varieties of them, viz.

fc!\:<!~, Ol<'tqnn~, 0l!f!l<U~, f.lqlq'l~,

The Nipiifas are looked upon as possessed of no sense; ct. fcrqrcr: lfTG:~: R. Pro XII. 8, V. Pro VIII. 50, (com. by U vvata). paI).ini has not given any definition of the word mIff, but he bas enumerated them as forming a class with 'q at their head in the rule 'qR<lt58~ where the word Offfil conveys an impression that' they possess no sense, the sense being of two kinds '6~'f and mer, and the Nipiitas not possessing anyone of the two.

and a:rf9fcrfilq>:ll~, and mentions more than a tl~ousand of them. For details see Bhartrhari's Viikyapadiya II. 189-206. .


Nipatana word is expressed in the Siitra, which is said to prevail over the accent which ordinarily should be possessed by the word; cf. tl f<!'CfTff<R'f{: S!'~'R\<! cnlq''!i) Olf<t~Rr M. Bh. on P. 1. 1.56 Vart. 23; cf. also M.Bh. ali. 1. 3.3, VI. 1.123 etc.

firfWa'~a+ft locative' case, used in the sense of a cause as prescribed by ~~~B-~it, P. U. 3.36 Vart. 6 and illustrat~d by the usually' quoted verse '9ijfrrT G.ffq~ i[fra Cf<'ff~~frcr ~I~\.~ I ~!! 'qlRl' ~ff ~ ~~i[cf: II' M. Bh. on II. 3.36 Vart.6, also d. Kas. on P. 1. 1.57. fiifmtm~l:'ftif Action in accordance with the cause as the application of the gender and case affixes to the adjective in accordance with the noun qualified by it. cpo Yak. pad. III. 14. 3IO, 3II.

The impression is made

filqJ6m~~ the view that the nipatas and the upasargas too, as contrasted with nouns, pronouns and other indeclinables, only indicate the sense and do not denote it; this view, as grammarians say, was implied in the Mababha~ya and was prominently given in the Vakrather' yapadiya by Bhartrhari which was

Fl1mtl<r$ti(E{ the view prominently expressed by the Varttikakiira that nipatas do not possess any sense, which was modified by Bhartrhari who stated that. they do possess sense which, of course, is indicated and not expressed. See f.Tqrcr.
fifq"rQ(;;~q~'i:i' a short treatise ex-


plaining and illustrating the use of indeclinables, written by, a gra-

a popular name given by grammarians to the maxim Flfll'Ql'CfT~ ~rnRl'li\<llt<iqr<i:, a thing, which is brought' into eXistence by a cause, disappears on the disappearance of the cause, The


. 222
!llaxim is not, of course, universally applicable. For details see Par. Sek. Pari. 56, Sira. Pari. 99,
~;r. an affix or an augment or a

with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule, or a part of it, liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down; d. M. Bh. on 1. 1.3, KM. on I. 3.63, VI. 4.II; cf. also the frequently quoted dictum 8lf.!<!lt f.!<ilicliTRuft' q!t..,m; (2) limitation as contrasted with f.t~ or CIil~T<:; d. ~'iim~ f.!<i<U ..,=rm ~q6:rfq<lr-r: ; ~s:@.~: ~~t~ m; M. Bb. on II. 2. 34 Vart. 2; (3) 1.1. regulating rule; a restrictive rule, corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimarhsakas, e. g.the rule aj!i~(tlrn'd 8lH+Fi!fll..;Z P. 1. 3.12; the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restric.tive sense as far as possihle ; cf. the dictum f;fNf.t<ll1~<1~ fcrf<Itcr \T<jf<j~ Par. Sek. Pari. 100; the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions, such as :sr~lT
fq:ql1, 8l~\?t<if.r<lii, 8lEtfct<I+r, >f&-l!JF!<Iil,
>f~mF!<Ill, ~lfq<Ill etc. etc.; ( 4 ) grave accent or anudatta; cf. ~ltl"'~ f.!<Ia<I., R. Pro III. 9;, see

~ possessed of no mute indicatory letter; not possessed of any mute indicatory letter; cf. Eli
!!<Kcl (81JCfiR:) '31~'1;;:'ifCfi: Eli f'1G~~: I

substitute taking place on account of certain formal causes or nimittas; cf. f.:!~mT~ f.Jr.RIt:rf.:!~ioT~f.!il'l~'t, ~i[ 'q .~~s~Ycr: ~'!ii~~~T~ ~tlT: M. Bh. on III. i. I Vart. 2.
~~<i1' disappearance

M. Bh. 'on 1. 1.14.

~~"'l ..~~~ a short term used for the maxim f~~~ ;;:r ~'if9i\<l . ~'[Uj<I: Par. Sek. Pari. 8r.
f~Cjim possessed of
110 scope of, or occasion for, application; the word ar.:r'lClil'8" is also used, in this sense. The niravakasa rules always set aside the genera! rules which are always present wherever they i.e. the niravakasl rules are possible to be applied. Niravakasatva is looked upon as one of the two criteria for Cf{l:T or SUblation, the other one being ~F!lr<:jfci~+!Tq as illustrated by the . usual maxim, known as n~~i<{ '<IT<l~ See ~~~; cf. also a:r.t9'liRTI &- f9l:lcU 'lT1:1C!il <19Rr Par. Sek. on Pari. 64. "

of an object; shutting up. According to Vak. pad. III. 9.56., Time has two powers by which it brings about the emergen~e or disappearance of objects. The power that shuts up objects is STfcr<ti=1:T. definitely fixed; the word f.r<Io is used in grammar in connection with the nimitta or nimittin in a grammatical operation prescribed by a rule, which, or a part of which, is shown . to be superfluous unless there is laid down a regulation; d. ~'1!l~ cnaO<Jif.. I ~fq<liil:it<I.. I ~!qr f.f<lm m<l<lT 8lFr<jQI~~ ~qsftr s:Il'::i!<fRr M.Bh. on I. 3.12 Vart. 6; (2) The grave accent; cf. ;:r'mi~~ f.!<jcr ... ~~ E.. Pro III. 9

~~ (I) regulated in size or number;

FR~ a fault of pronunciation when a

f.r<jQ (2).
fiI~ limiting;

fsti.m I B fil<lTlfcfir

limitative; d. g;:
~ti<lfu I ~~:

f.i~~ (1)

an affix whose accent is definitely given by an indicatory mute letter applied to it; d. M.Bh. on 1. 1.3; (2) the grave accent; a syllable with a grave accent; grave vowel; cf. f.!<ler~a?t R. Pro XL 2 5; (3) name of a Samdhi. when a visarga is changed . into ~ and then omitted and the preceding vowel is iengthened; cf. 15~~i'!iT<i f.:r<mr 'o+nfcim R. Pr. IV. 9; cf. also P. VIII. 3.14 and VI. 3.III.
(I) restriction; regulation; bind-

ffl M. Sh. on II. 4.83 ; cf. also ~

f.!il'l~ ~fcr~ ~~ I CIilil~cfr f.r<lTiioii

vowel is harshly pronounced and hence is not properly audible; cf. f.!<:ffl f.m~ Pradipa on M. Bh.1. I. Ahn. I. The fault occurs when the place and the means of utterance are pressed and drawn in; cf. f.!~ ~<iCfi\UJTqcm R. Pro XIV. 2.
f~ (I) set as.ide; answered; the

f.r<!Tli<ii "i Par. Sek. Pari. 56.

~ an obligatory order pr command,

such as that of a preceptor, as contrasted witb ~m=r; cf. l:Hfft: q(:

il1<iiRt~ efT ~mr: ~ ~'1rtit~li1

. <fciRr .. ~mqo: <fiatt ~'1~!ll "''1m etc. M. Bh. on P. III. 4.67 Vart. 8

where Kaiyata explains ~lf' as

word is frequently used in connection with faults which are stated to occur or present themselves if a particular explanation is given; ( 2) prevailed over by another ; cf. ('fGJ if ~q ~<1~ fir~a<I., R. Pro XI. 30, where Uvvata paraphrases f.:!~ as

~m name of a class of works Which

. as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of th~se viz. Upamanyu, Sakatayana, Sakapiil).i, Sakapurti and others, but, out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived; the word, hence has been applied by scholars to the Niruktaof Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B.C. i.e. a century or two before .Pal).ini. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics (fuarr), rituals (~q-), grammar ( 0<iT'li\1ll ) prosody (~) and astronomy (~~) and a mention of them is found made in the CMndo gyopani~ad. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful, it is doubtfui whether the Nirkuta works could be called scientific treatise~ efhe work of Yaska, however, has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda, being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commen tators. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one. by Durgadirya is a scholarly one. It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durg~simha, who wrote a Vrtti or gloss On the Katantra Vyakaral).a. The word ~ is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of ' explained ' and not in the sense . of derived; cf. R. Pro XV. 6 ;V. Pro IV. 19, 195.


~i~ pure, unnasalized, as opp~

ing; the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down

osed to tmFlRlCfi nasalized. cf. tlfva' f5: <jUj: ~RlC!il f.r<:a<nfffiiT~ I Mo Bh. on I, .t. Ahnika I.

were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. The Nirukta works are looked upon

fin;'Qi~TG<:I' a gloss on Yaska's Nirukta

written by a modern scholar of' grammar named Ugracarya in the eighteenth century A.D.

~~ ?- elas~ of. comp~uDd V{<ortts.
headed by the., word fq~w};jiC'b, have their last vowf31 aoce:mt~ acute; e.g. f.l~<m., ~, f<rfl~~ etc.; cJ. lias. on P. VI. 2.1 84.
fq~~oIT potentiality of implication

. the parHc1,llar tYP,e of word; d. Durghaia Vrtti on:P.. t~2.6 and VII. 4.73 as also J\.M. on P. IV. 3.II and


(1) selection o,f' one or some out oImany; cf.;;n~f,n!jln:r: ~ga:r<llit

.iiI-.iijCfi (I) productive, as opposed to expressive; .d. 1%' ~ij~<t fu~~~ \ or;:cr~af.l1 ~ij Fr4t4~ I 3llVR'Itqfoqp~'fiR \ ilj'i~" fu~Fflf.j~ij 51mqRl: \ 111:. Bh. on P. 1.:r.50 Va~t. I; (~) productive of activity; c::f. ~N;fi fcI~~ <fil~g~ +19m@- 9'ffi;~+r.; lIL I34~ op. r. 4.23.

fiF-im that which ~hould pot pr()ceed

to the next rule; d. a'C"I'r'1l~4 f.l9~~ M. Bh. pn III. 2.6$,' V. I;IQ,etc. See the warp Fl'[RI. .' '
f<'f<llQ sometimes .used for f.lmcr or the

gra,:e acce~t.



: .,

which gives the meaning of a word which is based upon implication; e.g. ~;;rr 'l~fo. .
fq~i1q'Cf a word, the penultimate vowel

which is picked up and taken :'back, as for instance, the penultimate or of l[ in the word ati[~ cf. ati[fual at{al at g!i1 il:i'~~~~cml;. Nir. IV. 25. '
fiI~~T -( u1fI)


(existence) with<lut any clear attributes; of a vague nature. cpo Vak. pad. In. 14.263.

lfi't~~!i 'l~Eli\tij fu>:l~ I ~I01t +f!1~~ CiT ?{l~<I: ~~cr+r: .Ras. on P. II. 2.10 as also on II. 3.41; (.2) determined or definite sense to the exclusion of another, generally on the strength of the indeclinable t/;q which is expressed or understood. The word fu'cTf~tr( is used for or'lI:"fT~tr( in this. sense; cf. <la tl;<!<Iiwcrffi~T~ a '" maxim used as a Paribhafj. by some . grammarians; d. also '<TTCfl~;rF.;fi'I=er
~"'4ql I:"fTtqql:"fT~ <j~T ~n=erRlfi'l=errq'<TRdj ilT ~ Kas. on P'-VI. I,8I.

fifc'i~<i on~ ?f n~~



k~nd!i ~~ kllr~

f<'f<lfu (r) cess!ltion of recummce of

trap.~itl~~'-Ye~q '()f I:po( \~hicn ~a~ got th~ n(ltHr~ pf beiIlg p r odllc:: ed or , shap~ ; d. ~~'ir 'fi;'! fu4t~ ~EfiI~ ~It:!j ~~ '\ .~cf(~ (Tlqt( ~~EfiI<:: <'f!HJliR: '\' Th~
prpu~R~ ~qt9 e~h:;t~Qc~W ~nto ~ !"\eyv


pbj~c::t gpv~rn!,!d

... ~ 'w9r4' o~~~~d~' f~~m :a ~uleto : ~, s!l~sii~e~t 'f~l~' pr r~l~s ;. ~q!l~appli~

c~tiRn p~

~~Q'r~ fcI~til i~expl~~n::4 ~s ~~;;:;';:~~ ~~ ~<li!~<j~q'f~~(jK \' ~<T~~ i ~: \ ~~f~:

v'rtti' ct.; ~'~:r~ ~dir';H~~ ~8~Rr .~ (~,[l%. 'fiUfu ~+.~q, pn P. 1. r.44 Vart. 8. cf. als~ ~ijfllf<!t?:!!l<lt ~i ~r !l'lRl: !3~ 'tTf.JrRl; i(~t. :p~~:: V\. p~ri. '9 ;
5TC11fG<I Rq-a-;~ I

tht) cessation of recurrence'or anu~'


'f!~ltl c;?n~'eqp~~tupon

~:SI:~f.r~k~s~; ~t alsp Y~ky~:

P{f~if'!I+llqqft<-lTqT a short form for the


maxim fcI~!if.jT"~!iT~m w:rfra which means r substitutes take the place of that or its part which has been actually statEd or enunciated in the . rule ( of grammar)' Par. Sek. Pari. 12. For details see Par. Sek. Pari 12.

separated, dissociated, disconnected ; d. ij fu~1 ;:J1161lf or~l~~sltfu ~T~: Nii. I. 3

~ 1P'!~(a- ~~~: l1RJ:!' q~~~FI~~ fu<f~<rfo\' I\~~ Ph~ PH L' 449: Fqr p~t!lils ~ee th~ wor4 lfiW!:.; !llso see ~L Bh. o~ I. 4-49. ." '. " . .
fu~fu produc~iop of the effeGt; pro. dJlction ~~ the qc;tivi'ty by th~ age~ts or . i!l~trurpents9f ac::tivit'y cl:\-Utld +}ar!li{as ; , cf. ~N~ fu:. f>n<lt fuf~~fu mg'l!3'lf f.l ~<lf2 M. Bh. on II. 2.19 Vart. 2. '
fq~ a fault of pronunciation by Which a letter is uttered harsh 01: rude; cf. futn ~?{l: Kaiyata on M. Bh. 1. 1. Abnika I.

Pll~~YCl IH~ 7.~78; pf. ~ls~ ll:if ~ GI1~~

~~rm f<t~fu~~~! ~<1~ff: "~. it~~


( 2) cess9-tion . Or re'{p~vai; ~f. ij ~

Fl,[RI ~

the llsqai word ;:r~RTfrri[f~~~~:~

-llfcl5!iRr 111:. Bh.on 1. i.i:. Viirt. .j;cf. also M. Bli. o~ '1. 1.3 etc.; cf. also

f~ a name for the Sarilhitapatha; cf. ~ B"~(Tl"l:f<FI!!'i:<I~ R. Pro 1. 3. fif~ name of a commentary on the Prakriya-Raumudi.

~~~~ pla~es wher~ the s~bstitute ~ur and 'lfuclO nqt apply; ~e~k termi nati(}I1s; kit or nit affixe:; in PaQini's grammar; d.' orm~!jt~R'[fu ~:q1~9r~qr Wlfcr \ ~('f: Brmfcr \ Nir. II. I. The word ~;ni1 is also used in this sense by ancient grammarians.

enunciated; d .. ~t Jl~me of a grammarian who is I P. 1. 1.66; V. bf(tM'lved to have written a gloss Pr.1. 134. " ( '[Rl) on the Siitras of Pa~ini on the" strength of a reference to him f.l1<h!~"(ql a popular name of the iu the Nyasa of Jinendrabuddhi; Paribha$a aRf.jffifu fcIl?:~ 1:f..~~<! \ cf. ~ d. '!fu: 1flfU'r;:f'M~"I101t fli;rort ~~+!filqt. ~ fcIl?:!!qft.nqlll'[RI~Jtn \ . Pari . \1~srufta+I:. Nyasa on I. I.I. Bbaskara Pari. 97. exhibited,

iirG'Cf negation; prohibition; d. fciq,,{d. f<lq.<i;~' ~ir~tR: Par. Sck. -Pari. II2. The word >rq"{ is used frequently in this sense in old grammar works such as the .l\Iahabha$ya, the wprd Fltr'if being comparatively a I;i1odern one.

aft+rRlfu frif{f!


~.3r.l ~~U~T Bhasavrtti on P. II.

. fiI&:m (I) abridgment,


cf. Btq"'f~ 51~~!!3r~~ \ f.l&lT~: a:flj"'!<I:

~ mention, actual statement; the word is often used in the Mahabha$ya in sentences like ~ a~ fuw: Cfiij-o!{:, fu~:ir ~5" etc. ; d. also V. Pro 1. 36 ; d. also the maxim aRliffifu fcI~~ ~~ P. 1. 1.66 and V. Pro 1. 134; cf. also orq~ir Cfi!{I~Wf(<!I ~qfq["I~ "." .s. Ti1~: lfiQ~: M B h. on P. 1. 2.39 Vart. I. Sometimes the mention or exhibition made by a word shows

~ interpretation

by means of etymology as found in the Nirukta works; the act of fully uttering the meaning hidden in words that are partially or wholly unintelligible. in respect of their derivation, by separating a word into its component letters; d. fu6!>5!{ f.r<liU fu<f"l'~ Durgavrtti on Nir. II. I. For details see Nirukta II. I.

aT<iq~qw.~<I~: \ Kaiyata on M. Btl. on IV. 3.100 ; (2) being turned intq a short (vowel.>; d. ~~T;:~lm!j<tr f<t~~ R. Pro IV. 39. ,

fflQ'PTrc; ~ d~~~ qf words headed by the

wor4 f.!1'i'fi t~ ,:hich the affix i{'{\ (~) is add~d, proviqf!cl thf:!se words are ?PF . IDeIllbers 9l a ~ompouncl ; e,g. ~fs:n'{\~' 'l!~<fi+t., l1Wllfi<I:. etc. ; cf. Kas; q~ P. Y. 1.H). .


' 1'1<1t'!Cfi lit. expeller, e~clqdiDg pthe r forms whicbare otherwise, that~s. incorrect; d. ~TH~ "I'l'"f '~IFJIlfr9a: ar~n<Jfrfr,m~<! Fr9~if <19"fu \ M. Btl. ~n 1. I~'' Si~a Siitni 2. '

separated; takf!n out from a tIling ; existi~g o';'ly iq ~on~e1?'tio~


or idea; cf. ~ ~~~lIJi: ~~ ~t~ ~ Sf~<jp;~ if g ~~lR~'liiir.11 <I<rT ~ ifi'if: ~Rt I Kaiy. (j~ P. II. who wrote an i~dependent work: On Paribhasas in VyakaraI).a' named Paribha~avrtti. This Vrtti is referred to in the Paribhas~ridusekhara by NagesabhaHa and the views expressed in it are ,severely criticised in the commentary Gada. He wrote a gloss on A~tadhyayi which was named paI).iniyadipika., He has refemdto it in his Paribha~avrtti. He also wrote Bha~yatattvaviveka, a commentary on Mahabha~ya and Gii<;lh1i.rthaprakasika, a commentary on Siddbiintakaumudi. He also wrote a commentary named Sukhabodhini on Siddhantakaumudi., It is also known as VaiyakaraI).asiddhantarahasya; cpo f9l~g tr<Jm:1llfu:[l;:~~mm(~~Zj~f.t~~: I,

cf. P. VII. 1.54; (z) to the affix "the numerals ~ also after the words Y..l1', 'iilf!iTand in Vedic Literature, :, e.g. qUUjI+J:, ~Tqr+r., ~, ~r+I:.J 'ii+fUfl<n'I., ij'!ql+J:.i ct. P; ,vIr. 1.55,56, 57; (3) to the part of a root possessed of two' consonants, as also of the root 8l~ of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative sy Hable ending iIi a:rr, which is substituted for ~; e.g. 8lIq~, Cljl'ii~; cf.P. VII. 4.71,72; (4) to the affix ~gl!. after a base ending in 8li( as also to the affixes o~I!. and ijill!. after a base ending in if. in Vedic Literature, e.g. ~rcrm, 8l&JUa':, ~q~rQ\: etc., ct. P. VIII. 2.16, 17 ; ( .5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having 8l of <1OJ,. as the first member; e.g. ~:, cf. P. VI. 3.74; (6) to any vowel "after if. which ispreceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word e.g. ~~'mW-, cf.
8l1+J:. after numerals termed, q~ and




the affixes:q'i and ~ in Pfu;lini's Grammar; cf. 'ffi'm'itt filgr P~ L I,26.

~ also

fiI:m; completed, accomplished; used in connection with a grammatically formed' word by applying affixes to the bases; cf. "F~fc!~: ~~F!ma~ Siradeva Pari. 94, where Siradeva has explained the word filfmr as >rq'tln~-3l'~.
sessed of a grave accent; cf. V. Pro IV. 138.

~ struck down in tone, grave, pos.

before a case-ending termed Sara vanamasthiina;. e.g. <rnrffi,Cfonfir, ~Fr etc., cf. Kas. on VIL1.72; (6) of the declinable base in' the neuter gender, ending with If, ;;r, Sl\ or ~ before a case-ending' beginning with a vowel; e.g. ~lf.t, ~ etc., ct. Kas. on P. VII.I-73; (7) of the affi; ~<r (am:. of the pres. part.) under certain conditions <mfi ~RIT; If'tfo'ctT, ij'f~, cf. VII. 1. 8o-8! ; ( 8 of the word 8l~ before the nom. and voc; sing. affix l;l;;e.g. 8lC1~:Hif., ~ 8lC1~'1if., ct. P. VII. I, 82; (9) of the words i<!!, ~q<:I. and {</ffCf~ before the nom. and VOC. sing. affix ij in Vedic Literature, e. g. lj~, {</CfIif, ~:r~, cf. P. VILr.83.

fii~ separated with the intervention

of a consonant. The word is used in connection with the detached first part of a compound word not followed immediately by a vowel; d. arFr~~ aroljq~ Uvvata on V. Pr. V3 0
~ augment

Paribha.1jiavrtti, Pari. 55, page 303 of paribba1jiasamgraha.

;ft~~ nephew of Appaya Dik:;;ita; who has writ ten a com mentaryon Kaiyata's Mahabh1i.~ya pradipa.

augment'\. inserted after the last vowel of a root or a noun-base in specified cases. See ~+J:.. name letter.


of the second



r. evi{

<fr affixed to the reduplicative syllables of the roots tfiUl,.. q~, ~a:, ~4<:I, ire, q;<:I, tIn:., tI~and ~ in the intensive; e.g. arrq~, q;:fiq~ etc. cf. P. VII. 4.65 and 84.

~::q a term used for the grave accent

, or for the vowel, accented grave; d. ~~4e~lj;;r~ ~ T.Pr. XIX. I. ~'Rr l'r <fr'q~ro. R. T. 54, 55 cf. also V. Pro 1. III.
~ 'lI-q:Cii~

constituting the grav~ accent, features of the gra""G~">. ccent; cf.

~p':q~T ~~fcr<fr~:'!i\lfUr

, 6i?fCf6iJl

augment if. (I) affixed to the words l>F'acln:. and qfcrqn:. before the feminine affix ~ e.g. 31rQ&'~, mrcwfi, cf. P. IV. 1.32; (2) affixed to 'the root ?if before the causal affix fii'I=tt" e.g. ~~m, cf. P. VII. 339; (3) affixed to the reduplicative syllable of roots ending in a nasal consonant and having the penultimate 8l as also of the roots~, (;i+I" ({[, ~, +!~, q~, 'i:!\, and 'li~ in the intensive; e.g. (;i~, ~~, it<ImRr, ~ miff, ;;r~Clj~, ~~, ({~iff, :qo:"l~, ~Rt d. P. VII. 4.85, 86,87. augment if. prefixed ( I) to the gen. pl. ending in 3TI1l. after a crude base ending in a short vowel, or in ~ or e; of feminine bases termed nadi, or in a:rr of the feminine affix ( 2.1l!., ~l!. or 'qII!.); e.g. CJ:~, arnt~, q;~l1lT+J:, ~li(~, ~1ilFl. etc.;

~ aug~ent "l insert~dafter the last vowel' (I) of a root given in the Dh1i..t~patha as ending with lJ1ute

a grammarian of the seventeenth who wrote, a work on accents; viz. Svaramafijari.

,'f<Ira;m, ,~fg,

fff~, ~rqm

~2: partly touched, haif to~ched; semi-cqntacted; ,a ter~ used, for sibilants and hissing sounds.

M. Bh. on 1. 2.30.


~~ author of\IlIf~f.'a~, a commentary on the Siddhiinta Kaumudi of BhaHoji Dik~ita. '

~"i'lU6r{'if~,:t'~ or ':n~q~ a famous gram- ' marian of the seventeenth century, J

'i{~-, \~, (;i+I, and ~~undercertain specified condi~ions,e.g. i1~r, ,<lID', ~;;'Cf<Im, ~fff, ~;:;rljRt, ,81[~~?'!: etc. ;'cf. P.VII. I.60.69; (4) of declinaiM bases marked with the mute "~lndicatoi:y letter <3", 'K or ~, as also ;, of' the' declinable wording, ,~ from the roo't 8l~ and ~;;r.~e.g:,!~, r.,;ii1~;,~, d. Kas. on P. Vq.I. ,:: 70,71; (5) 'of the"declinable'base - in'the neuter genaer, endirigw.~th "~ 'vdirel o't wtill: ~ny c~ti!!6h~nt e~ceptin'g ,'sem.ivp~el 'o~:: apasal,

sig~ ai-" (iu)i. ~~ g. ,~iff;' ~~;, qf. P. VIt 1.59: '(:3 )0 the r~otsw;;r,.,

etc;; ct: P VIL1.S8; ( 2,) of roots!r'l,. ~<m~ multisyllabic, possessed of many and others' before the conjQgational syllables, as contrasted with ri'!iRl.


(1) belonging to the Veda;'Vedic as opposed to ~'or <iTNCfi; cf. ~~ ~if~ Nir., 1.20;' {z} name given to KaI)<;las 4, 5 and 6 of the Nirukt~ of Yaska;<iq<iif~,
~ ~IlfWr:lj~' q~if4


burga Vr onNir IV.:i:.

~SjQ~"il" mentioned

f.!<j11~ q~l1T<!TfiI

as s'econdary; ljt. tlC{Ti'ir; the term is applied,to the first three Kai}.c;las '; or sections of the Nirukta:

c:rtnffi~ accessory; 'accidental;, f.'!qmRi.




SWtmf.r; .

~~ effeCt;_one that is catised; d.

ing t,o 'the root which these wordiEhefornied; e~g: ~<i~:; i:i~~:, ~~: etc.; cf. Kas; on P. VII.;i.S3.
~ going lower, subordinate; the word

~+!~. ~~m~<Il!T9:; a .PaH~ bha~a given by VyiiQi, Sinideva and others.


~~'ffi (1) obtained by derivation, ety.: riioiogical; (2) etymologist; writer ef a Nitukhl. work:.

i{~~ matter

of comrhiinication; statement made for' c<>mCbuniCation. Uddyota explains the word as f.r~i(f: ~l:T: :sr~inR:<! ~~~1Ii: I d.

is used in the sense of upasarjana ~s a. technical term in the Jainfmdra Vyakarai}.a~ d. ~'ffi; rlj~ Jain; Vy.I. L93
~ also ;n-~'1tlf; the vowei at the

ruiewhich has got some exceptions, "l!~f+lm<lqqT~"( :sra'T<!l'(, R. Pro which iays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with thegeneril rule '~



o:~ 19~Jit ~Wciu<lf ~~o"Cfir ~~fro ~


fflm: ~ljr~ ~tBh. on P. i.r;6j;

OT'I!P[, or end of the first.JDemberof a compound word which has got a grave atcerii; e:g. tbevowel ;3; of i!. in ti'i!.<l~; ef.~llrm i:lI~~mT~Tmc<J: V. Pr. 1. 120. See m~lIT=<I~

~T:B<f) tad. affixes 0fUI.. and others added in the sense of' ~ ~e:' (P;IV:2.69); as in wdrds like ~ meariing the place of residence of the Sibis.
~ a technical term

~ fiame given to alWii=G- or the grave

tone; cf. $'3f1 ~!l@:R~~T!I~ ;5~re:: ~ilw R; Pro IIi. 17 where Uvvata explains ~lj~ro ~'U~ff~f.


~p.t maximi a famiiar or patent inst-

in the J aineh:; dra VyakaraI)a fo.r . the term ~ defined by FaQini in the rules Sl~f.lffl:2 wr(~" ~q~i1'( aud 11,:1Iifcr+!fui 'tII~~~!fT~ P ~I.243; 4 t cf.<fT'll:t~ ~ I Jain. si.i. :(-3-93. as concealed; dependence. cf. Yak. pad. III. 7.95, 123; cf. "l!Hfl~';'311li'6ffi I (Hela. )

P?F~l=t lagging back or iagging behind


withdrawal of the sense to previous stage. cp; Vak;-pad. ill. 7;'59.

~~i=lf<ofr a kind of ~~1 metre in lVhich the second foot has twelve syllables; while tht? rest have eight syllables each; d. fitm~ r~EllftplT RPr;XVI.32 ~~r~ a class of words headed by the ,,,ord ~~, which are formed by -me,ans of the substitution of a guttural ~onsonant in the place of a ~onsonant of any other claSs belong"

arlee quoted t6 explain similar cases; cf. the words arnr'li<:'ITfair<n<! M. Bh; on P; II.2;24i arri-ciw<n~ M. Bh.on P. 1. 3. 9; OTfi{d~f'!fi;:lji<I M. Bh; oli P. IV. I. 88, 89, IV. 2.q:>, IV.3.13I, V. i.7, i8, VI; ~;ll~ztr<n<I M.Bn. on P. 1. 37, 'l!r.t@<i~l{I~ M.Bh. tI. Ahnika I, ~~!lT<r M.Bh. Oil P~VIII. 2.83, i1i!T~I!f\~;:ljtlj .M. Bh. on P. I1.50, ~I:'flitT5{l!fli'\r<iT<I M.Bh. on pjl. 1.69, VI. 3.82, :sroorl6~ M. Bh. . on P. 1. 1.8, lrtEl'fi1l~<I M; Bh. on P.I.2.39, ~~;f~~Ujr!lT<r M.Bh. Siva Si.iica 2 Vart. 5, ~iWiWT~~T~ M.Bh. on P. i~2.39, ~~iji<I M:Bh; on' P. 1.3; 12; The- word cam~ to be used iii the gerierai sense of Pafibha~1is or niles ofinterpretatioD many of whiCh were based upon pophlar maxims as stated iIi the word m1li~fu by Nagesa; Hemacimdra has. used the word rljT<I for Paribhi!savacana. Bhartrhari uses the term" in the sense of systematic e;poSition cf~ Vilk. pacL II~ 479,4840 Th~ word 15 also used in the of a.




a. work dealing with Vy1ikaraI)a Paribh1i~as or, maxims ~s fciiiiidin HemacaIidra's system of gramUla~, wrltt~riby t-Iemaham- ;:llTe' (i j lit. p03ition, plaCing; a word sagai],ih, a pupii of Ratnasekhara, used in the sense of actrial expression or wording especially In' the in l:4~h. The author has written.a comtrleritary alSo on the work, s~tras; cf. the usual expression named Nyasa; ~qij- tea;:;:ljTEl te9' in the Mahabha~ya, cf:M. Bh. ori 1. I.i: ri I.I.47 etc:; ~~6: a work enurDtmi.ting the Pari( 2) a mime given by the writers. bh~as in Hemacaridra's grammar, or readers to works of the type of ntimbei'iog 140 -Iiyayas outot which iearned and scholarly comniehtaiie.s 57 riyayas are said to have been on vritti-type':'works on . stand.ard given by Hemacatldra hiqlseif at si.itras in a S~stra; e g. the name the end of his comment mclRo! on his Nyasa is given to the learned comSabdahusas!!-na. The work is written mentaries on the Vrtti on Hemaby ~mreirlUi who has added a comcandra's Sabdaliu$lsanaas also on . mentary to it called Nyayarthathe Paribha~avrtti by Hemahammafij ulja wri tten by him self, which is sagaI)i. Similarly the commep.tary also known by the namerlll~\(~, byDevananrlin on,Jairiendra gramfor Which, see above. mar and that by P-rabhacandra on the Amoghavrtti. on Sakatayana ~~ combined euphonically accorgra,mmar are named Nyasa. IntI!e ding to rules of grammer; cf. tliX~ same way, the learned commentary a-F.ii\ r~I<ffi{ij:a- :it;J. explained as ~lCfi\l1I on the Kasikiivrtti by Jinendra~~~M:Il({, V. Pr. V. 8 com. buddbi, named Kasika vivaranapaiijika by the author, is very ~~ established by a maxim; with widely_ known by the riame Nyasa. fuIl jiistification; cf. ~i<If6it~mJ:. M. This commentary Nyasa was wriBh. on V. 1;19. The word is used as tten in the eighth century by the opposed to ~qCjiffi~ by NageSa; cf; . Buddhist grammadan JinefidraPar. Sek. Pari. I. buddhi, who belonged to .the .eastern school of PaI}ini's Grammar. ~P:nqiro:~'it a name given to ;:l{{<ruijIt has incorporated all important ;t~T. See rlji<Ii:r.rij~. points of the previous gi:ammarians. This Nyasa has a learned commen~ proper; fully justified r~qo'( tary wntten.on it by MaHreya cf. P;lV. 4.92; correct; regular; Rak$ita in the twelfth century cf. ~~<IT!!'ffiC'W\~(lI rqF;~rrf~~ ~fq~ named Tantrapradipa which is very GlIRr M. Bh. crill. 3. I where Kailargely quoted lit subsequent gra-. y~tai however; explains. the word romarians, but which unfortunately differently. Kaiyata states that

. rljTl<j means a general rule ; 'cf~ tift-: i.~hni{>i~~l ~~ ~lj~. Kaiyata o~ P. II; 3.1:; BYPi.irvacatya he possibly refers to. the writers of the Pr~ijsakhyas ilild other similar works. by hhtient grammarians, where the w'ord nyaya is used in the sense of a general rule '. See the \vord ~;n~- alioire.

I , 1: I


-is ' available "only: in--a'Jragmentary " stat}a,tJfu~~I)~f.Iaradatta. a'well:"',' knoWJ.f:$:bu~the'p~,is~,1.?-olaJi)'ami:nar ,:,has ~:raY.:n;cop.sitl~ablYlfr!?nfNyiisa "in ,his Padam'\W;J,r~~ which also is ;",well-kn9W.n as a scholarly work. ,'( 3)ta",!=ommentary called',Nyasa ,c' oll,Balabodhini; a commentary: on Kata:lltr~jitra,written by Jag~dhara, who himself wrote andiiher Nyasa. 'Mahabha$yadipika refers to a Nyasa, cpo p. 2'33; l,i :ig. r ; ""~ alternative views or Pak~as re: ",.:the!, int.erpretation of the l!:<it ~ ;,:cf. M. Bh. on p. 1. I.3; cf. also,~2j'!Vl~ i3q~~l{(<i ~0C!<1;. M. Bh. ,on P. I. 2.64.: '
qo:-:q;r the fifth consonant of the "five classes' of consonants,; the nasal consonant, called also ~11 ; cf. , l{~r "iia'l~~ tmm 0I1i1<j(reif!l9~~ M. Bh. on P. I. 1.9 Vart. 2. '
~ (I) the fifth case;, ending of


( fcfHm:)

tad. affix tf~,5n the, ~eQ,Se ,otextent added, to the. ,word 9lfct ; e. g. OIfefl{~cf. fq~~ qr:~:; P!N. 2.29, Vart. 2. '

qo;r oral recital, the word is used ,in






a class of w.ords headed by the word tfl5' to which the taddhita i: ;: affix arJ<r.r ( tfi~), causing vrddhi ;i~ ; 'added 'in the four Senses given in P. " :-iV. 2',67-70; e. g. tff~fl{UJ:, ~Rl1i<l<r: , ; etc. ;"d. Kas. on P. IV. 2.80.
.1 ~

the fifth' or ablative case as prescribed, by rules of PiiI)ini ~t, '>NiGJit tfflliT, P. II. 3-7, 10, etc. (2 j ~he imperative mood; d. Kat. III. I.I8.

~~itQ 'a

learned on , qf~'tii One of the seven principal Vedic ;' Jinendrahudd,hi'$ Nyasa \yritt~ by metres. It has four padasof ten Mallinatha, thestandard:commentletters each. It has other 'varieties ator ot.:prominent' Sans~rit, classics. , like '6O:tf&I; (8, 12, 8, I2) (~kpratisakhya calls it~r:rfurr ~ ),' arr~~


,~i{ incomplete In'sens~ o,~~tw~)l:'d'ing

as opposed to Piir:Q,a; cf. 'imIqf<t ~ ({f!~ <j'l:i'f.rtili~a-) R. T~'1~,

, , ,': 1--: , ' i

!i~ (8,8, I2, 12), ~n;:tf~( PZ,I2,


8, 8), l:i'\m~qflii ( 12,' 8, 8, I2L~gn;: q~ , ( 8, I2, I2, 8 ) and soon. :cp. " ~klliatisakhya XVI. 38-41. '
. 1:.. __"
.!.' , .'. :

'l. ( r)

first' consonant of the labial class of consonants"possessed of the 'properties i{f(Bm:ir"Uil',OI~iT, and '11110, ~:F:(;2)' ~ applied :as"a,',mute , "letterto'a:sl1ffix~' ma.kingt:'the. si,1ifix
:1.'" _T
' ,

~ ~ c.Ias~ of roots headed by the

:r~.<?t,q'<l,;: to v/4ich the krt. affix 8T , (3j~) is,?9.ded in the sense of fan, t:<:~g~9.t; ;e. g. P.j''i''l':, M:,,'~: etc. "The class trtI1~ is,deseribed as OI~'" ifUI and it is usual with commenta"l"tors 'to make a remark 'fi'fCI'<!.:wheIi:' , a krt- affix 8T :is seen' after 'a"root : without causing the vrddhi,mbstitute to-the preceding .vowel or to the penultimate vowel liT., cf. :; ~~: 1:1cfl:Tlg~: ~ 'Cf -tf"l'fC{<!:, 1~UiWii','q~ ~. ffil:<!Fa J!lq:i:!w:r: Iia. 'on

q~tftf.:l~ statement ':by the abla't'ive, case, cf. G': ~~ P. VIII. 3.29; d. i3<t<1f.l~ q~f.l~i\\T;~~ICI:. e.g. G'liT i(jt"llG:Rr G'gflliR<1;. P. VIII. 3.32, Par. Silk. Pari. 70;" ct' also i3<t<1~~ fct![rnt{1:jrEqlilliTfii~lij: M.Bh.' on!>. I. qiU:sawriter of' Citprabba,' a commentary on the Paribba1?endu, 1.67 Valt. 3. sekhara. A commentary' bn the qiJ~ a grammar work based on the Laghusabdendusekhara is also asshorter version of Jainendra gracribed to him. He was a Gau\la mmar. ,The author is Srutakirti of BrahmaJ;,la whose native place was eleventh century. It is arranged in Kuruk1?etra. He lived in the beginning of the nineteenth century. different topics"

connection with the use ,o{ words by the author himself in his text which h,e is supposed 'to have handed over orally' to his disciples, as was the case with the ancient Vedic aud Sotra: works; d. the words trRiff, 'qftt;l{~, q2J1.II and the like, frequeutly used in tbe Mabiibh.a~ya in connection with the mention of words in the Siitras of PliI)ini.


a' grammatical system with Sotra, Dhatu, UQiidi" GaI)a and Linganusasana.

~':!acc~nted'.''ighve (O{'aa:r~)~"

q, ,~ ~Iie. cOI,lsonant '1., ,~he vowel ,".ar,and, the af5.){ 'liT{ l?~ing"adde,d . Jor \; !.. ..". ,", "." . ' ;:-, , facility of jlDderst8:npi,ng an9. ;proilU~iiatiori:;' ci. T, Pr.;I. I7;~J;; tf is, also"' us~d, 'as "a ' sh~rt 'ter~n' for .' ~ns~na~:ts, ~j~ th!'iflfth class (tjqfr); . ; c,f. :~.. ,~~. '1;~7'; ,Y,,:,,:Pr. I. 64 and
~. ~ ~...


,:.~a!{.:!, .. l3~~.

_ ...



P., III. t;134. ,,



:'::~pn~s~nt~ct:by.: or o~'l:>ehaifLMi aPr~tisakhya for the str;Ol1g;~'caw, ,Tl~i:~.f'" ori~of: tlie' two :or r'fuore affixes " VIZ: the nbmiml:iive -: case

VIeW or


:~ a term used iii: 'the'Atharva-

j-';tfJ,~::~f:Rr~~e?tj~%' a"~~f~<er.The <'~ti~~alfeIll~,fot;' '~~~ ~wo. vrew~?re


I ,. a:ttd dual affixes; cf. ::q-~,~JI!\1" "~~'~~nd,- f3''6ttT~,,'w~enthe 'views ,.'~q:~'rW~RiT~'~ A. ~r. !; 3~I4. '
are"I'n Conflict~'" The"vi~ws, if notin .'cbiifiiit, arid,if ~tat~d as

affixes and> 'the accusative' sing.

qiltctiqa:irn the usage or the' inethod of the Pancalas ; the eastern method of euphonic combinations, viz. the, retention of the vowel 01 after the preceding vowel aiT which is substituted for the Visarga; e. g. ~ OI~tr; ct. R. Pro II. 12; T. Pro XI. I9. This vowel OI'which is retained, is pronounced like a short aiT or aNaTt<nR by the followers of the Sat:ya,;, mugri and Ra:Q,ayaniya branches of the Samavedins ; cf. comUlentary on T. Pro XL I9 as alsoM. Bh. Ahnika I.

,:in 'i~~~er, e~ 's:' i~~:r[;:rate,c seVen

r'view~, carl 'be ':ttilihy


;!~l~o":"t~fm.ei~'j" Cf:~ili~

ThEd~rtn correspond~ to,theSar'Vaa . namElstnana:' of PaI)inij:which' is




, ' "

a popular name given to critical commentaries by scholars; d. CfilfiUCfiTfifO[~lllqf;,'\1Jir. by Jinendrabuddhi which is popularly known, by the name c:crm.

qQ~~ , the reput~d author of the Mahlibha!?ya, known as the' Pataiijala Mahabh1i1?ya af~er him. His date is deternlined definitely as the second centmy B.C. on the strength -ofthe internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mablibhli1?ya itself. The words "Gonardiya ar.-d GO!j.ikaputra which are.found in the MaMa , bba~ya are believed to be referring 'to the'autbor himself and" on their strength, neis s~id to 'have bee~~the son of GO:Q,ika and a resident of the ,count;fY c~ned Gonarda in his days. On the strength of the ipternal evidence, supplied by the' Mahllbha1?ya, it can be said that Pataiijali received his education,at Tak~asi1a and ,that he was, just'iike, pal}.ini, verffamiliar with yillages, and towns in and near Vahika and Gandhara , cotiiltrie~. . Noihi~g' can ' definitely' , . .". . ' be said abciui:"his birth-place. and ,



q~' (V. Pro HI. 2 ) as-contrasted it is very likely that the words~. with ' q~qp:nujljlif: ~' (V~ Pr. II({ and 0/Klt~1f<{ were' originalIy .used I. 15&). The definition ' 3l~: ~' in the sense of I words referring is attributed to the ancient gram-, to something meant 'for another' marian Indra " who is believed to and re.f~rring to something mant have been the 'first Grammarian of forself' respectively. Such words. India. Pii~ini has defined the term of course. 'referred to verbal forms. roughly corresponding to th~ verbs If<{ as 'ijf~ef tjC{~' P. I. 4. !4. His in the active voice and verbs in the definition is applicable to complete passive voice. There ate some moo;' noun-forms and ver b-forins and also" ern scholars of grammar, especially to prefixes and indeclinables where linguists, who like totrilnslate~ a case-affix is placed ,and elided as I active voice" and ~(( as according to him; cf. 3lo<J<!TiUcaq: P. I passive voice'. Pa~jni _appears, II. 4.82. The noun~bases before case affixes and tad. affixes, Qlentioned, to have adapted the sense in rules upto the end of the fifth of the terms ~ and ~CJG: and adhyaya, which begin with a: contaken them to mean mere affixes just as he ~as done in the case of sonant excepting Z{ are also termed the terms ~and~. Preslimably If<{ by Pa~ini to include parts of in ancient times. words current in words before the ,case affixes o:<jp(, use were grouped into four classes , 'flRi., ij etc. as also before the tad. by the authors of the N~rukta works, affixes m(" q~ etc. which are given viz. ( a) ~ (words derived from as separate padas many times in the roots) such as ifitfi,. ifil'\cfi:, ~ etc., pada-patha of the Vedas; cf. ffifct, ( b ) n-f~Q (words derived from 15<ffi~iiTl1~f.i P. I. 4.I7. Seefordetails the word q~o. There are given nouDs) such as ifW~:. iCfiMl~. etc., ( c) Parasmaipada words' viz. verbs four kinds of padas or words viz. such as lI'Ifff, q:qfff, and ( d) Atma~ owr, ~ff, \3'lftlfr and f.itm:r in the nepadawords te. verbs like 'v,:~, Nirukta and Priitisiikhya works;cf. q~~. etc. Verbs !iiURI' and~ or ~ also ljC{li~ :sr?i;;:lj~, fct~~;:ff '" ~ M. and tr~ were looked upon asboth Bh. on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 19, qoT~: mijqi{ words and ~e;r~lii{words. The ljC{~ M. Bh. on I. 1.21 Vart. 5, question of simpti3 weirds, as they are T{cflR~'h:1Ij1~T ~ Kat. I. 1.20, qi{called by the followers ot Pii.Qini. 18~~ i3~ Kaiyata vn P. I. 2.42 such as iff, ~,_ iTt, aj"l,._and a number Vart. 2 ; cf. also ~ ~ oN: ~~fct of simi~ar underived words, did nGt ~~~~~ Nyasa on P. III. 1.92. occur to the authors of the Nirukta The verb endings or affixes f6", Q~ as they believed that every nounand others are also called If<{. The derivable. and hehce. could De word qi{ in this sense is never used bicluded An the krt words. alone, but with the word'~ or arr~ preceding it. The term qWrq1{ stands for the nine affixes RlI:J.., ali. q~ (I) a term used In connection with thetllirdisection of the Vakya ~i!i" While the term orl(ij~ stands padiya natded .~q also, which for the nine affixes' 0, amn~ .. .-~~~ deals with padas, as contrasted with cf. ~: q~~, 6eJiflcrrf~~. It is the second. section which ,deals with possible to say that in the terms Viikyas; (2) a section of the A~t1io mijq1{ and am=~~ also, the term If<{ dbyayi of Pa~iriii wliicli gives rules could be' taken to mean a word, anel (

siitras, which, hen~e, are c~11eq although it might be believed thlit j:>iitaiijal~ Yc,gasiitras,"d~ his mi.Hv~ place was Gonar<la, its actor of the Carakasaiiil1ita. 'Tll~r~ exact situation ha~ not been defined ~r~ schol~rs wh~ 'beli~ve'; th~t' h(:l so far. Ab'o~t bi~pa;entage: too, ~~otethe Mah~bha{iya' Rnly, a114 no definite informatio.n is av.ii1able~ ~ottheothe~iv.;~" Th~y ba~:e tli~jr Tradition says that be w !'; the arg\lm\')nt q1ainly 011 the suppo~~~iof:\ foster-son of' a childless woman that it'is impossible. for a scholar t~ named GOI).ik~ to whom h~ w~~ have' '~n ~qu~l!y' unzn~tcRing handed over by a sage of Go~arda, mas~ery over' tlH'ee di:ffe~l'lflt , ~ii~tras in whose hands he fell down from ~t a tim\'). The. argurnl'lIlf pas~o the sky in the' evening at the .ti~e 13trength, e.sp!!d~~IY in India, \yhere of the offering of ,water-handfuls to there are many instaric~s ofschpl~rs 1beSun in the west; ct. mre. aj;s{~, p-ossesslng so-imd scholarsllip ~p tllederivation pf th~ word gi~en by' different branches' of . iearning. the comme~t~tors.Ap~rt from anApart -f~oIll ie.gend~- ~nd st~teID~~i~ ecdotes and legendary information, of Cakradh~ra:, Niiges~ and ot.\le.~!?, ft can be said with certainty that about hIS being tIle author of thr\')~ Pataiij ali was a thorough scho]a~' of works on thr~e different siistra, Sanskrit Grammar who had studied there is a direct reference to Patafi':' the available texts of' the- Vedi~ j alh profici~~cy in -G'ra,~lruar~ y Q&~ Literature anqGrammar and ayai!and' M:edicinEl in' the work of K~ng ed himself of information gathered Bhoja of the eleventh ce.nturY and, an . personally by visiting '-the variou~ indirect' one in the' V~kyapadiy~' of schools' of San!';kritGrammar and 13h~rtrhaii" of the se~eilth-~eqtuii observing the methods 01 explaria:~ A.D. "There is a work o~ the life'"of tiOIlS given by teachers there, . His Pataiij~li, w~itten' b:y ~ scho.lar Of ' Mababhii{iya supplies an invgluabl~ grammar - of theSolltl:h namt?d fund of information on the ways ill ~~milbhadra, which gives' many which the Gra~mar 1 tll~s of J;1l1igipj stories and incidents of' hisIife 'otit wele explained- in those c::lay~ ip. tp~ of which it is diffic~lt to find Cl1lt various gramfDar school!). Tlli!? ~I.l~ the grai~s of true incide.nts from the formation i!'; supplied by :Qini ip tIle legendary husk witll Whicll t~!'lY Viirttika::i which he has exh~ustiveI:Y are covElred. For det~ils, see. Pat\lfi~ given a~c::l explai~ed. He had ~ re-: jala M.ahiibha;;ya, D. E. Society's markable masterY Qver .Sanskrit ~d.~tiQn, Vpl. VII pagElS 349 te) 374. Langmge w.\lich wasa, spoken one Se.e ?olso the word +nn+r16 !J. at his time and it can be safely Sefid 1 hat in rt~~pect of style, the Ml:!-Pii: bhii;;ya excels all the. ()ther,Bhii~:yas ~ a word; a unit forming a p~rt of ~ !?entence; a unit made~p of a letter in the different branclles qf learning - ()f of IE,;ltters, poS13e.ssed or s~~~e; cf. ()ut 9.f' whi~h t~o, tho!';!:! ()f Sabara~ ~8~:~1 8'f~~ cfr) y~ Pro VI~t. swamm' anq SaI)l~afiiciirya, are 46, 47. .Tll~ wprd origin~ll:Y was sele~ted for cqmp~ri~o~. It is beli~v~ applied tq tQe. - indivi~qal _~qr~s ed by ?~h()lilrS t11at4e was ~qu~lIy which constit~ted the Ved,ic Samconv.ersant with ()tllF s~stras,' ~spe hita; ~~~:' tt~m t. i'7.: cii:llly Yoga ~n!l Va~dya,ka" on which Ac~ordi~gly,' it' ~~i!:!finl'l~ i~' th~ . he has written 1earned treatises. He v~~~s~~~y~ . Prat~s~khya as . < 8l~: is said t~ b'e t~e ~-iItb,Qr ~i the Yoga~




I l

referred to as paqa~aras by Patauabout changes and modifications jali in the :Mababba~ya . applicable to, the, pada, or the formed word, as contrasted with ~r.!{CfiT a grammar work, on the the "base- ( aTW) ,and the E~ffixes. nature of words ""ritten by 'it~lf The section is called IlGJ~~which of the sixteenth century. begins ,with the :fule, q~~ ,P.VII1. 1.16. and ends with the rule ~T ~T , q'{~';;l'I,. The auth6rs of the padapatha ,VIII. 3. 54. ' , of the Vedic Samhitas e.g. Sakalya, , A:treya, Katyayami a:nd others who ~ lit. one who has, divided, the look upon the pada-textas the 'Samhita text of the Vedas int,o the, original one, as against' grammariPada:text: The term is applied to ans who accept' Vakya (here anci~nt Vedic scholars ~l'ii<i<i, an~~, SamhiUi, as unit' and 'authorita~T~Tl{q: and others who wrote the tive. d.' ~'iil\~ <1r6<iCfil~ "'IRC!1l,Gq~S Padapatha of the Vedic Samhitas. ~(1Rm: I (lW[[<l<ICflfctf+l:' <;cfit;::1fIf<l:f+l~iR 'The, term is applied ' possibly 9ii'{tr.lmfml~ I ~'ii: "~r<US:~qiIcr: I through~isunderstanding by some ~<f:lTFcr+rre'lcf9ilq~GJ~ <;C!lllt+fcrfol. ~f~q: 'scholars' to the Mababha:;;yakara q~1f e~ ~ +!"~ ~ \U<aU~ 9\9'< \vhb has not divided any Vedic ~ 'iil<i~T3: I (s,uZ/:) onVak. pad. Samhita,b~t has" in 'fact, pointed II. 57. out a fe~ error&ofthe Pad,aka'ras and stat~d categ6ti~ally tbatgra- q'{q'a:I the Eame as q~~~9iRq~. Seell~ m~arians need not follow, the Padapatha, but,rather; the writers of' the Padapath, should have ,~TO the recital oUhe VeM text pronouncing or showing each word followed the rules of grammar. separately as detached from the ,', Pataiijali, in fact, refers by the adjoining word. It is believed that t~rm' q<m\ to 'E atyayana, who the Veda texts were recite,d originwrote the Padapatha:~nd , the Pra": ally as runnjng texts by theinspirtisakhya of the Vajasaneyi-Samhita ed sages, and as such, th~y were in the following statement~c:r <i5!\3U\q preserved by people by oral tradiIlffiU ~<R<lf:.' q({'iill:<lf+c <i5~UflGCft<l~ I tion~, Later on after several centu<i~T<i5!\3tipR Cf\~'c<i~ M. Bh. on P. III.l. ries; their individually. distinct 109; VI. I. 207; VIII. 2.16;, cf. also a:r{\~ftm q;:;:~I~ ~l~<ilqq~ i3GJ~\U]words were shown by grammarians "ffm +rcrRr (Ilft~rfi.'q.! of arrfu Pari. 'who were called 'P.adakaras~ The 42) where Vyagi c1eai:ly refers to t:R1il(; later on had many _JIlodificathe Vartika of Katyayana ' ~o<U tio~s or artificial recitations such as J>~~q<it91cr.o' P. I. 1.6 Vart. 1. "!ill, ~,._q<f etc. in which each word . . The misunderstanding is due to was repea ted twice or mQre times, passages in the commentary of being uttered conIlectdly with the ~.a.'tCjIM'1:, on the Nirukt,a passage, preceding or the fQllQwing word, or I. 3, ~tiT'iil on ~:lTr~<! XIII. 19 with both. These artificial recitaand others wh~re the' statements I tionswere of eight kinps, which came , I , referred to as th?se of Pataiijali ar:, to be known by the ,term areR~'<i:. in fact, quotatIOns from the Pra- i tisakhya works and it is.the writers f ~ a term used in coimection' , with the Samhita text Qf ~rn:crTqr;'; of the Pratisakbya works who are )

which is believed to have, been based upon words (q'Ufij lfiifff: <i\<ir: er) or which forms the basis of words or word text or the padapath a (q;:;:f<li :lT2.ifff:); d. q;:;:Sfm: ~iWr Nir. 1.17.
q~ lit. divisions of words: pa~ts of speech. There, are' four parts of speech viz. qTI1'1:" 3f(~TQ, "qef! and f.rqrcr given by ancient grammarians and the authors of the Praqsakhya works, while there are given only two, tiORf and ftWrcr by paI).ini. For details see pp. 14$, 146, Vol. VII. Mahabba~yaD. E. Society'S edi-I tion. " ,

have areal existence~GrariltnaHans admit the view, for; practical: purpose, while they advocate that'the 3f@0S91<R~iI~ ,alone is the rea1..sense. cf.Vakyapadiya II.goand the '011.

~ an operation

pre~crib~d " in


~::ffft ,the

learned commentar; by Haradatta ,on the 'iiT~'ii~Rr,.Hara~ datta was a very learned grammarian of the Southern School, and the Benares School of Grammarians j' follow 'q~+f,;;,m more than the equa- , By learned another commentary Cfilfu9ilfcr'HU]qfu'iiT or '<ift!. In the Padamafijari, Hiuadatta is said to have given everything, of import- ' pause between 1\vo words measuring two D;latras, or equal to ance from the Maha bha~ya; cf ar'ifra5 !t rlir' m ~~. For details , the time required for the utterance il mnm of a long vowel; e.g. in l{tr t9~t=rr, . see Mahiibba~ya D. E. S. Ed. Vol. the pause between !(tr and t9T is VII, P. 390-391. ' measured by two matras; cf. q;:;:f9WT)' G"{0fT~~1<m' a disquisition on graTIOO'>f: T. Pr.XXII. I3. Some Pratimni!tr dealing with the different sakhya texts declare that the pause ways in which t~e sense of words is between two words is of one' matra conveyed. The work ~onsist~" of a as at avagraha ; cf.R. Pro II. I and running commentary on his ,verses R. T. 35-38. by the' author Gokulanatha Misra ~~q~ '({~<ifiIR:<ifi1 a metrical' work On who, from internal evidence, appe- : the determination of, ~l:!e pada or ars to have' flourished before! padasof the roots attributed to' KQI).c;labhatta and after Kaiyata. Vimalakirti.
. n .

connection with words endingw.ith case or verbal affixes ap.d, ~ot in connection with noun-basesor'rootbases or with single ietters or syilables. q({fcrRr. is in this way contra-' sted with alWfcrfl:T (including :lTrfffq~CfiAA and l:T@fof~), CfctFctN and 3f~~N. Such Padavidhis are given in PaI).ini's grammar in Adhyaya 2, Padas 1 and 2 as also in VI. I. 158, and in VIII.1.16 to VIII. 3.54 and include rules in' connection with compounds, accents and euphonic combinatioils. When, 'however, an operation is prescribed for two or more pad as, it is necessary that' the two padas or words must be syntactically connectible; cf. tI+c<'t: q~r.rN: P.Il.I.I. '

q"'\qI'{ or q"{cn~qt:r

view that words are real and have an 'existence and individualty of their own. The view is advocated by the followers of both the<!\'IImamsa schools and the logicians who pelieve that words

q~~~Cfir a short gloss on the q;:;:c<i9t~Q!ilCfiTft'iil written by Udayakirti, a Jain grammarian.

~~(q~ an alternative vi~w with <iJ1ii!~~~ r~garding the '" formatioA

.of words by the application of affixes to crude bases. According. to the Padasamskara alternative, every word is formed independently, and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence. The sense of the sentence too, is understood after the sense of every word bas been understood; cf. ~~ lJ<lfl~ Cfl'flr "lillFr;;r (i.~: Sira. on Pari. 22. According to the other alternative viz.<n~~, a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed e.g. Ull + ~, ~ + or fff I Both the yiews have got some advantages and some defects ; cf. Par. Sek. Pari. 56. case affix after them accented acute; cf. P. VI~ 1.171. as the sense is technically termed
~c~~cmr as opposed to or~q(ijmr;

~F.t~ a grammatical . operation specifically prescribe<;l.for the initial letter of a word.

q(ff~ the topic concerning padas i.e. words which are regnlarly formed as contrasted. with words in formation. Several grammatical operations,' such as accents or euphonic combinations, are specifically prescribed together by Pa1)ini at places which are said to be in the Padadhikara formed by sfitras VIII. 1.16 to VIII. 3.54.


81~q<f(~'fiffi o~: ~~~: B~a- M.

00 ~~:{: ~~f(q;.ulqm:.


Bh. 1. 1.44 V. 3. The word 'C/GJ~ means also the categories or the predicaments in co~nection with the different Sastras or lores as for instance, the 25 categories in the Samkhyasastra or 7 in the Vaisel}ika system or 16 in the Nyayasastra. ThE! VyakaraQasastra, in this way to state,. has only one category the AkhaQQavakyasphota or the radical meaning given by th~ sentence in one stroke.
tRlifTlf (I) a grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar known as the S1l;padma Vyakaral)a. He is believed to have been an inhabitant of Bengal who lived in the fourteenth century. Some say that he was a resident of Mithila. The works Dhiitu-Kaumudi, UQadivrtti, Paribhal}avftti, Yaillugvrtti etc. are also fathered upon Padmanabha, (2) A Padmanabha wrote P[l}odariidivrtti. He was son of Ga1)esvara and grand. son of Sripati. He is diffet:ent from the author of SupadmavyakaralJa.

in grammar in connection with . a . . rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise; cf. fq-qfuiN q~ <iiT~1(. P. I. 4.2; (2) occurring after (something); cf. sre!lf: 'Rill P. III. 1.1 and 2; cf. also mr.1H~W. T. Pro XXl.2. (3) The word lJ\ is sometimes explained in the sense of l{2 or desired, possibly on the ana~ logy of the meaning ~ possessed by the word. This sense is given to the word q~ in the rule ~qmiN qt 'fi~ with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency; cf. fcrq. fcliN q~ <im Oi{<rfa M. Bh. on 1. I.3. Vart, 6; IR'{[C:{: ~J!9R!T M. Bh. oat. 25, I. 4.2. Vart. 7 ; II. I.6g etc ..

~ expression of the sense by the whole word without any consideration shown to its division into a base and an affix. For instance, the word . ~ means' by Rama ' irrespective of any consideration whether q is the affix or l{iI is the affix which could be any of the two, or even one; different from the two; cf. i3qT~I: ~~t ~11~qqr: Vakyapadiya II. 240.
~ (I) beginning of a word, the first letter of a word; cf. ~Rtr.O~: P. VIII. 3.I:.rI; cI. also ~Ii) cmI~l~ ~P. VIII. 2.6. Pataiijali, for the sake of argument, has only once explained ~ as 'C/GJG:l~: cf. M. Bh. on I. 1.63 Vart. 6; (2) a class of words headed by the word ~ which is substituted for lR in all cases except the nom. and the acc. singular and dual; this class, called 'C/GJta:, contains the substitutes ~, a:el, q~. etc. respectively for qyG:, 'frO', <l'lre<iiT etc. cf. Kas. on P. VI. 1.63; (3) the words in the class, called 'C/GJR, consisting of the words lfi\, ~ I iI~, . if'l, ~ and fif~ Only, hiVe) tile

.finalletter of a word; cf. P. VI. 1.76, 10 9; VII. 3.3, g; VIII. 4.35, 37,42,59. At one place, Pataiijali for purposes of argument has explained the word as final in a word; cI. ~cf ~~a- ffi<Wtf: lRfr<T: lRRHfitfu I i:n~ ;;r(t I qit arrcr: lRrrO': ~fff M. Bh. on VIII. 4.35.

~~ meaning of a word, signification of a word; that which corresponds to the meaning of a word; sense of a word. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padartha or meaning of a word, and support th~ir view by quoting the sfitras of PaI).ini iOlRljl~ri'tcnf~ <!S'I''qOfI1~ ~lif;. 1. 2.58 and ~qfUlTi't~1:f l1;i:n ~+Rfir. I. 2.64; cf. l~ !I<i\liifo: 'C/GJ~

~ ~~l( 1 i3'l1<irnc~lli I Cfi~ ~ 1 \;'l1~iIf( ~r9T~11l ~';nfOT ~1T('terrf.r 1 SfliiRr

t{G:N llt'lT ~1~!h911'1~Q I ~ lRl~ m<rr ~IO'\l~~m M. Bh. in



1. I. first Ahnika. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the' wording, as the science of grammardeals with words' and their formation; cf. ~<t ~ ~amT~, P. I,
;j;,(jB. Tbe llossession of vocal element

~ (I) a . letter capable of occur2.24 ring at the end of a word cpo q:{R.<l: ql: lAth. Pra. 1.3; (z)forming apart. 1'.f~$1i a term used in the Pratiakhya. of a word or pada ; cf. i3.:j)"\flt q~~ . works for "doubling' of a consoq q<lO{, R. Pro 1. 29; . d. also ~~: nant; cf. ~T~<li 'ffi:.lf"rO': Q,ifiI1O{, I R. R. Pro I. 30. The word is used in Pro XIV.23. this sense (q~r<r<i9) mostly in the Pratisakhya works. The word is. tR'!t~ the use of the word IR; inserused in the sense of qy?:B~, made tion of the word q~ in a rule; cf. up of the feet (of verses), in the a-<l'lfq q{l:Iifui ~+J:.; M.Bh. on I.4. I ; ~k-Pratisakhya in contrast with cf. also q~W<i!:l9il\ M.Bh. on III. 3l~fr,. made up of syllables. In this I.2. sense the word is derived from the word qyG:; cr. q'm~"4 ~ i3R~: R. Pro tR'<:<1' postei:iority; mention after wards, the word is frequently used in. XVIII. 3. . works on grammar in. connection ~ (I) subsequent, as opposed ~o ~ . with a rule which is mentioned in

or q{<iiT<jt<rq~the view that the subsequent t%~rr or technical term should be preferred to the prior one, when both happen to apply simultaneously to a word. The word is frequently used in the Mahabhal}ya as referring to the reading 81T i:nTsl\Tit qt CfiT~;c. which is believed to have been an alternative r~ading to the reading orr <fii'mt.nT Bw; cf. q!! 'i! <i~lfil" 'itcnMtcf a-i'frfil" q{~ro'r i:nff~; M. Bh. on I. 4. I; also <l~ftli~~i:nR ~l'I;. I qtCfiT~(~ g i'f fu;a</ffi'j M.Bh. on II; I.20, II.-



or prior; the word is fre'luently useQ .

tbe treatise after another nde; the

posterior rule is ,looked upon ~s stronger than the prior one" and IS given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict. although technica1ly they are equally strong; cf. qw:llcrntq:; M.Bh. on I~ 1.4 Vart ,7; lR""(Cf['iB1m<i: l.I.II etc.
~~1i;:tlFf applica~ion of the later rule
ij)~ I q{~Al ilfiq~: I

Y. Bh. on
IR~W the. conflict between two rules (by occurrence together) when the latter prevails over the former and takes place by virtue of the dictum ~5fffiq?t q{ 'liTci<J: P. 1. 4.2; cf. 'Ii:4' ~ q{~5ffc!q'Cf1: M.Bh. on 1.4. 2
found in the Varttika

IV. 1.89; ct. also M. Bh.on IV. I.93,98, 163.

q~~qlflq~~<:jfC'l+r. P. VI. 3.8 Vart. I. The term'1{~mq ,as applied 'to

q'{+rm a time-unit equal to one--half of

the unit called ar!!!; which forms one-half of the unit called ifI"IT which is ~equired for \be' purpose of the utterance of a consonant; ct. q{1'lf!!! ar~+rl'Ir V. Pro 1.61. q~I'lf!!!, in short, is the duration of very infinitesimal time equal to the pause between two 'individual continuous sounds. The interval between the utterances of two consecutive consonants is given to be equivalent to one Paramal).u; cf. qUItrat qOO~ R. T. 34

tR'~'alocativeca,se in the sense


before the former one, according to the dictum'laid down by PaQini in the rule ~s:rfcIi:M q{ 'li1~+r.P. 1. 4. 2 ; d. q~q.<:jr<iTif ~fW<TI <19fer Sira. Pari. 8~.
q~a lit. placing after; the placing

, what follow', as contrasted with ferq<:jtlR+ft,a:j~Cf.{1JItlR+ft and the like; cf. <fi'rm ~l:jr tf{tffflft '{['FIT til~~ .:[ W 'Iif tiic/Tqii+l~('f I 'liT clll: I tiffiRm M.Bh. on ,P.I.2. 49.

roots, could be explained as q~l1 f:fi<It ( or ~I~) ml:j~ ~Cf q{~ihi1!f1: and originally such roots a:s'had their activity meant for another, used to take the qW!'R. affixes, while the rest which had the activity meant for self, took the 81~ affixes. Roots having activity for both, took both the terminations and were termed ;:r+f<:jqfitq:;' also Yak. pad. III. 12.20.


of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with ~'irFtlfl('f. A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound, d. ;:rq- lR+rT:;rt an appearance of another viz. ~;if<l ~+r.; in some exceptional,cases, the supreme, as opposed to ~9m~r, however, this general rule, IS not appearance of the' self inside, d. observed as in the cases of ~I;;'!~r('f ~ifr N fci'IiT~ , a:n~fct ~Elifit~~,<J: I and the like, where the subordinate ~ g ~ffi~;:ff:BFtf<r~ GfltR ~ 5fi.<l<i+!ffiij- I word is placed after the principal ~t ~Il~~q: ~~~l:f,~<:j f'<Ifctword, and which cases, hence, are f.n<mi~<i~<:jT<t qftulll1 wrfct ~+rl'If9T~t taken as cases of q{Ftqrcr. The words c::~+r.I ...... a:r;:~ t9T :-' Cl>:.i~ 11\fffir.r~ and q{ are relative, and hence, fcl'''~~wr: ~lt11W~nltF1Tar-=it9lrrmfu:mfil"<:j-. the cases of tf{Ftlfl('f with respect to IT<:j\:1W: 'l~s'IT CfT m~~ r<j::lt'Cf\:1FlT~:<IT CfT the subordinate word (;:rqtl~<r) such ~r9~a9T ;:Il::lt~ ~~<im~ q{ifI~Ti{Tfctift as ~~r('f; 5IlHoftf<l'li etc. can be called '1.~~' ~r. on Yak. pad. 1129 cases of ~~ql('f with respect to the principal word (5f'Cflif) d. q{ll:~ffT: ~ the ,form of the subsequent ~('f'[fu91(q{F!qm: KiiS. on P. II. letter (~~<:j ~.~). The word is used in grammar when the' resultant of I.39 the two coalescing vowels (~~) q'{r.m.~if) caused by something which is the latter v9wel itself, as for follows; the term is used in grainstance, in ~ij- (5f+u;~~) ; cf.; u;~ mmar in connection with someq\~q<J: P.VI. 194 thing caused by what follows; cf., q{~~md:,([: rr~fc'Cf 5ffcr if ~:.:rrf<!9i'f. q{futfCfT possession of the gender of , < '" S. K. on arT;{: tr<:f~'{9fcf'CfT PI 157 the final member of a compound word, which, in tatpuru~a compoq'{+rSl'!iRl the most original base; the unds is the 'second of the two or original of' the original base; the the iast out of many; cf. tf{Cfrnw word is used in connection, with a ir'iJ:C!t!l~q<U: (P. 11.4.26) .. q\<ifewerr base which is not ,a direct base to <:j~ ~1Ti'f. M. Bh.on p . V. 4.68; also which' an affix is added, but Vak. pad. III. 14' 306 , which is a remote basei 'Cfi antR<U efT

'H:a'qOr cognate of the latter voweJ or consonant: The word is frequently .used in grammar in connection with a substitute of a:r1~ which is specified to be cognate (tiC/or) of the succeeding vowel or consonant; cf. a:j~ru<! <:j~ qmdl: P. VIII. 4. 58.
~~"lq~T mutual expectancy possess ed by two words, which is ' called ~rl'ld{ in grammar. Such an expectancy is necessary between the two or more words which form a compound; cf. q{ffi:C<!Tt!t\t ~l+rtlj~ P.Il. 1.1, V.4; cf. also ~ ~~: !!~'i !l~ \1m ~~ ~i1tffi ~~flt ~!t\ij ar~iW{ l{m I M.Bh. on II. I~I.

~~+nq' lit. speaking the activity or f~T for another; a term of ancient , grammarians for roots taking the' :&rst nine personal affixes only yiz. ra-, ef: ... +RI. The term q{~q~was mbstituted for m'1rmq- later on, more commonly. See q\~~'R above. The term q\~qm'i along with ilflt+l;rm"f is found' almost jnvari~bly used in the Dhatupatha attributed to Pal).ini; cf. li tffiTIlT<J: I '3'{I'Cl: q~~mq-: I t1;'Cf1<{'-l <iG:1~r 3liRI~:r 3T1i'>Rlfl"fr: Dhiitupat ha
lRT the highest etenlal voiCe or word, the highet and the most lofty of the four divisions of language ( 9l,!! ), viz. 'RT, qll:Il;::iT, +I"<mT' and tnatt, which,( qU ), philosophically is identified with q~ (jjlil) or ~rSC{ jj'liI. It is described as ,eftIJfRtil~1!j~ffi': 5flfuJiTf ~1EfT~" 9'~ I ~~<:jr: 'srrurqm~m '1{r s<:j\l<:jij- I ~ 'f.!:~iU tfll:"';:i.<lT<{<:j:tI~~ ar{lT[ fci"l-ij-: I ~<:jlt9' ~~ ~~ij- I

i ,

q{~~q~ a term used In grammar with

referencee to the personal affixes fer, ('f: etc. applied to roots. The term q\~~ is given to the first nine affixes fcr, ('f:, 81Rr,ffi, lq':, lq', i1t, q: and l1:, while the term ~ is used in connection with the next nine('f, SHeff'{" etc.; cf. ~ q~i~'{[T~tjlr!l;:fi ~ Vac. Ko~a.The term q\<:trtrn:' is explained by some' as representing the Active Voice as contrasted with the Passive Yoke which necessarily is characterized by the Atmane-. pad a affixes: The term q{~'illq in' the sense of q~l{({ w,as used by ancient gramm~dans and is also







behaviour as having become a part and parcel of another ; treatment of a word as a part of another. The term is used by PaI).ini in connection with a word, followed by and connected with a word in the vocative case of which it is looked

upon as a part - for purposes of accent, e.g. WJ:?:<lJt!~,muurr ~il.' etc. Here the words ~ and ~, being in the vocative case, are an~1'{RI, i.e. OT (at the beginning ofa:R:il:.) and arr ( in \~) are acute and as a result all the other vowels in ~gill~ and +tSl:l11'\T ~if.. become OT!1(O~ or grave; d. ijiITil~~q~TW;IWR P. II.

convention ()f a standard author. Puru~ottamadeva applies the word qft+!ltll to the maxims of standard writers, d. qR+!TtlT fit ii qlfiil;:f\cjtr.r q'q;:nr.r; Puru. Pari. II9; while Haribhaskara, at the end of his treatise qR+rm+!1~{; states that Vya<;li was the first writer on Paribha~as. The rules (fftllfufcr ~~~ 'i<!~' o,=ll"lf~~\,=l( and others are in fact Paribba~a rules laid down by PUl}ini. For the difference between qK+lFn and alMCfiT{, see Mahabb1i~ya on II. LI. Many times the writers of Sfitras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules, to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise, by commentators. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribha~as. In PUl}ini's system, apart from commentaries thereon, there are independent col1ections of Paribha~as by, Bhojadeva, Puru~ottaruadeva, Siradeva, Nilakal}tha, Haribh1iskara, Nugesa and a few others. There are independent collections of Paribbasas in the Katantra, Candra, 8akatayana,. Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribh1i~as are common, with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systems. Generally the collections of Paribha~as have got scholiums or commentaries' by recognised grammaIians, which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. The Paribbii.~endusekhara of Nagesa is- an authoritative work of an outstanding merit in the system of Pal}ini's Grammar, which is. commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during fae last two or three c~nturies. The total number of
Paribbii.~as in the different systems of grammar may well-nigh exceed 500. See qR+!1qj~~ .

qRJ:i'fr also qfu:J~1I'\. (I) acceptance, inc:;lusion; cf. fifi sr<l\;;jiIOf. I ~qy~qft !:l~P1Of. M. Bh. on P. III. 26.1; (2)

repetition of a Samhita word in the Pada recital, technically named ~Cfi! also; repetition of a word with ~ interposed; e g. ijmc<!T l{Rr ijSlS arc<!t: ~g. Veda II. 13.9, ~ +!cr-mfU<i~s +!9;:m-: ~g. IV. 18.6 ; d. qft::m: ('fii11li-

qR~'(qlllOPrn an independent

tRt~ initial or first of the next or succeeding word; cf. l'iii !PI~ ![<lira- arritfffi~: 0I'Ti[~~: M. Bh. on P. I. I.47 Vart~ 3 ; d. also M. Bh. on IV. 1.87, IV., 2.91.
'R~~t a consonant belonging to the succeeding vowel in syllabication; d. R. Pro 1. IS.
tRP.t (I) the sense of anotber word' - cf. !f{[~fr'i:!\:Tl<l ,!f~: @.Is: I M. Bh. o~ II. I.r, Vart; 2; (2) for the-sake

ra-m" ~<I ~~i\'li:rm:. I ~tlT ;:qyWll'<llt OI.JTW;@- ~,=ffi rRt II R. Pro III. I4~ cf. also, R. Pr: XI. 32, 36, 42.

treatise . explaining the various Paribhii.~as in the system of Pal}ini's grammar, written by Vi~l}usel?a of the famous Se~a family. -.

qft+lTq~qtf~ a scholarly indepeno-

qfWlfuu- completely formed; with the

formation completely achieved ; ffi~ cf. qRf.lTI3Ci'=l( q'l,.lrtri"lr?j- fit olT'ltm l{~ cTIulC<lmnfM .S! ~qf<l:'Ii -;;f'='!i1~~I+r.. Par.Sek. on Pari. IS.

ent treatise' on Vyakaral}a Pariwritten by Udayarilkara Pathaka, called also Nana Pathaka, . a Nagara Brahmal}a, who lived at Benares in the middle of the I8th century A.D. He has also written commentaries on the two Sekharas of Nagesa.

qf~ a kind of Sarildhi or coalescence

of, or being of use in, the next (~'OJ); d. tf{[~ lPl +!fc!~ ~ ~<fiRr; M. Bh. on 1. 1.59 Vart. 8.
~ fancied things; appearances. cpo Vak. pad. III._ 3.65. cp.~: f.t~'S!T fc!iliffi: I (HeIa.). ~- dragged to the latter; d. Pu~pa sutra III. II4; the word !fft stands for q~ here. q~ the same as 1R:nll"; doubling (~) of a subsequent consonant as for example the doubling of ~. in ~;jil:. ~!lT+t; cf. ~:~ If[{(lrtr: tf\slill (v.l. qft~) R. Pro XIV. 23. ~;r lit. enumeration. The word- is used in grammar treatises in the sense of 'a definite or complete enumeration' with a view to excluding those that are not included in the enumeration; cf. q1\'I1I'\c1 I ii~~lt SI~'\if: M. Bh. on I. 1.4 Vart. x-.

characterizeo by the change of the consonant Of. into an anusviira, as by oU!!,='it<::_ P. VIII. 3.23, before a sibilant or before ~t:jl; cf. ~~ij~l(~. ;j'li(~: aI!!~EfIt ~ qf.ttfall"ls: R. Pro IV. 5 ; cf. also tI:;j!~<rCl~: q~!f'lUqqp'::: R. Pro IV. 7. .
qR."C:C9QmoRil flickering nature,

.qft+r(1if(~~ (I)


a treatise on the Paribha~as in Pal}ini's grammar written by Haribhaskara Agnihotri, son of Appajibhatta Agnihotri, who lived in the seventeenth century; ( 2 ) a treatise on Pal}ini-paribh1i~as, as arranged by Siradeva, written by Se~iidrisuddhi.

tinctness, cpo Vak. pad. II. 45. cpo

q~ljI;9~ aI~~T CfIii<iIl!T{<I! (~q. )

qR~I('jl~~~ a treatise on the Pati-


an authoritative statement ~r dictum. helping ( I) the correct interpretation of the rules (sfitras) of grammar, or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words (1Ff.~fu), or (3) the formation of correct words~ Various definitions of the word m+lt1'!T are given by comDlentators, the prominent ones beingqftm- O'!Jt'l(lT +!Ttl qft+!ltIT ;r'<l~~ (i<jffi);

bh1i!?8.s in the system of Pal}ini's grammar written by Vaidyanatha Sastrin.



or, qftffi+!16~ iii tiT qR+lll'f1 Slernerm. The word is also defined as fc!..rr can also be briefly defined

~ftu\f ,qR:+!tl'fT (~lrreif~). qR+Im

as the

a general name given to an explanatory independent work on . Paribh1i~iis of the type of a gloss on a collection of Paribha~as, irrespective of the system of g'rammar, whether it be that of PaQini, or of Katantra, or of Jainendra or of Hemacandra. Th@ treatises of VyaQi (Pal}ini system), Durgashhha and Bhiivamisra ( Katantra system), Puru~ottama deva and ,Siradeva CPal}ini system}, Abhyankar (Jainendra system) and others are all known by the
~ame Yaribba~avritti.


qft+tl'Wlf:a{aw:qufl a very brief commentary on the Paribha~iivrtti of Siradeva written by Srimanasarman of CampahaW. qft+fTE{I,[RlftC61 a commentary on the Paribhi'i~avrtti of Siradeva written by Ramabhadra Dik~ita who. lived in the seventeenth century A. D.
the Jainendra VyakaraQa of Piijyapada Devanandin; ( x) .:n~~Cj'li\itff\ +!Y1:fT~;r a text of I I 8 Paribha~a rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikalttbabharalta; (xi) ii!j~~{ a bare text of 140 paribha~as (which are called by the name nyii.ya) given by HemaharilsagaI)i in his Paribhii~a work named "i!!~~~; (xii) ~tff\ +!'11:fT'lfu a gloss on 120 Paribhaas of the Piiltini SChODI written by Puru~Dttamadeva; (xiii) 'li!cq~+!'IQI 'lRl containing 130 Paribhaas with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short gloss on the cDmmentary by Srimanasarman; (xiv) tff\+!'ltfT'lfu a short gloss on 140 Paribhaiis of the PaQini school written by NilakaI)tha ; ( xv ) tfR~\: a collection of 132 Paribha~as with a commentary by. Haribhaskara Agnihotri; ( xvi) bare text of Paribba~as given land explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribha$=ndusekhara. (xvii) Paribha~abhiiskar by Se~adrisudhi containing eleven Paribhii~as criticising NiigeSa. The introduction describes the seventeen collections and discusses the service rendered by Paribha$a literature. The total number of Paribha~as mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundred and fifty.

the system of PaQini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A. D; at Benares. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 cDmmentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. WellknDwn among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha PayaguQQe ( called iJGJ), by Bhairavamisra (called f4~1), by Raghavendracarya Gajendragadakara (called f;rq~r), by Govindacarya A!?taputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called +!'TCjl~fq>.fil), by Bhaskarasastri Abhyankar of Siitadi. (called ~), and by M. M.' Vasudev!!-sastri Abhyankar of Poona (called a~R~r). Besides these, there are commentaries written by Tatya sastri Patawardhana,. GaQapati sastri Mokate, Jayadeva Misra, Vi~I)usastrf Bhat, Vishwanatha DaJ;lQibhatta, Hariniitha Dwiwedi, Gopalacarya Karhiidkar, Harishastri Bhagawata, Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja, Narayalta Shastri Galagali, VeQimadhava Shukla, Branmananda Saraswati, ,Mani$ise$asarroa, Manyudeva, Sarilkarabhatta, Indirapati, Bhimaci:irya Galagali, Madhavacarya Waikar, Cidriipasraya, BhimabhaHa, Lak~minrsiinha and a few others. SDme of these works are named by their authors as Tikas, others as Vyakhyas and still others as TippaQis or Vivrtis. Sartha, Sena etc. The telm qRflfUl. in connection with the utterance of letters, is used in the sense of lli'U~ or one mora.

qft~& a work containing a collection of independent wDrks on

Paribh~~as ill the several systems

~ elision of a phonetic member; the same as lopa in the Grammar of PiiQini. The term q~q ana the verbal forms of the root tfl@tt. are found in the Pratisiikhya works; cf. '36 f{l tffGC!{~ ~~FI: R. Pre II. 4.

qro.ffi;r reversion in the order of words

as found in the recital of the Veda at the time of the rec;tal of ;;fi!l, l:ffi and oUler artificial types of recitatiDns.
tfR~Oi lit. enumeration; enunciation ; mention; the word is found generally used by Katyiiyana and other Varttiklikiiras. at the end of their Viirttikas. The words<i~"l:1 Cfl'Ci!j"l:, and the like, are similarly used.
tfR~mfa- application of the complete

of Sanskrit Grammar, cDmpiled by M. M. K. V. Abhyankar. The collection cDnsists of the follDwing works (i) tfftmtfl~;:r containing 93 Paribha~as with a commentary by VyaQi, an ancient grammarian who. lived before Patafijali; (ii) C<j~_ tffi:+!fElTtflo, a bare text of 140 Paribha~as belonging to the school of VyaQi. (iii) ~lcgl<i;:rqR+lT1:fI~ a text of 98 Paribbii.~a aphorisms, attributed to the ancient grammarian Sakatayana, or belonging to that schoDl; (iv) ",nii\qft+!l1:f1~~ a text of 86 Paribba~a aphDrisms given at the end of his grammar work by CandragDmin; (v) 9iTffiSjqft<T!QY\l.;r'[RI agloss on 65 Paribha~a aphorisms of the Katantra ~chool by Durgasirilha 3 ( vi ) 9iTff;srr~+!'IQ~'lfu a short gloss On 62 Paribha~a aphorisms of the, Katantra School by Bbavamisra; (vii) 9iT~m+!ltfr\l.~ a text of 96 Paribba~ii. rules b~ong~ ing to the Katantra SChD91 WithDut qR+I1~ an old work on the Paribhii~as in the system of Pat;lini's any authDr's name associated with Grammar, believed to have been it; (viii) 9ireTqtfR+!'I1;j'Y\l.~ a text of written by VyaQi,who lived alter II8 Paribba~ii. rules belonging to Katyayana and before Patafijali. the Kiilapa SChODI without any The work is written in the old style authDr's name associated with it . "" ' of the Mahabha~ya and consists of ( IX) ~;'t;:i\qf\+!T1:fi'lfu a gloss writ ten a short commentary .on 93 Pariby, M. M. _K. V. Abhyclnkar (the bba.~as. . . cDmpiler of the collection ), on 108 "'l the reputed authorita_ '" Paribha~s or maxims noticeable in t:f'R:~1 the Mahii.vrtti of Abhayanandin on tive .work on the Paribhii.~as 'in

sense; the -word is found used in the three alternative views about the' application of the full sense of a sentence,-c<;lIlectively, individually or in bDth the ways, to the individuals cDncerned; cf. S{~ CflEfi!jQf@lrfa:, ~!I~ CitEf!{qf\Bj:[rrn:, '3+!'<!!l'T Effii<!qftemiH:; d. M. Bh. 1. 1.1 Viirt. 12 -; ( 2 } completion ; cf.
'l9i\Uy (<:rt tCfIOO:q QRBIf(~~tma"

Kas. on VII.


V ~ .. . "I,,,,ml1T a word used by P aQIDl .In a;:::~ . Bh. on P. IV. 1.7. 8:rt. 3; (i) . repetition in the Padapatna., Kratf~1l11l1"l: V. Llg and explained by mapatha etc. e. g. 31~:. IIi this Patafijali aSBcfaT llFl~. Samkhy.a sense the word is forind in" the (number) .is _also ~aidto be a,Pari-j neuter g~ndef; cf~~qfurrufaJ-i~ Pr. maQa. PanmaQa IS of two kmdsIII. 1,1. . , ' c;:; . .iiI' . fua:rcr cir defiriite as in the case of _, ' .. ':::W'l Khari, drolta etc;. and 6lfuija, as qit~ used as an adjective ;~~i the in the case 'of GaQa, Samgha t , Puga, I - word ~1 meaning . past' tensh Ji; 'lit,

qR&R' (I) removal oi a difficulty ; cf. aY;:i!j!l'T ''l:m ~&:;;rfl;:q:qy wmqfulj\: M;.

behind the eyes, unnoticed by the eyes. The word is generally used in the sense of remote or long (past) or 'perfect'. For the alternative explanation of the word WIJ;), cf.9i~~T<fI<f-ii !F!: qu1';j <'lPi t ~f'<l'G!Cf1{f~: Cfq.~~ qU~flrRr I arq~ arl~: 9iZlrafuf ~~mfu t ~ art~iPl~ :;q~CJ:~ -~ t lVI.Bh. on W~ ~ P. IlI.Z.II5. often found used in the M;abaexample on ~.4.1 etc.; cf. also Q:>!T({<l: q<[~1T( i1Cjfrcr M:.Bh. on P. 1.4.2. Vart.3; (2) alternative word, synonym; cf. arf~!9'<R ~?; I, <i'q<'l~~ITr q<jT<nii'f. I a:IT~Tffi ~1l~Rt ~1;<Rf "ifcrll~ lffcr I Kas. orr P. III,Z.II2.
bha~ya as for

~tTfi{ a class of words headed by

tWtm called

the word qii5<!J to which the tad. affix <> applied in' the miscen!l" neouS (~fi)'fi) senses; e.g. q~:, tfT~ : , ~: , trra=en:: etc. ct, Kas. on P. IV. 2.I!0.

qiT~ lit. behind the eyes; remote;

the term is found used by ancient grammarians, and also referred to in the M:ahabba?ya as referring to the perfect tense called ~?; in Pii.:Qini's grammar; d. '~IWlmqU~Tqt (~t2-) <i i1f?!E<jRr I M:. Bh. on P. I. 2.28; d. also '1 OCitj"~: qUIlJl<ll<I.. Kat. III. 4.21.

~:;r.:r synonym, synonymous word; d. Frn:. tf<lf<ICf'q<i~qCf D~~<I.. I 1fi1~~ I ~J!lffii1'\. M.Bh. on 1. 1.68; d. also
9i~!jffitf<lY<l9~1I ~~ 'fiUfu I <>IRrqffr1{f<fl~Rr M. Bh. on II. 3.9.

~?iI~ a class of words headed by \ the word ~T~ to which the affixar (<>I?{.) is added in the sense of' a product of' or 'a part of ;' e. g. ql~ : , l8lm : . ~Cj;~cr: etc. ct. Kas. on P.IV,3.!41.
~;:ffi name of the second out of the

~~ (I)' exclusion; negation with

a view to exclude ; one of the two
senses (~n:l\j?l>rffiip:r and ~e) of the negative particle <l0J:l; generally , found in cases when the particle <iQI. is compounded with a noun, and not .used independently with a verbal form or a verbal activity;' e. g. <>I~l1iIlT(:; eTilR ~; cf. aril~69i1Q. I <i14 5f~lIlTmit~ .,:tm~q ~Rr I T~ crill q~<{IBP-f <j({r<l'ai~1fililtffi I M. Bh. on 1. ,'1.43; cf. also >rl;;<:{qffiifl:f: ~!lRJ: ~<j<lr tlif <lSfqOI,I lIii({r~: e ~<U <j'5j"re~~ij qOI, II ( 2) removal in general, not by the use of a negative particle; cf. q~1{fe: 9i-5O<J: I ~r<It qftffr.If ~ ~;;<lT I M. Bh. On 1. 1.27 Vart. 3.

qa~~~Q'(~~fu the application of a

grammatical rule or 'operation like the rains which occur on dry land as also on the sea surface: ct. 'limR: ' ~~'1itt ~n~ q~<lCjff. I Cf"l"lT I ~r<1t <lT9~ ~ 'q tlcf+Ifi1~~fcr lVI. Bh. onP.I. 1;.29 ; VI. 1.127 ; cf. also ~i q~r<:f: ~{9'[<t 1{tiJ 9Tfi1CftfRr tl;cf ~11fltftt c5t1~1I <frrtCf<I.. I Rl=ml'irn, ~~m I Vya<;ii. Pari. 58, d. ~'liTft m~ l'!<fom. '1 "fT'liCl'IiTR ({~Cjff. Puru~o. Pari. 86.

qql~ a class of words headed by the word qq to which the tad. affix l{'fi ("l:) is added in the sense of 'moving by' or I eating along with' (~ 'q~fu); e.g. qrll'fi:, qfq<fu; <>1m:; <>If~; etc.;, d. KiiS .. on P. IV. 4.10.

word, pada; lit. member of a sentence; the word is found used in the sense of tf({ in the old Priitisii.khya Literature; cf. ~11f qquIT I q~~Q~'1 tf({!fC<j~ I q<U<f.;2l <>I1'lm <1Cjfa I
<.j~ ~ffilt:, >rt~8tI1: I Uvvata on V: Pr. L 138.,

~ (I) serial order or succession as

opposed to simultaneity; the word- ~~ a class of words headeq by the word q~ to which the tad. affix ar is used in grammar in connection (31crr..) is added without any change with a rule which, as the objector ' of sense provided the words ~ and for the. sake of argument, would others, to which the affix ar is to be like to hold and would apply by added, mean fighting clans;, e.g. succession with respect to the rule in conflict, either before it or after tfTtrcT:, arJij\: ,. \lP;JtI:, CU~lTt: etc. cf. it i.e. alternatively; c~, tfilYiI:lTe:rim Kas. on V. 3. II,}.

four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. According to the' an- ~m a word used in the Sik~a w9rks cient writers on Phoneties, sound or for a kind of pause or hiatus. : word (Cfl~ \, which is . constituted of air ( Cfl~), originates at the ~ alternative; occurring optionMiiliidharacakra where 'it is called ally or alternatively; cf. q;r~'fi ~1f qu. It then springs up and it is ~q: M. Bh. on 11.3.46 Vart. 8 ; VI. called ~ in the second stage. 1.61 V1i.rt. 4; d. also tj'r~ 'ti;9i~i.'ij Thence it comes up and is called f?!RrllCffu Kas. on P. I.2.36. l'll:'<lm in the third stage; rising up lit. pertaining to the fifth; from the third stage when the air name given to the affixes prescribstrikes against the .vocal chords in ed in the fifth Adhyaya of Pa:Qini's the glottis and comes in contact A~tiidhyiiyi, especially in Siitras with the different parts of the mouth, it becomes articulate and is V.2.1 to V.2.93. heard in the form of different sounds, when it is called ~l3ft; cf. I:fto (I) recital of a sacred Vedic or Siistra work; the original recital of ~~~ ~I<fI1ij ql\qr~r~~~:t'lll;. I an authoritative text; (2) .' the ~~m::r<ll~l Cfl'<l: qt tf({fL.lI Viikyavarious artificial ways or methods padiya 1. 144, and also cf. ~<lrcfi g '3T of such a recital; e.g. q({qlo, SfilltfTo 'qi15f'q~lTfcr~:a6ifrl:ll'1l ~f.!fcl~~r'fiT~r >rfa-etc. in the case of Vedic Literature; Nc1l'1iHr f.luetiTU 'q qRra'3'ill~qi.'ijCji1r'3T ( 3) an original recital such as the ~<1el~lTi.'ijCfi1T8r 'q >r~rrcreCjY~5fi.'ijCfi1reT ~'i\lTlo, \:ll:gt1ro, 'lGJqro, cuf!q;tfTO and ~i.'ijqR~CflTitl I ql\<\<'i.'ijT ~q~~uT , 1fR<1TlifItfTO in the case of the several <;5tq;O<ji.f{RT<fIt'lll;. I com. on Viikyasystems of Sanskrit Grammar; the padiya 1. 144. cf. also t'I~ -*~~T five Path as are called ~I<ft; (4) ~ft 1+fI:'<lm '({<l&:~~!:ft qil.:5fi.'ij~'C<lT recitation; cf. ifrr(j~1T( tfTi' ~'1U ~ o llCj&.I(I<;ftai I ;;<lCji[rm~ I ~<fI g <;5tq; 9T ~lIT Fmtg<I.. M. Bh. on P.I.3.I. <ufiI'1f g CI~rfi'r q'lifa-lT~fcI~I'l!9qftR:ffir I Vart. 13 ; ( 5 ) reading, variant; ef. \f\l<lT g '1 ~fu ~ ~ I Uddyota ,uWlJf.I aooultj'~ ,~~~ tfTORWl, on :qCCHR lUif1fRl1im Wf.(9 M. Bh.

also ~r~ name given to the first or introductory chapter ( arrf&j'fi) of the MahabM~ya of Pataiijali. The word occurs first in the SiSupalavadha of lVIagha. The word is derived from ~cro., the frequentative base uf ~rro.. to touch or to see (ancient use). Possibly it may be explained as derived from ~~ with 3llJ.; cf. ~c;ffi~ <iT (I~f.frRR~~T Sis.If.H2. MalliIlatha has undersood the word ~~ m. and explained it as introduction to a Sastra treatise; d. ~q~: ~r~I<:pT" elt~9i: ~:atcr~q;:~: I l\:iaIlinii.tha/ on SIS. ILII2.

; ,-



.Ahnika t.

}{ai. QD P. V. 2.134


time, but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades, noticeable in the various provinces and districts of the vast c,ountry. the result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation of the classical Sanskrit, which was a spoken language in his days, was the production of the wonde~ful and monumental work, the A~tadhyllyi, which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language, to hav~ a complete exposition of which, several life times have to be spent, in spite of several commentaries upon it, written from time to time by several distinguished scholars. The work is a linguist's and .not a language teacher's. Some \Vestern scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence. or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place, parentage or personal history. The account given ab,out these in the Kathiisarits1i.gara and other books is only legendary and hence, it has very little historical value. The internal evidence, supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B.C" if not earlier, in the north western province of India of those days. Jinendrabuddhi, the author of the KasikavivaraI)apafijika or Nyiisa, has stated that the word 'ifz;lrg~ mentioned by him in his siltra (IV. 3.94 ) refers to his native place and the word 'iT1i!>Tg;f\'<! derived by him from the word 'iTz;lrg~ by that siltra was, in' fact his own name, based upon the' name of the town which formed his native place. PiiI)ini has shown in his work his close knowlVII of PiHaiijala Mabiibhii~ya, D. edge of, and familiarity with, the E. Society's Edit~on. names of towns, villages, districts, rivers and mountains in and near . Viiblka, the north wEstern Punjab ttliiJdi{~~ called also by the name i>lf!'fi of the present day, and it is very or, lfIfiJI;:ft<!'31f!'ii; name given' to the likely that he was educated at the Siltras of PiiQini comprising eight ancient University of Tak~asilii. adhy1i.yas or books. The total Apart from the authors of the Pratinumber of Siitras as commented s1ikbya works, which in a way could upon by the writers of t~e Kasika_ and the Siddhantakaumudi is, 3983. be styled as grammar works, tbere As nine siltras out of these are deswere scholars of grammar as such, cribed as Viirttikas and two as who preceded him and out of whom GaI)asutras by Patafijali, it is evihe has mentioned ten viz. Apisali, ~iikatayana, Gargya, ~akalya, dent that there were 3972 Siitras Kasyapa, 'Bharadvaja, Galava, in the A$taka of PaI)ini according to Patafijali. A verse current among CiikravarmaI)a, Senaka and SpbotaVaiy1ikaraI:1a schools states the yana. The'- grammarian Indrahas not been mentioned by P1iI)ini, alnumber to be 399(5; cf. sftfur ~~Eli{~fiTr though tradition says that he was CI~T "9' 'iTcn~ :q I 'fIl'1\crfGa! ~"I11llf tfTfriTf<!: ~1'fl ~<i1!;.11 The traditional recital the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language. It is very likely tbat by Veda scholars who look upon the A~tiidbyiiyi as a - Vediiriga, PaI)ini had no grammar work of Indra before him, but at the same consists of 3983 Sutras which are time it can be said that the works accepted and commented upon by_ of some grammarians mentioned by all later grammarians and comPaI)ini such as Siikatayana, Apisali, mentators. The Siitras of PaI)ini, Gargya and others had been based which ma~nly aim at the correct on the work of Indra. The mention formation of words, discuss declenof several ga I)as as also the exhaussion, conjugation, euphonic changes, tive enumeration of all the two verbal derivativt's, lloun derivatives thousand and two hundred roots in and accents. For details see Vol. the Dlliitupatha can very well VII, VyiikaraQ.a Mahllbh1i.$},a, D. testify to the existence of systematic E. Society's edition pp. 152-162. grammatical works before P5.lJini of ,..... " t " ' . . t ' which he has made a thorough qrT01r.1~~<imt~ name gIven to the collection of' explanatory pithy study and a careful use in the comnotes oUhe type of Siitras written position of his GaI)apiitha and mainly by Katyiiyana. The VartDh1itupiitha. His exhaustive gramtikas are generally written in the mar of a rich language like Sanskrit style of the Siltras, but sometimes has not only remained superb in they are written in' verse also. spite of several other grammars of ' The ,total number of Varttikas is the language written w?seque?tly, \ well-nigh above 5000, including but its careful study 1S felt as a Viirttikas in Verse. There are three supreme necessity by scholars- of kindll ofVarttikas; cf. \'i'mT~3;~f philology and linguistics of the pref:q.:m <iSf :>rCj~~ I ci' 3:\;;4' Cflfctcfi msCjlffi~ sent day for doing any real work in +r;:ft~1lf: 1\ Nagesa appears to have the vast field of linguistic research. divided Viirttikas into twC) cll/.sses For details see pp. 151-I54. Vol.

(I) or \'iGjr'ii\1l"I6'fi name of a scholar of Sanskrit Grammar, who wrote an ;ndependent work on Paribhii$as and commentaries on the Paribhii$endusekhara and Laghusabdendusekhara. See \'i~~Cjj\ and qRllllf(I!~R~. (2) Pathak, K. B. a modern scholar who wrote learned papers on grammar works and rammaiangrs.


Six kinds of bad reciters. They are:-reciting in a manner (.rtfa' ), reciting too-quickly ('W~), reciting with the nodding of head (&r\:Cii+tft), using a written text (~r~Cl1l"16Cii), reciting without knowing the meaning (31"~~:) and reciting with a low voice (31~Cii06:). cpo Pii. Sik$ii v. 32 and Yiij5avalkyasik$ii v. 198.

qTo<fiT name popularly given to the commentaries written by ~<i<g1l"I6'fi. See ql6<l\.

tn-o'li ~1]1T:

Six merits in a reciter. These are sweetness (+rl~~,), clarity ( 3l~\c<fRn:), separation of words ( q~: ), righ t accent ( ~<:'i\: ), patience C~r4iU, and observe time ( z;I<!6l=1~,) ; cpo Pii. Sik$ii v. 33 and Yaj. Sik$ii v. 199.

ttliU!f;{ the illustrious

ancient grammarian of India who is well known by his magnum opus, the A$taka or A$t1i.dhy1i.yi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparall~led upto the present day by any other work 'ori grammar, not only of the Sanskrit language, but of any other language, classical as well as spoken. His migp:ty intelligence grasped, studied and digested not only the niceties of acceniiIation and formationof Vedic words, scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his




'as shown by his definition ' fi.~S :aiffl5>ffi~i'ffi'liw:t 9T~~ ' .If this . definition be followed, many of the Varttikas given in the Mababha!?ya as explaining and commenting upon the Siitras will 'not strictly be termed as Varttikas, and their . total number which is given as exceeding 5000; will be reduced to about 1400 or so. There are some manuscript co'pies which give this reduced' number, and it may be said that only these Vartdkas were written by Katyiiyana while the' others were added by learned grammarians after Kiityiiyana. In the Mabii.bhii!?ya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of Varttikas out of which Dr. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Varttikas. A t some places the Mahii.bhii.~yakiira has quoted the names of the authors of some Viirttikas or their f chools, in words such as :iit~<jr: tRifro, mm;;IT<jT: 1:f6r.a-, ~i'l1m: qof;o-. etc. Many of the Varttikas given in the Mahabba!?ya are not seen in the Kasikiivrtti, while some more are seen in the Kasikiivrtti, which, evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patafijati, as they have not been noticed by the Mabii.bhii.!?yakara. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the 'Bhii.!?yakara popularly named 'j~tis' . from the Varttikas of Katyayana and others. For details. see Vol. VII Mabii.bhii.~ya, D. E. Society's edition, pp. 193"':'214.
t:nPJriir~:;t"lf'U a gloss on the grammar rules of pa~Jini. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Siitras of Pii.Qini, out of which the most important aQd the oldest one is the one named Kasika vrtti, written by the joint authors Jaya-

ditya and Vamana in the 7th century A.D. It is belived that the KiiSikavrtti was based upon some old Vrttis said to have been written by ~, . f.i~{, ~f5~~, ..m~fcr, ~f'q and others. Besides Kas~ka, the famous Vrtti, and those of ~, f.r~{ and others which are only reported, there are r;>ther Vrttis which are comparatively modern. Some of them have been printed, while others have remained only in manuscript form. Some of these are: the Bbii.!?avrtti by Puru!?ottamadeva, VyakaraQasudbii.riidhi by VisveSvara, Gii<;lharthadipini by Sadasivamisra, Siitravrtti by Annambhatta, VaiyakaraQasarvasva by DharaQidhara, Sabdabhii!?ana by Narayal)a Pal)<;lita, paQ.inisiitravrtti by RamacandrabhaHa Tiire and Vyakaral)adipika by Oram bhaHa. There 'are extracts available from a Siitravrtti called Bbagavrtti which is ascribed to Bhartrhari, but, which is evidently written by a later writer ( {it1'[<!51'[fci' accQrding to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhiiravi and. Magha quoted in it as noticed by Siradeva in his vrtti on Pari. 76. Glosses based upon PiiQini Siitras, but having a topical arrangement are also available,' the famous ones among these being the Prakriyakaumudi by Ramacandra Sesa and the Siddbiintakaumudi by BhaHoji Dik1iita. The ~1:<lIl9ir!Fft and the <!5~ff<tT can also be. noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhiinta Kaumudi. There are Vrttis in other languages also, written in modern times, out of which those written by B6htlingk, Basu and Renon are well-known.

tniUlif'T~r~ a short work on phonetics

which is taken as a Vedanga 'work

tff~~,' ~ A learned' pupil of Nagesabhatta who lived in Varanasi in the .latter half of the'I8th ~entury A.D. He waS a renowned qtfi:Tt;ft~~i\q;r name of a commenteacher of Grammar and is believed tary on the Sik!?a of Pal)ini by to have written commentaries' on 'Gf~ufi'Gf{ as ordered by king ~rnif. many works of Nagesa,.the famous, among which are the 'Kasika:' tr1G~Ci'iliif(+rT1l<{ the same as ~lmS<t. . called also 'Gada' on the Pari': See +lI[TOII 6<j. bhisendusekhara, the' Cidasthit(1~mmft\ a class of irregular commaul.' on th~ Laghusabdenduekhara and the' Chaya.' on the Uddpound words headed by the comyota. Balarnbbatta, pound word ql~tlii'lff, which are who bas written a commentary on taken correct as they. are. This the Mitakl?ara (tbefamous commclass of words consists mostly of work forming a tatpurul?a; comentaryon the Yafnavalkyasmrti), is believed by some as the same as pound which cannot be explained Vaidyanatha; while otbers say that by regular rules. The class is calle~ Balarilbhatta was the son of an~fcmuT and hence similar irregular Vaidyanatha. words are included in /~t; e.g. lf1~fllffi:, ~~:, 'l!'illU~: etc. d. qJ{UT tbe same as lf1~1<j0T, recital of the KiiS. 011 P. II.I.48. 'Veda in any of the various artifi~ lit. foot; the term is applied to a cial ways prescribed,' such as fourth part of a section such as krama, jata, ghana etc.; ct.. ;r.~ if ~<lT<!, or of a verse which is divisi'q ~~~9U ~m'''<[~: Ql"{lTf.111T ~I'[if.. ble into four parts or liiles; d. R.Pr.XI.37 ~n)5~nro: qt<{l1c<{1l~ P. VI.1.lT5, also m: ql~~ P. VII. I.57. Q'lnCRITa;if1lT or lf1~'lR~~fcr, words head. ed by the word ql{~ which have ~ot completion of the fourth part got some irregularity, especially the or Pii.da of a stanza or verse; cf. insertion of ~ between the co~sti ffi~ itil ;;rn. qt<{i\~ P. VL1.134, tuent words. For details sse q[Wfi\;' also }fe~C{: ~ VIII. 1.6. As ~~mf<f 'q ~1<[1<I:. P. VI. 1.153 and many times some particles, not the commentary thereon. with any specific or required sense, were used for the completion of a '1RTQot oral recital of a sacred work. P1i.da, such particles were called See qRtr[ lf1~cr.{tr[; cf. ~mfu'GfT<j<i\ qfl'[ mro: m:~: R. Pr.XII.7 ; also 1irqrott~~f tr1'U~~ lit. serving the purpose of ~ofcf tITc{l{{1i1t +rcrfa' V. Pro VIII.50 anotber like the Paribb1i.!?a and the Uvvata. Adhikara rul~ in Gramm;l.r which have got no utility as far as they tn+iT~ a class of words headed by 'the themselves are' concerned, but word qT~ to which the teld. affix if whichare'of use in the illterpreta~ is added optionally with ;mlJ.. in the tion of other rtiles; cf. (ij"f~f'li~~i1 sense of 'possession', e.g. lfRT1!lm:; qftllNlc~~. Pat.Seki Pari. l!ll1c!1~.; CfTIlii: >, If[+[c{lct etc.; cii;' Kas. on V.2.IOO. ' 2, 3.
and believed to have been written by paQ.ini. Some say that the work was written by Pingala.





~ftfimm a &!lijt work 6f the White q~ tfllf<{ +rot lflll~, lit. the interYaj urveda. It contains a list of fu&.ns pretatiorr or theory discussed and of ~he White Yajurveda. Almost a settled at the assembly of the learn- complete work, it quotes a number I ed. The word is used in the sense of works on Nirukti or derivation of examples from the White Yajur-I veda. . . of words as also works of the type . I of the Pratisakhyas; cf. tfG;~fiI qtf~~ t I) techmcal. as opposed I trcf'q~1l1f'1t lflq~iir Nir. 1. 17 and the to literal; conventional; e.g. the I com. of ~'tf(<l; cf. also tfrtli;\~~qT words ~~F.l:, ~g' etc. cf. '<T~flfcTr.l a:;j~t ~<f. ~% illr<:jft;:jo?ct~ 6l~ Q.<!il~: W~~Cji<tlii lfl~~mq:1 ~~ aN ancnRt qTf~ M. Bh. on I. I. 48; ~cn~: I I{as. on P. t 2.56; cf. ! see also pp. I04, 105 Vol. VII. ~ . qrf{lIlftiCfifr: . ~!1;il~'Ii9'tfi1 : Mahabbal?ya D. E. Society's edition. ~\TilR'i~~~ ~~1:FT ~~ftRr I I i See lfl~. . .' M. Bh. on P. I. 2.33; (2) derived; ~ on the strength of a Paribb1ilia ct. l:fT~"~T name given to the comlflRm\f{;;fi i5~a;fiRij .~G:. Kat. Par. vr. I mentary written by fct~fi'I~ on the Pari. 58. I ~k Pratisakhya.

believe that he wrote a work on Phonetics which is now popularly called!fl~~~.
~~ a class of words headed by the

affix ma~ked with 'I.; e.g. fu~~, ~, etc. (cf. P. VI. 1.71).

word fTre~ to which the taddhita affix ~ (l!:~:q) is added optionally with mt:. (ifglJ..l, in the sense of , possessed of'; e.g. f1t~:; ~. "u~:, '3\~1iii;.. etc.; cf. Kas. on V.
2. IOO.

~ marking an .affix with the mnte consonant 'I. for several grammatical purposes; see firo.: cf: ~~ ~tcrni. P. III. t. 33 Vart. 5. See'ftm:.
~. a gramm~tical operation caused by an affix tnark~d with the mute consonant I:J,,; cf. Cj~ lS fimf ~ smuRr fufcr :q {irt$:f ~ tliil: ~q:, M. Bh. on III. I. 83 Vart. 7. For details see fuJ..
~ the same as fq~.



a tad. affix applied to the word in the Sense of fruitless, useless; cf. Rr\!>fmt:Cfi~lq: fqf;j{qm IV. 2.36 Vart. 6; cf. also ~~f~: ~fitf;j{: fcr",i!';;f: I KM. on P. IV. 2.36.

See filtlRlll

and fq..
~~I:.~, fqtfr~i$:w'Ut4'li name given to a stanza of ~'t or. ~ or

Ei1ftftr~1T a complete Sika work with a i trrtt~f~ name given to the works commentary. treats of doubling, I of the type of commentaries written quantity, accent and so on. Cakra,! by \309~ on the old Pratisiikhya the author of the work, belonged I books. . to the South: Tp.e work got its name I because it follows the tenets laid ~~a another Dame for Sakatiidown by the teacher Pari. yana, the aut her of Sakatayana VyakaraQa, along with his own qy~ residual nature; the Jawor commentary Amoghavrtti. He rule of elimination; the remainbelonged to the Yapaniya Jain ing alternative after full consiSangha and J;ved around 867 to 910 deration of all the .other altern aA. D. as can be understood from a tives; ct. fct+rI'iT !!.~lfo'l'l,,+<n<t I qrftreference (Sak. Vyii. IV. 3. 208) ~'6ljjWF'cnJ:qf f<i+rflH Kas. on P. IV. to Amoghavarlia r. The grammar 2.I30 ; ct. also qrft~~itcr ~ Rl:: work is complete in four adl:iyayas. Sira. Pari. 37. The system has a Siitrapatha (along With auto-commentary Amoghaa ql~q lit. belonging to the assembly; vrtti), Gal}apatha, Paribhaliap~tha the term ITIRqa; refers to the results and Ul}iidipatha. of the discussions held, at the assemblies of specially prominent 1il'lm~.. a class of word~ headed by the scholars or learned persons; ct. word lfllU to which the taddhita affix <:r is added in the sense of tI~!flft~ ~ ~ (~~) ~51 ~'fi: q:qr: ~"f'1 0/'R!ITgiJ:. I M. Bh. on II. collection; e. g. qr~, q0<jT, ~ etc. cf. Kas; on P. IV. 2.49. rs8; VI. 3.14.

~, a tad. affix applied to the word

f.t in the sense of the depression of

the nose, the word f,ij being substituted for f.r; e..g. fi:rfq~: ; cf. If.'I~ N~~f:q '<f P. V. 2.33.
~ marked with the mute letter I:J"



qTit~ll remoteness; lit. being out of sight; in .grammar, qI~f(<i is a condition for the use of. the perfect tense (re~). See tRt&:!.

iil~i~ an ancIent scholar who is believed to be the first writer on Prosody, his work being known as ~:~n~ of f1t~. Some scholars

which is iQdicative of a grave accent in the case of affixes marked with it, as for example, the, affixes Rr!!., futI. and flll:J,,; cf. 6l~<O~{ ijfC'Rir P. Nlf(~ [PISCHELL, RICHARD] a II( 1.4. A Sarvadb1i.tnka affix, famous European Grammarian of marked with the mute consonant !!., the nineteenth century who wrote in paI].ini's Grammar has been des many articles on grammatical sub,:, cribed as instrumental in causing jects and wrote a work entitled many operations such as (a) the Prakrit Gramma:r. sub~titution of gUQa; (cf. P. VII. 3 84, 91). (b) the prevention of gUQa ~~ compression; a fault in the pro", in the case of a reduplicative syllanunciation of vowels and consonan ts ble as also in the case of the roots ?{ caused by the compression orcont and ti (cf. P. VII. 3.87, 88); (c) raction of the pJace of utterance; the substitution of Vfddhi, (cf. P. d. fct\fROO{~&jf~ I ffi<l'fi\UFUFci\m~ VII .. 3.89. 90'). (d) the augments 6'1Im ilm~:; ~~:;;f.\' ~;mrl 1'( and ~ in the case of the roots ill!. R. Pro XlV. 2; cf. also i!{&'i~J:!ffiand 'l respectively (cf. p~ VII. 3Tmii:iRtiT mi'fR. p.r. XIV. 5. 3.92, 93, 94), and ( e) acute accent for the vowel preceding. the affix ~!~ a. class of words headed by the word tft to which the taddhita in the c~se of the roots ~, m-, ~ affix ~1ll ( ~'l.) is added in the sense and others {d. P. V1.-:I. i92 );A oJ decoction' (:lfllh); e. ~.,tft~:; short vowel ( of a .rQot ) getsq: add:ct KM; on P; V. a.24~ . c;d ~o it, W..J)@D. followed. ,by: akrt
o o

type consisting of three feet, the middle foot consisting of six or seven or eight syllables orily: e. g. ~g'Veda X. 105, 2 and 7; IX. HO. I, VIII. 46.q; cf. ~fij'1J~ fqtft~\;'1f ~fcr ~ R. Pro XVI.. 25, 28,36.

~ short term -for the labial consonants

ed comme,ntary on two of Vakyapadiya of Bhartrhari, in which he has quoted passages from famous writers and grammarians such as Bhamaha, Kuntaka, Vamana, Hemacandra and others. The . name is found written-as PUQyaraja also. It is now establiShed that the commentary on Brahmak1iQQ.R fathered on PUQyaraja is a kind of collection of notes culled from Bhartrhari's Svopajiiavrtti on BrahmakaQQa. ,However, PUQyaraja's commentary on the second or VakyakiilJQ.a is independent and scholarly. A scholar called Pufijaraja, but different from the above, is known to have written a commentary on Sarasvataprakriyii. second time again, after once it has been set aside by a. subsequent opposing rule or rules in conflict; d. ~iI:l(~if~r.nt(, ~:!;.+{.Par. Sek. Pari. 39; cf.,M. Bh. on P. I. 4,2 Vart .. 7; cf. also Purn. Pari. 40

Ii., % Of. , +r.. and ~ as prescribed by


I.61 e. g.

an: ~~q=t

(P. VII.

4. 80 ).

qq:mq restoration of the ,masculine '" form in the place of the feminine
one as noticed in compound words, formed generally by the Karmadharaya and the Bahuvrihi compounds, where the first member is declinable in all the three genders; g. ca~~:. This restoration to the masculine form -is also noticed before the tad. affixes ffii., ffi", Q+f, ~l2f, qro, 1:9 as also before lfll~ and the word llTfiriI:.. For details, see P. VI. 3.34 to 42 and commentaries thereon. See also page 334, Vol. VII. of the Patafijala Mahabha1?ya D. E. Society's edition. i~ masculine;. a word used in gra.mmar in the ~rew or the masculine, gender; d. &I1'g.,9;tfcf.3 Br. Dev. I. 40. d. also 3f~lUJf ~Cf~~\~1'1t1filt ~~1'.{a-tT~Cf&Rr: tlTllf?i "i ~~ntl..1 M. Bh. on P. I. 2.68 Vart. I ; cf. ~JlCrT~ and tfi~f.J ifIl1lf.J.


the same as srRtsm9 counterexception; cf. Candra Vyak. VI. 4

~:m a passage which is repeated in

or ~ masculine. It appears that both !Ii,., and !i~ were current t-erms meaning masculine' in ancient days. ~f. lli: lS<:~ P. VIII. 3. 12 and ~m{!~ P. VII. 1.89. Although !Pi.. is changed to 9;~ before a word beginn~ng with a hard consonant, still ~~ is given as an independent word derived from the root 'Cf[ cf. ~~fiiI.. UQadi S. IV. 177; d. also the expressions~"iil', ~~if and !Pill[. ing; d. ~ar~r aT<irffi:!il'. ~

the ;fiJ:l'CfICi and the other Patbas or recitals; the word, is also used in the sense of the conventional repetition of a word at the end of a chapter. The word ~'qif is used also in the same sense; ~~ l<i~ ~qqll~fcr ~rn- IT. Pr. I. 61; d. also R. Pr. X. 8 and 10.

~~a: occurring beforehand, preced'1Niff ~"l:. Par. Sek. Pari. 59, also

M. Bh. on VII. 2.100; cf. also the

expression ~~~I~ which means the same as 8itr'l\~ which is opposed to 3l!!'lRt.


S:IJ~~ a gr~mmarian of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named ~'Cfit~ihir On the ~qftf~! of Sripati.

a famous grammarian, who wrote a grammar work, named see


~;r~&tJt recital of a word again in the Krama and other Piitbas for a special purpose, although such a recital after three times is generally discouraged ; d. u:cr+I!:fFc\~1'.{l~ Pl~ !l'r1iT *1Cffff ... Uv. Bba1?ya on V. Pr. IV. 177.
~ use of the same word or expres-

old; the word is used in the sense of old or ancient; cf. lUUJ~~ ;{llll"l~. P. IV. 3.105. It is also used in the sense of old mythological works; cf. ~rn-mr: !l~rir ~'Il;Ji M. Bh on Ahnika I Vart. 5. a grammatical term in the sense of' person '; cf .rofcr: tf:::nct1;rt ~~ 'litC!>l"l:. B~iiJ. ~l;:e<rifilt c(~<i~ff, *1Cffcr: .!Ff~mr(il~ -?q'llc<i' "i. These persons or Puru~as are described to be three 3T~Ii, 1l"~1i and '3'Q1i corresponding to the third second and first persons respectively in' English Grammar; d. also Nir. VII. I and 2.



~~ masculine nature, hence masculine gender. The word is generally found as a part of the word +rrfertr9;~ which means a word which is declined in the masculine and the . feminine gender or in the n~uter and the masculine gender in the same sense. For details see M. Bh. on P. VI. 3.~4.
~ the augment Ii. 'added to the roots ~, ~,'fil~ etc. as also to all roots ending in 3fT before the causal sign

~~~ a Jain grammarian who has written a commentary work on the 1fIg'Cft6 of ~+l~.

fill, (l{); e. g. Oiq-lIfff, Giq-qfff, If<i'ttrlifff,

~q-lIfo, etc.; cf. OiRf~~'i~~lijrcrt


utr P.

(I) the word ~ as given in the ancient list ~of masculine -words marked with the mute letter ~ to signify the addition of the fern. affix ~ (~); cf. P. IV.I.IS; (2) the substitute ~ (i.e. SSlf) for the word ~ii optionally prescribed after the words ~J :a-q, U;;J, ~ and it~ in the simple sense of ' girl ' and. not 'daughter' e.g. \T~, q,a~~; cf. P. 3.70 Vart. 9.

sion, which, if noticed in the writing of the Siitrakara, is indicative of something in the mind of the Siitrakara; cf. 3faJ: gi\cl"i<il1'Cf~t<{fq~ a:rf.'t~~~ M. Bh. on P. III. 3.12Vii.rt. I; cf. also 9:ilcl"iil+rRt!jmn'Cfffl~+{. I Kas. on P. I. 41.'
~f<hn'ij' prescribing the same affix or


operation again, which generally is attended with some purpose; cf.

o~C!>: ~~I~?{ PlfJr:rt<f ([5Irfit3Tfcr-


qI:Tt!:fi,., P. III. 3.10 Vart. I; cf. also l<ifql:rTi\eTll~<!{Ttcl~ if, Kas. on

(I) name of a commentary on the Sarasvatika:r;tthiibharaQa of Bhoja by Kr1?QaliliiSukamuni. ( 2 ) -name of a commentary on Daiva VyakanlI)a by Kr~Qalil1iSuka.
of the third KaI)Q.a of Vakyapadiya. It deals with three persons, 3T~,
ll\<!Ii, ~.

P. V. 1.57.

~('tg~r name of the tenth section


~clfa occurrence of the same opera-

VII. 3.36. '

a~~ 0. famous grammarian of the

~:SI~:dl'~!ijIi\ occurrence or possibility of 'the application of a preceding

c,tion again after it has once occurred and has been superseded; cf. Oi~~ 1'li'QrC(fct~:, M. Bh. on' VI. 4,160;

~~l the term !l~


person viz.

twelfth century, who wrote a.l~arn

grammatical rule or operation a




the first, the second arid the third.

the rule prescribing the term gw is ci. qW1tf~~ !I~~ err~ M. Bh. on P. 1. 4.1 V~rt. 8,
fct~~lfUI ~.3Nllli':<lm\im:

a popular term used for the treatise on grammar by an ancient grammarian ApiSali. ct. an~ !!E<!i\Ul~ Kas. oli P. IV. 3.15. It was called Pu~karaQa probably because it was very extensive and Widely read before PiiQini. For the reading 9;5'!i\Ul for ~, and other details see Mahabha!jya, Vol. VII. pp. 1320 133, D. E. Society's edition. are given in P. V. 2. 48-58; d. ~crr <mrrtl: I 6'~ ~: I are-: ~ M.Bh. on P.II.2.3. The word~lso means an ordinal number'; cf. ~ ti~~~ql(Gc!ltlJfliIl~1ii~ P. II.a.II.

P. I. 4. 101 ;

~ilJ"l~:q M.Bh. on P. VIH.2.I Vart.8.

~mR:i;tT~ an operation prescribed in

tIle province of the rule '{~Ii/l~ i.e. in the last three quarters of the eighth book of Pal}.ini's grammar.

~it~ a famous grammarian believed .to have been a Buddhist, who flourished in the reign of Lak!jmat}asena in the latter half of the twelfth century in Bengal. Many works on grammar are ascribed to him, the prominent ories among which are the Bha~ii vItti and, the Paribbli~iivrtti, the Gat}avrtti and the Jiilipakasamuccaya and a commentary on the Mahabbii!jya caned lPral)apat}a of which only a fragment is available and a commentary on Ul}.lidisiitras noted by Ujjvaladatta. Besides these works on grammar, he has written some lexicographical works of )Vhich Hariivali, Trikal}.~asf!ja, Dvitilpako~a, and Ekak!jarako~a are the prominent ones. The Bhaljavrtti' has got a lucid commentary on it written by Sf!itidhara.
~~~ fet~l'lI'P'ftu a famous grammarian of Bengal, who wrote the grammar work Prayogaratnamiila in the fifteenth century. The work betrays a deep study and scholar ship of. the writer in the, Mantrasastra.

~~. a class of words.headecl by the word !l6'1\f, to which the taddhita affix q ( ~fq ) is added provided the word ending with the affix forms the llame of a district. e.g, !!'&'iifto!T, 'fmrfi etc. cf. Ras. on P. V. 2.135.
~l~ lit. for the sake of paying respect. The word is used by commentators in connection with references to ancient grammarians by Pa:q.ini in his siltras, where the commentators 'usually say that the siltras citing the views of ancient grammarians imply merely an option, the name' being quoted merely to show respect to the grammarian ;cf. arlfiT~~~tur ~I~ S. K. on P. VLt.92.

originally a title, but mostly used in. connection with the famous Jain grammarian ~;r~ whose work on grammar caned ~m1ll is well-known; see itci;r~

;i~~ a class of words headed by

the word !!~~ to which the taddhifa affix <;'11 is added in the sense of' duty' or' nature '; e.g. qro~tll~, \T~~, <n<111~, m~ etc.; d; KM. on P. V. I.t28.
~acIass of roots headed by the root !III. of the fourth conjugation


whose peculiarity is the substitution of the aorist sign 81'.( ~) for ffis; e..g. ar~, argtf~. ar!itf6;, etc. cf. Sll1~~~~: ~q~ .P. III, 1.55.

an ordinalnumera,l; lit. the word means completion of a particular number (ti<lIT); d. ~iii ~~r ~1Ir.r '!,qij' tiq~~ ~ o~n ~: I ~:rrfilt ~; ~1.\~: I Kas. on ~. V~ 2.48. The word is used also in the sense of an affix by the application of. which the particular number. ( ~~!jT) referring to an object . is' shown' as' complete; cf. <i~~q'Et;;JI~ atill( ~~'lr ~tf~ . ~ !f{i!lilll~:t Kas. on . P;V.2.48, These Pilra.I}.a 'pratyayas

a tad. affix showing the particular completion of the number (~r) shown by the word ~~ the grave accent for the preceding acute vowel as a result to which the affix is applied;. cf. of the following vowel made acute, aj{! ~!I~lIrra: *aj(~I~ miamI and the preceding, as a re~t. 'f~O<jii. I ar~qiill1: I M. Bh. on P .1. turned into grave by virtue of the 1.23 Vart. 7. These affixes are rule ~ ~miI.. VI.I.198; cf. mentioned by PiiQini in V. 2. 48 to ~~~{i ~1it~1mt ~ I 58. arfi!JI'Iil.I cm!+wJ::. I M. Bh. on P.I.t.39 'lfl3'fPQ ending with an ordinal affix; Viirt.I6. the same as 'it1llq~; cf. ~ffi 'l,4li1Qjd placing first ( in a com,{(uU"dI(,( ~r~.a:(iJ;. ~fit ~ M.Bh. on pound); priority of a word in a P. II. 2.3. compound, as in the case of an '(il (I) ancient, old; (2) belonging adjectival word. For special instruto tbe Easterndistriets. The word ctions in grammar about priority is frequently used as qualifying the See P. n.2.30 to 38. word an'i!fr4 where it means ancient. 1.~ lit. the view placed fir&t for consideration which generally js the ~~~ the dictum of PaI)ini view of the objector and is geneabout rules in his second, third and rally refuted by the author's view fourth quarters (Piidas) of the called ~~~ or fffilTiff. eighth Adhyaya being invalid to (i.e. not seen by) all the previous rules in the first seven chapters ~tr{ anterior member,the first out of the two members of a comar.d the first quarter of the eighth pound, as contrasted with the next as laid down by him in the rule membar which is ~tf'.{; d. 'itt~!ofIfue+( VIlI.2.I. The rule '!,ct if~Wtfa:<il~~: ~~fu, M. "1~~iI.. is taken also as a governing Bh. on P.VI.I.85 Vart. 4. . rule i.e. ~CfiR: laying down that in the last three quarters also of his ~~q=C\l>i'li~ retention of the original grammar, a subsequent rule is acute accent of the first member in invalid to the preceding rule. The a compollnd as is generally noticed purpose of this dictum is to prohiin the Bahuvribi compound and in bit the application of the rules in special cases in other compounds ; the last three quartets as also that cf. ~g~~T S(~<rT ~tf1{i( and the of a subsequent rule in the last following rules P. VI. 2.1 to 63three quarters, before all such preceding rules, as are applicable tt.eTq'~ importance in sense possessed by the first member of a in the formation of a word. have compound as noticed generally in been given effect to; cf. ~[lN the case of the Avyayibbava tom .. t'i~~~ , ~1ll~~~o

_pound, which hence' is defined as , '{'N~~>Pl\.n~<ftlll'i: M. Bh. on P.Il. 1.6. II.I.20, II. 1.49.
~ substitution of the former letter in the place of the two viz. the' fqrmer and the latter, as a result of the coalescence of the two; d. arm t~: and the following rules P. VI.
I.I07- IIO

their coalescence, prescribed by pa1J.ini in VI. 1.102.

~~ name given to the second

pad a of the second adhyaya of PaI;lini's A~tadhyayi which begins with the Sutra ~TtRl~~~~~~<liT

~f.iCR1lJ on Katantra. Vistara of



~fcIf'el (I) an operation or karya for the anterior; d. P. 1. 1;57; cf. also Mahabha~yaon P. 1. 1.57 ; d, also tl;~it~: ~~~ ~'Ij'If.!;ro:. M.Bh. on 1.2.4 Vart. and II. 4.62 Vart 4 ; ( 2) an operation or . a rule cited earlier in the order of sutras; cf. ~fc!N!l.W ~~<lY"l~ M. Bh. on P.1. 1.44 Vart. 13.

lit. previous rule; a rule cited earlier in a treatise. The word is, however, frequently used in the Mahabha~ya in the sense of' a rule laid down by an earlier grammari~n '; cf. er~ -errs: ~~~Sr M.~ Bh. Ahnika I, ~ll..1r ~~<1 'l~fufu ~~ f:n!j~ M. Bh. on 1.2. 68; cf. also M.Bh. on P.IV.I.!4 Vart~ 3, VI.r.r63 Vart. I,Vn. 1.18, VIII. 4.7.

~~ft{ a group of wo~ds, with irrem

gularity in. the coalescence of the two constituent members, collected. together by PaQini and m~ntioned together with the word 'llfi~ ~t the head; cf. If.Il<<<rctrfir <I~~' P. VI. 3 r0 9; cf. also ~~ ~ifl1<i~'iiiU: ~ ij ~~ffT:, ~ :;:j Olfir, ~qRt!!IM ~ <l'IRr I Il~, ~:, . ., N~T"i:, ~, ~:, q<ilqCf~ ~: etc. Ras. on P~ VI. 3. 1 09. '

N'!i\Uf P. II.


'l'ifl lit. m~xed. The term is used in the Pratisakhya works in connection with the vowel Sj\ or ~ which is looked upon as a llmter{ being mixed with the consonant ~ or 6;'

ct. Ilm~U

illl1 'h'!ih.:

~~ ~'iimt:

1l'ij't9'IQ. com. on T. Pc; XIII. 16.


'i<ir.r~ conflict of two rules where

the preceding rule supersedes the latter rule, as the arrival at the correct form requires it. Generally the dictum is that a subsequent rule should supersede the preceding one; d. RSlrnqq rrt ~;r,. P. I. 4. 2; but sometimes the previous rule has to supersede the subsequent one in spite of the dictum fiI>rfuttq wr.. The author of . the Mahabha~ya has brought these cases of the ~ml:f, which are, in fact, numerous, under the' rule fct>rffiqq rrt '!itir:l:. by . taking the word q-{ in the sense of Ill!! what is desired' ; d. W'l'r=<ft rr\~: I R~ qt <lfitf! a=I{Cftfiffi' I M. Bh. on I. 1.3; 1.2, 5; I. 4.2; lI. I.6g, IV.' 1.85 etc.; cf. also ~~lfRriN) <{Tf{ <114 wsnaqq

't~~ a variety of an tara riga tva mentioned by Nagda in. the Paribh8.~endusekhara. where an operation, affecting a part of a word which precedes that portion of the word which is _affected by the other operation is looked' upon as antaraIiga; e.g. the f2mqin ~~I:J (~r.ijCf.. + ~) is looked upon as ariC!Uf with respect to the elision of Fct-Cf.. which is qflrof. This kind of antaratigatva is, of course, not admitted by Nagesa although mention,ed by him; cf. Par. Sek. Pari. 50.
~;:o end of the previous. The word is used in connection with a vowel which is substituted for two vQwels (tl;CfiI~.). Such a substitute is looked upon as the ending vowel of the preceding word or th~ initial vowel of the succeeding word; it cannot be looked upon as both at one and the same time; cf.llRfr~ P. VI. 1.85 and <Jll'lff a:rraI~ ilFffliitcrn: Sira. Pari. 60 ; d. als9 ~ ~~A ~cWff: R<rn. qGiit: am:)ftC!i{llm: M. Bh .. on 1. 1.47 Vart. 3.

separately as far' as hearing, is concerned; distinctly separate from another; cf. Ba ~u ~ <I~ 'l~r R. Pr. XIII. 17,
ijciqt{ group of all the individual-

Q5'( tad. affix added to the word fffiio; optionally with the affix fi\'w;' e.g. fu~q'5l:. See fii!!. -

~ a grammariaD~ who has' written

a treatise named .ail uIIRCJ\IIiOjQ11f, a verse commentary on the Ul)iidi. siitras ( l;laticapadi).

words, syntactically connected. It is a definition of Vakya as given by some scholars. cpo Yak. pad. II. 2.

ly separate


i~i<fl~l1i framing a separate rule for

a thing instead of mentioning it along with other things in the same context, which implies some purpose in the mind of the author such as anuvrtti in subsequent rules, option, and so on; d. ~~lJ9i{1ljf{\lI ~qif.l(!j. ~tRr~<l;. Ras. on P. 1. 3.7; cf. also Kas. on 1. 3.33, I. 3.84, 1. 4.58, III. 1.56, ~V. 1.16, VU. 4.33, VIII. 1.52, VIII. 1-74.
'l~ a class of words headed by the . word Il~ to which the taddhita affix ~+!il: (:{+If.:,:q,) is added optionally with the other usual affixes aj~ tci . ' and 66; m t he sense of nature I. e.g. >r~j:jf, q-I~q<l;., 'l~Cfir" il~t'lT; similarly $lP.:+rr, mc(q<!:.., "K'tCj~. ~!ffi; qfam, 'WJiI<l;., q~, q~; ci. Kas. on P. V.

a class .of words headed by the word qi!\', the tad. affix in the sense of ifI"l. applied to which ( words) . is eli.ded; e g. qi!\': fi\'!fT. ~: ~:; for detatls see KiiS. on P. II. 4.59.

\((ij: ~

frequency; repetition; a sense in which the -frequentative affiE ~ and in some cases the imperativ.9 .mood are prescribed.. ci. tlt.r.~ ~m~~ fln<n~~: S. K. @:ifl Po Hi. 1.22; cf. also S. K. on P. IU. 4.a
grammsrime o~ ~he eastern school which is believed to have been Elwtoo by w~ft. the wKiter of the glCl called ii'!ffii on the K!3ik:vrUi. The school practically terminated with ~Rr~and ~ at the end of the twelfth century A.D. Such a school existed also at the time of PiiQini and Patafijali, a reference to which is found made in !lfi:it 1S1fi 6~: P. IV. 1.17 and >rr'<iTil~ ~<l;. IV. l.r6oand srii:IT~ t"~ :q V. 3.80 where the word is

q-{~ 1l1!C!Tf~e~:




I{6qff Puru. Pari 108; for

page 2 I 7 Vol. VII D.E. Society's edition.

details see

~~~ substitution of the long form of the previous vowel in the place of two vowels as a result of

'tqT~{ belonging to the previous vowel in syllabicatio!1; e.g. a consonant at the end of a word or the first in a 'consonant group ( ~<!tif).

'l~.:;:ft\:l~-:;;n~ a' grammarian of the Eastern school who wrote tbe' treatise 33

- explained as SIT'<lTlll'tf!cflurt by the . writer of the Kasika .

mitl!99fuR M. Bh. on. I. 2.45
Vart. 9. for example. the words 8l'.<tt: etc. Words which are not actually derived by rules of grammar are called Sl9i<illfrrn as contrasted with


~ (I)


(I) a relation between t~6 operations or rules ba~ed upo~ ~helf anterior and nltenor pOSItIOns, which is many times taken into coru;ideration for deciding their relative strength; (2) the order <>! words; cf. ~Cl~ifT~lil:. i~T :;J;:ar ~m: tflClNil*( M. Bh. on P. I. 4. 1 9 Vart. 10; cf. also qyqiq~ll~itff P. 1. 4.109 Vart. 8.


SI~ut~ literary works in which the treatment is given in the form of topics by a~ranging the original siitras or rules differently so that all such rules as relate to a parti~ cular topic are found together; the Prakriyakaumudi. the Siddbantakaumudi and others are called q9i\lll!I;:~S. Such works are generally known by the name ~~t!l"~ as opposed to 'lR,!lr~.

(I) attribute, attribute which differentiates. manner, difference; differentiating description; cf. ciif'qtlfClilt lItH: i(t:q~a-: Kas. on P. II. 3.21; ( 2) resemblance, similarity of one thing with another with slight deficiency; cf. Sl9iR ~l1Iq'tj;;H~ I l1'ifiro

in context, in question; the word is frequently used in connection with words in. the preceding rules which are drawn on tp the following rules by anuvrtti or continuation; ct SI~:t !Illlt~~I1!,!cn\ij- ,. M. Bh. on I. I.3 vart. 2: (2) found or available in a large q uantity; cf. ffi5fiio'f'<l~ ~~ I l1'1~~UT Sl~a %:10{.1 KM. on P. V. 4.21.

Q1~fu: an ancient grammarian of the eastern school who belonged to the dynasty of ~~a<t., whose views are quoted by the Varttikakara and the writers of the Pratisakhya works; cf. 'i:f<lt fii:~~T: ~It tfl~eii\:: P. VIII. 4.48 Vart. 3 ; d. also c~~. 11\: tfl~~e~ ~~ SfCfiT\*( T. Pr. V ; cf. also T. Pro XIII. 16; XIV. 2,

eminence; excellence of a particular quality; cf. 9i'4" 9;<I\;:'l~ l1'Q;QUT ~';!i q9i~: . ~1lQ.; d. also ~~fq i(~~ ~'fa-: l1'<fiqr <Itfur a-:.nfq ~UTf:li'll~: SI9i"!l i(cRf ~q'ql{ij-, Kas. on P. V. 4 I I


~: tn~4 'q I a-~i[ tlTi~ Sl9ilU <J:~a- I CI~ ~11I'f'qq~~ it "Ol'!cf: I ~: "lg;~: I 8l'qR'LijJ~Uj ~~: I qftrr.u'l~ur<l "'{<r~Uj~ i:!qlll~ tI~cf 5f~;Rjij

Slmf6 preferential treatment, ~pecial

consideration; d.

XVII. 6.
Sf a conventional term for

tu'<ft<l: ~: 8l'~'ff<r: M. Bh. on P. I. I. 56; d. also, M. Bh. on III. 194




(short) generally applied to vowels. in the Jainendra Vyakaral).a cpo Jamendra Sutra I. I.II.

Slcri01 keeping wide the two parts?f

3lCfill1' depression of the voice after

raising it as noticed in connection with the utterance of the svarita vowels in certain cases and in certain Vedic schools with a view ~o showing the svarita nature of the vowel distinctly. in spite .of the fact that such a depref;sion is generally looked upon as a fault ;cf. 8l'efr~1il:. . ~q~il:. iil.~I~fcf~2r<l9if+1l~il:.~' Pr. III. 18 as also ~tfuf<rf~a-,!lf<f ~q: l1'W,2 tfcl 'i:f I 1;tij- .;qu: 31'Cfi+~ ijsll'i~Rn~l: R. Pr. IlL 19.

the chm which causes a faul~ In pronunciation called ~~!; d. l1'<fi&ur a-g; ~fi!i2111~: I~: l1'9iqur tI<ta ~~~ ft ~21i~~ <II+!" &r>U Olqfu; Uvvata on R. Pr.XIV. 3

Kas. on P. VIII. 1.12; (3 ) differeno tiating attribute; d. Sl9iT\Cj~ ~~ V. 3.23, SI<fiR'f'q~- ;;ncfi'l\ V.3.69. ~~rf?:+'l: 5l9iR'f'tj~ ' v. 4.3 where KiiSika defines the word Sl9iR as tlTllTiij~ ~) ~~: q9\TG Ras. on V. 3. 23 and 69; (4) type, cf. dj~~: 5fC!iTU~: Kas. on V. 2.93; cf. also ~rf<t~~: q'bl~ Kas. on ~q~r~+'l~ P. V. 3.100; cf. also anfct~c~: SI9iR <lilij- I ~<l':f6R<j an~r: I ~~qq:,m i(t<I~: M. Bh. on I.3.! Vart. II.

~f6 (1) material cause; d.. w::~ ~~: Slii~iT I %lffiiqr~l<r'liT{Iiy o~~'f ;:rQ{+rq~{iot fcliifu: Kas. on P.V. 1.12; ( 2 ) original. as opposed to t modified' (~~Rr); the original base of a word which is used in language by the addition of affixes. There are mentioned three kinds of such original words in grammar, roots ( ~lQ)' noun bases (}[rRtqlft<fi) and affixes (q~'l). 5!ii~ is defined as
'~s:rfifi<lrC<j~R l1'iifuqtlFl~+rTf/CMqq~T ~r..:I~+rfCI1'!l'lf 5!t!i'l1CJ:, sr:q+r!Iqrr..:r<l<fiJ~fi:!Cf ~T ~qrcUij~ a-f SIiifc!ftfu . ~w::~fra- I ~~~ Slii~: I <i. 'tf!q~:

in the Srilgaraprakasa; cf. ~q~~ SIiifa: I <1

~~ ~~'l;:ij- if 'i:fl!Iq~r q~fffdm I

M. Bh. on Siva Siitra 2; cf. also

~~"Trg;: M. Bh. on P. VI. 2. 139


topic; context; a section wherein a particular subject is treated; d. ~ l1'9i\une:r ~ ~f,r+rrm>r<It: mit uq~) ~ M. Bh. on I. 1.23 ; cf. also etmiij~cGJ~ ~UT ~~ ~u'r en

~ (fem. q9i~ticnl) a word o.r expression causing a change In the nature of another word or expression which has to be taken as changed accordingly; d. Sl9i<iq1j\mRt :'itf'a~llr+rT'f: P. I. 1.68 Vart. 15 ; Sl~~fc!ttI\ij if 'q stt'l'lfcrctt q1ij~: SI9i~q9iT Ol~f.o M. Bh. on P. 1. 1.27 Vli.rt. I, \ I. I. 62 Vart. 7; II. 2.3 Vart. I. IV. 1.60; cf. also <:!l:jl~"<I: ~tfT q1ij+ft ~tI. l1'~~r: 1ffil >fC!i<iq~1Sljfcr, M. Bh. on II. 2.3. Vart. I, III. I 33

V~rt. 2; q~fu: BWoI I t[({q~ act, (1) name of the commentary on 'q\lllI<lf qr~rf.rNir. 1. 17. Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya by Pufijariija. (2) name of a comm_SI~f.t<.i+r restriction regarding the entary on Ra.macandra's Prakriyabase, as contrasted with lW{'lr.r~I1, kaumudi by Kr?QapaQ<;1ita. (3) cf. fififfir stt'l~'ir~ij: ~~q\ ~ 5ft'l<!: name of a commentary on Pal)iniya Sl.q)CfCfO<!: CllqiifalfU ~fu I Cllnttfffii:. SI~Rrc Sik?a by Kesava. (4) name of a f<l'lff: I sR'l'lm q~fff: 5f<ltCfCfO~1 ClllW{!iqU gloss on Siddhantakaumudi. ~Rr I M. Bh. on P. III. 1.2.
~rnij~~mor division ~f
a word (in rise in a language) into the base and the affix, which is looked upon as the main function of grammar.


WIi''I..;qf$<{ a word in which a verbal

activity -has to be conjectured. as

SlC}iTtlI~lJ~ name given to the .hird Kanda or book of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya where miscellaneous topics are treated. The third Kanda consists of 14 sections called by the name Samuddesa. For details see pp. 381-382 Mababbai?ya Vol. VII. D. E. Society's edition.

SI'~Sl'{qfqfu restoration to the .original word from the substituted


such as throat, chest, palate and the like; ct. ~ 3lftij""..qUJ~ W 5lSliIi: ~Ol!r'~ M. Bh. Pradipa on ~:i1 g 'tliWIml\ll9'q~1~ P. I. 2.30 Vart. 2; (, 2) recital of Veda, described as ijilTCflo cf. ;;r<l<i~H :q SIiji?t <iJ~ +iCff<:r M. Bh. on P. VIII. 4.28.; cf. also ,. aTIl!~ Slijiit!i tU~ <1cIfcr" quoted in the Mahi.i.bba!?yaon P. VI. 1.172 ; (3) regularity in the position of words, regular order of words.
!T&iAI~~~ a well-known grammatical work by Ramacandra~e!jia of the fifteenth century. The subject matter of paI).ini's A!?tadhyayiis arranged in this work according to topics. It is similar to and the predecessor of Siddhantakaumudi which has a similar arrangement. The work was very popular before Siddhantakaumudi. It has almost about a dozen commentaries of which Pra~ada of Vitthala and Prakasa of Se!?akrg1a are famous. Prakriyakaumudi has an abridgement called Tattvacandra by Jayanta, a pupil of Ramacandra. There are glosses like Prakriya rafijana by Visvanatlia, Prakriyavyi.i.krti by Visvakarma, PrakriyaratmimaI).i by Dhanesvara, preceptor of Bopadeva.

word; e.g. the restoration of the ro')t ~ in cfitlEf~~ <iitt .qffi"<!.Rr; d. ~tt'~<\1lfolJFjqW'<ROO'~g Wt~~~ I ~ S!'liRr~l!Tq&: 51'liffiCj~ CfiRcfi +icffllfcr ~<I:; iYI. Bh. on HI. 1.26 Vart. 6.
~fumaj phonetical maintenance of. a

Kr!jiQase~a. the of Nrsirilhasesa . . which is, in a way,. an iinprovement upon the commentary Prasada of Vitthalesa.


!i~~ a description of the Sarhhitii.

text of the Veda in which a pragrhya vowel preceding another vowel is held up (!i~fg) i. e. kept as it is, witho!!t anyeuphonic combination; ~Rm: 5f~ll:'tffqU: tl~Cf $~\TiOl~g <l9 R. Pro II. 27 .

!if~r$f~ name of a commentary on the ~fin<lrii!!'fr, written by 'qlfirrrfuI~.


wording without ailowing any euphonic modifications as found in the case of a dual form ending in ~ e; or t1; as also in other specified "" I' cases; cf. ~{~ftcrt'!<i SldJ.~ and the following rules P. I. 1.11 to. 19, as also ~<J.I1;!T 3lRr fil~ VI. 1.12.5
~fu~ the accent i.e. the acute accent (~), possessed by the

~W9'rer name of the scholarly commentary on Ramacandra'g Prakriyakaumudi, written by Vitthales'i, the grandson of Ramacandra.

original word as contrasted with the accent of the affix ( ~~ ) which (latter) is looked upon as more powerful; cf. (~fr) ~q?:. SI~Rrert +iCjfu M. Bh. on II. 1.24, II. 2.29 Vart. 17. See paI).ini Sutras VI. 2. I to 63. .
3l~EQ{ difference in the radical base ; a different radical base; d. ~lq"

~~Ef a famous prakriya work, in twenty sections, of NarayaI).a Bhatta, the most prominent grammarian of Kerala of the seventeenth century A:.D, see NarayaI).a BhaH.
llf~~:srer a work on grammar by Abhayacandra in which the Siitras of S1ikatayana's Sabdanusasana are arranged in the form of different sections dealing with the different topics of grammar.

a term used iil the Pratisakhya works and by PaQini, in the sense of a vowel which is not combined with the following vowel by rul~s of etiphony; e. g. wrra- epij'~<J:a-, arlit 3lSf etc; ct. R. Pr. I. 28 and 29; P. 1. I.II-19 and VI. I. 125.


absence of euphonic change; the term is frequently used in the Taittiriya Pri.i.tisakhya; cf. T. Pro 1. 60, IV. I. I-54. name given to the subdivisions of chapters or sections in certain hooks.

S1~ (I) a specific feature or quality

!!t[Eltut( I ~~: Sl~<!iO~<'. M. Bh. on I.

liTMTrf( a class of words headed by

the word 5l1{~'I, to which the tad. affix <i (<>) is added in the four senses prescribed in P. IV. 2.67-'10 ; e.g. SIlll~~, ~\'ii<r., <KIf<t~ltrl1:. etc.; cf. K~S. on P. IV. 2.80.
3tirTij" a couple of Vedic hymns divided

1.4 ; cf, also 5R<!<!lit~lo<:j~~q.a~~ Wlllll~ 1:TTg~Ef f<fil.m:fcr M. Bh. on P.I. 3!

S1~(4ia~~+r restriction regarding the

sense of the radical base; cf. 51'li:<!:Ii~ OI~qtm<lCjlCfliimEJ: I 61~<U'ij fudV!"II<;..u C{ mt:!!Cl~ M. Bh. on P. I.

sr&tiicm-~~~ called also s@nl:l~!I<tT

or even fl6tljtffoSdT ( 'lRI ) written by a learned grammarian named Kr!jiI).apaQ<;lita belonging to the famous Se!jia family of grammarians.
S{~~~ a

into three .hymns for purposes of singing as Saman; cf.<iSf ~ liff<IT

5l!lm ffi~: iifi<l~ 6 5f1TTlq"<1IC( s:rcm1TTCfl6J

3.12 Vart. 5.

~~i intact, without any' change by \

rules of euphony; accent etc.; cf. P. VI. 2.1: etc. VI. 2.137, VI. 374 and VI.4 I63.

sIliN ~'i:<m


on P. IV. 2.55 ..

!Tifta' a fault of utterance. or recital

superior, excellent; cf.ltI'ql1!S~~~ll({:'


~~<l SI~: q~qq~ ~:

'if ~:

commentary on Ramacandra's Prakriyakaumudi by a grammarian named KMinatha. of the learned on the ~6:<tT,

where a simple word in conversation or recital is uttered in a tone proper for singing or in a manner . suitable for singing; cf. SIlft\i: till1ci~Iit<:r: Kaiy. on M. Bh. Ahni.



M. Bh. on P. V. 3.55 Vart3

S1~lsr.aiHT name

~ (I) the place of articulation, the


p1e.t1e of tbe pt'oduGtioo of louna,




~ lit. held as it is, uncombinabl~ by euphonic ruleS; the same as SflJ.ta.

( -.m) of the grave (31~~) accent . when a vowel, accented grave, is pr~eded. by a .~Itcr (circumflex vowel) and is followed upon by another grave-accented vowel.. These grave vowels in succession, i.e. the grave vowels which ate not followed by ail acute or a circumflex vowel, are uttered neither distinctly circumflex nor distinctly grave; cf. aJso R.Pr. III. II-r4. They are uttered like the acute, but slightly so; e. g. the vowels afteri'f and before fit in ~Ii i't 'l1i ~tf.i 6~:ffi; cf. ~CfIta"I~8"~r<iTI1~~{qf 5("i: ;;r1{ftf~fu: T. Pro XXI. 10, 11 also cf. P. 1.2.39, where the term g;'!i~m is used for the word $fi:; (2) the connection of one word with many words; e. g.~ ifT!Sl.<!1!!l ~~!!l where ~: is connected with iit, 61111 .and l'Qli ; cf. srqzt iji{l6q~ ~q: M. Bh. QO II. IiI Vart. 6. ( 3) It is under..

stood as an independent accent by the Khat;lQikiya and Aukhikiya schools.
sr~ a class of words -headed by the word ~ to which the tad. affix 0/ (0f1ll.) is added without any change of sense; e. g. srT~:. 'flfill;;{: etc.; cf.
sr~ ~q ~I~: I srl~'t ~'t I <j~' sr~l fctlij" ~T >/~ ~qfu I Kas. on J'. V.

KiiS. on P.1. 3.2, VII. 1.1. srfo~

~~m: ~!: KiiS. on P. 1. 3!I
S(R\li.!I~ a supplement to the Vajas-

<l' ~ I cnr 3'il: ~Ift ~fc!lifFIT cnr ~.m.rl I tI"l't ~Ift ~mq<{~~I<1r ~r:t~~uTf Cj~~(ifl I 'ii~uU: ~ <iT 'l"1ft til .


aneyi PriHisakhya. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana. A relatively recent work, it is different from a Pratijnasiitra mentioned by CaraQavyiiha.

'tillitm; M. Bh. on P.Il. 2.8 and II.


the titterimce of a sentence, which is stated by some scholars as the sense of a sentence., cpo Yak. pad. II. 143.

S(~f'Cl an inj~nction or operation

stating expressly the word or words for which it is meant; d. <i fcJN srm
;;J!f~lc:r:.lCfi: tI ~N9il:<m I ({"j' '<f srfcr~: sIfatfmf.Rq~'ii:, !Ii!1~m'iji't9 I M. Bh.

,~)~ negative counterpart; cf. <l'

'<f1i'cRu! ~ffi<il~ct ~1:li

srtJt~ii composition (of the' original Sutra work); cf. IF.fl1N ~oo. mw.<J;, I <i~<j~l ~srUJqilm. Kas. on. P. IV. 2. II7 ; d. also Kas. on P. V. 1.94and V. 4.21.

3l;;:~m~q~~r.rm srm~~!fcr.iT tffi'r tf&.1r

M. Bh. on P. VIII. 3.15;




+rciRr M.~Bh. on 1I 1.69. Vart. 6 ; also M. Bh~ on VIII. 8.4 Vart. 8 ; corresponding term; d. 5r~nl~'[1ir '<f ~Rr<!tlq~.mtf~~ KiiS. on V. 3.1.

on P. VIII. 2.72.

srRtM~~~~Iii predicate, as opposed to

srfu'q'V'ffi' expressly stated as opposed

SlRt,\{iiii similar in appearance; cf. ~ @1fq~~~~IfC!iT~ R'mll +rciRr M.

Bh. on P. II. 2.24. Vart. 22, as also on P. III. 4.2; cf. i:ilftlfJsr~~qcjif R'mll:, ~~sr~r R'mll: ; cf. also

the subject; d. ;;J~~ll~fu!il~'lliT<1<ilh'llTItfR<ifficY<Uij q<fF\ur Q'-(jfulf+!T~ M. Bh. Pradipa.

~ knowledge, understanding; ct. Q~p.(<I+~qT<j: ~qt srR!q~r >rfu!R!fTO: I

to implied or suggested; cf. ~!tf'lT

srm~~: srffit:(;u~ _ !li{UJ~, Par. Sek. Pari. 105; cf.also ~ srfu'-


>rfcrtf~ Puru. Pari. 3.


'<f @iTtIS[~W ~Ji;~: ~


S'f17<.f~ silent; cf. O/qT~ >/o<jW Fl~T T. , Pre II. 20 explained by Uvvata as O/qT~ 3l!,!~ f<.l~ qOl{~r trUj1~ ~9R1.'
srfu<{i~ (1) vocally, pronouncedly,

M. Bh. on Ahn. 1 ; also ct. M. Bh. on P. I. I. 2). Vart. 5, 1. I . 44, 46 etc.

~RH~:j difficulty in understand,-

expressly without any attention to the deri vation or the formation of the word; ( 2) irregular formation; c. ~cY~&!T~ ~fu'fi06~ where ~fu'ii1J6 is explained as ~{1niji[ by Uvvat a ; d. srfuCfioi; fir!fTiji[<:C,1 ;;J(811~~G:r: tIl~f<i Uvvat i on R. Pro 1. 23

ing; cequiring an effort to understand the sense; cf. <Wr[it'+!I~ g >rm<!tif f+!?I!!:jj~~C\, o!j'ffi srR!tffulTfr<j<;(q<J;, Puru. Pari. 98.
~fuq~aTi~ difficulty in understanding; requiring a longer time in un~ derstanding the sense; cf. ~~ ~ >rroqf'Gm\lt WTo. Sira, Pari. 50. See srfa'tft~;rft'l~

srfuq'~ (~Ci'{) a crude base such as a root or a substantive without a case affix as given by etymologists and grammarians for the convenience of understanding with a sense attributed 10 it, although, as a matter of fact, it does not possess individually any sense. cpo Vak. pad. I. 24. srfusr~q lit. bringing into life again; the 'term is used in the sense of a counter-exception; cf. <iT;;m~tli~Rr

Nyasa on P. 1. 4.54.

SI~ lit. regressive; a kind of Sarildhi or ~uphonic combination, in which the consonant precedes and the vowel cOmes after it; e.g. ~<nm:; d. srRr~~M"9: ;;q~ilTP.r ~ffUI ~'iU ;;J~; Uvvata on R. Pro 1.4.
S(~ for every letter; corresponding to every letter; d. 3lq~:fiT~g 'fUJi: ~mcroTi:!~~:M. Bh. on Ahnika 2, Siva siitra 5.
S(fu~"1'1iI' counteraction;

wr~'iqT O/Ii\' ~i\'~r f<r!fT~ :u~~lt.

3'<1: Cfir{Cfi"llftijlTItlirfIDrtl'nC\, m&lUFl~;r;rf&9:

'3~q?:qW;i~{ ~9 I Bha~avrtti 2.16.

srmSiiif recital in the reverse order as

in some of the artificial recitations of the Sarilhita text such as f, ~., etc.

on II.

srfuqmlcr-i facility of understanding;

srm:n;;vft\ a ciass of words headed by

d. >ra-~I~qT~ ~T~;;Ji l{m c{\~Y~:u-

the word sr~ to which the tad. \ fcNr<I;r. Sira. Pari. 9 r affix ~c:r (<sO!.) is added in the. sense . d t' (= :D1j,l' ) . cf sr~~ srfuq~~ (I) recital of each and every ' o f goo a \I "l "'>3" . f ~T : srrf~<ftq:, ;;{~ ;;{~ ~r!'l~t<I~: Kiis. word; (2)", enumeratlO~ 0 ever~ ~ P IV . 99 . 4 word; d. TCfi :uaUqf >rfcrlRlT >rfu!f?:tflo. on 'ii-a-,<j:, M. Bh. on Aho. I. . srTh~i sr~ also; hypothesis, express tenet in a Sastra oc convention; d. Sifuq~PcsliJi<'i express statement by a definite wording: d. ~cf Q~ <il{<iij~q ans=: ~: srfu~., l{m C['qI0<i<I:, I 3l~

~ obstacle in the way of the production of the result as caused by the Time Force. cpo Vak. pad. Ill. 9.II. cpo +n<ni:Iicl"~ 'f~q: srfcr<.j7cT: ~ftlTlii~<J;, I (~.)
srftnfT (I) original flash of intelligence' which is described to be of six kinds

solving a difficulty by taking the necessary action; cf. aJqmC{liJ"j' tI srfcrf<f\nif-iiw. M. Bh. on P. VII. 4.60 Vart. 4; d. also 0'iI srfffft.nct ttci'<f<l'ffirn'G O/=tfu~a-, Kas. on P. VI. 1.2; d. also the usual expression srRrfc!~ ~ M. Bh. on 1. 1.39, I. 3.10, 4.1.1 etc.


~Klirlm!~ I o/Ti\'~l ~'l:t'l1 aJTRlgij- I f~ ~anmg6' M~ Bhlon P. I. 3 ~2 ; ci. also m~~if~: tfI~T:

fSfi<I5' 3ltf<fl.m-'l"~ ~~'l~: <!'(tJ<T~F.f~ '9 5i~~'<TIiil;r.1 M. Bh. on Ill. 3. 12. Vart. it; cf. also ~fuliG:f.i~TiilT '9 qlft

sr~ a rule or operation which is prohibited or prevented feom application by a specific negation of it as arising from nature, practice, study, contact, luck, special circ~m by another rule or operation laid .stance, automatic appearance and down to prohibit it. Generally the immediate coming in. cpo Vak. pad. prohibited rule does not apply, again; cf. ~ f.lsrm~ <nnNct ffi(INII. 117, 1 48, 1 52. cpo smtm tiClsrrfil't-1 Par. Sek. Pari. 40; cf. citEtI~ ~'-IT tI~R~l{.ffi' O/ijIlli~T (!lOll. ) ( 2) sense arising in the mind on ' lJfeIfim tldt' onM~<f;, I M. Bh. on P. I.

1.43. The word >!fafitii: which is generally used in ancient works appears to be au earlier word as compared with f.rftl~ which is used by later grammarians.
Sifu~ prohibition"negation, prohibi-

the possessive affix 1Tgl!.. is withdrawn or deleted after qualifying the word ~~. cpo Yak. pad. II!. 149
6~~lf~ >!{<l~ ~ 'ffl' <lml., ~~r o:t9ffi; Uyvata 'on R.Pr. 1. 30; d. ~ffi lflfl~ftr ~ta- ~: 'R: T~ Pro V. 7; cf. also V. Pro III. 8. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base; cf. llt'!j'!l: IRa{ P. III. lor, 2; but sometimes it is placed before the base; e.g. ~:; cf. f9mlff ijq[ GlW'l !i~~~ P. V. 368. The conjugational signs (m, ~<I:. etc. ), the signs of t,enses and moods (f~, ffi;;Z. ~, QT~ etc. ) and the compound endings ( 611n=ll"ff ) are all. called . pratyayas according to PaQini's grammar, as they are all given in the jurisdiction (a:rM<fil~) of the rule S[';'<!<l: III. I. I, which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter (8lI:"<lT<l). There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar
ijtllii!l<l', ,ffi~51~, if.(~'!j, cmrnllii!l'!l, ~S!

~R excessive

contact with the sound-producing org'an which is, looked upon asa fault; d. q;js;

tion of a Iule or operation; generally llfaq~ or >!l:I~llfatt~ is laid down by the use of the negative particle (<101..) connected with a verbal activity, and not with a noun in a compound in which case the negation is named q~'na; cf. ~<lllfaifc!r </: fsfi<!<lT a&: <l~ i\6I; 1 ~: 6: fcI~: <l~~\~ <fCl.1I
~fu~'fi a word expressing a prohibition, e.g. the negative particle if (<fCl.); cf. ~ ~: T. Pro XXII.

f~~Tll~~ ~~ ::!rGt !!~ >!>'{;tI<:lfIg~ I '<l'g~ q;j (acriT) >!fa{l.R: a:rffi5!<rc<IT qp:r ~qr o:t<ifa 1 Uvvata on R. Pro XIV. 7.
~<i whose sense is clear and which

affixes like iili"l." 6if:" '!l&: etc. to primary roots or by the addition of affixes Uke 00i.., ~"l." if.I~;;Z etc. to nouns; e.g.' '!illI<l', lIT{<l, f;:t'lh'ltt. ~; ~~,'~, ifii'T<!, <:{;;r{<:f, ~ etc.; cf. ~roT 1:lffiq: P., III. 1.32; d. also ~ 1 iThrt<!ffi', 1[llT<!fu, !ffift~ M. Bh. on VI. 1.162 Vart. 3.

hence does not require any further explanation; cf. <l~1 ~ >!iftcn~ff.{ ~~~i(Ti<lT'<l'~jh.<I:. I Nir. I. 13

a conventional name given to the first pada of the third adhyaya ofPaI}ini's A~tiidhyayi which begins with the rule ~<l: III. I. I. an operation caused by an affix which takes place even though the affix is elided; e.g. the term tfr.{ is applied to' arfu~, W+rs;q: etc. on account of the words ending with a case affix although the affix of the nom. sing. has been elided; cf. ~l{ ~q >!t<l!j~~UJ1l:.. P. I. 1.62 and Kas. thereon.




lit. broken or split up; the separated words of the Sarhhita of the Vedas i e. the Padapatha; the recitation of the Padapatha; cf. ~n':T~~ti{ '<l' 5[(!01I11l:. R. Pro 1. 3 .'
body occupied by it, with a consciousness of which the subject causes the application of the :::RIll ~"f or the first person affixes to the root expressing an activity. cpo Yak. pad. III. 10.1. cpo >!fu~1O{ srRr,f.I<la<iT ~Rr =i:t!!:~ :;:ffi m;!I~ 31rff<li+ft: ftllT, e ~ >!ffi~ f.{'!jffi Q~: I ~ij~

the priority of consideration given to rules laying down a prohibition, for instance, the prohibition of gUI}a or vrddhi by the rule ~Rr '<l' P. I. 1.5 after giving due consideration to which, the ini unctions i.e. the gUQa and vrddhi rules are to be applied; f.lif.:nlfl ~ir<lte: Par. Sek. Pari. It2; cf. also ~ +It:9;+l<lt: tlP~~: >!ml:l~~M(llfatt~: >!lmffi; M. Bh. P. on Ill. 130.

ST~ presence of the soul inside the

(e.g. in the roots ~'litti, <fi~<l, etc.) and ~1~. The word >!ii!I<l is used in the sense of realization, in which case the root l{ in the word ~<l<l' means 'knowing', according to the maxim tli:i <rejIQ"T ~ifllQ"f:; cf. 1l<S!l~ srii!l<!1<l Nir. 1. 15.

st~ a rule prescribing the addition of a suffix; ct <:f~Iill~fctMW'{lfit


P. I. 4. 1 3.


~(lI~uttm:+nI!H the guiding rule that

q~iits~:, a$fil<:Mlilll!>lwf ' ~~'!jremr, sr~cr ~<l1<j1: 6 a'Qij~qf,r'l<l: 1 (~~. )

st~<i what is p~ohibited, as opposed to fcI~; ef, afRcr:q llfaite"<l; M. Bh. on P. I. 1:47, 1. I5 I


a word in which the verbal activity is actually noticed, as for. instance,verbs and krt formations; the term is used as an antonym of

editing with improvement, with an attempt to r'estore the correct version or the original text in the place of the corrupt one; sometimes suitable additions and improvements are also made; e.g. '<l'{<f.qfu~mUJ attributed to Pataiijali. word after its function of qualifying the principal word is accomplished as in the case of the word ~iji where

ST~ affix, suffix, a

srfm;ii[l'{ withdrawal of a qualifying


termination, as contrasted with ~ the base; cf. >!~:!:~ aN af.r.:r :;:Rr ~<l:; cf. also Of~ tll~r<!<lrn 6 ~<j: M. Bh. on III. I.Y Vart. 8; The ~ord m<!'!l is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows ~, e.g. ~~'O,TI:{: m;!Ilt ~~q'lt: R. Pro 1. 30 which is explained by . Uvvata as ~:~t<j<l (~~:) ~q&J9<lq:

when an affix (m;!I<l) is given in a rule as a f.!f1l'Q ( causing something), the affix denotes a wordform which begins with that to which that affix has been added ~nd ends with the affix itself; cf. m;!I~ <l~Ilm:. 6 AAffffil{I~~ '<l' ~~UJ<l:. Par. Sek. Pari. 23. The rule ~a{, which prescribes the affix tf.,!! (a:rI<lif), has the word <jOJ:. and l(OJ:. which respectively mean <lSRf and ~; in tlie word IRliiTF!!T<lUJ from 'RWTl.i{ the word iJl~~ is looked upon as <l51rft' to which Iii,!! ( 8li<:frr) is affixed and hence the word 'RllifTI'!lY<M is arrived at and not

an accent which is prescribed in general for an affix viz. the acute accent or Udatta by the rule anw.l'Qa{ Pa. III. 1.3. cf. <l'~q ~ f.rqrtr<fffi:: sr'liffim iif1~cr t;cf lTt<ll!mli/Q'
~ I 6fufu!!:t'ff(5[(l{<l~U o:t~ffi 1 M.

Bh. on p. 1. 1.56 Vart. 23.


(>!liRr) a base ending in an affix, a secondary base as opposed to the original base, which is described to be of ~ix kinds. ~tsr~'!j<l{rm ( sr~ffi:) as in ~:~ 6Bt~ etc. ' fa~lTt<l<lrrcn as In q'qoori{., ~:, q'q~5'T etc.; ~m<t<rla:cn as in 'li~ muFctUJ1I;. etc.; ~~<w.-oT as in m.!!Tu <llll:, Q~c<I: etc.; ~~~llt<l'!jrrQT as in fi:r'i':Tlii, ~<lt etc.; <[i!1sr~R!T as in m~<l, ~:-, <film: etc.

a term applied to' secondary root5 whi.;b !ilre formed by adding

st~~ the meaning of . an affix~ Generally meanings are assigned


.to affixes when they ~represcribed. WheD the .m~anjngs are .Dot assign-. ed, the affix is supposed to bear the sense of the base; ct. ~<!f: ,m~T: ~;fr~Par.Sek. on Pari. '1:13. The s~q~e given' by' a word in language is the composite. sense of the base arid the affi'x together; cf. 3l~fas:it<l~ ~~ ito: I <'! %cr<!5T ll'~fa: 5!~CfQC<lT,i(' ~q<!5: ;('l'l: I M.13h.-on P. I. 2.64 Vart. 5.

5fjTqRt~Cfae<n ,M.

Bh., on P. VI. 3.34 ,Vart. 2 ; re~t6I'ai:ion . to the,. pre, viousnature; d. aii:fiH~:;~lq~ rfIlEI,rrnl;f1:T: I ~r_ BT<!5r I M. 'Bh.on p. 'c" ,VIII. 4,68~' .,' .

>f(~l~ literally, repetition i~,,~tori

trary way;, in. the, Pratlsakhya literature; the' word refers to" the rep~tition of a V~~lie passage; repetitiou by pupils :aft~r hearing from the preceptor;. cf. ll'~~r"i'n<!: Sircl'i:I<'! Uvvata on R. Pr. XV. 9.


reference' ( made to something) by a word; cf. m~'lrfi!fa Bll'?;l<'!T~ 5R<!9li~: Ras. on P. III. 475; d. alsoo'aI~Cfil"<i ~ra- tlctilloai ll'('l<\q~~: 3lt<lCf<1'<!: Riis. on P. IV. I.II3, rejection of a rule or- a word or words in a rule shown as redundant, ,their purpose being shown as served otherwise; cf. gfq

i ,

That which is expressed by a word, cpo Vak. pad. II. IIg. ll't'l~

crT'C'l: I (su<r. ).


~'qiq~ ;;'lfm9-i:!~ ~m 'icrhn'lfunlt~ 'i.~ I fi<!l ~r~ ll'~<!l~!!I<'r' *IfqE<&r la&:fuE<t


1\8.5. on 1. '2.51.

an alternative which proposes the rejection of something such as a rule or its part; d. <lR m'lT~<!l., tr~: ~llfit 5i<!~<l1<l?f M. Bh. on Siva Sutra 4; cf. also i31<tl<l~ftfu q?:l'fiR~ 5H<!T~<\r.'!q~ ~TfHUJgqq-X "i<!m I V) a<;1i Pari. 42.

(1) statement afterprohibi. tion, lit. commencing again; .inducing a person to do something: after he has refused to do it by repeating the order or request for g~ncrally by beginning the appeal with the word ill[ ; e~g. <Ii[ mp,<I?r ~, "l[ 8l\!~'G!j?r; d .nr ll'm;:lt P. VIII. I.31 and Kasika and Nyasa thereon. (2) commencement or laying down again in spite of previous mention; d. ~q9"f<iT'SJ <llffi ll'(2lH.Hll(~1T G!~<i11ij-: M. Bb. on P. VI-3.46. . ,


close contact or association;

oUf::r~?<I. arm~~ w.:&tUJq{<ll~~ I 5l{<lm~:


~T'l'<:ff;:r"l1~"!. one who advocates the rejection of 'something, an opponent; an objector; d. 3lt<i1~<!l<'!Cfr<tr ar!l[-<'!l~'l?' fc!~'f ~ Kaiy. on M.Bh. on P. VI. 4.22 yart. 15.

V. Pr. V.

>i~;q-r~fu immedi~te . proximity ; close

contact; the same as qe;:n~w which see above; d. ~g::rfiiUJm wf>~: qfaTtcTIfTt q(<rr'5~Ha~~,p<n<'<:f: I(a8. on P. I. 3.88. d. al~o Kas. on VII. 1.95.

lit. taking again; uttering a word already utttered .in the Krama and other recitations of the Vedas; d.;fim ar+<lT~":!j >{(<:fl&l<ll~ a~: I 5lt'lfGJ<l ~r Uvvata on R. Pro X-I.

sr~erl~Rlfltl~ or m<rfaf'ij<j'tfil

a dictum that a word should, as far as possi, ble, be construed with the nearest word; cf. ar.l;;a-{~'l f9f<l: >@rife!) ~f<l: ll'fuqf'ij,,<\T<l~"l: Sira. p'ari. 48.

~Itifu restitution, restoration to the previous wording; d. 3l1faq~lfi~<i 'tf


lit. biingingtogether; bring~ iug together several letters ( Of,

~ords in a few cases, such as roots in the grammar of Pal)ini; one such or nouns) by lllentioning the first work is written by a' southern grammarian named fu+luurr. .. and the last only for the sake of brevity. It is a means to obtain the second brevity of utterance. The term sr~&RT~;P name given A.hnika of the Mahabha~ya which Pratyaha~a is generally used inconexplains the Siva Siit:rasi31if31l.., ~. , nexion with brief ter!i1s. such as 3Pl.., etc.~ and hence n,aturaUy discusses 8l~, 3fi'f.., ~~, and- the like, :created the Pratyah~ras. by PaJ;.:lini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associat- I ing if with any mute final letter SI'~( repetition especially of what has been.,. recited by the preceptor; (81!Io/<l) of the fourteen Sivasutras d. >!C~~r'laG:'i:Ic'{ q{& f,Uti<j\<l~T't. +iT ~m with a vi~w to inciuding all letters ~<ir crT, R. Pro XV. 8. beginning \vith the letter uttered and ending with the letter that Si~')qif bringing to life again; the precedes th~ IDute letter. The term is used in the' sense of srmlfficr practice of llsiI)g such abbreviaor counter exception. tions was . iIi existence before PiiQ.ini, possibly in the ~grammar Si~Tl.~ counter instance. In order attributed to Indra.Bopadeva .to explain the wording of a gram uses the word Samahiira for matical rule clearly, it is custoPratyahara. The word 5li<:fIi[l{ is not mary to give along with' the actually used by Piil)ini. It is found instances of the rule (where the i.n Rktantra 1.3, 'm'lri[RT~T qUJf~<P9T rule has been effectively employe<!~i1<I: I VajasaneyiPiatisakhya ed ), a few words which would has the same ~I~S as in paQ.ini. have resulted into other faulty The term appears to ha~e'come words by-the' application of, the into use after PaI)ini. Pal)ini has' particular rule in case that rule not given any definilion of the had not been stated or a word or . term Pratyahara. He has simply more of it had been omitted; cf. given the method cif forming the C'f %Cf<!51F.'r 'tf'tfitf&:TF.'rClj~T<i '{f.;;: i311Q;; Q.'C{, Pratyahiiras and he has profusely i\m I li:fi or'll ;:rGJ~ 'll'~t!GJl[\U'r 91Cf<[{l!<![,used them. F or a list of Pratyal!1~:_~~aQ;; tl~Fctct e<!T~Tc'{ +!<I'm I M. Bh. , baras used by paQ.ini; see Kasikii on . in Ahnika 1. Mahesvara Siitras. According to Kasika g~<rTlfT{S are- forty two. Si2i+r lit. premier, first; the word is Candra has reduced the number. used in ~onnection with the pusoJainendra, Sakatiiyan~, Malayagiri nal affixes fci't., (Hi, % (arfra") of and Mugdhabodha have'adopted verbal forms. See the word !!~1'f the 5l(<rrl[I~S of pal)ini. They are not above; d. i31fter~crrclT'R: sr~ll9:(i1f: found in Katantra. Sanisvata uses 31sr~:;:'llllmt<{{mfa I '{~: t<!5~: I M. Bh. them without i(~ ( marker ). on P. II. 3.1 and 4. The word 5f~IJ' is used in the Pratisiikhya works in Simm(~;;r a term' for the fourteen the sense of the first consonants of Siva Slitras which are utili~ed for the five varg!ls or groups of consothe formation of Pratyaharas. .nants; cf. ll':,]~~~a1~!l.lg~T: V. Pr.' Si~&I~;;rf<i"ttl~ a short treatise explainIV. 110 d. sr~ll<f~ft'l1<lJ<wrT~~TTfucrT ing the pratyaharas 3101" 3ll, ~ etc. ~+nCf:, M. Bh. on P. VI. 4. i 20



VaIt 3, also cf. Katantra 1. 4.1 and Hem. 1. 3.35. (3.) The word is also used ( in the feminine gender) in the' sense of the case affixes ~ (li), alT, 'll~ (arB:) of the' nominative cast>. ( 4)' The word is also used in the sense of the premier accent ~ (acute);. cf. 3f4lnnfclc:l: ;:v.n~niTfcr.:r: Uvvata on R. Pr. III. 8. (5) Name of the second musical note in the singing of Samano

tbe famous commentry Ilcfrq on IvIahiibha~ya, which see above.

Sl'cft~R' KaiyatabhaHa, the author of

Sl'1;~ disappearing; d. ~ft<1>r~~mm~q.:lolr: Vya<;l.i Pari. IT. '



the same as 3f<lt<l; see


SI'<i~ (I)' effort; the word is used in

SI'{rqP-tE!~crr called also '3' t-ma- written by .the well-known grammarian Nagesabhafta of VariiI)asi who flourished in the first half of the eighteenth century

SI'~~ lit. district; sphere of application,

place of the application of a rule. The word is frequently used in this !'ense in the Kasikii Vrtti ;' cf. m<i<i3f~m: Q?-P-Imit >r~~~U)m~it9m~: Kas. on P. III. 1.1; d. also ar!f.lJ~>r~I: 3liIr..r-Gf ~ft'1C!T !{~[<{<i: Kas. on P. 1. 230. ' The word 3f'il:~ is also used in the sense of the pla~e of use or ~ti lity ; f. ~~T&I\<I g Cfil~Cfil~'1~" 'l~''iT If<!I~ci't'9: 1'1\ g >rit~9Tlf~'HI~q I , ..'I\l~~l"r 'i:f ~it~~ Q;'f Par. Sek. Pari. 3. Nirukta uses it in the sense of root.

amplification, further explanation, . clarification. The expression . ~!{9'r<! >rq~: or mli'il<! ,>rlffl: IS very frequently used in the Kasikii vrtti ; cf. Kas.. on P. n. 1.33. 37, 41, 58, n. 4.28, III. 2.61 etc.
,,~ ~..

SI'!:fWf) a term used for a division of a

the nominative case; case affixes of the nominative case. cf. 3frRrqr~I!:TWifiq~I1TQ'j9 "I"111~ .3f4ijT p. IL 3.4 6



. work by an ancient writer, as for instance in the case of the A th;lrvapr.tisiikhya.


illustration; cf. fq~f~~;;:g ~fa I !{fu'li\O'J: 3f'l::IT<ll!:T:<I ~9~ >t~q<rS9"1<t liii aN '39Iu~if :~'f"l<lT~~Il~;-;<i;;:a- I IGiS. on P. III. 1.4 [; cf. also f9ilf~ <U'Ifcr'llll: I 3f~~"I!:T: I 1\:3.s. on P. 1. 2.59. mode of articulation, the same

SI'<it'el~i'f'flT a small treatise on gram- I, mar in general by Vijjalabhfipati, has a comrrentary on it by Gopalagiri.
SI'"+fT (I,) name of a commentary on

connection with the effort made for producing sound; d. g~Bl);f<Ri( tI'iuT'+. P. 1. 1.9; these efforts are described to be of two kinds <rTl!J and 3l1-<rrffi: of which the latter are considered, in determining the cognate nature of letters ('3lqutr); d. 3lF1Fm:1l~~<I1: '3quT~<!lijr~1<j;:a-; Kas. on P. 1. 1.9; ( 2) specific measure taken for a particular purpose such as marking a letter with a particular tone or accent or dividing a rule, or laying down a modi fica tory rule or the like; ct. ~Cf~'ifu: W'~<il<ja- ~<i~<lr f'ijEf~., 'i~'!.~fq ~GJilfI~ll.. Ka5. on P. ,IV. '3. 2 2.

SI'~~?in~ a rule, laying down a positive

original injunction as opposed to the 3lqc!l~m&l'; cf.~: ar~T: 3f~o/a- oTr.r 3f't1il~Il?f',fuJ com. on R. Pr. XI. 35.
SI''CtTif (I) the principal thing as oppos-



the Sabdakaustubha by Raghavendracarya Gaj endragadkar; (2) name of a' commentary' on Kaiyata's IvIah8.bha~yapradipa; (3) name of a commentary on Sabdakaustubha by Vaidyanatha.

SI'~m+r~i.l a small" treatise verbal forms by '3H:'i\''I\f9.


SI'~ (I) empl~yment or use of ~ word

in language and literature about which, laying down rules is looked npon as the purpose of grammar; . d. 1l~ITIi~t~l" o<i~I1\~?t: Kaiy. on P. V. 1.16, ~.jt!:TIl~~ ~aa:q~iT ~~11\ , lol+lr.r<!m <!~l ~f-=ii'l\-;~~!! M.13h. Ahnika I. Viirt. I; (2) use of speech; utterance; cf. ijl;<ji't<l tI 9Tif5j';ij}<r: >(uw(ij'l\: ~"<r:, T. Pro X VIII. 4. t 3 ) '3llFf~1T cpo Viik. pad. II. 124.

SI';:fttr popular name of the famous com-

mentary on the Mahabh8.~ya of ed to the subordinate one; somePatanjali, written by the reputed thing which has got an independent grammarian Kaiyata in the eleventh purpose of its own and is not meant century A.D. ' The commentary is for another; >r'9T<ig'1t\"'i<lmffi' 'i:f ~G{~'9a very scholarly and critical one ~qy~cl'T M. Bh. on P. I. 2.43 V. 5 ; and really does justice to the wellct. 3,1so >r>:'fI'll!T<IT<l1j): 3f\:'fI~ 'l\rii~~<!: I known compliment given to it, viz. Par. Sek. Pari. 97; (2) predomithat the Pradipa has kept the IvIahii.nant; of main importance; d. 'icfbh3.~ya alive which otherwise would ~~~><p.ftm9: etc. M. Bh. on II. have remained nnintellig~ble and 1.6, 20, 49; II. 2 6 etc.; (3) priconsequently become lost. The mary as opposed to secondary; d. commentary 3fcfrq is based on the ;'flirt Cfi'llfuJ' S;~llit: >riff.! ~iie'i~T~ I commentary ij\lJm~'lcfrrq'liT, or >rcfrfil'!il d. also >r'9[<I'Ii;rU<il~~ ~1i3<f[~~~;rUJT+.1 written by Bharlrhari, The a:r>r<rf.t 5;lfl~ M. Bh. on 1. 4.51. Pradipa is to this day looked upon as the single commentary on the SI''Cf'FffitllZ prominently mentioned . as Ma~iibha~ya in spite of the presence' opposed to a:rr9T"f<iffi~: cf. ~: ~ of a few other commentaries on tl~ir'l!ll I 3f\:'fT<i~m: 'f~ arr9f"f<!~~: tI~'1: it which are all thrown into the IvI.Bh. on III. I.II ; d. also 3f~T back-ground by it. :q~~la<lt: >fl:'fr. ~m<i<j: Vya9i Pari. 67.

a Jain grammarian who wrote a learned commentary named Nyiisa on the Amoghiivrtti of Amoghavarp.

SI''lf a passage or a word at the com-


mencement; ct. i{\T9'<fi>rQffi' arT ~Nl~ 'T. Pro IV. 22; t'crl~>r~<fifir "f R. Pr. X. 4 mg\.~>r~cfir.r 'i:f P. II. 1.17. Sl'il~ smaller division, sub-division.
Sl'muT (I) authority; authoritative proof; d. ~'I\: ~q~4 ~o1:!! 3fI1lUl+. M.

Bh. on 1. 2.64 Vart. 29; (-2) measurement, measure; ct. 3flilUT G:<j~ ~;;:ITI~"I: P. V. 2.37; >rinUlff: 3lCfirU !JUI: >rIa: Ka5. on P. 1. r.50.
SI'+l'T::J; inadvertence; neglige lice ; cf. 3f.rp.ffifSjT"ff~Bl ~'i<!;:r~<I;. M. Bh. on P. IV. 2.70; cf. also a:rr!t g muf.!{~crcU:


on P. 1.


Yart. 4.

Sl'itiTf;!<.tti general rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as ( I) a word recognised as corr,ect should always be u.:5ed, ct. Q;q~i'f[fl1 '3mql<!rij~<rGr ~'S~ 'i:fl'11il~<r "f l:T;rf.!<rI1: &\<I" ~'S'il:~ql~f+N~ "1~'S~fa- I T.!;<i&,<!1l111\li"~liT~ +t9'Rr M. Bh. on' P. I. I .Ahnika I, (2) never a b;tse alone or an affix alone should be used, but always a base with the. necessary affix should be used; ct. <jT9ffi tlll<i: '$:ft ., ~'f~T 51'$~: ~fl;;<rr ., %9~:Sl.{<!: IvI. Bh. on P. I. 2.64 Vart.


.. ~

-8, also on P. Ill. I.94 Vart: 3,; (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word, a word repeating. the sense should not be used; ~f. \3<f(fr~f<i1l1!l,jllT:. Besides these many minor regulations of the -type of Paribhii~as are laid down by grammarians. For dEtails see Paribha~a SaJilgraha introduction.

Sf~iTforq<J sphere or domain of the use

R. Pro XV:. 16; also !(fu ~ <ifl~:<i i~J,'ij' ' OJ ~q'ili'lWI'ffiT(~;${e<i:)' 5f4iT"~:[rtl

Oil~... mrI!l~ ~Ncft9 <:jl<i~~~~,


of words; the' whole Vedic and classical recognized Eterature; cfr, mrl~ rn- ~~ 5f<UlTf<ltf<T: I tlRifiqr cj~!fm :J<U <m9iI: '<lt9TU i:t~l: tllWi: tl\H/jf:, 'l!pH
filf+{~{[:, 1l;~ffli"ij'~~I@'f:, HI2I'ltl1l tlfl1i:t'{:, r;;<t;if:'~fu'ifT 91iI.ifc<I, -<l'9'lT~4olt , ~>U <llir'lf'i"lfi'rRrUe: , ' ~\[1h' ~~'lif~m9'TO:~~~ 5f4tllfil'f/j: M. Bh . .Ahnika. I.

" '<i,;R.:t>r.

XI. 33; (2) thex:eaciing of the'Saii:ih1ta 'text 5f[<j''ij'<lf'<lL<T;ijNI

AppareritlY'~9r~:; (noin. sing.) ~eeins to 'be the' wi:>rd' in the explana:tion of Uvva:ta. " ,




'~;:<!~I V. Pr. L 13,2, .



5f1'l''<l<i: I

~ij''q';roa~I~16 Sffef~& s~p~rate o~ distinc~



a small treafise in verses on the conju~ation of roots, written by Bhavanatha Misra, son of Ramapati.

Vart. 5.


SiijUT circumfi,;x accent ; possessed of - svaritaaccent ;d. 'tlel: 5f(Jj'l' !1~~ I : 5f'li'lUJ <l;:<j~ c~ft~t<l~ ~m: 5f~UJ: o::lftffi<l\: T. Pr~ 1. L 47; ct. also !l9OT ~i!;<j~

Sfq)~'ii causing another to do. causal

agent; cf. ~~fol 5f~i; ~Rr ~4t:;j9i: Kiis. On P. 1. 4.55. also Viik. pad.T1. 399 '

1\1. Bh.- on VI. 2.33.

"" >iijaEpp:rT..::ql<J a grammarian who wrote, an explanatory gloss named tn<i2::on the lnrr+ne<j~?Jq written by KaiyatabhaHa.
>i~<l'i incitement or inducement which is the sense of the 'lin' affixes in ger.eral; d. ~q~i1T/jt w.~,

utterance of several words -of a sentence which are jcined together by S_arh- , dhi rules in a compound'( 8lrTij) or oth~rw.ise,with a -very short pause ( 01<l::[([) after each word. e.g. \3' v;fG instead of '3'G.Rr; cf. 5f~3:l~UJ <lfJ;'l'3:l~ 'OJ~;q~: R. Pro XV. 10, 'where Uvvata remarks ~~Ol~~ 5f(P.;2 fclf'l2


Sf<JTiTg~~G;;r known

also by the name 5f~lTf<l~9i, all elementary treatise on syntax, attributed to <l~f;;r, who must, of course, have'been diffierent hom the ancient grammarian 9',,~f"f. "


~<j~ I 'liT1i'ilN~~<i ~<T~ I (f~l i{fff q~? g ~fu.

'<l a" a


sr~~;;r object, motive or purpose - in

undertaking particular thing; the wOld is used although rarely, in the sense of a: cause also; cf. iFiR~ ~4t;;ji1IFr 3l\:~<I o/jI9il;UJ"(. M. Eh. Aimika T. For the ad,vantages of the study of VyakaraI)a-, see M. Bh .Ahnik~ To See also VyakaraI)a Mahabha~ya VoL VII pp. 226, 227, D. E. Society's edition.

Sf<iTn~riim(?';T name of a recognised treatise on grammar written by ~~~,:nr f<ii'.lf<lFft~ of Bengal in the four,teentli century. The treatise explains many words which, although current in language and literature, cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar. The author has tried to 'fonn them by, applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Pal)ini and K~tantra. The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of tbe Tantra Sastra which sho~s a scholarsb'ipoC the author in ,that branch. The grammar was studied much in Bengal 5lnd Assam.
Sf<iTiTCI'lCP-i a ~entence which is actually in use among tlie people as opposed _ to !If'lil1FH'f1j, a senter;ce for technical purposes. cpo Vak. pad. III. 14.61 5. cpo R~~~UJI~qtl1l<T;t g 5f!jhr<Jw:i, ~1f.l:.9'i ~cf~n~ I (~~l.)

Sf<iT~ that ,which

is employed or incited or urged; 'the word which is the subj ect in th-e primitive construction and becomes an object in the causal construction , 'and as a result, which is put in the accusative case being ~~;q'lilt 'As, however, the ~<!!;;:,{'Ii+T originally ocCupies the place of the subject in the primitive construction, the term 5f4t;;:/j'li'Jt (!i'~;;:;q!ijH:j'9i(ft 'q') is often used in connection with it, as contrasted with the term !fqJ;;J'f.9i']T which is used with respect to the ,subject in the causal construction'

'Sifcr+rFi the appearance of the supreme Word.Energy into manifoid objects of the 'Universe whkh is des,cribed T. Pro XIII. 9: The word. is -ex-\ as the wakeful conditi.on of the . piained as a change in the from of Word-Energy. cf.Vak. pad. 1. u8. a word, as for instance, by the sub- ' , cpo 5f~+r'q.tlll-:<jp.rq:r.~ rn- 'TI~:.{~.m f<l9~: I stitution of ~Jor fcltllT where feteit' is, r;;~ ~:II~-~fcI+{ij/jlt!f;;rlt!fl;:i ~\ir +rt<llif, ~:.rf;1f in fact, expected; cf. 'li'!""<i- ~~ i[~crqt
~,{f: 1i<l[~T: 1 qlul1rfrl:~G?{I.,t 3f9'1~~ ~;qm ( original) q;:nRt UJe'l'+rrrufrr tl 'OJ 5flw,r: I
q?,J<l'T >f'lI'U ~qlre:T \3'~~ q~1<lft:qcn: ~9' aq'ij'lt ;;j<mRi I <T<TT ftclw~: Uvv'l-ta on R. Pro IV. 22; d. also 5i<lro: q~5: q~, R. Pro IX.

a grammatical explanation; detailed explanation by citing the gender,nUlnber, krt affix, tad. affix and the like; cf. &;il~~!!mf.i;a1i:;:r~

'Sifin::r'm made _separate with, their component parts showu clearly; split up into component parts in such a way that their meaning also is fully stated; d. aft(f811m';~ 'liq~H 'OJl<i914~S;f 'q' '!.~ '!.cf' 3l4t 8lq~ ~f9. , Oi;;:<t fu~~ln:. I "U<I: S~'l': I quGll~mfu 'IT "U~'1lj~~ !(m 'If I Nir. II. 2.


fc;:cr~~0fi'1:T~, I I 5i<a~

'ifT<l, I tl~lf!<:: ~tf+r!j:

~9gm'ffir >!'l(fi I

(ffi. )
(! ) complete ; cf. 3l:.r ~,~~ 3l'~ 3lm(ff~~ ~;:~!:! 9'T'f/j~T anll;:~f.eT ~'!,\ IJn~a-, Nir. 1. 9; (2) w,hich has pre-


Sf.q)iTf"f~ an elementary work on the

three constructions which has no name of the author mentioned.

fl'lfu ~4t;;:~ 'h~R 'fIll' <l' 5fIHtRr I M. Bh. on P. III. I.26 Vart. I ; cf. also Kaiy. on P. 1. 2.65.
Sf"i"<:Tif (I) recital of Vedic texts;

~~ 'q' ~~r it'l~ <T.v<{~~


It:. In the Nirukta, the word is used in the sense of 'distinct mention '; d. tJ;<l!f;:"Il~IIi'N il:<lffi~Il1J~<i >!'l'l;n: <:ga<lT Oi'lfra (deities are mentione