A

DICTIONARY OF SANSKRIT GRAMMAR

1

By Latt~ Mahiimahopadhyaya Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar,
M.A., Retired Professor of Sanskrit, Gujarat College, Ahmedabad; Hon. Professor of Sanskrit, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona and

J. M. Shukla,
M.A., Ph.D.,
Retired Reader of Sanskrit, Gujarat University, Ahmedabad - 380009

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Oriental Institute. Baroda
1986

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First Edition :1961 Second Revised Edition: 1977 Third Edition (Reprint) : 1986 Copies: 2000 FOREWORD The first edition of "A DictionGlJ' of Sanskrit Grammar" by Mahamahopadhyaya Professor Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar was published in 1961 as Gaekwad's Oriental Series No. 134 by the Oriental Institute under the authority of the M. S. University of Baroda. In 1977 its second revised edition by MM. Professor Kashinath Vasudev Abhyankar and Dr. Jayadevbhai Mohanlal Shukla was publish~ ed with an addition of "about three hundred new entries" (Preface to the second edition .by Dr. J. M. Shukla) as Gaekwad's Oriental Series No. 134. Within a very short span of time the edition went out of print indicating its importance and utility as a reference-book.
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Price Rs. 99.50 Ps.

There has been an incessant demand for this book and we are happy to bring out its third editioa. . I tender my'most sincere feelings of gratitude to Professor Dr. M. N. Desai. Vice-Chancellor. M. S. University of Baroda for his keeo interest and for providing facilities for the reprint. I am grateful to Professor RaiJ:il~1 Parikh. Vice-Chancellor. Gujarat Vidyapeeth. Ahmedabad for his interest in this work by persuading the Navajivan Press to accept the printing of this work. "A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar" by photo-offset process. We are thankful to Shri Jitendra T. Desai. General Manager, Navajivan Press. Ahmedabad. for his cooperation and for expediting the printing. I am also thankful to Shri P. N. Srivastav. Manager. M. S. University of Baroda Press and also Shri N. N. Shah. Technical Assistant and my other colleagues in the Oriental Institute for cooperation and fo9' expediting the I publication of this work.

Copies can be had of:The Manager, UNIVERSITY PUBLICATIONS SALES UNIT, M. S. University of Baroda Press, (Sadhana Press), Near Palace Gate, Palace Road. Baroda-390001

Vadodara 24 March. 1986

S. G. KANTAWALA DIRECrOR ORIENTAL INSTITUTE

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Re-printed by Photo-offset process at the "Navajivan Press. P.O. Navajivan. Ahmedabad-380014" for Shri P. N. Srivastav, Manager, The Malu!/aja Sayajirao University of Baroda Press (Sadhana Press), near Palace Gate, Palace Road. Baroda and published on behalf of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda by Dr. S. G. Kantawala, Director, Oriental Institute. Maharaja Sayajirao University of " Baroda. Baroda. March, 1986.

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PREFACE TO' THE SECOND EDITION Within a few years after the. publication .of 'A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar', the book became out of print. With continuous inquiries pouring in about its availability it was thought necessary that a second edition should be made available to the serious students of Sanskrit learning. Hence, a request was sent to the Director, Oriental Institute, Baroda for the issue of a second edition. He readily accepted the request •. Prof; K. V. Abhyankar:, my revered teacher asked me to revise all the entries, add a few more references to the existing entries and further add about three hundred new entries. lreadily accepted his suggestion. The new entries are mostly of the nature of semantic terms. Before the printing of the book was taken up a tragic event took place. Prof. Abhyankar, with Mrs. Abhyankar, their two brilliant young grand children. and an aged servant, met with an unnatural and tragic death. Sanskrit scholars in India and the West were shocked at this unprecedented vagary of Destiny. Prof. Abhyankar was the most authoritative of the grammarians active in India. He enriched research in VyakaraI,).asastra by his· scholarly works like Vakyapadiya, Mababh~adipika, Paribhii!?asamgraha ~nd others which are indispensable to students of grammar. I express my deep and sincere sense of gratitude to Dr. A. N. lani, the present Director, Oriental' Institute, Baroda, for planning the completion of printing of this book in a record time of about ten months. But for his zest and vigour the work would not have been completed so soon. I am particularly thankful to Shri Siddhartha Y. Wakankar, Research Officer of the Oriental Institute, for scrupulously correcting the proofs of. this work. I thank the lUthorities and workers of the M. S. University Press for expediting the pri ting of the present work.

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INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST EDITION Object of this Dictionary No apology is needed for undertaking the compilation of the present 'Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar', which, although concise, is expected to meet the needs of Sanskrit stholars and research students of Vyakaral)a and other Sastras by serving as a useful reference book in their study of, . and research work in, any branch of Sanskrit learning. The many independent treatises in the several Sastras and the learned commentaries upon them, as atso the commentaries on classical poems and dramas; are, in fact, full of grammatical explanations of words and constructions, involving a liberal use of grammatical expressions and technical terms at several places. The elementary knowledge . of grammar which a' scholar of Sanskrit possesses, is not found sufficient for his understanding fully the grammatical references in these books, especially so at present, when the practice of sending young boys to the Sanskrit Piithasalas to study the standard classical works with commentaries along with some standard elementary treatises on grammar, has already st,opped. The number of Sanskrit Pal)Qitas and Sastrins, who had to obtain a sound footing in grammar before they undertook the study of the higher texts of the several Sastras, and who, therefore, could be consulted by young scholars and research workers in the several Sastras, has also diminished considerably. The' usual Sanskrit Dictionaries such as those of Monier Williams, V. S. Apte and others are found of no avail in supplying explanations of the grammatical technique which confronts modern scholars at every step in their critical reading of the several Sanskrit texts. Under these circumstances, it is only the technical dictionaries of the type of the present 'Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar' that can render a valuable assistance to scholars and research workers in their reading of the higher Sanskrit texts in the Several Sastras. Beginnings of Sanskrit· Grammar Every science bas necessarily its own terminology and a special vocabulary. The remark is true with respect to Sanskrit Grammar or Vyakaral)asastra which has. developed as a science during the last two thousand years and has got several technical terms and numerous words with a special grammatical significance. The origin of grammar can well-nigh be traced to the Period of the Brahmal)as i.e. about 1000 B.C., when Vedic scholars began to discuss the meaning of the inspired Vedic hymns by carefully showing disconnected, the words of the Vedic hymns and noting down the differences in accents as also the changes caused by their coalescence in the continuous recital or the Sarilhitapatha. They also tried to expla'in the sense of the. Vedic words by tracing them back to the roots of suitable senses and laid down rules for their proper and correct pronunCiation. These three pursuits viz. (a) the discussion of the features of the Pada text,

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were carried on with vigour with a view to preserving the Vedic texts intact. Vedic S~katayana and others who treated one after another the different topics of grammar such as the euphonic changes. Nature and Scope of this Dictionary The preparation of a comprehensive 'dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar. the number of books consuited was a limited one. Kaiyata. and laconic yet clear. primary nouns. work. Nirukta and. is certainly a stupendous work which can only be done by a band of grammarians who have got a sound footing in the subject. written by Sarvavarman. an analysis of the word into its constituent elements such as the base. krt affixes. compound words. the works on grammar by all ancient scholars who flourished before PalJini disappeared in course of time leaving only a few quotations behind them. . The number of entries is more than four thousand out of which the important ones are in the form of short articles supplying very briefly the necessary information from the different sources with quotations from or references to the original works. Vamana. years according to the traditional method of the East.QabhaHa and Nagesa. called Vyakarat)a or Grammar. substitutes and t::chnical terms mos'. The number of indepedent primary words. about two thousand primary roots and more than five thousand special words arranged in more than two hundred and fifty classes according to the special grammatical p~culiarities shown' by . the important words and topics occurring therein have been mos:ly included here on account of their occurrence in the major works. terms in the different Sastras.s devejoped as an art by ancient grammarians like Apisali. compact yet exhaustive. as they were devoted to determining the correct words as distinguished from the incorrect ones. It was Panini who carried it to perfection. KramadiSvara. the present dictionary is only an honest and humble attempt in that direction. Devanaudin.ini as a science to such an extent that the number of smaller and greater works :well nigh rose to eight hundred and that of the authors to four hundred. . Palyakirti Sakatayana. based. the Haima and other grammars. Bothlingk and Dr. the augments ~nd the modifications. and secondary nouns. and then by Patafijali. which wa. first by Katyayana. paid to grammaical importance and. Bhattoji. declension. not . padas of roots. In the light of what has been said above. in their tum came to have auxiliary works. have been included in the present dictionary along with affixes. may exceed even twenty-five thousdan. KOI}. and a few Sik~ti works are the only available works at present. more than two hundred sufIiXes. printed as well as found in a manuscript form. the KiiJikii. the Maluibhii~ya. which is rather impossible even to be approximately determined. the 'affix. the Jaitrendra.C. Pal}ini 'Was followed by a :ilUmber of grammarians who wrote popular treatises on grammar. no doubt~ on PaQini's grammar. This separation of the different elements of a word constituted Vyakarat)a or grammar. Development of Sanskrit Grammar In course of time. of course. and only such words and such senses of them as have a grammatical significance. significance. These different treatises. All the standard works in grammar have been carefully consulted including the available Prtitistikhya works. combined with the critical and comparative method of the West. the Siddhiinta-Kaumudi and others. nouns derived from nouns and the like.in Siitras in the same manner as the A~!adhytiyi of Pal}ini which treats one after another the several grammatical elements such as technical terms. a solitary Nirukta. Sakatayana and others before Pal}ini. Hemacandra. I Sanskrit Grammar as a Science The subject of Sanskrit grammar was first treated as a science by the two epoch-making grammarians. came to be looked upon as different systems of grammar. nouns derived from roots. all of which could rightly be. which is looked upon as the standard one 'at present gives about a hundred technical terms. Haradatta. A scrupulous attention has been paid to the Prtitistikhya works. the exponent of Katyayana.Sik$ti. there is a vast number of secondary root. Atention is. It must be admitted that the scholarly index works of Dr. a subject which has been developed fully by Sanskrit Grammarians for the last two thousand_years. on the analogy of the derivation of words. Besides these primary roots. case-relations. and his work. Although a number of.' and finished within a limited time with a view to making it available to students and scholars of Sanskrit at as early a date as possible. some of which. and (c) directions regarding the proper pronunciation of the Vedic words.D. As a result. have been included as far as practicable in the present work. conjugation. developed by their substantial contributions. glosses and explanatory commentaries. at important places. Minor works and commentaries are not consulted as. affixes and technical-.books were written by Vedic scholars in these three branches. a few centuries after PalJini. the Mtihtibhti~ya and the KiiJikii which are looked upon as supremely authoritative in the_field of Sanskrit grammar. the A$ttidhytiyi.lini such as Indra. The grammar of PaI)ini. augments. was undertaken by grammarians.x xi layiiditya. As the work was done single-handed. Renou (b) the derivation of words. prominent among whonl were .undertake this rather arduous venture by his close study of the subject for more than sixty . the Sdkatdy:ma. Supadma and others with their auxiliary works and commentaries.each class. made by the compiler who was inspired to. if roughly estimated. accents and euphonic changes. The Kiilantra.Iy given in Pal)ini's grammar.more than five or six Prtitisiikhya works. Candragomin. besides these :five thousand special words. is simply a marvellous product of art by a man of amazing intelligence. It was carried to perfection by the stalwart grammarian Bhartrhari of the fifth century A. Names of authors and books. the Vtikyapadiya. as also the different Paribhii~a works have been consulted. taddhita affixes. who lived in the second century B. and the treatises dealing with these three branches were respectively called by the names Prtitistikhya. while others give a topic-wise treatment following in that respect the ancient grammarians before Pa1. Jumaranandin. substitutes. compound formation. These treatises present two kinds of treatment: some of them are arranged . the work of PaI}. The special feature of all these grammars was that they entirely omitted the Vedic peculiarities and accents. Later grammariaus.

who has given ample co-operation in getting this Dictionary printed in the shortest possible time.r" and OJ. the ~ve cerebral. M. and therefore no capital letter' is used at the beginning of the word with which each meaning begins. 17-3-61. arid ~ as one of. 5. ' 601-2 Sadashiv Peth.s far as possible. nor italics h~ye been used for Sanskrit terms written in the Roman script nor the breaking of a ~ord atthe end of a line is done scrupulously at the end of a syllable or a const\tuent part. but postponed from time to time. Conclusion 'Acknowledgements are due to Mr. the Hiustration begins with the abbreviation ' e. .hronological order of origin. Each word entered.. are all placed after 6 and before ~ 6~'Ii etc. In spite of all possible care. while from among the numerous grammar works. etc. A sincere sense df gratitude must be conveye4 to Dr. some slips have crept in for which th~ indulgence of the reader is craved. was not only pursued with vigour. the pada and the Sutra in the case of PaQini. an.d~ Words are given in their noun-base (ItTffltrrf<fcli) such as at~'Ii. 1. Poona.. K. ~q. grammar works. Baroda. . ~1(6RU1 ~~lT. '~is taken as a co~­ bination o(~ and ~.palatal. ~ffiiT. @nij. The first figure in references. is illustrated. although the explanation of the word may cover sometimes a full page or more. numbers placed before them. Words in this dictionary are arranged in the serial order of the Sanskrit alphabet which.' undertaken some years ago. the JYcpriitisiikhya is generally quoted. ~.curre~t everywhere. but completed and turned into a volume in the Gaekwad Oriental Series. From among the Priitisiikhya works. ~iT.Qa could be llsed. 7. and a place after'the vowels and before the consonants is assigned to it in the alphabetical order. the . accents of Vedic passages and words are not shown. while usually. and'to the MaQQala. The various senses of a word are given one after anot~er with serial . the words containing anusvara such as ~rt..g.usvara and the parasayar. in Sanskrit begins with the abbreviation 'cf'. Names of books and authors have been sometimes given in the Roman script and sometimes in the DevanagarI script. Chapekar. without the addition of any case affix. Sake 1883. 8. . the explanation or the quotation. ~. The various senses are usually illustrated with quotations from standard authors with full references a.V.fourteen vowels beginning with at ~nd ending with and then the thirtythree consonants consisting of the five . standard.. N. ~ffi' etc.na\ laya. at'Iitf. Bhogilal J. It is expected that Sanskrit scholars will make'fulluse of this work and offer their valuable suggestions for future undertakings of this type. men a particular form is ilfustrate:l. which is generally the Roman one. refers to the main section such as the' adhyaya or the Ka. viz. At places of option where anyone of the all. ·For faciiity of printing. is . Laxmi Road. the five.Aryasanskriti Mudni. 3. ' HINTS FOR THE USE OF THIS DICTIONARY.QQaor the Patala.. the Director of the Oriental Institute. AnHYANKAR 6. Var~apratipada. the Sukta and the stanza in the ~ase of the ~ksamhitii 9. 4. has got only one paragraph assigned to it. Poona 2. The abbreviations for the titles of books consulted and those of grammatical terms are given separately at the beginning of the present' Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar '. 2. at whose initiative the project of this 'Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar. while the next one refers to the subordinate sections. The meaning or meanings of a word are given immediately after it.xii were found very !lseful in providing references to. For example. Sandesara. such as the stanza or the Sutra or the like. . 8P. '. the Mahiibh~ya and the Kiisikil are quoted profusely. The several senses of a word are arranged as far as possible in their <.guttural. the five dental and the five labial conson~ a~ts and· then the four semi-vowels and the four sibilants.~~T. When there are three figures they refer to the adhyaya. when the sense given. the anusvara is consistently used.

a. Abhyankar. Sar:hb. Mababha~yadipikli = commentary on the MaMbhli~ya by Bhartrbari. Pad = Hemacandra's Paribha~apatha as given by HemahamsagaI}. Taittiriya Pratisiikhya. Kaiyata = Kaiyata's Mahiibha1?yapradipa. . Niigesa. V. Yak. I. Jain.=~gvedilTaittiriya Priitisakhya. T. Pr. Kaliipa = K1ilapa. Jain. Poona. however. Bhartrhari's Viikyapadiya. S. Pradipa = Kaiyata's Mababba~yapra. Vy. Laghumafijii~a = Laghumafijii~a of _ .a = KOQQabhatta's SabdakilUstubha = Sabdakaustubha of Vaiyakara1)abhfi~a1)asiira. a comm. the shades of sense being separated by a colon. VaidiklibharaQa = commentary on the R. Pari.a. Tait.order of abbreviations used) A. Sik~ = Bbaradviija 8il~~li. M. R. Muktiivali = Nyiiyamuktavall of Vi§vana thapaficiinana. .l~/Siitra. Hem.Uvvata = Uvvata'sBha~ya on the naka (Sanskrit Sahityapati~ad Priitislikhya works. Ujjvaladatta. the Roman script is used. T. NandikeSvara = Nandikesvarakarikii. . ana. = Hemacandra's Sabdanu§asana. V. hari.VyakaralJ. Vr = Durghatavrtti of SaralJ.Tribha~yaratna = commentary on the mafijfi~1i of Niige§a:bhatta. Vy.) V. Jiilinendrasarasvati. Edition. Durgh. EMs.. Kat. Sid. are employed. = Ui. 8lik. As the senses given in such dictionaries are more or less technlcai or conventional. Mahabbii~ya Vol. Pari. Sanskrit words are generi:llly given in the Devanagari . (3 ).Sring-Prak.. BhaHoji Dik~ita.. Pad. Siitravr.. Kielhorn's edition.a~iitra.. GaJigesopadbyiiya. = Vakyapadiya of Bhartr8iik. when. Pari.adeva. = Kiivyaprakasa of Mammata. SaIilh.. VaiyakaraQabhii~aI}. = Paribba~endusekbara of TattvacintiimaI. Durg. = Mahiibhii~ya of Patafijali on the Sfitras of PaI.i. BMr. the diacritical marks which are in current use at present. = Jainendra VyakaraI}. 10. Durglicarya = Durgadi. ( 2 ). j(Dr. or by a comma. = Klitantra Paribh1i-' ~avrtti by Durgasirhha.· Kielhorn's edition ).li= VyiiQiparibhii~iisiicana. U:Q..Paribha~asai:hgraha by U ddyota = Mababb1i~ya-Pradipoddyota K.. V. Vy.· = Klitantra Vy. DurgasiIilha = DurgasiIilba's KatantraSfitravrtti. VII = Tbe Volume of the introduction in ~lariithi to the Piitaiijala Mablibha~ya.karaI.=8akatliyana's 8abdanusiisana. a commentary on the Kasikiivrtti by Jinendrabuddhi.script. 8ik. K.· KasikavivaraI}. Kas. Abbyankar and published by the D.rya's commentary on the Nirukta. known by the name Nyasa. Jain. V.lini (Dr..i of Nage§a. Vr. . R.yaska.8pigaraprakli§a of entary on the Klisiklivrtti by Bhoja.=~ktantra Prati§1ikhya. Hem. tika = Commentary on patba. =8ik~li of PaQini. Kliv.) Siva Siitra=Miihesvarasiitras. when. Ras. Par. ' i 1.liidisiitravrtti by dipa.Siitra = Santanava's Phitsiitra. = Paribha~libhaskara of Tattvabodh. Pr. Vart. bba~ya by U pamanyu. Pari. etc. Tattvabodhini by Haribhiiskara Agnihotri. = Atharvaveda Pcatisakbya.liidisiitrapaficapadi.Ui. Bb. Par. Puru~ottam=Puru~ottamadeva's PariUpamanyu = Nandikesvarakarikabba~iiv!'tti.Viik. Haradatta. Each of the different senses of a word or of the uses of a word in different ways. V. I Vya<. LIST OF WORKS AND AUTHORS CONSULJED ( In . . == Jainendra Paribh1i~avrtti by K. Kat. written by K. VyakaraI}. ~gveda. Siitra=UJ.ini's A~tlidbyayi. the literal or the usual sense of the words is given only when it is allied to the conventional sense.. Paramalaghumaiijii!iii = Paramalaghu. Phit. no separate numPers are given. A§tadbyayi = paI}. paI. Can. however.apafijikli. viv. saIilhita. Kaiy.= Varttikas on the Siitras of Siradeva = Siradeva's Paribba~aPaI). Prak. = Bba~avrtti of Puru~ottamadeva. Kau.. Calcutta. Bh. = 8likajliyana Paribba§li.l.li =TattvacintamalJ. Pan = P1iQini's A~tadhyayi. by NageSa.Xiv xv Padamafijari = Padamafijari.ini as given in the Mahiibhii~ya vrtti. E.a by Piijyapada Devanandin.=S}ddhantakaumudi. Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. = Taittiriya Samhita.=Taittiriya PratiMikhya. Nir. 8ek. Pro =~gvedapratisakhya by Sau. begins with a separate number ( 1 ). ~k. Nylisa=KliSikavivaraQapafijikii. Sang. pad. = Nirukta of. Dhatuvrtti = Miidhaviya Dbliluvrtti. = Candcei. I I . 12.l. Abhyankar. Pr. C. Society. 1'. the same sense is given with different shades of it. k Kasika of J ayadityaand Vam. by word~ which are practically synonymous.

paJ"lini. Parasmaipada. adjective.g. 81 etc. Vedic. compare. case.) or sa which case it is looked upon as a (~) by PiiI). . Ol'tftifi~. ms. that is. info infinitive.Prakrit. e. as also stated in the form of krit.58. for example.. imperative. gen. G. loco locative case.' many times prescribed in by PaI). The ( 4) krt affix a (81) prescribed espe-:anusvara is considered ( I) as only dally after the denominative and a na5~lization of the preceding secondary roots in the sense of the vowel being in a way completely verbal activity e. e. . Pr. masculine gender. gend. singular. fut. pI. cf.. not necessarily on the same page... etc. cf. 28. (5 ) sign of the aorist a nasal addi tion to the preceding mentioned as an (m:. . i\I!T. .<lS(. also R. affix a (81) more prevalent later on in Pali.I). sec. impera. sion o~ the consonant n (i1J by ges.148-9. after the eliin Sanskrit and its derived bngua. ~. V III. III I. Pr: 14. acc. P. a reference to. instrumental case.' i\~1Im-. 6!"l. vide see. desid. ablative case. ~ q~ ffiCI~r~~ l(m the samasanta affixes (\S''<f 81'C.ini's element of the anusvara became A~tadhyayi. condo conditional.Apabhramsa and in the 6!u:( .q. ~!5f.68. above. literally.G..7 I. caus. Atm. in the fourth and the spoken modern languages while fifth cbapters of the Aljitadhyayi' of I the consonantal element became Pii. part. etc. 77. USED ar indo indeclinable..' f.!-. adverb. I. Ahn. "ii"iiT etc. manuscript. except when of the U Qadi affixes 8TiI" ~ . /' A Dictionary of Sanskrit Grammar ABBREVIATIONS abl. 31. causal. varia lectio. 3. Vart. Ol~. (6) conjugational which is changed. 4.. (3) I the vowel preceding it. The vowel in the third Adhyaya of PiiI). f'CfiCl1.e. krt (affix).) as des81~"<iC!. second. t<r ! '"" " ~'fI\: I -<rr~"fliqur. eXE'~p1i gratia. . Ahnika of the Patafijala Mahabha~ya. d. sing. confer. type of nasalized half g ('I. V1. III. into anusvara in sign mentioned as sap (~'!. pass. nominative case. id est. perf. lit. (12) remnant (81) of the (I) the first letter of the alphabet negative particle . OJ.. tad. III. pers. vi. I ~ ~~ lifo . com. perfect. Pro 122 V. T. 1. ct. prescribed as an affix 0[' an augment or a substitute. XXII. (2) as 3.in'i. representing the sound a (81). person. subjunctive. ct.(81) prescribed as 0l:S:. ins.. participle. ij~qr <{Sf: P.) vowel. 73 to 121. another reading.. mentioned by PaQini as 81"!. pari.pI. (10) the samasanta affix a more predominant in classical Sans( 81). neut. commentary.. an'd others.. (8) krt cribed in some treatises of the' affixa . Yajurveda Pratisakqya.g.p.. changed into a cognate of the e. sort of a vowel.t. Pan. mase. (P.106) . dual.) (I) nasal utterance calJed '~~ and written as a dot above or nasalisation or. pronoun. paribha~a.ini in P. grammar as nul ( !l~) or num ( !1~) aPIl1G:. p. past passive participle. ~. <9.g. alld first and third pers.. 4... it is looked fl. V. 81<!iffi.p. ed. Cfiii. plural. perf. all[ and aq) by PaQini in ' fc'rii>w. suf. cf.. inst. etc. Atmanepada.I. cf. future. '" -'" . grammar. (7) augment am upon as a consonant when it is ( Ol~) as prescribed by P.58. accusative case.ini in P. or Atmanep.g..g... et cetera. Parasmai. adj. I. conjugation. freq.73 (13) remnant ( 2) the vowel a ( 81) representing in grammatical treatises. . I4.) or can ('C!~. +Fffa-.r-.. pron. sing. I gcmr I"'. edition. all its eighteen varieties caused by accentuation td (. adv. frequentative. compo compound. '6f. gr. dative case.-V. conj. while. some preceding word. and aorist tenses and in the ( 3) as a kind of consonant of the conditional mood e.4. subj. 81 '1:. present tense. lengthening. fern. ~) ~~{: q'<l.. Varttika (on the Sutra of PaQini ). (II) substitute a (0liR) accented grave for~ before ~~« the same as ~fuB+rTtl or case-affixes beginning with tbe ins. 'a vowcl as immersed in it.48 to 59-e. vOC. VI. gender. 'ii. taddhita affix. 81 S1~<im. suffix.. etc.~'C!. aor. pres. (8) augment a# following consonant (q~l39uT ) or re( 6!~) prefixed to a root in the imtained as n (iI). II. vocative case. desiderative. genitive case. P.g. XV. 81'f<i<ffiifm or Sfci1!9qt:ilm~lf pres crib. ~!5T. amalgamated with it. dat. 81~_.. feminine. V. imperfect.I . it is pronounced after sec. (9) tad. Of. .. passive voice. neuter gender. imperf. 6fU. 'ii. ~'i\l1!!­ personal ending a (81) of the perf. 102 . dual number. i. nom. aorist.. Ved.i\9~ I S1<ll<m<lmii>T 1. krt. e.

exist. Pad. V. The letter is generally given as the first letter of the alphabet t Cfo1~1l1ojr<i) in all PratiS1ikhya and grammar works except in the alphabet termed Var:r.JOl<I:. P.s breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the labial letter p ( tt. ~ 31T it 31[ ~ C>?: ~ Si "1\ <ri: l{ \3' an: I \<i~f: I an ~OlY'fm: I .f 'e'fTgl'fUi' crw. 9" ~~<lt §'C<i~ l{rNarQl:'fT I. by P. I." . The Jlhva miiliya IS only a voiceless breath following the utterance of a vowel and preceding the utterance of the gutteral letter 'Ii. R. . ( 3) remnant' of the termination 01''li'''l:.~: etc. 11. 'R'h:. case in the Taittiriya Pra#siikhYa.Cf~~ etc. 1. 53. f!l'at "'i ~<i' P. III. 10.g. 133: III. lor. 97.: prescribed along with the tad.jfu fcrq~'liT ( P. I.. tlwffi O1'~T {l!f: R.. possessing two objects such as!W:.I name given to the 1~om.: crt . Pad.2 and 3. 3. said with respec't to vowels in Vedic utterance. II. III. ! ~ (I) affix 8F-ii substituted for the . ct.19.I llRl%:d2j9~rCf: 'liB'Oi'ts 'liffr'lir&n<ir II Yak. or~.'C§'fu. Pad. ttM:. III. 'IN. ~~ as in f. <fii4>rni4>f fSn<:rT the acti vi ty of a transi.70. ~. 3. on Vak.g. Pro I.51 and the Mahabha. P. but dependent upon the following consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. III. I.in <'{eft' Cflffu I and the like.:r. ) a term uSed for nominative in a. length.. called visarjaniya in ancient works and shown in writing by two dots. I. ~OlR<iFlf +!9'm I CflItR"e. tremulous. It is looked upon as a letter (Cfo1). P. The reasons for supples. 3· I II). I. by a sign like the Cl'ii in writing. ij-sroif case of intransitive roots. T. ct.4~<ifit ~ an object governed by an intransitive root by virtue. 39. cpo Yak.:ft<j$lt ~9fu (S.g. ~~: . as for instance in 'IT ~F\:'f 11'''1:. etc. ~'l. see O1''lifirlf "'i P. (2) sign ( f<t'lil:I1l) of the benedictive in Vedic Literature in the case of the root '!'Re. +!r~r ij:. 4. the agent or 'liQT cf. protraction. ~ euphonic change ( ~fl:'f) such as the dropping of the consonant r (\) when followed by r. I ~<i<lS!ilsT<1R<t't«j. at:~ "'I9'm.. .1 and the following P. 2. ~~G:.lb ). in q]-\<f 'It <il~ or fu!'J~ or mOlCf9i q. I. (4) substitute ( 31TW) 31~~ for the last vowel of the word l'2l:'fTi'l (P. 1. cf.!.88.l.:~ 9. 149. ~qQ not shaken.j'li~.mifiliT3: II atq:.l~:.~''I~~f9('I'+Ro'r ~~I~~TRl!ffa. 3{~fqtl1&r I I etc. . 146.12.r+rTfq+!'ffi~?. 37 r) e:g. IV. Pad. An !indent verse describing the senses in which a root is intransitive is as follows : the letter a (01') inclusive of all its eighteen kinds camed by shortness. acceutuation and nasalization in Pa:q. cpo also 31q]'<Wllfit f9. (said with regard to roots which canno. Cfiiil'~~­ 'lif<mmiTTti'lip.~~. but dependent upon the f<?llowing consonant and hence looked upon as a consonant. 1 1 I" Pro Ill. e. without any object.1. cf. kampa being looked upon as a fault of utterance.'li: Vak. cpo Vak.I. V. ' I6ICfiI°'iildJ17'lq name 1. IV. 3. 2. 180. of the commentary by Harinatha on the Paribba~er. Itis looked upon as a letter (Cfo1).88. at X ~ ( fu~rli. for example. <i~and others. in the other cases. ~~~Rr<fo1 aQ\:1iETI<reW affix prescribed before the last syllable of pronouns and indeclinabIes without any specific sense for it ( P.tive root like that of an intransitive root by virtue of the suppression .f: ~ .) or Ph ( qi). ~~ not' mentioned by any other case-relation such as 01'qnu. HI. 7 1. One below the otl!. while it is lc. VII.of the activity of a transitive root whicp is supposed. 1. ~ and ~ in PaI}ini's Grammar ct.im's grammar. 86 V. <fi~'l a case-relation excepting that of the subject to the verbal activity. O1''liMCfT<! I 'lil'qi{ Y'fTti <:9'\Tf~oUl.61 etc.vel when it forms a part 01 the preceding vowel. .. . III. 4· ~ not causing any verbal activity.:r. I t is a voiceles. l:T:. a class of words headed by ~ which have' their last vowel accented acute when they stand at the end of a tatpuru~a' compound with the word >rB as the first member. \ :.of its object as.73. IV. O1'~~BCful~ ~lll~<i: p. sian are briefly given in the weHknown stanza. The indirect object' is called ak~thita because in some cases there exists no other caserelation as. e. Pro IV. representing the letters 01'.t<iffi \3'mfq~T' e.11l' -----2 ed by the rule ttCffcml:"fit'G~'li~fu~­ J~~ P.ncient grammar-treatises.g. . mination or an' augment or a substitute. 7. ~cir ~tfu. f4e~ . 2.individual viz.rhen it is changed into the Jibvamiidya or the Upadhmaniya letter. Kat. 01': ~fu f9~~rfiij: I 31'fil\ ~\f . by roots.')ked upon as a consonant 'l. Pad. 7. T. which in the passive voice is put in the nominative case.t possess an object or whose object is suppressed or ignored). 97) e. affix lPf. l:'flci'k'Tf'Cf~ ~"kll:'fff<:r~. also aTif:!Tf<l:'II1l.g. x) affix ~ given in PaI)ini:s Grammar as-u~~ as in an~. III.8)).<irEri[ on <fi~ l. represented.as an object.k Tantra cf. VI.. like the pair of breasts of a maiden as jocularly expressed by Durgasirilha. ct.I i I ~ (I) condensed expression (~~\) and O1'N'li(Ol. as in 119'li:. 2. 1.67. governed. ~rl:'fT\'If. 01'~1t "'i 'liH~ ¢n<i~ P. in tilBIi1~ where the word .67.!?ya thereon.31:'liT\ ~fu ll:.2.g. R.f9il!fI~NCf:' HeUi. exactly of the same size. III.•• 31: ::: 'li ::: qr: I ~ ~ ~ tJ ~ at art Q.#r"I. i!!i1i9i:. 108).j1tq which governs <irij. 4. for instance. as for instance.dusekhara (qlt~~@'{) of Nagesabhatta. 7. <i169'li: (P. 7. . stated with respect to the indirect' object. arr<!Cf~fi. the verbal activity and its fruit are centred in one and the same .: . 2.ITl. 3.2. r.. ). IV. while.ii. as stated by Durgasimha wbo remarks Cf'fi[~<fu1f ~ij[~<i$lt +rcrfu. 193.}. " ~ (01'9il+ffifu) an invariable (f<r~) ~f\:'fmf.fq~fr is always a dependent letter inCluded among the Ayogavaha lettels and it is looked upon as a vm. different from the karakas or in- I II I . ~cfc!i:. cf.. V. e. VI. 3I. III. . u~~ as iii ~:. ct.:j'iJlT(OlTil': I ~ffiY'f~l1l~RrcfOll f9~~. 23. ai~. Z. 'I.Opadesa. as meutioned in the E. the other case-relations (with the activity expressed by the verb) are wilfully suppressed or ignored although they . In the I I ~ substitute (Ol'f&:qr) for the last ~ lil1 X ~ (x) Upadbmaniya represented' by a sign like the temple of an elephant as stated by Durgasimha who remarks .~T­ 'liT1ir. letter of the word ~l:'fTQ.jFi{Uj<I:. aJ1RCIiT<i:. III.:: 'liUfu. a. ~ ~ intransitive. ~~ as in <1!fCli: (P. is suppressed. V. 7. ~: (:) (I) vi?arga. qrrM-'liT (P. in cases where a (Sf) is not actually prescriLcd as a ter. 11 r.'1 ~ '!~: I R.

4
struments of action such as the _agent, the object, the instrument, the recipient (~sroi'f), the separated (i3ilff<Uij) and the location, (i3i~IlJ) ct. M. Bh. on 1. 4.23, 29 and 51 and on II. 3.1. expression is used in connection with gramma tical operations like mCf.~ or <t\~~ only in cases :where it is necessary i.e.. where a!ready there is no hrasvaor dirgha ct. ar~'iiTft ~'ffq ~l'lmcgl.1 w:r1:lT I arf«4<{&:nt oi\iifu I M. Bh. on VI. 1.127. ,The rules of Grammar, !ike fire, are applied to places where they produce a change.
~'tidci.tf!

improperly which does not, serve 'any useful purpose. cf. ~T arq~;oJijT ~~: Uvata on -R. Pr. XIV: 6t<.
~ not possessing the mute htter k (~) g ('!.) or (~) and hence

earlier writers.

For the etymology

. of the term see Mahabha~ya i3i&:lt i'f &:It fCf~I~, ar~t ~us&:l\"l: I <lui qT!i: ~fI..~ fcli+r:q!IqFcl:~'lij-1 M. Bh. Ahnika
2

end.

-

~ riot a grammatical positive operation: e.g. elision (~rq.) ct-. em '9 Wq lJ;~ ~ I <3fc!if<i Wq: I l\LBh: on I. 3.2.
Of$f~q;

n

'e:r~

(I) not limited by any timefactors for its study such as certain periods of the day or the year. ( 2) not characterized by any technical terms expressive of time such as adyatani, parok$a occurring ,in the ancient Pratisiikhya and grammar work's. The term a/talaka is used by the writers of the Kasikavrtti in connection with the grammar of PaQini. ct. "qTfUI;:~q~lFfi~ c<rr<gllJ~" Kas. on P.. II. 4.2 I explained by the writer of the Padamafijali as '{CfffUr c'l1<g1lJTfir ~Cf<rrta:­
~qft+!Tl:fl~'ffiTf.r ffi\~~ I

short expression for the grammatical maxim ~~: tfrfUrrfr:Ir: which means If the followers of PaQini do not insist on the taking eff~ct of a IUle wh~n its cause or causes disappear." See Par. Sek"Par. 56.

not preventing the.guQa and vrddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, if they occur. e.g. ~{~ ~~ ~qtll mi~: tl1!i1~fct I M. Bh. on P. LI.I. Vart. IQ.
~

an ancient work of the Pratisakhya type, attributed to A.pisali a.nd discussing the chanting of Sama-gana.

definite, known or specified definitely. d. 3T'I",qftmurr.:rm~f.rr i:jf'i'.I'IiT llqfrff <J p;~ ~'lT~CiiU: qftl'lr1l]~CGJ~ M. Bh.1. 1.72.

e:r~l(q~ffffl name given to the dvipada viraj verses divided into padas of five syllables . .ct. ~~i ~: i:liRr~ tlOff i3i~~ij6qiU: I ~ tmf&:lUrtfTlUffiT~~IS1lR~: R. Pro XVII. 50.
af!.tfHf+!BiI'<!1 alphabet; traditional enu-

~ word or expression without the necessary euphopic changes d.
9~~t '9 Q:<fi'l'I~ ~ '9 ar~~

P.

V. 3.84 vart. I. OIWd:$md" words ending with a breath~ ing or visarga which are nqt looked upon as placed immediately before the next word and hence which have no combination with the following vowel e.g. ~ ~r arlf"Ji: R. V. IX. 3.1.

, ~~ ,not a result Of a verbal activity; the expression is Useu in connection with qualities (on a substance) as opposed to the activities found in it. ct. i3il~<JlIHf.!i<jl;oJ~ ~s tl;:iqiifa~: M. Bh. on IV. I.44.
5Ta;t~'d1~10l a class of words headed by ar&:l"1~ which take the tad. affix {hak (i{91) in the sense of ' resulting from' e.g. arr&:l~fu1n ~{O{, ;oJ~qflfa~, ''lrmcr~ etc. d. P. I V+1g.

I

~~Tqq;

different from the KaJapa or the revised Kiitantra Grammar d. Ii1fiJJ~~'liTCinq<t o'l1~ Kas., on P. H.4.21.

Oliiifm:r non-technical; not formed or
not arrived at by grammatical operations such as the applicatioI;l of affixes to cr I,lde bases and so on ; natural; assignf'd only by accident. ct. the gram. maxim .riiF-l+t<lr: ii&if 'iil~~q(.ti<J: whIch meanS H in cases of doubt whetheral~ operation rders to that expressed by the technical sense or to that which is e:li.press~d by the ordinary sense of a term, the operation refers to what is expressed by the technical sense." Par, Sf'k. Par. 9 also M. ,Bh. on 1. 1.23. and Viik. Pad. II. 366.
~«;:r-3li!it~T,

1Il&:R a letter of the alphabet, such as., a ( 3T ) or i ( i{) or h ( ~) or y (<i..) or
the like. The, word was originally applied in the Pratisakhya works to vONels (long! short as also protracted), to consonants and the ayogavaha letters which were tied down to, them as their appendages. Hence a:r~<: came later on -to mean a syllable i.e. a vowel with a consonant or consonan ts preceding or following it, or without, any con- I sonant at all. ct. ~ ijt<jJ: ~+rlrm: I ~CfuulTl'l~ <UEll alllr i3ia;rofUr ~. Pro 1. 17I9 ct. Q;'iiI1jJ\f, El1lJ\{ etc. The term ak!?ara was also applied to any Jetter (quT), be it a vowel or a consonant, cf. the terms Q;<li{&)'\, WI:<f&:l<:, ~+rTijJa.R used by Pataiijali as also by the

~' not marked by the mute letter k (~) and hence not disallowing gUJ;Ja or vrddhi substitutes for the preceding vowel, cf. ~(aj'i,<j)!R€<ll'lfilifu P. VI. I.S8; <U~TsfollCf: P. VII. 4.83.
~

lit. non-krt; an affix applied to a root, but different from the ~Q. affixes. ct. ~tlT~1:lfijiji,i'ti{jei: P. VII. 4. 2 5. '
not established; said of a gram- ' matical operaticn which has not taken place e.g. ~'iiT~~ M. Bh. on V. 2.100; V. 3.84. aiso ~srtlijr firi.il+r. M. Bh. on VI. 4 62.

I
I

at~

!

'~<!n'R: doing or accomplishing what is not done or accomplished; the

an epithet applied to the pronunciation of Veda words

meration of phonetically independent letters generally beginning with the vowel a (3T). Although the number of letters and the order in which they are stated differ in different treatises, still,qualitatively they are much the same. The SivasiHras, on which PaQini's , grammar" is based, enumerate 9 vowels, 4 semi-vowels, twenty-five class-consonants and 4 sibilants. The nine vowels are five simple vowels or monothoBgs ( tlIUi'fl1jJ\) as they are called in ancient treatises, and the four diphthongs, (tFIl'l'&:I<:). The four- semi-vowelsy, v, r, t, ( <{ "{, \. ~) called antastbiivarQa, the twenty-five class-consonants or mutes called sparsa, and the four ii$m~lD ietters S, ~, sand h ( iR ~ ~ ~) are the same in all the Pratisakhya and grammar works although -in the Pratisakhya works the semivowels are mentioned after the class consonants. The difference in numbers, as noticed, for example in the maximum number which reaches 65 in the Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya, is due to the separate mention of the long and protracted vowels as also to the im:lusioQ

6
of the Ayogavaha leiten, and their number. The Ayog a v1i.ha letters are anusvara, Visarjaniya, jibvamfiJiya, up3.dhmaniya, nasikya, four yamas and, svarabhakti The.l}k Pratisakhya does not mention I (t:a), but adding long a (an) i ( t) fi (6))

7
- Ahnika 2-end.
~: 9;~!J' ~Ri <!+l'<n'<ffl1 ar!'J\(1liT+CfT<! Q;Cj I ot~o~<lT9:iro \tl: I ST9lTU ~ tlcrT 'if95,! B1'ff ~~if6I1f~o~\T<I+n<rf «oft <rf<l~r l1qm ar!'J{tI+l'I+<rr<i: '<f ;;<!t'q~

I I
I

I

cf. ~~fu: Kat. II. 1.8; aj'{rOOS'!iR: Kat. II. 1.50.

I

Sekh. Par. 72; M. Bb. VII. I.I V1i.rt. I3.

ihn:I,'1fUfiml
I 11..2.3.

Aitareya

Ara!}.yaka

Ii

~ffar-=i\ID\'fi9Q. 5Tfm:rtUsm itFctffo<IT ~­ I tiffi9;U<ftIi<!!l'lrfa~~ ~ <term- I ~mfqoU '<iR<l ~qil ~ ~~~ I M. Bh.

ar~'{~ name of an ancient work and (:Jt) to the short vowels, on grammar attributed to Gargya; mentions 12 vowels, and m'ection- I cpo raO:{1~ iflrl'r ~: lIT+nM'Ii arT'<if~: I ing 3 Ayogavahas (';; ~, ;:: l{ and at) ar~ ar~{~:i <rf+l' o<!I'Ii\uT s:rm~~ I -quotalays down 48 letters. The. ~k I tion attributed to HaHi.yudha in Tantra Pratisakhya adds the vowel i Vrddhatrayi. I (~) (short as also long) and I mentions I..j. vowels, 4 semi-vowels, ar~ forming a part or a l'yilable just as the anusvara (nasal utter25 mutes, 4 sibilants, and by addance) or svarabhakti ( vowel-part) ing 10 aycgavahas viz. 4 yamas, I nasikya, visarjaniya jihvaIlJii.!iya, I . which forms a part of the preceding syllable. ct. ar~qru O<f~<f '<if!'JUSR: upadhmiiniya and two kinds of R. Pro 1.22, also ~llfui: 'lctl1fll!'JUWIl:. anusvara, and thus brings the total R. Pro 1.32. number to 57. The Rk Tantra makes a separate enumeration' by e:r~~.rr~ unitary import; the putting diphthongs first, long, meaning of a sentence collectively vowels afterwards and short vowels I understood. still afterwards, and puts semivowels first before mutes, for pur- ~ (r) absence of any other recourse or alternative. cf. 8l1T~r ~ poses of framing brief terms or &§ q(t+!T1'fT<l>ll<rif. Puru~ottamadeva­ pratyahiiras. This enumeration is Pari. vrtti Pari. II9; (2) which is called van;lOpadesa in contrast witb not a word termed gati. d. 'i:i<lf4frtq· the other one whicb is called var!}.-I <It;i{rfc(of-iIffi~~cr6'f'fa-: P. VIII. 1.57. oddesa.. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya adds protracted vowels and lays~l' ' c' ' €\, non-communicativeness, in"'' ' ' ' ' ' <\' down 60 letters; The Sik~1i. of ability to communicate adequately Pal).ioi lays down 63 or 64 letters, the.intended meaning. d. €lRt;Ul'fUlTCfT while the Vajasaneyi-Pratis1i.khya <af%ffi~ 9:itlmi ll'ifff I ar~TQ. IVI. Bh. gives 65 letters. d. V. Pr. VIII. on II. 1.1; d. also 8l1Tli9:i: f<r'it~: I-25. The alphabet of the modern arr.r~ra: I Indian Languages is bassed on the VarlJasamamnaya given in the a1'nur non-secondary, principal; cf. ~'f~@:rnl%i~ 'qrc<mor ~<1(iq+j'a-cf'<fi! ~\O Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya. T?-e PraM. Bh. on 1. 4.5 r. tiSakhyas call this enumeration by the name VarI).3.-samamnaya. The I or~· uncomprehended, unincluded Rk. tantra uses the terms Ak~arasa-I ct. iTFJ:~hm-;ulifUJT ~fffir~6<1ffq~;nmfff I mamnaya and Brahmarasi which ct. also ~ ~~S! a~a€lqUJf<1m'<ff ate picked up later on by Pataiijali. !j~ Padamafijari on KiiS VIII. cf. mS<!ll!'J\€l+rI~r<lt Cf1'ffilTl~I<!: 9;f6ra: 3·57·

r

a:r~~lIl1l a class of words headed by the word aj'mq" to which the tad. affix arm is added in the senses of' given there' or 'done there' e.g .. arfmq~cf. 3T'l.!.q<gor 8lfutR1~<! aqB~<!T<1<J:.P. V. 1.97 Vatt. I. .
~R~ an ancient writer of Vedic grammar mentioned jn the Taittiriya PratiSiikhya. d. 9:i'i'ifr'i\~ ( f<t~{lT: ) ar~:rr~<IT: (+l'~q ~M <1 arlq£j~) T,' Pr. IX. 4.

~)q elision of" the vowel a, i, U, r or ! ( ar, ~, 'Er, ~ or t:a) which prevents Sanvadbhiiva ct. €l«rn~p., 'Cf~'ih<1~ P. VII. 4'93, as also <n.~fil'~R'lfc(m~ VIr. 4.2 where the elision prevents the shortening of the penultimate vowel if it is long.

e:r..mr

I

li!fnI4if4I~if an ancient writer of Vedic grammar; mentioned in the Taittiriya Pr1Hisakhya. d .. qrfu~<!q<;<l
( 11ij- a~T'1j'i\: <;q(taW ciT ~T'ij: ~(tcf <1T'i'<lij- ~fu q )

Tait. Pro XIV. 32.

w.n~Trul"""ll~ . analogy

i

1.

conveyed by the expr,ession 'liffifilT implying permission to the agent to do certain other things in a sacrificial session when, as a matter of fact, he is only permitted to work as an agent at the sacrificial action ( arm9:i<:Ul), by virtue of the reply ~<i' to his request made in the sente!lce anTI '!i\qlfUT. ct. ann'li\CfrfUTr<:{B1<i llfcj6ijl0 M. Bh. on. II. 2.2 t.

unvoiced,' merely breathed; a term applied to the surd consonants, s, ~ s, and visargawhich are uttered - by mere breathing and which do not produce any sonant effect. d. T. Pro 1. 12; R. Pro T. II. The term jit (~) is used for these letters as also for the first two consonants of a cIassin the Vajasaneyi-Pditisakhya cf. ID ID lImn Rim; , . ~611'fU1~ ii<Ft"f. V.. Pr. I. 50.5 r. The vikara.r;ta before Jun affixes, substituted for the' affix cvi (Fq) in the case of the roots mentioned ' by Pa.r;tini in Sii.tras Ill. 1.52-59; ( 2 ) the VikaraI).apratyaya in Vedic Literature before the benedictive affixes prescribed by P1i.l)ini in Siltra III. I.86; (3) krt affix in the feminine gender showing verbal activity applied to roots marked with the mute letter '\ and the roots ~, ~ and others P. III. 3 104I06. e.g. m:r, SI'if, ~r, ma:r etc.

arm

~

f

~

the original SaIilhita text as opposed to pratglI)a (lfqUllj) or padapatha, (~Cf/o) which is the recital of separate words. not forming part of the regular text; cpo arfcjd~9:iiql~rn I %f'9G:l~­ ~~r~s<!mfu I Kaiyata on M. Bh. on Pa. IV. 4.89. a modern scholar of Sanskrit grammar, the autbor of" India as known to PaI)ini ".

aT~

j.l

I

~ t Vasudeva-SaraI)a AFaValf1.),

i
I

~~ not marked with the mute letter 1i (~ ) signifying the absence of the prohibition of the gU!Ja ~i the vrddhi substitute. cf. arfir-ffi ~lljllfuitl:T: (Cf'ffiO<I: ) M. Bh. III. 3.83 Vait. 2. In the case of the preposition.il ( arr") unmarked with n (¥:), it signifies a sentence or remembrance of something cf. Cf1Of<1~I1\llj<ild~;~ e.g. <liT ~ ~ <F<!~, <liT o:ci f~ ffiI. cf. M. Bh. on I. 1.14. .
SiW .( I) tbe crude base of a noun or a ver"? to which affixes are added:

um:

arm

a term in the K1i.taritra grammar for a word ending in i ( 11: ) or u ( a )

~ non-inclusion, non-comprebension. cf. fct~ ~fcj~~~ Par.

a technical term in pal}.ini's grammar fot the crude base after which an affix is prescribed e.g. \:f'm in 3lrQrr'f, or 'ii in 'iitt~<im et~. cf. ~ ~Clf.r~~f?: 5j~~S~ P. 14·I3; ( 2) subordinate part constituent part ct. lfUWfi{ in ~<!Flf.si5' lRTWCf~~ P. II. I. 2, also f.rllClif*@r.:if IfRtlT1flijJf Par. Sek. Par. -93.10; ( 3} auxiliary for an operation, e.'g. a:mi~, iif~U'/ etc. d. ~lf~ ~~~~ filfir'ijlt'f ~ Par. Sek. Par. 50; (4) element of a word or of an' expression ct. ~IjCfI~ "'lTSj'q{: R. T. 19 0 , ~ :q ,!!~OCjRt R. T. 127. ;;CI~ ~mFl: T. Pr.2r.r.

~ih:fit:' .~. a:rF:!fitt~: amT~:; Padamafija~i on P .. II. 2.12. ~'S'iitf0if retaining its gender although used as an adjective.

~'S'iirt.rlut Class ~f words headed by ~
to which the fern. affix a:rt is added, sometimes inspite of the - affix t being applicable by other rules such as ~Wl1f.r~<irn.° P. IV, 1.63 and other rules in the section. e g.

c!. P. IV. 1.4.

~, ~'iiT; ~~,. \:IfWr~, ~t!T, 1i:,!T.

li$lfcita?i", author of the Cintiima'!Zi. . prakiisikii a gloss on Cintiima'!Zi, the well known commentary by Yak!?avarman on the Sabdanfisiisana of Siikatayana. A}itasena was the grand pupil of Abhayadeva;' he . \ lived in the l"2th century A.D.
sr~ure:itUt class of words headed by the word ~ whicb do not allow lengthening of the final vowel by P. VI. 3. II9. although they form technical terms e.g.~, 9fr.c1qd{ etc. ct. Kas on P. VI. 3. II9·
sr:tim'ffi See under ~Cf~lli%i •.

'1'W<ft'r. considered 'as auxiliary or part
of another e.g. '{"l~m:, q-ijfCfiUCf: ; ct. ~~ lRTif9~~ P. JI. 1.2 and the' Vartika thereon "'l~fit ~

~TW9'\ tlCfmm ~0Cjll:.'
~

II

an operation prescribed in the section named ailgadhikarll, comprising the fourth quarter of the sixth book and the whole of the seventh book of PiiI).ini.
A~tadhyayi

sense of an agent, to a root with an 1 (~.) specially mentioned as not antecedent word ( \3lJ1P.{) standing interfering with the substitution of as its object. e.g. ,~wm::, see P. '!Z (ll.!.) for n (i!.) e.g. frlf\uri, a:rrQ11l, III.2.1; ~:, see P. III.3.12. etc. See. P. VIII. 4. 'Z; (2) augment a (~ ) with an acute accent, ~ a term applied to all taddhita which is ,prefixed to verbal forms in snffixes collectively as they begin the imperfect and the aorist tenses with a:raz cf. P. IV. 1.83. and the conditional mood. e.g. a:r+rre:.,~, m1~ See P. IV. 4.7 1; ~ the minimum standard of the' ( 3) augment a (a:r() prescribed in quantity of sound, which is not perthe case of the roots ~ , ~~ etc. beceived by the senses, being equal to fore a Sarvadhiituka affix beginning one-fourth of a .Matra; cf. a:ru1Rg with any consonant except y ( ~ ), ffismlU{ ~ morr g :qgucrr'l1t:l.1I see e.g. a:r~, ~, ~~, ~ etc.; T. Pro 21.3; V. Pr. 1.60; A. Pr. III. see P. VII. 3, 99, 100; (4) aug-· 65. :B.k. tantra, however, defines ment a (~) prefixed sometimes ~ as half-a,.matra. ct. ~ (RT. in Vedic Literature to affixes of 1.4 1 ). the Vedic subjunctive(~) e.g. me(, i!f'~ etc. see P. III. 4.94. &t!!!~...t§I:a the rule prescribing cognateness (tHCfIRt) of hitters. The 6Ii)'Cl' tad. affix a:ro prescribed after the .... term refers to' PiiI).ini's siltra word 'li<lCJ:, by the nile <ii<lfii'l ~SO~ ~f~HI9ol~ "iTIR'!l<i: P. I. 1.69. The cf. 'ii<lfur ~ <fill?;: ~: Kas.on P. terms i/~~~m and liI'i_ are used in the same sense. V.2.35·

m

~

~n a large section of paI).ini's

covering five quarters (VI. 4.1 to the end of VII) in which the various operations undergone by crude bases before various affixes etc. are prescribed.
~Wi4IRt'IQi class of words headed by
a:r~~i

61111 tad. affix a

(a:r) with the mute

.... tad. affix *i applied in the sense of pitiable or poo~ to a word. preceded by the word \:I1f when the whole word after sq is dropped. e.g. <!qG( \:I~ *i) see. P. V. 3 80 •

~"tIW

~

author of '1c;~~IifUl; who was a Tamil BrahmaQa by caste. (I) tech. term in PiiI).ini's grammar for shGrt a:r, cf. nlf{~E~ P. 1. 1.70; a:r~'~: P. 1. i.2; (2)' personal ending at for l( ( i;~) of tbe 1st pers. sing. Atm. in the Potential, P. III. 4.706 ; (3) case-affix in th-e case Ofij6~ and ~ for abl. sing. and pI. P. VII. 1.3£,32; (4) tadaffix illtJ:. ( a:r) prescribed after ~ in the sense of the loco case before which fit;r. is changed to ~, 15 being the tad. formation; cf. P. V. 3.12 and VII. 2.105; (5) substitute am. ( ~q) for <iS~. forming the present and future participles in the Para- / smaipada active voice d. ~: ~­ m:;fro P. III. 2.124 and ~:.li!iij' P. III. 3.14.

~

c...

~

+

to which the tad~ affix O<li.. ( ~) is added in the sense of comparison (i[cfr~ ) ; e.g. ~~'f ~!l~: cL Kas. on P.V. 3. 108. the short term or pratyahara in paI).ini's Grammar representing a vowel, e.g. ~ (ending with a vowel), a:r~N (vowel coalescence or combination).

~

letter i'i (sr,), prescribed (i) after the words \:IEli! and others in various senses like progeny, dyed in; produced in, cOme from etc. P. IV 1.86, \ ii) after the words fori{ and others iIi the sense of grandson and other descendents. P. IV. I. 104· For other CdseS see P. IV. 1 •. 141, ,161; IV. 2.12, I4 etc. IV. 3.7 etc. IV. 4.49, The feminine is formed by adding i (~) to words ending with this affix. ~ which have the vrddhi vowel substituted for their i~itial vowel which gets the acute "'>.~~;z accent also" e.g. a:rRli!:, "m~\l, ,a:rr~IfIii:,
.:.

Gi'l.!.

~:.~.

--

~~ impossible to amend, not to be discussed. cf. ttcf iii '~ ij:'

~ (I) token term standing 'for vowels and semi-v.owels, excepting

(I) token term (S{~) for. all vowels and semi vowels which, when prescribed for an operation, include all such of their sub-divisions as are caused by length, protraction, . accent or riasalization. cf. ~­ <iIh~ "it>RCI<i: P. L 1.69; (2) token term for the vowels a:r, ¥( and ;g. in, I all Panini's rules except in the rule I 1. given above e.g. see. ~~ ~ ctt~: P. VI. 3. III; iitscrr: P. VII. 4.13. and a:rui'ts~. P. VIII. 4. 57; ( 3 ) tad. affix a ( a:r) prescribed generally in the variot;ls. senses such as' the offspring, , 'dyed in, , • belonging to' etc. except incases where other specific affixes are pre- ~ non-Atmanepadin verbal affixes n: .. mi.. P. III. 4.78, Can. I. 4.II, scribed ct. -sn~SllJ. P. IV .• I.83; Sak; I. 4.IOI. . ( 4.) kr. affix a .( a:r ), applied, in the

1.69

m,

10
QttfilC?: not taking that much time

11
on P. VI. r.8SViirt. 26. See ~­

only which is shown by the letter (vowel) uttered, but twice or thrice. as required by its long or protracted utterance; the expression is used·in connection with vowels in HiQini's alphabet, which, when used in PliQini's rules, except when ptescribf'd or followed by the letter ~, includes their long, protracted and nasalized utterances; cf. ~8. ::qr~: I. 1.69.
Sjijq:ojiij.\:T<Ii not having the same mute

~ below." ~ personal affix of the third pers.
pl. Atm. in the Imperative ( ~.J; cf. P. III. 4.90. ~,passing over a word in th~ i6lmO without'repeating it; passing beyond, cf. ~ ~: R. Pr., X.7, which means catching a word for repetition by coming back after passing over it, e.g. ~~ 3fqre: 1 ~ !lRr ~iU~ I· .or lila- ~ I ~ '~'i;r I
o::~')fu

significatory letter. but having one or two additional ones, cf. ~­ ~ ~~i'<l~ m:uI"I: (Par. Sek. Pari. 84).
~ij' an affix which is not a taddbita

a:&i I

srm::ii4IQ", one of the varieties of-in

affix.cf. ~m~ P. 1.3.8; M. Bh. on I. 3.4; V. 3.l e c. I
'~

f;:-ct, the first variety of--the Aticchandas metre, which see above; this'Atijagati. consists of 52 syllables. e.g. om-iii: ;;U~ &lq'lIC1~q~ ~k. Saroh. 8.97.13 ct. sr~mfrr~mt eT ~qm~U R. Pr. XVI. ~o.'

implying no specific., pur.pose; not intended to teach anything, 1li~'if~ ; e.g. ~~{tl1t{w~ Kas. and Si. Kau. on ~lfur ~Ill:j~~ P. 1.2.32; cf. also3f~ (the use of ~ does not· necessarily convey the sense of the comparative degree in PiiJ;,lini's rules) M. Bh. on P. 1. 2.33. This statement has been given as a distinct Paribh1i.~a by Vya<;li and8akatayana. The author of the Mahabha~ya appears to have quoted it from the writings of Vya<;li and the earlier grammarians. See also M. Bh. on ~+I.. P. II.

wftt~~ ex:tended appliciltion; transfer'
or conveyance or application of the character or qualities or 'attributes of one thing to another. AtideSa fn Sanskrit grammar is a very common ieature prescribed by PaQini generally by affixing the tad. affix ~ or 'i<l. to the word whose attributes are conveyed to another, e.g. ~ ~ P. III. 4.85. In some cases the atidesa is npticed even without the affix +Rf. or 'itt.. e.g. ~~•..n~UJil:. P.1.-2.I. Atidesa is generallY.seen in all grammatical terms which end with' vadbhiiva ' e.g. ~~f.fcmt'i ( P. I. 1:56-59), W'~ (P. VII. 4.93), ar~l<i (P. VI. 1.85), dj~da"AI" (P. V. 4.50) and others. Trilocanadiisa on Durga's commentary on Kat. Sii. II. 2.60 gives five kinds;

Q'rr.mr:

mx.

2·3~·

I
!
Ii

SI'~ ( ~) tad. aff. :3ffil3, applied to the words ~UJJ ~{J tR a,nd aJiif\; e.g. o::&!uffit 'ima-; ~{ff arrlffi:, troi't ~,
~ufT'!~, 0l'i{Q lIHIffi: Ol'iwrr~am

cr. P. V. 2.28,29.

ct.

~

:q firfij~~~~1

atdl~ ..ql~ conveyance of only the properties of one to another without, conve} ing the actual form, described as the 'significance of antadivadbhava. cf. if eft ~~ M. ;Bh.

Out of these atidesas, the ~~ is the most important one, by virtue of which sometimes there· is a full representation i.e. substitution of the, original form called sthiinin in the place of the secondary form

called adesa. This full representalooked upon as a serious fault j e.g. tion is called ~~ as different anmratft illIll~ P. VI. 1.66 Vart. 3. from the usual one which is called ~ too much, 'rather' unnece5sary; <fil<Ii~~, ct. M. Bh. on I. 2.1; VII. e.g. ~ 'iiflt<i~ ~ f.n<I~, M. Bh. on 1.96; VIII. 1.90 VaIt. I and VIII. 1. 1.38, ~! ~ M. Bh. on I. 1.95. Vart. 3. Regarding the use of 4. 63; VI. 1.145; ifTRrqg SI~~ ~:1. ~ there is laid down a gener~ Bh. on VIII. l.4. dictum erijf"~~ ~~TC1~~:~ when an ,operation depending on iifttihfi surplus, redundant; ct. Nir. I V. 20; see Kaiyata on M. Bh. on the general properties of a thing P. V. 1.13I. could be taken by extended application, an operation depending on ~~ quite distinct; used with resspecial properties should not be pect, to pronunciation iflfuo<.!:ffi if taken by virtue of the same; e.g. :qftRlifdi'l~ <ilJf~ I cf. T. Pro X VII. ~cm. in P. III. 3.132 means as in 8. the case of the 'general past tense and not in the case of any special iiftt ..q'Ed quite apart, used with respect to lips which are widely apart past tense like the imperfect (3fif~i'fi{) ( fcifm) in the utterance of long ~r or the perfect (tRt~). See Par. Sek. and cf. T. Pro II. 12, 13. Pari. 10!; M. Bh. on P. III. 3.132. There is also a general dictum arrfct- '~fa the same as amrsre;r, which itl'~~-whatever is transferred see above. Extensive application by an extended application, need 'with respect to a rule which applies not be necessarily taken. See Par. to places where it should not apply. Sek. 93.6 as als~ M. Bh. on P. I. See Par. Sekh on Pari. 28, Pari. 8j; 1. 123 . Viirt. 4; 1. 2.1 Vart. 3; II. also Padamafij. on {{lis. II. I.32. 3.69 Vart. 2 etc., Kaiyata on II. 1.2 and VI. 4.22 and Nyasa on P. 1.1.56 Sl'fd'l!iep{1 a variety of Aticchandas metre consisting of 60 syllables. and P. 1. 2.58 Vart. 3. The dictum e.g. ij!!1fI clTffJ:rfitfor: ~k. Samh. I. 137. arr~~~~ is given as a PariI. cf. R. Pr. XVI. 82. bha~a by Nagesa ci. Par. Sek. 93.6. .m~RI one of the varieties of Atic- ~ excess or excellence as shown by the affixes o~ and 0'1 cf. troIll~handas consisting of 76 syllables. ciTlIlrfu~ V. Pro V. 2; ~lWim~<!Rf e.g. ~ ~ lW'lr if, m~ ~15'ifiTr: ~k. a~@:.Ri~I~ OG~ M. Bh. On VI. Saroh. I. 127.6. 2.139; VII1.I.7I; (2) desire as ~~ a variety ·of the Gayatri shown by the affix ~~ in PaJ;,lini's metre consisting of 20 syllables, cf. grammar; cf. <{Ill OJRi"~ R. T. 126. R. Pr. XVI. 22. ' iIt~ excellence, surpassing; the ~ absence of any possibility; See same as 3f~<{ in V. Pro V.2 cf. ffl:nfutffu. cf. P. III. 3.139 Can. 3ffuiUl~ dlIfom~r P. V. 3.55, also cf. I·3· I07· . ~~~8T!;! f.l~<Uit~r<I~ I <:t~sffir­ fit'i~JC!f +!'iRr +rgerwf: M. B h. 0 n V. ~ intense effort; characteristic 2.94,· where Olffi:alC{if means 3lRriU<{. effort as required for uttering a Patafijali, commenting on P. V. 3.55 vowel with f<!ijillffi{ff. clearly r~marks that for 3fm, or Q~ over-application of a definifor djfo~if, the old grammarians, tion (OJr.resN fcj~ SI'!1%: I) which is out of fancy only, used the term

an;

. V. 3.. I. 14-478. III. which to a certain extent spoils the pronunciation and leads to a fault. XXIII. 26. 1. c::f.43. I.~\'i'.. ~q gIven by ra!J1fll lD the words ~ €Iq: (as based evidently on ~ tech. II.6•.adi affix ~ e. past liappening. ct. 12. ct. ~. on I. 5amh. ct.Pl:ff: ~ <if<i'i'. also Qji'{t~ii«[.<i: :ru. 4. See M. III.a(q~q complete or abJSolute denial or concealment offacts. if: d •.fuIT~ P. ar. M. ~. lili. see~: (P. term of ancient grammarians signifying in general the the Pratisakhya definition) waS present time a! the day in quesexplained as nODoappear-ance of a tion..pad.m(iili'{I~ given by Hemachandra as Paribh1i~a 6r corresponding to the maxim §~9'Ii\UIT­ §ii9~~-=!~~ I in the system of PaQini.62. ~ UI}. ~snftr. as in the -case of the utterance' of a vowel.2:. uttere4 with Close Hps and jaws. II. douptful. II. 'Tfi. 4 and Kaiyata thereon. 4.g.. on P.I. 12'7.4 . tR. (said in connection with the utterance of the vowel a:r ). said with respect to a letter which is . VI. having a very slight contact ( with the organ producing sound ). Pi:. a term applied to nouns of that kind.IS. a:r. ~ff1~ cf.li as it was a current term in popular usage. ~ kJ"t affix ant. Bh. too little. see . Bh. Bh.5. ana ii. I07. 2. case.g. ) ~ personal ending of perf.. and II. . ~ substitute for case affixes ij and the idea. a:r~r (. added to the word ~ before the negative particle if.~~­ ifilf: I amrffi~ ~. a:rfrt>r~~<I.! ~. ~~ very closely uttered.18.55.msfit: e E ~T<i (QjRrFfH also) name of' t~e seventh musical note in the singing of Samano cf. cf.70. - aug. +!g'{ and Cfg!£. 3. on P. 1. e. co~plete contact. Pr. 1. VJI.m~ the Pratisakhya work of the Atharvaveda believed to have been written bySaunaka. III. HI. ~ name given to the class of roots belonging-to the second conjugation. ~~: Jt!<!~:. It consists of four Adhyayas and is also called ~~Frcnr.d«:4til' constant contact . V.~1.a" short term used by paI}. III. '~~if.) ~ at<.oted. ~ ~Rr M. firt~<i. 3rd per. Qj1\. cf.141). and roots of the tenth conjugation which are given with the letter a:r at their end whIch is not looked upon as mute (~) e. Vak. as the roots therein begin with the root . ~:qg't. ~ Pa'Qiniin aq~S!Cffi: (P. P. 82. Bh. l ~ absence of fault. ~~I ·~t!it 'q I PIll. 4. e.:<:!. the last letter if. 4. Mark also the root titer described by qa~~ as a:rc::ro cf. ~ transfer of. 1st pers. results into a fault as it practically borders on stammering. ~g. cf. not belonging to the same type out of the four types of rules viz. I. I.ffim 'i:i R. ~rm<-T :qp:nm: P. cf.. ~~f ~~~€lU]~+!T: P. 8R<j1G. a:r~: ~'I::[1 if <:r'ifu Jainendra Pari. . an expression 'Used by Pataiijali idiometically cf. which is given as mi:. O'a: (~. on t. substituted for the personal ending ~ cf.4.pot distinctly deciphered in the Samhitapatha. etc. a:rt'iij~ etc. Yak. cf.:J:!~~'fIii[~ ~ Qj~~ 9 F!~«<f (~.104. a:. 82 • ' ending with the short vowel a:r j d. ~ a variety of A ticchandas metre con_sisting of 68 syllables. This excess of contact ( ~) in the case of the utterance of the letter \. ~ ~ . l$j~iiji1~'q characterized by a sharp utterance.. a:ri:j:l!~.3. I. Late! on. a consonant in a Stobha.Bh. explain. ~rchaicform used by wrong place. etc. Qj~S<i $ not having the same force. a name of the grave accent.7. of (fo:. 4. ~. inconvenience. ·I3.:~g on account of excess of contact. ~ p.of non-appearance came ~ added to words ending with the to be associated with the idea of affixes em:: and Ga+i and to the words expec~ation a~d_ ~h~ ?efinitio~ of a:r.g.56.I3 and l. <i~ 'liT<l~ ~: W err <:rm W (~. 5amh. fqferwo: M.g. cf. 3. The expression tW:<Iand Pratisakhyas meaning non~ ~ often occurs in the Mahaappearance ofa phonetic .60 Vart. ~ possessing or baving a short Cf vowel in it. applied to roots marked by pag. VI.3. XIV. ~<ltli. 9-51 and . 2. an~~~'ClIij. II.cf. the a:r of W ( Qjrq) being changed into II.M.~q~.:3<il<J1R4 4i O{ the group of prepositions not seen properly. Pr. 66. See ~eq~SJ. being omitted. ~: P. krt. 4. 8.po II~. 'q TJfur: I M.:<lCR and~.g• ~1~M~lfff:..Y. cf. r. on 1. dual Parasmai. dual.I. cf.. ~~ P.irii fo signify together the five affixes 'tii'ig. uninterrupted contact. ~ is the same as 5::~q~. not a proper place.g. ~: ~f.I and I.l· fir:~ I Kas. 4.al'l!!~ f~<j<jr M. cf. VIII. 3. ~ See :~frt above. ~<. SlM'ECI'l!l excess of contact.q1:i and a:rq<l~. VII. on P. VII.72. .4 ..UI.g. . indistinct. the occurrence of the imletter or a group of . cf •. ~~ beaded by a:rftr which are compounded with a noun in the acc. q UI}.vn. the letter co being called g.4Ci'1t~'l~ conjugational affix of perf" 2nd pe_rs. T.. ~1!>r~dT<i~~:q~­ +rri{rffi~I<if: T.I'..IIS. . See ~~~g. 4. pad.~ The word Qjfrt~fff is also used in the same sense. cf. ah.letters where mediate past or future events in it was e-xpected to have been I I . P. 2.\. ~.4) and f2"oa:rt~­ tf<{lilt··~ (P.62) instead of 6l'i[1 the correct one. cf.14.29. >ri'{~'Ii: R. P. on 1.~ ~dl('<41 ~ p~tency which is known by the name' past' and which stops the note on of present:cp. .r.j'if( ilftrnrr !FiliI: ~k. ~ ~.·· ~<U1t 'q P. PI'.108. P.. I. 1 . &Ifll::aa(ia complete contact of the verbai activity (fili<!T). e!ti<?!lfc1~ (~) a compound having its members in different cases.member ! -bh1i~ya. III. cf. 2. .. II. Qj~ify >r~iT ~ ~o:. applied to the root >$1 in the sense of past time.resent. Bh.I. ~ personal ending of pres. II. cf.jlij'€<iti'{~I~ ~q: (V. on I. pl. iTU1.3). Vart. ~ also 3ffci change of a vowel into short a:r. substituted foqr(Qji'fj ). on P. is deciphered in the Pada-:patha . e. $J<l~ SI'li~ arfcro<j ~fu Gfci~ffi'~ '" .I3h. 4.79). I.ini with the mute syllable ~ 10 the sense of verbal activity. Ul}adiaffix <mi prescribed in UQadi Siltras 39}"396 e.25. rather.1.. Pr. X. 'Ii~. 4.~ ~<.69 etc. cf. ed as ~q~~Cf by ~Ocfe. e. absence of ~Oi a term in andent grammars . d.SJTfU'r +!Cffro M. affix ~ with \3' acce.3) ~~Q (p. 2.

Bh.14 ~l: tI~(qCfiT: stl~ij. ·Viitt 14. The diphthongs (tJr1:'i~) such as \1.cular limit which is stated as in ( 2) surplus subject ~atter e.o not pertain to that day arie5 of verbal activity shown by which IS in question.. or changed into Of in which showing additional prqperties e. not made up of two elegiven the difference between ~ ments. i. understood in every following rule cf. cf. 81(~ f. ~ifi. provided the six or seven Karakas or functionevents d. by means of a sort of convention which wavered between the sonant which is called ~ft1tql'lRt~[. 79.) which follows or is taken as residence (of qualities and actions). cf. (viz. pad. g. II. Hem.U. on The repetition goes on upto a parti. ~ iittciro 81N'liTumr :qd'T: II Jurisdiction.) aorist (§'~) or the sfuiple ·future l ~). preceded is stated to be OJ"Niid'.rtlIT. For details see ifbC4I~I~ name of a class of words M. 1.24 0 • ( 2) appendage. e. ~a~~~ :q ~' M. a:rN'li: cm: or 6lN<fi a part only of it is seen repeated.102 Vart. cf. Sometimes the ~rct before the krt. 14 hence termed 81Nc!iR possesses ar. ~. as that of a ( iii) rarely by proceeding backword upon the object denoted by it ward with a lion's glance. P. affix oat. ~ governing rule consisting of a word ( e. ~. ~ in the subsequent rules is believed etc.g~ case ~ or ~ could be looked the word a{!f\GJif being applied to upon as tad. M. 9 ) ence of three kinds: (I) by being valid or present in all the rules ~ tad. on I. I. to the 'grammarians. 1. Pr. 4. at length by Patafijali in his Mahiibhii~ya on II. This and the surd (ct • • q~ :q I . I. 43. which is generally expressed by the Pr. later on. flue~ce. 3. . e. .g. 'dravya" 'l1'illdH{l~ P.. to which governing rule exerts its influence the tad. at the time of a is Dot stated by the author of the sacrifice (~~U<j'). 3·II.3. . <liT~«~"<tiq~1 ~4iIH{~ a superintending aphorism. ( ii) sometimes by jumps like a frog omitting a rule or more. 2.I·4· ~~ supplying the necessary element.22.1. XI. 1.rei[{q-. 10. II. ~~.) of application: ct. These ~~ ~rn. Pr. I.1. 1:TTffi:. cf. fuiffi{. rules like the stream of a river. ~ IT. not expressive o! any or words (e. . II. 1. cf. III 2. affix:. on P. utterance known as ~'ifti)lij'1\ or 6fi~q'~ not preceded by (two or' ~ft~ii ~"fR1Il~: The word which is repeated in the following Sutras more) prepositions. Vak.rlni's grammar e. VI. connection with past and fUture ~P. VI. 8111l<j'IRiiCf. pad. 3.4.i~~l t-1 ~m <Uit <itit '3qfflg~ I qft+!ffi for simple vowels { tI>{Tiil~\) such as ~&:~~n ~ B~ ~lT~Hlf~. P. PaJ. I. a{l:'i~ 9JR. 3. etc. on Yak. on 1. This· an!:T'liRor headed by the word ~RiiiJ. affix er. 32. II. on II. ~e stlT~6' ~­ three types of the influence which Cj'ffi<j':.g. on IV. XV II. P. SIT!II'JiiUmmn: 15 P. (iii) by showing additional ~ctivi~y with a view to getting its force such as setting aside even f~it. Bh. Kaustubha defines adhikara . (V. 4. e. the other two corresponding blfitt4i. d'~ ~~ f<t5rfu~t :qTit~~ upto a particular limit. 3 or t!tijQT. sr~:' P. ~li(if(~~'lJlf<l~ ~~~ CflCf<l~'im\t KiiS.65. (2) d.tf +m~: Stf3l1{cfcnro tI ~qr subsequent rules if opposing. It may mean 'a slighted or the ancient traditional interpreters imperfect utterance of a final mute .g. Ill. 1If. :qT<itit 81m I·· pad. II.J: R. produced with a and qft. III.. Vak.g. 254· occurring. ~AA ~ WI~~~ "f I iJG'rnsr'l~ Yak.2. II. and hence. 3. 81f6~.g. whole rule is repeated e. 81'lmit9\T~fti!{t~ racterizlDg it with a peculiarity of R. Thl'! Sabdaby only one preposition. I Siva Siltra cf. a relation between a word and its sense according f"T'm: I aIDl~S~ :U~!:T'liR: PUQ. the rules ~:. Vart. an expression used f. l[t<lfRCfRfim ~ I ing of the word ~ifiT\ is discussed M. I. VI. (4) fcI~ijTq.5t36. ) bll(64"iIRlil. pad.g. 13). but gives its meaning in the number of apflOrisms that follow..Bh. ct. ~. on H.ltfu:.3. ct.l'(. cf. Kas. cases where there is no actual separation as in Bf'li1~<j': qj(!~~'li[ ~N determination to begin an a{~T:. II4. on P. e. (3) substance.72. ) generally by sense of • ~ If<j': ' i. ct. Vak. cf. on III. I. Yr. ~~ term for the tense showing imme' I M.Bh. CfiT~if. VI. as distinguished from 1. (2) one of the events respectivcfy. ~ 'lifir and 81f~ 'liT\. '3'·60. r~gion ~l1ij~: . 148. tll1ffi(iffi': vity which a rule in grammar someP.124. ~tITiffi:etc.II.rr. '<rr~' the locative case. q\1Ii! and <liT!<U'ij1li! P. ~Eis. I. called respectively mliJ'iiRilRr. on I. 83. II. 4. 4. II. 33. I3 and M. ~."UI (I) support. 1[. Bh.1. where he has ~ lit.-:q:. VI.· short 81 for the long <liT of the root Kaus. and &l'~ Seuperimposition. ct. 1. ~ ~~Rr. 1. pad.e. affix applied to the pronoun ~ which is changed into ~ before 0 which come under its sphere of in· the affix and then elided by P. while on some occaSIons times shows. M. 79 and srfffqT~ :a~. cf. Il6 and III. diate past time called ~ in topic under discussion. 4.yffl:~~ll~. Yak. 4.56.g~~m 81. 6. 148. which appear to have been to be shown by PiiQini by chatermed ~<iWr cf. Many times the limit 1Ifi~ in a sacrifice. which gives no meaning of itself anl:lms- a swr. 155. ct. trc<i<l:. I~ 139.g. 4.· II..iJlqtf"f ~<j'<rrtFii ItRr. on P. ':K.45.Bh.49 and IV.. 7. a word marked with . tt.M. cpo ~ in Siitras but it is understood by the same sense. virtue of a counteracting word. and simple consonants sr~ I See also Mahabhal?ya on ~. the limit is defined by 1i$f~~qil~ imperfectly uttered as regards contact.e. O<j'T'li~~~T­ ~~~ superimposition.96 prescribing ~::itqfijt<lT~ Oll\1:iT\: a{f!:T'liR: Sab. pad. a grammatical tenses imperfect and first future relation of the nature of a location.22.~rmfr~<j' P.l1i I. ~ (I) additional or surplus actiIll.68. . found therein. III. ~<j' P. On still other occasions. Bh. is added in the in three ways: ( . 4. Bh.Atharva ~l\ or governance has its influPratisakhya I. on I. The mean(P.!~T~: ct. - I where it is mentioned. it.rt CfiTifT~Kat. ~ltSltf~'li1Q" ~cR<l' substance which forms a place of a: etc. sr~:.e and I. 81NCfiR: srffi<Uir mrsingle effort. 4. Bh.rre:.!. III.as G..1. V...g. also Nir. Cf. word or wording which is to repeat arr atr and conjunct consonats iii. V1. proceeding ahead in subsequent or existing therein.~ and f. or 81~ (ii) by 4.4. ~ and SR) being used in place of ·verbal activity. cf.1. etc.. which leads to their identity.

52.:~m <remr.:~9cr.in company witIl d. ijOj"{<OiR\..~ I ~ an: ar~: ~. which the first future is genf'rally in the feminine for the last letter'of used e. mentary Kamadhenu-sudharasa on Bopadeva's Kiivya-karnadhenu.45 see also P. (an operation or vidhi) which has not taken place or which has not been effective. cases beginning with a vowel e. ~ar. also M.5. as also of ~i1lI.2 Vart. P. taddhita affix and compound.g.!~'U~<i lTfuq~q f. e. ~f. (2) substitute· tory letter attached.Bh. arc:r. tended application or ~. a-c'qf.q) 1fI. on IV. P. <!f<li\1t ~<urr: V.:otI+TI1:11: arQfu'4T<iT'a +!foj5<iRr M. e. 1. on VI. VI. 2.1. verbal affix. Can. ~ \:lT~+<mH<i P. arrl. generally used.-VI.Bh. I3 r. a:rf-irqfr 3l<l~. ~ ~~~ -l'>~ incomplete activity.g.. 404Iil1v1' sub:. lSI. ~~f5r.Bh. .:atj[~ M. e.24. 4. S!\.i. lit. Sek. P.!~ Cf~<:~ arofl\tmtTllffl" I nO! f.. d. a:r:q<![ arrRRT ~T lUfR: 1:lJ ~ffl"­ ~I!<i~ M. 5.Bh. "that which has got .<r 'Iii~~ krt affixes substituted 1D the place of g+J:" of the infinitive in Vedic Literature (P.g. P. 2.. 3. P. be used according to rules but. 2. _ . 2. VII.Bh~ on 4.no meaning of thero~ not found in current use recognized' selves. Par.If. used· in only~ remains). Par. ) lilA: tad.:I<i: II Vak. armf._ the word i3i'<T~. arc:rful::fli!lt:..'<T<mIt+!m.:fu?r in the sense of the liII.if~ f. e.37. ~ gT a:r'"if. 34 Vart. i. V. 34· the word . d. for examples of '<1T§. He no arT. 1. cf. in' ( 3) substitute ~ for the last letter which case the . Pr.93.rfu\:1~~~ see also M. arqi\1~ fetRt<!f l!~fu ~ffiq. on III. Sek.~. I ing de-sired. on 1.60. following :na-n=' S ee ~.g. see'.Rtf~e not resulting from any ex• dyed in " to form the word r:iW.:ft~.48. ing ~ to ~~l:T<i. I I Cf. tbe nominative sing~ affix~. 3.g. 2. (2) added to SiFt<iT$l'4 9lc:rmm +r<rffl" M.) ( I immediate. " " . ~lfT"l\I. ~ completely cut. 16. III. ( 3) added after the affix ~<! in the same sense activity in all ways or respects. VII I. II3: Ill. . Bh • on I . the same. d. ~f.. ar~1lIT etc.). V. ~~i'f not conveyed or expressed by another i.ny reduplicative syllable. The expression c:r CII fre'luently occurs in the Mahabba~ya referring to such words Or phrases as could be formed by rules of grammar or could . II.Pari.I. 4. See Par.f. which means that a prescriptive or prohibitive rule applies to tbe nearest and not to the distant one Par. see the acc. 17 SI.37. Par. or vowel in It. tiCII<i. e. arq:qli\1\9lm19c:rl:'tirl Nyasa on n..g. :a:r. cliRUJf. and for that of ~ P.1. 3. 1.~ and others of which to 'the day in question. for the last letter of tbe words is the short name given to the amlq.~ without any mute significad.it <j~fff<it~ms'R lived iIi tbe sixteenth centuIY. lit. the abl. There is a reading iIi the -Par. e.Bh. ~~FlT. 135.!. being I looked upon as not different. on VI. the dat. the word ar"ll~ in the sense of' proI. 3. fq<. 3. ilJ<:UJT. tlT4ffi!~ etc. P. affix ar (ar<{. e. ~~.e.jS!' g I other words or parts (If words which <l~~ ~9~Cf I Padamaiij.j1:~.15.rvCl~ a grammarian who wrote a commentary Balamanoramii on Siddbiinta-Kattmudi. Sek. the initial vowel of tbe word becomes ~<m!. qfl:T etc. .13 Vart. when 0fI'~ is substituted.Bh.!m'Ui'tcr ~~'iFI. e. a sutra in ApisaWs grammar quoted in M.m'<TI.g. 2.{Ill'iUm. d. 9. ~ I. case in <n~'l] §<TIffl". 94. duced in ' cf. also on III. ' ~ a grammarian who wrote a comCfiCit.i l!iEI~<!fu. cf. to I.I) and the following rules lay down the different case affixes in the sense of the different Karakas or auxiliaries of the verbal activity.g.Rt absence of the verbal on IV. cf..o<j'N'Ii<:UJlc:rT ! I word is used generally in connection CJ8.. a change regarding one of its parts is by no means something else. a word without the negative particle (c:r"() before it..2:9.t~Cji (I) without any signification. See Kas. not changed into a cerebral (Jt~~) letter. cf. d.+<rr~ aT~ non-final d. connection with past time. krt affix. Sek.3. cf. are ar. g.Bh. or the loc. I 1 ~i\' inability to express the mean~ *f~Tc:rl?!. : only when used. d. cf.II1.. 1.titute for the affix ~ (~~ ~ period of time not pertaining ~~. (2) nearest.g.'11<11 ~rrr:. by anyone of the four factors viz.e in ~r. and others before 8I. IV. M. not different. l!itm<rr is called of the word ~fuf. ~l:Ti9T.Bh. ~~T P. also il 'qyqfuf. V.:<iiElCfiJ~ ar~<i~it~~<! when a clIange does not concern a i . contiguous arc<!CIrno. Pro ~~CP ~os:e~ing-" added to IV. P. v. 2 1. on Pari. 95. . 1. 61. ~: 3T!f"ffi" ~: Cii':!f etc. ~mf'cfo'CfT. I final letter then it concerns tbat I which immediately precedes the I final.1. r.aT~!?{!UJr: _ a wording whiGh does not contain a. The rule 3Ti!fi:rit~ (P.~: ~q~: cf. I. Cfi<:UJi!.). cf. d. I. i ~ t1. ca!. bear an independent sense. III. 1:22. ' IlIi91R1'{ (I) 'i/5'Ufi. 1·75: ~~ for ar<l~~.g. 132. 2. in all genders e. fu~not as QI<i e. <lO!' ~9fu\TIc:r+Jfu oS!'! with prepositions) .43. ~fu. VII.crt lj'qffl.!~~<i M. <{!. I. :~WT: cf. cpo a:p. III. cf. imagined as existing. Sek. 3·I~8. . 3.g.-pad.au: ~<P. also cf. Pari. having . Of'c. cf..7. 4.e.1. as compared witb others of the same type. before the affixes of maxim~' ar~'<TCfi!:I~ q ~~~ the instrumental and the.. of words ending in f.. arq. 3Ti!-<! above. (the 2. 2. -'-.r ~<iNCfi<:Il~N +!9E~ ~llntl:. 93. IV. VIII. Sek.lf: P. ~ltm<rr arii. 2.I. on III. also in connection ~ ( I) substitute 6iil as Samasanta with the future time to express at tbe erid of a Bahuvrihi camp..:!~ that ~hich is not applied.Cfi~~fcr~l{il. all epithet applied to such roots a5 are not to be reduplicated a second time before affixes of the p~rIect. case in !:IJIlP. on III. Pari. possessing a meaning by learned persons' or SCholars.22.'lT~~T ~ ~fui!riT&Joi: I ~ ~m: ~ +!I<!~~ cir. 4. V' M . 22.:r <i'IlR~ Ci~Cf._ Sek.!I.<!Tl1NU: 1 ~jl:::fc!~~ "f19ffl" <j~r ~~ ar. 3. on IV. as they are already reduplicated. VII.ti[i%: ~<r<l1 Cfi~i!T<!fu:' f. ~.. Par. ! I I 3 . a:rtlT~r: ~ M. 2. ~~'~fu. 5.'iG<r.. 1..48. the inst.49. II. 1.V. til3T.. IV..{"l:. '" • . ~q.. ~~ (by apply~ V. on I. case in Cfii Cfi~m. ~ ~Tqfu~ffl": Uvata on R.Bh. 37.16 ~~'nf~:a' ( variant for if~l~a') surperimposed. express which the imperfEct is c:r~c:r:. also lfRr\<li\1{:P. ~l~ <11" QI<iP. Sl'~ a:Jilfl!f.il~ being I the same. r ¥j"ijilj<. ~ uncerebralized. case in ~cra:'Ul<i rrt G:"tmt.8.. Vart. 3·15. provided they are not shown or indicated in any one of the above-mentioned four ways.19. cr. a. 30.

97 standing for "i~~~~ ar~it9ila. 2 and Kaiyata and Uddyota thereon. 4. 1. .!j. of the Prlitisakhya works for freqnentative formations such as ~!tq:. (2) meaningless..30. on I. purpose:' less. 9~Ti!f(~f<il 31~: M. 1.56. 2. III. LIZ ~~ (I) undetermined. V. cf. ~~~ U vva ta on R. ~~~f(Qi that sarhhita text which has an order of words in it. also ~ ~fcr f. . application in totality. indefinite.m I Yak. !. explained as a:r. 1. I. and which appears appropriate according to the sense intended in the passage. ~~\<l' fc!~ srf(f 1.2.:rlm f. 8li'Il~~ t!~'qi'j'~ P. i1ii~ ~f. on VI. I <lF1. on 1.jqCfil~t9 is slightly different from lllqqf(H'i or particular mention which is defined usually by the words tlTilIr<{fqN<iffilT: I f9~'if9f"f(qqJ. considered in the case of a particular' rule. cf. . cf. ~ ~~<I~lrm arrrlq P. an operation not concerning a single letter.10. ( 2) pertaining to the Pada-patha which is looked upon as aiilTq i. ~ormi~ (a wOld) whose formation and accents have not been explained. Pre ~f~r~~q Fifuf· tI~TQ 1$. also ar"l~ a:r. Sek. Bh. r. ~q"liRl~q :urn absence of any opportunity of taking effect. etc.. 9. Pro XII. also M. Vart. cf.84. authors . on R.57 V1i. impartite. e. absence of cognateness.3Vart. and VI. 1. on 1. on I.. quoted in the. the Pari.flf(m<lTi'j~~fit mfuqfcl:CWi<r.4.C f. ~~ P.'1ijt<li1<i~:qy ~'m ~<I­ CfilltuiT Kav. cf. cf. Vi fiI<i<rr atffim arlqrM<I~IUd ~~<jif: Nir. ·1. cf. iii~R ~11<l~ ~1~~liliQ P. There are three places of such combinations of words which are not according to the succession of words in the Pada-patha. 86. e. Bh. I a rule in grammar applies to all cases where its application is possible. I.9. thereon. Vart. also Ras.Bh. &I"1IC11a::a~ not a close reiation. without any concern with the individual component parts. ar~ e. Bh. on P...56. arij:qRr\':UR~T M. on VIII~ 3. ( 3) possessed of no sense absolutely as some niplitas%'qij r. SlilIUJ~ff 31f'q19T G:~qFcffl!fffU1: . pad. ( 2 ) absence of statement. a:tWI~. r. 4. VI. on ~.!!ff0li~· ~11iWi­ ii'ff~ ~~!Q ~9 ~~ qfiq:m~ I M. not proceeding from a. 2. cf. e. l. Vak. 3.. ~ non-initial. (I) non-vedic.. cf. III.Bh. . ct also an~hrr~r: ffi~ ~ 8Trr9f~a-!! 1l~!'J I M. 10. in fact.. Pari. ar:qr~~m %iJ~~ij frf~. A. cf. Ii d. 2. 4.?. of arl€'1{q.rt. <ii<it~ ( I) original. Vlirt. Bh. Pari. on P.93 . d. 102.rr .k. as also Bm~Wifl'if ~ FJ:i~~ q~m <:I'~ij~.t. 8TifT~R'r: ~~ I 8lT~RllliCf: ~&ril: M.4. Eh. it cannot be said to have its purpose served by applying to a few cases only. VII. ~l:/~rrr- ~ffir9mcr: M. Sek. on the same. III. .77 Vart. <I: arifTfct~tG:"1: of applicatior. on I. 1. the word is used in connection with a techni~al term ( ~~) which presents Its sense by a definition actually laid down or given in the treatise. 106. on Siva Siitras 3-4· annl:lf having or possessing no apya atii~ absence of consideration. effected· by virtue of the prospective· application of the lirdhadhatuka affix before its actual application. on Pari. cf.having no occasion or scope fault of having no end. IX. Bh. III. on P. Bh. inctive cf. R. P.1. ir. ~ ml <a~'1ii<iT m~~ ~fcr clJq9'qi'j'~'!iRt i'j'. intransitive (root).7. ~H~ ari'jq~~i'j' ~!!l~~: ~<lTtl. V. M.!il~ Fr{q"1iT~fcf 'IT· iijll::f~~. g. also fcli~­ fm i'jPI I i3~:t frfR!mfi'r&-crm(<I~rl.and Bb1i~ya thereon. ~if~i. Samh. a:r.R P.mt~1!. Bh •. 4. term used by the. ij Cj~ijT9iI~~ P. 3. I.<I: Wtl.86. 1.g.23. d.fi ~m. 1. 64. 19 rules which have no opportunity of taking effect ( without setting 'aside other rules) supersede" those rules. ~ ~~ not depending on another for the completion of its sense. quoted above on ~Ti!. I. f.. 5 . also II4 Vart. . %"1<1 "1 fir<~Cfil: Uv. 2.fi~~ I 31~ m %qf~~ %rr~:r il:6!li'j''1~rI if. on P. as a criterion for setting aside that general rule which deprives it of that opportunity. 1.3.g.42. Bh. which is different from what obtains in the Pada-patha. Q. cf. Nir.2. V. Bh. unless it is allowed to set aside the general rule.1 M. 4. ~k. X. and Nyasa thereon which explains (ij'i'jT9ilf as i'j' f9~ 8lTCfil~.3 8. g. i'j'\f <if $ \qUJ. scopelessness. V. I. on P. I. 2. having no parts. 1.ny Vedic Seer. ~!lfG:!!:ffisRTfl:i ~fo ffi9G:i'jf~ Uil I M.c. . ~Gl'{F{<:+r~<ifI~~ P. e. Pro III..f. f~ g \'f+ITq~~~ l!iifcii{<rFct~'1f:. pad. also :.ff 8T~~T «\<l' oRIiii.Bh. see M. Samh.Bh.. dis- at"'q~ anrf~ opp.93. cf. ~lfIiil~~iTsij~". Prak.rqG:r~T 1R9a1fq~ Klit. IV. cf.rqTOi!fij~ P. "iTmqo:. Uvvata on R. cf. distance. The substitutes caused by an ardhadba tuka affix are.d~qIRiif: not conveying different sense. 4.3. 31<ntl ~~O]: I tI "i ~~\ arT~'m!~.M. VII.59. (2) repeating or going on without interruption cf. 12. Vart.rr ~fcfi9i~~ P. end a lessness.78. on V. not proceeding from any ~~i.148.. 2.. on 1.1I3' Vart. 1. <I'f<'Il~Ri not capable of presenting (on " ~~ synonym. u8 """ Cjil~- I $fif~ absence of proximity.a: 9i~. Bh.3. 4-93.56 and M. 23: cf. I. fctfl'l~!:!1iR~ci" i'jTf{ I 31illq 1tfo9i~UJ: M. on 1. I.129.1. ~~!ffffijf':' ijiJ. ~err a:rqm~~&-ol: I if ila-qf ~~IUJf lJG:T!!~~tij.1. on VII. VI. Bh. I o~ "i oICft6fli'j' w.e. I. synonymous. I.g.· 39.g: tli: tl~: ~ ~6!li'j~f<m:<r. Bh. also A. 31i'iT<cr<iTit9iln9ilU ij I "M. COnveying no different sense. ~ Fii !!i!!t<iffl ~~iIj M. This a:r. Pro III.aQ1{f~~ 8Ti'jlt<{flt ~~ Candra 1. ifU "'f ~~ ~C(j~ ~k. .j~mflwrlG:­ ij~Cfilfq~~ ij c'l:qfmcrr~m ~ by ~Tml\.18 q<}: II M.jlq~{i~filr· Kas.rIffOT: tIT~:. I. i£iitOm without any known cause. its mere utterance) any tangible form or figure. I. 11. I. on II. 1. II.. IV.:cr'(<r. ~1l'Tf. ·~EtCi)Jrr .:m ~Sifl~ a:r~Rit q(O: <if<iT 1tm ql<j~R'r. lit.132. inst=:. lli<f99iTm ~ 'fit'<T<if <rf\:T9iT ~ Ofil'ql~Iif indefiniteness. II3.. 4. lliCJ~cj l!f.:f. 2. ~ tech. arq<f. See for details M.a9'iI ~"Ilt<l' ij:ii~.45 Vart. Vart. cf. I .jTlTI1~ tlIS<=<l16: tll1<i: ~6. III. also Par. 2. a a:rfi!~ttri: m<I<i1: ~r~ ~ I Par. regard. 4.45 Vart. II. <!fiilnri! not replaced as a substitute. or object. I. cf.Bh.I54.mn <lRij ~ Sj1l]<lm ~ I oSlT. 2.. or Vedic Seer.:::: I III. III. 'i13't 'i:l~ P. cf. 3. l .67 Vart. M. cf. 64.rr P.13. ~r. VII. not such as is substituted. e. arN "i ~rn: ~~<i l{6!lij\qRr\<r. and hence which becomes technically useless. cf. used in connection with a: rule the whole of whose province ofappIication is covered by a general rule.16. "i~. Samh.77. Sfifiq.86.. Bh. 1. Pro 4. Bh.

Sek.~~~. Pari..f. e. III.' be said l["l.39.. as it can be brought about or accomplished in the usual way.:r in P. 4. 30. I. possibly composed by a Jaina writer.g.4. customary to call such roots <>rf<i2. 1. Sek.J<!a-.. 4.as also compounds are voluntary also some lists by ancient gramas. For a list of or in the Kiisildi. on P.on VIII. ~. (2) the word atfu~ js also ~~l (I) name given to Stanzas used in the sense of not-nitya.207. I.n tary). no affix alone without a .ct41ffi~G'~ 0: base can be used. a'll m~+rm'iji. ~~<!T fu<iOT:.R~ (I) not nitya or obligatory. Sek.fcr~ . also M. an~ ~ <>rfu: P.Bh.l<Ia-r:. stanzas given in the Siddhiintathere being a dictum that no crude base ".. ar~l!ftlf: Sf~<iT: ffi~ +r9frQ~affixes.g. on II. ~iil~ samasanta affix after the word ~IT and some other words prescribed by P.Bh. In the case of f<l<illfclltr ( a restrictive rule or statement) a limitation is put on one or more of the constituent elements or factors of that rule. also ~rn: ~m ~~\Ilj~ Nir. For: such Kiirikas see Sid.1. sense has not been specifically stateo. termed W also forming the pot.50.g. of a root. P. on VIII.oIT4. changed i.67. 13I is 3l!!'!i\U1 ft '%l!ffimSJ~':l. On the other •••• T<l\fffi: ~'lm: II ~ II ~i!jq'qgftr· hand. optional. ~~ (I) not admitting the augment i{~ to be prefixed to it.:rr err M.<\P. d. also see' Kas. ••• 'clla<lr' ~N<i\ ~ ~ as . a~l ~ff­ f:a6<i ~181<itqrf@i\'~ I a-~ <'f~6'!it:f. without any real object as its foundation cf.9. cf. 1. Bh. 41. 2. III. e. ~. 3. 2·4. on V. a . ~&!omT.112..:I'tf) accent. explained in the' Mah1i. cf. d.r<rcri:.?f: P.10.( 2 ). ( 2) a short treat.:.ancient term used by authors of the Pratisakhyas to signify I original' words which cannot be SUbjected to f<lci:qq. 4. the taddbita and krt affixes ft~CR. 138. The term ~il.r ignorant or inattentive to what the Grammarian intends or desires to say. f. or words by means ofavagraha. 2. VII. 1. as agains t +t. 2.:. orfiiajl=l:Tii without support.er '9g. the term arfu~ being explained as arfiimR 'aWrw~ not separable into two padas qualifying the arN1:Trg'!i afflx. iJiI. which ~ave their 'vowel characterized by aI). r. arCRlft. see the forms '!i. R. onomatopoetic word. III~ 3. on VI. Bh. VII. Kau.48.and the like 'which are anonymous. be prefixed to an ardhaclhiituka affix placed after them. ~<r ~<if. IV.W<RUl. Kas. an imitative name.g.:I~ verily bba~a whose application is volunbecause they are po~sessed of a.\\qf. 1. ~ Iil~: ~ifFr: ~~W{ i{m I t:tct a.bha~ya. VI.i~ an undesired consequence or result. Siva siltra 2 Vart I. 3.Bh. cf.Bh. e:rfq~.uto ll!. by a grave accent (ar!l?Umq~). on I.ise enumerating inI I verses the roots which do not admit the augment !\~ before the iirdhadhatuka affix. (2) imitative word. . a:rf. Bh.96... pass. etc. cf. also Sfi!l~ ar!!!fi~oT <liifffi an imitativ~ name is like its origi~al Par.. (said of a rule or pariroots are termed aJ:~. <'flli!l!f1ql m&nl'lf~: M. -gcquft. on the same rule s!1ch nitya affi. "!ii. ~ (1) imit'ation. This affix arfif gets its 'l.I~~ a short commen tary by K~amamaQ.­ i3lli!~=1t Cf~: !{Om I ~6'lffi" li. V.ikya on the work as have their vowel characterized Anitkarika. The work.27· :a:r~ whose. be used.es.:fr<i~: P.t. For a complete list tory. ct. 1. pad. Pari.If<i1IT~ M.'l~T. in a secondary way. Pari. on III. ~. cf.. 4.10.' 2. Pro V. e. P. 3. . d. fu. 8T~uj '9lfrrffiq. III.'liT'9 i3'~~~l~o.2. 1.~ <i~1 <. and VII. as 00 i1Tff arf<l<la-~'!iT ~~ift. the word is used with reference to such affixes as are not prescribed in any specific sense or senses and hence as are looked upon as possessing the sense which the base after which they are prescribed has got.10 convey the sense.20 +i{cU 1. Par. the latter being looked upon as 3lli!~ which does not do so. to ~~<i below. 2.!1f4. part.arl!!: I 3lifl\{Ulitail"ITl'l:. III. ~li!1IT~~o1r ~f<l~ o~ra-~ Par. at:. the other one being termed orf<!<io. e. I.62 . to wilich no meaning has been assigned. on I.II3.Tiif. it has become d. ~~. jugational affixes it can. ~..Bh. instead. arm in imitation of another.g. Regarding tlIe case and conanudatta vowel. IV 1. M. cf. 'M/f[lljl:Hlt.15. convey the meaning of the bases to wnich they are added. Such atf. ~~ occurring before as well as after another rule has been applied.Bh.29 . See as do not allow the augment ~2.19. etc.30. on VIII. See also M. after Sff i or ~ of the prece~jng preposition I . ·ff. that those affixes can.Bh. the term is strictly to be applied to ardhadhatuka affixes placed after such roots ST~'iiTRC!iTf. 2S. cf.ithout an affix can. on VIII. the limited element being called f. 2.131."jl:l'T.7. as they have to be affixed to of such roots see the well-known a crude nomLal base or a root.vord uttered STfir<:rn not subject to any limitation.I{j6. the giving a complete list of such roots word f<l~ being taken to mean all sr~ not necessary to be specifically or implicitly stated. Pro IX. 3. I orfir<rn~ whose sex-especially whether it is a male or a female-is not definitely known from its mere sight. See also M.as In ~: . is anonymous. XIII...5. small insects which are so. iffiftt~ an underived word. e. I. ~ krt affix. also M. Tbi£i I nityatva' has got a number of exceptions and limitations which are mentioned in Pa:ribhii~as 43 49 in the Paribha~endusekbara. The work possibly belongs to the Katantra system 'and has got short glosses caUe~ o'll~. also R. «olh'l. an .. 124-6. arli!e "! mmRf :ni '9 if ffi.in a way. Bh. 2. 'l.162. be looked upon as nitya or obliga(i3. 8S.<Ifff 'M. Bh.S as also KiiSika on VII. 9 !\fa- '+WI~ I Kasika on P.l~ ~o ~R(. and not printed so far.r.of them an independent marians given in the Mahabba~ya word or a phrase cari be used to on . kaumudi incidentally on antlf~q~­ as also.16 21 as do not allow the augment !( (i{~) to be prefixed to an ardhadhatuk'a affix placed after them. orfiIm'ff not serving as a cause. 36. VII. e. which see above. cf. Ifi~. cf. 1. n.. on I. ~<ir ~: M.?:. 12.. the mute \.46. IX.g. on II. not possessing a causal relation.mr. 2. on VII. on VI. Yak. W.:rt'll: t§Q: M.xes see M. d. showing the acute accent on the penultimate vowel. also d. mir krt affix in the sense of curse. acute. ere{ . i3l~l arf.

~ (I) reference. see the word "GGJ'ij above. ( 3) a grammatiCal operation cf~ <ii!l"T~~il~~: ~ I ' tfl1~ ~N~lIl'l~ WRi.viira which is uttered only througl1':the nose.e. 9T<!Ct: ~:q.. Vak. the chief characteristic of such roots being the non:. and M. 9TCj''EI~ '<IGmCj~ii. d.Bh. on II.' used by ancient grammarians. '3:.e. ing the ~ was given a mid-way tone.g.) and . 143. a:r~ right or regular order in a Vedic recital. prescription. As.t Ol!!. ~ilrm:~fur: P.37. on II.nl'[lfr ~q~ -M. 16r. VI. 1. 19. cf. P. grave accent.p. 3. d.. it was called ~tH.53 and KiiSika thereon. 1. VII. called ~lta-. III. ~. Bh.:fRr:ii!i\rfill :U~ M. . VII. (2) supposition as the same. Vart.e. while if the syllables succeeding the accented syllable showed a gradual fall in case they. <i:qH:i'i'<jilf!&:~r: tllllil'l<I.aq'q.ini cf. '61~m!r. <i'cmr.g. It is also uttered before initial aspirate!. yatnas or external/efforts to produce sound.Bh. (2) a term applied to such roots as have the:_ vowel 3Tf!G:J'ij or grave. absence of the acute accent.94 Vart~ 2.58. also '3'{('ij!llG'ffiI!ll i.10. statement referring to a preceding element.g. cf. ~rn:. 1. See the word 3T!!<fi~Uf above. technical term for Vartika used by Bhartrhari. one whose mute signifi- Ifi~"'f~iifi (a letter) uttered through the nose and mouth both.40. cf.30. pronounced originally i.Iatta is defined by the author of the Rasikiivrtti as (j~~~rii+nut ~~r in+r fuf~+!<l'ir ~~ ~.26 Vart. cf. I. . completely chief feature nf. 2. Sek. '<IGiie ~-that which is attracted from a preceding rule by the particle '<I is not valid in the rule that follows. III. cf.r 22 ~~ dragging (from the preceding rule) to the' following rule taking the previous rule or a part of it as understood in the following rule or rules in order. on a:nta"OJ.' Kau. 29. cf. Cf. Cj:-€!i1:. etc. 2. <li~~ a'ttracted from a previous rule as is frequently done in pal}. the .. the acute or ~1'G was recognized just as in English and other languages at present. etc. 1. Kaiyata on M. 2.48. Possibly with this idea in view. 1.:r.>t ) . g..Will~~{~ ~lllf.Bh. such a root being that it takes only the Atmanepada affixes. ~ ~t 8l'!!Sfi~S<iTI'f:. pad. I.~q-ijil~+ro!'.Bh.rr+rf!illm~)q) i8W f~fu P.1 hl. cf. '<I'!i1US!!'ffiffiP'q<jll:T: Kas. Sid. on II. ~ft:r.tional sound which is loolced upon as a fault. the same as Ol!!'lRl. the ~I~{ was the name given to the lowest of them all. calleditilf.· I.26. I.. (I) prototype. </iIlOf1fCl\~ ~ :q ~: ~'ij: . Par. Anuc. See the word 8l'~ in this sense d. III. as different from anus. ~~q. cf. the same as offitit:u. This udatta was given to only one vowel in a single word (simple or compound) and· all the other vowels WElre uttered accentless i. one of the Bahyapra. P.re and ~Rr correspondfng to the seven musical notes. ~. 1. Cf.~ l!"Rr illll'rp. Pr. 1. ~q~ lit. ~9~ql&:: !I\~ 8l'T~t. 7~t ar~"R' 23 tfG~rarr ~ '<I srUt~: Vak. pronounced in the Dhiitupatha with a grave accent. 6l~. e. ~~la-filTllil~) (j:qy_ ~ V. ~RI' Vak. 29-3I. 2.33. The term anudatta is translated by the word 'grave' as apposed to 'acute' ( udatta. mute vowel accepted ~ave. a term applied to a ·root I characterized by an indicatory . 38-40.3. prototype (~{) cf. <ili'ji{i'ij(ii[ quite a low tone.70.: a fore-sound. 4. ~ R. <li~ enumeration (in the right order as opposed to ci!!o:tlll). III.afuffi.23. 1. the syllable. such a root. 1. 3·10.g.iCj''' Ol!!~ ~. (See 8l'~). Pro XIV. e. 1. Thus.!jl8. ef. or visarga. with O!!! occur in this sense very frequently.~ 9T I ~6IlulI+!t!'1I~C<ji'jIil.158.5. Pro I. (2) image. lilf~'ti'i not actually stated or expressed in a rule. also.'~<l~I\I:p I III.. ~l'ij.:~ I non-udatta. 8l'!!<mOIMlij'!iT{: Ras.f( above.I. VI. P. ~s:n1!Jt ~. 2. I. 1.:aSijU3T<iT: II R. Pari. 8l':q . pad. 8l'f!«RI~ am~~ P. 1. Vart. pad I. Bh. 9. I. When the three Vedic accents were subdivided into seven tones viz. 5<. e. however. that which follows Tantra i.Tlij: m. Vak.pad.g.p. in the utterance of Vedic hymns the practice of three tones 'i<~'G.5.syllable succeed'. See. eatory letter is uttered with a grave accent. mention. 9!:fo:r:. sn~lJl<Its~a:r -~ W <mq~:1 ~s~~ tfI1P:i1Tff:'l~ 'l:q~ /I ~m non-production of an element of a word such as· an affix or an augment or the like.56 Vart.Bh. 2. 8l'~tfiTI +!rht\~ ~WtRr . cf. 86 " ~ (I) imitation opposed to natural (~~q-) cf.. II.cii1lm<film~= P.VIII 1. I. cf.~~_ ~!5UfliiT+rf!it:u: M. 1. VI. lif~'aT a term meaning ~ 'having a . Pr. ~ other than ~+r or the first person. Nyasa on P.. ~. 190. Sastra which means the original rules of a Sastra. Pro I. III. e. "I8. I08-lIO.wq-~:UCj'~~ltlJ. cf. This sound is uttered before an initial sonant consonant..12.are found defined in all the Pratisiikhya and grammar worksj' cf. the. F. III. also M. . generally applied to the tone of that grave or anudatta vowel whicli is immediately followed by an acute (~ ) vowel.admission of the augment If before an ardhadbatuka affix placed after them. I. 3· ( 2) declaration. circumflex' (svarita). ~­ ~qfucJf sr~ ~:qr ffi. 3.ii~Wri~~w '3d'"'~T M. the standard rule '~~~­ ~~ was laid down by pal}. 7. 2. ) cf. P.on IV. on I. 8l'f!itiTrcr occurs frequently in the same sense-.2. 4. also the word 8l'f.I.:ft~«RI:. e. ~1'd~Cj'Rdq\~ ~m:: P.18. a 1.26. cf. on I. '37{('G~'G~<i ~~a-:. where the word ~ _is eX plained asVartika by the commentator. V. just preceding the accented (~) syllable. was uttered with a ~ery low tone. false identification (sr~9+rffii1"{ I ~. also the Paribha. + '3cm1: i. cf. also $6lU~!l '<I~'G: (fill'q:) P. This sense possibly cefers to a stage or a time when only one accent. on I. T. 2 •. d.e. Ol!!<mICR: was termed ~ also.48.e. -image. ~fur­ grave. 4. happened to be consecutive and more than two. takes the affix ~.57 ~:'I~. ~~ and ~ltff came in vogue and accordingly they .a~ P. ~. a:rm. &'mflm..ini'.. 2. 18. also cf. The term is used in the sense of 3Tii'. 8l'f!iU~a-a:r ~&:: P.149· ~~'ln (a ro<. cf. lit.rrG:T'ij: I d.Cj'~a-!ll SI<j: ~\r: I 8l'r<lT+r~~miii~~ ~<i. rules. on I. a preceding addi. provided the root begins with a consonant. on :p. wrbal forms of the root lifi<{. ~lllf1twhen pronounced as "'~l!lf+r. in forming a derivative word in the sense of habit. ~'l:q<f"c<fIGJ~ ~~nf. so illso the p. cf.8. 2.33.

cf. l'l and OR! in the periphrastic perfect forms. 63. ~lolTf<te<{!!. d. ~ discord. J. + Of~ continuation or recurrence· of a word from the preceding to the . going or disappearing) by PaQini ( cf.r. suggestion. 4 to B. 1. Bh. they are looked upon as essential factors. in connection with the present part. SI'~. 3.2 to 9).) The aJ'~­ <rrfflCfi or nasalized vowels are named \WCJUi and they are said to be consisting of three matras. O1I'llICicr~SSl<J:iUI~ aJI'ifl<iT O1lsGCilfflCfit~ ~U~ I n~ ~T<fi<!5T <{~<if. The work is believed to have been written by ~rs. III. ""...14.:rl) as· also _.~qT~ T. ~ W3~ICi­ !!~ qIllTmffl<fil~lCl!!~IIJi1'R<i~:1 OGtI~ont~cw. .I4and M. pad. vak. They are put by him only for the sake of a complete utterance. Trivikrama. 26.:J and semi-vowels when so pronounced.. the word in usage being always found without the Jro. Patafijali and other reputed writers on Pal)ini's grammar rigpt on upto Nagesa of the IBth century have used the term 01!!q. Pro describes aJ'!!S1c{TCi as the ~.~~. utterance. in ~iffi. for am<rrl:l letters in his Sfitras.!. which is looked upon as an external effort or bahyaprayatna. e. to be recited_ after? the Pada text of the Vedic . ffiS3 etc. 360.. 1yNarendra wrote sfitras. (lit. etc. ~s. cf.:J~ilCfiRITl.. d. Generally two main varieties of <im3f<i€ir are termed OG51<{Til which are mentioned as (i) ~3f&:Til (emission of breath) and i!T~~ (resonance). 25 FlCiUj. The anunasika or nasal letters are the fifth letters of the five classes (i e. ~f. also Par. g.. g.cr 1 aWi£r Si1<i~i!~ I Nir. cf.l ~'ifl~ ~f ~~!!iltffl<fil: I. d. 1.:m~ a commentary on lRfI~ (<filfuqu'. the same as anuvrtti. ~:q-Til'fRITlII<R. He has also written l:lT§tfl6 and ~<imSlf. i{Ujq"16 etc. The grammar is a short one and is studied in some parts of India. 4·9. The term is used. Pro II. tN.d.64. l. f~~g M. fCf~. a commentator on the Ka t. Ill. e.. 15· lit.:ij. I. cf. ~ not allowing the addition of the augment ~ ( i. Pro inn.~. 01~"l.'r T2.a{~T <1Cff. It is not available at present except in the form of references to it which are numerous especially in Siradeva's Paribba~av!tti.362 a &T~fillStJ~"l'. cf.:r lI<itil iH<i~:.:q: &:q: = U. 2. I. letter ~) after the last vowel. I2I. such as aJTfct~'i or aJ'"rff~9 of affixes which-are characterized by i(~letters.q''ElI~ . are uttered nasalized by Pa. d. 1.r(~ VI. by Tr. P. The traditional founder of the Sarasvata School. cf. on Kat. . Although '1Tfiliiir has invariably used the term Jro. to Samdhis with a vowel first and a consonant afterwards. ) or (b) the substitution of ~1Tl. Possib.ttTw:r ( ~~m) - ~ii not subordinated in wordrelation.2. cf. . d.Bh. Vowels which . 0G'i~~ -Ill[ iifc:r<l: 1 i! 'qr~~ilT­ &:q ~ 1 fcii nN 1 ~~~qrcfim M. they are not actually found in use. ~ in the natural order (opp. principal member. cf. or .r(<i.JIm ( genus) which having been completely applied to one individual becomes applicable to anQther similar individual.Can. For technical purposes in grammar. U vvata on R. a:!~~A ~lStJfu subsequent occurrence. Of~3'f'ef\l combination according to the alphabetical order. explains ~t!<fi as 01~ q~T<I.Pro XV. (I) Occurring subsequently. also OG~<i~ ~~5I1'{[.:r Uj iT.bly . a grammarian ~f the twelfth century who wrote a work on grammar called tlH.q &:q: d . (2) <fi~ or . ct. Anubhiiti added Vartikas and settled the text. to srftlit+r). e.J!!ilTfficn lffl. also aJ'1It1m: ~m<rr~1iJi OGCitffl<filf. .. Q. for instance. ~Cj\~ aJ'm: where ~ is changed to ~. on 1. d. aJ'~Cf<iT f.mnmUj.Ui5.3.' "" ~'" vowels aJ'. however. aJ'~ etc.sTI$~1I<W1\<i.3. at~qq'~t+nii1 impossibility of being ex- plained. aj~5I1'{[Ci is one of the three main factors in the production of sound which are ( I) ~rCi. 8ek. affix. only to signify some specific purpose such as (a) the addition of an affix ( e..g. pad. 6. I. aJ'~q. aJ'~.. II. '[fu or ~S1t!RUj vowel or (c) sometimes their prevention. R. am 1. 2.:~ CfITlT_ . g. nSi ffI-n<iT aJ'~~mCiT<it rom:~T ~~f¥ffl:. and they do not form an essential part of the word to which they are attached.] 'I j\ I 24 thereon.'aT¥-J-+rB~ is a term applied . as in the case of the roots 'i!i. Sfitras. gli<iT<iTlGiir6tfm ~iU<rt ~~IT'<T'i: 1 Vak. :aq~~~1ff1<fi ~P. Vak. v. their nasalized nature 'being made out only by means of traditional convention. thereon.:. aft. r. <!T~. Words which come to be used after the principal word as &:~. 1. SG'st<iTiT subs'equerit post-po~ition. ~q~ etc. aJ'!!q~ P. 3.~. l:l1~6.Qini in his works viz: {iSiq"16..:11«{<iq~ f. The name of Narendracarya is associated with Sarasvata school by K~emendfa. Nir ~ ~~'tf application after an application as in the case of ..tied down at sacrifices to the post and subseq~entJy slaughtered. Vak.ft<i~ ~C1 qUi: l{Rt aJ'!!S1a:Til~. _ (2) Produced afterwards.!{<UIJ: ~fuI~ on account of the analogy of the 0JWFe<{ ~.I73. Bh. d. the word is used in connexion with sounds which remain in the brain after a word is heard. pad. The term OGiF<l was chosen for mnte significatory letters by ancil?nt grammarians pr9Pa. 9·6]· an effort outside the mouth in the production of sound at the different vocal organs such as q. l The commentator on T. m<r. These anubandha letters are termed lffl.. ~ffi'tCf. Vi tthala and Amrta bharati. d. (See aJ'!!~+r-). d. cf. 3. ~s.as iif(1U~. Pro 1. the main cause in the production of articulate sound. which was known after him. the other word before or after it.e.cr R..<fiT~T:. 8. ~T aJ'!!i!F<TT:.2..ltffl'fln:~~~ OG~~ ~<i" ~~t! and remarks further T{Cfhni{3ffu~B~lF<flolT 1 Com.n<rr fii~nT iir~g~ 1 t!ffi['i!!'lTCiIJ-<iT M. are silent ones i. succeeding rule·. ~\. Pari.€. cf. aJ't<'CFm:sr<it<l and (3) OG5I1'{[Ci or cn~­ S[<I~Ci' d.B.1. 8ek.qWm by ~~fu). for &:Cf~ or <i\+rT for ~<1T+rr.2·4· on 4 .. Pro II. lit. 4.. as ordinarily they are uttered through the mouth only. a kind of euphonic alteration ( ~N ) where the vowel comes first. etc. cl!i. absence of validity.4..ffiCfnSlmT. ~~ inference. 8l1. ~mtil: etc. not consistent. varieties of it such aSFl'iT\. 3.g: :. etc.~t8. letter. by PaI)ini in his rule ~!F!!m ~.aJ'~Tt<j!!qq.Uj or . I.'<T of ancient grammarians in their writings in the place of ~~. ~.n'lT. IV.' Par. See aJ"~~~B~ below. I24.m-sr~ or f.. I. III. pad. itf.-q!'{l~l:l<U~Im: in R.Bh on II . .~and ~ being called merely . 1{. ~ etc.~mUj. incorrect interpretation. ~~ a letter or letters added to a II. ( e. 63. Pari. also srftl~If6Cf<iT: qtTiJrcfr<it: Kas on I. impossible to be explaine. 13. V.. SarilhiUi. illRt'fll~~r.

cf. senses.1 ar~~.:(f: M..98 also a1. of a thing already mentioned. it is named +i~'litS3~G'l~. 1. the same as the ~T~~ undetermined. internal.! on 1. 4.f~~crr~<1<I. I. 1. cf. 1. generally in imitation. I. ". on T. lit. d. aF!m~<fit ~~q: M.?pp. Sek. of course.2. VI. ~:CWiOR'hq lit.8). also cf. ~~ not ending in a diphthong.55. It is sub-divided into fSItf(~~'l:. an operation inside a word in its ( 2) absence of any definite view formation-stage which naturally cf. explained as e:j~r<:I\iI'l~ ~~ifi~q: P.27 26 . pad. 1. Pari 4• ~:~T<i ht: mterlor operatIOn. The expression ~rt{~ [!!r:'). 1.102. 2 d. <fl'3l'ift[a. The word is of common use in books on HiQini's grammar.Bh.3. 1. on devoted ten rules from 1. O{r~ g eI'fij. ct.641.lht <i>1\3~cr~~ M. liII'~<::ni1 traditionp.Bh.-3°. III. there- resonance following the utterance of a letter.:crfrequently used in Pal)ini's gramifi~ 1 :m. l.2. Q. 1.48.82. d..79. 106 and ffi. 'P. 3liij'fiT<:It 3lN 1:TI(fcfl +TCIR M. I06.52). on I. 2. vedic metres which are kriown by the name 5l':mqfu:e~. where the word is explained as ~(ffOlii't11J by Uvata. 27-. ct.141.1 Svopajfia on Vak. 5l'munvcRT'IiRf\<! O/~~ 'UQ~ B1i'r~m~'1Ta:: Kas. name of one of the main seven . cf. ~~~Par. which see below. to 73.t~'IT statement or mention imme-. d. on III.:Q:~ inside a word. on VI. pad. when it is' not required in an intermediate rule. 5ek.9. ~PiR having many syllables in it.~: 'iiTltff "l <!'liT~\R:: "ll.5. II. Hem.O/ijl 3l~:.:ij. cf. I. word amit~ used by PiiQini in 1. Bhartrihari's Maha. I. I. 6. 2. Vak. d.Bh.{kpratisakhya XVI. Vak. M. O/<Q:'ii{11Ja~'1~ <f(~3T'l(ft '1a: I a~B11J ~~ (I) not forming an integral ~+iTf<t~~. ~~mf:q&:~'li IS. possessed of not one letter.ft~: M.10. ar~'liTm ~T~-. not invariable. 5. 33. III.47 Vart. ~:q'(cr insertion of a letter or phone . I. aT~qW (I) lit. 109. . o .13. treatment of a topic.2£Vart. on 1. after the syUables in it. on P. 7 ) and +ri[lCfa:qf. II.lifiT~~. 1. ar~: . to ll. has divisions like q(~~~ (7. 2 and M. 1. indefinite. liII'~~ffi recapitulation. the mmd). 3l:ef 'U"-:J:G~lTij'IlJ M. 4 46.ij-: ~~ "l' 6'IiRT~ "lIN ir. Bh. :s:r~tq repetition of a rule already laid down or of a statement already made. P. 5.according to the Samhita text of the Vedas.O/.Bh. 3'42.!:: foItf(<G. sometimes however. on VI. phonetically last element ~~~ having many vowels or remaining. VIII.!~eCfT<Ge:s1'!. VII. II. ~'Wi ~~ to be observed.6.t'ffi'lT~ O/'l"ll<l: 1 O/'t ~<f(rCjs! M. . VIII. d. 2. 2. on I.Bh. IV. Kat. 12~ 12).1. cf. VI.1\3olt. cf. M. a second I I I time. augment.20 also on 1. In rare cases it is taken backwards in.Bh. Pro II. attaching. ( 2) a term br the nasal letter attached to the following consonant which is the last.fcrN: is often 'found in the Mahabha$ya.S'tji ( 5. two complete words after their ~irOliT"4 . :aro:~ lit. and "l'g6£flGW~. which see above. 1. 12.I. VIII. III. Bh. 3. d. mrnrml1'i~) <j:efTm<I. although it proceeds further. O/iij'fiT:qbahiYaliga. xog.~~ having many vowels (two or put at the end). It has eight letters in each one of the four pad as.oet <j~1l111J~ 6'11~~Iii[ld. has· further divisions like ~~ffi:j~fcr ( 8.( I) possessed of a plural sense.52 (am€i'm: ~qOO~: 1 \31lIT0' on +lIe.64 Viirt. Par in 7.1 Uddyota on P.59. 2.77.feCf f<!cr-ijij. ct. pad. 1. grasp (by. . cL 3lrtlffi~ ~Ef.r43. essence of the mind.21. ar. a sutra work from a subsequent rule to a previous rule when it is called "fCf'lirt.12). VI. IV.64. ~~.~l1iij'fiT:4~ir. on R.r t. ~~ independent mention. 1. tf'G. 13. ~~~ having no ekase$a topic in it. a term applied to the Daiva Gram mar which does not discuss the ~<ii not possessed of any definite ekase!. ar.g. for another purpose.30.~~5F~1ij'fG~TiI': <{iI<.!crT' ll:~:4: Par. d . the same as O/ij'cr'!~. VI. ~t:filiffiClf ~f~<r. 1. ar~~~(i.aWI ~ i("'3fr:f O/&m amB~~+£. I. The term is applied to the nasal consonant "!" preceding the last letter of a noun base or a root base. 1.l instruction. ct. 1.53 Vart. used by ancient grammarians. on VII.rifiT~ mute significatory letters have been of Pal)ini. VI.Bh.' 3l!'j. and \3Cf~­ ~fcr (12. (2) possessed of many senses. ~i19.1.+i"'1~ ilTI1 'UlI~~{ilmfcr 1 Dipika and Pradipa.109.13. <ll~ final.~ c!lcCf{'lfra. 4. . affixing.~~'fiTf. . <!ffiCliTl!{\f. 6).Indeclinables also have many tic element such as the letter Cii.af.~<I ~~ by ~crG.6. where the word is explained as O/~f~e<j. Uvata on V.1 +r+m<l itRl 'iii I with an operation depending on M.i\ Vak. 4. mar meaning the same as O/~<[~ or af. Pro IV. on II.8. I. e. ~"t. ~~ repetition or recurrence of a word from the previous to the subsequent rule or rules. II5 :s:r~ operation in conformity with what is found. cf.!ij. 1. 1. 7. The term O/!!Ef~ is defined in the Klitantra grammar as c.108.~..34. ~eli~li<ft M.128.5.3. diately afterwards. cf.Clil~.rii ~fu 3l!'!m6i1~ I d. 1. ~i~ possessed of many laHers.59 and 1. on IIL2. to be obeyed. VI.. a <ll"l'~' statement with reference to what has been already said. d. VI. also :( V. 3. formation which is looked upon as referring to many things. the same as anvadesa. d. penultimate nasal of a root or noun base. <i>~ ~ ~~:. I. Kat. V.37. 5. 2. t. 2. 9.I. aT~~IGi'i on. 1l111J~ ~ct. . also q~~~. d. Q.lso c'lT'li\11J~ ~"l.Bh. 'arer~~'!' ll:m ~~l..1.la topic to which Piii. also R. 7.1. 12. M. also "fi'a:tI<t W<a'Q.cfilffQ1((~ afi''!m~Sfim~TI1: Nir. bringing about as the final.Bh. I. a term an affix.Il4. 3 I.Bh. on P. fqtft~'Ii+i\!<!T (12. 13. ~~ I ~qf "l'lt'lT~. cf. ( 3) resonant sounds 'helping the manifestati ln of~.lini has cause. Pro I. 1.7. pad. Pro XI.lI~q.rfiI~1t'lQ. O/~~~ 6~ P. dropped. p. This continuation is generally uninterrupted like the stream of a river C'ffllOOmcmJ. fctW(f~'lT:!~H:: 1 M.Bh.!: cf. ancient term for more) in it.r ~~(WlIWi'n{: P. VI. which is necessary for the sake of the intended interpretation..~If(~'l~­ becomes a12taraliga as contrasted '!F(f: I•• 1IT+illH '3'f:efqTS!+£. cf.' bba$yadipikii. Thinking principle. cf.Bh. I said afterwards.!~~: Ol~i:. the same as Ol.. 4. see above under 'i'~~erR at.\c!iT1\3~<lt~'1w:!1i1l~cfr Kat."f~'!:a. T. P. cf. an affix (which is generally &. part.

They laid down the Paribha. 9. also R. qUJ\.i of application within or before those of another e. hence.. I. not..ini's grammar applied in a variety of ways to rules which thereby can supersede other rules. I. uses generally the wording ~rCf~lIW!R1. cf. cf. of being looked upon either as the final of the preceding . The word 0JiG:~~"1r+I:.. As an arremt rule occurs to the mind earlier.5!' Wr: Kas. (2) having causes of application occurring bea fore those of another in the wording of the form. I at. Sid. e. pl. cf.Vyasasik!?a. III. Parasmai. The term is not used by Pal. arr~~~~* N+trflttmUJ: Nir X. also 'RT~d~"'Rffi~T: . cf. ~ at~:~~. rence.Q~ 'R~. 20.:~if' single substitute for the final of the preceding and initial of the succeeding word. inside the foot of a verse explained as 1fI~ fll.ct:t~ m.:r +91~T· I1l<afJUJ: lias.J. See the word The qft+!NT has got a very wide field of application and is used several times in setting aside difficulties which present themselves in the formation of a word. ~ ~Wil'ttl<mq the strength which an antaranga rule or operation possesses by virtue of which it supers~des all other rules or operations.rr. ij-s~ff:mrr: O!~d'Eif®("1~ R.m: explained as ~\~ (between two vowels) by Uvata cf.. 8. Atm. 30. e. or the. the preceeding and the initial ·of the succeeding word.R'i~fcr I <iF. g. Kau.:~i!l"T I. on I. CllrcrlfTfcruolI~~ftr: B1fi~it +fCIRrI U:.. 9. \JiT: I SlmUJd: Sl1I 6+{ at.!?a. VIII.28 between ~ and· a sibilant. very close or very cognate. (4) occurriDg earlier in the order of several operations which take place in arriving at the complete form of a word. a highly technical term in pal. at~~ having the last vowel circumflex. 39 also M. 3rd pers. :qctWrff:~~: ex'plained by.a. when or if they occur simultaneously in the formation of a word.the other rule presents itself simultaneously. I. ~~~ the phrase is used gene:rally for the qitlffl'H ' a:rfuit Gl~~' ~. 2.g. barring of course CllqcHa: rules or exceptions. 1.55. g. ·gina1 affix ~. ( 6) not depending upon two words or padas. 9. \3'~lICi anwr i!FCflWrif. XIV.~ by Uvata. ~JiT:.. q:q1~rctWt: P. 29. ~~~ I. or the letter C{. Grammarians.: I KiiS.:al~q::itl<i condition. only looked upon· the q-~~ operation as weaker than 0JiG~\f. if . 'i{ . RT.T. 31. Gi~ a group of words mentioned inside another group of words ( i(11J). I. Like ma~y other paribha~as this paribhii~a is not a paribha~a of universal application. word or as the initial of the succeedingword but never as both (the final as well as the initial) at one and the same time. SF!. Pari. Cllrtr~'fci'fi1~'.. ( 7) depending upon.93 Vart. of eadier oceura characterized by the nature of an antaranga operation which gives that rule a special strength to set aside other rules occurring together with it. aml\W. VI.. see unger Cllrcr:ti!l". ~~lI'RfIRr I . VI. . qRl5t. ST~~~ ~ fotl!lT. thereon <llTiff4 ~l~>lmuRf: I ~: ~!tIi{" Sl~d: CjQ~ 'tffiIT ~RlII:! Cfffiumt~ffi: I WIer: lIT'!i:.28.. VI. fff{i!f"~fu. The ancient term appears· to be O!.a as compared to gUl}. the Mahabha!?ya from which it cannot be said whether the word there is :o:r. OCj~.awIlI<ITfer lItcro:. 1. q~Cla.84. 3rd pers. which is paraphrased by CllCf\$\' q~\$\'flt. If'lf. or in the process of formation.. I. 17. 3. like. 10 and VIII. (3 ) having a smaller number of causes.er.gqa.6 Vart. Pr. cf.g. on P. compound meaning' 0JiG: armf. O!~: I P-lRr ltRr ~Rt V.as ~i(6~T+Ri: fI"~ m~fu ·O!iff:~: R. at=a:~T alw written as semivowel. pl.~lIq~Wl!fu ~~fcr ~: I Durga's comment.. P. The Vartikakara has used the term thrice (See I.jl[fflit~ ). Bh. . cf. succeeding the Varti-· .:er:~~r I.. described above. 4-2 Vart.111.r fiI~­ 'ijffir 1I~' (a rule or operation which has got the causes of its application within those of another rule or operation which· consequently is termed <f~\W ).{'i:"Il <TI<iit9iTW: Btt. . cf.('R~. ma-.a cause or causes of a general nature ( ~Tfll~~ ) as opposed to one which depends on causes of a specific nature ( f.9Tfltf4ClI'i!l<d{I0j) "!~ij-. Pr. also SliQ~: semi-vowel. 34. between tIt and a sibilant.a + "1') where the <:ill'. 2. 1J. cf. occurs twice in."<iTt\II ~a affix of the pres. Sir. cf. in short. or Cll. also fctwI) qui<u1'i~~t<jB~ij. I. Pro IV.a which is caused by "1'. cf. e~g. 5. ~"1: from the root fu~ (fu + . excepting an apavada rule.95. d. 8PG~ separated by a dissimilar element. substituted. <iil1191f~lJ~!WQij1T(: Kas~ On IV. IV. I. substituted for the original affix fu. 14-15. rhe word is usually explained as a Bahuvrihi. pause. e. on Ill. or ( 4) by possessing the same dimension. 2. on P.a for . :The term ~~ or ~:!fT is explained by the commentators on Katantra as ~ m~ ~~1"1t~ arrij. 3rd pers. e. ' 13I. 3. substituted for the oeiti9rgp ~~iS.J. Cj~o~a. .:Clmnfit .!?a Cllmt <iI~­ +Fffi~ which has been thoroughly discussed by Nagesa i!l his Pa~i­ bha!?endusekhara. 0JiG1F{.l Clliffmf<!aol!i!l"ls'. I. or (2) by possessing the same sense. Pro VIII. on P.u'Glcq~: ~'6: ~ltctfITq~ij.. e.. pl• .g.84. 30.\:TiQ~ . The 8RiUf«f is taken in a variety of ways by Grammarians: (1) h~ving causel. 106 Vart.g. kakara. T. used in the Pratisakhya works.cfw-er<ro:. attributed to a ~{G+I' ~.~Mft.!. hiatus. in giving preference toarrCf\W rules.5o a nd Kas. for th~ original affix iff.j~9T Ka§. cf..:aq-:m''f supposed condition of being at the end obtained by the single substitute (tm~) for the final of . but they looked upon it as invalid or invisible before the ~ operation had taken place.. also Par~smai. <iI~: which is looked upon as a paribha.ini· himself.2·48• ~ affix of the impera. 'urgent'.' substitute for l( is Cll~ being caused by . 0JiG~~ j. The Vartikakara. is a rule. ~ 'i'fTrtrfW' a:r>nm: P. 2. t<:ila. interval between two phonetic elements when they are uttered one after another. 1. U3. VI. it is looked upon as stronger than· any other rule. ~ affix of the impera. or ( 3 ) by possessing the same qualities.37. wrfrff. ~~. . I) evidently in the sense of 'immea diate'. as seen above. being characterized (1) by the same place of utterance. P. Pr. 8. lI~l!~cwFt I d.G:qJ~ ~icr inclusion of an element (of sense) in what has been actually assigned. (2) space between two phonetic elements. Pr.. on ~rmf<::Cf'i:<iP.. (5) not having ~ (tech- 29 nical term) as a calise of its application. whose causes of operation occur eariier in the wordiDg of the form. . III. ~~Sia':1fI~.

~.<l'l. M. All these terms are picked up from ancient grammarians by Pal)ini. d.U ~l'!~: instances of 3j«f~\T~IT~M where M. <i'i. the consonant sense. III. Bh. 4. mentioned in P. d. This P. continuation. II. ~~. Pr. T. 3.I44 teaches teenth century. II. ~ q~T­ ~'C/RlI1+rI~l'{i~n~~: f<i m't I ~q91f+!~­ 'l~ ~ ~-a~if SlffiqTfct~ f~ STffiIil':{ifl'!"<IT ~i([: Kas on the above.43. aTrcn~­ ~~<I (f. on Of'!. V. 362.152. e. Phit.:qTfflq. on lit. in that case being changed into the third of its class. ~~Fll3llm <{[!'Itt. generally applied to a technical term which is found in accordance with the sense conveyed by the constituent parts of it.g. III..~) applied to roots ending in ~ or \3' and the roots ::iff. VI.~~ I ~+ft M. explanatory. II.I: ~~ in T.\explanation of what is known or current.r" optionally. when it qualifies the word 'Sastra. 'i'{.. a commentary on hence serving no purpose. crude noun I ~~ irregular. on I. ~&l1J'(t!'!~ awft<l~ I ill6\' ~ElITi:ff<l ~ OlqRr I M.223) arrCf \3'~: ~rn. ~liG:T~ e. twice mentioned by Patafijali may refer to Katyayana e <fi'. Bh. III. M. 23I. Bh. ~~+!r9'. also arr<!'RT~ll'c'fI.24. a:J<l ff~~ ~ffi M.32 •.' When it qualifies the word' Vakya ' it refers to what is termed sn:mT9'T<f<l. S1~ (I) final letter. 1. 'il[CfW~~ il:m f. 1. same as aT"TT'!i~. Bh.:~ <1cfl'!~i!. a:r~~~ P. restatement. mCfUl3l<l which is looked upon as a fault. d. \.Bh. I ( 2 ) continua ance.tcf. Bh. signification.3. ~ II. nic combination of a vowel and ~dt~<iT. on I. The word is med in connexion with grammatical explanations by finding out the base and the affix or affixes. III. 2. I. e.' who wrote a commentary on.are already in use etc. same as Pradipa.~~ (I) having another purpose or ~mr. 2. B~i!T+f~i~n. pad. I ~. d. 4. 14. (I) krt affix a:r.m<lT tJ:CfCl. II Atm. on IV. The word is used in connexion with tlie science of grammar. ' rally have their last vowel accented acute. 1. t<.58 and the following rules in preference to the . li~c<lT: ~~<lT: <!i~ tJ:ffit 5!<U.n (I) lit. reference to the anterior word or expression. 1. ~~cft<lT<U aTrcn~~~ 1.J~~ 'T+<!Cf 1i. in another'll in the Alphabet. <31.2. also Kaiy. Yak. possibly the same I exactly what the others are stated as the author of Tarkasarilgraha.23~ expression.s" a:rm: is an instance of connected with another. fOl!'. on II.1. III. pl.mtnq~<i' Sl~~Cf ~f:'1 \ also M. d. Pr. 2. aT"<IqBii."rl'!T: from what has been expressed by Slm<Mm~ Rtr<l~ Cf !J. Bh. cf. 'li+lSlCf'C/. Sutra 1. on P. lit. arr<Itr<l~l3l~ ~~Q. (2) .J\Slffi. il:~"<IR~'U~C((~. I.92 etc.83. e. ms:W!:ms~<q6l'!~1I Jain. ~~i!1+r. cf. 8. aTc<l<i. Yak. on I. VII. P. Bh. :al. substitutes of words which . a samdhi oreuphoway.'fCfIF<lo t!iimfl:jcfi~ Cf<JT liN'IRr: I arnl&ltlJllI<Ftc~'fiT ~fr affix of the pres.12.l¥~.:crq~ relaxation or wide opening of the sound-producing organs as done for uttering a vowel of grave accent. their mutual relationship based I ~l.<! (P. t 10. 1. sense different +TCfm Oli~<1!i!'ijt <i~<I: I ~i'faa~\. Roots. ~mffi. I. cf. 8) T. III. rules of Pal)ini. also d. fit'q: ( mR1'lifc\~ ) a:r.1. Bh.lN<r~ ~~ ~ 91 3j«f<llmli{ <1cfm a:riI ~ff~:. ~ ~: and others are P. III. I to have taught. Ai?tadhyayi called Mitaki?ua a'1d ~~~ reciprocally dependent and Pradipodyotana.:fiil.:qT~1iI' I tIl. r. Yak.lq~ A technical . t!.§t+ffi~ where the c~)llsonant ~ ~l+ftfcr I . ~'6lUi!t q~~l{~FI<l:.i1:~: Can. 3. aggregation of a secondary element along with the primary one. 2 thereon. affix iff. 3. aT.30 31 yet siQlilar to it.tr \3'''{Rl! a. ~. VII. ~~ connected with the word arr<!. VI. gram mer for PaI}ini's >r<Jl'!9. 'lqqa: etc.q II R Pr.g the wording given. pad. Su.f<u~i. called aT. 2. e. III. a word attracting a previous wo~d such as the word:cr. aTr<jllqf ~f. ' I ~~ a word with its last vowel I accented acute.:0f1'~ given in accordance with the sense. 1 4. 1. XXII. 448. I.:~'in~~ an object which is arrangement of words according to different from what IS ment.:q~~~r <I<JT fq~~Cf M. KiiS. II. CfSf +ii[(<lT: :H. 'Sh. 1. (2) final consonant of each of the five groups of consonants which is a nasal aT<t<ll~Tffi'li: R. VI. cf. II. ' Cf.. 24.:rl'!. 'CfTtft~<I. if ~ i'J'ICi1r2j~: I ~ precedes the vowelar.. 'i'{. [ etc.P. ('f. lit. d.ioned.1. substituted for the original. I7I.term used in accordance with the sense of its constituent parts. I. q~. The term is very common in where a vowei precedes a consonant. 2. 2. while {[sq'il. I. pad. in the Sutra texts.. 1. III. 3rd pers.1. I I upon the sense conveyed by them. d. • which can be used •• .. 14.34. II.another sense. on 1. the word aTrq~<I as qualifying the word ~~ is taken to mean • fit for use'.:~<=l~ a grammarian of the seven whose YarD I on P. 'l%'li~<I IIMrilPlo\l\:Sl\.23. 58. ~ ~~!J'{r: other grammarians. augments.46.::r~~~ a com'bination of letters according to the order of the letters at~~G: option~lly. tJ:'l \<1 ~ :cr ~~ ~ ~~q .Jl+!G 'IT 'Cflif<l. cf. (2 ) another 1.272. Pr.tj' ~:.- .hfitCfl~'li:q<j+rTsr<I:.reference again to what has been stated previously. pad. in another a consonant. 2.. <lrj0'''l<i (I) construing. 440 .Bh. 'liT\'!i. II. d. arr<IT~ Sll!:i& arr!lf~ I. 1.r.5. 011 I. I.:9'!)ilHI~+reN where a consonand W'mqr are also used in the same ant precedes a vowel. 'TF-ll1J'(T f<I~~Cfm Tait. 1. u. 3. on P. I <1cfRr M..g. II.x62) arrCf \3'({Ri: ~m.6. \3'litF4iif. I ~mfitcii Sl<UlT1F<ll<:<ll\q ~~. 1.74. iffSr'ffl.fFr Cf<G~~ifT"<IR1<r­ lTIifCfr aTrClT'C/<:(: Nyasa on P. g. 1. construction. One of the four senses-of :cr. 0l''IiR~<I in V. 6r5. g. in the sense of verbal activity ( +!l9' ) or any verbal relation ('!il\'!i) exceptitzg that of an agent. fiffitT after the vowel is dropped. d. SlE<I<I. expression of what is already in existence.29. 5 . IS.:CfctR·ar~l'!mq way.67 and M. I.38. d. cf.qT~'U<tr T. 17. 1. aTr<jr 31r'f!'. d. e. CJo1m aTr<jCRCf: V.1 sense which is different from what is expressed.I -~1~: ~'6:{: ~ a technical term of J ainendra ~~l!:ici :cr~1tq~ M. cf.27.3 .!'.32 and Vart. g. XXII.45 and HeHiraja on Yak. 1:'lTIfr: (P. II. cf.22. when~ the terms 91 and aT.. ~<jr. what is to be explained by its division into a base and an affix.g. on bases and compound words genee l P.:q~'ii a word capable of attracting a word or words from previous statements. Pr. 170. 5!<i1~iI~ \ a:rrCl'<T~~ <llqT f<I~l~Cf I ~<ll<1~ aTif<lT B~ I d. d.

fu'liOT~ :1iT. III. in the sense of the separation of the base from the affix.. 3. I. I. before. on 1.28.when the special rule supersedes the general rule. r . cf.:: M. 1.~q-<t fiIb~6<f I Helaraj~ on Yak. applied to Bahuvrihi compounds the glammarians who explained the in the .9 Vart. ct.o 9. P. of laying down an exception supersedes the word .f (i) deterioration· of the place ~at:!liGJ7ffi ~ll1i<jui :q +!~ff<r.<U iiT~fu ll"~~~~ \ Ollqst1iTrn~f. or the affix separated from thl'! base to which an individually separate sense is attributed by grammar-ians cf.<i 5191QTQ91t:lT «i: I (i v) ~~­ o~ooii <Urn +!Cfm-. 4.1 rl[ClT Nagda explains as «'li~51fua. . 2. II. II. Bh. <19:. ' aretrC<i~ .64. !{~!1qrtU O1liCfrq:f951ffittI:TT'S[ tlqiitm ~6<ffu I et~ I M. cf.~ ~1V-ffT I ~o: \ i[CRT: I tt'Ef :q <iTt! ar[V.24. IV.!!!l<::~<lT:::tfI<l<nitGQ..:g:.8 (iii) the general rule 9i<lUCl'!! III. e. R. 1. Siit. on IV. cf. ftl~ ?-NClT'I:i<fl~i'! ~lm . upto any generation.~ Q.I~ VII.\~T­ 91: III. 10. ~r. I. III. e.20. 269.Bh. called . Yak.i'!~~ degraded utterance of standard ~m <!imw~ffT. ~q:. ~litliI preceding one. which succeeding rule of grammar to the is termed r'I~ or 511t<f e.'.nqymr ~Cf+iW-l: a:mtm:! P... QTqN (I) point of departure. • Patafijali uses this expression eighty three times in Mahabha~ya. 33 ~(t!cf~ . V. Bh. a technical term of P.24 and subsequent rules 2 5 to 3I and which is put in the ablative case. ~Cf'<l'<i'fiT~\'llTU]Tt{". ~~:. T.'.jSro fct~TiJ: I) cf. from the son or daughter onwards ( 2) fault. d. 2.2. I I 7. I04.4 t. I. I. (2) not preceded by any letter or so.t~ tf is !Q~ked upon as ~r~Q. I r. I. 2. '4. I ~'ffiq~ ~c::~fi\' .e. 3. 23 and com. I.54 Vart.tuka affi)'. 30 on which \3"Cf2: P.q' fctw~f<le<!fu 0'{ ~1i: M.tSi~ a ~onfl.tion.. lit. ~.I. ~~fro where no gUQa takes place for the' vowel \3' cf.uit&JT of dependence. R.il(!1.3.r:Im~ l{fa.1 . Jain. on I. ~~Q.o f9~M'­ Slqql~iijJ\q~tCf the convention that a special rule is always stronger than fiI~ro<m. a.46. cf.. P. S11iTiUlcfu:r not in conformity with the rules of PaQini's grammar. tf. . XIV. II. Bh. sepanl. _ corrupt form of a correct word.\l <iTll <!i~: ~~~<i: not . (2) compound-ending <!itt. Var. ct. Sf1ft. Jainendra grammar for ficlT<lT of Pi'il)ini. 145. on III. 24. III. 2-I58. g. aRtrfcl'Ef<!T: fc!\:T<I: \ ~tt1i1UJ rn~f. remarks ~TUJTl1liCfRT ~'qr: tlf. It refers to opinious of other grammarians.feminine gender ending with Vi'irtikas. on V. ablation. d. 001 <!i't9'f fctN~g f. i. III.:li~. The word is used.nffT .IO. III.' A Sarvadha. 2. corrupt atqqrcr-=lIT~ the convention that a rule form. paI). for details see Par. 6.g.3. on P.<j:qT sr<nif: \ Kauti. Sek. 46. in addition to. g. <i 'i:f i\aj1. 2 which is an exception of q:q91~: I M. 'usual affix EPf. 2. f<ii~((1l~ ~~ M.~51'lifu\li~~: (VyaQisiHra) on which the general rule. 102 arq~~ . I.j. SI«it~ lit.\ anfct\Slllir<:i1<:<Jf ~ <lSI' marked with ~and hence it prevents the gUQa or vrddhi substitution for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate vowel if it be 01. M. mi'tf. ct. male or female. such as_ the base separated from. (3) a rule prescribing something not prescribed before. on 1.lliq'llQ. r<:il~ . ct. e. 55.• correct forms or words. I. I.Bh. 127. in P.!. division. cf. 'M.versatile writer of th~ 'sixteenth cen- . ~RlqiWIG:rQ. 1-36.Bh. arqrif. <!iN is used sometimes to mean absolute of or unqualified by any condition. 13. I. ~~<um~efi!1'i1rClff­ \Tli~ \3'~<U\t<iq-r<j: I o~:q-r \ ~CJ~~'t(T­ m<t 91. P. the like. Cf*. cf. Pr. ct. rather technically. 3Tiff~1t{:. I. ~i.ini's siitras and to whom Katya3 57-87. 149.Wmi. Arth. (ii) drawthe geperal rule . liCf:. Or instrument of the production of m!Wfur tf1'C[~ltq fchf~qHI. pad. Pro I. Yak. 1. <!iT. i{t<I~: \ R.6. on IV. <!i'l'ffi tt'li(~trel<I: P. g..IO.Bh. on (ij'q-qiI ti:ftClT 4· n6. ct. ~Cft{trFttfla:lii<r. ~Q({~ij).n. cf. Bh. oi<i lf17. 7. 2. cf. I. '1\:. :mqq: 5 not marked ~ith the mute letter f~om the whole.38. P. a technical term for an affix consist. cf. cf. 3.1 O1'Irnmerii l:!'R=j"f \'Jttlm: 51Cfijrij~ a descendent. tlT~'9lg9il1fq((. the affix. awT~ without any purpOSe or object.:~~ a Iso. 2. m::rr~ ~~ m. II. g. that which has already happened or taken place. WRl M. pad. (2) i fs. \<rrO'{'fi\1JJ<U\li91llUJ ~~ <iTt! ~q arqCf~ a special rule which sets aside \3"cq~~.\ <!iN~Q~: wnq-rfl:Tajfu'i:fT\1~: I ~'fjqq<tl<tfq +rcrRl I 1:119T q'til'T \ a:rtR ar{& 'another says. Ki'ityayana who critically examined etc..nm orft! also. i<fl~ffI~ri'!~ mft~. 1. 57.92.ict with a special rule.Bh. ~: o~:. I. cf. 6I. M.q~ relation ~ II.80.Tii detachment. <!i~ 9Tttr ~ (I) ~!H1G. I. tM551Tm tlt<lT €!i<iT~<i:. or iifrn. Pari ~~(CfQ91q~<l<r.. They J Slq'n'€{f. srr:q~Q A famous. I.Bhi'i. 22. ing of one phonetic element...t 91-aaj<r. unmixed with any (letter). Kaiyata says <!i'i91q-: <!iqClTq:: I which 57-65. ftreCl~­ cr+ItfTfUl. Par.:fti{ g +!Cffff M. 44z. cf. of a single letter.. cf. a rule forming an in. 2.<iTli~~ +!f9 6/lfu \ ClT'<ff.. Kas. III. 0qi!(<lfa' o~~ 9. 4. 2. I. thereon. pad I. ~ a letter which is phonetically r badly or wrongly pronounced. on 1. 51'liffi: cam. inferiority (in the case of qualities) ~<i <r!mm <It f9N\R+~~ tl ~ <rr~ +!qfu. ct.3. 4. separation. ~:qjt ~ <rT ~ <I. Pii1). 'IT. O1i!I:ilt<l 9ii1q-<j(~~'fI 9.ft I the general rule. d. Sometimes we find the a PiiraQa affix as also to Bahuvrihi compounds ending with ~~ precee~pression O1~~: I ded by aml. cf. O1fit!l~1iI Q<lf+r'<l'HT~ \ Durgasimha on Kat. on Yak.32 were either Vartikakaras before 'h~:.tlQriR: <!i\1'l<T: see EM. 2. cf. {<!<i: lI . lifi. LI. 51e<rI<::~~­ PUI). useless. yana was indebted or they may be .jhfre<lT ClT:qq. I. 'Sek. 3. 14. ~~mfti ~<irij.existing SI'l'tii' ~1G. I 9· 8iT'I+r!. not marked with mu. The word also means a separated part of a word.4. e. III.1 P. 50.a:R' separation. Pad. on I. Bh.:M'91fll'3"fflm: mrTICfcTCl: mrrf<l'EfClTf9I:T<I: I ~ 91~: ~:::~ etc. cf..t: 1vLBh: on I. Nyasa on P.3 back a word or words from a exception to the general rule.il1tW'tSqT?Jii<r. and. taken away (as a part) disappearance.\ 51e<r means «8q cf.75. ~ ~e~q:\ ~ ~aWt: \{WI' '~ on P.. XIV.91\!~m •..~(51~\R!m+l1l M. 2. Sik. cf. I. C!. detachment (01C!t. part of the sense ofa word taken out -from the composite sense possessed by the whole word. 149. d.2I. d.01~!tIUJ <!irf. Pari. o~~ . 4. Pra.yaraja says tlcW:I ~ <!iq-slm<l tlT~ <lTif. Cj~Tll: li2::. III.nmqliil+!T ~ achievement. d.92.. technical term for <!ilim<l'fiR'fi which is defined as ~.ft.\' 'C[liil+l't P. sOilnd resulting in the fault called R\~ ./ I. !ll[:. on 1. III.

T'li !fcwi 'iCiTiCi 011it~CJG:. 1. 31i1~'Ii~ 5tfa-ih'r: <>fJffu~l:T: M. on 1. ( 2) non-employment cf. fcr+rr'TI ~'i.~ I ~qm: ~~qt<ft I a:r~mf<r+rNl:{~ii'tlJf<l'1G:.UUlsi'Rii!!O IV.. Bh. subordinate. 1. II. 8. II3. secondary. I. Pari. e.. cf.:re-'8~I~ +TcWo 5tlt~ a:rlf{t~ \'I>t'l~ ~fff I M.Vak. ftq~ R. 1. ~Tq~sz. 1.e. (2) nonessential. ~~ prescribing a:r.17 I Vart. a' word which is not declined in the masculine gender.. He wrote more than 60 smaller or greater treatises mainly on Vedanta. 4. an affix such as fui'!. viz. d.'l"i ~if9"efqlG:.sa and TiIiantasef?asarilgraha are the two prominent grammatical works written by him. 154. O1fu~:'-~clT arm:.!>I~Rt'El'l'{tOf non-retention of the ori- ginal word accents. 3.n<Tfla-r'4>tTllT P.Eh. 1. 2. many of his works are yet in manuscript form. Pradipa on III. t.:jlf. Ofmfs' (I) non-occurrence or' non- f <l{. 1.Bh..ndra and other grammars as a Paribba~a. 1.53.Bh. I. III.g. or fem:. P. . cf. 35 an operation which otherwise cannot be had. on P. VI.g. d. cf. a word possessing only the feminine gender e. 1. 105.f secondary . a:rmHCJT I a:r~Cffcl'('fU 'IT mrS: ~T Iffuf?jla'la. '<i'!i etc.58. I.g.fum ~RfI:§fq<uit P. 2. 4. 1.135. On VI. Bh. cf. tion or rule-a:rmfa£i:I~: M.6. +tTUTq~~ two utterances of a word which characterise the krama method of recital. on VI.M. ct. 1. M. unnecessary prohibition. a mute indicatory letter or letters •.. or q~1i Cf"l<r while q ~ is called ~m1fcr"l<r·.. " <l{Slrnq'cl useless prohibition.69.Eh. 3· 43. 2.Bh.Bh. 2. and VII. 60. (153Q-r6oo). fqqft'1'a-: Olml:{l:{: fqqil: M. VII. a-{. ~'mT:qTqTl15t~: a standard dictum' of grammar not allowing superfiu-· Ous words which is given in M..19 and the instance !!~ur ~liIo: fqm I Kas..B. son of a Dravid BrahmaJ. On 1.90 a:r!!~hU P. at41'ffi not-forming an integral part of another. am<lr'l't i{G:.:qmfu: Ol'lll:TCfiTi''lfit fcrqr('fqrfq·. . 1. I.I. 1'. M. (2) that which is not an affix. ~1I (I) non-employment of a word in spite of.:I'Ufcf ~niITm M. I. at!iiB~ No1t wellfknown.Ni<t~~l~ appears to be another name.19. Bh. on 1. 61. Pro XI..Bh. 1. it consists of 100 syllables. 8. the word is used in connection with f.I28. based on the Sabda-I ~usasana VyakaraI)aof the Jain a:rllt'CIT the activity of a word in showing its sense. cf. atm8'~q same as a:r5tltffi?lmq-r one of defending the form !!\fo<r in spite of PaI)ini's specific mention of the word ~:Clur in the rule :9. VI.t. Sek. aT!i~. 1. (~) prohibition of the occurrence' of a rule or operation. on 1. 8. VII.nm-r.24 Vart Of~iIf. abse. +TCf~('f M. II ur: I <!:f<'~ I the first recital Jf U1: is called a:rf+l'!ili. ~Ti1t :. 1.nur~Tl. Of~f.y who wrote an extensive gloss on the ~~ur. 2. 'on P.6.Bh. 2I.69.:Uca:~<II~ lif+i<:t'll{~ fiTcH I 3nrrnf~q{qT'Dfttr9 Kas. 1 M. 2. I.. O1cIT at~~ that non-protracted ~ffi<.44 Vart. 3.:jr~6'fll'mfc!~: ~ml3lfm~'<T:.71.-:I:. wrote 5tlSn<iT~. ~~hml:{l:{: CfiUi[: M. 0>'1 ~ iIm:JfjlifeREWci" tl'€+tftlAft<. 'fc!{TmS1j~l'ffl::.38 Vart·4. f. 2. cf.nli. on P. grammarian who ~ '8~~tf ~"ef~ I Vak. His possible date is tion. on I.Bh.g. thirteenth century who wrote a a Jain I n. 47. and its sense. on I. not coming in the way of forms which could be . on 1. e.IIO. 01~ ~fci\:lfclm"l~ ~FI~~'U{'IiTf\ct >tilt R.I I· 34 -tury A. optional application of a rule prescribing an operation..(i!f. 1. the three. ar. d.ci' '<iT5tm:jj. ~~q~'ffif i3l'CRei <U~t!:j<r~!!~l:{l: M.37 Jain.43. cr.h. II. pad. 1. Bh.5 Hem.56 Vart~ 8.6. III.82. I. on P. tRTilt:cmftCJ?l. a relation between the word the twelfth century A. 1'043.:rfuC!J<n a Jain writer of the 402. on I. I. (3) that which is not prescribed. ~if~~S5t~ P. @?f/T.hntl'T see above a:r5tlaFFf.51. on 1.e.r('f~~'fifiEI P. The gloss is known as ~:'trl(ol:{(Cfi{1l1+!'mftl of which ~if. atsmrr.JfUmcf atffl~fu a variety of long ~etres called a:r~<i. pad. d. Pr. I :a:rm8'~ prescription of a new thing. 1. absence of any following letter which is technically called avasana. aon~THfcre1R 5tlHlffu~: <l{~m not found in popular or current use. antffitrRi (I) impossibility to obtain the correct form.49. in the krama recital of 5fU1 ~U etc..:~ P. 1. I. The Kaumudi-praka. 1. at.. 1. See the word 5t~~9\. Bh. denoted by it. I. the words . kinds of optional application of a rule. 1. d. which wholly vanishes. K. ti!I'tI~ ~WS5tt!~: M.n'CfCii' not coming in the way of rules otherwise applicable. the meaning being available.D.3 and M.:<!m ~~. e. a:r.nce of clear sense or interpretation. also ~~I~P. ct. aHr\:lrq!!q~i1illm. 3. absence of any affix. ~ o~h\'tii: M.l cruTI<!fll+TT<!tSCftlT<i~: ~TG:.1. 4.la. II.jllaqfrrr{. on I.Bh. Bh. cOI!-stituted or announced forms or specially formed words which are said to be 31iiIll:TCfi i. Sak. vowel d. on . I. \~lJ. I Olf+tqT<. at41TOf absence. at~ the first of the at!i~ "efT>'! clrurtCj+(Par. non-predominent. ml<ja- <l{llt'SflCi depr~ssion or sinking of the voice as required for the utterance of a circumflex vowel. . not-fonnd in actual use among the people altho~gh mentioned in the sastra-texts. (I) lit. on II. cf. d. cf. Mimarnsa. ~~l:{:r\tl:{Fi. Vart. 16 and stated in Ca.D. ~~ a word standing as identical with the object denoted by it d.24. 2..3I.48.20. 20.Bh. 1. . S. M. Bh. cf.1 Vart. commentary on the Sabdanusasana Grammar of Hemacandra.44 Vart. 1. on 1. O1my.1. 4.Bh.63~ ~ 1. on 1. ~ etc.1. on 1.'+T'tii: M. IS. (I) non-principal. "l'fcil:ft<Il1l<r.tqraq i. cf. VII.g. I.( used in connection with sense)' .not convey a masculine sense. realization of a grammatical opera.!>l. 3. the object ~n:r. PaI)Qita Jagannat!la spoke very despisingly of him.:r{5tmqffi: llltilrftl' M. cf. 1. qui~e independent ( used in connection with augments). on I. WS'lf+!t'l~B0/91~qll~ 'l<tl I . (2) abs~nce or want of apprehension. 815rc<t<l~m: ~W m ~q'1. the power of denotaSakatayana. I. Dharma and Alarnkara sastras.~ a reputed J ain Grammaria~ of the eighth centu. arrived at by application of the regular rules • Siradeva has laid down the Paribhii~a at!i~W which does . XVI.J1Il+tq~ M.22 etc. 31qc~m<r. ~mtr~f<l'l<.non-applica tion of a' rule of grammar or of a technical term. 1.44 Vart. 1. d. VI.

a.89.J:. 2. <lif+lfi!I:TTcf '[i:ffiftrr<fT '.JTiTC!: tfr?:<!r CfRltlll"1t1rftijlt R.+1:. 3. :1.44. 106 •• denotation. 62.n. Pro II. I. that which is placed Among the derives the word.I - ~filfflQ~t name given to the circnmflex vowel which is the resultant of the aTfuf. ~f%-ol<ft tim . 66. i({ <r +l9tiTRr. as a first or a. on I. both are found used synonymousJy.l'<!C«CjT"<!Cj l"'l'h+lfcf~~: ~ar.tI:TTc:rr \I aTfufill:TT<1 possibly according to arrtf. 13 to 235. 16. who restored the corrupt text of 1\Iahabha~ya.p:fr.J~~ i(tlIfufil'ifT<l: arRfquftll: i(t<!~: 1 <NT <I: ~o a:r~. Pro VI. 109 d.~llrfuf.~ I tfI:TRUT ~Cf\rir ~~ ~tf~\'i:\<!T<1n:1fq . cf. . pad. cf"~lIJT aT~~l: Par.t~fu+fCjfu M.14 as aTfu'9F1'f>~R: qofu -. ~: tre:Rl1C(f& P.:j ~: ~:!T+lrFclt:j)'I. I.:j i1Tl1 I <I:qT ~tf lIT ~J{ fJ.7) where Qlfli~fu development of _an activity.1. mute.q:U.:i ft\oC{~<{i Nir X. a word.m. Sek. aTqtll aTf=a:r<n:rr.(. 1.1. R. Pro ~e~ a connection of unity. .expression.611UJ: 1{\: >[Il'll aTllTll'.tf~Tro:~:qJiIFI1i9~ l. Pari. cf.5 CfT ~ o!jRT'ij~ 1 aTfuo<!IH aTf+l*l(f o<!T~ being what it was not before. d. on I. M.~ I M. on a:rfufcl. Aoi.27.. ) 1 31f<lFI'i/tolt +lCffu -I aTf+lf. 4r. ~ll1i9ta:t m+l"l:q' object or thing denoted by aTf+rf..86 which alflitil"lTif lit. although the second letter is attached to it. Pro XVI.r. Valt.i4<f ~I:T: I cf. Viik.tT '<!lfu'i/T<f- Pratisllkhya explains the term aTf+lfilI:TT<f somewhat differently. cf. "::. 2.r~ >. which is evidently. on Manu Smr. ~r+lq'B'r f. a:rrrCfolm'ifT<1q&:r propounded by the PrabMkara school. aT:qrll1f. where aT of 31~ is absorbed or merged in aft of \~<lt or ~ of ~. a mute Atharvaveda Pratisakhya :1. ~fflQ lit.t~~. Pro XIV.!'<TTiI: I ~ '<! '!.. a:rf'lf3.Bh. not making different. .Bh.-ZI. cf.~: .5 r. (denotation of sense is only a natural characteristic of a word) frequently occurs in the_ Mahiibhal?ya. or 31[q: = orq:.CfYi'ff13~~ +l9Rr 1 R. ( 2 ) full or complete extension f?n!jT~UJI+llt 'f. <f~8~ <iC["l1ri{f o<:<r Cj~f+l'91<f~: (R.CR<! . on -I.~~ not bringing about a difference. which the vowel ai.l'<! means VI.13.I.+rCfRr I mo<!~q: I.) ~filftrQ used in connection with a explained by ftim 611\ti! as ~tf~t'Rti:\eil~T­ tlfi'<T or euphonic combination in '!.Bh.ection with the)ense of a word) r.. 3 72. Bh. on L 2.3. understands a:rf+N<! entered on functioning or begun to as principal sense and aTf+l'9Ff as function.. 1. ori II.ll1 fc!<i~ ( !!U<{. T. intention." q\t:. d. is absorbed into the other member.tfcl~~ tfa1@:~13r(Y:. VIII.11~~ 1 <I: tq.1. 109. the first of the Pratisakhyas it occurs only in doubled class consonants.- '<! ~I:T1\rir iJ~~~~ ~\rir +rCffu I oa:a<t. aTflt6ij\'i:\JiI~ Uvvata on R. ~o92: here means the first of the doubled letter which. cf. Pari. fct~t':r fcr~R.a:r~C["l1UJ: lR: 5{:ql1:a:rf+rFI'ifT<f: ~~tf\l~Bl tI~:qjq: (T. II. an~~mr provided with a svarita or circumflex accent..46. cf. 93. G:'¥~T <r: I ~9T <iTg I (2) view. III. the resultant vowel _being pronounced specially long consisting of one more matra. cf. P.7Jml1T:qF{'.tf%-o: tfR!~: Slr~'[ij: I ~.. manifestation. d. VI. pad..r:q'tf~ theory of the denotation by words possessed of individually separate senses giving· rise to a different kind of sense known as ('mlf<l when they are taken _together~ This view propounded by the Bhatta school of Mimiililsakas is opposed to the other view viz. V. 4.Rh.means.. also i:\l~S~. on denotation -and . -<lit:r-tll1T~ ~~ tIll'rilTf+lO<:fI&lt +lCfRr o.=rm<lO ~~t ~Tilt original sense. ~l. Cf • L ( '" '" "'. on II. explained I ~ I -I i I ~~Sfu~l Qlfli'Cllif~T function of denotation which is effected in language by the use of words related to each other •. M. i\~!i 'h. alflifilIDif is an ancient name ofvisarga. aTfur.fi'r+lcrfrr ~f<t\'fim~S~ ~~:. B (.l'<!Cjfu~lTCf"'l<fTf.<!~ M. Yak.<! ~Ij'JiI'. cf.t"'l'ra:ilT<!t Although aTf<T'ifl<f means activity of 6:<1rt:'f. purpose. carefully directed towards. The expression arf<l'i/T. is separately uttered with a slight pause after it. ~Ii'l~!:!:a:rfufi!fif!!filt fi!f+I~fcTq 3F9T~ fsF. cf. cf.:'if: aTf~l~iR ~~O<!lqjl. 31[?:rc:i 31[\..84. near or before.' T-he ~k. Qlfli~aT.42. Patafijali on ~film that which has already I.T I '!fi.50 Vart.Bh.llTf<lITT~ lfl'!fo. ~QQ=m<r 8ifliForti:l inclusive extension to a particular limit. the word ~fiNr<f means GfS9"'l'<f. as noticed between the nominative case affix of the subject and the XIV 27· Ul Ii.IG. on I. 37 atilt~""m an ancient lexicographic work quoted by Mahesvara in his commentary on Nir. nondiscriminant. something like 'suppression. cf.51. 1. 31fufi!I:Tt. on P. 1. Qlfli~:q'lm. :1.Bh. pad. II. also ~'1ftof5:r(f.T fJ. denoted object. 2./~¥ ~lf ~ !l:(<{~ aTf+lf. 3. \. aTl~ li<l~lf+rFcl~<ITftfo Cfm.f~!:I of Kashmir.:rf9~ 3l1i"~FiUCf::ti!. . inclusive limit.g.64 a:rf+lf. a.1. Vak.il"9Yll1T: ~mT'fi13: I Medhatithi also quotes the work_ d. 484-496. \q~Cj':+am-= \~<us«. Qlm~T~ (I) ~>rT:q'G~ a kind of euphonic combination -where the nasal letter iJ. Pari.r fimT(?.~:qyilf by '3'092: as ~q~qUUJt ~~filt l. II alflimftofr name of a metre in which two feet have ien syllables and the other two have twelve syllables. cf..{k. - ~~ expressed ( used in conr. 17. Vart. Kasika on P.fi Cf~t9T '<! ClllJTilT second member. I.64. 9. I. d. expression of sense by a word which is looked upon as the very nature of a word.jtlFlT I The _ 1. 6. or spar~a consonant arising from Abhinil?thiina seems to be the true doubling and inserted before a form. a:rr~ lI<!Ti:\lfuFclIl<U: P. II. T.<!T9t11~R.ITiJ designation.ffiilCflf+rf<r€r ~Il] M.r +lCfRr M. Qlf~T.:. Sek.~H' a grammarian who wrote a Vrtti on the Karakapada of Goyicandra'scomment~ry. sense of aword. II. Vak. sallIe as 'hNa M. cf. The word is used jn connexion with a word which is carefully directed towards its -power of denotation with a view to communicating the i':ltended sense. pad II. Bh. <f!1 '<! lIr a:r~ "lfcr '<! ~lIJT i[~~ M. cf.Bh. aTf+M"rcUflt\. cf.n!U~ p.g. a fault of pronuncia-tion. al~T~lif absorption of a vowel when two long vowels of the same kind come together e.JI+r.Bh. f.aTfu\. expressed actually by a word or part of a word. Tantra takes a still wider view and explains <lif+lfil'ClT<1 as the first of a doubled consonant. 4.:mm.n +lTCf Go:t I a:rll1fcrR!\~!jTfa: I tlTGfitti-r cJ(l~ Kas. cf. 1.. in short.29· d. cf.36 also cf. Pro XIlI. on II. M.g. 4. 11.. 18. e. II. 42. is dropped and the preced ing vowel (3TT) is nasalised e. 140 ff:.

who lived in the fourteenth century who is believed to be the writer of "{<!~"'t1:I!j'E'q<!. It follows V1ijasaneyi Pcatisakhya. A Jain grammarian of. Slat ii<!Til: srni: Cf~. 1 Nirukta 1. . 2. a:r+iTm also arnt~<lf%. 12 e.. I 9) is the explanation hi the Mahabha~ya... is ex plain ed as .f."I ! 38 ending fu of a verb. sing. a cornmen tary on the 1f. a gloss on the 1:I~0<if'ROT. ffl3TQ. m-.~q~~ I (3) augment 61· a com. VI. tendency to do an act.titute for vowel by P. +<!~s+<I<l:. which produces the sense. ~. a gloss on the grammar of Sakatayana. ~~<!T. is a fault of pronunciation. of the root ~ before a ed to have written ijcTIMCfil or ~'M. and abl. a:r+m (BHASKARASHASTRI Abhyankar I785-I870 A. I. (KASHlNATH VASUDEVA Abhyankar..I<J:.. affix a:r<! substituted optiona.liht.. e.:ft. redoubled word or ~ (I) a technical brief term inPa:Q- wording or part of a word.. being the Am . It is believed that the gloss was written by the Siitrakara and fathered the commentary cn 61m~9q.. I.. III. ~ the substitute 61<!. of utterance. Bh.59 and VII.. for the finalt :m by P.. BtWtSanskrit Grammar.22. '<IT and eft. non-mixture of words where the previous word is in no way the cause of ( any change in) the next word.. part which is called the reduplicated ( V ASUDEV A SHASTRI Abhyansyllable.. 98• cf. (2) the seven roots with ~ placed a~ the head viz.:cr:{ interior. besides writ'which is repeated.3. his famous existing work. 'fR:+!~ etc. g. pI. ::jffi " . <:!1! w:q1lt!i'Of 31. V.n<!isfr etc.:<!+!~"<!I'!fu: (Kas. fiJI before aw{. a:r<f{qir wm. a:r+<:r. d. a:r+~ repeated.'5~er<:!tr: }f'q~fu M. OT!I :q ~ P. cf. g. the second part Sanskrit Pa:Qdita. accumulation or addition Sanskrit Grammar who has written of sense brought about by the +!m+ll~<!-~eJ'i<lTlgog. I·30 . ~­ ff(qz. :. after the words ~Qlia:. 1.+<I<J:. Pr. III... aTtm+<rt i'{~ 61+a"~<I.ja<!"(..Bh. sn:r~ also called arntEJ1'!ftr is an extensive commentary on Sakatayana grammar (sutras). a fault Laghusabdendusek hara.1 Sabda Kaustuis also noticed as a different reading. .Bh. Pr. '" I·99) (4) substitute for 1st pers.6. applied in Vedic Literature to fcli<I.r. ~:t<i 39 doubled expression in Par. Cf~ llRr ffi~T~'q<FJ:. VI. I) substitute for the causal sign tr.. ~~-a:r¥<!~QlI" P. a:r~ . on 1. a:r. held in. fclq. and Kasikii. <I. Si+<iilijiK! a commentary on Nagesa's Paribh1if?endllsekhara named so. by P. (R. g.<\111 ll@. He is believed to have written some works on grammar. cf. The term a:j"l:{~ is applied to the whole iI ini's grammar including vowels. 00 and ~ which in fact are reduplicated forms of <Rl.RI is 61mfu ~ fct'fiT«<l~<!T ~erfu 1 a:rmfu quotedby +!ll:T'i in his '<TTgCJ:fu. ll~WTf~. d. Vak. 'ire " a:r+rT'ijifTr~i\l ~~T a f'<!~r work of the White Yajurveda. G:f\i\T. and ~~qf\+nqraddition of adjectives or qualifying and compiled the qf\+nqT~ words.58. and the present Dictionary of 96. doubling or reduplication.. S!<!<I. on P. ~~ 1 . ct. a:r¥<!Te: ~<l: 9. e.lOJ<I. d. words ending in '11. <rni_. VII..n. 4 101 (5) q~ above. affix rn1!. o o~ knowledge cf. 2. 2) held tight between the lips which of course. tad. It also means mere show of. such as q~R<ii~a5oT. Bh.. VI. cf.. 4-55 (2) sub!.l\\'6ilR<Wcrff at~ ( f. e. I. ~~ -ema+r:. case affix ar. 4. on V.:<I<J:.. bha on I.!7) is the one given in Kasika. contained in. ~ ako!1a or Namaliilga nusasan a. V. a:r+m<}f'5' inclination towards an action.g. ~["<!Te: P.. refers to d: M.I a Rastrakuta king of ninch century.the ninth century who wrote the gloss known alS arntCfClRl on the Sabdanu sasana of Sakatayana.) an eminent schplar of Sanskrit Grammar who prepared a number of Sanskrit a:r+qm lit. ~ substitutes for inst_ sing affix <!T in Vedic Literature. has also written a g~oss on the which is called the reduplicative Paribhasendusekhara and another syllable as opposed to the second one on the Laghu-Sabdendusekhara. "i9il<i.61I§ etc. VII. while qrii:9. ~ I. See OJ+1Tl:f5ing. relation of non-difference as stated by the VaiyakaraJ)as between an adjective and the substantive qualified by it. d. a:r~a-+m:ffi a grammarian who is believ- f. V. P. &TS'\'<!IB" ( R. however. cf. ar+<Rf~eil l3!jGT~ a:rer<{'i: 1 ij£{<fT '!~: ~'qi. ilTq<!T. D. T. Cfil<lT+!<frc'll<r. a J sr+R' called I i I an ancient grammarian mentioned in the <!i~1i by ~~q.r~ ( 2) a Significant term for the accusative case Showing change or substitution or modification. sembvowels l the letter ~ and nasals. ~~ ~:q~ a Jain grammarian and a pupil of Jinadattasiiri. -Uv.. called Nyasa.additional <!1+q~ substitute for dat. M. go. pad. g. Acc. alrnm~ where the i'liliqj(j is a1m. d.a. Pr. _ 28 explained as I.<r affix +'ffl. by P(abhaapplied to the penultimate vowel of candra.0. 1. f. D.effi I. (3) repeated tras. I78. I. 1.IT 1. Pratisakhya. the CJ. on VII.56.. e. & i'R (P.43.) a stalwart ( 2) Repetition. XI.4· I 7 a:rm!j<ID" ~'!fu~re: (M. a fault of utterance or pronunciation. on V. ~T<n: &ilf{+"<!I'irei{Ol~ ~~I P. 4. bha~endusekhara and another named 'GuQharthaprakasa' on the a:r+<n~ omission of any sound. affix 61<J:. d.j~.tini's grammar.. 4. I89a-1976) a scholar of <!1+~~ lit.qc{<J:. cf.ies 165) explained aSG:1!\1~: a:r-. M.:ft<ilrfl:l«lff(~. XIV. He fir5t portion of the reduplication.12. indeclinables and the affixes m: and O+!.nskrit -Sast{?:tq2:RiI S::~li. I I t a:r+rT~q. by P. Bh. It has Wft<!lfct+ffi.Jt<!. iITRi. .ii: <!i~mCJ:re: named' Tattvadarsa' on the PariKas. a:rg tad. 4. f. rn:a<!+f. amUetr. 30. ~Blffi called also ~fu.. VI.. ~.!4. Nyasa. %~~ CfG:+~<imsrl:. on R. ing several learned commenta. :at f9~<{ T. 1·4· kar 1863-1942 A..45 where %f!l:la. who.:ff. technically the word refers to the scholars in Grammar at Satadi.. has written a commentary action. felS.n ~+!<i<I. utterance (of words) accompanied by water drops coming out oof the mouth.lly for ff<! after fu and f'Of by P. as it commences with the words a:rr. and l:ffi:TI'{i'{~<!im ~crtrfrfelf~m~ CfT'q<iim llfu W<:H. VI.=lfffi ~~ 1 on books in several S3. on VII. d.fi<jlcKrffcU of \m:q"i\~~..' It is explained differently in the ~k.. 2. 3.

d • be substituted for '<i as' its synonym 3l~q:~~s{<ITrr: ar~ ~ii!IT<!F!611T+ltfq in the sentence \:111: ~u]~.senses~ There is practically nothing in PaI)ini's siitras to prove that Nipatas and Upasargas do not possess an in". like the rhetoricians' have stated . but. as the word arr in lFitiIT cRol!<I:. so it is cqgnised in the case of all objects. the Varti. I.!?ii of grammarians fully cians state that words are related stated as ar~9'~ur i1Tq~9i~ 3:I~"i.3'~l]y ar~musltfct :rrI9iGTifcl: USe of a word in language.<lT& the letters -or phonetic elements ~~~T{.1 M.i~. clinables on the other' hand.:r<I:. while the Grammarians 'when a combination of letters say that the expression of sense employed in Grammar.:r<I. Re: Nipatas.{<1. V.mm . Vaj. m~Oj.nts . by affixes.!~r .li. . kakara had to make an effort and 16S-2a6. the 'first two kinds qF'{ anc.::<i: 8lT9iR<I:. the term ar~fit:r is used in the same sense.:'I" or i(Oll i.9 2 • by the word' to which they are attached. 9.ar~'l~ f. which is the meaning conveyed hy '<i in U~: ~~U]~. own. pad. cf.j. stt· the strong blowing of air from the mouth at the time. The Nipatas cannot mean +!19 or verbal activity an. by the other fwo viz. R. It is generally looked upon as the determinant of a word (lR).3'qeltr<TIl! and <:(TI' called so.r.Bh. 2. II.:fi~s~fit:rr <U~'{~: ~~.aNq((iOlI{lJlqmWn 'a well known maxim or Paribba.Bh. see Kasika on P. Yak. . out of the four standard kinds of words <r1+r. arlfuP1l.:'I" or i(O<i.!lfTtR:<:J '8liI~1:~ as llTfuqfctCf. I.!~' Vlirttika affix would be applied to them. ~f-a: a group of· words given in P. wBiy. The sense is sometimes looked upon as a deter_minant regarding the.. affixes and ~ord denoting: the object is superprepositions ( . Vak. 2. and st~OT use of the word 'ar~ ': .:rfr'ti a word. ar~: lRi1lifr ~. Pr. IV.qifOJT~ sense by means of ~ or COnvenfrequently used by the Viirttikakara.1 R. ~~I'i. For . The sense. <Jql3ir and fqqro. Bhar. d.:O: ~. III. 2. pad.80. I.3'qBrIS) do not directly Imposed cf.n) added to them as a diturarthika affix e.1 ~g ~+!T­ crt'I~ ~~. on which 'iT:q9ifcf and laid down the dictum the corresponding genus of the that indeclinables. which means that '<i and other indeclinables are called Nipatas when they do not mean B. To avoid this difficulty.IIil: ~Tmf. d.d. 39. not turned into the letter \:. .). on P. These ar~iT'iTif letters possess the characteristics of both.it has to be taken as on liIP. on 1. is quite different manner as the word B'ilr. the only difference in their views heing that the rhetori. and never independently.44. they will have to be called 8li1~. 9T noticed in every object innature~ and others do possess a sense as cf..jT. IS. ~f(~TifT<lT­ +!?.:'I". is conveyed rather in a a~e :uwa!s found mixed up. 12. fact that. conveyed sense or object. I 41 of the foot of a verse. their sense is conveyed by nouns and verbs on the one hand. cannot comprehension of sense. . possibly following Yaska ~ genus Or general nature and Vya<. 'i1 f. distInct In each case.. Pro XVII 16. . pad. signification. 6 · of a sense. XI. I. prepositions and in dear<lQifol ~q<j~r:qrii: M.l9 !tIT I i1 g ~o: l:q~ilOj that the connection between words ! 'El'ElPIm 9T I f. IS.40 a. as contrasted with ar~ aft arq:. he has looked upon toe different units or elements of a Pa4a such as the base. which' '<i and the like should convey if they do not mean B.<9"i.Bh. 33 P. ~a not rhotacized. ~~na:m I tIT mi1~~ ilTli R. f. No.64. they are mere' signs to show some specific property or ~~ mention or specification of sense. (absolutely meaningless) _ and in that case they would not be I . cf. Pr. Sik!?a 280. the affi". the JUte '<i11l.n1l.d if they do not mean B:. I.7 etc.. Although . ~ff arlc~<T ~ ar41iTcmn: Uvvata on Vaj. theory Of'ilTQ'fifcf as contrasted with by individual objects. The Grammarians.I3.3'q~~: Cfi~o<i: rrql rr~~ . Pro VIII.~~ ' a term applied to the odd feet ~ ~ of a stanza. see Vakyapadiya of Bhartrhari n. IV. no doubt permanently. d. III. II. XVI.e. . also the statement aN~~ underlying principle in the . on fu'i~'>! \'(l!9\:~' <fR a technical term for Ardhadhatuka affixes in the Mugdhabodha grammar.t+~ ~Tl!a-s~~f5 qql There is no difference pf opinion llj(cf W. ~m. cf. cf. explained by <JoEf2. presents a riddle as to the meaning . I.rum I . an~m. trhari. and no casecf.g •. IV. d. Pro III.l9~q f( ~~qllT<r and their senses is a permanent ' filC!flTiI~ I ( ~ ) one (f.of the utterance . d. of the surd consonants. to thei. etc. ~ a Visarga which is not rhotacized.!~). also ar~: "rr'. I.Cf<i and O<jm~9i). ' he wrote a Viirtika f.45 Var.. m~~T R. has developed the possessed in common with others .. to the different ways in which III. Vak. the coalescence of which is not nasalized. however. Regarding possession of sense and the manner iri which the sense is· con veyed.mffcti9 ..~l!·.<ils~l'~~. the augment and the like as p:l5sessed of individually separate . the vowels as well as consona.:~ . as ar~Yfu~ '[~m~~ ql!l. cf. I I &T~ (I) lit. I. 3. pa1.II. just cate his thought. the deSire qTm~9Tff~~ cli+ilq~<fl'I<4ler9iT +!9~ I on the part of a speaker to communiNir I. too. as they are always uttered only in combination with another phonetic element or letter such as ar or the like. dependent sense. termed Pratipadika.Bh. Pro II. d. I P. or B~I<:J.~IC'l~ ~oq: ~". .ini has given the actual designation lR to words ending with either the case or the conjugational affixes. convey any specific sense as their 8. I. wm'if!(!tIU 1fl~:. cf. a substance.6. 2. A unit or element of a word which is possessed of an independent sense is looked upon as a Pada in the old Grammar treatises. deduced from the phrase ar<l9.r. al'!iT{rFtC'lT 'iolBm~:~i1 ~ftrr: B.S0 which get the taddhita affix ~ (ar.ar~ do possess an independent sense Of their own. ar9l!<l1IW~+I~fq~'<T: Cfi-aC<:J: excellence of the sense conveyed M. As ~~ purpose Of existence a matter of fact the Nipatas '<i.. ~ f . tion which solely depends On the The Paribha~ii lays down that wiI! of God. is possessed is oilly a natural function of words'. 2. LOOking ~: J{~~~h M. the Upanrgas (prepositions)' and Nipatas ( particles) there is a striking difference of opinion among scholars of grammar.I4 which says: shown by their presence and abl< Ju~t as purposeful activity of the elements of the three gUI)as whiCh sence (a:r.n<I:. ' arful:iTof .

90). Pari. II. hostility . a'f~:if ~ a:r~'i:I'~ a group of! words given sense. ~q: aretq: +rci~ CfT1f~ I U~: 9:~lif ~m I M.:q+r. a:r'4:. Pr. II.~ ~ a:r(?i~ur ~ ~ 'I a:rctiT~iiJrcp '( I) not used in a secondary 31 5.1 to VI. desire to possess. SiR!' '{!1:TTl'!~9t~: P. that which is not a proper (i)~1lJ i. of utterance in Par. Sek. described as a cause of being entitled to do a thing.'l'l~.?:<r ffll:cTIfu'tTri'r (in:. 31~ 311 31q ~«.3T4. Yak. at~W (I) not possessed of a definite gender. h is. and 4 sibilants.oduction of sound or in the utterance of a letter d. u. pad.j. 79.tini'sgrammar is superfluous. looked upon 'I as a.r~: dissolved as ~r. XX. the meaning of another word ( 31~ ).y) and the proxilllity of another word (~. 5JCfi\Ul. Pro 1. forms the first' half of a ~ftff vowel.J ~fu 31!:1£l:'lf. II.ction by even half a mora. on P. pad. 3. e. on the ters requiring little breath from the mouth for their utterance as opposed to mahapral)a. ct. i I '~Cf:q.g. Bh. a 5!«nm: or a short term signifying any letter in the alpbabet of Par. 16.37.au.~llT­ ~ ~N). 4 semivowels. not po. II. on II. I2 7· ~ to the last letter of the wording put in the genitive. I. Such factors are syntactical connection in a sentence Cfl'Fl. ot. (2) the wording as~.g.. The Aluk compounds are treated by Pfir.!~~~re a:r~~: ~ijlq: S.'i~cft~~sqfrm: Cf-a~ I ct. ct. Sekh.g.l an operation.. also n~2!T~<:n(T!fU~T~cru <. in the sense of pos'session. <r ~il. I2. . on P.tini is the' briefest possible. 'i. ~Cf) a'f(?1ffl{ur (I) non. P.JI: . V. cf.. ~I..:r{~: i a:rr\ii~'lIlJ~<!«. I... the usual popular manner.4I. VI~ 4·77· a:rm:rrrnCf) taking for its utter. KiiS. 31~'i:TT: . 2.( fcrUN~fT ). Pro 1. ~~f?rlf i\fi!. ( 2) not accomplished by the regular application of a grammar rule. ct. Pro 1. (2) non-aspiration.3 r which are declined in both-the masculine and the neuter" genders.j«ft4(i)"<i Iilf~~re the acute (. (T~: ~: I see also arNl[ft dissolved as l[ft ~ in' the 31~fcfi'iiFet:::)~• (I) the word 31~ actually used in Par. I.ance the time measured by the utterance of half a matra or mora. Bh.44. also aN .52. which becomes" sp. ct. 1.:& . ' I. on P. applies having a...ir initial portion will have one morae.. a:r~Cf the condition of being needy.{~ 31~'qr~m.ecially i3({!'6 or strength of its being enjoined by means of the genitive case.fr '+19m M. p. M.. ct.:a ~'lr<gUJT: ~~ a factor which determines Par.e. Pr. place (~~). ' I22. a consonant. a Siitra which cannot be properly applied being ambiguous in sense.J I d. d. I r sesses it. e.:fT: "i12:<! 311~llJTiJ . association ( ~Wl )." 31'<T+lISll~EJ~<r ~~l.64 Vart. ~ <i9fer t(i)~r<jm. d.34. Par. II. which pos- expression of sense.8. as contrasted with the irf. 2. <rT<r$fi~~2!­ filN{<l+<jl~~~ M.:aspirate letters. on IV. (2) 31re~ ~~cU (SId. OT~fffi 31~ fil£j~ a:r~8: I . on T•.e. I. ~~. on 1. 31~~ ex_plained as ~~~2!T~-half the utter· ance of the short vowel. and the letters ~~.mfcr~ viz.JI: tfICfiT(. R. V..42 P9ssessed of sense and not such a \ one as is devoid of sense. the. r. a Siitra which does not teach definitely.!~~rfit AAa:(i)T~<ii CfiT~.3~. cf. It is only a nature of words that they convey their sense.J Tai. a:r~m ~~ S1't<!<j: P.p. ct. 1. 2. or wording by mention of a single letter.Bh. it is used in. as it requires for its utterance that time which is measured by half a matra (miitra being the time required for the utterance of short a:r j.!m:n '3C{T~11£m~9+r. not being cap~ble of redu.sessed of a definite a:r~ the half of a sho~t vowel having gender and number.. ~'" " ~<:i"iI%(!ilif€[ 1.e. . the wording of the Siitras of Par.82. Whi. the term is used in connection with such words as are pot frequently used. In other words. respectively.'i«<. 1'll<m"'.24. 'This statement of the Vartikakara is taken as a standard dictum which is fully consistent with the doctrine of ~lir~m<j(9. ' a term used for the Jlhvamfiliya and Upadhmaniya into which a visarga is changed whim . Siitra. followed by the letters ~. which.jr'l~ir <D~ifl:ftfer Nir. 31~. II. the dissolution of a compound not in.2.a~) accent '!fu1r 'lI~~'lfu ~9u~fcr I (i'ij~ I 31<T . ~(i:nrr~ a compound in which the case-affixes are not dropped. In the contexts of long and prolonged ( pluta) vowels..n. II. W~~qSl'<ltIlT: ~mt1J1fiqta:'iir: I <iffta-~«.signifying that not a single element.r(<(" P. 1.mff K8. d. d. let- a:r~~ sign of Anunasika.32. ' ~'mf{ when the vowel. ' ~~FI conveyance or 43 CfiTIFi~ aN ~fu.tini . 2. on III.. ~91~ ~m~ ~91~ 5!~<. f9~5!ferqf~~fit ~~~flFl.r.!Cf~ .1.J). 2. smaller numb~r of vowels in it.r:. 2. propriety (anRlc<.5.'l+r.~cfol~::{ I Nyasa : on I.!qmtl: Blf f. <. ~~ of an..'i«<. arWSvt<j~ I lifg'tf. a term generally used in connection with 1'llc<!<jS or indeclinables. Acc'Jrding to P.r~ :s~ ~~'i ~. " ~ 4. Bh. a:rqn+r<ni'r~: ~':n+nfcrCfi<I.tini in VI. ~ " ~la:r~ a class of words which take the taddbitaaffix 31~( 31) in the sense of the affix *l'l'!q: i..tini's rule e. etc. ' <l1~q*. the same way i. I.a:r~ii. VII. I. also Sabdakauslubha.3I. ct. 4. <[.. I <r~lIf~~1l1 ~. 33. fault. I a queer combination of half the character of one and half I I "' absence of elision or omIssion. ~. ct.( 31~ ~ IHI9T<. such a word is generally placed first in a Dvandva compound. a:rr~l1~(rI'T. P. Yak. one of the external articulate efforts characterizing the utterance of non-aspirate letters. T.. aj(iqr"'Cf{ is the saine as aj(iql"'''liused in" the . situation context. a:j~ a fault in the utterance of a vowel of the kind of abridgment of a long utterance. a:rcitG' absence of elision of an affix etc. h.78. . f. Pari.i:. 4. feebler effort required in the pJ. the intended -sense out of the various senses that arise in the ~ind. d. half of a matra or 'mora'.JI'Ri lm<.. d.2. 3l<E'iT"'at. dissociation (fcr5{<jl'l ).company (~T~:q'ij).2..[. not of frequent occurrence In the spoken language or literature. which consists of 9 vowels. 1 t . also Vak. e.her.K.3? the initial part of Svarita is adhahrasva. d.g.lii'hi\f. a-u«j~<lqTa:­ 'l~<lt(<Eqn{: (5{<jc<r:) Tait.. 14. 308. half morae.mr ~~'n a:r'Cl'1C!~ (' P. o4l~'lr<rm. ri+mrr ct. evidence from another sentence (iB.. cf. pad. . 3. 59· in P.!i:..59. ct. 25 class-consonants.' ct.C.65. I I ..I. time (~).

:r~ P. f~~Sil<i':. limitation. The antaranga operation has its causes' occurrin'g earlier than those of another . t§'Cf) or accents' or nasalizahon.. 9~~Ii'ff\j\j~. I <i~I~P. a:rEf~flJa­ fiH~~"l TRiqa. cpo also 31Cfl:TT\UT f. or ~5 adjectives. on I.3. tlfflB9>:jU ~~'itl+r9il~: (V. 378• I24· / tim something which need not be specifically prescribed or stated. ~:nr. d. 1. I it"lm ~ I l112im 1 1\1. reference to one sirigle letter. d. ( 4 J The word is also· used in the sense of a pause. 268. amtqrS<l: P. 8ek. . II. ~Na-r. 49.rr TaL Pro I. specification. ~ elision or omission of a single phonetic element or letter. In the recital of the pada-patha. scence of or ( short or long) with the preceding or (short or long) or with the preceding tJ. ( 2) deter- Ii?: 'l\c1oij~ (M.25. (~~) or<il:TT~ occasion. the first letter of the Sanskrit alphabet.56. in the Sarhhitapatha is read as ~\:sfua-r. or splitting up of a compound word into its constituent parts. e. 50. cpo Vak. however. 99. The Atharva:-PratiThis interval is equal to. VI. specific knowledge cpo Vak.::il9>:j1f: <i*f &:9T<JCf ~m ~-<ia-. also M~Bh. on 1. <i~q>:jif: STunfa' I q ~P. ct.{ ~~~l ~ activity residing individually separate in various parts. 31if'C~ Fci~IJj'. followed by any conson-. II3. about which nothing can be : said as to when and how it members are uttered separately. but retained as it is. also o~ (lUt~) l{~q. 4. Under a:r'ifue~'T are mentioned indeclinables.:~: 1 <iT'i~~ ~l&1Tl'JT<lT­ +rVSl~q Kas. R.\q.Pro while. (~~. OP-('q. cf. 4. V. Bh. 1. 1.JUr<l· qffiU 3T~­ EfZ<iT: 1 q~<lT+r ~P. d.Kas. 98.. originated.flmffi mination cpo Viik. (See for details Vaj.8.44 SJ&i~T~ or awq~~~ ( mit. I.l{~· <ufWi'iCi'i'i2}' ~ M. a:j€l~2MW (v. it is equal to one mora according to the other PriitiSakhyas. <.ful<J: I PUl) ya. P. ( A. The word Ciul is used in the neuter gender in the Mahabba$ya .5 I Vart.Jfl't ~~~ lit. Bh. cf. a. 3. there is a momentary pause measuring one miitra or the time required for the utterance of a short vowel. I. Bh. 3. The word is equivalent to the maxim Sli:~cf.109) '<IFFt: ~'li{ ~lEf9i ~fa 1 m+r<i' . or ari interval of time when the constitUEmt elements of a compound word are shown separately.3.d 9~~~T1iqT-.37._ I I 1 \ <liqej'q~ accent occurring in tbe case of a part of a compound word. I. also cf. V. II. Ef~<i(/n&:~5f<. I. II. I.2I. X. the word a:r~~ is used in the sense of the sign (s) showing the coale-.5). possibility of application. I). a:r'i~ift ct. al1~~ Q~:qTlI. on Ill.a short gloss or commentary on a standard work. a:rmfiUe~) ~ "i:t~Rr+rr~ 31'i£m'ifa. 3. 18 and 1.Sj: ( R.. also 13~+1'iol 5f<U1t ~Cf-r. When_the word-elements are uttered separately. ffi ~1Jji[~1 't~WIT'i9iRT:l 'i:j'lI.r'i. or~Rr~ 6lq'tl<lTo. definitely stated that the authors of the Padapa tha ha ve to split up a word according to the rules of Grammar.or<F-llr: 1 In writing. 6r. as opposed the total or collection (tI!!G:T<i) to which is called 3TCf<lFci<r.\: (See lfTfiTr. ~r<rit'i>:jit ~~<ffi" fc!CfTl1~ li. d.trtll Par. to its component elements 1 as shown in the Pada-Patha of the Vedic Samhitas. on IV~ 2. 31'!fI:TH::UJm<J:qrqft. ending with the affix a:r<l in the sense of an instrument or a location and the words <lifer and ~5q.' pIes. 2. e. +IT W~qo'\ ~Q. on I. M.Bh. I. ~. the expression 1iITq~Ofm the genitive case signifying or showinga part. Nyasa on P. on P.. d.. op-(~~ a:rEfii:<f ~~ fq~<ill. Pro II. operation which is termed 9~~ cf. VI. : there is observed the practice of : <ifOf::lI'[r<t(I+f the interval or pause after placing the sign (s) between the the utterance of the first member of a compound word when the two parts. M. 85. II. comprising all its varieties caused by grades.Efl'f<JQRt!l1TfH: I which can be stated as tI~r~T f>ii<iT.::l&:~iIS<tw.36). pad. 57. The conventional sense is more powerful than the derivative sense.48 Vart.9. I.lII.fk~~T~~Tij<r Satras 182'I88). two moras where the Bha$yakara has. 45 siikhya defines 31'i~ as the' separation of two padas joined in Sa~hita. 297..26. Pari. 1. d. Bh. tI~~<. 12 ). a term occurring in the Linganusasana meaning < possessed of such genders as have not been mentioned already either singly or by combination' i. 14·II. d. I~.I rate1y jf they are combined by I Sarhdhi ruies or by the formation of a compound in the Samhitapatha. 5. pad. V.g. according to Tait. <if~N an operation prescribed with ayq~ . 14. 2r27. a:rEf~95fm~: \1!!<n<J5fmfucf~'lm Par. ~ the letter 31. ~ substitute ~a:r~ for the firial ail of the word iiT.134. Pro V.30 V. pad. <ifOfM+re: object of limit. 16. cf. or ail e. cf.7) a:r. In the Pada-patha. 4. Sek. on P. <if<iej'Of member or portion. ( 3) In recent times. CfFi<Jmtlfflm: 1 a~d is in contrast with tlwrn.~fa. I'. ( 2) The word or'F-I~ is also used in the sense of the first out of the two words or meIT' Jers that are compounded together See Kasika on P. accent for a compound word within a compound word. limitation. VII. I. I..nq~9. I. V. g. VarL I i <ifOf"JfII split up into constituent parts. cf. III. on Kat. Pari. IV. e. q:m<JT6+rW 31~>:j~~<i. Pro IV. being already available or valid. The term a:r'F-I~ is explained in the Mahabha$ya as < separation. <li<i~ limit. words. possessed of all genders. III. words ~nding with krtya affixes i. 17. 372-75. pronouns. necessarily.q~T: '# c<!:!ll'lT~~t'd! a:rR~T­ fitCfTi:rt 31'l:iI'TlT Cfer.. I. L.. Prato Adhaya5 ). I2 3.Bh.1. tlcflll &:~ & o+1'iN Slrn. ant is not changed. <i{Of~ifa:r name of a Sarhdhi when a class consonant. 3:i~ISS~. e. d. cf.50 Vart. cf. II.R. is very frequently used in the Mahabhii~ya when the same statement is to be emphasized.~T<l+19ul<r.II9. I. also Ii?: <i~ 31'i~: f. pad. cpo Vlik.n<J~ 1 Durga.:f- (I) restriction. Siradeva Pari. potential passive partici. Cil'j~ €t (R. which is either exclusive or inclusive of the particular rule or word which characterizes it .!. in Katantra ' ~m~ an operation requil:ing a smaller number of causes.g.. P.J1T(il~E~<r. cf.a:r~ '+fEfftt M. which 'merely on that account cannot be looked upon as 3RfU\. d.. VIII. 31'i~ ~~GT<JCR<f. (5) The word is also used in the sense of the absence of Sandhi when the Sandhi is admissible. Bh. on I. numerals ending in . I.14). <ifOf::ri[{ I) separation of a compound word in. I individual words are shown sepa. it~tcr<U: ~il~IS~T~ I o~ a:rfut 9~i'j~~qlit~ 'tt!rq Ef1."m 1 (M.

indeclina bl e.IT. 3. ct. '3l"fq(!. ar. 4. d.:rf~9iT~f<t: M.'r'if:' Prac1ipa on M. Pari. 2.I I 9'tj~~ "f B~g 'l'if a~fu ffil:c'l~ Kas. '3Tf<!CJ~T'lT ~<::uqr~WI QrrcRrll9i!Itfl'O\Fli1iffi q ffi<UCf<!TiT: I i unseparated.on P.nitya' by Grammarians. I. I.36. em'nN9i\:UfF1T B~Sjl<!r'ij\:miTT~~ M •. (2) unnecessary.§~.26. I I for not preventing the application (of a particular term) to otbers . etc.. I <!?-fiR:: Brm«:(!ll[lJfrfct~aT~. IV.73. cf.Bh~ on I. 3TJlT"l'aer1. d.9 whereon Kaiyata remar. or composite expressions like arel{~<tl::rel1ffi or such taddhitanta' words as d~ not take any case affix as also l<rdanta words ending in "i. Bh. mixed. Bh. 92. I. on 1.---~-------. 106. :m ar#r:ern1?<J.ks 1llO\Nlrcn<f-f. 1.. 1f. I.---.:er\1~r. or similar to the base. ~-m of a uniform nature. arf9"\:- frequently in the Mahabha!?ya in connection with letters of the alphabEt which are considered '.M.rT i{o~. ~~ atRi+rm absence of division. Bh. 1.I e'lTIj "f &<tRn.' on Siva-sfitra I dissimilar.'U'l~q-l(.irt .Bh. v[tti or composite expression.. d. nonformation of a composite eXtfession.98 also P. Ahn. Bh. on I. pad. VI. I.~ Cj~<!l<I:.' aflq~~. . <iil'~r ~"T etc. III. To Aho 2. 2.(jqTC{ also is used in the same sense..1. undivided. I. Bh. 1. The word is mostly used in connection with a Vedic Manha. B~:tr ~ w~.ini has used the word as a. The word is frequently used .f*~oa!'1<!q-T<ltqsr.g.20 V. 128. 'IT'l. 1.<fq~T<tI1'4T~S­ c<j<ft'mcr: l\f.:r a-<r C<!qfu€lt?r 'l'tj<iJ. V: or arT.<!tf'i'ffi~'l 3l"99~ 1 at6<f<i'titil' absence between two things by something nt~: . He gives such words in a long list of Sutras P. e. d. on P. also 1ll'l~I"<lr<i.93. or u:.6. 4. 3:!«f f. etc. a 1 4. d.:'f which is also used in the same sense. IV. I.:~:n?f a maxim mentioned by 3. 5. VII. CJCfgf&1URl:'l"fqT1{ <!~ firf~~l{. on IV.( I (I) • indistinct. also 1\1.37 to 41. not beginning with the vowel 3l"T.I M. d. d. Bh. I. 3. non-prescription (jrrcr'4T<l). . Bh.Bh .I 'l-a-~ &9i«:(~q I ff£l~T 3T~lii€lil'ita. 1ll<:<!'ffi 3l"q~~~u1<i. VI. There is the word aJCf<ill+iif.I. equilibrium cpo Vak. Siikatayana._. or as its first vowel. 1.:nmc'l't5 <i "fT<S'lv. at'l? lit. atmfiil'a' name of a fault ill pronoun- M. such usage is explained by commentators as 'an cing a word where there is the absence of a proper connection of the breath with the place of utterance. invariant. 28. or prohihitjon oJ. Pii. technical M. I.. I.!ilf?. d. the author of the Prakriyii Kaumudi. atf. The maxim shows the actual application of an affix to something allied to. (?. e. 2.9. the compuund. cpo Viik. I Kas. 'f lIO. 1llc<i'ffiT~'Ii~Uf~<jro il:ClT P...q:. 4. The term is used Pataiijali in connection with the word 3l"Tfcr-li where the taddhita affix o~ (i[oIi). 30. cf.d Gopatha Bra. 1. a<u: ~~~l: ~Frr<lT'l~ mt~<r R!litStf\:{!lr~~q-ftP~f9~ljffi Si~Ri absence of. on P.cified.e termination. I.'l!! <t1~. I.D. I WfR~oT 'lUfl:. mentioned without any specific attribute. III.Bh. remaining intact. d. not meant. close sequence.4.98. ~r. Theterm 1ll. 3l"~\. d. atRi+rfiTqa. 1. 1.n:~IiCf<?if+iEr iirtal(. 1. Par. 1. on P.r~-Tr stage. Bh.52 .ssJT'l"i..Oll III. although prescribed after the word arR in the sense of 'flesh of sheep ' ( 1ll~: llTe<r). 3. and not to the actual base as is sometimes found in popular use.affix..7. condition. d. 1. 1 ! as for example . also see Kas.of a car. disregard.jTmul{T~ :a:{6W-f (I) ~r. ct.44. mrms'leFIl(. 8. aT~ mS91"<UiTf~" W:(fl.7 8. 2. 89. arRi~ without the application. 1. I.54. Kas.:a-. grandson of Ramacandra Se!?a. VI.:f (W{ ~~l(. also ~q <iI'if'1~<l!lliil eB. I. . arfil~m -atqrnr)iTf~ one who is not conversant with the proper use of language.. a:rfif<tfuiir iir~~: I fitf~: Z:~: I M.3. Bh.in the Kasika. ( 2) non-]csing. 1. I. on II..la-_ 'Ii~lur qg't <tqm M. . Bh. }.i M. called on acccunt of the words forming. 1. on II. ' e'llli['ffi ~?:: I *<!q'{-ffi 1llr<t'if~fufct"-!'l1'i9ifclT on I. cpo Vak. :a-q~~r'l<':~T. d.Bh.I "f ~<sit~ CJ!2t~Z~"frtaf<t~ . Sif~q absence of specification.l). 160•.:ra view of grammarians according to which there are words which are looked upon as not susceptible .a I. V. on I.l'li"i. VII. ¢it:~q~'ffi I j ignoring.5.3 etc. a word which has got no 1llT or U.57. V. pad. Vart. or more syllables.i of intervention sf'parable.. cf.46 . Bh . not undergoing a change. on III. an indeclinable whi~h shows no vari. Pan. V II. is actually put always after the base 3Tfct9i and never after 3TR. Bh.II3· at~ ar~+!1q name of a compound so on IV. 1. f. I. VII 3. on II. arRcrf?.II. d. . ~#iM non-application. VI. 137 and ~ull. V. on . it. lFfiim. IV. K. 10 5. I. com- pJete mixture cpo Vak. 'l~llfff.<U~(. also Katan.. I. 1. I.rc<ji!·1ll«i4 <1'lm~.63. d. cf..f9"l~ 3Tf:r'li. 3l"f'=1l[ft. .hma. 3l"f'l~fi'lo: lIqm M. 8. cessation. pad. etc. 1.r~~reT~ meant not sP.Sek. IH'tjm'{~l~ fil.r9<':~T.f+'Ia: CJUJ\.cf. being similar to indeclinables.g. imm~table. ~~T~~qlJT term alld includes in it all such words as~. r.1. Par. Sek.8. I : I1I1fqq~ absence of keenness to state. by Vitthala Se~a. The . Bh. at. 1ll<3~q~ and 3T~r:ra~ are also used· in the same sense.va compound is that the first member of the compound plays the role of the principal word. IV. to derivation. 1. cf. f<'l~.37 ar.frm~1'j1+'-l~Q~Tf+l9il"'l: P. declinable words attributed to Bb. lit. III.1'icr <1UJT!1.r~ti' (I) not taken technically into consideration. (2) a fault'of pronunciation.o .67.--:--- 47 archaic usage. VII. termination. P. The word 1ll~ is sometimes used similarly. 1. . ct..I.tion of form by the application 'of any gender or case. the word is especially n·sed in connection with a word in a Sfitra which could as well be read without that word. supedluous.(j<ft+ri9: l'. The term is used frequently in connection with such words as are found used by Panini without any case-affix in his Sutras. S. I atl!RJfi'f pause. ~llt?r !fllF. cf. i ! ! :a:{6~q"'l'1 absence of separation. The peculiarity of the avyayithii.1. 1llfu~9i etc..70 V.I M. J. TIh. . qT'. also f<'l~ql{yl{'ll'<fr ffi~~<s'{: I 'lcCJ!2t?iE9i?r"lrf<. -----------. :. 'TTllT?:T!ll[trr~qf<litq: ~1.. ~6<:f~~~ name of a treatise on ind.terms . I <rF<!q'41. M. inarticulate. 4. 3T~rr~~ !i<liW 1ll&N- r:ii2i'j'Tlj 1\1. on VII. 88. 1. I. ill. ~ ~!Efi c<!9'4T<!<ii <tCJffi M.7. IV'j a ~ork on the meanings of indeclinable words written in the ~ixteenth century A. at<ll~ I I I II deficient in one..~<S'U~tq-fu~'lffi a:rrR9imrn.jTff\. pad. III. 60. also M. sometimes. IV.l). I CJUfT<rrl1<tr'l: 3l"geT~: \<1m.where it should apply.13[. stage in the formation of a word. 4. 133 .

~~ and!:l<i. as found in the I Bahuvrihi compound (P._----. all letters excepting the surds and sibilants. 61TlIlt<!'l:. 1.nding sylLbl.+I: 61r~ll<f.I are used therein..g. Pr. 3.:. <!IH<I:. on P. but can be 1'j9fBl1ltl if the word o?:<1 in the rule 'q~F~l ~:qhT­ qft'. on I. (2) taddhita affix Bl~ (61ft!) added to ~.j~. recital of the vedic texts viz.g.. Kasikii. only 1228 of these 398 I Sutras.:n.2. CLI ~<! . r. Pa. in the Candra Vyakara~a ita affix \ is applied in the four (c.j~'l fu "Tw.00 V. .39.. a term for the C'andra Grammar. also ~If 3'!me~ ~T. is added in the sense of a cause of the type of a .~~t:Tfuq~ VyMi's Samgraha.61 Viirt... '3io~~r. ar~.J<::l. I. 'f[<j:ft ~r ~~~I'. \: y.ed.underi-. M. 16. etc.sqqrBrG. &fB and :S:1l). gram~r~. a.1:j ffiTU~ 'fti!l. <3l'P.fferences of readings also."!l'~irHI"iUT a commentator who wrote at~~qfuq~ the view held generally by grammarians that alI words are not necessarily susceptible to analysis or derivation. IV. the words see P.Slr'E'i:f irt:T'<1rQ \ Kas. '"'ITlt:rr<t fue~c:nl~Y 61f!ll!<jFj'J: M. affixes Sf and illI. senses specified in P. as observed above. .l ll.32 and 33. cf. tl~ etc.~ cf. -----------_.Sek.jr-I <jqll:t<i+I: I f!!jill If. 61~T9"I:<jl<jr: tfR. in a foot. 1:9~.1 IilTfft:Tl~'filfu M.~ '"'I o~T~ ~!fr. B~1t:TINo. I at~~m: compounds like WiI<TTB which· cannot be strictly correct as '"'IITiiBfflB. tiya senses. .l~ CIT 'l~71: 'i.. of words Gal)apatha. d'[r. iffil. arm tions made by the authors of the . the end of a in all 3g81 Siitras. (2) ~ class of words headed by the word ar. 6jJ~. Pari.Bh. 2.g. but the text was fixed by ~ affix 61tl mentioned in thl" Nirukta Patailjali which. 5.sq t6 which the taddhita affix <jQ. prescribed by time of the authors of the Kasikii. d. P.Uc<jfuo P.48 49 \ 'at~q~ abser.( I) a class of words headed by the word 61. T.19. "'II'::. ".ini's R. memory!by the reciters of :B.:~~~ FI~fqo<I:. :. d. I. 2. J .+I: I Kas on P. an intransitive root. d. seven are rules (628-678) to form words ~uch found given as Vartikas in the i as l1ii<i.e.. I 'IT?Jfct ff51tlfct ~Sl: I m1\. 122). has traditionally corne down to the r ~~ll not possessing any noben of present day. fourth and third of the class-consonants. in the \vord 61CjB (3'!~ "Te) d.?. IV.n<JRqlin I P.I). without accent!:'. ~i) ~: Eight varieties of the ~.. P.~o~~~~tr: be understood in the sense of 'meant for' a particular thing which is to be formed out of it.Bh..~fct .. Par . I cf. . a techni.Cj~q~ 'iTT~Pr 3'!.----------------meeting or an accidental circum. The text ofthe Al?tiidhyayi is recited .. technically called the Priigdivya1. the ruJe ~<t'<1m+msl}if. WI. V.l~ ffff1\. S"k.36.:::~<t ~<. as no samjfiasor technical terms was current in Patafijali's tim~. e.rL Sekh. and for t. IV. cf. 3.:rrj:{'fi~1ll: I tR111'a[. affix BlOT.Wl1c<!I:jl't9~lfllP. 17. 9. 4. e. II I + i I 3·109~ ~+I:. and the fifth.32. fsl'fi~{. another name for the famous: WOI k of Hil)ini popularly called I ~ name of a metre of four feet cons. at"!l'q~~a class of words headed by 611llqf~ to which the taddhita.isting of 64 syllables in all. Bh: on VI. 4.!! ~firE{: etc. 12 syllathe A!?tadhiiyi. ~<!""f. VII. ~ Rj~or :.) applied to the wordsli:orr eight books (adhyayas) containing I "and it'<1r standing at. II. by srnt\.38..! aI.:ginning with the instrumental. I Padamanjari on II. \"ith a few· addi. cf.<I:.I:j cal ter~ I I f~.a:rnT~ a metre having eight . as opposed to 61[.tive and genitive singular (.:t<'I: 'I.!f unnecessary to be prescribed or laid down.~ti<l ~~rIlI111lli:9rQ.65.58. g. on II. ~sj:{~ at~lfa" insufficient extension. I ca~e-affix &l3.<:ilm name popularly given to the .qr 'fi<jrf~~ Of1&jlJl:jr :j\O'fi 1{Rr sr<r~ VLO'fi 1{Rr ~'tfi<I:. 2. 'frtw<I:. current at the ( 4) UQiidi affix 3ffl. r.sq to which the affix l1i~ (6jJ<j<!) is added in the sense of mSl( grand children etc. sing.j"::<jrfu or over application.:lU~<!: 00: 'qf<fl~ 9T q-~n: R. cf. .. (3) compound ending Sutrapatha of PariiI)i consisting of 3'!13 (61fu"f..r~ same as 61~qfuql'. Bh. etc..I4 .IV.. as i Par. 4. absence of a proper method regarding the applicatidn of a rule. <. VI.1 <! '"'IT'I.students of Pal). a gloss on Pli1).<I:.gveda •. ~ a class of words headed by the word 61iil1~ to which the taddh. 31'<1\ and 6jCj'. (5) e. i'r. 22.. even feet.ql:jl'{q Hem. I ~:aT~ .. Bfij qt 1=/:':11 ~~<jfflil::(ir CIT ~1i'(. !F1U~fu 'il#hlio<jCj'i..nl~<j~9r­ ~~G{ M. The Al?tiidhyayi is! number.#!~ ~.ce of proper disposal. ct. 'i \I . 4. which are '3"1llT-:{<lrS~(rmll.:ln I Q~ f. "Te'fil: tflfil'1<i'l<:!l. lIO..f<!Tfftflt~r<l<I:.Bh.67 to Hemacandra's Sabdanusiisana. an alternative view opposed to the view of the etymologists orNairuktas that every word is derivable. cf. cf. d. V.. 1.In . 'IT. 22. cf. after and 61ur~.I bles in the odd feet and 20 in the llTIJiIR<l ~~~G{ arn.~ya has. 4.l'Z qT I ff:?r{'fill'fi'i.::<jlt<l~<j ~r~"'. on II. ~t!+r a term used by ancient. M. semivowels. e. e.j.~ Mahiibha~ya and two are found in ! 8ffl.80. marians for the vocative case . ~ (I) case affix of the nominative ~i+rWC1'.IV. afrffi[G{<!: etc. see P. d. grammar.:fi~+I: I . P.:l: See" above the word 61. traditicnal recital. qlfUl. I at~ (I) Pratyahiira or a short term standing for all vo\vels.r'fi '3"t:Tp. Pari. arnTl'. V. The word 61f!ll:<jrft" I ~q.36. 4.ini's Al?tadhyiiyi in the Tamillanguf!gp. 1. with or without sense. V.a<t.g.~tiifro Nir 1. f~r.. (61) is added in the senses mentioned in rules before the rule ato!!~oa. 61iiIH:. observed by Patafijali ( see Mbh on I.:l.) . P.syllables stance. The· author of the in connection with which special Mahabh8. ~ _ i XVI. P. (2) substitute 61 for the word ~ before affixes of cases b. also Blfcrq~tl1llr· Originally there-were a very· few 1\ atrolr.aet.t~fu :?rr. on Siva-sutra 2. Pari. ~~. I. andsubEequent Out of these 3981 Sii tras. e. akisorac~\kra vartiri. ( 3 ) substitute 61 for the gen..JfOT<j<!:.T name of a commentary on and accusative plural and the abla': " the KiHantra Vyakaral)a by Rarr.: nection with avyayas or indeclinaanga works which are committed to i bles .:n:nalysable. fct~Rr: >r:!. 70) as also .. II.27. atem"=~ atmfu:i incapacity to pronounce words correctly. ! 70 . 22.Bh. 2. d.:qT lilrumM. ( 2).Bh~ on II.g.l'{l~if. before the tad.qf+r'"'lTU~ I 3'!::<jI~fct·::<jl~­ B"+r9"If?:-i'ltfqR&:Hr~<I:. 82. iTT1llW<I:.?'" di. 4. the wo::d is used in· con~ believed to be one of the sixVed.53. IV. 4.~<llq. commented upon I operations are given in grammar. qlj:{~:.i. tffiiJr~i:q~fu­ t:T1\. 1. d. V.sqtfQ~.~qf~t:TI'. 1.

94. on II.a. and hence supersede... nescience. 3. I.a'f~l~lQ. on n. . although related in sense to it. or the doctrine of the A§tadhyayi invalid when any 'pre.i and f8rn": in the sentence ~Q. Sek. +R:T ~. g. ~~ ~: ffli<ia. cf.. Bh. has laId down this invalidity on three different am:r.e asORtr. M.30. <IT~cr m.as Antaranga Paribh8. d. t Par. om~:J. made invalid or invisible as far as their effect is concerned and other rules are applied or other operations are allowed to take place. th. . I.. cf. 'i:j'T~ 1l:"aq'i:j'it· 81t1qNfq "'!T!lt~qtl.wn .50 ~ not used as a technical term or . t1qN 81t111l'ff~~ Hem. afi:~HlHtI<f­ ~~ (I) syntactically noJ cQnnected. are ~Bf:j:q. paJ)ini . the term is used in connecta 8i~?i+rFffi not admitting all caseaffixes to be attached to it. <jftt mqt~­ ar:qrijttT~T ~ arT'{<l i{m "~ffe~li.j<!T~f.'f~lil<lr IlTw<i' 2. <1f96!jfu I. 50. I. gr. I.5. IH<. ion with a word which cannot be compounded with another word. ) See at~. ~ O!f~ (I) separated neSs as in the case of two distinct words. on IV. cf. but which takes place on the authority of usage. m~litlli~ Ol'fmm Tq ~ ?:if: q~T t1TP':!'l~ I ~. are nitya or antaranga or apavada. bahiranga and utsarga rules respectively.~: I iiff: <ja: as! <!Of I Ras. I2 Vart.57. / ~~ -absence of clear understandiDg. on ptoc~ss of the for~ation . the ariitya. Al though. 1. or subsequent to it. the reason being that it is connected more closely wi th another word. 3l'i:{. II.lini. . {iff <qnnT'IT~ff. <ro1~ I. II. cf. R. e: property. SmURr I 81ifW. 'iii &!~:. ( 2) other than a substance i. 1. t1<tfir+r:ffi~qfu: ~. "g. (2) absence of co-alescence preventing . 81${r:am~'t iill~liT: M. 2.t~ p..22). ~ "ii~litIl+!~~~ I . ~~~ absence of a syntactical connection . a:m'+r~~~ acompound of two words. d.the general rule that a subsequent rule or operation. or the letter Q. I. absence of connectedness. not compounded.:s! t1liTtU . in case of conflict. which ordinarily have-been prevena ted by those rules which are made invalid had they not been invalidated.Abhiya section beginning with the rule aJm~m~ ( VI. cf. ~:r ad they ha~e the same outward form viz.23 Vart. VIII. T. (2) impossibility of a statement. :!"II!. ~ll!.. the sandhi.affix "above the word ::sm. w~ich considerations sketched above.~a. 1. I. cf. aJij<iTI1T~~ f. in fact. which . that has already taken place. 3. UlR':p:HJfut iXjqt~~T. 4. ~::q samasa-ending . 51 . . I. the single substitute for two letters. of suspended validity ~if absence of the conjunction of consonants. an:n:r~~ dissimilarity in apparent form -( although the real wording in existence might be the same) e. on I. 70. cf. cf. Bh.. See also Pari.:~T lUij~<i)siiF. I. I. the affixes 3lUZ. VIII.:i\ . cf. e.I. aJre4! above..account of the various rule 'i~. one of the two words being more closely connected with a third \~ord. it . ( 3) invalidity of .. E. d.. ::sm. See above the word aTli. in many cases it became necessary for him to set that rule aside. ~ failure to understand the sense.:<j: artl~qq"iifT f. cf. 59. also tltse~'f!Tiitmj11J: M.~ . ( 2) an expression conveying the ~ absence of juxta-positioii.iIRCIT'lIlqT ~ifi M.86 ). U. g.cfit~­ m~: (VI. III. on I. word. and going on upto the end of the Pada (VI 4.. misconception. not having the same outward form or appearance. the . laid dO\vn the doctrine that rules-which. 7 of Vyakaral}a _Mahabha~ya ( D. on II.PaQini laid dO.r"ii~. mention. .Qlilili~t<i<:I:..name of a thing.rq-I~~T +T9Rr M. 'which ordinarily is inadmis~ible. not entered into a compqund with another word. hence.44. for the time being. lif(qg. 68. also :.:rp. Sek.'i Impossibility of occurrence ( used in connection with an operation). il:1i~=a~l{ ~~~~~ I itq~~ <ntl+rr~f I 81~l{~~I~ ~@I~. see above. pad. etc. 11J.. and the like which are. fctm-Qi: P. SoGiety~s edit!on) pages 2I7a 220.ffi~I~ P. third and fourth quarters of the eighth chapter of the at~ft~'f1'l:T the same .175 ). there being no obstacle in the way of understanding the sense to be conveyed. g.r~J}:rrl:T'[. ifO. I. invalidity of the· bahirafiga operaceding rule is taibe applied. makes a rule 01< operation in the See 81fu:a. Bh. The author of the Viirttikas. e.un q~: I "l~" q~: I 31Rili~<!T<. arij~CI: ~~fq arlqTil:~'H~ M.!. Bh. I. 4. 3. (2) tad. Bh. ~ Bh.?J<ffili~ "Clm M.1.13. Bh.29. supersedes the preceding rule. t he words 9.a: invalid.of a word. . attribute. are stronger than. . cf. M. Uf~ (I) absence of t1~q or entity.(q f<r!rfc!~: I l'ii ffff!: I 81ijlJCi)ftr I M. I sense of a compound word although standing in the form of separate words. For details see Vol.are. I. when ~ is to be substitued for ~.. 3lUZ and <m.38. (I) absence of a compound. (2) tion. inyalidity by the rule aJm. Bh. cf. g. The term is frequently used in PaJ)ini's system of grammar in connection with rules or operations which are prevented or held in suspense. not functioning for the time being .a) is also used in conri~ction with rules that bave applied or operations that have taken place. cf.<ITStl't~ P. Gll!. in connedio'n \viththeir application in the I aT~R1 \3qfll1t~111~fq uUqit~~ P. 81or. Pari. q19~ ~~<ihT T. Later grammarians have laid down in g~neral. in certain cases. ar~ (I) VJ)adi· affix 81li. tlTq. which enJoms mutual invalidity in the case of operations prescribed in the ... u~: and~: in the sentence m~T~: ~) ~~~ I (2) unable to enter into a compound word.1i ~<:i1 q~li. and connected with it by apposition or by a suitable case affix. g. on n. See the . Subsequent grammarians -found out a number of additional cases where it became necessary to supersede the subsequent rule which t~ey did by laying down a dictum of invalidity similar to that of PaI. 9TstI~~sfuJ<lI~ P.e invalidity of the bahiranga rule wheu the antaraIiga rule occurs along with. The term (31m.d. off!: I ~~T I <l:ifT ~~ffi ~ftfu I M. Pari.. which he did by means of the stratagem of invalidity given above. I. Yak. cf. 1. . e. e. 'i<tlR'T9\~ul1=a-. I.. 14 . affix aT. affix arli."'n~ ~fu· "f9ffiXl<:I:. Bh.~ invalidity of a rule or operaoccasions (I) invalidity by the tion on .34. is to be prefixeCl. act etc... 1. cf. al~~!{ ~Jifthe s'afi!. 01.2:I. 4. second. -8. 38 . 4. 1. e. 3.

r.2.. and ending with ~~ ~ the substitute a11'!. I.Bh. affix a1~(Q.. ijff~ cf.: fff5'l'hl~B:.!'Ii: etc. . cf. ~~lI'(<IT\ft:Q.: for the another word in the context. Hem. but called f9~fffi..IT'IU.S9.1iQ9i:. 2. 4. members of the compound.. .5 2 • lized. atJCi)t:ri~ a class of words headed by the word 3fI'litl to which the taddhita affix ~ ('Ii) is applied in the _sense of clever or expert. 1. R.g. ~f. att indeclinable 3f1 prol)ounced nasa3. 50 and t4e discussion thereon. SR:Ef not homogeneous. am. is ~Orhpounds. ~ ar. 3. cpo Vak.r.:f9qitfi'r ~~: I ar~~!i unblended. in ~k Tantra d. the term occurs in Hemacandra's' Grammar (Hem.:r~. arr. it1j"r~: . aR'1l!! stands for the letters <r and' 1j" which are substituted for the vowels tt it and 'ili't <itr when followed by a vowel. II4. (6) augment aTT ( 3f1~) prefixed the completion of sense. e.. (2) as a loc . e. cf.r:. a word without an accent. r·5 0 . affixed to the Or 3f:~) for case affixes in Vedic word t1. the dissolution of which cannot be shown by the used 1D the sense of 3ft!ffre.. 2. 248. arr . cf. e. as different from a word . (6~:n:. i'f at~+rt{ first person..r... M. tfTfUl~: Kas.which has. 628. ~"f"l:~ f.. a1Ffi"fTfcl:+<!: 'liif. ~{<fr~ and of the word ~<J. term nsed in tion with the effort required for ar~~ substitute 3f~ for the last letter the utterance of vowels. Eh. after the words ~+!~ and 3mi\.{~11' Kas. if~ ~fr~m :. "'f1IJ. I I ~ the augment oro:.. for tllOI: of . 2. ar~. Some grammarians have given the name arm. in vocal etc. sibilants when no specific contact ~ffixes.. cf. a1f. generally in com· able 3fI in the sense of remembrance pounds such as trFlil~. VIII. also Sak 1. cf. the rules of pur:Jini. seen in Vedic " . 2 for the' last letter of pronouns before the tad. art (I) the long form of the vowel 3f called <ftEl'.96). d.T. another according to the view of I am I scholars who follow the lJ1{9TG:lJ&.. 3. SJT<iiliit~ a word for .g.3. on 1. This Svarita is not the original Svarita but enclitic or secondary. l:lTg<'<lfSS1<J. 249. 'i'm0 <!: Dl). 'l?J atT<iiw. Sakatayana.Bh. This term is used ~ untoned. case-affix. I.Bh.!j-: I M. 4. pad. ' at~t! less in contact with the vocal organ than the semi-vowels. Sii.r) indec1in· sense-completion.g. on Pa.<f. on 1.2. 4.Ii base endmg In 3f. 3fr.25) and is explained by the commentator as ~!ffi~r SJ~~~~r~'ICfifU.. prescribed after: words in the sense also 6R~ Sak. II~. (. 3·75· grammars of Hemacandta and .e. ~m:...'a'r iftlfi1: trr'!il~<r. the word "'1' in .le firs.l3.o a:f~:rq~ a term used for those P. mt.:. g. ' lD IC I I I ture. ~ '<l'!if\lTt<I<i~~ (R. cf.of 'direction'. e. R. individual thing.they have named as <r~~W­ m:+!T"If.mr\ ~ ( 3fI~) in the sense of limit e. etc. 94.g. m~~~ a g(OUP of 43 roots of tbe ~re: class of roots .!. Bh. cf.. (3f~<I:. 4 of adhyaya VIII called Tripadi or Asiddhakiil)<. cf.ntiT (ll~'Iiifct .s. 1. l{<!hrfllfit~T "'f <1: I QJ[llrcf f. 1[cf00rct: ar~ ~~ <{1j"~+(. V.. sing.g'.. fctCf~~: ~~lf~lIT+<l\' fcl:~~~~ ~rfff: P. 1. '-.In com· . the term is used in i!~1ffr i'f?r.t fi~e~case with a vocal organ is necessary. 4·9.33.Bh.5.ini in the three Padas 2. fi m lve ( :gt:rl!f In Ved' L'I tera't" -')' ( Hem. -ntn 9.. cf. i SI1E'l'l! not thecontactis with anyconnecorgan..:orr 3lq: M. YII. cp. form.!\i'lili etc. I.l'l!l[tlifT~ P. seuse of one word with that of on V. ' ing to _the Kalakavana near the ( 8) feminine affix 3fI (2. ~eginning with ~~ see above the word 3fT sense (5)· the root ~Q. d. e. I P. in contrast with (r) the short <IT which consists of one matra and the protracted arr~ which ccnsists of three matras.Bh. e. ( 9) substitute a1T ( arT or 3fTQ.r... 4. g+!~ Wi'le.'iIJ.a.) added to nouns ending in.I54. and 3fI 3. 5f.I2 Vart.alJR+!rlfT to the Paribha~a arfat 1j"~\WIl~ as contrasted with ammi' ~~wr~ ~lj: which. Sek. .which there is 'expectancy of another word for 9?J'I"{ etc. i. aff. d. III..• awcr~(f ~~r artm (a word) attracting_ another ar~t<tftG the circumflex accent prescribed by PiiI). M.s:~ fit~T..'f. 3fliitif. the gen.. following a noun.{'liI~rffif. I Ahn.) by trci':.. 2. ~ A term used for the perfect tense. I. . e.: and atT~R the letter 3fI. Literature added to the nom~ pl. 67.» as in (1Til~.g. p. 31cfir\~ &<[ffiq~~ ~j (7) substitute arT prescribed awliRtJf[IJ!I. V. 1.89.g. g. cf. (i) a variant for a19i~'!i. VI. VII. !It!.f.T.21. +!9Rr~ 'Ii~{<fq. 3fFiiU'ffi ~lf'i§~ I word stated· previously in the context e. VIII. on VII. r.2I (ii) Extendand 'I"Q. atfcfif a word used in the sense of 'original source' or mine for Maba. 3.:.g<liTIll~ri'l !. VI.. Pr. in the sense of 'single " literature <flU <!rm~T.<ft <!~l!T~QA't<1 ~ rJl{ J . !jJ:jIBr etc.g. I 7).t olfl. d. r. consisting of two matras. ~:. ~1SIiI<ii. i3Jl:l~ etc.a1$f e.66. to roots in the tenses' $'3:. affixes e. pI. (5) aug men t 3fT (3f( ~ ) 'as seen in "'f<:T"'f. I73. cC t. on II. or confluence of Ganga and Yamuna. {<f\G{<fro~'l2 'ii\1lT ~+(. See also P. XIII.!... arr tt<t !! ffr<je-. mentary works and in Gal)apatha..!fr<rtit cf...Bh. II. (2) substitute a1r of two matras when prescribed by m<iiJ~ (or tll9il~ also) expectant of the \'I'ord <fteT or '[f.>ari.!1~~(<t "l'" -( I ) k r t a ffi x lD th e sense 0 f th e I '3 . I alone '. 1. r. 3f<. J. on the sense of the first persOll jn the P. asavarI)a.53 -~~ -' For details see the ParibM~il "asiddham bahirarigam antaraIige" Par. ~'W{T a11~ . 3ftiij'li+(..bhal}ya by commentators in phrases like tq2+!~. d~~r I ~f+rcT ~1R<iT: ijff"ftRt I M. just as the. unmixed. e. I.. an accent. (fT'l~ etc.s~~ P.) a11~11l~ <1'f. M.I4'). before the . (P. before ~!. ar~ ~<i+(. I. .27. or :sr atT~ tad. which are Atmanepadin only.. Kas.:.3.' all' the three grades ~» <ft~ and ego of ar.14. II.n: I ?tR1{ti'>!~!f(r('f: Kas. . but which is not ~ uttered with that accent.' ar~'I\'liI01TlT~: ~~: M.3. a11.r~{i1~ p. &1~rffi tad.g. arr <i~Ir('fm atT<fiTiWT expectancy with regard to (M.:I'i!f· on III.+(.g. ar~~ Dl)adi affix am. e. VII. in the sense of the base itself. ~~m:. I9r).(. e. d. V. 6..SW. !Illl<J. VII. short vowel 3fj (3) upasarga 3fT 'J1li and o!fTif~ in a1W 'J1li ~.a{(t(f: S(~ii'r fil. affixes ~% 'l~.l. sftfUl Sj'lwi~.:tlfRff'm.fu lit.:.64. 6R~ possIbly means 'belonging to ar i. on a1W~'ffi 'l%lU?:Cfif B~ (P. cf.. d.

54
Bb. on III. I.4o Vart. 6. The word is derived as an~ij- tIT a:rlitifu: and explained as B~("+r:; d. .anf>ii<!ij- o<!;;<jij- 31<1<1T ~fu 31Titifu: B"~Tif!!'&I€r Nyasa on IV. 1.63, ~ 2) ~eneral form which, in a way, IS eqUIvalent to the generic notion ~or genus.; cf. ~~~:m~8:&+r: I 31CluITitiTCI~~~T WfijClut¥> ';!lfre<!fu lVI. Bb. L I. Ahn. I ; ~(3) notion of genus; d. also <i~llf a~

55
fefiaTftr
arrf~ ~fcr M. Bh. on III. 2 •

.,

~'lm M.

178; (2) a ~erm used for the circumflex accent or ~ftCi as it is uttered by a zig-zag motion of the organ in the mouth caused by the air prod ucing the sound; cf. a:rT~ <I'm
m~lrrij;:f lTlSJIUTf 'lT~~~ ~ <!

~ftff: Uvvata on

R.

\3'Ccrn ~

Pr._IlI. I.

becoming while nouns (<I'Tl1Tfil) have sattva or essence, or static element as their meaning. Verbs and nouns are concerned not merely with the activities and things in this world but with 'every process and entity; cf. 'i'lftffl~ m'lijT<l'<IT€rilT'qg Nir. 1.; arr«l~ffif<l£jtll<l'T+r~: tI~T I
,ar;'tCfiCfiT~~IF?rftfu Cfire'1aqrifq~UT :n+!<ltllfn
ff~l: ff!i<!Ttq~ I LaghulT/afijii~ii. When a krt. affix is added to a root, the static element predominates and hence a' word ending with a krt. affix in the sense of bhava or verbal activity is treated, as a noun and; - regularly declined; cf.~) ~l~ . !\O<{'l~ ~fu M. Bh. on II. 2. I9 and III. 1.67, where the words 'lRf, ~, q-1Cfi and others are given as instances. Regarding indeclinable words enaing with krt. affixes such as q;§, i!if<f[, and others, the modern grammarians hold that in their case the verbal activity is not shadowed by the static element and hence they can be, in'a way, looked upon as iikhyatas; cf. a:rO<{<!i!im ~l~ VaiyakaraI).abhii~aI).a .

cf. ~~a<fr "lTW~~, CfUlWni1:::, ufi\:q;: P. III. 3.108 Vart. 2.3. 4. where such
appendages to be add,ed to the roots or'letters are given. The word ~ is an old word used in thf:) Nirukta, but the term, 311<JrgCfi appears to be used for the first time for such' forms by Haradatta; d. ~ftffi ~ , <ti~, 31[i(;:g~Cfil~ ~ut<l' 'frl'tliJ: Padam: aiijaIi on VII. 2. 3I. In the traditional oral explanations the second part of a reduplicated word is termed a:r!i("gCfi which is placed s.econd i.e. after the original by virtue of the convel)tion a:rT'I;;:~<I'['1;:ij- f<!~~:, although, in fact, it is said to possess the sense of the root in contrast with the first - which is called abhyasa. A nice' distinction can, however, be drawn between the four kinds of adventitious wordings found in grammar viZ;. a:rTiFSI, ~, ~~'lTtl and 311"1ij which can be briefly stated as follows: The former two do not form a reguiar part of the word and are not found in the actual use of the word;'besides, they do not possess any sense, while the latter two are found in actual use and they are possessed of sense. Again the agantu word is simply used for facility of understanding exactly and correctly the previous word which is really wanted; the ~Q. wording, besides serving this purpose,is of use in causing some ,grammatical .operations. 31"'lT~ is the first part of the wording which is wholly repeated and it possesses no sense by itself, while, agama which is added to the word either at the beginning or at the end or inserted in the middle, forms a part of the word and possesses the sense of the word.

f~~;<rf~~ f~~E'lF~~mmr<Ili& ~ ~~: I
~t"-lllf I 31TitiRf<lTij lilT. M. Bh. 1. I. Ahn.

m~ a: zig-zag motion of the organs producing sound caused by the air; see anfi\)a above.
m~

I; (4) a metre consisting of 88 letters; cf. R. Prato XVI. 56, 57.
~miiUl

a class or group of words in which some words are actually mentioned ar.d room: is left to inClude others \vhich are found undergoing the same operations; cpo
~tnjTq:<!: i!iUTRf<:I: I ~uljT<{<!: QZqrij- iti~­ UitiTer'lUl: I M. Bha. on II. 1·59.

designation, conventional name; cf. &:=r~w ~~fq ~ftr ~'lfIlT~'lt ., ~fcr M. Bh. on I. I. I.; cf. also ~l'I~(m~~~ P. 1. 1.35; d. also 'lut: 'iiTU:QU qUT~ Tai. Prato 1. 16. verbal form, verb; cf.
~I'lSN[.,­

an~<rrn

ijT~<!Ta:#t'i ~1:'fTilTf<l' <l'r~ N ir. 1. I; 'qrcnR~f.:r <l'rij~Tffiq-tlfrf<'f1fRiT~ M.

Haradatta 'defines the word as
~r<i'tlR~l~i1 31iitifu~l~ir

'lUI: 31li!ifu'lUT: I

Bh. T. 1. Ahnika I; also A. Prat. XII., 5,. a:rf.fil\ a:rl~ q-<{[fi\:~ M. Bh. 1._ 2.37Vart. 2, ~<!Rlll~ f?nclrtll~·Sid. Kau. on II. 1. 72, f.!i<!r-, qr'q<ii~~<!Tff V. Pr. V. I; cf. ~IW:a'l'!i­ lT~cmf ~t# ilTlT m6<!ij- 1'+rRll:l~i1 [et'lT<{~lff+!rOO~!ln'l+r: V. Prat. VIII. 52;

Padamafij,ui ,on H. 1.59. Some of the Ganas mentioned by FaI).ini and in Unadi and Pbit-siitras also are .AkrtigaI).as, e. g. 31~W;:'IUT, +(i9fet~~fct-l 'IUT ~it;<jTf'ti(1Jl, fu;;n~'1!Jj, q-'q(f<{i(UI and others. Theword Vrt which is p.ut I at the end of a GaDa to mark ItS , close does no1. occur in tho;e GaI).as which are looked upon as .AkrtigaI).a~. cpo a:rE3~UTl<{litifu'lDlls<'+r: I Ka. on Pa II. 1.48.; cpo a:rTitiRF1UT!l:IT<i~ I ij-<l
a:rq-ftrliul~~B+(l[: I <! 311~~[ 31l9\l~UT ~l'('lij- ,
~ ~'lUT: I

Svo. on Gal)aratnamahodadhi. cpo also '~Ir:ftcitS:if c<!'l~<if
I

i.nlh'l<!~' n:!f[
~

"'lri'<f~~ it"Tlft ~liJo<t

i9l\:lifa:.' I a Karikii attributed to

Apisali.
<lTTa.n~mT~ directly

or expressly' mentioned in the fourteen Pratyabara Siitras of paI).ini; a letter actually mentioned by Pa1;J.ini in his alphabet '~car,:, '~~' etc. required to complete the sense; cf.

an~8' (I) taken as understood, being

cf. also Athar. .Prat. I. I. 12, 18;1.3.3: ,6; II. 2. 5 where akhyata meao~ vei-bal form. The word also meant'in ancient days the root also' as differentiated from a verb or , a verbal form as is shown by the , lines CfaTij¥nf+!<::l:'fifu tl~<f. ~nt if., ~(cf '~ "lig: R Pr. XII. 5 where ~ 31T<l'<!lff ' and 'l:TTg' are used a.s synonyms; As the root form such as -iti, ~ etc. as distinct from the verbal form, is never' found in actual use, it is immaterial whether the word means root or verb. In the passages quoted above f~om the Nirukta and the Mah1ibhii~ya referring to the four kinds of words, the word iikhyata could be taken to mean root (\TIg) or verb (f.!i<!Tq-<{). The . akhyiita. or verb is chiefly concerned with the process of being
.'

~s'I'&m a work dealing with verbs written by Anubhiitisvariipadirya on the Sarasv3.ta VyakaraI).a.

m~'nm~"P a work dealing with verbs,_
and their activity by Kr~lJa-Sbastri AraQe, a great NaiyaJrika of the 18th century_
OTT~~fc!;~

a treatise on verbs discussing verbal forms by Vangasena.

<lTTll'11"P lit. adventitious, a.n additional wording generally at the end of roots to show distinctly their form e. g. 'lfi\:, t;N, etc.; d, , ~fr~'j:f'lv'F<!f 'q P. 1. 2. 6; d. also ~19<i11'Jut ~~~~QI,,9fit'qftgn~f.r+<!~~"l. P. III. 4. 16, ~fq'!it: Cfi~"l.:. P. III. 4. 17 and a- number of other siitras where ~ or is added to the root;

ma-

m

atFT+r augment, accrement, a' word element which is added to the primi~ tive or basic word during the,process

56
of the formation of a complete ~~ name of an ancient writer of word or pada. I The agama is an Vedic grammar and Pratisakhya adventitious word element and works; d. R. Pr. 1. 2. hence differs from adda, the substi~1Jl an ancient scholar of Nirukta tute which wholly takes the plac;:e quoted by Yaska; d. 0Ifa:i Sl1!: I OI~­ of the original ( or an?:f~ilJ. - Out of ftffi an!lI<!UJ: Nir. 1. 9. the several agamas mentioned by PiiJ.1ini, those that are marked with alT~ (i) the preposition <ijl. See the mute ~ are prefixed, those, marked w.ord Sll above. (ii) substitute 3fT with "ll, are affixed, while those, for a case-affix in Vedic literature. marked with;r., are placed immediately after the last vowel of the Qt!if an operation prescribed hi the section,called aQgadhikara, in the word. The augments become a part A~tadhliYl of Pii.Qini, made up of and parcel of the word to which five Padas consisting of the fourth they are added, and the characterquarter of the 6th adhyaya and all istics of which they possess; cf. the four quarters of the seventh .<rof{liTffi<\~ofT~~mOC\...mrUr.! ;;IfHra-, also adhyaya. 3ilwr~ 'l.:.~ ~. U;Ne\'c<!T: 31rlllTri'ft 31fi(fl'p:lf1r~fue~~ Par. Sek. Pari. M. Eh. on 1. 3.60 Yurt. 5; d. also II. Those grammarians, who hold i crrUJTGJ~ <r~4t ilCfm Par. Sek. Pari. 55; the view that words are unproduced ' also M. Bh. on III. 2.3. . and eternal, explain the addition of au augment as only the substitu- 0I'1~ tad. affix Sll applied to the word r.:~UJT and ~'Q~r; ct. P. V. 3:36, 38. tion ofa word with -an augment in e.g. ;;:fa:iUJr <Tam; <ftlt! ~::rlJmr<t: Kas. on athe place of a word without an au o V. 3.36; 38. ment; cf. 3fl~:<rmnfiit ~f-ll;~frn <!ii'f11l;:r1fiTi'ft ~11f{ll'lil: M. Bh. on 1. 1.20; I.I.46. ~{ (I) 'customary usage of putting The term agarna is defined as aJ~ll{ or employ_jng words in rules; d. fcill/liTi'f~ .9"ul: ~q~m: 1 3lTlJRjliTi'!g~q­ OIr<n<!T'i:lTU~~lffif;a:, P. 1. 1.1, Vart. 4. t'mB aJTlfli ii(fu ;C~ff: Com. on Tait. d. also, fq;Ft~'i:IT{1fctm I OI'T'<IT<!TIllTffqPrat. 1. 23. cf. ff;qr an~C{.w~: I 'i:lTU~ I '<'l'5~'l1'i:1T<!T 6l,~TfUl ~~f.ff 1M. Bhii.. 1. lor. (2) behaviour; d. OIflT~qElmq fii'fiRAirq~i'fl~ I ~:f,<;g ~qI1Ti'fr;;:T'i:lR P. III. 1.10; cf. also llBWl itq: ~9"TtfC/iqlllT~ I Durga on Kat. f.rcH€1n 3lT'<IH:<:faI M. Eh. on VI. 3.109. 1. It.I; also Kas~ on P. VI. 3.109 which cites a similar verse; cf. also ~ltftI;q: denom. affix ftm. applied to DUrga on Kat. II. 3.1 and Hela. any pratipadika or .noun in the on Va-Pa. III. 14.564. sense of behaviour; d. ~~>rrfuir~1'.I . OII'i:lT~ fui<!. Cf'ffie<l: OI~ iT~ilfu ~~ ~~ abase to which an augment is M. Bh. onIIl. I.II; ct. ~{'>ra.."C:/ OIT'<IH:added; cf. t!:CfijfG" qiB 3frlTliT~ OIliff?ri'f":· fff.'filTcrT'ij Par. Sek. on Pari. 52. M. Bh.1. I Ahnika 2. . a;r;;rr.:r preceptor, teacher; a designaa::t<i[fl.:r a class of roots forming a subtion usua.11y given to Pii.Qini" bv division of the CuradigaI)a or the : Patafijali in the Mababha~ya;· tenth conjugation· beginning with ' th.e usual expression ff~ltfC{ffi OIT'i:lI~: q~ and ending. with lJ?i which are as also 3fr~lPlfu~rqqm; also ct. only atmanepadin;e.g. ~G', <iifC{~, ~'WfrliT'<IT<!T: tL"IlfliT ~~'l1 f.tCf~<lfro. cf. OI~q~, ~~. also the popularljdefinition of an'<lr<i given as "fir~C{ C{~ srr~ OIFct'i:lT~Cf ffiPJUJ+I..1 ~illqC{f.cr fu~\11 ;;+!T'i:lT~ 5f':ll\jtr I"
etl'<lI;q~~l<.f

57
by the word ~ when substituted' for another vowel; as for example in the rule ~'<I ;w~sfufu and the follo\virig; cf.P.. vI. 'r.45, 57; (2) substitute for the ablative affix ~ after words ending in 31; d. P. VII. r.12; (3) substitute 3flo:. for a case affix in Vedic Literature, e.g. if jijTGI'l1I~f.r<:<Dm Kas. on VII. I.39.

~~ necessary

a partisan of the preceptor PaQini or the Siitrakara who is looked upon as having approximately the same authority as the Siitrakara; cf, OIT'i:lTiiitmq OII~-q Cf'ffiO<l l{fu I Kaiyata on 1. 4.105, Vart. 2. qualification to teach the Veda with all its pat has having the necessary knowledge of accents, matrli.s and the like. Cf. Ql'{SIillFctiil,,:m Cfu1Sfillfcr'i:ll\jUJ: I '-"!D1F-Ilfii~­ q:m- if:;:~I'i:lT~~q,,;r. 1\ R. Prato 1. 8.

~'"

~.

nr"

I
I

OI'~ Atmanepada third person dual

ending, technically SUbstituted for 'fiR by P. III. 4.79. '

anfu

tad. affix anq: applied to <ftl{, a:T1R and&"&rUJ by P. V. 3.34.

:mt¥'d~lq; applied by

I

an~m~ a class of words headed by the word 6lT~n which do not have tHeir final vowel accented acute by P. VI. 2.146 when they are preceded by the prepositions 51', qt! etc. although they are used as proper nouns. e.g. anfi:rCl;r., f<l~'<I:, !tVle~; cf. Kasika on P. VI. 2.14 6.
aTi~~

i

extension or tr\lnsfer of epithet as opposed to atltf~. See the word <!iFcl~; the tenn is often used_ in connection with rules or operations which do not apply or occur by the direct expression of the grammarian; d. <!f~ anfu~f:<T~ fq;~<1 m~<fi ~ 'fll:.~ff. 1\1. Eh. on 1.2.1.; d. also <!i(T~l'ii<1f.i~-.:r. Par. Sek. Piui. 93. 6• a tad-affix in the sense of excellence; a term applied to the affixes o;:r and l{g as also a~ and ~C{'i. prescribed by HiI}.ini by the 'rules ~Tq~ n<1f4g~T aud m:9"'<Ii'ffii<1"<lrqq~ ~<lfl~T Sf. P.V. 3·55, 57~ This superlative affix is seen doubly applied sometimes in Vedic Lit. e.g. ~ma-.rr:r 'fi<1UT Yaj. Sam. 1.1; cf. also aG:"ffT'EI <;clT~ ~i'&"fB ;;:;fr"r 7..1gffl{T~fcr PN. 3.55 Vart. 3·

m

straightforward, easy to follow on account of being direct. cf. Vak. pad. I. 12; an5':;;~: ~tfT~;; ~1iMf{l'!­ f.tfl:Rl;r.1 (i[)

anffil<ltm

~

~ (I) augment an prefixed to roots beginning with a vowel in the imperfect, aorist and conditional, which is always accented (~<tRi); d. p. V!. 4.72; (2) augment an prefixed to the imperative first person terminations, e.g. Cfi\<lrfiJI, 'fi~ etc.; cf. P. III. 4.92; (3) augment' &li'fum1:fttel;YrQ a word ending with an an to be prefixed to case-affixes atisayika affix; cf. 3f{t'ffilf<!'iil;:ffm:CfI~ which are ftl'~ after nouns called '§~ffi '3Trfu~IlFiifit ~C{~M.Bh. on V. nadi; e.g.~; cf. P. VII. 3.H2. 3·55·

I i

I

cf.

~ tad: affix. (ana-) in the sense of <iA'1V-f the substitution of long 3f{ posseSSIon a.dded to th.e word <1lT! ".. \ . pfescribed by the term 3ilo:. as in . -... e.g. CfT'iW-: d. P. V. 2.125· 3f~'<I \3qit~sfura- and the following d. P. VI. i.45 etc. . ... _.O!'lq: (I) long an as·differentfrom short or protracted 01 prescribed by the am~ the innermost principle, the essence, in grammar the ultimate word '!fu or ~.er in the case of 01, or

I

8

I

1

1
58
·word principle. cpo Vak. pad. Ill. I.2I; III. 9.89. orm:A:: agent or Kartr as in the terms <:1(~ or ~+n"IT, cf. !i!IJ anHtiI: · <i~"!. III. 1.8.
«I<I: etc. cf. CfiqftCJaT

59
-.-- ---. -.-- -------,-----

EJ5TliQ «t!'6: P.VI.

behaves like the original" (~r~1{T:
ar<rfWl:'[r P.I.r.56 ); . the application

a:riit;~ .at~iUCJ,

I.I59·

.

~R~ a ,technical term for the I affixes called a~ (ff, anaTIl. etc.) and the affi.'{ 3Hii (~Tii"!., 'iffiiiU., '!ir.i'"iJ, I an~ belonging to the second concalled so possibly because, the ! jugation or class of roots which fruit of the activity is such as I begins with the. root at<\.; d.~CJlfu:­ generally. goes to the agent (am:j:j~) ~~CJ .:j~ +Jf9v.rfu "r.u~~ Pur. when these affixes are used. Con-! Pari. 67. trast this term ( Atmanepada) ! with the term Parasmaipada when ~ (I) commencement, initial; .ct. att~~~UJ arrn-: M.Bh. on I. I.2I (2) I the frnit is meant for another. For of the kind of, similar; ~~(:. an explanation of the terms see P. · VI. 3.7 and 8. ~iJ, commencement of an action !:l11€+filq~i(, a root which always takes d. anf~a: f:n<jT~UJ: anre;Cfi1l Kas. on arrfrl:Cfi-f!faJ 'ej: Cfiiilt "fl P. III. 4.71. the Atmanepada affixes. ( See above ). ~ possessed of the mute indicatory ~ a technical term used for letter an signifying the non-applicasuch roots as speak .for the agent tion of the augment if (~?;) to the himself; the term an~"f means past-pass. part. term Cfa. e.g. ~qOUJ the same as ~he term ar!(sf.'tq~ from the root fsrfP;;'fiU; similarly fi~~, The term ar[ffl~';jl"f is not mentioned f<:I~ etc. ct. arrRaJil P. VII. 2.16. by PaI)ini; but the writer of the Vartikas explains it, cf. an(ll~m{j'- i m~f.1f. the Vrddhi substitute prescribed for the first vowel of a word m+rI'!f~~~<rIil;r, P. VI. 3.7 and to which a tad-affix, marked with 8 Vaet. I; cf. aiso ~qft.:rJil 1qmcn the mute lettef :sr, or., or ~ is added; ~<jICfi(~I{(~j:j~'!f~ .."t<r l;<i9ft~m, Kaiyata e.g. mql1CJ, ttl&! etc.; ct. ff~6:r~mR: on VI. 3.7. The term is found in the P. VII. 2. II7j lI8. Atharva-PratiSakhya. Ill. 4.7. It cannot be said whether th~ term m~ (I) prescribed for substitution; came in use after Pal}inior, alspecified for an operation; ct. mt though earlier, it belonged to some g aHRli!~ ~9'q'iiflil. M. Bh. on VI •. I. school other than tha t of PaI)ini or, ISS; ct. also M.Bh. on VI. 1.158 PaI)ini put into use the terms Vart. 3; M.Bh. on IV. 3.23 Viir. Atmanepada and Parasmaipada for 5; ct. also arlfaJ!I~CJl"f: l{.~: M. Bh. the affixes as the ancien t terms on 1. 1.57; (2) indicated or stated; Atmanebha~a and Parasmaibhasa arrre:m ~ CJlI1t:. were in use for 'the roots. .

I

~ name of an ancient grammarian who is quoted- by Sabdakaustubha on P. I. 2.6. Atreya is believed to have prepared the padapatha 'of Tattiriya Samhita.
.~,..!

I

of this maxim is called ~l~CJiUCJ; for purposes of this ~~9il:I'f the elision ( ~q) of a phonetic element is looked upon as a sort of substitute; d. '3t:{1qr~1Rlq <;i!fT~~CJHi, Kas. on P.I. I·5 8• Grammarians many times I look upob. a complete word or a I' word-base as a substitute for. another one, although only a letter : or a syllable in the word is changed i into another, as also when a letter : or syllable is added to or dropped i in a word; ct. q'q'g, lfo/g .. ·~~m: I : Cfi~<I: I ar[~ ~: ~ arr~1{T: I ~ 'ifft<jl- I f~Cj~ I M.Bh. on I. 1:.55; cf. also l ~~ 6'f'1t{I~1 m;!'T~~~ qrf~: M.Bh. ! on P. I. 120; d. also at<rTlfIlCfiFfT ~FTIt'IiT ~m: M.Bh. on I. I.20; (2) indication, assignment; d. <It<r~:

consideration of a single or solitary letter as the initial ~r the final o~e· according to req ~irements for operations prescribed for the initial or for the final. Botli these notions-the initial and the final-are relative notions, and because they require the presence of an additional letter or letters for the sake of being called initial or final it becomes necessary to prescribe ar~ in the case of a single letterj ct. ar[~qW~<J:.l ar[~~ If'f atiO!(Ci %[fflilM.~

+rCJm I ~i!fT Cfiijo~~ 'SRlI<jI~~ <tcmr ~mql{CJ~fit ~1qf ffiil.l Kas. on

a:r-m:::Rl, q~~mlE<f, ~: ~ftamfa~:.
R. Pro I. 30 -32; d. also ar~1{T: \3'~: . com. on T~i.-Prat. II. 20; cf. also • I a:r<rT~ arFtlCfiH: V. Pro IV. I3 I , where' Uvvata remarks ~Sj ~\3't{RIT~:

~\TUJT ~;:~. an~ .,
SI~"<i: I d. also
~

T;n<la-

I!;CfiJU fiimf.<i~:

~

arRCfil(:

P. I. I.2I; cf. also ~!ij I ~ arrfrl:CJG:~ CfiT<l +rCJm I T. Pro I.55. This arl~rermCJ of Pal)ini is, in fact, a specific application of the general maxim known as vyapadesivadbhava by virtue of which" an operation which affects something on account of some special designation, which for certain reasons attaches to the letteF, affects likewise that which stands alone." cf. Pari. Silk. . Pari. 30•

arR:r the SUbstitution of an; e. g. ffi[~ • ~, +r'ITi% ~ cf . arrffi'n~: P.VI.3.9 0•

~ possessed of the vowel an' containing the vowel arT;. e.g• .tfICfi::

~'IT substitute as opposed to stbanin, the original. In PiiI).ini's grammar there is a very general maxim, possessed of a number of exceptions, no doubt, that "the substitute

A. Pro II. 1.2, where ~ is pre- i scribed as a substitute for a case- : .OIT~ the initial word of a sentence which according to some constitutes affix and t~ and ~~ are cited as examples where the acute accent is sentence (CJl'F/); cpo ~~~~all:l ij:q<:ffi(lrq[q;fi{i(f: ~~2 ~~1 CJl'F/I:i: 1 also prescribed for the substitute ~. (~U<i. on Yak. pad II. i7 ) ~~ that for which a subst~tute ~ a word beginning with an is prescribed; the original, sthanin; acute-accent i.e. which has got the .. d. ~TI1~I: cf. also M.Bh. on first vowel accented acute; words P. 1. I.5 6. in the yocative case and words l:!t1~ (I) - premier; d. 1t~111~ tf(WIT-i formed with an affix marked with ( c<jTCfi~lI1'n+t<ii ) furn.mqTiilP-fllJl<I: Vak. a mute OI. or <J:. are adyudatta! d. P. pad. I.16; (2) preceding, as oppOSVI. I.I97. 198; for illustrations in ed to suc;ceeding (\3''ij\); d. ~~ detail see P. VI. I.I89-216. Qti~~: V. Pro I. IOO; (3) original; d. ~l~f.mQif specific mention of a ar[~q~Rr: TRI1~Rr: (original base) word with the accent' udatta or Bba$a Vrtti. IV. 1.93; (4) first, acute on the first syllable; cf. preceding, ari~ ~it i[ OC{91~ m~: ~: arT~1.U'6f.tM 'iift~ M. Bh. on 1.1.56, M.Bh. on III. I-9r. VI. I.I2.

60
llifTl:1R ~eceptacle or abode of an action; 'cf. 3:rrfu<!~ al'~ f?n<!T: iR<lTl:Tl~: Kas.,

61
iog the present participle; (2) krf. affix <iiFi~ applied to atmanepadi roots in the sense of past time forming the perfect participle; d. &12': <fi~T P. III. 2.IC6. ' I.I6r Vart. I, VI. 1.166 Vart. I, VI. \ alT~!+nf.rq:; obtained or made out by 1.167 Vart. 3. , inference such ~ as Paribba~arules ! as opposed to' Srauta rules such,as atTFi imp. 1st per. sing. aflix fu with I the Sfitras of Piit;\ini; cf. a:rT~mf.:t* the augment Slf prefixed, which has i ~rfu~9llGf<lCf;:i't: Kas., on VI. r.8s; also got its <J::. changed into Ol. by P. VIIl. ! d. <ll@l1lm~r«iI~:~I'+!T9~q~fit ~Ttf~T;:<jT, I 4. 1 6 • i 1t~+rr'R<!' il ~l<r: Par. Sek. on Pari. II; ! cf. also ffn' "f '!.,cf~C<!~ ~c<l~~il a:rl~­ an~ the augment a:r1"l:., added to the l1Tf.!<P-!T 31~r GfN t!;<itf"fCf: Pari. Sek. on words ~i{, CfflIl, '-lCf and others before 'I Pari. 50. uft , 9~T;:ft d. I the fern. a~x~; e.g. iF1D

on P. ,I,. 4.45 also M. Bh. on III. 3.121; the Prakriya Kaumudi mentions four kinds of adharas; cf.
~cr~<fi: tlrfrft!:it fqq<ff e<!TH ~~NH:,!!lg'<li

Prak. Kau. on II. 3.36.

aTliIW substitute :anc:r.. in the place oftbe

anmrr.ru,;r restriction of' the verbal
activity with respect to the object on which it rests. cpo Vak. pad. II. 463; ~Tl:TlU 9i\1l1~: ~w..rrl:Tl"'t::nN­
,<fi~Rn: \ (::{o<!.)

, last letter ( !fi ) of the ,:first member of dvandva compounds of words meaning deities or of words showing blood-relationship which' end with the vowel !fi; e.g., ,l[lmqmRr, +mnfcrcm d. P. VI. 3~25, 26.

I

~ll9iUCf~~ .. ·a:r~EJi p. IV. 1·49·

m~'Tf, power of supporting things as is possessed by al'T<fiW which sup-

atl~

ports everything. cpo Vak. pad. III.

7- 1 5 1 •
Q1ll:iRt~:r.{+ner a non-differential rela'tion ( Sl~tl<1) between the person al ~ndings mtI.. ~ etc. 'and the noun
D

- in the nominative case which is ,t};le subject of the verb31 activity; relation of a thing and its substratum; cf. f<l qTdlmf\'l(f<lllil :4'<lI(9!:lijf~~F9<! \<!
Sl~(q'aC91

ct..

anf'e(q:;q superfluity, superiority, notion
, of surplus; d. <I~IM:Cf<i 91'l1:n!:l: tI: M. Bh. on II. 3.46, II. 3.5 0 •

(I) close· proximity; absence of any intermediary element generally of the same nature; ar.J;:~ +fT9: a:rr<F(f~; d. qr;;;FFcM Gffu'~9~'Ij('Lm: M.' Bh. 1-402.Vart. 21; Par.Sek. Pari. 5r. This <;lose proximity of one letter ,or syllable oI so, with another, is actually i.e. phonetically required ,and generally, so found out also, but sometimes suchproximity is theoretically not existing as the letter required for proximity is technically not present there by the rule '{cfsrrm~ll.. In such cases, a technical absence is not looked upon as a fault. d. Efi~ ~f.Nmii\il1T<l~~ ~~~IFIF"~ G1~~~tit, EIiT~~ Er.rqm~::f "nfir ~T~ G1~T ~ I <IS! ~,~~9Ti1;:(f~ 0<{l::.TT<!6<1Tli: M. Bh. on VIII. 3.13. cpo also G1~<! ~<rr~1ifq;:.qr ~H~~<!Tfcr (W! ffi£.\ Sll1lm~811~<lTm<!rcr<ili<fiT~~ \ Uvata

~~q:<:f

nasalization; through the nose, an additional '\ property possessed by vowels 'and, , ~he fifth letters of the 5 Classes (~, I ~Rf<i proximity.; ~lose affinity; close 5f" Ol., 'if" <l,,) d. a:r@i1Tmqij ~qTl1M:iT ~1l1: ! relationship.' There are four kinds , I of such proximity as far as words M. Bh. on I. 1·9· ,i I in grammar are concerned:R e: the ' ~I~~ serial order,' successive or~er I organs of speech (~~H<l(f:) as in 1l,CZ'Iof grammatical operations or the !l+C, regarding the meaning ( '31l<ffi: ) rules prescribing' them as they as in 9r(fll~~9m-:, regarding ,the quaoccur; d. a:rT~~i re:al'rai1, M. Bh.on lity (~1l1) as in tfT'Ii: D<r:, and regardV. 3.5; cf. also G1~9 "f1~~<l1 a:r:V<lt ing the prosodial value ( !:l1l11l1 ) as in SWl;l1T9~~Gf ~O:~'nlifq I Cf[i1. <fil~<::f!l +rfcra:r!!~~, '3P!.+<I!+r:.; cf. 31;r<fifet~ a:rr;:q-~ ~I<ll~­ Cfo~~ M. Bh. on P. I. ~.57. ~1l15i~T1l1~~ Par. Sek. Pari. 13. cf. also Kas. on 1. 1.50. Sil~~ successive order, as prescribed , bv tradition or by the writer; d.

I utterance I

an;:~

closest affinity; d. 311i,\:;{<lne:- /' qf:4-l1~~TC~!I a:rtra<:o.'1l?3i1lfB<fi~tl~: M.Bh. on VII. 2.84, as also a:rtriRal'!jl¥l fu~+c M. Bh. on VII. 1.96 Vart. 6.

~<l~'3f[u]TIiG~U] tll1T<lTp{lUlllr '!.,cffuqm: \
roW:9~FoT ~;FT<fi1+.:4T \ ~f'UlfiTUfu'u<!: ! M. Bh. II. 2.34 Vart. 3; also 91111<'1Tl1@'{,O~ I, m&llll~~fEl?;:~i\T: I M. Bh. on. II. 2.34 Vart. 6; d. tRl~'{;;¥i1l1 srw'I!Tc:r.. ~'<fr<l WIT(\, \ !{~ a:rT !{~ I ~l~ :rrl\:an ~~<u:; il g 31T d~ ~iJ<lr: R. Pr. II. 2; cf. also al'T~1f~<lTq: fu;s~ Sira. Pari. 6.

<ll~

OTl~tfiU.

a sub-division of roots belong- \ ing to the ~<r1l1 or tenth conjugation beginning with ~:sr.. and ending with li'l. which take the Vika[at;\a flJj~ optionally i.e. which are also i conjugated like roots of the' first conjugation; e.g. <lr;;p.:fm, <lr;;;<\a-, <lr;;;fu; , tlN<lfct.~, ~.

I
I

I I

on Vaj. Pra. VI. 14. (2) closecon~ nection by mention together at a common place etc.; d. tl9i~T<l;:(f~ <fiT<!il1l<l"M. Bh. on 1. 1.27; name of a Buddhist grammarian, the author of the work named Candra-VyakaraJ;la Pad dhati.
Q Q

word ending with anc:r.. which has the consonant dropped and the preceding a:rT nasalized; e.g. WIT !{cf ~:Rk. Sam. VIII. 35.20, lil[f ~~: ~k Sam. VI. 19. r; cf. clJ9T~iZ tl1Hi1CfT~, 3Tlmsft f.:t~+c P. VIII. 3.9, VIII. p 3.3; d. also &:;:0 ',,-~ !{t;:f "" a:rT<I:tra:T: '<.<iT 'ClaT q~'UGI: R. Pro IV. 26,27. being different, difference.
3T«i'\<! <=119: 31<<I<=IT9: I (fiJ: ~T~ ~'l:5f. \ a:r:q9T Sl;:<lr <=IfC<!: 3l;:<1~ (fl:<! <=IT9 s:frr <=Ilit ~<lor..l Kaiyata on P. V. 1.124. <=IT9~~: '!i<!~n'9<'1: ~m-~ !j)'111<fiR~F<!(9<l" I

~r.:u.+r1au.

:mi{~i'ftI

::iI1~~ a thing placed in another or I depending upon another, as opposed to adhara or the container; cf. a:rl;;r<!&lf&i<!1;;;l\:j Bttl~9~~ffif!1l1: M. Bh., ~~ abgence of any utility; sgpe:r on P. IV. 1.44. fluity; absence of any object or purpose; d. ~~T<lI1j-~ ~re!T~ , an~ (I) kit. affix (~T<l~, or '''IT<l;a) re:ac<mr,IM. Bh. on P. VI. 1.86 Velrt. substituted for the lakara ~?;:and 5 d. also P. VI. 1.158 Vart. 4; VI. applied to atmanepadi roots form- I

att~~~m the samhiHi-patha or recital of the running Vedic text in accordance with the constituent words; e.g. ~: ~q F-i(\, f<ff<tq+c or ilU :TI~ 9T '!.,qU]+c, as opposed to ,the '!l1<rr~~~ which is actually found in the traditional recital e.g. ~<'I~­ ~q AACl+c E,.k samh. V. 2.7 or i1U 9T:TI~ '!.,qU]+c ~k sarilh. X. 64.3. See

Nagesa. The word is 'freely used in l\CBh. e.g. 1. 1.62. Va II, V. 2·59, Va. 4.

, R. Prat. II. 43·

a-'fi11 (I) common term for the fern. ~Ildings <!1tI.., ~It:l and 'Cllt:l given by

Wis.48. (3) geni. 4.'!~~C'f f. 1.1 arT~~g !f€l~C'f . change. Si.rUl (I) calling out from a dis- anrq~ an ancient grammarian men- atTq. I. etc.ful+!<fffi ~m~~~ C'f 8lTl1~'. 4. g.22 .rf. the term t1Tt<i is used for a transitive root in these grammars. cf. Bh. on III.98. '{<It''l~.:cr~>f<!(. Kau. 168 ~+I?r Cflf+!!:"flC'fi. i~tern~ll Vocative case.~­ . P. P. C'f'1l1'k . . III. added to the words t1. etc. R. called 8lr4T~W-ii~!1{ extending from P. on VII. (3) contingency. VI. in <liTeT"I"?!.). 38. M. Mahii1. which is the same as the usual term arWi iu m<lT~~ P.~ as in [1'l"~T~ J q/~'tl~. 3lfc!£llil. II. case-affix 3lFf. 9. 2. ~q-<jfcr. (2) There are :our . in 3lT~~'QcCf (d. 4. 2. P. n:.tl~ an important Sik~ii work composed before the _ninth . 18.fl<.::T'Q: P.fg:r:. II..cf GW <im<tTl1a: 'liticcj" Cif~iJJ~ 1 3lTl1i-"1:Ur 9iHiT. 35-39)' as for instance. 129. on II.irii and his commenta(~!!.]. 1.fence. HeHiraja and. P.: 3Tr-=<t. tors like Patafijali. on 1. D. a tech. also P. . 2. arrfci. d. 62· PaI)ini iQ Adhy.· case-affix ar..t'!!. II. awrTl:lC'fl1T<!f1=T: ~T .kinds o! .. 8l~T­ ~ a rule given in the section q-<jfu. including it . attOlN' (I) similarity of one phoneEc for various references to this great element.1i Pari.and the follov. d. 31. Bh. III. f.jainendra. I. Kau. i ~+<t~~ -internal effort made. aTI9il<:: arrlif<~: efforts descnbed III the Kaslkavrttl.I4. cf.63. A.25 and Viirt.~ 1 arr+<lrnU ~lij etc. I.:~<!~~!jli:~TiT f~<TI ~<!~~: P.rrWlr..1. 30 Vart. 4. P. 129. thereon. Jainendra 1. T. Vaj.~ reg. 3. I. (2) an invitation which may or may not be accepted. ~m. e. VI.. 3.i)~l<J: a-. d~:r*fii(OI a section of Piil)ini's grammar from VI. 3. d. J Kas.3. g. thereon. (2) a student of . etc. cf.P. (2) the affix . P. cf. I. on P. undesired result. 17. Prat. VII.198). pl. possibly his grammar. e. d.fl+rrSJUJOf. a:rr!!~ ~~:em:r change~ prescribed in connection with tbe31~TB or reduplicative syllable. . resulting of something into another. Bh. III. See also <tt. d. i!!iirtT. I I attlt~cffi" depending upon apother cpo Vak. D.1 etc.22. also <IT<!CfT 8lfufcl:m lf6: ll:t'!!fq arr+IT'Cm<!i1~ Vyac. M. The term 3lTq-t'!!. II. but as the governing rule +I~ is vaHd in every rule upto the end of the Pada.rrfit~~. t1il!1N<ifu. 3fOCl'1. cf. 2. i VIII. n~( 'ifI~af~ttr: M. III. (2)' a brief term for case-affixes beginning with the inst. Prat. of1l. ( 4) loco sing. (5) ar[iiN! c:rPl" ~~CiiI. on IV. splitting of with the external one called en&l!f<l(.'r~: q/~~'m<I: an+ft~ repetition of an action .163 Vart 6. with ~ prefixed in W11iJJT<l:. on P.<f <1>lt\lir· g C'f CMt<!~ I amf~ W ~t1il f. . the m<l1~!f~rrr also extends ~m~ atT+r.. d.. 1. 1. Pr.4.:Q ending with the fern. arr~ . Bh.f<liT~ etc.f. VIII. and with ~. I. 4. II2. l. called arr<l1<l". 2. Bh.) I patronymiC affix such as 3l~ and others. ! >flJ. II6.s.9ilWcrrf<l 8ll9ilW!l~ Ath.Cjm ( cf. 22 to VI. M. d. pad. IV. II. d. I. See 8lT+IT'C"EYref above. VII.ra~T ~ffl:aT <. Pro III. Pr. 4. 3.82. aic:rTt<l9i: P. 1.24. IV. Kaiy. sing and ending with the loco pI. 25. 3). into 3lT and 1l:.~ Ras..r6r. IV. 3. with 8lr resulting from Samdhi. in the case and reputed grammarian see Ujjv. VI. fc!'lffiTI ~m I upto the end of the Pada. mon~ 'i:f. 3. prefixed in ~~"ft<J:.49. cf. The term is used in connection with the object of a verb which is to be obtained by:. The word arlt<l" is found used in the se'nse of Karman or object in the grammars of .. IV.:a': P. 8lrq-~~ JIflffiit C'fffirt CfT. 63 Sab. Piida I.I~~Tc:r.9. VI. suggested in the place of arr~'{i by Patafijali to be' prefixed to the affix M'Cf. VII. . 4. 1.'rl1<'.. as contrasted I ~cCf (d.45. I..~11. Bh.. 1. See 3TI+!Tabove. I. VIll. 107 Vart. remarks 3l~ Fnr-'.~jiRf'i:f9. and a:. 1. 3. for instance. tftC'f:9:'<i 8lFftq1lZ.:fi.14. is found sometimes used in the Varttikas and in the Mahiibba!iya. 11 to be obtained by an activity.:<!Tq-fu: "-Rr: +!. 1. 1.6•. in ~ the section called ( d.rQ (I) a word in the vocative sing. atrfqmF. itq: ~<!f1i9iqiJJi<!. on VI. 24 VI. 3..zr<1>!jIfr~ arrttrq/<!>T $Irl'£l1lfr lVI.<!: P. d. 1.:: 1 lvI.17.3lT~1<t!fif. .f: 131~ Bf. 4.<::U]. affix 3lr tioned by PaI). II. fa:tCf (cf. a:rr:q atl~ son of at. 3.95.~rr before the case-affixes called t1. Durg. 4. 3lH into 3lm ~ ~ ( d..::. Sak. II6. "It<!l<. (the same as vyapya). Sakatayana. d.. Bh.f"FI. Pr. See ~f+!r-c01~ above. 22. .*r~Tqf'Q: +!. P.2).fo'1.jJlUt~q-: P. (3) followed by d. Q. 22 and M.zr-. on Wit. II. VIII. Nyasa on Pii 1. ~Cff~ (I) production. II. I and 2 thereon. I 11. or "II!!.:<I+lICf: V. on I.3. VIII. d.. S1l~~' augment (31IlJ. d. VII. d. cf.T. !f<TICflil:"fii: 1 Kasika.r~ added before R~ ora perfect termination by rules 9iH!fil!l<!F-\l<J:. on Ui). 43.ing (P.'tl. 1.. cf.:. the pecuinvisibility· of one rule with respect liar featuLes of which are 1iUWClitICf to another.. Prati.ro.rrfq~<1>l1'<fuf M. IV.12.. 1:20 .f!1~. 3.adisiitra I. (2) Similarity of accent of words in the Sarilhitapatba and Padapalba. III. wherein one rule or operation is looked upon as I invalid to another one. P.n::. amfT~c:cr invalidity or supposed term in PiiI)ini's grammar. VII.19). iR-!~ ~. d. 1.3. on IV. 1~tTIfur ~~q: I ~~fu~Tfu Frl1<SJoiJ +I<!Rr BFr~c:rlfq. II (I) augment -3i( prescribed in connection with the words T. also <i+rT11R! explained as <il1+ITcr R. :snlf<iT ~lRr i¥w:Jr 8l9i: where dipikii. 1. on III.'3T+<tltlfc!9il~ 8n-=<trtl: M.the verbal activity. 175.q. 4. 4. C'andra II I. VI. Pr. 2..Apisali's grammar.14.68. II.28.44. P.f. ~f!:"f­ Fnr-SJiJJJlF~UJT\ijrn~Il*l!f[~~~ B~ P.. and attributed to Apisali. Bh. CfTii. f<i+l<rtT.:rra~.f!1{p:f<'. ·cf. 4 . P..!il: ~k.f1ii. 1. I. Bh. . substituted for i{ (fs: ). -~fl!!crT~ ~~'a!!m.r[ilf and fir~T stand for ~ and siT. arfB~~­ . as it extends to the rule +!l.century A. A. tance. 1. on III.15. a grammarian earlier than and referred to by Piil)ini. P. the author of Sphotaniriipal)a ('17th cent. XIII. mrq~~ (I) a work-of . P.r[+lTQ:. 3. i I I . crr ~t<jTfq~: P. Bh.. d.fr: t1<!o1~<jJl1r-8l1<!~ 139 . cf. Bh. I.<i VI. ~g. (4) distres. 1 ll. II9 . P. 8lTfqq/<1>tfTfiJI<fi<IE~ril<l~Cf1ft<rr. 3i. 1.f'lT<tr: it ~T. 98. 1Hr+r.106. ( 2 ) modification... 9. 3· others.36 . VIII. Rem. g.22 to VI.!~. aiT~ d. P. an~ augment an!!. ). 4. on IV 1... VI. BT+rf<'. t1Cf~r­ producing a sound. IvI.>hii~ya­ e.an operation prescribed by a rule in the section called m+fr<i!fifl~iJJ. d. VIII. 142 and Uvata's com.!crfil" I A th.rJ "Ilfq~<!>T: q-tfil'rrfi<lT: tR#cr8l1lTii'l!!qC{f~C'ffct9iH::~Cfl'i~C'fiiI. on III.72). VI.U.8). 1. C/andra and Hemacandra. 161 whereon IvI. ~ and ~ before the affix flit'Cf. IV..

g. also OfJli". ~ 'tf ~1Wl1fq­ "£!l1l~ R.~~:. g. ~~R"I+lR:J an iterative compound. on VIII. 2. dlsffi <l'oT't<l BIf:.78• <IWI' (I) the affix an<l applied to the roots ~'l. d. . e. dlsrftr. ~~. P. 1. 4.. ~l~<ii:" for ~+arfi: cf. 10 9.22 Vart. Probably such affi~es or pratyayas. XXII. • see - m~~ krt. aw:m:r a:nml'jf completely mixed. P.Bh. 4·46. II. ~r!q) .55. besides many treaties on Nyaya.Bh. .85 .jif: R. 1. an~<l~"C in the sense ~ff!<!T"C R. VI. 2. I. cf. cf. and as Vaidika . Prato 1. 15.ini. on Vai. 3Hllffi <iT 1iflg91~T f. P.1'c11<'f • ~) !SIN ~Q (r) iterative. cf..g. Prat. a.rf. while both the terms . III. 3.5. II. iii~ and ~ acc. III. of a repeated word according to Pat:lini. cf. arrill~~ClT<i'llR~ B'i:<{ij. tll~l:!lg. 2. affix applied to the words a:nd '[i({. CI'{ and mr which are placed after indeclinables.I.' Vak-pad. The personal endings of verbs in the perfect tense and the benedictive m~od are termed ardhadhiituka. d. ~. aTRT~q: the word OfT\IQ. cf.35.~19. .2. similarly Oflm'$lt9. 4. which is noticed in the utterance of a vowel which is accented acute ( ~ ) dlT<iTm m'3ffTllT ~.32.29.g. cf. 126.1lij. before a v<lwel.g. on VI. I. P. dltr.~' il 1 64 ~(T<!iR<i) 65 !SIp:!: the substitute Ofl'I.( 2 ) the second or· latter portion.sarildhi on X. ( 2) augment. 1. Prat. d. III. (causal e. IV.. P. l?rat. 1.aT 5!'<lf"lif'+( I arr~lf ~f<:fl\~ 'it f'itacr'\. a:rll:!~. IlL 14.2. 146. fCfiCl<::I"C q:qR\n'{I"C etc.<'fit~. VIII.nN· 1:j'{~ I CI£!~T I ~iJ<fcfi ~~ OfTrn~=!~ 1'. ( optional forms .Grammarians. a term used in contrast to the term ~1<t'c11gCJi for such verbal and krt affixes. XlV. in .I. Of'I.25. aug tad. cf. r. d.B ~cr ~~ ~~. e. III. as anarl?a. on II. cf. Sek.01. founded on' sacred tradition. 3. .nClT ~HClT: <ii~ Kaiyata onP.2. cf. like the krt affixes generally as' could be placed after certain roots only Were called ardhadhatuka. .I arr{pqTg<ii ~1i: T P. orm'loT\~ same as 3lf-. 1. Haradatta has tried to explain how the term dll~~ff meanS the first . XIV 30.:Tfitff' ~mctlll:q<:lllT"I!:Io:a. affix applied to the word 'I:'hi<:: when the whole word refers to a year. 1. Bh. and ending with <'f(iliN VI. The term arrifl:!rg~ was in use in works of the old ValyakaralJas. P. also '3>"~'Tll. ffi. d. au~ KRISHNASHASTRI a reputed Naiyayika of Banaras of the nineteenth century. ~ ~~!li~ combination of the meanings (of the base and affix). m ~~~ old term for 3lT~'9rgCfi. ~<tRCfi:. e. as contrasted with the verbal and the present participle affixes which were termed sarvadhatuka on account of their being found in use after every root.dlT41"d 1"'9 I<.88.V. The main utility of the ardhadMtuka term is the augment i( (~ ) to be prefixed to the ardha. VL3·33· an~ reEuItant from sense. cf. II. ~ defined as 1l'?:01. cf. It cannot be said how the term ardhadhatuka originated. cf. 'caused by the presence of an ardhadhatuka affix ahead.69. _ifl~. affi. see the word arr~ above. III. ~'6~ qR+r16<Jij.1I.! Bf~ ~if'f~ ___ f~!! .~T<lT<l': P. d. .~o~'ili!"l. 9~:.r" Par. III. OfTl1. g. 2 76• ~ tad. made up of sense. 2. 4.t'Cf(if.IlI.28. ~ derived from ~ srI$:: dll~~a. III. au~T1VP~ the topic or section in PalJini's grammar where operations.. called HilJini-siitra-vrtti.g: fitm::rliTm::r. in the sense of an to have two opposite seDses ' near' and • distant' cp.g. ffi~~Q. I.. I A. . The word is explained as ~94q16 by the corri. 2. are promiscuously found utilised in the Vedic Literature.~1i't<'f M.. PatanjaH has looked upon the pada-patila or Pada-text of the Sarilhitas of the Vedas. a ~cf tension of the limbs or organs producing sound...II7. 3.. He also wrote Akhyataoviveka and Karakavada.173· ~'T1i{1::r attribution or imputation of properties which leads to the secondary sense of a \\'ord. cf. e. I the hOly sages.46 . d.. lit. cf. quit in the last year. II3 and II4.aT a~mflt Ci~~Uql~~<jij.<::lfdj :a'61Wf M.! a short gloss on the Siitras of Pa1). 37. on P. <J1lill~1~cr etc. repeated q. com. on Pari. V. affix <J11~ befor~ which ii1T is changed into ~.§. I Uvata. ~T'tfI~U~ Padamafij. as are not personal endings of verbs nor marked with the mute letter~.t ~'fu:{<I com..aT dT~j M. see above 3T~f.~ Rri{e~~ P.lF1:. m. V. . t!. e. dhiituka affixes. lIS. Pdit. 9 also Kiis.I +{~I'!i'{lil tad.g.~lWIiqu1 cIT. d.31. VI. on Pan. cf. VIII. as contrasted with the sarilbita text which is arl?a.aT fUi6tlf. beginning with the' rule 0fT1:l'<TTg% VI.'l' ~1l+r. as tad.rWt Vaj. cf.g. P. . ~'{1~:.. Prat. The AmreQita word gets the grave accent and has its last vowel protracted when it implies censure.g. dl<19l 3lT~T~ 9~lill -<liTe.fl}:fuHl'ffifliRt I \1t<l1l~ g.3 and VIII.)1\'i~Tj' "l~ij. III. II6.nftrn~ ~m~ ~~t! M. cf. ~1<l~T -rn:(j'ffi1TI~~ e. e. cf. on l~I. to others). 4. affix (Ofl"C) added to the affixes ~ i. <'fi! arr~~ff~'6~ 'frlElO~~ Slftr~: ~if aTR' substitute dll'{ for 51\' in the words fllq and lllq.. 'Prat..2I. applied to the word ~ ~ d. 4. word connected' with the verbal activity possessed by arrllfr'3fff e. on Hem. e. e.<{+nii't~ <l'~+{F!: ~OG: 3l1li"::<:i: Sak. affix. oTNH::.2. 1. 130.member. an'<Tl:!Tg~e. . e.31. also dlMrm ~'l'li~ <::9~~:Cf.95. word. on Tait.. ang others' endi~g wifh which they are looked upon as roots. ~Tl1T'{Cfi'l: P. (an<::) applied to the word i1t'9T in the sense of offspring according to the Northern .122 Vart. on R. ~'{Cfi:. CI<.. P. affix applied to the ro~ts ~' and 9ret in the sense of habituated etc.lf.'l' (fi~!fm'l' )q'{I1I~fu'CI*{ P. 4. which is stated <m+l ."q a word in the vocative case. 13. for TJ. P. 1. P.I. such as the Vedangas. P.'{ Oflm"l.V. a..129. I 4.. 4.tfl1 ~~~"C M. 811~."C cf. Ii'l. B. cf. Such operationl) are summed up' in the stanza ajffi 6t1:jt <l6tq. 1. d. a11m~ tad. The affix is applied optionally when ardhadhatuka affix is to follow. Bb.Bh.<l~"i:Tl1'. on Vaj Prato IX. on VI. 1. e. who wrote. com. a word possessed of the sense of invocation. ~'llill'a'l1<{ P. also 1Wii1"t.. 9. d.il~'T~ 'TfflfUlT<J:: crmf.Par. mar.:. possession. 27. Prat. cf. an~ krt.:rilRi Uv. an¥GtfB+ffi1 g. are enumerated. Sek.

3. which are conjugated like roots of the tenth conjugation. <JWIm:.e.D. recitation and preservation of the E-ksarhhita by laying down general rules on accents and euphonic combinations and mentioning phonetic and metrical peculiarities.Bh. I.. which is based on the Mugdhabodha of Bopadeva.39. (I) place of articulation. (I) tbe vowel!!'. appearance. ~:oJm:. Ahn. CfI'<Iji. Pr. I.idi affix 1(.!( in lf~fo :q P. incomplete ~. tad-affix (8l(6) applied to the word CfI:. The grammar called an~1if is very useful for beginners. Atm. am~r~a:. cf. cf. (5) augment ~ (I(): see ~~. the word 1{1f. d. IV. I(cit ~llF[. "1TlJIll1fce:§tcf +tFc!5lfffi M. 4·128. (3) tad-affix ~ applied to Bahuvrihi com pounds in. i. (2) UQi.. affix (a:rm) applied to the roots ~'ii!! ~~ qq: etc. V. III. d.fui ego ~1~~. beginning with the root 3:ll3. ~ tad-affix added to the word ~~ i~ the general sense of direction but when distan<. which follow: cf.IsB. The class anrn~Tfu: is stated to be "1~ijur.127.n~fit case affix in Vedic literature e. I. 4. ~t/19" q~ffr M.Bh~ on I. d.!l~i'f Cfur1~ I(m 311~iI:.q1f. MaI. 4. P. sn~ anPcr+rhr manifestation. also an'lRffi: ~RWtcf +lCfm M. Pr. anffiRq~fui: R. I'7.I<fi4~'-l\tiffi I!m:rfu: ~rnr I~.ini's grammar P. M.z. I. P. It has got a masterly commentary written by U vvata. 9ilTolffcr~~ . long.&q characterised by a definite number. VII. '{~I~ '-+fOfrlfil:. 1. on III. the mouth. 97. 3. III 14. uir ~~~~ an€lfuCf~l~ ~ .t~rew possessed of all genders.g.lM . called regularly as 31r~ftf~"{.g. III. d. pad. necessary notion or thing.6. I. e. It is a metrical composition divided into 18 chapters called Patalas.48.g. Yak. (3) krt.il1 P. XVI.~: I (!rUlf. and ending with the root '.. 31r~~nfqffi'1fl1~.( ) ~ ~~ a sub-division of the :'!nf<t (Xth conj. awr.g. d.m ~~T6'l\<I: V. the word 5j'liTur in 5j'l'jf'JT ~(:. place of residence. I. Pd.I04. Cfifo"~: I.~~l~ P. pad. AA:.. m. d. Yak. 12 4. affix ~~ applied to the roots ~. 1.la by Ramesvara. Laghuvrtti on Sak. ~6~'{ ~ fB1:~~. the teacher of Asvalayana. which take the VikaraQa fUl. cf. I. ~.1e various parts of a word. another.( I) short wording ( SI~llfR) for the vowels ~. OO!.g. 'QTfilTf. e. d. It is widely known by the name E-k-Pratisakhya. d.'ilfcl. cf. I.45.. tad.g. Kas. 2. on I. Bh. (2) substratum. I. 2. i{ 0I1"'1~ lit. qf~. (2) name of an elementary grammar in aphorisms written by WI~'!iffi~m. 19-71.323. liItT&. II. part. explained as ~~~ur>llnurTf~~~e'ii{: . ~g:J9UT ~~~ ~wr~ P. on I. \j. e. I. +!CfliTt<i<I: M. e. following. belonging prominently to the Sakala and the Ba~kala Sakhiis of the ~gveda." 'iffii'fl"I:.e. benedictive mood. Bh. B.Jffi9:~:. ~fflJUJ~ 9~m. fc\"1f. grave. X. cf. ffi" l5ffiSS'<u iJl~ P. ~UT9'<Ii'frilf :rr-<>G:ri!T+rTlJI~m ~w:r:qi'frRr +Ii/fro I ~ Cf~<I: I ~r ~iT I ~~: Cfi:~: I M. III 13. . !ifel:. III. ~~ 67 ~ repetition.29. Yak.61. P. 40.g. Bh. the sense of exchange of action 0!' as seen in words likefu:.) (1) relation of dependence. 1. \jtj'311 qr: fcl.g. 2. produced in. V.e is speciaUy meant. sing. pad. Bhaskar Pari.g. as also the senses in which the affixes are applied. given in the section of PaI). For instances of 31R('ff~­ q"{Rn see E-gveda siikta 2 . :. representing all its eighteen· forms viz. 4..g. affix ~(if) applied to the root form to cite a root e. also arre'i! ~H~!l. e.37. 6'{T~ tad-affix applied to the word ~li. Prato IV.in sense.17°. Vak.9. ( 2) properly placed at the end e. short. 3. cf.8. 142.rfr I .92.'lmR>r~(i'fq1ij1f. 2. 2. d. 79. SR and n. 2. ( 6) conjugational affix~~ of the 1st pers.) roots. alr'6U{ cf. Q1{l'l-Rl:. III. opposed to 31ifrf.Ci')n the sense of 'talkative' e. belonging to. 1. also V.g. firlt: 3. cf. which denotes_a_definite singular number. cpo f[1ifT ~~'. e.lfrfl:f. 1 7. ~~11S.127.if o~~ :oJ~Rr. d. added to the word a'6\. atml!' nearest.IOB Vart. 2 122.!!~re etc. d.T~lf&:'iir 1{I&:lr9. ~'ll[lfl§:.3. S1~ i krt. circumflex. most proximate.2BB. Bh. etc.g . III. Pr. II. based ·upon the insertion and extortion of the sense in tl. 2.2. ffi liur~ P. VI. also '.ot and others in the sense of verbal activity e. 5i'Cfij-ij. Bh. P.. ) ! . P. ~~lfT§:. ·1 OI1~!~:g. on an~:q ~ P. affix f:ji\( ~) cf.lQala tIlTltijIM'lif~ a class of compound words headed by the word an~ffim in which tbe past pass. also the sutra antl'Ji: Sak.g. III 14.:. VI.g.. the effort made for the utterance of words. ~fhJm:.: I i. I. qn Vaj. cf. V·3·37· ~.Cfit.10B Vart. protracted. d.8 26. 1. III. pure and nasalised. .rg.1{9 ~qr'q: I Pari. <ITT~ pronunciation.' ~'~ur: ~5i'eRU1<I: P. (3) another flame for "1fufrl emr. 48. 913~llf~o KM. on IV. d. 21.fiR: ~Il:~itlf~~~if I nSf ~r~~itlf 31rqTqt~r~1f. II. anmoTm:. 8lrtij2~ "fIm: Ilf~lJqrocr . also m~it tj'GJ~T­ a:rrf. Uvvata on R. I.{Rn metre of 40 letters with Bletters in the first and second quarters or pad as and I2 letters in the third and fourth quarters.' (4) krt.aq1f.~: • i ! ~. d. '1Fnf<fm~fu?lfm~<ffltrffi: I-~•. . e.128. cf.g. ~fitQ (I) pla~ed after. an~. 0I1~~ close proximity of a word with . giving special directions for the proper pronunciation.:oJRr etc. 1l11~OJt'tl (I) name of a work on gram-· ~q. acute. also a:JTWi!: Hem. is optionally placed first. etc. d.5 2. I. 3.~ tad-affix (311lf) in the general Sai~ika ~enses. . century A. II. . (2) krt. 4. See Kas. pad. VI. e.i~ having a fixed gend~r as .liT~<rI:. f'l1(l§: etc. It. a'6U'm!O:£. d. 0I1"'~q.66 ~l~ tad-affixes ~. alh:l9~lf~ I ~ii+l19 8ll9~~ mar written by Tiiranatha called Tarka-vacaspati. Kas. name of PaQini. M. d. d. on I. e. d. d. I.: p..12 Vart. who compiled the great SanSKrit Dictionary named CfT'<I~­ wand wrote commentaries on many Sanskrit Shastraic and classical works. 4.120. on V. I ~1~tq'ifmfu~lT~ an authoritative Pratisakhya work attributed to Saunaka. ~~fuI'tTI 1ifrg~~ P.77. 9'<1~ M. on VII. on P •.9. Ath. There is a gloss on this grammar named SuddqasubodhasiitrarthavyakaraI. I. VI. I. ~:q ~. only if they are transitive . affix in the sense 'n~ ~li{if' e. ~~-Rn a variety of q. see com. ~~ ~l:ITfu:"lf: P. 4 30. r. ~ an~ the fcli.V. a reputed Sanskrit scholar of Bengal of the I9th.Bh.5: cf. ( 2) found in the place of articulation.V 1. I04.Bh: 1.

cf. I. See below.'f ~~ ~ ~~ ~a: Siradeva. 48. I2. (3) tad·affix ~ in the sense of offspring applied to a noun ending in 31. g. 4. IV. 1[.3I. i{$f!.3.VII. 2. Only at a few places tbeyare attached to give facility of pronunciation.12. ~ I I and the ~ letters are applied to roots in the Dhlitupatha. VIII. P. The mute vowel a:rr signifies the preven tion of ~G[<rll before the pastpart.lini has not given any d. sr~Ifuif<lT: qrfcrl· . where the operations ~1l'J and 'lfu are prescribed by putting the words ~1iJ and 'lfu:. ftJii (Rtrn:iF{oc<l+i: I ~.·~ signifies the prevention of the augment l: before the past part. 78 1 ( 2) krt. 4. 93· ~ 69 lffff is ~<r.2 t08) and stated that tbese letters are to be dropped in actual use. 2. ~. etc. CfIm: etc. anffi:.3. in general..s .. P. PiiI. 3.a 6l~ in the Aorist cf. 'Generally the word is applied to the first Pllrt of a compound word when it is split up in the recital of the padapathil.~ ( vowels lf. as is clear from some passages in the Mablibba!?ya as also from their us~ in other systems of grammar as also in the UI}. the vowel *fT. 1. ~ signifies the prevention of ~wr to the vowel of a root before the causal affix. 3. ~J Cf'f'i~: P. III. III. ~k. e. Pro I. I. PaI. affixes cf. P. ffi CJ'fa-~: P.IV.g.g. ~1l'J_~ ~qlb:rr.lf. few roots ending in vowels except E!i and ~ and roots ~. 1. 2. P. ~ and w: ) in a rule. (d. cr. ( I) augment it prefixed. which are said to be {Cf" when uttered as nasalized by HiI}. 1. w: signifies the VikaraQ.. <{l151C{fOG. 32 . ~<iT ~~'t P • . 108.lini III.~ijqit!! P.. 1. III. d. on T.I. can be explained as a mute indicatory letter. ~il:~ ~ll­ ~Si[<~: P. Vart. 1. 3. but he has mentioned when and where the vowels and consonants attached to words are to be understood as ~. P.60. in the sense of verbal activity applied to any root.69.' I language. cf. Ill. ~ 5!\ and ~. fm'"l" 'lfu: ql'. d. part 9f a compound word' which is separated or may be separated irom the remaining part when the word is split up into its constituent parts. on Tait.aplHba.39.! signifies the prevention of ~UJ and l{fu. I. affix (~). augrrents and substitutes prescribed in grammar. 6. 7.alw VI. cf. ~~ an ~ the same as IUltl. ~~crrm'ii~. The ~ letters are applied to a word before it.:fNtufu:~'if.~1 here ~mr with. also !{<z.g. for different purposes :m: d.36.~'ii. I I of the vowel called 'l~ i. 3. ~ I etc. q" ~ (I) short wording or pratylihiira for all vowels except at and the I consonants it.ini.260.68 ~<i'trihiTl'. affixes.efinition of the word i{Cl. ~1f1l~ fl+rm-r 'i:fT~~ ~fff ~1f<!+I.. 4. Vr. given as ¢'l!. K. Tbe term is an old one d. or after I it.e. gender and in connection with narration or in interrogalion.. .44. the same affix as ¢'l! meptioned by the ~R in the Vartikas on P. cf. cf.3. o~I1I~~1iJT ~: P. the mute vowel ~ signifies the augment if. The word U\' is used for Il:\\-E{ in the Atharva Pratisakbya d.125 Vart. and the optional addition of the augment ~. ~~: P. 1.e. 2.35.ini. IO. 311~:.!. VI I. cf.owels and consonants are used' as I a letter or a group of letters I I' I In PaI. P. 95~7.nq~Tc:mt.. VII. :a. cf. VI. 1._ a:rr~. Sometim~. cr. I. ~.before t'iTi cf. I.the last vowel of the root. d. Pari. Q. 3. ~~&r. ~: cf. 3. p. P. IV.uaif'i'mff q fffgftr gt<i~ ~~~: I . II. 1.indicates the placing of the Atmanepada affixes after them. 2. P. especially vowels.R). P.35 to 78 and its exceptions P. 'lit~' CfiTRW-!iiElr: I tiqT CfiTftw!iT~ I cf.5. Slik. in the sense of verbal . IitCfii( mentioned in the' Vartikas (In P. \.. after . affix \f<fi applied to ~i( e. g. ~ ilW4ftIfu fcrm~lI B. if it be uttered as anudlitta and of affixes of both the pad as if uttered svarita . oor.q-· ~~. d. ~ the letter ~ with all its 18 varieties ( !{+'F. nouns in the Ga1}. 3.5~IJj'lfuqt¥t~tmCf('( Siradeva Pari. VII.the ~ letters.60 Vart. Vart. 1. 3. VII. affix applie'd to /Sil_ e.1l'J~TiF{+lI: P.68. 56 .r­ ~tG'~~ <uq ~~ '"l" A. 3. 104. g. Almost all v.55. (2) taddhita affix ~. cf. 7 Z. 1. 2.8 to 34. etc. d. VII. ~.adi iist of affixes. d. 153· (I) attached to a word which is not seen in actual use in the spoken I <. on P. d. 5f'-Rl~fi'~~ I Uvata explains the term ~ as ~!lCf!:!&~ The term ~q came to be used later on. the word so formed being used in the fem. ( 2 ) personal ending of the third person sing. 110 . g. 2.37. tad. cf.g. affix it'fi applied to compound words with q~ as the latter mem ber ' e. '3': signifies tbe optional application of the augment ~.50.1 ¥t<iiq~ lqt. ~. Pr. e. VIII. and they have got each of them I a purpose in grammar viz.. The word~.1. \l:UJ: Ii: I P..2 . Prato r. 3. for purposes similar to tho~e found served in Panini's grammar. I. P. activity.' ~<J. d. d.pl com. ( I) krt. *f<mftJ~ilia: I arqCfllCf~ 1ICI:. . P. U: or prescribed specifically for the vowel~ called il.!) Il. to .which literally means going aw~y 'or disappea~ing. 2.g. 3. 2. 2. g. VII.2). are recognised only by convention. cf. '~qf~. Wq~~~qGJa: P. L 1. VIII. 48. The • iIigya' word is shown by a pause or avagraha after it. ~wir (or ~2if) is' binding' e. affix I[ applied to roots such as ~ am. IV. cf. causing or preventing certain grammatical operations in the formatiqn Of the I complete word. P. signifies the prevention of Vrddhi in the Aorist. e. VII.. ffi9!:1t tfG:iliW'Fl: Com. It appears that grammarians before PaI.125 Vart. 2. ( :2) krt. air signifies the substitution of i( for ('( of the past part.45. d. ~~OT~ the substitution (I) short wording or pratyahlira for vowels except are d. 3. in the case of all roots barring a . as also to affixes. *fl.57. e.9.~ i. in ~~Wlfer ~: . 31ttl1lift l{Cl.l' a separable word as opposed to ~ ~.fitsf<rq~~ I The whole phrase is also called ~ (I) substitute for the affix (. d. V. affix in the sense of verbal activity applied to the r90ts <i~ and others e. 108 Vlirt.lini bad also employed such ltClletters. 3. III. ~~~ the presence of the word il. e. ( 2 ) Samaslinta affix it after Bahuvrihi compounds showing a mutual exchange of actions. VIII.. also P.lini's 'grammar. il. ita:. Hem. III. Prati. <tT~: cf. 2. or f5:ro by paQ. (3) krt. the mute vowelar applied to roots. 4. d. CfTf4:. e.su~h affixes of non-conjugational tenses and moods as begin with any consonant except { and cr.g. L 3.55 .14 . VII. Similarly. 6t~~: P. P. which is shown in writing by the sign ( s ): ~!l'. 127 also 128.58. p. Atm. 3. Ill.IT the Paribha~ii rule rit ~ -Po I.~. . 1.~ClJfu~I~ P. *fl<afil't'f'fi cf. I. lJ. d.signifies the inclusion of cognate letters. VII... fuHltqft~~Q~ ~.:fi<rr: (S.

VlI.5.t1f~ta-i!~.. signifiest he actm. d. 3. 31'f~Cfi1iT. In certam senses. ~~ and affixed. in many parts. a:rR+l+I'R:. VII. cf. P..jffi1€l P. I. V.16 and signifies mute letter for the sake of a gramaj"THI~~ if applied to roots. affix see il. e.29.. 2. dhist Practices ~ent home from the I 2. last letter if applied to sub!1.144.rTlTIr<I +!'iRr I M. 6ff1€l"l. 2. VI. by a mute letter which is purely indicatory. 3. affix ~ (t'ltr. VI.. P. etc. its addition after the final vowel. III.g. :a~GJ<ft. 1.g. ~ lfo\ for the last vowel of the words 'ii~l:jlufT. ~l:jfUi!jT<U<iT­ ~. f'i:Jf. VI.192.) spent many years in IV. cf. (2) the ShOlt cf. d. P. P. ~~~. P. e. cf. 3. Q. on VI.g... signifies in the case of an augment ways' and not in the first two ways. 1. I\nrnt !!~ l:TTm: P. I. i v. ~.~~ tad. to the words Cfiil~ and ii~T'Il cf.g.92 . aj"~<TIfW-' fclier. The' words ending in ~'iif have got the ~ (1) krt affix lfo\ applied to the acute accent on the last syllable. K~s.P. r. Bb. V. ct. 1.:~ti!:.12. I. m:fus~llmilm:<!T: P. 3T!!$!T&JUft d.:r\ has the sense of .. VI. cf. P. P. <a. 1. 1 33.g.\~~: P. P.in aT. 1.j<fr etc.! in the sense of cf. 65-66.170 e. for the penultlmate vowel cf. 2. I iii I .grammanans.f.g. e. 1.sabhatta. I. 2. He has given a!1 P.. P.tT :afs\iffi19'1. student of ' e. ~in the case of others. signifies the addition of the substitution for the ~ho]e ~If. 4. ~.IT. ~. Sometimes even with· affixes. P.2I7. etc. by cf. P. P.g.. roots ~ with fcr. III.:ft cf. 184-6. ~fcIsr'1. 2. ~re. I. affix ~ in the sense of possession applied to the word ~ which ~ etc. or. cf. VI.51. mQu~"IlfUr 'i:I' 'IiIlltfal or Sf'iilEqratIlcll:TTgWf. IS -.62. P.. V.15.34. ar. IV.29. ~ indication by a mark.I. ent d.g. f&:I and others. an augment signifies its application ~:fu!Cf etc.41. Southern Sea'.'a. signifies the prevention of 1. filler.4. P.16. I. cf.g.156-157.62.g. iR ~twr depending upon each other. VI. 1. fel~<fr. VI.~. words connected in the last two if. P. invariably by the tad.. d. 4. IV. e. RlCfiF:r 'i:I' P. on P. by III. ~ with ~ and the cf. 2. above.&: P. d. 193 .titutes.g. (2) tad. III. affix ~ (. IV.ft.D. I I I krt affix.. P.! . 713 A. e. 3. V. affix If(f in the sense of ing of the affixes of both the padas I found' or ' produced in " which is after the root to which it has been affixed to words Ql\'liT. ~ signifies the addition of the preceding vowel. I. also ~cRO\4tif: '6 ~'. P. 1. 2.47.~ 70 71 ~m~ a grammatical operation caused 1. 2. Bh. as also that The word if~~. 1.). (1) substitute for the inst. 159.. while applied to a nominal . cf. added to the roots "f. and their substitution for the P.) is affixed to the last vo\yel. q:signifies~f«f mutually depending on each other. 1. ~. {f~~~~trr 'i:I' ( 'i. the shortening of its vowel etc. ~~f'rn: d. VI. T!. signifies 311'g<n'6. 3.account of the Sanskrit IV. 4. III.g. cf. detailed . '~(~~~111 f{iI't substitute rnar ~G krt affix mentioned by Pal)ini ill i VI. P. while in the case of a : ~~o{4tif are 'cjcfl3fa:{~=<lT:.cf offl:' ~l{i­ +!T'l'l<{'iif i!:tB~T or +!fcjf<lm M. II. IV. ~~ ~Tff oT~l~"~ to the word at the beginning.. tr. tt. i!:oT!. aff.Il5-II7 !'Ind to ~ possessed of the mute indicatory certain other words d.g.!il.5.Pari. e. See ~above. cf. VII. cf. 2. aj"R~. d. ca~ or ifa~ffi:I~"I here. cf. cf. 1. ~~lqffi author of ' qfr~T " a com men t· ary on the Paribhii~endu-Sekhara ~eded b! certain words like ~ etc. e. Out of the four senses P. P.4. cf~ P. 54. IV. while o~l:TI I cfr<!tf. 2. miil:Tlgclilifiiq: 3.64. IV. 4.. P.<l:f ~g~ ~~Il:T­ 4.applied to cf. 3. 1.g. 3. affix 0lOJ. if. VII. 'TIle ii:<{&:'l~: P. I. i!:.f\<!T) P. iT.s ending in 31.P. II5. ~atcR:~f( and 6j:j1i[{{. cf.. V.. 1. w: signifies the acute accent ~'i~ +rcrfct Siradeva. 2.36.~ prescribed after these words in the Eense of offspring e.I2. 16. the roots "fR. ~~ mutual relationship with each other. implies in the case of an affix its d. i!:Cf~crt 'IiI~if6~ Ciindra Pari. cf. e. letter If. 4. I. VI. in whose case the augment i ~~'!! krt affix ~~.. 2.. . signifies the acute accent '6~~. the plac. to the word 31i!JlI&llTl in sense . ' . 1. I. OJ. \. II. (2) lq:t affix i{~ (fal~) prescribed by P. A. P. depending upon each other..~. ~. of Nage. 2 . base or an affix shows the addition ~cr~{ possessed of interdependence.:l{~~fit g~tftrr~ I{Rr M.if. cf.23 and to the Word$ll~ d. See ~~o\ above.53. 1. P.. d. P. aT~~Z<ii!Bi['iH ii:sr. accent. fql'9.24-7.58. e. aT'ifo~:.t qJ ~. 4. 9iTlE<lTflTl~~:.~l'im~:. e.~tf. of the fern. cf. III. ~ signifies the elision of the last Grammatical operations a(e of no syllable. il:"l affixed to the word qi'Wt+~ in ~~4T a Chinese SCholar-pilgrim (634the sense of ' covered with' (cf. cf.D. ~ tad. HI. and III. 4· 34. 1 by ~q: i. signifies fies ~ to the base before them.70 . 2. it causes ~~~Il~T&::a in the case of certain looked upon as possessed of that roots. Bh!lfiJ~~:. on I. V. P.ql'q~. 2·33. marked with ~. ~+!m.:q the substitution of short ~ by ':<ire. P. P. ~+<i<iift:.55. P. signifles avail if the rules stating them are CJ:f:a.21. 2. IV.r- I' I i .III.variety of the vowel (~~.g.55 as causing the substitution I of Ol~ for ful before it.e. II3. 2. he wrote his Record of Bud. 2. the also :::i?J'6 for the vowel before the Dvandva compound is formed of affix marked with tr. d.I26. ( 2) tad. d. 3. affixes are directed to be !JUT and CJ:f:ir. I . VI.142. 'imft~'!i P. 18r. is changed into f'i:l'9i. ~c'i. d. er. P. -augment ~~ ( +rJ and the shortening P. aJso before the causal affix fUr. their Bh. signifies :a+r<iq'.. ~i!~~: M. g. I. 2. 2. roots fu. L 1. VI. 1+ as .or: d. <fir~~~: etc. . i{"f affixed to 1{cT e. ~ (I) krt affix i{ applied to the roots ii. P. VII.93 ~~lifcii a letter· which is termed lfit. matical operation e.85 and eT~Iq: d. P.e. P. P. vowel If as a substitute. in the sellse of instrument.91 in specified senses and in the general ~~ augment i{~.193 . P.5 . I. I. 4. d. l3fo!SI'+!. in the sense of collection India and travelled in the country to the word l3~ e. g~:!ij ~~l:T~~'fa. ~t@Q.72. g~~l~ root. 127. P..44 followed !!~ ("1. ~~r s. ~ in the case of affixes signi!JUT and i[~. characterization.t i. case ending in 6ft (GT) after base. tff:qf+r: 'if~~: d.9. VI. \' sense of possession to words ending cf. The instances of ii:i'. VI. ffI~Cf. me accent of the last vowel.90 etc. and ~ when they are pre-. signifies the' prevention of out the actual addition of the mute letter. in the case of substitutes. to the word "'tot cf. i. f9f&' and . cf.I. cf.I28-37· the like. P. e. P.Ifi:'qffi P. d.13RTfellTl~·. ~ . 1. 4.53. ii.17. I m.55. Bh. signifies ~~T'6 accof the indeclinable 'i:I' viz.t-t~) d. ~~i]T and others before the affix 19 i. ~~:.5. V. tgCf) to which it has been applied cf. of the fern. for the vowel preceding the affix . on II. During 691-692 2. ).

d. ~. 'by him' i. qmliT and 3f~f:lT respy.\'q i.37. e.q~ substitute for the last ~ before a vowel generally in the case of monosyllabic roots ending in ~and the word <til'l'. III. II7. cf.r) is added in the sense of af. ~. on P.g. 2. d.) substitute for the perfect 3rd pers.lllfc~~:. d.g. E.::if Paribhi3.:r or alm~ (excellence). Nyasa on Kasika.79. a small treatise on roots'and their meanings and a commentary called Kaustubhagul)a on Sabdakaustubha.!i1'!l~mfu: Pari. 3. . The word . V. . i(. it~~. 1. cpo ~ktantra Vyakara'i)a ~Ili:.(~) in the sense of pitS.57..3. cf. ~ J ~~ (I) tad. VI.79. of Siradeva Pa.ij is-. _ statements made in the Mab3. affix ~ in the sense of a'{Rffil~. ~~·tad. 2. Society. declension. ~Cf etc.. ~~lfl. words showing colour .:. rreT~:. The tad. 1. Pal)..g.r<1:. changes in the base before the to which PaIJini possibly ·refers by affix. roo.e. ~q: a root ending with mute indica~fl! a word generally used in the tar~ ending ~ See ~ _.~endusekhara. See 1M. 2. compounds.~. IV. '" k P l' 114. etc.~~: . cpo also . Indragomin is sam~ ~ augment 1f addedto the base "Q. ~. ~.. arlll~~.Jli~fiW[­ ~'iir: II The division of words into ~ a technical term in the J ainendra VyakraIJa for ~tff+ft (the loca tive case). d.A.I.(iR) in the sense of by the agent of the activity possession applied in Vedic Literadenotedby the past pass. a gloss on the difficult passages in Siddhantakaumudi. . 'iiT. to « making the word arra~'6 word ~ to which the taddhita e. Cf. the type of 3f~. I. it~~ 73 in the base. 2. also orfe~~q:. say that the taddhita affixes Qll' and~. uR\fi: P. by D. ~ll~. affix Eli( making the word arr~<U.!<tr f. e.g ~~:. onP.g. P.· the word 3fT"l'F!. g. 4.g. 4. . I. 123. the correct form. P. VIi. <iiTfu~:. g: lior~. e.l'{~<iff I1. it appears that the grammar was of ~. affix lff.109 Vart. VII pages 124-127. The treatment was later on followed by Sakatayana and writers of the Katantra school. 3. P. V. f. +IT. 2. :t2t <iva. which are 'desired olies' with a view to arrive at the correct forms of words.. From references. on II. p. 3fT~ ~Tilfrn<it if ftq~:. discussing various. ~. P. g~ etc. d. like all the taddhita affixes showing case-relations.99. indicatory ending of roots.~.~T'li~lf. III..88. 4.mli~ ~ lllfir I Sake Sil. from which it ap. 3. Fpr which could be named U. +!CCf:mo~.4=mlii6i:'otr lil a short treatise on .t ~fit '19Rr:!VT. He also wrote SarhvadacintamaIJi. arRr ~\iflg~t CCflItCj~~ P. cpo 1t. pa:rHciples ture to itl:TT making the word8lT~((['6 ~ and others. ilf!:l~: V.lT(~ •.lifIO{" ~rFlI1'l. are applied without any specific sense of themselves. 4. ~lii( see P. VI. P. the affixes shQ\Vi.q"f case-ending for inst. qftcl~. Indu is often used for Indumitra.hn. I name of a great grammarian who is believed to have written an exhaustive treatise on grammar before PaQini. ~1ii1~. the Siltrakara and the VarttIkakaras. d. 'iiT~.lhaphakkikapra-' kasa. roB Vart. e. Many quotations.g.. d. affix applied to the words others iQ the four senses prescribed in p. e.' affix 1flii( applied his work are found scattered in to the words 'l~. cf. affi?L ~ applied to words showing '1[Cf or verbal activity. 36. Vr. 105. and changes e. I ther~oD. <(~~! cf. P. ' as Indra. 8 J. Kas.158. krt.q : grammar ascribed to J ayadeva. ~~. ~lT( etc• system prevalent in the eastern in the sense· of 'quality' or attripart of India at the time of FaIJini bute '.' ~'1f. pears that there was an ancient such as iG.e. 1. OR'§iij'tq: from fu~ ( fufl::{).. derivatives from nouns ~.e of .80. tfi'i+ft. ~ P.Bh. II. e. d.g. 'tiff ~i~ e. rrel~ I and bba!?ya.i{\) in the sens_e of possession applied in Vedic Litera. V. For detail nee ~ababba!?ya ed.2'1!""a::r'liP. Kas. "l'f<it. the famous verse of Bopadeva at the-commencement of his Dhatupatha ~:!Ilrs{: 'iiT~~fq~~ a technical term of Jainendra grammar for Pal)ini's ~T cf. itself (W~). affix (.affl'<iT.72 ~l!l~iWf Author of Anunyasa. of Siradeva. tad affix ( ~) in the sense ofi<pitY'j and roots. e. I signifying the application of the aorist sign ". able at present.I. ' P. d. (3) a desjred statement.20~ coalescence. Atm.!?avrtti. d. i3i~~ etc:. tad. from Anunyasa are found in Paribba. ar. 9 2 • quoted by Pal')ini.g. d. of Jainendra for PaIJiIii's ~Hli1. . P •. prescribed after the words tfi. III.g. cf. affix ~ (ltr. 'iifq. ar.g. +r~. I. 'PIakrti and Pratyaya is attributed to-Indra.67-7 0 . ~U.~l1r<{lcPt l\~~~: mlllW-E) mrlif: I Pari.54-163.. 3. cpo also Ujjvaldatta on UI)adisil.\l:fff.V.i(!Tr~ a class of words headed by the ture. by Jinendrabuddhi. IO . Poona. ~. ~ tad. 'RI~?i:. a commentary on. 3. e. conjugation. sing.122. tad. 2.Bh.al (~) opti~mally. Varttikas and tlie Mahabba~ya and other treatises in the senses of ( I }a desired object (2) a desired purpose. context.56. i the superlative tad. e. p~ IV. fWfim. No work of Indra is avail-. He is also quoted by ViHhala in his commentary· Prasada on Prakriyakaumudi where quotations are given from a gloss named Indumati written probably by Indumitra on the A~tadhyayi.ng the sense of the base. 3.8r. . tTT. and words grammar works. 109 Vart. ~T'li2'T~i1: I tfTfiil. 7j-80.:(jfI~~ .e. Many quotations believed to have b!'eil taken froml. e. cf. ~~:. '1TCfllt<llflv:mfct· topics of grammar such as alphabet. mute I ( I 'I ~ (~. similar to thos. e. pI. ~~fI:. e. QTt!TliTt'Rl'6:a~ "l'1 Jain Sil. (([fcilfl.39..ff~ ~qfi:rfff M.- i:tt.4· I. affix. ~~~ author of Gil<.g. from the root f+!ill (fum.. IV. or a'{"Iffirn. .. V. V. The commentators however. err.~. cifq~. in Vedic Literature. j{. Vol. 5!f"l({e(. after the last vowel. cf. ~ substitute for ~ 'before an affix called 'vibhakti '.e. 1.! ~ or ~+!~. a ~ ted. f<til<rr fum:. ~~:. "11ft. ~&r:i:. trrf. This Sutra also speaks of technical terms ~Il:. affix ~ . and Vart. in '" Dbatupatha). cf. 4.=aTa:1~ in the sense of possession. . 2. (2) tad. 4. ilftg:.also affixed in the same sense.g.2.3. VII. it. affix applied to <:: (letter \) in the sense of the consonant \.affix ~ (~'i:{) making the word ar. ill! a word frequently used in the ~ author of a commentary on the ~. He is nowhere '!lTI~ 1f'l.V. 4) a desired form i.

.sound. P. P.. made in the utterance of semi-vowels. IV. cf.'q". . He is believed to have' been a pupil of ~i'j'i({ and iived in the latter part of the 16thcen~ry A. • I anepada affixes. P. P. g..-~+i~:~ cf.almost complete. g.g: '31~'t~. cf.t. I4'T.. d. e. 2.! of the quality of a ' thing or of an undertaking \vhich is . ~fa-.I in the sense of possession. M. 4.IJO. t<I added to ! i stag. VII. the denom. {(I<fiP. ~ry tad-affix added to the word ority or excellence of one individual over another in respect of a quality.e. in the production of soundcharacterized by the emission of breath. cf. ~<J:.£ ~ourrd characterlzed by only a shgnt contact of the cords of the throat. \ li~IH. ~ ! showir:g the application of the Atm-! . II3. 10 necti. ~iifrer before ala's Mahfibha~ya-pradipa. e. or ~). before. e. 2. in Vedic Literature added to 9~" e. affix ~'?i. affix ~ added to ~Rn and <:ifu.po. 1fiiRt~~. IV.40~65.'! vowela:r of $. as. . Vart.'!.~!iI.2 and IV. (2) VikaraI)a affix i. 2·57· See ~~. affix ~V(. P. g.ff<iR' in the senEe of ~~ 3l'T''l2. cr. affix t'iiV(. I·9· ~ See :ru. before the desiderative. V. IV 4. etc. (7) the' fern. e. 'qf~: etc. ' to the roots ~. ~.{\H: etc. 1.7S 74 q~g:. 'FI: dc. ~~ formrn<in . V.) for the ~~. and (2) ! weak Sarvadhatuka affixes. VI. termtnat· ticns (i and oE/. g. the elision of the syllable. i short. e.ts€f etc. g. P.:r ( [) labial vowel standing for the I ~. cf P.g(\' a desirea 0 b' . CfIFft'li:.. VII.13.+!<f crl~.!.:C{) in ~he productIon 0. d. substitute t for the vowel an at the emf of reduplicated bases as also for the vowel an of bases' ending in thecQnjugationalsign qT. cf. and others e.affix In Vedic Literature in the I I I ! . .:fT. 3· 67· ~q~+r. 1.. 14· I I' I ~~ ~krt I affix !{6!1J=et. V. 3· 58.59. I. h' P. U~.:. (4) tad. affix ~ (. VI 4. augment ' I I~ ! ~ ~ the Jo~g vowel. (6).1 sense of the infinitivE'. ( 3) substitute ( . action.d... 29.. VI. ~eT<!T+c R. g. I. m+ft"~. fiilEir:t1T. VI. ~~€f. B~~ Vn. cf. d. affix ~~. ( 3) tad.' ~~. I... t81<i1il:. VII. .g. . IV.CfilJ' wh:n t . showing super i- • the root 5Rtr. h the designation . to ~bow which. 4.i'. 'I I I ~~'l\!' an exte. 3. P.. . cf. affix ~ added to 1if~<:I"e. VII. fcm. ~g. I 2. 5. P. d.. P. e. ~. P. .. ' ~~ afftx ~ tad. affix flit! added to the word in sense of possession. VII. ~t.. and the -roots Moor. 49. P. I .:~ author of ( I ) a gloss on Kaiy.iT..<ij i'fi9''Of P. g. applied. ~i<ii ~mft.cf. P. aro<lfi:ie~. is ! ~~1U: also ~t:1J:. III.~ added to ~ and <?trn:iJ in the 'sense of comparison..3 2 . VI.!C . ag:~t \ has a keen deSIre for It. and ~0'i . e. 2. 4. i1tr<il~. \ h' con. affix ~ in the sense of possession in Vedic Literature as for instance 'in \~. on P. cf. the tad·affixes Cfi~q. added to zcrrfr e.2.III.. KM on... ~I . (3) substitute t for the vowel at' befote the affixes ~ and ~.if11l) short metrical treatise on roots. 327.on with tra~sitive reots.6.ing the long ~ prefixed to a 5arvadhatuka (strong) affix beginning with a consonant after the roots ~. I. in ~i9'htqfff­ !I~'T<ifo etc. I ~( I) SUbstitute . ~ standing for the 1. M. e. P.3t.Bh. e. g. V. ~T~t. VI an independent treatise Sabdabodh. XIII. m: etc.D.g.97. V.n:).'I':. tqmq: an external etIort characterized by slight resonance or sounding of throat cords when they slightly touch one another. l. antf'tl€f JtTTBilT 'lT~T crT Cl'f'Tfl[T<if. <litcrn:. ~~ (a root) possessed of long ~_as I a mute indicatory ending meant for prohibit.33· ~~ tad-affix ~<!'jif. :s'l/f.M:. 1. 4.'lffi . ~ alternative affix mentioned in the lVIahiibba~y8 in the place of i 1is~l'i. g. ~~.57~64' . g. . 3j'u-gr{: . base " (~E/~Tq) etc.. in the sense of I possessed of habitualbehaviour. ~<j~ which see above.138. "lllilslu:$r<fr(~1\4T P. P. ~q~ an external effort (Cf(~'lT~tiI) atarangiQi. when the cavity made by the coids of the throat is kept wide apart.54.tTl ~ffI'IT<f.9 0 • affixed to it. {'L~ .i. 33. a:ruG I. only.58.-g. 10 9. g.g. r. cf. :U~T<l+C. (4). lj<:lTIr'ii"i'11f" ei ~ effort made for the production of .ft~m (~~:)j cf. '!ignfctiffair 'li<t P.. d. IV I. P. g. Cf~@~q.:ff:~Ti!FI. ~. e. the. (2) substitut~ t for the vowel an of the roots iff and UIT before the frequentative sign <!~ as for example in~. • ]ect.lll'. ~1f~<fi: (~f. P.8s.. the same a!:.. "V. 7.g.on.n~r<ii:. e..lini's alphabet be. (:2) ul)~di affix :{l. Pr. base. .added to a substantive expressive of quality.1: cf. affix fu-. cf.. 4. W. case affix l{(rn:) in Vedic Literature. Kason P. . (5) substitute~' for the lac. Bh.><fi<jr-I. erIFft'fi:. 1. l1. d. S. :::f(qfa~:.I ~~<f. tad.. gets \' .g. e. as for instance. ( '2) tad. f1m:lfu. .+l:. and 13. L39. . ! HI. m <:. 79-80 .. tone of that vowel.85 Vlirt. ~Ii~. a:~C{ and ~m<i are applied to a word. II4· .Hi for the vowel of the roots.. 155 Vlirt. ~ . ~R~~:. V. 1. V. ~~wr. for the fem. found in the uttt::rance of the consonants~. ~~ kTt . .aug~ \' ment ~ to the past part. d. q~- ~<!: • qs:~~:."jf. affix. The affixes ~~and :ru are applied only to such substantives which denote quality. (iJIIRIt<j. lW' tad. ct. " ' the same as ~g... . on III.rnal effcrt I I ~~Tftr I ~:q substitute for the tad.1~. . or splendid accomplishment.~ which is technically meluded In the vowel ~ in Pa7. <:mihi:..in g the addition Of. i grammar unless the consonant C!. e. 56-64.. e. similarly lT~ijfff tR:<IRr. p. P. ~'fi'N:.s Itad-affixes [~ '!~ and E/g.>~:. il:~ possession of t_he same properties for causing grammatical operations as the tad. /f. 1".3. I long voweU as differe~t from l!' or . substitute ~ for -s:q before the I long i3'i and protracted i3'i ~ in Pat:lini'. for' instance. ilRil<!! etc. ff~~~:.(. ~qlq:~ "1erI<Wc etc.ticr author of 'Dhatumiila 'i a of the 8th conjugation (':f"lrre. cf.---------_. as. ~~. P.114. t. ~ E! prescribed as a substitute. Kas.2. when the substantive ends in the affix q. 3'93-98. on P. cf. (5) tad. possesses. I"' • Uv. VII.. .. anR. P. on P.. e. 3. d. 3. 39.. P. d. that affix q is removed.g. III 36. affix Il:BV(. 3. Kas. e. «. IV 1. III. cf. fi!\I$. d. beg'inning with the .n: fern. SUbstitution of the masc.'I': etc.'. ct. d... >R<:fi<!ii. K.. ' Jast vowel (ra-~!f).<1(qtr.g. d. ~~ffr.

o. P. ection with the mute indicatory letters termed ~Q. r I.v.euphony quoted in the Taittirlya Pratisakhya. VII. 55. Vrttinyasa. ' the higher tone also called a1fRl i or acute..g. 3'~~ijf pronunciation. also the terms ~~fo R.r. sUtra and is qnoted by Padmana.!'. ~FfT~ a short grammar work. III. 10 9. 33. Pra. e. on I. VII.. said (al" of 'one who studies and under" ~eadY).! ~~ a technical term for <Jql:1T.IIO.. 168-170. 61. 72. The expressions l1~S!<alit: and ~Cf1lTll:!: in the Mahabha~ya mean the saine as a~RUJr. 2. (6) mute vowel \'if expression \'l"ffil~r. semivowels. ~f. 'ffi: P.ffi1~: fu~h fcl<~:. if not clearly manifest. cf.:(tJ~~ I. 4. aTl'il.76 4. In a few cases. . Such letters are said to be ~l\UJrl:T. and giving a list of 154.in in the Vedic Literarally an adjectivaJ word.Anandapala. I I i ~ .59. Bh. explaining decle~!!'li:. 17. <fUjI CjUl~tJ datta. d. 1 ~<-: a~'Cf1\UJl::1:.. 1. I.yakara had something like a ' Laghubha~ya ' before him at the time of teaching the Mahabh1i~ya. ct. also M. consisting· of five Fadas. CfiR!:. the roots ~'I" qQ. which isa scholarly the IGitantra Vyakarana (Pari. (I) the krt. ct. T. 46 ) and KaJapa (Par. II. rring to something which is not already expressed. His work is called the Candra VyakaraQa (Par. VIII. f*l/lf. 1. "50. <r<i. 72. (s) UI}adi . kas referring usually to something I 2.2!. geneending. 2.ds -to the conclusion that the . ~!\UJt1r+r~!jh~ (J%:c:<l't: ) \'J'ccf q <lFc\6<{fcr M.- I . 2·35· i! ~:. VIII. 4. T. : written by tlr~~. 3.q~ tJ~~'iWifW?:<lT: R.tini's gram.lsed by PaJ)ini which cannot be assigned any purpose but whi. the palatal Paribha~apathasofVYaQi (Par:5I). '3q:!i+rifri't ~'\ 9T ~rN~Cfi. been served. in the Ur}adi siltras. tlT!'!:. applied to . g.36. I. +!<! <lsIT ~l <iT P. word a'l~ to which the taddhita affix ~<fi (zEJ:!) is applied in th~ sense ~ prescribed.66.:l"q diverse..r ! ~:. 4. (2) the particle a'. on III.mm: Nir. showing the conson'ant ~ as nasalized n. P. as also to bases used in the masculine gender. d. cf.. (7) \'J' added ~to ~ gramn:-ars.a'51: P. 10 the Mahabha~ya and the Varttisimilarly ~Cfif<lfaCfi: Kas ..rr. .hha~ya D.. :a-!:l~J~ or \'J'l:lroi:rI~ writer of a gloss on the Nirukta. V. 1. l1.~ ~'m: Wf. cf.4.: in connecin the 15th century A. I. Yr. 71). Bh. also . as these letters are not actua~~t ClT CfT:\~'liT\. ct. ~: V.ch has been put there for facility of the use of other letters. the phrase ~~ft(HII:<lm'l: is used in conn- a short anonymous treatise on case-relations. in UQadisiltravrtti. UI}adi 1. vanishing immediately eKcepting a:r and~. ct. !?ya and elsewhere in connection with the words of PaQini.nasai after utterance. a letter is found '. The phrase' ~'EfRn1recf­ m~~'<il:' has been given as a ~'1~ the famous commentator OIl Paribba!?a by Vya<. Sil.:r ~~ short term for the vowels ~. I. g. on IV 4. :I:4 ). compounds. a'Efr9~'i~!! <l"l{'"cf f. III. The d. enunchition (in .:eflQ. (Par. VII. qa. a''li. ~ and +J:.q-:. ~!T is _a familiar exp~ession " stands'. 0 on the first syllable. a:r... g. on P. 62. CfiTtI'li: etc. cf. also . 163. g.=m~'9<fi.I?. written mostly in Gujarati. D. \'J'~ "'i q~ the Sastra ). I ~~ a writer on Vedic phonetics and . ~~.bhaa~rurS!~cfrn~: <a~9flt CfUJt: . Anunyasa. com-· pounds etc. ct. equivalents. BhagavrttI which have existence for a moment etc.41. on P. cf. . on III. also . S. etc.nclasses respectively. . the pen. ~2Tlfc{ a class 1)f words headed by the ~~ the same as. ~ charaCterized by the m_ufe indicatory letter~. : and ~qr. !I which I against repetition of words in the stand for the Guttural. . ~1'QC!\.a"li (a'Of. affix . a gloss on D urg avrtti of Durgasimha. Ed.cf. ~~~U <fl Cf'l~'liH: P. ~':[ (1) short term ( 5l(l. He mentions CandraIinga after they have been uttered. See :a~R(f. ~'J. also P. VIII. Ras. VI. III. II). <I. but which could be found subseq~ently expressed. called 'Niruktabha~ya'. grammatical work Si!?yahitavrtti or \ Si~yahitanyasa. ultimate letter in the J ainendra i Vyakaral}a.:~: ~ or acute: see a~ above. afir~"'it tl't<'fF!~~S'9mT: . D. d. g. 28) and 1Git8.:fi"'i11~1Q.) added Prakrta words with their Sanskrit to the word Cfiff'l. cases and their meanin~s . P. cf. etc.j=Efr\UJT~: I ell!!<j<=l:T: I Kas~ oil II 4. by his pupil.or. ~:. e. - 77 . 4. B:rl<l: M. ~<{~tJ B'{<f: Tai. 54) commentory on theUQadisiitraand also in the Kalapa VyakaraJ)a pat ha . l1.~~ R T. VIII..~'ll: fif. The phrase \3'Wr<-:UJffi~~lQ. is as~igned to it on the strength (~rJ:T~q) of its utterance. 2·35· ally found· in use in the language and are therefore supposed to vanish ~~ a technical term of J ainendra which corresponds to PiiQini's~. with udatta accent : nsion. 4. ~'.. f. 4. ~. the lingual.. affix \'J' added to T'$~~ a word with its meaning (in bases ending iIi tl~ and the roots the neuter gender) unchanged when ~{i. F<?5 gR:-.. mar.'· writer also of E: a ~'<..:r a word or expreSSIOn whose sense has been already expressed. See a-'li.84 . 1{fflic. taught.\vhich purpose.or.. VII. He quotes tion with ordinary letters of a word. everyone of which is believed to have a purpose or use in the Sastra-. 22. Patanjali has used the Ujjvaladatta is believed to have lived expression a'Wrur5f'e~m. e. 103. 1.1. He is also· known by the name and which also vanish immediately Jajaii. 28 . 133.f9e:.g. which was sent to Kashmir and made popular with I a large sum of money spent upon it. and others. ~ or <:t.fcr P. affix a' ( acrr.30. III. a~~:s=: Jain. R. ~.:Ii~Q pronounced or uttered. Sometimes this ~~ expression in the Mababbasya . I Vyak.li (Pari. Candra ture. (4) krt. pages 71. e. Pr. CfiT~<ii l:T!:F .rVrahabhii. V. VII.'Ef. and (!fi''!r~l<-:)· I ~.. Sr. Vol. 2. P. ~. already expressed. e.60. is often found used in the Mahahh1i.rrli~<TIrr: is frequently added to the first letters of a class used in the Mahabba$ya and the of consonants in Par. refe. cf. leC).. 1. d. cf. affix <I~. ~'miw:rm see ~'ffir~. cf. 2. cn~:. the dental and the labial Candragomin (Par.l:T: l~inT<-: . af-mwf. 2.j~1~) for vowels ~:qfur~"'<T~'l:..70. believed· to have: lived in the 18th century A. d.P. 62. a~'Edd specially accented. in Par. "'iinl<-:: <:'1<:r<1-: I !Cas.lini's grammar Varttikas and cited as a Paribhii~a to show the whole class of the five or a salutary conventional maxim letters. 3. VII.rl. lit.~T ~: tra (Par.) e. ( 2) tad. . 1. cpo immediately after their purpose has Jain..89 V.. See Kielhorn's Katyayana and Patafijali. IV. Bh. I.F. 19. consonants and the consonants ~ . :to 43·. etc. see aEJ:!. also Mahii.~~:. 3. 415 ) P.

tana by MiSra..'3Q.. and is alsoavailabl~ :in manuscripts with 'a' few differences. and by Padmanabhadatta on SaupadmaulJadisiitra vrtti. Ther~ is a UlJ1i.di Siitras. ~veta:vanaviisin (Com. roots~. <fiT'!:.. 4.>riaif. 8 etc. ct. 1[('. as seen from an interesting passage .r. 75. still the. sva). ~rn a metric. that these affixes 2·34· and the words given iri the UlJiidi collection should not be considered ~ the affix :aUT. which is the first rule (or Siitra) i derived by the' application of the of a series of rules prescribing variaffixes \3UT.. object.~~ f.. tll'q: and ana. . 3·59. M. .di ship of UlJiidisiitras to-palJini. UlJadi I.1i. 75'. anyone collection into five piidas given in of the senses. M. :aulI~'.?O.of M. on P .:r:. being the first <ITso~mnfir >rRrQlm:<fii.:rur. sutrodgh1i.~m: Sfm: I Kas.. many: interpolated Siitras.ing UlJiidi col~ection must be looked the \3'lITfcl. technical terms.. Although some schol&:rs of the Prakriya-Kaumndi and the believe that the UlJiidi affixes are collection in the SarasvatikalJthiigiven by a grammarian later than bharaI).:r affixed to the roots ~ has given a very interesting discusand ~ before the krt affix 'li cf. VII. Ul)iidi siitras are found in the works of Bhattoji (Siddhiin-ta . III. after the . I.di IV..PufU1?ottamadeva. VI.I~~o-c. giving derivation mostly of presenting the other view prevailing such words as are not derived by at the time. of UlJiidi words and that there are " .. No particular sense 133. t·. I. Modern scholars ascribe it to Siikatiiyana. and Durga ascribe UQadisutras to Vararuci Katyiiyana~ Magha ascri.adi to PaQini cpo Sis. . . seems to have menti~ned ~akat­ ayana as. it by Bhattoji Dik~ita also.. in which are similar to lqt affixes of . (I) Short vowel \3 iIi Plil)ini's bes U t. It is printed at the end of the Prakriya Kaumudi and separately also. There is a commentary on mar are also called UlJadisiitras. Katyiiyana Govardhana. There is also a gloss called UlJ1i. augment ..ladisiitras by ~vetavan­ avasin.. 3. Pari.tion is not a very systematic and the roots iii. XIX.ini. ~q:1 .' Goyicandra. Some scholars ascribe the author. ApiSali.adi .ittJTT<\~: III.50. .. Bh. 3. ending with an affix of the UQ. ~ft{~w:no a collection of Siitras which begins with the Siitra prescribing the affix .J.the author of th. upon as an old one which is defini.€t ~CiT ~~. <H~:.adi. B>r8T\UT. on P..itUTl<:. importance such as agent. tiT!! etc.al work· explait. Pat~fijali. ' various roots as prescribed in any ging to PalJini's system.. apparently ascribing the collection to SakataYana. err. and others should be ous affixes which are called ul).adi affix as suits the meaning of Piidas given in the printed edition the word. ~rre:~i[fu a gloss on the U1.. I..m: and others included in the list the work.collections belon-. agent.ini \3UTl<i:<U P.rrqr~fil~qf?:tlfl!q~lj I for practical purposes. I.. Vltthala (Prasiida) and soon. completely different from these. -Bh.l1i. I I. but riot much. VII. the words aur. ~ff. e. \3'trfT~s~f.(~'4(qttfr the text of the Ut. I. III.r. .Piil). ?EY: +~:.:r'IJTT1:. cf. CI~· sion about these UlJadi affixes and ~'1~q~~Rfff O\1i~oltll:l ([R .adi . the affix .78. i.Kaumudi).. A. is a counterstatement also seen. fflEJ: and logically correct one and therefore ~ by the rule ~. f.. which is poss~ssed of a scholarly Sakatayana. o. three colleKiiraka sense. ~~.. Perusiiri (AuI)iidikapadarJ)ava). <tIq.. rePiiI)ini. on \3UTlc:<i) ~~ I « .adi· affix<. ~ a class of words headed by the word ~ which have their final vowel accented acute ('3"itR!)'.Bha. the MahiibbaHa . the collection into ten UQ.aur.I. the important· ones in the same sense as in Pal)ini.I and Ol+?fllir!l. Out of the several glosses on the \3'!f4T. on.!f"ff or ~'~~"ff is a commentary on UJ..ini as there are words like ~. as PaI)ini has stated in ': Ol~ljr­ different collections of such words ~.r >rrfcrqfi{Cfirf<I I o!!~tfay.12. ~~. word form or crude base.. ika. VIT. anubandhas are similar. 4. There ~ affixes headed by the affix .~yaon· p. 160. CiT. III. rules of PaQ. shows that particular rqles of PalJini Riimacandra Dik~ita and Haridatta..q. The derivaof the mute letter UT.. . .' ~t1a:~lIt{qtG.e U1. 2. a version of the siitras in five chapters or in ten chapters or one.a~ stated on the strength of the Vartt6i?. commentary written by 'Ujjvalaand Padmanabha systems of gramdatta. The oned in connection with these affixes different systems of grammar have but. cf~ P. do not apply to Ubadi. cf. I. The are those written by Ujjvaladatta. terminology . P. is assigned to the Kaumlldi. fu ~qa:.Q. I. VI. 4. . 77. as genuinely derived . with meanings assigned to them.:!"trfr~ o~tq'~Hr. prescribed after .I6. on UQadisiitras).aUT..diVIII. \3'I1JT1:taffixes. gloss by Durgasirhha on the KiitanVimalasarasva:ti (I4th.VII. 226 goes against PaQini. ~f them.. cf. Patanjali in his Bbii. object etc. fil. .itUllfa.l.s are applied to the UQ.. causing 'lRl: on accoUQt .15. Piil).2. on Paribha!]a 22. Ciindra. Similar siitras in Katantra. I.. 62.. The Sutras in the different versions.liidi Siitras although it cannot be stated definitely whether there Was·at that time.. qT. g. 2 and 3 of the secQnd Adhyaya of c{r. III. viz VIII. . the the arcn<i:[C'fj in other words. son of Aryabhaita •. Niirayal)abhaHa (UlJiidi khal)ga in Prakriyasarva.:fifff 'TIl9'il1-lJ<lf\~ I ll1fU1~Wf­ . ~'R. For the different ~urrre:~Sitf::gqttfr the text of the UlJadi Siitras divided into. VII.the various which are also known by the term Ul). 2. tely mentioned by PaQini in two There are two such compositions qW'-C 79 one by Ramatarkaviigisa or Ramasarma and the other by Ramacandra Dik!jlita. ~9TS.r.. which is looked upon as practically underived. . Sek. looked upon as underived. 1.l. '3''tl'6. instruthe printed edition of the Siddhanta ment and abode. Haima.. .as scholars believethat there are many interpolations and changes. C£. ~lrffT9JlTm f<ll[((~~ Kas. five chapters versions ofthe text see . Siitras divided into ten chapters believed to have been written py 'TITCfi<!FFl'.~qf~q~ Qj)ffi.mq. century) tra version of the UlJadi Siitras. a third one is by Ramatarkavagisa to Mugdhabodha. 2. cf..above. cpo '3Uirn: ~?f I. the affixes UlJ and others not being looked upon as standard affixes applied with regular meanings attached to them and capable of causing operations to the preceding base as prescribed by rules of grammar. 1.words referred to . is mentiseems to be attached to it.f 78 different rules..75.<r: " P. in the versions of Ul)adi siitras available at present • I ~.. 3·1. and 8f+<lTtI are used UQ. Out of the . except the ~1l?:1"T and ctions are available at present. on II.a of Bhoja forming Padas I. class. IV.

. d. M. III. Udayacandra's work.cfff~ for which 'I\. to be placed after. ~~I"{ " ulterior form. IV. P~r. a very critical work on Paribha!. cf. on P. I a special rule which is called arlT'fl~ i3"'ij~ tf~:t':~ q~'n. 347 and <i(8CrCJr"P-i' 8fl1~!\:l1J]~ I (Pun). tion between \:lttIf[ and arqcn. also ar~'Q11 meaning non-nasal.1ini in the words \:l~'-1:Rf: P. <n~Z{ ( ~!\:lQT rudeness) and ~~ 31~m t 'fiOO\<I ~'[crm closure of the glottis) are given as specific clJaracteristics of the acute accent. <U1lfc't'+fflT i3"'Q\:1<r:. also oil<n'Q~~­ ~<l P. d.d \:lffi§!'..rq: possessed of "short '3'. (2) end of-a word. cf. acn'Q"~~ft'3:g~ P. Pari. . d. 29. g. to which the tadd-. pad.Pr.fl<llF(1 ar'i<fl?:rr.fr. cf. the famous astrologer of the tenth century. Sira. " I . to be produced.Pro II. 23. I I. ~Tf~ a class of words headed by the· wor.~Rl: tl~or.:?t iR<I<r: R. . P. a sentence making a general statement as contrasted with a sentence making a ·specific statement ( f~~"f'fl'f<:f ) which generally forms an exception and hence is called the 31QCflc{'fffZ{. I I I I I I :. in M. I. II. VI. 97 . ~tCfU~tI~[. cf. CJfcr€<l~ M.90. ~~~ I ! i I ~. Pro 3. Pro rflCJ:.i i. IV. On T. . 3.. is added in the sense of ! an offspring. the remaining vowels have the dlffiJ'Q or the grave accent.:j). to which tht:.s similar to Sirade\'a's Paribh1i.vrtti. afr. R. 4.:I~<l 31~ m<i ~fff ~:~lfUr ~~' where a:rT<lTl'I ('TI".". ct. Jyotsna and o~?:]'Q~<mll~!i\l~it9 CfT R.!(8. 56.f~Etf~:Pari. His pupil Devendrasuri wrote Haimala. 1.ftlTl>. for the interpretation of that Sutra~ was a Jain grammarian. I IGis.80 IV. V. The \vord \:l~: is explained by Patafijall in the words' ar[<!fm .: To. d. accent ~ in English and other languages. . tflJ':'(:.:f%T~lhlifl9iT. to add. tf~ .. Pro II. IV. then. when ordinarily " rules for" the determination of the : it should not have been . II. 'to be annexed. ~Tif. 23:1. a variety of the Krama described in the Pditjsakhya work~. Sek. I..t~~ Par. ( 3 ) thei3"'QI1~'f or the premier or the first person constituting the affixes m. I 4. ~ ~ilF~ .f[fu~f. and one of d.67.qTil: etc. 'Rl"ff. on P.tion.. ~{ (1) following. author of l\fitavrttyarthasarngra"ha. d . a term frequently used in the Pratisfikhya works in the sense of ' following' or . compound word-and when a vowel in a \\'ord is possessed of the acute accent.I3 Vart.:r serving a purpose in subsequent I rules.86. I. Bh.i and others. . i3"Clhtl<l~.!(6rer o~ a c~mpound_ word as contrasted I ~l[rfc'ttrclr ~1:j1l: ~r 31~f.45.:1:jqr 1"~~fq~Cf ~ oil mfa u~r.P. He. the treatise • tbat a Paribbii~a is to ~e applied is m:med tfG:Om~Hi. 47. the latter part of a compound"' ~(:I'fi a general rule as contrasted with word.m'fil:ir· i3"'Q\tf.:ri'~n. 1.) to" produce. It.:1ini's Liilganusasana. " higher than the acute tone which ~~ surnam"ed Piithcika who wrote is mentioned in c:)Dnection with the a commentary on the Laghusab. the pupil:! of Sadhusundara.:. d. .tical element. ~~S1q. wording of a sutra being marked ~ffl autbor of a treatise giving! acute or udatta. 1. whoadded a commentary to it. Bh.:lIfa Apisali's Vart. ~q(?j ~~mr a claES of words headed· by the ! word \:!ttl to which the taddhita affix! dlOI. e. Vart. 1.r"":r~q . writer of an extensive gloss (Nyasa) on Haimabrhadvrtti. It is doubtful whether he was the same as i3"(lT<?>+J:! or +J~(t:[<?>. IV. 1.19. Pari. 1. 4. B'Q~r~.<!?:lr <f. d..l1i.14. ~~Tf~ a class of words headed by the word ~'li\. M.i sekhara on Paribha!.l1i.a-~~<m~ subsequently. Pr. . ! iWr <lj"q'rI?:]:.:<ITiI(1:j~ICJ: ar'i91?:]~~cfilflF( explained ~~ the latter member or portion hythe commentator as . V. e. ~lq: P.::. Hema.:<IIllT . 3. first half of a circumflex vowel: d. is substituted. cpo Vak. Bh. also . to imply pada or padc:s of roots.i gbunyasa and is an abridgement of i ~~ raised acute.r<ntlT tl. author of a commentary on paI. 2.:S'Q'{~ in subsequent rules..lhika on Haimabrhadvrtti (Priikrta portion .las 57 to 65.t!f <IT f<t1:j<:f: I wItb '0tf?:.:.: and its i details see Nagesa's Paribha!.22 Vart. (2) the last letter of the consonant I!Iasses. Bh.44.~T~ V. A. anttl:.0ZtllT" explained by" the commentator as 5ffCIil~ ~ lR+t~ tIfa R. 3. ~'1i{ ~'fT ace-reT: ~'f~.:ff(>rIQur CJ~~ I i3(fl~if i[\fa ar"IffifWli: I alr:§fitlh: I I\ as. 2. Pr. IV. cpo P. also SIra. On P.f ~~: tl~ tll1T'f'<Fr ~n<J. cf. cf. IV. the acute accent defined by PaI. d.so. II.rl<RT elevation of tone. I or exception. on r. taddhita affix ~ is added in the four senses.!. <iEWTrlT~r~lT<m) III. and their substi tutes. ~Sfi11 81 ~~ (I) production. ~<I CJrlT'fl?. He belonged to Gujarat. III. 10 7. 1 ~r'. d. ct.fef1:r4 ncr . VIII.23. a gloss on Hinini's sutras. the nasal. 75 '. also tatEFltlm<Twards. Sek. a tone slightly . 1. I.::. cf. dendusekbara nanled. . (2) production of a gramm!J.:f~!ll[ restriction of the organs).15. (2) tad-affix ~ applied to !fcf and 'I..ftfa"q~:rrT Sisufalavadha If. 2.22. Pr. g. on I. 14.. Accent is a property of vowels and consonants do not possess ~ny independent accent. only) . ~\l?f not I consistent with what is taught in rules of a Sastra. tfffi~~~~~ A. . subsequent. Kas. If\fu~~T. quoted. iit~~<115r lh!. hita affix ~'lJ (6" )is added in the sense of ~if i[\fq (takes away by m'eans of). The acute is the prominent accent in a word-a simple" word as also a . d. 4.. Cfull(lfRi: production of a phonetic element T. 311i:l1il i3"t:[fuCJufutl~r. J I author of :Qhun<. the highest. on P. also ~'fiH . d. the affix being popularly biown as '"iTg<:i~lh. after63.. oF( \:l'Q~lhT<?>i1l:t il!lI. Pari.lendu.. of use in a subsequent rule. ~~ that which follows. d. I Ii '!~T~ ~~ ~+r (1) the best.. VI. instead" of the usual affixes dlur.. For the Cfll:!!'fN'fi+r1Cf relaon r.: Com. 'RCJl~1lJ!feU~ M. cf. Pari. Bh. 4. "~'FofT<l~ etc. cf.151. .. '3'EtlITUJ i1l~I~~ . They possess the accent of the adjoining vowel connected with it. 1. 2. also arffiJ'Q~tf'l: P. 3. He lived in the seventeenth century. the last. 2. '!~~~~ conventional understanding about a particular 'towel in the the work is iucomplete. snch as the application of an affix or addition of an augment or substitution of a letter or letters during the process of word-foruui. ) I II . q~ and" l'I(1. Il2. (caus. 2. <rT1flhT\~.%'fl~ j explained by the commentator as . to get annexed. The acute accent 'corresponds to what is termed .

. Bh.{~f\'f l 'd~£4I€icH'( Dame given to a ilarhdhi in . . Pr. to which the taddhita ~ffix Olcr. II.B. for instance. 69. P. \'f~~ i ~. 0. ~~m + ~ti\<i' ct. relief.:ii:.. 1 3. . a term used in the sense of ' lopa ' in the ancient grammar works. 9T1ffl.r ~f.~lltf~~­ nally added before the krt affix mTj <i't~q: I 3T(..) is optionally subject and the predicate where ehded.'!j~q~r~ 1 . on 1.qi!iT:.~<i ~1.{iW itq~"a" i(fu dlwft'..~ .>riftcr: flrlfand 12 Sekharas which form some I cr~Rd': ~ <rqm.~+'<j: = 3T'I'i~+CI: also ~ ~O'( a grammatical example in ex-I = lJ~i! ~~HCI cf. Il" and ~ also. d. e. g. +n\'ii5Tl'f ari'i:ftii~CI ~qator: I *fIW[$lli arl'i:flii: lliffl: ~ll!j't<l +l~~~ 'l~mf~: 3Tfi~ ~~ a class of words headed by the I I I . pointed out. 1. -------. 20. \3~ljq'i:f<i tpf Fci~~(cf lliii5lli!iT: ~~freT:i also . VI.) by Ni'igesabhaHa written in the first! decade of the dth century A. m~~crttm<io. cf.f. 10.H· ~ute I (I) elision. a class of words headed by the word . Oi~ + ~rii:: = 3ffi ~.aqin a . . 9-56.. pad.rtfcl\ after which the taddhita affix.l:l'HII1j:jtl'lUlJl{II1 -sr. cf. VIII. 3.atlJ~<i'tV<:jSl rfi'i:f ~ ~G.and ~T..2. (2) Roots marked with' word is used in contrast with i:. II ~<I ~C\. noticed sorretimes in the the earlier works of Nagesa.interpretation.astras. R.<fl . com.~ crT I ~CI in gram- Vak.. . 4. i3IDSj- f*.' i 111~.i a letter as is coloured with a musical tary IS a scholarly one and is looked! tone O? account of the proximity of u.jJ being on V.. <I:V~~ ~qft+!(1io:r: Pari.k..67. According to worum his Varttika ~tf!llVlfui{\'fe.'lt ~Cfl:j'f.4 1 • ii«. lli: !Ii!~i{. ~.t on M.a Samdhi in the Pratissacute vowel following ~ in the khya works when a'. 1.. 150. to a word by another word connectmmar to the famous commentary I ed with it. ~I"de+i similar to udatta althOUgh not exactly acute.T'Q·I ged into short aJ'. pad.f.. 1 4. Pad.tPW ~ as mute get the augment i( optioor direct mention. izes the latter half of the circumflex vowel. on the Mahabha$yapradipa of Kaiyata.n. III. The word ~~ .rqi!iT~ a-~: (~<.f..m Fci~6CI. ~{lfijir~irr:. on P.!<jr\ifqp.l 82 <nn~ 83 --------J~ct. Pro II.. TO ~~ the same ast1. accentless I! tone.ifo~fu. d. explanation given by PataiiJam. qrQIl1<I:. ~flWfl . g. ?n Vak. It is I mentioned in connection with an i ~ alleviation. ~~ characterized by short ~ as a ! indicatory vowel. alEo !j'l<n~efr'f.'!j~ fficr<n~!I~~: Q~I:j'T I <lIm~. (2) spot. Bh I ~_lnent works in the different Ahnika I. M. The power that makes objects visible is called permission ( 3f+<rW) •. mentioned in conn~ction with the latter half of a circumflex vowel' "3l\3OOIiti41:{i[fu name given in the . ~. (e. Bh.IZg. SIr(f1l'l!I'~: 1 CI~l:j'r I 'iifalect· @:j~l~ I itqq::€l ~ +lcrr~i. nCf)R' help given in respect of sense ~l~ the word always refers in gra. Pari.nendrabuddhi's Nyasa iilj~HI: ifo:ffll>rl~\'ffumti{~) ~qy.. #I: I I mm- <it ~Ci "3 in. circumflex vowel. II.'isarga and a Padapatha. cpo Vi'ik... 42.1. I.. ~GJ"a"e~I.. . e. ~ J: I .. Ras. Bh.y\'f: I Jayaditya's 1{i'isikEi. J case is strikingly an opposite one . as also when the vowel ~~'m~ ~ ~qfu ~\'f U. <:I: ~: ~GJ'Q<i't: q<iulRVCl'Sf ii(fu ifoRllll~ tRt <ft'q = CI ~~:). ~ a technical term in the Jainendra Grammar for the terms §!I. . ~l:l"CI mftfu 1 ~iJr.. I. cf.I d.. !t~ <i~ijrct~lfil ilif1l11l: and the. Pr. + mar refers to the sUbjectpart of a sentence as opposed to the predicate . VII. e. Pr. name given tt.lII1(crllq m~lj<I:.'lQl~Q. . named aJso ~1+ITq.g. . V. 1I. g. the mg mto existence. T... d.rr. ~. which latter is a comHelaraja" observes "~~ijq<{~ me~tar~ 011 Ji. on 1. ~$ili!ftr ~'<ftir. kyaratna bra . and Sj-. 'signifies along with 'l! its cognate consonants <a.. -part. It is called also 3T~. . ! II ~ referred to. e.69.q +lcr<ft~: com'I' t( 01' 3i1 is changed into . NagEsa wrote 12 Uddyot'as ! fore is called' lfiftd".sentence..!. The com men.'..fiWg l!:re. (I) By VIrtue of thIs mute ~ added to it the ' word ~. WhICh Itself IS a comrr:ent?ry on fiiiq{~r~ t11~ ~ ~ ~ t9f'qT~liq.t'H from the root !I'~: I SI(. I.1 ~ ~~I:j': qgf~9:':l'1<i itq~W~~fu I I '"lT3TtljCI~<r P. an accent which is a reduced udatta. cf. I. elevation. 7.l:. Sek. 2.:. g.~: ~~ = lli ~-R. word. is added in the sense of nature Of' profeSf:>ion '. 12. I ~~:i ~W-fir:.ra has used aYl. the P. D.a~~:. '3~Iffur. g. place. ' follo\ved by a dissimilar vowel. the i3Il. Th e V" . passage of occurrence. ~ ~ ~~: 3Tltilo I I ~TtIJlI1~ 1 ~~~ ~ il:q~ l{re.I M. T&~m<. a:l.. d. ( ~g ) by virtue of the rule I ~. 3.]. Time has two powers by which it bring~ about the emergence or disappearance of objects. Pari. ~~ fif Cj~(>r~~<r.ruq.g.. IS not found in Pat}ini's A!?tadhy.II.r- I ~-------- as contrasted with the.r q.d. sub~lcate :Trrm3TlH!l'~~. cf. planation of}n .ij~~.t: ~lft!fli1l1fi\'f~\ffi: I a~thoritative commentaries on proKalyata s Pradipa on M. ~1lfl~+rt !lame of a commentary marians in the sense of the Parasmaion the 'Tantrapradipa' of Maipada and the Atmanepada affixes treya Rakl?ita. ct. <l'f. 149· . ~: .rfW ir p:ssession of short 0 as the penultimate letter. Pro U.appearance of an object.. R. ! ~ a fault in the pronunciation of The Uddyota appears to be one of letters.t~"1TCf relationship between the (~rand-children etc. which character. P.1 o~:qr I ~ fir ~rffi 3T~fu. 3·2. ~~t8~u1~ 'i:fl~<r: d. jali !s very interesting.. = ~ a term used by the ancient gram. It is utterance of a letter adjoinin'g such also ~alled Vivaral)a. on the Haima-linganusasana.56. 85.... I. In the sentence 'l~~ra.. I I Oi . the Pratisakhya when the vowel I orarr is changed into Of e. VII. provided the word is to be generally the subject is placed first used in the plural number. ~q'n*f q<r~1T[ c r . pre. Pratisakbya to the Udgrahasamdhi as also with a grave vowel or vowels if not followed by another acute I where the vowel ar is followed bva Ipng vowel.P0n as a final word re: the exposi. 4. ease. arrtfifoT('fo: IWI.---~---- ~V<i: ~ crT anro~ I Similarly 3Tl'\i'il0J: an accent made up of Udatta. short vowel aJ' preceding it are chanview. padava_I' K a s• on P. cf. on 1.'!j~m~!Itf<t~r ~~: mqUJ· e. according to Ki'il}va's . d. III. "rtbkak1i.Ul en ~qfct~ffi I a:r<j: <uftf& I 8 q(. P.i in a musical note and which thereved that. 3T ~k. III. ~~ description. r. mention of qualities. added in the sense of ij):.\il!i!iT: 1iTf!lIi1{: I ('i~Cf . It is belie. (2) name of a commentary by Jayanand:l.j the adlacent letter which is uttered hon of the l'vIahiibhi'i~ya.

1.'!fqTO': ~ma{ KiiSikii. :a-q.~'<:ll{ (I) taking a secondary sense.. lit. 2.\TCf'!imCf occurs several times in grammar which states the inferiority of the dependent as noticed in the world. Bhartrhari.. I \3qqa.r.85. Vart. VI. I I ~q'ailcfu:r a letter or a phonetic element substituted for a visarga folQ lowed by the first or the second letter of the labial class.1 Si\:a Satra 5 Vart.28.'3'tfAtmanepada as explained by tTlaoi ~Fl+f. gave rise to. See OI~fif13fr. cf. a word or a noun which has .10. cf.:r st~tement to .105. P. I.. one that originates. lit. hence this u tte'rance called ' i3qlll1l"fl<I' (similar to a sound blown from the mouth). n f. .r. cause of acceptance. cpo sense ' pos~ession ' further developNiltqm ~1<![q~Hq+f. Where the visarga is followed by the first or the second letter of the labial class..'f'CfI~q'tmqil:"l'<i m!f'-!foi\:. see ~q'Cf.J...56. 1. 1.Jf self or ~l~il >rq-+T >fUi'P. Bh. pa. 4.g.ql1t9. on Ahn. moving for a sense found in the sense of Pada in the I which is near' about. d.:mwHflG:. is not put in. d... i ~~F. in R. cf. 3. 1. qTfiiJ~~ 'HW!i\IJI+f. a word : <I~:n"f<IiH: <:I9i1U CIT <!iqq~: :a-q"'l1~~~<Ii: I in the genitive case. however. KiiSika 'I aTI'<lT<i~urm. See Sl<ItilCfll[.:::'!i!{Rr ~rli~l:I: I ~&Il~. ct.48.tI'l.:llm-i1:. 1.. the. . 1 ~q ~t!!ql:l'll<:f\<!: 1 aql:llT~il :.tI:r:m<r occurrence in the original statement before the application of an~ . pad.139. an injury. . destruction. where Nagesa writes ~~W't Bl'1:. ~~ ~!'{!IJI<It~ij' I The word is implication. by one's kno\\'!edge (3~[il) without any '1:niT' i.:l1ta~ P. cf. VI: 2.26. on P. ! i I name of a sauldhi which is described as i3<\'i1i[<i-i1:. The old sense ''I"Bo/(l' of the word' :a-q!Ii[' having gone out ·of use. '!ilT1Ur in '!iBU<i1ll.I Vart. the term aq~ is applied to such /. 2.. . rljsrTfuj1:n~<f(: and made the remark ' I. 97. on 3l~t~~ P. lft\~. by Pat afijali. IV.I for &Bfr.jqf?r~eq~:[<n-i1:. when a boy q::'::~<ir ~~: 1 The word occurs in i~ asked to protect curds from the Slokavarttika.jT<iij' aTtlT i3q. r. on Pari. Bh. II. e.. have to be refuted or corrected.10. The relationship known as :a-q.q~~<riU<lr Cf<fClo<i. viz 1 he meaning of ' ~qSn known by.40. and the sense 'qG. Vart. cf. . lit. I.1f':llmr. cpo Vak. I.. ~"iq'<l. and 'Tra-<iiT~rlf.t . Pr.:m. others' referring to the fa~ affixes 'I· 85 cf. rule on which another rule depends ~q'::H penuitimate letter.ftl{ij' f<!'<ftl:lij' BT that which. • 3l<i'mcTnr is also called OI'<lN13IT. IV..e. fl. times aq'ir meant 'fB<I<a i. P. also VyuQi.\ :{fa ~l[:." having come ill vouge. ~"<lrnP.P. 2.::mfl'iii srl:"!lir >r<r~+f. e. I cpo also i3~l<iCf ed into the further sense' possession ~Rr i3~) . 3. I.84 . aqa:~: q~I~: sr<ItlT: 1 Bl'1:IB-'i 2 ~:a<jf <j<!J ~[~:rrfu o<!J qm~~~: lUiS.go to III. the change of reading took place before Patai'ljali or after him.. '312. This sens~! Upalekhasutra V. 1 Kasika on P. I.g. r.:r<1": ~~g~~ name of section twelv~ of The com. Patafijali. IS. 5.:<::tll-i1:. r.g. on the rule i3qa:~~qlfu'!i :m. origin. . ing "iIJlT~rlj~l~'li[l-i1:. d. 106.tIcta:. 3. i3lf..5 etc.the effect that a word should be looked upon as occurring in the original instruction although it is not there. its pronunciation is. . :aq.. Ttf'CI1~M'l. on P.58. • 37. +/~}j. III.. 7.7 0 • ~~F.. o.~. I. :a-q'CfT~fir. Vart. cpo also. instead of "iIJlYcft. e.\T~<Itq.7r. ct. VIII. cftCTlq'Cf. coloured by labial.:<l\. of Pada affixes referring to the The word is used as i3q~cr!KclT'i<I. 3. on P. 1. ~~ statenient.j<iis given as the . d.jil 3Tllfli: M.19. III. ~f. Possibly t\1e direct instruction from another.. Va. 2. also 9UT01ltl:l<iTqyijtlf.50. il "K~ See ~'irif. II: 2. in the CfUT131l1~r'-! attributed to . original en'unciatien. first or original precepts or teaching.2f.65. utt'erance.2. I..e. (2) employment (of a. augment. P IV instance of i3tfJTil.trqGJt+!~qa: i3q. inducing Ii ~qm~ a terril. VII. aT. I. II4. OI'liTUq'Cf etc. I.m!i:lHI1I+f. Pari. aiso aqt!'G.. IS.127 evidently in . employment or current plains the word as aq"J. an adjoining word. ~f8~q'il[~~c:rUl1\t crows.W:<Im:~T<l:. as defined in I I· the rule aT~i'(l:Il~l<f i3tf4T P. ct. word) for others d... R. or' W?S based upon. The author of the. possession.iicf B+fti'f lfO<I~ usage. ~~ proposition.jc:r as SllN<f<i. a word placed near. bhii$ya 011 c<itl:l<It ~~.as. In Piil)ini's grammar. 1. III. mt:~qqG. ~a:~ instruction. the word ''1"91' must have been substituted for the word' aq'iif' by some grammariaps before the time of the Kasiklikaras. The ~k Pratisakhya gives <:i. oneself. also 3q~m~~t!lq~: I :rrl~<rl'f!f[fu. \3'lf. The word OIm is.the· sense \ ~q'Effif lit. i3q~~ aTT..!+f.ii5~ P.. III. 2. also ~<liq-f<it f?n<iT<iT!Iq-qit '<1rci1~Ftl5<!fa. M. i qrfili~~lf­ of the fruit or result f. on P. (2) substituti9n of the letter (i. Bli. sense of the prefix '\3'q'.~xplained ' .2.:r. on Sivasutra 5. Visarga is simply letting th~ breath out on he mouth. 6.<l~+f. S.. III.~Bh. ~~ ~~F. also ~o~lJ. 4 end. i1~qcrt B8+ft~ P. For difference between <Iq~ and '3"&:~ see :a-~~. lit.<i:. 3. cpo also f9~<ft<i1Nff. error... Bh. 3fT"'lmQ. marians in connection with such a aceep t anee.23· I ! ! i I I which posstssed that sense. on P. as !lIso M. lVI. The remark' fcrq'll :a-:fr<i1B: ' is of frequent occurrence in the Vyakaral)a Mabiibhii$ya in connection with statements that are defective anq. P. got'the penuitimate letter omitted cf.:oi=iCf l(ClT"'lI<ilqql~1JI <J~:t. The!I <il"~. III. I. as an independent letter.I. See :a-%~. This coloured utterance cannot be made independentiy. I. In the Nirukta '3lf. P.j~. is placed near the'last letter. . I M. he certainly protects it also quoted by Patafijali in his Mabafrom dogs and the like. P. J. "'l.same as Mahabhiisya on P. ct. T . such a word as is lound in the original instruction.134). 4. commentator on PU$pasutra eX-I as i3I:R!T~. words as are put in the locative case by Pal)ini in his rules prescribing krt affixes in rules from Ill. ep.'!if~ g!Iil~T ~9cr: KM. Kaiyata on P. 3.:n~"1. cf.fm~ 1 ~l[ ot>rmfafcifi'lifj ~<. used by later gram-k dIll • 14. an i allied sense. M.iR~q.g..'G'. 1. i <:I<IiR1if~: :a-Q"'lR ~t1t"fT ~l: f9~QT I This remark shows that in ancient i Nyasa on P.134 has cited the read4. ~511~1f\f~ as also Sllrffi "f +/<'<l\qqito P. on ~g+/fa '<l P.c:r: I The word is used in the sense of ' additional phonetic element'. 8h. K. d. The former means an Kaiyata in the words ~ 3Tltll~­ instructing sentence e. Sekh. . CfIJl~i[m. on the Nirukta explains the third klil)Qa of Vakyapadiya Qf the word <Iq.. I. As Patafijali has dropped the Sutra (VI.a~xes etc.:<ItqlRl!i:l P. cf. Pari. 46. e. it cannot be said definitely whether ·II·4· 2 I. P. has referred to such dependent utteranCes by the term aT<l\ITClIi[ClUT. The word is also used in the senEe of an adjoining word connected in sense.92. T.g.I1t'!<i'li[ultq"'l~3. .l'fi'lt: o~tf!N ~fa 'llN.lf~~ <Ii~. in ~<J~rr:: as an . ct. Vart.

68 ~l'il~11J!I~~~ f. I.c~IVff~t&~'t f9m~a~11J.. cf. Here technicallyi . I. ~a. \'QrGf. Generally an inferior thing is compared to another that is superior in quality • I ancient. 5l'm... The word is found in the PaI)inisiitra . Sek. the indication is generally inclusive..f 'Of~li:ftf. 'q crT Il: aT{ lfc:f ~ffif. ( 2) a comparatively modern gramcf.72 Vart 9.rai'( Kas.29 VaIt. Bh. and the following aTe referred to as ::rq~Fetf\if. I..y mention.56.: Nir.r- ~il' (I) union.:IQ etc.48.T ~f.rqOOa.a~q­ ~~.:ft<l~~(~1fTll~ I implication of something by means of a mark or sign. is added to the nominal base 'fiR. The word is found in PaI)iriisiitra ~ «iT~f+t: P. cf. -The words crl'C<! and '1'ffic<{ are also similarly used. ~rcr~ ~f<i f. 13..I~m1ir M ~q I as also ~'!:f!ll[oi {i ~~ .iitr+t~q. Vart.·1.. (~. ~o an object which is compared. before a case-termination mentary on the siitras of Mahesvara. CWI~T~:g. I. ~a.r ~<iQ " a well-known term in Rhetorics meaning the figure of speech . ~ an object which is to be compared. . on P. the words 'fit'lfUr. Par. Vy1i. ! technically termed as '3"q~ by PaQini according to his definition of the word in Ill. 59 explained by . l1R1'iif\<iitCfq~ri'lt ~~: Bll: BIlTB'i~ sn~ marian possibly belonging to the ~~q~: Par. erroneous named ·Upamanyu and who has written a com men tory named knowledge.65. II. His defined.. the well-known Paribha~1i. on I.92 Vart.rqm: I ''li'( ~aq: mt!~~ . ij~!I1fRmr.. I.Cf. a{~m .f am!i<iRRli W'fimfilTo ~ 87 a technical ter:m used in the . 8 where ruJes such as ! l1ljOT. nineteenth century who is also a-q-t:~ misconception. K. and M.r"<i~ I .used by a word which is near. He may be taken to be a contemporary of paQini. 2 explains the word ~q-q~ as ~q)!i1Hft or ~cit~rfut tt<t ~q~. P.92. d. I.36. o :aq~&'i<i :a~F'l i1g. 1.rqma-.. 'In.. many times as an ancient writer of some Vrttigranthas.rtf~~tIf\~+( KM. The work discusses "fiI1. I I ~~ an ! ~a. ~~<l. etc.T :a-tIm Uvata on V. Pr. ~~fcI~ a. I..' 1. 'Of ~Q~ ~. The work ~ or ~@ may be understood as <fill. 3. I. 'fi+!Iq-g.<. one of the three ancient teachers of Vedic recital. 23. Ill.as ~'1>rfutn({Cf. a thing indicatory of another thing.not primarily. d.r~~+Rfi: 'iiT\'fifcp~f¥tJl<1«1. 75. on Vr. mq-: ~ffi ~lII I lmli<j~: ~: q"fj:. See . upamsu being the first stage.9 explained by the. as for inst- ~q~m$ a case termination added to a wQrd on account of the presence of another word requiring the addition' cf. P. ~~ ~~'i immediate contact. Pad. standard of comparison.nrrmo'fiT +tCffrapreposi tions are signs to show that such a union with another'sense has occurred in the case of the noun or. V. 1. ~qttt\m:rt~ the compound of a word. significant object or mark. 4. cf. I M.T<iTfu Bl'iTiCjCf"l~: P. Pr. along with i1\'({qc::qTO"f'<li j. on II.t. II. The word is foundsjmilarly used in the Mahiibba!?ya also very frequently.on the grammatical verses attributed to Nandikesvara which are . ~rcr . 'rait •.lini. gr~mmarian and Mimamsaka believed to have been the brother of Var!?a and the pre ceptor of paJ.. works j in the sense of . I indication..) I I I :a-~~ a short work ill SlUra style ascribed to Bnaradvaja Brhaspati. 4. Bh. The word is often fonnd at the end· of the statements made by the Varttikakara on the siitras of paI)ini. edited and translated by Prof. ~ (I) the famous comme£)tator cf. "qcljl'i1i1+!fulXll!it~ I Heliiraja. which are upapadas is formed and which form a kind of a comwith 'fiR. cf.. :a~~.rqfsgli! is also found in the M abiibhii.1i in hii! Vikrtivalli refers to him as his teacher. or ~ of some limiting conditions or additions to what has been already stated.the commentator as \:!1fi!'C<i~ ~fcr ~: I Pdi.' Some believe that U pa. . 14. I.55 where the Kasikavrtti explains it as .7 2.96 ! stating the possession of greater I force in the case of a karakavibhakti than in the case of a'n upapadavibhakti. ~ftl1fu~~~: g~~r~: I ~f<ifctq<j: 5l'~~aI VI. 1. 4.in the Pratisakhya literature where it means a word standing near and effecting some change. J . 3 etc . . The word . velb to which they are prefixed.IS.92. VII. 3.<!. 17. Pari.something.rtfP. cf. Cll1{ known by the name Cl~lII<:'ii[ft'iiT etc..vart..commentator as: ij~ q-{81le<{~~m:o~ I ClSf 5l'~~f<i: ~~: I::. tim generally of the type of the annExation of some words to words already given.86 III..~ ~Etffi:51R11fIG.. Kaslki1 on +l~igmt P..80. with another word which is a verbal derivative.Nir.<r.r~m~+t'lfcr I . \g'tf4~ :a-G'i6T1f~ a substituted word element.~':" 1f<:{~{elj~i1I"1"11fi'l..tisa~hya manyu was an ancient sage who wrote a nirukta or ·etymological work and ~hose pupil came to be known as an~'1.. ~HfcliT~: Cil1<:<fiH'::. which is not directly mentioned. but secondarily by indication or implication'. words which proceed from a rule to the following rules up to a particular stated limit. 3.. where the KiiSika paraphrases it by the word ~ and illustrates it by_the word ~ in ~<i"EJoljl$l.:m Oifctfi+Itfaar. inclusion of . 1. 85. onP.!?ya in the same con text.57 TattvavimarsinI on the famous ~'f: a{lfI1ll<irf?:mfin~: I also cpo Kaslklivrtti by Jayaditya and ~'i: Of(~~<iIlf'fl1<{YG:~ ~'fifil~ I Vamana.Clitq~ I The term· is yery frequently found in commentary works in connection with a word which signifies something beyond it which is similar to it. enul. Abhyankar. I i I ~: ar. of one word with another. Poona 1974. X. Sek. cpo Yak. Pari. ct. 94. the comp~und of the words !-. 3.i~~ T. 23. The word j is often found in the Nirukta in the! same sense.rqif'~ <i~ ~'3f' if orcrcftm cm ~~ the fourth oat of the seven stages or places in the production of articulate speech. IV. also !{RI'ii<:oi ~fct\:1li'll+It'l~qT~1f~:::[{I~+( Kas. also a{Rl5ftlW ~qq:::~~ P.Cl({ff . cf. possess the seDse of • expressing the meaning. cpo Yak. The work. pad III.• simile' or' comparison '. 1. The word \3"q~ is found used. being called :::q~ by the rule a-~tq~ Ba+ftwll. d. iitr~qiUf. II.rq. The verbal forms of <?l'i!' and ~l'i!' as also the words <i>~~srr. He is referred to. grammatical operation c<J. I. cf. ance. ~fR :rrF~: I Nir III.1UI' implication. . one of the eight variaties of the Vedic recital. Pr. ~q~~~r "iT<il~lf?:::jll:oi P.

These prefixes are necessarilycompounded with the following I word unless the latter is' a verbal I form. The prefixes are instrumental in changing the meaning of .g. in stanza 6 and fq~q~. cpo <!'lffii Bt~<F. which keeps its ablative case when the compounds f<! 5:hRllf. The Varttikakara has defined . it shows only the modified sense of the root which also is possessed by the root. 2.21.u~~.\'t<!ls: Siradeva's Paribha$a"rtti Pari.20. ang'r tI. 38. 6. 190. \3"11:1<1: P.Bh. 11·349· . II.Bh. Poona.lilWm'1£flQ<F. II.q~~erQ~ T. P. For details see Vakyapadiya II.'r ~l(. and S.4. cf.L.1. I.mCfCfi and not 9l'<f<F. T.$ya. in stanza 8 being in favour of the former and the latter views respectively. Pro XVI. or without possessing any independent :oense.T <FiFer I +iqrcftffi iJ\'~: I a'lf tJ. P. :ji\:T~il:ijq~u~iIT: <F. d. which implies possibly that roots themselves possess various senses.ing some· specific senses when preceded by . r09 Vart.tf~i\Uj I . 1. joined together by speci3l grammlttical connection oIled BliP. pages 370-372 of VyakaraI)a Mahabba!?ya ed. some specific prefixes. sr:qmf.· \3'q'fllTtIl 'clrc:r~r q<l>l~:.9if9'+if:ffi =qf'{~f. but they indicate it. the loot.:rq~ . prefix.. \3'!1t!'IT M~m~~9T'<f<!il: ~tro· ~:<:jTrna~ 'frIqTerl:. '4:t1f ~~efit qol ~li{~ fctR:~i~ qol ~8"~~ er. 4. The root \'l"lRt~ is used in the sens~ of finishing in the MahabhB. 3. such as elision. Pro VI.j. also vol.60. ·cp. joining of th~ prefix. Pr. Vakyapadiya II.as. but they indicate . (sec:... :M. which. IS. Some scholars of grammH hold the view tl~at the Upasarga is prefixed to the root and lhen the verbal form is arrived at by placing the..fimfci-:W-r<F. L 15. Tatpuru~a compound. tions are used in juxtaposition with it. 4. 24.56. The ·~k PratiSakhya has discussed the question in XII. 3. 2540.O\~.T. Bbartrhari. I. li. \3'q~l1i: f:ji<fp{!?( P.qm P.:ar. 2..r". I'.1~. Mababha!?ya on 1. . 7. which view PaI)ini himself held. the words 'IT'tl'<F. ~ \3'qtlllT "1~r~<!lCfm<g ~r9'i'fr: q<tl~T q.. ~q{:liif.~U\+(. It is' doubtful..'!. V. edited by the D.i1 88 ( 2) addition. 1. I. iIt~<V:ijq~"\<l p. ~ar.n. l3tq'tlii3 rr[~ R. which are always used along with a verb ora verbal derivative or a noun showing a verbal activity.29.:rr<!gq[1.by the addition of suffixes.59.efmr: ) which is referred to by the word '/[m<!T in the rule '/[at'lT fmrmter o P.E. 2·30. the Sixteen th . II. K. however.' The word became technically applierl by ancient Sanskrit Grammarians to the words If. 6-9 where. also P. 3.: I .~: \ M. in the topic of the Karmapravacaniyas. (2) a word referred to by the word which is put in the nominative case in rules of PaI)ini prescribing compounds. on P. On P. {1~!:! ~Rl911U f+i'alii iffi'lr~~1eiR<!f.!. attended with a prefix.3-!1tlii as t. 24. etc. <F.Sq~~oenr a treatise on upasargas by Gadadhara Cakravartin. 2.I:r<! f[cft<f: lf~:r'l~ iFfY q:cft<l~:ql 'tl'r. genemlly used in connection with roots.:l~: msltlt srl~oif.g. E.li.:ft<tdT~i'I . VII. <F. II. while scholars like Gargya hold the view that prefixes de express a sense e. ::Irq'.g. 'Rl etc. 1. For the list ofupasargas see R. 6. by themselves. on vn. ~rQ a treatise on upasargas by Bharatamalla in Century A. 3. It is not clear whether they convey the sense by denotation or indication. XII. on 89 sr means beginning or . I.).lCRO'/ a shor.. as explained by the commentator. Th~ word originally meant only' a prefixed word'. (3) a word which has one and the same case when a . d. R.rt.I. tRl and others as U pal..1 Svo. I.<f~ 'qaJl5. IV..1. Pr. the word cfir:wicrr in the compound fclE<hl~n~: .46.:rq~m~~n the vie~ or doctrine that prefixes.27 Vart.g.!:! ~ crrm~m<i1~l!]f9Cf. 2.Poona. til(. d •.I. Bh.12 (in the compound <F.g~0l (I) adjective. ~'3. Mahabba~ya. P. In his A. leaving it doubtful whether the \3'q't'lir or prefix possesses an independent sense which modifies the sense of the root.) I iJ'Wltlfi::<l>'il~~ tlliJ~Uj <j:.. cf. 165-206. \3'q~ drawn close. tIf~l1Iur fu u~nm:ur . \1q~:nno compound"d together. compound in the different· cases is shown as dissolved. While others hold the opposite view. e.43.4S.g. the same words sr. are not termed Upasargas for the time being. ~'lf'qCfillT~<!ICf~rr~m fqlUq~~.24 which pre~ scribes the Acc. they are in fact . d. 1. by Harikr!?l}a.f\l'+iliH II Some scholars like Sakatayana hold the view that separated from the roots.~ the sense of the verb or noun with which they are connected.. desired terminations after the root. e. Vart. Kaiyata and their followers including Nagesa have emphatically given the view that not only prefixes but Nipatas. 4. 1. he has melltioned some specific 'roots as posses:. it is stated that prefixes express a sense along with roots or nouns to which they are attached. 2.18. cf. while. qu.sq~ii"n~ a treatise on u pasargas. f~Eciir~T. I. d.R .r . D. ~tlfr I Nir.8. d. 41.:ar~ etc. tIf~lf'aU3Itm ~T<gT<!.r{r<ll!. K. d. on Vak. '~'l1fulfl<{<!:' P.ml1: .il P. on P. which include sr. 6 and 8... however.:ft<j~ (arr<j: lfd'tll?' I Y. although they are called Nipat. Pr. also vol.-er. 8l~tl~1Q P. . On the other hand. C'f i1!iq<Pi: qN~~: f&r<ff '1i\~ I ~qtl~r~W~ 'l<f~ I M. sometimes they are found detached from the verbal form even with the intervel1~ion of ona word or more. Va. ~n preposition.illustrations.tmanepada topic. Pr. do not denote any sense.44. 7 and Pradipaand Uddyota thereon.I~~ tlliftl ~'3~C1~ P. prefixes are simply instmm)'!ntal in indicating or showing them.t anonymous work on the nature of upasargas or pre- introduction of the necessary changes i~the wording of the base. 2. VII. or addition or sub= stitution or a letter or letters as caused .T4 ~)q~.:ar. pages 371-372. Society. ~ ~ \3'tf~ .!qm: im'I~: positions explaining their meanings with . Society.'argas as well as Karmapravacaniyas. e.\! Although they are not compounded with a verbal form. connection with' a. by the D. e. 131. subordinate mem ber which does not get the treatment of the principal member. f<!e4ir'inf. cf. etc. 1.~ '{cf 'clTg'l!1tlillJi ~<!~ tfalltel\:l if. prefix. Vilrt. do not possess any sense. prefixes 'do Dot express any specific sense as ordinary words express. IV.g. For details see Nir. I.38 where the K1isika has explained the word as ~ttfr~.132 . 1. I. are dissolved. Vart. '{cf 'cli g : tlll:'!~. d. st. these preposi.!"ii<:<!: ~<!\<r. ~'tqlfu'cl1<l<ii C'frlT f. XII. 2. pad. ~9\<t<i: S. 14. These words are given the first place in a compound. are actually assigned some specific senses by PaI)ini.52. d.

Gfg~a\ffi!f'.~!!~~ I (~~. where it means the vowel before the last (vowel). \:f~ a restriction understood in both the ways. second. also ~1[ ~ mt"'l' \3G'rf<f4ltfl~ij. the Parasmai. in which a visarga is changed info a sibilant letter.. ~~. cf. III.2 as alEo on V. '" of anuvrtti i. e. Pari. 13· 29. on VI. ue occurrence. . g. Bh. The term ubhayat~a is descri. pad. however.a-~ahner lit.' ~tflJ(~ crT ~. ~-.=<nG'~. Pari. g. (2) :M. the ~ord ~ in ~ ll. one near 0r. penultimate. \:ltn~a lit. I. d.) I :atf~~ (I) with. cpo \jtfT$iqr ~~>fIq.m samesense by ancient Grammarians. M. P. but in the \:f~ (I) hypothesis. '\3G'i3fq-(f '. 'fl'<l9i:' (~.26 Vart. e.Uq~ lVI. near the first. cpo also ffJ:~1:'ft \~ff~(f: IfRIf 9i~m I Apastamba Sulba sutra 15.r. 1.vowelled syllables. The word'after w. cf. cf.I. 12. cf.68.7. presence b y VIr tIlT""". on P. LI6 .64. same context. I2.Pr.En. ctTEfIG'fti. cf.la. speaking or showing. m~ ~~Fr<!liRl:.lini.Bh. . d.. I. 108.a-~IIT'iTT . The words :atr-m~ the word ~m and then the two and <lTfT'<Iit(f are found used in the compound words" e. Bh. ~~<lttl\11:~G:.22. 19 where the word refers to the third out of the four feet of the verse cpo also commentary on Ath. g. 12 9· VIII. cf..m as contrasted with ordinary powers possessed by that ~"Ri i.II. (2) occurring. a difficulty in ~~q--A' both the ways. :u~ 'q{t<!~if <fi'r. I. Kasika defines the word \3ilt~(f as ff~ owi' mllCfma. inaudible.a .1 \3"t{~m<ltl.<l1:fl'<IR ~l'{IlJ((fa:{ tI!!cn~RCJ~£f trtt ~<1 ~~ arcJ~ij. and Nir~ I.. Kaiyata and Nagesa. e. on I. STTCJr. cf: <ltl\'efIt fu~ P.~~T \+l\Rr R. The See <lG'-m\.<f >r~<j': Sj!jj-mo"I. on I. also T. presumption. nant. m. plained in the technical sense as the first place or stage in the utterance of speech where it is perfectly inaudible although produced. g. 1. Pro "' . cpo Yak. on P. 3. V1i. 38..aq'lf'il condition. 3. '3'~'I'i a supporting assertion or statement.3qi\.~yq{\: ~if'ltcr<F§ll~~c:m ~~ ~ ~~q~ d.j&lIJ(~trfu :.I!7.68. pad.90 ~ 91 ~Cf1. cf.. the Dhatupatha of paJ.9.132 where the writer of the Kasika. cpo Vak. (2) sticking to. VI. arT'<It<!T C<j~~~'I<jf: R. cf. substitution follow.Eh.. V. 3. the meanings (i) numeral.r. in both the places. CJT~9ifci or ~~) as the two constituent words. '<i fu \3G'liit~ifTferirqfu.: '3'miilffi both the alternatives. cpo Vak. :u~fu~iI.hich acceptance (2) determination of the sense of a word along with ~fq is placed is called upasthita e. the whole word f<rm~f ~fu ta. 5· Duation of a word in the rules that ~Ra (I) sibilation.44. determi- XV. cf. I.r. pad~ 1.i contrasted with ~l!Imqf~Ci i.I. g. Kasik~ on P. tlff: R. both the senses-.u of a sibilant letter fora visarga.bed a. IS. 1. Pro XI. so also vidhilin and asirlin. pad. 8ek.) .a-~m a hiatus or a stop which occurs between two 10ng. Vart. cpo \jtfl<n<lf lit. ~~_ ~l!fT P. 38-39. a word which directly expresses its sense. double signification. Par. on III. The word is ex- . 78. presenting \j~<rlfRrfti[ <iCJfu P. The first out of the seven positions of voice in Vedic recital. (3) coming to be placed near or in juxtaposition with the preceding word.?l9i I W+rTCfW ~m ~<iT-cr8T. ~~9fu I in both the ways lit. cpo Vak. Sarvadhatuka and Ardpadbatuka.a-~ . 237.23. ~.Par.g. etc. the word is generaUy found used in the grammars of Sakatayana and Hemacandra. Bha.und word first. wOid. cf. g.adisiitravrtti I. Vart. M..II7 where the word ubhayatha refers to both the alternative uses e. 1. on I. qualification: e. Y. II. \j~<isr 'q" P. 78.. \:f~a a word used rather tE~chni- . 9iT~~ B'~TG'itmlPi.' III. III.. a deilOtativ~ word. word is found commonly used in . V.~­ fum M.T~fcf<1 3:1&. Pra..58. on VI. cpo ~l!IT 9il~ii:~: ~G'{9igr ~'l1Um ff~<i' cit"'l': ~~i:f at~ 'q" <1 ~crmr ~~: . and (ii) words~. 14. explains it as fSj'5f~iftC1IlliCll!!'Uir ff~ wfttr!!tl\'Ull~" giving \+luft~ and Cf~<fi<f as examples where the long ~ is upottama. anyatarasyam' or 'va' or • eke~am'. e. 1.. 44 Vart. compounded together by uttering sibilation of Visarga. 9 where the word ubhaya refers to both the senpes-the ordinary one ( at~+r) and the technical one (~~ )-e. Eh. ) \3"Q1C{Iij':n~ ::itil~ lit. cf: tImlfli! qTll ~ tft<f.a. The word \j<i<!Sj'f. Sek. alsoOj'1:. resort. ' . The III. the word without l .flTfT'<IIUi: tI WIf: R.:ij-'r. both the padas or voices.ffiq-~dro:. d.. of course).m..?lCfi '! ll. -the term is generally used in connection with words havi~g two or more syllables. i(lI[.:~<1l1~T ~9l[Rlfl!IllCfff\fu .mscrl:IT which is also called ~a or fir~a. I ~lf{ 11. \:fqi~ lit. t§ffiTfT'<I~ ''q" R.j tI~ .~~~~. 1. Pro <itf~~' ~a-'<fOG:: IUs. \:f'CfRf in both the ways (in the case of an option..a-q'fl}'lif recourse.. 77. 8. The E:k-Pratisakhya explains the' word rather differently. The word is' generally found used in the Candra VyakaraJ.r~I"'l'r is used 'in grammar referring to the option (fcf<lI'iT) which is ma as also at'ifTH.rmCfw limitations put on it by the extrain fcjmqW ll.ij-rr 'q" mlI[ ~l!fl.:i:lf . III. on T.:. preceded by. The term \j~~~r is similarly us~d in connection with short vowels. 3. 3.rt 4.' "'T"': :J:~{q" Com. . Durga oJ? Nir. 14 which corresponds to other recitals wheu Vedic reciters pal). Pro XI.m or f.S synonymous with" bahulam ' or .a-qjq means or instrument which is used in the accomplishment of an ' objective. the term \3"~erT is a conventionai term in the Pratisakhya literature. 19. Pro II. near the last. before the last. name of the samdhi. present.. cally in the sense of the word ~ii which is used in the Krama and Pro IV. g. 217 and <Utf1:Tlt\:' ~~tl\'UllT~a:t. ~. ~'i]: the compp. possessed of both the padas viz. '1 '1 . but which is abandoned as soon as the objective has been achieved.. Vart.e. cf. of the word B'lf!ff. then trfu: = . III.' ~~ CfiT~ <ffl)q-ft~a-l\!!~. 19 . -e. Uddyota on VI. cf. cpo ~1IT\j<i~~tfRTT M. 22.. \j11<!6: and G'l~. appear to be the two such words. I. 4. 18 and 19· show separately the' two words \:f'TI'1:l'R' change of Visarga into s (~J. 2. <itf~ ~fu i commentary work quoted in Ujjvaladatta's Ul). 13·3· cpo <tl{ or ft<iTCJW. cf.:r<rl!II CJT Q. 1. cf. • \ ' .have' taken\j~(f: and ~l~ (B'~I:f. limitation.ini VIII. .-m~ liR=~<1 <lf9oo'l+I:' M.:r . recurrence or contiXXIII. 3. conneCted with. as also see <It'fi''(f. pada and the Atrilanepada. 4. (~~."<fr'lI.ott. 44. .

XVI. ':3'~ (I) double voice-the Parasmaipada as well as the Atmanepada. 1. d.g. g. 110. I.34. em. e. Pr. by P. Vedarthadipika etc. :. Pro XVI. 4. IV. . Vajasaneyisamhitabha$ya.. ending in the after some other specific masculine . cf.tion 6f the augment It optionally in the case of e. on XXII.t~tf8' ! a case or a matter in which both the alternatives occur. 4. V. ~<t­ m:<J'<Fr :II"~~ P.rr~. as for.31. Vajasaneyi pratisakhyabha$y~. e. affixed to the \ word ""er when it refers to protu.. e. the potential and the benedictive ~ before certain affixes..3 0 . i3" being the short 3i~ marked with the mute indicatory letter iSi..g.1f. Vart. e. d. from a whole.g. also . P. a root to which both. e.:r~m . by denoting the g€nus as also by denoting an individual object.20. VI. XVII. II. as also after the aorist sign ~ ~<JT. 'Of P. ~~\<{ ~ffii: similarly fs:rlj~(q~:.trcr). d.2. <i w<fr!!+r<i9l'l:. fii'ltrfn.ta "g. d.~ctr ~f. ':3'+{~~1 expression of the sense by a word in both ways. combined by rules of samdhi with 4.. S!<rt e:l~ fern. iifm in which the first pada consists of twelve syllables imd the rest of. 1. d. tf?r~: ~f!!: 8l<!iT~:. 1. VII. II. tI <Ffi<iT+l1~t ~+l~ ~ftCT l{fn M. 6i~: P. VII.CT I "a'+r<i~ a root conjugated in both the ~w. l!'. pad. cf. 66 . wanting. ~qG:.rr~ to form the word . the words . cf.<iiti1. 8lf. instance. It has got many varieties such as ~\af6U]{. Kas. ~n: ~. i:!i~\'I~ etc. Bh. 20. d. twelve syllables each.. the main seven Vedic metres which are known by the name :ll"jjf~~'il.u~srn.~fff I <t~:'litlfrrl ~ M. 1. cf. ~:. also <:f+l<lcrl'l. to roots and to the noun ~ under certain conditions. q~. I. cf. e.66.n­ lr-'1l::j !{iis. krt affix iifiili added to the root .being as also ~i~ a class of w. cpo Yak. +li\0[1~: etc. 2. tff?Ji1. Pr. affix ~ or e. taddhita affix ~'f.. with udatta accent on the last vowel. which can be compoundid with krdanta words ending in . R" also agama 6i and i3" prescribed /1 after the roots q and '1 before the t<i1.g. <Ii: ). I I rian scholar and writer who was the son of Vajrata.<Jfur: V. Pc. 3Tfof~:. VI. 2. I. ~i1. cf. in the perfect tense and in the present te1Jse in ~ ( I) samprasarar. on P.19. ~er:. roots ending in 8lf and the root fil<t.19. number. some of which are known as Bha$yas. i i ~:lt~ a class of words headed by the word ~ to which t~e sarna. 18.q. .n::lrrr ljT<l:<J~(i:rr ~. 2·57· Padas. 2. . '. R. Some of his important works are E-kpratiSakhyabha~ya. (2) both the words or members (in a compound). roots ili. Q. under cer~: andaTls: d. VI.g..~) name of the second of tad-pm ~. on P. 2165. 4. substituted for the short .Hm?f. the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada terminations are affixed. eight syllables.77. cf. the third pers..i santa affix <Ii (if. O!T. Bh. e. . ~~ produced at the breast ~. tll~ 3l"f etc.89. ending of on P.1. :ll"i1a: a"f <litl~cr I'\gT . (~) for f~ in P.l!m~~m crf I prescribing the ~ddi. I. !'f. !!'<i.g.132. .g.] _~c. 359· ~ the augment <:f affixed to the last vowel of 9'<i. and ~~:. (2) long vowel'iii> ~ to form :. 10. stituted for the "i.f~~f <r<:. ~'q~ ~f III. I. Pr.:r of the 27 2 • root· m{ before an affix beginning . ~lj. a~rivative noun (w. I.ta' vowel <!'i subthe case of the roots fc!<t. V. etc. 8 and 12 syllables.Tg~iit G91R:<i~<J~r <:'lJTifI<l:: q(i:nt q~lt ~:.II. see M. 151. affix 6i prescribed after mascu. cf. etc. d. t1. 1. 4.. VI. on III.ta. for details see R.108-lI2. 1. d. Bh.44. !!~.l!T: til iVl:c1~~ f. and affer roots of the third conjuga-. 33. 1.~:. and ~. ' ~ (a9~) substitute for the vowel a belonging to the Vikarar. etc. explained by the commentator as ~Rro"fTllY: ~ i[lIiT~­ f. line nouns ending in the vowel 6i and denoting a human .M:.. berant teeth. l:l<iem: ~t en . 2. 'Ka~.g. a characteristic condition of the utterance of a vowel accented grave or ~. on <t~\~<tI~: P.66 and the the designation ilfu provided they following sutras.g. 3Tf"Ef ~.. He wrote many learned commentaries. Kas. 8 . are related to a verbal activity. ~ substitution of the long vowiel iili. Bh. ~ opening (of·· the hole of the throat). 14. of Cfli!. g. cf. VIII. . often 'in com- P. on P. pttdas of 8. III ~~ 14. ':3'+{~ possessed \<{I~" <Ii<lR I 8lTilll!f I of both the kinds of properties. ~l~~ ~ . pIu. d.g.aS also ~~ ~~ UQadi affix '3"!i. ~fcr W<lff+l~ ~~ a ~ariety of the Vedic metre il9t ~ij: aTmtfICil%<i i<as. 4.148.rds headed by the words <!'itT i3"~n etc. on P. cpo Vak. cpo Jain Suo I. ( I) substitute for &r. VI. e. 2. on P. b~~: ~qE8<ft~<u~ R. 9. I.r~ffi: Ur. ~~ (af6I]'. 93 these words stand at the end of Bahuvrihi compounds. which are given bases.=ZYL20-26. pad. Pro ~<J fi!~~TN<!ir ~R~ R.:n:r<iq.:r~:qnu l!~licl. 1. Fr. i:hoi deficient... e.g. ' as a result. cf.3. III. ~ augment 6i added to the 3T~<if8 or the reduplicative syllable of the root q~ which is doubled before the affix <Ii which is used instead of q ( EfST~ . ct :.. 28.~ (I) long vowel i:!i which cannot be +l~: 31!:. The Usnik metre consists of 28 syllable's' divided into thre!. pounds e.. VII. .rT~: ~~1l~ «f9~) a variety of the metre Brhati which has three padas of P.) is added.~<J~ are used in the sense of ' opening of the glottis' which is described as. sutra. with a vowel e. 1. '1J1r firer: etc. Bh..82-84. the genitive case for the subject and the object of a verbal <Ii+lfUT I .:r+l<rt: ~nfR. (3) a technical term the following vowel when it comes of Jainendra standing for PaIJini's at the end of the forms 9f the dual §1J.6I.lII~. ~~m<ifu'i. aTf<iTm <miUlj~:rT~~(~~: . 4. on P. ~q<n<if a-ftf that which should be taken out mtr: P. III. 13i.62. 2.r.. d. ' tion. cf. on P. Kas.q: roots P. appliedot rota the "Ef tlH+<i~ 1. moods.r~. 4. III.~ ( 2) substitute ~a. ili~~ and others.t\l~ R. d. d. R. . P.j 92 ~~ljll1:Cf 'Of !if~fu~m I M.i!q'lTM-<!iT I ~ I ~ ii. (2) substitute 6i for.t. I. on VI. T. \S"q'a: also ~'fZ or G:3T2: a reputed Kasmi- ~~ Pr.grfcrI ~~<{ I 8li'Cf.12. when.. d. tain conditions e.>.H5 • j ~ long vowel vowel. 33.

when com-I bined together. the name is given to letters or sounds produced with unintonated breath through an open position of the mouth. ( 2) uI. T~e seven metres-llTC{S]1. cnR'l3: .g. it. possessed of short Of. 2. II.~B Ur. ~. <I: tfli'. VII.g. I I (roots) ending in SIt which have the vowel SIt changed into i{\ by the rule Sltff !i:. 1. 4. I. 12. Pr. and ijjJ1'qI<!<'I by others.nEl1l11. VII. XXII.II4.~tr~~ P.~ \'fj<j<il'i:lt(.128.'fi+rTm'<l+rT. each Adhyaya being made up of six Patalas or chapters. R.li. (It) in their Samaveda recital and has given ~~ OI. d. spirants called breathings also. g.. also T. 10. Pr. T.q. in the sense of . Fliijfu. d. ~.nt:{i:'! and . For details see R. before which the preceding vowel is optionally left as it is. While atrf?:ij~ is held as its author by some.'i<IT ~: ~ as illustrations.!f!IW. M.e. of Off. I' ~1Sl=!'~~ name of a combination or ~~ I '5R'if. <3'. fcf.80.e. cf. e.( a:j~) for ~. Bli~BT e B1:CN: . and described ~s a vocalic form of the. 28. ~re:q: (roots) marked with the mute indicatory letter (ii. 4 0 .. in a Veclic Mantra. 1. It is possible that the work. Bh.e grammar of Fal).!iIf?:m: I. OI1«1«ffi(i 3TCf911iRl:. 44 and 48 syllables are named *ffl"g~a:.lql~~~i1: . 13. to "l:.has got two varieties named o'lltf'a where the visarga is changed into a breathing as for instance in <{~~+r:. Pr. The work available at present.tini the prevention of the ~hortenjng of the long vowel in the reduplicated sylJable of t. 1. Pr.."f:. cf. af.I22.5. generally· by change of case affixes. on V.t Sft. VI. f. tbe Vikar al). aT'Iml. explanatory of' (q~ Q'H~<ir<'l:·).r a 'work consisting of five chapters containing in all 287 siitras. Pro 1. 1.§i.48 . It has got a scholarly commentary written by Uvata and another one by Kumara who is also called ViglUrnitra. It is written. . taddhita affix a:jOJ:. e.!OX.s based upon a few ancient Pratisakhya works which are lost. eml~:. .g Veda. r<lWl:liii: etc. The work is a metrical one and comists of three books or Adhyayas.. which.94 ~ 95 ~R' tad. <if~. 1. Oij[: 1 if I . d. while it is called ~o ( passed over) }Vhere it remains unchanged as for instance in <I: ~~:. 3. 9. without coalescence and shortened also if long.!f!ti'!6'.. X VI.fiit""<lI"~~ the metre of the Vedic seers.({.!?ya has observed that· followers of the Satyamugri and RilQayaniya branches of the Samaveda have short tJ..:'f an:1![.li.letter~.. It has no short form according to Pal). ':Klieru+r: ~\lm ·w"lf~f<I<::r+r~13+rr<'ltf?:fq~i%­ f:lU+r: ~+rT* W:rl"f tJ. so as to suit the context in which the mantra is to be utilised. diphthong vowel Ahnika ~ a class of words headed by the word SF.'(m. P. see Kas . IV. Pr. and Uf. It . t§o. ':K and (ii are looked upon as cognate in Pal)ini's grammar and hence. IV. and hence having ~~<T as its place of origin.10 "\ art. 1.ll<i~ +rtf:. i3\5 lil tff~~iI­ 'Wrf qll]T i3\61Hll]: R.100. '5R~ P. SF.. It cannot be definitely said whether it preceded or followed Pal... 3 73. a]'1«~ . Bh.67-7 0 . Pr. cf. . ~i'li"'ll~ a class of words headed by OfflFFi' to which the taddhita affix a:jUf.55· a q. 9. "l:.tini's alphabet. 4. . ( a:j) is affixed in the sense of 'produced therein' (o. j ! ~ long variety of the vowel Off. f<!~({.. 36. R. 1. Bh. cf. descendant' applied to names of ancient sages.. VIII.f f9q!tll]if~l]r: I M. a1"'1'1f<l"~:. appears to be not a very old one. e.g. which take the substitute31. e. affix applied to the words emf and <if~ in the sense of ' unable to bear'. B~ ~~f. Its authorship is attributed to Saunaka.~ll] . <{ter. with a view to give directions for the properrecitation of the Veda. In cases where a short vowel as a substitute is prescribed for it in grammar.affix iii is added in the four senses prescribed in the rules IV. and tilWlrR'liii varieties and characterized by the three accents.1.. ~q: possessed of the mute indicatory letter ':K.root ~ to form the word ~~.<f to which the taddbita .ladi suffix ':K applied to the . g.a of the aorist. ~ short vowel ~~ ~<iTlll~~ P. cf. ~~ ~fq ~ modification of a word. 32.ql~!. q~Rn. and "l:. Kas. ~~m verse-pause equal to 3 matrakalas or three matra units. sp.:..- ~'if~~. visarga. It bears a remarkable similarity to Pal)ini's A~tadhyayi especially in topics concerning coalescence and changes of <3'. Tantra it consists of two matIaS. W<lol'(liijll]l<I.he Causal Aorist form of roots which are marked with it. V. 3Tr.l 'q B9Tf+rftl+rRnf+r1f~ 1 ~ 'q 319~4" <j~ll~hT <I:q'(<!:. adaptation of a mantra. possibly written a century or so after PaI. d.«<!<R<i Qc:j~ iiT 31T~<lVj: ql"fil!l~FI:. on P. ~: P.alaT: P. on I. '5R' fourth vowel in Par. 2. III. upadhmiiniya· and anusvara. make the metres of t-: made up of 01 and l{. cf. ':K could be looked upon as possessed of 30 varieties including 12 varieties of (ii.:Q ~ short vowel Of. the vowel ~ is· looked upon as its short form.lini's time. II. 1. . ct. cf. M.g. / where a visarga is changed into a breathing (6i~l1il). It covers the same topics as the Pratisakhya works and is looked upon as one of the PcatiSakhya works of the Sarna Veda. aspiration letters. by the rule ~?l:jCfi­ 'ifEll]~<j"<i!l{ P. ~&:I: etc. Patafijali in his lVIababha. PlatiMikhya works belonging to the Asvalayana Sakha of the :B. and "l'RIT consisting respectively of 24. ~mffim~ one of the. which is available. just as the other Platisakhya works. e. ~~g. ~!. !:F. ~.2. 3. ~~ I the letter Off with its 18 varieties made up of the f$t'f. i. IV. Its authorship is attributed to Sakatayana according to Nagesa.. signifying in the Grammar of Pal.:'f <iii:)" or . as contrasted with the metres ~. respectively. on the Vedic seers.90. The word refers to the letters ~. i.lini's work. According to B-k. ifl~TNm~~~ P. See ar(~c{iI~ITffi~~.. jihvamiiliya. possessed of long and protracted varieties and looked upon as cognate ( Biio1) with (ii which has no long type in th.. fr~<:tfq: 1. !:F. g.. 1..ini.!. etc.jf[~~.2. 1.ini. IV. i'i taken to be a cognate . ct. cf. Vatt. VII. e. on P..<!iii:.

R.e. cf.. 4. sentences.. 37 ..59.khyas. d.<j. used in the PratiSa. explained by Patafijali as tJ.1~­ <j1:jf . sentences art'. q~­ Siltra..~~ R. Sek. as contrasted with fa. as a definition of a sentence. the word ~~ singular uomb. also V. cf. VI. cf.Sikavrtfi and the Bhagavrtti d.ft in· the compound word· . Bh. Pro X. lI. I. L37.feI~~"fITf ~5:'iJi­ 'Iliff{ mRr M. see also 1. . '%ffi~ possessed of one verb. Vr.:.1. cf. 1 •. . II3.cfi'rlim:~ a:r~~<i.{I. which stands only in the mar applied 10 noun'.'fi:1:fT~: <i~T: tiT· tJ. Bh.fiFa. Candra Pari.1[I~: Pari.'i ~~<jfu 91~ <l~~ffi'! M. which deal with both the portions. ~~. affix of the ttr~lr.!::fq~~: P. also Bha. Bh. I.. cf. d. (used in pl. . 8iva-Siitra2 Vart. cf.1ii<U~f. ing a single sentence on account of II.. tl. given tJ. 5.Op. 93 Val t •. exdJiision on(atyiyana and Patafi· A positive'statement and itsnegaiali. but. I V.'iffl:milt ~i[ 'iT l1ir~: ~~ <jlf.'fi'il'flja'i!'i :>T«fc{: I G~ql9'Cjm.96 ~- 97 in a part '0 statedbriefiy as ~~­ ~Ilq~'iq. ( 2) a term used for a q. Kat. Vart. IV.60. 2.25. the word m. Q.tli~~o/q1 a view or doctrine propound·'ed by Qne o~:the many ancient sages or muhis who'are believed to be'the .27. Bhii~a vrtti ~tfi~ol. also ~"II~ii'{ ! ~ijl~l<til\i1 § 'fiT~lJiR~q~ ". used in connection with compounds of words such as ~. in the various dissolutions of the compound word.. d.%:i)~ transitive verbs having one object. tlBT6 Or l. tt~~~ . an ~xpressiori giving one idea. II. or ge~us. 22. 3. ~q.) prescribed by the rule 'i<iqU'<lU~~'tm~1iil~~ P. !l1entary on.1iitf~1 ~ f ~q. tt'll<fOi ~ eff Ii f{fcr.E'4. Bh. (3) many. R. cf. VnL I. Pro X. Sakatayana and Haima grammars. used in this sense of singular number in the Jainendra.if.er. e.'fii\O<lrqfu~~rfr given.~ I crfu~ I P. P. The word f<i<!crr-l'+lm i's aJso form of an individual or collection used in the same sense. Pro IX.'fi!if.('fi'iu1 ~ t!. I. .n~tra. Pari. Sak. Bh.\o 4. OD P. 10. cf. II2. 5. Bh. admission of one part as correet. cf. ekavacana.:ir if +r&:~ ~iI~. V. ijiqa m:~'fi. ences. I. 144-145·· where T<:'fi<ioJ is defined as 1. (a pad a ) made 1:1P of a single on 1. Kiitantra IV. cf.18.fr +T'lcftfu .1ii: . 1. t(lfiqw<i1S<i~: I wrmi:1ii~qli'f: M. 4.Pr •. a view propounded orJy by PaI}ini~ to the . d. their mutual expectancy . • word f. given as the sense of the·tad. . consent to a part of the whole. I. 3. 2. first ~fci~ in the same direction. WRr R.ijciRircrfel+!T'ifSil'ijiy Durexception are looked upon aSlllakghata-Vrtti I.: combined together.20.5!.(1j)~~!1'i-5~ M.See also M.'fiq"iii'{ in t~e i ~echD1caI seme of singular number I ~ single vrtti Or gloss on fhe ~ 18 fou?d. although the and roots when the sense of the word fuE.5. R.(2: Vart.12.~~fu'i. in fact. d.(1j)>TllCi'!f. Pari Se!. on P. cf.l!f'6 1J 7 'or . cf.n. f. q~ and others with' words showing the constituted whole ( tJ. 2. ~'C~5" I " ~tflfuOf.l. caused by qT'I'li'l. Pari.oundei~ a' Sastra.f. on P. the term tJ. d. IV. ( 2) a continuous word paraphrased as angU$q. OTcl'Rr ~cr~'fift:lf'af?r . Hem. ( 2 I a partisan.~~~ (a thing or a 5ub::1tance) composed of parts. 1. cf. 3. or mora. I . 3. ! 3. m~n~ hold them to be· CQttlpGsite single tioned in one and tbe·same 'rule. on II.'{ and ~111'1'R by commentators. 8tk.('fiq~~o ( R. is called or taken as that very thing although it is lacking VII. made up of one word. . 10. 8ek. into one. I. 2. 1. ~ll'<j~'fi~T~if(~ R.('fi~Iffi~q. as a definition of mtr M. cf. Bh P..('fiql~: ll. 'l~"I10 'F-I1~<U'<l': I Par. II.u~· from each other. 4. Bh. Pro XI. ~+l1fCf'1:: (vowels) combined by rules of Sarhdhi. 5. . Puru$ot. ij-<iI<!r(Rf eniij'fi~q.t~rfnr:. ( I) Singular number. .lW~ ~:qr t~um~~. ~­ S\a~f<l\:jFr on P. Pari. consisting of one· word.•• :. 37. Vr. Pro .e)..itf~!t) I aolative·case ifJ~l=lT:.. The word I'l. 1. 11.· J I of grammar. (2) made up of one foot (:q~tr! or tfT<{). . I used this term in his Bba~avrt'ti to ~~ or "ttiji'HH"I u:. ~«<f~~ the maxim that • a thing. I. a general rule arid its <nir ~~. Pro 1." tlj<p:n~rRr I a:rc~ 'i~<l~: I a:rq tJ.1 Vedic as well as classical portions and Nlrukta also.'fiffi~ one and the same individual substance. 4. etc. cf. Pari.~t. Pari. Vart. Pari. I. "' a part or a portIon of the whole. cf~ J1<lftt ItE:q1ii'fij~~'if...e or treatment of I the plural sense as if it is singUlar. 17. ~~1iifu.~€<t capable of being produced with 'a singleefi'ort.on P. affix m:{ by Pal)ini.!\JtiT g~.sil gular number in ·PiiI}Tn~s' gramfqr. ll.tt. 6. two sent1. Pr. also fuq~'iTifCjlilTmtr Aql:"2jfq~"II<!i~~t'iT­ V.23. .r1ff·M.67. . on ~~~ a pada·having the same case P. cf. ~~iT<r. used often by commentators. Jain. X VII.CfiW ~ tJ. a:r<r91 w~itiq<l. a{'f<ffl t(~~ J:f&<i: P. Par. so also.:.niT ~'l'­ +rT'ff§t'l~. 1. 62. on Pari.21 Vart. VI. either a single or a composite one. The maxim is given in all the different schools of grammar. 4· 2r • ~~. 7 . grammarians ~~T~~ cparacterized by i. 3.~~~. cf.1ii<ITrr: 1iiRell~ 'Af. Bh. the words ~'fii\oiJwr· 91P-!cCf M. Such T1.bases (SlIP.I. 18. 1. Pr. cf. ct. 2.avrtti OD III. l. -1. contrast his Vrtti (<IT''Il~) with the K1i. i1. ~~. Par. Pr. 1.l{fu' tioD. on P.&T~~cmr~'i. IO. 3~2:a and VI.. _ letter. Pro IV.'fi~ 'iT'f~~. 20. I. P1iI}ini gives the term a''i'fa to an affix· made :up. II. lfi!i~ made up of a single word. XI.alsd M.:cf.r91.'t!imfu 1M.tamadeva has . V. ilI . . the term is found. which stands for the singular number is to be conveyed' I. 39.lfiej)ilf. ~rm (I) possessed of ope matra or mora.161 ct. TJ. 24) explained by the commentator as ~qt ~r l:rl'lJ<iT~~lc!Jii'{t tJ.even though they be sometimes detached tt~ij (I) cornbination of two Siitras . of one single letter. ~1:jCfrQ. cf.:. (3) every individual word: cf. (2 ) one and the same ~. ~Cf\7f 'imo!i~ I W~re: I .\ I I I .(1j)~~fqii'j1l<F~'iq: Pari-Sek. to !!ovoid the fault of qT~. 18.99. a:r~1ii1!if T. . Bh. P~ri. ~ . 4. com.:m:.1ii l. could be used in many the singular Sf'flSe can be of the I cases:. 1. short vowel which measures one r. T1:~~ $~: S<l. a certain number.lReT<lT~t~<rn::Ul!!~~<ifer P. Eh.101'Uf<'! :q I Alh.. cf. cf •. 25 also XVII.'fifr 'l. Ahnika. in this sens. I7. ~ ~ If"r<Rr M. on P. on III. 1.g. Pro II. also ~1ii~~T<if?r ffi~ ~ R. Bh. IS. 4. 4. Vart. ( 2) single (vowel) substitute (1. VI.(~~:=rr) for two (vowels). ~~~1l1 .th'i(?r M. 'C.

§.cp~ q. Vart. in support of their argument.~ffi: q"lii~IECt{ an accent prescribed for tlR+r: I M. as also on VI. the wOld has to be re.64. ~I'<it ~ ~~~~ P. .. Hence.r~r (for ifiiq and ilTicriiljU]). ~r for i:1. the accent grammar althuugh instead of them. the Varttikakara haR commented upon it at length. by rules like \3'lU~9Ro~~lJj: and the following rults P. VI. cf. ~ITT ~+~I!i~re~.U!iff<!~iBf~ I fi+r:ffir and many other.ini's alternative vi6WS about.~R ~u W-fRr I ~:. SOciety: Poona. 3j"1Q" il~Nff.98 is possibly med by Puru~ottama­ -deva in the sense of ~t!% or~­ fl~ i.r "l ti'9T<tlFi I M.ace of two original units. t{iii. irrespective of the individuals being some males and some females.~9~ Hem. of Ekasruti sylJables: (a) they the omission of the latter and former possess an accelit between the ~re vowels respectively. There is a di. alsoon 1. 1.4. . see P. cf.2. {ft. d. e.tii!!.. 3-Tl~~ U.~~ that which has got the same brothers and Eisters. etc. ~. 3·59· two single consonants.59. 19 etc. as also the word has to be one word out of many.'f. similarly ~&lr: for many trees. they are (c) Ekasruti is looked Llpon as sometimes ekadesas for two original the seventh of the seven accents.-o: etc. Some critics hold that the topic of t{~"Ef did not exist in the priginal A~tadhyayi of PalJini but it was interpolated later on. "i!1cRr. IV. or.1f. similar rules I' tl'IT<tTf. convey its presence. liiilr. ~ ~~ consisting of one single syllable. TJ. 2·33· the singie substitute..r. u.~.sIlPstibhii!.g.qI'JII~"f~t:j t('fialready expressed.1. I. grand-father accent or tone.e. ~f:9". as opposed to e:r~ many words having the ~ame sense or synonyms which. on P. I. the others being elided.Tli t.::. 3. Pii~ini has devoted 10 Siitras to this topic of Ekase~a. V. I. . the continuous utterance of Vedic ~ a single substitute in th!. the beginning.64.. The phrase n1 ultiplied v. Augments or Agamas in the Vyakarana Sastra are _Joked upon as forming" a part of the word to which they are attached. adeSas or . Bb. in such cases the word is individual thing is explained by med only Ol]ce.ini. The Daiva grammar has completely ignored this topic. 2. 1. also A.. 2.. VIII. 9. 1. ifi~. VI. ll&lll:1 applied to the utterance of the voca'l~r. I.lini's Al?tadhyayi. also e~qe!!?. on I. Introduction p.~ 99 (for ~ 'q 3lt "l). V 1. Bh.. if at all there was any. e.~IR\ having a single consonant at i i 'I i ~~ (a vowel ) placed between I I -Lv part. q.{Tf. ~eil~ ~ f. cf. 3. The combination of the two constituent parts is so complete as cannot allow any of the two parts to be independently working for sarildhi or any other operation with its adjoining letter.e be. For details see l\Iababha~ya on I. portion. 6 • ~ff{:. which means the same as t1.g.~qr. are given in f. q~"\. Bh.) . the letter ttj looked upon as a diphthong (~~~\) made up of the letters or and. 1.. on I. ffii<lffi~rne<ff1T. In current spoken language.-qIi{ name given by Siradeva and other grammarians to the first pada of the sixth adhyaya of PaJ. 166-167. also t~e words iq~«. where ~e:=a fellows <lfl~ with one word q"lRt intervening._ as.r ~f. on P. Pa1)ini has laid omitted thing along with the thing omvn a general rule tI~..le.g.T~·~ ~~lHl! P. ~ (for e 'q <fl( ) and m<r: fern. separated or intervened by one single thing. 2.{6I~ ~~s~\t<jl"\. ~ Svarita vowel· in the Samhita i.ij-: ~8"!lt "l qUT ~~ 1\1.l(iilrct({\m~ll:q: I M. e. Eh. a word having one seDse only.r 'q tl 9f. . cf. (b) in some Pratisakhya works. afT in. d. P. .Q}f. ~UJ and they are in the same accent as is tf« are sometimes single substitutes possessed by the preceding vowel.. sens~. one including the seme of piurality.·IJ:5. when tbere i~ a dual ~ense.\~~ statement by subsistence of peated. ql"<l. Siva Siitra ~ Vart. i{.are on I. the \ ~'1ftf~~ ance. 9. P.fct<rmf P.UrTI 'I'mC<T: I 9'f. . Il'JIIT: masc. am~:. 2. ttq. for instTfi~{ e:r~"Ef.l. ~~ a kind of composit~ formation 1n which only One of tbe two or more words compounded together subsists.1'1~~ ll&lll:1 'l&lll:1 W I IG'i si ka on tl~r:nU]rij~tf t{'f.l~ as also in ct. male and female.168. V:ffn~ ft!<{~ I . ~. ~.:.87 to III. foii ~ Q't<J tt<!iifflf +!'Ita O!M~~iii[iCf: I ".for single originals. see the words 'l&llfU. 4.g.. Vol. Whatever the cas.'fiJiO<:l1T~frsRn:!<1fra% P. a. I possessed oi one vowel. II. as it begins WIth the sutra ~ f{ ~ VI.a) ~. I V. as ene and the same object.r. '(0 cover cases of plurality not of on I. r. I. 7 of the l\!ahiibhaSYil published by the D. 8l~<iaO\~.1.~fto: ~ft~ ~ ~'ij: ~~<r fernie:. a letter or a word.. as pituality caused by ideas going in pairs or relatiolls such as parents. e. <If'"IT fern. and adduce the long discussion in the Mahiibha$ya especially' the Piirvapak1?a therein.16I. d. 2.e.g. e:r5!f <i~ :amF~<!~... T. VI."\. pl. is prescribed ( acute) and 3l~!{Rf (grave). 1. vowels e. cf. 1:. Sek • Pari. hen there is a plural -is very often used in the Maba. cf. a term used by Hemacandra in his grammar for the term t{1f.I01. i.ctum of grammarians that every individual object requires a sep~rate expression to. 1. 4.. the . monosyllabic. Pro II. bh'i~ya where the omission of an hQwever. ~f4'~m ~9?. The word is For example. Vart. cf. but plural. . Eh..f('r ~T~ and the place of or and ~.f I Bhasavrtti on P.1. ~ ~ I 't'<tIl.33 Patafijall has given three I09ked upon as ekadesas in paI}..~. 2.64 to 73 as aiso.iiiT~"m. ifl. Patafijali has very critically and exhaustively discussed this topic.. tJ. as also to that of fq-~[ for +miT 'q fCrm"l. 1. the place foil. E.. such 3. cf. 5 and 6. 5.rc~ltC!i5m­ ~Rr. VI. 5. I. cf. In his discussion tutes named ~~q al:)d q~q..comma. ttJh the sentences. VI. possessed of a single vowe1~ monosyllabic. I.14JiU fq+!~f ~'cfi'<{~ I t('fi~r~ fti. 3.. whi. hencl'l. ct. same tone. vowel or in tI"l.I Viirt.<ft 'q the vowels or syllables following a ~q~5 ct.9.27. also ttiiiTfflT: Par. To justify this saying that the expression used is SIngle 'utterance for conveying the a composfte . liy caused by many objects. d.st have been made immediately after Panini.ya thereon. of paI}. utterance in the aDd grand-soD.55. chief gloss on I both the portions. Nir. qro<!qii~<J arq~~ ~~\ff i\~M. The.· the addition mu.~~ ~~~ ~~. ~. VaTt. tive noun or phrase caUing a man from a distance.. 2.a: ti'!J'PlR<! 'IT''lifi: II tfl1F![~f<it 'q f+r~~IU]f 'iCJ~'fi­ :1 .~it 9. !.33-40 and the ]\'Iabaof ar and \3'. etc.39. monotone.l"l:{.

3. Kus.'\fff 1. catory t. ~<AiR<iiil:l7I P. 't~ (I) krt. affix t. I04.in Paoini's " graminar'st~i{~ing 'for diphthongs or lett~I:'S Q. sul.iiil<T~!j' 1If. d.~~!!~:P.("lil<i 1I~!j': P. VI. cf.r~ I <l'19<F!Tcre. d.. :q~r~ ~ll'ri1JN-'li~~ Hem.69. and aU.II..'1~Hiii\I1J~~ !1<U. on P.r. 7. d.: a.<l' applied to \3''e\:. mila: ct.. Eh.!~o­ tlF'if. ~. [Edgerton.I7· pronoun q~ when the word refers to a day.55. 17. ~HHI.~Ii.adi affix t. .'IL 2.:<:Jl!JT I C~m. 8. "filt." "'~. and the \vord pronounced is not distinctly heard.'krit Grammar and Dictionary.l. ~ 3.r@~~~~~. on P. Franklin] an American Sanskrit scholar and . By this expression Ath. \3'~ahd . tl.. I ~ totad.. d. 1.. cf.. etc.Sak. on P.'Di. ar.. 'I. 'affix 3HVr in the senses of ~~.('iiI\'-I1mcit in tlr.s{~<1{ tl. Pro I.:ljo{.nfit~ 11Ji +i''lRr arm <If.H~. P.'t. ~~qfcr u..vowel in the aorist.'<l' at the end govern the. r. affix ~Ii~ e. Pro I. ct.<fir~4 tt<:Iil. expiained' as 3!'f<l~Il!!: ~~!: ~W'if: da. . have only one accent (acute). 1)l1:. also terIQed i[~ in PalJini's grammar.48.g.. ~ ~qfi\' ~~«~'1 m~O!~q'ii:<mIi~. P.~~:.. 28.f. and3i~~~He~~. 1. tl:fi:. 10 . 4./fiN I 'V:'Ii: ff"i~T ~~: ~iIi: ~~(Cl. affix t. mi. e. V. at the word to a particular passage. 3~58. Vedic only.'( SI'&mIH) for the two diphthong letters "l:( . Bh.16 . affix t. d.ij'efil~: fet+r~. 2. t?:Ei:q: marked' by the mute indica tory 'lettert. ha. ~: ~ 1 q.1l'ilt<'i.5. 'tfI~=fi .8r and I. ~ tad. . on II. ~'ifl. III. L2~4z viirt. g.I. on P.~.. affix applied to the indecliGerman-scholar of Veda and Sansnable ~{. on V.:dl'f<t~!!: I fofj+r~l=/l'liH:: ar~1'. ~F.<a~ft. ll. t5~.. gUlation (fir'll'! ).q. 3.'~ applied to the word lil".3. cf.4. II. ' ~ a:. "such and such J (words etc. '~ff{. d. ~ (Eggeling Julius) a well-known ~ tad. union. e.rqmfu: nr. 2.. d. 3. M.ted for the tad."i:tf>l~t~ III. S. ' ~tra treatment as one single word especially found in the case of com'pound words (tllO!rm'1iq~) which. karal}a for the.i~f~~fuM.~ ~m. g~ a. a. 3. UQ. cf.l. Vart. 3.. pronundation when q. e. Vlt \7 8 .ff I.22: 'lr':lIa<. Q.' ~Ti:jq: by'Nagesa in his Uddyota.rln"U!J1J]9.3·5 8.X: ( 5) analogous ~ljI<l'r~{I1J: cf.rq{. me of the word !J. all' P. V.~. I.'r. It limits a by Katyayana seven times.term ~01 of Paoini standing for the vowels ar. a:r'if{.:r! ' cf.[ for their '.ilil~ are often found used in the 'sense of possession of a composite sense ' U. '3'Utur.r(~ 'IT. P.'. See l1.l. ~" the vowel t. d.1.ij ~~<i~r. ffSlfrnt 'if.qfcnJ~[il.r: ( z::I0!. d. rn'il~ff~m'l?:j: I.jii~O M. and ail. on II.:r tad. Pr.r.~!!~ij~{u]T~~ 1 .22. . affix 'iff optionally. 2. <lr<i'. necessary to be prescribed. III. ~ a brief term. e. ct. A. on'P. 9.I Yurt i. on 14'<T1~ ~ at~~c::hed to t. 1:f"l11. on 1. d. do not ~allow 'if. 19.' ( 2 ) . a1so <r. t. cf .g.. ~<j: ~: I cf. affixfound inthe senseLiterature ~in of unable beC!. I. t~vo ways in which . I. d. f~. qd~Ii'ar[firqt~&t Kas.{lit~ Cf~: I ~~: M. - P..(~: lj':{Fap. fsI'ifT. II.~qtt. VII.'lilllq and "Cfc!iflkr derived from the word U. '<r~~: IGis. a:rnr!: etc. lif~i:J.:. Words with thisQ. cf.cf. cL T. in the general ~iit'fi senses.'!if~ "l' I . Suo I..l( I q.3I. P. <i~~.24.£I~ applied to' the YI. 4.author of' BuddhIst Hybrid S~ns­ . Pro II. Kfltyayana wished to point out that the particular rule of PaQini ~ the substitution of'!.. Bh. !1'"l~ ~0ll': I f!lt~:iij~T[I1S: Kas. on 'they maintain'.R 'll:m~::r fu: Pradipa On fi1. cf. 1.ttitti:. :Jha.Bh. . Vy.sho~t. fiI<im~: M. cpo end oIhis Vartikas.<rli tad. (4) potent. Ill. a.:<i~) 'C. III. R. Vy. t1.1. P.i:j . ~tl1J Kalidasa : Megpadiita. Eh.!. d.aIT.iGitantra'Vyakar~I)a with the commentary' of Dutgasitilha and many 'appendices in 1876 as_ also the GalJaratnamah?dadhi' .qfli?l~: Ka5. tun?!' S.'iT substitq.~ ~ Some scholars.:fihr~ '3""iI~ tl""<jo!~.45Vart.q P. ~a' A fault in. IV. ' the voice is indistinct. d. cf. ~~.15. 2.'p'article in the sense of re". 1. 2. !.ffIl'T t.22. V.also the: word ~iiiJ~~Jq.li~~ \?IF('C<jif~r <iT 1M.i!iTR above.'<{QI f~~r P. I Rh. (2) UQ.100 ~~ (I) possessed oIone sense' as contrasted wi til. 37.r{<i'm.:r {I )a. e. ~ a term used in the Jainendra Vya- diphthong vowel1l:. etc. to 'be connect~d.aTr.qi ending added to the consonant <: ~CjS' given in the group of ekapadas or solitarily stated words as contrasted with anekapadas or synonyms.40. cr.r~: 6i~'ii\uj -H<i ~~ tad.~.(' applied'to the' root ~&l. g.~ll.96 Vart. LI.). synonym. on' V. 104. ~U]' ift~fita'o<rr M. bne of the . cpo ~ ( P. on I. I. case of the word syntactically connected with them. ~l:1r. 2.mana.m<T etc~ (2). on q.x ~applied' to the pronouns l(Cf.. ace. composite form of a:rr and t.the-'word tllli~ is e~plained. combination (of 2 or mure letters). Pataiijali while ~~ :ti[tr(~crTq~ql~ I <t~ff'fir qcofu commenting on them supplies I{~Rr Q.'f may be regarded as optional.2.4I. III.tI{~{: 1 ~L 101 krit Grammar wlii>flomi.. 1. 'i). q. II. The words Q. 16.det~rminant indeclinable. 1.ti.the indicatory letter ~~f+lT<i un10n of meanings.:ihedin the I9 th cenbjry and ~'ho e~ited the . ~~mcessary tobe sought.~~i:jT<!Tq: P. ~:u and 9i~. ~ possessed of 'one single phonetic element or letter.. IV·3. affix Q. affi. V.J'tT{ when the words so formed referto'a day. ter~(. when a mention of it is to be made. g.. ~~ fusion. tt~{ i)'the 'substitute ~ fo~ the perfect affix 0. iH'fiO!. VII.~~i{ ') . !. I. Eh. 13h.." P. III. ~'hlT'i is said to he resulting from the coalescence called iSl'fuf. g. e.cf. on P..r'l'ffi !. a:r6~.. IV. ~JiTB~!j'1iT~(~T~g~T~J a. g. ~f. IV. <j~ f<I~~cr 1.:j'. 1. II.l. This word is used !(~iiW limitation 'of the kind. '~ lil~T:' cf. " and ~11J optionally instead of the 'tad. <.>stituted for the -virhole cr by reason of . applied to q'i( d.Bh. alsQ"t.i: ~1~oT. J. in Vedic' Literatrire'. V. g. mixture. ('3') possess:d of Cl composite sense. ct. cf. Bh. when appli'ed to the words fit and fs! e..'IT~ P. 1.ifit<iT W~l "Cfc!if~fll<if.38. l'ifT. . Roots marked witt indi. R.. e. fi~~.. as a re~!Ult of such treatment. d.122 Vart. 4.'.' a:r. r03) ita' Q:~~ SHrum Vartikas on Pa.J~q l{~ t.'olT'<t tad. Jain. 1. e.. (2) affix 'I.109. g. <Rlw: <Rl\'Rl:. I. and on'e case affix after the whole word..

See the word arrliJ above.ii3P.he vowel at their end should not coalesce with the following.~r-:l!t li". He has written many works on tht! Piirvamitlllirllsa.qr-rrqlUlT ~B V. atm ~ f \.e.39 vat-t. See alt<iif\ above-• . ~ .'vbo edited the Sabdiinusasana of Siikatayana. cf. References to Aindra Grammar are found "in the commentary on the Siirasvataprakriya in the Kavj!. lit. mentions the same.. See t. R. . on P. cf. 4. affix ~. 2.iRiI~t tt:lt g QI~l!l~. lib.:r. I. (2) the substitute for the final letter '3" of the word ~ before the fern. XJ 2: VIII. {if: {<l'!fil. on Hem. cf.r above. II.48. ct. Sakittayana says they are ~>lI~. P. so also the protracted forms of Q: and air are protracted l{ and '3".8 'ttiir~~ is axplained as ~q~. For the utterance of the letter Il. 2. III. 1:.re~lm:)' standing for the two diphthong vowels V: and afr. P. (!If. IiI ~ the vowel <>Tlil:T.iilr~.:' for ~ in the case of the imperative first person terminations. 5. V.\~ ~ I ~~: ~1il.: The Brhatkathamafijal i remarks that Pal)ini's . d. letters alr.89. III. on P. also see P.~alpadruma of Bopadeva as also in the commentary upon the Mahabharata by Devabodha. dual. 4i-" I for Nipatas like and others with a view that t.. short te. file ~. ~:i1wr. nineteenth century who wrote a Vrtti on P~iJ. 2. 2.n~~ says that a'il~ has anyone of the thlee accents. on VIlI.4. VII pages 1 24-126 of Vyakarana l\Iahabba~ya.128. P. ct. <tr. <ij~'HSI ~ Jl9~ T.r. on an .. the consonants fl. Bh. d. ~r (!) the vowel elf. IV.45.18 where the commentator explains ~iiTt:4 as t. ct. ~:.29. K as. ct. :. (2) affix iir applied to the root <Ft or '11 to form a noun. P. ~. IV. ~­ +r'ffi"l{. R. on I.I. . winJ. VIIr. i(.45 Vart IO. i}.ifilt. ~li1\l<itlj<=rE!o~ . 2. d. I. ~ if. Some scholars believe that Kalapa grammar whiCh is available today is based upon Aindra J just as Candra is based upon Pal)ini's grammar. also ~ err!&:6"~: :m.which is made up of two or more individual words. 6il(q~rOil~gr Sid. E. The work is not available.. P. "l and Hie ~q'€111<tt<1 letter . 2.~~g i. ct. q" ~.. All these facts prove that there was an ancient pre·PiiQinian treatise on' Grammar assigned to' ~ which was called Aindra-Vyakarana. alt~lll P. P'riHisakhya. Bh. On P.70 . r. Pr. III. arr· mwr lit. on P. I.29. 1. VII. I. Burnell's I Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians' as also Vol.. The PIa tiSiikhya works prohibit the coalescence ofalr in ~' the case affix the loe.94- pre~cribing ~~~ ::Icrrit Rk J'r1itiSakbya.n~<fi~ll:q e~n~ 'f~~ Hem. on ~ljl<:ijs{lIM ti'loi'l. ct. also M. 20. 3. 1 il . 2.l. ffi. 1: r. ~ the substitution of it for t!Z by the rule lUi Q. :m. 1.. while ~ says it has >r~<l t!. a term used in the J ainendra Grammar instead. produced upon the lip. d.29 Vart. ct. Patafijali mentions that Brhaspati inl\tructed Indra for one thousand celestial years and stili did not finish his' instructions in words '. d. SoCiety. P. 1. ct. 'ii. belisved ~~' taddhita affix ~ applied to the word 'tWiii in the sense of offsprin~ indicatory ietter roots marked with. '" the word ~ to which the taddhita affix mn is added in the sense of place of residence . o. lip. d. many cases with the succeeding vowe.15. Pro I. and' scholars like Burnell think that the grammar assigned to Indra is to be referred to by the ""ord m"ll"l{. I). e.Bh.. the vowels '3'. i.'lil~l<=rT9: In the com. 1..~R. and other Sastras. III. and cf.:p. The short substitdes of ~ and are land \3' when prescribed.~if<=rl<1r iiO'Jm. an.g. absence of any accent. lm. Kau. also 0i\l1 . . cf. M. ttcs~ hav19g ollly one principal accent (Udatta' or Svarita) for the whole compound word . it'! it. to form the word ~i cf. on P. are given '3". vowel. Tbe Taittidya Saruhitii. Pataiijali has commented upon the word briefly as follows. although very few. i'!:~~iRn:~lI~re:. *liitlft. See the word t.:ifirnJ· 1!. e. ~Q~~~ M. are given by some writers from the \vork. r. ~. diphthong vowel made up of arT and aU. 1?eJ. ~~mr~ f!.m~ marked with the name of an ancient school of grammar and of tl)e treatise also. 2. 103 to have" been written under instructions of Indra. 1. 1.102 iliq~~~~Fct~ :q M. and ... also . 1.93. . VIII. hence the letter et is said to have ~ as its '.I. of the term i[~ of Pal}ini Which stands for err. substitute for the case affix ft:rfJ: 'after words ending in "31.:{Cl~ vowels in the :ttk.55 Viht. termed as gUI)a in P1i!)iniJ s grammar and prescribed sometimes in the place of the vowel <l". For details see Dr.:. cf. Pro T. the mute letter alr have the Nj~tha affix (j or Q9Q changed to ~ or OiCftr. 'Quotations. P.93..9. the place of origin (~T") . alr'tlU ' <'I1>lii\l11: Nir. Pr. 16 as ~Sij letters in the ~ the vowel Q. 1. Pal)ini has referred to Eonle ancient grammarians of the East by tlle word IH'ifI:J( witho'. II!. on 11. Wt(iffi a scholar of grammar of the iTT (I) diphthong vowel made up of the vowels or and '3".' P.1\1. and It. an. t8. edited by the D.onging 'to that school. a letter of the labial class. Akalanka in his Tattvartharajavartika I 5 quotes an Aindrct siitra.9 to II. Q. ~~ en aN~~~ 'iT :::(iZi!~!!~~ 1:f<n1!l~~"f~Cf . :\1. 70. 1. <tr<l'!~ etc. M~ Eh.I. They are called fr. tips of the te€th are also employed. 7. mI: Kiis. ~ <. <1.. VII..1t mentioning their na mes. P.n~ 2! tre aJar con~ists of matras.1.e.t~~~ possession of the sam~ tone or accent. uniformity of tone or accent. Si. German scholar of Sanskrit '. Tl<ii1~ a class of words headed by ~( [Gustav Oppert 1836-1908] a. :ma.. 2. cf.. 4. I.. of the gen.48. 1. grammar threw into the background the Aindra Grammar. Bh. Poona. Pro 1. Bh. Rau. ~~ possession of a single composite s~i:lse (by all words together in a compound).Jini siitras called lirf"lffl~'Ii'lf~.ir. qfi iiil1tfi.45.lTI~ j~i1fJ!~ f'll'I'l1'l!':Wnlt 'n fil~fu ~ >l1l1"i ~€<jl~~a. prescribing the substitution of the' vowel Q. of the labial letters called ~tplmrfi<l iflf! i.g.rrI1 (!.. Bh.I06. 1. the syllable arr called by the term >tI1Jij and generally recited at the beginning of Vedic works. on P. affi:i. cf.l!fu.54.

sage whose doctrine oHhe permanence of words in the sense is seen quoted -in the Nirukta. 1. See at the root of the tongue. d..:ftl{TC<fi06if-1 ~ ~~r+t~. Kails. f. ' 1_ U~I). case endings applied to the . ""~~ ~~W!q.. on 6!J]lmf F-j~ P.FFoi t!. See ar:above on page 2. of addition or .:a.nom. also 'litf(+<JT SlFl{ffcref1Bi'm ftl~l~<IT­ q1:+n<frcfr S. II. . Pr. 5· I I I '(5'. suIting from the general rule(~air). 4~7&~ ~ t I t 14 ~crH or r.1.lst like the anusvara. <! g :iir~&1'!ifi'tq class of affixes called ~Tfu: in treatises Nir. P. cf. it is sho. I afm~ I . ~ ~11ffi\: I 3f'iiR l(i[ '31\l[I~~ l{ffi ~l::it cr1T[l~tCf~+l9m Kat.'Il: cf. on IV. also l[C!irtq~~~m' WO{~lmm ~~:<t:. e. a. Nir.[. or~. Bh.21. (f.• Bh.iR\tafii<h: t"acr: M. Vyak. 1. metaphorical application or statement.. t=.24.modification as done by the V5. pad. a name given to his work by q§. 3. d. 3ffilll and used as a technical ternl for the second Ntif-ti or the accusative case. ~Fl'~fu.l~ cr"'f<!lll5. o'n i metonymical. dual. 3fr Oi:!i[ll'r ~[qi. cr. 1.'64~IO"[or ~~ a collection of words called mOlIfq:'-f.. IV. 8l~'Rt:ir orrii ~Ii: -:E<. IL9. 3. is incapable of being independently tittered. or as co. which is optionally substituted in the place of the Visarga (left out breath) sIT. mentioned in the ~~o: ~ ~i~~Of.t~~fu I Bb. Sek. I cpo also CfFi<Jt<J ~r f<!~<Jt:r . I IGis. lit.'l. 1. or even as X just as the Jihvamilliya. d. Bh. As the1lpadhmaniya is an optional substitute for the visarga before the letter cr.com.: Ne~rft~ a' term u~d' by ancient grammarian5--i6~ the affiiarr of the.38.' Hence. . d. an affix or an operation re. . ~ an ancient sage and _scholar of Vedic Grammar who is believed to ha ve revised the original text of the *. <11. 2.:fr<I: I 3f'iiT{:{i[ ~~~: l{m ~mfr· ~il~l]1wfir~0l1 fq~.6r) ~ g~ ~fI. fits~r 3tlon~r ~ M. d.4L mp. I unit called Jihvamiiliya. breathing.:fr4r '3~:~~TilTFci~cr com.wilich is one of the factors to decide the sense of a word in doubtful cases. pad..!. 3 16 . 1. cf. cnP.II 9. abo l?ji'f'smaa M. cpo I !ilIIIltM. Vr. I. ii'lTltlif<f. but incapable of being pronounced without a vowel preceding it. cp.II8.._ I connected. an~{q~~ ~.tfu'iir~'f. d.Z9 and VI.q~<J: IGis. fll'iil'llT crfa"f<J~r il snarffi M.' - ~ produced from the ch€st. See the ~~ mentioned in the original statement. d.66. it is shown in writing with 8l although its form in writing is only a dot above the line.-lw •. ilif~<JT: TJ:ffr i['iiT~f. eSarna-Veda. See 3f -:..1. and the acc'-d~'al: Thevo\v~i f(m) is substituted for ~(iri"thecase of nouns of the feminine and neuter gender~ . :lfit~1T['Rr I "fRr 'i1ff.T~ the caseendingotr of the ace. ~: 1. 2. 2.:rgRr: Iff~UuIIre:<!i: f.:qcr: Nir..:n:r. on Kat. amBo an ' Sllq~~name of an ancient etymo- ~~~ beginning with a stanza of the ~ ( I) the letter aTT included in the I u.showing or signifying Vikara i.rr substitute for the nom. a phonetical element or ~~~ II Pal). _ P. The work is a verse commentary on Ul)adisiitras in five Padas.81: i@r fqB~. Pro I. 16. d. on P.ih metre. on R. alR« (Aufrecht. He edited Ul)adisiitras. it is written for convenience as 3f: although its form for writing purposes is only two dots after the vow~l preceding it. It refers to the origin of the Sphota doctrine. d. IV.cf: affii~~: Slm~. 4. i. d.j~f <. VIr.~~1<J~ :{m. and directly preceding the utterance of " acc.q tim) f.'<!t~ (P._ I. cf. (3 ) case ending of the ~om. III. II. Slk~a. The upadhmaniya is looked upon as a letter or phonetic element.16. I 1 9 .~fu crT . ill~ an affix ~ enumerated. (a:r~R) ~r~ pertaining to the ulteriOl:: member of a compound. " . 1.18. lind acc~ dual called _~ also. d.jllfciii{. ~qFl'~qI<J<t. on 1. ( 2 ) substitute for the case-ending ~ (f~) in paI). (2) anu5vara. XVIII. I \. independent.jlnf~ ~~if: Uvata on R. it is to be shown: instead of the visarga. 1..ini and othH grammarians.2. let~ing out breath from the mouth. one of the three given of ~<!i~1T[' or location Which is ~fflq.rttikakaras. K. ~ltrP.' produced ~~ produced from the chest. 2. .· d. immediately or closely ~q the mbstitution of the vowel aIT. Sab. figurative. Theodore) a German scholar and compiler of Cata40gus Catalogorum. VII.r'iit<j Ol~[q<lP::: I .lrq€f~<Jff. ~"'it$lHI4U( an ancient anR~ propriety. which is always connected with the preceding vowel.+n<fr<J lit. Hence. cf. P. of paI). 3. ! ~1~ resulting from "3'lf"'fn: or ~.1 ~~(t~ fcr~I. d. blowing. 18. " 1.. 3. called '!~ in Pal)ini's grammar. and hence j . . Pari.asal (I) looked upon as a phonetic element. a:ref+"q ~~? VII.:fr<I~~ ii'TN I Kat.tt:I~) jTj~Ii\\<!T il:OO-qlT!Cfi'f.the letter ~ or ~ and hence shown numeral 3fe'l. atlfW1~ ~'i:<!i:j.I I 7. and not Cji~ by some I ancient phoneticians. 1..'3.:. on V. also :m~~CjiJ:j'I~fltCji~Rfq~<!i~'4q tl3:!l"fil::: Par. VIII. Bh.7S. crmt ~T~qU<JrJ]T I Vak. -also IGiS.62. See the! word sf above on page I. I. pad.105 P. types cf.. 1.. Vyak. d. I.19_ Kas.. I3· forming or stand'ing as a means 14·580. VII.~!nf~r~n~<! oj t. 1. jJ. orq-~~"#f ~ +f. '3fi1T[1fll{. a-q-.I <. in writing. I._ Yak. IV.Olj'iif '~<J: . and atr. ' logist referred to by Yaska in his Nirukta pos$ibly as a commentator dn fq~. I. IV. VI. The Visarjaniya.16.ini's grammar. OIl. 343 and Svopajfia on it. subsequently stated _by way . ~ above on page 2.1 as the sense of the locative case. 314. sound or utterance caused by breath esrc&ping from the mouth. ..rifl1<!lfuE{02:9' 3"i:<!~ iltqrqll. a-q wfiq em<li:j~a~i:j.wn as '(5'. d.:1~ cp~ Viik. no doubt.Htm M. anq~1. actuaIIy stated.) aitq~ resulting from immediate contact. as ~~. (~~.a-qelH<Ji:j.or~.tB~. on Siva' Siitra word a-OlT~ above.q"U<JOll. when.fl<I:. line 4.:. d. VI. ~ vowels 3ff.19 ._cf. "~~i«lf.:I. 1. a term applied to the visarga when followed by the consonantcr. t. VII. the Visarj itniya and h (~r{) are looked upon as aTTn.~ of the 18th century.. I or fttllr.P. a nasa I_ Ie tt er or utterance . cf.

3. The pronur. if. affix <Ii applied to the words of the ~~l! group in the four sen!:es called '<ITgrm~ e. the vowel ~. cf. e. reo] partly through the-nose. I. to certain roots mentioned in P.e in the latter .' tutcd for the consonants 11.. ~ ~ ~ ~ iffa. the word CfiU~ and which (f'lioI. e. £44.. The TaittiriyJ.~0. See <!iU2i. . IlL 2.g.ed by sonant -of the consonant group as the consonant il. or Ol. IV. j e uceucat. <f. IV. Cfi. 2. t1. 2TT a.. is added in the miscellaneous ~~'Ii t senses.b:. IV. vn. VIII. This <Ff letter is not independent. 1.1'1i:. by UI. VI. ~lf ~Wl'. cavity in the throat. It is likely that the anunft~ I . applied' to nouns in the sense of diminution. ~ P. 31f<f. applied.30 . 2. tQ which the affix "'. P. cf.o!i~lfa<fq while in some other manuscripts . u5. !fitf!il~ a class of words hE-ailed by""the word ~f. affix 'f. Pr. liW-IJf'Jfit.'l~lfB!ii<lr :j''ElT~lirOU CfIllT illfu<f<!: Uvvatn..'fS~1<. 2. 4. aa:.Q' IV.. +!CJ"f~:.. . <lTVU-: etc. censure. (3) tad.~lf: ~ and ""l~::'m: as rflfu'i<l or nasal letters. affix 1f. (6) substitute'll for the ~~ a class of words he~.lDudeva. ~ ~ "" <l+r. 'iifril'li:.103. is the name of a country. d.ure!f<! as a I. For the elisi?n (&iii) of ~ on bha~ya mentioDs OlTft'tif<i as one of account of its being termed ~ see the six ayogavaha letters.! ~tft{ a group of '. while Uvvata dtfines . e.70-87. on Sivasiitra .83 e. d. ( 2) tad. (4) UI.1 -. an ~.87. 9. de. 'Ii{1I]f<iF!: I l . 2.g. who was a pupil of Pii:yaguI.nfljif!j for . g.) is applied in the four senses are either nouns or roots or both. ~~. cf.g. 3-108 Vart. etc.>ding the COllsonant ~. tf. Sf<P. mentioned. . The diphthongs Q. V.ciation of this yama or _twin letter is seen in the Vedic the reihark :ij"'!!P. I.P{<J!'Ii:.. or "I:. ~ . ~~: etc. directly krt affix (3f) affixed to the root 'lfJ.ame ~'. known also as Mantudeva or Manyudeva. although adjectivaJ. V.3 8 • _ I . tP3T~'Ii:.135. Cfi~ gutture-palatal. 1ion <nfWFI as a letter The Mahfi2. Kas.g. P. provided the worel.<i~'Ii:. "J:~. recital only. 5.<11'-!t ~:.or. on R. and gives also of the guttural group -. 40-48 befote which the augment l!~ is prohibited by P. IV.{r~'<l:. a(Bi~1T t{q <{llT: S. cr. 20.. <jj+. I. d. V. il.9. ~ . The Pal)iniya Sik!?a does IIot menbefore the consonant <1. ~_~ 5 Vurt.g.!'. It necessarily depends upon ttie follow. to IZ. . com. qfi?~ . Zl!fiI. 24. gets doubled ill tt!e ""die rtcita.anqm~'Ii: 1. etc. ll!fi.<1m: ~~ffi~T lettPf produced only by the nose. fern" m~ q. l!fi"'II'G.fi:.' is added in thE' SFr·Sf' of a « ro~t 'e. sonants ~.~ affixed to the word in the sense of collection by P.:.. ~~ a class of words peaded by_~. Pra. 'i" Ill. ':p8-33.. cf.60 e.51 gutturo-labial. after the word ar:rm~ e.lded by the word <!iGi~ which. P. g.of the word itself ("'il~) e. . IV. 3. and <{ an..es. 2.1 . while latu grammarians include tbe gUiturnl con. cf. g. ~. as they are produced hi the KaIJthatalu-sthiina. VIII. .to _which the taddhita affix .~ll'li:.r. _2.l. io.:tT.r.. V. 151-160.g. or "I:. e.k-Prlitislikhya mentions iilfu<fll.oe:iliil.l( nam~ of ~ commentarv on N1i.!!fi1Jti1N diphthong!'> ~'Ii<!". ~~ etc..'107 106' -included among the CiT~til91if letters ing nasal consonant and hence it is analogous to anus\:1ira and yuma c~lled CiT<fhY'ITir. 2. followed by the Vajasaneyi Pratisiikhya as ij i(m consonant.Ol1g tlie Kal. holding vOGal cords.. similarly mfi!1Ft<!i:. ~:q~r.ladi sihras HI.29. 31. III. ~q:. 13h. (7) the Samiis~nta affix tfR (!fi) at the end ofBahuvrihi coinpounds as _prescribed by P. a:rij~'Ii:.!t on the t!T\HaO<ll'1i{Tr!.g. <iT9if. preceded by ~<\. d.g. by P.. ~~~fg'3:ii*o -<ll<iT <li1T..g.. where some manuscripts. in B''f. '!f. VII..2._ ~ ul pro d. L L v. (2) "llil"I:. wben followed by the fifth viz. d. ~ I ( !..s ~ and i.l. ~.67-70..lQ. (2) by P. 2. 2.-~ before a case affix. sika-colouring ."t[. The nasalization is !e ttC·f8..~S'IiT{: ~!!jWHe~[ '<I R Pr.u. lUiS.fcllftl{j~<i'tql::mrIt<!m­ tc:m:I~illf13'!<i~+rT: 11. ~n~~:. 1 t is mentioned in the shown in script as "'<.. 2. '!iiI to v:h ich the taddhita affix CiTTll<'l headed.. ::ijlf\'~ and ~ as instanc. d. ( i ) the consonant Ii!. P. 136. ~. liT ~~B1: .gesa's Paribhal]endusekhara by ~ia.t­ '<Ifil(<ii\:§. in the serise of agent./ ! tad. u.sonant ~ are called <f."E!. VIII.Pr.I) by " . affix <Ii in the very sense. and -0.80 after words headed by CRT&: e.: etc. qftITJ~fi!: etc. IV. it'li.133: !fiCfi tad.fu: ~l~'lisi\:. Gll P. i't. K.:. q~Il{'Ii:.U~'tfi formally mentioned. WOiG" lea d eCl y. e.mentarY'1s named Do~oddl!ara.~ the consonant 'Ii. V.:if~~!j: on which U vvata makes etc.g. on P. visarga and the cor.no: a:rrrq1fi:. 3. glottis. 3.'li'. the word Sl~ after which in a compound. substi. and OlCf by P. e. g 'li~. are called Kal)tha talavya.. 4. g.8. _~!<::~:. cf.!UIl":. caturarthika affix 'Ii (.7!.77 and III. a closs of words headed by cno'T.'l6tT in the Pliitj~iikhyas.. -~Fl\~lWH\TI: I fcrtl:§r.ifil'li.j]{ya when it is follo'. are optionally -placed first in the Karmadharaya coin pound. 18. 't~fcr~.Kas. I <lim~~fP. cf.lthya letters.5: Sid. was looked up-m as a separate phonetic unit and called OlTfe'f<l as for ins-tance. :j'~ tad. m~. when the s(-cond of the doubled consonant which is coloured by the following ndsal consonant is called <111. The B. 1. 1. affix cg affixed to ~.ladiaffix 'Ii e.. ~'f:. .3 to 7. lIf. substit ute ~ for consonant. 1. t'Be 11Hoal or «t .~ Cf. on 1F~1l1'!:<l>lq(~ ~qljlOJ. 2. 2. Pr. P.! is dropped by P.ord. .V.re~:.. '1 'b a Class ot. is to be added. ~.g.. 2. 33 and 8..GO glottis. Kas. 3. the first conas na. tfi'li. ('5) krt affix -'11 (CiT) where <j.which is u. I e.there is neither the word 31Gi'fr~ nor i'flfft<f'!J. also. <Ii:!. V..nd if. I II . -iIPl'. A class consonant excepting the hlth'. '~~<iT: ~ V. qll1ttcm:! P. on P. by P.21. on P.III.Bm~iN etc. IV. tLe and :3Tr are called l{arHho~thya as they are produced at both the KaIJtha and the Ottha Sthanas. pity etc. (2 I q.. e. P. on 2.tiSflkhya calls the letter it <i!. cf.half of the 18th century. d.':ords which ~lre q . IV. ! n. Kau.41. and dhers Ly P. the place of thil production of the sounes31.i!l~~ :.. given in P.g..I .es not h~ve the acute accent on its first vowel. read . Th . t.24.80. tR:~'!! tad. given to the vowel I prec. a Idter called <111 . cf.( I) itiQfa::i4 i rfih a Jain grammarian who wrote a commentary by . to whicb the taddhita affix 1Il0l..:!-a also. {1:) . P. W~IT:" .mr (.

r~<1t: 1 if~uIT ~. 2.~TiI (.Umm1f W~'-l': en<:!J]mf~'i!<liT L 'Q. <!i<:!J]B. . I. L87 as e.Utll<!t '<l ~lftm ~'ilq.~~+!T9q. The Vajasaneyi FratiSakhya mentions two karal)as ~'l<:rand f9l[~. flulT~fa'.W'{1<l ( i. on III.5 1 . ~qCfi3f: q. III. cf. 4.:. q..g. the term signifies the most E'fficient means for accomplishing an act . III.-q. g. 3. ( I) krt affix. P. 36'44-45.7 0 .70. LIO Vart.Ulq. E{i~Ciil. Piid. cf.:::T<ll­ ~BB'I\n:. which . Bh. cf. P.32.g. e. ft'mi! in alfir ~ ~ql fci<tli! <IT'V~'l'l:. BB . d. in Vedic Literature in the sense of the infinitive.131.:~ \:l'T§fcr+lTflHl': II Kas.fuJTI name of a svarabhakti i.{!J]<J:. 123.~~~~<llUJt 9T 'li'1T q.3·5 1 .<jq. touching of the particular place (~:q-T'1) inside the month for uttering consonants. ". ~?: or resonance ). IV. P. on T.ql"Ten~+i' q.~q. 4. 18. subject. 129. . q. P. <!'3:! in ~<{~ %~m:: ~<i. Bh.:<J<lln:.12. 1 02. yI. IV. See •.:.n q.g. and headed by tbe word q."T\ noticed in the case of the consonant \. q!tmrrr +[l"ll~. Vart.'I' work? ) who has referred to Haniiman as ninth grammarian. 3. cf. or rather..::::. d. on P. l%g~f~cT '11+[ I a:I<llq !l.. the utterance of a circumflex vowel is described as Karl)amuliya.U~.J and others are names of countries. -'I1'!l.1 \1 "'I 9"V.. 32.4. ' a fault in uttering an accented vowel especially a vowel with the c~rcumflex accent which is not properly uttered. Cfil~l. "[ lii<:lfr ~af9l[:rl~ ~l<ltolerff: v. i'!q. II. 2. (2iT+<j.-q'1 above..the miscellaneous senses.:qf.g.~:. d.0"l'. I. a:I'Ita<l:. g. (4) use of a word e.41i5'ltftr a class of words headed by the word q.oticed in the case of the consonant ~ when followed by the sibilant ff. 87. . and in the genitive case when it is connected with a noun of action or verbal derivative noun.. 87:Vii1t. (2) tad. 4.:ql to which the affix ~'l1 ( o~ ) is added in the sense of good therein' (Cl'3f Bl!!!'). q~'f..rr experience (of something) by <Wo~". d. XXI.175. q. .m:fcr:) M. 9iftuft is named q. cpo Val.:"!' '1rfiJlf.where . a:I"!': <n~<lN.U~l'ti. II. on P •. 97· V.r ~ s~nse (an affix) applied in the of the agent of an activity.-q. as given by PaI. !f~+im F-! r <ll\1: 1 ( {. Bll. 14.Mq. P. (cf. go. which produces the ~mCi~( a root) \yho~e action or G happening is noticed furi'Ctioning in the subject. 68-75. 3. '~<:§IT*"<I: III. cf. . P.. ' ~ a grammarian (or a grammatical ~~ krt. <ii1:. (2) effort inside the mouth.~'l" +!erelfa' 9:q. See. is added in . ~fctuft or q.action. affix 'Q.. itrnen1. q.the object functions as tbe s~bject . IV.:.:\1\">I<Ri1) to produce sOllnd. 3..i M •. 9i~ur" <::~<lt~Ft <!i~OIT ii>liq.g. an~i:t~. V. . 9~q.. mfiJlq.'I).nl. 1.:n~if. also ~T<icj. et c.1 Com.<iq.g. ~~ produced at the root of the ear.<1~ 1 'liI~:qmCj'fij'1f <n<!l.:<Jl. 1 :. Pro XXI-II.lii>: la:I!}.U~q. '1. r. ''fijOilT: ~1"l1:.found functioning in the subject. III.~ ~fu: (.1'1F.. d. ~<j~.g.. \19<l:. P. to the derivatives 'of which. etc. Pr. d. IV.95 and the Kasika thereon.W'cTTg:) M.. (3) disposition of the or'gan which produces the sound.. I.j'l<j\r 'l th~~~ij qnlH!J]I'C"!' qiil'+im. ::nlT<jq.82 . the word standiflg for the agent.105). e.-~<% '11.f~uIT name of a svara bhakti .'1<l.2. P. Efj'o'<r. 3.<l{+lfui.~?! also.l~ W<i&!cT m.agent of an action. e. ~~Tq9lfi1t q.l1T ~fu 1\1.:.~ . \'art. the root ~~. on Tai.n of the larynx produces the sound. e. 3.of a karaka or instrument in general. fruit or result of an action withqut . ~ PIlI . V.Pr. 9\i%::.i~T­ +<jr(f~~ ~ ~Tm.krt affix a:je~ of the infinitive in Vedic Literature: cf.f3f to which the tafl. 4. 52. e. 147. IV. e.j~ Com. <!i<:I1Jf9. !1:f2lqq. cpo com. P..:. Pr.9 6 .P. 18). the. ~ti. VI. not have any Karmakartari construction by the rule q. g. 3. V. on. V. 4·3. 77. ~1<T~: <r. similarly <l'len!?. 109 Bh. on V. d. ~lcrr\1.g. CfiI~l{q. <:ra~ ~G''ilT<lT en<:U1<I:.42. d. ~ ~ ( I) uJ).q[:. M. . on Ramayal)a VII. 1.lini siitras IV.:. .g. affix a:j<I:.. 3. T. I. 75. e. XXlII. 7.q.. by the Southerners as· remarked by Uvvata .J: ansr. ~~~ tuming the 'iqstrument of the prod~ction of 'sounds towards the activity of production.:.55.f( -irqm Kat on .9. 6.:Jl P. Bh. 2. explained as a:j~ufili€t </: f. ~\1~ ( contact). !ll+f ~fcr it9<:::q: has no ~9iCtR construction. cf. \:l'l:g~Cfi\I1JT:al:g: q. P. ?:T~ in ?:1~ g<nIa-. e. 4. qHmilq.:cfris more frequently. d. ~Wr: 'i.f(j'i. 2.adi affix as in the words u. $lif+!lCjq. cf. cpo 'M:UJI<1t ~-q1'C"!'1~ R<il'l: a:j~Cjr a:IiQ:<!i<:I1J~<I . IV. 1. is put in the nominative case in the active voice (cf. q. ~ vibratio. This agent.87. III. 65. depending on any other instrument.\UJT9.11'cT<law:T ~«!</: 'lV1. 4.+Tq(~!J]T g~rsn<i: P. P.:r: etc. I. I. +!'lcfrfu +ller: I Cliil. ~ r the affix <I of the passIVe vOIce . 1. q.\UJG~l<lTf. agent himself.. 66. 2 where karal)a is described to be of five kinds 3B..65).<A:.q?:l'11fu:f~: qiiilf'i:r: Cfi\ITJ. ~\1fo~en:.C'jT<!l<I:.f!J]7<lT ~~~4 :. e. 1. 95. ' ~1fG the same as q.54 ). ~ q. 4-54.o-. 1. Valc.21. '!!9.uft~~.j'~ the affix a~ placed' after which is elided. 4. r. ~:.JCl''ll~q: 1 \1 '<l ~Ftor <n&iUlR<ll<lt <'P-fm. cf.1. ~ I I instrument.64.JT:. ~~ (a root) whose activity is G . ~fti<lr'lT:.~.<!i\l1J~r<j<l and q!t+il!J].i. IV. 1. d. a:I9il<:\<:l \1TCjn:..4. on P. of an. affix q..27. d. §li~ "" "'~. 1'.~~ '<lre~<lT<::fit I ! arr~ "'ll<lmll ~ +i. on R. g. 2. behaviour like the vowel. ~::nre: a class of words forming a portion of ttJe class' of words called 'I'Ililt. e.151-154. III. e.ffi ~q. 15. e. Gf~<::fo:g'fiT. when it is followed by ff.l<::~: II ~?!: CR"rn: 1 liifiruit li~l: Corn.rrr. 23. Bh. do.eft:. For its prohibition. 1. f. <ii~UT (I) Ii t. Such roots. III. on 1. 4. Pre XIII. e. 3.~l:.. (~~) is applied in the miscellaneous senses.n<lTfuir <!Q'. ) d. ~~ a class of words 'beaded by the wordq.75. en presc~ib~d after the root ~ e. e. the word <fiit~'l. q. also 3B. . i ~ "b.used. ~B~ +!9m in the IGisika on P. 2. i::f. behaviour like the vowel ~. 1. Sr. the affix 3jtlJ..at the end of Bahuvrihi compounds e. .in the instrumental casein the passive voice (cf. 3. ~~rrr.. on I. 65. <:J'S{ f~T~(i~~1if"i:~<t 9iCt!t Kaiyata on P. +iir<li:T ( 2 ) the Samasanta 'd1: .qir "1m ~Tfi. Pr.n<ITqffi~I' ~91C'fC~ fci9P{<1~ m<fiH<f. d. V.: (from ~~r). 'ilq. name . <K1i7. P. cf. 29-33.:. Sfe P.18.<':!J]<J:. provided the words q.22. II.n<jlUJT . formed by the a'ffix <lot: by the rule 'Im(it--<j} <I~ (P.108 to which the affix <lCjJ is added to arrive at the secondary roots'. cf..: 1 Uvvata on R. III. 82. g.~: M.j':~~:. Bh. P. Efift~ ancient technical terms for the future tense. although transitive. q.. 1 55-I60.II1 and II. 54.i1ir '!)Ref.'e'!\~.168. 1. "'{~­ ~9i:. pad.67.~~fa'.~~ a class of words headed by the word q.g. ~~~. 4.

(~). roots whose used in the sense of activity iIi verbal activity is noticed in the general.51.M.49. Karman or object is to be Cfi$r~Rir name technically given to a achieved by an activity or &i<iT. cf. it is put I I I I I . ~ . the object which' are not used along with a only coming into contact with the . .. such a compound is tioned above. but <i (~) and the ~. I.tg: m~.obtained ~SWeq. LT. pad. 'f. II..ct (2) the portion of Vakyapadiya IlL III. There is no genitive case when it is connected sa tisfactory explanation of the with affixes other than those menreason why. cf. e:g.~ Si't<ffiCliff: subject. 4. See the word <liilf+!fucr above. e. cf. as for instance.87.:<lZt an~: ~tlTilrit~~Cfij:ji~O']llIfOT. Vy..) «Ilii ql!<im-. etC: I t is callEd f. 4. . 1'i'1:. I. Jain.69.65. does not show it. also <iiI. srrm?:Cfi: IlTt/: etc. 9. d. the sense of ::. ( d ) .g. 7. however. above. ~tlj<l. 4. I3. 2.. if it is not meant or CfiiiiUl4lt( dname given by Siradeva and desired as apadana.24. g. 4. etc. III. Cfini ~ iii P. an agent.n<iRfICfi. In given therein as an instance of popular language the use of an f<l"l<l~.j[H::.1. ~Raf:.or a:JCfi~ e. lIlcfrfttRr and ~iI" defining consequently the sign of . Someis turned into a subject and the times. Sif. verbal derivatives. IlTl'IiTfufufq~~.(cr~). (b) anc::ffit~q !tTt<{. 2. I a~fcSQ'cr+l<l. l!fi~q the activity of the agent or karta of an action represented as The object which is not ~fi. ~ aiI. ·111 the word !'fill may mean ~f.49 . cpo Dipika' of 1Rm. 3. 3. also Vakyapadiya lII. cf. I I karma'n' as are connected with a which functions as the ~ubject when i verbal activity and used in the tbere is a marked facility of action '. 2.The word <!ill\'m<r in that case could mean '<!ill itG:Cfi~T.49. it compound-formation of two words is always syntactically connected in apposition i..'1'1 a technical term used in -from the activity. on P. an ~~ <j~: 1fIfcrt~:. (3) It is also ~~ifi or~!fi i.IT !'fill\:fR<r:' a compound which gives a specification.W1m Cfi.. It is called ~ connection with a preposition which when a transformation or a change showed a verbal activity formerly. P. To show facility or Si~+!<r e. P. Bh. I. ~mut 'fff: emR:q P.n<tT) as sampradana. termed Cfill'Cm:'l. 4 I3.g. ~ 'on' P.:ft<iT: i(re. ~ ~~ ( t ) IJbjt'ct of a transitive verb. which begins with Kas. Pada of the third adhyaya of PaI)id. as a technical term in grammar in mt<i when no change is seen' to connection with prefixes or a'tfefrs result from the action. is noticed in the object as a result although for the present time it of the. e. ~Ci<ri'tCf. accusative case. ~'ltlifi ed with. (~iR5'l:) '~i!. Ilnl ~fcr. when the result' is for the agent. I fclm on I I . 2. specific name. ~('!!:. Only such roots as are ifi~Ollffiil:l~ P. ifitlJIf.o subdivided into four kinds object or karman of that very action. agent or the doer of an action wants i primarily to achieve. ct. accusative case. indeciinables or 5{~(j'f: ~FiTc:nf\:1Cfi<:tr): cnlil:Tf\<i: 1. Cfi~ft III. e. orl{Q\iI. see M. QT \fI~<rf6' <w.. applied in the sense of an object . noun ~howing action. ~tllot:Jain I.. <g: ~olliT +!CfFo Nir. are not .lSl"l"'l.tIffi!ll is al!.120 verbal terminations are cr. I. 4. I.~ of a verbal activity on the object.g. (c) Siill~<iTa. KiiS.e.g.Ui'fl~f. Sakatayana defines \Vhen. It is called.Pi: ~fusn~ f.icM. sarilpradana etc! other grammarians to the second It is termed a:JCfi~~Fl\il in such cases. but they are kinds 5fl t <i. It is put in the looked upon as a variety of the tatpuru!?a compound.JIif. cf.g. I.g. af.t~~ when the object e. II. of the thing in hand.4 2 • words ending with the affixes ~..lJ When connected with verbs or showing the same substratum.l~ff. 2. upon as the agent. f. cf. ~~ <fi~. The word Cfi~9\ii is used also 1. 1.g.1i<rT. The karmadharaya compound is 'RiCig. cfrOllRr. The comas an agent. used in the same with a verb or a verbal derivative. e. cf. on I. cf ~!:Iffiill e.a~'i\:cjCfiijfiTr P.the voice Cfi<T as Cfi'5ft ~<il <i. ~ii{j:j~ is (aii{) instead of Ta-.).g. apadiina or adhikaniI)a is also treated as karma. thereon. when the agent or karta is dispenscrf~ in qM <!RlZt Clijl'fl<l. the verbal terminations mentator Abhayanandin on Jainendra VyakaraI)a mentions seven Rt. 3. 7.4<)-52. 'tfi. .' d. cr: etc. 4 7f.:f\fc~ .T 110 cp~ (I) the topic or the region of the subjp.2 • 3. 1. 19-20. but without it. f+!£lZt ifiIi ~Cfl!~: 9ifttCIa. Cfiilfi1r f«~<iT.45 as also N}'asa on 1. 1:Ii <!iUm-.). 1.q~ CfilT for the ~~ srl:jtif where the object. related to the verb which is transitive is turned activity (f.7 2 • ! Pal)ini has made CfilT a technical term and called all such words object of lhe transitive verb ~ . ~ f+iilfu etc. or a noun-affix guishing attribute) showing that . ro_ots having both the Padas get the Atmanepada terminations.g. . the word is t!sed +!<. cf. a karaka. ffii etc. in q.something which the. For details activity. verbal activity. 3. a:JCfifu~ "i and if~­ functioning as subject. Bh. The main feature of Cfiil~ is that it 'is put in i the accusative case. 3l'qT. 3. e. fi!~~ 'i:f 'i:f mti{ :1ijfu Bhartrhari p. f. 1.m. I II r. where Dur~:r. P. 120 on which the verb-activity is found. operations. a'tfeqia'. Wit.14. root. and the object is looked e. ~~ ~ ~a Il'lti mCicffl:.4-49. The ·word is used in connection with the fruit or result of an action. f:!i<l5. ~ is karmakartaIi-objec t . I. technically called ·l3j:jli'flN~'. The object or Karman ~~ijl4i~.g. oUffiot: etc• and com.illj:jl~lIm~~ Cfillrtffi'lmin the nominative case.4. ( a) ar. it is put in the . case. e.83 .n~T~ P. 101-I28 where the nature of the agent of an activity 15 discussed.rflCfi~fu. gacarya explains karrnan as ' sense' It is called Sif+lfua: In such cases.. 4. 3. iftecr. See the word arcnNcr the sutra Cfi~Ul!ur. or a verbal noun is explained as c<iF!iicn or ~ (distintermination ('litr.83 to 98. and ~~~ CfilT Hein. tg: ~:r:. cpifll!:lllf meant for the agent of the action.:q~cf is brought into being unqer a <U.applied in the sense of.lI. lit. . and' also f!i{\:TT +Rl. cf. into intransitive as a result. or a compound.t~Cfi~it1td~f&Jm:lCfiffroot: ni's A!?tadhyayi.x:. Q~~ 'i:ft. on ~t<ii~UlT ~~: P. for the sake of grammatical e. of three kinds with reference to the way in which it is . a word.jOj nation (R!~).tf. (2) The word ~ is also expression of this type is called used in the sense of f'fi<iT or verbal Karmakartari-Prayoga. III. II. Padamai'ijari HeHiraja on Vak. d.ftftacr (Ilfll 11:ca"l:. 4. defined as '. the karman is exKarmadhiiraya as fq~Iif'!T Oll~'iTft pressed (Sif+!f~n) by a verbal termiu::Cfi[~ cnlil:Tl\<lllf where tpe word firo'. on 1. which is ~~effifiT is describ€>d to be participle. and used also Padamapjari I. II.'~ is not Si (~tt.

riTqrr a cummentary On the KavikaJpadruma. p~rtian ' iijii?ilq<it~~ a commentary on the KaHi. d. IV. q?. Bh.43. who has written a the word ~lu!T to which the tadcommentaf" Oll' Amara Kosa • ' J • • I dhita affix D:<T (~ ) IS added. IV. the cow in iTt ~r . ' karman. also f<I. 3. Nar. II I. cf: 'liat{ Cfilt. ~l~-:fi aUlh~r is of the Laghusarasvata.defined .e. a term used in the jllahabha~ya in the sense of affixes used in the sense of ~ object' as contrasted with <f.D."IIJ:. See ~it<I.roots) having their verbal action or happening noticed in the object._in the sense of I offspring' and. as for instance. I. P .13h. on III.r<!t Cfilt~~fin<!l11]t '9 P. Kas. V. of ?. I.n 112 object and not in the subiect can have this Karmakartari-Pra'yoga. e. M. iii~qi?iijr name of a commentary On Bbattoji's Praudhamanorama by KmH\wisra.g. on II. a small grammar work. See Cfilt~fl!i<l &bove as also . for the utterance of a vowel. Pari. Bh.M. 3. i ~:.:r! Cfig:!.~ (roots) having their verbal activity situated in the obJ' ect.ufi1:l'. a peculiarity ·in the recital as noticed in the pronimciation. fu<!11'l:. is much similar to the Katantra Siitras having a few changes and additions only here and there. subordinate karman. ~r:r ("!i~lqc<T!Cfi\UJ) <p~ lit. ct. 108. P.'i~A~~'. 1. d. as kalaviprakar!?a by commentators. pad. .r. .. a vowel so pronounc'ed.g. . The availabl~ treatise. See similarly the words tfl!ll[lt 1\1. affix ~.108.pa CflfotuTr ~ Siitras.87 and Kaiyata on the same.being used in the accusative case. 0' the root Wf+<:<!. on P.ya..lV.Bh.5I and . or the root ~ in 'Ii~rfu Cfi~. Kaliipasiitras.fi~::r CfiC!<ir~: . Bh.g. on P.. B''ii'f: Cfi-m IOBa: •. the son of Kesava and the pupil of Dhanesa who lived in the time of Hemadri. mw I I the Haimaliilganusasana·vivaraI)3. a commentary on the. Eh. r. 3·I4. an old grammarian mentioned CfiiNl o41ft( a class of words headed by by Ujjvaladatta. subordinate to the main power viz. Linganusasana chapter of Hemacandra's grammar.g. ~~ author of the commentary A kind of svarabhakti. 3.<lf ~Cf fQ +ilolliT. affix Cfiiiqli. . He livedin the 18th century A. It is known .ql'l!"l"['1rtjt ~tfT lvI.D.r. ~ supposition. 3..". P. q. fugi'l2:li. on ~1f4<u~ P. a term often used in the l\Iahabha!]ya for karakas or words connected with a verbal activity which have the object or karma. . ~ the same as karman or object 15 of an action especially when it is not fully entitled to be called . 4... For det~ils see Cfire"'!.<Tmrn P. See the word~. viz. He lived in the 16th century A. ct. r.'9j q~l.26. ~~+ilCf<f. cf. ~'Flferffi~ g ~+r:.19.g. epfq~.'iT 'i:f Kas.(. CfIii5' a fauit of pronunciation consequent upon directing the tongue to a place in the mouth which is not the proper one. .. ~r ~T~"i. but looked upon as karman only for the sake of .lllC<Jfirm: or i?n<!TJ'WF!Il.qTtf~~ operations prescribed speci- ~~~R" exchange of verbal ~ctivity.f.<T!UJt CIT <1'1 fr. on I. side by Cfi~ the tad. See ~. 3. 1. Bh . Sabdaratnadipa 6n the Sabdaratna of Hari Dik. Sik.51. the ending :q (:!{<l~ ) is substisubstantive in the sense of slightly I . 3.{<!: IvI. ti 7 Vart. He ."<!l ~ i'f~1 _ m~+r:.. See Cfi\f4uTt.I\\6j€jill brevity of thought. I3.g. minimum assumption.!'ijCfi~Tftc!imClol~<T Q"ii!lrqf~ CfPt<:flm M.. on P. 104.. ~~"Iin\J<Tf arw :a~mm:. 3. Bli. ~ tad. Bh.14 •. ~~. Cfi~J1i~ 113 which is referred to in the PUl}ini Siitra '!imftr<i)or. e. reciprocity of action.67 and I words. Pari. I. . M. :aqN M. III. llqr CfiBl1. the author of the work referred to as Kalapa in the :MahabM~ya which perhaps was a work on grammar as the word ~Tq mentioned with the "ord li~T'IlffiCfi'l'f: in the lVIababha!]ya. 1. e . the vikaraI)a ~ 'or the affix ~rn:. IV. also aRCfi- I ~iT .{<!lt<!~l: ~. ~~l~ author of i ~~iJlCtCfi (. part of time looked upon as a power. 9. alternative name given fa tbe treatise on grammar written by Sarvavarman who is believed to have ·lived in the days of the Siitavuhana kings. e. karman and others. . The term was used by ancIent grammarians. Kalapin is mentioned as a pupil of Vaisampayana in the lvIahabha.ita. ~~. theYada~a King of Devagiri in the thirteenth century... has written a short grammar work named Mugdhabodba which has been very popular' .cf. 1.a ifI+r:.44.<I: 1... prescribed in the. The roots having their agents characterized by a reciprocity of action take the Atmanepada terminations.ffi+!TFi~<T:j d. f . on I. ~~:. a commentary on the karaka of the KaJapa grammar as. Cfill¥qrter W1:T<T: ~lf­ llt<lCfitCTT Cfill~I?F. d. protraction. M. Cfil~fU'J~:. III. I tuted for the hst l~tter of those In enor. explained as f<!~<l~ l(m f<!f<r: or in the word +irer ~xplained as +iF<l9. 94. .1. It is rather risky to say that Kaliipa was an ancientsystem of grammar iiiqq. ~~ a treatise on rcots writt~n by Bopadeva. The treatise is popularly known by the name Katantra VyakaraI)a. f. Cfilte<j~l\ means f.fu:qfSr. 4. Cfi~~f'clif prescribed in the sense of an object. 7. Sek.Bh. e. the class of guttural consonants c9nsisting of the five consonants % ~..I cnbed· to the famous commentator I .Ahnika I.i1. case of objects which are described to be functioning as the subject to show facility of the verbal action.~.by Vaidyanatha on Laghumanjii!]a of Nagesa. ~li~ l{f. the affix foli in the word f<!f-ir. in ar=r(i!J]f. the root arl<i and m in <ij~re<{fcr ?(f1<!<!Rr where the function of the root bears effect in the object boy and not in the movements of the object as in the sentence '<TT~lf­ '1<iUJfu. assumption. cf. brevity of expressicli.:r I d.~~f\:T<! or +iT'I8P:lCT. d..' 110. on P. Cfi~ or time cpo Yak. q. added to any i side. Durgasimha. aiso Cfilt-' a<jfu~~ UJ'"!. e.57. on P. 1 o<lT'I>lilm.1.:r. 680)'( 2) Name of a commentary. on. (I) part. I ~if. cf. . or almost complete. .'1 +!ler:. or ~ when followed by ~ e. in Bengal being studied in many Tols or PathasaIas. d. when followed by'"!. on V. L 3. written bv the author (~q~CI) himself. . on P. f9qfffi g <{('fill C!'Q.karaka mentioned first. I. III. 3. Kasika thereon. Cfiqur extension. IV. j fically for objects i. o1l1t~~ Kas. -TICI'lila:! c{1ql1..21. d.

I as the ariU. The word ending in this <n'... Jinaprath<: models of ancient grammarians' bha.tisakhya work who held that Visarga' before the cqnsonant <:l. the Kalapa Cimr. IV. mostly in Ir. A comparison of the Katantra Siltras and. Ca.:-srtrf3'{Cf)f a name usually given to Adhyaya. ('n the famous commentary on the bhnce of Sutras and their wordir:g.ll~l.'>f. 3.. ~:. be. 17.y a cammen tar y ascrib. by Ramarama on }(avikalpa(huma.g. 4. iN. I if.~1f<fiT a gloss on the corr. is a consisting of Paribbal. Kas. (2) a commentary on Kavikalpadruma by Ramatacbvagisa. It probably be~ IOn'-'ed to Aindra system as opposed b . -rn1lB-.~ krt affix in the sense of the infinitive in Vedic Literature. Katantra Siitras.qTf. Siltras by Durgasin. He was a resident of Darbhariga.1)ini's canadasa of the eleventh· century order.II cd to Ramanatha and called rnanmcript. cf. original instructions for the :Many snch lists of Paribba~a~iitras grammar were received by the are available. It is also explained as Kasakrtsnatantra. on P. the BaIabalasutras.:rl~fu'l:. Sarvavarman. 348. ti"H9iT~:.\ plemente9. on P. (2) the famous commentator of the name of a gloss on the Paribha~a­ Katantra· Siitras who livtd in the I patha of the Katantra school exnimlh or the tenth centmy. I I if){Q:S tad. Bengal and Gujarat. support it.enteenth. groups-the Paribhal.E. of topiCs is VivaralJa or gloss writ ten by Tril~­ entireiy . ~~ name of an ancient writer of a Pr1i. 'J.or's name . 1:£. The lieved to have been written by the Katantra Grammar is also called Siitrakara himself as a supplemenKaumara as it is said that the tary portion to the main grammar ._ century A. Tri:vikrarna. . found in Ve?ic ~\t_era'l ture. P. I I i i I cpT a tEchnical term used in the i Jainendra VyakaraI. e.13./ ~ I . 2. named Balabodhini. The treatIse IS believed to have been written by .he total number of rules is 14I2 sup.g. Pro IX. htaded by 9i~'Ii in which the visarga occ..type of . it i~ probable that the work was' Scholars of I(atantra grammar by based on PaQini but compo!:ed on name K~sala. .m ing "t the end of tbe first i member is noticed <13 changed into '1 agallist the usual rules . The belief that P8I.m: (f~fi. Katantra. plaming 65 Paribha~as. ~Fild ~p.i8siltias and Society. ~r another name. Trivikrama has' written a gloss named Uctdyota. dlfferent from ··Pii. many of which are in a manuscript form at I I I .becomes an indeclinable. Its last chapter ( Caturtha. Indra. KM.5 I • important small treatise on grammar which appears like a systematic abridgment of the A~tadhyayi of pa1)mi.::~qft~'(qTQ'lCi name given to a text Siitras shows that the ore. qilao:~<f'Tgtfr (I) a commentary on the Katantra Siitras written by Govnrdhana in the 12th century. containing more than a hundrFor detail..'but it is vrttiof Durgasirhha. See qft<T[qlB!!~ ed. to l\laheSvara system. R. (z) a commentary on tbe Bhfl.)d.is followedby a surel consonant. I I I I ~ name of an name of a Buddhist grammarian who wrote a commentary OIi the \ .much strength. The work seems a"eribed to Hari Dik~ita of the 17th to be based on the Paribbii.iasiltras.l<!: P. It ign~r~s many unimportant rules of PaI. As I t hi. ueen made by the writer with a view to present the work as belongiIiTa. I Library copy has given Durgasirhha Manorama on the Katantradbatu.) is ascribed to VilranicL a' compendium of -lh!. probabJy a lIfaithila Katantra Siitras ascribed to GUliPandit whose da~e is not knuwn. compounds noun-affixes ( taddhita affixes) conjugation. \:l~l'liq~-r.ndrasiitras.s on the Paribh8~apatha written by A. Poena.. 'Ii~'Ii[R<r1Tf is said 'to b~ . Tai.114 -by the name Ka vyaldl.. Another DOW. by B. Kayicandra.a wanted to study spoken SanskrIt with ease and attained for several years a very prominent place among text-books on grammar especi. who is said to have lived in the reign of the S1i.ha.~<i:) Ciilull:.jIg. ~q' grammar called Sarasatvari. . called Sarvavarman or Sarva or Sarva. As the arrangement. He has explained 62 Paribba~as CfiTa. I ilfiWf. 3.:lfm('r'r.tavah" na kings.D. hasnot. He Jived in the se. and verbal derivatives in an order.cpffi.1}a works century if this Had Dik~i1a is tbe by Vyadi and others on the system srme as the author of thE Sabda-I of PaI)ini. Ramacandra have written a viz.:. ing to the Kiitantra school.'amisra.p~"tri-~ author 01 a small treatise on llS present. cf. cL ~~<{: (v. VIII. The work was very popular especialiy among those Wh.illy iIi Behar. l. simildr words can be sa"d to be III ! the 'lit'liITGJrITf althoush tlley are not actually mentioned in the '11Tfrm. suitable changes having Tatna.a. III. krt affix 31<l. I. . and *iliHC/TTa'lill:.madhenu . syntax.anuscript author from Kumara or Karttikeya. Jayal<r~I. afilx 'filUs prescribed _after i words like <rqt.It la \ s down the Siltras in an order di'fferen~ from that of Pa1)ini dividina the work into four adhyayas de~ling with technical terms. d others Pafijika on Durgasimha's Yrtti whose works.43 and that Patafijali's words <@i:Pill:.'lif:.of BILl[ .lini.. .-rs. although not available which is named Pradipa. e. voice. 'fiil in the sense .l'l:. No Dame of the author isIound in the ~oona CfiT~T~<lfufr=l.!9i'.. I am ~~ a.men-I derivil'g rHany of them from the tary of Vararuci on· the 'lifff'Si'tL. scholar.108 and IV. cL 'RClTru!. . gdasarman. \ 3) a com. in spite of considemble res ern. e.:~~TI:TI~ (I) name of a gln~.la for the term ~lft used in PUIJini's grammar. is drvpped only when <3. declension. see Vol VII Pataiijala ed Siitras divided into two main 1\1ahabha~ya published by the D.g. The grammar Katantrais also called KaIapa. samdhi Iules. L r ·40. Ii I. page 375.ina~e rules or Varttikas.fn<:'fiff: . 4·9· class of compound-words. were available to the author.. I an~i~ dh.63.D. and altogether omits the Vedic portion and the accent chapter of PaI. The India Office .by· many subord. I. form. Sakatayana a •. It has got a large number of glosses andcommeptary works. in the sen::e of the mfimtlve. P. See 9iTa. ?!iTf. different version of the other. qHQ. adjus!s many.. Poona.:-sr~ ascribed to Durgasirhha.lini refers to a work of Kalapin in his rules IV.la is also given :s the name of the author of the Safasatvari "'rammar and it' is possible that J:yakrg1u was given the title.:.:::f-/ doubtful whether Durgasimha was \:ll~~r~a bove . ct.

on III..r:qi1 of Bopadeva.106 ~lDd P. etc. The commentary ascribed to Durgasirilha was popular as proved by a number of commentaries upon it. conjugation'.Katyayana has to be looked upon as different from the subsequent writer named Vararuci to whom some works on Prakrit and Katantra grammar are ascribed.akirti in the feurteenth century A. on Durgasiritha's KiHantravrtti by. from a .l<. Pataiijali honours him by the words '1lTifji~mr~41ll"s ~ I 2. Society. I ~O?tT~ <!iT6~~ijiRf a short Cf. P. liberty of applying any of the rules of grammar that pr~sent themselves. Katya refers to Sakatayana and Sakalya (see Vaj. euphonic rules. CfiRI~qRM(rfl<1. old 'i/rtti on the I{atantra Siitras ascribed to Vararuci who is. 1. gloss on the Katantra Sutras. q. I cpm. applied to tr-u!hI:. III.48)...:~Ii'Q1~rnamed A~tamarigala I I I .r err R~ffi. or Vijayananda who lived in the eleventh qmtury. rr~ rvi. Cji~ to be a resident of South India on the strength of the remark &<lff~m . 9 ) and mentions Vajapyayana ( 1.connected with them. one of which is writtel} by Durgasirhha himself. q. e.27 Vart. augment an"'!:. on V. Bh.JT{j!ll[ ed.D.as Katyi:ryana's Varttika. Hemacandra and other wliters. the word is also used as sakhya and many J~iitra works named after him.D.tr!' ascribed to Sripatidatta.D.Dumber of glosses written on tbis work. glc. ct.ular among students of the Katantra School. 13M.mother name sometimes given to Katyayana to whom is a5cribed the composition of the Varttikas on Pal)ini-siitras. by Goyicandra il>1Q'~~~irmo a thirteenth renttiry is a general work on Kiitantra grammar~ A grammarian called Ciirlttasirilha has written a commentary ( avaciiri I on it. the Vajasaneyi Prati.a.g.~ affix. PatafijaJi in connection with the statemtnt • lll!l'T ~I~~~%~' which is lookedupon. by a scholar named KasaJa on the IGi. Va.. Katantra. on P. Brn ~!l911ll:.4.I. III.R. is technically a suLstitute ·for: the fu.n. lGitantrapaiijika by Trilocanadasa. See 'IiIQ. I.g. commentary.lQ'. declension.-who is believed' to 1)a ve written a gloss on the Sutras of PaDini also. Some of these commentaries areSi~yahil a or N y~sa by Ugrabhiiti. 3. derivatives from nouns. by B. Bh.IGitantravrtti written by Vardhamana a Jain Scholar of the twelfth century who is believed to be the same as the author of the well-known \vork Ga1)aratnamahodadhi.72. &.{ijiii by Jinaprabhasuri of the a work of the type' of a summary written by Ramadasa Cakravartin of the twelfth century. option. to Bhavasenaoftbe fifteenth century. anfmla-4 ~.~ya Vol. 3. affix alFf forming perfect participles which are mostly seen in Vedic Li terature. it appears that the work was Once very pop.D. Poona.written by Ramakisora Cakravartin who is believed to have written a grammatical work ~r<i~~lT'IiIfuCfiT. e. permission to do as desired. a work.vistara' by Vardhamana.:. i gloss on the Katantra-Parisi~ta written by a Katantra scholar PUl)<. ascribed to a scholar named Chucchukabhatta. Pra. just as ~i5 applied.1&l1llRlll: made by. rules of the Katantra grammar._-----a work on the Katantra Siitras ascribed to Ramiinatha Vidyiiviicaspati of the sixteenth century A. ~qftf~~:. 'li'R'!4' ( I) <p~f<?. See also CflffiCfiqlo below. ~ an ancient writer of Nirukta quoted by Yaska in his Nirukta. 3.cribed. VII. 6._.~ a gloss on the Katantra-Parjsi~ta ascribed to a scholar named Ramadasa~cakra': vartin who has written another work alsoilamed Katantravyakhyasara. He is believed a short form for CfiMCfill'I~.mftq a grammar work' written .:~~+rf<?.tantrasiitravrtti by Durgasirpha.- on Durgasitl1ha's Katimtravrtti. to the.69.IQ~~ 117 ------_. d. in which' case the Varttikakara VararQci . The authorship ofPratijiiasutra and Bha~jkasiitra is attributed to him. derivatives from roots etc. 2. CfiT~~ a famous commentary on Durgasirilba's . Cf. 3.ss. q.2. The VrHi appears to have been occupying a position similar to that of D urgasiIilha. pages 193-223 published by the D.1Q'~qf{~lriTcm a cma. .Jf. The affix 'liliI"t. on the KiHaZltraparisi~ta. 35).T~. See qlt~p. O. For details see 1\rahiibhii. <fi1~fElq~ a CfiTa. I <l>l€i"S1'~Je~tqoTr a gloss on <fTtffllM~ written by GU1). E.a«~~ a gloss on the Katantra-parisi~ta by Siva- commentary on the· Kiitantravistara of Vardhamana by Prthvidhara who lived in the fifteenth century A. lie is called Vakyakiira and Madhyamamuni. Mok~esvara in the fifteeenth century A. ( 2 ) an ancient writer Katya quoted as a lexicographer by K~irasvamiD.64 Vii. explaining the various forms of nouns and verbs according. VyaQi ( on P. the well-known author of the Varttikas on the sutras of PUDini'l He is also believed to be the author of . different from Vararuci Katyayana. Cf. a!'.rqf. of' co'urse.' .:~Slf. .govern the accusative case of 'the nouns .g:r.larIldik~a and a gloss by another Durgasirilha.itf'C!ifr a short explanatory gloss on the KiHantra Siitras by Jagaddhara of Kashmir who lived in the fourteenth century and who wrote a work on grammar called Apasabdanirakara1).I 116 the author of it.r~r~. ~'ifu name of the" earliest com- il>1~"ij~ a treatise on the Katantra Grammar believed to have been written by Vidyananda. Poona. ramendra. G~ <fim'"iT~ ~~l+irUr.larlkak~a. whose date is not definitely known. I~. mentary on KIHantra~iihas.qr a name given to the Kii- tantra Sutras which were written in the original form as a Prakriyagrantha or a work discussing the various topics such as alphabet.64. Klitantrap"risi~t4ika of PUI. an in thc twelfth century.l~.I. syntax. 45) and Pau'~karasadi (on P. Some scholars say that· Vararuci was also another name given to him.:~qf~r.j' 'iiT+fif~ abridgment of <fi(~<fil. .lQ". fq~~si ar~<r 'iT M.:rf.tF. ~ ~~ 5IT'lT"I il>1i'<11~ M. Nouns ending in 'iiTiI"I{. 8.

i muccaya deserve a special mention. He has also thil.23. and 9it! to express wbich the '. He is looked upon as one of the greatest scholars of Nyayasastra. doer of an action.rm~q<!1<r: I . ~.<!lJ+['+!~r~.the Kavvtikamadhelluby Ananta. ..son of CintamaIfi who lived in the sixteenfh century A. d. r~ijt<!T and . is looked upon as the sens€ of the case-affix'3s which express it.upon as a very important and.cfR.a<[q<:{RWfa-': 9i1\9i~+rf?r~. Blla. the reputEd grammarian of Bengal who lived in the latter half of the twelfth century A. written by Kr~Ifasasbi Arac. .57.RCDql~ ~~T~ an anonymous elementary work on syntax explaining the nature ~nd function of the six Karakas.! and which deals with the Kanikas or auxili'aries of action. Gadadhara Chakrav. 94. Sel. ~~. 3fN9i\:01. Sek. by Katyajiana also in his Varttika. 9i\Ill. (ii) lif~l:'t'i"'l9i:. 9ilfTIlRrfct~=rt err M.Jled ~~r(9i<a01F!­ riJ~~ r.::.lg h:ccmes instrumental in brinwritten another treatise named gingabout-an action'. as 9iR9i1fl<:{ also.ini's A~tadhyayi which begins with the Sutra 'lil\ifi I. who lived in the seventeenth century A~D. I. E. cf.a9il~. D. cf.e affixes. cpo fltml:~m: BRP-r+r'qi. Ahu. See 9iR9i- <iiTi(~~T (I) a treatise discussing the several K1irakas. q!f. Vyakaral)il Mahabha§ya Vol. The work Cf.<iil<l'd{ Pa ri. which see below. Pr. also9iH9i ~fff ct~lftl~~: I flNofi 'q'<i'q'~9iT. g.D..1I. <Iff U. author's bigger . the same as 9iR9i1fra:o<rT~T written by . any verbal activity. II.q9i!\~om. the accusative case as required by the word· qfT~t<I. Pari. ' ci~ a \vork on Karakas ascribed to Bhairava.calJed 9i1\'fi~ which was written by roiJ+rT'Uj+r~"i'[i{. sfitrakarika of Udayakirti.e tpchnical !iense of 'instrument of action'. e. <iilt<iiffi<!' CliR'~fir~ case affix goveriled hya verb or verbal derivative as constrasted with .::<!:jrq­ \f!\:U]+T. N9ill::. The .23.l\9i1fl<:{ has a short cpmmentary written by the author himself.D. a t will.9. 1. which is added to a letter or a pbonetic element for convenience of mention. ~&:rI'HtSf­ kakhaIfQ. possessing . also V. Pari. ~ti~mWi the dictum that " a IGiraka case is stronger than an Upapada case. See also the word ~~~~'qi.<@l9i 9itR9iT: Padavyavasthaname of a work by CakrapaIfise~a.g. a short work on the meaning and relation of words written by JaY!I-ramabhaltacarya who lived in 1he beginning of the eighteenth century. <iilrcfi 3.bove.. difficult chapter in· treatises of glammar and there are several small compendiums written by scholars dealirg with karakas only~ For the topic of Karakas see P. . Society. who was a pupil of J agadiSa and.r~m are respectively used which. .. <t>T{CPq~ name given bySira4eva and other grammarians t) the fourth pada of the first adhyaya of PaI).<!fu.. d. e g.37. a BU'ddhist grammarian of Bengal who lived in the tenth century. give. Dipika.. 16. 9ilvii ~g1tffi qpqt+fOZ<'{ which is a portion of the 'oVl':.tha. I. (2) additional purpose served hy a· word such as an adhikara word. Par\bha~a. The work is a discourse iif~-a-ofi 9iR9iti~ iT<fm I ]. not. The topic explaining IGirakavibbaktis is IO'oked . I. CliTmJ:: 0pUQnal"ty. It is also applied to syllables or wOidsin a similar way to indicate the phonetic element of the word as apart from the sense of the WOld. ~(<t>qR. Bh.1.rf.9iIU iif?t~T TaL Pra. are six karakas given-in all grammar the Paribhal?avrtti and Jfi1ipakasatreatises. the topic of Karakas written by CakrapaIfise~a. Bh. Katalltra school. . 94.23 to 55.4.affix 119 9i~'f. The work forms the concluding portion of a larger work . His main literary work was in the field of Nyayasastra on which he has written several treatises.1e a famous Naiyayika of· Benares who lived in the eighteenth century' A. q.~ in the sense of ( desiring for ones~H applied to nouns to form denominative 'roots.CT M. The verse portion of the Karakacakra of which the pro~e· portion appears like a commentary might be bearing the 'name Karakakaumudi. on <iiH' an affix. 3fQT"Fr. 4-. M. 1. belonging to the famous Se~a family of grammarians. fiRm. I 9i\1l' ~g: I fffi~T<!r: Kas. Kat. also the words "'I9iI\::. I. See Karaexplanation of a topic.!9i also. ' a treatise on.and. on 1. Clil~~ (I) written by Puru~otta­ Blla. <m~"i:lIl~ (I) a work on Karakas as- '~ a verse or a line or lim s in metrical form giving the gist of the cribed to MaIfikaI). ~QQ"P-r+r~: 9iR9iP-r+rR.118 <iif+r:~~:n~1:[R~ a· commentary' on.j~ <lli~ and not· the word· ~o!<jr<! cf. f9iit9i. on the six kalakas written by 4. cf 9i1 1 <Rj P. who flourished in the 16th century A. 3fN9i: 9iT~: I 't.york named ~­ 4.@ar a work dealing with Karakas ascribed to RudrabhaHa.lal~ a work diccussing the various Karakas from the Naiyayika viewpoint written by the well-kno\vn Naiyayika. as contrasted with Upapadavibhaktisi. qut: 9itiJ~iJ cl')'11~. 9iJ\9i. d.Z62-264 . VII.hence arelboked upon as weaker than the Karakaviohaktis. l!'fi<!T.q: I cpo Bengal who wrote many works on also IIi.. d. 13.Qmit'tTl "I Qft(1c<rT ~.n written by Puru~ottamadeva . which show a relation between two substantives ~nd. Seethe word 'llH:ifi a. also c1. <iiHCfif. "i'g~.:. XXII. on P.published by the D.8-42.III.artin of Bengal. I. orVibbaktis q~. ~>!'D'l. d. ~~9iI'.. pp.<iil~~u:g.g. I l\laIfikaJ)tha. Vyak. CliRCliClilftCliT possibly another name for the treatise on Karakas known as 9i1\:9i"'1'. p. I rders to seven Karamadeva a reputed grammarian of kas. on P. word is used ill th. D. d.qtft Pari. I. CliR'CP~ a work on the Katalltra grammar discussing the Karaka lit.anamaIf9ana above. hence~ are called Karakavibhaktis. (2) a treatise on syntax written by JayaramabhaHacaryawhich is called 9iT~9ifcf. which is stronger than the dative case as required by the word <i+f:.:'Cf)tuTQ a short work on syntax by Rabhasanandin. e.n in 1he Prati~iikhya ca!. PoDna. d. l{9iH.. 4. e. works .31:J1l'G:~+r~ a case affix governed by" a nOUD. . portion. <iiRClim<ii known - P. Bh. The wonl ' ldhaka' in short. 4. Hence the word gf<i'3f4 has to be used in the sentence gf<i. a grammarian of the means 'the capacity in \\'hich a . See 9iI\9i"!!li. There grammar of which the Bha~1ivrtti. This capacity Kiirakavidira.

mqjqyr~ a class of wo~ds headed by . as one of the eight CCfI"Ii\Il'l. d. For details see ~:rahabha!?ya.[~~P.or words derived from such roots called also' I)yanta ' by the fOllowers of PiiI)ini's grammar. in PiiQini's grammar and q in IGitantra). ( 4) object of a transitive verb.1~~ Efml. II7. Bh. Bh.-vord probably refers to the corruption taking place q. For details see Par. 1. also d. 4-2. d. Cfinr.I..564 Kasakrtsna did riot aCCf"pt the sutra ?:~~ I P. cf.trR:+rTr:rr one of the important regarding the applica. the regulating rules concern those rules). fhe .!~ <f. has also got the name Kaumara VyakaraQa. cf. cf. 3. by place of recital ( qr. which are all dvandva compounds. !fImm. In the Wt{U]T1{ similar to PaI).!?ya-Vartikas: ancient term for the causal VikaraI)a. :}. i?:~ lt~~ll:.. about 25°0 reots in the work.\vork of Kasakrtsna ~ifil~ ~: (V.2 I. Time required for the utterance of M.. to him. d. Hhas nine the thirteenth century.'i'f ar~ ~ 'i'f I 1.!qa+i". q:. alsollfUf!P~1iclt­ tr~!t "Ii[tru!f{Y:Jll: Par. . IiI. ance ..9. Sek. g.. ( fill'i:J'.m~1'tm-1 R. on Siva Sutra I.. t M.word riot sanctioned uy . grammarian whuse four sutras of a "IiT<i5~f '31lf~~t: Durgh. 'iIlg'n. cf. d.2. I. 1. XIII. The .fi<iit~~t'.1<ir .13 "'i "IirR-cr~~"Ii: I C!>._:_:_..r~I1!l+lCj<J::.IV. d.it: "Iirlta.jT or 9i!<i51l1':lT. contacts made by a thing with <f. I. ro.1~1I:. I.t<i5: 1. Sek. Yaska's Nirukta as an adjective to the word m'li{\ whc:re it means 'belonging to nouns derived from roots ("Iiil<!r+r)' like tfT'i'f"Ii. . _ Bhii. on P. has 130 satras..fi kalpadruma. Pr.g.lTtit ~~~ ..f o:r. "IiffI t((~ t11i+ft"liI~I~: I ar1r6lf ~~('fW ~f. 121 presentation or manifestation of the time which is called +!T.. The work C:iiT~'i~~T a Siksii work (Madras which has another name Sabdamss. and future (+r~~). N- • (I) brought into exist~nce by activity (~<jllT f.pad. 17. the \vords ti~ifirg.J~~~c. 3lr. _ ~ 'l. cf. III.:.jqJarr~I'I"IiT: etc. ~~ "Iilful" 'tTlc9~ Kat.i in P.1<J::. 500 more than those in PfiI)inlya Dhiitu<iii'~ difference in the time of utterpatha.I cluded under i>l?:IT't class. 2. or.:<i'1fS"~ i(<i5 is affixed in the four senses stated .1i. Pari. on II. Pari.the vowels being ~ctSTiiTi:if time in general. 13. of grammar. qSI 'i'f ll~<rlttr <f.:-d by Kasai<rtsna-. hence. ~~~ etc. Pari 3. the word is used in contrast with ~::mfuit~ where actually the original is' restored in t.n work ifi~· 2.he place of the substitute on certain conditions. on P.g.. ~'1: <f. d. I. 'iiT(!. on ft.59· tA'" EiliI~~ICfi ifil~-I I I q. words showing action are termed "Iir-. that the . and ~~ GaI)as we get the name VIII. Pro III..i:nmarians. III.. 2. Kannaqa language. Kas. two and three matras. ted 19 ineariier grammatiCal works to show which the terms~.. pad. Vr.IV. "Iiq"li etc.cieva Oll his o\\.) as oppos.1-1l4. rules laying down technical terrr.<j~ M. The Dhiitupatha is available with a comsignifying time..r4 Sak. on I. wIT ~ '!i1FrUJ: 9iT~1l'l +!fcrn. See Pari. d. the ~it(<iTf?: having .. 2·37· an ~CfiT~ along with the operation.27. on P. Bopadeva nifers gni.jt?r~ff<fT <!T~<i1 Par. on I. gloss (IlRl ) on the Siitras lif PaI}ini written by the joint authors Jaya- 16 . 892 ) composed before I kalapa.rrmCli the word is found used in ~(!. sectlon dealmg WIth tIme as the 5upreme force in the matter of the l om~l"IiT ( I ) name given to the reputed . I <f. 2. 3. ! Satra patha work are available. lit.:I<tftr I M. explained as 'tTTt9<1~<JT<!m !!~ W +r'lre 'tTR9". See "Iifct~q~l1.2. m?. ct. commentary named KalanirI}aya. varions objects in the Universe. : 'fI. and ~ff measured . ill.Tfta _( I) -a commeot"y in ve<se 0: 20 which should be done. (4-) grammarians.<!it fct9R~If?:m I if ~q: liTm~ a class of words headed by the <f.1~~'IT V~k . XIV. in the beginriing of Kavi<!ij{ifif<i5. d. 3) a dictum had three arlhyiiyas.~ 9u]1~ ~T-'I{Rl­ . (2) .. 14. -by him.· (2)_ degree of a vowel. tfIfi.1~.l instructor of the Katantra or· I(iilapa Grammar to Sarvavarman who composed the Satras according to inl'\piration received.I Kas. <f. . also tl. (5) See Yak.80.~ I "IiT~~1 and +l~(ir.. I to I14. 7. r.a Jist of roots written in connection with the use of a wOl. also ~!fR1it~ q-t <f.142. (3) a grammatical operation as for instance in the phrases ~:nr4. d. The changes undergone by the roots in the formation of such words Le. d. on Siva Satra I.l<i looking upon the substitute as the very original for the sake ofoperations that are caused by the presence of the original. m <f. It has 'a gaI)as.f~F{~ <! degrees 1IJ{<l.U. q ~. !l. Pr. 16.13. (2) causal or causative as applied to roots ending in flJ]'<l:. "Iiil~ i1TI1 Cfiil"<!111 I crfu!CJ: +r9: "Iil~'llm"li: Durgavrtti on Nir.f<lf: (~<GT:) (iP. 8ek. word 'fI~ to which the taddhita affix ~~ interval of time. on P. unspecified looked upon as possessed of three time.<j9T<r1~ I qtr. I. aha other things one after another.58 ). iGiSika suggests. a short vowel is taken as a unit of the word or wording that undergoes the operation. cf. ~ritS'i!j:{~tfIf{t9ff: P.ntrlCfi~<JiR. notio~ of time created by different ed to fi1{Y:J eternal. I.re. ~~Iffi:aii: P. There are dipika of 1\Iuktisvaradirya. ori the time.~m~<l" etc. See "IiT~"Ii[ii5.6. ll)~. also <f. i1 <f. d. no. Kiis.w.r. jytd. on V~k. i:ules V. the word "Iira~r:. "IiTf.67-70 e. IS .i. t 3) time notion in general.s and-regulating rules are to be interpreted along with the rules that prescribe or enjoin operations (provided the technical terms occur ill those rules.fqr~ R. a· pre-Piil)inian on account of lapse of time..iT~.i: Ita'.m were used by ancient (Paspasiihnika ). Viirt. Pari.:cf'l~R P. 0 <f.r(1 (P.f. am: I q. 891. Bh..44 Vart. e. <nir~<:f the originr. The Kutantra.ini's. of recital.r. ~11<:l~ Paribha~as. and which have their first member retaining its own accent. 1 Ii't~r+r~~ name of the commentary by Bopci. Sek. V. tion of the Paribhii!?a rules.Il!il----_:_:_. Cj. ~-a-i:rT'lT I like l\Iahabhii!?ya ~frq~jii'.f. ctr~~ ancient grammarian referpresent (Cj~I1!i1).5't~) depending the words f. ~ff.qrfUJ~::{Cfil<i5. used in connection with a grammatical operation. VI. According to Helaraja g. Kasakrtsli<. <t-a-ifl~ ~~: <f. IL 4. cf. mentary by CannaYira l~avi in fri~:fr"lir: !f('l<JT ~ §?.jq. measurement of time.j. ' respectively by one. S! CfiI<i5'<1~<j'lTllln.t. r. "Ii1-a-ifir.f'. expressed in connection with an activity in three \vays past (~). Bh.been in. d. ~~rrtjft+rTll'~..

P. and" main tamed a very prominent position among students and scholars of. the Siddhanta Kaumudi andotbers written by equally learned sC. Although it is written in a. '3. while tbe affix 'ki '( if) has itseif the acute accent on itsvowe). Society. The taddhita ~ ( I) guttural class of consonants. 4. e. tf{SlII1l!lqcn: etc. VIII. ' provided the. e.~ vowel ({. I. Kiis.g. '{. Nbthiri g deflnit:ely' can .E..f~.. Kasiof the penultimate 0{ ( P.' as possibly they were written at Kasi. ka. 2.:.' e. affixes marked with ~ or a number of articles' in Indian affixes called~.16 ). d. VI! pp 286-87 published by the D. Beendusekhani.€~c. of course.3. not only deserved but . ctKas. '!t<l'T.( VI. augment ~ (~). In .t Kielhcrn F.a. scholarly way.. Traditionally it is called Q.ava" nesa~ ~. and otbers to which the taddhita affixes oor. '" . and the following P. 4o~ D.67' fc!. .19. ' ifitiMl~ a class of words headed by the words 9lTfu. 'i. I. P: IV. given mainly jn the second pada ·of alaMahabha!?~Ta and the Paribha~­ the first Adhyaya. viz.92.Il6.~uftt. final nasal ( VI.. for preventing' gUQa and f. hence.fi~ meaningsp!U e • ki~d ceding !!. affix l{ looked upon as a perfect termination and.t<!if etc. 2. by Ramiuriisra. \.48. 2.75. I) . P. which get their final vowel lengthened when: the wordFTR' is placed after ihem as a second member of a compound. cf. "'~' and.15.a and on the VaJ. headed by f.obtained.LDjad by Haradatta.~f$I~ a c1as~ of words headed by the word ~q. substitution ulia~ya Vo!. o!!IfI. 'i. cau~e SariJprasaAntiquary he' discussed topics like raQa (see P.~. !!j\ or w:). '~b)7 Hari :bik~ita. ~lahabha~ya. pre-: ' 'a dealer of that thing.d wl~h the m~t~ l~tt~r I:.i.con.i/VIl: etc. VII. Piijyapada and Sakatiiyana ( P. ' ~<iiT<lRH.. 4. the wellknown among them being the KiisikavivaraI}. of 6i . e. 1. (2) krt.in an.. on standdrd WOlks o~ Sanskrit. 4. a sound scholar instance 'ffi. g. affix '~ is applied when the affix '60{.. and ·others. 'l!whlch IS apphed byPaQIDl to '\ ' .e. II. :pottion . The fern. . the consonants % <a" ll:. the scholarly disquisitions occurring here and there in theMahabha~ya. <lP. tbe root~. ~. by PiiQini. 3ffi'<ITm~ fcliq: 'ffl. 4..: Wi.1. lengtbening of etc.vrddhi.D. g. . ~rftt a. P. K8:~ikaon Paribha~endu~ekhar~ by 'Vaiayanatha payagU~Qe. i. q.~~1 . VI.. I. e.15 ).fi. The" word is often used in the Mahiibha~ya. ftr'!iR~fa'.!. g." .apafijil<i:i or Nyasa written by Jinendrabuddhi and tbe Pada.171. cf.putra. 4.rg after which a word standing as a second member in a compound gets the grave accentfor it. venting gUI}.5. -. ' The work has. d. ~ krt ~ffix ~ prescribed along with f. 5. f~ 'ii. 'J.-]ayadity'a'arid which by Vamana. on P. onI~ 1.<{].. a commentary Kasikii. >r~: SfRr: cf.46.was written by. substitution of all ( VI.f~i~­ !Iil~i1 fff[~~ Sf~lf~. g. ~froots .~ ~ e.iJ~. ( see ~~<l bove ). ' on <iiiffi~~~ a formderlved from' thepro. found in V~d~c l headed by the root ~. also 'calle~ Nyasa.a.Rh. I..2I). possibly an . 4. '"arne' of an ancient gramma- nan quoted by paI}. 2. See . See 'Kasika above. It appears that many commentary woik13 were written on it. For details see Patafijala Mabiithe vowel (VI.. <!il~· . see M... Its wording is based almost on the.1.4z).amahabhii~ya Vol.:!TFT~:. f'RIii.g. P. fclim~.' VI. 'believe th~t the work w'as caJied Kaslka as it was written in the city of Kasi and that the' glo~s on the "first five Adhyayas was written byJayadityaand :tbat on the last three by. as marked i when the word so formed means with mute indicatory iii for.by ViiraI}.mrft{ a class of words headed by . 3. or: the. The affix ~ causes the' acute accent on the first vowel of {he' word ending wifh it.i affix ~ (gO{) applied to them sidered or Ioo~ed upon. f9:.' . p. on P. ~~_ ifiIfilft:. as for instance. e.I. VI. ~~iRT name of an anonymous gloss on. VIII. Grammar by scholdrs. <!irgl'c<!\'lf'ii:. e. The affixes of the fiist type are for cm~~r. I. is added to the word CfiTfu.' cf. the PcakciyaKaumudi. a.mar~e. elision Gonardiya and GOQikii.hcilars. ~R:.nd ~ a~ter which tbe desideratlve SIgn.f.ttikas of Katyayana. . 11 7. 4. Poona.PaQIDi's ~ram­ mar in spite Qf other works like the Bha~avrtti. m<. and wrote an essay sides the prevention of gUI}.to . affixes which are marked with The vowel a.rn. .3. 1.Vamana. theCiindra VyakaraI}. ~ (.mi. the work forms an excellent belp to beginners to understand the sense of tbe pithy SOtras ofPaniI}. author of some Pratisakhya~ork now lost. tbe five roofs ~. elision of tbe society edition. 93.5.:nt a commentary on' the Kasikavrtti named a:r~ffi{.a for t~e' term ~~. Poona.III. wbich it has ftill~\ved. wtiol¢ work :was 'Som~ scholars jointly 'written. whi'!::h.iq~tifq'fillqrr. (2)' The name Kaslka is sometimes found given I to their commentarie.:iri' the' ~7th ·century A.. of Jdyaditya and Vamana. Ras. of Sanskrit Grammar who brought The affixes of the second type are out excellent editions of the Patanj. 'f\\i. of scent.noun fcli~~ ct.labhO~ana­ san!. 2. (1) krt affix !{ prescribed after ~ roots 'With a prefix attached..'s indebtedness to Candra gr!1melision of the penultimate vowel mar. whIch get the taddhlta d. III. <!irf~cfa. and R-6' are added in the miscellane~us senses. It has' derived great help from Candravrtti. gets the . WrRu>ifu'. on P. q-fil.15. • (2) a term used in the J ainendra VyakaraI}.ass .5 etc. For details see Vj akdraI}. I _I . «a) Kffsikipn VaiyakaraJ.I.53. ct. cf.first vowel in the word to which they are added. ' Literature added to roots endiQg .~ above.~ i tute for tlie . IV. 11i.37 ). the well-known commentary written byjineridrabuddhi on the Kasik§.122 :Vfiin~nri. ~at marking'wiihthe mute letter ~~rr.~ftq.Rcfa. (2) .avatesa-sastrin :or VaraI}. and th'e roots . 'tf '\ Kas. signifies mute i!' cause the Vrddhi substi- ~ a clas. g.added to ~. IV.the WOld q.. VII.or 'looking upon as marked with mute i!! for purposes •mentioned above. the affix~.98.. on P. affixes. and' ( b ) . ~. E.100). . aVOIdirig.of words vrddhi substitutes to the pre. VI.ifiiRr because it is a common treatise on Vedic and classical grammar. be 'sa'id~' as: .. d. Kat onP. 2 4). word so for~ed 'is used as a proper noun. causing reduplJcao tion and accusative case of the noun connected.

d.Y~q nal1Je of an ancient gram10 2. ! when at the' proper depth he gets I clean water.~.I. ~~:n{1~do.· the "li class or g'llttural conson~nts.::q~!q a maxim regarding an ~i!r~ a group of roots headed by the root ~ of the VIth conjugation after which an affix which is neither ~N~n.1. I. cf.)t be a substitute :to these roots person sinks in awell. Similarly ' f. to which the . ( cause ) .l'W-f<l: I If he has grains stored else. P. of ~<::. i'r61~.9. l. 139. on P.g. Kaiyata's Pradipa on P.g .fr<! or f<itltr a graphic descripword 'fi'i to which the taddhita affix tion of it as shown in script. ~qtr~ a class of words headed by the f<i~~. Bh. the affi¥ ~ ( <ii) being added '" iQ the sen~e of the substantive itself Le. (2) con· have written a work called Katansisting of ~":{ mii<!.V+ 138. ~ for the tain words. f c. V. see ifif~uft.r<iiIR<m..74) of Pa. inferiority.. t ~~r :~& of of ~. d.g." etc. Henc. I. . affix ~r\ 'added to a:{'i... P: ~+rT"fI. e~g.30. ( 2) substitute ~ for N. ¥<!<H~rn~~ >rfu'tt~ q'io c<!: l>r~~ 'iSlE<]: lil'C<1: >rTEfT- .l~ffi the rule~~t1~ (P.4I.Qini apd befIJre Pata fij ali and the end of a word before a sibilant who is referred to in the Mah1iG ietter.ifIlTffi:m~l! named Piirl?adavyakhyii. m'l.. another lelter as~.Qini which prescribes the affix ~(<ii) in the selnse of derogation. Kas.. affix ~ (~<!).Qini. Kiis. affix ~ a pplied to the -roots II the help of that water.g. 1 ~69.:5fe~rll~ ~:. e. . e. ~ ferol!ru. He is said to e. ~~Tf~ a fatuous grammarian of the eighteenth century who wrote some works on grammar of which the IfR<lf!!l+nW is au independent t rea t' on Pan"bh-Ise a~as. f.. 0fCl~~. cf. e. . cf~ VIII.. the =f. and CiS a result prevents. tnitp1} etc.Cfi+(. ~~.g... . cr..36 quotes ~frapplied in the senses referred to in 9Iif<!ll'iI~ g ~6"l"ll:~:rl~ "mliT 3T~qr: ( I). ~ii€r :q P. 2. r. 2.162. 1. I Padamafijari P.. 'fi~f?:'fi+I. on Haradatta's'~ Padadatta. .r<!~. 2.be is soiled which would have been the casc I wUh dust and dirty water. ~ftg~ 1 d. . bhii~ya as giving an alternative ( 2) added to the wdrds . as applied to firill'ij ~~EfFf interventi(. V. K as.28..Qu. cL 1. r I ~~T1?iTRir a.. ~:~: ifI9. But according to P. 4. ~ a term found in the Briihma. the sense of derogation ~~Ift( a class words headed by ~ or the lik. ~Uf:=tfh:t. VIIf.infr. the substitution of !lUi or 'i~ for the preceding vowel.f. ~\::. ~qq{t. e.<!f![Il~ I ~Ii~~'ilf!r ~ q~IU +T9fiff.~ nor MQ. cf.group in t~e sense of C ripened VIII. 4·2 Viiri. 'fi1(fif<!.~ group before Q.. as the pada begins with the SUira iJ1~~F-urfi6n:.I. tpeir works by Kaiyata and. 2.{: I ~ft I f<t~ ed to words of the.tiau~ffi a phrase used in the .80. used as a proper noun.iFn:.. However. d. e.~p. f<i~<.~~'fiT.dds to the stock of his merits. on VII. f+ri\. Ill.fi'r and '<1lT11lT :M. 3f?Jf~HWjj~ iq{~<!:P. !'!i++rq{r.lH'tal:d form for the standard form of cer. cf. (2) named Vi~.. \::q<iil~ etc. li!Ire. a· word containing a guttural letter in it. ~m~T­ ~.3. 5: Such a person is called ~. also Padamaiijari on 1. I. (3) add~UI~~T~q<.:3f.~ cf.g. ~~ a grammarian possibly of the Katantra school. he be~omes cleaner with ~ krt. mentioned 'in ~Ffirn a commentary.1 cf.2. P. V.. d. e.:: I ~~ I when a person learns corrupt words f-~~~<r.I6 com. Bha~toji his Sabdawhich tbe taddhita affix ~<ii (6il!) is kaustubha on 11.:+rq{r in \"hich the word 'iT" at the end of the compound is changed into 1fT" and further changed into qi\. Paspasa~~~ effective or efficient. vart. . onP. 2.g.. g. 62 condition'. 2 14.24.:ftfu' I 3ff:~:q. as opposed hnika. is applied in the four genses given in P.~ a class of words h~aded by ~. tad. . demerit but also a. ct.~~. I~T.}Il by a Jetter of the guttural class. ~<iil1.. ~W. 1. 2·30. Kas.q: :M. gloss on the Cfirer':lf by Durgasirilha : to give along with the definItion of. 9. ~1Jj~9T~'iW:i'T~ ~lifT :a~ forinationof the words cmr. Kartikeya who is believed .nse of ~ sense.Qa with the knowledge of correct \vords. affix ~lll added to words of 3·52.:<!iltl:T etc.frfa. to have given inspiration to the Katantra-sfitrakiira to write the Katantra-Siitras. maniari.67-70.. ~~R' ' ( I) $j~ tad. e. Bh. on P. to dormant.g.rian who Jived possibly~fter ~ aug!Dent·'l!'·( I) addeq to.:. pad. i1q~ Kat.125 the class of. VIII. becorr. .e!!~ will person sinking in a well.=A f P IV • 2. VII. P~ VII. (~'iT~ ) cpo Vak.3. T~ill'ij~~<!~~ ~. 2. VIU. II8. 12 9. e. 3. c " the Sfitras of Pii. mitra who wrote a commentary On ascetic brahmin who has grains only in (or measured by) pots. 2~36. IV~ I. taddhita affix 6-i'i. ~~~ name given' by Siradeva and later grammarians to the second pada of the first adhyaya of PaQini's Mtadhyayi.. ~7.s8 j.~~~~. ~ (1111 ) is added in the sen~e of .es f~. m~Tf~:~:<jTS~. 'consideration of carya. IV. ifI9ct. III. e..g.+l1<n«r: .. 3.62. ~¥l VII. . on IV. ~q{r. d.. or descendant . f+ii\. ~ ~ffi.:+l1l:TF<!:. ~i1f name of7·an· ancient Vrttikara on g'U'fll<!~. When a 11. 4..s Paribhal?endusekhara by Durbalii~ ?FID derogation. ~'i. P. etc. IV.. cf. and fui\.. .Qamisra.fi1~:'W~: etc.g.1.g. e. ~~ a kind of svarabhakti . 4. V. the tad..e which is conveyed by a to which the taddhita llffix 3fI<!" substantive in addition to its own (:e~) is applied in the Sf. m~~ij-.P. 2.rtm: before the affix ~CJ:. on P. cpo M. over and above ~~T~~ the maxim regarding the ~ which is also ~n:. VII.g name' of a grammarian who where also he cannot be called wrote aCOlllmentary on the Katan~. Bh. ! I r :a. [The roots fui\.74. Harabhatta . 1. ( 2) a commentary on' Niige§a'. grandchildren etc. befo~e the feminine affix t e.:g. have travrttipafijika .T:i ' -· on P . works and used by ancient gramhe is not only free from the earlier marians for t the present tense'. U:.T<l.13. also i31Rr3r~. P.3.. on III.t IfT~: d. ~~<fi't iJil:" I Kiis. 3fF. on in (I) a cornmentary on Na:gesa's substitutionpf the consonants 'Laghumafijii~a by KH. at Pii. P. see'fim. 4. decoction etc. by Siva.('inr ~ . to traprakriya.ISI: ~~fif a class of words ( I ) consisting . 'il<ia<li+f.-lUiS. ct. he accrues great demerit. class of words headed by the word ¥T6 to which the taddhita affix 3T<fi (~) is applied in the sense of C made by " proviqed the word so formed is. IVII.

n~ ~<{l . ~ (I) a term used by ancient grain-I! 1. U~ and in the Nirukta and the Pratisakhya others are compounded. 18.'. Vart. Sek.8.5 2 ."iliiffi:. although it comes into . Pari. Pr. verbal derivatives.essed by a krt affix. 2. to be called !it<i right on upto the ~<rr'i~fit I M. P ones. iJta-<iiT~cijqqGJQ. XXIII. preferred. instances.Bh. pad. PiiI)ini's terminology).r t ordinary Paribha. III • the word ~TSII to which the tad2.5! PiiI}ini in the senses of the different : The word 'tl'~m!:l is used almost in Karakas SJ1iTi3J<f. verbal derivatives.. Kas. ~s~~r: etc. 9) 'iiterm ~11 means' technical 'sense " and has been. Sek. ~ P. 2 • ee ~i[{UJ. ct.~fi'(. IV. Pari.19 and mention of the affix ~. 6~ftr ~rnl+I:. ar. I+I. and no.f.95. ~~o­ ~if f<!~~r~:.. cf.. d. ~ d b used by grammarians for the m~llIT .Bh. other too. 2. the dropping of ~er from the ex. also <fi!!T 9.cf tq . Pari. by the rule ~'ilifl1T'tI~.10.. 27.. Pr. TJ. four senses given in P~ IV.(frficr: I ct. ~er. ~qrcrr: ~ the elision of a kft affix. 1. for root-nouns.tqrre:rr. Pari. 3.pratyiiharaor short form-for the.?a by later grarilII~arian's sense '. on III.67. The word mainly occurs in the PadbMl2a tlie the foremost of tbe seven Yamas. ~ and er~:f appear to be the ~r~ a class of words such as'~er. III.g. 4.( Pari. to be appiied '( without clash with Patafijah and later grammarians another rule) in the case of certain have used the word 'if. are ~. The ~ari­ Par.I39 ~ also mention of a krt i.and ~). e.~ ~ffi~t~T.. activity . Vak. ~.are given by . (i/Q.g.) is. as opp. d. the sense of mere affixes. VI.. numerals to convey the sense of."I'1I'1. that which should be done. Pari 6. II. ~r~~ <iron ~9il:'ifcr. \t~i3J<f. ( 2) . lit. II. Tbekrtya affixes. and mendormant in the verb3. is found in the Atharva. the maxIm senses.g. 2. cf.echmcal and the enve 1 P. ~os.ini has n'Ot III. cf. 28). In g~ammar. 2.. 'Rri(iti'tlfuereJ:Jr61 ~~+I:.of wer. done. on VI. three . verbal noun (ii'fo'Cf ) after the words ct. wordil~ e. The· word. 9' Irian nallied m~SII~ who lived in the I fifteenth century. d. the ~cr. J.. ' d' d I the grammanans. 4. IV. provided works in the respective senses of both the words forming the com~ rool-born and noun-born words pound are in the same case. 4.133. i3''ffi and others with which ancient Pte-PaIJinia!1' terms used the words ~i11r.95). topic (3iN<fiR) by the name ~ (P. later on given as a a"Scontrasted with <>1~~. ly found in use. VI. 'affix iifCf~ applied.<:Rf~fZ P. II. on i • should be done. ~~ii~<U: ~f?. to with. The krt affixes .ini in Siitras HI. 2..2. in rare cases.P.i1~<i ffiP-l: I ~~tlfftt<irn: I M. ~~~ I liflGr: nl~I<I.~~ a class-of words headed by pratisakhya (I. 1. and ~ffi-q~ <fiT{<ii ~'{ the same as ~~q&:s{iifu~ the ~'iffi' in the Varttika 3l~TilI~­ retention of its accent by the second ~l-q~ i{m ~ ~~qRl: ~Rrcr~ member of a tatptiru~a compound. cf. <fi~ and ~. on P. 'iiaR ii~ I : krt affixes which possess the sense ~~'ilffir~~T <fTful "i~£iqmg€t Wis.93.n according to ~iiffr:. for. repetition. Pari. firer.67. as \vell as' before that rule is applied.P-i<ri{[arffi: M. the t.. siitras of Panini for: ~"{ro.14. 9. e. (ii~.roots iti. 126 121is" mostly used in this sense in grammar works. d.il::n.1 Kas. 6 .80. <lT~ii{r1::'fiier~<fil~9GO{. VI.i{~ an alternative name for welloknown grammar-work . VI.. technical. ! IT"rut I 'I' is ~~ffi II.. The activity . <>1~<fi\1ll:. term use .I~. Kas. 2. cf.~ Nir. in P. . 13. 2·52 sr.. ed with the following noun. g~neral ~ense I ! \Per..3i~fq ~~ lit.Bh.~ in the sense.13 Vart. 14. V. applied in the later work~ on grammar. 1. ~ artificial.osed ~ (I) rootti in the of actiyity . f9~ffiqRCf~: M. d.g.itilijl!1~:a. Sek.l'r <iiT~\t5ft<i<!: . an.t in on P. on V. also d. served. short ' . on t1+l'ffii~ . The work deals ~ tad.1 derivative tioned krt affi~es therein which are nouns. cf.g. III.TI<t and <i ( 2) effected. CfiT\<!i«by means of 'which the phrase if the first mem ber is a word term<ii~ eTler<!fa is furmed for the sentence ed Gati or Karaka. : the same sense.. the Varttikakara (P. . ~ the dropping or removal of the arc<I<ff. 'R'f~~~ tRllf 75. ~ mcrr ~<RjCf~'ifu M. lfCIt'f. grammar in the sense of aciivity is the sense.Cf«<r ~~: M.<fir: Nir. 1.! ~~fI a short tieatiseby a grammaSek. 2. e.59.62. +ler.Bh. IV. The krt affixes are given exhaustively by HiJ}. tances. is preferred... . cf. l!1il~:~: Ct.. L 4.- \ i ii~q~11t lfm-~~qffq ~OJ~' 'which occurs first as an expression ofthe to derivative •..'" tlliTtI'l'tl'ij ~I~ ~~q~: Pari.139. a krt affix it should be understood ! the word ~ is used as a techn ical that 'linT or the agent of the verbal term in. III. ii~It13% ffii. itit'!iT: >rI~ 17~: P. Bh. with a rule that has been possible 1. ~ the word ending with a krt affix.ini and olhers for affixes applied to roots to form . pression f¥ro: <!ii~~: when it the term ~ is found used in the compounded into ffi 6cfit. tf\T etc.i:I~. to. !idi~dSl~fw a definition of the term filfq in the sense of a rule which occilrs after certain another rule is. on P.. applied.4 II7. I Pari.4). Pr. 139. commonmarians in the sense of t past-tense'. dr. cf. 1~ ~<f '\!iff. on Vr. term used in the grammars of PaJ}. or nouns derived 'from roots. <fiT~!!ft'<J:> am\2't<J:. in iat~r grammar works especially· ~=!mT'!iHHN~~ a term popularly commentary works. a. on P. Par.. cf.+rJt:ff a. ~!Ij'~~<fqdTq"lf!~i\Tfu li=lT<!T: Tai. 'i:T.' Pal). / .-. the Mahabhii~ya and all the dhitaaffix ~ (~iur. 4. cf. the technical sense should be P ~1G"'. 1.Bh. See the. 1. stating in general terms i that if no other sense is' assigned to i ~ lit. V. the word is found used along with the f~l+qT'lRmOJ~~'i~ P. 3. a term used in connection II: 2. bha~a is referre:l to as ~iIf[UJqftOWff 371 etc.~) ~~~<fil=t ffl'll''iMer: ~~l:f: ~ \<ilit. e.46. The term ~er P. cf. Y or 'maXIm th a t ou t 0 f the' two I ~i:I&.~. IlL 1.. 1:91 to IlI.+<lr ~lfm: 'liffi "l:Il~q.·~ and 3i'd. 42. 4· 17· ' ' words Sfitifcr>f~Jqftj:.' VI. 'but he has possessed by the root lies generally I introduced a.e. ''fi{UI. lfm<iiT~. ¢ $ expr. of a word ending with a krt affix. cf.<i1J I omff+lP-iE<fO{. Pan. V. ~>r~rm: 'itimt~<fiqre. .Sf:'k. th~ e {. Kiis. 1. .element i defined the term ~<i. when they are compoundVart. .n and erf. 67-70. III. which has got its purpose ~~<lr liflg. Sek. .t ii~: tI{ conflict in the case ·of other ins.

e.6UJfi'I"f ~<r i..II7• m citm~J _~Gf (I) an alternative name of the K1ltantra VyakaraT. who .r.ltha of the Draviga coun': try . who \vrote many ccimllieritaty \'vorks some cif whicbare ( I j a' commentary . (2) a commentary on Kaiyata's Pradipa by RamacandraSarasvati. (4) a without an affix.t BhaHoji's PrauQhamanonimii. com~ ~~~ writer of the commentary named 9. used in Vedic Literature I as noticed in the forms ll~ U~ ~~~§J<ii!!fii author of a comment-/ and o. VI. a term appiied to a letter or a word \vheh it is not combined Siddhanta-Kaumudi. e. iII.ative name of 'h~UJr. Vii rt.fi>:!TcfirffcU: 'l'wrqfo~G' called also ~~UJ. affix 1:1.on various subjects.r a schola~ of grammar and riyaya of the lith century A.lJ ak. c61a(ICl ol" f.. rika of BhaHoji Dik~ita. . ~QJTm~ an aHerr. IlI. It is variously calied tR)ff€n'lT."I. III.ture.khyiHavivebi.4. (2) Ul).~~R: on the grammar.128 5f~P-firffcU.a family who wrote a commen.!~(JI1: I ~~o~:.See :Slf.V·.I. cL Kas~. ~J ~iF{1 iJ.i:<! in the sense of ii~ in Vedic Literature. E.) ~ . He was a resident oil the Prakriya Kaumudi of Ramaof Kashmir and his father's name candra Se. a scholar of Sanskrit Vyakaral)il. onP.g.I gloss by name VaiyakaraT. provided the word so formed is used as a proper" noun. Many commentary works was the son of RaIigoji and nep were written on the Pra9ipa out hew of BhaUoji Diklllita. Vol.lini's Mfadhyayi. affix i.g. Pro V. See 1l. 4. 'KoT.~I1..4 6. of nouns. .rSj.vrote ~+!T'Ifcrifu. on P. written by Ramacandra Se~a. 7. cf. III. on Ul)a. dependent works viz.m (1765-1837 A.:(f krt.4. the 17th century A.R. <f.abhii.:j· I2 4..45 Laghumafijii~a by hilme Ktificika.4. d.Bh. also W~':1[i'IT ~'ii~9<I: I <f and (5) a commehtary on Vaiya. 5ft<l<!: I 11~~m q~\G<U: I Ujj.17 . m~ntary named 'J<!tM<fr on the gf$a~R i·fitten by Goyicandra. ary named Puru. century who wrote A..z.r a small treatise dealing with the declensiop. ed to in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya (T. rt. cL ~~9'ijr cominentary on :Nagojibhatta'~· .. on word in a compound. in the sen~e of ii~. .ni:rcr~ft ~'i~~' a:r~. Later·' on the VaiyiikaraIjasiddhantakaa grammarians attached to ~ al.al)ci . I ~ a class of words headed by the word which get their final vowel lengthened When tbe word 9if is placed after tbem as a second member of a compound._ which is believed by (pot. Ras. IZ 7.g. ~ a famous grammarian of the ~ Se..<i<rm ~~Rr f9iiM marian and logician of the 18th i11~1Ri ~ifr M. 3. ~ krt affix i). rrt.I1.lasara ranks next to which was the work of Kaiya tao the Vakyapadiya of 1. (3') a ~Cj~I<I: I ~Cj~I'li 11~13ff~r<!iQ. ' ( 129 I cf. VI. ~~ iit. 38) and PaT. Litera.ltha lived in the 17th century and wrote works. at several places.D. 1 9.gt) vliH.la. part. P. Harahim. calied RatnarQ.~.akfira on Daiva a grammar work. on I. Siddhiinta-Kaumudi at the end of .37' i acted as w{ttr 'Or light. autiihala. II. krt. VII.I4. e. cf.D.R: name of the renowned commentator on the l\'lahabhii.3. on P. liositioll of questioning the utility. who lived in tary named the GiiQhabhavavivrti the IIth century. I99- 23 I ) •. KOI}. <'!f<ilTJt = "19TfI~er. affix ~QJTffl:. %>i~'f<Hf. that is un. Kas.vTiter ot a commentary named ~'!iT~ on ihe Sik.26.ljfqe'i cL P. 1. Vaiyakaral. cir~s~ an ancient grammarian referr. VII.I ~.?0 ). sara.49 and Kfirakavada. absence of any apparent ~lIDllffi"fqrii:. ~~r: ~'f~fu-:ri 9'1 M. arid' su~.tbat the original inspiration for writing it . iived in the 17th century. was an eminent European Sanskritist who was responsible for the development of the study of Sanskrit learning in the latter half of eighteenth century in India. .n~rq'liT1IT. He has given an introductory account of Sanskrit gramo matical lit~rf.g. Hehis work.Bh.3hartrbari. 11'1" i. He wrote Sphotatatwas J aiyata. (2) a comwith another letter or another mentary named Kalpalri. 1:I..r:.. in the sense of ~~ 5IcUcr by him.{$lliiT<J1l1i(.ture in "On the Sanskrit and Prakrit Languages I I Asiatic Researches -7 (1803.ini. who wrote ":I. pass.rH. .. IV. ~ll: a reputed grammarian who _the MaMbbii~ya of Patafijali would wrote an extensive explanatory have remained unlit.2.a111i~<!I*t .a.qcrrct IF.4. as without it.abha~ya published by the D. i1i~trt krt . who lived in the 16th century.ta.$ya. e. in the 16th century.10.3.).l1di affix ~~I1~1 cf.. added.1 tf~f'iH1'!{. 389-39 0 • siddhantadipika and Spbotavada.lasastra to be used for the word +rl[(+r[E<l>r<ftqand his Bhu~aT..D.a of PiiQ.. and VIII+32. (P."'IaAi!/ilroCfiT a commentary Mabiibha~yapradipa vf .niQ. 14. Kas. on P. He. Another most the same importance as they work Vaiyakaral)abhii~anasara did to the Mahabbii~ya and the which isin a wayan abridgment of expression aSlw m'G~~: has been the Bbti~ana. For details see Vyakara1. The word ~<lG came Arthavicara in the VyakaraT. was also -written by often used by commentators. 11~~1tr 1t11fT:: cf. a commentary oil the Prakriya-Ka'umudi of Ramacandra Sesa. His maj or work is • Miscelleneous Essays'..a MahiiBesides the Bhii~aQa and BhulllaI). the l\Iahabha~ya was named 11u+r!!!<{. ~~11\ . ~m a commentary on the Mahiic bh1i1?yapradipa of Kaiyata written by NilakaT... (2) simple (word Bhahoji's Sabdakausttibha. if. was of which NageSa's Uddyota is the one of the few writers on the most popular.IIL4..ava 'ori the ~ isolated.) fOUI\d in Vedic 1 later grammarians to have really ~QJT~r~~ son' of Govardharia. Bhavadlpa on P. '. See o.I>.. NilakaT. He chl€(ij~i(i~· a scholar of Sanskrit VyakaraQa who composed ~:§r<'t1l'i\jjf.i<!T~fu or)fifitirr or s!f.:l.. ( ~) a famous gramutility. named I'I'!auni.la given to it on the strength of the traditional bel~ef .tii<.labbii~ana intelligible. on commentary mimed. Poona.QabhaHa lived in the datta's Padamaiijari is indebted to beginning of tbe I7th century. The' commentary on ~ tvaniriipaQ.a and Kr. Lij:4 ka. ~fu:f. III. 1. pp.lQabhatta wrote two inSociety. on the Kaiyata written by Pravartakopadhyaya. ~CRIJt (1) a commentary on the Mah1ibhii~yapradipa of' Kaiyata written by ISvarananda.~ ..

~Tffi the sense of desiring for oneself.. (2). action showing comparatively a 1. P.men ~ ~~ffl.x <l added to certain nouns like <lJ.g.E<fi\~. t his affix ~ is added. IV.e...r added to roots marked with the syllable :§ by Pa1}ini in his Dhatupatha. Cfifcli: ~r­ time along with a verb or noun of <m.g. participle e. ~ krt affix ~ added to the roots 'El~. ~o'! ~'lI'"jc:fc\-. ~ffi. ti$~tq~!:a ~ of benediction when the word ending in Ciff. called by the name FlSr in PaJ)ini's grammar along with the affix lfCfCffl". I.187. 18. Cfftq~fct ~. . §<R9T ~~. ft~:.g.81qm~ . 4.1in. "ii~:. Vart. VI.:Q ~~~~ ~ ~iaJ'i~'ii! an ancient.di af:fur. ffr"<l:.T'§~m\1fu iiig: Y (~. r. ~. krt affx nem.1.. affix cql added to roots (I)· I.. P.~ denominative affix (~<g1JI) in is the same. The latter has written KatantrarilpamaUi also.) in the sense of . ~ ~: .g. Bh. KM.r­ ~~:qff n ~ M.8i!'i a short Sik$a mannal belonging to the Taittiriya school of the Black Yajurv:eda and a comparatively recent compilation. 2. III. is always sense of (similar) behaviour. in the sense of it~cr and others to form denomina. of both the padas are placed ~.g. and ~. 19. hand although it takes the fozra o~ Lli&I~. Ras.g. ~ ~ I ~ krt affix +R: added in the sense of h. ~ lq't. e.1i{. energy 01" power.P. 1. P. i1l&l~.. liffl: etc. III. becomes a ( 3) to show an activity of the past denominative root. ~~'\. grammarian referred to in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya.q in the sense of • should 49· be done' applied to the roots C!". 3. 121.g. habituated etc..I? q"ffil <j>. am1:: d. ( ~) is· added to nouns ending in 'Ri'fg to form feminine bases.18. >li&l!Tf:. cf. ii.174. mre-: 'ffi<4\l. P: tIl{. P. are . added to nouns to form denomi· This krt affix is always a~ded to tive roots .. Kas. III.102.--I 130 was received by Sarvavarman f:rom Kumara or -IGirtikeya. III. ~Cffi~'·j ( used always in the neuter gender). e. cf.e. the inner force which causes vocal expresSion.37.47. d. 2.a written by MunipuiIgava and Bbavasena. i _cf. Wrff: in the sense of ~qRi.1ita~aja Jagannatha. 1.38. III.. Vak. ~ . XVIII.l~r. as also sometiil1es (Cl'f or (q~ is substituted for cqT e. III. ci. the root. e. P. while q:qq krt affix <l applied to the roots ~ ~~d . ~r~en<I~. III. e.. as also to of a verbal root which does not roots with penultimate :n and the leave its verbal nature on. of. P.!~ and 1P-I't. ct. A word ending in it is equiv~lent to the' past active participle. on P.'1. affix :t-l'i. "lGy.20.g. (5 ) the sense ~«~ krt affix fct added to roots in the benedictive sense to form ~~ or nouns in a technical sense. III.es a. pad.he sense of of similar behaviour to a substanexchange in the case of the root <'IT. 4·21. III. 1. ~ ~19r.g. P.!"L. The fern. d.106.. krtya affix . later time. III. ~·. 10. the tad. ~.Filim.g. III. P.6.bituated etc. criticising BhaHoji Dixita's Sabdakaustubha.•g.g. ~E<ft ~: cf.~"f. l[fuct<{.r. 88. 4. a substantive on the other hand. e. ~g and others. after this affix f.140 • cm-~~ffl. a work by Panc. ~. CRI"L. ~r. <. e g. etc. affix fff added to roots to form· nouns in the sense of verbaction. Kas. 1. e g. The substitution of <:! is at &fflie. e. which also is called a commentary on Siddhanta Kaumudi by Bbiiskaracarya of Tanjore of the eighteenth century. alsl? cr. 'in is also added in the same way. mY krt.j:Sj+r"f. cf. past passive participle.g. G. d.II-12. ~-T sense of <ffi" i. (3) the sense of activity of the present tense applied to roots marked with mute oi. added in the sense p.<i~ in the sense of 'verbal . ( 2) the sense of the beginn!ng of an activity· when it is used actively. to the roots e:.llI. cf. f~9uui:. P. is used as a technical term. ~:.~~ ( accomplished) is necessarily added.26. ~T is changed into <i (~!J. 3. also on P. ~: in the sense ~r "Qjf ~m:. ~ krtaffix f.. e.g. III. I . cf. q~\:.9. Kas. III.g.2. on P. P. P. The substantive to which e. ["iiFol"l"f. • doing • to the words Cffl~ qR:q~ and I. potency. to form proper VII. Cf'. !I4. 3T~: 1f. III. T. 3. P. is also roots when they are without any added to nouns that are upamanas prefix. etc. sometimes. on II. will in Vedic Literature. 1 5. etc. I. Cf(i!fCi9 ct FiID P. (2) in t. ~ nouns e.) ~. knowledge and worship. e.pg done in the past time as past pass. P. compounded with the prefix and ~$lfct ~<I:i cf. m~~. ~ 5 I • • ~ffl ~ ~~I4~1 I ~~ffit 3t-u. cf. e. ending in ~T. on P.g. e. on III.I02 .. III. e.!70 . ere. 3. III. ~ and i[~ ( when preceded by certain creiR gerund..88 and P. ~ BH+CFCf ~ tI~· tlli~~ I ~1r. 3.I+rrir q!tl:Tl!Wl(9[ (instead of q~Tt<j).. ~ will i.' ~<I. It is also added in the sense of 5!fJt<I.'<'i. Pr. <ftfem: 'ffi1~ 5Il~: !fm~ (tlJrel~). a noun base ending in the kit affix 'Ri. d. 1.11<::. III. III. etc~ cf. qf. l[~: as also mrt +m:. ct. on P. ~11:. It is prescribed in the active sense of somebody who has done a thing sometime in the past. P.I3· in the sense of prohibition conveya ad by the word or <99" preceding are Ul).as Cf'. P. d. P. cf. I. on P. sense of the past· pass.(ciT<i tlFcim N<i: cf. 4·50. The various senses in which 'in is prescribed can be noticed below: (I) The general sense of somethi. 1. VII •. VII. 2. r. 2.134 and 160. as also to roots in the sense of· desire..26.. provided the agent of the former and the. as given in the fuie tive roots after. 01: ~ P.134. III. e.a. cf. 2. II. 3. e. "~ f. d.laUer activities . C<i')QJ'14~. tive. 4. III.g. 4. ~Rr: <iRr:. P.174. 1iflt with. Kas.affi. cf. <! is added after (9[ as an actiVity' and to the roots 81~ with augment e g.g. e. 4.g. small treatises bearing the name Kaumaravyakara.g. 2. participle. 394-97. vn.{i'tj"~:.". ~r.g. d.). cf. (2) jtq1"l. e.98 and 9. common term for the Vikaraij. The work in seventy-nine verses is attributed to KauhaJi. and ~!J.f. Viirt.. cf. i'{~m ~~. 1. when there is a prefix the or standards of comparison in the indeclinable. !["i. S\'il. ~ff<t 9. 1.g.affix <! taking Atmanepada term i~ations after it. d. cf. on P. d. K~s.8.~the One roots ~. Offls.47. The krt affix ~ is also used similarly e. See'Ri. wrffisqs:~ mf ~q.i ~:.g •. 2. 2. affix +r (liq. a mid-way derivative words put as upapada). etc. which terminations an&i~~'t€iO~5~el!fliTR~ P. ~~:.!). .2. (4) the sense' of mere verbll-l activity ( mer) e. ~:. IV.14-18 .48. oro krt affix n in various senses.

3.-wIth ' '(. I I 3. The root qa:<jiJ~ 'amcwri: I ~c:rfll' . III. XVIII. 1:ffi9":iT+wi: I ~qJt~t!T\:T<ffi(l. the word is. Bh. with the general principle laid down in the Paribha. VIII. S. i!! intended for' between f>fi<.~9"T ~~.-Ias ten and e~even of in the E. also q~ tlTl:'f<i' &i<rr<!T: ~~Fcr tlT\:I<rrfuqfu~· f?n<!Tffftffil. as also according to ar<!~~ R. '"lW f+J'ailill': s:r~T~ ~!ImFcr.36). ivity . . the word f:fi<!f31cTTq is given as a sort of definition of the word ~Rf which is found used in the sense of a root as also in the sense of a verb. Yak.I9. ~r meaning m"1<if%4I. says that grammar-rules are not to ( 4) repetition of a word in the follow the Padapa~ha. II.q. Bb. ~mir posed to b-e the original one arid the ~~ur<I:. ~ ~tfuqfu lit. 3. Pr. to ~1 ) lit.q. or verbal activity in the siitras ~qm association with a verbal aCtof PaQini. Pr.tha'is 's~p­ an foIT ~~ becomes an.. e. cf. q:qfer M. 2. XXI. P.k Pratisakhya as a synonym the E. I. without any change or modification also ~ ~ rn:+rtwrr f9fcf: ~r iifFcrno<!: of a . sn+r. F:1\<lIfiH'\lijuT fsfimg~ a grammar work quoted by ~ ~~ I ij~ ~ ~. 'Of etc. I.f1t +lW M. Pr.nijlsa view to preserying the VediC text 1i:j~ ~'l:. ~!5Rr: Cii~r+r>rl~ f>fi<. on IV. ~ ilJ"<!Tll'~' line ~ f?rn~'il~ ~q ~~ . specifio B'&lHflR who lived at the end of the cally with reference to indeclinables 13th century. The Jatapatha.. Padapatha prepared later on. The various nant broughtiibout. a verb. Kas.66 etc. Pro XII. fin~r action. cf.10.I!1~I(jqftlr fiWc<!~ ~<i'tlflf<t: tI . which are placed was revised by Jumaranandin after after a noun with which they are whom it was called Jaumara Krama.g. cf.or of ~ for ~. The difference between ~ I 'IT<lC'f Ft9": I ~9"~T<I I ~:. qftqr:1r 'Of fugfa.. conjugation 9f roots written by Bh. ~1O recital 'of the Vedic Samhitii on P. non-happening of an expected action especialiy when it forms a condition of the conditional mood (~). whiCh have their first !. various things. Bh..' as also the separate words of a compound word (wnmCii~~).S9. Bh.k Pritisakhya.109. lias. 442. IV.. Pr. ~T: !f<I"11C{<!: M. cf. ct. cf. . The grammar work like tr. Bli. what is stated in the siitras arm~­ ~. VIII. also &i<rrCfl'"l'iilil'@<lld<r: R..rr: ~l~it P.<Rg .!il{ author c. over-extension or excess ' vowel accented acute in a Bahuvrihi I ._etc. however. In order to form ~tr.g. I to 4. d. cf. Sfi+~ <juT: 'i4+raJt ~. The ~ord +iT9" many activity. a term generally Kaiyatats Pradipa on M.87. SIilT is used in this way I detail in Pata. I. I. ~ ence in . letter . VLI.IT. IA. fiii"lTq Cf'OfcU \:IT!!: M. cf..61. .1.Padapatha is to follow the rules already laid down. d. e. 2. factor of d~notation. also \31ffi. the recital by such a repetition being called Sfi"jqlO. III. The term is also applied as ~appearing in temporal sequto denominative affixes like. meant or in-:ly by the Maha. I.i!5~<Ill. e. pad. 182is generally followed in accordance 190. 425. 'i~~ in hjs ifIllWI'~~N.21. III: 3. Pr. 133 recital of Vedic passages.compound. :g~~ ~T~ ~~~ dynamic activity and +1'19" meaning P. on P..I39· ~~W contact with -the verbal activity (characterising all karakas) without which no sentence or statement stands. . 'I' ~ ~j I I 'I VI. 2. provided the first member of the compound is the word ~.T. IV.de frequent~T~ (adj. VI. 2S. Vijayananda. q. fu~'ii: etc. Philosophically ~ is defined . cf. When tRIT which produce a sort of verbal does not so appear it is called ~.207 and Priitisakhya works for rn:~. +ft~:.e. d. cf.g. 1.rr<l ~ I and <IT<lq~ is given by ~ in the ~ l(~ ~ I' cf.(P. 4. VI. one who studies and understands '. fltatic activity. cf. So. also <RIN a-fct~ ~& ~~fiffi' tI ~o~: I ~~ mr qj11 tlr M. I.~ doubling. on P. lRCii:. a partIcular order' X and XI.139. 2. the . or accent. f?tw1'hiiS intended fruit of a Verbal Ahnika I. Pr. 4..~r: fili<!FlT: P.flfiilT verbal activity. rerules and exceptions are given in duplication. Pr. ct. ( 2) suceeso ~. Pr.IT~ .>f a grammar named sion.78 . Kas. a:rqft~qtlT1'1<ffif1. connected. quot q c mliT'l ed by Uvvata in his Bhlilliya on V. Th~'Vedic of dvitva prescribed by pa1). '3'li6'ft: &i<rrciFt P. ~~uffi. cf. pad. also ~~'Of I by means of separate groups of two words. 2. III. ~ii'i having activity as the main a consonant which is subjected to doubling cf. cf. XIV. cf. X. 'l' of action. rules of grammar. cf. on III. XXIV. ~srrm~<r: etc.. repeating. pad. IV. R. is several times used in the M. s. for "l:.' ch. '3.I26. substitution of letters such as that of or.g. IV. on III. Bh.cept the first of the Vedic verse( 3) succession of the saine consoline. +iT9r . Irregular doubling is looked upon as a fault. II. cf.72. 3. Some tended for another action . the Ghanapatha and the other recitals are later developments of the Padapatha as they are not men'tionedin the Pratisakhya works.Ir and +IN. or even 1. cf. 2.' meaning or expressing. 18. kriya..1\ R. it is called fu'acalled Rasavati. 470. activity in the noun to which they 'f?ri~q a grammatical work on the are added. to verbs. ~~~~flllirifu: ~rerr: f. on Ill. S.ini. cf._ cf. XXIV.n~:. Samhita or Samhitap8. each word ex'Of~~ f+l'ailill': ~: ( VII.r~rtRWltjCjrcn. d. on P. but. f%:qif€l~Eii]1 determinant or modifier of a verbal activ~ty.ffi R. ~.1 etc. cf. ~ . R.g"m'lTh scholars draw a nice distinction ilalRr where i!+fclf>fi<. verbal activity. becomes ffi"~ur<I:."Ir '~i<i. 1. For details a word by the applicatio~ of several and special features. ~>rtffi:. When an indeclinable also added a gloss on it which is is not so connec~ed. times is used in the same sense as P. iji~ a class of words headed by the word lfill' to which the taddhita affix 0Ffi ( WI.13 .RjT<f Sf I Sf ·iJT<!O ! writer of the. ~ 9"f . T.n!!~ret ~:. doubling.36. also ~mrr ~9":wrfff a statement ma. which is learnt and taught with a view to understanding the original forms of' words combined in the Samhitii by euphonic rules. e. 4.n"llrnQR1: Kas.q ~ I m~~t n<lr: I '3'~q-~\O<!rn:. j' (I) £erial order or succession as I contrasted with <fmq~ or simultaneity.I6. +S9. Vak. used in grammar in the sense of . also V.q 'i!5~ Uvvata on R. cf. II.II8.llia ttfur. . applied to dhatus or roots.'l'. r.) is added in the sense of . or being placed after. Pro XXIII.. on 1. wherePat?-fijalj cleady also T. 2·77) amCiiqUfl~T ~~r<m KliS. see :nlf above. . I. a . a-~ Vak.ng:. 20.r 132 ~~ a class of words headed by the word i:il!!.bha~yakara. 'j: Ii . ' III. <!ill. Pr. 6.

g. on P. flijf~~~: ifri1: : 9..C. added to .ffi~. III.. of ie dmp!. cf. c:r~ krt affix C/~. even without wrote a small grammar work known any word.tr:jf~"9r. and the Varttikakara.. e.ation of the vowels l{. also ffi <:!ll]~ P.15. II!.~.g.e. krt affix <i'Ii.g.tl'liB'WOf 'q Pari. which is mostly found in written rules or Varttikas on some Vedic Literature and added to s_ome . . cf. 'l~erf 1 etc.J&!<n'l.fit~<! school isq~oted in the . roots only such as ~'t" <fB'" ~ etc. I TERJI a scj:J.3.ergo certain operations peculiar to roots simply because thekrt affix entirely disappears and the word formed.lIS. en. III. ~J >f'i:.. 163"16 4. and the Candra VyiikaraQa and 77.. 1l'tl<n~~"iT ~ I I 'neuter gender by· gramm~lrians later than lffi~R?. 4. 3.. SJiCfi'afi'r Cl9'(f0<i: P. "IiftCf<ji. Bh. IV.\: etc. wrrlITw~ ~c:Cj~Wl~ Dmgh.g. Padamafijari on VII. 4. iTtCffr. q~ g crrWii (i~T ~~T~'C'lft'1~ ::1i~u@t6'l€1 PiiI}ini. roots of the ninthcor. However. and ffii both. <f. (2) to the root VR. at the same time.(f I M. Dbatu. e. Bhaskara Pari.n ( ~r) is added. d. 4. ~ and ~cfm"<l. and Kas. rules of PaQini to modify them.)@d and Ktotb..ffi~B i..97. ~~ krt affix C/~.a:. name given in Pratisakbya works fE!iG/~ a substantive ending with the and Linganusasana.58. Kas. on P.il&m.. 2. Maha bha. 1. fil~. cf.' a root belonging to the class by an Upapada which is the object of roots which are headed by :fit of the. case in the sing. on P. <:!"l'. ~T '<Trgt=f q :. and to the root ~. and to the roots 1i!.174. ~5l' lit. an am:r. affix . III..~. anfil~~<iT.. and ·not m. P. ~ etc. Wi. preceded by . ~s with a following dissimilar vowel. rapid.l. Kashmir tradition makes him a teacher of Jayapiqa of the eighth century. g. has edited several grammar works €fl1f). %<iTfcI~'lUJTqt'liit~<f "l9. on the strength of which some scholars believe that he w)as a famous grammarian of the first century B. I. 2. (2) the deconducting the Sanskrit journal nominative affix zero applied to named Mafiju!iiii at Calcutta·. <R+ffit etc. ~C[Ul<ii to a Sarildbi or euphonic combir. II.i~. II'I. tf~ rn: @]"iitC/+(. The words ending with this affix having got the sense of. accelerated. root i!'U. ct. Pi. taking the fern. The word ~q is also used in this sense referring to the K!?iprasarildhi. which deals wIth e. 5To/tf<'fT. Kas. conjugational sign. in the sense of agent ~ krt" affix <i applied to the root m. cf. ct. ~"l'. having ~:jj'r. . cf. or the ... number.2.g.!.94-96.fitG to which the taddhita to the roots ~. UQadi 1 of the I rth century who wrote the famous commentary ~~uiT on. 76.ffi'er. II. shorter than a short vowel i. Ill.· technical terms in Sanskrit~ who \jtfli1~. 1. which is turned into a consonant by this sarildhi becomes :very short (i.@ roots whi@h ®V@l'y l@~i@1. . III.n<if~Cj.. VIII. III. It has been attributed .~qltl\.61. P. Ujjvaladafta refers to a gloss on UQadisutra by K!?apaQaka: Tantrapradipa refers to it. ( zero affix) added to a root to form a noun in the sense of the verbal action em<!}. preceding word. +fClm.1a .77.P.q: I.~ ~~lT~1 . a verbal activity. I nan:e given to the eighth I section of the Third Kanda of .. q$Cl~. 2. on P. 87~92. on II. P. I. ~~IU. VI. taking the affix ~ iT~rfu: . +fl<i:.. ct . ~. d. short or long. 0: etc. Wtfurnfif +frcIT i\0lJCR. affix IV.. preceded by the words >!&F(. a semi-vowel). I fi!i<IT~T( repetition or intensity of .. cf. 2. placed after them. 56. tftC!T. cnil.. 1. at the end of a compo~nd. on P. :~. '<fr91. the spcken language. CHATl?\. ~ etc. S:. See ~uiT. any substantive in the sense of tehaviour 3l. ~'Ii~<iT etc.f.. VI. 10.Bh. . ct.u" arfu~Q. VI. III. ~ (~) in the feminine gender. I. an Upasarga or a Subanta Upapada or sometimes even without any :gCii03:.. etc. g.<t!fu. and . class of words headed by the word .1.60. \j. cf. ~~ ~&i:off a commentary on the Dhatupatha of PaI)ini writttenby K!?irasvamin • or ~ X{M. . krt affix §'Ii added to the root Vakyapad~y~. tlB'm1T ~§~11~~!\TI'1f tllRZl~ EM!?a yr. appears like a root.s. as also to the root i[~ as AnitkiirikavivaraI. <lTi[~.an. VI. these words unp.134 on II. the Dhatupatha and a commentary on the NighaQtu. e.fuN which do not take ft. "Ii. (3) to and which are PJPularly known as roots ~~!. S. @5. preceded . Vr. ~'T<ri~q a word used in the senEe of 135 ~'l~. . short . Kaiyata's Prado on VII.jugaJion.48. e. an ancient school of grammaprescribed in the sense of perfect rians who are believed to have tense..acc. cf.' ~tfI1l~~Ol a system of grammar with Satra. III. to tb. added woid ". under certain conditions. .<t{"(:. 4. verbal activity in them quite suppressed. 1. e.li~lfll.fu:~Hm~_a grammarian of Kashmir ~ kit alero [.70. 2. mar who' has written a work l on R.ld(. ihfT<t krt affix fem.<:r( ~Ij~) is added in the sense i1.filf!1<1l: qof. Ka~. Uvvata Bha~ya On R.e. l'iillt9.iDG g'@ooruno D 8t.134. 107-109. in the . r. cf. Kaiyata's Pi.g. as roots of the ninth conjugation. d. on P. 177-179.il<t Q~ O!\'t"i€hg ~Wm:filuIT by an abridgment of the author him~elf.2. ~~ a. III.g. added to the roots tl't" '1" furJ. and in the nom. IS!. 2.'03:. on P.17' J I m. ~Cj. 2. (f+f<i:).40. q~. The name K!?ipra is· given to this Sarildhi possihlybecause the vowel. d.. ~fr. ~9ft. on P.~ya .. and ~sr. P.Olar of Sanskrit graml.<t!f. nouns used as Kriyavise!?al}a are put in the neuter gender.56.to K!?apal}aka. g.. ct. e.e.80. 2.+t affix Cl'r. IlL 2 •. II. VI. . tf~~M1ra~mfu 'q B'f<'fT qfqcr~ :ffitfitcn03:. tfl<]:. ~~~:'n. e. 174. He quotes· .g. <Krffi: '1TfiJTf.~ a clasfl of ~oots headed by the root "iW (~) to which the a Jain grammarian quoted in the well-known stanza ~R: ~­ iT~IB~~o which enumerates the seven ge7ns of the court of Vikramaditya. a common term to signify krt affixes 'ffii.H~. oIa fem·ale descendant. ~ " fEli~ (I) krt affix zero.r:. cf. and others with a preceding word as upapada or with ~im&t<M' a Jain grammarian. 4. III. on P.. under certain conditions e. the feminine affix ~ when they stand 2. get the noun terminations ~.(!) a root preceded by e. e. their object. d. ~r. 2.. Gal)a. 'i~i[T. d.:1f ('q~~) or K>C. ~:. verbal actIvIty.174 Varttika.a class of words headed by the (~1qJ in the feminine gender. who a prefix or sometime:. ~:.

~~. ( 7) to the words ~.6r. 2. cpo <fT~: ~OJ:.64. llTUJCf and 'C!~'!i ( P. Pr. 11~ etc.<i5 in at the end of a word becomesf<fl~fr. affix ~if. 3.g~ ~q.. 3.g.tqr\ qualities. I I I lut affix ~ in the s~me of ' agent' 'applied to the roots q".1 and its synonyms.g. VIII.g. acl'i1f+ffur: cf. iF~~"<IT 6f€l\<i. preceded by the word ~Cfa:. ~ krt affix ~ applied to the root when preceded by a word standing 2S the object of theroot.18:23~. to VIII. XIV.tadi III. III. ... . to words meaning corn in the sen. 4. P. ~ and f.1).46.55. cf. P. .38.1i<f. and to the subject or the object of the the words ii1g. IV. e. 13efc.e' and to the roots l( and ~ preceded of' a field producing corn' (P. III. .g. (+11f1i!f) Kas.tj~l{: Blot is added in the sense of colIecqfosffli.q:. 45. in -the sense of • bearing' . augment OJ:.also ~cruif i!fcrr~: V.g. word to which this affix ~or. 133. cf. 3. 3 .-:. P. VIII. etc. 2.Candra Dhiitupatha and is' quoted by H(lmacandra and Vitthale.. e.99). c. III. III. is added to the preceding . cf. rt: 'ffi1lT ~: P. XX. ~~or. ~: etc.3.' "'I(.g. etc. I.r. the ~ense of a descendent.s: etc.m. author of a comtnentary on t!R~~T. §'+~ a class of wordings such as arid the like in which the consonant . '<IT~<!R ~T:fit~fo. ~~. e. by an upapada word forming either 2. in a technical term of J ainendra grammar. 2. e. d. cf. 4. 3. IV.D..g. 2.lll and' fourth consonants of the five (P. e. IV. <8'R a Sarvadhatuka affix. ~ second consonant of the guttural class of consonants possessed of . ~ ~ tad. ql~<i+I.. tfIfrUJ: etc. to +m! (P. era'!"'. to :p. A vrddhi vowel ( ~r. <f. III. 4.. affix applied to Cfilli1>.OJ:. IV. applied to 1l~~.s:. lived between IU5rx65 A. cause ( a) the addition of thene augmt 18 . and soft consonants i. ( 5) applied in the!.28f tion. ~. q~. tffSf and others (53-55).:jrft<J: P. I. on R. . d. ense of • favourable to' to the words am~. P.tadi affix cf. VIII. <J~r~. always changed into ~i'f. 22.j the word ~fu~cnT to which the affix e.83. ~:. +1g<l' 37. and the o'iI::C{O. Pat. lfl\l9~ and ~\lfR: in t he Sai~ika sense. before which..g.a-i'{1'm9~~: ~!f{1~ P. anf~.d to any root .and dl'131<t In c1asse-s become hard. P.ta affix substituted for ~. ~:. Cfi~ m~: 'Fa iffa' ~: ~ ~Nir. 1'!'rITfo. (6) to the words tI~ . and intervened by letters which are admissible. characterized by the mute letter applied to krt affixes which. VIII. P. P.fc'q<il:. to !:l. ~1i1>T etc.re the five classes. 1. second letters of the five classes P.~ is not changed into UJ:. Pi~.("lffl"!<lrthe Sai~ika senses (P.! \ or '1. although the consonant ~' is preceded by =ti. (3) applied to words ending in the wor~ 91T ( which does not mean t sound' or I letter') in the sense of 'present there. 2. .. 4. also cf.136 . cf R.. standing for <lor.6. to ~Rt'!i.5~. ~. He . and mft 'C! P. !as!' (I) another name of the ~~. (I Lapplied to the word'~i1> in the sense of a descenqant.g. 't!: or a:rr) 1S substituted for the first yowel of the ~ krt affix added to the roots ~cr(. cf. 4. lIS. cf. (P. 79.5 to 17.:.g. Ka~. 2. UQadi III. e. on P. 137 Ut. 1. ~ or ~. ~o:. ~1~~J)ii:. ~<iiR ~'<1 ~ ~ f~ Ut. t"i'U~~ specified senses (P •. r. 7. Ilr. e. cf. ( 32 ) to ~re. e.) . crlslt2fClll'IUJ:. preceded by certain ed in the affix ~ot. and ~ the pratyahara ~'l. cf! P. e. 4. I. the' first and "l~9C::: .s~: (8) @ is also . in. 2. 130. V. 'l<'fliil': etc. on P..~~ and cr!f (87-88) and ~. I. IV. glottis' or the bole of the throat ( i[<i5~ ) in the ancient Pditis1ikhya works. by reason of their being fuRI:. m:. (2-) krt affix ~ applied to the root ~ preceded by a pronoun ~uch as ~.OJ:. (4) applied to the words tlcf~ and ~. 3Fm<il~lT<iOJ:. 46.f. ( 2) applied to the words ar. ~. m. 75. ~:.g. 3.'c .. to ~%~. IV. g"c:rrfo. (2) nl'lme given to the Svarita accent borne by the vowel following the semivowel which results from the K~ipra­ sarildhi.<il<li1'<il. cf . r.II). 9. I32. to tIlrr (85-86). III. 6. 2.. 1. P.. e. cf. CfIJ. e. "IlT. -VIII. Kas.e.g. plied.g. V. onP. <lfI:i.g. see m. '[~~o. P. II.:.-'IlTt!G~if.. VIII. fu~Cflf: qt. before this ~'R on account \''1lT<iOJ:. q~.anm: tmftoT:..78. 2. an~IWIUJ. corresponding to itlf of. (P. cf. e.jil.IV. P.25. ..a technicalterm in the sense of elision or ~lf in the Jainendra' Grammar cf. cf. The root . 4. to ~8. Ut.. ~:.6.60 Varttika. This class (~r~) is styled a~ .jqq'={ if it .. .q:. some roots. iM(Cfi'\: Cfi2J +1i:fClT. 155. ~mCflTIUJ:. ~fL~. ~) I:!qfir: I com. cf. 8. He is referred to as Swami by MaIlinatha. ~. KiiS. ~ em krt affix ~ in the sense of ~PJ:: in Vedic Litera ture. in th!'l sense of tl't1f. ~~.jlf: "ll~<!ll: etc. Ol'l.9). 1. ~9uir'lir~q~ ~sr ~: V. . 127. ~ro~ vided an abuse is meant. on P. ~r. ifl~\:Tll:. to tlcf"'l.q: etc. Kas.tini. ~ hissing or whizzing sound given a'S a fault in utterance of sibilants. V.! ). IV. 8. also to the words of the mute letter ~ which makes 'lll. 4. 2~94).45.g.' e. 3l-'i:l. 3. Pr. e. ( +!. cf~~t: ~<!: P~ VII. V.93 and Varttikas 2. IV.6:r. to U~. is the mute letter appli[~.I Jain. IO.a-qtf'={ if it is not an indeciinable ~~ a class of words headed by on account of the mute letter <a. when preceded by certain -3~ the first and second consonants of words standing as objects. 3. affix.' and lf~qc€l\ (9 2 ). cf.sign etc.5). ( P. cf. ~:. ing .<!: fom: '<> the consonant ~.. V. IV.I39. ~ etc. ~ krt sffix aT addf... Pr. Su. <J~ff~ etc.g. ~~~ etc..fi.14 T. ~. re~. liifq~fq~fq. V. 1lT\.g. the. '19 tad. e. ct.is not an indeclinable. 4. IV.g. fll<T9'..~: etc. +19iiT. 1. 39.ga~ tad.81). specified upapada words. fuq: ~. is ap'( c~usal).3 8-47' and the sibilants. . IV. e. e. this affix <s~ the augment ffor. V.and to _ . e.. III. (3) affix tI applied to the root ilT{ or ~T or ~ to form the noun ~.on it. tR1 (I) aorist vikarat. on III.:j\:T. !(a:~<r etc. as OJ.71 ). and ~.(g. is added to the preced5 r.126.45. 4. Pr. (9) The word @ is used the sense of -i.tadi affix~.7. ap:~ un-dergoes all the operations such as the addition of the conjugational etc. II. See the word ~sr above. (P. ~i' the pratyahara ~\ starlding for "tard consonants viz. cf. ~ ~ ~ a grammarian who lived in the sixteenth century and wrote a commentary on Sarasvataprakriya. third llT&ffoJt'<l: d.. 2. Jain I. SIfn<ilif.15.

I ~ ~~mrr writer of Kfitantra-kaumudi possibly different from the reputed .a work of Cidrupasramin. to the root 'i. written by K~irasvamin the other ones.(. ~ (I) lit. Rasika\:iq~a­ af. barren. word is used in the Kasika in the sense of one of the texts forming a part of the original text which is called upadesa.2). ":! . rn:q.. e. cf.138 _~~ (~) to the preceding words O/~. The word ~+IiT~'cT a grammar work.ini written by authoritative treatise on GaI}.apiitha patha and the Lioganusasana· being of pal}.apatha is made along ascribed. and iT~\PH. I ~ a technical term of Jainendra grammar. VI. g.Umql'F-11~ ~tfl'O: fuI~!Il third lettel. 33.2g.asenaof Bengal. place in the vowels If."'I'm!{ffi I N yasa on VII. and words ending in a vowel. It is likely own Gal}. given by Durgasimha.ini. i'(1Jl~ a statement of the type of a Hemacandra and Supadma and Siitra in the GaI}. offi<il1~: is metrically arranged by some 3fl'Rmq: in the ~Ufit<TUI. tj'l'Tfit.iil\: gal).~ a commentary on GaI}. named after the first word iT~'f<'t~ a work of Bhatta Yajfiesaid to have been written by pal}. that GaI}. cI. on Rat. Bra.aratnamahodadhi. Gaflgesa Upadhyaya who is looked upon as the founder of the Navyanyaya school of modern Naiyayikas. cf. also anfu:. if an affix or so.' f J II c. See ifOJ~~~~N. ~uf?:. ~i[Cf. a . I. Jain grammarian of the 12th century.apatha formerly was a part of Siitrapatha but was separated i'(llt~'m{ a commentary on the later on.g. Vol. 3. marked by' the mute letter it. ~l1mful:T<iT<. ~~l.t WRuT f!. \3'. I I I I I siitras of PaI}. 4 I. in . P.5) as made up ~.apa ~ha is traditionally in the Gal}. I. cf." of the guttural class of consonants.. The ten' \tCfl1it1:\:fl:T of Vardhamana written by .f. cf.Ul~TCf<lrrft~~. 'lUT a class of words.SJtfl'O: fuiiil'lfI'O!Il I fuI~I'O: ~ngtfl'O: I 'q'lil\T~}jTfuqf?:"f. M~~lo ( i ) ·lit. IV. and (b) the shortening of the long vowel of the preceding word if it is not an indeclinable.: ~nfaq~'litniT ~tf1'Olil Padamafijari on Kasika 1. The .~. cf. tt.34. Vardhamana has written a commentary also. }j'fa'qrf?:a. I . mrr: m: I Jain.ini. the Sik~a.ini. r.a and· Vrddhi substitutes do not take '. the twelfth of the words in the Gal}.:{ applied to the root !Ii in the sense of an instrument when preceded by the words al1~. Varttika [GANGADHARA SHASTRI TELANG J (I) a stalwart grammarian and Sanskrit scholar of repute who was a pupil of Balasarasvati of Varal)asi and who prepared in the Jast century a host of Sanskrit scholars in VaraJ}.a on Sat.D. I. III. Some of the scholars. it.E.2. Other grammaof the eleventh century. The most scholarly and . stretching out.. written by Vardhamana. Thebaut. where mention of a word or words The gal}.2s or classes of roots given by the author himself.mention of the first word followed by the word e. a commentary on the ifU[' O-=f1fit. a short commentary on tbe Vyakaral}. I . pal}. 3. SeefT. 3iIGir~. tj+!lT.perties. e. ilO!i{I:Ot+l?l~R:rir1{ir also called ifUj~~. For details. Poona pp. as found in the iTWT~ (on P.~.l~~~: . f~ll~ krt affix i[~ in the sense of an agent added to the root ~. cf.<f* questioned.asi among whom a special mention could be made of Dr. the Dhatu. His surname was Manavalli but he was often known as lIWrl:R~rr~lt ~6W. 4 3· in the Siitrapatba itself.aMannudeva who flourished in the patha is the GaQaratnamahodadhi nineteenth century. lengthening of a syllable. ~~ krt affix Of.rfu~r­ grammarians have appended their 'iTUll. <T'51$inl(~~df i3q11liT. and ~ and say that the GUl}. 3..apatha of . D... cf.adipaprabba. 1.ql'O~ I There are such accessory treatises on Candra Sakatayana..\. and 'R:mTt~~i'!:. Gailganatha Jha. Q I . i3iIGir'fROJ+I: H+!<j~:t:r . aryan Vardhamana's Gal}. krt affix \:i'!ti in the sense of an added. 2. 34.li. follows. also ~TOr '''Hgm. 3lT~FIT~'li:. rians such as Sakatayana. ejg.. 1. provided the whole word is similar in sense to cvi-formation ( 'iol:j<T ).or A~tadhyayi. 2. Venis and Dr.ini by the . 1. Society Ed. (2) a supplementary recital or enunciation which is taken along with the original enunciation or upadda generally in the form of the siitras.ini svara. see ~. conis explained in the Pratisakhya sisting of a metrical enumeration w. and C" ':. possessed of the pro. (P. The text of gaI}. some gramIllarians look upon the word f<Wcr.3.fif ~ i'(Uf.~ a metrical commentmarIans. !OR'. See f@ E?J"6L. age~t l ~--. The name of the several words forming a class or author is not available.g. there are otber· commentaries written by iTl9{l.apatha of pal).56.a. r. 139 and who lived century A.g. pal}. s~e Mababha~ya.:q6fa'1 Rai. PaQini in his dhlitupatha are given the' !lame Dasaga!)i by later gramiTUj~~I:. .I5. GaQapatha of Pal}. I. however.LE.gaI}. I. '1<>'E<isft'li'f~Wi~i'!rl!q~ P.r~~Tal~.. e.aratna~ the mention individually of the mahodadhi. ( 4) author of the Vyakaral}. . to .:ft<i~ +['l'm Durgasimha's corn. remf?: etc. ~I:f. (\:iql::~) •.asiitras are found incorporated lfTfii'lIM . gal}. in the scholars.apatha t{'l'ffitifUl.. BesidesVardhamana's commentary.Ull({! Sf'liRl~: q ~p.66-68. I: 2. cf.. 18. Of<{rfit. the issue is with certain conditions. (-2) an old scholar of VyakaraQa who is believed to have written a commentary on Vikrta~a~li of Vya<. It is based on the Svopajfia himself as a supplementary work on GaQaratoamahodadhi. Mugdhabodha and Saupad rna. Dr.­ ~fu. Ratantra: Sarasvata. P. fern.ini others have their own gal)apathas. motion. VII. Haima.m~fu a graphic description of the Jihvamiiliya letter as found in script. P. who is believed to have been one of the six gems at the court of Lak~mal}. Sii. (3) a comparatively modern scholar who is said to have written two commentaries both named Induprakasa'~ one on the Paribba~endusekhara' and the other on the Sabdendusekhara' . III.*+!Fci~:. He was given by Government of India the titles Mahamahopadhyaya and C. i5il:jffu:.fl:jr<ir+r. ~ and ORq3f(Ul. . corresponding to ~f of Pal}.. o/T~+!fcl'G~:. IF[I'{+!I~'!ti:.ini. ' ~ . by modem 'RT'l'\O. of Vardhamana. .apatha to their Sfitrapat ha . to his great grammar called Mtaka . Sayal}.57. on his Gal}.57. Apisali. cf.. ]'1:any later cf. 8. etc..

hence.r\9itq-q"l:TClT 'i!ifi.II. Cf~r (6.~qlF!lf<! ~Ifq M.· Par.:rUJm: lVI. 2. on P.. intelligible. we get divisions like ~f. (See the word ~ij). on P. Kas. <r1ft' !l1l1<i. on II. as it was written in the town of Kasi (VariiI). 9 ). aliI ~Cf.9. 7).1 140 works which define it as the lengthening of a Stobha vowel with the utterance of the vowel ~ or a..i:i<I. he has written a few works.g. Pari. 122. Path a Ifg. i[l~ or iilFt for i[lj similarly an -if or 3'!T-Ft. 16~ lB. the word is often used in grammatical works.2. V.:T. However illustrations of 'Sfg~q.49 and hence explained as formed by the addition of the affix f~ to ~. I IU . 36 . ~sw. ( 7. 7 ). V. . The word ~~ is also sometimes used in a &imilar sense. the word ( frequently occurs in the Sutras of PaI). ~rf99i.. "f 'Sf ct. Kas. f.. .138. 2. in the kramapatha. 1. iJ'lTtfit<:<iT <lor. There is no <r~~ in ~qj6. the compound being named tatpuru§ae. i{. 6079. cf.&!: d.~ ~ ~\:lT<i ~. Pari.18 . iT<iTR< a class of words headed by the word to \vhich the affix <Iff.'ijT't. tlNe(ic?tfq llli'll(CfT(E!. e. It generally has three padas of eight letters each. 'arrmm. Sek. 4.3. e.after it. (7. ~<{Iwr~:. g. qrr.. 7) ana-~~ff. e. m~ to be understood. J. the word <riff is used by paI). cf.. 4. Bh. not expressed.62. j \lst like a foetus. 2.g. IV.rrJqq: lit. CfI~1j:.Bh. 3'!"~r fu qfhrr!:fr aTl~1<1~ Puru~ottamacleva Pari. 1. is logical. (3) realizatioQ.. ~tTI'i lif8~)fiTlo and others which are to be declined in. ifFcttl111~ I f.nli. but it is to be passed I :rlTli:. III. 9. 9~ 14. over. VIn. a-ir<!<rRrrtii +fi:im Par. affixed in the senses mentioned in rules from P.' cf. 2. lOS. cf. II. d. '1'1T"f9'!i. 7 ) . Kas. Q<l.liniin connection with prefixes and certain indeclinables which are called <rm. Pari.71. I l{rn~ sense of future time. bined according to rules of Sarhdhi. 3. Sl''!. 3l'~liT'. and so on. The word which is passed over in the Kramapatha is called <rCil(~.18 . the neuter gender and singular number. IV.. HI.:: tlii tlliTl3Cf~ 5l1~ ~q%:.q: 2. is m that which should be under stood.frt-c<r cf.r.tkpratisakbya xvi.i~­ ~W9:. 6 ). . ct. a word occurring twice in a hymn or a sentence is not to be repeated for Kramapath~. r..temr the grave (am~l~) accent of the 'If word before a verb with ·an a acute (a-i{l'ij) accent. g.?endusekhara.. Sek. d. 9r. . d. femr.q+J.fi{U]l: Par. and hence the words ~~~ ~:. (6. on 1. I.!. which involves greater effort and longer expression and. this class called 'gahiya' is looked· upon as an~faif!T(. fu:~t 'q' q~ <'1m ifITI i[~<U i[~'l: qli0i qn~ ifITI . possible. cf. as also the style. fij:qGJ and TJ. cf.:2l~ etc.:'l~ tI'ij'. (<!) causing Vrddhi to the first vowei of the word. IV. I.ioT<!.rr~~ Yr. 2. ClRWfr<!<f. !Hl<f{m etc. 1.la themes. 1. Pro IV. The word ~"li'11 means bringing together two words when they are CO IT.g.ini in the masculine gender as seen in the Siitra <r~"ffi:: P. d.. I.tT name of one of the main seven Vedic metres.The word is frequently used by the Yarttikakara and old grammarians in connection with something.~e word <r. IU.i9T1. <rifr<FI.Bh.rrrn~i!m a compound with the preced- 3'!1i. 12I.. Sek. 'IiT\l'Iif. iTqJ'ii~m· the cf: or . (2) a technical term used by Pat. W~~. cf.rr+l'C!i' capable of conveying the sense..~"'I~9fu P. denoting motion denote also knowledge" . cf.7. Pari. on II. P. .:r~: tI~q~n<{ ~l'cif"iS'Ii:r~ the reputed Naiyayika who wrote numerous works on the l'ifavyanyaya. 7.Bh." ~<i +fCffa' M.8). srt<l~f9'ij'j~ on Vyakara:t.. I. Pari.l{Rm<rT a popular name given to the maxi m <rfcl<!. Kas. involving a special effort. ajrn-!fIG:~"JU. on Hem. like c.rrfCif. Ahn.'llq~T ij'[<l~1 are known in ~gveda When a foot of the three-feet ifI<lsIT is found wanting in one syllable. The word iTr\Cf is often used for <rfr2ft(<j'. <!CfP. ~. <l+lfift{ a class of words headed by I. The commentary is called CfiTNr'IiT also. by Vaidyanatha PayaguQQe on the Paribha. 105 and the instances <rr«'t:.174 . 3. 75. Pari. not commandable in rules of the Sastra worl{s where brevity is the soul of I ~sq' a root denoting motion. The words qa~ <fit: and <ili: are called galatpada. Par.asi ). >rfflllT (8. 2. II. cf._ although the treatment. d. e. the word being used as a technical term by the rule fu>=(ffir 'if ~~l~ P. tlt>ifcjCfiI+fr~ ~ci'~: Par.ini and the Mahabha~ya in cennection with some special operations prescribed for roots which are ore:!<T. 9. I Vart. 197.10. ing gati word prescribed by the rule ~TfRilm<!: P... VI. . The affixes 819i"'l."<lT ( 7. II. q\!l:T' P. to V.. 6. aTICi<l'iR<f.!iCqRm~ <jf1tlfrf<i'ifI~. ZI'I. trnq<n.rr\9T~<rfcr+l'flTI ~lil:.. V.. Pari 76. ef. I com.r[Uf.fT­ (1)1<I~<'I 9:~a.Y-4h~ and the like could be explained as correct. d. 7. Sek. . e. tlcf<'lTliFc!'q'T~. In the Kramapatha. etc. <!\<iT:?r ll+'l~ :v-. III. The word "is used in connec'tion with affixes that are placed like a foetus in the midst of a word in spite of the rule that affixes are to be placed after. on P. Sek. on P.SRfC<j~ M. P. 5.1j<ii. "Tm~ a class of words headed by <rq to which the affix <:to!'..f ~qr€f ~p. 1. 1. cf. the word is used in the sense of 3l''flirno!j". d.. qRl~ ( 6. e.:ft which are formed by the application of uI). <rm. P. Hem.adi affixes if! the 1 'fi:{1jgl9'!<{<iT <1Cffr<i I <!l<fT lil:~ 'f~«ll<fl ~i<ifl~: &1't:>r~<rr: srrRftr~'llffim41:~ <1CfRr Siradeva Par.. is added in the sense of a descendant barring the son daughter. g. II. if. otft~q greater effort or prolixity of a popular name given to the scholarly commentary written. P. I. 8. There is also a conventional expression tI~ iJt<I~T i(fFIl~f: meaning 'roots t the word occurs in the Pratio sakhya wor~sin connection with the definition of tf"li'l1. .~ a class of words headed by the word <r~ to which the taddhita affix ~<! (§') is added in the Saiiika or miscellaneous senses. also 3'!91i4 9\\<IRrlii5'Bg +fm~q 3l'l3l1<Tt1111t1~ <ili'!i~<! tIT~~ Cf'iji. are of this kind.rtl:. where each word occurs twice by repetition.<!~ I dvandva compound words <r'lT-'!l. i[f9 S2l<f. "T~l 141 'wit '. 4'26. understanding. The words called gati can be 'compounded with the foHowing word provided the latter is not a verb. ~ expression which is looked upon as a fault in conneCtion with grammarworks of the siitra type where every care is taken to make the expression as brief a.r~o:.a:: Sl':!!. <rCil(~lifq:ji'l'1j aj<r. ft1jtfrl1~ If'<fu:ri qCi~ <'ili: I In the Kramapatha 1:fo~ "fli: and <f11: are passed OVer and q~<rt is to be connected with tl'ftq~U<!.

it ( the vowel) is nasalized. Bh. 125.t +f'lRr I P. on which the word terminates or when I. 12) or a consonant after 6l. ~CfitCfTt\.. 14.rr ~IT(: ~qcr:. 1.ci: mfl+rr<!ttc\g-~U]mRr 1 M.Br. when preceded by the word <lg in a Bahuvrihi compound. .I WfR<lfT ( 9. ~~lll U~~: P. Ch. V.. This class of UTlllfit words is considered as <llTiiRllfTll.~lf€l.r~i: Durgadi£ya on Nir. w:l~('( ~ofutQ subordinate. ~icrCj' 1 I the same as U~fiID which see above.. I technical term including ~ ( long) i\'lf !I . ~ held up or caught between two M. VII. 13. 31'~. 6. e.ro.. three degrees can b~ stated 31'.21. Bh. on I 1.. Pro XXII.5. 167. ~ ~:. (5) properties of letters like ~('nwCf. 2. which deals with qualities which depend upon i\C<Jorsubstance. f. when it is followed by a conjunct ~i:iq difference in properties.rfhfl~l1~ a grammatical wo~k writ~ term in PaI)ini's grammar standing for the vowels 31'. I.:HmCf<f <rTff ~IT(: M. ct on P.5. cf.3 d.cf. I fi'a+J:.<rt. ct. or indirect object of a verb having two objects. R.5et1~:gIT~Rt I M. cf.5. Pro IV.. c!l1l1Y~'Tlcj il!~lf: Kat. (d. Par. V. ~ and .1~ Vurt. Pro 1. Ahnika I. tffiItCf. . Cfi~lTIf!ffl ffi\:. I cf.20. i1Fi5<f ~n . d. e. IIg. words with which it is conneted. cf. TTJ~~T ( ~-Rr. III. also 'T'iiTUtlf'l' "'I~cf'i..fmq. Bh.I 31'1~<j'1llW!i<Ir~1ll WSB?(Cf~tiffiTIlT(: II aj'ljl. ~~ U1T[: P.a or vrddhi in the preceding word..1. 1 ~gcr+I:. I.k hyman cannot be called Saman cf. but regarding 31' also. I. I. on vowel as also a ~~ (short) vowel I.:fr(. ' 143 ten by 9~~... I. cf. 31'flf 1 .67. ~i ~~ij~~ name given to the fifth section of the third kiilJ9a ofVakY!l-padiya. 1. UIT(~ 1 a:rr~. I. ~+I:. 17 . I. P. cf. Bh.U~ <Rir amr' <j1ic1: ~<i "<T~:. I I a vowel. vocalic degree.lri.5. d. on V. Pr.!. pad. l .60.r:.. Nir. on I. g. M. T4. 4. . etc. lit. 4.ft f~f't~<!=r Kiis. f. VI. cf.Siradeva Pari.grammar such as +l1l<!<1tn. II9 . on IV. which.f: 1 <m:~~9 'q"lT~lT(fal 'I tii'i~'l9<R!i 9~~ I•••••• =) (potency) of a word which occupies a subordinate position. g. which has become subordinated.~ya Vol.i 1 Jain. 5. cf.: etc.. The word U1T[ is explained by quotations from ancien t grammarians in the Mahiibhii~ya astl'eif ~~~~~fq 'i~. 3. 72. Pr. 3-99. ~.20 Vart.is called ~1T[ or even UUJT'TIT but no definition is given. cf. <RllTm~~lt~fWl::: ::JlfUf.(. I. il!~:. SU. on I. I.22.27 .44.5. IV. Bh. m~: .. ~ ~fUrf<l~qit +fCffcr 1 a'll':!fT qa-: §l@ il:Rr 1 Cfi<nfq~ ~fiil<rT ~'&!q'fu. which bas become submerged. and therefore has ' formed an integral part of another. Q. he upheld the view of the VaiyiikaraI)as that all words cannot be derived. XIII.g.E. 5 . il:m f<hrrfifcr~: I ~f. and T.1lll'. Although belonging to the Nirukta school. cf. 124. I. 1. 176. 'IT<f a technical term for the term 3l1W (pertaining to the base in the grammar of PaJ)ini). subordinate. f'FfS'm 'q P.:a~6CfJtt 1 9T'9Cfi: tl~w. 3. The word (tflfuor.:S. III. on 1. whose views.Pratisiikhya and Nirukta u. The word is found quoted in the MahabLa~ya. d. ~rf~'a: rn'a'lT~fCf 1 M. also M. P..wr 1 d. VI. 13. and cf.<fffiuRI. XI. 1.) is added in the sense of 'good therein'.or. ~'f:. expressing quality. on P. Kas.:S~<i&. Bh.:. cf asrrc'!j<j "fICf~ ~~~~Ft<ITq-(. (I) degree of a vowel. Nir.ancient grammarian and niruktakara quoted by PaIJ-in!. Po.:s.tc. 31' and a:rr. yn. the word 31'm in -s. D. c{tq€'l.5~. also Nir. I. <r. VIII. Poona. also R. ~~<: ~. d. 107 and tflffi.'!j1'llit f.rlm~ ~<ia. ~Cfltn~. For the various ~hades of the meaning of the-word ~1]T. d. affixes that are f. Ft ) a technical term of Jainendra grammar corresponding to . cf. pupil of Bhattoji Dlk~ita in the 17th century who wrote many works on.rN: tilj~ M.139. . +f'ffcr Gfsiilr~r i'!. az!W-~ I M. iflJ1~ a class of words headed by the . R.r=ero. VIII. . ( 2 ) the properties of phonetic elements or letters such as IfITB. on P. a ~TllmC<Jftcr i'!~ ~<jlt1:.f. lit. 12.fi (Oof. consonant. Bh. g. ~OTm~ ~. e. ii.69. Sek. d.I qa-\<j ~@ il:Rr I M. Bh. also V. VII. see MaMbhii!}ya on V. also ~<S'l:~q-t~tRtll1C:\:H UIT(T~~" ~'l:. "U1T[o{IaU<f an-. 4.) also means a faulty reading on the part of a reader who reads ina sing-song way. also ~1T[Cfi#fUr (.:<j''\. Bh. pad.5T~f. Q.. Scciety edition.<jB. d. 1Fit<j'~Ci'Hi'ft ~9'9'9f <nrn:..: ~~ a class of words headed by the word U~ to which the taddhita affix If. but only some of them. alt and 31' is given as a gUJ)a of 31'. liable to take the gUI)a substitute e. to. It is a fault of utterance. 1.2.. consideration of prolixity and brevity of expression. <llGi!rfu'f<!' etc. 1. M Bh. Bh. 12 . Tai. cf. 7. 3. ( 3) secondary.. vowel acute. cf.rr. Pr.l1l1tf~fi1+1fcr ~ffi a Jain writer of the thirteenth century who wrote a cummentary named q'-laror~ffiiZtr:r1T[r on g. I._ IV. 12. . VIII. I. e.<f €I. 74. ~ (I) possessed of a special effort the penultimate <ll. 4. X.142 iiFq an ancient reputed grammarian 'and possibly a writer of a Nirukta work. "ii. 3. III. 1. the second 'out of the three degrees of a vowel viz. [@t i\c<j'l. an augment (3l1lTlT) with respect to the word to which it h~s -been added. e.trlTl. 5 I. word ~1T[. 3.ttqfq +fCffcr Nir. especially in connection with accents are given in the PratiS1i. primary degree gUI)a degree and vrddhi degree e.. an. III. 103· ~ Cfi~G. . 1. crt\. 176•. 3. Vak. «" . 13~~.:sq-afe in PaQini.'WFIt il:clfT?:.36.51~:<i~~~: 'fif¥lRr'U' ~ur I ~ur ~1T[iji.Vak. ~~ +19m M. g. U1T[TI1I1RQciOlrfct ~a<r R. iii[ ~1lfcii~~ a term used by the ancient grammarians for the ~l1T[iji~<J:. ~<U~ ~~ I ctrq 'q I ~<r:HmT i3'?:cfi 'lIlT m:<r ~~. lOis.' (4) properties residing in a s~bstance just as whiteness.Pr. EfiWa. Pari. cf. I I • a word containing a U~ vowel in it. in a garment which are different from the substance (il:C<J). See page 369 VyakaraIJ-'l Mahabhii. iil'q: marked with the mute letter '1:. d.2. ( 7) technical I I~ . VII. 4. In the . I. cf.2. (6) determinant.ctr.130. cf. the Nirukta and PaIJini's A~tadhyayi..99. IV. I. II. I. 1.. :g1T[q'qi'fiill&1IJ'fIR<+<r:CfiiifiJr 'q P. ~OT::.iul<l. ~1!Ictr etc. . ~€'l.. . XIII. mR'CI'i!.. cf.~§:.' writer of fctOl'tf<!litf. etc.ia: prevent gUI). Bh. ~: ~a. a work on syntax. g.khya works. ~~ possessed of a quality .fiffi singing. on P. (2) heavy.). 2. 4. d. words expres5ing quality such as ~i8. . utterance in a musical tone uttered with which a B.:j fCfS1<i"f<tiU as opposed to (. do n?t 'have their last.

cr. well knowil German scholar ·who made a sound study' of PaQini's Sanskrit VyakaraQa and wrote a' veiy inJormative treatise entitled ' paQini. family.ntft~ a grammarian' who cO.I. inhabitant of Gonarda which was' the name of a district in the province of Oudh in the days of the lVIahabha~yakara according to some scholars. Vi1?amarthadipik~ Oil Ii . ct. I 'a short t. paribhii$e-\ 'liT~~1E~ and also a comme~tary ndusekhara etc. iTIfil1<fiT9:?'I: +!11'ilJ<fiR: ~~lg: I Nagesa's Uddyota On Mababha1?yapradipa on P.la-[ Vardhamana. The word is used by P1i. cf. The expression ~lCj ani[ occurs four times in the Mahabha~ya where it refers to a scholar of grammar in Patafijali's time. . D. M. on P.. on IV.rq~Cj<!: l'Wltfu' tI tl. cf.'.rr 19 . A gloss on ~he UI). e. . 9 He .iiTq(Cj is also used in the same sense. 'hTS!~:. cf.-. No.i'r<fir.r:).. '\)qcr.93. ?6z.. <rT2lJ:.ini by Saoasiva Misra who lived in the seventeenth century. affix applied to .:1.agt.ssing a secondo ary sense. I. Kils..\'.51. on P.. aTI:. ~he Pratisakhyas . dIfferent f~orn the abwe ' "T~ writer of a'commentary known who' is believed to haw wri~ ten a . ... m~TfG.<fi: ~1iT. Bo.ini in the technical sense of a descendant except the son or a daughter. ~ m~~Kas.r a grammarian who has written "S the VaiyakaraQabh~iiI). . the.~lOfit?:~._29..d.92. barring the usual a:j1lT. krit Literature.usabdendusekhara.n<fi'<lil'( who has written several commentary works un the gram::' matical treatises of the Sarllk!?iptasara or Jaumara .'i.la at the . Kas. mIlT . or a:j5I. cf. g • .ta at pre. 3!. on P. 1. Kr~Qase!?a of ~1!lG.:ritten an expinnatQry work on as above. iFT(~"<IT ~ P. 4.asara. :~!I-q. Hari Dik~ita.<f ~(i~'llit. Naf'esCl.· '. mg. III. The date 'of this Kf~QaSfl?a is the middle of the sixteenth century.j.: a class of eight words headed by t. 2.sent.'eatise On the sense con"eyed by CiJHlpOUild words. the taddhita affix in the sense of m~ (j.1W. a work on Katantra Grammar called L. lVI. V.nouns like :3:rlll.a-+r<!~r iTIfUl9iiS. ~f({ a class of words to which the t addn i fit affix 3l'<fi (&'1) is added in the sense of passessi.. .a Grammar who is believed to have WI i tten Ka tantraparisi$tapradyota. his place in Sans.jq~fff iil~ P. 2. I. as a:mil<fi::rr by reason of that work gloss _ named .a oi l:3opadeva. holds that mif{r<i was the term used for the author of the Varttikas. alt~:n~ a tad.... (2) possi:.Bh..'fTI:IiiT canora's I iii~>k4~ affix in the sense of ifT<. ~G1~WfjTfficpJ name of the gloss on the Tattvabodbini \vritten by Nila kaI).a-qt{"~.rjitft. For details about I{ r~l)ase$a and the Se!?u family see introduction to Prakriyakaumudi B. He is believed to have Jived in the thirteenth century A. 1:flt?:.( 2) a grammarian siitras.( 3le<IT<!) or a section (aTi!9T'ii). The word ir't'.'ell-knownamong theIn be-ing t he ~~HeH. mf. which is found many times in the sense of gotra. the word in the sense'of ' a dull man ".:ft~i.~ I mi. is also assigned to Govar. tl.. IV. I . IV.:q ("l'lli.. on P. lll"lrnlr.*fim a short gloss on the difficult passages of Siddhantakaumudi of Bhattoji Dlk!?ita.. I.g. a:j~~<F(: d. because they were found always associated with a noun preceding them and never ilJdep:mdtmtly. by Indradatta. Brhacchabdaratna. • ~!!:lWfjT:<r ( 186 3-1942).ilfi and ~ffll!l~ ~m<i is given by the "MahiibbaiyaMra in the words' both expressions are justified ' (.linips with I h'e stanZa a:p:~'lfio. 136.. ct. chapter . I. 4.'iter of ' Sabdadipika " a known also by the nelme .(3 ) a scholar of grammar. lifumg<r. i \:'rote. is not elided in the plural number. 1. Cj<lUBr <TI:. Nagesa has observed that mfUr<fiT~ is nobody else but the Mabiibba~ya­ Mra himself. 2.162. <li<ft~ sef mtft~.S. He is believed to on the GaQaratnam'ahodadhi of have written a treatise on Gar.:~m wJ. nl~ a t?. II.. 'commentary Oil the Mugdhabodha VyakaraI). t{~<illi I If§lCU- ce '.. Prahiya Kaumudi by the famous S::~a family of grammarians. a descendant excepting a son or a daughter) such as the affix Cj5I.I). ~r<T iTtiTtij«. l\1.:. after which. :riTfi1J"fi~:.:choolof VyakaraI}a fonnded by' KramadiSvara' and J umar~nandin ~n the I2th century.: differelit from the above l'l"f!il:<f who dhana who is likely to be the same ha~ \.. .mmentary VairlikabharaQa on i TaiUitlyapriitisakhya. V. mtH~ (~<i) known more by the· nickname of +I~il:"f or +l"gil:<f who lived in the eighteenth century and wrote several commentary works on well- m~~~~~~ a .adi~iitras als~..r a grammarian whose view in connection with the cor~ectness of the expression ~:nJ!r~ 1.. d. is <l5I. etc.rrtf9<lr:. Others believe that Gonarda Was the name of the district named GOI)<. LIaS. • <i'ttflC?m~ .(. the Siirasvata VyiikaraI.thavajapeyin.2I. ~lJ: etc:. Kas.i{ Kiis.) is affixed in the sense of an offspring' (31qi5!j ). on I. in the sense of a pai~ e.r11lT~<i<lt­ ~ 'liT~~~:.S. ~m~<rf{.jT1\:<i: t. however. the Paribhii$endusekhara of end uf the sixteenth centurv. a pupil of Jiiiinendrasarasvati. 1'\ • - iIT<1(T~ lit.n~' a Bengali scholar of Kii.'JII provided the ~ord so formed refer. cf • .67. cif.:c:j ~1Rt~T. cf. The affix. orr P..tan~. It is very likely that words like GJi and others were treated as pratyayas by PaI).: etc. e.ini and Katyayana who folloVied PiiQini. ~fq!H· ~l~'iftm'fl~. P. 1.he word mlf<fC1. a commentary on the LagbusabdenduSekhara by M.. to . KiiS.Bh.. m:: etc.a-~. III.Iffix applied to words like itt aHd otliers in the sense of I a pla<TfIJ. Q ~<:nre: a class of words headed by the word ~~ to which the taddhita affix UA ( ~5I. e. As Kaiyata paraphrases the' words m<l1\:I<!WITi'f as +rT~<!'fiR«<mr.29. Vasudeva Shastri Abhyankar ~ .~<fil and aftcrqR~~. VII. 144 ~~ttRr.. adjectival. V. .. a:rtR<i qr:. IV. He quotes Apisalisik~a. 78. cf. (r) a word sUbOl din ate in syntax or sense to another.29. e. g. scholars say that mi1f{cll was the name taken by the Mahabha$yakara himself who was a r~sident of Gonarda. cf."fi.178.9. ~ I :rtt~. lived in the lattei~ half·. a commentray ('if~) on abe siitras of PaI). I ~ included.t. 2 I01..::.r lit. on L I.rm~) 'writer of Samasa\'ada. ~n . M.IS.g.of the 19th century.G'llq~fu a commentary on Rama- 145 known grammatical treatises such a"itct-%.begi.

an. P. includes the long and protracted forms of aT. (3) lIlention~ inclusion..of vrddhi for the preceding vowel at the begi~ning of a tad. Pro 1. ~(3: Ul1: etc. 8Tqri1fl:~!!:.tS901'':!j "fT!:!i..J-N: Par.l~~dl=l'l<iSr.. ct.40 . causing the q~GJrf fJ<!l1I~.13 6• .:. 6r. ..~. lOS. !II1ll9d"r lJRrq~if ~Niflffirl Sek. P. ede. and to multisyllabic 33.I ~fq Bi~'!. tural class of consonants having the properties <fIot€il!:lt'i. see 11: 'Cf'<l tad. I. g. Kas.7I.<f'll: aI'lil~! aj~<ilWifa I Com. or q-rmq-yfct'li in Veda.<iSTftI~~. cf. III. f. 'EfciiR' the consonan t fJ. ~ (I) foqrth consonant of the gut:..FSf<!:. a~.:ri1l'Q~. V. l{lSf. V. rft~~li£. q-rfa-q-yfG:cl!lrUr rew~ro2~~Tfq. d. Bh. and hence words used in the pri" mary sense should be always taken for grammatical operation's 'in preference to wL'rds in a secondary sense. if ~f.g. The ward is used in this sense in sentences like ~ ~m which f. cf. is changed into ~ by VII. 14I.Jr held back at the throat. cf. causing !'!onant ct. 01 l=IglJ.26.. . affix ~ (:s1t!. ~ specifically mentioned in a rule.85. fii:. on P. V. cf. e. 34. quoting. I' ~~1.. IV. t!!lii: and 6B. individually mentioned.22. !I8. V. affix aT applied to the words J certain conditions. as opposed to primary. the sense of' having t. cf P.to whic. Kau. lIS. 38. !Irtr" \3cRlliJ.~~ •• f . Pari.of eleven words. II9.4.atqlCltq an a _0 . III. VI. Pro XIV. r. (at the end of roots beginning with 'n'i":. affix in the sense of possession.g.!ii£. 3I... Tai~ Pro 1.h the affi-l' ~ (furf~"). • 147 a fault of pronnnciation due to the utterance of a iettt!~ hindered C. cf.I39· the Priitisiikhya works as a Pditi-: siikhyakara.fi~ whichdo not have the acute accent on the last syllable in a tal purt!~a compound when they are placed alter th!. VI. IV. ~!I. .a-q-ijP\:T i(fa.68. ~~.<I<!: is a !IfU1Efi rule as it ad vises that tbe ci1 ing of t he letters aT' ~. cf. iI'?I't etc. 1. I. (4) substitute for tbe conwords in specified senses. m'n~:. cde. Sek. applied to arqli!t-q. Il5. : bases or Pratipadikas ending in fit . ~"Ii._ e. lI:. c. affix lI:<!.1 !I~d": ~~~ ~d": I aj. bcc bbed dcb bcd. . aT being added at . tad. l=Irtft.3·79.l1ii. causing vrddhi to the preceding .124· ~ a class of foots headed bv the root ::rcr.1 an~ aillJ. l=IWi{<Ii£. ~~Sr f"ffiiitBl: P.. 1 f. def. pad. VII. also' ~lii~fa !Ii[O"frfiI Com. verbs ending in t/. f. on ~ros~ . applied to the word 'i!rg. Par." lI:~lif.. VI. iII. (4) employment in a rule of grammar.m:<r greatness of effort. {s )krt affixOi .4. 2. and in 'Cf~ tad affix f(<!. (2) technical at "f ~~<fi fu:l:!T <icfd": I -fJ" is explained term for the tad. ( 2) citlDg. -'l. and liable to be . fed. !!:tffl4'<l. 8Tq<:!"R:. 1. pose' of drinking the Soma juice. prolixity as opposed to <?lfJCf. of 'present there'.146 1. occurring in Vedic . as lound iu the word ~ I "fOl~~ the maxim that the primary sense occurs to the mind earlier than ilJe secondary sense.. FcI~ ~t&iqG:!l'Elta:. ed. 138. ~ .I. V. V. to ilt-=ii: and to the words ~~ etc. .r. and indecliedc. e. 'fa (I) a tech. ~: I 'ern:. headed 'by. ' a descendant' applied to &. 29. under certain conditions. ct. itFU!~}I<Oi1t'i 'CfS! kft affix aT causing the substitution and m!:lq-l~: (2) the consonant fJ .fmf({ a class of words to which the citing or instructing the inclusion (!I'1ll) of certain other things by thl: mention of a particular thing.~foI<!. also !Ii[Ul'!i~~lj W'loq~~fiiiNT"<lf m<r~6cR1: Sid.g.194 T. 16-42 . ~if:.:cll~l{ qh1"flH~~~~a:. a. e. cf.6g. ( 3 ) secondary. modes of Vedic recitation. Literature. Sek. fsr~lq~ I 'liT4~. II.l. (2) a small class .46 See also Par. It is -.~fli!<I:..: t!~ <ft:r: I VI. cf.ijffil. 4. I. cf. 1.) is added to form the feminine base.repositioG . 7I. cpo Yak. IV.9 2 and Kiisikii thereon. atqT. cf.r i '!~"t!fA. lOr. ..43-45:. 31 . ct. g.. sek'l Pari.!I~ ~~~~:. to t!~~! in the sense of ' possession '. (c).. placed after the the acute accent 011 the first vowel pronouns fcf. term applied to noun tlf!<I: etc.. 136. IlL 2. 4. 1. Pro V.rr. ' . dc.. etc.a-q-. when the word to which it has been applied be'come~ a proper noun i. 121. ct.134· .n~Cf"f"ff "Tm:<!~ Par.rr.9 . also !I~ f. Ahnika 1. the word . . SeR. IL 216. I. (4) tad. VI. 22 . IS. the word is quoted like ~WJ8q or ~~<:r~T~ as an instance of words denoting the genus and not an individual. ct. 3· 45'55. See the word ~i[Ul.\ij-'l~'!Tml1fot+nii1 . 3. 2. 3.I~. affixes a~ and as· O!. I ie ef ( f ) affix fJ (I{<!) in the sense of. Pad. !I{OT~~ :. I V... P. IV. 93.27. 9. ci. . e. 80. 12 5.J. de. abc cba changed into aWl and cr~ after abc. (3) substituie for III. 8T'l!lI&::. ~ uttera~ce lel~er Sii{ a sacrificial pot used for tbe pur- ~. R. e.. cd. .etc. ~IICl"l\lt'l<r. Pari.! i7.a white ass. on T. <TIn. krt affix 'G applied to ther~ots 'I1'ffii an <!oncient sage referred to in .f. 24. The recital Will be ab ba.re often quoted. 'SIif one of the eight varieties of the ~ (1) consonaut fl.m'!!Tif.g. s:r&0l t I) teehhical term' for a· word and ~lf( in the sense 01 an agent. I' sm:r afault in the of a \ which makes it indistlnct hy beIng held up at the throat. His pupils are Gautamiyiil}. If. nables. 'iIr.. if~uff. V. cf. ct. L 2. il as also of the root it{ under 'Ef"l:. lIB. 3. •• 1 f~~2:l~: mOffi:' cf. 2. CI ::. CfI'<IT Fllf. ' tV 2. is added in the . Ill. affix applied in various senses as specified whiCh is always changed into !t<J. 1. q'!!~<i~r. 3. defined as of four kinds~) ~~l{Jij ct.f ~'i­ . ~~~~ !I{iji't<:ra:. P. in P. d. Par. and Vak. ' vowel of the root. Par. the end for facility of pronunciation. and to ~ and !l!\ft'l~ in" the sense of' deserving '.. 1. on P . cf. Pro I. VI II. 1 35. ~!l". 70.. \ e.hat as a d 1" deity .. P.II. See ma-.· Pari. also tr.P ... 3. Par.1ll <ffll: P. ifrOt ~M ~qtri(: q\:Tl~ . a noun in a specific sense or a technical term.<tlif. 2·3~. the class contains a large number of \vords exceeding I'50..t. Pari. ct. tOitfij"Si without any change of sepse.P. the rule ~fi. !:l{U19d"1 'qJfa-q-l~. on m. 3. cpo M~biibha~ya on P.. for deta iIs see Kasika on 1'. !1-pplied to am. cf.g. T.. cf. See the word <Ti1ll..in the sense .:ftfiitllJ: I Madhusiidani shortening of ~ at the end of ba~es Sik~a 55 defines it as ~'if:lT before it. 41. .<!'m lI:(CI~ I Pradipa on M.~ and ~+t: which again of the word so formed. def. 14.ensc of an agent.. P. 58. all:{ :4.. III. 2. I. 21. Sek. tfR:..39. p.: T ~! P. affix \. (3) tad. e.a. K-. d. III. tad. 120-I 2 5.

~a affixes with !i. «f1:TT ~l1I.. tl(. Bh. ir~.6. . ~.. (3) the consonant ~ which.: '3".. 1""\7< I. «m. (lim: . III. ~ attached i:o them either before or after. as also to .l\(. d. affixtwhich isudatta.41-:46 . causes the vowel follow:ing it to get the augment ~ prefixed to it. .tr:~ftt+*­ sfo:ul~ P. 1. changed into antr.a conventional· term used for al1 the nasal' consonants in the Jainendra Vyii.~<j~g i9l~ is'aTI fJffia:~ ~~frIii~~fcr I M. 73· i 1.ey are prescribed as substitutes.12. 3lu{.to. IV.. on Mahesvara Sutras 8. !.ling If.16r. :. PaI)ini. ct. ct. after bases of pronouns. VII.. consonant.61-65.~ a short term OT Pra tyahara standing for the letters ~. found used in the J ainendra VyakaraI)a.~t<l~ ~!!Ol.g•. p.t!. ~: :!. ~ S m1:fT: ~: ~'lm: etc. augment ~i.5). ~ Or i!<a:. Sf'1l1tft etc.[11: cf. P. (3) roots marked with the mute letter ~ signifying tbe application of the Atmanepada terminations to them.g.52. Pro I. cf. II. !. ~ (I) 149 bases ending in <if. .. e. KiiS.~m. ~q<lif.m. 1. P. ( 4) substitutes marked with mute ~ which are put in the place of the last letter of the word for which tl. . 1.' with a view to preventing 'the gUQa arid vrddhi' substitutes for th~ precec. IV. ~\Fcjffi.99.. m<I~.. . ~. Words ending with this affix ~ have their first vowel accented ~qter acute. ~5' f~C. d. IV. f. 1. ( 5) case affiXeS marked with mute letter <1( which cause the substitution of guJ. :(c) :. IV. case termination changed into <:j after bases ending in short . d~noting a male ~person. affix ~1 (:slit. I.~.: under certain cOI:1ditions .. 3l<il.Bh. P. 32. ~ ~VI. the words ~. as also to those like ~ or 1 <U which become l'(f by the substitution of a:JT for the final diphthong vowel. affix ~ added to words in the class headed by lUii~. ar and into ~q after pronouns. IV. on VIII. I.:rrfuiii'lt is': I Jain.20. and ~. P. I. or ~).9. changed into (a) 8iI~ a Her ba~es termed Nadi.2I. a's also to noun bases ending in affixes marked with mute 't. (2) a conven. Sid. IV. 1. cf.I. ct P. noun bases ending with tbe fern. causing the substitntion of Vrddhi for the preceding vowel. and i(.: q~:. with mute ~ as also elldingwj{h~~'" affixes <a. if standing at the end of a word and foilowed by a sibilant. 1.l.:ft. lt is als. . after Kau. grammeriaD3 to the first pada ot . 9. IS· of the locative case. ~'Tq: fern. !.·. ~~ i . and fu~ in the sense of habit. 2\ .a to the last vowellf or '3" of words termed N. \lI is sahstituted for iiI'!3. 13. (2) affixes' conventionally called fii:tr.4.( 2) theconsonannt ~ getting the letter <Ii as an augment added to it. '.. cf. P. IV. (b) to words end-: ing with affixes marked with mute"". 3. IV..'a~·· <.? added in the sense of ' wife ot'·to any word. of the ablative case. VII.79. L8g Va. after certain basE:s under certain conditions. on p. (2).'l:f'l'i. ~and 'litlt. IS.2. It is also added to words ending in <fittrand words ending in 'til and also to words expressive of ' iimos of the bod v ' under certain c~nditions. vowel a:r b~ing added at the end for facility of pronunciation. and ·tOgether. LI9and VII. ~) ...( grave) added (a) to wordsendirig' i~ the vowel ~ or the consonanf~::' (cf. Sii. 1. and ~~ ~~. d.2. ~ 1.jot. applied to the eight roots. \vQrds mentioned in the ciass ·headed by <lSi d.!Itl. P. e.49. and a:rT!FIfRt!fll. by ~ ~ dative ~ krt affix ~ applied to the roots . e. after pronouns. m case-affix eltlif. cf. <f<tijr. P. q~ etc.q:l'ken. !IlI5'E£. III.. . cf. or 5l:. fern. ~q.n. 1. 3.I.or ~. See ~?. and (c) into ftlfil. T.g.I. . .g..65 and IV. P.. '3". added to the vowel follow o ing the consonant ~ at the end of a word. 1. fern. 12. affix t mentioned as G'1t!. ~. 14. cf. as also to the penultimate I vowel8i. ~. ~ or ~...·1l7.2. I. or ~ standing at the end of the preceding word. a popular name given by ~:~~~~. IV. 50-59 and IV.Bh.as for example. before it. I.!!! ~ ~~ P.e mute letter .. 3. e. The term ~ is used in the Katantra VyakaraI)a and corresponds to the term tI~iflliWlif of paI)ini.karaI)8. P. 73. ~ (!) affix t which is . P. 2. on P. ilrrmql'(lif. 5-8. ( b) into aIr after bases ending in If and 3:.g. a conventional term for the first five case-affixes. consonants~. II6. Z. 6l~ and others.· . cf. 511~ ct. (to cut) and ~ (to purify).. fe. IV.n~. cpo W 'ti Jain. z.::'. ~ a tech. See fEJ.!5"<iI. See ~ (3). augment ~ mentioned as ~ in KiiSikii.n~I~~liJl elt1i<j"ro: M.. fifth letter of the guttural class of consonants having the properties ~~~. ~~. cf. as for instance. N affixes having the mute letter Ii. d. ~. .. 1. bases ending in an and the word cfi. ~ ending of the genitive case singo ulal.casualJy mentior. cf. or. VII. ·: : words ending' with affixes . '1:. ~ . cf. also to ~~. 1. VIII. I.:i an fxternal effort in the pronuncia- tion of a sonant or a soft· consonant which causes depth at the tone. P. Su. cr. P. <ilijt ~re:. l ~ T ~ (I) ~ (nQ~n bases or Pratipadikas) called or tenned ~ •. See ~ (3) ~ij~ 'tl"'r. R(!!cf +jWQjfff M.2. (Ct. 1. 16.fr meaning 'the script of the Yavanas' d.ed in the :Mahabh~h?ya.. 16.. after bases cnding in OJ and -into iRl«. ct. term· the property ~lif at the time of its ed <rtf. VIII. iv . which cause the substitution of a gattural in the place of the palatal letter . 48.rt. 1.I. lIS. ~ common term for the fern.. e. barring the root 'DlI.or OJ:. smlfl~ ftG~ kr t affix ifii!. on P. with the augment a:r@!!! Carr<J:). ~t <Ii!I!«. ~~ etc. lji~ 'ti Kat.case-affix 1. term applied to ttle roots l'(f and 1:TT. Qjtll~:qJ: ~~: tional term for ilSlji (a short vowel) . e.~. d.. short term or Pratyahara for the cr. fifth consona~t of the guttural class of consonants which is a nasal (3Tiji!fm'li ). p.. P. prefixed to a vowel at the beginning of a word provided that vowel is preceded by ~. . cf.. ~~. om. 40 . cpo . VII.1 45.lI:luiT. ~'f. 3. utterance.etc.~. 2.. e. IV. ~pplied to words'lll the class of words headed by . to. p. 15-39.. the affixes 'q~. 1. I. cf. 16-24. and VII.g.28. the.68. o+(..!~~ P. etc. p~' IV. IV. . 1-4. 1. standing at the erd of a \vord and preceded by a short vowel. IS) and to certain other words. cf.r I 'RrG: ·148 and OJ excepting the words tlRs ~~ a consonant characterized by and tffu and tiJose which are. tr~lI.14 1 .4. 1..

Bh.g. e. ii and others. There is no sectior..f 'tj'i'i{l"lT<iT~fu: 9. { I ~ ~ first consonant of the palatal claso.. cf. I 151 ct. J 1. with. Bll. cpo ~fri{<ir.lidatta. 9. a Vikarana affix of the'aorist sUb-I ~~imm. 1. half of the wbich are sonant aspirates. cpo also Vlik. Dh1i. L r.cr~fu I M.57.:If~ called also Cfi'i'T. . J!{m. of the work hi found in the Agnimar. as a six chapters or Adhyayas ill which "mute letter added to it which of no technical ierrns or sariljfias like courEe disappears) possessing the f2' .as ~l~'i. 9·3· ! I m. I'r. words. ~\llT'qOl:.lQita.A summary ~qfq~ writer of a Prakrta gram. dealing with the topic of the n~tes the four kinds of words ifTli. 'ti~~!l <Il1Jiim i3ffiT1m ifT\:1i6" Kat. T. Q. rule ~<!ltsrlful1~rn.6. 5 and Kai. . d. ~"I~~rr~T V.D. Illoras. ~ p. I.:. he was a pupil of Viresvaraand son of Se!?akr~t.60 Vart. 2I.Of. d. dra'wing a word from the previous rule to the next rule. (ct. Pro 1.2)..:l!f[fuqf ~ fslijI~"It!l=I~r 31l~~T +IT li. I I the vowel 31 being added for facility of lltterance and clif{ as an affix to show that only the. available in the Roman and Devanag ari script. possessed of the propertiefl. 'ti possesses four ser.5~..90 ) with a cOllvention that a word drawn thus. Bbarq.29. 1. ( dropped). 6 . :atr6<l and fulffii which are viz. tI rilill Gi"smlS(. g.Cfi~ _ and mentioned by ancient grammarians. ~.jijiiif'ld+1Y a grammarian who is said to ~ "argument in a circle" . '<I''Ii'R the consonant " ~qfil~ krt affix Cf'l. between 1921 and I940' ) ! '<I'f$~ a grammarian who has written a small disquisition on the correctness of the form ~. ~ Pari.. (3) indeclinable '"l' called Nipata by Pagini. VIII.. Bh. See ::r{qit\a Rt<iI<::." stituted f~r ~ after roots ending . 3. Ill. M. <:j\. on P.· :. I.. p.-Pr. 2.qfd~~<l'ICf: !fcl{1~ ~Rr "Iifi'!liIlO2jCjWl' srlmRr I M. a kind . consonant 'if. Kas. one matta. tI«l~l:Tlg. matdis or e. P. five compact expressions or Vptis 31T~<il(j'. -3 are found. ~f.C!iffi9 and 'iil\. Bh. Known also as Cakrapar.ed· mention' or avadharat. ct. . <l'~~~ I <l'r!1~ I d. and OI. 3f['ff~CTf~lil'l'tigl=li~TUjt vr ttis • The work is named "IW'!~· . T. 4. compound . d. in the sense of an agetlt referring to an activity of past time. cf. '"il!!'l.im~~t~<i +rfqac~~ M.2 58. ~.I lable) used in the J ainendra Vyakaral}. 1. . and a protracted vowel of a work on the topic of the five three rnatras. See also M. on VI..g. The indeclinable 'ti is sometimes used in the sense of ~ a determir. ti~ w:f ~~!{fa 'ti~~. the vowel 31 being added for facility of utterance. 2. On 1. ar~q. now in Bangladesa. amqlllj and CfiUOfq{ffiCf.j. The grammariall whose grammar existtreatise is also known. on II. ~. (2) a Pratyahara Or short term standing for the palatal class dconsonants . g sense of ~ or condition. added to the roots ij and! <t~.i\"cHg. 1. 1. a grammarian wh~. is meant there. 16."Uj. . Sek Pari. IV. telmed i 18th century and the first balf of ~'I.. V.wrote a commt:TI tary LiIig1i. III .. .jw<!f:e.Kas. a long ·'vowel of two ~ a grammarian who has written matras. of co.of the four senses.150 the fourth adhyaya of Pat.a.g. V.R. ct. ( m~ a well·known Bangali scholar who edited Nyasa.n~ Par. does not proceed to the next rub . 75.(ir Cf'ti<im~crU<:jUT: a. 'til&"<t)s~I'~~ P..j%i{'li' known by the name 'iil~ also. 78. as also lliter case m Its dissolutIOn . 1. '<I'~ ( ~"') a g~ammarian of the Se~afamily of the latter half of the 17th century who held views against BhaHoji Dik!?ita and wrote ~­ .26. ct. cf. resulting in confusion.. Bha!?livrtti and other works from Rajasahi. f'tiff: VI. 248.2f. having the mute letter . cn II.ses t1ff!ill<t. also P.:. Pro 1. person is known.lini's I A~tadhyayjas the pada begins with the. He was known also as 'ti. puralJa.:r the tatpuru!?a..4. It is also used for the purpose ~ of ~RI or 3'f!!<muJ i. cf. a:r<l "I .. T. \ in his Vakyapadiya reiers to him.:.": Vakyapadiya II.3.a cpo l{Cfll:1l Jain.la. 18.n~"IT'. "Ig~l~lilij' the roots ~. 1.at the beginning of an affix is mute e. Tbe work is caSed on PaQini's gram'l:t0Tt!.. :q. a fault in which one returns to the same place not immediately as in Anavastha but after several steps: d. have written a work named Dhatusamgraha. on P.· ~(i\<fliJ' and t1liTil1. d.30 . i written a commentary named Subo~ dhini on the Sarasvata Vyakaral}.48-5°. T.mr~m a scholar of gracUqq£f?r I (fu<1.· on Sanskrit Vya. t~e fi~st wO.g. rOJ. a short vowel consisting of VlI. cf. IS for a detailfd explanation .:. '" mmar w~ has written.rthacalld rika on the ' SabdaliIigarthacandrika' of Sujanal-'at.tupradipa. who has '<lij~1 a term used by ancient gram. :.: . Pro I. affix 'i:j1I] in the sense of fcl'G mar and is believed to have been (known by) applied to a word written by Candra or Car. . by P1i. the nineteenth century.. 2.1°3.~.rcU~c:r.i2 . Pro I. '1tcrRi). 489. a small work on syntax attributed to~. 2.s( and.29 Varl. So: 4. Nir. t1liffi. IV. on Vedic Grammar and accents. 1. '<I' (I) the letter " of fault in the application of operations.1fini.! 'tig~<f ~~ or :. Bh.la called ~<:jl1f. li~e<iffi d.dragomin which refers to that tping by which in the 5 thcentury A.la. L 3·7. ~"IUj:. 1. \. the word de~re. P. cf.rd in the d:tive in the causal sign fiJI. The woik consists of "<itIT the indeclinable 'ti (with OJ. 343. VI.gUT. 31i'CfT'ti<t.·em II L .D.. ~(Cj'T. ch.:. an indepad. hence identified by some with Candragomin. pendent work.:if a famous Buddhist Sanskrit karat.93. causes reduplication of the precedon II. I. on Siva siltra. cf. cf. 17 ( 2) a musical note in Sarna singing~ '<t-:lt<blla a Jain grammarian' of the twelfth century A.48 and 72. 31~f~~.. 66. e. <Ifi!. R.i sabdendusekbara by Bhairavaniisra marians for the fourth conson<lpts \ who lived in the latter. is now "Il~:Qll.g.hari a . '!iT. marians fOt'the dative case.~ or ing in the Tibetan script. '<I'$lmor. i8:.135. on II.lfi <t~ cf. e. 3·4· :.r consifoting of (our.a short treatise written by 'tiW"" '<I'ij~'l{ a group of four. KM. a well-known commentary on Nag€sa's Laghu'<lij~ (!) a term used by ancient gram. '<1f.. 2. tad. ~ I I i d. ha ve their last vowel accented acute e.36 • ing root fOlTTi. this "I~ t1Rr !{'~~5l'l.e.Sonan t5. (4) a· conventional term for 31+<tm-( reduplicative syl.

54. sing Mahesvara Siiti·a -I Viirt. arians in tne same sense. 'qf!:liriur an ancient grammarian whose ct. Ii. in the. arrq. <( (<:j~) is not elided. ~ense of • being (soaild so) iil the past t. -.-<F(t ~q~ "<Iftcr&i!{~ reSPQIlsfi)!e lor restoration of MahaViikyapad.I ct. cf. 2.commentary is called Candrasolitary nounaword or a substantive vrLti which comprises uf six having the force of a sentence.ftd.f.ij a form of the frequentative orinteusive. term (Pratyahara) tor [he-'tir~t letters (~. . 3l1f9U:.. Pro III. See the word "<I. fern. ~ a tad. 61. arm:. him ct. ~. II.. 3n~. gaJ. ct."<i~~"a gpi~~l1a-rian who around 1500 I ~ 153 form ~ from the root ii in the sense of frequency. and -sense of I included' or 'contained ~:rwI!!~THli'j lists is complete. a grammarian who composed ' a compendium on grammar called 's'h~i-t: ttCl('h{ol. lIS- ~:~ the view that. ~ substitution of a hard consonant or ~.n\t1If{~ second letterl' are substituted ioe t!le.he -.: .g.28.the adiidi ciass or second conjugation and hence the general VikaraJ.. K. 'qflfc. lJ<I~t ~l:£q~"<I'<If ~ Par. Uvvata on V.bp. ~. exceHcntl} hence which ca~ be termed a. and ~~crr rPl. cf•. on G'l1ir ~~EJJ ~ft 3.:rqt In "'l\ii(~lii thE:. on Vakyapadiya .IV. four senses~~.. VIII. e. 'l".' view is quoted by PaI}ini in his SUtra ~ 3 "ql~GR<i P.compo~nt I "<I:fir~." ... 'of the verbal omits .fu. . .Rfii q~'l<i. Bh. t.!. e. His ~iitra-work WJth his Bhartrhari in connection with a own . six tim~. ~ltK"!4 a treati.~.ifilluentary in 'K~I).~.72 • The I ~palatalgroup the class.qiifi(u( I{~d'ffi~~a.of the I ~ lit.the scd pets. cf. 28 . 4. ' ~. swallowed tip~ :rile fourth century A. 1it~.~1ii +IiIRr M.·laiJguageor: Kasakftsna. onP. III. See ~Q.:Hli!1J <rfl:cffl Par. an~'ff:. ~ ~crof. the term is-used by commentators in conaectiO. II.ini in connection with Olfcl:srllftr~:~: ~q: P. eit+r<fttff eitmfu.' The word.g.l.of a Nirukta writer quot~d by Yaska. ~f. ~ and Gi. 65.O<jr.1a-sutra in the gai}a named adiidi' given by PiiI).I a school of Vedic Learning. II. . affiX prescribed in the I I I ~W' rep"etition of a word in the Wllo• ~. ~ explaiqed asa synonym of the word :mm wruchijleans a branch or a term used by . 31""flij. <HCf4 oi{1it +r. (2) a repeated word.lt~~~Wa~ Nir.:ulfitc(Q name . ct. The term is tls~d by (7j~). VIII.53.. I I :. "<I{11Idhl::.I ~ iWltIR I P. 478 ff..into the first is called '<Itf: cf. 326. pad. an~qff: cf. . the same as ~ or "<Ill' or ~8.~.'vediC siitras and sil tras on activity dormant in it.n. accefH-L'!lil1artrhari cunsider. His system of I word is used by Bhartrhari in the grammar with ~.!. cpo -Yak. ~. g. 20. for soft consona~ts and aspirates. dear (Fct<... " ..tI'hoIRffi ~~~Wd'~ I Nir. 15. ~ -dl:ablpatba. on IV. . hence means ~ or recital by showing separately tr. ~fi are 20 . Nir. e. cf. 22. Sometimes as opined by rli~. o~ P..46. the anudatta. I ~ ~mo1 'ff<Fil"<iIm: . the term ~~ is used by comparatively modern' gramm'" .56.<j mt "<I~~~ 1l+r1~~~« I (guq. e. repeated'. ii(..67-'10 • T~t~~dh1ta. e.W5fT b~~~y.ses. cf.1a or (~l .! O<jl~rci ~: . Seethe word "<1\. "'li(( tad. See the word "<I. . g. 4.of\qlg and also a commentary on it.ii:r~lq~' ~mcr. _third and fourth ietters. word ~ is similarly used for the frequentative whl!n the sign of the frequentative viz. ct.Ita:C.the ancient grammariims in connection with a secondary root in the sense of frequency. ~<f. . " ~'. II. VI. ~ . aisp"C\ctftalilffi <i~: Sfl=trf ~I Bhii§ii Vr.) of the five clil:. . four senseS mentioned in. . on '" the same as . eaten UP. 'qf~~le :-A41~<':yX:{ile a c:.D. 326.V. i. 'which was named ~l~gby him.152 a famous Bud. the svarita and the pracaya-held by the KhiiI).~-eyeryword is repeated twice. '<l)~lIm!1J {Iff :.. S~k.. where the f:icrr6: severalPathas-appear to be called th~'~ a word in a compound is.P.rr (I) splitting up of a word into its component parts.e if a sibilant follows them.t scholar and gramzparian who: ~: 'li6"M5(4(d>4: Kas. Yak.:CJ. 270. flourished in the earlier pal t . "i''{ a short term! Pratyahar-a) for the :a:. 'ft:9\: I <1.~~ -I <aft 'q. fin aN P.is olllitted after them: -The 'Nord is based on ..'i't~ '<I~~ P.1ini in . affix '41:)0 tne. ~~'l!1I~1!1J: I The word ~ is used in the same sense in the Pratisakhya works. Pari.' g. II.. The :qei\uff rtiots are treated as roots ~f. ar~Qffli7{J q~ ffi{+r"". - of consonants of tbe viz.67~O. ~ft-a1~ which has got already a scope of application.. S.92. VI. hard unaspirated surds and ST '(. ( 3) Ii discussion or a debate where consideration is given to each' single word. ~.1ini.. 130.Bh. cpo 'tfIW rrrlrar Si~!{Rff:fi7{J hispurposf! fur giving a new gram<j<. The word is used almost in the same sense in the Mahiipha§ya in respect of sliowingthe wor~s of a siitra separately.J 'l'ftm~~iI.I words of a running text or of a compound word.s~ on the grammar written by "ql~t1 in the Sfitra form. IV.~'.Qikiya and the Atikhiya Schools. ~~re:. ~. " 2. ar~rfct­ ~liTg{~: ~~: ij ~:M.72 .t . ~ I '.q~) and complete hidden. ~"and 1:1. ::l'fmto etc. '<ITI~.. Hehas insiqe • '(<T~'li:r).326..IV.e constitutent words of the Samhita or the running text of the Veda.1 with a rule or a word forming a part of a rule which applies in the case of s?me instances and hence which cannot be said to be a<j\<f (superfluous) or without any utility and as a result cannot be said to be capable of allowing some conclusion to be drawri from it according to the dictum c4~ 6~q~ta. ~ fiI~J ~~ and ~: mentioned by paJ. Cffci4 Sf~~} I Com. !!U!r «<l ~: q({Cf"li! mt "<I:ql~~<!iJ. twice. 4. rio accepted· great help from pal. The change of the second. which is gen~ erally shown in the Padapatha by ar<!3N (s) . and adhyayas~ His work. . ~ent­ edited by B Leibisch from Brestan cuceon accottnt. . :. cf.. pad.. "<I a ~~q or <q"~i/)m~ I~. '<I<lT fiW<jr: ~f{ q:i6~\614. fi1l1. arm~ illl1. 3. He was the author of a work similar to UQiidisfitras as can be seen from quotations of his words. I. affixes prescribed in the .) matical system being to compose a new grammar which should be short :q~f~ having kriya or verb actiVity ( i~).there are four accents-the udatta. Sek." -II. in it. Pad.

r fulfilment of t~e ob]ec~ or the purp. a term used by ancient grammarians for the te'rm ~. optionally along with the. which in its turn is elided by P. fqfcr consciousness. The term ~r~ is used for these affixes by commentators on Pal)ini siitras. affix (arm) applied to the word ~~. ~. 375~376 PataiiJali M.. The word is used in connection· with a statement made by a sound scholar which cannot be easily brushed aside. cf •." I 154 given in the Siitras. 370 . Society.qel'(~P:I{1lR<{ ftm'Wl'-lWil~: Durghata Vr. d.. ~ (1) view. affixes CfiJ. ~r~: VII. also ~~~li who wrote a learned commentary named 'Fci'l+l'"t on the Paribha!?endusekhara . Sek. t!.Q.. signifying the acute accent for the last _vowel.tIRlIi4li1isti. age or strength.30. I I ~~ word. affix ~or. <{\ll.". on P..e.1 ~qIiI1llT: I 'ii'i'tf iirmurr: I ~'l!mf P milT: I c . to signify habit. 1SS Cfi1=i{~:qRF¥lftcn: M. VI. cf. ~'qa' desiderative formation. 39.. II.rmr by PaI)ini e.69. Bh. theory. ~m a grammarian who is supposed to have written a gloss (l!re) on the Sutras of PaJ)ini. who is believed to have been the same as Candragomin. 129. 93. OTT ~FiiR: ~q6i£: :!l"~rn:: ~~eI'iJ '3'6\:. M.. 19 ~a:-) iii~7 Nyasa.etc. .29. but it does not treat Vedic forms and acce-nts. ~~ named by the root~. ~rm~~~: Durgacarya on Nir. Sekh.amah1ibha~ya~ Vol. P. 'ii:!ii~ ~~: I ~'i!Jiltr. Abhinidhana~ meter and ten pla~es of articulation.5.. VI. in the place of the aorist. . ~:r. Kas. Kas. 2. 1. Theother commentaries are Cintama'Qipratipada and CintamaQitippaQi. and or. affixes o:<j~ and 15Cj~. ~ substitute ~ causing vrddhi.la Yajurveda.ahabha~ya.the sense of' well-known by'. . cf. ~. 16. Sanskrit 25). cpo Vak. the manu- f.! I tad. i cf. Society. on P.. ~~r. ct. - . "' ••""~ krt affix arTii applied toa root.71 to IV. written by ~m in the twelfth century. ~ the Laghusabdendusekhara by Vaidyanatha payagul}. prescribed in the case of all roots in the passive voice and in the case of the roots q". applied to word. ~Stlt~.. VI. iH. VI. VII.Vyakarirl). '" fern. on V. I{d{a\4lir and @l'l{R. 1. as existing in I different individuals. 4. It is also caIled ~'lfu. on P. 2. 58 .. in reply to the treatise named ~F. "i.bha~ya as a scholar who had a line of pupils named after him. ~ and!t'ii.q:e::qr. e.fll~ a commentary on the ~filT of C/aJiiitlOJ:.n~ Ifm:~{~iJ': ~J:lTm l!firM.. familiarly known as the tenth conjugation. ~ L ~. 'ilIPSf name of a treatise on I grammar I written by Candra..:lf~T name. also Ciindra VyakaraQa II. on VI.122.. ~ tad. III.1°4.s ending in the tad. For the meaning of the word attl'tCl see p.60-66. affix ~~ applied to a word ~ a class or gronp of: roots headed . ~. cf. I. ~m ~I§J ~~OT~ ~ th~ name of a tary on the ~o~'ii\1lJ written by ! commen. e. cf. ~ affixes or substitutes or. in . 2. the dvandva I compound is prescribed. Mahii. " signifying the acute accent of the last vowel.( V. ~ etc. Pari.48. Bh.325.~ ~~~ iM'''ffit~IRqi ar~~ qT~ ~('1~fi ~ ~. a:rmrr. sing. I bases marked with the mute letter.os~. vikaraQa affix f~. crrar~­ ~. P. Vol. of PliI)ini on the analogy of the termsll'CFift. ~Eflif. I.74. - scripts of which are found in Poona (BhaI)Qarkar Oriental Research Institute No..g.. ~ and others are not. e. fffl "i '!fij: qtfUlf.124.~O]i:j'i:fii words to wpich ~or.163: 164. lil~ etc. IV.62. I. Out of the " four senses possessed by the indeclinable 'i:f.3 Vart.. ~~:. written by Vishnu Shastri Bhat. an ancient grammarian referred to by Patafijali in the. U. that of PaQini. cnaIfci~ffi d. ar~.qf-q. V. e. ·cfflm<iT etc.~ . d.57. Society's Edition. cf. one of the distinguished discipies of NagesabhaUa. is applied although the words 'i:fg<iu'i. ~. He is also the propounder (~CI'mT) of the CarayaI)iya· school of KplH.ftRrr "i-~~ ({ilm. which ~ marking with the mute letter i I cannot be easily . ~~ iiiRmf.. if. P. f~ questionable. cf. I is regularly applied by P. name of a commentary on the Paribba~endusekhara by jj~­ Par. III. <it. III . ct. f<l1lIi'3!:. I : V..admitted. 2. 1. 21 of 1875-76) and Gottingen (University Library. r. cf. in the active voice before the affix ~ of tbe' third pers. the word is used in the sense of the word f~)n the Samkhya system. See f<I~mf~~ For details see pp. VII~ D. E. e.!he word IS used m conI nectIon with a rule of grammar. f"" .91. I. Qf. I. g. in the Atmanepada.g. f. p. 2.. ~ilcr GfIQlijllil . the Dvandva compound is prescribed in two senses viz. 1. Pari. CiI'l'~ Par. l(a~ffiir and ~mm{ out of the four I ~tllifqr 3fi<iT~.. Poona. 14. of Nagebbhatta. The Grammads based upon .. on P.26. knowledge. V. A small grammar work called VyakaraQadipa or DIpavyakaraQa is also fathered upon him.' ~[ P. 2.ijfff.g•. . published by the D. ~ a class of words beaded by 'i:f which are termed f.. E.. 4. 326. I. cf. ( 2) a matter of scrutiny on a sns· picion.IV. =tit: ~: VIII. published by the D.I1U!f1:IITif ~~ a com~l:te S~k~ii work belongmg to the Carayat)lya school I of the Black Yajurveda. E. See :qf~~. 2. Poona. For details see pp.73. . 124 V1irt. e. I I "<.Bh. P. 1.of a commentary on the Paribha~endusekbara.ffi':. ~mn~ name of a commentary on the group of palatal consonants viz.q0(~.g. '<{ffrf f'iW!i~1l1tllll­ ~/:jY~a:l~t<f +rFcisl!fcr.ijlillUl I (I) name of a commentary on the Siitras of the Siikatayana VyakaraQa written by ~~"\. cf. See ~~. OqN the meaning of the indeclinable 'i:f to convey which. jjllilOJl~!I "flSI~Uljl~ijltlq'Ei~qTij-r. 1. (2) name of a grammar work. an~ m~fu at~~aJfUl: Nir.g. d. in the sense of possession.i~t ~~ f<lCRUi !~~~fct . pad. ~~ in the sense of the desiderative. 40 of Vyakarana Mababba!?ya Vol. menti~~ed in the class headed by '<{fSl<l1nj' where the i tad. contestable..llI. 2. affix <lIT. See the word "fPj{ above. 3. ~ and ffafir'ii:. It treats of Sandhi I rules.g. 4.. . d. 4. .VII. ~~.

cf. 2. ~1Jj.prefixed. words ending m 9~. Sarilhita texts as contrasted WIth dvandya compounds. I . affix 11. in words ftrfuft. 9. ct. cf. 1. g. Others believe that ~. to words ~<ifficli etc.' • i(f<I~1f&"1{I~ q{lIl~ I Kai. (2) to the ~vandva . ( 6 ) to words meaning warrIor ~(mCI:6fcf<ii(:~: ~«usft6 ~.<F.I case. <p:j~. P.book 'q 6~rfiJT P. discusses all the knotty points.g. 2·55· 14 Il7' ( 7) to all' words barnng 4·. 4. See meaning. simply with a view to mak. ~m:{ and ~~unn m"f. cf. 3. for ~ standing at the beginning of tp.80.ll~ I .1 . ~: qft!l{: ~~~. ~ and mI in some speCified ~. ~.1. ~CI. if<!riR the letter U. cf.6. ~srCfiti{ etc. IV. ' th those given as exceptIOns m e general senses mentioned in the sec. class of cODl.~~ a root belonging to the tent. The word ~~ i daughter' to words ~ and others. P. added (1) to the 'substitute for the first vowel of the words ~~. I58. is made a complete syllable.15. 1. cf. P. P. them intq ~. VIII. and (.anit.2. ct. ~pr§'tisakhya XyI. P. I.' ing matters clear. 137-45 and IV. 1.<@t I M~dha. ct. 3. ~~<! and the BrahmaQa texts. P. which is possessed of the' properties 1IffiI. Pr. I to 8 divides ~. ! the sense of 'instructed by'.. are some ~ith the mute consonant ~ added brief comments on the Sutras which to signify the addi~ion of ~ to are called ~ and· there possibly form the feminine base e. IV.40 . substituted for it.I (~) is added in the sense of I a ~ftr cf. 2. before. (8) to the w~rds 9:51. to words cile. ct. e. Bll. 1-37. (3) metre.~". also V. seventeenth century who bas comP. 3. V. mute. P. 1 14. d. ZI.on M. without specific reference to any individual objector. 29. I. li. P.me: on m ~ tad. substitute for the first vowel of the bba~ya in the sense of CIS-ref where word to which it is added. 135.f 'q . cpo 3. CJT$'l'. T. 2. ' : ~ tad. 134. IV. '<lFn'lf:ir<ft. 10. I 98. ct. C!il~I~.g. 3. in wand ~111ii in specified sellses. as also to words ending in <iir. 4. the word 1fiT{ 'being looked upon as an affix. metrical portion cf the Veda. cf. P. . ~ ~t the end of roots has got 'l. word is mostly used in the Katantra for which lil is substituted by '<l~: Grammar works. affix (of which nothing re~ tad. stands for tbe Vrtti of ~ll~. V. 23. affix~. ang{. 4. atij~. 131 . . arrll: Uff ~\I~ AA wrt ~9m I KliS. ~ Vedic metres. P.14. by the addition of at.Q. 7. tithi on Manu Smrti V. on IV..~. P. ct..127 Virt. V.h ~'ii1~UJ ~ra: ~ . 4.Vrtti on Va. III. g. cf. '1li etc. and 1. or ~ '<i'tEfiif14 a southern grammrian of the have to be placed..62-64. 'i!)1{ITlI1. e. IV.78 Vartika.@rr. T. ~. affix ~<i causing the vr<. cf. ~~:. IV. IV.19. as . The affix Kaiyata remarks~: ~f'qTii$rr ~.3. lfcif. cf P. WSHUl and Cfi1l6fciIlOcliTRtQ. IV.. ~oft<l~ etc. 1. 1:lrJlJi~I"rt~. P. :q~ used for the frequentative bases in .ini. at the very beginning.t Patafijali's Mahabba~ya is referred. 3. place ~.17· V.~TfUT .50.143. IV. and ( IO) to words ending. conjugation of roots (~). to here by the word 'iifU!.1dhi tad.9" applied to the word mains) to signify the taking.~'!l~. 105. 2. cf. 2. in the sense of Siitras of PaI}. Cffi.in certain specified senses. cf. and <IIi{.ddhita affixes. P. - ~$ (I) an objector.IV.4) to ~he. IV cpo also ~:~1'ST ~'ijfcil~m senses. (3) to the as also to ~. and to ~~ and ~ in the ~fi'l<fi 'senses. added to tbe consonant ~ which. (2) to the words stellations. 48 . cf. d. Pa.({<f. III. 3. 3·94· of the iT{ class. III.. et. The work is called 1:11g~ cf. . They are mainly se'ven others being their varieties. ~~ the sign i!j"' (<j~ of PaQini) Elf the frequentative or intensive.1. . ~.c. The ~ tad. on P.. 90 & 91 . cf.I't<1>. 3.g. ~ot. 2.55.. affix. ar~ and others as a 'qTg\r~ artrliit<l. while ~ is substituted. (2) repetition of a word with ll"/it interposed. and replies are given. is with tad. .132. w the second consonant of the palatal .9 1 . sri{tq. tive.onants (:qqir).also ~ ~~: I Nyasa on P. (2) Ve~ic ( 5) to the words ~'rt.(lftl . affix ~<i. .7 and VII 1.' e. IV. or a:rt). placed at the beginning of affixes. as it fully. and f~ are substituted in specified which ii. the sign of the frequenta. W~. 157 70. 8 4. Also cpo i. In Jain Relithe' crude form of the word '<il{ gious Literature there.36 . The word 'qcfifuniff is which generally m'l\. mq: and to words ending word to which it is added. 2. cf. compound -of words meamog conIV. national of' or ' having as a domIto words ending with crff. III.word ( 3) to words beginning with~he I ~<1>Tg\ in the seDse of bemg ~ vowel called Vrddhi (<lIT. (4) to has occurred several times in the the words fil. cf.r in the sense of I unable to bear' of something which was not so e. I desq:ndant except the direct son or 1. 1. I. d. Each one of th~ specified senses. P. III. VI. 32 . Pr. Bb.a' M.ini referred to by Itsing and Sripatidatta. posed in 430 stanzas a short list of the important roots.f­ tribes. ~. IV. See~. the word is common in the Commentary Literature where likely objections to 'a particular statement are raised.1-' 156 en the benedictory verse of Ka§ika: ~ mq ~T ~'lRT~. ct. affix a:rtCIif causing a vrddhi word ~ is used in the Maha.92. P. at~l:f. VII.Some scholars believe tha. IV. ( I) Vedic Literat~re in gene:-al as round in the rule~ ~ WhICh 3. 3. ~ and ~. meaning a secondary root derived from the primary root in the sense ~E!'i the sign of the aorist (~) for of intensity. V. 28.rf<!Ci'j~ in the sense of SllWl. 4·3.Et~ \l@ti'1lmili 'q P. d. lIl'fil. on 1.' . 2. V. means CI~i{l Pii. 6 9. present there' .102. Il2.ini's terminology . V. ~i<{t<iHi. V. composed in respect of'. added ( 1 ) to the \Yords ~ and 144 and 149. 16.88 . 1. with their 'm{~ possessing the sense of~. cf. 1. after the word ending in ~9 the forms of the root ii.oj. is omitted. cpo ~TUJj ~fctr. 106. P. to the words ~~. See ~lfcfol and qftq{. Kat.56 also P. ~. 1. ~9":. 2. ~V. . is .34. P. paQini.66. The ~~ the consonant ~ with "I. IV.. ~ J ~ a gloss on the Sutras of paI}. <Q) to compound words in the sense of 1(9. 1. ~Jf(fWlJl~ others in the sense of 'a . P. I'4~·66. and iINl. 91. ~1~.122 Vart. <i\Qig. was a similar '"lf61 on' the sutras of P..

~r. Pro I. if followed by any fourth or third consonant out of the class consonants. popularly called 'lilfu~fu. 386-388 of the Vyakaral}a Maha bhal1Y a . 5). -~m. As the <tiT~'fiI~RI is mention~d by It-sing.. anoo ~rf~'f. ~ q~. 1.<l'l::lt!'I::"U0:{ ~sfir q-ij-~" a poet and grammarian of probably fourteenth century.~. posses~ed of the properties 'U"f.! :q •••~ffi8<f g wij-ir ~+!T"1t f. (of course differ. a descendent oC Jagaddhara wrote a commentary on Balabodhini. cf. cf. ~ ~. 'l~. 4. Bh. I w~it W'l'~: "I~it <. in the general ~W'li senses. ~~.flU. r. 21.~~ff: I I (t ) ". Society. also W({tlitm( I ~~&NIll -. 1.lana in his PrauQhamanoramiikhaQQana. cf.i~. (3) writer of Sarapradipika.7.m 1t:rfff. Rajanaka SitikaI)tha. or the son of. VIII. I wrote a sort of refutation of Bhatto oji's commentary Prau<.by the coll€~tion of Vedic bymns cpo Vak. mented Tattvabodhini and a commentary on the Madhya Kaumudi named~. H~ has referred to his work KaustubhakhaI)<. rnrc:. 8. i1T<i'ft'. VII. f the fifth Adhyaya ofPaI)ini's A~ta­ dhyayi as the pada begins with the rule m~ . a famous grammarian of the Mauni family who lived in Vara1Ja~i in tbe seventeenth century. t!!lreI'<i<i:. of the fourteenth century who wrote a . M. ~~'i. ~lT.. It has fourpadas of twelve .. 2.. ~ ~ ing for ~. T. a short term (~R:) signifying the soft in aspirate class consonants OI. e. He wrote ~+!'f(Cj~f. ·affix ~<:i added to the . ar..39. \ ::rmfr one of the seven principal Vedic metres. The mute letter ~ has been attached to the affix ~ so tt>at -the base ~ before it could be termed_ pad a (cf.was his minister.. a commentary on the Siddhantakaumudi called ~N<fr which supple. IV.. cpo ~kpratjsakhya XVI. See~.I a short term or Pra"tyahl'ila stand~ and f(. 0!!I~'i.~. If.JTilfff T. He lived in the sixteenth century. (2) writer of a commentary on the ~k­ PratiSakhya by name Van.I6 ) and as a result have the . II). " .fiten~: P.~. IV. commentary named ~ also named HaimaIiriganusiisana-vyakhya on the ~~~~ of Hemacandra. Vol. or if it is at the end of a piida. cf. g.~ a grammarian quoted by Ujjvaladatta III.f. He was a pupil of VireD SVara. ~ Vitthala. at the bfginning of affix!:'s is mute in PiiQini's grammar.'i'jfu:<tiT. 17. P. ~n'{ third consonanj of the palatal class of consonants. VIII.. 70. -~m~ a famous Beugalee Fcholar of VyakaraI)a and Nyaya who has written a small treatise dealing with syntax. . VIII. on 1.t!f "IN ~" +!J1:J1<If ~ Bha~avrtti on P. a poet and grammarian of Kas~ mira of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named ql~N<=ft on the Katantra SiUras.. ::rmfm. the time of CJiI&!<n1'lfu is fixed as the middle of the 7th century A.I I 158 s_even principal metres viz. I. which he ~amed ~~<i but which is popularly termed ~~:q.39. +tqiflC/:. a commentary on the Sarasvata VyakaraI).rmC/. who wrote a commentary named Katantrabalabodhini on the Katantrasfitras. .Cl. . see pp.. and :.ym (I2..(:.qf ll<frfilm: I .p. 2. cf. published by theD.143. r. XXIV... cf. He wrote a commentary on the Laghukaumudi also. a kind of Vedic recital wherein each word is repeated six times."1 ~ tlW{:mlt!l:J<'3"~: ~ ~mq.I ent from the well-known poet). tliit.irii for any consonant excepting a semi-vowel 01' a nasal. I I ~~ one of the famous joint ~utbors . I2. as a grammar treatise written some 40 years before bis visit. which in its turn is based on the Papapatha.lini. P. ~and ~ ~ ~ ::Immr (I) the well-known poet and ~ a learned commentary on Nilgesa's l\Iababba~yapradipoddyota written by his pupil q¢. who has also mentioned Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya. 12.9ra. ct. "?¥. son of $'i~"1 and he severely criticised the views of Appaya Dikl1ita and Bhattoji Dik~ita. D. 4. to whom a small treatise on gramII:i~r by name ~e<jICfi\1ll or ~ IS I attributed.JiRft ( 8. 12) and so on. Ejrq.consonant ~ changed into" by P. V. 4. VIII. . pad.. q<{o'~ ~<l 1 i ~ tad.S.takramalakl1aI)a. E. His famous work is the Rasagailgadhara on Alailkarasastra.je[ ~Tfu~ t~r ~'llm ~ ~~ Eli'!: I "Iir fq~lj: fi: 'lillf{.a and Alamkara " Who wrote many excellent poetical' works. I2. Pat.~~ (possibly the same as. He ~ a grammarian. Vedic language as contrast<:d with 1t1'1T (ordinary language in use) . The treatise is named CflRCnqR. 2. ~m.:. ~qlnlll and '1\00~<J:~'li1fuq. -cpo W~J<~ t!l!!f: 1 t!'Dn~ aTrq~­ a grammarian who wrote a short gloss called <tiTo~~!fll% on the Ka tan trasfi tras. aTIlf<lc/: ~. ~~<lI~ scholar of VyakaraI). ( a'O!ilt1'i~R) \i'Iil~ a famous Naiyayika who wrote Sabdasaktiprak.word +!qG:. ~ ~~ lfRt ~l1IWIT '1~~'lj ~ ~l~filsr: I ~ I found in the Vedic Literature.f1Fft can have the above divisions. ~~ 159 qTCj~~ ) who lived in the eighteenth century. (2) writer of a commentary named Vadighatamudgara on the Siirasvataprakriya. ~(jt:t ~~m tIT'<i ~~<O~C§ijlf. 3. fum :q P.je[ is called one of the 8 kinds ("If!~iifo ) of the Kramapatha. For details.90Cj>r:m~ P. Some scholars believe that ::wnfct(Cj was the same as ::wntftG a king of Kasmira and <TIll".:¥. with 61 added to it for facility of pronunciation. ~_ tfitI. ~<l. a Jain grammarian. cf. 'iff. and qrll'ii) 'of the wellknown gloss (<iRI ) on the Siitras of i a popular name given by grammarians to the ilrst pada (. I I II ! . Vedic. ~~ J\ ( represented.. It has further varieties like ~~. q~ ~.f<:ilfctt<i. letters each. consonant prescribed by paI). 53· which see above.ji!n:nli~ I The recital of al\ti'<i<i: Wi~ tliit<l can be illustrated aSaTIlN<I:~. Poona: See ~~Efir.~ (I) author of ~ a commentary on T{ffUJfq~!iQ written by ~ the same as ~. ::I the consonant ar. 5.J2'f is defined as O!!I~llfcr~+ljt mrt ~ q~ 'lili~. "~it S. I substitution of a :.asika around I600 A.lha-MaDorama on the Siddhanta Kaumudi. tI5.

\1IIU@am<ilq a short disquisition on the correctness of: the word~.! . 2. on P.bha~ya on P. (2) a word supposed to be marked with the \ mute indiCatory letter or.. liT ar sr~l1r 1-:1\1. II. ffi~ ii~ ~ftt. II. I.1.¥l~ q~~ I ~&: \<if@' ~Tt . V. but referred to as . but not the word ~ itself. sii. which are the same as <s~.j~Ii'T.cf. 4.the sense of words referring to the expression of ~ sense which is entirely diffe~ent.. ~'1. ~m and others. ~ ~:'M.rst advocated by Vajap)iayana which wa!' later on .jffljm:q~~· q~ II' . 2. 1.. ( 3) In the Priitisakhva works ~ means the first two consonants of each class ( qir)..of the Svarita or circumflex accent.the sense of 'a root' to the wordsonuT. 1. II. IV. 7. exists in every object or substance. railga. P. i~63. llN'f_~ftl~iit . century \vho wrote a gloss on Katantrasfltras. tf<ITlf'f'q~q ~~ P. . the word ~I~ is. Pr. a commentary on the Sarasvata Siitras. taken place when any other operation in the same section is to take effect. ~ born or produced there or then. 16·3 and 4~ tad.5 o' . has already taken"place by virtue of the Anta~ conveying practically the same idea. ~. ~. • lnclu?ed In a'lffl or composite expressIon. cf.r<{l~l­ author of the Siddhftntaratna. The word is used in this sense by the Varttikakara saying that such a word does not denote itself but its synonyms jcf. and hence it denotes ifcI. affix :. imt. the word is defined anddlustrated by Yaska as . d. the original svarita accent as contrasted with the svarita for the grave which follows uponan acute as prescribed by P.!:IflRT ~. ~~ etc.. Pari.rrfu' or universality as the denotation of words. ~a technical term of Jainendra graa I ::i~~Rt mmar. g. it the denotation or denoted sense of every. M.r~.q:. ijor etc.. cf. cpo ~ <Mt fi!: I Jain.:j~ case termination ilf~ of the nom. 228. Nir. In the Siitra e·u \1~!r'l~qt P .rraTl! in the sense of ~ or variety. 1. . ~~ tad. III..an ?nment or giving up of propertIes 1D _the case of a word • • .-ei~8iiF<!Flf'q \ mrt ~ gt~. In the Mahiibha~ya a learned di~cussion is held regarding whethef Glffiris' the I I I is .n~i=!R8(I~ ~1~~Ci<!: R. ~~1<if¥lIm~ m~ ·~~:I·llj'e<f. Vart. etc.p. The jatya svarita is noticed in the words a:. and which is found in the words l{iit:.. although it has taken place. iii. 40 • see :o!lf~.'"l' q e~ I ~w:~fir~ ~ I ~ij'iiI~ ~1Wfil ~eF{1I~ .p. .JR<l: I affix marked with the mute letter or. See Par. other "'defiilithms of ~he w9.. See arT+!1<rrfffil. <7 0 .. ~.68 Vatt. Paribha~a 50. affix added in. ~.. Originally :o!laTl! was possibly an independent word. ll~mtlf:. d. g. V• 2. denoting a genus.pad. corresponding to ~q~ of paI).d ~~ .!~: Durghata Vrtti on P. VI. Fb. denotation or ~ is the denotation. r. 1.letters in paI]. Sek. Pr. is not brought.yaon P. 2. 3.. 4. For detailed explanation see Mababhii.i by Caritra "'imha.paribhlWi~ ~if~~­ that which is ' bahiranga ' is regarded as not having taken effect when that which is' antaraIiga' is to take effect. 23. plural mentioned as . although on many an occasion vyakti or an i~dividualobjectis required for da'!' a if' an d IS .1. ' 1Y aIrs ferred to in ordinary talks.. substantive or Pditipadika.. I .31 and VII. 1. but as its use. . affixes. hari's VakltapaQi.co~pletely given up. X. ~\j.t~ n~me given to an alternate view about. ! 1.. It is named Katantravibhrarna on which there is a comm= entary named Avacur!J. g. I) lit.q~ Ni!. and hence. II. cf. supposed to be fim.~~ a reputed BuddhIst mmarian of the eighth ~ntury who Gl"llQ J I I . nom~ ~q?iI' the view that :o!M.• 67. P.<i the word \1~ gIves up lts'sense inasmuch as I' he.2. dass.2. written by a grammarian named C'akrin. called :omn~. .6. which.ini. I. ~(q b d .ncfil!:. especially as a noun.... d.~ • . e. a . on IV.V. 13· ( . cf.f8•. 4. ~ and others. T-he view was fi. Sek. \ ~n ~mpound words such as ~ m t e ~ente~c~ \f. 6 9. one of the senses in which' the ctad.'"l' ~: tIJl: . X.:r&ftIWn1l' fcr. case terminati~n am: of the plural. this secondary sense is found in cases of indication (~!ij1lW~) like ~rijt e1N: I and B~huvr. universal. ~ I' sion where the constituent mem. held by many~ the. P. according to the grammarians.2 4. 3. tion of the third KaQQa of Viikya. was found restricted.. act ua11y re. It discusses :. See Mahii. For details' see Par. mfu~ ~~cnm ( ~ ) a composite expres": the acute acc~nt for the last 1 VOWf I of a word ending with 'ffi of \' the p.I padiya..rrff: and the following.Ihi compounds like tftffiHR cpo Vak.64. <i\~T etc.50.jf6 by him.. The biggest or widest notion of the universal or .· r. I. ~ also gives up its sense as every man is not brought. 45· in the Jainendra VyakaraQa. 16. . unnecessarily ~epeated.. 4· ~ a grammarian of the thirteenth T \ G1~ tautologous.fI'tfR <liifu o~um ~ 11~~ l1li1ru~ru . by PaQini in IV.:j~ 161 . .I. is to be looked upon as not having . e. II. VArt.25~37.n ~KTI .I bers give up their individual sense. . The word :mRr is deaned in 'the Mahabhru.Bb.ya as follows :--3l11iRt!irarr it .i~ ~ ~ ~ ni's terminology.. or genus only. e.j~ ~f. the word ~ is not however found used in this sense. e~g. in VIII.1/ (3fq'{ amr I colophon. is the denotation of every word. cf. ~ name of a variety I I mfu genus. genus is ffilT which. Kas. 2. 'fi1J1.. .. . ~~t<lI. 2.. w.160 . 1. \ ~~~ name given to the first sec. the nolion of generality which is present in the several individual objects of the same kind. ~ :aa:l"G'~ ~fu!lt. IV. on P. cf. P.i§a&SI.:rr<n\W. the king. "i". ~.'1~. . Mimamsakas being the chief supporters of the view. ~. it came to be looked upon as an affix on the analogy of the affixes ~. .~..j(~t ~~q :. . VI. it is not . d.. It is of course to be n?ted that although the sense is gIven up by each word. P.2... Bh.:j~l<iPlF.from the original sense. ! ~ a conventional term for ~3f6RUl used I I 'Stl(h+"ft~~ invalidity of a I' i grammatical operation prescribed by a rule in the::srr+ltlf section (P. I 22 up to the end of the fourth'pada) . HI. ~t~~ invalidity of a 13ahirailga operation that.-. IV. +!if~~ .are' prescribed by PaI}ini in the siit"ra o=f :. For details see Bhattr. ~t ~. and com.

Sometimes a Jiiapaka is not regularly . r. The ffiijr~Cj letter is called ~<r also.in verse called ~'I. which' see above. on Mahesvara Siitras 1. 3. ti!f. If it is claimed that a particular word is V\'ithout any purpose.43 etc. I.3. It yvas written by I t .la sap is elided and the root is reduplicated in the . The ~k. 18. The grammar is based on the A~tadhyayi of Pat:. <ntiil(lfff~ a root belonging to the ~r~~l'{UJ or the third conjugation. I in ~~ the transformation of minto ~~. Bh.ir~.5. certain cases mentioned in P. writer is referred to as ~<!iI\ in many later grammar w()rks.lini. cf. f~rlI. a treatise on Vyiikara(. X <ii ifffl' ffiijflI. r. See r' VyiikaraJ}a has no VedIC section dealing withVedic form~ oraccent. See~­ C<:Jl<!i{1ll above. II. .D. aiItm~~OT the revised version by filW used in the sense of ~~rij. -+ ~ a grammarian of unknown date who wrote PadaprakaraQasamgati on Katantra. ~qq. 'Cfi!j~. cf.3.g. Pratisakhya looks upon "K. the phonetic element or letter called ffi~rlI. ~<l~f{!ilTRen1::4 and ~SI'li<:>.~~~ (r) havingthHoot of the tongue as the place' of its' produc.la written by Uumaranandin. T. Tbecommentary is called P<!Tt! or 9if~9if~<r{IJllif~ and the. of a grammar work written by Piijyapada D'evanandin. . the substit~tionof ~ for flr. III. it is a mere indicator and is called cITl:'!'Ii instead of ~1ll''Ii.· in the fifth century A. The work of ~1H:iff. see Paribhii ~endusekhara. introduction published by the BhiiratIya JfUin.M(e'{~~ author of the well-known comment. Bh.lini . The grammar. of course. III andII2. pI.· .' is 1i:nown as . P. The JaumarasaluskaraQa is the same as Jaumara VyiikaraQa.57. For the instances of ]iiapakas.1tl1\ written by Kramadisvara. Such a word or words or sometimes even the' whole Siitra is called ~ or indicator of a particular thing. are very laconic and it . The Panbha~a. I ~I~ ( ~) lit. which were comp"sed by ilil'JClJ1lR in the thirteenth century. M.ar y called !attva~odhi~i on Siddhantakaumudl. The. ~ I ftt&nli~ produced at the root of the tongue..ir<J. Bh. See'~. especially.IIO. ' ~~ .68 Vart. ~~OJthe fiff~ mention as ~(l. neglected. and which are shown as ~T~<ii after the particular indication (~tq<l') is drawn from them.lini explaining Vedic forms being. VaraJ}asi.four conjugational tenses.li. ~~q)f name of a commentary on Amarasimha's Amarakosa written by Sripati (Cakravartin) in the 14th century.lhamanorama. but this is not possibJe as ~~G:~ilf~ was a Jain Grammarian Who flourished much earlier. .?ottamadeva in his Jfiiipakasamuccaya has drawn numerous conclusions of the type of ~q<l' from the wording of Pat.IJ ) from a word or words in a Sutra which apparently appear to be lnl~ or without purpose. the tip of the tongue. ~f<ililtijl"iH'!fu ~~ a grammarian of the fourteenth century A. Some scholars identify him ""ith ~tf1G:~<l'l~ the writ.38. VIII. cf. added to the root iif before the' causal sign fi1I'i:f" when the root means shaking. 23.. I. See~. He hved m the first part of the sixteenth centuryand was a junior contemporary of Bhattoji Dik~ita. ~~ above.. cf. M. of which the Mahiivrtti written by Abhayanandin is the principal one. For instances of ~r!f<ii. The word ~ in the rule q~ ~ is a well-known ~t!f<ii of the a1O:i'H:~qR'wn. 'IOg. ~. written by Abhayanandin in the ninth century A. D. who revised and rewrote the grammar :a-&!mm and the commentary named ffiCfcft on it. a word very commonly used in the sense of an indicatory statement. Puru!. and the guttural letters as ~~~Il<l'. third conjugation of roots. on I~ 1. augment f. It has got many commentaries. 7. wOfks on other 5ystems of grammar such as the Katantra. See cWftVi(. also called Siddhanandin. name of a Commentary on the Jainendra VyakaraQa. VII. the Jainendia and others have drawn similar Jnapakas from the wording of the Siitras in their systems.other of 370 0 siitras.constituted of the four parts given above. Ill. ~~~ a work glvmg a collection of about 400 Jfiapakas or indicatory wordings found in the Siltras of PiiQ.lpith.. tion . 19. The workis available in two versions. The weed ~q<!i and ~ are used many times as synonyms 'although ~<l' sometimes refers to the conclusions drawn from a wording which is ~ or indicator.i1:.stl but it has added a sectIon on Prakrta just as the HaimaVyakaraQa.ini and the conclusions drawn from them.Th~ Jaum~ra ::mm:~~ a supplement to' the Jaumara VyakaraJ}a written by Goyicandra. the section of Vedic accent and th~ rules of Pat:. Jumaranandin of the original grammar treatise. is found in the Paribh1i~asucana of Vya<. the Kasikavrtti of J ayaditya and Vamana. The term is often used in the MaMbha~ya. For details See Jainendra VyakaraQa. the commentators always tiy to assign some purpose I or the other for the use of the word in the Siitra. d. The Paribba~as or rules of interpretation are mostly derived by indication ( ~!fCJim.is believed that not a single word m the Sutras is devoid of purpose. ~m~~: ~e<f:' M.. indirect or implicit revealer. (2) name given to that phonetic element into which .~. on L 1. 63.om Mahiibha~ya and Prauc. The work summarises many points fr.is called Jainendra VyakaraI}.II 162 163 wrote a scholarly commentary on . ~ verbal termination ~ substituted i for the original % ofthe third pers. the object or it beiDg achieved in some other way. 5 I etc. those of PaJ.er of the ~_ &jJCRUJ.a or Jainendra Sabdanusasana. His teacher was Vamanendrasarasvati while his pupil was Nil~-' kaJ"ltha Viijapeyin.D. The ~ is shown to be con" stituted of four parts. Be calis' himself Bodhisa ttvadeSlyacarya. 1. class of roots headed by ~ after which the vikarat:.G.Siitras.it~~ICiHI1I' name. 4-I08. the same as which see above.j{m~r~UJ.mrll~<l'. cIT fct~<l'~ ~ P. a visarga is changed when followed by ~or~.r. see Nyasa on 1. Pr. one consisting of 3QOO siitras and the .lini. earliest use of the word ~r!fCli in the sense given above. The Sl1tras.ir{j: V.

- IOJ and IV. . but !l~ in the perfect tense. 1. 3. 14. II. nasals and fI.\tfiT. 465. 2. and liiWr[UJ~.<m~<m. etc. I.tie five classes.a . El". .iver§aUy valid. ~~ a I !i1'"!:.e. mq~j'o<:f 165 ..RGIf. .!)'6l1itCf.:jI~.a. ~~ifi 'ijlq'1l~ii( redlized from the ~qq:. 2.I40 • 40 • m (I) !'!t. 'iffi<Ii~.. eighteenth constellation (<1~). I. Kas.anding for 'i=1<!1lfct. P. III. d.: I M.62. pI. pad. 68 Vart. indicated or !uggested. -and optionally so. on P. ~.164 PUfU§ottamadeva. ~11J! and 3f1~'fu~. who wa·s proo ]..lably th~ same as the famous great VaiyakaraI). I q. VIIL 2. IV.hile l1L is changed into ~ optionally I cf. P. ~. realizable.ftr<!lT fi:j.. the usual expression <Hernl fct.the· first vowel of the word to which the affix is added. <mffitfiT. in ~ tad. ~ of a t2ddhita affix. II. ~ a short term conclusion or formula to be drawn from a Jiiapaka word or words. cg and 1:1) of the class consonants. 3.. (2) name of a commentary on Nagesa's Laghusabdendusekhara by Udayankara Pathaka of VariiI)asi in . and m -are added to \.q: is substituted. I8J. ~q<firn:« <1 ~~S1' Par. 4.. in the imperfect and after the sign ~ of the aorist. 4.9. P.onsonant. possessed of the properties . changed to ~tl. 2. 1·3·7· verbal ending of the 3rd pefs. 54.. cpo . or possible to be drawn. 1. ~.8. P. signifyfng ·the additiQn ofthe affix er ( 'iji ) to the root. word-· ing.le third of the Class consonants. 4. (2) a conventional term for 3f0lj~ (indeclinable) used in the Jainendra Vyakara:r. VII.ds referring to their special kinds. signifies 'lIt: for. howevH.r. P. -~1'f. affix.of 3fr(f acute ~Y f:qn: (f>. Bh. 19. a short term (q~l\[H·) for the fourth and tl.J. t. fs.3. ~~~Cf. ( 2) a root marked with the conso" nant Ui. 3f!~Cfif. 2. e.F{ I qf1'311r~iiiJ'lCJ:: l[frl:T \ lilfr~q:. affix 3f.58. g. ~~'fiT. d. Rh. from the original lff to. Such conclusions are not said to be Ul.r.. Ill. 1~163 ) the propert. 55.60~ VIII.e liable to undergo the prescribed operation.maJly. Of tad._P. on P.:o: p.53. 106. which themselves as well as wor. 2.fter ~ ( I) the nasal (fifth c. a Buddhist scholar of PaQini's grammar in the twelfth century A. 'Wf1~.. 4. e. 84. if~: ~:ifffi~<TI CfIT~~~9 ~nftrn: M.85. on III. Parasmaipada. charade. in the potential and the benedictive moods. nasal consonants "{. l:TlCCfilre'fiTj cmq:.1 C>rol'Tlm:) for the· fourth. ct. from a wording in -the Sutra of PaI)ini in the manner shown above.~ taking verb-endings of both .t5. II~.58. II7. 1. wording of the affix lff (see above) suggested by the Varttikakara to have the last vowel '. Sek. ct. ~.or. -~ verb-ending of the 3rd pers. VI. I. for ~ ( i. VIII. 4. I. I.n'i. d. M. ~ etc. 115.fu arrt«enrfi. 4. ~ii. a tuute syllable prefixed to a root in the Dhatupatba of PaQini. ~onants of . d.l~ preceded by arrqc:. d. II2. '. ~ ~ short form of the word ~m. ~:.lt<jc'l"{. 362. d. 3. ":lnd ~. <!I<m~ ) . the word q:. 68. it is added. and refers to the word or words supposed to be without any purpose and therefore looked upon as a reasOn or ~f! for the desired. conclusion to be drawn. VII. g. cf. meaning' having ~ as ~((' used by the Viir~tikakara in COIlnection with those words in the rules of PaQini. (:qgl!Jf CiJ:i<rr) I i1f(of<i ~ a term. the affixes f~."{. III. ~ at the beginning of an affix in PaI)ini Sutras is mute. fourth consonant of the palatal class of consonants. the conclusion drawn from an indicatory. ( 2) mute letter. IV.g. causing the substittition of vrddhi for the preceding vowel and ·acute accent fer the first vowel of the \Vord to which.rized by which an affix signifies'lrn for.dusion or inference. III. cf. a short term (Sl(!!lNH) for con so_nants excepting semi-vowels· and nasals. !IJ. 78 .39 ·and VIII.: \ cm:~!fI11l1~1 f{Tltfiltii: m~req:. Atm. P. d. 83.:in tile Sai~ika senses. 4. which ~ is changed into the COg-I nate of the preceding comonant ". See ~r. Paribha~as ~ \TcI'~fu st. . ~f.'q~9 being transferred. arrer.g that only so much. ~. ~ a short term ( SR'QIflH) for the five and the like. See~. VIII. with th~affix . <1. cf. on II.-the 18th century. short term (s:rt'lm~) for the fourth ('lff.) of the palatal cl~s of consooants ~ (I) an· affix marked with the mute letter or.a. ct. lIO. <i. 2.~3 Vart. ~Cf concluded or proved by means of a ~ word or wording. both the padas... M. The word is -sometimes used in the sense of ~qq:.[- etc .t9C\. 51f1Fi a cor.~: etc. or. The words~\<i ~l~ -q<jI~<J.li~W'. a. affix i[rfi added to words headed by CfiRft as also to words· meaning a village in the yahika country optic. the preceding vowel. is to be inferred. !. ~ a short term (5I~H) for any consonant except semi-vowels.. VII. possessed of the properties 'l1~G:lq. u6.. cf. IlS and Varttika on IV.ro. e.. aJ. The affixes OOI. ~. 119Rr on P.. e. cLP. g. subs tit uted for the <!I<IiH of the ten lakaras. P. VIII. F. on P. 2.rr~qqi%~r'lm if. rr6.3. causing vrddhi for the· first vowel of the word to which H is add~d in case the affix is a tad.129 . ~. drawn from a word or words in a Siitra with a view to assigning a pUipose t~ that or to those words which otherwise would have been without a purpose. 1. VI.37 Vart. ct.. log. Pari.. . occur very frequently in the Mababbli~ya.!ii<1 d. third.. 453. d. 8. as l. VIII. P.. d. but. second and first con. as is absolutely necessary. ~'<:<?. the Vak.lso by some other words. word -in the form of (I) name of a comm~ntary by Ramacandra possibly belonging to the 18th cen tury on the VajasaneyiPratisakbya. 1 i(. 1. cf.:qfu>foCfi~)!II: P. :m~'fiT. ff~~ 'q ~Tl1]f:q '+!R<IT£!r. (3) a mute letter added to a root at the end to signify that the root takes verb· endings of. lff etc. 2.41 etc. name of a class of 30 roots headed by the root 'i"~ cUm arld given as 'tjW ~. 63. ol'ii:q lff'q~f. statin.I~6. lIO.W-<i. 8r and ~CJ:: in the potentiai and benedictive moods.l patronized by Lak~maQasena. Bh. ar. P.D.a~ etc. VI. the sense of the present time. -q:. P. .-31. ~ffi'T. III. . 1 &m. Kas. 4. for the letter ~. Bh. ct. 108.

12 9. '<TI~ii. (7) i augment (aiIiJ'I1).P. Bh. tf9ii1T9if" ll![t<ltl'l:. . (2) to the word rrnfu: and . letter. ~~q: VII. g. cf.Ja nor of· a Kliiatriya caste' in the sense of the word (~!li) itself.l~. ~'"l~:.. P. 2. 2. 1: 3. ct. affix <! causing '!f:i< to tbe first vowel of the word to which it is added and the addition of ~ (i-ttl. 3l'~. 52. I.. vowel. ct. V. 59. d. e. IV. (5) to the words s. e.etc. d. .. (a:rft!:). ct.23. 1.ma-fSrn: ~fuln~ fi!l<lIq}~ P. in the Atmanepada the vowel of 3. P . it signifies the addition of IV. e.. a K~atriya too. 3. critfu. added to the roots f(f. cf. IV.17I. ~cr4. P. 6.. T. P. V.~.iJlf.78. etc. 2. . SiTtr. part of a word consisting of the final vowel in a word and the consonants following the final vowel. I.I. 2. . ~ ~ 1()1 under certain conditions.g. ~i\'FI:. P. (ST~~nm) standing for words ending with the affix -J!1iO:!.( tj. (' 4) lqt provided the. sense of ' something given a~ w~ges • e. cf. 66. When added to the conju(~) or scripture (3n~rlj) e. g. (9) to ~! g~ etc. ~'the . e. . not admitting ~ti"j or to the preceding vowel and causing ~ in 'the feminine (by P. VIII..2. cf. srlrr'l. I. affix ii. 3irr~~ in the four. VI.g. ~ii:. affix Ii.~~: ~~:. e.34. VI.1. 3. lfi<1'j<TI. affix t applied to the word m:i:r in the sense of ' having that as . aTI~~'I'i.<j ~I'l:.. Ill.as or K. if!!... Q.m~Cf P. .~ and crt.6J.. g. as also 'to the wOIds'meancf.. IV.8. affix tcli added to the words I>f(IllT. IV. cf. g.!!. P. · 166 and tne Parasmaipada and the Atnianepada kinds. IV. short term for affixes beginning with el'l. qJ and ~ under certain' conditions.. e. as prescribed by' P1iI}.55.signifying the addition of the affix :q. ~:P. + ~IS: = 1i!lJ~rrn:. 2. augment ~ added to th~t in.'1m:' e.'IT~: i d. ii~~ (fcl'lff) ~<f1cg:.g. (2) the class of lingual consonants ~. P.tj~m etc. g. V..26.. 1.iflm'I'iI<!T: if~) e. e. ~Rr-m ~~T!fl~ll:U]~ I <!l!f: ~Rr.atriyas.T43. ~uq:. it shows that the to the words ~~ and ~qJ<l{. 54.! tad. P4. g. ct.7.. . ar-m<'C<!Tfct 12. mnltiIii.26~. significance of the aqdition of~. 1. cendant' added to words beginning affix (aT) added to the word lfi<1:l<TI with aiI. connection' with which it is pre$cribed. ClvTIt'I'iI\. 3.. 91i!fioll:.:. cf.4. Ill. cf. ~. . g.80. ants. ~ 1 \ Case ending of thethird case. "'~ d " aelty . When added to an <rl~.V. IV. III. g. senses termed III. 27. IV. +rte and <iIT~ii in the ~ I_ .46. 3. V.I I ~. ce~tain the samiisanta affix aT added to specified words at the end uf the tatpuru~:l and other compounds f. m. P.g. e. P.) in the sense of feminine gender.P. 3l~"l\:.ure preceded by the the word to which it is added.. tad.4 and ending with 1SlI~ in P. I. 3. It is words 'Ii~1I. Pr. ct. ~IHI . acute accent for the first vowel of ~ krt affix added to the root CIt in Vedic Literat. ~. II3· Pratisakhya works. P. When prefixed or headed by ~ffl in the sense of affixed to an affix as an indicatory 'domicile of'. all'fil~ o~~iiliil<I:.. ISS if\ijm~ P. on I. 1.4 excepting those ncuns where any other affix prescri. 2I. 3. ~ deletion or elision of the final syllable beginning with a vowel. ~ ma. V. cr. (2 j ing ~ra (kinds of tribes) as also to short term. IV. bed by subsequent rules becomes applicable.~­ gational affixes (W<!il<::) it shows that ~~. V. 31':<tRl'f"l. 'l'il~ being added for facility of utterance. IV.~\Iq: in the sense of verbal activity.etc.e. f9-mcg: 16-23· ~.15). affix fie added to the preposition d1<! in the sense· of 'lowering of the· nose' (.. (2) tad. ~a.108 Viirt.rked or characterized:. T. d. affix in the sense of ' a desPro 1. IV.. I.g. it is prescribed in connection with ~ and !1l. 4~I45. ~ . tIllIrr:. aiI. P. d. P. the Eame as ~ in Piil)ini. e~. found used mostly in the 3·lIZ. 13. VI.89. 'lill~:. 4.3· II4. ~ 4. e.· augment marked with it is to be V.ini in certain rules. \I~lS:. I V. ct. ~~<R'r etc. P. ct. Vart. . f<r~.79. (8·) to the wO. the sense of ' associated with '. 17. cf also V• Pr. 1 .-n'turrfu. see~. a root ma~ked with the mutesyllable f<>r prefixed to i r .~~ffi'. g. followed by a sibilant.words in the sense of t'1 (wandering tribes foreaming 1:: (1) the consonant ~. 3. tlT+t1 ~'iij d. tll. aIr or ending with !i:. cf. e. V. in the H. P~ IV. con£onant ~. I.q. IV. SilJcrt. number. cf. causing 'Am for the initial vowel and the addition of the fern.92.72. the vowel 3f being added for facility of utterance.Ilse of d~ty I' 1. money). 3. etc. 'q" ~ (I) tad. as in the sense '~ . d.. d. <1:qiJ or the lingual class of consonunder certain conditi9ns. d.T44 an~ sn. g. 4. ~iiJfu~.v mean a COllJ.. ~fu: krt affix aT.. affix· If'I'i add~d t(j~and ~in the aiI~<! senses.. cf.1. ct. e. also to the words cRI~ and ~ cf.15. P~ V. and ( 10) to the .\ ~ ~ (I) mute syllable ~ prefixed to roots to signify the additjon of the affix ~ti the class of lingual consonants. 1. V. I ~t:. ~rfOGcill:. gnI:f9Wa:J:. qlft!I~lI~ etc. P. P. IV~ 2.bY'~e . 3. g. mute letter~. RT. Pro 1.or ll:e<!. ?rq~:. g. ~ P.g. P. g. P. cf.. the fem. e. B~~~. 4. 3· IX 5· ~ ~ the final syllable beginning with a I tad.. '. .Ol{ added to the word I!'I'i meaning' a warrior tribe not of a BrahmaI. P. added to words meaning warrior tribes of the Viihika country but not BrahmaI}. ~:. the word aTRW:r . etc. d. f9i~ P. 4. IV.58. arT filii). sfttt.:ftill ) sir-g. 2. ar~~'flj~ '11~ etc. 'qfi~ e. P. perties S!lTtll~m{fil'. 1. p. d.31. P.. III. ~ tad.88. 2.. in the present tense.rds aii!P{'f. affix '3Tif to which the augment a is prefixed.. ~ the first consonant of the lingual class (e'¥l{) possessed of the pro( 3 1 to the word' fcf<r<:: e. (4 ) to the words and aT<1Q3illllt'i. P. P. e'-g. cf. cf.28• 2. (6) to the word ~i[qfct in the last syllable is changed to 1.48 V. affix ~ (~). {3} tad.65. . prefixed and not to be affixed.in P. P. P. I. 4.25. 4. IV. I P. a:r!9t1lof etc" d.53. 1. See f5r.30. For the.:. 4·90. g.g. ~~ tad. added (I) to words headed by CJiOii'llifif:.aTaij<ftlll'i compounds in the sense of' present there'.91-II2. ' ~ 3l~ I e~ :fi:1.rrq' ff:'minine affix 3fT added to mascu"'line Iiouns ending in aT by the rule ~r'lloe11J."1try and I affix (Cl1) added to the root ~ ~ taddhita tad. < affix <! signifying the substitution of vrddhi as also the . 1.i!ifB'I'i:. ~: 3(~. making the affix tr<i. ifc<JCll~Cl:.

2. (2) to the. IV. from the words ~G. IV. fcrcrtrSl etc. ~ffix ~ or ~ ( by P. cmr.22. (6) to the words .!q:. P. cf. i{~_ and '!i are substituted for ~ by the siitras quoted above. d. ~~lfi: etc.g.18. affix 0. V. according to ·P. d. ( 2) to multisyllabic words and words beginning with aq. and to the word Cfl~ in the sense of ~ expressed' cf. e. "R". if however the affix (beginning with 0 ) follows upon a word ending in l{<!. ct. 4. P. NiI<I. 84. '3". in the prescribed senses. then cn is added. words Wli ' ii1{ql!. P.l'~. and !l"l. 'IV.1921. 3. P. in the specified senses.50. 3. IV. (5) tOlFf(8\. and to the word t1.:. P. ct. affix ~ or 9i (by P. IV.g. in the Sai~ika senses. fcic!i~T.6. 'fl~ having ~ as l{G:. 3. IV. P. as also to words ending in '3" forming names of countries in all the Sai. Kas. (II) to words meaning . P. ~lT[. roots. as also to the words :u\~. IV. "l<i~ and CferT in the Sai. e. and .' ~T and others. IV. af<I:~. iffiiQ etc. cf. cf.72.which are proper nouns for persons. 11NT\m<n. in specified senses. the affix 6~ to form fern. along with ~. (5) to words expre~si ve of inanimate objects. 2. 41. affix ~. a very common tad. ~~. IV. 3. 4.. 35. 2. 3. ~ (I) tad. in the sense of ' students of' (~a­ cr~). P. 34.. the rest being elided before the affix ~. V. V..1 1 168 applicable to the words BT4'.5 1 ) with the vowel aI accented acute applied to ( 1) ~?: and others as a Caturarthika affix. ~~'iill. compound words h'l. ~ is also added as a general tad. The base.80. applied ( I) to mrRraI.P.13. while. 1:'fG«!i:. t[\. J \ ~ ~ tad. P. e..59. ~. fq1Uf and ~. IV. unless any other affix has been specified in the . affix (a~Fc!~Q).ftjI:T.. (an~ being the word formed). ~ the second consonant of the lingual class possessed of the properties IijrBr~SfiUir. P.23. Some sc~olars say that. cf. . 109 .ii: etc. cf. 3. a:J~. T. ~l'I<li 'ffi<I.64. Cb:.es of sages. Cft?l9i:. P.19-63. Fet'lQ'6IiOi:<I a nd Oj~­ !lfURCf. '3". to the word t1Tl1 preceded by q-~ or ~. to the words ~o and ~~. P. ' .( 3) to the word .2.'!i~~T in the sense of l('ij d. a general tad.124. P-rtcrif:~CfTCfifi( etc. ct. 2.80.75. 3.ving a multi-syllabic word as their first member. ' ~ etc. C5'J'l is added to ( I) ~qdT and other 'words in the sense of descendant ( aT~) e... filQ. 9itfutfIT.9i:UI~T.m+fi~ ~'!i. 3. IV. bases. in specified senses lik. in various' specified senses. 2. VII. The tad.r08. . d.60. . 169 ~ W. amf~ (9i instead of ~ substituted for ~ ).oS!.. P.51. 1. !IS. to words forming nam. P. ~. and t6 the words ~. IV. affix or ~~~~. ~. ( 12) to words denoting inanimate things excepting words showing time or place. retains generally two sylla c tad. ~ and 'l'i9f~ in the specified sens~s. in the sense of ' dyed in . (cf. cf. tn4'crif:. V. take the affix ar~. ~~:!J!'ffil~ffre:.6.g. 6r. ~ and indeclinable wcrds in the Sai~ika or miscellaneous senses. 3. w. IV. The pada begins with the rule >I'I'I'qifal3'!! P. excepting in such cases where other affixes are prescribed.' fiicn{\ '. as also to the wprds ~ and all!{ in the sense of ' multitude '. 48 . P. mlJFc!f~Cb: ~l!f... Fer the syllable 0 at the beginning of taddhita affixes. cf.{ . also with f5ro to words denoting villages in the Vabika country e. 47. making only a dIfference in the accen t.affix~. cf. sources of income' in the sense of 'accruing from '. .II6-120. p. IV.<RI ~. to multisyllabic words having their last vowel accented acu' e.51.g. ct. in the sense of 'explanatory literary work '. 68. P. the syllable \l.'~~' bies or sometimes three. '~(i. . ~ a popular name given to the fourth pada of the fourth adhy'iya of PaQini's A!?tadhyayi. 102.. instead of ~. See ~. P. in the sense of ~o:r' made better'. 2..)rds ~~r. as also to words ~.35. words having a:Rf: as the first member.51) causing Vrddhi and acute accent for the first vowel of the word to which it is added. e.'l'i is substituted. to words ending in '1\ alld to the word ~~ in the specific senses which are mentioned d. ~ andG:. OOJ:. in the SEnse of verbal activity.50..IS: (4) to the words <jEff ( in Vedic Literature). VII. 7. ~1I9iR. P. cf. ~~ tad.~<ioft. 67. 4. (8) to the words 'F~. that have ~ as ~ or mute. 2!. 3·18. 2. 79. tr~~. 3TTcTIliji:1. (3) to compound words having a word show· jng direction as their first member. 9it~9it. Kas. P. and to i[l'!. ~i~.. P. oor..~. IV. o~'!i:. 78. ( 3) to the words ~Rral]d '3".g. P. and thp. 84. 2. ~~ and words ending in fi~. ( ~) is added to words ending in . d. IV.60. V. 1 prescribing 'the taddhita affix o~ in the senses prescribed in rules beginning with the next rule' ~ clJs<Im ~ ~ ~'J~ and ending with the rule' f. on VII.e I '~~. P.50. 8. to words denoting time. IV. added. see ~ above for the substitution of ~ and 'l'i for 0: ¢ stands as a common term for 6<ij.. affix.' '~if~f(f'. d. fit<!~. the acute accent is given to the last vowel of the word preceding the affix. to which ~ is added. d.67. 3f-'!f"~ etc.1-75. 69. e. (7) to the woids :fo11<{ and others as also ¢o ~=!iu as a '"I1gd'~9i affix..g. Pro 1. (7) to any word as. IV. etc. on P. d. 3. V.:fJIm:. ~. 3. Cb!j~G:. II. affix illi. 4· 73· o~ tad. I.I<l·9. a:J~uff.9i:.83. ~.g. (4) to the words a.IJ etc.7 8• 80. 3. 3. ~ is added as a general termination. 8l~9i 'flT:otf~). mfircn:. ~. 76.52. 1l1~ and' others.ij. e. e.58. 24. 2. or Cb in case it is added to words ending in l{~.ika senses. 3. 97 . and to the words ~ etc. 3. IV. IV. 19. f. maq~'l'i etc. cf.!'l'i:.g. cf. The 'fem.. <{jUS!:jrfuCb~.. in the sense of ' ~ . 3. 'Um~. .23. 4.~. ~Fc!ifi:. P. ct. P. e. 103.~ ?ffiffi ' P. causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word to which iUs added . causing vrddhi for the initial vowel of the word to which it is added and also the addition of the fem affix t applied to the word :u+!T' in the s~nse {. IV. 3. (2 ) the consonant 0. to words denoting sacrifices.40. II· . ~ and G:. affix added in the same way as G~ abovf'. (10) to the words consisting of two syllables. IV.g. P. 2. (2) to words 9it~.+J:. 1V. P. IV..~. P. 38. the vowel aT being added for facility ot pronunciation. 3ltiter.:cr and cfBC'G in the Sai~ika senses. '2tRt. 481.63.142. When the affix 2~ is. IV.96 . and (13) to the words &:~ and· ~ in the sense of • belonging to'. 1 °9. etc.ID2. 3. and· O'i!l" as a Iso for g~ i il~. d. as prescribed by P. 2. IV..g. cf. IV. V. without making any change in sense it is added to ~cn~i(. VII. U'i:f<if etc. ct. 146. "t9m:n:. a:J~. cf. (9) to the words ~ and others in the sense 'generally present '.ika sense~ cf• .. VII. cf. ( 6) to the words m~1 J'llii'lT.

70. V. affix <lpplied to aTi:fT"CR'ca1{lT.V.. P. and not ~.. 4. rn:~llli9iUftr. aTTRt. ffl'~~ m::n:. Mahtibha$yakara has proposed mute ~ instead of ~ in the case of the affix l(~ of the first pETS. >f<U~:. the words remaining as they are when the optional affix Gil!.g.d to the root S!iif.. ' '~ f. d.g. fa~~. V.23 . 2. and to Bahuvrihi compounds ending in ~ to show feminine gender. the penultimate vowel and the consonant or consonants following it. ijWfu etc.il:lf. cf. affix '31f added to the -w()rd ~ in the sense of d~minutive : e. P.:r{ stands forG'dlItra. 4. 1. to form the word iffli. IV. P. e. affix arr applied to dissyllabic words. e. P. P.57. 3. 125 Varttika.g.. ~ cf. when these words are connected with the root ~. 25. affix ar in the sense of ~ applied to a numeral to form an ordinal numeral. P. cf. V. ~~fu. in the sense of • father' . 94 Vart 3 . 5 r.:r Sllijlllf[fir. P. e. to the w~rds aN. 2.g. VI. I3. ilTffllI\f:.e.and ffii:. causing vrddhi and fu. as also to the words ffi':i'. P. cf. 49. ~ (I) third letter of the lingual class 'e. cf. 3. STrnB~. e. 4.3!q.mentioned in the 171 of consonants possessed of the properties ifrcmvr. ~<i. to the word ~a.Il5.· to show the -{~ i..73. ~fu. P. preceded ana. showing completion (~UJ9l~). ~~~ffi:.·2.g. ct.. affix arr added optionally to words ending in +1'1.. 49. 4.143. aTTf.g. sing. tt!ffllI\f: . llifiT~~:. P. 4. The affix ~ is also applied to ~~. affix 'section of siitras V. e. ~a.48. 'l1't G (I) krt affix ar applied to the root by 3RT. 'liWr. IV. g. The syllable ftr of f<rofa is also elided before an affix marked with the mute letter ~..mr fern.g. affix aTail ih the sense of determination or selection of one out of many.:tBO. l. used as imitation of sounds.~.41.qi"'!.ith 8TlTR'. P. ~. fif~) Wl'f. words ending in ~ and the word fcima.Jmf'!flli. 1.2. M. G:l1. Bh. 48.92 . 3. P.) of the' preceding word viz. cf. on III. tad. 50.mi.7I Vart. aT~ etc. aTr<ffi\ and l'l:ffi:.g. affix of the first future.13.' f. v:<iifci'ff<I:. . 4.45.im~' . ~'!i: cUfqCfiT. l/liT. when the word ~T\f has got the tro:tl!f\. II.51). g. ~ tad. is applied becomes generally doubled. P. ct. e. G:Tm. cf.75. location' e. Wla<fi1l'Ot'i. IV. 1. affix ar applied to wor-ds ending in ~"I:.39. for forming the feminine base.n of f2: ( last vowel and the consonant or consonants after it) of the preceding word. aTmR:.42. V. tamm etc. HI. g. P.ic usages.!1f<IT. e.g. ~rn ~: I ~Q­ A~ d. V. is not applied. ~. The words ending with the affix are termed ~<IT and "l~ for purposes of declension etc.i~ and fiftCii~. similarly the word ~'which follows . I. III.r cf.. 2:48. g. as also to ~. 1. tad. (3) to the word srfaq~. cf.64.132 e. Bh. P. V. affix Il'!i or '!i (according to P. The word to which Gl. cf. ( 4) to words ending in aT as also to the words headed by iit~.85 and 109. show the elision of the fa" part. ~f. to compound words formed of a nUqleral and the' word ~1ll. I. perf..:. V. P. in the £ense of "fda( observing). tad. 4. 1{<!i(11T1' +!<jot ~:. 3. P. 118.36 Vart. Atm. '~'. e. V. Cfi:i+f: . 4.' applied to numeral words ending in '<Rl:. (I) verb-ending 3fT. "'Ilt'fli'WTr.g. e.37· ~ tad. cf. <ijJ~: ~'!ir. and optionally with the affix ~ to g~ and.. tad. ct.· ( 2) to the words 9~. V. ~q~ ~~ tad. 58 to 67. causing elision of the penultimate vowel as also of the following consonant. but to avoid certain technical aifficuIties.g. I. q:cft<I. VII. <flfG:m: ~fqt{n: cf: P. applied ( I J to the word cTI and word~ with two syllables in the sense of 'crossing' or 'swimming' over.19.I' \ i I 170 specified senses '~ !fi'ffiil. when connected with the root wor ~ or ~oa. 2. IS~. M. and ffii. cf.i~~. P. 97-101 ar. II7 and II9.?ii<!:. 25 and I. n6. ~ ~ ~ samasanta (aT) added to a Bahuvdhi compound meaning a numeral e. P. 2.39. P. (~q: ~fcr SRWt tR) VI. Bb. words ending with the affix ~a\. 4. or ~'I" and the word fcft{ffcr. This class :.!)ini to. '<rn:. ~IQ. ( possession ). l. II. tad. d. ~ ~ posseEsed of the mute letteI ~ added for the purpose of the elisio.18 to II7 . tad. on P. ~q'l. VII. . 1.79 and VI. 3. ITt{.in the sense of 'more than' e. and ST<itllTl1lJ.arians.. P. < .. I.g. P. 12.s.21. ct. on P. e. sing. VII . <iiOU mlffi': 'i]': cf. q!l1lq: and ~'ff in the Saisika senSES. ~1<1'1iCt. P. 2. ' !flJllH.:rrif. wjth the aflix q to iifi~ ill the sense of il§. P.g. e. 1\1.g.:rnufit is a su. case affix ~T for lnst. as also to ~ according to Eastern Gramm. :l f retr. I. 9~. I and 2. e.7.V.~ (at the end) in PiiI)ini's grammar. (cf. cf.e. IV.. '!ifa jJfqjllJ\:. as al -0 to the roots ~ and ~ under certain conditions. e. V. ~i9iUfa . III. . sing. 2. IV. to words. 'iiffi.9. anrr. ~Cflf!iO aTOiI. etc. cf. e. ~ ~(fl{. e~ r ~1' '~ marked with the mute letter ~. IV. d. V. on P. or used as onomatopoetic. nouns ~. affix i3fI+I1r added to the words ilf<! and fqQ. words ending w. 4. There is no affix or word marked with mute. ( 2) tad. (~) applied in the sense of' having as measurement.affixed to the word f. g. krt affix aT{ added to the root ~ in the sense of t instrument' or . and ~ prescribed as Samprasara!)a substitute by P. V. 3. 14. e. and~rR'<Rl:. P. e. (2) mute letter applied to affixes by Pii. and f<ffl:i'l and optionally 'with ~ tO~1:f in the sense of maintaining (6-il. applied to iSr. 3·94· ~ a class of words headed by the word G'Q\ which stands for GCRIOff i. compound words having ~ or <IT as their first member as also to the words f. cf. affix aT. 84.fiqfa).62. e. tjUliTiS ond ~ in' specified senses.. g. ~ ~ tad.94. substituted for the 3rd pers.85... 2'76. 4...6. <iQ. applied to the pro. the word ~ . V. V.e. measurement· or extent of a BrahmaI)a work. aT~ij. 2. r~. ~ (I) tad. ~~f. affix o£(H in the sense of selection ont of two' applied to the words fcfi. ~:.23.g. 4.cf. fiM\<r1<ii{rm. the. cf. cf.. affix ~applied to the words i3l~. VII.~~ ~<r-a: cf. causing the addition of arr. Ras. affix <mi applied to t he word Jti0'911f and others at the end of a pada i. V. (2) case ending arr sub· stituted in Vedic Literature f9r any case affix a& noticed in Ved. 1. 3..3.27..bdivisioD of the bigger class called tl9H~ and' it consists of only five words viz. d. ct. II9. cf.g• •: . to show number or measurement. :n<f.tI. 1. P. V I.l. See ~. seen in Vedic Literature.a ~. aT'~. <rim 'l1ti0<fl~. P.5. ( 8) to the words aT<I:~.

d. i1~~.88 and IV: 4. (3) substitute Fil: for t' at the end of a lfC{.142. added td the words rn~fct and ~il. .94. IV. <riGr. P. Kas. P. e. :a-rn1r. S. r. IV. m~: .g. e. 3.' e. V.g.<1. the ~2:<!:.87. cf. I1tft. '!fflfu.42. p. +!TU~<I:. e.I02. to the word srfu. a commentary on Durgasimha's Katantravrtti. applied in senses. (2) the mute ~'ii: (-'liT). VII.~ii:.in the specified ~ tad . d. affix ~.g. P. ~:. (3) the consonant 'o!. 80. (3) common term (G) for the affixes ~. ~m)' ~ a commentary Qn Brhadvr tti as also to the words ~. in the tetrad of tad. 1. of vrddhi (d. is not well-known.. dents following the text of' e. e. on IV.I.3·1OI. P. 6l~Q. fu~i{ &N-'. IV. I mw. P. IV. IV. Kas. Q. aJ'mw. Avac~ri. excepting fI of the tad.g.lo. ~ of tad.77. class of consonants possessed of the properties "lGJ~. IV.s. being called ultq1t:v. ilT2il:1:.re in the Eense of .<:/ causing Vrddhi subroots which is changed into <I:. 3. brother' applied to the word mq: . ) applied to the word in the sense of 'fit for' (W-i! tiT!3:) in Vedic literature.. on P. ~ ~TI1. i:ffi~. e. d. classes. affix aJ''l. P. and qtffi in the varlous senses mentioned in connection with these words: e.:<l19<1mq: d.: (2) applied to the. in the sense of . (2) to the words 171 'f. d. cf. 56.g. V.g. ~f. til~<I~. e. d.. t t ~.g. I I added to the words ii'S and :m&' . ~~ . IV.d. cf. e.~. ~oir ~111 . !ift@T.=nt. on P. K. P. word ~<I:. the stituted for the first vowel of the roots. UI)adi affix ~ added to the root lIT to form the word ~~. on P. e. sword and oroam. tad. ii'S ~"t "" ~ tad. by HeJ. Kas. ~ra~:. the vowel ar of ~ being \<I/'ta. 1.U~~. Bh. g. I) fifth consonant of the iingual ~'lqr. dedicated to a deity' (tiR<!.. ~ m: . lTT:'</:. affix ~ with fern. _d. ~er~ ~a<Jil1Otq. cf. ~fa.2. cKt~<l~ etc. P.-C:. 1:119"1'.g. d. Such a substitutIOn of OJ:. if the words formed with the class of consonants possessed of the affix added. and ~ directthe class of words headed by ~fg in ly. the sense of offspring to the word V. (2). on P. ~~<j:. ij~<I:. IV. 3. <l~'i~~. arfu'. I3I. applied to the root ~. affix <j added to the words' lTT~ and <i<tt in the sense of t present there' (a-:I <l'f: ).j:. properties. affix "'A'f. 134. mil'. P.social status. ifl1. IV. e. affix <I ( I) added in the sense Sarna introduced by" (~ ffili) to the word CfTlR'f. 2. 97. ~!\i and "t (.{ ('11. g. IV. VIII. 2. to words endit:ig in a etc. ct. CfiTli~:. <I1fOR:cmr{:. sonants of the guttural and labial i{l~>. IV. if followed by any conso:vant excepting a semivowel or a nasal excepting in the cases of roots beginning with ~ or the roots ~ .g. P. word ~~. g. .3. as also <i[ and aJ'1[cf. 2~31. ~~:.. + {) . affix t added to it. IV. or with the intervention of (:onthe sense of aJ'qt<i. on P. affix G ( I ~ ~ 'i~ ~'""t in the four senses. q~. P. 'but occurring in the same 136 . (3) to '\ ~"': in the sense ~<ll the word 'ii~ in the sense of Sarna.:.g. in the sense of t achieved by" e. 4. IV. ~1 d. at the beginning of ~ tad..lika. ~ is added in the sense of ~ (des cendanr) (1) to words ending in feminine affixes.. ?lTff<l~. 1. P. P. - senses. applied to the elided and to the". a 'i:frgu~ ~({. ~rm. 3. KiiS.20. !I[ etc.. The author' of this work ~ etc..172 ~q: 113 affix ~ which is invariably followed by the addition' of ~ (+i1i.fui and others in the Sai~ika senses as also to the words ~. 13.g.. ' ~"l' 'ii1"l\<. ~~T . c G tad.. ~ tad. in the sense of t stuNq:~:ffi<:/:.34. e. words word. P. 4-II3. LIS.39. ~fq.II9-127.g. g. ~.awr~ and others in the Sai~ika as Vrddhadipika. ~~:. VIII. the vowel i(. (2) to the words N~. syllable i§ (at the beginntng) to signify the application of the krt tad.1 II.102.II5-II7) 96 • when attached to affixes. tad. fcI'iiuT . affix Q. ~3I ciiIl. IV. 3. 4. fIim:.g. <ir~<I: etc.~ ~1fI. VII. e. q~<I:. GJ~:. i[I~<I:. IV. as a substitute for i( followmeaning quadrupeds' and words'in ing the letters Sfi'.8. IV. 2·95. ~1'f. 'Ire. word ~~ in the seDse of ~9. 11" ~ey and to words headed by 'ii~<IruIT which get i{<i substituted for its last vowel . 3. on P. on P. V. 2. 177· tad..8t1. ~.Ilacandra. applied (I) to words ( 4) OJ:.. Kas. cf. V. ClrouTm. e. d. 2. 2. 36 Vart I. 4. 94. indicating the substitution (areCfiR:). after the application of which the affix iftc!' ( ~) is added in the seDse of feminine gender. for of the class headed by ~. I7. 4. <ttl:IT and optionally with ~ to words ~~. ~tftff1!i.!i( UI)adi SiHra IV.1H. ~1a.OO:. d.~~: cf. affix q~.'2. and l:H'i6Ci~ with the vowel 'ljt I ~ tad. B'~ir ~</T<!~~~ ~'t M..9.Tal.g.159. <I1fUt<!:. cf. affix <I added along with ~ to the same words to which the affix ~ is added as also in the same sense. III. e g. P. e. <rr£l': .129. q. ~~ ~~ a root marked with the q . (2) added to tbe word Wa~ optionally with <lq: in the senSe of present there' (a3f~:). KM. (2) the consonant ~ which is elided when followed by li( and the preceding vowel is length ened . tad. IV. mute . 32.33. ~ij ~. \. 'ii~.. 3: 89· . krt. affix ti. V. to words ~il'i. 3. applied (I) to the meaning persons having a bodily word ~ optionally along with </q: defect or a low .I09.\"i\"1:. i1~'ii:.I04. affix ttc!' ( i( ). and (f.m~. . I. 2.57. B''i~ and +!~~..13 and VI..133.1. +!Tq:cqil<i:.. affix +Ri. . affix which has got ~ substituted for it.. r. ~T~:. when it is not a member of m~:. d. on P.135.. at the beginning base and the addition of the fern. cf. Kas. d. g.24· ~~ affix and ~ (I) fourth consonant of the lingual 'applied to the words . 1fiT'~:' <l1~U] and ~m9'<I. IV. (4) to the words tt<tt. ~~<j:. 1.20. (2) to the word ~. 3.106. ~<l1iUi~<I: s:~. ~~: (aJ'Rt:). cf • .33. 1. 00:. ~ and G also. or. affix Q. having OJ:.. 'f~:. affix . iiJ~.. See the word :soI above. words it:v.uiT. g. respectively mean dog. d. 2. e. ~<i<h: letter OJ:.. a compound. IV. ~fil:l:I. sfi~ and ~Tre. ~. d. 1140. IV. e. V.!27. ~!Iii\Ti{.p. tad. d. :mll:~~.). as. tfTij~l. cf. e. a small oil-pot (~tl). Avasenses. case affix <IT seen in Vedic Literature e. affix tl. V. ( 4) ~ at the beginning of a tad. changeable to ~. to words of the class headed by ~.<:/ causing the substitution of vrddhi for the first vowel of the word t6 which it is added. ~~qfu. IV. It is also known .

The affix llJe: dn account of being marked by the mute letter !If" causes vrddhi to the preceding vowel. . ct. 4.. 83. affix ar I is :{l'iQi e. 20-28." l!. P . Vart I. .of 'habituated to' e.g.. q~ii:.24.(lTififltfi.'iT[Gc-lRr.rT or ~OJ. ct. ~~:.. d. 1. LIO.. III. showing a subordinate action and having the same subject as the root showing the main action.i I the roots headed hy \". ( 6) applied to a verbal . Ill~~ filr.34 to 45.22. VI. d.t c:m: etc. ?J<f:.140 '(. roots ending with an and the procal action. P. 'hTm being called a root. affix ar added to the word ffiOI and others in the sense .5[. A$tadhyayi. (r) added to any root in the ( ..g.. cf.... 4.43 and P.~. word . 2. (3) added to a loot showing past action and preceded by the word 3j1l. and III. VII.QRr from ~.qf 1l]: l:FIFftfit and mainaffix 1l] prescribed by the Varttikaly gives rules abou~ 1l]~ i. is called UJfcfj cf.e.i: or Si'i\c!1c:(. <!T'l'l'''11<l"- ij~. III. e. 2. in ~ or the perfect aT ) applied to roots of the tenth conjugation ( ::luta:'fUl) such as ~.64. etc. . . to a word the final vowel or [0 the penultimate referring to a female descendant a:r. arr.:jrvr: meaning a crocodile. 1. 'qo1 and ~ in the various senses given by the Varttikakara to form denominative roots ending in ll".llj'1~.{: iTlm<ii:. ~T~rcmT'i!r ('!iT~+{).'f~:. 1. ~lllGr. VI. g(i. 3. 4.~ and . cf. qr<itfr4 ~. to the word ~ffi..1 Vart.r:. ar'!tl1. on P. +Tr!f.e. P. causing vrddhi to ..30. I a term used ir. III. P.. optional in the case of the 1st pers. tj'(r:. 4·14· ~ii:. III. Ill.). in the sense of3ltT~ added also with d. (7) tad.VIII. III.g. d. affix m:l applied to the word . 1. such as ~~ or 3l«{:..86.193. 9li+r.26 to Ill.riU'G'f"l:. added to it followed by to the roots ~ alld . 1. 1·91:· ml!. <f\1lif. 3.54. ~: or mif:. affix ~ e. IV. ~ ~igIrn ~~m etc. e.!ili1t1: ). arm19:. 1fiT8:.Q:. wf (flcf~ ~OJ. oqt"f:.'la: alld ending with 'h~ in the first conjugation (see . in the case of the root !l[ the affix the substitution of !If" for "l:. or aft! !!'ff<'fT $(C!Rr. P.ffi:<I=a-. 4. to the root 311:\. VIII. ifr. II. on P. 4. affix a:r added to the words 3l§l. 5I. the base ending in ~ i. VII. The word ending in 1l]!!~ has the acute accent ( er. e..g.·~f. R. 84-88. V.g. 84. Kas. by them. '<:jTlI:.Q:. e. 1.:fr wit bout any the fem. 'lfu and ar{lllj in the senses specified with respect to each.'!~: or \.52. 1. 3l1fifH::. VIII.r1<ii~T"'!. IV. Kas. ~tf. 98. the kara after the roots oif. 4. I. as the pada begins with «!I(l": f<j£ffi:.'!" fII'f.~tP.f0J.q~t an is substituted for q~ in llJe: after roots ending in arr. I. 2. m.. (Cf"i" cril~.JT. P. 4. tfTiU<lrn.. II. same root is repeated to show the principal action. or any other given in PaJ. i:i0<i% (eats something or avoids it as an observance). P. optional.2. cf.Qa-. 1. III.. and iI. tiRuTr ~~o P. III.. OW£.~. For 11Rif in Vedic Literature. III. III.57. cf. rm.\ P. I . llF.85.g. to ~: e.g. on P. m:sr:. KhS.32."fCl<!m from <I. affix ~ causing vrddhi ( I m . ('!i\1l]). P.krt affix ar in the se(jse of reci~~. qrihr:. e. cf. P. ~ affix ll" causing vrddhi. arnm.43 Vart.i1'ffi{ a popular name given by affix 31 in the sense of verbal actio grammarians to the ·fourth pada of vity (+IT'!) applied along with the the eighth adhyaya of PaQinj's affix 3l1!. e. in ~ or _the pres.:lT~ 'hlfRr. with #I. 4. ~)g. ISO. V.>qij: .gq:.. III. 1. (4 ) applied to the words ~. 7. 2. Si~'t'!i+rn.'[ and "'!\ with an..104 Varttika. (8) tad. in the sense of making.'f~rn above) in the sense of agent. ct. 3l1f~lj1<r. VI.30. III •. . ar"'!i. 4. a-~tr. o'l1CJ>fitm. e. 4. 4. to any root to show frequency of a ( 6) tad~ affix ar in the sense of ( a past act!OD 9 .cf.i. When 1lJij~ is added to the-roots ct. under 1l] is applied by c<riff~ofct<l"1l. ~~<:(Rr. IV. e.: which precedes.g. Some scholars read 1l]ij: in the olace of ~!If" in the Varttika which· is read a~ q1ifi 1lJ'd. personal ending I sllbstituted for and in the case of f<rcr. prefix and optionally. V. d. aTffl ~.. om. VII.34. . The original Varttika is q'!{t:tI!If" P • IV. ~~. (z) applied to any root to form a causal base from it. 1. affix ar in the sense of Siq~ addo 1J1~ krt affix ~.36 ~ VII. etc. \".) d. T. on P.". ~~r.147..g.3I. however.l+l~ . practising etc. 8~Ej'(~ iff.25. cf. VI. ~~T.1ini's rules. See 1l]. W the affix 1l]'<L. 1l with "l9. (3) applied to the word~ij~..21 . l[i(. e. addedoptionaUy to 175 game! added to a word meaning .il:( ~~:) +lIm: (~rw. III. III. Literature when' the connected root P.. prescribed after the root~.101 and IV. connection with the compound of the 1l]ffWrff with its <fCTtfG. tdi ~ <r.07.!4. ~ with 31m. 1. 4. cf.t:{l~.g. is to get necessarily with 3l1f. doing. ~~ ~ ~~cffit. on P. VIII. tfT:{l". 1°39. om" tad..g. Pr. ~r f.26. substitution of the consonant ~ for <l"!'. on P. (2) added the affix fl!ior.174 "l:. fill common term' for fUJil: ( signifying Atmanepada) and fUJ'<L. 2. III. Kas. the certain conditions. In the Vedic Pratisakhyas \ this augfi\ent !If" is added to the preceding !If" and looked upon as a part of the previous word. the consonant !If" added as an augment to a vowel at the beginning of a word when it follows the consonant !If" at the end of the pn::vious word. (4) tad. P. itCh.rn: etc.n'Jf~'t) if the resultant word indisense of the infinitive in Vedic cates censure. (4) added in general to a root specified in P. and ~IJ. (3) krt the rule {I. (2) krt 0"R<. 91=€!: or 'lRl+i1i(.46. 3. added to any root. tense optionally. 1. lingualization .~. ~:.. VII. cf.. 76. Ill. (5) tad. an instrument in the game '. (5). and necessarily to the root iiR!. 48.' also P.... GT (I) krt. tli. 2..194) or on the vowel preceding the affix. titd~f2" VI.Q:. . 4.. e.i the sense of collection.. the vrddhi is. Kas. 'and 3lT\1l1lT: ( l.. III.100. 4..82. -<f1~:. when the root form or ~r1fiii:.:). ~.c cerebralization. W-[. 21. P. ii!l~~ ~:s'(cffit. KiiS.g.g.:l'ij') on the first vowel ( ct.. cd along with 6~ also. word ii~: meaning a planet and the 1-39. P. cf. 4. the . P.. P. 3·60. V..62. provided the root to which 1l]a~ is added is preceded by an antecedent or connected word. ct. ~. d. cf. 2. ~?J. P. The mute letter <i{ signifies that the root 'hTfl'l is to take only the Atmanepada affixes e. 3.i m.20.. ~m "'! P. f.§:: or· ~r'!li(.26-64. Pro V. roots <<{"l:" arl~. affix ar. P.g. III.:j"+!r. P. Kils. m~ etc. <. ~9T~ ~~.25 to 64. 1-12. Pro vlI. 3lT:.g.90. ~m. 1. 4.g. I. tllt~'hT~ 1it'1m..g • 3I. ct. ~. ly along with the krt affix mY.and others mentioned in P.. 4.140~I43. 32. 3.g. F. the affix arol.n~-. 3Pi+r or 1J:. e. 4. e. d. P. cf. ~: ending with 1l]ij~ is repeated to convey the sense of frequency. cf. m. . I V.. 3. on i .137. arT'.26. 3)~rlj:.25. tlcf. ( 5) applied to suitable words in the sense of composing"e. (flltt. d. ~9l{t~.o. GJ9:. III. 4. d.

~<{:. o~<l:. III. uft and others. to the word ~ and words beginning with if e. the mute con\ sonant 01.125. ct. cf. on P..rf2: P.1°5. with a substantive as i3'li'lG: e. e. e. e.lV. ciiB" ~fff for the sentence cii61f~. . III. 2.g~ <m<lT 'q9iH: 'liR<IT 'q~ etc. fill etc.84. cf. 4· T4· . ~UT cU. 3l'. 4.ji'ff) take the conjugationalendings of both the Parasmaipada and the Atmanepada. be indicated.152.<lirR~ and words with 1fffi as the ~l:{ in a "" compound. Ka§. 2. on P. (4 )appUe ed in the Caturarthika senses to the words ti9lT'ff. or ~ ~T6<lfff. III. <ii~.. on P. (5) applied to the word ff/tq<t. V. flI<ic<jEffiIT. ~:. ~ ~l~ ttm~:. ~I~. ~~~I~.g. (4) applied to the root ~ preceded by a word referring to the 'li~ of <Ill(qiiiI' as also' to the root Vi( preceded by a word forming the object (<ii~<J:. anfi'tC!iT by P.e. <il. I. cf. (6) tad. and III. VI. (8) applied to the words qro:u<{ and fuiil{' fu1:'(.g. see above) before an ardhadhatuka affix without the augm!'!nt ~ (~) prefixed to it.. Kas.148. IV. e. ct.I 70. III.g..26. ap.. ~. KM. e. cfo' P. mentioned in rules.g. which affixes.the roots 1J'«{.rr:.45. ct. (fill.II as also VII. IV. qrc'lil. ~ kft affix ar. the roots !i{. T Q~:. (3) applied in the sense of 8'flR'!l or descendant to words ending in~.:f\. participie.48. like If or ffU baving the ll:ltter \. ~~. in the sense of ' students learning what has been traditionally spoken by those sages' e.fr. in the sense of 'students read~ ing the Bhik!?usiitras (of 1fRT:u<f) and the Nata siitras (of f~~)' .ft~qG:. Roots ending in fUl. on P. ~~m::l1<{ffi.{E<I:. after a prefix 5i\ or any consonant to form the pot. e. vi. ) l I 177 Kas. 1. (3) applied to any root preceded by a substanti ve as upapada in the sense of habit. SIUlrrm. \3OUj~..g. d.:f\<lm. 1. I. VIII. ' ~ is generally applied to causal bases ofroots. 1. ( 2 ) an affix not actuale ly marked with the mute letter 0l.93'97. appiied to the words rcmt. root 1l<J:. d. ~ cf. 53. 1. pi.: descendant' as also in a few other senses. the words so formed referring to the past tense. fffttR ~I{~fu. on P. on P. ~­ qy~ui't OfI~T:. on P. ufU{Felui: mfcli<t:. e. In the ~ krtya affix <i which causes vrddhi and which has the circumflex accent case of these roots the initial ~ is ( I) applied to' a root ending with again changed into Ol. ~.\T. ~ ~ etc. .g. cf. III. ~~. 1. e. a popular name given to the ( 3) tad. iiRf. Cfl"lm<r{: to <t:... c6R~: ~l. 40.. 2.!ilrrft..jif. from IV.85. (2 ) applied to the root ~ preceded by the word ~ or ~ as i3'li'lG:. IV.. 3.g.gO.146. ~<l:. e. ct.. Kas. (2) to tQe root ~ (III. _~: <fif<t. III. with a suitable form of the perfect tense of the root~. cf.· Kas. l[(<r. . as a ~ute letter for the purpose of vrddhi. ~. on P.g. III. P. "iT<!ii:. ct..g. I. P.80.{ krt affix if<i:. d.' ~~f4ul a-~U':. l!. e. liflll~:. causing vrddhi for the first vowel. VII. ~:. e. lB. P. affix called' tadraja'. I. fflu:uftui't fOl!'3'l':.i<l etc. added to it to signify the substitution of vrddhi for the preceding vowel or for the penultimate ~ or for the first vowel of the word if the affix applied is a taddhita affix.{ in the sense of 'skill!3~ etc. They have the aorist form. n:spectively. '>\01.lini as beginning with Ol. affix <! applied to the word fourth pada of the seventh Adhyaya qom~ optionally with <II!. 2. d. e. ~.172. e. augment Ol. Kas.' They have perfect forms by the addition of an+£.g. IV.92 to IV. iFT. initial vowel whell it follows upon the c~nsonant llf. + ~:u: cf.. cf. amw~. the Salva. "lor.g.g. begins with the rule o]T ~~T:~~: cf. IV... See fUJ"l: fOtq: (I) an affix with. P. and having a·vowel or a consonant~ etc.5 1 . on P.g.. P. m ~ possession of Ol. :113 .35. 3:74.optionally with the affix O'-li to the \vord U<!T in the spedned senses. <:l:TT etc. Ras. 1.l: ~t~: d.65) in all theforms derived from the root . III: 1. or iUl&=.. VIII.lIO. 1. ~. P. KiiS. Kas. in it pass. IV. e. d. IV. applied to the words Cfil~ff and cM~<ii . ct.78-82. l. ~ elision of the affix fOT (fUl. I.j<lRr etc.rUTJi!9i: etc. P. as also to words which are the names of the pupils of ~fil' or of WIiFI<r. III. I:CfTfU. 86 . affix ~.) of the root ~<J:.fiCji~. ~'U ~:.II5-!I7 .5 1..g. IV.g. A also) if 'rice' or < time' be the sense conveyed. or ~~ placed after ~Fr. 1. and VI. e g. Kas. cf. of the guttural or labial cla!\s inter( 2) applied to a root ending in aveningbetweell the Jetter \.52.15I. at the end of the preceding word. applied in the sense of a descendant (0Itf{<l) applied to the words ~.168. 13!JO'\!IIt:u:for 13!J0l.ie:1ii. and OOI.a works in the sense of ( pupils studying those works' as also to words forming the names of sages who composed old Kalpa works in the sanse of those <ii~ works. VI. ~~.. 4. cf. ~~) <r{. ( 5) applied to a root when the word so for~ed refers to a kind of necessary activity or to a debtor. to the word ~ and to words in the sense of artisans. 3. 9lTft~:.I namasthana affixes after the words and 6fur. (2) ed agent' applied (I) to the root ~I to sing. 3. fbrms. or ~ ii[i'1:T<ITcr for ~l:Tm'qe." the word ending with ~ and the verbal form after it being looked upon as separate words e. III. P. 54 also... 92.134. e. . 1. e. P. . e. ~:. P.g. on P. ~. 1.&m.. or. ~ etc. \i{<NT: etc. 2. and . ~lj~. ifI<r. IG'is.g. affix<i (I) applied in the se!!lse of .~. " ~:. e:n~. VII.. 4.g. also m~:. signifying vrddhi ( 1) applied to the roots headed by I etc. Kas. 1. ~1I.g. UT.f\c. . See the word fUJcr:. on P.'q(!<l~ etc" d. etc. &'{I. 4. ar-. 4.124 . e.g. \ I cf..I03-I04. and the· if a necessity of the activity is to letter~.176 noun (~) in the sense of 'narrating' with the omission of th~ krt affix and the karaka of the verbal activity put in a suitable case. (by P. VII.:{:.. 1. ~: I trw <l\~: ~~ tad. <{ilf.169. IV. e. of PaI). referring to ancient 'sages naIQed so. in the sense of an agent.. ct..f\". mift. which $ubsequently is changed ~ a root mentioned in the Dhii. ~)<r.147.tu. 3·3 l • patha by Fat. Kas.:m...g. cf. P. cn'qre. IV. 0I~<l­ Kas. et~. 101. on P. taRr~ P.' <fiTii<lfit. ~w.g. the term $I( (i. as also to the words ~i1<ii. on P.~~.ini's A~tadhyayi..84.g. ~. 1. with the substitution of the VikaraQa "'f~ ( ~) for ~ before which the root is reduplic~ted . ~U<l:. e. or to the.444. e. on P. when comparison or vow or frequency of action is c'on-' veyed.{~:t lfil1liffit<ii:.jI4Wl. on P. g. (6) applied as a tad. !06. are the nom. fU\f. (7) applied to words forming the names of ancien t sages who are the speakers of ancient BrahmaI). ~ roots ending in fUJ"'!.g.1 but looked upon as such for the purpose of vrddhi. P. cf. prefixed to the. «i1fi:l~m W<I: ~~ <iT.

T. a:rt+n~. P. ('1'. ~m~ "TI\<Ifu. ( substituted for ~.rtantkind of compound words similar to the ~. H. ~ fcl'<ft~~ . Sl~ g~ ~. ct. affix aT[ added to it. Kas.i1JT in the Jainendra VyakaraI. on p. III. d. <1OfoffiT ~ii:. causing vrddhi and acute accent to the vowel preceding t he affix. III. cf. a:mt. 17.e. T. does not include OJ' or a:r 3 cf. The Ulle. aiso CfiOT. Pr.3·IO. ~~{:.70. Out of the several commnetaries on the SiddMntakaumudi. or acute. M. to ~ preceded by :a<ll:i.3· ~~ift name of the well-known commentary on Bhattoji's SiddMnta Kaumudi written by his pupil Jiianendrasarasvati at Benares. affix a applied to ({~ when ~ is changed to ~. It is supplemented by]ayakrglamauni on the topic of accents. V. on p. trnl. 4. I. ~~ etc. 3. sing.1a. cf.. on p. which is marked with it. ~+rf&i'lil.sed as a mute letter by PaQini. (5) general term forthe affix :ir.Ill. 1. 'Qi ~ ~ to the consonant ~. eo (I) personal ending of the third ~ ( I) a very general krt affix aT'li. Paribh1i!?endusekbara written by·M. to a root when it refers to an action for which another action is mentioned by the principal verb. Vasudev Shastri Abhyankar in the agent' of an action. Kas. the term cr is used for f. imperfect. ct. 8J~ffi +1qr-r.108. .:d by ~fil'Im to which the taddhita affix 8J (arSJ:) is added in the sense of' a native place or a domicile '.mC!~ Ka§. 2. e. ( :2 ) krt. e. 2. pI. I. ~ cf. P~ III. a&'l<IT 9iRlFr~ P.g •. to G:R. P. ~~ I krt affix'aTiti seen always with the fern. KM. ~~ name of a commentary on when it is lengthened in the Vedic the KiiSikavrtti by a grammarian Literature.. seen applied in Vedic . the vowel ar and the word 'liR being.g~. e. I.u <1i~la. ct. III.Literature to the root <it.. affix 31cfi applied optionally with the affix W'I:.. ct. which is changed to ~ in the perfect tense and omitted after the substitute f-i:!tit. 3. 72. stands for art with any of the thr. ~ ~ or iWf§ ~: cf KiiS. VI. on p. C!~ and m~~~~ possessed by M. P. grave or circUl. cf. I. cf.78. 1. d'NIliMII~ occurring or presenting itself at the same time or simultaneously. wherein the author has given the 2. 03. a<I and ed in Vedic Literature. VI. ~) in the sense of an agent e g.CJg) called f. aorist and conditional for are substitutwhich •. . (3) krt affix 3I<li. Pr. P. See the word CftR'. III. ijulTfu <j'q. d. 4. preceded by ~ and to <!~ preceded by arq. for fEw 'in the aorist.. ( 2) personal ending substituted for the affix :it' ·of the Paras.g.and ·III. d€lioq"l{ name ~ a class of words head.g. I38. Ka§ •.lini.lharthaprakiiSikii on it. I. possessed by such of its varieties which require the same time for their utterance as the vowel marked with a:.aqtlCT ) or a substantive as the upapada. 1. on P.g. 2'71. the differences between thl:: school of BhaHoji and the 2. e. 23. 3. 45 and III. 2.. ~.P. IX4 l{. more critical than explanatory. pers. P. Atm.e. on P.J:. e. potential. JfCji~1fiT. in the imperative.) which (affixes) hence purpose and the gist of the import" are called dl:i'4H~'h. placed after it for facility in understanding. on P. by II~. ( m<{ • II. 'li[{9i: m{9i:. ~. When u.85 . III. ~. in connec1889 A. 1[ftT. and lfI<J:. The' word so formed has the acute accent on its first vowel. e. P. affix a applied to the words <WI:. precededby:ilio.nf. the Vax't. the Tattvabodhini is looked upon as the most authoritative and at the s~me time very scholarly. and hEmce chosen as. zero. 4.ffix filcr i.109. 4. on P.for long ones and three for protracted ones. ~used by the Vartikakara. Bh. cf.14°. ~ (I) of a commentary on Ramacandra's Prakriyakaumudi. V. ~Ul~' ~ERZ! ~. ~:.100. The commentary is tion with which the affixes~. past participle affixes (cr) 'iji and 0<1(( ('q. of the indicatory mute (l. Nilaka1. 101 as also VII. (( signifies only the vowel of that grade only. affi~ 'i.119 @or lq:t. 3. 1[[~~. C!ffiI. <mT <nalii> school of Nagesa in sev~ral import~ ancient term for ~ and g~'tt ant matters. e. cf.54 Vart. e. e. cf. Bh. d. the first consonant of the' dental class of consonants which has got the propertiesJl1ffi~~Tii..g..101. ar<i' ei~­ ant Paribh1i!?as and has brought ft"~~9.. 2!. 1. 4.146.ee accents as als:> pure or nasalised.4. 64· ~ fiiq~ krt.44. (3) tad. Kas. m~+1~iiif. cnrftclir. ll<lO: ~lTr~'lif. Kas. requiring the same time for utterance as for example one miUra for short vowels. M.«~:.g.133. applied to a rocit optionally with <r ( i. affix aT{ applied to a root whf'n the sense conveyed is 'a turn or 'a deserving thing' or 'deb~' or . two . applied to the root ~ and to ~alid "lit in Vedic Literature if the root is preceded by any preposi-: tion ( . D. ct. Ill.5 2• ~. When applied a vowel at its end. e.g. Ill. ~. <W!<'lt ~~ lUmq: a~ ~<I: I a.59. (( signifies the Svarita accent of the vowel of that affix or so. or zero. applied to a root if the sense given by the word so formed is the name of a disease or a proper noun or a narration or a query.184 etc.8 Viirt. IrO. on P. in popular use. ' of the past pass.im by Pal. I\g+1~'llf «::q~.nflex.85. Pratisakhya works.. V. arcJ<!1:.26.185. I. 4. and also for fq: in case ~ repetition of an action is meant. on gPtl~ f.fi!Jt<rt ~i:qf~. compound word ~ i.g. D. " ~m-r name of a commentary on the ~ the triad of senses ~. a. ( 2 ) the personal ending a of the 2nd pers.). 1. OW~: cmtit~\Ul:.62. VI.2--5. 4.ltha Vajapeyi has written Gu<. d. III. benedictive.. IV. c~using vrddbi.qa<n l{i1{:. (6) a technical term for the .93. (4) tad. are prescribed (cf. IV. pI. l{g+r&l'liA: .. cf. d. I. III. a short term used for !he nine personal endings of the Atmanepad a viz. occurrence '. cf. out clearly.1 f<l:ifi':lrt 6u1Tffi" I ~~I§i&tIl­ d'eg~'l name of an impo. aq«<lt<lil~£!I P. e. 4. for the above purpo!ie is seen also in the.IOI) looked upon as C!~ sometimes. I .0tl<i. 4. P. of the nineteenth century A.133.g. P. a~Rr ~T~lU~ ~~ named Upamanyu in the beginning !lfUFJ: I ~T . ~­ CJiUOt'l and ~fURCf. 2nd pers. ~~ which are themselves termed Atmanepada. :1). III. although those vowels are nasalised or pure. part. 5l"'tl1~. necessarily accompanied by fern.

4. but wor~s ending with them. 77. for instance. aT~ ofoll:G~9: Q. cf. The term Cff.{~lfG:T~ ( P.' 2. ij~~ d. Sometimes. E. I "UEi:I: ~: I ~fu qT. the sub-divisions ~~RhdrS<!Ej cf. along with the word ~ which also. <Ri. PaQini has not defined the term with a view to including such compounds as would be covered by the definition.i T.affixes applied to them. The word is used in connection with augments which. I.Cf\&. 2. «t.IT ~~ijSN1c1t ~~ ~~. Pari. I. 5. also Mababbal?ya on P.1-3. connection with what is denoted by the constituent members. 27 quoted above.20. f~ as ~<n~T ~: P.~.p. It P. Bh. fu etc. (called by the name ~.. ~qR1 q~ Oi\Wl€iM~(iiijfq I o€l'~T I f"iF-fcll~t!I:{T<Fi I ~~lH ':l!\~"': 3f=g~ I ~ awfioRt o'\. Pari. P. ~ etc. I is to be noted that the word of. V.. II. I. put in P. In his rule ~~ftmt!+fTtlTlij and in . 2. .6. cf. in 1. and. is valid in every rule up to the end of chapter V and the words oro:.9I) and ~ (P. a.. III.yakara has described ~ as i!l~~li\:j(ij~q:. tbe word of.. the mute letter'~ signifying the addition of ~ (~) in the feminine gender. d. ~. ~(~ cf. published by the D. are completely included in that word.. Sek. II. also cf. d. 19. 1. while in some other cases cr-«(or) is added. the word s:rrmqRCfiid. <if~'!N­ WC{Ic{I'lSltii't . P.· I.that the gender of the tatpuru~a compound word is that of the last member of the comp~und . Sek. as possibly contrasted with the word o~cr used by Yaska in II. 2. acc to P. 19"'3x~ The n.' paI). P. II. etc.18 and 1I!a"a~!Pilf ct P. 1:-1. 4. 4I) which are similar to V. In some cases ~ as a compound-ending (emtw=a") is added. pUTU1J2 compounds such as the' SiI~Ot~-eq or ~i:g~ are caned ~ and hence their constitutent words.' 1. that single letter should be taken to mean a word beginning with that single letter. 6~t'ld~~ a peculiar feature in the interpretation of the rules of PaQini. VI. on II. whiCh were termed ~. may imply that 'there were possibly long lists cif S€Condary nouns _with the senses pi .75 to 87.o not for words.49.ini in II.~. he has begun the ehumenition of taddhita affixes with the rule crn. 81i. d. 1. 76.. Bh. the compound word ~ in the rule ~oolif ~<f­ iiTIiWr includes the word~<f among the words f. ~lf~~uft~~ iJ. 2. form a part of the word. Varttikakara laying down that' in case an operation is prescribed for something .f'lI'lttr!i'tiif . 4. although it is not the first Sutra of the taddhita section. mean <3t~. d. I.. as it goes against arriving at the desired forms.:om:. P.26. 33. 4. 1. V. but something ending with it also. ~ ~~ a term of the ancient pre-Pa1. m<{ii'ijfirn'<Igl!<!- WlTm: ~~ Vaj.180. laid down by the .P."O~ P. denoting not only those' words..or l1. laid down by the author of the 'Siitras himself by virtue of wbich an adjectival word.72. and exceptions deduced from PaQini's rules are laid down by the Varttikakara and later grammarians.. which alone form the 81~q<{l~ or tbe external thing and not merely the external object as mentioned i? PaI). II. cf. depending 'as they do upon the desire of the speaker.. the word refers to a kind of Babuvrihi compound where the object denoted by the compound includes also what is denoted by the constituent members of the compound.) In fact. on II.~. qualifying its principal word. No definite number of ' the suh-divisions of dt. rule af. e. IV. I.. . the compound gets a gender different from that of the last word. 1.5. C<jM~~ d. 24) . ~T­ ~ (called fm by P. 1.P. lf~~ found mentioned in the commentary literature on standard classical works.6I etc.g~l! and others. in some cases ~ (or) is added.17. Sek.<d and 'ofuffFff. g. II. 26. I. 4. 2. cf.6. 4.74. 27.[n is evidently echoed in the Sutra mtr ~d'll which. means words derived from roots. etc: which 'are mentioned thereafter. etc. VII. II.ot.go:. Prliti. g. ~{t(M a c~nvention similar to the of PiiI). 1. 2.<litf is given.ini.lini just like BCfifl~i'J '. II.liIlian grammarians used by Pal. 42).of words derived from roots by affixes like ar.<!: ~~~:~­ ~lim: aN~l!&ffu I <.~ldtg~ cf. \ 76) by putting the term crfucr for affixes such as fu.im is used by the ancient grammarians in the sense of a word derived from a substantive. qur~ ~g~f.\'Jil'. The Mababha. Besides these. V. 1. 4. 1. Similarly 'the words \:jTm: (P. tatpuru$a compound is optional as ' generally compounds are. I.IT_I.1. 4. cf. Pari. but for the suffixes which are added to form such words at all places (e. although commentators have -explained there the terms ~ and o~ for 'aI"l. and not in the sense.m: (P.. M. when added to a word. 9I-IIZ For details see p. VI. II.27' For details d. <ls:r: etc.38. II. 1. II. fIG 2. a peculiar tatpurul?a compound mentioned by P§'I).. P.23.lro appears.22 as Adhikara and on its strength directed that all compounds mentioned or prescribed thereafter upto Sutra II.72. to be actually used for words derived from nouns by secondary affixes.g. II. d.rlJ1lij 5{=g~fr(i M.rI. II. I. Par. n.9. in fact. Society.followed by a single letter. The te'rm occurs in the Nirukta of Yaska and tbe Vajasaneyi-Pratisakhya.20 are 2. 29. made subordinated to (the principal factor) . but which occur in a large number of subsequent rules. Sek. Some tat. II. Wrr~<t\{Oldt!!<!Ej cf.. P.I Vart. completely included so as to form a portion. cf. 1.18.ini has used the word crn.P.j<IT: P.22 be caIled. Pari. also Of~qmrttt <ii: q{9f~ ~<. 1. ~~"~ lit. 23. 2.72 Vart. and 'ii!ll:l1~ as mg~: ~­ Cii'{lli: ~: P. name of such compounds by ancient grammarians before paI). Pr. 2. is popularly called ~t1Cfi1~. ~~. does not denote itself.ini's . Piil. 270-273 Mlibabh1il?ya Vol. 1.24 to 48.49 to 72. Par. IV. 181 all of ~ is not desirable.19. ~ '€i'q£l~m <IT Nir. M. IV. P. ~'l~. I. are not noticed separately. P.!. 3I. and as a consequence it follows . II. 2.Cfitri:h(i:n~'ii­ qcffi ~ 'lci~qt lfR+!"<i ~<jm:. which are mentioned in subsequent rules. (3frfutr~) by the application of suffixes like or.I) occurring in a number of subsequent rules have the adjectival words to tbem. This feature is principally notiCed in the case of general words or adhikaras which are put in a particular rule. d.the Varttika ~m~~r~Cf(C<l<lo . Poona.42.lini has defined only two out of these varieties viz. cf. 16. Mahabh1il?ya on p. In a large number of cases this feature'· ~tiiji't'i~:mij" lit. or aro<!<{ without giving any specific definition of it. on 1. 1. d. 1. ~i!' fcrl'\ffiIG. 1.ini.27 as also Par.. He has mentioned the term ~ in II.52). Rh. P.' with the c~se .72.1W~ Par. but from the nature of compounds included in the ~-arN<!iR. cf.

pl. 2.113.182 secondary suffixes. The word is also explained in the sense of r important '. tfP. 140). d. in effect becomes Oif. ~:. Bh. affix 011 added optionally with the affix ~ ( ~ ) to f. 4. 4. Vibbaktisariijfiaka (V. tad. 4. The affix Q~1l. as also to words ending with them.114).. V. sec. 2. a:r<I is_substituted for Q<! optionally after the numerals fe: and ~ and necessarily after G'<l. 2. e. 1.70.72to V.~.43-41. ~. P.. mt+<l: P. G:<iffiii for w· W'lifqjn:.1 to IV.. Apatyadyarthaka (IV. ct. in the ·sense of ~ (completion ) and necessarily (f. ar. on ~ V. g. 2. a famous Buddhist grammarian ot the 12th century A. 1.that too in fragment:>. i[f:\l:.160). P. P.. ~ I tad. V. Bh. ~m produced or brought into being - ~. 8.:sr ~: M. 2.4Acfi4 mime of the learned commentary written by ~~<R&io. ~ and tad. 92 to IV. benedictive.92 to 178 ). sImilarly. i Sf. II. There are two commentaries on the ~ named <!'l~Sf+1l aqd ~Cfi.92 etc. WI. ~:. P.g. V.. affix \'I<IIJ. 2. 1. 3·23· by some grammatical operation ~ personal ending for 0 of the such as the vowel an in~: CfiRCIi. cf. e. 3. <RIm. applied to a numeral· ( ~<RT) in the sense of ~i( or • possessed of parts'. I. affixes ~ and ~' i. IV. 62 • ~ IV. I I 6'q the essence. which is popularly called the eighth conjugation to which the conjugational sign 13" is added. . d.68 to V. I. pI. J r ~ (I) as above. ct. I. addition of the mute letter after a vowel to signify the inclusion of only such varieties of the vowel as take the same time for t~eir utterance as the vowel marked With ~i cf. 1. 4. T. !l:~qm: . III. ~ ~ common term for the tad. 3. 3. 4. I.33~ II. ~~:. ~. I. 10. 4. ~f~:~'lcm~ a work .1. ct. wfff etc. 2. d. e:g.38. (I) personal ending for 0 of ~he second pers.75 to IV.. ct. ~sed always In t~e ne~ter gender lIke lfl1lUFI:. ~. lI2-II9. III. V. ocU. The affix m:1l. They are called ~ as they are appJied to such ·words as mean both the cquntry and the warrior race or clan (~fui~). VI. Kas. The number of tacidhita suffixes mentioned by PaI)ini is quite a large one. VII.. Paficamika (V. The peculiar feature of these tad raja affixes is that they are omitted when the word to which they have been applied is used in the plural number.21. and. . 1.122 Vart. See ~. 4.1 to V. Kas. ~ the taddhita affixes aw. Parasmaipada in the imperative in Vedic Literature. ~. added to bases showA ing excellence (ar~Flif) when the excellence shown is between two persons. He was a pupil of Candra-kirti who flourished in the sixteenth century. affix 0 added to the words tf~~ and +l~ to form the words qcffi: and~: . e. affix Sl11l. there are in f~ct IHO rules given in the taddhita section covering almost two Adhyayas Viz.· pl. on P. lRI. e. P. m:IJ. 4.27 to V. oi[cffir~S~Sfmf: P. ~t1 !:i1911lT: cf. The name of t~e work viz. 1.55-56. g. .79. Kas. in.. I ~~.26) and.. cf.. (2) the tad. See o<r. P. 1-4 .F~rfctc!~ ~~~ ~ ~CliT~. e. e. 1. al!'o called o'(1if. an in ~rl1 fit<rli! ~TT~r ~ etc. 1.ffi\i<I~. 2. Bb. cf. 1. d. M.. 1. the first sense given _there. 1. The word IS M. 3.fij-.~. +85.74). d. cf. 'irS!~ or even ~ijlR:~. similarly !(~~-C. affix \'1<1. as also to vel bal forms showing excellence. (2) tad. 3. IS termed ~ also. 3.1. 1311~:. KM . - tad. IV. e. ~:. affix ~ . ~ a word frequently used 10 the Jcn ~i!fut '(. and ~fur was perhaps. 2.134 to 168). VII. ~~ treatment of something asthat which is not that e. ejm.etc. 1. 2.g.1 to 9I). i. on P. affix 0+£ added without a change of sense. 4.. ~~mt a class of words which is the same as ~ .. on P. 2. IV. cf. ~ etc. ct.94 to V.1 Vart. fSi1Ut etc. the treatment of affixes not marked with' mute fi or I) as marked with Ii even though they are not actually marked that way. Raktadyarthaka (IV. <l~ ~~~ srl~~t~ o'fct iI ~ o~ ~-c I _Jcn ~q~~~ I 0~~'I'I: M. P. ~:. P.93).34.57. a commentary by Har!?akirti on his own Sarasvatadhiitupatha. as contrasted with the original .:.42.~!!Ot for ~o cL Kas. e. Priigghitiya (IV. VII. 1. affixes and \illIJ. imperf.56-58. 4. ~ (I) tad. ml1: 't'iiT'iflU:. ~ ar'i<l'ff i:'R'!I ~~. IV. Q:~'fm. II . Ras. oaR\" ~ ~rmt ~ V. second pers. IV. Matvarthiya ( V. Pro V. ~~.1. Ras. o~m~: ffi(r. also d. ~ 6C11~ a class of roots headed by the root -trOi.<jffi) of Jinendrabuddhi. ~ ~mn~ onP.22. who has also written fu~~WrlUI. pers. I. g.:ftcrem.k Mahiib~a!?ya in the sense of f i~'ii~ +flC<I~ ~llt i!i[O"[~<n~rsr~ tended or ~9fqja. q. 136). on P.r-lt: ~!!i+m:d~: ~1:rHffU.. Bhavakarmarthaka (V. on P. 4. on p. on the <iiT&lCfiTf~'iiT (. 3.: S. prescribed by the rule ~+'<lt ~~~. tf'<lftra ~ cf. II. 4. as also~. tRlfffiRFl:. but the name of the author is mentioned as d~o. from p. V. I. 1. Pragdivyatiya (IV. 1. aorist and conditional.45· ~ ~ ~ tad. the wurds ~!l O:iR( ( the rest as abo. 8ltffilT:. affix ere:.. ~ 183 given in the rules of PaI)ini IV. cf.ve) are frequently seen used by commentators. I68-174and V.. See oq. lor. d. 1. . The main sub-divisions of taddhita affixes mentfonedbycommentators are. g. potential. in the sense of the base itself to noun-bases posses· sing the sense of excellence.37.76 to the end of the fifth Adhyava. III.!t4 to the words lUo. ~q is rarely mentioned.IIq. with the augroent ~. onP. g. 1. in the sense of possession and not in the sense of measure etc. Sai!?ika (IV.1 to V. 10 2.45.109 L Arhiya (V.133).Svarthika (V. ( 2 ) personal ending -in Vedic Literature substituted for 0 of the impera. on P. g. by the substitution of d.79. etc. 2. 2. P. V.. which.2039.r~Rt. I to 7t ). K. I. 3. is called ~ ju!>t like ~. on I. The samiisiinta affixes ( V.22. d.1I4.(0) can be included in the Svarthika affixes.' cf. e. 3. IIS to V. P. D. e~niii"lilG!the tad.45. on P.e. The work is available at present only in a manuscript form.168. ~..on the taddhita section written by SlromaI)i BhaWicarya. Pragvahatiy~ (IV. 6J1l1. e:g. Bh. Many later scholars have copiously quoted from this work. ~ personal ending o-c substituted for ~ in the impera. Thafiadhikarastha (V. P. lcr1Ut. I. See~. on P. g.

. on V.~) toJ.29.35.g. P. krtya afiixoo<j applied to a root word ( of whicb.I "200' ( 2 ) krtya affix \ .tI<£ upto ~. I£S. e.pers. .35. 16. ~~P. I tad. V. III . tlcit{/IWq"lli(<j\o ~ir ~S<jRn lliretllRltTI Cful: I <f1liTfq fftfcr Qi1ltq~~ Par.78.24. ~lfRl:. Pro for gaud ~ of the imperative sec. 4. of ! ~~ name given to the grave tim~ required for its utterance. 4.'ffimr:. 'fl~ 'IT:. tad. 1. e. oa:~ ~ ffT1. . \i1:ei. Bh. 2. e. 120. G~ ( I) tad.1..P. IV. d. affix 0\. On P.30 or tH:rrffl~ ~ tIlTIti: M.66. .~'lc1t4 '~"l.J ~ in Vedic Literature. III. L119 to 136. ifi'ait. for ~ 1l~ 3l'+i~ cf. e. ~ a(?. II.4 Vart. also R. etc.1iflffO<rr. 91-G"0<iil:.<i~~(f:. Sek. ~'Qcr: <l o!jl1~ for i~~ i{ O<j~. P. ct.146 Vart. 1. a~ possession of the same nature. e.:y~~ is . ~<!ff: 3l'~CJtt.in Vedic Literature. in P. At all the I ci. The tiith_abhavya vowel is . e.. ~~r AAfcr. Pari. ~. III. on P. given by PiiI)ini in. Strictly 9il3~qfe!Nqtf~o P. 'l~. d." . similarly 2. on .& 0 4 IA which is popularly called (if as the 'i 1'l. nouns from . cf. III. in for another.59. (~R).. The affix ~ has a peculiarity ~f a~cen~ upto t[[~!i.g. V.jlrB<h~ ~9fur or circumflex vowel.g. I ~'i<! <wi M. (2) meant fOli another. IV. ~. WOids ending with the affix a~ are i anrr:~fcr.'. 2. \l9l!.. G:~it V" 3. a:rf(Q ~ (I) repetition of action. Iif..g... ffi. 1. affix ff«."lG:. ommCl'(f[. I a"{«!.1lU. sometimes the always declined in the feminine affixJ. 1. (2 ) use of a I :aT. has the circumflex accent ~!:. Kas. has got both the initial and ending KiiS. i31~~:I~ I dRll~.g. II. to the pronoun ~ and after qft and arf+i.96..abl.q). \. P. cf: Kas. ~i. 1. and third sing. 3. 4. ~r~m. . III. cr.. See ~. ct. See 0\. =IT"I:. "'''''3l'fuo'' cf. 3{-'!1~.Bh.) as ii<r. V.i!. a term used in con~T <l~~+q«1~~ fu~<iif.I22 to 136. also M. on P.138.38 • vowels accented acute t ~). . ' Bm~ qffi~. Bn. sense of the. case and substitutetc. affix O<i added to pro5ff-lq'<ITsoi~~ P. III. Kas. . Pari. ~.above places.a. VIII. in Vedic Literature.t~l:ffit G<iir-. V.II4. 4.. ·I..\I·.Il!. the use of one word 1. 3. ~q: cf. 1. part. Ra-s' . ~~~ a class· of tad db ita a.96. th: sense of 'the nature of a tbmg ( +ifil ) along with the affix (q opti~n­ ally.. ~~:. th ' bringing . •. ~. on P. affix cro<!if. 2. Bh.: ~+~fuiWf.~ ~: Bh. cf. the eonveyed).. on P. l[tffi GJCfCif 8'. • III . member of a compound and which 1. added to them. 3. ~9'~~.g. on P. d. ~~ lqt affix ~ for the infinitive affix <'h=r" . :qg~~ Qiil.lV. III.43. f'i:m M. pI. ffi Lmganu5asana 17. cf. VII. pass~ part.. cf. ~~'im: for <ia1<lTl1Yf. . vn. cf. the class of de'ntal consonants viz. tion.. 1. affix ff~ showing direction by means of a thipg e. P.1\1-. e.r qq:rf. d. lTIm ~it. e. (3) being possessed ?f the same sense..7 affix ~~ in Vedic Literature. I.50 Van. . 2. Pro . 3.g. d. d ' notins ending in Cf~ i.. Vedic Literature. (3) use is placed between two acute 'vowels of a word for that which resides i. d.g. I ed for the abl.in P.::ffi . ffitlT~R?-i in Siitras from P. . ~ (I) krt affi~ \i~ for the infinitive VI. cf. a x ~ . recited as a kampa (cn. as also optionally alon~ wl~h the affixes l{ll~. tl<isq~.Qrerftle:. affix 0 ( r) adJed in the sense .· cf. P. . e. on P. for another is by Lak!?aI)a. intention. V.!~Tfilffi +jCffa Ras. 0. cf.2.. dual Parasmaipada substituted technically Jor e:.the ( ~) vowel which is aj<I3:11r i. cf.. e. Some nection with all affixes prescribed Vedic scholars hold the view that in the triad of senses viz. gender with the form the poL pass. ar~fo{· 3Frf~tq<r. Kas.2.48.a. 3.. 1 I I to II :1 i I Ii 24 ~~ tad.{di<r" I '91!!~f<t~mr. on P.I3 . signiis the vicinity. cf. ~f@Ilt. is preceded by and followed by there. ~@:rr. V. on P. "1\1'. ~1~ thi' affix mq:. P. the sense has been to form the pot. as also af~er fuq =IT:!!" and in the sense of . I d.r trl:~ ~­ o(trF!~r+!t~u4 tfrq:!F~ KitS.' and or.g. Bh .. tt~t'l11.7 to 9. on P. P. ~" the -orl1l*f[~<j vowel is not a grave GT~. on P. 4. on III. 1. fi. III.17 . (2) tad.184 185 on the last syllable. ~rm:. on P.. his siitras Itom m. e. and ajR. o~ ~ ~:st<i. I..79.he words ~. 3.. . 4. cf•. case affix. .9.t 'iFt<r~.134 to 180. o~ P.s applied instead of the instrugenaer with tht fern. 67.e.. m': ( r) a technical te~m for t~e gemtive case affix used h thedJamendra 10 4·9. ians just 1ik~ a Paribh1i~a. (2) t e ta . 2.llI. IV.44-49. cf.70.1 M. 3. 4.:.47 (excluding namely that the word endmg In O''f ~I!.. . 3. mG:~~~~ I ~l1YP.about' ana In e sense of m<i (presence) after the same words ~jCf.81 also awr4mecn I ~ omfR:.. Kiis. ~~ t'i'ffi.g. (=IT~: f<W-IfiI). ego ::!rmr:. affix mRt in the very sense of the word to which it is applied occurring in Vedic Literature after the words ~if and ~Cj. See qfu and ~m~. . 3. affixff<e: applied in the 5fM<I.' 3. an d VI.27 where the letter 8' is taken in the sense. l \ r i I m ~'.g.I"Iq~mlO<lAFi+ld IfJtllf{fu:m'i~ prescribed in the sense of '~ <ro . ~~r I ( 2 ) foremost consideraon P. 2. 5l!0I. on P.) become· indeclinables. cf.:<!9~mo<I: I V. ct..' ~ (I) use of a word for that ~64Q.jq o/~ and tll[r<i and <nf also. 3. 3. I i I I i i ~ (I) tad. ~~ 4mfcit~ 1 GroQ ~~S<!i!. cf • (fIG:1l~~ a remark often made by Patafijali in Mahabha!?ya. V. but it is a kind of III.~. 3l'1fFfCfr. Ci~Rl~ Olfclli/:ffu M. V. 0' are e~<oj" krtya affix applied to a root to elined in the fern. (~'Q) vowel. 1. cnij~. (2) substitute olq:for ~~<i (I) the nature of being meant ff of the imperative 2nd. reason being that sound and tIme which occurs at the end of the first go together. The words ending with the affixes from. gIven 10 P. ct.rlR<lr~ <rtImP'IFT"!. all . e.7 upto ~~T<H. word for that word of which there I ( 3) purport ( of a sentence). (I) personal ending of the third . VII.often used by grammar- .ft:q ~~IO<ffi': i'fiRlq:1 GT~­ • habituated '.. ( 2) tad. Parasmaipada. Sek. "'lor.. ( I). I. P. V.44. ~Ciffrm:.g.. ~cn BTit~q: ficance. on P.. 1.. affix 3l'f (2'IIl) mental or the genitive case also. \:1m: ( !) the same as crm~ substituted Svarita ". I. Kiis. of collection ( 1. following upon an udatta becomes. P.· c f .ffixes ~ krt affix Q~ for the infinitive affix headed by the affix ff~ (crfue:. KM. Kiis. according to PaI)ini "an anudiiUa Par. liR~rffi~ ior Vyakara1J. cf. the expression ~. feme affix 3l'f added them. Bh. V. cf. 4..g. 2. Pr.". ( ofB or (ff8~ ). -1. cf.. See GTif. e.Kas. (2) added in. 1.142144· ami! a:rR.g.ji1cIT etc. . etc. e. C@~ '!:qj M. an acute vowel..9.

iEITff) . g.. pers. is ~~. P. sing. or resumption of the same form by the rule of SthanivadbMva. ~Jf. . afux aT (G) e g. om<!lcmJl~tR+r.. 27" h1iras like Ofar. ~\ and many otbers numbering more than ninety. III 9. on P. see ~ and fu. roots (8th conjugation). cf: r I . palate. a grammar of PaI)ini.g. a(.34. VI. cf.7. ('5) tad. ~it9c<:! ~Fi lit. Kas. mbstituted for ~ (<i"fiR) all called Parasmaipada. He has edited many important Sanskrit works consisting of many ko~as. cf. Kas. !. These letters are formed upon the palate by the middle part of the tongue. ~Cfi~fa".j:fiW a southern writer of the commentary named ~+r. affix added to the word ~in the sense of' a root'. to which the taddhita affil!: 11Rl' (~tF-!.~. (4) tad. 4. 'of the 3rd pers. XXIH.56. "f. P. ffiq: an . being possessed of the same propert y . aCfil<!Cj<lllJ ~crl<lVJC!!li ~"T:. 4.1 186 ~ (' 181 who has written a commentary called SaraHi on the SiddMnta Kaumudi. 1.. cpo . g. also P. affix indicatory fying the that affix. ~ m\t<jj:jfffm<j~ M. ~. prescribed in P. a place for the production of words.> of words headed by the word di"{"\'il alil~ containinp prominently the words ~. is looked upon as Ofl~<rOl. Bh. ~~ called tlwn'tRl:fffi" . etc.· II. a Bengali modem Sanskrit scholar and gra mmariau. VI. Bh. used in the plural number. miB' the· VikaraI)a ar~. 26.rfa- I r f. wrote a short treatise called Pratyaharavicara on the pratyar.26.2.r see Rt~f. II. nouns with !iff added at their en{l. ~m. Pro H. ~:u ~ I B i{'fUW1 ~~ I ~~ Cfi\1l]'l. Kas. R. 1{~r. headed by the dvandva compound facnfilmcrin which the taddhita affixes added to the constituent members of the compound are dropped when the dvandva compound is to be .ilT a EOuthern grammarian who Of~ ~q~ I lf~ftI qom I V. 2. III. on T. U<lit. Ciifrff:.I~ the grave accent for the whole word (Bcff. Pro II. Y.J. V. affix fu<n" added to the word 3l't. V. Pr. '<IgfiI: >j"'li'i'hnfuliB ~­ Ql~~I!<n'"eil~<I}Q. in the sense of the word itself «<li~) e. Kas.23 cp. :{TRr:. dual in the imperative. Pro 1. mq: ( I) elevated. etc. which are common for all tenses and fu~ the personal ending of the 3 rd moods. verb. aU't"'<'ollli6! a das. if the root. high. one uniform accent or tone. it has the augment ~ prefixed.in special cases. cf. benedictive..of the nineteenth century c ffi~ (I) a brief t€rm (~~Iiffi) for tbe 18 personal endings. 1.g. on IV. etc. added to the words ~. ~l:T:. cf. T2 . Ras. the first nine facr. ~'" ra~lC1' (r) Concealment of properties. ~<!f. IV. ~ d. is added signicircumflex accent of e. (2) a verbal form called also OfT<f~lCf<fi. e.generally possessed by a verbal form when it is preceded by a word form which is not a verb. 00 ~~~ com. ~ and others to which the taddhita affix <lfI<j~ (filio{) causing the substitution of vrddhi is added in the sense of • a descendant' . ~~cf. ~~. when they are followed by the tad. VIII.42. 14· 3. to which the mute letter it.. VIZ. V. 4·68. V. See al~ ffi (I) personal ending ~ of the 3rd pers. ~ ftI~ a class.. I on VI. liar. ~ the circumflex accent possessed by an affix marked with the mute letter it. For subother nine cr.. ipJf and Bfl. ffi~ (§§ fmrul. cn~OI'l. <I and i>J.1 cf. restoration to. palatal letters. Pad. mtg fil"ll. Out of these eighteen persofal endings. C!iRcn ( t or \ eml mfct'l1f9TsPr»<jRiR9Ttqre~ I mu'l1TCl'll1 ''lI~:t . tjl\Jm:. 66.. 8 ~ tad. 138.62.. and to the words ~ and ~ in the sens~ of possession (~~). lZ. cf. on P.: P. 152.1ith contrast with the word arrfihu<i verbal forms written by mUJffol( manifestation ). P. on P. 22. 1. are named stitutes for mcr. lor. conjugational sign or VikaraI}a ( errf~) added to a root .lr~T on verbs in books on grammar' as the Siddhlinta Kaumudi of Bhat~ contrasted with the term ~ toji Dik~ita. of words headed by the woros ffici. sing.85 Vart. Pr ...V. ffi~ l:T~:.. T.L 2. II. cf. are called ffi~. 1.. see AtmaDEpada and ('j~ also. 3.59. ct. III. produced from ffi§ ·the part below the tongue. 4. See fffit. Pro 1. the vowel It. 4. potential. ffi§~Q~ ~!<iT ~ij­ fu~ the augment R1:!!.tfo ~iis:L'4 I M. :qqir. . called ~qrfuit:u as contrasted with ~<!fffi~: d. d. 84. ~ senses possessed by the personal III. . ct.:tHmt<!l~tIlif'i:j<lf­ ~ft{ a class of compound words ~. called ~f&'. 186.g~il~fUl a work dealing. P. (2) common term for the krt affixes ~ and ~ as also for the urjiidi a£qx fcr.. e. ct.. cf. the affixes <lit.) is added in the sense of • containing: As this class.4 8 Vart.{11ti ct. 1. ~Cf. For details VaiyakaraQabhii~aI)asara. P. e. Vak. to be included in it. arr~ etc. ~T~: .) is added in the sense of 'a product" or C a part' e. g. R. IV. the word is used' always in fu. !ij~<Ij'{r tiS. (2) a popular name given to the section which deals with f~. ~83T.39.77. P •. ~1?-: cf.H­ · 0. HI.36.185. I m<1~ a root of the tanadi class of ~ ~~ a small class of eight words to which the affix Of (Ctar.36. 8. affix fcr added to the word i!!q'l:.r:. P. (z) recital in a high tone which is recommended in the evening time..52. cf. m<r~&lOlt'tcii ~~ijfU1 V. personal ending substituted for OB. 2. imperfect. . as observed at the time of sacrifices in the case of the recital of the hymns. b' eneli ngs " vel's. in the ~'S<"a (I) a word ending in ta~. d. P. while the in the Parasmaipada.rist and conditional. ~. I. cf. affix fer as found in the words qijg and M. on P. Pro XVII. cHi etc •. VI.m. cf. ( 3 ) fern. P. ~~~q~ ~~.g.154. 1.85. 'i'T. VI. are supposed . 130. Pr~ 1. cf. 83. III I3 . V.tFf~ ('[<Wi.25. to which it is added. cf.68. on P.. which is us~d for the section deal-I jng with nouns.3. 1. cf. )~T and~.. T.82. IV.in the first future before the personal endings'· which becqme accented grave ( Of!1<{I~ ). d.

the like. V. 3. VII.69). affixes.g . e. III.2 See tl~.86. on P. (8l') is added to the words ending in . II. ffi~ utterance with a sharp tone characterizing the pronunciation of the Abhinihita kind of circumflex vowel as 0ppoEsed to the ntterance which is called ~ when the circumflex. d.ft<{ to mean a section e. ct. ~ and If''Q are also added. III. and hence .. on P. 4. Kas.. affix aliI:. Literature. e. P.. the word so formed having the last vowel acute. (g~) prescribed· by the rule ffid'P'{lIilf+rRl~~fu­ +<i~ ( U Qadi Sutra 1. which take the conjugational sign 8l' (~) and which are popularly called roots of the sixth conjugation.. ~~T~.and liT as also to a long vowel be:fore~. 2. ~. VI. ct. pass.g. T. cf. of ~ cf. as al~o with 8l'i!I+{. e. cf.llI.~etc. cf.e.48. Pr. 1. savarI)a.138.:rfelcr: ~ fI"J.g. ~ (~) tlT4Cfc:i:.. 1. ilGf {TVfi:. T. ~fc't. P. 75.V. III.g.if there be close pro~imity (~ffi) between the two e g.t ~~ augment 'Q ( 1) added to the affix .1!~!{ii1rd(~ I mTI ~dU ~ ~~­ ~ ~ffr \I Cfdl ~ff(: ~UiX!~ii1 . sing. 3. i:iW tad.g.escribed in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity.69.a (g§' ~ ~.59 . .:.95. <l'~~ aJ'B'>rtff. (7) to the letter "'( at the end of a word before ~. p. imper. ~<j'fc't. ilffi:. tad.>ITQ'i"I:T:_ RR:f+rT9: ~'1~ I 189 cf. e.. P.158.9. VI. ~. as indec1inab~~s. Kas. 3. the tad. V. in Vedic Literature to em. e. arllfftrn:. P. e.g. <l (1) substitute prescri)::>ed ~ tad. e. ~m m'fg~. (3) added to a root connected with the words <!il~.1~. ~ cf. called ITI~~. d. cf. affix g in the sense of possession added.cfr. ~: cL P. 2. before which the augment l{ is not added e. ~ffii1:. ~. ~: ~~(lii~lgr. etc.54. (g§' 9i"IUliT ~l.76. IV. e. (2) added to the tad. d. affix t!. Kas: on P. ~. Kas• on P. affix ( 1) added to a root optionally with 8l'l!i (~) in the sense of the agent of a verbal activity..\. on P. I. 3. Kas. 5.. ~~lIT.74. cf. ~: etc. d.g. :m~: ~ d. p. III. e. (4). Kiis on P.. Pro XVII. lICfm ~~. 4. ~ and WI:. 1. the word sfitg. in fact. on P. ~. which have their vowel of the reduplicative syll:.g. part. q<jfa: ~. in the grammar of PaI)ini.gettil1g the -guI)a vowel ( i. (3) to a short vowel before ~ . M. P. ~"ll""'£?.132. VI. 3.17. 1.I ~ a class of words to which the taddhita affix ~ is added in the four senses given in P. ~. e. P. e. III. II.41.. compounds and treated. P.g. Parasmaipada G~. 3. -pass. g~:.. T ~ a very small class of words headed by the word g. d..e. 13. ~~-urrsf+rf. 1. CfT~T.same object. taking the fern. iilm oll'fg~. e. having got the same substratum. VIII. ~ for the last vowel of the word 8l'~ so as to make it declinable like words marked witli the mute letter '!R. P. sharpness of nasalization at the time' of nouncing the anqsvara and fifth letters recommended by tyayana. 2.g. I. the pot. !{lI:TT( etc.5.oll'fg"\. '1'1'1'1:. V. ~~~:. a'nd ~_~ e. 1. affix .a . .77.. ( 2) prescribed in the sense of 'deserving one' optionally along with the pot. the tad. III. \<L. IV. ~v:g:. IV.g. d. ~ (t) short term (3T~m) for the dental consonants Q.g.96. affix fu added in Vedic Literature to the' word '!'Ii when superior quality is meant. ~'@{ roots such as the root ~ and.. d: P. d.. and u are seen placed after words ending in Q: in Vedic Literature before which the affix l! is elided. " ~ "a ~~a rule prescribing the addition of the augment q:.23. ~ etc.. 65.:. P. 2. expressed in the same case i the same as samanadhikaral}. l:['i. word ending in the affix <r'i. 'Fl\ffi: cf. 3. (3) tad. e.~ in the sense of !f. 8l"I1 substituted for the ~ of ~ and similar in articulation. Q%d' 8l'T~~i't lI~lim-. \ . 3.g. ( 4) added to any root which is connected with the roots ~. 168. VIII. d.g. See g. P.71. ffi~~ffi compound words headed by the word fcm~ which are termed as avyayibhav. ~. cf. on P.treatment of a word as ending with the affix li"i.. also ~~liT'ICfiI~: mT milT' M. etc.188 (-~. 2. cf. ( 2) common term for the krt affixes q. 1ifu P. Ug: ~'fg. ( 4) uI)adi affix g. 66. cr&:rfi<:rr <l'T. on VIr. The affix iR'i is optional . '19'F('!iiliT ~.\. ct. P. 125. III. e. cf. il. cf. 1. cf"Kas. P. e. ~:.ct.) (2) attribute of feminity. 55. W:. a ~ extrem~ krt affix il"\ of the infinitive ( 1) added to a root optionally with ~ when the root refers to an action for the purpose of which another action is mentioned by the principal verb.67 to 70. ~ <TIarg+!:..g. cf.73.. 10. 1. e.. e. e. denoting ultimately the . uI)adi affix g.'lble leng thened as seen mostly in Vedic. added to the roots -m. pad.g. 1. IV•. and the other affixes ~.1 "m{llT-l ~<'! .ftciT liFT: d. ~ (~). (5) to a long vowel optiona1ly~ if it is at the end of a word. (4) to the indec1inables ali . 1. III. 4.I33. ffclt<l:.. are <TIarg~.V.g~ ffi~. e. lIiiffiT ~« . it does not so end.169. VI.1I7.ijij- augment q: added ( 1) to the -rQol ~ in the form ~. VI. I. VII. similarly ~~: etc.80. al~~. d. 1.g. (2) to the short vowel at the end of a root before a krt affi. on P. -~ I 1fIa:'!'ffi '~~li~~i!~ II Uvvata on V.x marked with the mute letter It. quI~:. Kas. 3. al) substituted for the final vowel 51\. P. I. 'lIcTf 9iT(C!i:. e. e g. ~1T<i.g. ~~. or its synonym. I srft. fu:. 167.g.d. <l~ III. ~. l. Kas. (:i) personal-ending substituted for fu in the 2rid pers. ~<I. ( 2) added to a root co~nected with another root in the sense of desire provided both have the same subject. ~~<.. ~Tfu . although.95 Vart.II. 3.'1~9. pr. on VII.:p. +rfllinii1:. m~ ~fu or m~ j:f~ffi.(~"lC'{:. P. e.V. affix applied to the word ~ in the Sai~ika senses. Kat. Bh. or ~<ilI. ct.g. cpo Sarilgraha quoted by HeHiraja on Vak.~ and 1fi!. ~.(UJ added to the words rn: and ~ before which ~ is changed into 'i.~ to which the taddhita affix iR'i ( ~) is added in the sense of possesssion ( liw'l ).. 1rJpn<!:.3I. ~ a class of roots headed by the root ill. the prothe Sai. affixes~<i.g. is pronounced. 1.7. 2.g. 1. P.fcrql~.. R. before the SarvanamastMna (i. part. ~ "" Bh.g. 9i"g. ~ ~ and iJ~ or its synonym. the first five) case affixes.

~~. after the words ffilCfi. affix ~ added in the 8ai!?ika ~"l tad. P. coming at the end of the first member of a compouGd. accents. the taddhita affix in the sepse of ~"l:. trnW'!:. which is by the Varttikakara that when the not attributed definitely "CO a partiword ~ or its synonym is used in cular author but is supposed to a sentencE. g. Q. I For details see Introduction to I . 2.rtirs. ~)&'l'l:q~a. e. who were the followers of tbe f. L TI8. d. on P. cf.from which oil is extracted. (2) thing c:pa ble of producing a result. on P. II. cf.l.a southern :grammarian who has written a gloss called SJ'iil:aon the Siddhantakaumudi of Bhat{oji Djk~ita. e.2g. V. e.g. " I ~ a class of words beaded by -the word m~1jre-. and ~~t{. a I ~ tad.hnl. ~<!(.:H fuiif~.I .g. It with the locative case after nouns is believed tInt Vararuci. ollIy two important commentQ bbarata.r.jlT9~'ffi) which are placed (I) word formed by its application. P. " ~R-1li'R1 called also QCft<llm!j~qWrrB as preFcribed by P. ~ (b) the' Vaidika-. 469. g<?-!l' itcr?:~<'f.. cf. is actually m(f<l and hence representing used e.. e. 1. IV. 2.72. time and taught by various acaryas W:!1 or its synonym -e.g. bhi'i~ya 1. an agent' provided the "agent is agent is 110t expre:. itCfG:%ii nature to do it.. cf.I bharaI). e.cr<lq:<TI1.jlwniJ P. V. V.P-1T <I.. 1. II.1.n0l111S in the sense of ~i'Rifl<r~Tfu~l<F<i called also W'11{1. c~. T9'1.74.~. 60.6. e. KM. 3. e. 4. III. ~ (where <T is eJided). P.j~: mfu~g. on nouns meaning defective limbs. Bh. I. ~~ tad. III. or does it well. II.l.. 44. M. 23. • the third case. tad. affix (if. 2. and optionally with the geniIII. S8. P. (3) optionally witb the the rule i?2:: . ~i'l0I:. fFl'iilZ ~ ~~~. m<i90r<1<'f: ~:. ~~fcl~r 'Of ~:jJ'1<r. the substitution of a:r for . ~.g.69. T. ct. The work is divid· 27. <. affix ~Cfi added to the words '31T and aiM. e.I9.a • written by GopiHayajvan.aQ:. or a them in the accusative case.g. affix ~~ applied in the sense of oil to a word meaning the substance.g. I. The word ending with iffll<i becomes an inde clinable. words ending with nouns forming tbe object of ~ with ~ govern the noun connected with 1:!<J:. ~~: >TRIo:.. 1. +11'31"T ( q«!l1rl~) standing for hrt affixes $lT. cf. a-a:q!l~~uf9ul1: V.'f<'[{1191?Ji(. or has his :. g.l or its the three Bha~yas mentioned above synonyms.f1.. ci. aIPtllJT ~jtJl:. II. used as a short term e. D pronouns headed by t<iit.30 and the Maha- Thereon.)5. 35. on P. 'l"l. letters and their propf. Pr. on P. possibly all the different branches ~. ~~.g. P. when the word ~g.23.30-35. Kas. ~~: fqm. aIfi:i'lCfi and their synocusses the "cuiom topics such as nyms. IV.e.'fT' or ~ ~<l1:!fu. ( grandchild) placed after which is not elided by p. " J1~i~ a root belonging to the g~ class of roots ( sixth conjugation) which take the vikaraI)a aI (:a. ~~. qrfU5t~. ~~<rift{ Q!{ItC!nij a kind of ~lto.in" the senses 'near' -and ' above' respectively. 1 the term ~. 9iT~.:[T '-F.) causing no gUI)a or vrddhi substitute f~r the vowel of the root. V.(fC\.<l~Sq~ Here the vowel a:r of q follo\ving upon the avagraha is called'hltfcml1~Ro. ~q. here the vowel T.I 8.l wrcte Bha~yas on the affix after them has been elided. on p. Ras. e. tive after prn.:r ~. e. as also to the word WI in Vedic Literature. (5) optionally as the oth('r Pratisakhya work. <I"lT Q.it9~<'f etc. 3 25. beginning 'sith those prescribed by 3. <'lofti'l«. it and '!. 2. III. is froO<j:sl'1~: ct. Kas. So~ayarya and Q:cl1l.g. 2. crFctm . . it is observed or SaklJiis of the ~6Uf<l:~i~?:. ( 4 ) optionally after nOuns ed into two main parts.). each of connected with the words 'l"l<. q~liI. and disalso after 'F. VII. cf. ~~ ff'ffi:.124) ablative after nouns meaning quaand ending with the affix lli( ( in P. (f~i:/~l'IfI:WlCfiT. and @ before which ifCf is changed to 't. added to the word optionally with the" affixes oil!!. 33. and AtreY.60. 4·6r.. Mahi~eya m~aniDg constellation when the tad. cf. lr~. a pronoun is put in any" haVe been revised from time to case in apposition to that word i e.tI. 3. ~fG: a term used for the class of I ~" krt affixffrla_ in the sense of the infinitive (-g«) seen in Vedic Literature. e. II7. III. cf. P. on P. qr~:.~. Kas.g. ~U CI. ~11{ !lTIi~. cf. Pr. cf. 2. on P. 'iOi'l«. Taittiriya Pratisakhya. Kas.~. with the intervention of a consonant between the acute accented vowel and the circumflex vowel which (vowel) originally was grave. as sections c311ed adbyayas.t. on P. ~~~ a specific operation pre::cribed for the pronouns headed by C'!~. II. onP. 4. (6) opary works on it are available (a) tionally with the genitive case after the • Tribha~yaratna " based upon words connected with g<il. II.g. ~~<'f~. g~ ~9as the title shows. 30 Va. P. 27 Viil't. q{(Rt<!«. 3. Il. after nouns in the sense of an inapplied to any root in the sense of strument or an agent provided the . the final letter.9i and ~. cf. which follows an acute accented vowel.g. fci. 1lJf~T~:.T cf. 72. o~. viz: <1:. KiiS. ~Uf *I. 1. but at pree. Govt.!fl'I~<'i. which are eight viz. 2.!9iT. ~T&1UT[fuI<f.(jF!~O (P.190 --------- 191 'Fft:q- the third consonants out of the class consonants . whicll is further divided into twelve <lTiil. as also nouns meaning ~g. Taittitiya Pratisakhya ' ed.:r ff'ffi: or qrfiJs'ti!~:. Kas. Mysore.ITffrWr ~ur 9:<'!u<m: lVIahasent.g. Taittiriya Sakba. (I) tad. ~e:{«. 1. (2) a technical term for ~ (a suffix or a termination) in the Jainendra VyakaraI)a. ~:tRrm'qfulr:. or a vowel with a circumflex accent which follows un acute-accented vowel characterized by a vagraha i..:ft~.g. i1rqnlFrTff ~crfufnm.1fl1~ etc.g. ~.j:sli!~~:sl<. affix ~ standing for t<l~ and @. '2:OSP-mR: ~rf.<TI<jl~PH q9iIllT aIT!!CllRl'FIcr::il~ ~L Bli. " ~ tad. e. 3.3 2 . T. with the aciite third case (instIUmental case or accent on the first vowel of the QCftl.. written by ~~.g. aja:~. cf. and ~rR showing time.0nal-endilig of the root. qcffi~~q-tI. affixes of the "!<:( (! ) krt affix Q. +!cr~Q cr"l~~OI:. fii'fT. on P. 2. senses to the words ~OlT. 6. Cfi. e.!:. affix til added to the words ffi. Kas. ~ rnsqm "~~ <'f9 %~~ a kind of svarita or circumflex-accented vowel. which see below. 3. ~ii f. just n. lity.a:. III.sed by the perhabituated to do a thing. II. cf. e. 1. 102. ~~ ~~qa-~. 3-45. 1.ji'll " ( 2) after nouns c-:mnected with Hr. Oriental Library Series. ~UT t!~Tmr:.g.g. <Tt\. euphonic changes and the like.34.

38. lrq~ a rule oran operation prescri1 bed by PaQini in' the last three quarters of his A!1tadhyayi. 1. See. .lQa. cpo Yak. The word tad. ~ repeated thrice. past. Pro V. _ Raghavendracarya Gajendragadkar. 1. I. V. I.ufi" ( la.. lit. The Agama and the smrti compositions. ~~. IV.<i<iR'n lied to the roots marked with the '~ f<jqc::q:!!fu T. Panbbal. 14. 9· d padas or words. 12).192 ~. i . Kas. whleh are believed to be of divine origin. I2. metres. 104.'ladi affix ~~ and the tad. VIII. on P.g.. Katyayana (the author of the Varttikas). the compound being understood as· \'ffl~t<lq1:TTil or 8F'lItro~1:TTiiI cpo Yak. 105. 2. etc. I 'ftj\:qi'{l~. Katantra-vrtti. V. f. 8). ~ one of the seven principal Vedic I I I fim'r:. SIll: ~: l.58. 3. on IV. ( P: 111... (2) The word according to Vardhamana.ini.~ (P. Bh.e. i and to the words ~ and fcli'f. occurring thrice. 42-49. affix ~r. IS. +{l:7t~rm 12. alsl) ~f'i:j­ ~ ~ ~~ew ~1q: M.. <. I2. ~ all the three times. affixes 'Sf and '. optionally along with ~ and 0«. 2. cf. as a'so a later rule in which (the Tripadi) is not valid to an earlier one. calls it Tripadi. ~ (8. V. 4. (3) name vf a critical treatise on PaQini's grammar ( "The Tripadi" f written . 8).27. if broken. E. VIIi. Bh. triad. ~Cj'Sfr <itlm. ~~~<r:. . 3. ~Cf ~~ I ~(tf ~OJJI· Uvvatabhasya on V. m. I I wfI lit. on P. called . also f'cfiSI1:TT<iTs<l tll1Tij. . z. II.. 12).t consisting of three moras or matI as. fcfu~­ ~T (10. (2) a term signifying the plural number. 9. affix ~ 't I) added a few.1 .gveda. of which only seven Ahnikas have been published so far. the term ~~­ 'Ifi$ft~ . Kas. J!:!~<r:.~ and m<l". the Agama or BrahmakaQQa. s. are believed to be in continuous existence ( liCfli[Tm~fcr<l Cf~'hlFff~) by tradition which. a. 12.1ya works attributed to the three ancient Vedic scholarsVararuci. f=. 8. RtJ'l:q"'a scholar of grammar who has written a small work named aro<i<i~Rl on the uses of indeclinables• ~~ a -grammarian who has written a gloss on Katantrapaiijika. I. the tad. 10. ~. ct.u. V. ~a_me of ~ commenta:y on the Kas. It has four padas of eleven letters each.6 ) nection with the last three Padas (ch. . 2. being the contribution of the reputed triad of Grammarians. d. 1. Bh. VIII. Kiis. J!:!~cr<i~. 14. . 12 ). fu~ pupil' of Vardhamana who wrote a gloss called 'qf~~a' on the. in GaJ}. ~ ~ M.n. on the Kiitantrasiitravrtti of Durgasimha.& (I) krt affix f'fii. la.1. la. 254. ii). d. I . m~ .rl1~. Pr. CLI ~l. II. Bh. g. fcf\:l~~r (II. 3 and VIII. ~ I mute syllable ~ prefixed to them in the Dh1itupatha. 8.:ft the three views regarding the interpretation of the negative particle occurring in a compound (of course changed into ~i or ~).10I. ~. m a common term for the krt affixes ~ and ~ .on P. It has further varieties like a:rf+mTR.. IV.rcr-. pad. cpo E-kpr atiSakhya XVI. pad. 4.': specified. tad. +!~llli.IT tad. also M.rom. the war is used ..lendusekhara wntten by . WCfRaCfi<f. I ~r. three kaI). century and wrote commentaries on on P.4) of Panini's Astadhyayi.f~ name of a commentary on the I before the tad.51 and V. cf. 52.. cf. Kas. . on II. 193 is found used in connection with a Bahuvrihi compound Irlade up of three words. and J!:!11. P.61.. e. 2. the VakyakaQQa and the Padaka1. There is :lvagraha : important grammar works. . 12.. fu~ made up of a collection of three d. Helaraja at the end of his Prakifi:)aprakasa· pays homage to Bhartrhari by saying "~~rf+rrft ~q ~utT ffltJ<tr ~oT I m:~ B~~ ~ i{lI: II" f:. fP. case en9ings and personal endings which are in groups of three. g. cf. 181-!86) in case the vowel if of ~"Sj is looked upon as equiv.51. II.56.23. ~ (I) a term usually used in con- to I so. affix"Sj is added in the sense of tl~or coilection to the word e. a:r11~:. I.55. ~ lit. a. cf..by Dr. a term used in the Mahabh1i!1ya in connection with the Vibhakti affixes i. when 'I the)' end with the loco case termination.l1fof. 8) and so on. apption of the kramapatha. 12. on P. Pr. . 8.lmt to an augment. ~ ~rm (8. 2. tt4qcul:b:r~ +tfcrc "<ire 1 ( M.. on threePadas of 1st. 2.. g. I2. on P.:..das or books of Vakyapadiya.81~Ifc{r!f>rI:TTiic ~uN +tFc\ 6<ifu I . e.cf. d. always having the in connection with a ~k or a pore tad" affix +lQ'. The commentary is said to have beeD based on the three Bh8. present and future .d Pataiijali (the author of the Mahiibh1i~ya. e.. Pr. as also for the' Ul. g. Paribha!1endusel<hara written by Lak!1minrsimha in the 18th century. indeclinabl~s in the Sai!1ika senses. The protracted or t9a vowels are said to consist of three ruatras as contrasted with the short . 2. ~lf. (:jf) added to it. :aqiWQt. is restored by means of the seed which never perishes. ilT ~ it ~'.l. cf. ftlJ'lCfiVfl4 son of Vaidyanatha who wrote a small treatise on karakas called~~~.r etc. 1. He lived ~Cf.d Atreya. II.r (I) the famOl~s three anCient . I. 133. . on P.V. however.1. ~H~ name of a commentary on ~ a' term used in the Pratisakhya works in respect of a word which is repeated in the krama and other artificial recitations. as also to the wgrds i NilakaQthasastri Thatte. . triad.IO). I and first half of the nineteenth e. III. e. Buiskool. I ~ the TaittiIiya Pratisakhya written by Somayarya. adhyaya. affix termed Vibhakti added "' to pronouns excepting m. and long vowels whidl respectively consist of one arid two mail as. ~~fu ~~r. Yajurveda and the Samaveda. 2. II. II). ~+!«. ( z) added to the indeclinables ~+re" &ttl. IV. ( ~fu (12. affix SIT in the sense of somea resident of Satara and a pupil of thing donated. on P. grammarians PaQini (the author of the Siitras). g.. 2. cf.aratnamahodadhi refers to Bhartrhari'sMahabh1i!1yadipika.'Mahi!1eya ar.f ~il'iffi~ V.!ql<{t above. the rules in which are not valid by convention to rules in the first seven chapters and a quarter. HeUiraja at the end of his commentary on Vakyapadiya. He is quoted by Bopadeva and Vitthala. ending in in the second half of the eighteenth the accusative or the locative case. and others.the three Vedas E. .) ( 2 ) the grammar of PiiJ}. Kas. H.iilTiffi: f~<r:. cf.

(2) augment ~ ( ~) added to the . 4. V. ~ith ~~ ~ ~ See :orr.8. e.jl~~il.!'. grave and circumflex at the time of' the recital of the Veda' ~<!: ~<ro 1:/.g.. Bh. a't~:.g. and f'li<I:. substituted for ~ of the lakara affixes.f in the sense of measlfre (5I111UT).q ~~9~: d. P. 2 4. ~~ tad. ~. IGis. d. ~'l B<lQ'fiU6t9 and ~Uffi.35.I)3. V. before the affixes of the aorist. cf. e. 511"l. ~ personal ending of the 2nd pers. r.26.. maT.JI. Parasmaipada. ' ~ personal-ending :qq substituted for ob::erved the caesura or avagraha in the recital of the Padapa~ha. the words ending in ~.g.r mr~. 1. "l'U1llt '!3Uf: "l'!J:. e. 1. affix :q'j~ in the sense of r{<l added to the words }ft'i..tmanepada. e g.g.ff:or:. d. ~ etc. V. ct. with ~ ( ~ ) to be added further to form the fern. affix "IT in the sense of question or reason (~g) added to the pronoun ~ in Vedic Literature: e. d. 'liRr. <TItif<r. e. a grammarian of the nineteenth century. P."1Jtfffi. '!i'. on VIII. 'lIM~R1 >It<l::O:ifT. I$i and "1<l:gi( provided the final letter is at the end of a pada . which is substituted for ~ of the lakara affixes. 2. ~~fu rrfS:qT etc. V. cq tad. on P.. sing. 4.' e. in Vedic Literature.g.195 194 ~g tad. ?:flT. VHf. of the 2ndpers. on p. and a' semivowel as also for the consonant ~ of ~:qT preceded by the preposition a<t. air "1+<I~<I: P. 25.2.. ~Kas. V. Kas. ( 5 ) u:t. affix :ql~.. P. who has written a cl:itical treatise named" PaQinL and the Veda. V. i:'ffiit" fJUf9"'1~ P.. I. altg:. 3. PI'.. also M. aRtfT/frG:. affix til! in the sense of • favourable for' (eWe ~il. pronouns excepting those headed by rn:.ini) which gets caesura or avagraha after >wi. 3. the vowel a:r being added for facility of utterance or use. t:/T:or:. 3Jfrt '<1 ~~~ q >rififitffl I 3R~i. 'Ii~ :qil. P. IlL 4.<f. C{~ potential pass. 84. (4) tad. VI.!j..44.. ~cf:qT.50. ~ of the 2nd pers. d.g. e. e. 'IT and::n.) added to the roots ~'~~. see ~ above. 1 7.5).. V. Bh... ~ (I) person~l-ending ~ ~~ a commentary on the Paribha$endusekhar by :. :. d. e.. 'lirerr<r and ~. becoming indeclinables. ct. Kas.60 etc. (3) consonant a: substituted for the final fr of " "roots excepting the root ~. I. 4. (I) ( manner) added to the pronouns ~. 'ci m<'f~TT I{. in Vedic Literac tu re . d. 'and the word CiTs. of the 2nd pefs.1 ~+r. d. 1. VI. VII.:ft:or: etc. ~g. P: V.6r. Klis. '!itct l[iEt: I <!i<1 Oll<r. ~~~.) added to the words ~ and a:r~. 'ITl!J9i:. 3. PAUL) a souQd schoiar of the present day. . on P. as also with irift1. (6) a technical term for the term a:r<='l'& or the reduplicate syllables of PaQini (ct. 1jifu:or:. V. P. etc.ladi affix (:q~) added to the r60ts !:fT. 2. etc. of the imperac ~+r (THIEM. fctW<lT<I:etc. P. cf. P. . pI. 2. V. -2. d. 2. ~ and "'Ii'!\. VII.) added to tht:l roots \3~. ~'IR:or:. on P. d. ~:or<r. PI'. :. .g.r to the words ~ and mC!"(.. e·g. personal ending :or substituted for m'!.' ' (r) augment ~added to the words qy~ ~WI. e. d. 'dffix :ql~ in the seDse of manner (l191H) added to f<nif.I d. if~ for <t~.g. "11~:q-~. used in the Jainendra VyakaraQa... sing.82. 3.::. before the PiiraI)a affix ~.!&Wl:. 1. tad. FlJtf and !{11 in Vedic Literature.. ct. Vaj.Jf!. 12 . well versed in Sanskrit Grammar and Vedic Literature.fi'r after the writer. . also ~~~cr<i q ~tffl trn <it <tt"l': I ~~q~ulf'C/Tij~ ~rrq'i!f~ I M. ( 2) tad. personal ending m'!. 4. M. cf. on P. ~ tad.g.!j'i!'!i.45. LI5.146.78 . affix ('fin the sense of duty nature or essence.Il:. Kiis. If.cf:ifT f<tJtf~:ifT. ~alJT <{~: I a:rFtial!T I d.. V. I. "1. tad. [. ( 4) U Qadi affix (<f:q-if. d ~ mCffi'lCf~ P. ~ ~~ (a word) having three vowels or syllables in it. 7. e. prescribed optio~~ ally with the affix C!~ (ffi). . ~<l~Rr ~S~<J:. :oJI!. 2. e. P. OT<ll~.. also ct. III. a fault of pronunciation where the letters are uttered indistinct (aT~~).g.g. on P.g. affix \!f added to the numerals personal ending of the 2nd pers. ct. on P.' d.lI~<I ~fa 'i=m~+r.la for the term amij~ in the grammar of PaI)ini. part. d. r{11 and ::ng. III. 124. ( 3) tad.E. UQadi Siitra II. e. in . dual Parasmaipada. (3) u:t. affix a:fl prescribed optionally and l1T. (2) a technical term used in the Jainendra VyakaraI. 2. ' ~~ tad.@r M. e. substituted for the' final letter of nouns ending wi th the affix <l~ as also for the final letter of ~. V. A. of sni{ before any COn!ionant except a nasal. V. 47. affix :qr (:qi~ according to paQ. affix :q<r. C{ (I) the consonant . - (I) tad.g. :oJl~I'i<I:. on P.. g.!j. Kiis. d. III. iEl~:... ~<?i. VIII.72. Bh •. on p. rrf. IV. U.the sense of 1I'!il\ (~ ) augment ~'added to the root '" ~~ a collection of thI'e~ words (to express the snme sense). ~ !{nr- (I) second consonant of the dental class of consonants possessed of the properties JtfffiI~~lq. d. LIIg. 2. sing. ~Ei'tll. on P. use of the three accents acute. also ~~ <IT '<1 Cfit'lf R.llidi affix (:orrr. of the third pers. lfoh:r<!Tf... I.di Siitra II. before the personal ending fa'!. 3..r. 'i:ig~:...38. ~111'!il+f.23.:i['!i: see S!j<'i['!i. P. who resided at Wai in Satara District and wrote a commentary on the Paribha~enduse­ khara which is named . f<t~(1'1illOt'f and l1lHlIlUR'f.. 'Iiftt. affix t'f before which there is ending in if." is added optionally along with 6l0l... .g. base e. 10.g. Ell. V.:fT etc. d. also d.lf ~ "lTBif. d. al:td 111. V. ''<1ri'!ci~'!l<{tqt ~'fT~ arr~<:fTiij+r. in the sense of agent provided he is skilled. 3R~T­ ftiTr. tj'i.. Parasmaipada in the perfect tense as also in the present tense in specific cases. (3) substitute for the consonant I!. substituted for the ~ of the ten lakara affixes' ( 2) substitute (:q~) for the 2nd per!? s:ng. WiS.1tR9<I:. or :.words"l~. 4. 4.6. tm:or:. e. cf.51. e. ~ ~~ krt affix :q'!i added to theJoot tr ~ krt affix ~'l" in the sense' of the • to sing'... VIII·3·93. 2. ct. d.g..Il1. P. IV.g. UQadi Siitra 1I. VIII. onIII. in the perfect tense.g. a:r(l of the fourth conjugation Paras.88.. a:r'Of~it. SK. 4.37 and IV.. <{ third consonant of the dental class of conS0nants possessed of the properties qT<n~ii<nq. " ~ tive Parasmaipada in Vedic Literature. e. 83.74. (2) consonant it.35 Vart. pl.g. ~. IX. Fct1!f.r tm:orTr.!&flf.14.

18. f I I ~'l!lilji'i'lifilR:CfiT q<=di(4\:q the letters tI:. ~r fulijl~T: V~ Pr. GJ+!.:~: Kas.jTf~ w'as a descendant ~ a potency by virtue of which of <{~. on the 2. 2l.. ~~ ifRP:fUI' a :. Pr. 1\". which ends in the neuter gender and UQiidiko:.. ~m .4. he has ~ staff in his hand. d. 56. ct. <u~r<rUr.en.. Com.1\1~ 'cfi"licr Pal).1I6. 21. II. lied to the words Blf.196 197 ~ _ one of ·the varieties of the Vedic \ recital. . 3. is referred to. bharal)a. and ~OJ:.58.N 'has written Iilany works on Veda ~ 3 ~ I because be thought the and VyakaraI)a. V II . grammar-work Sara3vahkal)tha~nd ff<j~ i d. S. OGJ<fi'l.t<i!FI<ll' :n>!<{~ill :n11~~erT I . 6g.. cf. 'l. VI. ~6mm C{C'a. in the'locative case. Pr.65. <{~l!ir ~r~w. for the uplift of Vediingas. ~~~9iI~ I ~R.I.. a female de- scendant of ~~. XXII. . :n11~ I 3T~'qf~er~s<i ' lfm C(qOT name <fi\UIfil~:. . ~<m~~:9i{rfUT ~~<r.l of the nineteenth century. JaiD' grammarian.ing '. ~ffiiff ~: sana. Pro 1.. §TtlT ~f'tir~imlfTlfltlf. intended had a dish in his. ct.20. Sik. 1. as PaQini is called <{T~.. characteristic of the acute !:'fTg. -mniflffiT etc. treatise.he study of A:. ct. grammarIan .. @i(J'lqtij a<iiT~: R.IU<a_p:j' the maxim regarding a per76 .g. T. I. Akhyatika and so on. the name of the author is not giv. 1. G:<rrqwr a Jain \\Titer who wrote a U.. on P.g.g. the Vyiikaral)'a for the term lIlJ:~ used author of the grammar work ~ by P1igini.g. and ~OJ:. of roots. Kas.\m a 1. on P. pad. on P. as he called Vediingaprakiisa. IV. singular number. K. '\ ~ a technical term in the J ainendra G:l~1<iOT name. d. Mahiibhiil?ya and Kasika:vpti. was a term for I given as a.a commentary on KOI)Qabhatta's VaiyiikaraI)abhii~a­ I)asara. 43· wrote a commentary on _ BhoJa's I th e t ongue. th e I e tt ers . 2.. Kas. e. written by Mannudeva or :tVlantudev. II. applied to CR. written by a grammarian named Harivallabha. (~) also <{iid 't18t.29. ~'l'm~.~ I When . ~~ ~<iTEl'l'cft<r'1. ~i ct. teenth century belonging to Gujarat. 'P. e.fOftqf<:'l'ftm ~ilNyiisa all I.g.96. aTI61ft. -e. I. 1. a greeting remark is returned there He encouraged and firmly establishwill Lot be the proia ted last vowel ed on a sound footing the study of when the remark is with regard to Vedas and VyakaraI)a and ena low-born person or a woman c·r a couraged t. ~ also .42.. The word <{T~/<IU1 indicates that o1. he wrote small treatises in the very words tdftiqq 8uflt a class of compound words I of PiiI)ini and Patafijali. on P.q: of PaI)ini which gives ten classes cf. ct.. 43.15. d. affix called fcr+TRn. 3. I9.. Ka~. T. Pro ~ _.1 d. ct. ~~: ~fl!i€T smr- .rammatical I I I I I I I ~T~~ lit. g. on P.<fi. II.. V. were relatives.Bh. V. 'space limitations are put upon thin~s in daily affairs cpo Viik. also B~ 13cflfG:T1WT a:r!tIT9:liR<! QTfuJ.7. cf.g. 3. an abrid~ .locative case. " and~. I ~~formed at the the teeth.. The ~k.q.jlOJ:. Q. 2. and. who wrote a small grammar treatise named ~oa:~UJ. cf. According to PiiQini's grammar ~ a class of words headed by the ~ (long) does not exist.) and tions of roots.. although G:l tad. V.~~m('fi a brilliant Vedic scholar ing on !f{l/f+!9T~s~l\ I p. emf. 41. Pr.14· treatise named. In a major work name of the pupil was ~~~. where 1{RlU1. \:ho teeth by of .a compounds.ttrit ~~ SOD being called an ascetic pecause P . Ig. (2) name 'If the dhiitupa:tha cbange of sense. (root) in some ancient gramor . I. ~'t. on P. on T... 2. ~Iitf.:r '<fr+lin 19§ l(T~<itIJ~ erT ~m ~: M.:rft~T.' G:fiT~ I I I . on P. dental and partly la!:>Ial . d. son of a female descendant of 1{~. PratWikhya calls \. 3. d. 3. a short. Ig. cf.g~ the i:(liiRfrk{ .66.. 1...~ a . It is defined as fcltJiT.83 and a great reforl1!er of the nineand its Vart. d. <{emT..4i ~ tad.kata yana's Sabdanusaletters originates. . 1{f!:'flf<r~. tij. 13T~i\~<ifI. . Pr.r: M. P. a Class of words headed by first section of the second part the word ?J+rfu to which the tadd('3''6tr~) of the Siddhanta Katihita affix ~ is added without any mudi.).pJacewhere the utterance of dental gement of Sa.xc.' retain the accenls of the first c:m:. . • deser. Patafijali refers to this maxim while comment. quoted in the Mah. person making a sarcastic remark. The \ word also means students reading the work 'W'l\. e. e. Avyayartha. '.the tip of produced at dental.. ~qorr name of a commentary on the Sabdakaustubha. 3.Taittiriya Pra. G:~ ( I) a section of g. 'I. ~~m~ a class of words headed by the word OO+m: which. ' _ I "<.. T. Accord~ word <{~ t~ which the taddhita 1 ing to .:c . ~~ <{qf. Bh.they are tatpuru:. If..i ( firmness) or <fi~m (hardness. affix named' vibhakti' app~. I. ~~.iibhal?ya on P.#i~~: I anijT~T:+1. arr<!. and g?t headed by the word ~'l'<r~ which them translated into Hindi. on P.Rr ~~r.1r called trT~.V. 20.a. V.tiidhyayi. ' . &fer. \ 'i:('R!1J~ explained by the commentators on the Pratisakhya works as i~ the ten classes· or conjuga. in the sense of the . critics say that Pa~ini and Vy1i.thn:.tisiikh~a \ isaffix <i is added in the sense of partly dental and partly lmgual. ~.. . hand. the Mugdha~odha Vyaka'raI)a Bopadeva.~ or ~lWl the dentolabial letter cr. 1.. name given to the treatise on grammar written by o<rTEl'lT't which consisted of 10 chapters.:fi<J~. Kas. VII.j is explained as roots belonging to more than one ~~ GJ~aT ~r I conjugation. Some are not compounded as tr"lTlrR~ of them are Namika. d.e q is partly on P. member of the compound i cf. VIII. o(f. a1m~ ~3f writer of a commentary on of treatises dealing with the ten conjugations of roots. ~ a Jain scholar who has written a grammar treatise' on the Sarasvata Gramm. whil. e.:!GJ'Q' tone. tlW.. He The teacher used tffif in arm61:1'I~ t. 'by which· o<l~.m<rrm ~~ mar works. V. Kas. name given to Pal)ini who was the son of <{T!tIT.27.

la siitras. Siitras.rule of grammar pre~cribing the lengthening of a short vowel.asgrammar named Sabdavatara.m:r a.44 Viirt. ' ~s:r~t a commentary on CfH:<iqg::{~ by <nUI:jUj. which deals with the notion of space. and it WaS Durgasirhha who was believed to have been written by the author of the well-known work GopaIaciii'Va Karhadkar. a . is attributed to formation of difficult words attria Durgasirhha. 57. on P. :. mar work named 'ffi'1'JH6T{. Besides this siitras. d. he has written. cfr a technical term in the J ainendra Vyakarat. ~llf G.lusastri Bhat.1. Kas.1I3. 1. '<Ig. IV. tmr was only a title given to Durgasirhha for his profound scholarship. 4. ~~~~ (I) a grammar work on DurgaslIhha's commelltatyon Katantrasutras.. .g. This. or cWrfMT'lf'G also. ?'Gj:=~ a grammarian who wrote a ~ "'I . ~ long. the term is applied to the phonetic element ~ which is due to the incomplete contact of the org'an at the production of the letter ~. cf. . fctf~ <lcf Vt~'1i{" similarly Cj4~1l:.I. by the Varttikakara: e. ~5. See '~~1 +12'.g. called also c{T"<I~Tfct cf.Wl~rrcro:n­ it~1 ~mtmnC'Qt f?. commentaras a gloss on the Ut. The a~thor of it. mainly to explain difficult formations.me given to the . a gloss on Bopadeva's Mugdhacommentary. $fa- explained as <:~ or throbbing in utterance. Sarat. ct. e. ~ affixes can be syntactically con· nected only with some difficulty. on P. cf.ded by the root ~ ( ~fa). V. 3.:~..to Bhimiidirya. ~11~r: rrrT. ~ the famous cummentator of the . ~crf tflllro mCfI1c'lfu~: ~lfuqf<t1iiT~~: mrn:{ti~rtc::flifa ~m-!fI'1W! 'tWiN-11m <It a:r91:'19f'9~~crr'c'f­ i I ~Uj: B q<{T~t'I~tc::~qq£Hlyqr f. 1.3.ini. a ~ a technical terfu of Jain~ndra gram.) ~~~ a w Jrd den )ting a l1. cribed to Durgasirhha. on the Paribha~endusekhara of Nagesa. ~:~I! ~lJ. this commentator Durgasirhha is the same as Durgiidirya. which was' written to bodha.g. 35. d. e.27. tr&T<r. in which century.a Paribhii!?endusekhara. affix <I. select siitras of PaJ).ladeva. on IV.nentary by .g.1 ~'II'W'lT'i:ft '1: Bf?!:!f:U~: a:r~:U~!il a1i?m~~: ~~ <lcrfer I ~~ g s. hea.\. a gramAmarako!?a •. d.liidi Sutras. ~mT ( north-east) or ~q~11T ( north-west).:CRW.hS.. It is doubtful whether buted t~ ~~ or Bcfu~. dire:tio n such as l{'f.t~'1. on P. <I1i>ft~ B't~q~alt: ~1W1t(.g. the famous ~~ name of a coml. was a great ally. am . grammarian who wrote a work on genders called ~ff~<l' ~ fault. sixth Eection of the third 1iil06 ofVakyapadiya.avako!?8.:~'i!~ f.lini's grammar. t'fl t/T+rm:. the throbbing ( 1{tfH J of the latter and latter tone 'leads· to the' perception iJf the former and former one ~ d. gramnlatical operatlOn where a short vowel is tumed into a IMg one. s. /cp. d. =3~{ and the}ike.2. criticised in reply by VifJI)usastri Bhat in his Ciccandrikii (~~1ii1). or words whose case ~~ a class of words headed by the word f<t~ to wh:ch the tad.. ~~ name of a commentary. (b) a gloss named ~'tfil<!iT criticise the commentary WrittE!U on Kavikalpadruma and (c) gabby Vi!?I. Katantra siitras. Paribha!?as are explained and established as based on the Katantra ~~i!~:ffi~~ a grammar work on the Vyakarat. Sii. (2) Srivallabhavacanaca[ya on Haimalingallusasana.ini. whose Vrtti on the siitras is the most popular one.. ~"l.. Pr. Pr. or objection raised against an ~ name of a grammar work exargument advanced by a writer. ft(qtf~ a class of roots of the fuurth P. in connection with a fault found witb.1~a style of a running commentary on CfTc{f <lifC'iq!lt ~-cnFI~m. affix prescribed after the word was an eastern grammarian who. devoted Prado on P. as in the sense of milk (~'9 ) along is evident from the number of with the affixes ~ and tIUtr optionquotations in his work. the word is used and also a commentary on it. a term used in ccrinectioll with the lengthened tone of a vowel described to be dvimatra as contrasted with . before which tad.r.in g words which are difficult [ by his opponent or by the writer to derive according to rules of himself who replies it to make his PaJ). (~) is added in the sense or ' produced therein' (0"1 <19:).27· produced by an incomplete contact of the <i\{UJ. a commentary on Karakas named ~~1ii{t. I.la for c{Tq ( long vowel) in Pat. Pal)Sik~a 5. 1. A work on Parischolar of the I2th or the I3 t h bhafJ3s named tfRmqT'J. V.. 1.~~~t§Cf: P.28. HCf61lT8: fu!qfu!: B!ffiI:. q:!fl1. I t is called ~~!iifu or <i\~'lfu.198 199 ..:f~eFct+fffit~qc::rf. 11T1:1:jfrc::i1 =3'~r<ifa.. «-let 1"4 I~ J+~_ ft{cfg+ffii the Bahuvrihi compouud prescribed by the rule ~i1T+TR.:u~mi. ~ tad.~a name of a grammarian who is said to have written a work on sasana and Paribha~avrtti are . or showing the direCtion of another thing being its adjective.fiR~~ I (~<i>J. 2 9. 1. e.:718 A. objection.T Kas. and a:rfuffiii. II. f~q. was the brother of Vikramaditya. XXIII. 1.1VIaha. 354. 6::>. Some scholars believe that -the term 3l"li~­ ~ sees.~ having one malra and t§Cf having three matras. fmfCfT~ cttE'r: V. f. a:rPt-OC~: I Jain. was again diirl).. 1.D.:i\. 1.g.. 111:<1 li"'~ Vtilfll. Kiis on P. i[O'l: etc. ~'Il'f. a ies on Nagesa's Laghumafiju!?a and gloss (cV'G) on Kalapa-VyakaraJ). conjugation.. Plain. Out of the seven fivaras or yamas ~!. 16.lfa:mq~'f: T.Bh.. 1v1. e. marian of the I9th century and ~ a grammarian \vho wrote (a) attributed . some grammar works such treatise. used as a substantive. e. treatise on grammar ~<(C<jf'fi{1ll.fu. Besides the gloss' OIl the Katat'ltra named after him. Namaliilgiinu. cf. mar corresponding to ~:a« of paQini. 6. affix added to the word +Pl'l is changed to 11\l'li!. also 6i~:'. ~:f~1! a word. There is a legend that Durgasimha •. The work is wIitten in the' argument well established . d. " ~~~ na.. the founder of the Vikrama Era. Kas. composed around . Kesavadatta-Sarm-an on the grama commentator of Yaska's Nirukta.2.III. 3. Pr.

Bh.56. Pro I.. (9 and Cl~ (Cfi) can. V. cf. lfer 8Hltt€l<l. ~:.hy of Vyakarat. ~ name given to a work on grammar. '{!~ taking place of an operation. ~cr(fl~r.67. P.! .. Kas. affix <{ (6l!~) or l{+!if.:e of origin. V. l{rS\1m~r.g.M..S. Pari. 1. tad. and added a commentary of his own on it which he has named as Bilr<:JljlfitT!ffi~. ~ ~{ discrepant. (2) defectshown in connection with an expression Or explanation. e. IV.55. in the sense of • a day" when ~ is changed into a:r (arlit). Kas. ~ ~Rt a p~pular name given to the third pada of the seventh adhyaya ofPaI). om:[ tad.~"i.I23. cf.g. I I on M. applied to" which in' the sens~ of a' statue. applied to ~ll. mml{. 3. See~. a root belonging to the fourth :¥l <ill<{ I 26 of roots t itcnfctifOT).T. and written the treatise on grammar.g. ~ 'q Kas." cf. ~TfqCf. arnt~~Ho:!jt.:d:Tm~~H:llmfl. of course.day. d. 3. for which see ~frq. I. called Rl:&rrnB~n-~tliW6ii.!:qJ is added in the sense of nature (llTCf). of which a commentary on the Uttariidhyayanasutra can be specially mentioned. or almost similar. or in the talk of cultured people. ~ (I) a fault of pronurtciation. 201 Pro II. See ~~e<fI'fi\OT.f!j~eTfct~T~:. Kaiyata on V. ~\ tad. on P. 48. KiiS. (I) original place of articuiation.II ! Ii ~r ' 200 .cf. ... affix '!l~ applied to the word in the sense of a . also ~'f~ VI. aW!!ffi'[.22. optionally prescribed with the affixes ~Q. cf. a:rFci'{€I<l. ~ lit.g.ini's A~tadhyayi as the pada begins with the Sotra itfct<fiTf'~~lfI~­ CjI?. ( 4) passage of the Samhita text. e. ~~r ~2.:t ~" if- a class ')f words headed.V. the peculiarities of this Dvandva compound are (a) that generally there are changes at the end of the first member.Qi Pari. also t'lliTiR<i B~M ~~f.. It· is likely that ~Tii~"\. He has writ.. e. 3. VII 3. cf. 3. cf. 2. Vart. cf. I ~m~<l. said in connection with words which a grammarian tries to explain. urmf...lini. cf. I t is also the name of a metrical work On Dhiitupatha. see ~mlj\ above. a grammarian who has written a disquisition on the philosop. m~ tmf<t~. 3. eighth century who is believed to have written a grammar 'Work.22. place. of which it appears similar to a word ending in the dual number. on P. conjugation ~rre: a class of roots headed by the root ~q:..g.lfllJr. is dropped. 1 9.<::-~lfIa: and the grammar work is the same as ~~~Qa:mm~. 1.~~rcnmm M.ten many works on the Jain Agamas. the aorist sign ~~ aftar which gets (31) ~ substituted for it. cf.. ~:.V. on P. 01~ ~<t ~m.14r.."ljql«"l"1Ki(. I. Sek. 1. afflx ~~ in the sense of slightly less. P... on P.55.named (1. cf. I..25-31. d. or application of a rule of grammar in accordance with the words seen in use.g.!) \' ll:i1lJ'iffiRr. ({l~. 5. on P. .~oo. M. 3. R. generally quoted to explain effectively some rules or conventions laid down. or applied for the formation of a' proper noun.. probably Kaiyata had a difficulty in explaining the word ?~<! in the old way meaning' current in use'. Kiis.3. 3. and (b) tbat Qoth the words retain their original accents. 7. 49. &~: etc. U! seen in use in Vedic Literature.r 'qTiiTl'ff.f~ ~ l!:Rr ~<:r~r q~ m. P. Bh.:~ (f~il~rf. on P. V~ 3. ~ a modern grammarian of the 19th century who has written a gloss on the A~~adhyayi of Pat. 3l1li1J!j. (3) place of inferential establishment of a Paribha$a etc. e.~ on the ~­ :uTBif of Hemacandra. 01~. .22 Vart.55. Vlirt. '111~. presumably the same as ~­ ~~i1 written by \.g.. applied to the word ijmii when 6W<r is changed into Bj e. the commentary on the mcrr"-l~f?riTIi"i'" is well-known. ~:. 12~~l:j: d.?a's Laghusabdendusekhara written by +l~itr of the eighteenth century. and I. cf.la in verse.. P. VI.·P.. !l.m~: \ ~­ il~ .D. onP. on 1. affix lilt:!. I. ljlilflt Cficrc::4 qU~) ID!Ttf'i'tl{ ~fr~G}lfl<T~ 3l<f g lS§ fct~~­ SIl21'RT{ <llffiil TJ.:f ~~-' q\<l. affix in the sense of almost similar. ~:. ~~ name of' a commentary on ~agesa's Paribhii$endusekhara written by +!~Cf of the eighteenth century. '3li~!: cf. cf. m"~I~.Bh. cf. aR~ 9"T Cf:q.1 Viirt. ~ ~cU"f. l:IIil:) cf. .Bh. c?t~ name of a commentary on Nage!. V. which is known as ~~~--a<jFli\llJ or' ~<t'AAI<Iii{ltl­ ?ffiEif. 2..'lT: tll!:F~ !lmqrlilr:. if~· Q~:. Pro XIV. e.li~fJ(~Rl ll"lfn Vy5. or" Classical Literature. ~ "9T<Il1t<jftn ilmrn: B~ qTEflllffu:lmfaftfu I n~:qT iTm: ~a. 3. III.:l\f{(~tRft l{lff mM V. I ~qq~ a class of words headed by the word ~:q. introduced from other languages were current at his time which he was reluctant to term as ~'l.~fciOI" ~Cfi.91. He is called ~~'iR also. called also tt. a Jain grammarian of the .7. P. 3. Patha 68.. be added optionally. '3~. of course. . by ~ to which the tad. ~mR a compound word called ~ whose members are names of deities. Kas.and ~!j e.a for the term ~~ (the latter or the second member of a compound word) which is used in PaI)ini's grammar.fl~..the same as ~Cfi!f. ~ " W . V.9: M. is. ~ name of a system of grammar or a work on grammar the peculiarity of which is the omission of the ~~lf topic.:l!Ft:. although not sanctioned by rules of grammar. d. the affix <n<I:. ~~llT"li{T: <l1ffis~ E<i~cRMT:" ~~. ioraccent. ( lflif. 18. as many words called bad words. characterized by discrepancy .lini SO tras.. (I) tad.22. ~~f. for changes. I. Bh. ~ similar instance'. 31~n~. 59. See also ~rqO!j . a:'fq~ was a great Jain saint and scholar who wrote many works on Jain Agamas of which &ftlRlfu. ". 2.nr: . ( 2) (words) current in popular use or language. " ~ a Jain grammarian of the 13th century who has written a commentary ..·IjR~:rI''!1~: ~~': Par. 3. (2) pla<. The writer of this grammar is possibly mentioned as ~ in the usually quoted verse of Bopadeva: ~~~: <fil~fil~~ .:6('l. by virtue. based on Piit. " tad. ~~I=IT. B~: tffi!f\rll'f+!: P. cf.. 3. n. affix Ill.36.!!~ii.:ij. ~ a technical term in the J ainendra VyakaraI). ~~'f{: fl-::{fc!q~'ifT:~. an P. ~.rl~'" +!1~!j 0 etc.:ljQl<l: or 'i'lllQT~Cf­ believed to have lived in the fifth century A. V. cf • .

<iuTIf&rmif[M-CliT~ 1. ( 2) The word :i{e<{ is also found used in the sense of an ·individual object.:. .m~ CfiQaffix is added to it·..64 Vart.0:4 :q f[~'4 I qf~I1Tl~9'i ~fo~cmR9'i :q I o'lf[cf\<l iT'ij~91q~ ~C'I!iI!!¥t Ej~<i~­ EjtQ. cf. m+lrr~:. cf. mentioned in the tad. Q~' ~~O<!iti~'m[f~!!Tli: I :rro:::~TfUr ~T'<liiTf.. cr. formed of two or more words used in the sam~ case. ~T ofur-il' 203 1. 4. by standard gramrnariails headed by the Varttikakara. <IF-t ~+Offillli R. sense by denotation. Out of the four meanings of the indecli· nable 'q. S{C<i f. on 1.29. I. See :i{iXj.a: I ( cpo PUl}yaraja on Yak. . ct. . ii q~T:.) and t!l1Tm~ (as in cniR9"'1~ etc. as opposed to ~ pro1.a of by yaska. Bh. Pr. prescribed optionally along with the affix~s G:t'j and 111"f. 2. 1.57. '9T~ f[o'~: P. cpo . on P. d. on Pari. Denta. I. ~~'l' and ti+u{t\. 5. ?f~~1Tfu'elfii denotation of j\o<{ or indi- Vart.. Pro II. 50.ol:!~!!~~. on P. on P. Bh. 5. also ~ . (3) The word :i{0<! is found used in the sense of Sadhana or means in Tait. Prati. S. <JlT<{9'qi'iT 1l. 1 90 . -<Jq~g a~­ oC!i ~ com. The gender of a word in the ~t!l1m is that of.n. as opposed to the genus or generic notion (an'i\fu): cf. in the sense of measure..37. I M. P. ~ Q. In short.~qco~ ~~ g ~: Vakyapadiya II. Vart.:. Pro XIII. cannot be looked upon as a CO£l'ect word. II. perty and~!U action which exist on dravya.r1fRfT ~: %f'<R'il!/'l'l!/fflll:TTFrii: Vakyapadiya II.j.i was the first propounder of this view. pad. on P. K. ~~rff Ejr~ ~ lle<{m :q ~Cit :q I ar+<!fByq mw ~ert ~I~ srcltm~ g l1b<!l1F( I ~IOTT~ii ~it..l~ ~~m:<!: S{C<l 'ql~'q I vidualobjec. a grammarian who maintains that' dravya' or 'individual object' is the sense of words. showing their collection together. ~lRT~ err'qCliT: ~ moCliT ~m ~: Bh1i~ii Yr. name of a compound. . denotation of the general form possessed by objects C?f the same class. affix . cpo :i{O<Iq~: i\0l:!cr&:T~'i~: I (~~T. III. viz. ll. also on P. on Vakyapadiya II. d. IlL 14. lhe number. in short. I. the letter '!. The f~~rth section which is named and the word ~ is used by old <i~ir. I. 'l'RtCfT"fcIitcrnfit ~<{ (~11:TRIT:) 0<{9~1fTtl:!ij-. d. cpo Yak. a "" utterance. Bh. ~ ~ !!OT<ft ~T EjUJff&rmrrrN9iT~ '+i1=<i+rI<if msfl'iffiT<lr<i:. ~~fflq. ~1i~<i ~<'<if in lii~~uIT$(fT!%. II. cf. 2. KM on P.Jut .64 Vart. ~.l O!!T~:. 2.:r~m ~T'i) ~'i"'l<ftCjlii~ Wifu Kas.l oljT~.9iT ~~q~~ I <iW wrm~t ORIijl!. M. if ~1j!imqc{iT~91~ :i{o<l.64. The utterance of a letter takes i rd'time niore in the ~'<iT!CJ:Ri than in the ~'lRr.57.) respectively.70 T ~G"~ the view that an individual thing ( S{Cl:!) and· not the genus (~ra-) is the denotation of a word. the utterance of the same letter takes in the three vrttis. The dvana dva compound takes place only· when the speaker intends mentioDG ing the several objects together I. the case affixes are said to be any way. 206.ilffii q~I~: I M. Kaiyata also on.5) ~~ I ~il g. 2. III. 77-83. the nipatas and upasargas are s~id to be ' dyotaka' and not' Vacaka '. on P.Par. B~<r. as immediately on hearing it. XXII. not directly capable of expressing the . 2. . 1.1). rapid.II9. cf.! Cfu'lFl"<fT~: Tai. ~ M. 53. the dvandva compound is sanctioned in the last two senses only called~~<'1l (as in ~~<lI~~T etc. See . ~ 1ll>ljlWl'f . cf. to ~:r~<i. kriya found in a root after a krt affixes. the above. Ej<1r:! M. 18.t as the sense of words as opposed to atlj!i«filP!f[q i. 1. lffi'iN name of a treatise on grammar . 45 • See i{O<!. g"'4~~ one of the three Vrttis or styles of utterance. only a part of the ~UJ8!:i~~ (Vak. although found used in treatises on astrology. The word ~ is used lf~~'l!T name given to the second section of th~ third KaI. s{cl:ITfli'<TT. the vice of rapidity in a fault of speech especially in connection with the utterance of vowels in Vedic recitai when on acco1J.m~Tii~rfil SlTfctqFct~ P. ~C<f<rn:rfcr. pad. containin'g only four grammarians as synonymous with verses. 333. lit. tl~9!5T or ~1JjCf'q. ct. 't'fR<ITSffi~ i ~ firq~ reference to its individual nature <'l<Wc1 if ~~ ~. 18. d. and not directly. as one thing differing from another. also f.mOCfi above.e. f. ~ (sense) conveyed by suggestion indirectly and not directly expressed. d.i~1 (~~. while in the ~~'la'lfu it takes l rd more than in the 1l1:<iI1'lRt. ct.va or niyas. deal'.~:U is significant. r bhava ' or kriya or verbal activity. when there is. 'vacaka' or 'dyotaka '.:<itl.e. the sixth constellation. 2. ~­ 'RlT~~ CfHl. V.~}U: II Sr. q~~lg. the krt affixes and the tad •. III.~~<r-IW-i behaviour like a dravya as noticed in the case of the bh1i. The ancient grammarian VyaQ. ~ . ~ substance. 19.. the last word in the case of the ~~u written for beginners by Bharatasena or Bharatamalla: of Bengal in the sixteenth century.. 2. 165. also with ':i{C<f' but with mer. 4. cf.45 Varttika 12. while it is the neuter gender in the case of the wmm~. itiUl~T a kind of the position of the _ tongue at the Hme of pronouncing .202 indicative. 194.29. d. 1{O<:I'Ef"'l. Pratisiikhya works and quoted in the Mahiibh1i~ya . The word ~U]B!l.cf.~ ~ conveyance of sense indirectly or by suggestion. as in the case of karmapravaca. 2. Madhyama and Vilarribita.1>Qrf+rl:1y.ciT1:lT<f ~tMlR'lij~'<T: .mr. it suggests that the fourth section which is named ~<!ti\ol:!Bf!W formed. Bh. PaQini and other gram Vakyapadiya which deals with marians a very general sense substance (S{C<!). 45. cn<l if ~1:Wl 'i!'qCfi: I qrfil. The Karmapravacaniyas are definitely laid down as dyotaka. 8T~ 1i5l!. . III. M. cf. d. Bh.las8.il:o 9'. cp.19.on H. a:r«i1'9</'. Sek.tre~ut Cl~ (Vak. 8. 4. For details see Mah1ibba~ya on II.. the quantity of time in propo~tion of 9:12:16 respectively. 4.an'l'~­ ~~I~@C!iIfllF:uFct<r1 err ~~8g~?<! tjffi0:ST!I:~ if >rm.cii ~ ~~ffi: ~~)ql1r.) 1 pad.mctr<lt ~lTWI: Vakyapadiya II. on Yak. Ahnika I Vart. which. errf. The substance in as something in completed formaits ~ssential nature which is per~ tion or existence as opposed to manent is discussed in this section. Bh.J expressive of· substance as thei'r sense as opposed. I.ijCliT mfoCfiT err ~i§. 'i\~f.84. 1-9).nt of haste the utterance of letters becomes indistinct.d. one does not remember the word am~J.lQ. .JIluddesa. cf. iii short form for 3'!YS{t. suggestive. pad.67 etc. of samuddesas or sections of the third KaQga was fourteen. pad. 1. and along with the missing Lak~aI.

. 205 cbmpound e. the term ~ according to the strict definition of the term viz.~. The wordsmt'f. ~ or placed before the letter" <t or q in them.<I::. 31'<T~ 'f{Rlft\ a class of words headed by the word 1. The compound is looked upon as a subdivision of the Tatpuru~a compound. 2. l. ~qqq: phonemicalJy repeated. V.g. the other one.· reduplication .ifi1:l"fi1 respectjvely. e. ~.ifi as ~'f"fi1. 2. f[Cli~~ a term used in connection with roots governing two objects or two words in the accusative case.:jet. as a karmakaraka to the activity in the sentence. or (d) in the vocative .g.52. etc. on P. applies to one of the two. bh1i. is related to the verbal acti~ity by relation of any other karaka or instrument is taken as karmakaraka and hence put in the accusative case.. on 1. d.9-II. 3.5 has been understood by PiiQini as Bi1:<.37 . ~'<T<ifcr <'!TI1[1:l<E 'irt1~. Bh. or (b) bas got a word placed after it in a T reduplication prescribed for (I) a root in 'the perfect tense excepting the cases where the affix aH~ is added to the root before the personal ending.!'1t2. ~[.Ef~ also. cf.:~<It<l"f<i WI"fi1'i.5t. 1-8. ~Ht ~Ht q~-1t" m:. having collection as its general sense. also prescribed for the prepositions Eft{. 6illa<!ij't. dual number. Bh. P.OO~:). cf. 1. the term is used in con Q nection with reduplication in the Katantra and Halma grammars ct. 6. VIII.47. 1. 4. d. d. affix i-t is added generally.g. II.' arM'. On P. take place first.. .12 Viirt. e. or of a letter or' of a root.4. P~ VIII. <UqTt{ifi: Bf1:lfulifi:. 3. on P. f6: and t!. V. I.t<f and fa~~i1 are used in the same sense.46 . in some specified senses cf. "'FfiH:. the word is very frequently used in the Mahiifi:lS:r. See-rns~. Pr. ~if1:l1:Ti1: or ( c) has a collective sense e.1.g. etc. cf. headed by the word rn:~fus and :vhich .. surd aspirate. I. . (2) a root before the VikaraQa affixes f.:IT ~ ~C{ij. VIII. ( a) has a tad. g. See W'f. 4.'j m:. on . details see Kiis. The Dvigu compound also takes place when. V.1. 1. VI. uses the word '6:. !fl. mainly prescribed for a word which is related. ificrti~~ ~ or 3f{C4 ~. III. f~~~~ the reduplication of a root beginning with a vowel prescribed by the rule 3Hilit~~ ·P. P.2 is evidently defined in this way by the WOt<1 ~ifiT~<Wr in the Maha bha~ya.§ and 'i:!~ e.ms. R. ct. P. 52. 1. I. affix added toit e. VII. se~ f[-t<f. I. them.5I. ~qFc{ etc. a~<. f6:~~ and f~m are generally used as. 10.10. cf. doubling. 4. synonY. LI. ~. d. the \vords fu.I!. e.15. 4. Kas. IpI-II8. oit:-: ffi~l~lnUt "f (P. ifl:r<lm "ll11[9'ii ~Tll<{. which. a Karmadharaya com· pound. ~Ufcr. or scorn. on P. q~q. instead . f~m the second case. 4. ployment of a double consonant ~il<{.21 etc. roots in their cau~ar formation govern two objects out of which one object is the actual' one while the other is the subject of the primitive root.1'lFti'. Pt.g.. P. f~fcra' repetition of a 'word. 1.51) also d.Cf>IIt"fli " . d. ~[ in 'It cU-r.g. Kits. 1. d. ~~. and upadhmaniya {'()' q) are termed fa:'{1l1! or ~:~I!. ~:fit<j~.2 to 5. 7. VI.g.~ the second consonant in the five groups of consonants. A letter excepting { and \' is also repeated. ~ doubling. For fa('ii in Vedic' Literature d. II.204 d. q§ij!f['>f. IV. 1l~1ffl cf.g..12. Pr. 3 where 'ffi:cm~m simultaneous occurrence of Uvvata bas explained the words two grammatical operations result~. 1. Sf. 4.. 1. . V. Pro VI. (Le. 15. f[: doubled. see f~iq repetition. ffB:foG:. ( 3) a word ending. f~1Jj phonemic utterance a second time . cf. to which the affix ~ is found added as a Sam~santa affix e. II. 2. on :i? V.<r Ii'!!:. when it ends in ar the fern.St. P.. or quality in the sense of its incompietepossession.4.2. K. I. specified senses j reduplication it} . Kas. Pro II. ~«nG: popular name given by grammarians to the fourth quarter. ~r1:l~. q§ij'l~. IV..57.. d. fern. The term 'f9ll'ffiihr occurring in the rulef<r~miN lit ifiT~~ P. T. faifiT~~ilr f%: Fctqmq1:T: M. the letters~. it is called rn:c\1<!<. a word in the dual number. 3. For details see Mahabha~ya - iSnQ Kasildi. . when a taddhita affix marked with the " FiI~: mention by the emmute letter OI" ~ or'l! is added to fi !1. The word ftt~ is sometimes used in the sense of the dual number. 31ifi:aJ:l!. and S. in the Pratisakhya works. 4. etc.. doubt as to which ofthe two should an) . Kas. VIIL3. Kat. VIII. VI. on P. of the second Adhyaya of Piil)ini's A~tadhyayi which begins with the sutra fa~i1<:(. 1.g.mt'l and fu:~fui. V. 4. on P. having a word delloting a direction or a numeral a~ its first member.. II. LI to I5. ~<pr. I..'j ~~m cf. ~11:S!~ of P.as fit a term used for the dual number Patafijali informs us. . e. the word is misstated as S. e. I! . 1.128..fo!~ifi9.57. -rn:::!:{<:I'm. I. on I. i!!ili:S1mu1~ i!!ilia<!tl+I:. R. lG:'f"fi1 and ing -into a conflict and creating a t!.46~52. Some' fit~ name of a compound with a numeral as the first member. 4. Kas. T.I a -fB. an+IT~1li:r ~ +riffl: P. VI. which are Fr!:~ a word used many times synonymously with !P:v. 8. 54. i!!i~lCf. e~g.7. (b) in the sense of repetitio~. The 9vigri compound.g. on' VIII.. which is called the >I~ or the direct object. P. on P. ( 4) any word (a) in the sense of constant or frequent action. 1. in 31~ (11[~0. 'ffi:~ue a compound expression or word separated into two byavagmha in the Padapiitha. PaQini generally . if so desired.. ~ifi~: (9. q§ii~. 1V1'. I. a-qt{. when ( a) it occurs after the letter [ or \ which is preceded by a vowel e. 4.g.~ya instead of f~'Cf~ a case affix of the dual number. 1. in fact.3 Vart. I. cf.g.'case at the beginning of a sentence in some .r.52. Hem. e. Ahnika I. putting a word or word dement twice. 'C!'fittFti'. Kas. XIV.t e. W'f. Kas. See for det~ils Mahabha~ya on P. are all Bah\lvrihi compounds.of the substitution of vrddhi. Pr. 1.) in the sense of repetition.@1lSby some Vedic reciters. IV. M.1\ which get the augment ~. Pro 1. the accusative case. or when ( b) it is preceded by a vowel and followed by a consonar. ~ see . on P.For . etc. Bh.r. fq-~9'l. cf. ct. ~ etc. 59 etc.r. ( c) sho'w-ing reproach. ~ft{ a class of words. is declined in the neuter gender and singular numQer.

by the Bbal?yakara as f~Tq"iFlT mg: or even' as <lICfCf'<r. named dasagaI)i. P.I·3!· M. See \3"q"m<ft<l. Bb. ~I:TT . ir~~ -. d.r'lilU: li6frff <>!!fqi~~6m qr. I. as prescribed by the rules of PiiQini in the rule q~ffil.. IX. I. of ~. f~. on P. neuter gender)..which includes about 2200 roots which . '1l. d. II. Pro XVI. CfiOC5tf'l(R'i and m[ISflur .:m:: ~. d. Sak. d. d.el~venth century ~~~ tad. ~+C. is' e:xpl~ined as ~cp:i~rf~~<i:' byUvvati. also Kas. (3) property possessed by a thing or a letter or· a word. 1. an d l{ <lit (nom. can be c~lled primary roots as contrasted with secondary roots. repetition. 'ill tad. of "'. VIII. . 66. Pro IX. P.g.g. . Pr. miscellaneous ones '( 5l<Kro1) as derived from'nouns like.34. III 8. a short' metrical treatise on roots named of . e.optioll ally .. also R. '" \ oil P. VIII.m<l. oil .<1i'ffi~[. \3" at~if.'CJTg:. i8. division of time. The roots derived from roots can further be classified into three main subdivisions: (a) causative roots or frrl.r@l~ T. Pro IV. the word is frequentlytisedin connection with .m~T&l in ~ '<r ~m 1:l'~~1~ SI'i.a . Pro 1 XIV. cL also Kiit. before a ' j hal' consonant . ~.IOI. .'5.j: ::.used for the first five case '" a ffixes ii. 'I fij.49. cf. &:~T. and <1'O. Pro I.77. are not added.. +20. Eiler.Sakatayana and . 1. &r~~i I.Bh. 2.a l~tter or a phonetIc element resulting from a visarga followed by the letter 't.'Z and the following ones.. (2 ) doubling. ili~'i'f.64. (2) religiousineritj cf. cf. l. who arranged tbesutrasqf PaQini according to -.t: M. 3.. in the phrase <>Ii{ qa-: the dharma viz. .. V. etc. a word possessed of two v<?wels in it. Ka:sika Vrtti a.(Qj~cLmatter •. but he .r.Q~. VIII.P(f.D.S3lJ'roj \vhiie rools derived from nouns or denominative roots canfurther. M. or .has given a long list of roo~s under ten groups. R.q'.R. presenc~ of two spirants or D~man letters e. and coil. f@. 2. e. (3) substitute ' '1. 18..10. defined. Bh. R.. . d. also M.a for the term 'iI~iTIll~rr'1 of PaQini . y.tadhyayi and Patafijali's Mahabha~ya.m~"iti1.~i~(!iqffiqfu:. I. cf. P. V. li4'.short time. 17.g. . for the letters Q and ~ placed after a fourth letter. I.I. pl. used for.R. IY. doubling of consonants or words in tlie Pratisakhya Literature as also in the I{atantra. ..g. A. Sf ~!i'H ~q'U!ll R.~: in ~~-'IR <>I~lqllfu <iTfrr 'CJmr.nd other works on Pat:tini's grammar.44 Vart. ". fiJIs-ro.( 2 ) .upadhm.g. 2. '. \3"qTil~.42.fi~il:fi[. a . 22.43. 2.a. on P. <!<1'f'"rff. cf.g. III. cf. 9u. in other words the designation pot (Eg~T) is the predication. He m group of two words. ~ is predicated of this' (i{::::~:rJ or.I etc. R.Cfi1:Tr. Q~llT~~ rn:~~:7 P.33.206 f~~r:trH a word in the dual number. a: name of a Samdhi -made up of two spirants..4 ""G:.e. .ta Yr.~lia' a term. cf.:(f. ~~. 3.m i{fu~:n <1T~: ?{niJrur <>I~~'CJ~ M. ( 2) substitute ~ for th~ il.. .'. The secondary toots can be divided into two main groups (I) roots derived from roots ('i/~l(f'l:) and (2) roots derived from nouns ( <TTll1:TTcrcr: ). f~l.M. aTfl. "il:!S'ro. V. also'the common ~'{IJI1~ a grammarian of the sixteenth .'CJ! etc. cf. ilJl'I. 43.. ~.:. '. 15.40. X. Jain Su. '.29.It 9:\IIJj. cf. \:j'T~ ( . 1..84..applied to <Is to show divisions ot..ii~ possessed of two consecutive consonants. who ~vas 1 the author of 'CJIgSl@l<1q~'fiT and ~qFH11{ a well-known treatise on roots. '\'lfJrc::<1!ll :rn:i:1"iili'o+!T~: R. Cfi~.'lillJ[ (9)1l~'1TfG:) ~ (I) fourth letter of. 1. l:n:i'f+r1J<1~ 'ISas.91 :W'liTU f[qu'l~ T. 264. T. and acc. The word is also used sometimes for the pronunciation ~'of~. '.. wrote PrakriyaratnamaQi.:!q~ruOfiY.79. He. ~ a crass of pronouns headed by the pronoun fu: to which the taddhita affixes called fq+rfu. at. e.:L 207 ~'!l~ preceptor of Bopadeva. also ~~ ~il ~ ~:qTS'CJ.43. d. of the properties iiU1l:G>r?:F-t. 55.t!. cral'CJ<'i.ini has not defined the term as such. f'fCf<I~Q.~ol:!. VI. e.42. 'an expreseit:. the basicwordpf a verbal form. century at the court of Udayaon Pari. 37 etc. cf. the word is frequently used in Pal}. P. lived inth.82. d. 1.-rn:1:TT.. as also . III. ties. affix (1) applied to a numeral in'the sense of: a .ik~a of paQini. (2) the sirilha who wrote a commentary on same as' dharma ili'rare: 'cases the sutras of PaQini which was according to the dicftirri ~<fqfBuIT~named ~<jl~~~~cr as also a com~:. . .. ~~.. I. ".il.g. 28 • ~li~re.. ergl:Tf f<l:crB~'~l and erg~T !iIB~ ~~.r Ja thing possessed of . cf. See~:W.4. M. 4. V. 3. on P. Bh. <>I~~. pal}. f1i:ifo1lt'li'cru'hm:. Pro VIII. the explanation in short. "p' ': Durglia. ~~'liiltf>r~(i) . I3 XIV.) T. Pro VI.. 144. niy. an . d.. f<lj6'1"'in:. :1:. 1. '. also . defined as ':j\iil~>ra:FI. 3. Pro II. dissyllabic.nqitcrij~3:I[~~T crTlFffit'~:1 'lill!~cr >ltl~ i:n~ifq ~~".proper~ f-NT.. on P.:m HerrC!tV~I. . can be given as E[Gt'!9TVJ:. also T.IO .ILI. I~68~ use(l ad~ei bially for ml:TT In the sense of. 2. " the words fu and [:.Pr.the §1.:ff. (b) desiderative roots or BiiI.:: fa:~~ f.:.cf. I.. XI. P. the tradi~ tional practices laid down by the sages for posterity. V.Ha:irila gramma:rs d.or at the end of a word e.71. on I. affix ~T after " .posse$sed of two'vowels. double" reduplicated.. on P. d. Pro XI.~71: II He is believed to have been ~he first grammarian ~~ name of the author \:'jj~~. cf. and the. Bh. Pro IV. a-I . I. 'p" 's' k expression 'CJlij!lT~+!lGm:. 55. or 'in two ways '.' divided 'into 'f<j~.. Bh.' .47. an. kind (SlCfiT\)..~. ~~6Tm. . f~qQ" a syllablecconsisting of two consonants.IL 1. R.qu! (I) a rep~ated' cons'(~mant. cr.t1fr'el 'killd' of~'iRior interval of time in fheprontiIiciation of two consecutive vowels" \vhich as a result of two euphonk changes has a v. 8. e. or resulting in the .. cf. cf. ' in the place of tbetad. e.. e.:t <i: ~ sion consisting of two words. ~'ei~ technic~l term in the Jaineridra Vyakaral}.hnika I. KiiS. 3. affix optionally substituted A. ' TIl. a word denoting a verbal activity.. 1. cf.owel preceded by a vowel. ~~. 3.' ~ .' :. or \l'i. ~mq­ it~<Trna:~lmij~'aCf<lif<i ~~lll: ~Sfc!t<1~. ' '" ". on P.hnika I. "H. '" '. dissyllabic words. ~be Cwo~d &:'i~.ini's A". Bh~ on VI. ~­ q~ll: or ~+!iii: i{~tjGJll: ~ittffil~ a Jain scholar caHed by the name <fum also. (c) ifitensive roots or <jS'r(f .u. (4) the characteristic of being in a substance. 245.g. P. Ka§.2.the dental class ( Cf'ilT) possessed. <i q.45.g. oerlQ (I) a root. mentary on the . XV. ~ ~i. cf. be.!.. A. VII. cf. 44.

16.E. P. Such manuals were current ~T a work on roots in verse-form even before Pal)ini.ini's famous grammarian belonging. which itself roots believed to have been written was a thoroughly revised and by Ramasirilhavarmau. 2. He is believed to have propounded all the roots were never I written many ~cholarly works in used but Buhler and Edgren opposconnection with PiiI)ini's grammar ed this' view. AU" these roots can further . cf.g. fP{9DUJ:. l:TffltfTo (i) name given in general to He has listed 1980 'roots and divided them into nine classes ( gaI)as). II. 2.. have been written ( iii) A work on roots by Hem~­ " by him. Varadaraja wrote ~­ from f<lfct.g. part. vftti on P.sified into Parasmaipadin or .ft6<T~Ir{<l:. e.· the grammarian Sakatayana. VII.S8. P. written as a supplementary work by Jumaranandin to his grammar \i(1§il€'l1+i~ a treatise dealing with work called Rasavati. e. Mah1i. of the past pass. ~ to signify the optional subStitution of or or ~ PP. These collections are given 'tlTij~ a work dealing with as HcesEary appendixes named verbal forms written by Dharma. f. t!. 1. ct. III. paI).iil~l!~­ the penultimate or in the aorist.aiarhkara.g. e. cf. I . 3. a Buddhist writer and a gave meanings to roots. Jain grammarian of the well-known grammarians of Sanseighth century. is an l:lm+r~ ~alled also 'cllgtM:i(f attributed to a grammarian named Kiisinlitlia. A numbH of Prakrit..!r&:Rr Kihikavall.. ~p. 91iTmi. For details see M. ~s also roots in the passive voice are termed Atmanerivable from roots according to the padin. ~.Bh.:j\ to <Mffcfr and l1e<riT!Ptf also. ct. to signify the optional applicawritten by a grammarian named " tion of the augment ~ ( ~) e.55. cf. 256 Vol. to Dhatupatha contains two thoDs-" the eastern part of India who and roots which were actually used lived in the middle of the twelfth in the current .adeva. as qlso roots possesse~ of. by the application of the stitution of ~ for cr. P.nual of root!'. along with NamaparayaI)a.g.g. on P. ~: etc.89 and III.' mute circ~mfiex vowel ora' mute <wr 'q '<iTg"ElIiTi'[' f<l~'ffi e<Tm~ ~~ 'q consoQant . 4.g.. arT to signify the prohibition of the augment il~ 'e:l1g. various schools of grammar.l in the 17th century. 'e:I=t!. etc.. by t. III. VyakaraI)afor the affix ~ of the aorist. ently old one which is taken by Roots possessed of a mute grave Pal}ini from ancient grammarians ( ST!!<tI"Q) vowel or of the mute conand which is found used in the sonant ~.255. cf. language. III. P.g. 56. 1. verse written by Varadaraja. 'tlfflSl'lim a work dealing with roots written as a supplementary work the several collections of roots given by Balarama-Pancanana to his generally with their meanings by own grammar named Prabodhagrammarians belonging to the Prakasa. (i) m<i<li1fll'clTf[Cf:.45. Jumaranandm 1S ~. He lived in the seventeenth believed to have been a Jain writer century. The work was first. out of which the Tantrapradlpa is Pfili and Desya lOOtS are also found the most-important one. arrrft'Tl:. for nouns which are all de<!~. signify the prohibition of ~t<f to the penultimate" long vowel before -. applied. VII. Cfsr~:r<j':. Bh. III. added to the root in the Nirukta and thc: Pratisakhya works. of the augment i{ (~) before CfcCfT e. cf. and others (ii) a small treatise on 'tlTij~q a wo! k dealing with verbal forms written by Maitreya Rakroots written by Bhimasena who !?ita. Dhiitupradipa is quoted by SaraI). Poona. iltm. ''R'I'it:. Siikatayana . ~1J5. affix B. in his DurghataDhiitupatha by NageSa. III.~~H!~iR<n~<T:. ct. 4. The term '<Tlg is a sufficiA.rT~. (d) specific purposes. cf. (2) 209 an name of a commentary on the Kavikalpadruma by Durgadasa who wrote a commentary on the Mugdhabodha also. the e.88.5.g. a work named-ffiUCfw. e. 3. VII. VII. Parasmaibha~a. Bopadeva by Rarp. who was a contemporary of 'I:1'ffltf~ a commentary on the Maitreya Ral{~ita. at the end ~~'l'<Tffl'l: '3i1T'il"OT:. to them m<iill.g.-I fUl.. OJ. 2. Some scholars have divided roots into are termed U'bhayapadill.<Si~ a grammatical work in in the case of the past pass. Dhanafijaya. 208 for ~6 in the aorist. VII. (2) a 'technical term to signify the optional application of Jainendra grammar for 91'!i1l'li. P.1ma of to signify the substitution of ~ . aSociety.M. cla. Besides after the last vowel e. 1. (ii) a gramattributed to a grammarian named matical treatise dealing with roots ISvarakanta. .1 as also ST~ cf.q:.d Nar'iyaI). i?l~:.he application of the affix ~'l! or P. e. mr. ~fi'lm. rna{.be are prefixed for specific purposes. Besides a fe~ roots formeq by the applica-: these. krit such as PaI)ini. Dhiitupatha or ~nding in the affixes signifying the' elemental (radical) base •. 2.187. g. enlarged edition of the Rasavati a commentary written by Krama.a.57.2. P. while roots ending with the writers of the Nirukta . fiJI" e. the mute syllables f5:r. d.44.. 2. there are part. P. (e) <'lllf<T[QCf: to signify prohibition of vrddhi to 'fiU"1:.~ya published by the D. qro. an+lCfc(..works and affix fU. There are some other mute letters (a) qftq'ftm: ~9R<T:. is also believed to. P.' ~:. 1. 'iil~'ffiFltJt (i) a word used by Kasika.o<rTWI who lived in the fifteenth century. The work in it. old term signifying a ma.52. published by J. 27 .a who was given the title Sari1k~iptasara. work dealing with roots believed to have been written by diSvara on his own grammar n~me. P. (ffl lffiT9: ~T rest are termed Parasmaipadin. Whitney century. "( c ) qftqRi(jWftqRinT: the roots in his DMtupa~ha for " (~~qRiOT:) ~!.~<iit a. ~fo'CCfT.bhii. I. C'i: ary on the. or~t~.trnanebha!?fi and Ubhayapadin. S and ~ tion of the affix STrlf and ~ (~).~sides these. . Khila to their grammars by the k'irti.. i{ pupil of Bhattoji Dik!?ita who lived to signify the addition of a nasd. VII. All the six categories.!. VIII. on P. Atmanepadin or 3. d. or~ffiQ:. 2. to signify the sub-from nouns like 13~. (b) 3fq~moT or' syllables applied by PaI)ini to 91fo'. c( S'p'tgara Prak.::rm~ (I) name of a comment. VII. '¥!~ etc. candra with his own commentary. Kavikalpadr1.""c:eq~fuqrr a-short treatise on the roots of the different conjugations e. Kirste in 1899 at Vienna.

rJ by a series of con tinuous subordinate which a double consonant is recited activities carried on by the different as a singl~ one.g. on P. cf.18. 1. . q:rn. as contrasted with moving ( ar~9 ) which is termed sm~ and hence put in the ablative case.. used is ~. en the Dh1i.4· a general term applied to a treatise discllssing roots. V. although really it is short.lini. but by a verb or ~ or a 211 ------------. Q1IIT1SOlii'flI{ a great grammarian who ~ ~ composed an important work called Bhartrhari in his Dipika on Mababhii~ya (p. as they are shown by a verbal form. the completed activity is (. Pro VI. also l:fH<l'ff: qVfit=f q~ 'Cf I M. III. the technical term is !'!'i. d.fifq.t~t~) \:'f(\UJ1~ e. the reputed scholar and politician at the court of the Vij ayanagara kings in the fourteenth century. 3. etc. ~ml:Tlg. Il~. on P. ct. cf. V. Uvvata qaJqll:f<laltqfa:~n: I tii I l:fm$~ mffiq~'lit~ on XI V. P. d. 1. 23. l:fRU]~fEl:f: Uvvata on R. III. I. tt'lil:fT.44. rn:9dt~Cji'ful<r~ ( l1. convent10nal name given to the fourth pacta of the third Adhyaya of Pli. ~ \. .24. V. Bh. l:fTl!'Ii:. mtf.:CjioQ karakas or agents and instruments· Si<IMP. and <fiRCll are given as lflfu~l:T. wfRr where tTT\<lrff: means r lengthl:fl~'itf: #. ening' or 'prolonging' ct. fu~. ~ . 2. ~fl:f. . 6 sr. ~A1 ~ta. R. It corresponds to the term lff\ of PaI)ini. He is also referred to by Bhartrhari in his auto commentary on Viikyapadiya (II. affix. d. d.IlIre~~. V.84. 3.101-103. (2) repetition of a ~itl~ enumeration or recital of consonant which is also a fault.lini.ddllg verb3-l activity (f?niIT or "+lR) alone is the sense of a root. but specifically used in connection with the scholarly commentary written by Miidhavadirya. a grammar dealing with verbs believed to have been written by VaIigasena.D. ~&I. explained'by Uvvata as 9iTIUJT i3'ffi:I&T<l: lI\t7iir~'llH:lA1~: V.j~el~. a short term for l:fIg or root.N<jtffis~ for ~fus%iq:. Bh. affix ~q applied to the words and "Ill! in the same sense as those words possess . cess of the main activity. 53. 'cll~ 't-'iROl ( ! ) suppression of a consonant. tad. a ~~ a class of words headed by the word 1[!l' to which the tad.m ~'ii1filT: ~ffil'r activity. When the process of the verbal activity is N (I) a technical term used for sonant constants in the Prati§llkhya complete. V.lini. 4. and <fiRCll are given as l:fl~9~. out of two successive consonants which is looked upon as a fault of recital.17. I. ~: ar~m9: !. affix Ilq!lOI. the term W corresponds to ~ of PaJ. W'f~:. d. i) refers to a work called Il'-lfiiillr which is helpful in cro~~ing the ocean of grammar. although strictly. ~"<!J{.. <ro. e. Kaiyata on I. such as 1i1'ii. Pr. (3) the peculiar posicribed generally to be made up ()f tion of the mouth (~"TRUJ. P. 1. P.g. e. on Ill. P. cf.:..II r. T. Pro IV. M. ~fl:f.I. 1. For details see Vaiyak. ~. Bhamaha (600 A. 4. e. ct. 'on P. 4.Qini's A~tadhyayi which begins with the Sutra l:frg~lf. (2) personal ending fl:f substituted for flr of the impera. The work is gen~rally rem. sing.ta. ferred to as l!'l:f<fi<lT-tTTg~ to distinguish jt from ordinary commentary works called also 1:lTg'lfa written by grammarians like Vijayananda and others. P. e:g• .127. e. ~l~ifr.g. Kas. The verbal activity is deson XLV.. 6. XVIII.g. 'the verbal ~<lt._---_. but the nom. 3. ~. See ~i!. ct. 261. (2) repeated sound (ilT1{) of a third or a fourth consonant of the class consonants when it OCcurS at the end of the first word of a split up compound word. P. XIV. Pr. cf. 3. cf.g. looked upon as a substantive or dravya and a word denoting it. Bh. Vart. circa) in his Kavyalailk1ira (V. 24.~ kr't affix Il'i{ seen in VeJic Literature. as stated in the Mababha~ya.tupatha of Pat.4. Pr.nijc?itf an elision of a portion of a root. named Wl<lT or. ~.1.­ . ijll1m when recited as Cf<lTm.~U<r>l(ul second pad~ of the fifth adhyaya of Pat.g-~~. 208).8Tr.P. ~\1(. applied to the word l!~~ ~hen ~ is changed into 31.. r. ~ a technical term in the Jainendra' or l[i:i is one. IV.. The five senses given above are in fact conveyed not by a root. if 1:lTg~ an~Tg%.115. 2nd sing. <a1U5'll: etc. ct. I. 6.!<lI 'Cf s:r~<l: Kas.u \:ffi l:fl~. substituted for tifT optionally. roots in the Dhatupatha . mT.25.g. ' mit.~ .Cji e. d. ct. affix called Vlbhakti tad. cf. tI1~. in the same manner f?!i<rr. Sara. where it is said that fruit (1lit7i) and effort ( o<lTliR) are expressed by a root. ~.. d.linj's Ai?tadbyayi possibly becau 5e the pada begins· with the Sutra -cwl!Tilt +rci~ ~ -a6I.210 ~~~ a short list of the important roots from the Dhatupatha of PaQini. 20 21) refers to his opinion 1l~~~Rf. 2.· explained by Uvvata as ffi"ff~~ '<11'tci~ lit.I!3. 3. VIII. spe. 144. \Hfrl:f etc.'~ lTffl<lT: P. d. III. ~~ a popular name given to the ·"H~.\<iI.29. P. tad.c{\<:i ~'i t7i~.tationary.g. standing for COBsonants excepting semi-vowels and nasals. VI.1~. ~ or ~::q<i a kind of original grave vowel turned into a circumflex lone which is calledlf'Cf<l unless followed by another acute or circumflex vowel. (2) technical short term . e. Pro 2.g. ~+m~SqFUil<I: . ------------and old grammar works. The term is used in the Katantra VyakaraJ.-ar~ 1(Cf'Nlfmttcr!<{"ct\~. ~. !. ~q. but it is regularly declined like a noun. substituted for l:fT optionally after the word t. etc. 'i'Cfif 'or ~. R. iiN -. given in verse by '<ft~<!1"1 a gramm<:lrian of the 17th century. 2. Ahnika I.~HaJ etc. 'on P.Kat. affix aT'll ( ~) is added in the miscellaneous (~fitcn) senses.ijq: V.for tTTij (root). meaning of a root. V. fuW. Pr. (3) a technical term . Kas. e.'name of a fault in the pronunciation of a vowel when on account of fullness of breath it appears as uttered long ( ~).) the augment ~ prefixed to the consonant :a following upon the consonant !i( or "l: occurring at the end of a word. 53 .. For details see Bha~ya on l[ff:!f'l'<l: ~fiJ. d. or ~F' does not get conjuga tional affixes.1l~~\'1~ ~c. of verbal activity helping the procf. I. The Taittiriya Pratisakhya has mentioned seven varieties of this t pracaya ' out of which ~i:j<{ (rJ fixed. Just as ~r~. ~ ~r~ VyakaraI)a for l:flg (a rooO which is used freely by the ancient grammarians and Pat. \~ tad. II and XI.

"'i' (I) the consonant ~ (see ~ above) pI.j'Cil'R' the consonant if to which the iW. (5) the krt affix q~ as also ~ prescribed after the roots Cll5f.. or remain~ unchanged. ~: etc"ci. M. Cfo'{fT <rffl!l q. See ii (5 ). caused by the case affix. f~+!f. Atmanepada. 44-100.~~:!. CI'Ri.g. also on P. e In lca or ~Cfi or oCl$fi ) of ~.:t9U~<jT'i. tions of voice in the Veda recital III. VIII. IV. cf.. the word is used generally in the tech~ I a:rst1'il~ ~UIil"IS" iF>fl!ff: Ej~stmm:1I nical seDse of 'cerebralizatiori' but and which are respectively illustrat. Atmanepada.172. Bh. 27: ij6. Pro IV. e. (3) tad.) as its first mf:mber . ~<v. Pro IV. I -3I.m:: "~~:.I Vart.~ personal-ending in Vedic Literature.r (grandchild and further desvowel a:r and the affix 'lilt are added cendants) .erance.. (2) a class il'liH i!fG:~ <ilcnft R. d. cf.. iil~sroil.j'~ krt affix ii applied to the roots <jl5f. ITti'l~ cf.. Wlff'iiUO'f:i and a:r~ftl'ic/.1.42. P. the words ~ and ~ in senses given..92 to V. 1I4.90.~T I c/~+r ~m I ~fu ~l1J: I ~~ffi I ~.fI&laU. V III. 3. works. ~:.' cf. also d.-:~:!~fu lfI~Tllm I prescribed as !!~ or ~ which oriI I ginally is taken as"t. 2.~ excepto the qo:m~~ as well as the ~~~I mo:!i (1) fixed. affix il5l. which (i e. cf. Pr.. In 1 ::. ~:: Clf'l5'I1. ~~ as also that of ~ into f{. ~ I ~itq ~ I qC{ra.64. tfTllif:. for facility of utt. affix <T added to words headed by ~ in the . 'ct. ~. ifGcIi'l<!~.. P. applied t6 the roots ~ cerebralized. anusviira.87. 2. I. ~.67verbal ~ctivity.rqt%~m-:. P. e g. e. contrast with an object which is . a labial consonant or an Ahnika 1 . 9l~\''IRl !or <iWi\''1~ cf..70 Vart. III. defined as ~l<n~: :rn tiRlifiaT5. 2.' e.. 5. \. pounded with a following word. ~~t(.Atmanepada in the present and \"qiiI a variety of vedic recital..) which possesses the six senses which are sketched as t11~<i nG:<TIq!ij ~(cf crG:. Bh. d' t ( a root..<J!) is. Ill. \..sense of possession. VI. cf.rsm~~'l a compound with q as its first . IV. ct. ~. Cit(.1adi affix <T as found in the word ~ .j'Rt lit. \.1 way.qlff!N'li: and a:r~{:~: I See it ~ is used in the sense of 'cere(6 ) b~alizing' or 'being cereoralized '. on is called iim.79-83. ~ ("I) sound. on I. very frequently in the PriHisiikhya . Ill. ifG1~ (I) a class of words headed by tIT~~ cf.) possessing any and iTIrn~ in the sense of ' causing one of the six senses given above cerebralization '. 1 pa1..g. the eternal sound. 'd t b th . The root 8l. ° I Vak. consonant. ~~ 1 q~ "Cf "l\~ Efl <l~ tfOif tI ~: I of ~: I II ~: :m:-&. (2) tad. 8 . ~C<t ~ ~ +IT 'liJ1:lT: M. "CfIUCll1J:.f: 70 .::~ ~~ I tITl'tit ~i[ I ~ U~ I ~I~ftr_ required. the word iJ+<rcr. together with the aogment 'li placed after the .1ini's grammar the nasa] consoff ~ I ~~f1_Tll_~_1 . I.~ personal-ending of the sec. ~~ etc. personal-ending of the sec. ~a suggested. in'C5fT. :ffitsN~ "Cf majlTffilT~CffiTill~"<l': P. is superiority. IV. 2.76.g. V. P. P. d..~ of the sec. cf. CI(.1 e. but afterwards ~~. pers. changed into OI. d. or retained in i\$<'ECli(<Sj61~ the strength the accent caused by rare cases as for instimce in iim~. the wordifG to which the tad. T.g... ct. V.1ini's grammar to words in the feminine used in the Mab1ibhii!2ya for both gender ending in ~ and . 2. V. illGlCll1J:. e. which are-~~. pI. a 'semivowel except ~. pad. as opposed' to <Rfi expressed. lf~. ct. affix ~ (§) is added.g..v..) when corri. from P. e. \. cf. d. a guttural . added in the sense of . (6) the mgative particle if given by Pal}ini I . 3.I - I I 1 ~ q~1 ' I lif. I. P.212 213 asqOJ:.1 .. ct.91. II.g. VII. ~1. bending down. 1.21 .21.ffi· ( 7) tad. also Vak. cf. <!Q. Bh. I JIl~l1J: I CI#r ~fcfll ~ U~T I ~ m: f.!!~~m~I nant"t (a) is added as an augment +rm I a:r. substituted for ~ of toe 10 lakaras. on P. M.~~. VI. I..100. e. J. pers. It is perfect ten!>es. 1.99. works. 19.g.158 Vart 13. 3.IIC'{:. 1.<fFT. pad. of words headed by ifG to. 3.T.. P. (2) notion of stability in ~. etc. 4. ~~. in the CI~. I . d. etc. 2. of a stationary nature.73-77· " Pro 1. ~+rG:. P. VIII. Vak.(HlI'l'f u compound with if (ilOJ:. P.. ~CI+r and crR.cWr or sound (c"> is substituted for the final ~ of .'ijR.g. Pro f.. IV. the <'I+rClfu in th. it?ili~.g. if~ the negative particle (ilOJ:. the term is found q. a:riilll:.58-73. cf.90. KiiS. CI~:. g~<iiTCI~.is used in member which is changed into a:r or the sense of ' is cerebralized '.. 7. the 'word is found frequently used in the Paribba~eIidusekhara and other works in connection with such dictums as are not actually made. VII. iJ5'fI i HtI which sei s aside the accent iilt1~. 4. 138. 6 5. ed by the examples a:rfif~: ~~:. 3.g. Si~: etc.r (ilOJ:. ~n:mr. ii&!~ etc. 1. ~~ ~ ifTRcr. a:rEg: tR::. VI. 77 . 1fE~j see Kas. "qf~: ~~~l1J:.fr a technical term applied in Pa1..~ I ~ ~"l~ ~UR~ I !o1tm changed into ~m or 1ffi{CfuT as . inciination.. wbich. and others in the sense of foorsenses prescribed ill P. e. pers. e. The ~l!. ~~!IG:t G~l!r:. . with the vowel added to it for facility of utterance. 42. as for example in q<jfffi.. on P. 19. uated' e. III. but indicated in the Mahabbii!2ya. 2. also ~.. substituted for \. or changed into a:r' or aTiI. word and before the affix. pI.. on P. e. the I.~itii I ~ ~ I 1. "it. SRCfiRTG:iil ~ un'der if (6).. 91. I -. trl!ff IUs.. 2 4 . ct. and referred to in' the same compounds. ~ the second out of the seven posict. <rt.. and aFf.R. IV.. moving or being abandoned.. if~ krt. on P. 9r. f. (4) u1. 1. VII. 1.~: iflilm: ~U:.e sense of 'cerebralizes' indeclinable.-.g. 4· 1 .. affix it as found in the word ~tiTI derived from ~fcif{. in the sense of ' ha bitchange of the consonant ~ into OI. -.) applied to ~~I~. fifth consonant of the dental class of consonants which is pos:€ssed of l i t h e properties ~lf. \. 4. <T. 139. Pro 1.'.. P. d •.in the old Pratisiikhya P. affix a:rrC!i'! ( 'f. 'st~. Kas. ~F! wl~!fi<Ia--' or even _intervened by a vowel. ~.73-75 .!I~~ R. affix ii (OjOJ:. . and'll!. V. !._ ~~ and ~1ll!.( b) is changed into D\ when -it aTIlflil"CI: ~ I directly follows upon "l\. applied to the change of VI: into OI. 17. or 't. ~W ~5l=[frrr :qrqa. pad. VI. 2.tEf\:fc/: ~ 1 .. IS Sal e.. 1.

See ilITr. 29. ~S!l'~~ . which gives a philosophical interpretation of the fourteen SlUras attributed to God Siva. cf. V. 215 ~ ~lil'an ancient grammarian who has written a short -work in verses on grammar in general. Ahnikas or lessons of the Mahabhii!?ya which are written in explanation of only the first pada of the fnRt Adhyaya of PiiI. I. second and third feet. the tenth conjugation being looked upon as a secondary conjugation. on HI. and others as given in the GaI. He is believed to have lived in the tenth century A.r the ~ name given to an' anu!}tup verse .. Pr. words headed by ilett.for other operations.g.. on P. if~W +IT ~ M. ~:. ~ same as m:~f1. R.g. ~qi!~urt~ •• c<it<!<!m-C:'C9RJ . . iIlilT.a written by ~ as also references in the' commentary on the Prakriyakaumudi by Vltthalesa. :Um":. ~ ~~rat~ a short treatise of 28 stanzas. 3. gender. 511.ru ii'l1 (I) tad. P..).3-6• \\1te.~ a term used in connection with ~ the first nine gaI). D. The verse has got 32 syllables.a. Kas. 4. to show verbal activity: e.. which in PaI}ini's grammar is sometimes taken as valid for certain grammatical operation:?. r. f9<rr..d otherwis. a term used as a synonym of • lupta' in some commentaries.tini in his Dhiitupatha. The term was probably in use before PiiQ. 7. VII. 120. dative. ~~. being heldJup (ern:) by the lips or the like.::r excepting such as are called iIctf. statements and problems newly' introduced by Patafijali. fif'i~ilr lflCfflI'l:. ~<t.m[ if. the acute accent for the first vowel for nouns in the neuter gender excepting those that end in ~.g. lqt affix iI applied to the root ~!J.rmre: a class of. III.)... 3.".m and other fern. m:11Jl~~~. which includes the roots 'lT~. on P.9 r. it is optionally applied to words ending in if and <I. al). {liOl:. <f§rq:. d.77.E. e. .as or conjugations given by PiiI. ten and eleven. on which the Siddhanta Kaumudi observe3 iI lID" ~m'l:. of being cerebralized. ~~{ a Jain grammarian who wrote a gloss ( ~ ) on the ~U­ ~RI.2.ilr<t<:r:. on the strength of references to him in the commentary on the Sarasvata VyakaraI). [51r<retCf« etc. of the eightQ .. +l"<!11. Very probably there was a long list of words like ilG: (<'f~~) ~{ (~~) etc. a word in the neuter gender. syllables respectively for the first.~ R. Pataiijali reiers to this maxim while commenting ou ~3f<!r-rr 91 .ini's A!?tadhyayj and which contain almost all the important theories. Pro ~~R. . =R"'!iT{ tells .) in the sense of separation. ablative. See ~<i~ an old grammarian believ. R.cfcli1!l\<lilft!lI~. 1. does not b~come audible.:\i! i!ta-~ ifR{~\lI. ". These roots have the affix ~ i. 2. <I9i!: etc. D. ~ lit. e. a word which is peither in the masculine nor in the feminine gender. a term used for the differenthtion in views and explanations if~ the most reputed modern scholar of PaI. before case affixes of thp. There is a scholarly commentary upon it written by ~?j. of course in the fern.:. letter. ar<r added to them in the sense of agent. II. XVI. later on combining themselves with one's chariot and another's horse and getting their purpose served.ed to have been the original writer of the Sarasvata VyakaraI. VII. presQ cribed respectively after fer and ilor. .1!I\<fiTWnt. person. 3T<fiR that you do not ha\'e an original (~) and I do . ~q: ~~~F<!~ \l:ifcr P.:qfci. which has nine.bba!}ya ed.p.... d. which were given as ending in ~ and to whiCh the affix ~ (i-tcl. but it has only three feet inste'ad of four. as prescribed by .. 1. . (2) case ending ill substituted for the ins. 138. and others. words ending in if or. P.8S.ini and was taken from the fern.~rn: (~) a writer of a supplement to Mugdhabodha. cr.. VI. VIII. +R'1:.214 ing a few like &11. . III.not have a substitute (arriW). 4. .. ~~~p. a:crlcr R.. I-SO. sing. d. ~ '11:1:. For details see p..TFcI<RGJ called also ilfrG:%r£{\<Iilft~r a gloss 00 written by Upamanyu ~S!!mfu:..T. ~~. R.. word <lett which was taken as a model. Poona. I.~~ I lID"~~~: ~m<ircn ~lffiTif(q: I ~ one that causes cerebralization. was taken as a model and all words. <rcnf~cfu nflme given to the first nine the maxim one losing a horse and the other losing the chariot. ii~ held by the comparatively new Echool of BhaHoji Dik!}ita.e. V. the term is used in connection with (the affixes of) the three persons 3f~Ii... 2. IV. cf.. P.g.134. and '<Rf!T which are promiscuously seen sometimes' in the Vedic Literature. of the Pataiijala Mah1i..ft. e. Bh. affix C!T (called also arl~ in ancient grammars) in the masculine gender after vy. 2. P. let us enter into com. ct. the first word <f~ so formed.tapatha. $1". a fault of pronuncIatIOn when a ~~ftq. affix ill as also -nor. G:qU]:. elided or dropped.ords called f?r i. 27.. ~.<I (~) is added in the miscellaneous ( ~fitcli) senses. capable See ilfu. He lived in the eighteenth century. 23-24 Vol. attributed to an ancient grammarian ilfrG:%1!I{. peisonal ending.in the list and similar others were called iI-U-. . or:i~ the special accent viz. 1. The fault is similar to ~~\i . ljT~<I'i. I. e. the term is sometimes applied to the differences of opinion expressed by Nagesabhatta in ccntrast with Bhattoji Dik!}ita. angr+<1r+r~'iii\i. cf.97. Society. as contrasted with those beld by Kasikakara and Kaiyata. XIV. d. XIII."citq elision of ~.P1{4. which is named qf. d. (negative particle.g. although distinctly pronounced inside the mouth. 9l~q:. nouns to which the taddhita affix Q. Pr.i.75. ~ name given to the class of roots beginning with the root 'lrG.~<!~<!~rPr~~<! PhitsUtra II. '{ttl iI. The authorship of the treatise is assigned traditionally to the Divine Bull of God Siva~ Set: if~1!I{' The treatise is also named <I~1!I\<fiTWnt~. genitive and locative sing. . Pr.mWI:Rl!l'lq: I Var.iinl's grammar.) was added for forming the feminine base. M. 32. d. ~<r:.e. See Pr. III. 16 on ~~: I P. I Bh. cf.

in a way.i :q I The word iJ1llii. substantive. cf.i the same as <i~tl'fi~ or neuter gender. 8 . ~"1.'IIfIGTaI. i:Ilqti!liH~ilfir. being. in other ~astras also.. 4.pad. 21-24 and 401-403. II. noun. VI. the sound . 1. Krt. 1il. at the end of a !?a!?tbi-tatpuru!?a carr.216 . 5. Larthavise~a sannanta. on <: . 4. paribba~ii Samdhi. Dik~ita. 49 and com. I cr~ qO!tlilm. 46. resonant. works. inseparable. of a lexicon. ~~"1. ~­ f. very clever in leading debates in the varfous Sastras and won the .31.:t\)l:ftIcTf. on P. Poona.Pradipa. e.. ~ ifT. iii. in the are his spiritual descendants. arrcr~ <l~'lf£. tion with vowels and sonant conHe was a bright pupil ofHari sonants which are caused by ifI<\. II.f c:rwrr ult~ iifa'the patronage of Rama..i. '1R~0l~ ~ see iiT.. Siddhanta Kaumudi. cf. II. cf..ini as also some minllr works named ~I!ilfr. 318. of Srngibera at his time. III. 'lit. L I. The (word is used in the sense. (2) a grammarian who is said to have written a gloss named SabdabhU$aI). sub. OTra'It~i'iflmfir.. tone. iff~ (vowels) which cause cerebrali.'a\:ng. ~ cffi ~: ~ R. m ifI1i<r.ndasa. ( 3) the authoritative old works in the highest sound. Stripratyaya. His most prominent VyakaraI). KM. the genitive affix 8m!:. or noun derived from a noun. 27. V. ~ ct.18 on which· ciency in paI). the . arti. I.nd studied by ~T~q Bgtf B~I1fifUi1 <ilra~1i!j'fiCiRl. was a Mahara~triya BrahmaQa of of course.Society. Pr. alt.~~ ll~­ Vol.. q@r P. the Uddyota on iQii"(q~ different words as opposed to Kaiyata's Mahabh1i~yapradipa. ~~r~ quite well-known a. <ll9~. 9ufuq-~~m<ft ~~: ~: <iR: Benares in the latter half of the Uddyota on M. V. aTI.ftfRF{lJt a work for the oral recital (I) name o{ a grammarian who wrote a commentary onthe Mahiibha~ya. Samiisa. and ~. together with the augment "1. <iIIN'Tg. VI. The 'word is defined as tI~5l\:lTiniir illllrfil by stand~rd grammarians. ~'.tl <iR~ +rcrfu T. cf. seventeenth and the first half . on P. 3. ct. i3'ifcfiilTmfir. ij~ and ffi. dhatu..:rfa"~ The word mfcI~ is used for i!W\~ in the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. as followsOTil~Q~~(q'~\tfir ~:qlnl\:ll<ftiir '1l~~1". PaI)ini divides words into two categories only". D. treats of accents in the Siimaveda. 1(. the term is also used for.eenth century. XIII. ~if and Ii!CflOiunder ~. III. ~ <I: ~: mij. changed into "1. also ~ .. f. d. I. The term il'l usually.~ Dik!?ita. cf. Campus. of nominal words. cf. . a term used in connecwell nigh exceeding a hundred. He wrote culate sound generally without sense many masterly comme. 8.. 1.20 and ~~ ~Cio P.D. 2. XXIV.g. ~ffilt ~iir q~re. r.11:. cf. on T. fcrgfii'SlIf. teacher also. and Chii. Pr. He has composed a number of Stott:as. verse I. as opposed to .<l<f <!litl~ M. d.sa 'defines ifIlIil. <ll9~. ct. Nir.3.or a single word.46 <where the author ot the work explains the word ~ as <infl. Bh. 1'. He was a renowned qoT: B:ffi" OT!!~ ~UJi(.ntaries known by the words and·~imr· on the which Js momenta~y . Atmanepada. (2) sound. everyone who wishes to get profiM. also known as Melputtiir Bhat\:atiri. the king <iffi~iflfa'<!l~qPl<lCj~f£.A.. UI)iidi. also Bha~a"vrtti on ~t Cfi"~~~ P. Bh. 1. sariljfia. M. cf. the most prominent grammarian of Kerala· who lived between IS6o-1666. who was well-versed when the air passes through them. The work is divided into twenty sections viz. possessed of <I~l.a-works ani Mimiirilsa' works. of i a collection of words' in the Nilukta. 217 ~i1 1il. Bh.3. cf. 2. Laghumafiju!?ii and the Paribha!?endusekhara are "'I1R({\"ICfi absolutely necessary. tr.. resonance.. cf.and includes ilTlii'l.~g a denominative root. nyaya.g.'i a treatise ~ (I) voice..r I miir fu:fci\:lriir I ar(fc!~ ar. on P. conjugational and other forms are For some years he stayed under arrived at.. J . B<iqJ~. i in which words with their genders are given. prefixed to it . The Srngaraprak1i. Pr. He was VI. both as I 'ii+il&4id<a'@Ol similar in formVak. pound signifies a name or SamjDa. ~~R:r. sonorous. Subartha. Riimacandra and Bhattoji Dik!?it respy.m:m a word. T..ini's grammar. About eight commentaries on the work· are known. 4. It was composed sometime before eight century A.caused by the vibration of the vocal chords in the open glottis . . Pr. I.65. Taddhita. For Kaiyat a observes ariffi:~~r ft. who lived in cf. famous scholars of grammar in Benares and outside at present ~ (a root) beginning with "1.n. ct. Laghnsabdendusekhara on the III. the grandson Of Bhattoji <iR: ~ ~\~9~ I OT!!~a. the ten vowels !:l\. . zation.. used in connection with the great dictionary by 0TiR~ which is called ifll1~WG· 28 ~otar+!M. different Sastra~. L I. affix q'g applied to the prefix SJCf optionally with· the affixes <ft2"ll. Bm<il'fi{. yaIiluk.t~qur~ etc. Such works are refused to by KiiSika: ~r m~ alfi "l'rgifl~urr­ ~ I fci5l<fi'loit<i~. Pr. VII of the Patafijala M:ahiiG:\n:fclli\I'G!j<fjRcrqqlflmtnrriIT ~lfImcr: I bh1i~ya ed. one :"of the four categories of words given in the Nirukta . dhatu. title of Sabhiipati.9 .a. on IV. Pr. <!Tie<ii ~~~ I <ii~ .a on the Sutras of PiiI). which follows a method found in Prakriya Kaumudi and Siddhilnta Kaumudi of . cf. XX. com.ro tIlW~t1t!: 1\ intra. e.g. thereon. the eighteenth century.~ a word derived from a root.. is.. Subvidhi.rr. yailanta. E. ~ m<ft V.. Nir. t. 1. Out of his numerous works.beginning with OJ:: (Ollfct) whose OJ.one of the older Sikf. t he total list of Vfitm!~ having voice (<iR) as their his small and big works together main cause .1!ll1"f(gtilr<ft<i~ Nyasa On P.but all of them are fragmentary. ilT~9Cf. work isPrakriyasarvasva. It may' have been of the nature. ~JiRilr+rtfir. tin. 3. '3'.nf. etc. II. ifl.1:2 •. viz. SJCf~. V. a verb and as a noun.:a. when Tasgaon in SiHara District. also R.3.of also ~~.. hi . See <llG. See th!:l word \:llg. Bh •. R. No..~ Kiit. and many of the Pr.. 80. 11so B~T~\:TT~ <ilR. who received his education in Benares. ~ tad. Pro VIII.:n~ I details see pp. 3. He DMtupiitha as contrasted with one . cf.D. such work is extant. d. See qu.. 94... See the word . Vyakara1J. and other ancient grammar work~.

the dissolution of ~~'lll~: cana meaning. II. 2. See ( VlTfWf<i ) 0 a statement In the Vedic passage. on P. T. the root f. and Cflm'flj.:i~+f by Durgadirya.j:~ deprived of Sarildhi. 1. 'i:f . f.~£fii. Vllftm<lf <im~<!1~fucI<!T: R. 59. 9.er\1~ a name given to a collection of words whicb are mainly Vedic.1a. I. ~ compound whose dissolution cannot be shown dhvani which is evanescent (~). OF~. x. £fii'~ =c~~ fu:~~Ii+<jT~H:!( ':¥I1<lfcl) firll"f!Tli?<! firl:fT~~ I 8J$fi. 'as well as when that other rule does not take effect. made by men and animals not be sbown as .. in the imper:itive. cf.~N'qTre9: ~f.r Nir. Sek. 14 . Durgadirya says that the word is also used in tbe sense of ' meaning' . (2) a technical term in the Jainendra-VyakaraJ.n.n[~ in its various forms is used in the sense of toning down the voice and the wcrd:Rl~mf is used in the sense of tbe grave accent ( ~c:.tm:r \ ' ~~~~i'f a place in the nose where a nasa11etter such as ~. :tJ:. based upon tbem . EliRl~'i\dT~JfeWlil~HN frit«(1T Par. Pr.... d.imcr c2jqmaSN a.~~: !i1~<i"Ci~M!l:f(<1: T.. d. the frequent expression it~N f<r<Tm i'fcIfc'r where R<T1i means' a vedic word. 5. but it is impermanen~. as applied to a rule whicb applies if anotl!er simultaneously applying rule were to have taken effEct.R. without any euphonic combination or euphonic change. on P. IGis. ~.2I. f. Ras. f.64. as opposed to tentatively doing so. ~'i~If<i:. (5) unchangeable... d. 'a"lf~ ~l<i fu<l'\.Tcl1Cf~ Frtjm~e+R~Ii1\T~T: P. Vak. a Vedic passage. Veda' . on P.f 'lIftl~ V.~mrnu<ile(.. ~a. 8Jfcl~Rr ~Tc::f. 4-134. ql<"i<l. if ~~ f. f. VII. 42.a. also the words ~qRlEmf.. given as an instance '. See ~ vowel of a word prescribed by ( 7)· . sing. a kind of sound whicb apparent· ly is made up of a combination of three phonetic elements il. cf. P.. 8J~~<j~ i an affix pOEsessed of the mute indicatory letter <'(.tiiR t1.1ini. also <jI1~ffi~fu'fljT.cfrre:~ <lf1SfT<ii<r.:R<t~. ( 3) original as contrasted witb one introduced anew such as an augment.:!lTli t1. ~q: less by one syllable. 1. evanescent audible words on Leaching the mind is of a permanent or eternal nature. ( 7) constant. T.1.r~[!:jijm:. (4) permanently functioning. VII. M. 74. <!1t. T.. I. The word was not in use in PalJini's time.!~ (I) eternal. cf.f.38.~: I tI>lI&:CfT "<i'i~('f I <JiU tI>lI~CfT a grammarian of the seventeenth century who wrote a treatise on grammar named SaIiivali.wr~ ~~q~~ii'liij: ~q: RRl:+!l9) ifT~ ~~~lj~: I (Relii. cf.tQ of th~ root . get nasalization in tbe utterance of the words qfum. e.g. permanent.q- .197. VIII. as a synonym of 'lopa '. they may even b e' para .!~cn 9~<lf <rr~T if g ~<ltSt\T I ~>l~!'!. those that make the hidden meaning of the Mantras veryc1ear. Bh.1a for the term iilqm of PaJ.t:~~ not possessed of any numbersense. d. ~~ ~ ~~~~ Rrrm "<iqfr. 197 ~"f(lHfitf<l~~1 f.. I.3. the grave accent.e. cf. the word characterized bv which has the acute accent 'on the vowel of the first syllable..r of the aorist form q. 8Jf-iJ:. it also means . the word is used in connection with ~~ the acute accent for the first rules that are called fir~. I. III.I8 Vart. d. I) where tbe word is derived from ~'\. In ancient times such collections were possibly very general and numerous and the works or treatises On derivation sucb as tbe Nirukta of Yaska were. 1. The yam a letters e. also ffilq rn~"@l t<fcfif\UT!'!. 2. cf. cf.q vrr~ . 2. cf.l~ ~ substitute iii for the last letter of "the word '"ll<!f at the end of a Bahuvri_hi compound.. Pro VI. $l) statement whkh is looked upOl} as a general statement of the nature of Paribha::j8. Bh."e11~ f. errllT elision. on P. 4. <1i~ letters or phonetk elements produced in the nose. and anusvara get a tinge of nasalization while passing through it. 4. iiI~q: Efi~ijlq" I ~rrm ~lt +rerfra I ~+Il: wn~«J ~irl~1l t!m~ffiK~ ~ifi'('fCf trCf ~rffi frFn:rif(ffiEIUGq :a-'C<jra ~~J1:r+fi:llq: I 8JN 'IT an&:<{- ~ ~ (I) personal ending substituted for i1i (ftlqJ of the 1st pers.1ini's sutra vi.qm<j~. ~>lr. but t~e sense or idea awakened 1D the mmd by the must be shown as :p~ ~fu tI: I The M.!1't:'llf~ !l~~ R. n€C€Hary intervention. d.4. Bq the word is the name of has got one normal. i.:i~ is taken/as synonymous with f.65. f. It was first used by Vartikakara when the musical accents came in vogue. ~. Pari 46. \ ~i! qT«iCfCfr. d. Pro f-iq: Olrf~ffii1 apparent disappearance by withdtawal into the primary cause. q~7 a:r4 fu~'<I~«4'1 ~. and a treatise on roots named DhatuparayaJ. 12.r:c. on P.. the term is used in connection·witb indeclinables . Bh. imperishable.19. On VII.lrm:T I if~Riflfu'FIT <iT iilliR toning down. Durglicarya has also explained the word as <f>l<JRr +fi:'n~lil. 12. EI. 14. on WiRr (Nir. cr.rr \<lIe( T M. ~Ifir: !Gis. (2) constant.) R. as applied to word pound. although no specific place of production is assiglled to it. d. The operations wbicb are nitya according to tbis Paribha~a take effect in preference to others which are not • nitya '. q\!I'a~ 9~e( Par. sacred tradition or Vedic Literature in general.218 v*!jii'. cf. 1. Sek.<fi~~'ii: XVII.l'Qf'f~) in the VyakaralJ3 and Pratisakhya works. by its component words as such. etc. V.<f <I.g. cf.. or i[<'( or~. K. tI~Rl!iffif.g. m'l'q:.r:. lHlftI>lT\:I: 9:iff~~l'IT. cf. III... :IV. the nasal ~.. Rill!· mit f1ml~ R. T. not liable to be set aside by another. Pari. 1. f. altbough · . I I • f.. R. used as an adjective to a Vedic metre which syllable less than tbe r. The word f. ~: lft-sU \:<rfu't'J~ olJT<jrrns. the word is used in gramrna. ct..:q possession of grea ter force. VII I. cf..'r ti<'! Kas.:i~ I f. T. It is a peculiar sound through both the mouth and the nose.. I.q. -ii1CiOiqJl. paJ. as opposed to optional. pad. VI. ~r:r<jfra ~ ~rrm:. also ~fu~"<'irn l!1~'E'I Nir. 37 .I . ~ p. ~ augment f<r as seen in the reduplicated syllable q.mi an invariably effective com. ~:. occurring in the Mahabnal?ya on P.4(!ICj"~l 219 R:~~+l[: tlI111r<If9~m: ffi~ ~'iI~ Q. d. ~~qCf<iT 8J. 2. cr. ( 6) always or invariably applying. I . OI" UI. The sound with meaning or without e. VIII. <1m VIlli quT: 5nfu~n~ Jf~: S. Pro I.~~ 9iT~:. cf. the term is explained as or sabda in contrast with sound or ~Fct>l~ Rill!tlmtl. on P. the word in this sense is used in ·connection with rules or operations that do not optionally apply: cL :a-qq({t1mm f.<i:. il. d.

is very frequenVedic recital. 1. 1. ~'C[i~Ii:'!rii1~~'Cffo~~l\l1"'<!l1tion. See f. 50. 1. 1. C'fTl1iL. Bh. 1.f'q ~OI.~q~'i:i' a short treatise ex- firm'Q(qT<ftrib::rr!. is indicated and not expressed. the usual expression .. as it appears.rm'U~q::nm~c:rTtl~9~ffT­ :qrr~1:T1m: a:rrewEi<:?'lRT~ ~T1f:?r5Cf~~ f<!'CfCl. ~. 1.Bh.~ I ~!! 'qlRl' ~ff ~ ~~i[cf: II' M.Bh. cf.ini GRifuT T. 2. Bh. also M. . . fcrrn'UIOllif c:rTIii. but he bas enumerated them as forming a class with 'q at their head in the rule 'qR<lt58~ where the word Offfil conveys an impression that' they possess no sense. He was a resident of Benares where he coacbed many pupils in Sanskrit Grammar. a gra- a popular name given by grammarians to the maxim Flfll'Ql'CfT~ ~rnRl'li\<llt<iqr<i:. 29'71 +~ . of course. 45 Vart. also M. Ol<'tqnn~.T by Yaska who has mentioned three subdivisions of Nipiitas B'11l1~. pad. VyiikaraI. Pro 1. on · . this view. used in the sense of a cause as prescribed by ~~~B-~it. cpo Yak.GJfo~T<io:r1[lRu<il<!c:ro P. '4. M. . f. fiitlm a particle which -possesses no gender and number.77 etc. .27. 4. See· Fl'CfTff. III. The word is derived from the root 'Cfq: 'with f.de of uttertly used by Patafijali to show that ance of words at the performance some. paI). it is said t1. :~'S: . the sense being of two kinds '6~'f and mer. which is said to prevail over the accent which ordinarily should be possessed by the word. on P. cf. M. ct. III.6.1a and Nirukta works. The fir+rtr (I) mime of the third out of the seven positions of voice in the phrase IiiqTCI'1IRtl:a+r.22 etc.nam~d Ti1a~wbo probably lived ill KasItJira •. of a word are 'not someare given in the Taittiriya Pratisiitimes to be taken into considera. 22 •. a word given. and the conflicting views have to be reconciled. as contrasted with nouns. which was modified by Bhartrhari who stated that.:I:l'<r the word is uset!I:in the sense without trying for its deriv~tion.174. P. cf. 1. 3II. Thus.' cf.rtmi<r~{ the accent. Pr. was implied in the Mababha~ya and was prominently given in the Vakrather' yapadiya by Bhartrhari which was Fl1mtl<r$ti(E{ the view prominently expressed by the Varttikakiira that nipatas do not possess any sense. 4. is given as one of the four categories of words viz. Nir. becomes a difficult one to be answered. 9".<f~</irc:rlmcR 'q t!T~<iif. Bh. cf.1 Vart. Pro XII. Pr. cf. XXIII. firfWa'~a+ft locative' case. 189-206. Ahnika I. Bhoja in his Splgaraprakasa gives a very comprehensive definition of Nipata as :-.'ii. cf. (2) a mo. .1ini. Bh. f. 15. fiifmtm~l:'ftif Action in accordance with the cause as the application of the gender and case affixes to the adjective in accordance with the noun qualified by it. on which Uvvata remarks ~'qC'f fcr'Cflm: ~Il~'fi(: ~'qC'f frl{~<iif: I The remark of Uvvata appears to be a sound one as based on actual observation.. the· word given by PaQ. · II. f~~ffilf a scholar of Sanskrit Grammar \Vho wrote glosses on the Mahabha~yapradjpa. on P. fifq"rQ(. cf. For details see Bhartrhari's Viikyapadiya II. 8. (com. firm by the statement of the Varttikakara. 1. 0l!f!l<U~. Ol~!!rcr. with which the ~: 8J~llT( frlm~<r ~t . as grammarians say. is stated that Nipatas are laid down also S!'~t~'C['C[<uqN~ ~ H~~ Flrn'Qf or presented as' such iq .:fqf?!'Q!I'Cf~. 3.1at the sense is never Sattva or Dravya or substance as remarked by paI. which is brought' into eXistence by a cause.' is suggest.IZ. 23. The . mmarians especially paI. 3.'as also arqg~fq~o V.4.:II M. VI. ali.132. and a:rf9fcrfilq>:ll~. :R. 1 . He lived in the first half of the nineteenth century.. d.36 Vart. Regarding the sense indicated by the Nipatas. '2. cf. (2) senses.1ini. cpo 1.57. disappears on the disappearance of the cause. 3. on In. . also distinguishing sign <I: ~~l~</irfr OlCifu followed by almost all later grammarians. bhii~ii by many grammarians like ed in the:Rk Prfl. is not directly expressed by them but it is indicated. Siradeva and others.I up~padasamasa. on the Lagbusabdendusekbara.also ~ «1m ~ f<:t:::'~Ic:rrfir R. I. cf. 1. . 12. fcrqrcr: lfTG:~: R. fcrNFltt<:rI~ Nipatana word is expressed in the Siitra. and the case termination after which is dropped or elided.:~<Tf<f~qr 17. the question whether the Nipatas possess any sense by themselves or not. ':"".manifol~ M:. ct. they do possess sense which. and mentions more than a tl~ousand of them. cf. Bh. The impression is made filqJ6m~~ the view that the nipatas and the upasargas too. 6 and illustrat~d by the usually' quoted verse '9ijfrrT G. I. U. Iq'Tg. by U vvata). fc!\:<!~. and on the Paribba~endusekhara. '~'Cfffif­ c:rm~CffiTfuqrerc:rIG. technical difficulties in the of a sacrifice. V.•. 5..Tqrcr. Ol~ f. in of root-cause or support by Bhartauthoritative works of ancient grarhari in Vakyapadiya.r:(fflfi\:S!'~J'Gp.26 Vart. The Nipiifas are looked upon as possessed of no sense. Bh.\q. being the correct one. Pro XII. Kas..ini has not given any definition of the word mIff. 3IO."Iii~<'t<ii\<l' SlTRr'C[fct'lir9~ " P. B'rrefr and fclmr by all the ancient writers of PratiSiikhya..tlN<rfi~T<lf S!'lt~~ mil\<! 'q I ~lq'fqCfiR111lf ~. VI.!'tfTfU:· 1 \:!'Elrcr'ir5Cf~ fcr'CfffFa I ~111~ I OlN ~~!lU~ I arfi't t[<::~1Jll: I Nir.'!qmmmatical operation. also firf~r'Q CI) the formal cause of a gra. Pradipa on P. f. etc.56 Vart. 1. on I. etc.· I. .123 etc.ffq~ i[fra Cf<'ff~~frcr ~I~\. viz.er '9JG:<IT Fl'CfIClT: I 221 · ~rharian. 1.. The derivation of the word · ~f+l~t<j'Olrer: I given as a Parifrom 'R( with fcr causal. cf. on I.fl plaining and illustrating the use of indeclinables. . 'FIlm~: ~l</i: ~l'Pl. 1.3. and the Nipiitas not possessing anyone of the two. . Bh.khya. </iqPt~!lU~' and t[<::1~$£it .5 etc. V. 1. cf. on II.Bh. XII. He gives six varieties of them. Although the :Rkpratisiikhya in XII. tl f<!'CfTff<R'f{: S!'~'R\<! cnlq''!i) Olf<t~Rr M. ~20 the gafisamasa and the dative tatpuru~~ with the word Ol~ are examples of ~t<HH118. it is a certain kind of relation and 'tbat too..JT ~~CWl M. only indicate the sense and do not denote it.. Seven such modes formation.tisakhya Where it: Vya<. a thing. written by. still in the next verse it says that some of them do possess sense. 8 lays down that the Nipatas are expletive.4. on 1. R.' . NiplHa . 13. 4. .lqlq'l~. i:tfuu ~{ffi Cif. pronouns and other indeclinables. 8 etc. also d.. on II. 14. This is done by Bhartrhari who lays down that Nipatas never directly convey the sense btJ. cf•.n~ f.I'Z7. III.II4.t they indicate the sense.36 Vart. 5. Pro VIII. M.. .23 Vart. ~~q illustration. .

15~~i'!iT<i­ f.. a century or two before . (I) restriction. answered. Bh.:!~mT~ f. .. of course. As many of the derivations in the Nirukta appear to be forced and fanciful. as supplementary to grammar works and there must have been a good many works of this kind in ancient times as shown by references to the writers of th~se viz.!<jcr . 222 !llaxim is not.67 Vart.fNf. has got its own importance and place among works subsidiary to the Veda. on Pari.m I B fil<lTlfcfir limitative. see ~ possessed of no mute indicatory letter. Sek. cf.. (2) the grave accent.. FR~ a fault of pronunciation when a f.Pal).e. which.1. l:Hfft: q(: il1<iiRt~ efT ~mr: ~ ~'1rtit~li1 .ini.:r'mi~~ f. Sek. definitely fixed. 3. >f~mF!<Ill. IV. G ~i!{ ~i~ pure. Bh. also ~ f. Pro XI. ~lfq<Ill etc. According to Vak.12. regulation.. KM.t9'liRTI &. also a:r. into ~ and then omitted and the preceding vowel is iengthened. g. cf. d.!<ler~a?t R. 56. the grammarians generally take a rule as a positive injunction avoiding a restric. the niravakasl rules are possible to be applied.C. 9.II . in this sense. hence has been applied by scholars to the Niruktaof Yaska which is believed to have been written in the seventh or the eighth century B.a. 3. ·or a part of which.83 .. liable to become superfluous if the restriction has not been laid down. (3) name of a Samdhi. the word f. 8lEtfct<I+r. ~mqo: <fiatt ~'1~!ll "''1m etc. Pr•. The Nirukta works were looked upon as subsidiary to the study of the Vedas along with works on phonetics (fuarr). cf. tlfva' f5: <jUj: ~RlC!il f. Sek. I. ~ an obligatory order pr command. Sh. 8l~\?t<if. 8r. Pari. f~ (I) set as. the term is very frequently used by grammarians in connection with a restriction laid down osed to tmFlRlCfi nasalized. The niravakasa rules always set aside the genera! rules which are always present wherever they i. Pro XL 2 5.:!~ioT~f. ~m name of a class of works Which . ~~"'l . ~~<i1' disappearance M.: ~ti<lfu I ~~: d7{- f. III.Bh. d. on P. For details see Par.. cf. Pari.:!~ as f'R~. 100. or occasion for.r<jQ (2).:r<mr 'o+nfcim R.=rm· ~q6:rfq<lr-r: . a syllable with a grave accent. shutting up.e.D. VIII. the f.m~ Pradipa on M.3. f. 1.:r ~'if9i\<l . <fciRr •••••••. It is doubtful whether Durgacarya is the same as Durg~simha.Bh. 2. regulating rule. 99.!<:ffl f. M.f<lm m<l<lT 8lFr<jQI~~ ~qsftr s:Il'::i!<fRr M. the dictum f. cf.. cf. VI. Sek.12 Vart. I.~: ~~t~ m. R. 4.. cf. rituals (~q-). cf. ( 4 ) grave accent or anudatta. corresponding to the Parisamkhya statement of the Mimarhsakas. Bh.f9l:lcU 'lT1:1C!il <19Rr Par. (3) 1. Sakapiil). f~Cjim possessed of 110 scope of. f. (2) The grave accent. Sakapurti and others. who wrote a Vrtti or gloss On the Katantra Vyakaral). i. cf. also P.RIt:rf.. universally applicable. the word ar. Sira. . application. cf..m. Niravakasatva is looked upon as one of the two criteria for Cf{l:T or SUblation. " of an object.i.:r'lClil'8" is also used. cf.i~~ (1) an affix whose accent is definitely given by an indicatory mute letter applied to it. such as that of a preceptor. on II. such as :sr~lT­ fq:ql1.~~~ a short term used for the maxim f~~~ . f. bind- ffl M.·V. 2. 1. cf. ~'iim~ f. 56.II. ~s:@.t.. Pro III.Jr. etc. the commentators have given various kinds of restrictions. 34 Vart.· on I.r<lTiioii vowel is harshly pronounced and hence is not properly audible. I ~!qr f. usual maxim. being a very old work of that kind and quoted by later commen tators. . a restrictive rule. ~'[Uj<I: Par. I ~fq<liil:it<I. i. 6 . 6.ide. >f&-l!JF!<Iil.1.r<!Tli<ii "i Par. however. 8 aTI"ililf. 'on 1.!il'l~'t. 3. by Durgadirya is a scholarly one. 30. ~.r.III. d.r<Io is used in grammar in connection with the nimitta or nimittin in a grammatical operation prescribed by a rule.. but. to be superfluous unless there is laid down a regulation. out of them only one work composed by Yaska has survived. Ahn.. g. fsti. on 1.!<i<U . or a part of it.:'ifCfi: Eli f'1G~~: I substitute taking place on account of certain formal causes or nimittas. on II.. R. 9. d.14 and VI. 3.. Bh.'Qi~TG<:I' a gloss on Yaska's Nirukta written by a modern scholar of' grammar named Ugracarya in the eighteenth century A. 9· ~~ (I) regulated in size or number... d. on I. Pro IV.r<lii. Sek. Pro III. Bb.!il'l~ ~fcr~ ~~ I CIilil~cfr f. Pari. Time has two powers by which it brings about the emergen~e or disappearance of objects. ('fGJ if ~q ~<1~ fir~a<I. as contrasted witb ~m=r. Upamanyu. cf. cf. grave vowel. 4. There were some glosses and commentary works written upon Yaska's Nirukta out of which the one. ~ltl"'~ f. The fault occurs when the place and the means of utterance are pressed and drawn in. also the frequently quoted dictum 8lf. ~'1!l~ cnaO<Jif. an affix or an augment ·or a 223 with reference to the application of a grammatical rule generally on the strength of that rule. 2. 9. the other one being ~F!lr<:jfci~+!Tq as illustrated by the . unnasalized.!<ilicliTRuft' q!t.. of derived. cf.3. e. Ahnika I. not possessed of any mute indicatory letter. 1. Pro XV. Pari. it is doubtfui whether the Nirkuta works could be called scientific treatise~ efhe work of Yaska. Pro XIV. The Nirukta works are looked upon fin. cf. Pari.r<ltlf • where Kaiyata explains ~lf' as word is frequently used in connection with faults which are stated to occur or present themselves if a particular explanation is given. on 1. M. the word. The word ~ is found in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of ' explained ' and not in the sense . M. grammar ( 0<iT'li\1ll ) prosody (~) and astronomy (~~) and a mention of them is found made in the· CMndo gyopani~ad. fiI~ limiting. 195. M. (2) limitation as contrasted with f.t<ll1~<1~ fcrf<Itcr \T<jf<j~ Par.14. is shown . cf. ~~ E.tive sense as far as possihle .!<!lt f.t~ or CIil~T<:. on I. ( 2) prevailed over by another . were composed to explain the collections of Vedic words by means of proposing derivations of those words from roots as would suit the sense. when a visarga is changed .. 3. Bh. where Uvvata paraphrases f. I Vart. known as n~~i<{­ '<IT<l~ See ~~~.. 19.56. pad.the rule aj!i~(tlrn'd 8lH+Fi!fll.Z P. 64. R.!<Ia<I. Sakatayana. f. as opp~ ing. III.r<:a<nfffiiT~ I Mo· Bh. on III. 2. Eli !!<Kcl (81JCfiR:) '31~'1. ~i[ 'q .63. The power that shuts up objects is STfcr<ti=1:T.~~s~Ycr: ~'!ii~~~T~ ~tlT: M.!~ ~<iCfi\UJTqcm R. 4. 1.

~n 1. ~ 'w9r4' o~~~~d~' f~~m :a ··~uleto : ~. 1.jffifu fcIl?:~ 1:f. II. fu6!>5!{ f.~~~: l1RJ:!' q~~~FI~~ fu<f~<rfo\' I\~~ Ph~ PH L' 4·49: Fqr p~t!lils ~ee th~ wor4 lfiW!:. Bh. the word is often used in the Mahabha$ya in sentences like ~ a~ fuw: Cfiij-o!{:. . cpo Vak.~+r.l1<h!~"(ql a popular name of the iu the Nyasa of Jinendrabuddhi. IV. pro. t~2.' aft+rRlfu frif{f! '{'l~!i ~. Nyasa on I.j.· . 2. ~." '. the penultimate or of l[« in the word ati[~ cf.JrRl. 25.rort ~~+!filqt. Btq"'f~ 51~~!!3r~~ \ f. i. as for instance.iijCfi (I) productive.. ~q!l~appli~ c~tiRn p~ ~~Q'r~ fcI~til i~expl~·~n::4 ·~s· ~~. that~s. in respect of their derivation. . ij fu~1 . II. 3· ~ 1P'!~(a.. enunciated. on P.jiC'b. i(~t. 8. i!l~trurpents9f ac::tivit'y cl:\-Utld +}ar!li{as . ~fs:n'{\~' 'l!~<fi+t. .8I. -Pari.:r~RTfrri[f~~~~:~ -llfcl5!iRr 111:. cf. .r~k~s~. r. . (. ~ B"~(Tl"l:f<FI!!'i:<I~ R. cf.j~ij 51mqRl: \ 111:. IDeIllbers 9l a ~ompouncl .73 as also J\. :p~~:: V\·. ' fq~ a fault of pronunciation by Which a letter is uttered harsh 01: rude. (~) productive of activity.~' ~ir~tR: Par. ~TH~ "I'l'"f '~IFJIlfr9a: ar~n<Jfrfr.6$.l&lT~: a:flj"'!<I: ~ mention. d. futn ~?{l: Kaiyata on M. also M.3r. diminution. incorrect. the parHc1. 3. Nir.~78.'ly iq ~on~e1?'tio~ 29 .~cf(~ (Tlqt( ~~EfiI<:: <'f!HJliR: '\' Th~ prpu~R~ ~qt9 e~h:. 39. d. the penultimate vowel which is picked up and taken :'back. prohibition. ~N~ fu:.' V. I.n!jln:r: ~ga:r<llit­ . bf(tM'lved to have written a gloss Pr.20. '!fu: 1flfU'r. als~ ~ijfllf<!t?:!!l<lt ·~i· ~r !l'lRl: !3~ 'tTf.{d. Pari 12. 4.r<liU fu<f"l'~ Durgavrtti on Nir. 1. 1.6 and VII. Pari •.H~~· ~8~Rr .. s!l~sii~e~t 'f~l~' pr· r~l~s .t~Qc~·W ~nto ~ !"\eyv or pbj~c::t gpv~rn!.~ I tht) cessation of recurrence'or anu~' a' 'f!~ltl c. Abnika I.:cr~af. Bh. e. on P.n~f. fu~:ir ~5" etc. cf. etc. Bh. f<lq. 2.g. also the maxim aRliffifu fcI~~ ~~ P. d. Pro 1. fflQ'PTrc. fciq. Pro 1. lias. l1Wllfi<I:. lIL I34~ op. 3. cf. fu~fu produc~iop of the effeGt.100 . VI. have their last vowf31 aoce:mt~ acute." . fiF-im that which ~hould pot pr()ceed to the next rule.2. 97. II2. proviqf!cl thf:!se words are ?PF . Bli. Paribha$a aRf. also f~ a name for the Sarilhitapatha. The word fu'cTf~tr( is used for or'lI:"fT~tr( in this.16. also orq~ir Cfi!{I~Wf(<!I ~qfq["I~ ". p~ri.II and· V.llar tYP..:~lm!j<tr f<t~~ R. cf. Bbaskara Pari. existi~g o'.:f'M~"I101t fli. Btl.·etc.~q. d. word fq~w}.263. iirG'Cf negation. d... Btl.:r. ~~'ir 'fi. ' 1'1<1t'•!Cfi lit. 3.1. also V.'! fu4t~ ~EfiI~ ~It:!j ~~ '\ .:.66. " ( '[Rl) on the Siitras of Pa~ini on the" strength of a reference to him f. aT~CfCfl.. cf. by separating a word into its component letters. on P..19 Vart. e.2) determined or definite sense to the exclusion of another. ~e~k termi nati(}I1s. 2.l ~~U~T Bhasavrtti on P.r.. < " : . cJ.. cf. in PaQini's grammar. Pll~~YCl IH~ 7. Viirt. Bh.3 etc. a'C"I'r'1l~4 f. ·'9 . lfi't~~!i 'l~Eli\tij fu>:l~ I ~I01t +f!1~~ CiT ?{l~<I: ~~cr+r: . 1...' ' f<'f<llQ sometimes . exhibited..!d . 14. on P. In.jT"~!iT~m w:rfra which means r substitutes take the place of that or its part which has been actually statEd or enunciated in the . (2) being turned intq a short (vowel. cf.. ~~Q'( (1) selection o. ~N.rr 'l~§fo. ~t alsp Y~ky~:­ P{f~if'!I+llqqft<-lTqT a short form for the fii.~~<! \ cf. by some . 2. pf. f>n<lt fuf~~fu mg'l!3'lf f. d .IQ. 2.:e acce~t.M. 134.l1 ~ij Fr4t4~ I 3llVR'Itqfoqp~'fiR \ ilj'i~" fu~Fflf. I.9'ffi.44 Vart. Y.elas~ of.1 84.l ~<lf2 M. 1..used for f. the act of fully uttering the meaning hidden in words that are partially or wholly unintelligible.~itl~~'-Ye~q '()f I:po( \~hicn ~a~ got th~ n(ltHr~ pf beiIlg p r odllc:: ed or . dJlction ~~ the qc. <la tl. 36 . 2.g.<i. fiI&:m (I) abridgment. ' fiI~~T -( u1fI) ~in (existence) with<lut any clear attributes. ~. Pari. Kas. 2. d. o~ I.i1odern one. e~clqdiDg pthe r forms whicbare otherwise. fifc'i~<i on~ ?f n~~ ~(ln q-iany k~nd!i ~~ kllr~ by ~ f<'f<lfu (r) cess!ltion of recummce of trap.Ras. Or re'{p~vai. The word ~. fq~"f! separated. Sck. grammarians. which gives the meaning of a word which is based upon implication. .d. cf. 1. pn P. See the warp Fl'[RI.10 as also on II.!1'i'fi t~ . The word >r§q"{ is used frequently in this sense in old grammar works such as the .?n~'eqp~~tupon ~:SI:~f. Sek.cf.. on IV. actual statement. \1~srufta+I:. headed by the. I. 4. 12. of a vague nature. on II. Sometimes the mention or exhibition made by a word shows ~ interpretation by means of etymology as found in the Nirukta works.50 Va~t. cf. kit or nit affixe:.ni1 is also used in this sense by ancient grammarians.e of word.41. 5TC11fG<I Rq-a-. takf!n out from a tIling . d.l+rfu ( 2) cess9-tion .I.tivi'ty by th~ age~ts or . ~ d. o~ '1.l9~~ M. e. f<rfl~~ etc. I. on P. Pro 1.~<I~: \ Kaiyata on M.. 134. 1.fi'I=er­ ~"'4ql I:"fTtqql:"fT~ <j~T ~n=erRlfi'l=errq'<TRdj ilT ~ Kas. ' . .i:.f' one or some out oImany. I. fq~i1q'Cf a word.iiI-. I. 1%' ~ij~<t fu~~~ \ or. ati[fual at{al at g!i1 il:i'~~~~cml.. disconnected . Sek..:J1161lf or~l~~sltfu ~T~: Nii. d.on 1.nqlll'[RI~Jtn \ .>.:~~ ~~ ~<li!~<j~q'f~~(£jK \' ~<T~~ i ~: \ ~~f~: v'rtti' ct. Ti1~: lfiQ~: M • B h. Bh. d. on P'-VI. For details see Nirukta II. the wprd Fltr'if being comparatively a I. 1. I..l\Iahabha$ya.224 ~~ ?. aT<iq~qw. ~~~ l>. !llso see ~L Bh. " .'.:! • separated. sense.s. I. shap~ . ~ls~ ll:if ~ GI1~~ ~~rm f<t~fu~~~! ~<1~ff: "~. ~'~:r~ ~dir'. pad. d. d.23. 3. II. pn III. Durghaia Vrtti on·:P. 'fiUfu ~+. ~ d~~~ qf words headed by the wor4 f. For details see Par. q~ P. r. 1. rule ( of grammar)' Par.m~<! Fr9~if <19"fu \ M. 1.lmcr or the gra.~ (~. 1.fi fcI~~ <fil~g~ +19m@. f. it~~ €].. . ~t Jl~me of a grammarian who is I P. generally on the strength of the indeclinable t/. II.' orm~!jt~R'[fu • ~:q1~9r~qr Wlfcr \ ~('f: Brmfcr \ Nir. fq~~oIT potentiality of implication 225 .­ ~ fcIl?:!!qft. . expeller. fif~ name of a commentary on the Prakriya-Raumudi. Pro IV. ~~T. also '<TTCfl~.q which is expressed or understood.H). ij ~ Fl. comp~uDd V{<ortts.<!<Iiwcrffi~T~ a '" maxim used as a Paribhafj§.39 Vart. d. I~'·' Si~a Siitni 2. as opposed to expressive..66 and V.g. IV.e: maxim fcI~!if.l~<m. ~~~~ pla~es wher~ the s~bstitute ~ur and 'lfuclO nqt apply. .:hich the affix i{'{\ (~) is add~d. ~f. c::f.. I.. .rF. 4-49. dissociated. V.[l%.[RI ~ the llsqai word .

fff~. lj~.m. etc.i+I" ({[.g.1jiavrtti. P. VIII.g.~l1lT+J:. G augment'\. semi-cqntacted. q. (4) of declinaiM bases marked with the mute "~lndicatoi:y letter <3".g. part.£. (3) to the part of a root possessed of two' consonants. ccent. 'iilf!iTand in Vedic Literature. . it<ImRr.lini's Grammar. in Vedic Literature.. of the pres.:fiq~ etc. and voc. features of the gra""G~">.'!qmRi. ~ ~IlfWr:lj~' q~if4 . (4) to the affix ~gl!. or sections of the Nirukta: ~ a c:rtnffi~ accessory. ~~. q~. ~Tqr+r. :qo:"l~. (6) to any vowel "after if. 17 . ~. 57. who wrote an i~dependent work: On Paribhasas in VyakaraI). . cf.83. \~.54. He wrote a gloss on A~tadhyayi which was named paI). 'accidental. q. (7) of the affi.~ if g ~~lR~'liiir. . name letter. and 'li~ in the intensive..81[~~?'!: etc. Pari.g. cf. +!~.. a commentary on Mahabha~ya and Gii<. d. or in ~ or e. (j~ P. P. or in a:rr of the feminine affix ( 2.g.i ct. <rnrffi. J 'i{~-. arrq~. ~SjQ~"il" mentioned f. before a case-ending termed Sara vanamasthiina. V·3 0 • ~ augment Paribha. P.rljRt. Pro 1. ~:.. qf. V.56.VII. 31rQ&'~.' ".P. and ~~undercertain specified condi~ions. e. . 82.vIr. ({~iff.65 and 84. .72. who has writ ten a com mentaryon Kaiyata's Mahabh1i. 8l&JU¥a':.~th "~ 'vdirel o't wtill: ~ny c~ti!!6h~nt e~ceptin'g . ~. 4. 8lIq~. ~ " .g. . inserted after the last vowel of a root or a noun-base in specified cases.) under certain conditions <mfi ~RIT..S8. ~li(~.'Vedic as opposed to ~'or <iTNCfi. or for the vowel. . also V. after a base ending in if..asiddhantarahasya. VII. ~4<:I. of feminine bases termed nadi.i+I... prefixed ( I) to the gen. P.Cfonfir.59: '(:3 )0£ the r~otsw.:. ~ r fii~ separated with the intervention of a consonant. :'. 2. on P. M. e. 4. i1~r. e. and VOC. after a crude base ending in a short vowel.to the first three Kai}. ire. cf.las '. ~rn:r (1) belonging to the Veda. ~~'mW-. e.rthaprakasika.ivp~el 'o~:: apasal. after numerals termed. ( 2. mrcwfi.:~~mm(~~Zj~f. (I) affixed to the words l>F'acln:. ljt. VIt 1.. before the feminine affix ~ e. ..32. as the first member. ~Rt d. cf..in'the neuter genaer.r.fi\IlIf~f.. ~lf. VII.) of roots!r'l.g.'sem. etc.. ~a:. See ~+J:. II.lh1i. 94. cf. cf.60. e. ij'!ql+J:. 'ffi'm'itt filgr P~ L I. . 55. a commentary on the Siddhiinta Kaumudi of BhaHoji Dik~ita. I ~ struck down in tone. e. e.26. ct. I. (6) of the declinable base in' the neuter gender. accented grave.. ~. .. ct. (3) affixed to the reduplicative syllable of roots ending in a nasal consonant and having the penultimate 8l as also of the roots~. . 6i?fCf6iJl augment if. Pro IV... .ii1~. 'K or ~. q. cf.. completed. Cljl'ii~.i~. .. cf. . q~ and 2. cf.l1'. VI. ~ also fiI:m. L ~ aug~ent "l insert~dafter the last vowel' (I) of a root given in the Dh1i. viz. 227 cf.g. I. P. cf. sessed of a grave accent. cpo f9«l~g tr<Jm:1llfu:[l..87. tI~and ~ in the intensive. ~ ~::q a term used for the grave accent . which is substituted for ~. haif to~ched.~fg.. ~ ~~~lIJi: ~~ ~t~ ~ Sf~<jp. ct. ¥r.g. 55 cf. ( 8 of the word 8l~ before the nom. If'tfo'ctT. for sibilants and hissing sounds.. IV. ~ 8lC1~'1if.. or 'qII!. Pr. affix ij in Vedic Literature.ar<iq<iif~. arnt~. ~ etc. P.. as contrasted with ri'!iRl. ~ 'lI-q:Cii~ constituting the grav~ accent. ~rcrm.t.:: 70..t~~: I.'f<Ira.~.226 or idea. and ijill!.g. 8lC1~:Hif. tlC{Ti'ir. e.. ~rqm ~2: partly touched. cf.r..J 'ii+fUfl<n'I. ~p':q~T ~~fcr<fr~:'!i\lfUr ~~lj . d..5) to the initial vowel of the second member of a compound having 8l of <1OJ. ..20. g. ct: P VIL1.g:. Kas. Kas. ~~m. ~~ ~if~ Nir. 'i:!\. of' the' declinable wording. affix l. P. ~'" ~~¢ author of ~f. pos. sig~ ai-" (iu)i.g.severely criticised in the commentary Gada. 54. VII.r~Clj~. used in connection with a grammatically formed' word by applying affixes to the bases. qUUjI+J:.71. 1. ~q~rQ\: etc. grave. cf. a work on accents.I..!<j11~ q~l1T<!TfiI as s'econdary.. ~:r~.- SWtmf.. VII.g.e. He also wrote Bha~yatattvaviveka.. ~r+I:.r.11 <I<rT ~ ifi'if: ~Rt I Kaiy. ~~ g. ~l!. 3. ev«i{ <fr affixed to the reduplicative syllables of the roots tfiUl. "F~fc!~: ~~F!ma~ Siradeva Pari.g.l. VII. ( . 4. (. ~<r (am:. e.. e. as also . (2) affixed to 'the root ?if before the causal affix fii'I=tt" e. after a base ending in 8li( as also to the affixes o~I!.71. 1. arFr~~ aroljq~ Uvvata on V. VILr.). a grammarian of the seventeenth who wrote. as also of the root 8l~ of the fifth conjugation after the reduplicative sy Hable ending iIi a:rr.. ~Fr etc.~iff. (. (.. where Siradeva has explained the word filfmr as >rq'tln~-3l'~. P. P. q~.· d.t~patha as ending with lJ1ute ~ie.' {z} name given to KaI)<. 138.. Bh. d. on P. augment if. endirigw. ~~4e~lj.. ~~. pl.r. 8o-8! . ~entury "i:q~ of the second Yama ViII.'a~. - . He also wrote a commentary named Sukhabodhini on Siddhantakaumudi. Sl\ or ~ before a case-ending' beginning with a vowel.ita. 8l1+J:. ~<m~ multisyllabic.' marian of the seventeenth century.'cf.' ~~. :'. a commentary on Siddbiintakaumudi. R. The word is used in connection with the detached first part of a compound word not followed immediately by a vowel. 1. I..1l!.~ru' burga Vr onNir IV. ~­ miff.g.~e. XIX. 3·39.72. III. (z) to the affix "the numerals ~ also after the words Y.<lID'. ' ~"i'lU6r{'if~.<:I. and {</ffCf~ before the nom. ~1ilFl.8.16.~ from the roo't 8l~ and ~. ~'Rr l'r <fr'q~ro.'3. sing... He has refemdto it in his Paribha~avrtti. ij'f~. Vq.30. on 1.e. :. T.:t'~ or ':n~q~ a famous gram. VII. ending with If.a ter~ used.g.Pr. Kas.!~. This Vrtti is referred to in the Paribhas~ridusekhara by NagesabhaHa and the views expressed in it are . possessed of many and others' before the conjQgational syllables..32~ r. 5 and 6 of the Nirukt~ of Yaska. 2.a' named Paribha~avrtti. P. page 303 of paribba1jiasamgraha..55.ft~~ nephew of Appaya Dik:. ~fff. 1. and qfcrqn:. VII. Svaramafijari.c. tIn:. cf. {</CfIif. (9) of the words i<!!. ~.74. sing. VII. on VIL1.I-73. which ispreceded by a short vowel and which is at the end of a word e. accomplished. CJ:~. as m fifm the affixes:q'i and ~ in Pfu. cf. 86. P.r~ ~ T. 1.'Cf<Im. cf.85.iniyadipika.las 4. ~q<:I. the term is applied. P. f. It is also known as VaiyakaraI). (5) 'of the"declinable'base . ending in 3TI1l.:i:.69.~ya­ pradipa.

2.5~re:: ~ilw R. IV. ~ going lower.:1Iifcr+!fui 'tII~~~!fT~ P ~I. I.6j. 89. Kaiyata o~ P. $'3f1 ~!l@:R~~T!I~ . affixes 0fUI. i8. Ahnika I.the .228 ~~ effeCt. III.3. :(-3-93.8.a comtrleritary alSo on the work. 4. fuIl jiistification.ii\ r~I<ffi{ij:a. but which unfortunately differently. 123. ·stand.95. ~P:nqiro:~'it a name given to . on pjl. Buddhist grammadan· JinefidraPar. subordinate.'311li'6ffi I (Hela. 9. tliX~ same way. the name the end of his comment mclRo!· on his Nyasa is given to the learned comSabdahusas!!-na.. IntI!e ding to rules of grammer.:llTe' (i j lit.'59.7. Hemacimdra has.poSition cf~ Vilk. in ti'i!. i~2. ~~: etc. ~. I1. the words ·arnr'li<:'ITfair<n<! M.tea. L93· ~ also .f~~Ujr!lT<r M. ~~!lT<r M. the word romarians. . work:.<l~. VI i. Sinideva and others.Bh. a pupii of Ratnasekhara.word cam~ to be used iii the gerierai sense of Pafibha~1is or niles ofinterpretatioD many of whiCh were based upon pophlar maxims as stated iIi the word m1li~fu« by Nagesa. M.:ljtlj . d. Siva Si.Jairiendra gramfor Which.Bh. "l!Hfl~'. tI. ~~i=«lf<ofr a kind of ~~1 metre in lVhich the second foot has twelve syllables.PaH~ bha~a given by VyiiQi.Bn. ..4840 Th~ word 15 also used in the of a.n~. Oil P~VIII. writer ef a Nitukhl. ·on P. 'cf~ «tift-: i. 3·7. ~~. correct.alioire.<fT'll:t~ ~ I Jain. V. byDevananrlin on. where the w'ord nyaya is used in the sense of « a general rule '. II. regular. or end of the first. or readers to works of the ·type of ntimbei'iog 140 -Iiyayas outot which iearned and scholarly comniehtaiie. oli P..IV:2. I where Kailargely quoted lit subsequent gra-.irvacatya he possibly refers to. buddhi. fully justified r~qo'( tary wntten. statement made for' c<>mCbuniCation.. mentary to it called Nyayarthathe Paribha~avrtti by Hemahammafij ulja wri tten by him self. y~tai however.ard given by Hemacatldra hiqlseif at si.itras in a S~stra. I. on' P. ~~<IT!!'ffiC'W\~(lI rqF. I . from I • ~~'ffi (1) obtained by derivation.24i arri-ciw<n~ M.: riioiogical. cf.~rrf~~ ~fq~ named Tantrapradipa which is very GlIRr M. ~I:'flitT5{l!fli'\r<iT<I M. 1. R.-pad. i. ~ a technical term ~ fiame given to alWii=G.i. work dealing with Vy1ikaraI)a Paribh1i~as or. cp. Pari. bh~as in Hemacaridra's grammar. on P.82. on P.83.t~T. lrtEl'fi1l~<I M.t maximi a famiiar or patent inst- in the J aineh:. cf.39. 1.Bh. pad. cf. as concealed. The author has written. see above. 3.Bh.o 'the root which these wordiEhefornied._one that is catised. used the word rljT<I for Paribhi!savacana.39. Pro which iays down the direction that 'one should interpret the rule laying down an exception along with thegeneril rule '~ d. 120. 3.on P. while tht? rest have eight syllables each. a . Similarly the commep.r. a word sagai]. rljTl<j means a general rule .or the grave tone. with widely_ known by the riame Nyasa. the usual expression named Nyasa.s 57 riyayas are said to have been on vritti-type':'works ··on . used in the sense of actrial expression or wording especially In' the in l:4~h. ) P?F~l=t lagging back or iagging behind ~ilfciiIT a withdrawal of the sense to previous stage. on sense general a. Vy.JDemberof a compound word which has got a grave atcerii.i: ri I. ~~6: a work enurDtmi. on P.92.3. which are formed by -me. and others added in the sense of' ~ ~e:' (P. on P. maxims ~s fciiiiidin HemacaIidra's system of gramUla~. BYPi. cf. P.:lji<I M. Bh. on P. i1i!T~I!f\~. cf. V.ting the Pari( 2) a mime given by the writers.ih.· s~tras.XVI.mmar are named Nyasa. See m~lIT=<I~ ~T:B<f) tad. Pr. IV. See the \vord ~.47 etc:. is very ~~ established by a maxim. IV.n-~'1tlf. Sek.eastern school of PaI}ini's Grammar. The word is used as tten in the eighth century by the opposed to ~qCjiffi~ by NageSa. p03ition.it. named Kasika vivaranapaiijika by the author.iica 2 Vart. ef. ori 1. 2. dra VyakaraI)a fo. Bh. Vak. 7. ~qij. crill. 1.ans of the substitution of a guttural ~onsonant in the place of a ~onsonant of any other claSs belong" arlee quoted t6 explain similar cases. 17 where Uvvata explains ~lj~ro ~'U~ff~f. by hhtient grammarians.I. 2. II. Bh. wrltt~riby t-Iemaham. Pr.ord ~~. on V.a~ d. VI. e g. V. plaCing. 88. tbevowel . Bh. 1: I I. the vowei at the ruiewhich has got some exceptions. ~'ffi. cf. i:i~~:. 1. (2) etymologist. on Sakatayana ~~ combined euphonically accorgra. The work is written mentaries on the Vrtti on Hemaby ~mreirlUi who has added a comcandra's Sabdaliu$lsanaas also on . ~~iji<I M:Bh.2. This Nyasa has a learned commen~ proper. technical term in the Jainfmdra Vyakarai}. "l!~f+lm<lqqT~"( :sra'T<!l'(. This commentary Nyasa was wriBh. Bhartrhari uses the term" in the sense of systematic e.Bh.:. cf. 1. 7.69). 3. e:g. pacL II~ 479. Rak$ita in the twelfth century cf.:l{{<ruijIt has incorporated all important . cf:M.J.q:>. e~g: ~<i~:.I.r~i(f: ~l:T: :sr~inR:<! ~~~1Ii: I d. i{~~ matter of comrhiinication. ~i<If6«it~mJ:. ill.1:. buddbi.13I.~l£lrm i:lI~~mT~Tmc<J: V. explains. ~iWiWT~~T~ M. I. 1. rlj~ Jain. on P. Bh.tary also known by the namerlll~\(~. is used in the sense of upasarjana ~s a. Pro IIi.69. who belonged to . Bh.lV. Uddyota explains the word as f. 8 com. cf. 1. mar and that by P-rabhacandra on the Amoghavrtti. cf. :sroorl6~ M. . on P. 229 ing t.:it. the word ~+!~. Yak. See rlji<Ii:r. 4 t cf.50. which is sagaI)i. d. si. OTfi{d~f'!fi. ~~m~<Il!T9:. the term ~ defined by FaQini in the rules Sl~f. Bh. 5. The. of i!.19.~hni{>i~~l ~~ ~lj~.rij~.i. ety.:ljTEl te9' in the Mahabha~ya. points of the previous gi:ammarians.t@<i~l{I~ M. Kaiyata states that .. the writers of the Pr~ijsakhyas ilild other similar works. as ~p. Rr~~1:1T o:~ 19~Jit ~Wciu<lf ~~o"Cfir ~~fro ~ ~~T~r fflm: ~ljr~ ~tBh. fitm~ r~EllftplT RPr.. explained as ~lCfi\l1I­ on the Kasikiivrtti by Jinendra~~~M:Il({. 'l!r. VII. Kas.S3.ll~ztr<n<I M.I. 3. the learned commentary a-F. OT'I!P[. Bh. dependence.3. i. 1.on it by MaHreya cf.32• ~~r~ a class of words headed by the . as in wdrds like ~ meariing the place of residence of the Sibis.r .lffl:2 wr(~" ~q~i1'( aud 11.M.2·43. 12.

tf is. 'qftt..ei~'j" Cf:~ili~ ThEd~rtn correspond~ to.. affixes and> 'the accusative' sing. ~n. 3~·I4. ending of "L ~ rule. . I2. ' .d . !i~ (8.la whose native place was eleventh century. 3-7.J.32.I.II and the like. ffil:<!Fa J!lq:i:!w:r: Iia§. 1:. the reput~d author of the Mahlibha!?ya. on P.. . G': ~~ P. Pr.Y. mugri and Ra:Q. just'iike.t. e. .Ias~ of roots headed by the :r~.<?t.The ·<'~ti~~alfeIll~.. known as the' Pataiijala Mahabh1i1?ya af~er him.:­ q~ . . ~~: 1:1cfl:Tlg~: ~ 'Cf -tf"l'fC{<!:. It has other 'varieties ator ot. the af5. vrew~?re altern.if ~tat~d as .mbstitute to-the preceding . 38-41. . I. l{~r "iia'l~~ tmm 0I1i1<j(reif!l9~~ M. .~i{ incomplete In'sens~ o.ords headed by the word tfl5' to which the taddhita i: . facility of jlDderst8:npi.1ifix :1.fot.. I2) (~kpratisakhya calls it~r:rfurr ~ ).".80.gr'ami:nar .r ( tfi~). d.' knoWJ. It is arranged in Kuruk1?etra. Bh.. I. 2'33. d. 1. q~~ .231 -is ' available "only: in--a'Jragmentary " stat€}a.-d GO!j. 'imIqf<t ~ ({f!~ <j'l:i'f.e. I. I2. . I.Balabodhini.'( 3)ta". e.l~ q~f. i·#cr:. (2 j ~he imperative mood. g.Ol1g."d. P. I2.tJfu~~I)~f. cotiiltrie~. 1. 70.c seVen r'view~. " t(~1>iirt~rJative: :'::~pn~s~nt~ct:by.-~i~43~. . .word 9lfct . T. ( fcfHm:) tad.. " ~klliatisakhya XVI.a. the eastern method of euphonic combinations. " .The author is Srutakirti of BrahmaJ..'" _T ' . qiU:sawriter of' Citprabba.:cf. ~:F:(. A commentary' bn the qiJ~ a grammar work based on the Laghusabdendusekhara is also asshorter version of Jainendra gracribed to him. 2. l. comUlentary on T. He was a Gau\la mmar.".1.sitl~ablYlfr!?nfNyiisa "in .' ~ns~na~:ts..vowel or to the penultimate vowel liT.){ 'liT{ l?~ing"adde. q~ a class of w. bba~ya are believed to be referring 'to the'autbor himself and" on their strength. and . ~ OI~tr. cOI. Kat. 3.'q~ ~.~'caw. Vart.:.q'<l.• ' . affix 8T . 12.i~ .". .c' oll. ~«ncp\llT a' grammatical system with Sotra. I7. . ~Rl1i<l<r: . classics. t:<:~g~9. e. g.8.: to v/4ich the krt.g. II.!=ommentary called'. ' i . 64 and ~. 'as "a ' sh~rt 'ter~n' for . T.:-.. •.:!. . by rules of PiiI)ini ~t.lsonant '1. cf. is pronounced like a short aiT or aNaTt<nR by the followers of the Sat:ya. 8 ) and soon.'.' . 1. . sekhara.~he vowel .rtili~a-) R. retention of the vowel 01 after the preceding vowel aiT which is substituted for the Visarga. M:.o{ words by the author himself in his text which h. cf. '>NiGJit tfflliT.I2. _ .:.ika and a resident of the . also"' us~d.!~l~o":"t~fm. '1. .deseribed as OI~'" ifUI and it is usual with commenta"l"tors 'to make a remark 'fi'fC£I'<!. Noihi~g' can ' definitely' . R. ct.~~tw~)l:'d'ing as opposed to Piir:Q.n as a scholarly work. neis s~id to 'have bee~~the son of GO:Q.found in the MaMa . l3~~··.5n the.' 8. . r .9 Vart. 12.'w~enthe 'views .:n. "letterto'a:sl1ffix~' ma. M. !.:. III.OI~iT.Tl~i:~..C. Dhatu. and '11110. cpo p. if notin . on p. __" . 8. carl 'be ':ttilihy '. .kingt:'the. Pro XL I9 as alsoM.Nyasa . G'liT i(jt"llG:Rr G'gflliR«<1.~JI!\1" "~~'~~nd. . P.Bh. to the.:wheIi:' . ~eQ. d.is~.: affix arJ<r. ""~ alternative views or Pak~as re: ".ayaniya branches of the Samavedins . ~r. "The class trtI1~ is. .Se . VIII. cf.'cbiifiiit. Par. causing vrddhi . namElstnana:' of PaI)inij:which' is P.affix 8T :is seen' after 'a"root : without causing the vrddhi. 3..:rate. ~':!acc~nted'. viz. ~ ~. ( 8. UQiidi" GaI)a and Linganusasana. t.''ighve (O{'aa:r~)~" q.". g. "..29. :. .well-kn9W. qiltctiqa:irn the usage or the' inethod of the Pancalas .mute . ' ~ (I) the fifth case. . tff~fl{UJ:. the.j''i''l':.count.in ~.Iaradatta. Pari. Pro XI. c.:l • :t P.' on!>. case. 'Mahabha$yadipika refers to a Nyasa.I8. ~~itQ 'a learned on . arid.lti've I ..cop.?-olaJi)ot.:the!. 'on • q~tftf.ded in the sense of fan. ' " a popular name given to critical commentaries by scholars.o:"~" ." ct' also i3<t<1~~ fct![rnt{1:jrEqlilliTfii~lij: M. 2'.' a commentary on the Paribba1?endu. M. 3.f:$:bu~the'p~.e is supposed 'to have handed over orally' to his disciples. (8. " :-iV. 8). I.2)' ~ applied :as"a.tf¥J. ·. e~ 's:' i~~:r[..67-70.f.r oral recital. supplied by the' Mahllbha1?ya. ." . Ahnika I. :'. (3j~) is. :~.at Tak~asi1a and ..~ ~Iie. verffamiliar with yillages. 1~UiWii'. P!N..written by Jag~dhara. .'\1Jir.': 1--: .erpretation of the l!:<it ~ ....f3''6ttT~.·~a!{. IV. thestandard:commentletters each. !. ( r) . int.ar. cf.l~i\\T. OIfefl{~cf. etc.67 Valt. : 'l.that he was. ::q-~.:in 'i~~~er. a:ttd dual affixes.proilU~iiatiori:. .".~2j'!Vl~ i3q~~l{(<i ~0C!<1. . as was the case with the ancient Vedic aud Sotra: works.: ' qo:-:q.i :ig.. the words trRiff.'~: etc. .and.ini. .f'" ori~of: tlie' two :or r'fuore affixes " VIZ: the nbmiml:iive -: case VIeW or explatiiition :~ a term used iii: 'the'Atharva- j-'. 10. si. • ' be said abciui:"his birth-place. like '6O:tf&I. . I.. The words "Gonardiya ar.'. Kas.. a'well:"'..~~ICI:.. affix tf~. a commentary: on Kata:lltr~jitra.y. ' qo. ~ ~ c. q' 8.t~. g. I.: or o~'l:>ehaifLMi aPr~tisakhya for the str. 2. :cp.~: I I.!. III.1 ~ I the fifth' or ablative case as prescribed. .l{~.~J. . .29. . d. on the strength -ofthe internal evidence supplied by the text of the Mablibhli1?ya itself.. 2. qf~'tii One of the seven principal Vedic . it can be said that Pataiijali received his education. ' .' Jinendrahudd.3.134. . On the strength of the ipternal evidence. l:i'\m~qflii ( 12.a~ya in connection with the mention of words in the Siitras of PliI)ini. Silk. 2. 8... 'added 'in the four Senses given in P. ~j~ th!'iflfth class (tjqfr).?9. pal}. ' are"I'n Conflict~'" The"vi~ws. frequeutly used in tbe Mabiibh.. by the name c:crm. the word is used . .on P. CfilfiUCfiTfifO[~lllqf. e. This vowel OI'which is retained.:l~ statement ':by the abla't'ive..~::~f:Rr~~e?tj~%' a"~~f~<er.r~~ which also is . I9. Bh.. the nasal consonant.his Padam'\W. . cf. on P.otextent added. qQ~~ .. who himself wrote andiiher Nyasa.:tf~( PZ.' '~~~ ~wo.hi'$ Nyasa \yritt~ by metres. called also ~11 . Bh. first' consonant of the labial class of consonants"possessed of the 'properties i{f(Bm:ir"Uil'. He lived in the beginning of the nineteenth century.:Pr.. T~'1~. It has four padasof ten Mallinatha.' ci.' arr~~­ co~~en..fY c~ned Gonarda in his days. Jor \. cf. Bh. cf. His date is deternlined definitely as the second centmy B. fq~~ qr:~:.:. . 12).:prominent' Sans~rit.~7'. and towns in and near Vahika and Gandhara . 2..r the fifth consonant of the "five classes' of consonants. I2L~gn. by Jinendrabuddhi which is popularly known.'~q:~'rW~RiT~'~ A.ikaputra which are.theSar'Vaa .64. P.. Pro II. different topics" m connection with the use . a krt..~~. i3<t<1f.ng an9.has ~:raY. also. q2J1. etc. VIII.

19. cf. It is the second.. "There is a work o~ the life'"of tiOIlS given by teachers there.water-handfuls to there are many instaric~s ofschpl~rs 1beSun in the west. which gives' many which the Gra~mar 1 tll~s of J. e. q~ (I) a term used In connection with thetllirdisection of the Vakya••• ~i!i" While the term orl(ij~ stands padiya natded . II. p-ossesslng so-imd scholarsllip ~p tllederivation pf th~ word gi~en by' different branches' of . aIl9. to have adapted the sense in rules upto the end of the fifth of the terms ~ and ~CJG: and adhyaya. etc. aj"l. The derivable.ka" on which Ac~ordi~gly. and hehce. \yhere of the offering of . ct.\le. and tr~ were looked upon asboth Bh. The term qWrq1{ stands for the nine affixes RlI:J. a unit forming a p~rt of ~ !?entence. Such words•.ik~ to whom h~ w~~ have' '~n ~qu~l!y' unzn~tcRing handed over by a sage of Go~arda.entage: too.' it' ~~¢i!:!finl'l~ i~' th~ . especially to prefixes and indeclinables where linguists. 1. etc. ~~~:' tt~m t.~tiQn. which for the nine affixes' 0. pada-patha of the Vedas. Pro HI. + cf: Nir. qi{called by the followers ot Pii.. 'referred to verbal forms. on I. The ljC{~ M. Sanskrit Grammar who had studied there is a direct reference to Patafi':' the available texts of' the. D.. Tlli!? ~I. but with the word'~ or arr~ preceding it. a114 no definite informatio.and elided ·as I active voice" and ~(( as according to him. of Cakradh~ra:. 15&). Niiges~ and ot. affixes m(" q~ etc.!:! ()f Sabara~ ~8~:~1 8'f~~ cfr) y~ Pro VI~t. !4. 2.f' whi~h t~o.r~lii{words.ii1able~ ~ottheothe~iv.Tll~ wprd origin~ll:Y was sele~ted for cqmp~ri~o~.er.~nd st~teID~~i~ ecdotes and legendary information. Pa~jni _appears. amn~ .n is av. the term If<{ dbyayi of Pa~iriii wliicli gives rules could be' taken to mean a word. Vpl.f~rring to something mant have been the 'first Grammarian of forself' respectively. \3'lftlfr and f. qoT~: mijqi{ words and ~e.ssed or s~~~e. the comme~t~tors. VII pagElS 349 te) 374. (2) a section of the A~t1io mijq1{ and am=~~ also. ~ff. ffifct.:lj~. ~~otethe Mah~bha{iya' Rnly.nts from the formation i!'.. alone. on P.D. . q~~. hen~e.~!?..1l1igipj stories and incidents of' hisIife 'otit wele explained. Bh. 'flRi. iCfiMl~. 1. Pii~ini has defined the term of course. ()ther. Ab'o~t bi~pa. There are given nouDs) such as ifW~:.ahiibha.kritGrammar and 13h~rtrhaii" of the se~eilth-~eqtuii observing the methods 01 explaria:~ A. I.82.ltters. He had ~ re-: jala M.in those c::lay~ ip. question of simpti3 weirds.gasiitras. ali.sp!!d~~IY in India. 4. Preslimably If<{ by Pa~ini to include parts of in ancient times. use were grouped into four classes .' ~spe­ hita. could De word qi{ in this sense is never used bicluded An the krt words. 2. For det~ils. personally by visiting '-the variou~ indirect' one in the' V~kyapadiy~' of schools' of San!'.()f of IE. .l~ the grai~s of true incide. I.Hv~ place was Gonar<la. as they are T{cflR~'h:1Ij1~T ~ Kat. ~ etc.e ?olso the word +nn+r16 !J. a unit made~p of a letter in the different branclles qf learning . also ~ ~ oN: ~~fct of simi~ar underived words. to something meant 'for another' marian • Indra " who is believed to and • re. 2 . 5. are c~11eq although it might be believed thlit j:>iitaiijal~ Yc. words current in words before the .232 " 233 . 6eJiflcrrf~~. argurnl'lIlf pas~o the sky in the' evening at the .th~r~"d~ his mi. 4. I. with ' q~qp:nujljlif: ~' (V~ Pr. cf.. 18~~ i3~ Kaiyata vn P. affixes. Langmge w. q:qfff. < 8l~: is said t~ b'e t~e ~-iItb. which are given· viz. 4. 30 I l .20.~lruar~ y Q&~ Literature anqGrammar and ayai!and' M:edicinEl in' the work of K~ng­ ed himself of information gathered Bhoja of the eleventh ce.\lich wasa. tho!'. ~: q~~. ft can be said with certainty that about hIS being tIle author of thr\')~ Pataiij ali was a thorough scho]a~' of works on thr~e different siistra§.. swamm' anq SaI)l~afiiciirya. which. ()ut 9. supplied by :Qini ip tIle legendary husk witll Whicll t~!'lY Viirttika::i which he has exh~ustiveI:Y are covElred.used I... India. E. which begin with a: contaken them to mean mere affixes just as he ~as done in the case of sonant excepting Z{ are also termed the terms ~and~. mre. section which . 2 ) as-contrasted it is very likely that the words~. Verbs !iiURI' and~ or ~ also ljC{li~ :sr?i. verbs four kinds of padas or words viz.lar Of ' Mababhii{iya supplies an invgluabl~ grammar . iearning. for a scholar t~ named GOI).64 Vart.. Pat\lfi~ given a~c::l explai~ed. He v~~~s~~~y~ .42 such as iff.ya excels all the.nturY and. It is beli~v~ applied tq tQe. and ( d) Atma~ owr. he has written 1earned treatises. as contrasted with cf. There ate some moo.Sanskrit ~d. are 46. The.cf.Vedi~ j alh profici~~cy in -G'ra.Ap~rt from anApart -f~oIll ie. ( c) Parasmaipada words' viz. III. its actor of the Carakasaiiil1ita. ij etc. The noun~bases before case affixes and tad.-~~~ deals with padas. roughly corresponding to th~ verbs If<{ as 'ijf~ef tjC{~' P. did nGt ~~~~~ Nyasa on P. Nirukta and Priitisiikhya works. I passive voice'. ( a) ~ (words derived from as separate padas many times in the roots) such as ifitfi.gend~.:~. such as lI'Ifff. 47.92. an . fct~~. 1. Seefordetails the word q~o. occur to the authors of the Nirukta The verb endings or affixes f6". aj. verbs like 'v. tp~ of which it is diffic~lt to find Cl1lt various gramfDar school!).ersant with ()tllF s~stras. cf. ~ii~tras in whose hands he fell down from ~t a tim\'). Q~ as they believed that every nounand others are also called If<{.itm:r in the nepadawords te. 3lo<J<!TiUcaq: P.ya. ( b ) n-f~Q (words derived from 15<ffi~iiTl1~f. II({ and 0/Klt~1f<{ were' originalIy .deals with possible to say that in the terms Viikyas.case affixes o:<jp(.. who like totrilnslate~ a case-affix is placed . Qlentioned howev. w~itten' b:y ~ scho.Bhii~:yas ~ a word. I.ti~e 13trength._ iTt. see. the arg\lm\')nt q1ainly 011 the suppo~~~iof:\ foster-son of' a childless woman that it'is impossible.ic Samconv.: cii:llly Yoga ~n!l Va~dya. as also before the tad. q~' (V.. His Pataiij~li. cf. spoken one Se.Qini.' noun-forms and ver b-forins and also" ern scholars of grammar.21 Vart. poS13e.~q also. anel ( siitras.~"· Th~y ba~:e tli~jr Tradition says that be w !'. by the authors of the N~rukta works.· i'7.of theSolltl:h namt?d fund of information on the ways ill ~~milbhadra.s{~.i P.Qr ~i the Yoga~ a . I. ~..· at his time and it can be safely Sefid 1 hat in rt~~pect of style... .I7.indivi~qal _~qr~s ed by ?~h()lilrS t11at4e was ~qu~lIy which constit~ted the Ved. The definition ' 3l~: ~' in the sense of I words referring is attributed to the ancient gram-. ifil'\cfi:. the Ml:!-Pii: bhii. Prat~s~khya as . Society's markable masterY Qver . . th~t' h(:l so· far. mas~ery over' tlH'ee di:ffe~l'lflt . His in the active voice and verbs in the definition is applicable to complete passive voice._and a number Vart. 'Tll~r~ exact situation ha~ not been defined ~r~ schol~rs wh~ 'beli~ve'.:ff '" ~ M.

19 with both. while they advocate that'the 3f@0S91<R~iI~ .VIII. cf. of the Pratisakbya works who are ) 235 which is believed to have. ~.234 referred to as paqa~aras by Patauabout changes and modifications jali in the :Mababba~ya • . I and running commentary on his . 3.verses R.alone is the rea1. . ~l:!e pada or ars to have' flourished before! padasof the roots attributed to' KQI). I. ~tiT'iil on ~:lTr~<! XIII. CfctFctN and 3f~~N. The misunderstanding • is due to was repea ted twice or mQre times.yakara q~1f e~ ~ +!"~ ~ \U<aU~ 9\9'<£ \vhb has not divided any Vedic ~ 'iil<i~T3: I (s. in fact. as contrasted with ~r.:. see Mahiibba~ya D. in fact. 'who were called 'P.!{CfiT a grammar work.aka'ras and stat~d categ6ti~ally tbatgra. the Padapatha.Hara~ datta was a very learned grammarian of the Southern School. a Jain grammarian. on the Nirukt.I. I connection with words endingw. term is applied ' possibly 9ii'{tr.labhatta and after Kaiyata.16. as unit' and 'authorita~T~Tl{q: and others who wrote the tive. Katyayami a:nd others who ~ lit. Pataiijali. to be known by the .m more than the equa. I3.q'€{q'a:I the Eame as q~~~9iRq~. the pause between !(tr and t9T is VII. quotatIOns from the Pra. and ends with the rule ~T ~T . E. nature of words ""ritten by 'it~lf The section is called IlGJ~~which of the sixteenth century. " .and the E~ffixes. and as such. P. T.1. . been based upon words (q'Ufij lfiifff: <i\<ir: er) or which forms the basis of words or word text or the ·padapath a (q.ini's grammar in Adhyaya 2.16.'q. pointed II. For details . 3. by Haradatta .17. 2. the time required for the utterance il mnm of a long vowel.a.:f9WT)' G"€{0fT~~1<m' a disquisition on graTIOO'>f: T.. VI. should have . appe.:.tm:r pause between 1\vo words measuring two D. q~ lit. pada. or the formed word. q~~ . I. ~ an operation pre~crib~d " in . 3. VII. Mahabba~yaD. q({fcrRr. 146. Ed.i tisakhya works and it is. Bh. III. out a fe~ error&ofthe Pad.ith case or verbal affixes ap.Vakyapadiya II. ~ot in connection with noun-basesor'rootbases or with single ietters or syilables. 1..Il. or equal to ance from the Maha bha~ya. pad. but. divided.. When.d. the.VII1.adakaras~ The 42) where Vyagi c1eai:ly refers to t:R1il(.with the :fule. d. have areal existence~GrariltnaHans admit the view.: the determination of.the learned commentar..cfit. Pr.::1fIf<l:f+l~iR 'The. from internal evidence. cf. the look upon the pada-textas the 'Samhita text of the Vedas int.a passage. begins .Gq~S Padapatha of the Vedic Samhitas.b~t has" in 'fact.R. cf.on the 'iiT~'ii~Rr.P. in l{tr t9~t=rr.o the. by the' author Gokulanatha Misra ~~q~ '({~<ifiIR:<ifi1 a metrical' work On who. referred to as th?se of Pataiijali ar:. By learned another commentary Cfilfu9ilfcr'HU]qfu'iiT or '<ift!. which came . distinct 109. preceding or the fQllQwing word. q. 35-38.d originwrote the Padapatha:~nd .'.goand the '£011. 207. applicable to. ries.o' P. an~~. "!ill. . It is believed that t~rm' q<m\ to 'E atyayana. as against' grammariPada:text: The term is applied to ans who accept' Vakya (here anci~nt Vedic scholars ~l'ii<i<i.. cf.'..:.l'I.ini. on the the "base. tiORf and ftWrcr by paI).lmfml~ I ~'ii: "~r<US:~qiIcr: I through~isunderstanding by some ~<f:lTFcr+rre'lcf9ilq~GJ~ <. in which each word . Padas 1 and 2 as also in VI. tI+c<'t: q~r.( aTW) . original one.'tCjIM'1:. qTI1'1:" 3f(~TQ. A:treya. d. These artificial recitaand others wh~re the' statements I tionswere of eight kinps.sense. ' q"'\qI'€{ or q"€{cn~qt:r I view that words are real and have an 'existence and individualty of their own. .XXII.~TO the recital oUhe VeM text pronouncing or showing each word followed the rules of grammar.c.. I. ~(1Rm: I (lW[[<l<ICflfctf+l:' <. E. Pro II. "qef! and f. cf ar'ifra5 !t «rlir' m ~~. while there are given only two. For details see pp. The auth6rs of the padapatha .term areR~'<i:. the Pra": ally as runnjng texts by theinspirtisakhya of the Vajasaneyi-Samhita ed sages. S. and the Benares School of Grammarians j' follow 'q~+f. VIII. 1. Vimalakirti. passages in the commentary of being uttered conIlectdly with the ~.C!lllt+fcrfol. of the Vedic Samhitas e.'Rr. Hiuadatta is said to have given everything. 54.latras. 57. 1. separately as detached from the . ~~(q~ an alternative vi~w with <iJ1ii!~~~ r~garding the '" formatioA .l. ' . divisions of words: pa~ts of speech. Seell~­ m~arians need not follow. ~::ffft . In the Padamafijari. of import. q. Samhita.. refers by the adjoining word. th~y were in the following statement~c:r <i5!\3U\q preserved by people by oral tradiIlffiU ~<R<lf:. e. also a:r{\~ftm q.54 and include rules in' connection with compounds. accents and euphonic combinatioils. n . Vol.:Sfm: ~iWr Nir. q'€{~'. 14$. ~ '.g. The view is advocated by the followers of both the<!\'IImamsa schools and the logicians who pelieve that words q~~~Cfir a short gloss on the q. for.! of arrfu Pari. 390-391.rqrcr given by ancient grammarians and the authors of the Praqsakhya works..:f<li :lT2. cf. Such Padavidhis are given in PaI). are' four parts of speech viz.the writers f ~ a term used in coimection' .' ~'iil\~ <1r6<iCfil~ "'IRC!1l. 'however. later on had many _JIlodificathe Vartika of Katyayana ' ~o<U­ tio~s or artificial recitations such as J>~~q<it91cr. Later on after several centu<i~T<i5!\3tipR Cf\~'c<i~ M._q<f etc. and in VIII.uZ/:) onVak.g.16 to VIII. who the Veda texts were recite.:. practical: purpose. I . their individually. 158.:c<i9t~Q!ilCfiTft'iil written by Udayakirti.ifff:). ~f~q: 'scholars' to the Mababha:.:. 1.6 Vart. is in this way contra-' sted with alWfcrfl:T (including :lTrfffq~CfiAA and l:T@fof~). There. one who has. Some Pratimni!tr dealing with the different sakhya texts declare that the pause ways in which t~e sense of words is between two words is of one' matra conveyed.rN: P.. with the Samhita text Qf ~rn:crTqr. The work ~onsist~" of a as at avagraha . the writers of' the Padapath. on P.:~I~ ~l~<ilqq~ i3GJ~\U]words were shown by grammarians "ffm +rcrRr (Ilft~rfi.. Society'S edi-I tion.rather. it is necessary that' the two padas or words must be syntactically connectible.' q({'iill:<lf+c <i5~UflGCft<l~ I tion~. or I. Sakalya. ' measured by two matras. an operation is prescribed for two or more pad as.I. SamhiUi. Vol.

I.. works on grammar in. mention after wards.Bh. VIII. with a rule which is mentioned in or q{<iiT<jt<rq~the view that the subsequent t%~rr or technical term should be preferred to the prior one. sre!lf: 'Rill P.171. different from the two. According to the other alternative viz.3. 3.76. ~Rtr. fcliN q~ <im Oi{<rfa M.20.· ~~ meaning of a word. has only one category the AkhaQQavakyasphota or the radical meaning given by th~ sentence in one stroke. made up of syllables. 81~q<f(~'fiffi o~: ~~~: B~a. 7 . I R.. operation specifically prescribe<. P. on I.. on I.24· ring at the end of a word cpo q:{R. has only once explained ~ as 'C/GJG:l~: cf. also q~W<i!:l9il\ M. of a word or pada . Pro 1.1H~W.r 1 SfliiRr t{G:N llt'lT ~1~!h911'1~Q I ~ lRl~ m<rr ~IO'\l~~m M. which is believed to have been an alternative r~ading to the reading orr <fii'mt. III. I qtCfiT~(~ g i'f fu. if'l. are also fathered upon Padmanabha.~: Sira. 2.2. cf. According. IR'{[C:{: ~J!9R!T M. tRlifTlf (I) a grammarian who wrote a treatise on grammar known as the S1l. In this I. I. (3) the words in the class.I:. 5{'i:!!m<iT~ .:j)"\flt q~~ .O~: P. (z)forming apart. Some say that he was a resident of Mithila. 22. fcrq.6. Vart. He is believed to have been an inhabitant of Bengal who lived in the fourteenth century. i3qT~I: ~~t ~11~qqr: Vakyapadiya II. ~F. . words which are regnlarly formed as contrasted.<n~~. cf. every word is formed independently. Bh. ~T~<li 'ffi:. a . I. VI. cf. on 1. a whole sentence is brought before the mind and then the constituent individual words are formed e. Grammarians look upon both-the generic notion and the individual object as Padartha or meaning of a· word.c. Pari. Bh.e. the word is fre'luently useQ .ffi<Wtf: lRfr<T: lRRHfitfu I i:n~ .. cf. ~ (I) beginning of a word. (2) A Padmanabha wrote P[l}odariidivrtti.. . Pro XXl. g. The word is used in Pro XIV. Ull + ~. tR'!t~ the use of the word IR. also ~~: nant. 2. also ~I«i) cmI~l~ ~P. 6. M. signification of a word. Bh. Pro I. and the acc. cf. P. For instance. 2·5. q!! 'i! <i~lfil" 'itcnMtcf a-i'frfil" q{~ro'r i:nff~.58 and ~qfUlTi't~1:f l1. this class.'l1~iIf( ~r9T~11l ~'. I. The word is frequently used in the Mahabhal}ya as referring to the reading 81T i:nTsl\Tit qt CfiT~. (2) occurring after (something). 1. T. cf. Paribhal}avftti. Several grammatical operations. 4. to the Padasamskara alternative. ~ + or fff I Both the yiews have got some advantages and some defects .16 to VIII.63.3. cf. ~ and fif~ Only. contains the substitutes ~.2. II. 4. ~<t ~ ~amT~.f~$1i a term used in the Prati§akhya. 3. as the science of grammardeals with words' and their formation.of words by the application of affixes to crude bases.. also <l~ftli~~i:nR ~l'I. 4. the .ulqm:. 29. I. 3l~fr. 1.237 .54.j. tbe treatise after another nde. the word . q(Ojillt~ ~ ~ expression of the sense by the whole word without any consideration shown ·to its division into a base and an affix. R. The sense of the sentence too. on VIII.3.lf"rO': Q. 2. (2) a class of words headed by the word ~ which is substituted for lR in all cases except the nom. for the sake of argument. Pro tR'<:<1' postei:iority.. this sense (q~r<r<i9) mostly in the Pratisakhya works. 1'. on II. q~. on III. sense of a word. 3. on I. At one place. first Ahnika. VI~ 1. 1. cf. I.t~ a grammatical . d.• . Sek. as opposed ~o ~ . 56.Bh. M. cf. ~ means' by Rama ' irrespective of any consideration whether q is the affix or l{iI is the affix which could be any of the two. and support th~ir view by quoting the sfitras of PaI). . made tion of the word q~ in a rule.35. are specifically prescribed together by Pa1)ini at places which are said to be in the Padadhikara formed by sfitras VIII. Tbe llossession of vocal element ~ (I) a . as the sense is technically termed ~c~~cmr as opposed to or~q(ijmr.. VII.. is understood after the sense of every word bas been understood.padma Vyakaral)a.ini iOlRljl~ri'tcnf~ <!S'I''qOfI1~­ ~lif. connection ~ (I) subsequent. the 25 categories in the Samkhyasastra or 7 in the Vaisel}ika system or 16 in the Nyayasastra. Pataiijali for purposes of argument has explained the word as· final in a word. possibly on the ana~ logy of the meaning ~ possessed by the word. on Pari. ~k-Pratisakhya in contrast with cf. in· this way to state.35.(jB.1 and 2. i3. in the a-<l'lfq q{l:Iifui ~+J:. 1. q'm~"4 ~ i3R~: R. cf. 1.nT Bw. cf. cf. Bh. cf. works for "doubling' of a consoq q<lO{. This sense is given to the word q~ in the rule ~qmiN qt 'fi~ with a view to apply it to earlier rules in cases of emergency. 4. P. sense the word is derived from the word qyG:.44 V.a</ffi'j M. ~:-.nfOT ~1T('terrf. ~~ lJ«<lfl~ Cfl'flr "lillFr.2. etc. the first letter of a word.l. The works Dhiitu-Kaumudi. Kas. 00 ~~:{: ~~f(q. cf.r (i. rule or an operation prescribed later on in a grammar treatise. letter capable of occur2. and after formation the words are syntactically connected and used in a sentence.. 1. 4. (3) The word lJ\ is sometimes explained in the sense of l{2 or desired.M. I. called 'C/GJta:. 1.r(t I qit arrcr: lRrrO': ~fff M. cf. I . ThE! VyakaraQasastra. 37. l~ !I<i\liifo: 'C/GJ~ Q l ~ ~~l( 1 i3'l1<irnc~lli I Cfi~ ~ 1 \. 30. cI. Pataiijali. Bh. respectively for qyG:. called 'C/GJR. consisting of the words lfi\. . Bh. am+'C!a-. I. 1.for the initial letter of a word. UQadivrtti. cf.6g etc . cf. or even one. q(ff~ the topic concerning padas i. hiVe) tile . 6. cr.• in grammar in connection with . with words in formation. I. II. The word 'C/GJ~ means also the categories or the predicaments in co~nection with the different Sastras ·or lores as for instance. VI. 1.Bh. The word is. In rules of grammar the meaning of a word is generally the vocal element or the' wording.' such as accents or euphonic combinations. that which corresponds to the meaning of a word..42. XVIII.63 Vart.64. 1. singular and dual. when both happen to apply simultaneously to a word. 240. Yaillugvrtti etc. cI. up of the feet (of verses). VIII. ~ I iI~.2. cf.23. + Bh. ~cf ~~a. <l'lre<iiT etc. R.g..finalletter of a word. oat. case affix after them accented acute. VIII. fq-qfuiN q~ <iiT~1(. in . 10 9. Par. the word is frequently used in. He is diffet:ent from the author of SupadmavyakaralJa. .ifiI1O{. 3. He was son of Ga1)esvara and grand. a:el. also mr. son of Sripati. M. inserused in the sense of qy?:B~.<l: q£l: lAth. P. 'frO'. on P.i:n ~+Rfir.- ('I - C' or prior. 3.rI.4. Vart.59•. Pra.

. Pro 1.later on.as used by ancient gramm~dans and is also I \ ='irnqflt~r ~~~ ~2!q<ltfir. The term q\~~ is given to the first nine affixes fcr. the highet and the most lofty of the four divisions of language ( 9l.ini in· connection with a word. cf. Bh. on II.~ mmar in connection with someq\~q<J: P. roots. on .!! ).:[ W §'Iif tiic/Tqii+l~('f I 'liT clll: I tiffiRm M.<J: I and the like. ra-. K. on IR~W the. 4.2. u.:Il::lt~ ~~<im~ q{ifI~Ti{Tfctift as ~~r('f. .20. 49. It is described as .lR+rT:.I ~ 'f. placing after. could be explained as q~l1 f:fi<It ( or ~I~) ml:j~ ~Cf q{~ihi1!f1: and originally such roots a:s'had their activity meant for another. what follow'. which is a remote basei 'Cfi antR<U efT 'H:a'qOr cognate of the latter voweJ or consonant: The word is frequently . a term of ancient . although technica1ly they are equally strong.rm"f is found' almost jnvari~bly used in the Dhatupatha attributed to Pal). cf. but Vak. tf{Cfrnw word is used in connection.I. 1.1. Pari.~<:j f'<Ifctword. < '" S.Bh.'!~r('f ~ifr N fci'IiT~ . d.::iT. observed as in the cases of ~I. Roots having activity for both. the term is used in grainstance. affixes.I mw~tcr i . T.68. ('f:.~if) caused by something which is the latter v9wel itself. and which cases. 81Rr. qUItrat qOO~ R.on p •.on IV.:rq.rt an appearance of another viz.([: rr~fc«'Cf 5ffcr if ~:..61.m. q\<ifewerr base which is not .I word is placed after the principal ~t ~Il~~q: ~~~l:f. cf. q~~qlflq~~<:jfC'l+r.Il. grammarians for roots taking the' :&rst nine personal affixes only yiz. ef: . the supreme. ~~+nq' lit. " ~ of a word in a compound after another as contrasted with ~'irFtlfl('f.:~ t9T§ :-' Cl>:.~~' ~r. are f. 'RT.<:jr<iTif ~fW<TI <19fer Sira. 4. li tffiTIlT<J: I '3'{I'Cl: q~~mq-: I t1.a:j~Cf. cf. pad. VI. ct. Ko~a. pad a affixes: The term q{~'illq in' the sense of q~l{({ w.238 posterior rule is . 4. lq':. fcl'''~~wr: ~lt11W~nltF1Tar-=it9lrrmfu:mfil"<:j-. 1.. q{~~md:. 11. on Yak.u.89.:ff:BFtf<r~ GfltR ~ 5fi. lR""(Cf['iB1m<i: l. P.:r+f<:jqfitq:. cf. speaking the activity or f~T for another.!:~iU tfll:"'. cf.(5f+u. 58. with a ir'iJ:C!t!l~q<U: (P. can be called '1.r~ and q{ are relative. §<fi'rm ~l:jr tf{tffflft '{['FIT til~~ . The words c::~+r.ini. The term is used by PaI).. 1129· cases of ~~ql('f with respect to the principal word (5f'Cflif) d. as opposed to ~9m~r. used to take the qW!'R.<lT<{<:j:tI~~ ar{lT[ fci"l-ij-: I ~<:jlt9' ~~ ~~ij. M. cf.4 Vart . d. q~q. which. letter (~~<:j ~. ~. a:j~ru<! <:j~ qmdl: P. 14' 306• .. ('f: etc.26) . took both the terminations and were termed . hence. 2 • found in the Varttika ancl:J~­ IV. +I"<mT' and tnatt. ~~1i. I. 34· tR'~'alocativeca. cf.if<l ~+r.'Cf1<{'-l <iG:1~r 3liRI~:r 3T1i'>Rlfl"fr: Dhiitupat ha • lRT the highest etenlal voiCe or word. 1.:i. Bh. lq'. III. q{ll:~ffT: ~ the . q«{futfCfT possession of the gender of .eftIJfRtil~1!j~ffi': 5flfuJiTf ~1EfT~" 9'~ I ~~<:jr: 'srrurqm~m '1{r s<:j\l<:jij.ll ~lfg. 5IlHoftf<l'li etc.. where the subordinate ~ g ~ffi~. +RI. 163. Bh.93. on 1. cf. also ~ ~~: !!~'i !l~ \1m ~~ ~i1tffi ~~flt ~!t\ij­ ar~iW{ l{m I M.39· the two coalescing vowels (~~) q'{r. A subordinate word is generally placed first in a compound.2. VIII. on arT. 8~. conflict between two rules (by occurrence together) when the latter prevails over the former and takes place by virtue of the dictum ~5fffiq?t q{ 'liTci<J: P. ~ q~i~'{[T~tjlr!l. qw:llcrntq:. 'Ii:4' ~ q{~5ffc!q'Cf1: M.n<mi~<i~<:jT<t qftulll1 wrfct ~+rl'If9T~t taken as cases of q{Ftqrcr.{1JItlR+ft and the like. treatment of a word as a part of another.i~ 11\fffir. pad.8 Vart.used in grammar in connection with a substitute of a:r1~ which is specified to be cognate (tiC/or) of the succeeding vowel or consonant. cf. 2 .{: tr<:f~'{9fcf'CfT PI 1·57· •• the final member of a compound word. took the 81~ affixes. The word is used in grammar when the' resultant of I.4. I~I. 12.'1T'Wf~T m- behaviour as having become a part and parcel of another ..ffi.' also Yak. SHeff'{" etc. IS not appearance of the' self inside. as contrasted with ferq<:jtlR+ft. the the iast out of many.~). more commonly.a direct base to <:j~ ~1Ti'f. the placing . The term q\~qm'i along with ilflt+l. 1. also M. in some exceptional. which forms one-half of the unit called ifI"IT which is ~equired for \be' purpose of the utterance of a consonant.Bh.~~) . III. 4. ct. cf. II.. also which' an affix is added. d. the unds is the 'second of the two or original of' the original base. q{ffi:C<!Tt!t\t ~l+rtlj~ P.:rrf<!9i'f. See q\~~'R above. this general rule. a:n~fct ~Elifit~~. cf. pad. Such an expectancy is necessary between the two or more words which form a compound.... 1·94· thing caused by what follows. on P. The term'1{~mq . q~I'lf!!!. according to the dictum'laid down by PaQini in the rule ~s:rfcIi:M q{ 'li1~+r. in short. M. while the rest which had the activity meant for self.4. qll:Il. The term q{~q~was mbstituted for m'1rmq. V.:rqtl~<r) such ~r9~a9T . as for follows. 3.. in ~ij.98.Bh. The interval between the utterances of two consecutive consonants is given to be equivalent to one Paramal). in tatpuru~a compoq'{+rSl'!iRl the most original base. q: and l1:.:tlFf applica~ion of the later rule ij)~ I q{~Al ilfiq~: I 239 Y.as applied 'to q'{+rm a time-unit equal to one--half of the unit called ar!!!. is the duration of very infinitesimal time equal to the pause between two 'individual continuous sounds.:fi ~ Vac.P. on I~ 1.. i1t. which is ' called ~rl'ld{ in grammar. q{~~q~ a term used In grammar with referencee to the personal affixes fer.4. while the term ~ is used in connection with the next nine('f. however.( qU ). and hence. q{1'lf!!! ar~+rl'Ir V.The term q\<:trtrn:' is explained by some' as representing the Active Voice as contrasted with the Passive Yoke which necessarily is characterized by the Atmane-. q~a lit..<l<i+!ffiij. viz.looked upon ~s stronger than the prior one" and IS given priority in application when the two rules come in conflict.I . V. which.II etc. philosophically is identified with q~ (jjlil) or ~rSC{­ jj'liI. ~~"lq~T mutual expectancy possess· ed by two words.I.form of the subsequent ~('f'[fu91(q{F!qm: KiiS.VI.cases.P. followed by and connected with a word in the vocative case of which it is looked . a:r. applied to roots. I.7.se in the sense of" before the former one.Bh. the cases of tf{Ftlfl('f with respect to «IT<:j\:1W: 'l~s'IT CfT m~~ r<j::lt'Cf\:1FlT~:<IT CfT the subordinate word (.

241 convention ()f a standard author. pad. Vart. with the formation completely achieved .=ll"lf~~\. explaining the various Paribhii. . Puru~ottamadeva applies the word qft+!ltll to the maxims of· standard writers.6 . bha~as qf~ a kind of Sarildhi or coalescence of. cf. written by Se~iidrisuddhi.240 upon as a part .qR:+!tl'fT (~lrreif~). 13. while Haribhaskara.· tinctness. Bh. (I) acceptance. 1.='it<::_ P. d. . 5 . (2) repetition of a Samhita word in the Pada recital. also. LI. 1. I..59 Vart. He has also written commentaries on the two Sekharas of Nagesa.dragged to the latter. called also Nana Pathaka. !f{[~fr'i:!\:Tl<l . into an anusviira.·muurr ~il. on P. apart from commentaries thereon. Pro 1.jiIOf. or of Katantra. tRP. there are independent col1ections of Paribha~as by Vya.IWR P.91. Siradeva.j!~<rCl~: q~!f'lUqqp'::: R. states that Vya<. q~ the same as 1R:nll". I ~qy~qft­ !:l~P1Of. tf{[~ lPl +!fc!~ ~ ~<fiRr.9. cf.l. cp. also M. III. i. see Mahabb1i~ya on II. ~~ij~l(~.lusion. Th@ treatises of VyaQi (Pal}ini system). doubling (~) of a subsequent consonant as for example the doubling of ~. 7. before a sibilant or before ~t:jl. I. .@. .) and arr ( in \~) are acute and as a result all the other vowels in ~gill~ and +tSl:l11'\T ~if. Pu~pa· sutra III. 1.Is: I M.1. cf.2. 42. commented upon by more than twenty five scholars during fae last two or three c~nturies. 2. There are independent collections of Paribbasas in the Katantra. d. qft+lTq~qtf~ a scholarly indepeno- qfWlfuu. IV. I ent treatise' on Vyakaral}a Pariwritten by Udayarilkara Pathaka.jil:. which is. R. pad.JTW.O'!Jt'l(lT +!Ttl£ qft+!ltIT .23.!Flfu mO( or.:qyWll'<llt OI.completely formed. Many times the writers of Sfitras lay down certain conventions for the proper interpretation of their rules.). by commentators.r'<l~~ (i<jffi). cpo q~ljI.fit olT'ltm l{~ cTIulC<lmnfM . also tI:. 36. Veda II. The word is also defined as fc!.arritfffi~: 0I'Ti[~~: M. QRmF. who lived in the seventeenth century. See qR+!1qj~~ •.r q'q. whether it be that of PaQini. Par. ) qR~I('jl~~~ a treatise on the Pati- mm'u an authoritative statement ~r dictum.r. treatise . qR. Abhyankar (Jainendra system) and others are all known by the ~ame Yaribba~avritti. I. qR+!TtlT fit ii qlfiil. Puru~ottaruadeva. or being of use in. cpo Vak.. Haribh1iskara. q1\'I1I'\c1 I ii~~lt SI~'\if: M. characterizeo by the change of the consonant Of. It is a noticeable fact that many Paribh1i~as are common. II4. d. 31 . Pro IV. 45. qR+Im as the a general name given to an explanatory independent work on . Puru. ijmc<!T l{Rr ijSlS arc<!t: ~g. ( 2 ) a treatise on Pal}ini-paribh1i~as.D. to which additions are made in course of time according to necessities that arise. Here the words ~ and ~. qRf. a Nagara Brahmal}a. on 1.rr can also be briefly defined ~ftu\f . 2.. 1. son of Appajibhatta Agnihotri. IS. R.=l( and others are in fact Paribba~a rules laid down by PUl}ini. 23.:nr. ~. irrespective of the system of g'rammar.cf. 8. or (3) the formation of correct words~ Various definitions of the word m+lt1'!T are given by comDlentators. Pari.gi.87.r lit.lTI3Ci'=l( q'l. Generally the collections of Paribha~as have got scholiums or commentaries' by recognised grammaIians. qRJ:i'fr also qfu:J~1I'\. the next (~'OJ). Pr: XI. on I. d. 18. technically named ~Cfi! also.. cf.ttfall"ls: R. repetition of a word with ~ interposed.. bh1i!?8. on P.e. Bh. II. Pro III. (2) for the-sake ra-m" ~<I ~~i\'li:rm:.~fu). Paribh1i~iis of the type of a gloss on a collection of Paribha~as. Durgashhha and Bhiivamisra ( Katantra system). In PUl}ini's system. become OT!1(O~ or grave. d."C:C9QmoRil flickering nature. M.j'li(~: aI!!~EfIt ~ qf.an authoritative work of an outstand·ing merit in the system of Pal}ini's Grammar. cf. e g. The Paribbii. IS.qft+r(1if(~~ (I) indi~. in ~. III.li was the first writer on Paribha~as. Pro XIV.. Pro IV. written by Vi~l}usel?a of the famous Se~a family. qft~) R. cf.for purposes of accent. Nilakal}tha. as by oU!!. the prominent ones beingqftm. fifi sr<l\.65.~as in the system of Pal}ini's grammar. Bh.47 Vart~ 3 . on IV. inc:. d. e.S! ~qf<l:'Ii­ -. a treatise on the Paribha~as in Pal}ini's grammar written by Haribhaskara Agnihotri. with their wordings quite similar or sometimes identical in the different systems. Bh. who lived at Benares in the middle of the I8th century A.9~ aI~~T CfIii<iIl!T{<I! (~q.=ffi rRt II R.:f\cjtr.' etc. Bhojadeva.f'='!i1~~I+r. x-. ijiITil~~q~TW. -. 3.lrtr«i"lr?j. appearances. on Pari. M.~: f. ~!lT+t. The total number of Paribbii. For the difference between qK+lFn and alMCfiT{. or of Jainendra or of Hemacandra. helping ( I) the correct interpretation of the rules (sfitras) of grammar. at the end of his treatise qR+rm+!1~{.is used in grammar treatises in the sense of 'a definite or complete enumeration' with a view to excluding those that are not included in the enumeration. as arranged by Siradeva. VIII.!f~: @. Jainendra and Hemacandra systems of grammar._ 3. II.4 Vart.t (I) the sense of anotber word' . Candra.~endusekhara of Nagesa is. l'iii !PI~ ![<lira. Bh. I4~ cf.g. The word. qftffi+!16~ iii tiT qR+lll'f1 Slernerm. ~:~ If[{(lrtr: tf\slill (v. 8akatayana.s in the system of Pal}ini's grammar written by Vaidyanatha Sastrin. qft::m: ('fii11li- qR~'(qlllOPrn an independent tRt~ initial or first of the next or succeeding word. are an~1'{RI. I ~tlT . ~.. In the different systems of grammar there are different collections of Paribha~as. Bh. or (2) the removal of conflict between two rules which occur simultaneously in the process of the formation of words (1Ff. WJ:?:<lJt!~. enumeration. being in the vocative case. 32. the word !fft stands for q~ here..:m-: ~g. 26. d. ffi~ cf. ~ +!cr-mfU<i~s­ +!9. The rules (fftllfufcr ~~~ 'i<!~' o. cpo Vak.r. Puru~ottama­ deva and . Nugesa and a few others.Siradeva CPal}ini system}. q1\~.Sek.~. 'R~~t a consonant belonging to the succeeding vowel in syllabication. which in their turn have sometimes other glosses or commentaries upon them. II9.~as in the different systems of grammar may well-nigh exceed 500. OT (at the beginning ofa:R:il:.t~'S!T fc!iliffi: I (HeIa. ~ fancied things. IV. o~ II.

ya) given by HemaharilsagaI)i in his Paribhii~a work named "i!!~~~. tfR~Oi lit. Haribhaskara Agnihotri. enunciation .j'Y\l.· . 'lit. D. Madhavacarya Waikar. at Benares.~as 'in sense. g. Branmananda Saraswati.lini's any authDr's name associated with Grammar. a bare text of 140 Paribha~as belonging to the school of VyaQi.r'[RI agloss on 65 Paribha~a aphorisms of the Katantra ~chool by Durgasirilha 3 ( vi ) 9iTff.srr~+!'IQ~'lfu a short gloss On 62 Paribha~a aphorisms of the. The introduction describes the seventeen collections and discusses the service rendered by Paribha$a literature. cf. past' tensh Ji. drolta etc. cDmpiler of the collection ). d. (called ~). (vii) 9iT~m+!ltfr\l.rfl. by Bhairavamisra (called f4~1). ( xvi) bare text of Paribba~as given land explained by Nagesabhatta in his Paribha$=ndusekhara..tal of . PanmaQa IS of two kmdsIII. or belonging to that schoDl. cf. Gopalacarya Karhiidkar. 31~:.1 Viirt.242 qft+tl'Wlf:a{aw:qufl a very brief commentary on the Paribha~iivrtti of Siradeva written by Srimanasarman of CampahaW. Besides these. '36 f{l tffGC!{~ ~~FI: R. are found in the Pratisiikhya works. by Bhaskarasastri Abhyankar of Siitadi. fua:rcr cir defiriite as in the case of _. the Jainendra VyakaraQa of Piijyapada Devanandin. cf.r a text of I I 8 Paribha~a rules given by Bhoja in the second pada of the first adhyaya of his grammar work named Sarasvatikalttbabharalta. believed to have been it.:r containing 93 Paribha~as with a commentary by VyaQi. .:i!j!l'T ''l:m ~&:. "I.7.Mani$ise$asarroa. Bh.nii\qft+!l1:f1~~ a text of 86 Paribba~a aphDrisms given at the end of his grammar work by CandragDmin.ml1T a word used by P aQIDl . Bh. . the -word is found used in the three alternative views about the' application of the full sense of a sentence. Lak~minrsiinha and a few others. . 1.. and the like. ':::W'l Khari. there are commentaries written by Tatya sastri Patawardhana.In a..lIlectively. M.:rqR+lT1:fI~ a text of 98 Paribbii. Puga.'t. (xiii) 'li!cq~+!'IQI­ 'lRl containing 130 Paribha§as with a commentary by Siradeva and a very short gloss on the cDmmentary by Srimanasarman. M. lived before Patafijali. Abhyankar. The telm qRflfUl.on 93 Pariby. at the end of their Viirttikas. Katantra School by Bbavamisra. WellknDwn among these commentaries are those written by Vaidyanatha PayaguQQe ( called iJGJ). e. Vi~I)usastrf Bhat. Manyudeva.r reversion in the order of words as found in the recital of the Veda at the time of the rec. The words<i~"l:1 Cfl'Ci!j"l:. others as Vyakhyas and still others as TippaQis or Vivrtis. (viii) 9ireTqtfR+!'I1. Govinda Shastri Bharadwaja. mention.-c<. "" ' of the Mahabha~ya and consists of ( IX) ~.. the same as lopa in the Grammar of PiiQini.. aY..' Vasudev!!-sastri Abhyankar of Poona (called a~R~r). D. ' . ( x) . The total number of Paribha~as mentioned and treated in the whole collection exceeds five hundred and fifty. 243 the system of PaQini's grammar written by Nagesabhatta in the beginning of the 18th century A... cf~~qfurrufaJ-i~ Pr. IIi this Patafijali aSBcfaT llFl~. the word is found generally used by Katyiiyana and other Varttiklikiiras. The collection cDnsists of the follDwing works (i) tfftmtfl~. (ii) C<j~_ tffi:+!fElTtflo. as qit~ used as an adjective .tt<:rt tCfIOO:q QRBIf(~~tma" Kas. individually or in bDth the ways. (iv) ".work on the Paribhii. BhimabhaHa.vrtti of Abhayanandin on tive .~~i the in the case 'of GaQa. ' c. Llg and explained by mapatha etc.rq~r). and by M.fil). enumeration. 1.:i\qf\+!T1:fi'lfu a gloss writ ten a short commentary . (xii) ~tff\­ +!'11:fT'lfu a gloss on 120 Paribha§as of the Piiltini SChODI written by Puru~Dttamadeva. 3.~ a text of written by VyaQi. The work is studied very widely and has got more than 25 cDmmentaries written by pupils in the spiritual line of Nagesa. 1. 'l€9i\Uy (1Cffi. S·ena etc. 12 -.. Narayalta Shastri Galagali.Pari-j neuter g~ndef. 4.ffi. on 108 " q. . Kratf~1l11l1"l: V. (i) .~a aphorisms. '3+!'<!!l'T Effii<!qftemiH:. in connection with the utterance of letters.:::~ . qft~& a work containing a collection of independent wDrks on Paribh~~as ill the several systems ~ elision of a phonetic member.is _also ~aidto be a.~as.:.word ~1 meaning . are similarly used. 3. Vishwanatha DaJ. l:ffi and oUler artificial types of recitatiDns. (iii) ~lcgl<i. Samgha t . M.fi!l. Harishastri Bhagawata. Bhimaci:irya Galagali. Samkhy. GaQapati sastri Mokate. Sarilkarabhatta.80. ~!I~ CitEf!{qf\Bj:[rrn:.:q:qy wmqfulj\: M. qR&R' (I) removal oi a difficulty . rules belonging to Katyayana and before Patafijali. . by Govindacarya A!?taputre of Poona in the beginning of the nineteenth century (called +!'TCjl~fq>. Hariniitha Dwiwedi. .who lived alter II8 Paribba~ii. cDmpiled by M. I . on P. Pre II. maQa.[RlftC61 a commentary on the Paribhi'i~avrtti of Siradeva written by Ramabhadra Dik~ita who. Jayadeva Misra. V. M. _K. Sartha. lived in the seventeenth century A.:n~~Cj'li\itff\­ +!Y1:fT~. S{~ CflEfi!jQf@lrfa:. rules b~ong~ ing to the Katantra SChD91 WithDut qR+I1~ an old work on the Paribhii~as in the system of Pat. cf.iiI' . tfR~mfa. 8:rt. 1. ( 2 } completion . the Kiilapa SChODI without any The work is written in the old style authDr's name associated with it· .~ a text of 96 Paribba~ii. (xi) ii!j~~{ a bare text of 140 paribha~as (which are called by the name nyii. and 6lfuija. (xvii) Paribha~abhiiskar by Se~adrisudhi containing eleven Paribhii~as criticising NiigeSa. by Raghavendracarya Gajendragadakara (called f. SDme of these works are named by their authors as Tikas. V ~ . attributed to the ancient grammarian Sakatayana.. VeQimadhava Shukla. Abhyclnkar (the bba.a sense the word is forind in" the (number) . M. (v) 9iTffiSjqft<T!QY\l. repetition in the Padapatna. qft+fTE{I. Indirapati.. . V.lt~Kq'l the reputed authorita_ '" Paribha~s or maxims noticeable in t:f'R:~1 the Mahii.. K.lQibhatta. is used in the sense of lli'U~ or one mora. to the individuals cDncerned. .. IV. ( xv ) tfR~\: a collection of 132 Paribha~as with a commentary by. an ancient grammarian who. (xiv) tff\+!'ltfT'lfu a short gloss on 140 Paribha§iis of the PaQini school written by NilakaI)tha . on VII.application of the complete of Sanskrit Grammar. Cidriipasraya. qro. The term q~q ana the verbal forms of the root tfl@tt.1.

also ~i q~r<:f: ~{9'[<t 1{tiJ 9Tfi1CftfRr tl.27 Vart. either before it or after tfTtrcT:. cuf€!q. ~~m I Vya<. behind the eyes. <ufiI'1f g CI~rfi'r q'lifa-lT~fcI~I'l!9qftR:ffir I Vart. onP. cf. called ~ in the second stage.~~~ tfTORWl. Bh.3.21. I an authoritative text. d.5tq.!fcl~~r'fiT~r >rfa-etc. cf. on P. g. ( 5 ) reading.lI Viikyavarious artificial ways or methods padiya 1. also '<l({<l 9i~!jffitf<lY<l9~1I ~~ 'fiUfu I <>IRrqffr1{f<fl~Rr M. the original recital of ~~~ ~I<fI1ij ql\qr~r~~~:§t'lll.~~ qU~flrRr I arq~ arl~: 9iZlrafuf ~~mfu t ~ art~iPl~ :.'ijCfi1reT ~'i\lTlo.1 to V.. on Viikyasystems of Sanskrit Grammar. generally .If ~ ~.244 behind the eyes. 3. M. 1.g.'ij~'C<lT recitation. ~.' the ~~m::r<ll~l Cfl'<l: qt tf({fL. ..3. l'll:'<lm in the third stage. Pari. mean fighting clans. affix <>Icrr. d. the padiya 1.'1.5tq.luetiTU 'q qRra'3'ill~qi.II5.. when it is called ~l3ft. qrll'fi:. on 1. 'lGJqro. IV. Kas. ILII2..H2.127 . succession with respect to the rule in conflict. 58.. heard in the form of different sounds. KiiS . in the case of Vedic Literature.2. cf. IV.~cr: etc.'ijCji1r'3T ( 3) an original recital such as the ~<1el~lTi. tfilYiI:lTe:rim Kas. orr P. IlI. Pari. on P. 2. synonymous word.~~ a class of words headeq by the word q~ to which the tad. q({qlo.JtI:.ftai I . I <i14 5f~lIlTmit~ .. sound or for a kind of pause or hiatus.abaexample on ~.'ijT ~q~~uT . <i'q<'l~~ITr q<jT<nii'f.2l <>I1'lm <1Cjfa I <.Z. 4. constituted of air ( Cfl~).10. On 1.:ffi name of the second out of the ~~ (I)' exclusion. etc. not by the use of a negative particle. cf. cf. I. in Pii.(9 M. the word. alternatively.}.2.. 1. \lP.. ~c.q~CJ:~ -~ t lVI. Kat. SfilltfTo 'qi15f'q~lTfcr~:a6ifrl:ll'1l ~f. 3. cf. q. ql~ : .9i~i. is compounded with a noun.9i~~T<fI<f-ii !F!: qu1'. 1. qiT~ lit. ~q~: ~r~I<:pT" elt~9i: ~:atcr~q. arJij\: . 1fR<1TlifItfTO in the case of the several <.. it becomes articulate and is V. q~:.j~ ~ffilt:. d. Bh.4.3.. The word occurs first in the SiSupalavadha of lVIagha.I(I<.. on P. e.I. I com. g. 3. member of a sentence. d.I lIii({r~: e ~<U <j'5j"re~~ij qOI. I:fto (I) recital of a sacred Vedic or Siistra work.. bha~ya as for ~45 ~£tTfi{ a class of words headed by tWtm called the word qii5<!J to which the tad. (2) alternative word..:Qini's grammar.9. affix l{'fi (§"l:) is added in the sense of 'moving by' or I eating along with' (~ 'q~fu).I. e. • word. also t'I~ -*~~T five Path as are called ~I<ft.j <'lPi t ~f'<l'G!Cf1{f~: Cfq.Bh.. VI. 2. <>1m:. According to the' an. (4) ~ft 1+fI:'<lm '({<l&:~~!:ft qil. 4. on P. cf. synonym. ~ qa~~~Q'(~~fu the application of a grammatical rule or 'operation like the rains which occur on dry land as also on the sea surface: ct. I a:IT~Tffi ~1l~Rt ~1. 9T ~lIT Fmtg<I. as the objector ' of sense provided the words ~ and for the.' e. four successive stages in the origination or utterance of a word from the mouth. Bh.tha/ on SIS. Frn:. \f\l<lT g '1 ~fu ~ ~ I Uddyota .e. ~Cj. d.93.IV. ~<lrcfi g '3T of such a recital. the frequentative base uf ~rro.. aril~69i1Q. 1. e. variant. on P. Bh.I aooultj'~ .r~'fi ~1f qu. cf. Bh.:~: I l\:iaIlinii.61 V1i. Vart.2. also >r€l. ifrr(j~1T( tfTi' ~'1U ~ o llCj&. II ( 2) removal in general. <>I~l1iIlT(:. M.43. '~IWlmqU~Tqt (~t2-) <i i1f?!E<jRr I M:.. \:ll:gt1ro.g. The word is generally used in the sense of remote or long (past) or 'perfect'. ~ (I) serial order or succession as opposed to simultaneity. occurring optionMiiliidharacakra where 'it is called ally or alternatively. to which the affix ar is to be like to hold and would apply by added.ii. also ~r~ name given to the first or introductory chapter ( arrf&j'fi) of the MahabM~ya of Pataiijali. cf. >rt~8tI1: I Uvvata on V: Pr. c~.If.. qql~ a class of words headed by the word qq to which the tad.'ijqR~CflTitl I ql\<\<'i.!41.) is added in the sense of' a product of' or 'a part of .36. cf.cf ~11fltftt c5t1~1I <fr€rtCf<I. the word is found used in the sense of tf({ in the old Priitisii. It then springs up and it is ~q: M.46 Vart. it i.'ij­ Thence it comes up and is called f?!RrllCffu Kas. ~11f qquIT I q~~Q~'1 tf({!fC<j~ I q«<U<f.<lT I M. tf<lf<ICf'q<i~qCf D~~<I.Bh. remote. also '1 OCitj"~: qUIlJl<ll<I. <>If~. trra=en:: etc. I 1fi1~~ I ~J!lffii1'\. found in cases when the particle <iQI.1 etc. The word is derived from ~cro...) is added without any change with a rule which. cf. originates at the ~ alternative.<:{qffiifl:f: ~!lRJ: ~<j<lr tlif <lSfqOI. ct. on 11.used independently with a verbal form or a verbal activity. on P. ef.4. 144. ~: .29 . one of the two senses (~n:l\j?l>rffiip:r and ~e) of the negative particle <l0J:l.2. III.khya Literature.I!0. which is . negation with a view to exclude . lit.g. on II. III.g. 144. also Q:>!T({<l: q<[~1T( i1Cjfrcr M:. }{ai. cf. (2) . l8lm : . on 1. Puru~o. I Cf"l"lT I ~r<1t <lT9~ ~ 'q tlcf+Ifi1~~fcr lVI. qfq<fu. sake of argument.- mm mmcp . the term is found used by ancient grammarians.f{RT<fIt'lll. pertaining to the fifth. QD P.I.vocal chords in ed in the fifth Adhyaya of Pa:Qini's the glottis and comes in contact A~tiidhyiiyi.ffi~ <iT (I~f. MalliIlatha has undersood the word ~~ m. e. .r.<lCji[rm~ I ~<fI g <. tfT~« : .:5fi. I ~?iI~ a class of words headed by \ the word ~T~ to which the affixar (<>I?{. and also referred to in the M:ahabba?ya as referring to the perfect tense called ~?. on V. I.. q~1{fe: 9i-5O<J: I ~r<It qftffr.).tfTO and ~i. I Rl=ml'irn.3.frRR~~T Sis. and also cf. Bh.is applied in' the miscen!l" neouS (~fi)'fi) senses. 1.II2.. and not . : word (Cfl~ \. eTilR ~. ct. unnoticed by the eyes. on W~ ~ P. ~:. rising up lit. I.Z. 4. Kas. 1.134• .'ijCfi1T8r 'q >r~rrcreCjY~5fi. '1 "fT'liCl'IiTR ({~Cjff. 8 . d. d. also tj'r~ 'ti.. For the alternative explanation of the word WIJ.O<ji. and explained it as introduction to a Sastra treatise.Ahnika t. . to touch or to see (ancient use).uWlJf. from the third stage when the air name given to the affixes prescribstrikes against the . 86. affix ar is used in grammar in connection (31crr. Bh. d. 'limR: ' ~~'1itt ~n~ q~<lCjff. on P. VI. would others. V.68. pada. 2.rt. cf. II. on :qCCHR lUif1fRl1im Wf.. Nc1l'1iHr f.. CU~lTt: etc. arf~!9'<R ~?. Bh. ~'liTft m~ l'!<fom. cf. especially in Siitras with the different parts of the mouth. L 138. 13 .' e.~m a word used in the Sik~a w9rks cient writers on Phoneties.<Rf "ifcrll~ lffcr I Kas. Possibly it may be explained as derived from ~~ with 3llJ.:r synonym.28.:tm~q ~Rr I T~ crill q~<{IBP-f <j({r<l'ai~1fililtffi I M. often found used in the M.Bh.

33 and Yaj. . classical as well as spoken. lloun derivatives thousand and two hundred roots in and accents. who wrote an . D.lrg~ mentioned by him in his siltra (IV. has stated that the word 'ifz. The Siitras of PaI)ini. Sik$ii v. be styled as grammar works. the A~tadhyllyi. righ t accent ( ~<:'i\: ).grammarian Indrahas not been mentioned by P1iI)ini. parentage or personal history. 151-I54.. cf.. districts.yi which has maintained its position as a unique work on Sanskrit grammar unparall~led upto the present day by any other work 'ori grammar.11 The traditional recital the first grammarian of the Sanskrit language.246 lffi. The VartDh1itupiitha. the A$taka or A$t1i. They are:-reciting in a sing. There are three supreme necessity by scholars.4' Cflfctcfi msCjlffi~ sent day for doing any real work in +r. which in a way could upon by the writers of t~e Kasika_ and the Siddhantakaumudi is. villages. Apisali. noticeable in ·the various provinces and districts of the vast c. ttliU!f.. Sik$ii v. dent that there were 3972 Siitras Kasyapa.. Gargya. ~iikatayana.'fi 247 time. tive enumeration of all the two verbal derivativt's. reciting with the nodding of head (&r\:Cii+tft). was the production of the wonde~ful and monumental work. 3.. Gargya and others had been based which ma~nly aim at the correct on the work of Indra. divided Viirttikas into twC) cll/. The internal evidence. studied and digested not only the niceties of acceniiIation and formationof Vedic words. it has very little historical value.). cpo Pii. Some \Vestern scholars have described it as a wonderful specimen of human intelligence. and ability. reciting too-quickly ('W~).1~~<imt~ name gIven to the collection of' explanatory pithy study and a careful use in the comnotes oUhe type of Siitras written position of his GaI)apiitha and mainly by Katyiiyana. t ' • which he has made a thorough qrT01r. 199. " (I) or \'iGjr'ii\1l"I6'fi name of a scholar of Sanskrit Grammar. scattered in the vast Vedic Literature of his I J '# I I 'I' .I<!6l=1~«. edge of. the result of his careful study of the Vedic Literature and close observation of the classical Sanskrit. clarity ( 3l~\c<fRn:). tbere As nine siltras out of these are deswere scholars of grammar as such. euphonic changes. " t " ' .:ft<!'31f!'ii.ndependent work on Paribhii$as and commentaries on the Paribhii$endusekhara and Laghusabdendusekhara. names of towns. 3983. These are sweetness (+rl~~«. Viiblka. in spite of several commentaries upon it. in the north western province of India of those days. Society's edition pp. See \'i~~Cjj\ and qRllllf(I!~R~. 198.dhy1i. cribed as Viirttikas and two as who preceded him and out of whom GaI)asutras by Patafijali. Galava. (2) Pathak. The work is a linguist's and .) . Apisali. testify to the existence of systematic E. ~m: Six kinds of bad reciters. written from time to time by several distinguished scholars.yas or books. tn-o'li ~1]1T: Six merits in a reciter. patience C~r4iU. \'i'mT~3.to observe time ( z. cf. qTo<fiT name popularly given to the commentaries written by ~<i<g1l"I6'fi. 152-162. spite of several other grammars of ' The .sses For details see pp.total number of Varttikas is the language written w?seque?tly.a.~f philology and linguistics of the pref:q.rtfa' ). the author of the KasikavivaraI)apafijika or Nyiisa. PaI)ini had no grammar work of Indra before him.94 ) refers to his native place and the word 'iT1i!>Tg. Sik$ii v. rivers and mountains in and near . several life times have to be spent.$}. Very little is known unfortunately about his native place. Society's Edit~on. the north· wEstern Punjab ttliiJdi{~~ called also by the name i>lf!'fi of the present day.song manner (. but of any other language. conjugation. His migp:ty intelligence grasped. PiiI)ini has shown in his work his close knowlVII of PiHaiijala Mabiibhii~ya.. including but its careful study 1S felt as a Viirttikas in Verse.lrg~ by that siltra was. 32 and Yiij5avalkyasik$ii v. The mention formation of words.gara and other books is only legendary and hence.ountry. reciting without knowing the meaning (31"~~:) and reciting with a low voice (31~Cii06:). The account given ab.. lfIfiJI. in' fact his own name. discuss declenof several ga I)as as also the exhaussion. based upon the' name of the town which formed his native place. the E. name given' to the likely that he was educated at the Siltras of PiiQini comprising eight ancient University of Tak~asilii. A verse current among CiikravarmaI)a. but those of classical words in the classical literature and the spoken Sanskrit language of his time in all its different aspects and shades.lJini of .:m <iSf :>rCj~~ I ci' 3:\.out these in the Kathiisarits1i. which was a spoken language in his days. See ql6<l\. The total Apart from the authors of the Pratinumber of Siitras as commented s1ikbya works.f\'<! derived by him from the word 'iTz. His exhaustive gramtikas are generally written in the mar of a rich language like Sanskrit style of the Siltras. ~akalya. mentators. D. but at the same consists of 3983 Sutras which are time it can be said that the works accepted and commented upon by_ of some grammarians mentioned by all later grammarians and comPaI)ini such as Siikatayana. separation of words ( q~: ). The'. 'Bharadvaja. using a written text (~r~Cl1l"16Cii). adhy1i. Vol. Jinendrabuddhi. which gives an authoritative description of the Sanskrit language. supplied by his work shows that he lived in the sixth or the seventh century B. \ well-nigh above 5000.a Mahllbh1i. K.C" if not earlier. VyiikaraQ. in the A$taka of PaI)ini according to Patafijali.{ the illustrious ancient grammarian of India who is well· known by his magnum opus. the Dlliitupatha can very well VII. and familiarity with. a modern scholar who wrote learned papers on grammar works and rammaiangrs. For details see Vol. cpo Pii. It is very likely tbat by Veda scholars who look upon the A~tiidbyiiyi as a . or as a notable manifestation of human intelligence. sftfur ~~Eli{~fiTr though tradition says that he was CI~T "9' 'iTcn~ :q I '€fIl'1\crfGa! ~"I11llf tfTfriTf<!: ~1'fl« ~<i1!. not only of the Sanskrit language. and it is very or. but sometimes has not only remained superb in they are written in' verse also.:ft~1lf: 1\ Nagesa appears to have the vast field of linguistic research. B. Senaka and SpbotaVaiy1ikaraI:1a schools states the yana. alnumber to be 399(5. to hav~ a complete exposition of which.Vediiriga. it is evihe has mentioned ten viz.not a language teacher's.of kindll ofVarttikas. grammatical works before P5.

not the commentary thereon. lfRT1!lm:. serving the purpose of ~ofcf tITc{l{{1i1t +rcrfa' V. while some more are seen in the Kasikiivrtti.248 'as shown by his definition ' fi. . Basu and Renon are well-known. but word qT~ to which the teld. and those of ~.t"lf'U a gloss on the grammar rules of pa~Jini. out of which those written by B6htlingk. e.r which have got no utility as far as they tn+iT~ a class of words headed by 'the themselves are' concerned.rn.. and believed to have been written by paQ. ghana etc.{tr[. As ~~mf<f 'q ~1<[1<I:. E. This the Mitakl?ara (tbefamous commclass of words consists mostly of work forming a tatpurul?a.I. comentaryon the Yafnavalkyasmrti).r name of a commenteacher of Grammar and is believed tary on the Sik!?a of Pal)ini by to have written commentaries' on 'Gf~ufi'Gf{ as ordered by king ~rnif. f.153 and many times some particles.!?a and the Uvvata.1. in the tion of other rtiles. out of which the most important aQd the oldest one is the one named Kasika vrtti. ~mfu'GfT<j<i\ qfl'[ mro: m:~: R. 193"':'214.' the famous ones among these being the Prakriyakaumudi by Ramacandra Sesa and the Siddbiintakaumudi by BhaHoji Dik1iita. d. Balarnbbatta P1iyaguQ. as they have not been noticed by the Mabii.bhii.57.riidhi by VisveSvara. qJ{UT tbe same as lf1~1<j0T. I.the famous. pound word ql~tlii'lff. There 'are extracts available from a Siitravrtti called Bbagavrtti which is ascribed to Bhartrhari. which.bhii. 011 P. total number which is given as exceeding 5000. 3.!?yakara. ' 2. m:. such particles were called See qRtr[• lf1~cr. The class is calle~ Balarilbhatta was the son of an~fcmuT and hence similar irregular Vaidyanatha. . while otbers say that by regular rules. especially the or Pii. in words such as :iit~<jr: tRifro. recital of the KiiS.if1lT or lf1~'lR~~fcr.134. many of the Varttikas given in the Mababha!?ya as explaining and commenting upon the Siitras will 'not strictly be termed as Varttikas. Besides Kas~ka. For details. Some say that the work was written by Pingala.D. called also 'Gada' on the Pari': See +lI[TOII 6<j.bhii!?ya there are seen more than 5000 statements of the type of· Varttikas out of which Dr. 'l!'illU~: etc.. D. with any specific or required sense. R. Pro VIII. words head.111T ~I'[if. many works of Nagesa. the famous Vrtti. (ij"f~f'li~~i1 sense of 'possession'. ~~:. written in modern times. . ~i'l1m: qof. etc. e. and it may be said that only these Vartdkas were written by Katyiiyana while the' others were added by learned grammarians after Kiityiiyana. l!ll1c!1~.' ~ A learned' pupil of Nagesabhatta who lived in Varanasi in the . The ~1:<lIl9ir!Fft and the <!5~ff<tT can also be.lharthadipini by Sadasivamisra. noted here although they are the abridgments of the Siddhiinta Kaumudi..XII. written by the joint authors Jaya- 249 ditya and Vamana in the 7th century A. VaiyakaraQasarvasva by DharaQidhara. tuent words. on V.7 ..48. while others have remained only in manuscript form.' such as fourth part of a section such as krama. pp. among which are the 'Kasika:' tr1G~Ci'iliif(+rT1l<{ the same as ~lmS<t. which is evidently written by a later writer ( {it1'[<!51'[fci' accQrding to some scholars) as there are found verses from Bhiiravi and.. tniUlif'T~r~ a short work on phonetics which is taken as a Vedanga 'work tff~~.ft~~i\q.50 anotber like the Paribb1i. . is believed by some as the same as pound which cannot be explained Vaidyanatha.r~{ and others which are only reported. cf. Many glosses were written from time to time on the Siitras of Pii.g. P. CfTIlii: >. Some of them have been printed. bhisendusekhara. foot. Pr.. cii.6. VII Mabii. Adhikara rul~ in Gramm. there are r. also 1irqrott~~f­ tr1'U~~ lit.>ther Vrttis which are comparatively modern. cf. lf1~fllffi:.g. qftllNlc~~. He waS a renowned qtfi:Tt. definition be followed. but. P1i. ed by the word ql{~ which have ~ot completion of the fourth part got some irregularity.o-. from the Varttikas of Katyayana and others.. the' Cidasthit(1~mmft\ a class of irregular commaul. Some ·of these are: the Bbii..XI.2.' also }fe~C{: ~ VIII.mlJ.latter half of the'I8th ~entury A. or of a verse which is divisi'q ~~~9U ~m'''<[~: Ql"{lTf.~S :aiffl5>ffi~i'ffi'liw:t 9T~~ ' • . VI. It is very difficult to show separately the statements of the 'Bhii.da of a stanza or verse. 'Veda in any of the various artifi~ lit.IT<jT: 1:f6r. ct. paQ. Many of the Varttikas given in the Mahabba!?ya are not seen in the Kasikiivrtti.' on th~ Laghusabdendu§ekhara and the' Chaya. d.de. VyakaraQasudbii. Gii<. Glosses based upon PiiQini Siitras.Seki Pari. f.Qini. 1.~yakiira has quoted the names of the authors of some Viirttikas or their f chools. affix if whichare'of use in the illterpreta~ is added optionally with . see Vol.·' Kas.. the term is applied to a cial ways prescribed. Siitravrtti by Annambhatta.!?avrtti by Puru!?ottamadeva. mm. Magha quoted in it as noticed by Siradeva in his vrtti on Pari. evidently are composed by scholars who flourished after Patafijati. words are included in /~t.Pr. ~f5~~.' on the Uddpound words headed by the comyota.IOO. insertion of ~ between the co~sti­ ffi~ itil .lita. cf. For details sse q[Wfi\. A t some places the Mahii.. will be reduced to about 1400 or so. In the Mabii. but having a topical arrangement are also available. VL1. There are some manuscript co'pies which give this reduced' number.a-.m~fcr. and their . There are Vrttis in other languages also. Pat. were used for the completion of a '1RTQot oral recital of a sacred work.D.r. It is belived that the KiiSikavrtti was based upon some old Vrttis said to have been written by ~.ini. ble into four parts or liiles.bhii.~ if ~<lT<!. .lT5. ~f'q and others. If[+[c{lct etc. jata.l.i~{. Society's edition. qt<{i\~ P. are.37· ~n)5~nro: qt<{l1c<{1l~ P. VI. 32 [Ii L J 'I.inisiitravrtti by RamacandrabhaHa Tiire and Vyakaral)adipika by Oram bhaHa.da. Sabdabhii!?ana by Narayal)a Pal)<. II.~ya. 1. 76. which are who bas written a commentary on taken correct as they.If this . Q'lnCRITa.!?yakara popularly named 'j~tis' . t:nPJriir~:. VII. also m: ql~~ P. Kielhorn has marked about 4200 as Varttikas.

affix with the mnte consonant 'I. IV.\~~qT words ~~F.r. Pari. '3\~1iii. a tad. ~g'Veda X. conventional. Kas.) is added in the sense and others {d•. VII. along with his own qy~ residual nature. belonging to the assembly. VI. 1. 2. See'ftm:.ns pretatiorr or theory discussed and of ~he White Yajurveda.d ~o it. 2. Gal}apatha.36 Vart. VII.36.24~·· . 251 believe that he wrote a work on Phonetics which is now popularly called!fl~~~•. in the case of a reduplicative syllanunciation of vowels and consonan ts ble as also in the case of the roots ?{ caused by the compression orcont and ti (cf. 7. ~ marking an . I.49. Vyii. P. Nlf(~ [PISCHELL.ij being substituted for f. t 2. m-. A Sarvadb1i. 48. I M. Almost a settled at the assembly of the learn-· complete work.r. I. 3. 46.il~'Ii9'tfi1 : Mahabbal?ya D. Society's edition. Bh. E. ~!1. cf. Some scholars which is iQdicative of a grave accent in the case of affixes marked with it. 6. ~ the same as fq~. ~ . (cf. 17 and the to literal. ~. Pro XVI.'1f ~fcr ~ R. e. ~ etc. 1. ~ affix ~1ll ( ~'l. etc. V1. P.~lfo'l'l. cribed as instrumental in causing jects and wrote a work entitled many operations such as (a) the • Prakrit Gramma:r. XIV. i92 ).. cf. fct\fROO{~&jf~ I ffi<l'fi\UFUFci\m~ VII . 94). (b) the prevention of gUQa ~~ compression. etc. 3.g. ffi~ See filtlRlll and fq«. 208) ~'6ljjWF'cnJ:qf f<i+rflH Kas. '<T~flfcTr. It contains a list of fu&. 2 and 7. collection.250 ~ftfimm a &!lijt work 6f the White q~ tfllf<{ +rot lflll~. at the assemblies of specially prominent 1il'lm~. (c) raction of the pJace of ·utterance. ~.! by \309~ on the old Pratisiikhya the author of the work. a gramm~tical operation caused by an affix tnark~d with the mute consonant I:J. 58. futI.~G:. Bh. the aut her of Sakatayana VyakaraQa. (d) the augments 6'1Im ilm~:. ct. on P. ~~ a class of words headed by the affix ma~ked with 'I. r·s8. If. VIII. 5. fqtfr~i$:w'Ut4'li name given to a stanza of ~'t or.87. cf.mrl 1'( and ~ in the case of the roots ill!. (cf. the middle foot consisting of six or seven or eight syllables orily: e. . (2) derived. his work being known as ~:~n~ of f1t~. 3. IV. W.+<n<t I qrftreference (Sak.rQot ) getsq: add:ct KM..j~t ~<f. on P. the substitution of Vfddhi. e. V. of words as also works of the type . e. a class of word~ headed by the scholars or learned persons. RICHARD] a II( 1... . fi:rfq~: .71).q.89. 93.grammar.f. treats of doubling.\' ~·.. IV. e. 3. rt&:i I I a tad. it quotes a number I ed. ~% illr<:jft. qrf{lIlftiCfifr: . V. yana. to Amoghavarlia r. for several grammatical purposes. d. fu~~. 25. on V. the interYaj urveda. to the South: Tp. belonged I books. the word f. 3 84. ~ or Ei1ftftr~1T a complete Sik§a work with a i trrtt~f~ name given to the works commentary. 28. see firo.. Rr\!>fmt:Cfi~lq: fqf. qr~. 37.56.. accent and so on.J)@D. I ~k Pratisakhya..j{: fcr". He rule of elimination. VII. VI. I of the Pratisakhyas. Kas. tfG. cf. ~fij'1J~ fqtft~\. also tfrtli. p~ VII. I of the type of commentaries written quantity. HO. Bh.. on P. • sub~titution of gUQa. Kat.f: I KM. lit..i!'. e..~. Paribhaliap~tha the term ITIRqa. "u~:. g. c. qI~f(<i is a condition for the use of. 2. short vowel ( of a . 88). P. D. ~. P. possessed of'.33. and ( e) acute accent for the vowel preceding. cf.other altern aA. ~~I:.fiRij . The system has a Siitrapatha (along With auto-commentary Amoghaa ql~q lit. vrtti). of ~'tf(<l. cf. cf. on P.j{qm IV.. l:fT~"~T name given to the comlflRm\f{..36.:. the nineteenth century who wrote in paI]. Par.l:. fct+rI'iT !!. R.t in the sense of the depression of the nose. 2. I. I ! word fTre~ to which the taddhita affix ~ (l!:~:q) is added optionally with mt:.. P. iil~i~ an ancIent scholar who is believed to be the first writer on Prosody.-:I. 3. cf.:jo?ct~ 6l~ Q. III. a fault in the pro"..tft§~:.ved around 867 to 910 deration of all the .l. I.. g.. class of words headed by the word tft§ to which the taddhita in the c~se of the roots ~. in the sense of .'I~ N~~f:q '<f P... on II.fi i5~a. . on P. the I com. Pro XlV. I04. For details see fuJ. affix applied to the word f.~fiI qtf~~ t I) techmcal. as can be understood from a tives.: cf: ~~ ~tcrni. on III. M. being out of sight. ! see also pp. cf.4. of the discussions held. cf. .A oJ • decoction' (:lfllh). . P.g.by: akrt o o type consisting of three feet. e.tnka affix. word lfllU to which the taddhita affix <:r is added in the sense of tI~!flft~ ~ ~ (~~) ~51 ~'fi: q·:qr: ~"f'1 0/'R!ITgiJ:.. 105. Cakra.g. 2. cf. Cj~ lS§ fimf ~ smuRr fufcr :q {irt$:f ~ tliil: ~q:. t. See tRt&:!. also i!{&'i~J:!ffiand 'l respectively (cf.14. The word is used in the sense of works on Nirukti or derivation of examples from the White Yajur-I veda. ct..' M. 33 Vart.g. cf. a. 3Tmii:iRtiT mi'fR. in . 2. famous European Grammarian of marked with the mute consonant !!.. p. The grammar 2. on I. 5. 2. refers to the results and Ul}iidipatha. ~\TilR'i~~~ ~~1:FT ~~ftRr I I i See lfl~.. ~cn~: I I{as.e work got its name I because it follows the tenets laid ~~a another Dame for Sakatiidown by the teacher Pari. q0<jT. also ~~f~: ~fitf. 91). the Jawor commentary Amoghavrtti.92. Bh. (ifglJ. ~g' etc.l a:. the ·affix ~!~ a. affixes Rr!!. useless. 90'). IV. 105 Vol. ~. affix applied to the word in the Sense of fruitless. the. lit. . and flll:J. (cf. f1t~:. also qrft~~itcr ~ Rl:§: work is complete in four adl:iyayas. cf. as for example.<!il~: W~~Cji<tlii lfl~~mq:1 ~~ aN ·ancnRt qTf~ M. ct. IX. I mentary written by fct~fi'I~ on the Pari. on P. 6l~<O~{ ijfC'Rir P. ~. ~ on the strength of a Paribb1ilia ct. Sira. as opposed I trcf'q~1l1f'1t lflq~iir Nir. vr. the remainbelonged to the Yapaniya Jain ing alternative after full consiSangha and J.ini's Grammar has been des many articles on grammatical sub.I30 .33. 83· Vart. IOO. followed. ~~:. ~ marked with the mute letter I:J" <i!rn I I I I j I qTit~ll remoteness. . the perfect tense (re~).

V. If<i'ttrlifff. Pr. 8 and 10. etc. famous grammarian of the ~:SI~:dl'~!ijIi\ occurrence or possibility of 'the application of a preceding c.. *1Cffcr: . where the first member is declinable in all the three genders. lli: lS<:~ P. on (I) name of a commentary on the Sarasvatika:r.r 252 ~ ·short term -for the labial consonants 253 ed comme. d.. cf. VII. (2) the substitute ~ (i. Pari. III. 80 ). of the third KaI)Q.+{. This restoration to the masculine form -is also noticed before the tad. which generally is attended with some purpose. Dev.J.fiJ:l'CfICi and the other Patbas or recitals.I. X. Pari. Oiq-lIfff.g. d. 3. of the Patafijala Mahabha1?ya D. but different from the above.!Ff~mr(il~ -?q'llc<i' "i.3 Br. B~iiJ. hence masculine gender. the second arid the third. ca~~:.masculine '" form in the place of the feminine one as noticed in compound words. cf.105. a grammatical term in the sense of' person '. 9. E. on' VI.J ifIl1lf. 3. OiRf~~'i~~lijrcrt S~ utr P.70 Vart.1. P. also 3f~lUJf ~Cf~~\~1'1t1filt ~~1'.'fil~ etc. the ·word.1 M. cf. VII. I. also R. IV. ~~a: occurring beforehand. VI. qI:Tt!:fi£.. Bh.rt. if noticed in the writing of the Siitrakara.l~arn· grammatical rule or operation a YII. Bh. I . \T~. VI. ~.36. cf.Ji M. Giq-qfff. ~. P... These persons or Puru~as are described to be three 3T~Ii.ntary on two kiiQQ. not 'daughter' e.However. 1:9 as also before lfll~ and the word llTfiriI:. cf.IS. also 9:ilcl"iil+rRt!jmn'Cfffl~+{. d.~ before a word beginn~ng with a hard consonant. Oi~~ 1'li'QrC(fct~:.. 3. . is indicative of something in the mind of the Siitrakara.R fathered on PUQyaraja is a kind of collection of notes culled from Bhartrhari's Svopajiiavrtti on BrahmakaQQa. ing. I. e. 3. I Kas. Bh.{llll"l~. VII. For details. 3.{l~ Pl~ !l'r1iT *1Cffff . 59. name is found written-as PUQyaraja also.. Although !Pi. P.' ~f<hn'ij' prescribing the same affix or ~Etcm: operation again. UQadi S. also Purn. 3. cf. IV.34 to 42 and commentaries thereon.a is independent and scholarly. +r. on P. 3. I.. gender.~ which means a word which is declined in the masculine and the . 1l"~1i and '3'Q1i corresponding to the third second and first persons respectively in' English Grammar. cf • .M. S:IJ~~ a gr~mmarian of the fourteenth century who wrote a commentary named ~'Cfit~ihir On the ~qftf~! of Sripati. cf. cf.nt(.2 Vart .61 e.30 etc. Vol. &I1'g. although such a recital after three times is generally discouraged . ~«ar~r aT<irffi:!il'.9.rt ~~ 'litC!>l"l:. d.160.. 7.:e<rifilt c(~<i~ff. (l{). second time again. affixes ffii. an: ~~q=t (P. ~l2f.a~~. VIII.12Vii. 1. Pr. ~~ l<i~ ~qqll~fcr ~rn.. and ~ as prescribed by P. 39. also l<ifql:rTi\eTll~<!{Ttcl~ if. I and 2. S'l':SR=I<i 49· the same as srRtsm9 counterexception. ~1Jl cr.. cf. P. also the expression ~~~I~ which means the same as 8itr'l\~ which is opposed to 3l!!'lRt. 41. 2. ~ fill. It appears that both !Ii£.89. I. .a of Vakyapadiya. ffi". formed generally by the Karmadharaya and the Bahuvrihi compounds... I. ~q-lIfo. (I) the word ~ as given in the ancient list ~of masculine -words marked with the mute letter ~ to signify the addition of the fern. III.68 Vart. It is now establiShed that the commentary on Brahmak1iQQ. is also used in the sense of the conventional repetition of a word at the end of a chapter. 4.. ~ and it~ in the simple sense of ' girl ' and. Q+f.mmar in the ~rew or the masculine. cf. ( 2 ) -name of a commentary on Daiva VyakanlI)a by Kr~Qalil1iSuka. 40 • ~ Ii. also Nir. I. on P. Uv. ~JlCrT~ and tfi~f. Kas. sion. ~clfa occurrence of the same opera- VII. I. which. twelfth century. on P.{a-tT~Cf&Rr: tlTllf?i "i ~~ntl.10 Vart. U. Bba1?ya on V. ~iI:l(~if~r. M. 4· ~:m a passage which is repeated in or ~ masculine.tion again after it has once occurred and has been superseded. The . Sek. after once it has been set aside by a. 177. 5. ~«~l the term !l~ or person viz. 4. ~. on P. I. a word used in gra.r~&tJt recital of a word again in the Krama and other Piitbas for a special purpose. is known to have written a commentary on Sarasvataprakriyii. 3faJ: gi\cl"i<il1'Cf~t<{fq~ a:rf. cf. Vamana. d. ~ the . 3. who wrote a. ~i\~ a famous grammarian. ~f.Par. VI. ~:!. Bh • on Ahnika I Vart.e. o~C!>: ~~I~?{ PlfJr:rt<f ([5Irfit3Tfcr- -mr. ~l. who wrote a grammar work. g. affix ~ (~).. subsequent opposing rule or rules in conflict.~4. See also page 334.tfcf. Society's edition. Hemacandra and others. ' a~~ 0. qro. IV. SSlf) for the word ~ii optionally prescribed after the words ~J :a-q. g. It deals with three persons. d. named see ~lfiU. J ~('tg~r name of the tenth section yI. the first. is changed to 9.rofcr: tf:::nct1. ~ use of the same word or expres- old.J. the word is used in the sense of old or ancient. u:cr+I!:fFc\~1'..as of Vakyapadiya of Bhartrhari. ~rn-mr: !l~rir ~'Il. i~ masculine. Bh. ~~fiiI. preced'1Niff ~"l:.. 'added to the roots ~. ~~r. The word is generally found as a part of the word +rrfertr9. Par. 2. q.. 12 • and ~m{!~ P. A scholar called Pufijaraja. in which he has quoted passages from famous writers and grammarians such as Bhamaha. and !i~ were current t-erms meaning • masculine' in ancient days. VII.J. cf. on VII. also M. PUQyaraja's commentary on the second or VakyakiilJQ. 3T~. still ~~ is given as an independent word derived from the root 'Cf[ cf. on P. d. also the expressions~"iil'. Kuntaka. cf. as also to all roots ending in 3fT before the causal sign ~~~ a Jain grammarian who has written a commentary work on the 1fIg'Cft6 of ~+l~. lUUJ~~ .100.IT. The word ~'qif is used also in the same sense. Bh. % Of. 177. cf. qq:mq restoration of the . For details see M. . 40. cf. ~ the augment Ii. g. IV.57. P.. Candra Vyak. ~~if and !Pill[. Pari..tthiibharaQa of Bhoja by Kr1?QaliliiSukamuni.'t~~~ M. feminine gender or in the n~uter and the masculine gender in the same sense. ~ s:ocm~ ~~ masculine nature. ll\<!Ii. see P. It is also used in the sense of old mythological works. 4. 1. 61. I.. d. Sek. Bh. Pr.

on P.lidisiitras noted by Ujjvaladatta.Bh.g. on P. ~[lN the case of the Avyayibbava tom . on . Vol. 8. qro~tll~. VIH.( ~r~.85 Vart. see itci. ~fit ~ M. who wrote the grammar work Prayogaratnamiila in the fifteenth century.I6. pp. V. ~­ ti~~~ql(Gc!ltlJfliIl~1ii~ P. I M. Sll1~~~~: ~q~ . a subsequent rule is acute accent of the first member in invalid to the preceding rule. the name' being quoted merely to show respect to the grammarian . ~mR:i. . argtf~. M. Dvitilpako~a. on P.ci~ll! ~!I~lIrra: *aj(~I~ miamI and the preceding.~ lit. before all such preceding rules. arfi!JI'Iil. V. II. (2) belonging adjectival word.~asf!ja.. 2. on P. ~1ll~~~o I . 4. cf. the same as 'it1llq~. d. turned into grave by virtue of the 1. aj{rt. the prominent ories among which are the Bha~ii vItti and. as are applicable tt. is taken also as a governing Bh. Many works on grammar are ascribed to him. 2. P.23 Vart.II.254 the rule prescribing the term gw is ci. d.198.Bh. ~~~ fet~l'lI'P'ftu a famous grammarian of Bengal. d.55. qW1tf~~ !I~~ err~ M.3.2. in the last three quarters of the eighth book of Pal}. The word~lso means • an ordinal number'. on P.t. IV.a 'pratyayas a tad. ar!itf6. 48 to ~~~{i ~1it~1mt ~ I 58. 4. ~acIass of roots headed by the root !III.2.I Vart. of the following vowel made acute. an~ !!E<!i\Ul~ Kas. e. Bh.92.. e. of the fourth conjugation ~cy whose peculiarity is the substitution of the aorist sign 81'. an ordinalnumera. V~ 2. The word is used also in the sense of an affix by the application of. The word ctions in grammar about priority is frequently used as qualifying the See P.r '!. <n<111~.r~ whose work on grammar caned ~m1ll is well-known. etc. t'i~~~ .{(uU"dI(. Bh.eTq'~ importance in sense possessed by the first member of a in the formation of a word.i~~ a class of words headed by the word !!~~ to which the taddhifa affix <. cf•.d the first quarter of the eighth pound.. on P. 'f~O<jii. ~1. mentioned by PiiQini in V.ct if~Wtfa:<il~~: ~~fu.cf. ~l~ lit.1 to 63three quarters.to have been a Buddhist. VII. as in the case of an '(il (I) ancient. !!'&'iifto!T. K.the first out of the two members of a comar. The work betrays a deep study and scholar ship of.3Nllli':<lm\im: ~~OT 255 a popular term used for the treatise on grammar by an ancient grammarian· ApiSali. as contrasted with the next as laid down by him in the rule membar which is ~tf'. ~iii ~~r ~1Ir.135.qij' tiq~~ ~ o~n ~: I ~:rrfilt ~. which the particular number. ~ !f{i!lilll~:t Kas. ~ffi 'l. the last three quartets as also that cf. D. The Bhaljavrtti' has got a lucid commentary on it written by Sf!itidhara. on ~.ini in his siltras. 2. Besides these works on grammar.2. the writer in the. d. cf. not seen by) all the previous rules in the first seven chapters ~tr€{ anterior member. I. III. V.39 'lfl3'fPQ ending with an ordinal affix. ~~ originally a title. cf. The a compollnd as is generally noticed purpose of this dictum is to prohiin the Bahuvribi compound and in bit the application of the rules in special cases in other compounds . are given in P. ar~.48. 1. on P. ~crr <mrrtl: I 6'~ ~: I are-: ~ M. Ras. where the commentators 'usually say that the siltras citing the views of ancient grammarians ·imply merely an option.15.2. 2.I.P. I ar~qiill1: I M.3.. 't\lJI!i~ P.· arlfiT~~~tur ~I~ S.. ~it~ a famous grammarian believed .'11 is added in the sense of' duty' or' nature '. The rule '!.{. 1. VLt. but mostly used in. have compound as noticed generally in been given effect to.JI~ atill( ~~'lr ~tf~ . affix showing the particular· completion of the number (~r) shown by the word ~~ the grave accent for the preceding acute vowel as a result to which the affix is applied.g. e. These affixes are rule ~ ~miI.4li1Qjd placing first ( in a com.5'!i\Ul for ~.II. compound.ini's grammar. the Paribbli~iivrtti. 1320 133.a.Bh.l. on pound). o ~~. I.. is' shown' as' complete. to which the taddhita affix q ( ~fq ) is added provided the word ending with the affix forms the llame of a district.V. Bh.I. II. connection with the famous Jain grammarian ~.g.1. third and rally refuted by the author's view fourth quarters (Piidas) of the called ~~~ or fffilTiff.VI.. and other details see Mahabha!jya. "1~~iI. eighth Adhyaya being invalid to (i. the Gat}avrtti and the Jiilipakasamuccaya and a commentary on the Mahabbii!jya caned lPral)apat}a of which only a fragment is available and a commentary on Ul}. for the sake of paying respect. Mantrasastra. the view placed fir&t for consideration which generally js the ~~~ the dictum of PaI)ini view of the objector and is geneabout rules in his second.e.a:(iJ. ~CfiR: laying down that in the last three quarters also of his ~~q=C\l>i'li~ retention of the original grammar. as a re~t. 4. 'itt~!ofIfue+( VIlI.48.I}.e. rule i. cf..I. 'fmrfi etc. <i~~q'Et. n. E.headecl by the word !l6'1\f.8. word an'i!fr4 where it means ancient. \T~~. ( ~~!jT) referring to an object •. 7. It was called Pu~karaQa probably because it was very extensive and Widely read before PiiQini. the word means completion of a particular number (ti<§lIT). fct~~lfUI ~. priority of a word in a P. These Pilra. old. lit. 101 .r~ . m~ etc. KM. ~ilJ"l~·:q M. and Ekak!jarako~a are the prominent ones. VI. 48-58. Viirt..2. he has written some lexicographical works of )Vhich Hariivali. VI. a class of words.1 V~rt. on P . who flourished in the reign of Lak!jmat}asena in the latter half of the twelfth century in Bengal.( ~) for ffis. cf.I cm!+wJ::. cf.30 to 38. oli P. Trikal}. 3. The word is used by commentators in connection with references to ancient grammarians by Pa:q.I. 2.t28. For the reading 9. For special instruto tbe Easterndistriets. ct.e.tT~ an operation prescribed in tIle province of the rule '{~Ii/l~ i.\~: I Kas. ~g~~T S(~<rT ~tf1{i( and the of a subsequent rule in the last following rules P. on P. cf. 1. Society's edition.

~~lJ9i{1ljf{\lI ~qif.17 and >rr'<iTil~ ~<l.g. the wKiter of the glCl§ called ii'!ffii on the K!3ik§:vrUi. ~~ name given to the second pad a of the second adhyaya of PaI. VII D. ~ \((ij: ~ frequency. 17. which hence' is defined as .56.!. the tad.7. II. 'l~Cfir" il~t'lT.2. ( 2) an operation or .amana. 'l'ifl lit. where an operation. N~T"i:. on P. ~fc!N!l.D. which are. Generally the dictum is that a subsequent rule should supersede the preceding one. it cannot be looked upon as both at one and the same time.CfiI~. cf.Vn. . cf. 1. also Kas.~it~: ~~~ ~'Ij'If.:o end of the previous. d. 't. 1. m~xed. Par.IIO• 251 their coalescence. words. on 1. 50. 16. K.l(!j. tlt. ci. The term is used in the Pratisakhya works in connection with the vowel Sj\ or ~ which is looked upon as a llmter{ being mixed with the consonant ~ or 6.) is added optionally with the other usual affixes aj~ tci . the Paribh8. d. on T. Bh. XIII. 1 09. on P. is eli. d. also ~~ ~ifl1<i~'iiiU: ~ ij ~~ffT:.1.' 1. m t he sense of • nature • I.!4 Vart~ 3.~endusekhara. 1. 1.I22. XIII. VIII..4 Vart.r. as a result of the coalescence of the two.2.9 . on 1.n~<ftlll'i: M. optionally· with the affix fi\'w.Il. a consonant at the end of a word or the first in a 'consonant group ( ~<!tif). 60 . 1. on P. Sek. IU. See fii!§!. numerous.. which is qflrof.80 where the word is 'Il . ' and 66. 1.. Pari. 68. 1. which implies some purpose in the mind of the author such as anuvrtti in subsequent rules. It is a definition of Vakya as given by some scholars. II. ~tRr~<l. cf. 3. a verse commentary on the Ul)iidi. on P~ VI.85 etc. for page 2 I 7 Vol. is concerned... and so on. also ~~lfRriN) <{Tf{ <114 wsnaqq 'Rrn(!j!j 't~~ a variety of an tara riga tva mentioned by Nagda in. option. qftlITEfl~1lj I{6qff Puru. d. 5. the coalescence of the two constituent members. IV. 'l~. I. 3.6g.r.I07. Pari. on 1. d. P.58.3. 4.li q-{~ 1l1!C!Tf~e~: 'i'ilr~. I. 1. VI. 4.of words headed by the word qi!\'. Ahnika I. II. IV. 1.iCR1lJ on Katantra. Society's edition. a:rm..' ct. + ~) is looked upon as ariC!Uf with respect to the elision of Fct-Cf. a sense in which the -frequentative affiE ~ and in some cases the imperativ. also Mahabha~yaon P. '{'N~~>Pl\. Pc. on I.:q. 3. ~ substitution of the former letter in the place of the two viz.ed by him. 13. 1. P. cf. II.Il<<<rctrfir <I~~' P..256 _pound. ~: ~:. e g. Such a school existed also at the time of PiiQini and Patafijali.22. 4. 'l~ a class of words headed by the .:. The word is used in connection with a vowel which is substituted for two vQwels (tl.' e. with irrem gularity in. a rule cited earlier in the order of sutras.laticapadi).59. prescribed by pa1J.47 Vart.57 . VI.IV.. under the' rule fct>rffiqq rrt '!itir:l:. ' N'!i\Uf P. q<ilqCf~ ~: etc. 1. "K'tCj~.Bh. affix added to the word fffiio. cf. i~i<fl~l1i framing a separate rule for a thing instead of mentioning it along with other things in the same context.. VI. Vistara of Vardh. tJ:~ 'i<ir.: ~~ ~'iimt: 1l'ij't9'IQ.a• grammsrime o~ ~he eastern school which is believed to have been Elwtoo by ·w~ft. 4. 2. - ~ ~ a grammariaD~ who has' written a treatise named . lit. separately as far' as hearing. I. 4. cpo Yak.ijCf. VI.r6oand srii:IT~­ t"~ :q V. frequently used in the Mahabha~ya in the sense of' a rule laid down by an earlier grammari~n '. Ba ~u ~ <I~ 'l~r R.. If.. of course.85 and <Jll'lff a:rraI~ ilFffliitcrn: Sira. word Il~ to which the taddhita affix ~+!il: (:{+If. I. cf. d.18. 'WJiI<l. qfam. The word is. er~ -errs: ~~~Sr M. Bh.ini in VI.llRfr~ P. Pari 108. affecting a part of a word which precedes that portion of the word which is _affected by the other operation is looked' upon as antaraIiga. qGiit: am:)ftC!i{llm: M.~ Bh.mood are prescribed». ~!ffi.1r ~~<1 'l~fufu ~~ f:n!j~ M. a rule· cited earlier in a treatise. affix in the sense of ifI"l. together by PaQini and m~ntioned together with the word 'llfi~ ~t the head. the f2mqin ~~I:J (~r. 1-74. Pr.r63 Vart. ~ :. Bh. VIII. also M.84. for detatls see KiiS. III. . IV.57. lI. pad.~ ~m~~ fln<n~~: S. by .). Ras. details see Mababba~ya ~~~ substitution of the long form of the previous vowel in the place of two vowels as a result of 'tqT~{ belonging to the previous vowel in syllabicatio!1. cf.62 Vart 4 .g.E. syntactically connected. 3· r0 9. collected. 3. Bh . q-I~q<l. ~V. on P. I.W ~~<lY"l~ M. 1. siitras ( l. ~qRt!!IM ~ <l'IRr I Il~. 3. Kas.Bh.. 1. 4.6. on 1. The author of . applied to which ( words) .r. cf.n~ a' grammarian of the Eastern school who wrote tbe' treatise 33 . This kind of antaratigatva is. 2. as the arrival at the correct form requires it.ail uIIRCJ\IIiOjQ11f.:. 1.ded. The school practically terminated with ~Rr~and ~ at the end of the twelfth century A. VU. e. e. on P. ijciqt{ group of all the individual- Q5'( tad. not admitted by Nagesa although mention.33.r~ conflict of two rules where the preceding rule supersedes the latter rule. d.ro:. the' fqrmer and the latter. 1. however. arm t~: and the following rules P.lini's A~tadhyayi which begins with the Sutra ~TtRl~~~~~~<liT­ ~f. qi!\': fi\'!fT. fu~q'5l:. repetition. K.q'i~ ~ ~fcIf'el (I) an operation or karya for the anterior. ~. ~:. ~:. 1.. mc(q<!:.:j Olfir. Such a substitute is looked upon as the ending vowel of the preceding word or th~ initial vowel of the succeeding word. cf. W'l'r=<ft rr\~: I R~ qt <lfitf! a=I{Cftfiffi' I M.I. 1. Ras. a class . on P. e.33.16. @:ifl Po Hi. I.1.g. 2.g. l.. RSlrnqq rrt ~. ly separate ~Tft{ . ci. the Mahabha~ya has brought these cases of the ~ml:f.. com.44 Vart. 3. VIII.. cf. Ilm~U illl1 'h'!ih. also S. II. cf. 1. q~.. distinctly separate from another. V. . als9 ~ ~~A ~cWff: R<rn. and II. similarly $lP.fu-~~I.I. cf. taking the word q-{ in the sense of Ill!! • what is desired' .49.102.7. M. q~. in fact.:ft\:l~-:. ~.2. ~~ft{ a group of wo~ds. I. previous rule. but sometimes the previous rule has to supersede the subsequent one in spite of the dictum fiI>rfuttq wr. 1.52. 1. ~ll.2. Bh. 4. on P. a ·reference to which is found made in !lfi:it 1S1fi 6~: P.20. >r~j:jf. also tl. 4..:+rr.

15 .V. on P. (4) type.if 'i:fl!Iq~r q~fffdm I M. For details see pp. ~f6 (1) material cause.1 KM.r expression causing a change In the nature of another word or expression which has to be taken as changed ·accordingly. M.:~S. the original base of a word which is used in language by the addition of affixes. S[l:}.! Vart. i~T :. cf. I. 5!ii~ is defined as '~s:rfifi<lrC<j~R l1'iifuqtlFl~+rTf/CMqq~T ~·r. 9.45 Vart. Bh. Vart. q~fu: BWoI I t[({q~ act·.qu: 31'Cfi+~ ijsll'i~Rn~l: R. Sl~~fc!ttI\ij if 'q stt'l'lfcrctt q1ij~: SI9i~q9iT Ol~f. ffi5fiio'f'<l~ ~~ I l1'1~~UT Sl~a­ %:10{.· Pr. E.J. (3 ) differeno tiating attribute.:ij.t<. Bh. 3 . 1. the preceding rules which are drawn on tp the following rules by anuvrtti or continuation. 2. Bh. also· qyqiq~ll~itff P. cf.:'l~ l1'Q. cf. Q1~fu: an ancient grammarian of the eastern school who belonged to the dynasty of ~~a<t. Bh. mr.109 Vart. 'tf!q~: in the Srilgaraprakasa.!cn\ij.. cf. Kas. Bh.XIV.27 Vli.23 .3 where KiiSika defines the word Sl9iR as tlTllTiij~ ~) ~~: q9\TG Ras. on I. 2.r+rrm>r<It: mit uq~) ~ M. d. 1. d. 7. also. S[l:}. 1. fififfir stt'l~'ir~ij: ~~q\ ~ 5ft'l<!: name of a commentary on Pal)iniya Sl.. l1'<fi&ur a-g. (3) cf. I. SI~Rrc Sik?a by Kesava. cf. cf.100. Uvvata on R.a cpo Jamendra Sutra I.o M. on V.:ar ~m: tflClNil*( M. on P. also ~~fq i(~~ ~'fa-: l1'<fiqr <Itfur a-:. SI~ the chm which causes a faul~ In pronunciation called ~~!. d. The third Kanda consists of 14 sections called by the name Samuddesa.: M. ct SI~:t !Illlt~~I1!. VI. Such works are generally known by the name ~~t!l"~ as opposed to 'lR. II.!i q9i~: .:r<l<fiJ~fi:!Cf ~T ~qrcUij~ a-f SIiifc!ftfu . 2. on P. 1. ~1lQ. V. on P. similarity of one thing with another with slight deficiency. the Prakriyakaumudi. 8.:I~+rfCI1'!l'lf 5!t!i'l1CJ:. on P. Bh. I.u'l~ur<l "'{<r~Uj~ i:!qlll~ tI~cf 5f~. ~ (I) tfrCfm (I) a relation between t~6 operations or rules ba~ed upo~ ~helf anterior and nltenor pOSItIOns.3. ~~rf?:+'l: 5l9iR'f'tj~ 'f.21. 1 °9 Vart.69.q)CfCfO<!: CllqiifalfU ~fu I Cllnttfffii:. 3.3.2. 1. XIV.m i(t<I~: M.tij. Words which are not actually derived by rules of grammar· are called Sl9i<illfrrn as contrasted with SItll~f:li'l.H~ I l1'ifiro in context. as opposed to t modified' (~~Rr).il:. 3. d. 2. d. on I. 'i:f<lt fii:~~T: ~It tfl~eii\:: P. cf. VIII. on P..original word from the substituted . in the Jainendra Vyakaral). the Siddbantakaumudi and others are called q9i\lll!I. also ~rf<t~~: q'bl~ Kas. ~fi!i2111~: I~: l1'9iqur tI<ta ~~~ ft ~21i~~ <II+!" &r>U Olqfu. cf. I. also <:!l:jl~"<I: ~tfT q1ij+ft ~tI.. on. 56. Society's edition. 3..21. the word is frequently used in connection with words in.3. 1.23. Sl9iR ~l1Iq'tj. I. Bh. IlL 19.2 tfcl 'i:f I 1. Sf a conventional term for tu'<ft<l: ~: 8l'~'ff<r: M.12. 8l'efr~1il:. dj~~: 5fC!iTU~: Kas. Bh. difference. Q'jf (short) generally applied to vowels. SI~ut~ literary works in which the treatment is given in the form of topics by a~ranging the original siitras or rules differently so that all such rules as relate to a parti~ cular topic are found together. III. on II. as SlC}iTtlI~lJ~ name given to the . 3. manner. 62 Vart. which is many times taken into coru. roots ( ~lQ)' noun bases (}[rRtqlft<fi)· and affixes (q~'l). sr:q+r!Iqrr. d.T{ m:. whose views are quoted by the Varttikakara and the writers of the Pratisakhya works. 23 and· 69. also T.258 . on ~q~r~+'l~ P. on I. Sl9i<iq1j\mRt :'itf'a~llr+rT'f: P.II. . cf. 18 as also ~tfuf<rf~a-.12. attribute which differentiates. 3· Kas.r~I1.6. cf.ncfi'l\ V. cf. also anfct~c~: SI9iR <lilij..:rQ{+rq~{iot fcliifu: Kas. I. 4. II.60.· V. SI<fiR'f'q~.hird Kanda or book of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya where miscellaneous topics are treated. 4. on III.cf. on P. ~w::~fra. Bh. cf. excellence of a particular quality. \ I. the words 8l'..1ita. ( 2) resemblance.macandra's Prakriyabase. 17. SI'~Sl'{qfqfu restoration to the .sion is generally looked upon as a fault . as contrasted with lW{'lr. ~q~~ SIiifa: I <1 ~~ ~~'l. mr WIi''I.48 Vart. IV.<I\.. 9i'4" 9. Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya by Pufijariija. 139 srq. ~ l1'9i\une:r ~ ~f. (1) name of the commentary on 'q\lllI<lf qr~rf. Pro XIII.3 Vart. eminence.ideration for deciding their relative strength. 4. M. ~rnij~~mor division ~f a word (in rise in a language) into the base and the affix.q (I) attribute. (2) the order <>! words. III. on P. on Siva Siitra 2..I ~<l':f6R<j an~r: I ~~qq:. 1.of the fact that such a depref.nfq ~UTf:li'll~: SI9i"!l i(cRf ~q'ql{ij-.3 vart. 4.. ~pecial consideration. (4) name of a f<l'lff: I sR'l'lm q~fff: 5f<ltCfCfO~1 ClllW{!iqU gloss on Siddhantakaumudi.~: I 8l'qR'LijJ~Uj ~~: I qftrr.68 Vart. Bh. 259 mitl!99fuR M. VIII. cf. on P. ciif'qtlfClilt lItH: i(t:q~a-: Kas. 2. kaumudi by Kr?QapaQ<. d. ~Rr I M..qf$<{ a word in which a verbal activity -has to be conjectured. which is looked upon as the main function of grammar. I.I ~~~ Slii~: I <i. III. II. 1. I. 1·94 Vart. umrr. 6. 16. d. context. Sl9iT\Cj~ ~~ V.I CI~ ~11I'f'qq~~ it "Ol'!cf: I ~: "lg. in question. also etmiij~cGJ~ ~UT ~~ ~u'r en ~ (fem. V . I. on V. 2.Rjij­ Slmf6 preferential treatment.i+r restriction regarding the entary on Ra. for example. d. D. cf.<tt: etc.explained as SIT'<lTlll'tf!cflurt by the . ( 2 ) original. V. VII. 11\: tfl~~e~ ~~ SfCfiT\*( T.rt. 2.. writer of the Kasika •. XVII. Pr.93. q9i~ticnl) a word o. Bh.!lr~. 4. a section wherein a particular subject is treated. l1'~~r: 1ffil >fC!i<iq~1Sljfcr. 381-382 Mababbai?ya Vol. ~q~il:. w::~ ~~: Slii~iT I %lffiiqr~l<r'liT{Iiy o~~'f . 1. m Slcri01 keeping wide the two parts?f 3lCfill1' depression of the voice after I raising it as noticed in connection with the utterance of the svarita vowels in certain cases and in certain Vedic schools with a view ~o showing the svarita nature of the vowel distinctly. 1. I 33· V~rt.!lf<f ~q: l1'W.rNir.QUT ~'..m topic.~I~fcf~2r<l9if+1l~il:. on P. There are mentioned three kinds of such original words in grammar. 4· I I• l1'<filhIRlr9~mijij­ m - ~: tn~4 'q I a-~i[ tlTi~ Sl9ilU <J:~a. I. (2) name of a comm_SI~f. 10. v. also ~~"Trg.~' Pr. Bh. Pr. also c~~. M. ~Cl~ifT~lil:. I. 2: (2) found or available in a large q uantity. cf. iil.. differentiating description. in spite .

~!: sIliN ~'i:<m Kas.e. cf. ~ wording without ailowing· any euphonic modifications as found in the case of a dual form ending in ~ e. VI..80. 2. Bh. 1. M. cf.. the of Nrsirilhasesa . in twenty sections. ct. V. possessed by the ~W9'rer name of the scholarly commentary on Ramacandra'g Prakriyakaumudi. aTIl!~ Slijiit!i tU~ <1cIfcr" quoted in the Mahi. 3. written by 'qlfirrrfuI~. 27 •. 2. ct. cf. 28 and 29. cf. arlit 3lSf etc. uncombinabl~ by euphonic ruleS. SIlft\i: till1ci~Iit<:r: Kaiy.4 .11 to. 19. the restoration of the ro')t ~ in cfitlEf~~ <iitt . 51'li:<!:Ii~ OI~qtm<lCjlCfliimEJ: I 61~<U'ij­ fudV!"II<. cf.<!1!!l ~~!!l where ~: is connected with iit. 2. !Tifta' a fault of utterance. ~ S1~ (I) a specific feature or quality !!t[Eltut( I ~~: Sl~<!iO~<'£.ii~~~. !if~r$f~ name ·of a commentary on the ~fin<lrii!!'fr.. but slightly so. The subject matter of paI).a~~ Wlllll~ 1:TTg~Ef f<fi«l. preceptor of Bopadeva. $f:sr~ absence· of euphonic change.qffi"<!. as also in other specified "" I' cases. accented grave.. on II.g.ini's A!?tadhyayiis arranged in this work according to topics. Bh. P. o word.. on P.krti by Visvakarma. e. 3·!· S1~(4ia~~+r· restriction regarding the sense of the radical base. It is similar to and the predecessor of Siddhantakaumudi which has a similar arrangement.r<l<i~H :q SIiji?t <iJ~ +iCff<:r M. e.. 10.Pr. !i~~ a description of the Sarhhitii.I1.m:fcr M. It has almost about ·a dozen commentaries of which Pra~ada of Vitthala and Prakasa of Se!?akrg1a are famous.i. P. I to 63. cf. son .b. III. j . an iinprovement upon the commentary Prasada of Vitthalesa.. the grandson of Ramacandra. I. d. suitable for singing. the acute accent (~).qUJ~ W 5lSliIi: ~Ol!r'«~ M. without any' change by \ rules of euphony.aiHT name ~ (I) the place of articulation. 2. palate and the like. on P. cf.ta. 6•. the grave vowels which ate not followed by ail acute or a circumflex vowel. c. on P. described as ijilTCflo cf. ~fumaj phonetical maintenance of. where the term g. 1.172 . 1. i.apaQ<. 6. 61111 . iYI. The work was very popular before Siddhantakaumudi. when a vowel.5· ~fu~ the accent i.alled also srf.'!i~m is used for the word $fi:£«.24. I. 11 also cf.II-19 and VI.r1{ftf~fu: T. T.ai{ difference in the radical base . as also ~<J.28.g. in a way. etc. sr&tiicm-~~~ called also s@nl:l~!I<tT­ or· even fl6tljtffoSdT ( 'lRI ) written by a learned grammarian named Kr!jiI). cf..lita belonging to the famous Se!jia family of grammarians. e. I: M. of the learned on the ~6:<tT. Bh.D. g. (3) regularity in the position of words. They are uttered like the acute.. K~S. e.u C{ mt:!!Cl~ M. IV.I.1: etc. S{~~~ a c«l~r into three . Bh. ~CfIta"I~8"~r<iTI1~~{qf 5("i:£« . where a simple word in conversation or recital is uttered in a tone proper for singing or in a manner . Pro XXI. PrakriyaratmimaI). Pro II. accent etc. of NarayaI). the vowels afteri'f and before fit in ~Ii i't 'l1i ~tf. I-54.. are uttered neither distinctly circumflex nor distinctly· grave.and l'Qli . see NarayaI). VI. ~\'ii<r. I.t1e of tbe pt'oduGtioo of louna. on P. text of the Veda in which a pragrhya vowel preceding another vowel is held up (!i~fg) i. liTMTrf( a class of words headed by the word 5l1{~'I. is pr~eded. d. the commentary p1e.26 Vart.hymns for purposes of singing as Saman. a term used iil the Pratisakhya works and by PaQini. I. Pradipa on ~:i1 g 'tliWIml\ll9'q~1~ P. . kept as it is. (~fr) ~q?:. a different radical base. Bh. 60. SIlll~~.a BhaH. cf. original word as contrasted with the accent of the affix ( ~~ ) which (latter) is looked upon as more powerful. a Kr!jiQase~a. on I. a pupil of Ramacandra. IV. :f.a Bhatta. on P. on M. cf. 2.~Itcr (circumflex vowel) and is followed upon by another grave-accented· vowel. VI. or t1. ~~i intact. 2) recital of Veda. ( -. 1.i 6~:ffi. P. also 5R<!<!lit~«lo<:j~~q.epij'~<J:a-. Bh.12. I. R. Bh. affix <i (<>«) is added in the four senses prescribed in P. 3tirTij" a couple of Vedic hymns divided 1. on HI. <KIf<t~ltrl1:.55 . ~tt'~<\1lfolJFjqW'<ROO'~g W«t~~~ I ~ S!'liRr~l!Tq&: 51'liffiCj~ CfiRcfi +icffllfcr ~<I:. cf. These grave vowels in succession.~ ifT!Sl. 2.ini Sutras VI.137.. QO II.~ and the following rules P. ( 3) It is under. ·also . Bh.e.tisakhya. . IiI Vart.<iSf ~ liff<IT 5l!lm ffi~: iifi<l~ 6 5f1TTlq"<1IC( s:rcm1TTCfl6J 3. the same as SflJ. SI~. on P. Prakriyakaumudi has an abridgement called Tattvacandra by Jayanta.55 Vart·3· S1~lsr. the most prominent grammarian of Kerala of the seventeenth century A:.30 Vart. 1.2. 3·74 and VI.260 i I 261 such as throat. ~Rm: 5f~ll:'tffqU: tl~Cf $«~\TiOl~g <l9 R. regular order of words. 1. the term is frequently used in the Taittiriya Pri. or recital superior. ~lq"­ ~~Ef a famous prakriya work. 3l~EQ . Pro 1. name given to the subdivisions of chapters or sections in certain hooks. 2. VIII. Bh. 4. Prakriyavyi.4· I63. I. (.i by Dhanesvara. srqzt iji{l6q~ ~q: M.i. 5.!T 3lRr fil~ VI. VI. g. held as it is. cf.v ~ lit. IV. by a .bba!?yaon P. (2) the connection of one word with many words. g•.39. 2. e.. Ahni. II-r4. 1. excellent. cf. Bh. !T&iAI~~~ a well-known grammatical work by Rama·candra~e!jia of the fifteenth century. II.29 Vart.. wrra. which is. to which the tad.12 Vart. See paI). ~{~ftcrt'!<i SldJ. cf. SI~Rrert +iCjfu M. e. in the sense of a vowel which is not combined with the following vowel by rul~s of etiphony. . llf~~:srer a work on grammar by Abhayacandra in which the Siitras of S1ikatayana's Sabdanusasana are arranged in the form of different sections dealing with the different topics of grammar.. ~ 3lftij"".. written by Vitthales'i.m) of the grave (31~~) accent . 17. IV. chest. 2.i.ltI'ql1!S~~~ll({:' C{ ~~<l SI~: q~qq~« ~: 'if ~: commentary on Ramacandra's Prakriyakaumudi by a grammarian named KMinatha.Rr. 125. Pr.67-'10 . aJso R. witho!!t anyeuphonic combination. I. There are glosses like Prakriya rafijana by Visvanatlia.

10. I.60 Vart. citEtI~ ~'-IT tI~«R~l{. Sifuq~PcsliJi<'i express statement by a definite wording: d. 1 . V... M. study.(q<J. cf. 1. 9 r • affix ~c:r (<sO!. Par. d. 3. on P. srRtM~~~~Iii predicate. ) ( 2) sense arising in the mind on ' lJfeIfim tldt' onM~<f. on P. on P. Bh. also 0'iI srfffft. corresponding to every letter.1.24. Bh. the 'term is used in the sense of a counter-exception. Puru.1 M. 1.2. cf. ~!tf'lT­ srm~~: srffit:(.. cf. cf.m-'l"~ ~~'l~: <!'(tJ<T~F. l{m C['qI0<i<I:. e..Il.. on 1. on.) is added without any change of sense. d. understanding. Siva siitra 5. 3. 3. Its authorship is attributed to Katyayana. srfo~­ ~~m: ~!: KiiS.Ji l{m c{\~Y~:u- the word sr~ to which the tad. . pronouncedly. Bh~ on VIII. arfuT '<f @iTtIS[~W ~Ji. Kas. as also on P. \ ~Klirlm!~ I o/Ti\'~l ~'l:t'l1 aJTRlgij. pad. Pari. 4.stance. 2.1 .lsrm~ <nnNct ffi(INII. Pari. express tenet in a Sastra oc convention. srfuCfioi. Vart. M.69. Bh. d. on P. ~<nm:. 46 etc.q~ilTP.~: ~ ltfu' S'f17<. cpo Yak. practice.W. 2. Bh. also M. also m~~if~: tfI~T: fSfi<I5' 3ltf<fl..<j:. sr~ ~q ~I~: I srl~'t ~'t I <j~' sr~l fct£lij" ~T >/~ ~qfu I Kas. Uvvata on R. 50. 1.lQikiya and Aukhikiya schools. a kind of Sarildhi or ~uphonic combination. ~ knowledge.. opponent. IF. ct. 'tillitm. 4. pad.2. corresponding term.72. Pari.Rq~'ii:. d. I. 1. A relatively recent work. wr~'iqT O/Ii\' ~i\'~r f<r!fT~ :u~~lt. Kas. Bh. on P. >ra-~I~qT~ ~T~. 2. . as opposed to srfu'q'V'ffi' expressly stated as opposed SlRt€. Bh.21. cf sr~~ srfuq~~ (I) recital of each and every ' o f goo a \I "l "'>3" •.J!f~lc:r:. Sek. Pre II.94and V. Pari.also ~ srfu'- IITfctct >rfcrtf~ Puru. also ~fuliG:f. 3. srfuqmlcr-i facility of understanding. automatic appearance and down to prohibit it. also the subject. VII. 99 . 3. ~cf Q~ <il{<iij~q ans=: ~: srfu~. VIII... requiring a longer time in un~ derstanding the sense. 40. also ct. i:ilftlfJsr~~qcjif R'mll:. Q~p. 9. on 1I 1. cpo Vak. cpo smtm tiClsrrfil't-1 Par. e. cequiring an effort to understand the sense. ~~ ~ >rroqf'Gm\lt WTo.. Vart. S(~ for every letter.vft\ a ciass of words headed by d.J~. Sira. d.• 44. I 3l~ ~ obstacle in the way of the production of the result as caused by the Time Force..i~{ ~9 I Bha~avrtti 2. I u: +rciRr M.lCfi: tI ~N9il:<m I ({"«j' '<f srfcr~: sIfatfmf. \ fcNr<I. cf. cpo +n<ni:Iicl"~ 'f~q: srfcr<. on P. Pro 1. 143. prohibited rule does not apply. cf.rl I tI"l't ~Ift ~mq<{~~I<1r ~r:t~~uTf Cj~~(ifl I 'ii~uU: ~ <iT 'l"1ft til . also the usual expression srRrfc!~ ~ M. it does not possess individually any sense. srm:n.nct ttci'<f<l'ffirn'G O/=tfu~a-. 5. d. I .<J.. I.15. Pradipa.) srftnfT (I) original flash of intelligence' which is described to be of six kinds solving a difficulty by taking the necessary action. SI~ lit. 6 . S(fu~"1'1iI' counteraction. ( 2) irregular formation.38.J(811~~G:r: tIl~f<i­ Uvvat i on R. m&lUFl~. which is stated by some scholars as the sense of a sentence. Vart. o!j'ffi srR!tffulTfr<j<. M. regressive. on II. d. cf. 4.{~ . Sira. enumeratlO~ 0 ever~ ~ P IV •. 22. 2. I <i~<j~l ~srUJqilm. 3·!I· S(R\li.. II7 .(<I+~qT<j: ~qt srR!q~r >rfu!R!fTO: I i to implied or suggested. 3lq~:fiT~g 'fUJi: ~mcroTi:!~~:M. opposing. 4. Vart. cf.1. ~cY~&!T~ ~fu'fi06~ where ~fu'ii1J6 is explained as ~{1niji[ by Uvvat a . on Ahnika 2. srtJt~ii composition (of the' original Sutra work). 1. hypothesis.1. <Wr[it'+!I~ g >rm<!tif f+!?I!!:jj~~C\.1 etc. cf. it is different from a Pratijnasiitra mentioned by CaraQavyiiha. on Ill.{: etc. !Ii!1~m'iji't9 I M. . pad.rm srm~~!fcr.m. I (~. 1. f ~T : srrf~<ftq:.4. III. ~fuq~aTi~ difficulty in understanding. II. VII. • d t' (= :D1j. word. on Ahn. <l' '<f1i'cRu! ~ffi<il~ct ~1:li 4. srfusr~q lit. ~­ @1fq~~~~IfC!iT~ R'mll +rciRr M. <iT.r.) is added in the. TCfi :uaUqf >rfcrlRlT >rfu!f?:tflo. ~RH~:j difficulty in understand.. VIII. on P. S(~f'Cl an inj~nction or operation stating expressly the word or words for which it is meant. srfua"i1>+lT~or. KiiS. I M. fir!fTiji[<:C.~Bh.. Bh.2. Generally the immediate coming in. ~ f. <i fcJN srm . (2)".j7cT: ~ftlTlii~<J. cf. 3'<1: Cfir{Cfi"llftijlTItlirfIDrtl'nC\.4 Vart. Bh.l' ) .g. 1 52.{~ ~r!'l~t<I~: Kiis. cf. srRr~~M"9: .\{iiii similar in appearance. contact.f~ silent. on Aho. Sek.. 3l.rf&9: '3~q?:qW. pad. in which the consonant precedes and the vowel cOmes after it.rft'l~ • srfuq'~ (~Ci'{) a crude base such as a root or a substantive without a case affix as given by etymologists and grammarians for the convenience of understanding with a sense attributed 10 it.:~m~q~~r. cf. on P. lim aneyi PriHisakhya.r. ci. special circ~m­ by another rule or operation laid . I. . 20 explained by Uvvata as O/qT~ 3l!. 4 word. cf.r. M. IV.mtf~~ KiiS.262 stood as an independent accent by the Khat.I f~ ~anmg6' M~ Bhlon P. 5r~nl~'[1ir '<f ~Rr<!tlq~. cpo Vak. m . affix 0/ (0f1ll.m~tli~Rr Nyasa on P. c. 'flfill. 23· ing.- expressly without any attention to the deri vation or the formation of the word.J~~ll~fu!il~'lliT<1<ilh'llTItfR<ifficY<Uij q<fF\ur Q'-(jfulf+!T~ M. g. Bh.. luck.' srfu<{i~ (1) vocally. Pari. 3. 12. sr~ a class of words -headed by the word ~ to which the tad. as a matter of fact. etc.1.II. P. the titterimce of a sentence. 1 '. Pro 1. 105. Bh. VI. on • 'ii-a-.fl1N ~oo. 24. I. also Kas. II. on J'. again. bringing into life again. d. on V.r ~ffUI ~'iU . cf.16. it. mw.iT tffi'r tf&. M.. 1. 117. 2). See srfa'tft~.f~ '9 5i~~'<TIiil.8 and II. O/qT~ >/o<jW Fl~T T. 8 . ~. on P. srT~:..ffi' O/ijIlli~T (!lOll..u~ _ !li{UJ~. Bh.. aJqmC{liJ"j' tI srfcrf<f\nif-iiw. 4. d. 4. on P. Ill.i~TiilT '9 qlft I I sr~ a rule or operation which is prohibited or prevented feom application by a specific negation of it as arising from nature. cf. Pari.!~ f<. cf.54. 1 48. although. I. on P. 2. Bh. sense . 8.~)~ negative counterpart. cpo Vak. Bh. srTh~i sr~ also. I.39.l~ qOl{~r trUj1~ ~9R1.1r M. ~~sr~r R'mll: . srmSiiif recital in the reverse order as in some of the artificial recitations of the Sarilhita text such as «f. 3· ~2 .!I~ a supplement to the Vajas- <l' ~ I cnr 3'il: ~Ift ~fc!lifFIT cnr ~. d. . d. 98. V.

etc. cf. in tlie word IRliiTF!!T<lUJ from 'RWTl. st~ hence does not require any further explanation. cf. thereon. if. Q~c<I: etc. f. 1.1I ~fu~'fi a word expressing a prohibition. ~tsr~'!j<l{rm ( sr~ffi:) as in ~:~ 6Bt~ etc. e. ~~'O. editing with improvement.lif. I..g. . m. Uvvata as ~:~t<j<l (~~:) ~q&J9<lq: when an affix (m.!I~ <l~Ilm:. 4. 1.!Ilt ~~q'lt: R. P. the signs of t.f. I. ) st~<i what is p~ohibited. etc. as for. ef. Bh. . the recitation of the Padapatha. ~~~llt<l'!jrrQT as in fi:r'i':Tlii. ~~r o:t9ffi.. 1.· ' fa~lTt<l<lrrcn as In q'qoori{. e. ~. M. cf.. e. the acute accent or Udatta by the rule anw. 30. ~~ an accent which is prescribed in general for an affix viz. with an attempt to r'estore the correct version or the original text in the place of the corrupt one. 1l<S!l~­ srii!l<!1<l Nir. ~roT 1:lffiq: P.!f1l'Q ( causing something). also Of~ tll~r<!<lrn 6 ~<j: M.:t'lh'ltt. Par. II!. ~~~1Jf w. generally llfaq~ or >!l:I~llfatt~ is laid down by the use of the negative particle (<101.Y Vart. which is described to be of ~ix kinds..). also V.g.. the gUQa and vrddhi rules are to be applied.. 1. >!~:!:~ aN af. ~:-. d. a secondary base as opposed to the original base. a$fil<:Mlilll!>lwf ' ~~'!jremr. 1. 23. cmrnllii!l'!l. Pro XIV. I..:nlfl ~ir<lte: Par. <fi~<l.cf lTt<ll!mli/Q' ~ I 6fufu!!:t'ff(5[(l{<l~U o:t~ffi 1 M. f~~Tll~~ ~~ ::!rGt !!~ >!>'{. e. Sifu~ prohibition"negation.+l<lt: tlP~~: >!ml:l~~M(llfatt~: >!lmffi. has the word <jOJ:.!!Tu <llll:. 7. 3. <:{. word after its function of qualifying the principal word is accomplished as in the case of the word ~iji where ST~ affix.:ffi m. ct <:f~Iill~fctMW'{lfit llt~Sft1l:. 3· . I.Pr. 30 which is explained by .ii[l'{ withdrawal of a qualifying .. looked upon asa· fault. f. the term is used as an antonym of sr~ffl\'!l. <l~1 ~ >!iftcn~ff. Pro 1. ST~ presence of the soul inside the (e.56 Vart. to nouns. cf. pratyayas according to PaQini's grammar. I·5 I • stfuiji~ ST... cf.qfu~mUJ attributed to Pataiijali.TI:{: m.. cf. Sek. d. termination.-oT as in m." if. cf. Bh. ~l{­ ~q >!t<l!j~~UJ1l:.g.162 Vart.1. The ~ord m<!'!l is used in the Pratisakhya works in the sense of 'following' or 'that which follows ~. The rule ~a{.' '!illI<l'. 1.. according to the maxim tli:i <rejIQ"T ~ifllQ"f:. the Padapatha. 13· a conventional name given to the first pada of the third adhyaya ofPaI}ini's A~tiidhyayi which begins with the rule ~<l: III. as contrasted with ~ the base.r{<:f. 7. etc. Bh. also ~ 1 iThrt<!ffi'.. cpo >!fu~1O{ srRr. cf. I. lIT{<l. cf. 1.. ) and the compound endings ( 611n=ll"ff ) are all. I.3.. The word >!ii!I<l is used in the sense of realization.rror 8.{ ~~~i(Ti<lT'<l'~jh. P. lor. 8. pad. ~"l. It2. e. afRcr:q llfaite"<l«. ~S!­ ~R excessive contact with the sound-producing org'an which is.' body occupied by it. on Ill.5 after giving due consideration to which. 2. an affix~ Generally meanings are assigned 34 . cf. also ~­ +It:9.) and ~1~.r'l<l: 1 (~~. the term tfr. Pro XXII.:Rr ~<l:. ~~. the prohibition of gUI}a or vrddhi by the rule ~Rr '<l' P. 1.I<la<iT ~Rr =i:t!!:~ :. cf.. on account of the words ending with a case affix although the affix of the nom. <l'~q ~ f. ~~RI' (>!liRr) a base ending in an· affix. on III. ~ffi lflfl~ftr ~ta. ~. 1 3. and not with a noun in a compound in which case the negation is named q~'na.. QT~ etc. The conjugational signs (m. cf. ~<i whose sense is clear and which affixes like iili"l.g.!! (a:rI<lif). suffix. Bh. called . pad. prohibi- 265 the possessive affix 1Tgl!. V.43. I. The word >!fafitii: which is generally used in ancient works appears to be au earlier word as compared with f.js.Z. 23.tI<:lfIg~ I· '<l'g~ q. which respectively mean <lSRf and ~. ~ ~: T.I~.Z etc. 1[llT<!fu. Pratyaya or the suffix is generally placed after the base. is withdrawn or deleted after qualifying the word ~~. e ~ >!ffi~ f. ~<lt etc.. the separated words of the Sarhhita of the Vedas i e.b !ilre formed by adding st~~ the meaning of . in the roots ~'litti. ~~~ lit.264 1. 1 ~: 6: fcI~: <l~~\~ <fCl. There are six main kinds of affixes given in grammar ijtllii!l<l'. ~<I:. q-acr. ~:.R: a:rffi5!<rc<IT qp:r ~qr o:t<ifa 1 Uvvata on R. sing. 1·30. Uyvata 'on R. on VI. '<l'{<f.. to primary roots or by the addition of affixes Uke 00i.e. 3·68. instance. which extends upto the end of the fifth chapter (8lI:"<lT<l). broken or split up. I. tion of a Iule or operation.!I<l) is given in a rule as a f.!! ( 8li<:frr) is affixed and hence the word 'RllifTI'!lY<M is arrived at and not ~.:qa({~ a word in which the verbal activity is actually noticed.{'!jffi Q~: I ~ij~­ the priority of consideration given to rules laying down a prohibition.i{ the word iJl~~ is looked upon as <l51rft' to which Iii. P. 10. 1. M.rqrtr<fffi:: sr'liffim iif1~cr t.~: 'R: T~ Pro V. ifii'T<!. d.!I~ 31rff<li+ft: ftllT. a srfm. >!~. ~m<t<rla:cn as in 'li~« muFctUJ1I. and l(OJ:. cf. !ffift~ M. cpo Yak. 15. ffi.(~'!j. has been elided.'<!<l: III.g. 14·9· 6~~lf~ >!{<l~ ~ 'ffl' <lml. 6 AAffffil{I~~ '<l' ~~UJ<l:. q. R.32. as they are all given in the jurisdiction (a:rM<fil~) of the rule S['. a term applied to' secondary root5 whi. Pro III.) connected with a verbal activity.j (acriT) >!fa{l. but sometimes it is placed before the base. cpo Yak. III. sometimes suitable additions and improvements are also made. ~(lI~uttm:+nI!H the guiding rule that q~iits~:. III. which prescribes the affix tf. as opposed to fcI~. Pari. for instance.62 and Kas." 6if:" '!l&: etc.{ is applied to' arfu~. <[i!1sr~R!T as in m~<l.'~. I. Bh. llii!l<l' st~ a rule prescribing the addition of a suffix. an operation caused by an affix which takes place even though the affix is elided.verbs and krt formations. ~n':T~~ti{ '<l' 5[(!01I11l:. llt'!j'!l: IRa{ P.q: etc. the negative particle if (<fCl. q'q~5'T etc. e.. sr~cr ~<l1<j1: 6 a'Qij~qf. ~<lllfaifc!r </: fsfi<!<lT a&: <l~ i\6I. Pari. <film: etc.l'Qa{ Pa. ~ etc.ffi~51~.rftl~ which is used by later grammarians. III. the affix denotes a word·form which begins with that to which that affix has been added ~nd ends with the affix itself. III.:r :. ~:. with a consciousness of which the subject causes the application of the :::RIll ~"f or the first person affixes to the root expressing an activity. 8. W+rs. in which case the root l{ in the word ~<l<l' means 'knowing'. I Nir. f9mlff ijq[ GlW'l !i~~~ P. cf. on P. ).g. 1:47. ~~<w.<I:. the ini unctions i. I. cf. Sek. 1.g.enses and moods (f~.r. Pro 1. on p.

­ tr~: ~llfit 5i<!~<l1<l?f M. them without i(~ ( marker ).~ counter instance. 5. R. tion. I. ~+nCf:. VIII. 4. in. The term sr~&RT~.their purpose being shown as served otherwise.' . premier. Bh. lit.31 and Kasika and Nyasa thereon. ~~. cf. ll't'l~ r crT'C'l: I (su<r. - >f(~l~ literally.. cf. ar.3. the word is Candra has reduced the number.l.:n~w which see above. close contact.-on P.Bh.266 . VI. Pr. ~g::rfiiUJm wf>~: qfaTtcTIfTt q(<rr'5~Ha~~.. on Pari. He has simply more of it had been omitted. 110 d. 15.fr~Par. Bh. iIi· existence before PiiQ.46. Pal)ini has' particular rule in case that rule not given any definilion of the had not been stated or a word or .Sek.13h. ... Pr. Si~i~ V. it is custoPratyahara.to affixes when they ~represcribed. M.M. IIg. on P. 3. The word 5li<:fIi[l{ is not mary to give along with' the actually used by Piil)ini. '$l'f!n~~ close contact or association. tl~Fctct e<!T~Tc'{ +!<I'm I M. re~t6I'ai:ion . i31fter~crrclT'R: sr~ll9:(i1f: found in Katantra.5. lit.on p. Pro X-I. such as 3Pl. bring~ iug together several letters ( Of. d. on P. d. cf.II3. They are not above. cf.. . arm~~ w. IV.:r"l1~"!. >!C~~r'laG:'i:Ic'{ q{& f. In order attributed to Indra. Bb.n Rktantra 1. recited by the preceptor. d . ll':. I. first. Sakatiiyan~. ll'~~r"i'n<!: Sircl'i:I<'! Uvvata on R.51. According to Kasika g~<rTlfT{S are..Uti<j\<l~T't. repetitiou by pupils :aft~r hearing from the preceptor.used them..'r 'tf'tfitf&:TF. (2) commencement or laying down again in spite of previous mention. on P. (Hi. 4·75. the. The term is used in the' sense of srmlfficr practice of llsiI)g such abbreviaor counter exception. possibly in the ~grammar Si~T€l. nexion with brief ter!i1s.22 yart. 4. III.f1:T: I ~r_ BT<!5r I M.fim ar+<lT~":!j >{(<:fl&l<ll~ a~: I 5lt'lfGJ<l ~r Uvvata on R. I. on P.ini. baras used by paQ. ~<!f: .•nr ll'«m. cf.64 Vart. Bh. cf. 9. 3. a few words which would has the same ~I~S as in paQ. V.'!q~ ~TfHUJgqq-X "i<!m I V) a<..1 and 4. commencing again.Dot assign-. tions was . II.('l'l: I M.Bopadeva .. d.VIII. .. I. ~. d. taking again. aii:fiH~:. uttering a word already utttered . cf. proximity .~ I fi<!l ~r~ ll'~<!l~!!I<'r' *IfqE<&r la&:fuE<t .to explain the wording of a gram· uses the word Samahiira for matical rule clearly.rrnl. to the.1i Pari. 8. etc. XV. rejection of a rule or..lg~T: V..:'llllmt<{{mfa I '{~: t<!5~: I M. The word 5f~IJ' is used in the Pratisiikhya works in Simm(~.:rGJ~ 'll'~t!GJl[\U'r 91Cf<[{l!<![. . Q. the precedes th~ IDute letter.:lt P.95. an opponent. 'm'lri[RT~T qUJf~<P9T rule has been effectively employe<!~i1<I: I VajasaneyiPiatisakhya ed ). sr~li+<. .. gfq i .. such as roots in the grammar of Pal)ini. given the method cif forming the C'f %Cf<!51F.~tori­ trary way. ct.' Si~&I~. d. one who advocates the rejection of 'something.. It is found instances of the rule (where the i. . 5t~1~~ .tlctilloai ll'('l<\q~~: 3lt<lCf<1'<!: Riis. al~o Kas.88. 48. 'c" . Pro XV.. d. See the word !!~1'f the 5l(<rrl[I~S of pal)ini. Bh.rf<i"ttl~ a short treatise explainIV. the same as qe.. t That which is expressed by a word. . on P. I sr~erl~Rlfltl~ or m<rfaf'ij<j'tfil a dictum that a word should.·68~' .34 . 4. the' word refers to" the rep~tition of a V~~lie passage. d. have resulted into other faulty The term appears to ha~e'come words by-the' application of. 'Bh. 3l1faq~lfi~<i 'tf SI:~~l~ lit.:lini in his grammar by taking any particular letter and associat.P name given A. on P. i 20 I I to .ij~lll'lilUJ(9TFctml >f~1~FfC!~ 1\8.l<'!T~ 5R<!9li~: Ras.'C{. viousnature. Pratlsakhya literature. VI.'lfm9-i:!~ ~m 'icrhn'lfunlt~ 'i. on P. restoration to the previous wording. be construed with the nearest word. alsoo'aI~Cfil"<i ~ra.<I?r ~. <lR m'lT~<!l. biingingtogether.ini. 3fi'f. "l[ 8l\!~'G!j?r. F or a list of Pratyal!1~:_~~aQ. on 1. term Pratyahara. . Pr. one such or nouns) by lllentioning the first work is written by a' southern grammarian named fu+luurr. (1) statement afterprohibi.. ed. Malayagiri nal affixes fci't. +iT ~m with a vi~w to inciuding all letters ~<ir crT.: i311Q. Pratyahiiras and he has profusely i\m I li:fi or'll .Hll(~1T G!~<i11ij-: M.hnika of the Mahabha~ya which Pratyaha~a is generally used inconexplains the Siva Siit:rasi31if31l. by PaJ.m~anjngs are ..~lq~ rfIlEI.. . VI-3. d. sr~ll<f~ft'l1<lJ<wrT~~TTfucrT­ ing the pratyaharas 3101" 3ll. ~ 267 5f«jTqRt~Cfae<n . pad. pre. ble. 3l~fas:it<l~ ~~ ito: I <'! %cr<!5T ll'~fa: 5!~CfQC<lT. on P. '2. oUf::r~?<I. d.:&tUJq{<ll~~ I 5l{<lm~: >R<lr~'aQI ~T'l'<:ff. ~q9"f<iT'SJ <llffi ll'(2lH.p<n<'<:f: I(a8. ~ etc.<\T<l~"l: Sira. It is a means· to obtain the second brevity of utterance. Bh. an alternative which proposes the rejection of something such as a rule or its part. 2 . on Siva Sutra 4. ~Itifu restitution. 1.ini.in the Krama and other recitations of the Vedas.nants.. repetition i~. sense of the base arid the affi'x together. d. in Ahnika 1. . 3lt<i1~<!l<'!Cfr<tr ar!l[-<'!l~'l?' fc!~'f ~ Kaiy. p'ari. ). e~g.. 3.~ and hence n.. and. WheD the . <Ii[ mp.a word or words in a rule shown as redundant. ~ords in a few cases. 2. :created the Pratyah~ras.r a term' for the fourteen the sense of the first consonants of Siva Slitras which are utili~ed ·for the five varg!ls or groups of consothe formation of Pratyaharas. cf. the into use after PaI)ini. Si2i+r lit. the affix is supposed to bear the sense of the base. m~'lrfi!fa Bll'?. on M. (81!Io/<l) of the fourteen Sivasutras d. The s~q~e given' by' a word in language is the composite. 42. cpo Vak. '1:13.Vart. st~ reference' ( made to something) by a word. Mahesvara Siitras.i(' ~q<!5: .m~T: ~.. see Kasikii on ... II.forty two. VI. and the last only for the sake of brevity. an objector. on VII.inducing a person to do something: after he has refused to do it by repeating the order or request for g~ncrally by beginning the appeal with the word ill[ .a-{~'l f9f<l: >@rife!) ~«f<l: ll'fuqf'ij.. Sanisvata uses 31sr~:. used in ~onnection with the pusoJainendra.]~~~a1~!l.q-r~fu immedi~te .aturaUy discusses 8l~. as far as possi.i: I SH<r!~<1 ~'qiq~ .'rClj~T<i '{f. % (arfra") of and Mugdhabodha have'adopted verbal forms. 2 >i~. beginning \vith the letter uttered and ending with the letter that Si~')qif bringing to life again.I ing if with any mute final letter SI'€~( repetition especially of what has been. also i31<tl<l~ftfu q?:l'fiR~ 5H<!T~<\r..the like.

{<!: IvI. 124. on P. 1. I. on SI'~ (I) empl~yment or use of ~ word in language and literature about which. 2. .lrvapr§. The word is frequently used in this !'ense in the Kasikii Vrtti .. Ka5.70.rp. 1. Bh. ~: ~ of a few other commentaries on tl~ir'l!ll I 3f\:'fT<i~m: 'f~ arr9f"f<!~~: tI~'1: it which are all thrown into the IvI. 1. P. also a:rr!t g muf. Bh. 3f4lnnfclc:l: . The expression .r<!m <!~l ~f-=ii'l\-. 2 6 etc. (3. 49. (2) use of speech.9. 'll~ (arB:) of the' nominative cast>.l. SI'<it'el~i'f'flT a small treatise on gram.. ct.D.bha~yapradipa. 97.72 Yart.. Pr. SI'~~?in~ a rule...ne<p. cf. laying down rules is looked npon as the purpose of grammar.n~niTfcr.:a. on' P.Bh. I. on P. on P. 1. d. 20. I • . 'icfbh3. ' The commentary is for another.~fq ~GJilfI~ll. 1. >rinUlff: 3lCfirU !JUI: >rIa: Ka5.II .the well-known grammarian Nagesabhafta of VariiI)asi who flourished in the first half of the eighteenth century • SI'~~ lit. ' The word 3f'il:~ is also used in the sense of the pla~e of use or ~ti­ lity .lJ~>r~I: 3liIr. Kas. somePatanjali. on P.43 V. Pro IV. lol+lr.l a small" treatise verbal forms by '3H:'i\''I\f9. 22.IV.<rr . 4. commentary 3fcfrq is based on the .oTr. 3. (2) predomithat the Pradipa has kept the IvIahii.:r~<I.tti general rules or principles laid down regarding the use of words in language and literature such as ( I) a word recognised as corr.tisiikhya.61 etc.. SI'<i~ (I)' effort. 1. 'i~'!.1 written by Bharlrhari.£ ~m<i<j: Vya9i Pari.<i. g~Bl). also cf. .~>r~cfir.) The word is also used ( in the feminine gender) in the' sense of the case affixes ~ (li).q~i'f[fl1 '3mql<!rij~<rGr ~'S~ 'i:fl'11il~<r "f l:T.268 VaIt 3. Ahnika I. Bh. <jT9ffi tlll<i: '$:ft . also ar!f. III.!<rI1: &\<I" ~'S'il:~ql~f+N~ "1~'S~fa.. t 3 ) '3llFf~1T cpo Viik. . cf. mode of articulation. 1..1 and Hem. SI'"+fT (I. 4. Bh. but always a base with the. (3) name of a commentary on Sabdakaustubha by Vaidyanatha. Kas. IT. 3frRrqr~I!:TWifiq~I1TQ'j9 "I"111~ . d. .r-Gf ~ft'1C!T !{~[<{<i: Kas.<i&. Pradipa is to this day looked upon as the single commentary on the SI''Cf'FffitllZ prominently mentioned .9. cf.13h.50.:ITI~"I: P.37..!<. Par. Pari. (5) Name of the second musical note in the singing of Samano SI'~T 269 tbe famous commentry Ilcfrq on IvIahiibha~ya. ~'f~T 51'$~: ~fl. ct.~ya of ed to the subordinate one. has a comrrentary on it by Gopalagiri.ij}<r: >(uw(ij'l\: ~"<r:.:v.L mencement. place of the application of a rule.6. V.1so >r>:'fI'll!T<IT<l1j): 3f\:'fI~ 'l\rii~~<!: I known compliment given to it. ' SI'~ SI'~o{ the same as 3f<lt<l. SI''CtTif (I) the principal thing as oppos- ~Ff as the Sabdakaustubha by Raghavendracarya Gaj endragadkar. 4. 4. M. %9~:S«l.51. T. m<i<i3f~m: Q?-P-Imit >r~~~U)m~it9m~: Kas. amplification.!{~crcU: llorla:qy6ITT~: Kaiy. 3.! ~iie'i~T~ I commentary ij\lJm~'lcfrrq'liT.<ji't<l tI 9Tif5j'. 2. 1.:r: Uvvata on R. I. viz.. work by an ancient writer. i{\T9'<fi>rQffi' arT ~Nl~ 'T.fuJ com. Sl'm~ SI'~m+r~i. t§'crl~>r~<fifir "f R.!.. II. district. on 1. sphere of application. III..jt!:TIl~~ ~aa:q~iT ~~11\ . 1.. M. 1.r 3f't1il~Il?f'. 3f. d.ffifSjT"ff~Bl ~'i<!.33.:g ~fa I !{fu'li\O'J: 3f'l::IT<ll!:T:<I ~9~ >t~q<rS9"1<t liii aN '39Iu~if €:~'f"l<lT~~Il~. necessary affix should be used. ijl.tse alone or an affix alone should be used. Sek. ~ft<1>r~~mm~q. and really does justice to the wellct.:r~if illustration. Viirt.:fttr popular name of the famous com- mentary on the Mahabh8. 2 2.4 [.59. 35.ect should always be u.16. 8. . ct.4 6• . d. Sek. 3.. inadvertence.'f Par. d. ~. Bh. SI'!:fWf) a term used for a division of a the nominative case. 1l~ITIi~t~l" o<i~I1\~?t: Kaiy. The mary as opposed to secondary. 1. Q. neglige lice . 4 mg\. which see above. IL 3. . I. t~e I Sl'cft~R' KaiyatabhaHa. these efforts are described to be of two kinds <rTl!J and 3l1-<rrffi: of which the latter are considered. 1. ( 4)' The word is also used in the sense of the premier accent ~ (acute). r. the same 'I\~UI. Sl'il~ smaller division. ~'I\: ~q~4 ~o1:!! 3fI1lUl+£. (-2) measurement. d. 2. ~ SI'.. 2. II. on II.r 'i:f P. d.>rlffl: IS very frequently used in the Kasikii vrtti .~ya alive which otherwise would ~~~>r~r. (2) name of a' commentary' on Kaiyata's IvIah8.rU<il~~ ~1i3<f[~~~. X. 3lF1Fm:1l~~<I1: '3quT~<!lijr~1<j. SI'.. :q~~la<lt: >fl:'fr. on R. on 1. 67. on P. in determining the cognate nature of letters ('3lqutr).I. also >r'9[<I'Ii. 29. d. authoritative proof. III. utterance. SI'+l'T::J. Sl'itiTf. also f9ilf~ <U'Ifcr'llll: I 3f~~"I!:T: I 1\:3. cf. on III. alT.rUJT+£. >r'9T<ig'1t\"'i<lmffi' 'i:f ~G{~'9a very scholarly and critical one ~qy~cl'T M. cf. 4. a Jain grammarian who wrote a learned commentary named Nyiisa on the Amoghiivrtti of Amoghavarp. 2.<!1l111\li"~liT~ +t9'Rr M.17. XI. on P.I IGiS. V. The a:r>r<rf.~<i~<lr­ f'ijEf~. as for instance in the case of the A th.ftm9: etc. laying down a positive original injunction as opposed to the 3lqc!l~m&l'.s. see ~i'[. III. on P. Sl'muT (I) authority. Nirukta uses it in the sense of root. n. sub-division.i Pari. 41. (2) never a b. clarification. case affixes of the nominative case.nant. 37. the author of T Sl'1. the word is used in SI'{rqP-tE!~crr called also '3' t-ma. cf. 58. on P. ( 2) specific measure taken for a particular purpose such as marking a letter with a particular tone or accent or dividing a rule. on P. d. IV.f<Ri( tI'iuT'+£. Pr. further explanation.. pad. on P. 2·30.28. Katantra 1.written by ...Ahnika I.~llit: >riff.3f4ijT p. II . also 3f~T­ back-ground by it. on P. I. or laying down a modi fica tory rule or the like.~ ~. ct. cf. or °>rcfrfil'!il d. 5 . Bh.-. 1.lfl~ M. on P.~~!! M. have remained nnintellig~ble and 1. . ~!{9'r<! >rq~: or mli'il<! . 3flilUT G:<j~­ ~.35. Pari. 2. fq~f~~.rf.) name of a commentary on connection with the effort made for producing sound. measure. 1.t 5. 2. (3) priconsequently become lost. Pro X VIII. ~Cf~'ifu: W'~<il<ja. n.. mar in general by Vijjalabhfipati.:lolr: Vya<.'flirt Cfi'llfuJ' S.I T.1.'I\l~~l"r 'i:f ~it~~ Q. «f. as Ma~iibha~ya in spite of the presence' opposed to a:rr9T"f<iffi~: cf. ct.:5ed.64 Vart. M.' cf. SI''lf« a passage or a word at the com- . '3. cf. II. on P. ~~T&I\<I g Cfil~Cfil~'1~" 'l~''iT­ If<!I~ci't'9: 1'1\ g >rit~9Tlf~'HI~q I . Pr. Bh. written by the reputed thing which has got an independent grammarian Kaiyata in the eleventh purpose of its own and is not meant century A. of main importance.:a-.~: ar~T: 3f~o/a.64 Vart. cf.~ disappearing. 1.

possessed of . Pro XV:.${e<i:)' 5f4iT"~:[rtl Oil~. dhi rules in a compound'( 8lrTij) or oth~rw. pad. ~ -8. -<l'9'lT~4olt .t 3f9'1~~ ~. Oi. K.rlt!fl.:i ~\ir +rt<llif..6 . utterance of several words -of a sentence which are jcined together by S_arh. 1.. cf. Bh.33.:.:<j~ c~ft~t<l~ ~m: 5f~UJ: o::lftffi<l\: T.vantages of the study of VyakaraI)a-. "" >iijaEpp:rT. also Kaiy.. 'tlel: 5f(Jj'l' !1~~ I : 5f'li'lUJ <l.) Sf<iT~ that .m f<l9~: I stitution of ~Jor fcltllT where feteit' is.lf<lFft~ of Bengal in the four.q~: R. The author has tried to 'fonn them by. a word repeating.q!ijH:j'9i(ft 'q') is often used in connection with it.. Bh.'l'3:l~ 'OJ~.fu:rl: >!<ll'{f: Nir.on of the . cf.:~f. however. Bh • . The treatise explains many words which. Sf<iTiTCI'lCP-i a ~entence which is actually in use among tlie people as opposed _ to !If'lil1FH'f1j. I I of words.t g 5f!jhr<Jw:i. 'l!pH filf+{~{[:. who must. R. affix and the like..cf' 3l4t 8lq~ ~f9. 9: The word.ce for technical purposes. II.\­ IJn~a-. 10.i. ' >-- SiijUT circumfi. iFiR~ ~4t.ji1IFr 3l\:~<I o/jI9il.n: <:ga<lT Oi'lfra (deities are mentioned under the name of Aditya ) Nir II. \3<f(fr~f<i1l1!l. tad.. (3) when the sense is already expressed by a word.{f: 1i<l[~T: 1 qlul1rfrl:~G?{I. the wOld is used although rarely.j9i: Kiis. 22. s:r'iT~~ <r1l]Y~~~· sented itself..Vak. 33.9'i ~cf~n~ I (~~l.~ rn. Sf"i"<:Tif (I) recital of Vedic texts.nUlnber..r object. a grammatical explanation. which has become appJ~cable.W:C. 5. although current in language and literature. ' ~\[1h' ~~'lif~m9'TO:~~~ 5f4tllfil'f/j: M. Ill.. ~>U <llir'lf'i"lfi'rRrUe: . HI2I'ltl1l tlfl1i:t'{:. e..~­ 'liq~H 'OJl<i914~S. I tl~lf!<:: ~tf+r!j: ~9gm'ffir >!'l(fi I (ffi.v<{~~ 9ilgl.61 5.:"Il~IIi'N il:<lffi~Il1J~<i­ >!'l'l. On P. III.f 'q' '!. pad. also cf. is -ex-\ as the wakeful conditi. cf..:~ 'h~R 'fIll' <l' 5fIHtRr I M.:~!:! 9'T'f/j~T anll. I "U€<I: S~'l': I quGll~mfu 'IT "U~'1lj~~ !(m 'If I Nir. u8. . Sf<iTn~riim(?'. .tlll-:<jp.on VI.1f­ in fact. r. " . written by Bhavanatha Misra. krt affix.UJ"(.r. on P. Bh. 2.. . B!!'U~ :. ct. Vart. I..ijNI AppareritlY'~9r~:. Pro XV.that branch. \3' v.. E. 1. 16. the ~<!!. possibly the. <t~fcr ~<j<il1q­ qp~: . . 23. piained as a change in the from of Word-Energy.T name of a recognised treatise on grammar written by ~~~.teentli century. 13. attributed to <l~f. ~ij''q'..94 Vart: 3. the sense should not be used.. r. cf. cf.2 fclf'l2 a" Sf<JTiTg~~G. ~f. mn~ +r-'1l't s:r~'Q: q~UJ qll:l<Rr S.d.J'f. Nir. ~ 5f1f'<l~~1f:~~\: 5f1'l''<l<i: I . Besides these many minor regulations of the -type of Paribhii~as are laid down by grammarians. son of Ramapati.fu sr~~. 3l:. 4.m :.q'lilt 'As.:<!~I V. I. '~. ct\Ei'!:'i ~ar. M.'ij' ' OJ ~q'ili'lWI'ffiT(~.eT ~'!. ) (! ) complete . tJ. cpo Vak.<j~ Sfq)~'ii causing another to do.j<mRi I <T<TT ftclw~: Uvv'l-ta on R.T1.55. cf.svaritaaccent . 2.. M. ai~~ 5fls~~~& ~(f.'TI~:.subject in the causal construction' ..' . applying rules of grammar given in the grammatical systems of Pal)ini and K~tantra. Bh. d. have'been diffierent hom the ancient grammarian 9'. Aimika T.. ~q~i1T/jt w.roa~I~16 Sffef~& s~p~rate o~ distinc~ ' Sf7.~ '!. Society's edition. also 5i<lro: q~5: q~.Rr.. cf.r: I q?. Pr~ 1.{'Ii+T originally ocCupies the place of the subject in the primitive construction.Ahnika. on P. 227.l:. (noin. mrI!l~ ~Ncft9 <:jl<i~~~~.------------ 271 . Eh.friT~<i a small treafise in verses on the conju~ation of roots. on II. 1l. Padakaras or writers of the qQ.::ql<J a grammarian who wrote. R. sing. D.~ ~:II~-~fcI+{ij/jlt!f. expected. d.if:'~fu'ifT 91iI. Sf~iTforq<J sphere or domain of the use R. ~:.~.:nRt UJe'l'+rrrufrr tl 'OJ 5flw. 1.qm ( original) q. aft(f811m'.ise. motive or purpose . 2. the word i~ used in co'nnectioD :vith a grammatical rule or operation. >rql~ . I I 5i<a~ 'ifT<l.:r~­ 'Sifin::r'm made _separate with. III. also Viik.rq:r.~~ i[~crqt ~.R.ll'16.with a -very short pause ( 01<l::[([) after each word. of course. .x accent . The alphabet given in this treatise is according to the system of tbe Tantra Sastra which sho~s a scholarsb'ipoC the author in .' O:<f 'OJ w.13~9' Il:fu ~t~. Si'qTftfo'r: scholars who explain the changes (~91a:) mentioned above. Bh .<t. ~Rr ~4t:. the' whole Vedic and classical recognized Eterature.r known also by the name 5f~lTf<l~9i. i(tljn~l! fc. 'and as a result.ifc<I..J<l'T >f'lI'U ~qlre:T \3'~~ q~1<lft:qcn: ~9' aq'ij'lt .g. 5f~3:l~UJ <lfJ. 1.in undertaking particular thing. cpo R~~~UJI~qtl1l<T. also ~lf!l. &.:cr~~0fi'1:T~.:t>r.77. cf. ~~fol 5f~i..which is employed or incited or urged.. detailed explanation by citing the gender.. all elementary treatise on syntax. 1. Pro IX.. d. the word is used in the sense of 'distinct mention '. Pro XIII. qIU<iOT 5fCf'i:f<l ~~~:l<I. cf.hich has pre- cf_ Sf. I .<l!f. 'where Uvvata remarks ~~Ol~~ 5f(P.a1i:. XL :20. 'Sifcr+rFi the appearance of the supreme Word. in the sense of a: cause also. VII.26 Vart. fl'lfu ~4t. ~1f.{1&l1J'f~:{: Wl~S9'<t~61fN <iit~ -mfGM ~UJiril' 'q' 1 M. I. For the ad.9i']T which is used with respect to the ..:/j'li'Jt (!i'~. In the Nirukta. ~~ 'q' ~~r it'l~ <T.Ahnik~ To See also VyakaraI)a Mahabha~ya VoL VII pp. 2.fr. also !(fu ~ <ifl~:<i i~J. ct. M.r ~.cribed T. 39. also !l9OT ~i!. mrl~ rn. 1. Bh. The grammar was studied much in Bengal 5lnd Assam. by the sub. on P. as for instance.~f"f. an explanatory gloss named tn<i2::on the lnrr+ne<j~?Jq written by KaiyatabhaHa. " '<i.65. (2) w. causal agent.~ffli"ij'~~I@'f:. Pr. d. L 13.. which is put in the accusative case being ~~. pad. on P.jllT:. also on P..64 Vart. For dEtails see Paribha~a­ SaJilgraha introduction.q)iTf"f~ an elementary work on the three constructions which has no name of the author mentioned.r: It:. cf.eral.. cannot be easily formed by rules of grammar.. I.il~~!!mf. d. XI. 226.2. 'li'!""<i.rf.rit~l~ liCJ. 399· ' 1\1.. a senter.270 ---. their component parts showu clearly. " 5f'li1~'liT ~<j~ I 'liT1i'ilN~~<i ~<T~ I (f~l i{fff q~? g ~fu. >i~<l'i incitement or inducement which is the sense of the 'lin' affixes in ger. as contrasted with the term !fqJ. VI..:.Energy into manifoid objects of the 'Universe whkh is des..:nr­ f<ii'. L 47. 2. VII.~~ 5f<UlTf<ltf<T: I tlRifiqr cj~!fm :J<U <m9iI: '<lt9TU i:t~l: tllWi: tl\H/jf:. 'the word which is the subj ect in th-e primitive construction and becomes an object in the causal construction . '<l a" a r.:<t fu~~ln:. Pro IV. see M. 14. cpo 5f~+r'q.) ~eeins to 'be the' wi:>rd' in the explana:tion of Uvva:ta. a word.~~ 3l'~ 3lm(ff~~ ~. on P. 9.. the term 5f4t. cf.35. (2) thex:eaciing of the'Saii:ih1ta 'text 5f[<j''ij'<lf'<lL<T.{~. . cfr. split up into component parts in such a way that their meaning also is fully stated.fG instead of '3'G.

I. 3. M.. together with.l<II15lfuq~~<I:. III.272 st~ (I) application. m S1'<l. Bh. (2) known. cf. 'q'rt<i'lSB~~ I. ~~T­ crUJ~5r M. on P.3.~1f g. .T~ a class of compound words headed by the word~:§ in which the second word.: I 3f~fc\«Ul~ 5ffirTfcf~C<j': I ~q !fcl~~ crrer ~<j'fi:R<IIf<t m:§ +!crfu tion of if". aRti!5rt~: ~~ . Bh. See ~~ and 5lWif!~~. 8Ffi: ~ifr ctTq: VI. ~~q. 2.. ct.:2j-\tq I ( 2) working. II. Bh. S1'~iirimr 'cause of the application of a word which is shown by the word when the affix ~:r or or.'. d. IV. cf. cf. XV. . V. Pro XVIl. pad. 3.63. on P.mmarians for· ~lltlR1ll. f i t.j~ ~q:. ~~:5I'tl~ I P. VIII. W I M. 2.89 Vart. srl~ srf~~~ ~ention of a thing in a coalescence. has its last vowel accented acute.. . There are given four such causes . 1. 1. Bh.ct. in arr''iT ~ I ~ guru~ I ~~ ~ I /" (~nns!FTrfllf<r I sni'ellil' lit. III.45 Vart 4.J~: R. The word is used generally to show the limit upto whiCh a particular topic extends. on P. Bh.ll'6~ a:r~Fi'[ Q. Bh. 'SffS$l! (I) an additional letter (vowel or consonant. Kaiy.ir<rrf'1:TC!iT--= ~1f!lf'liom:V. cf. l. >I~'taT: BEffiCj:. after splitting the combination into its different 'constituent letters: This P!actice of finding out an additional letter is resorted to by the commentators only to remove certain difficulties in arriving at some correct forms which otherwise could not be obtained.ncl1<rr: ~RtiicrfuM.5 0 • ct. I IV. r . . 2 . a~BOfi"cTI ~I~: " com. ct. has the feminine affix 6-1't. VI. 1. cf. 1t for 'l. M.i it~ +JCffu M.g. tlfiNl~fqq:. ~6~5lrnil.1. repeat- application of a rule. 174. 'I. on I. Bh. or in mention. 1. 3.101.~6q: ~Cj<I: I (~.'for <i. In some cases the negative particle in a compound has also to be taken at stating a negation by ~6"<Ill'fffil'cT: . generally laid down by the use of the negative particle C1. (I) original. Bh. 4. 1.if. name of a Samdhi where two vowels coalesce into one single vowel. 1. rn il1~: ~f<t~: ~Sllm4l:T~lI'­ on P. thesubstitution of'a corresponding vowel for a semivowel. . I. Bh. 4..a or SamprasaraI). Pro VI. possibility of being applied..~1ll: P. . ct. 2. linking up. I. 6 . but not actually applied . corresponding to the ~1ll. . II.88 which are stated under the' jurisdiction of the. e. topic. trI'<l<f f. or connected with. SR11~ sn:t'~ot see ~!R1I"t by ViHhalesa. ~'!:§ <ITi/i(. cf. 4.g. a term used by ancient gra. masculineness. cp. I I> ~ applicability. 1. and K. III. Bh. I. in existence.ciFrre. ~~IlRl~T<l'f1l:. 1. applicable. shows a phonetic element or a letter which could not be known before the componenls were separated' productivity. on M. \3'~~ smmt<!Tll'l11tl CfT"1<fit +!<Ifu. Kas. on P. .lt'!f T.which is technicaily called • Lopa '. ct.!ta.. cnfct~ B~~sffiR:~~ 6': P.:<j'~ M. see ~Rr 'q' 6where <ii is believed to be a combina~ . Vart. 1. Bh. VI. cp.92). c:rrFr P. also M.25· ~mf. cpo Vak. into one. 3.:\ifCf+iTi1~fu. The term 5ltlm is opposed to the before a particular thing in place.Cfi: t0Wlr: VI. on P. GI!f(~q ~: >rffiit +!crfu M. S1'~~ffiw prohibition of the possible R. 6. cf. (2) finding out' the presence of a letter in addition to the letters already present as coalesced. 1. Pro II. also ~6m~rt~:..2.. 1. or in recital. ~ aiWrfu 51~fu f<r+ilSi: >I~crT~: ~l!n. ct. as given inR. Bh. which is a past pass. I3. 4. ' Sf~ (I) established. ct. 1·33. VI. ~1ll. or presentation of a rule as opposed to' Fr'!re. ing a word in the Kramapatha and. on T.!re: ijj~: iii~m<fr ~­ . 2 . 69. ~~~ etc.7. fijj<j'T and ~. or is liable to get. 4. \3'. R. d.ll'm:rr <ret +!fcj6<j'fa M. 6. S1'~W I Sf~R'fOr. on P. 4·3.27 Vart. S1'~qR' a word or utterance in three matras or moras. 14. also a&:1il: .132. accomplished. primary. cf. cf. Bh. 14. Pro II. i. also ru. EfiOO~.27. P. Si~'tii ~~ijm: I ~~f!fi!~~<j'<I: I ~6~ ~ a:r a:r. M.48.~<iil~: (Cft)l~: ) '~'hIt 5I':~:rr f. joining it with the follpwing word. IV.6.'fij~ ~. ct.&~<I 5l~f~~ +!TCj~'i'<m. on P. r. Pr. ijl~~UJ 273 and 7.. d. a verbal activity e.e. 1. also >11~ CjiGTUffi+!ffi: P. I. about. rule Q. realized . also a:r~ o/I~l:IT:'6111.g 1 ij §lfffl~ P. on ~l:Tl~rm:Qll: P. I.10. II.fcr M.. Bh.32.tl~ aH~i(!: ~<Iro. KM. S. 2. that which g~ts. cpo Vak. on P. also 5l~1i{ f?n<j'T~ 0"0": qlillf:a'll~ ~fcr M. 28. I. the word is used with respect to a grammatical rule or operation which is on the point of being applied or taking place.afu:.87. srl! leader of a town Kas. ij +ll~<i'l1T VI. I.Cfi~ 6 fcf~ml:T:.g Vart.84. (2) 35. a:rf. 4. d. cf.~'1trr >r<lTfcr<T+!il>fCRUT (Cfiil. etc.) . ct. and ~~ VI. on P. 1. function. Pr. part.. Pro XIV.43.60.g. which when 'split up. Bh.Ilg. tE:chnically stated to be the characteristic mark of a' male. sm~~if Disappearance or absence of what sho'uld have been present.74 etc. S1'~q Sf~ context. 1. the same as ~{1ll which see above. . ~ and~.60.3 Vart.nsi{ fui<l<rr t!ir' Cj~ iiO!. m~G cf: S: terma:r~. S1'<lfu~~ difference regarding the cause of application.t~"+!TCjTil'l1fu: I ~o). the PrasaraI).. 1. Pro XI. VIII.r ~C1: ~~Uj 5l~f~it~C1 f. 5lTiiffT: 6+11: R. but has not been applied.4.) read on splitting up a euphonic combination.23 Vart. e. (~) applied to it in the sense of • wife' (5fgTf. the word is used in Connection with a grammatical rule or operation that has become applicable. e.lr and ctTq substitutes prescribed by the rules a:rJC\. u:af~\T ~Cj~. 147. the word ~Ifa is also used in the same sense. 2. the second words ~a. S1'~ (I) coalescence of two vowels . 51tl~ tlre. (2) contracted combination. I5-19. I. <fit ru ~~~<j' >ItI~: Cj~ iJ+<j'~ 'i'lTl'ir C1 'q' ll'~.ncr:. IV.cra-in.57. on P. M. 'If. the word is quoted as a word which although declined generally in the masculine gender on account of its peculiar sense of leadership.. lrofTCf: >r<ii~ I <I~ m. (3) brought. on P. on ij:sq~13~<j' P.K. q7il. ~ for ~ an<:11?i: for~. 6.~ ~~: >lm~T: ~1 ll1l~ iji~P'.t. on P. is added to it. I. III. Pa. 3 whereon Uvvata remarks ~+rTSi: 5RC!l~: I See the word aWm:. tlci~ii .g. I. on P. 2. o~<I +!FlWfflW I i(!. ct.a substitute. ~fu: ~.r ~ +!Cj~?. on P. 1. 23. II.. III.lJT~q:. also cf.:nfu. pad. 34 where the Kramapatha is said to be one which was Dot established before the Samhitapatha. belonging to the Prakrti as contrasted' with a ~'!lcf modification or a modified thing. joining.

IV.:m~iftlr if: Pataiijali. without any specific eff?rt . 1S6 V1irt. ~dtin Burma is simply out of consideration.or an remains· without coalescence' with _.~Y8: Vol. II. a reading ll:~r9dt is also iound and ll:~t9dt may stand for the river Ravi.n: 'Ii .. 23-24 D. lfR<l'i"~~' \3tftfTr. pr~scribed by the rule lflJilR.!~ I a:re'f<iT an a:rl?{fl1: ~0l!.la Mahabha. ff%mPff and 6I1I~. 4. The term lfrfulfR'fi.. the _-' following vowel a:r.ini and his foilowers Katyayana and Pataiijrui. Although his definition includes. also M. first in the grammar of Pii:r.ini bas mentioned them separately in the rule ~~~Otilil61lll P. o 3. but which is neither a root nor a suffix.Vorks of Ram acandra. .-V:( and others who lived before Panini . Society's Edition.75 and ending with ~~I£I: P. ' SI'~ name given to a group of tad. I. the tad. affixes mentioned in rules from P.-n::::n"I...39. in which case. .two vowels where the former vowel. bases which are mentioned in the rule 3f§rCf<Nm<:!{~ey: snfcrtrfct'll<I:..). copies and ~~~:rdt is a well-known ~iver in the Punjab near Kuruk$etra. As the legend goes. cf.45. V. 'Cf an 'eastern grammarian.the . pp. nothing can definitely be said as to which districts Were called Eastern by PiiI. available iii everyword. V.A. P. SIl'9't is understood by some commentators as referring to time. scRfrij9<iFIi{O](I~ Cfrqfi!Cfiffq •• Par. PaI.4S• SI'~mlJf ()thers }giveQ. TJ:?-us. A Varttika given in the Kfisikii but not traceable in the Mab1ibhii~ya defines Pragdesa as districts situated to the east of ~9m (probably the 'modern river J:(avi or a river near that river). the word may refer to ancient grammariariS atrfi'r~~.. I In such 274 natural..5. IV. P. -IV. III. For _ details see VyakaralJ. Bh. Ancient works like Sabda para ya:r. 1. 1. p~. the east. in the . 1. ~ sn~ districts of the east especially districts to the' east of Ayodhya.. or ~ 'i"t srFcr !{fcrtr~~ I srfM~5 +r9+J: I The original form of words. . affix arOJ:. Pari.cf. The word lff'qf occurs many times in PaI).ini implies four kinds of Pratipadikas ~~o. XIII. 3. The noun~base is named Priitipadika by him while the verbbase is named Dhatu. -. ~~ ~~'!~ II ftftucfcfi lIl!:JTI ~f 'iliic.r name gi'ven to tad.).!lYa Vol. ' ct. 19 and '~he commentaries thereon. Tne word lTffi<r is. on P. a:r~'!<NT9. I. ilQ:. pr~scribed in rules fromP. affixes prescribed by rules beginning with >r1FElft~Q:. p.uiTliiT t!lf'JlIm~]o]l<jrfr<iT a:r&-itCfif{licT~i. e. affixes prescribed by rules brginning with Q~ fct'hl~: P. pp. 1 . from Q~ij f&:<:!+J: P. . 'ill~. ~.168. on P.. 44. I.. cf. E. s!T!:l~~1 fctlf>Iaiitl: 1:[1]. 1. 3·1 to 25. VII. R.. For example. affixes ~.vanga and -others. ducing sound. mostly used in the sense of apcient. such as Magadh.words. II.: 'qll!ft"<!~ I ~. Bh.5 Vart. >rlo!jOJ:. X~.tini. prescribed in rules from P.~ a:r.a Mahabbii. IV. Tbe definition of Priitipadika is given by him as a word which is possessed of sense. 4 as also on P.word refei:s to the view given by the writers of the E asildivrtti· and the commentaries thereon . 3. VII.Pl'..r:Hf~+<i)Sil. of . is not found in the Pratisakhya works probably because those works were concerned with formed words which had been actually in use.g. SI'(l1{qIJfJ a gloss on the Mflhiibh1i~ya of 1. affixes sn«tcfF.desert to the s()uth . 202-204 and 141-142 D.jla. V: 3. V. o sn~ lit. prescribed in ru1es fromP. be taken with respect to the place in the context. IV. it refers to the writer of the Prakriyakaumudi in -addition to the writers of the Kiisika. the snmrm'lf name given to tad.ta included them MI. V. .~lf\\1I<!: snFcr'i"f<t'li+J:.18 to lIS. It originally included roots also.which can be so ordinarily.1. The Viirttikakara appears to have given nine kinds- Kas. in rules upio ~ ~~ P. affixes !WtfI~. even though by rules it is liable to be changed. 27 upto P.i9ilfu mr. V.. R. the noun-base and the verbbase.134 and ending with the rule ciimtR=ae<l<n40r0'IT ~ P.lflRri~ I cf. ct. T. SflllT air. E. on Siva Siitra ca~es that his life was at stake if he did 'even the slightest injustice to the authOr of the Mabiibb8. while in the works of Nagesa it refers to the writings of Bhattoji and his pupils~. cf. tbe term SlR'l (eastern) being a relative term. the name lfIO]'i"OJI was given to the gloss as it was accompanied fly an oath on the pait of the author The term 5Itfutrrfct'fi can be explained as m?: "J. in the works of Bhattoji and his pupils. 9r~: litO]: oa:n:ri'j. See 1I1~~ above. 'also W'.rQ the view or doctrine of. This view is held by the . who has given two kinds of bases. 4.~ya.. The word is used ·in·. ct. 1.many commentary books and the meaning of the word is to be decided according to the context. paI}. VII.. M.75. rather than the word lf~ £or speciJic' peculiarities of the eastern grammarians see pp.a works. I. name -given -. Sek. D. is to." 275 ar. cf.mounced ~. affix (5{~ey) is available.. ~. I.a Mabiibbii~ya Vol. 4..and others prescribed in the different 'senses (~tl' and I I 1(" the vowel a:r is prc.S9 dety's Edition. IV. ct.iof which only a fragm~nt '6f'i:c few pages is' available. and Pataliputra. Pr. 3~ 154.lij<r. The~e is areadingtl~~dt in some manuscript.3. Pr.. mnosffil~ s{F~')'lf name given to tad. 9· '1.). although mentioned in tbe BrahmaI. the author of the Prakriyakaumudi .). . The regular division of a word into the basa ( S{~) and the.. written by the famous eastern grammarian Puni~bt. 3.ini's Siitras and the term ~ may refer to countdes east of the river 'iI~I'!dt or tl~ in the Punjab. Q~ICI: ~~ Cfi<T il:. Bh.to tad. also 6 ~~~1I1~~[~': it~lil<I:.lijtii!~ I arl:'!<lT a:rfsct'<l": ~<{. E..senior Sakalya (~:qfct~~Ffi~q). which is 'either -t1. 'which disappears in thesandy. the taddbitanta words and the compound words. ct. 3. which is instrumental in pro~iFI.37.rm<::<fr: ~<!~~:qm~tm fulia-:.1 M. former -or rather oldef grammarians._ of Priikrta Languages attributed to MarkaI}. fct5da~i1 P.i: to 76. For details see VyakaraI. Society's E d i t i o n . t ~ ::- Si'~~q a treaiise on the grammar . 10 9. .wfu. 148I49 Vyakarat.95. 8. ii'{"o. SIl"ft. ~:.tilma­ deva of the 12th cerith'rY.. the Krdanta .. affixes .::~ suceession .:fi~ name given to tad. ·P. still. IV. 2. onll. of course.~ lfl'Cff ~ P.5· $1I14~ n"aOie given to tad.Qeya.' and his followers. 4. rV~"'4.45 to distinguish them as secondary noun-bases as compared with the primary noun ..

I. II.• ' ~Cjfu: @<!5fcr. 1. the Siitrakara mentions specifically with.q 'U~l. which were written before panini.has· here.29. the acute (<rCU~) ~~tr. page 6~ For the seDse conveyed by ~ Pratipadika or nounbase. first:' place. Which recommends the feminine form of the base for an operation. "<. sn1({ a group of words beginni'~g with sf. top of the .30.. 3•. blies .cf. 1. mfuq~Cfi~ the general accent of the Pditipadika viz. d.~ {P.~ 5{Ifoifa-: T.araQCJ. several ancient' . 2. See 277 the' words <iT:. begi~ning of a word and following the final vowel of the previouswordwhi<::h is acute (<rcu~). I~ 2.r +!9frff <1<:: 1liUO: f. nature~ which is . d~ Ciflf~ mfcr1lil "IT ~. wording of a n:o~n-base as in . last vowel as giveIl by the Phit-~iitra fitE{: (5lTtaq~~) OIi'cJ acu'Q: . a. d. d.24. 3.!r'I: >tr:qriJ . OIfq ~'aj'1rtR~­ fi<m!ij~ ~afffl::~~qa. which is practically ~ PriitiSakhya of' tbe Samf1.. and not _1~ jninvers~ order.ve-old · . as the denoted senses of th~ Pratip<l:dika.42. places. 71 . many were combined witb others of the same Veda. also 5Ilfcrq~~9w:rl91lil'IT:! . OI~. for the.Vaet.WwwmTJi't !j&. Bba.·<u:q.notber one on the Vajasaneyi Pratisakhya. SlI~qcp of the first type or kind. q~~ :+r<t 1ir~.tisakhyaJ available to-. are written after PaI). Eh. seeiITffitr~:q. There is a commentary by Ananta Bhatta em.: ~Cfla<!5fcr:.1l1~ Par. Out oftbe remaining ones also.:was also used for the Pratisakbyas as" they were the outcome of the discussions of leanied scbolars in Vedic. Bh. yajvan.l.. ~lso 5{Rr: Wa: I Cifs~it~<i ~rfcttl~Tffi "IT Ki'iS.Uu ~@ . The word "<. d.f1li ' ~:rs~cJ: atT&. The Taittiriya Plati· sakhya has got two commentaries -one by Somayarya. w. 'theV~jas~rieyi Pratisakhya. In the ~kPr1i.1s. it appears that the existing Pratisakhyas. 0{1:f etc. 1li~ 5{m. by . Prak.a .29 Vart. 4. d.specific . . cf. are preliminary. on 1. called Tribha!?yaratna and the other called . Pi. but· sometimes-'as they are conveyed in the absence of a case. T. ~1:lTg'-~~'i:{etc.in the Pada text of the Sathhita as compared ~itb the ru~ning te~t. . standing at the. 'i:{a:<!K~1i{iI . on P.. ~.ot whicA. I. Although the Pratisakhya works in.'Cifg<l1~~q 5fr~i:{~'1it ~~~1li~~~c'ji'l1lif<l+rfui<iifcf 'i:{.j't~:1 5{j!iru'11l9 iO.W. II... 2.nlii · in . VI. Pari. while on some occasions it' is indirectly denoted through the genus or the general. of course. afuciti{i. ~T tbe numbet" and 1lil{Cli tbe case-relation are tbe denotations of the case-terminations.0nes-:-the'~kPrati­ s1i. nor with t~eir etymology. e<{<!G'ii\ITf~fu. the .gS) or in . " Vaidikabb. Uvvata. only five or six Pratis1i. corn· pound. nor with their division into bases and affixes. euphonic changes. Sn~~ '>TIRml~ . topics' of metre. on P • cfi'rFffl.fu<I~(l!ll~o. Ell. 'ffi. . Atharva Pratisakhya.t.~: . vowei.is alsl) called >TI~t~1!f".' the othe'r 'subjects being ·intrdduced iater on~T\ie'woid ~nfu~n~<!'shows that 'thei'ewere "such" for first preference.1.>~ word >I~i{f . II. m:n- i. reverse oi-OIft{. 2. also 0I:q~ .of echQ ~r reverbera. the.Rr~rfcta~T€t lJf<l~~fffl Kas. on. ' These commentaries are called. 3. 1. W. .a. affix as in the words q~. . ~~i!Ff. At present.1lfr Cifsffim etc. P.4· . VI. Just like the . whiGh comes u~er the general head Q(~'l'. and ~~T as noticed res~ectively in w or treatises 'STT~~lcp belongin~. the 3f(fu~ .mouth. wor k on Vedic gr~mmar of a . ~e<j. snft(~m a compound:· with 5f .!?y_as also~ .antithesis. e. >II' qU. euphonic and others. 'SfTfuq~CfiTir denoted sense oia Pratipadika or a noun-base: Standard' grai:nmari~ns' state that thedehota. a learned scholar of 'the twelfth century has written a brief commentary on the ~k Pratisakhya and8. but). 4. 1. reverse sense. ~ and 1f<:1 mean the reverse of OIT. enlarged' editions· of the old ones. IV.n-base •.akhyasrepres~nting. which are all prefixes· or upasargas e. 3. The word ~l.V~da.jT· "IT tiur~( qT M. said to indicate them. ~rfcrq-~Iiir Sr.~ in ala iO.. ~~<lf ~+{'ffil.00~<P-I:\ijTgogiven by Pal)ini. 1. respect .j: Vakya~adiya.e~pressed and not merely described e.means the . the '~~ Pratisakhya.'Tm>rr~<i: P.Sek. fiji<f[ L others prescribed by the rule ~fcr: 5{p.d ed the base is sp~cifically . primary. sl'lfuqfa:~" express mention '.g•.a:r£ i(l!l<r1'T41 51 tR(~a~~ 5!£fu~+<!~ etc. W. the Atbarva Pratisakhya and the B-k Taritra by Sakatayana. cf.' 5lT~~<fi'r IS. on P. ~: and ~(~:. totb~ ro~t.")ft'F{~Q: I M.to the ·nou.j' refers to the in~ivi­ dual' object which sometimes is directly dehoted as in OIlIlijyq~. Pro XX. tion of a pratipadikais fi. 1. Peculiar tiqn viz. tecil:al.khya ~y Saunaka. 2. 'I . ~ach one . they are stat~d. d.kbyas are available which are the surviving represtmtati'. The Pratisakhya works are neither concerned with the sense of words. throat. theTaittidya Pratisakhya:the 'Vajasimey'i PratisiiJihya by Katyayana. mouth and nose.. as opposed 'to secondary. M. · wpich . to works on grammar.ritten by~Gopala~ . 'i:!T~. They contain. Bh. Bhojaraj!l in his SrrigaraPrakasa has quoted the definition .18. ct. d.9 1 Vart. concerned mainly with.j ) 5{rRr~Wlilf..7.s~n~e Of aro. Nir.18 and explained in detail by the Varttikas· headed by the Varttika 5{1&:m ~~ 5{~~<jr p.jr$l!j"<. II. . mfu1i~1li!j~ .. whicb are 'the revised and. chest and others1 ~fsounQ .91*r. while the case-affixes are.llffi~ ltfcr. srrfu~· name given: to the circumflex snfcrqftl:~r<i corresponding to OI~.the~ean- J .~ the gender. everyone of the several Sakhas or branches of each Veda many' of which later on disappeared as the number of tbe followers of tbose brancbes dwindled. d . the changes.j ( «q~l.g.rilhita itself.the case of the· 'declinables. II.:a~d . ~@:. . Vedic' passages arranged' from tbe point of view of Samdhi. ~¢jT and~.276 fJuIq:q. 180. tbe Sa. priority. a~l. ..'~s of the ancient . 2.asSem. f~l. and has given six subdivision&. nature.<!: P. Later on. nd others.ofihe pr. g~~ljm~ n. cf.ini's grammar. I. which gets its orlgm at the navel but becomes reverberated at chest. all~: i M. by description as .esent Pratis. viz.day.g.rrfu. or >IRr . on Po Ill. notion as 'in iIlmlll: ~:. was concerned with . phon¢tic:s and the like are introduced. ~. provi. more or less. Vart. ~Iff~. ~ff .group of words ('Till).. 18.G8IfftlT:. refers)o 'the causal factor of 'denbtati6ti 'i'!f~~~ liich is of four 'kiilc. .W)~~!jT. Of lfT~EfC. Varttikas 39 to 44 on P.:r.. Priitisakbyas.has. The WOfQ tflWi:.rrfu~ ~ilT.' 'ar<i '~fq. appears that originally .Cj~r<lt ~. ·and1liI~.

uttered or expressed KiiS. 279 pIe ::wl in ::Iri{ ~Rt ~'tT: or ~w<ft~ . }f[t<l~. Bh.:if ~ m~Siddhantakaumudi of BhattoJI Dik9Im~ii'tir I' ~ '~i11qlfBif:<J:~~ ~ ~­ ~ita . tad. snfu.authoritative. II. Bhattoji .possessed .JlfT+r I q§ij~~~~T qT Ejg. on P. 3. S11tl{ Cfill I cf. I..:~iT !lil:ol ~ I· Q~~ ~~(f. ~~.by the potential passive participles.It was written by Jagannatha to show that he could also write works grammarians. cf. 1. .{f 3lilrf~a3lTf~€r en ~ft'l~ erG:.pn VIII.. d. the senses wr 'order to. on iT 9g~ P. ~r~ upto the endoft)Je K§. ~ . a word doctrines and explanations given in .! mf. as noticed in the 'rqm~ <It iT~q: I }frtair alit ~ stT{lS\. cf.]0. grammarian frrfl'!Wr ~cf f<ffl:!'6ElIll G. d. fum mr.. 16. Yak. particu-lar form. which is arrived at. }fr'3r~miT: I ~Rr\ ~'l"TmiT:. also the usual expression q'9ifcf . on P.f~sulted from the coa]escenceof two .principal nature .:jf~ is used in contrast with ~<lt~ fu~T~ a -class of words headed by the . 2. The term mtl'.:'l~ I ~ 'lq: ~\: stl'l":qq: ~ "'I ~~f4 ~qfu I aTc:ij~ lit. Cfi~<HolWrl'. III. The work is.{::. IV.. used for such nouns by ancient . 1. ~Hl~OO~Fi leading to the injunction orfcrN~T&I . a~ opposed to the.g. cf. also i=!i{lCf "'I9ltrcT\r{'i" SIl<i~ accentuation..9 2 • ~$~ I srcr<fci~~i1 ~qRi '3":. 80.1. d.Pathasalas before the study ~f the stan (I) appearance. ft'ff~:~ tmS\:q~fcr I "" Bh.... ~C{i'?R$:rr{lSl:j'­ ~~l'f ~Ij~ ~~E['l"T+<{t ~ IV. Cfif!UfcRffair cn4 I O'Q f.meant ..rl'. I. on P. 1. the famous' commeIlta.. also ~ O<!q~m <l'l"fro I SIlqct) applying in the usual way. m1llCiCfi:. . cf. }flMcii ~q: . VI. tion from it of the form that can common.qy~ffi mm~Wi'ti~ I (lltnJ).!l1l~~fif­ !Iq~. on P. 2·7· <It~1 Kas.ful M. simihlr vowels. beginning jts activity after going to the object just al) the sense of sight wbich accorn-plishes the· activity· of seeing on reaching the object. s{fq'lJl S'fIIJ~+fl1ilt or S'fIIJ~~. lit. to refute. !. Dik:. 4.written by the author lii.( 2) thoughtful consid~ration. Spigara Prakasa thing which is to be principally dealt with . 1. usual. fn ~ft?: f. ' . also.1~ also. N ~ t'\ • L Slii!+I<tl't+l1 popularly called-+r. optional prescription of sOlne operation or S'fHn<RJ authority. 2.Bh. R. bhii. pad.<{l M.!cffir.lhamanorama. affix'~'t is added in the four ( :2) a grammar work written by senses given in P.~endusekhara is undertaken. 1. fuITl'. occur}f['l ~fu ~<fitO'lqfct~~.. word sttf~ name of the circumfle?t ~ccent 'qualifying the word Cfill. ' writtenby.:(RT 1. . 1). lR~fq .hiJ.. cf.16.mmfU'lCfil1ol\mr. faulty. r. SlM Cfill . . r. r. 3l«ilq }fr<lt'f"l't ~q~ atful ~fcli. ffi'l'<fclt Cf[ ~ ~~: I M. I. arrival at a ~ general nature.\f. 1. ef. Pr. on P. Jagannatha in. I. prakaraQa only in the Sanskrit on P.a~ I see }fP. ~~ ~qTra:9: .formed by adding the affix '3" in the the P_rauQhamanorama by the sense of' an agent' to a desiderastalwart Grammarian . <rffi f<I~«IT ~[. 0..' 77.1..~'l: M.:~' i ~ .rY on the 91m.26 Vart.67-.ita.of grammarians. incidence.45. Bh.q~ ~'l"}f~\. 4.278 ing ot the iloun (under discussion) cf.~~ 9T I Nir. as opposed to one who knows the form that is desired SI'~ belonging to one who speaks or current. 5. on P.'. rence of a particular rule. lit. to take the masculine' base nature of it.~. ef. VII. do \ 8l1aBii 'permission to do " and mfi'tiT~ff[ • fitness of time'. 2 .2.nfB<!: ~. 'l"Tm~fc:r ~l19Tf6~tr[iT 'q 1M. ~a. <i~ mir¢riT 8l~ 8lr*.:ftiTt }frl1l0l:l~ S.- those that talk with authority. ·~}frl3(i'{to explain fully i. named CakrapaQi of the Se:.{:.~Qq: err }frm: ID SlRliil<.Cf ~5l'.1 be arrived at. to be done at pleilsure .l. d.1. the word ~I'l. the word S1)"tli is used as e. Bh. KiiS. cf.grammatical ct. V. Bh. ~1.{q I S'ftmfu. }fffir~qrm.. on P.~aka­ e. on manner the popular grammar P. Bh. arrival. as for e~aDl.r" ~(~~ ~~~'l: M.ci. the being Seen Sabdendusek hara and the -Parior understood.16. Pr. ef. refutation' of th~ sr1.34 . The work is not a ~icholar1y p~ HI.1.. on II M. On account :of the qifficult pound. or consideration.ll. d. 2. on P. S'fTfIJ. ~fc. 13 2 • which is to be reached. on P. reaching..mself qlfu!l~ I ~ ~l'."{original Samhitapatha . .16. as . other than what is referred to.56 .l:. IIO •. For details. also M.. I.e. !:Irtrf~Cf) . 1."{: ~lQ M. I ~~- . or says. on P.wt~ ~T<T~ . Kas. on VU. P. M. 1. Bb.Bh.l Nil'.70.secondary to' another sr{.a family 1. V. }freT~TfB<r: <J:~. tive root by the rule t1clm~fu~ \3":. 1. Bh. }fMt~1 ~'6r.%". 4·53· with a fault. used by ancient grammarians for the imperative mood or ~ of paQini.j'J a person who knows only tbe application of aruie and the realiza. the famous poetacd. -another commentary on the Sidword f~<iT which do not allow their dhantakaumudi by Vasudevaprevious word in a bahuvrihi coma dik:. inclusion· of a thing even though it possesses an' additional factor. l3h.!~~ fcrcnt1{ mel'. 12. XVII. . s?bordinafe o~e ( f9~EjU]Ccf ) .168.. Bh. ct. on P.8. d. VL3:34. pad. on V. i!1!lccurate. I. as for 'example in fw. I .' d. . an object Cf[ iI~fil'r I V. see Kas. IV. general public.'Sf~ optional. the arguments of BhCl-ttoji sr~~ a class of words to which the Dik~ita in his PraUl.ifi!l-ir f.80. also ~~lja~l~ I }flaFc1~q(9t1. \ a tenD. lflt!jCfi~.ita.. The term 5rC~ was' .. .{I <R<I ~l~t fcl~'1lU]f ~..g.29 .~ desiderative adjective. }f[rn~ ~qlntf?Ill: iT .48• . III. Sl'mTfOrefi . it is usual to read the by the rule Rill'. d. . ll~'6t !I. 3. rhetoridan iT!tI't. 1.:r: I.n· a scholarly . SI~R'I.{T: !j9(f. on P. mG+r~O"Gif (I) a .{ is defin!!d as fS!illT\!iafi!l~EjWi<TaT <lift: &i<ll'.Fft. ~i\" fcn:tT"fl1 }f(afi!l+rlitlj~lfclil'{~il' }frm0lll<r. cf.one and it has got a tone of banter. a phrase of~en used by' commentators. i~ which possessed by a vowel which has recase iUs called. rule which otherwise is obligatory. Bh. ~ ~~ possessed of the masculine gender. ct. d.56 Vlirt. cf.5f\1f0l~: M. d.application of a rule.{: ~~TI('f'tim <l'l"fff ffis~~ work written by a . 0'It'f ~(U ~ij~}frt~ ~ii'tiT 8l~'l~ ~ Bf<r~nmf. 'l Q. cpo Viik.26. sn~ preponderanc. ~~ ~q~T . e. alq. 17 .joft ~ "r\.{Ill~ anit~ }flirli~ M. 4. cf.

~ta-.of HeJii. If. d. . is sometimes used for er. IV. affix 0J'0l. 1.arid ex- qjSf' " .. as vowel' of the word. possessed of properties 'IIt8. III. m: I 6l'cl: ftcfimft~~1t !:OGiJolll+(titcf. crrl'flil<fi1Cl~: etc. P. 1 r gr~p. ( 2) the affix tfi for which a:rt<i01 is always substituted as ~ an ancient writer vf a Pratigiven by Pii:Q.. e.. tt'f. matical injunction. IV. \ nunciation. tt~:. Pro 1. d. For a difference 6£ vIew he is quoted in the Taitti'Ii (I) the letter or sound ~.<::r&. IV. 6..280 on Grammar and the-bearded pedant . 7-65 also belonged to Ph ullaraJa. .IfiUJg:..Tf.". whicb belong to the Cfir~r." ~~~ [FADDEGON.6i<IiT~~tq<O~'$tI: P. sense of grandchildren arid their' There is an anonymous commento issues to words Ol'll and others. d. . P. cf. _~II. . r60. two-syl36 labled words ending with SlOT.80. affix ~ for effecting the ·lfi~ (I) fruit or benefit of an action which goes to the agent.:rr~UJ:. 2. e. The initial letter ~of all the affixes beginning with ~ in PaQini's grammar is always' changed into a:rt~. The vowels in tbis' grade which are termed protraCted vowels are possessed of three matras and it) wtiting they are marked with the figure 3. cf.34 to 4..g. affix.. an ancient ~ta. also to the word +Iii. I. <1 ~~~: aT being added for facility of proT.7. <if«:. .. 21 • The letter cr.tbe. also the word lfiR being added for facility of utterance. 3.~ to which the tad. l cft€JfuI~: tffif ~~ il (-I ! . d.fe: ~fu<n~ iflW ~ . .g.beginning w:th the words ~falt~li<fI~~ on Vak. d. e. I Ahnika I.no and III.. vowels . to v::ord~ qr/Wr anq.? I'aI)ini's Grammar takes the Atmanepada affixes when tbe fruit of tbe activity is meant for the ~gent.n ~ccents aftri buted to Santana va.' . ( 2 ) The word ~ also means the result of a grammatical operation or. IV. it is als~ added in the same sense of (offsprlOg) to the words Rlcn and others as also to . cf.. ~ . cf. I. 7.~ffi prolation or protraction of a vowel when it is possessed of three son Hari Dik!?ita.r a ~OO~a. and CfiU6~ffi!T.- 281- plained as ~~ ~fcr.Ttwll. i\lulI<iil:.":: . Wl!f1lfcffi'tllilFf ~e(I"I\tiIffi~oij~ I cf. ttl~l<illl:. 1. ~~ d. affix 6IFlfrr in the sense of offa:rTii~i1:~ +rM<illl: cf. . word cf.g.<. and otbers e.I50. Pr.raja's :. . is added in the sense of' a fruit' etc.ya also. . If. The Laghuq~M. in P.rtJT an ancient Vedic scholar who presumably wrote a work on Vedic ~ hard labial consonant. placed 'after them.. tfiuJ§:. ~q. ~:. tad.OJ:.. word t::(!.sakbya work quoted in the Taittiriya Pratisakhya. cf. 2. on P. . sabdaratna is widely studied along with the PrauQhamanorama in the ~ a class or roots headed by the Pathasalas. -The words tii>tf~ arid tii>t~F!lll as also ~l~ (feminine) occur in the Mahabha. aTl!lRh:<i: 'f. IV.frrll!f etc. The tad.g. ~ _ i IV. R.as . The commentary matras. VII. KiiS. 2.not be proud of his profound sCholarship in -Grammar. . ~t~-t. for whichschol~rs use the expression qOj<!t~i{:. ft1i and~.'ffg: VaiyakaraI)a-bhfi~ana..IT~Ilj:. "1'''1:. spring added according . to the word ij6' and others as 'also to the words ending with the affixes <lot and ltot and words~. tfi (I) tad. 4~I25. root t[ which get their vowel shortened in the four conjugational ~~Tfc( a class of words headed by the tenses as also before the pers.d. . on P. ~:.Ir59. _. Pr. cf. ~mr!n the Sense of offspring e. 3. IX.80.<1 wJ1ich is an abridg¥1ent of the tffRr f<t~: I <fITll' ~!l g feimll<[ <lfi ~*:n<iliti author's work 'l~~(<{.vowel of the word to which it is applied. a common term for the affixes '~ ~ third letter of the labial class which is soft and inaspirate. part. See ~SZI<iuI above.-fuil!f.Bhattoji should . 6l~ II R.. (2) as a caturarthika . Tf. as aryupon it .Tt~~~ possibly by his followers 'or even by himself..f tad • affi x aTt<i1iT app1"led to the " ' . "'== Cfirtr<i<fR:!r.. . ~.g.UlTft{ .~~' above. Nothing is known about him. while otherwise it takes the Parasmaipada affixes.. who has written a book 'Studies in PaJ. marked with mute 'lfu substitute for the initial. ~ a small work C. §fclTRf. 31. I. affix ~ is affixed (I) in the sense of iTtm~ grandchild and his issues. applied in the the 'laUer has not referred to him.. 6lT-'IlI<r-l: {q. The work of Jagannatha was named +r. B.is derived from .lini's Grammar '.'16.67-70 t"o the wor. gram.' pad. name given to vowels in the protracted grade. to the +!IlRl 'iiTer. have been put and the scribes write VI. . ~<{:. VII. I. Kas. d.ini. The word ~~ is often found for tff~ ~m in tbe Priitisakhya works. first conjugation and which have ~ptionally their vowel aT changed ~m a little known commentator of mto v: and the reduplicative syllable . I. I. See tffif is called ~~~t<l' or simple.' A?"aIn the . c. others.27. aspirate of l!.g. 17. A _~oot which' is given as Ubhayapadin I. itar etc. P. ~T<iif:. . e.. 1. af. but not in the Ga:Q.ii)o<iTt[T~<n\.apatha of pa:Q. aTm.·'f P ~<iUJ:.r:. §Cfc'(.99-r03.o-r". also lilSff l$~llmr'Wcf!ll[TiOt. Q and _ 'l:'§3Q' prGtracted.. the perfect tense before the affix l{l!f commentary on Vak.AREND] a .2. Vakyapadiya. pad.~_ the root q:. Eastern grammarians to words not If. ct. and ~ the letter ~" the vowel ar. word. _ -. scholar of Sanskrit Grammar.. the vowel riya Pratisakhya. sakhya works). to g~.g. IN[grammar ( of the type ofthe Prati>I"('l1t1T.. . ~M:. Bh.commentary .To fill up the gaps ( Ol~<ntf) dropped.1:.ith ot causing Vedic scholar who lived before the Vrddhi substitute for tbe initial Patafijali· if not before Piil.tff (~ also) I Atmane. 11: or alr..g.j I commentary on tfffthfT~q f<I~~ ffl: Bhatt<* Dik!?ita's PrauQbamanorama written by Bhattoji's grand.ds ~ P'IV ' ''V . e. ~ill .:r Of {q. affix ~ marked w. e.164.lini. a:rJ<f: etc. e. P. remarks of this:commentator and '. especially when it stands at the beginning of a word.g.' The word. in the forms of' crt)ated by the loss . on P. Pr. In pronunciation they take a longer time than the long or <tlif. IV. T.a class of seven roots h~aded by be~nning with aTT.. .. \Veak affixes.ini in P." Po affix in the four senses mentI'o'ned tt.

non-occurrence or non-application of a bahi~ is added in the four senses given ratiga rule or operation before the by PaI)ini in IV.tifitTG:~<it~ which depend upon a word which bas entered between two constit. Pro X. _ For the various kinds of er~WCf see'the word alrQ~ wller:~ the kinds of· 31. e. the second pada of the sixth in connection with a grammatical adhyaya of PaQ. ~~ ~~ (I) a class of words headed by. d. Pari. 20.2r.' sive tad. Dr.:[Urt9" are given. <fffie<f'l. As the utterance of \" proceeds from the socket of the teeth. on P. • to a considerable extent'.which discusses the problem of the Aindra grammar. ~. rules of grammar.' almost full'. ~«f( . ~'O. Bh. arfe:il: if~~~~UJlFQ~~iiT M.<:rmt cf. 1. I.QTf. in the explanation given WIi\'~ aoove is' questionable.!t9il''lRi. iiOI.. affix ~~Ef invalidity i.I. the word erfufji ed here by the commentator as ~q~~m!!:iiN~!l l:ffifil~ 3ltifi~ '"I' liRCIf: ~ I The word . Sek. ~~ffi~{ the accenLpeculiar to. the qsef1~ql~ conventional' term used for word is used in the rules of PaI)ini . ~~~ P. I.158. . . ~qfb:neiT the .d ~"L. VI. cf. ~~ ~m4 ~ffi Uvvata on R.6"7-70. but has stated that a compound other than those already given viz.r "'II R. cf.iJ~lffl:. 4. t ii!~QTq name given by grammarians to the third pada of the third adhyaya of tlie Af?tadhyayi.cH~ and 31q-~ C!l~.. ~ciT er~~ a compound similar in meaning to the word . This superiority is decided generally on allY one or more of the four recognized criteria such as 'CfWf. 'lSCfi:j'ii"L.282 ~ -[ BURNELL. The phra!!e aFQUf.r1~iit ~Tfur tl+rTW~fo!~: ~~~\:lT<T erg"lf ~+ft~<{:qg~ ~ i:{({fia j Com. ers. ~~T­ '!~fij'. IS. is '!Sm~.. Mahesvarasiitra i. on . plural. Pal)ini in his grammar has not given any definition of '!S. in spite of the general rule that a compound word See P.. external) .. lit. 4.<if<i'l:. a . and af.34 etc. 7. Clffi~ cf.76 . I 6 . He is also known as Balarama Pancanana.ral number. the word "'I in ~<!~ <in "'I ~~ ~<!"L.21 and ~~-qr ~ "'I O[~: VI.Z.r1iT >rn:i~ ~~.'f&<ifft. 85 Vart. Rg. very frequently occurs in the Varttikas and iu the Mababhii. rule or affix or the like that is seen necessarily applied in some cases. 57. ~>ftffl:. ct. Pro III. cf. iJ~if a 'rule or operation which is er~~~ ( lit. 4. III. IV.aq-~ '"I' M~(£!+lifil(ifiR~m!l or~lI­ 'lq~~Rr T. (3) a compound word ( lR ) made up of manyconstitu~nt words. II.. I the specific peculiarity noticed in the various cases. JI. t:i.g. on P. the affixes of the plural number applied to noun-bases as also to root_s. upon as stronger occurring earlier P.49. 2. II.1. f<l:.~. ar=Cj~Cf. II. II. Prato V. 2. The expression <iSmfher~ in this very sense is used in the Maliat>r~: !fi~if~: !Ii'.67. ~~ffi (I) consisting ~. er~<ilCJ:. iifS9. ~:. 3. ·also ct. B6. tad. e. . P. 7.g. There are various kinds of the Bahuvrihi compound such as tll'fTCl1~CW1ersmfu. antaratigaoperation which is looked ~~.ini:s Af?tadhyayi.arre!'~.uent words of a compound by splitting in a way the compound e.P. by the first member.. 50) which cites the comparative weakness of the rule or operati'~m which is Bahirariga.136 . ~ ~Wt (written as GffiC"~ or mil possibly through mistake in the printed Calcutta Edition) . VI.' e:g.\>rifil:(l' on the Dhatup~tha of pal)ini.4 2 . Pr. the cause (~ft!~) of which occurs later in place or 'time than the cause of the other which is called . cf. Saiva-oriented gram'mar work where vowels are called Siva and consonants are called Sakti. "Ref is explain- relative superiority instrength possessed by rules of grammar or by operations based on . suffix 'Is which is always prefixed to a noun in the sense of almost complete'. 4.62. is used by PaI)ini in an such cases. the word or~. 4. V. a relative or adjective compound. cf. The wor. on P. VI... ~+i is used in grammar in connection with a rule or operation. See~. variously applicable. :1'.57. Ras.g. Veda IX. 1. or the maxim . many. the word is used in the sense of abundance also.n+<{ q~llll' 'llG:.~rn:+rlllT !Ii'~~ I . . 2.32. <if[ll"<iiIQlf. II. cf. U yvata as <![ilT q({l<lr wfrr ffifrr ~ +r\O<!l'Ril~ "'I <IIR 31m. a fault in pronunciation of the type of rougnness or barbarousness in the utterance of the letter \. cf.e.:Q~~f{eI~~'l: >riW ~~ appears better although apparently CItE! is written in th~ text for '!~~ or CltW.' cf.68. Pr. optionally applied in a few other or specifically mentioned in the cases and not at all applied in the case of the Bahuvrihi compound viz. 2. has the last vowel accented acute 4·39.aqf{eRi.:rif ~~ the plural number. connected with the socket of the teeth. optionally with it does.f?ya. XIV. iIJf( and ffi~. >rtTT<lt <rg<itf{: M. etc. Bh. 4.. or in the wording. 2 Vart. an operation or rule which is characterized as o[N~~. ~) <!~~: II.62 and VII. I. (2) a class of words to the mind. ar. ~"I. M.· the usuafexplanation of ~ given i.12 Vart.20. 73. 3. 1. C<J~'!S~. I. II. V. <!s>rn:iRr q~ Vaj. Bb. . &lfl1'fT ~ 'Is.e. \.rl'~. I. V. III. Kas. on P.. 18.!~ij': >r~ <i'!. in sense shows quite a distinct object than those which are shown by the constituent members of the compound. all cases mentioned above.80.arr<:jtTG:I!!T. arffi~ er~~~IF(j~~ (Par. II. Bh. 8. is called ~. cf. 1.Paribha~a iFiit Fcilf(~~ I '!S>rn:ira-rmr M. ~I:. 1. (2) a compound in which the constituent words are all in the plQ. to which the tad.I7. the explanation given by Uvvata in his comment on ~cii ~fro ~ R. 84. m M• Bb. iJ~~ 283 the regular affix q. ·ers. Clr<:j+J:. ~. affix +m:. I. .' explained by writer of a gloss named "lff. on P. by grammarians in the lines !fiR!'VI. 'lS!lsT ru~T. . bhaf?ya ct. the consonants l\. cf. 011 P. ct.2r. r.e. viz.] a European Sanskrit scholar who hal'! written a learned booklet 'Aindra School of Sanskrit Grammarians '·. the retention of its own accents other cases still. ~ and <:. . ct. short term or pratyahara ~or the consonants from or to mute ~ in ~he r of a large number of verbal parts in derivation . <!s~ <!~~ P. '!~ ~If. Pr. as headed by tre which take the posses. i.~ (possessed of much rice·) which.~m:. and cited under Bahuvrihi .. 2. . also M. 18. 3. on P.r qf{<.23-28 . He wrote PrauQhaprakasa. Bb. cf.r ~ 0<:.

e as Cf['Cf. a class of words he~ded by the word ql~ to which the tad. lit. Bh. pa!). of the word ~. 2.. II.1.g who h~s written the commen.<i:N ~l&lut . 3. be applied again.applied. 14.ontains three. the word is used in the sense of depending on many causal factorst~fi:r­ 'mf. Gf1<1'i+1'if)~.however. <IS:. is used many times in connection with the external effort in the production of articulate sound. IV.comparatively modern .g.ft name of a gramrnar work written by Balarhbhattaof Tanjore. also ~~q~ll!~ OfcRl~ml1f Cf{l!~i(f is used. x-ather rarely. I.62. pad. IV.at grammarian and identfcal with ~£f<'!T:. 0ftl9!<{~3f Cff'Cf'li'R:-l Par. on P. is for ever set aside 'and cannot. the word occurs many times in the siUras of pa!). Vak.<tImf ~ e!t'itse!tqrS~q>rlUJf li~>rlUJ ~~fS~I'G: ~ttcr~fcr I S. onP.) is added in the sense of a. cf. VI. sr.8. 3. gre. 1. rule has been applied. ~r~q::j~~UJf ~~<:­ ~st -t:f l. This kind of a:r. Some. ' qj(!iqTf'cTcfr (I) name of a grammatical work ascribed to Balambhatta of Tanjore.50. Along of the CfTi?liorarr-er (I) a popular recast of the Candra by Kasyapa studied in Ceylon. rules for arriving at the correct forms (l1:E~qfur1.'9~1.ficfi\f06<<Il~m . 4. Gf1~51.:. sense of an offspring. GjI-ert~ij~'U Gfl~ ( WTfo'I') external effort.or arr.~. almost in the place of the usually used won:} GfN.7S.schollus say that he was also a. etc. also cf.Bh. .jll~ i2Ii21:ir~lt~­ ~l1TiI <IS! '. the Vaiyakara!). Pari. if ~. called Balambhatti after him~ (2) There '. I. On P.of the word <IS out of which plurality' is the sense usually seen.W respectively.j ~\~.-o~~®WCCf. 2~83.:ft an d GfI<1l1:. 1. is not added. on P.:I<l~ ~ f.m~& fcr~tf:m~UJ Gfl'Cf: Par. fern. 3.l~ ~ G{2l Cff'Cf<hl +r'lfcr. dependipg on 'many.:rq~<ii 41'lfu· J. or Gffu.<!. the rule set aside. ~lflif!5l1"<lti q~r. Other scholars believe' that Balambhatta was the son of Vaidyanatha and that he wrote only the commentary on 'MWik!?ara .I18. while in GfNT the presence of it is to be inferred.67. aRi\l+r. II. a grammarian of Tanjore. a special rule which sets aSide a general rule. II. 73. but a rule or operation which is '1<': ( cited later).:. ~n'tl1 a refuting statement. (2) a small grammatical manuaUor beginners by N arahari. Patha of 3~'it~if~'l Pari.1lmf cr. as for instance. sublation. q. cpo Pu!).abhii~ana. VI. In many sutras. on'Pari. I.g.o!fym of arqqr. cf.: grammarian of Tanjore who has written small grammar works Cf[(?<fl fc:r.66. cf. II. Bh. VI. 3.~ca:l1<l~T '.rr name of a commentary on the Siddbanta-kaumudi of Bhattoji Dik~ita by Vasudeva Dik!?ita. as different from the internal effort arl+o/cH:Il<R. ~f~ a class of words headed by <IS to .of. Sek. In GfN the. or 3F(R~ sets aside the rule or operation which is ~. There is 8:1so another commentary cal!ed Balamanorama written by Anantadeva on the Siddhanta-kaumudi.' which .3-78. Sek.Vedic Literature as also in the works of standard writers. Sabdakaustubha and Bba~yapradipodd­ yota.' ¢f.2.. III.K. . cf. <!~1. Gf'~<:1'. of the stated rules. cf. The external effort is described to be consisting of I I kinds..fT ~Cf <lT6T~: Par. III.yaraja on Yak. V. ~ .e<R<l<!m~Ri" ~~~qf msfu 'Cf mellfcr Cff~i:li<r M. a.32. 2. . 77. on Pari.73. It is like Laghusiddha.1. with (?!'JUJ8t!~~ it was lost early" probably a few years after. . the~words ending in ~ in this class take the fern. ~~qrq~ ~C~9 q~ I Par. Pari.:. IV. The word also ~eims 'collection. Gf'~ setting aside... . Sek.:ft.disapproved by .bled. cf.<iT c:. a very important position in respect of the application of grammar. 2. 57. ~q lit .tary CfiI~Cfil or ~ on the Paribba!?endusekhara.lere are many senses .ini' has put the word ~~ to arrive at such forms .can' be .Sek.g.'1m. See ijT<i>+r~ ( 2 ).ir . or more. <1m: . in the . or g(Cl. mi?l~~ (Gfl. is not added.8S.Bhartrhari's death. see p~_ It I. cf.39.aRi":.. sublation. cf. . III.§J. Tl.:. which cannot be explained easily by the regular application. 77. 285 l{fcr I Cf['Cf~c:ri~ +rf9oo <i m+TRF<tf%:a:& .Jge. . ~"l 'n~iH <U Fer~<':l\+l. if possibleaHer the speciaJ. on the Laghusabdendusekhara and commentaries on . cf. cf. 58'GfNCfcC<t the sam. ijls~* ~~~~~: ~[l!8ff'Cq<!­ ct.Ia or PiiyaguI. generally .' cf. this sublat. II.nta- ~rw. VI. 84 etc.:a I cr~T "ftr arfu.' ~<u+"<{r .. tical rule as a necessity to arrive at some forms in literature . 4. GfI\:lCfi is used as a syn. on P... 1-45. This iifTl:<ICff<fCfillT'i 9ccupies .ini. 51. '. M..1 •.Bh. 76. (2) name of a commentary by J agaddhara on the Ka tantrasutra. was also a . affix aH (. 57.io_n is described to be of two types~( I ) complete sublation w'hen . ~~i! 1M. on P. 3. by the maxim called o~­ <@fo~~. the term . .especially in the . e.. 5.I. Kas.am.21. cpo arl~('lltffi­ ~~ ~fcr WlRl. q.::jqJ in case ~ which is optional. etc. although as a matter of fact.:i5~) kaumudi.multisyllq. has written a commentary .14g. IV. while 'ls~ cannot have it. the meaning. Gf1~ general rule is actually stated before. affix ~ (6~) is added to fortn the feminine base. . other words remain as tht/ are. a word which c.' q~if¥{ltCfI~qltr~Cf<U: . affix l1: (il:ot. ~~l! which is found in the ~S1(~<lUJ shows tbat the word ~ can have the affix ~~ (~) added to it . pad. on P.47. 1.ril!f. The sublation or <!1'Cf'lit'i is not only iIi the case of ffil'llr<IM~I"'!­ +rJ'l and ar<19Cfif~('l as given above.. <'!rcdrr ~"lT( I CfiI~8~l:j'fcl~~ cr~'ffi ~!i~1I<f it ~"l~ M. "Tl1F.lGfT\:l'!i+rTGf. ~~s <i t q~~: I 3R~9 ~T(?~ qa~ I o£f~ I ~lm c:.:~'Cf[ I for'll<:: ti<m:: . who. ~<! does not necessarily mean' the absence of another word such as Gf[s~q. GfTS~ a word' which is given along with the word ~lilj~l! to show that the presence of one'particular word in language.'<f l1:fcr 1M.'CP 6i'~Pif lit. the . Bh. ~~'l Cff'Cf: I oS! G[I~ ~'i~ <l~~~. NageSabhatta. on the commentary Mit'ik~ara on the <\(~'l~<lt'ifq. Gfr~~l!Cc!~?rCfii.284 "I&"'!! . than three vowels.r) and given as the definition of a kind of qft~ by some grammari. III.aside.'IT Gfi'Cf£ r (!lUll). 1.• the Cidasthimalii. setting aside. e.'I~:qT a{"l'l~G:I~'l qT\:l'!icf ti:i~<! (ar<'!ffi~~reR<I) ~Wlfu. of section KaIJQa third Va~yapadiya. cited by Kaiyata is.srrfR~fu o':t[ +rqt~Cf <!:. that which sublates or sets asi¢le. the application of a 'gramma. '9~.10g.f qJ<j~. on Pari.· Cff~cmf­ .~fq ·~Wf <i:M. ( 2 ) temporary sublation when the' rule set . P~ II. ans . the word T surnamed Paya'guIJc.24· Vart. cpo Vak.) and grammarians have laid down a number of Paribha!?as in the field of <!jl!l. pad.

ent principle. potency. ~~Wl~. word f.) . 1. ~OT keeping.~'{ a Jain writer of a grammar f. iffi:::. 3. and in'tersiitras by Sarvavarman. 8frr(H<:~~ according to some philosophers of grammar. For details see R. fcl~~g ~~~. ~m: B51~<r l:t~~i. seed. 2. 32. marians who' lived before him. 1.Ig.~. 10 4.57. d. Bhartrbari in his Maba~ bha~yadipika calls it· work. 620. found in Gujarat. It has got further subdivisions known as S.57. ~~snre. affix such as ~ or the image given as an explanation of like is placed after them. ~:. (2) mental inclusion. ' fcl+lRil 8fIarf<!$j. i:liIl4<ai[ift. 1. Il8 Vart. preservation.organs. 1.5iitra. inclination.on Katantra has written the <a1fC~. cpo o!Rll'1ft-. ~':fl~ 0I:jq1t:u~ I (~. tbe commentary was written by &1~cr the grandson of Bhattoji.uiskrit scholar of the present day who has been the General Editor of the Mababharata published by the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. where the author w~rks on it. l:tr. III. Bh •. cpo T vak pad. He belonged to the Svetambara sect and was a resident of Jabalipura.<aq:ffim~qrif~ 'lTo I on Pa.4. <film: et c. cpo Vak. himself remarks . cpo 'fii~or :q!ijG. VI. . 84. III. "l etc.fhi latent force. which is named < Systems of Sanskrit Grammar'. mental another tad. studied at the Pathasa1as all over ~aQasara by Mannudeva.t e+rltlI'f<l ~~.' a ~~: ~ ~B~<J:IiTu]I: ~T<lT: product' or < a part' . mental understanding. e. I. Pro XI.that he himself ( 11) name of a gloss . His work _ is available in rr. 1. this single padas and 36 syllables. d. 14. ~~~I<[~ ffi elarf<!oOl:jr M.:~ anusvara. e.'l~ the same as mmt~ or 1Il'!:ill ~ • a bigger terminology as contrasted St~«I~ 't:f t~ilJ'l. tiT'!:.153.rm.. ~ a class of words headed by .on~: "l'lm II ~fcr ~I~r cruifs!1:~R~ Kat. pad.g: notion. on P.\:~­ m- with <i5~tf:VT brief terminology such a: ~.618. as well as abridgements. cpo Vak. 1. to which the tad.. cpo f+lrilT: f?n<I~&JUII: ( 8fOI. for which ( latter) PaQIDlls very particular. ~:r:. Cfil~<jlf:. but it is only the reon P. The work is called <al'!:~{t<1 in contrast .alrcr:. on III.:li&:iitll~uft or '<iU~l'!:m.g.t oi:{'itl1<r: I M. UQadi and Linganusasana sections. 14. Bh.286 descendant. r. mquu ~@~ 't:f i\20Ii: I Laghusabdaratna.] A European grammarian who has written ~~~~~m a single united mental concept of the different senses of several individual words . f.. For details see Bhandarkar Ins. so that similar words. type of understanding as contrasted with the activity of the sense .f:. ct. d. 9. cf. Kas. I. with the <i5~~{if of the same name of a commentary on author ( ll:~<ft~) which is generally .t *crcrrmiia<i5~:Uc. :n~. d. Kas. Kas. He· has written a book on grammar reviewing very briefly the various systems of Sanskrit grammar. In the case of such words as are not names of sages. ancient list of basic ~or~s.:tn::r~f!jT a grammar work written by Ram"'anatha Chobhe. B~'IiI~+TT'liiT 1.g. '<iqReTC\<a~. <IT <rt small. Of:.g. Cfliff. Was written by NagesabhaHa~ who ascribed it to his preceptor Hari detailed Dik~ita.spoken as connected together.g. ~. 287 an essay on the last three Padas of PaQini's A~tadhyayi (~qW) under the title < The Tripadi '. Poona. M. e. the eighteenth sent. . the word foi<i'!9l the affix ~<I (~) placed after which is elided when ~~~t mental concept. 37.ss. His grammar is called Paficagranthi VyakaraQa as it has Dhatu. ~~~<l:. Journal Vol. .. 4. cpo ~<>. capitulation of differ~nt events ~<i'i~ a class of words headed by the occurring one after anothe~ cpo V~k. I i{oT B\:"fR1ll~ • Uvvata on R.r~..TIW of l®~~. <ai[e§Q:l.:~!!WI­ <ft"lrlir I (~r.rr.) work who lived in the eleventh century. 'l&~ a traditional writer of SabdaparayaQa. after which it is uttered. d. on P. IV.i\<i.OI:jq~~<[ . KOQ9 a bhatta's VaiyakaraQabbfi_ . af ~~R: I 8l9iR ~~ '3'C'qn.l~Tfu: a class of words headed by the word ~i{ to which the affix Of (Ofot. cf. The words in this class are mostly names of sages. an. letter pronounced only through the nose. on P. . paspasahntka. cpo Mahab?a~ya. on P. foi<icn ~ or Time by the Buddhists who say that Tlme is not an independ<l~!jt :afro foi<icr::fir cr~<lt "l'!I: ~9\I: 'Kas. The work ~~ is called also Mantudeva. Pro XVI. affix Of pad. ttit:flw. but tbe belief is not correct 'l~fu (i) Hemacandra's commentary on his OWn Sabdanuas proved by a reference in the sasana. 3.. cf.tL.56 Vart.g6. On P. There are different Nyasa Laghusabdaratna. 4. ~f. ' ~ . fier!?::. activity of the mind of the . could be explained. mental. 258-260. and it is stated as a definition of <il'f<[.fi.133 Vart.:cr{~ I or Of<:~«lq~R6~<i1 "l'!m~ SIffim M. GaQa.qi-nrr'~1I(Ef: etc. The bigger terms such as ~cfijHi. 'l~~~ a learned commentary on the com~entary +r. IV. II.i. lfIm: etc.U w. on P.~IG. aHtlt~?t <a~-e§ei'{\f.) ~<?l [BUISKOOL H. 8.rill=G ~wfrQ I u. pad. Some scholars believe that it century. nal evidences show that ~:u~~~ is sometimes a word-for-word s~m­ mary of the <ai['T:§ei'RCif. pp. who lived only in a Manuscript form at prein the latter half of. e. Bh. III.{t<lo21l~~:U a 'l~ a Vedic metre consisting of four ) \ .) is added in the sense of a grandchild and further descendants.~.:(qRI'Iui ifl+r !:I"~: I 'l~§~~~~ called written by <t9~'1.<iilI'!<illT and f~qrrq'n.r ~m: a:rFcr~T~l'IS.' . cn~~: etc. IV. a dot to indicate the nasal phonetic element shown in writing above or sometimes after that letter or vowel. the affix Of is added in the sense of the offspring and not any descendant. not included in the class. BEL V ALKAR] a well-known S.i. lR~q~ and others are evidently borrowed by PaI)ini from the ancient gram. d. 3 1-37.r. E. 8fT~tj'i'{. The class called CfTiiJl!?: is looked upon as an~fai[1lj on the strength of the word 't:f in the rule.3. There are three padas of eight syllables and the fourth has twelve syllables. who was the country. is added in the sense of . . ~<?lq<'b'%( mental concept is the internal word ~'ii a gem appearing big on account of its powerful light although it is (SHRIPAD KRISHNA . cf.136. 5. Eh.

. viz. nunciation when a letter is so hurri. 1. the Pi atisakhya: ". vbwel-otWithtpe ·consonant '!. which it bas been prescribed as an _Although the restriction in the inst_~ugment ).t:j a technical term for the vocative case in the Jainendra Vyakaral}a. He ·tried to improve upon taddhita affixes as begin with any Pal)ini's grammar.<l~ w. On this account some Echo. or Kal}<. VI.!24. also U.ini given to a commentary named CJil+iiit~ or Cfile<jnoun~base. He is also the ~ . IV. apa:~t or -portion (of is quoted to illustrate ther. named Ak. by the Mimamsakas.dakaustubha and others. kinds of vidhi. 4. and in a way it contains . ~~ I BUhler.Pr. <n<:J!]. [BOH1LINGK.who also wrote on Grammai topics.a e. .ini system who flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century and wrote many independent book!5 and tommentaries such as the . make up-_half-ama. 2r... whUe the remaining half is +ritfii surnamed Dik.rr~ following. I7 . -'. with the vowel aT ad~ed for facility of author of the well-known w·ork utterance.:r~H:. -(2) atechnical'term in CfifErCfi~1l on which he has written a the Grammar of PiiI)..! . a:r and the affix CJil~ added for facility 'of utterance.Cfi'lQ:. they cite only two sense of' a piace 6£ r~sidence '. T.Siddhantakaumudi. - r ~fui (I) . who has written short gloss in German on PaI)ini's A~tadhyayi under the title .cf. treatise on Sanskrit Grammar. It is contended by ·the grammarians that the consonants \. but never separately noticed in it. is generally us~d ·'for this the final vowel or consonant of a 'bhakti' is-'ajbhakti i instead of -pada (a word e-nding withatase-. ~'[tJ~ name given to the first section n: Gfr~n~<$.first or -third consciriant. d. base termed +r +rf&:lQ' lit. Bh. nant' exceptirg <Ij just as .!'tcfr~ ~: I cpo Vak. I.288 289 George] -a versatile German scholar. Vart. Vak pad. I. His grammar had a wide spread in Hengal and it is -today a very ~ fourth letter of the labial class which is possessed of the properties common text on Grammar in _Cfi116B. or placed after.[craT. forming re::. forming its irriportar. 437 alld-'the 17. i3~1:q.. is the Siddhantakaumudi. the Prau<. Pr.(qt.: which is -Brahma according to Gramm-arians . the Sat. simple vidhi or P. supported by Hemadri of Devagiri.and frllIT<lllRn. VIII.ri.t portion.in a nutshell the philosophy of Sanskrit Grammar.' Pro VI.( 1) the letter or sound +r. and operations for it. ~f.esava and pupil of Dhanesa. given -in.m. 2. PaI)ini's Grammatik" with an introduction and various indexes at the end: He has also critically edited Mugdhabodha of BopaCleva. 5fmllfti6Gf '2r~Cf~ ~&I­ urn: I M. d. -~rn name of an old grammarian who is supposed to have attacked by means of logical quibbiings the traditional explanations given in PatafijaJi's lVIahabha!?ya and Vyac. 25. a ~~yfql Gf)'. BlSl{+i~~tllH~I<i'r Cfl'f<iWl1~I<j: 9:feqa: tfi~Cf!l:l. pad. Ahnika 2 end.. .tr<!.. cf. +r~~~ a restriction regarding edi. Samgraha. iil&lQl\fuTteenth century.33.t~m~l'J1f R.The'word subslituteswhich are -enjoined for which.before such case and Cfil+iiit~.li's 4 8 1. onP.~'liI~cRlqfirnT!{c~.ita..orks. the '!'l'l~ I IvL Bh. grammarians call it a niyamavidhi.492-494. d.) is added in the sense He resided at B1~::jfl1 on the river of ' nature' or 'duty'.+I'm 3n~i[iiFl ::j1~1S<m I M. 54 2 • ~q~..a-q~q@9UJT ~Dfum+i9T'i:T: I V. a fault in -proEeeP. ~1j~+lRn:. affix <[ (~<j5J. He was the sori of E.g. i3l!1{. alsOaTIIl:~~4 of qft~~!jT and called qftmr. e. whichtbe word ~~m'tli is found in affix or a base before case -and tad. Pr.(ij ... I4.:r[U!fof • lars believe that he lived in Bengal. cf.r'llifcif\i[ somethirig in connection with or restrictive rule in grammar. which has a number. 'For the' various -changes 'KifiRr'lUJt ~\+rf<I:(f~l'J 1 R.:r~ t~d. FRANZ] a German Samkrit scholar -who has written the famous volumes of 'The comparative Sanskrit Grammar'. the consonant \ or ~ which (consonant) is believed to be present in the vowel 'lj\ or w: respectively._ Varada in the first half of the thir(SlI&lUJ\<l' '+!l'!: ~ CIT). . Gfrq [BOPP..: Bhattoji was a Telugu 37 .tra. the VII. abbreviations for the usual wellknown grammatical terms. The vowels 'lj\ and w: artl made up of one m~tra each. however. It deals with Sphota. d.:r.arasamamnaya which is called ii&mN! as it contains the basic letters of ~o:.g. and others 2 . d.. to ~hebase is (1 to prevent theatedaiter the consoD~rit~ .'f: 'o~ifif'i{?.ution of Visarga.1. which is very popular even today and which has almost set aside other works ~f its kind -such as the PrakriyakaumiIdi'and others.name given to two of the five divisions of aSaman which are ~1'!+lRn. The word +r'ffi for'ming. anusvara.. ..pEctively the portion of 'lj\ -and w:. Eittf. sfr&iOl&Rr a sentence expressing an '" activity similar to that of a Drah:maQ..h of Bhartrhari's Vakyapadiya.. with the vowel have been dropped. (2) tbe vowel portion surrounding. of peculiar V. a stalwartgrammarian of tbe paI).of words headed by the word Sll&1UJ to which the tad.Cf~. .I29 to 175.¥a<. The most reputed workout of these. edly pronounced that itappeais to +rcF... III. on P.-Ci{q~::ffi stit. also cf. not f<i<m.'cin P~ VIII~4. 13. VIlT. . Bh.l~Pa. _!lnd ~­ Bengal. iil&l'1J. He wrote a short _\tiRmUJ: 3H~~o:{: >i"lil~"'!<!: I Kas. 17.·the+rfuicWth~ vowel .:l\cn\.Tf the consonant+r. ~itaffixes beg\nning with -anyc6nsotfiT(qt +I~~q a<l'iftQ~ smufo' I . OTTO) a German Sanskrit scholar and Grammarian of St.lhamanorama. Tlieritility of this designation' of <l mrrounding' the: consonant or situ-. <l~..54~ apfirva vidhi and iliyamavidhi. . Petersbcrg. and W.the: sub~ -. eaten up. Sll&fll4 ..cf.P. I. affix +1m applied to the There isno qftmlfilN according to words mftfCfi and others in the grammarians-.. and .blesof a particular kind.r a great Sanskrit scholar and grammarian belonging to Devagiri in the greater Mahara~tra who was iij1W(ijTf~ a class. the VaiyakaraQ.asiddMntaldirika.~tiJ<! • ~~~ ance q~ q~<!<sT +I~<{l: is of the kind -V. "made tlp-df. the sacred Sanskrit alphabet given i~ the fourteen sfitras of Mahe~vara.

a and Vedanta.. Kas. Hara. 3. Bhagav[tti. quoted from Magbakavya. +IF-{ 291. carrying by '.3 on the Siltras of PaQini. P.. Vart. ~r­ am ll.fiT~ crm P. Another important work of Bhartrhari is Mahabhli. +rP. ct. <lfeteW. .D. 50 Jain Vyak. d. 3.1ft: i a1O'~Fir­ rc<TClT 1if!nmmfi:lft4 ~tl Blia~avrtti at tbe end. 1. Limaye. I~ 57). mentions his work viz. 1.. f{" ct. III.majorworks. I .histime PaI). ~R'[~ (I) an ancient grammarian datta.:rTqHq. and others addfd to which are not elidEd e.88. +lTtT<!f~ one of tbe oldest commentaries +!'~ft a very distinguished Grammar- +r~ a scholar of grammar who has written a commentary on the ian who lived in the fifth century Brhacchabdaratna of Bari Dik~ita. 2. 2. See the word 01 above.~or ~§ftfu I Some scholars attribute its authorship to Vimalamati. Siradeva and other Eastern Grammarians of the twelfth and later centuries including Kaiyata. A number of ullcomfirmed references to his works on lexicography..e.J3baHoji's pupil ]nlinendrasara~wAti .63. r.13. lVIirriamsabba~ya. Ujjvaladatta. 1. a scholarly com:" mentary onfl. 'llful4i'r cf. +!fete<!(~Riifq. III. 3. For details see the word 01. on P. 6-2-37) and J agadisha Tarkalailkara. Vakya and PrakirJ). The Siddhantakaumudi'. Whosoever be the author.1 Vart. on P. which. ct. although not available at present.I:~ <lm{fu: !Imr~fiffiTfflfu ~f~ffi ~ l1m~Jt iRTltl<IRiCflct<Tr <ii'f~: 11~~?t il' ~qT (?.".lita Jagannalha. Mimaril. by the reputed shetorician of . Nothing is kno'wn about his birthplace or persona] history. and altbough he' belonged to the South. philosophers beginning from Dinnaga till Nagesa. II.:fi +!fcr6<j·~~ P.asi/be was 'envied .the Tattvabodhini written by. +R:rll'j'T the term'll applied to the noun- +!('a'm:a a grammarian of Bengal who lived in the sixteenth century and wrote \3~ll'!Ri. The work is an +r~Gl{'Q. +l~n~ a class of words headed by the word 'll~T to which the tad. Bh. e. d. 7-3-45) possibly a scbolarly sister of +rT~ft. The . (2) name of a upon thi. quoted by PiiJ)ini in his rules to Nagesa and so on. the gloss (~) was a work of retlOgBised ~t: d. IV. on P.. 'f. the UJ. d.16.:cftq~: 11'4~'i: aj'iT~. A n~mb~r of modern tndian grammarian scholars prominent among them. base in contrast with the term q~.{N<iiH. as is generally believed. ] a well-known scholar of Sanskrit Grammar who. Iyer have edited and studied bis two .1:ahiibha~ya upto seven Ahnikas (MahabhMya o'n P.fcj1S'lm§!l1'l£ffiir :a-m<T1il+I: P. qftitcRJ!l{CI. +!fc!~<lfu l'fl'<TT~<l: I on Philosophy of Grammar.:~~ iit~. 3. See <l~tr. He . 2. Gram" marian Bhartrhari is differnt from Bhattl.37. The term ('vartamana' for the present tense was also equally common. BrabmaJ). UlJadi. IS. n. politics.47I. he lived in the first half of the eighteenth century.ladisiitravrtti of Ujjvaladatta and in the Grammar of Jainendra d. Bhart rhari. Bh. also >rlm<lT~<:I~ :mrnne<lT 'll9rcft I :{ifIBrahma. 1.marians. 3 IS.ical operations which are given together by HiI). VIII.~yadipikii.P. where. '.. Q. 76 has stated that Taittiriya: school of the Black the authQr of the Bhagavrtti has Yajurveda.<ft. d. ancient term for the future authoritative and schol~r1y work tense in general. be made ViiraQasi his home .D. I.' sonants~. ~ Sridhara is said to have commented m\~{<{ VII. has been profusely quoted by Puru~ottamadeva Sa r a 1) ad e v a. 'llT<1r.edantasiitravrtti and Sabdadhiio: tusamiksa are fathered on him.a-exegesis. (B"(. the taddhita affixes 3l1l1. It was composed some- .i~ ancient ~erm for the future tense in general. Be was a great scholar of Veda.author:' country in the days of· PaI}ini ct. ~rf!'«: in· hisoommentary on the Bta!]avrtti alsO says "tIT ~ R<IT~CJ~u]'fiSlr. III. Viikya. <l~:. A gammarian show differences of opinion.:iated mucb by learned gram.~ and ~. See_ !ll~­ +!~<:lH 'above. IV. has written an auto·commentary.o (>r~lifl<:) for the con~. ti~ij 1. also the words 'll~1Sljm(?. seVerd)l.a.+rOlo:ffi ancient term for the present tense or <?~ according to PaJ)ini cf. and S. Ill.poet ·'Bhartrhari or' yogin Bbartrhari of the (KanfaHii ' sect. d. but the point is doubtful as Siradeva in his Paribha~a­ +rrtir'~ f{[~ a Sjk~a.I5. a V. I. +rTI1<fa &ftl1rr~T a modern scholar of grammar who has written a commentary named Vakyarthacandrik§' on the Palibhii:?endusekhara of Nagesa.g. are found.) is the nature pr qualiiy of being called <lwhicli calls~s many gramn'at.<T~tljf{CI IT<ft<!<I:. . also Kiit. +f"+TT<f the substitution of the tbird <lTl]i. viz. padiya. ship of the work is attributed to I 'i!i'fi1Tiq1T(l~f~~ P. " Mim consonants respectively for' the fourth consonallts~. +rrgft' a famous ancient grammarian . Vart.<. 4. Although he cahied on his WOlk sil~ntly in Vai~I). IV. Buddhist and ] ain ( 'llOfrq:). . Three other works viz. . Vart. Hem.g.ini lh' VI. Pataiijali refers to one ~ (onP.I29 to I75.145.:> 290 Brahmai.l~ i d. 13. He was a distinguisbed Professor Of Sanskrit in the latter half of the nineteenth century. HI.{ [Sir Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar I837-1925 A. The word is found in the Mahabhii?ya.fi\~ CfI9'<Tajffil{:r9. 4. Brahmanical. ( Svopajiiavrtti) on the first two kaJ)9as of Vakyaparliya.~. (+r~) ancient term for the present tense found in the Brhaddevalii and other works. BhaHoji.f <lFf<lTI1: I work is very widely qu~ted by I lVI.178. three books ( KaJ)9as). ~CI<U'9 and other works on grammar. III.-is'apprel. A. The 'cITl1~ I ~~ Cltlfl1: I l1l[ :9:~<Tf1J. on IV.. being Profs. 1(as. Vart. work of the vrtti on Pari. Kasika on Fa.' has got many commentaries of which . "~~l!:llft~'ifr<i 5F. He was one of the pioneers of Sanskrit studies in India. +ri]T~ a class of words headed by 'llii which are gtnerally names of countries. 'whq criticiEed I his work"( Bhattoji's w'ork) named '[ Manora:~a'very . poetics. I Vakyapadiya is divided into M. . has written learned articles on many grammatical topics.<. VI. f{". J. " +rCl'Q. Abhyankar.q +f'{ short term +!'l:. II. The famous verse Offu <lT~­ WqI1Oflt:<iI~ir<i't:1 31Pt '~. referred to by' later writers like Jinendrabuddhi (Nyasa on Kasikaon P. he prepared a schqol of I learned Gnlmmarians.123. 2. cf. 4. ~r <Tl'IT OfT"!T ~ f?:~T II is found in grammar works. 3. affix i1:<ii added in the sense of . ~"f.

aTI«r FctriftUf~ which is prescribed by a rule.9.of the ~{Cji or the ro~t. of . activity as 'opposed to ins~rum'ents (~l<r.~~<! +tlCi: ffia:~~~. r: n. 1 55.1. (4) the radical igniting a hearth.+IJCIIlK'~w. .. See +tTal:!'it (i. ~iqf\i@. existence. ' verb. II... +!pjlj~<ir+( I +rFf~<iir~T 'name 'of a 'comment'ary \fI(q~~t:jFlKas. d. ~Cf +ilcj'~ \fig: R.I <I~~<! +lTCI'~'eITCf description of a verb or ~E.67 Vart. +tl'HIIlFri'l ~qUfi'1f ~[Iir <! +tl'i or completed ver bal activity Par. n6.13. ~ '". a~ :l1'~+il~m<j+trq<I:. 1. in which completed activity (m<r) also ~f+{~ffi m<i'l' i\C<imm. times in the serise 'of' ~tct~:':'the 'sense 6( a ioot \ ~T effort." The. 212. nature i w:. It also haidhe • process of evolvmg . shed in Bengal and Behar in the future time.a. 1. cr. a work on 'the 'ParlbJ:i~sas tions or the original wording for in grammar which' are utilized' in which something is substituted. Bhavar. or which m"l{:n'elCf (I) a word in the sense of is deleted. . 96.:i!lqf. :( 2) having for their subalso the words +t. 30. also cf. as also ~:ft. A~~adh­ 8llCfi1~'lil({mr f.67. ~ the different activities such as on P. word is used many. decay and destructicilD. acti~ity. (3) completlity such as t'i.-: time'. M.g.k.a-I:ff ~QUT yayi of Pal}. {. 'form of a . d. I <J+t<!IF'II:<IT<!l1" N ir. VIII. on I. 4. 3. thing. 160• M. of the . +lT~ kinds of verbal activity which +m'alathi s~holars and grammarians belongingto or following the. onP.aresult of that superimposition. J~2. existence.it of the agent • . 1.fcfiRr +r<iFff Nir. Pr. Cf lR. 1. xtI. lit.j\"<ia. also m'l~~: M. +trfct.ka'vrtti.g. d. +il<iU-m<U: 'tj6RfM. on P. 1. ~(<I~ >r~<!: M. but by a verbal derivative. cf. e.as. cf. also Vlikyapadiya III.!'tlj.57. on P. mqf~~m~T a grammar manual of d.2 .i~.: " 293.Land tence when the~e is no. ~TG'r+r~fT a s~all treatise on grammar written Shastri.fr4. He is b:llieved to have 1+ written a work named Sakataya. on Sabdaratna. viz. ar~1l1:i1\<l'. by Puru!?ottamadeva. 1. which an addition is made. cf. ~hich . on' P.'. Bh. 4~67. also +!l'i:fiii<ll. +rlCl'J:ICIim name of a comrrieiltaryon ~Il~<lfu 8Tqqi(qf{rti+( Nir.f.45 Vlirt. 'I . (7) possession of the qualities. placing a rice-pot factor for the use of a: word. 3T~ +t19~Ncir fctM'~:{: I f. Pari.. See mCi~'Ii. Bh. . on P.. II I. d.f'oit. Bh.79.IT«I' that which 'is to 'be produced.108. a short gloss on the. d. Bh. BharadwajaSchool of Gramniarwhose views ofteri' quoted. 3.t~' giimmarian who has 'wHiten ." J:h~ word ~.~~ f9~R<!a. ar!!iffi I KM. Jain. philosophically by • Bhartrbar i :'.sen'first mentioned by ViigiyayaI). F!i 9.verbal activity. ment or a sUQstitute prescribed by +rT.. ~~'i'etc. on it. 'i'<fi'lIilt:+tlct'li~'lilirIf Kas. II. transforBh. I. 'Vyak.ini in the 12th century arriTretlt. VI.'24. ars'.: . . (2) an affix applied for the formatipn of a word +H!U spoken language as opposed to in the sense of verbal activity.I verbal form in which activity plays the main part as opposed to a noun I{as. V. object cf.f~(fr +tTO<fo'a. These six modes of existence ~~"'ifi. IY. Pro H. C!. Bh. 4. Sek. 4.in the Mahiibba~ya. incom~let: . cf. or explainirig the rules of th. R. ( 6) transformation." o~ +w. 2. +!'ifrcr ~fa 'I16 111ClM: I'm<!a. I. ~ '+ri9~a ~~I. ~:il~~: ~~~ +t~'i1 • • ' 3. i. activity. IV. f.M. like " 'i'<la.'2.' . VI..~<t:j+tr'i. 1. BkoD III.r~<!T f9 .' oithe .Tq~"ICf .' d.7":! I) becO!Djn~. . 1. '1.::" a '. . 1. name of a corrirrienhtr.2' Vart. 2. and d.r ion"!£! ~maq"!crc~q­ . III. of ~mfiq '47 and V!. an affix ..~I I A. the Sabdabrahman) appeiilCf. M. 4. VI. I. 13. mf9i'l: ~C!: arl~ f<I'cIT~' M. III. as a process . c~. I.85. 4· are ~~Cfihaving for its subj~<ft a v~rbal derivati ve in the sense . on 'lHi. UIJ.K. ~lt'1~~ 'c'fIg~<i'l~a.'I.Bh~ on P.19. 1. '36 . I . I.. IiI i.20 Vart.18.ac~. cf.33.a as a theory is disCiissedby also ~~ ~JClf. d. III.19.56 Vart. ~. +iq~iil<tfll~~~+tJCI: I . . scholar belonging to the Eastern school of grammarians which fiouri+n~ which is to come into being. . the change in'to the nature of another. Bh. by Vaidyanatha. Sabdakaustubhaby~6Ufj1:f8J. VII. Bhartrhari. ct. M. 1'72. also~fa BhaHa Vinayaka for prince BhlivaS!fcrtt1ifr~<It +tPH<!l<r. pad. word +IT'i itself.:o~ ed action which is shown..[' P. .t\fl<!+tl'i ject a verbal derivative in the form etc. ~~Hi sense of thought" 'or "i'e-flection. KiiS.1pe~!ion~l. others.lfiined as +rr:-!'lit!lfi fp. hence.' on the pa. III. also R. 1. P. . I. +tl'ffllT f. d. substitution. T. >r<lCl<i' :l1'<Ici'l: I >r'i'il'ill'a-a-+ii'itlll:lcIT Cf~ +IlI:fl<if 6C\'i6'tFI: .. pouring water in it etc..See +!~ • . fq'i:f(~~'iija. 19.. d.lfi!:q. is predominant.is . " on P.M. arf+rf. 1. '3·54.r or Cfil~ ).3~54: 'ct +rfcr~' .ivity.( 4.D4' 292" .IIl.69. 1 9. ~"I':qi[ (r) expressive of +IJCI or the completed verbal activity.ffT <!lii '4flm l:lOfl?:<!: .50. d. ( 2 ) the ~Q~~{~j+{ by ~~i'lI1if tf(1I~~. nol by a m'l}[tl:!i{ ~q1ift<li +t'lfu ~:. 3.which form the different parts of ~~ 5!'!R:I~fjj~ +tl'1~~~. by VyaIikata Subbli- designated by a technical term. ~~m.. which is to be pr.' Bh. (8) relationship. . ll'f. V§. a reputed 1.lere' isa mere mention of verb'brahman or Satta' when' oile of its activity. phssibly' the Same as +{'i~. M. +{Tf<r iitqlll~ M~ mfill'a' . 1. cf. growth. Bh. as J nor resulting ~pon the obj e~t. 1. II. cooking. activity quoted by 'Yaska are explained mentioD€d. school who wrote the works Katantrariipamala and Siikatayanajika. on P.j~ ~if: Kiis.f\fl~ fctM'ftfu on P. ~~1ifl<!+t{Cj. the word ~if: in ~\~t:j ~. I. ~'!fu. .5 .~and '.37. noun.1. are described to be six in number also t!.-1.. on P. 'as. Bh. Eh. but a mere appearance. 5· 1 •I l 9. 1. d. the archaic Vedic Vmguage.' the Sabdatl. HI. the authoi: of the ~qRa rule as contrasted with the condim"fl'!Rf. ' ~~ a grammarian of the Katantra " buted to <j. a work on language attrinatika. on P.<!ftci ai(lm~1ir '!~~ ~ +rllif~. . cf. or to c<[{1gUf by Sarvavarman. Ahmka I . . ffI etc.45. II. 'II . II(1. the. cf. isexp.(f:'lifcr. (5) ~ mq~ +it'Sii' M. on P. III. :t38 Vai:t. an affix or an aug. 4. ! 'mation..i. 3. sidlha.fcii1~fu j{(ffl Nir. 1'. a commentary ont'be Brhacdhabdaratna of Had Dikjiita .P. ' ' own powers. ' ..48 Vart. 4.e.{ .Jduced. the time' factor ( ~­ ~ris superimposed' tiptoit.89 Vart. ~. 1.cp.on t:j~<! 'i'f +!~ mCl'~~ an affix in the sense of' qua~ +!l'iw~lJ'(+( P. arouIid "Thirteenth centnry on P.67. production.I. II.rolA'.e ~­ after which' an affix is placed."W I 8l1tltcl~ I the main activity viz.

the term is used in connection with letters that are uttered imperfectlyon account of -the proximity of similar letters . in this sense. +rTliu<rf'Ufr'fiT a learned commentary on PUfU$otlamadeva's Bh1i.g. ct. ~~T..tury. lias. cf. he gave meanings to PaQirJiya Dbatupatha. on Bha$3. the brief pithy statements in the Mah1ibha$ya of the type of the Siltras or . The word is used in books on grammar in the sense of past tense in general. P. VII. See +n~<i.fT<i~tcnq: Com. ~ m~lTrn: a class of words' headed by the word f'+l&Jf to which the tad."l1I<J:. 2.t~: II ". Society's Edition. 5amh.'2). e. These assertions or statements are Hamed . VII. R.74. arrS'iq)r<jrf!wr. He taught many .~) and (c) past in general (€fnwl{~l1 or~~). D.:& cIT~'if{Q '<IT: 'I o~l f<lR<(<!(!T liHo+TI"fI~fuRi[ 'i'i II " at the elld of his treatjse.:.2. IL2. injunctions of the type of Sutras given by Pataiijali ina way to supplement the Siitras of PaQini and the Varttikas thereon. \3:ffit "l1T'I1f-U msif III.~). named ~m after him. on P.the Varttikas. I. is used as an adjective to the name of a Vedic metre which has got one syllable more than the n01mal .i1No~~ I iP. 'il'! etc.~ Samh. d.m +r.g. cf. . also +TINa: 9.T ~~ I ftR:r" affix +rTfqq.lm1iiT+TfIl~~!it~R8~1. m~ a class of roots headed by the root f+T<:.the preceding word has got no change for its last letter or ._ cpo W~ more by one syllable.nfit +TrN~<U "lTg-. I. on P. before he wrote the lVlahabha$ya. f+Ti. not of today (~ffif~o or <r.Parasara Pura1).r also. 3. lit . <!~..I04. gender as orr) is added in the sense of verbal activity..:r called <fu:J?:l6· also.on P.bha$Ya. e.' happened. ( b) past. the term. ~~ijrNCJiT ~Q B'f f. 4.~1:<llNq. I.~iD. 9.8).$avrtti by Sr$~idhara. Pro II. 294 .g. l surnamed . on the nature of which possibly the followingdefinition is based " tI. The word is used frEquently by commentators When they try to apply a rule of grammar to a changed wording under the plea that the wording required by the rule was formerly there. what has become oJ.74· m~ a learned o?:rr . cf. e. also ffi5fffi'OfiT. are turned respectively inlo 0l9:.~:r '+fu:r+r~ writer of the commentary. or:. cf. Vol. a learned grammarian of the sixteenth century. Similarly Si1:. name popularly given by Siradeva and other grammarians to the third pada of the first adhyaya of i' I I . pp. The word +TM is sometimes used in t. 76. cf. the word ( always in the fent.belonging to. are found added in the sense of the 'apadana' case-relation.56. Bh. king Lak$maQa Sma.Abh yankar ( 1785-1870) a great grammarian in the' line of the pupils of Nagesa who was educated at Poona 'and lived at Sa tara.~T~T Cju4~ <I~ tR: tl~r­ ~lftfu: I ~'Rlf. IV.67) where the word may refer to a work like ii>~-. 1. IV.{4 5f'iRlRfi:i~ 8 +TIN:tj~~cl~<!~ 1 omT[l?:m~l{Ilfr{ <!'a~Iil* +lI~f~ the brief pithy assertions or \ iHI:! 5I"Rm~ l{"3'l':\~t Kas. +!lfqQ~~:f) Patai'ijali. III. III. denotation of something which formerly was existing.38.rit ~?\N ) c. :r. itlirr etc...~<i fl'l. On P.'lr~ Cj'.!. d. the Bha~ya on the Vyakaral)a sutras of pa1).9 and VII. 'on P.103. especially when . i$ti' also. on the Paribha$endusekhara of Nagesa. 'B.roth.n :r. 15· In books on Sanskrit Grammar the word +T16l{ is used always for the Mahabh1i. mil: ill the sense 'felitffr or~R '. ~'i~if{\!lT ( lFliw. ThEre isa popular evaluation of the BM$avrtti given by the author himsel.nNa~~t ~9~1~~!/ P. fall in this category.ini is called ..I~m d. ~: etc. d. 2. frequently occurs in works on Grammar. <rm<lTP.:\'l." to which the krt affix or if .f in the stanza "q. For details' see Vyakaral)a Mabii. also M.rfu lit. generally words of quallty or adjectives like ~f'l. III. 2.. of the instrumental plural before which the base is looked upon as a Pada and sometimes split up in the Padapatha.kprati. (R.a't~lTfa': Par. 3.!II.fijDSflra\llTll: I <!:.~ya.. 295 of a branch of technical learning (or Sastra) in Sanskrit has got a Bha$ya written on it by a scholar of recognised merit. or used in spoken language as contrasted with the Vedic Langnage or fi'ilTll. cf. . 1. ~q~ a word or a noun-base which has the same sense in the masculine gender as in the neu ter gender. 1. I.. 1ffu:9imI. 2. 4. I.U'. affix' OJ ( 3Icrr. for whom the gloss was written.a large number of whom m~Tf~ a class of words headed by the word ~ in which the UlJiidi affi~es +r and others. cf.74. 21-29.84. E. 2:II6 and or<i~ ii>'t: +!l~'1?i mil~. a consideration of that form of a word which was formerly present. as the legend goes. ' m ~ lit.' I. See the word ~f2 above and the word +l1'G1l~:. ~{\!lff: 9'1<i tr. the Mababba$ya. 1. "1T~H' helped the spread of Vyakara1). who flourished in the fourteenth ce1). 20 Vart. v r tti by Sr$tidhara.n9~I~ar­ ~\:l-i<[i~'WT I 3l'. followed by any vowel which is not labial. of recognised merit and· scholarship. as prescribed by specific U. Ras. nth and 12th centuries~ The gloss is very useful for beginn~rs and it has given a clear explanatIon of the different· siitras without going into difficult niceties and discussions. II.:iir ~lTIlT: ~:TI+Tle<Rf Nir. III. VII. +l~el{fu'. pupils. such as ViiraQasi and others.. generally every Siitra work. tr{t~ re~ P. :\ . or may have got available to him as written by somebody else. Out of tlie various Bha~ya works of the kind given above. Sek. 2. M.. P. III. which has been subdivided into ( a ) unseen past (tRt&J~ff orw. swallowed or eaten up-.i 'q Cju~ +n~<l +rRfcrU f.a studies even in distant places of the Country. Bhattoji and Nagesa.he Mahabha~ya of Pataiijali ( d. ~ifu:. ~~... ct. for which people have got a sense of sanctity in their mind. 3. name of· a Samdhi or coalescence given by the writers of the Prati. Ras. the author of the Patafijala Mahabha~ya. Pari. According to Maitreya.rre1:{ which PataiijaIi may have written. I.Qadi sutras.1tg~ l{fcr WiOJ:: 1 9T<U 3Cf~m: 2. on VII. . syilable.19. xvii. ~Q~. and Slier.::rr +TINa~~ I +rr~~'!Tl~'T i \ commentary on an original work. for details see ~~Ull~<f. was not qualified to understand Vedic Language. <l19'aOJ:: .) is added in the sense 'of collection..g. Bh.a XVIII.trpunOJ::.! . The treatise does not 'comment upon Vedic portions or Inles referring to V dic Language because. sakhya works where· the diphthong vowels arr and aff. e.€l'<i f<lSfl<f~O']I~ffi'l\:lI~a~r (E.

onP.«r or individual substance.d.~endusekhara of 'Niigesa written' by Bhimabhatta in the latter half of the eighteenth century. on V.23.j~ ( depression of the nOse iflm. E.'-. has become in a way a Vyakarat.D. qualifi~d. distingui~hing . d. on p. different i treatment.~. I . . d. ~I'!f<lr::::[­ >r~1t1H! P!~~fuf(lT'1~ I ~BlTRafq<i!'JT'1t ~q. and'n~t in the general sense o(the' presence at one place' as also ' the possession by some 'individual i.the brows. cf. kind." ( 2 ) . such as a special feature. The word ~~lFt denotirg roots stands.. on P. VII. 8l'CfW-T iflffl9iT ar. plur~lity of' the individ~als refm:ed to. or eye-' brows which is described as the . Parik~a on the VaiyakaraQabhu. on 1. place of air (which produces utter~nce or speech) at the time of the evening soma-pressing or sacrifice.i(and other possessive' taddhita.nzas whose authorship cannot be traced. d. I.:l'. '" '+IT~ . Bh. Bh. d. ~Ht m(f. 3. cf.75.57.296 :PaI)ini's A~tadhy~yi.j2T9'Bt-'l!P.~I Kas. with <iT"{9i. Kas. He wrote a commentary. i'rq <m:'R W. on "'~ T{tm9iT~: B~]<lt ~f!F-R1( is.R imagined difference in knowl- belonging to the class of roots' headed by~.:rt <i9ilU<i lffi''f. He is reported to' have visited Poona. d. Kas. '+ft:st' of the detive and' ablative plural. ~~­ BBI?. contrated.57.on P. edge cimsed by. Bh.:'1: ~'aaT: \I by ~.:~: M. 2·3I.L3. a person or a thing of which the proper occasion has' passed..tim '" 2. on his Sutras.175· " i. '. 11.jala 'Mahabha~ya D. VII.T~ by nleans of adjectives. ~'C(<ii&~qfli itir ~~E<. suggesting.p9.'r.d!ffer~nce noticed in objects which are' kn(Hvn. as.. adjective.la of Vakyapaoiya. a. (I) +f<iRr l!g}fI<{'1: \I . 'ialing. ~ ~'if . cp. The commentary on the Paribha~e!1d:. '44~" 1 difference. ~(~1~~1. 13: P. on P. case-affix of the instrumental. mmatical operations on that ground. the \vord '~ is explained as • composo cd by Katyayana' by Nagesa: bhatta in his Uddyota.. L9.. I.~ the consideration that a thmg ~ • I I was such and such a one formerly.hence liable to undergo gra- lit..applied to the prefix ~Tfu: 'lit~ !:leaded headed by ~ and <H a~ sorpe scholars like to explain. III. Society's Edition.fiR: Kas. He was the son of +!cft\:cr and his native place was Prayaga..94.j. <r' 'i:f ~<i~CJ'!m~ ~9'-ij~ ~~{iiftiU<Wr.jT~m<fr. +r!iTP.' tad. I83. III.w<iJ!j:.!j. .anasara. 1.I Vart. the capital of the Pesawas and received magnificent gifts for exceptional proficiency in Nyaya aDd Vyakarana. 1. !l:<Ti1T'l'1 etc. +"<tT+f.. ~qr:w3ilR.r\ suggested by the Varttikakara to form words like '\ljjmm<l'. Kas. +rm name "of a commentary on the ~ '" . It deals with the nature of ii. d. it" begin? 'with the sutr~ ~~ 'c'jT~<I: P.I.tffi~ I Rttl tre.:~m ~:cj:qT <IT 91.IOI. affix w. . I. V.2.g: ~'i!"l':. the \Von! \vhich. 9.M.' Va~.. lit. 2. 1.bdendusekhara. 24 and 25 'Vol. <lU~I3'<i~<:'~~ P.:. iRt~<t that which is to be distinguished ~qm~ one of the reputed grammarians of the latter half of the eighteenth century and the first half of the nineteenth century who wrote commentaries on several prominent works on grammar..1 which are derived by the rule a:J'[c. ~<i[<{<!t :<fm<l: P. which h~ve . m~ ~~T~e<t~~'t. t' "~ ~G.on'P.I. stray or spurious verses or sta. the term means roots in general.ll. I.i 85. He flourishEd in the eleventh century A. on P.ent. Bh. pataii. . e. diff~r.D-cr:.'''{: P.: . in contrast with the word <''fTFt which stands for the roots of the first conjugation. tll+i'I. also. VII. Gada called' also Bhairavi or Bhairavigada on the Paribha~endusekhara and commentaries (popularly named Bhairavl) the well-known king of Dbara who was very famous for his charities and love of learning.diff~rentiating principle which causes an <:rT0I:!.j. ~+T~mUT a grammar treatise written by +fh:ri. similarly :m'lI'1ij-. Paribh1i. d. d.la or a general work on grammar and can be styled as Bhoja-VyakaraQa. -a~jP.. ~a:r<i~it9~F)fum 't. There are commentaries . He is £aid to have got written cr himself written several treatises on various sastras. He has written the comIpentary called Candrakala 'on the L'lghus3. cpo Yak. IV." mis.tCjT ~~lo1~~T +!fclo'lm M. centre of . I..O P. i. on the analogy of a man who is paid his Dak~iI)a although the proper time has gone ('j.. 15.I. e. on P.. ann." affixes should take place.T~: >r~'1~1 ~T Cj[~ <I. ~r'1~ \3<'IFlT'1~..1. (4) 'indica:tmg.cause of difference.T. ~+r"l. affix mf.~as the first root in PaI)ini's list of roots. ~'fTct\.. VI. d. cpo Yak. which see above. ct. lI. pad. <fiT'll <1fft'!~) . V. II.or mr' that which is distinguished'. 2.pad. lit. ) a grammarian who has written a commentary na)lled 'Sandarbhamrta on Bopadeva's Mugdhabodha.l'<l' a:&!U'\f cft~~ ). the word is used in connection with the application of a rule even though the proper time of its application is gone.}.g. d.m<Tl'G<:'lP. pad. . ( ii) 297 on the Sabdaratna and Linganusa"ana. M. 13 . in the fourteenth century A.1. differenti~tioi1. "'- ~~'<t I .'1~~ f9'~qr ~9i:~1.l: a class of nouns headed by ~HT to which the denominative affix ~ is added in the sense of ' being or becoming what they were not before'. I Ahnika I. (3 ) variety. il'G'3<lT f9~o<u +19m I (S:U'1. 3..2. 1. as.1sekhara is more popularly known as Bhairavi. d. i (i) differelice. but which has included in it the Varttikas and Paribha~as. 8l'~ OlfIm ~fCf1ft(9i: 1(as.g. 3. For details seepp. Viiit.:<) P. V. IV.. .' .I~I~f1. ~~T~q. individually. The work SarasvatikaI)thabharaI)a which is based on the A~tadhyayI of PaQini. . on P. ' +~ case-affix \ m<ll" name giv~n to a commentary in general written by Bhairavamisra. :' al'l' in the sense of depression of the nose. d ~lFtf~ g ~: Vakyapadiya.. a:J~~T ~f(lT +film <lm'1~. 'dative and ablative dual. but which are commonly quoted by scholars. m:rft~ tad.ITname given~o'th~ fourth ~ection of the cthird IdiI)<.l: the limit~d s~rises~~( pluralify) and others inwh~ch+n. D.like Hrdayabiiril)i by NarayaQa DaI)Qanatha and Ratnac13rpaI)a by Ramasirhha also. a root of the first conjugation. ct. 2. Bh. 86. .77 . I. ~~ iflli ~9iT: 1\'1. a:JTT.~ir fcl~o!{~ Kas.g.

9.J~­ white colour. 1. Pr.II<{~ I T.+<j: P. a tad. above. e. V. 108.~g<\l called also Madhyamakau:}f~~ a conventional name given by mudi or Madhyasiddhanta-katimudi.94.2·49· +enf. of Al?tadhyayi as the pada begins with Bhattoji's Siddhiintakaumudi. ~~rcfr<it 9<iiT~4 +rW<!lI~: ll~~~ M.:j. l{~ (99.e. W1m+<lt ~ §'1l p. 3l'i:{" ( 127 ). fclf. per~. -e. the word is frequently used in Pal)ini's rules for ll"gl{. 9~ ( H2. 136.l +rffiCfls<I~ J . ~OOc:r. (I) name of a commentary by Ranganatha on tbe Padamafijari of Haradatta. pI. ~W(?il~ for the sake of auspiciousness at the beginning of a treatise or work.'. 3. P. 9'fl'. is limited to certain kinds of posor words meaning quamy. in the perfect tense d. 3.' affix ll~ changed in some to cf~ (ct. Il6).4°. (2) name of a commentary on the Supadma VyakaraI)a by Vil?l)umisra. m~!f. cf. or 'which ~m. 2.96-98). written by a grammarian ( 101). VIII. d. also ~<ft<T'e-!r ~lT[m~<! w<l~.94. 4. cf. 2.l. on P. 'f (I) fifth letter of the labial class of consonants which is possessed of the properties <llm~5fGJ<!. (2) The substitute +r for mI. 122 ). jump. 2. lIS. (2) substitute ~ (+r~U for~' of the 1st. sing. d. LI6. 3. ~Rf:BCf~>If'e<j~1ilCf<lQcfl<i1ilCfCl~1T[ ~:<iiU6${>I\f:'lTf. Bh. 2.:. V. I. . crmr~Rl'Jftlftr ll'gl{. d. which originally mean the following stanza: +(>If.ff I Vaj. with the vowel +r!! the same as +rgl{. see above. below. (103. +R<i~l sense in which the affix +rg (<fgl{. e. Bba~ya affixes is named ilg9Rr<fiT~ (P.g. ~~ a:{ and the affix <iiT~ added' for facility of use and pronunciation. d. BEI+r: . VI. The +r~Qittr elision of the affix +rgl{. Bh. and is very commonly found +m"i~"l affix in the sense of ll"gl{.j' '+fcf: ) . on III.if ~Ftt P. cf. VIII.I25. II7). T. 299 9lffl. d. V.g. ~r<{lf. +1'. cf.r I ~tll1sfuffcr9GJ1<iT +T9Rr +rge.3 Vart.n~~tH~ f. 4.92 on II. 2. VII. III. 130. affixes prescribed in the same senses as +rgl{..7. ll"g<rf~ and +rg'f~ff'l above. The portion of the A~ta­ <fiU~. ( !I5. in use. 1.). ilg (instead of +rgl{. +r. 30. I B~: ~ contains it " or in the sense of .! 13~. ~: tg: cf. V. <l1rcrmi~<!~<1~P. grammarians to the third pada of a work on grammar which is an the eighth Adhyaya of Pal)ini's abridgment. ljl~llfT?. IT[ l?al)a. Cf. 2. on P.l:I<lt •• ur~+rI: P.. iITm«.rcrr llU~<fit§acnN<iir\T: M.298 cf. IV. on P. of the 1st pers. ~ and <r (100). middling variety• specially prescribed after the words The word is used in the sense of the headed by ~ (d. ( V.y~'f~~f!fcfi: +rg<!~. 128. 2.labhatta's Vaiyakaral)abhu100. +1'2: tad.:r fif :rrT~lfuT I M. sense of <ig see ll'gl{. V. for the. P.34.g. in general.1. such as session by the Varttikakara in the ~@. 138 +roi~ an affix which has got the 140). T. the black colour etc.32. II. 1.94 Vart. 60 Vart. arm +ro. 2. treatise was written by Varadaraja. ct. (106).. also.rl:. I.59.-P. and ~ ( III). Gila. cf. V. V. 91({<I: II cf. 2. in the sense of 'present therein' (q. a:{:.g. The the sutra <fgCfW l. Nagesa has also written a bigger work on the same subject <!lWl"""Qi! which sometimes is also referred to by the word ~qr. the gait of a frog. 1 • a pupil of Bhattoji for facilitating the study of the Siddhanta-kau~~ affix in the sense of +Tlf!. named 9<lm~. Bh..::i1OT the class of roots headed by +(. the continuation of a word from a preceding Siitra to the following . For these "not preceded by another numeral in the sense of completion. Sutra or Sutras in the manner of a ' frog by omitting one or more Sutras in the middle. VIII. Pro 1.. d. see the word +rgti. \mf<l:+<!1ll' p. ~.72. the sense of possession.r (102. I05.49. llmft<li "'fTfCi' m<!<IT.g. affix+r. and '1'. the word +r~­ ~ is also used in the same sense especially ..l :fu'ITI ~Ti1lf. affix showing possession. V. 4.r (I24)~ a:{l<i!'i:{"and aT~ sense of +rg (<fgl{. '" " .. aT ~cp. 6. the first conjugation of roots. <lti. possession as popularly expressed. I. Bh. affix +r applied to' a numeral. I trar / +r<fiR the consonant +J:. +fU{~1r the same as iI~fu which . Bh. middle. II3 ). if '((<fil~ .r2: ~ra Bf. d. 2. of Pal)ini) is found in the Athar-va Pratisakhya. There V•. such as the +rm~ name of a commentary on affixes <!l"!. Bh. ~{"!. applied to any affixes of which l{fit (~) is very noun or substantive in the sense of common see the word +rgl{.1. IV. to a certain extent. 2. I who possesses that'. see +rg91"fi'li.. g. IV. and to the words ~ and ~ in the sense of possession. middling effort between the open 95) in supersession of some of the ( ~~1 ) and the close (BH) external other affixes mentioned above which efforts which technically is called would take place in such cases. oOI" ( !I8. II6. II9 ). 17 and 21. P. KOI}.2. Wi ( 123. BRr ~ <'ITll 9T&:!: ~fc1: ful~ ! dhyayi prescribing the possessive ~<l "'f C<{~~ ~m . affix +r added to the word ij'e<j in the Sail?ika sense's.t. +rmlll' 9~~1 P. II. f~l!f. I. . ( 120). VI. 2. 10. specially very general sense of 'possession' prescribed after words of quality. I29-I37). etc. 3. ~f. VII.'f CfT<IT+lCff. I ! +f (I) the consonant ~ with the vowel added for facility of utterance. cf.) is affixed. <!l~fu:rrP-l. tad.:gRi ~'iiRT: II M. on P. 2.8. possessive affix also.l (102.by later grammarians. VIII. 3.215. are other tad. fa.<.94. See the words ( 125 ). a:{OJ.. ~ +r~ a popular name given to the work q~+w'~j:jo:crtr:rr of Nagesa on aT~5fGiilfT (science or method of interpretation) in Vyakaral)a which is generally read by advanced students. in Vedic literature.i6<{i!\. (3) tad.rr <f~ ia(t:§t<ltl1:£w-i '!-. the sense of ' possession ' 9 (109. ~ases tad. iI~ is also +f'e"'f lit. Kas. 2.nS. to 140).121.II7. IV. <i'fm«.UOWlffiCf. were not prescribed by the rule a:{ ~t5f"fc!it I n({<f>l>:f: I Bi5f"m~ 511!i~~ ~BTfit+<!?. The affix . a:{~91 +r~<iirra<ltM<iir\T: I <i:. cf.. 3. causing vrddhi for the word +[\f:<!. 2.. The affix is called . in mudi.II M.mr lit. lj'e-!r l'['!il\: I .4. \ (107). P.2. Ira).-:rq: illll:!: 1 +rgl{. ~lf. 1. '<5'1. :J:. +rI\f:~: . V. ~QTIT[t9 and 3n~<llrecp. +r (lOS).82 and in the present tense also in the case of the root ~<t. on P. 3. ~11:. e. 3.I. ~. VI. i. . 104). ~~iJ:. p~at.1. ff and <i~ each one applied to specifically stated words.9). ~I d. +fa:! . Pr. VI.

VI. e.a!lcTI~­ laUsi1 written bY'W!'ilTl!fqfoiSff. 3. V. +ll:. 4. AraI]. lIr<it~i. 75 i (2. see lIi!r!fCllG..53. 4. . tad. Pari. 148 Viirt. 4. (I) the affix 11fi1i'(. 2. Sometimes an affix too.. Pr. also Nir. III.lifT tff g ~. ~611f'1. If<1 a-srr </t If[ P. e. 4. I.74. Par: Sek.:­ lIrmtnG.:r lI'fFcr I ~[§11:91iff. (3) name given to a treatise discussing roots given in the Katantra Grammar written by ~rn"I~~Pif in the sixteenth century.fi<I:.66 Vart·. CfI'CIra.. 1. on P.3.60 Vart. the wordlf<it~.. ~. 1.asara of KOl. a technical term of J ainendra corresponding to mtrlR+J."!.g. doubtful whether the word was used in the limited sense by pal). +Irit. For details see Goldstlicker's PiiIJini p. affix. however.~). +r'!. (liSl. the dropping of the middle word or member (of a compound generally) as for instance in 'TII'lilfIM9i for ~9ifuqqn1rCf. cpo Vak. affix ~ ( I) in the sense of ~ proceeding therefrom (mf 0fl1ffi: P. 19.g. . Such a middling augment is technically ignored and a word together with. the word came to mean any sacred text or even any mystic formula.i}Cf~i'(.<:J+f (I) the middle person.op· ped are enumerated by the Varttika. 143 cpo 1I1:"<j"IH tC!i'ff: ~W1m..fi'q~111~J~­ fcr~?. e.:Zia. Bh.. cf. Ct. +rcTI~+lT (I. I. IV. etc. to which the taddhita ~ffix mr. fJl:<jlf as <I"] 91tR.nf. 69.mtlt +rf. Kas.68 Vart. T. of a compound. II. ct.68 Vart •.<:f+r<ihE~ (I) name of a treatise on grammar by Ramasarman . 1. The statement laying down this dictum is 1I1l~1:f<mT: '{:'1 l i'(. Pro XXIII. the word came to mean· a secret counsel. sense of an augme'nt which is inserted in the middle of a word.'!~Q~ 'q <i~:'TI.30.~. of PaIJini. ~!jtfmaffi'\~~q ~~~ Par... I I where the commentator exphins. also Kat. +r~ +r. "fl~ etc.ini and Katyayana~ Later on.I. 80.33. on P..2. ( 2) na~e of a commentary on the Madhyasiddhantakaumudi by Ramasarman. 3. also M. III. ( 2 ) the same as +r. IV. (d. Bh.2!O.0'1 name given to the Samhita por. XVIII.gveda and the Yajurveda l as different from the Brahmai).150. Pr.. 60. d.it is taken as the original word" for grammatical operations. III.. amIT +!~f<tCi'ffijqeq P. also 'qg. 32. 1.labhatta and a commentary named <uqr~HUT or KaIJtakoddhiira on Nagesa's Paribha~endusekhara and a commentary called Do~oddhara on Nagesa's Laghusabdendsekhara.FG<PTg~ See 1I1:1I91rgcfr.ffl1:flij Bh. .jlfIl<lIi1:f~FH: PaIJ. VII.'l. XIII. If always added to the krt. especially of the E. 1.. 4. . I. Vedas.<ri''4" cWfcr M.1<. The work is called 91T~'CITg'[fu a~so. w'ifi'i. ~ the origination of articulate speech which is described as situated in the throat.~m name of the speech which is inaudible and which is of the type of a thought without any definite presence of words making up the expression.e eighteenth century who has written a commentary named G.J"i'ff ) as laid down by the rule a-qr~<l ftfcr P.:ft'q~: etc..) is added in the sense of t nature' or 'duty'.l).! 1I'f-Rr-1 T. Unadi affix in an~. VI. I. II. ~~qil: . ~'lRcr5fll'fT 1&1~ 1i~ .S. '!~~futq<I: P. the" commentary is a scholarly one and very extensive. Pr. d. to which the taddhita affix "f91 (~or.. pad. ~po.utterence.~. on P. (I) one of the three places of I +r\l~ +rilT~+lT~'EI+f~. tad.!Ba:n?rcr ~f.. 4 and 5 and also cnu~ 1I1:<J~ XVIII. ·Sek. 6.a. cf. Vr~ II.Uvvata on R.g. affix of the second person (1={'e<jl19. ct.:~~1~T~~ li"m<J~ !JUTlij f. cf.131.) the popular name given to the commentary ~!lcTI~ on the Siddhantakaumudi of lI~:. cf.1ini·( cf. 17. cf.~l15flUj'i(l:fiIrrcrT 'Sfi11liNl~­ lIfcj-ftr . kara under the Yarttika 'TIT91tflffr<Hcfr<if lfIllililR. d. Such a rule sets aside the previous rules and not the succeeding ones. or a conjugational sign like ~ is placed in the middle of a word.g. I4I Vilrt.<J'ffi:li[Uj1:fIt~ ~lifif'tffl. Bh. Of+<n~T~ acrt ~~ !{<ltI1T~ g 1I1:1llfl<I: I R. the acute or udatta accent to the 1I1:"<j" vowel which is neither the initial (3nm:) nor_the final one ( . lil:~qm~. cf. 38. 2. R..!rJ:.~TtFif.29'I I.XXII. one or many of which are placed before and the others afterwards. 1.300 ~~qRm lit.K1i.q.compounds +rl:qy~ a class of words headed by the word 1I!:].~FI<I: I ( 4) one of the seven musical notes originating or proceeding from the Svarita accent_ ct. ~ ~~q<m.qurr on the VaiyakaraIJabhii~3. ~11~. on P. cf. on III.a:<f. like "fcr. VI.:§.6:n~ 1I1:<Jl1T<JI<!. 911~91<I:. the word 111:1I11tf::{il1:f is aJ!)o used in the sense. VI. tiS CfT'<!: Wr. I) It is.:. 1I1:~if ~ CfF'f<Jiilrr: T. 4.a'ET. ~ ~1:. VI. Thieme's' pal). lSI.105.217.r'F.:ft 1:fR.. The word 1Ir3f occurs several times in the rules of pal. which was looked upon as sacred.fifil'r ~ lI11!jlf~!l 'tf I ~~ l1~~ftT qij-a.JUj: C!l'!5f<UTr: 1 the word ~<il1T is used in this sense as qualifying a mode of . M.f1:. 1. ~\l<Hrqititq lit. 11!:].~I~ 5f<urr ~('l"<jJ crrl1I:<J1l ifTli qg c!T'9<.. d. II. VI.tn.71.jT. 4.133. See lFI:.96.r a rnle forming a. Pari.yaka and other portions of the two Vedas as also from the other abbreviated term or pratyahara 'for all the con~onants of the five classes or Vargas excepting the consonant or. .\'rcfr~ff by the author himself. Still later on. 811t{tl!ft+Tf. VI. cf.86. KM .cTI'ffi:li'(.. 5. word is used generally in the. 7.+fii\qI:"<j"li­ mufcr! T. e. also +ii'~l1l:<{lii:iRlfUT ~~Tiflf. . ij({[lH. affix"f-! (~) prescribed after roots characterized by the mute syllable :§. ) ~ ~ f"'\ wn-:tHk( a class of words headed by. the 301 which have the middle word dr. and its first portion only up to the end of Karaka is generally read in the Sanskrit Pathasaliis. 3. .. on P.:.~ 'q. 4. ~ ~I Jain. d. 3. ~:. cf. +r1:. The . tion of the Veda works. VIII..ini and the Veda' p. 1I1:<j1l: P. e.1. lfIl<UG:l'U"m-t <jiA~gRr cr~ ~q)IiQ..q<Krgcfr. qFf:j~ etc. 4. 4'11I"!(Rr '3.I. where 'the commentator explains the word as .. P. Sik~a. (2) name of the "sixth musical note in the singing of the Samano +Til~q See <i.141) and a few times in the Varttikas. 4. ~q known also as li"Q.· " I .g.. 11~~ "f. VI. 2. fallen in the middle. I ( ~. Sii. IV. (2) middling tone or drort.) is added as a Caturarthika affix. d.89.n exception to other general rules being placed 'between them.:qI<i the maxim of the mid del rure of exception. Pro XIII. (3) one of the seven modes of speech or tones. name given in a bantering tone to the treatise ~[. general! y found in Vedic Literature added to roots ending in OfT and preceded by a noun. a famous grammarian of tp. 5 and VI.

+{fg personal ending formed by adding ~ to lf~ of the 1st person (~~'f.lini's Sijtras and the Varttikas thereon..rntGR~ffi'!.g. +r&1i'("~ a -grammarian word a:Jfct' in the sense of milk. fil. poetic and dramatic works. e. in spite of some other commentaries and glosses and other compendia written later on to explain the Siitras of PaI). (4 lin tbe sense of 'made up of' added to the thing of which there isa large quantity. ~iIi:i"