List MF15

THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, SINGAPORE
in collaboration with
UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE LOCAL EXAMINATIONS SYNDICATE
General Certificate of Education Advanced Level

MATHEMATICS (8864)
MATHEMATICS (9740)
MATHEMATICS (9810)

LIST OF FORMULAE
AND
STATISTICAL TABLES

PURE MATHEMATICS Algebraic series Binomial expansion: n n n (a + b) n = a n +   a n −1b +   a n − 2b 2 +   a n − 3b3 + K + b n . where n is a positive 1  2  3 n n! integer and   =  r  r!(n − r )! Maclaurin’s expansion: x2 x n (n) f ′′(0) + K + f (0) + K n! 2! n(n − 1) 2 n(n − 1) K (n − r + 1) r x +K (1 + x) n = 1 + nx + x +K+ 2! r! f( x) = f(0) + x f ′(0) + ( x < 1) x2 x3 xr + +K+ +K r! 2! 3! (all x) sin x = x − (−1) r x 2 r +1 x3 x5 + −K+ +K 3! 5! (2r + 1)! (all x) cos x = 1 − (−1) r x 2 r x2 x4 + −K+ +K 2! 4! (2r )! (all x) ex =1+ x + ln(1 + x) = x − (−1) r +1 x r x2 x3 + −K+ +K r 2 3 Partial fractions decomposition Non-repeated linear factors: px + q A B = + (ax + b)(cx + d ) (ax + b) (cx + d ) Repeated linear factors: px 2 + qx + r (ax + b)(cx + d ) 2 = A B C + + (ax + b) (cx + d ) (cx + d ) 2 Non-repeated quadratic factor: px 2 + qx + r 2 2 (ax + b)( x + c ) 2 = A Bx + C + 2 (ax + b) ( x + c 2 ) ( − 1 < x Y 1) .

Trigonometry sin( A ± B) ≡ sin A cos B ± cos A sin B cos( A ± B) ≡ cos A cos B m sin A sin B tan( A ± B) ≡ tan A ± tan B 1 m tan A tan B sin 2 A ≡ 2 sin A cos A cos 2 A ≡ cos 2 A − sin 2 A ≡ 2 cos 2 A − 1 ≡ 1 − 2 sin 2 A tan 2 A ≡ 2 tan A 1 − tan 2 A sin P + sin Q ≡ 2 sin 12 ( P + Q) cos 12 ( P − Q) sin P − sin Q ≡ 2 cos 12 ( P + Q) sin 12 ( P − Q) cos P + cos Q ≡ 2 cos 12 ( P + Q) cos 12 ( P − Q) cos P − cos Q ≡ −2 sin 12 ( P + Q) sin 12 ( P − Q) Principal values: − 12 π Y=sin−1x Y= 12 π ( x Y 1) 0 Y cos−1x Y π ( x Y 1) − 12 π < tan −1 x < 12 π Derivatives f ′( x) f(x) 1 sin −1 x 1− x 2 cos −1 x − 1 1− x 2 tan −1 x 1 1 + x2 sec x sec x tan x 3 .

n 4 .) f(x) ∫ f( x) dx 1 x + a2 1  x tan −1   a a 2 1 2 a −x  x sin −1   a 2 1 (x < a) 1  x−a ln  2a  x + a  (x > a) 1 a+x ln  2a  a − x  ( x <a) tan x ln(sec x) ( x < 12 π ) cot x ln(sin x) (0 < x <π ) cosec x − ln(cosec x + cot x) (0 < x <π ) sec x ln(sec x + tan x) ( x < 12 π ) 2 x −a 2 1 2 a −x 2 Vectors The point dividing AB in the ratio λ : µ has position vector µa + λb λ+µ If A is the point with position vector a = a1i + a 2 j + a 3 k and the direction vector b is given by b = b1 i + b2 j + b3 k . then the straight line through A with direction vector b has cartesian equation x − a1 y − a 2 z − a 3 = = (= λ ) b1 b2 b3 The plane through A with normal vector n = n1i + n 2 j + n3 k has cartesian equation n1 x + n 2 y + n3 z + d = 0 where d = −a. a denotes a positive constant.Integrals (Arbitrary constants are omitted.

y n ) Improved Euler Method with step size h: u n +1 = y n + h f (x n .Numerical methods Euler’s Method with step size h: y n +1 = y n + h f (x n . u n+1 )] 2 STATISTICS Standard discrete distributions P( X = x) Mean Variance n x   p (1 − p ) n − x  x np np (1 − p ) λ λ Distribution of X Binomial B(n. where b = 5 Σ( x − x )( y − y ) Σ( x − x ) 2     . y n ) y n +1 = y n + h [f (x n . y n ) + f (x n+1 .p ) Poisson Po(λ ) e −λ λx x! Sampling and testing Unbiased variance estimate from a single sample: s2 = 1  2 ( Σx ) 2  Σx − n − 1  n  1 2 =  n − 1 Σ( x − x )  Regression and correlation Estimated product moment correlation coefficient: r= Σ( x − x )( y − y ) {Σ( x − x ) }{Σ( y − y ) } 2 2 Σxy − =  2 ( Σx ) 2  Σx −  n  ΣxΣy n   2 ( Σy ) 2   Σy −  n  Estimated regression line of y on x : y − y = b( x − x ).

9505 0.9946 0.7486 0. the table gives the value of Φ(z) .8888 0.8643 0.9251 0.9441 0.9974 0.90 1.6255 0.7823 0.7910 0.8770 0.8554 0.9066 0.5438 0.9788 0.9830 0.9901 0.5040 0.9871 0.6443 0.9846 0.9484 0.9726 0.5987 0.6179 0.9706 0.6554 0.8708 0.1 2.9906 0.2 2.9345 0.9515 0.5832 0.8315 0.9936 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 4 3 3 2 2 4 4 3 2 2 0.9406 0.7580 0.7517 0.9948 0.6103 0.3 1.8729 0.9925 0.8238 0.5319 0.9418 0.5 2.8665 0.9713 0.9319 2 2 2 2 1 5 4 4 3 3 7 6 6 5 4 9 12 14 16 19 21 8 10 12 14 16 18 7 9 11 13 15 17 6 8 10 11 13 14 6 7 8 10 11 13 0.9927 2.8686 0.8944 0.5359 0.7019 0.9554 0.807 0.9904 0.6915 0.576 0.8 2.9564 0.5160 0.75 0.6293 0.9956 0.6 0.7995 0.8907 0. p z 0.5080 0.8438 0.9969 0.5793 0.9370 0.6591 0.9394 0.5596 0.9971 0.6844 0.9962 0.9 0.9812 0.5753 0.5279 0.8264 0.7794 0.8340 1.9977 0. where Φ (z ) = P(Z Y z) For negative values of z use Φ(− z) = 1 − Φ( z) .7734 0.9985 0.8869 0.645 0.8790 0.5120 0.6879 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 7 7 12 12 12 11 11 16 16 15 15 14 28 28 27 26 25 32 32 31 30 29 36 36 35 34 32 0.5675 0.9082 0.9599 0.9890 0.7054 0.9922 0.9761 0. for each value of z.5557 0.9803 0.9884 0.0 0.9975 0.5000 0.9913 0.999 3.9616 0.9732 0.9916 0.9474 0.0 2.8980 0.9582 0.6700 0.9808 0. for each value of p.5 0.9686 0.9985 0.9147 0.9960 0.8106 0.9957 0.9625 0.9995 3.6628 0.9881 0.9 0.9911 0.9817 0.9878 0.9678 0.674 0.9671 0.9934 0.9961 0.7852 0.9015 0.9943 0.9963 0.8830 0.6 2.9983 0.9893 0.9452 0.6 1.8577 0.8997 0.9978 0.9964 0.7704 0.9981 0.7123 0.9952 0.9292 0.6517 0. 1 2 3 4 7 8 9 0.8051 0.5948 0.7939 0.6808 0.7611 0.9693 0.9986 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 z 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0.9357 0.9608 0.7324 0.9875 0.9633 0.9976 0.090 0.4 0.2 1.8159 0.9236 0.7190 0.8 0.9429 0.8 1.9798 0.9778 0.8461 0.9982 0.9192 0.8023 0.9641 0.291 .8508 0.9932 0.6480 0.8289 0.8078 0.9842 0.9977 0.6664 0.7 1.3 2.99 2.9861 0.8186 0.9972 0.9207 0.9945 0.7764 0.4 0.8849 0.2 0.8133 0.9826 0.9463 0.9744 2.9981 0.9931 0.7673 0.9887 0.9772 0. the table gives the value of z such that P(Z Y z) = p.9940 0.8810 0.4 0.282 0.9868 0.9854 0.6736 0.3 0.8485 0.5517 0.8749 0.9222 0.8212 0.9974 0.9898 0.6331 0.6985 0.5398 0.9656 0.7224 0.9838 0.9265 0.9909 0.9793 0.9 0.9382 0.9980 0.1 0.6217 0.9857 0.5199 0.9099 0.9821 0.7357 0.7291 0.9032 0.9115 0.9955 0.5 1.9864 0.6406 0.9929 0.9967 0.7549 0.9545 0.9949 0.9535 0.9968 0.7642 0.5478 0.6141 0.9699 0.1 1.7088 0.5714 0.7257 0.0 1.995 2.9938 0.6368 0.7389 0.9941 0.9131 0.975 1.5910 0.8365 0.9719 0.9953 0.6064 0.9591 0.9973 0.9783 0.9279 1.8413 0.8389 3 3 3 3 3 7 10 14 17 20 24 7 10 13 16 19 23 6 9 12 15 18 21 5 8 11 14 16 19 5 8 10 13 15 18 27 26 24 22 20 31 29 27 25 23 0.9177 0.9984 0.7 0.7454 0.9649 0.9738 0.9970 0.9495 0.8925 0.7967 0.7157 0.8962 0.9966 0.6950 0.960 0.9756 0.9525 0.THE NORMAL DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION If Z has a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1 then.9750 0.9986 0.9979 0.95 1.9975 2.6026 0.8531 0.9834 0.9984 5 6 ADD 20 20 19 19 18 24 24 23 22 22 Critical values for the normal distribution If Z has a normal distribution with mean 0 and variance 1 then.9573 0.5871 0.8599 0.9664 0.7881 0.8621 0.5239 0.9920 0.9332 0.9767 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 4 3 3 2 2 5 4 4 3 2 6 5 4 4 3 7 6 5 4 4 8 10 11 7 8 9 6 7 8 5 6 6 4 5 5 0.9965 0.9918 0.9896 0.9951 0.9959 0.7422 0.7 2.326 6 0.9162 0.9982 0.5636 0.9979 0.9306 0.9850 0.9049 0.6772 0.

363 1.473 2.132 12.691 0.878 2.408 3.761 2.485 3.457 2.883 20 21 22 23 24 0.764 2.706 1.000 0.21 7.819 3.703 1.069 2.861 3.671 1.552 3.541 3.658 1.323 1.106 3.110 2.222 3.674 1.695 0.318 1.785 4.821 4.886 1.341 1.383 2.980 1.057 3.684 1.333 1.497 3.833 2.684 0.330 1.078 3.315 1.943 1.135 3.797 3.101 2.353 2.120 2.947 2.638 1.896 2.975 0.140 15 16 17 18 19 0.850 3.291 7 .303 3.297 6.610 5 6 7 8 9 0.729 2.697 0.930 3.250 4.714 1.052 2.707 3.725 3.756 3.182 2.683 0.9975 0.704 2.869 5.701 1.998 2.169 3.314 2.551 3.552 2.741 3.390 2.086 2.681 2.685 1.819 2.660 2.262 3.579 4.587 4.690 0.326 4.201 2.75 0.313 1. the table gives the value of t such that P(T Y t) = p. for each pair of values of p and ν.959 5.688 1.296 1.771 1.99 0.960 2.314 1.056 2.435 3.90 0.316 1.143 2.528 2.624 3.319 1.421 3.078 1.660 30 40 60 120 ∞ 0.82 6.015 1.771 2.160 2.221 4.047 3.6 31.852 3.920 2.467 2.717 1.533 6.807 2.646 3.734 1.898 2.045 2.153 3.977 3.282 1.539 2.505 3.776 31.074 2.841 4.197 3.687 0.090 3.179 2.765 0.145 2.685 0.646 3.131 2.345 1.030 2.041 4.833 3.707 3.718 0.965 4.160 3.310 1.894 5.527 3.995 0.860 2.119 3.080 2.686 0.373 3.965 3.485 2.792 3.711 2.750 2.845 2.450 3.372 1.689 0.365 2.437 4.699 2.093 2.681 0.645 2.500 2.721 1.571 2.782 1.725 1.697 1.711 0.583 2.999 0.144 4.915 2.33 10.567 2.021 2.773 4.067 3.71 4.372 3.042 2.921 2. p 0.610 3.674 3.423 2.686 0.440 1.479 2.3 14.355 3.499 3.055 3.306 2.025 3.650 2.706 0.604 127.232 3.09 7.174 3.326 2.779 2.038 3.812 1.683 0.689 3.733 3.718 2.692 1.048 2.CRITICAL VALUES FOR THE t-DISTRIBUTION If T has a t-distribution with ν degrees of freedom then.337 1.358 2.694 0.396 3.807 3.740 1.408 5.501 4.453 5.860 1.462 2.747 63.091 3.321 1.415 1.350 1.576 3.064 2.289 1.796 1.428 3.303 1.831 2.015 3.228 2.508 2.746 1.617 2.703 1.467 3.397 1.173 636.925 5.252 3.787 2.92 8.307 3.060 2.684 0.787 4.60 12.922 3.311 1.895 1.000 1.012 2.763 2.104 3.686 3.66 9.356 1.492 2.816 0.476 1.683 1.581 3.029 3.365 3.95 0.753 1.325 1.781 10 11 12 13 14 0.318 4.598 318.286 3.328 1.3 22.768 3.460 3.677 0.745 25 26 27 28 29 0.700 0.447 2.688 0.602 2.679 0.727 0.385 3.317 4.073 4.9995 ν=1 2 3 4 1.708 1.971 2.208 4.032 3.690 5.518 2.684 0.

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