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IOI,r,i_Jl Comnetition

Narratives of Muslim and Hindu Sa ints in .he :"reccan .

This article presents a number of oral narratives from Au r,;n~,ga[:.~,HJ harashrra, h~,d:L;~) (1Vl", ,~()]'1ce r n 'i n,~, com, p ("1"[ tio n hctwc ~ i, ~ ri v.:11 sa i, n,~~S"Th c su per '1( i~ .ll,y U n (00 rrq 'll. ica ted ,i s S:~J (l r C N,[ usli m-Hindu cornpet ition is d,t"C'Oll.s,l.r1L]r'[t~d with l"t{t"r't'fl (,''~,~]he ()OIl,"[!LX:[S of l he ,na:rI riHivcs in order to n~vca~individual sai ndy cults within .o':! IO("~-I~,~,..;-'n!~h(':~IF~c..' the n., jra. a~'!i, ICOUI petitors radru 'r Ihan rel ig.:~'lHlS, ,per se, Auenrion is, d'u:rt:fun:- ,drawn to. the ton.h..:xUl.m~J [rft~Cof co nlpc .in g rel ru ious rnm1i1 UI. ~,n 'i!.~·rud run a lees l~~t:"( '~iil':lIPh Y ..) f p,i, 1"glH"i rn ~,~!J;.t'j, n Ihe s~i~ ns shaV'i'n,~ of'~w,(h narn rives, 'rh~:;n:~t:"n(IL uf ~I rnixc I :1~HIDiIJ,[I,u-!\JusHn'Dll,oU,O\\"j,ng ~s ~t:"t:'n I~O p I·c ~]~1l'j 11, non, nl I'~~(: in j- sse rnhli n~Jf the ::r 11,' bol '~'f ,~u:rih LI [C~_ l,f l ~11't:' ....U I i. s d:1:~~ ~ [_ Shah NO r, : [O~., l~-" ~]]"~ l!U nd \;V horn I: h eona rra ti "VIC'S revol ve, ft) rm ing a sa lien r ,D"{" m [;1.( Ie r I(] f I :~1e [.0 [c uf ora I rnl ra rut ivcs :ilu the loca lizarion uf n.:]igirUJS traditions,
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~rOHJES0,,, competition S between rrnv,~l~
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......... .,d d' ~',ora i. tra d iri on S., * ~ h.ey are ... w ,,
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ints are a featu.re of !n,~ny of d e tren I,OU.ll d P 1"'(:sc rved in hng i, 0g ra~~o

p __ relati n, _,to the "'a:dy hi," Iory ;, nd proselytization flf religions into ies areas n wh '" h pre-existi ng re ~~gruons ,. nd. thei r rep resew t"1 rives \1" en:' a] r'C'aJdyc p,n::sent~ as, in relation 'to early C hri tian saints in the British Is'~es, In such cases" 'where he reli __ of [he victorious saint went IO'nto become he overion w h e hn:i n gly m aj ori tJ f-:i th ~ i~here, -ion 5,'LU:h ta le 5 tc n,died I 0 lose' the i1,"' rclcn \f',~,nCL and so L11,Hed to Ihn' ~ li,__ ter re,~exp~'l:S,~ For while competition srories ion. are ostensib y . lcmonstrations of the strength 0 the saintly victor; they ,~U'(:' .Y
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therefore flourish most
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societies in which d,~.erent reli ~ons co-exist, f ..·.·om1't:ti'wo,n na lira I ives h,~vc ~on,g (~',X rc - i! n the I,~km ic world 11l:'"uch il~

the ,/l usli m holy ma __ (gcn'cfl~lJ:1y though not CXIC] usi vel y cast ,~I S, 1], S'u.l,f~) variously competes in the performance of m iracles with 'the' f gu re of a, I lin, lu, Buddhist, sharnanic, or Christian h,o:l), man {-·j\1U"lA.[~,Pr.n. .uss ~'-99", '~liIi'l, -14·~ \~"N 'B···irji;I~nl!\'!;·~I" ... I 'Jll.rn iii' other narr ~ii';,'U',n.il:" ,c,,:,W,u.~ji'h,__ J ~,~~ ",!.5 ..... ~'l.'lle'II;lm-"'"3]'1 n t ;;.-'j~.,.!.".."."" lOln'l) ,::1711 ·.,,!;'.',lIl
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h 'a ",C be en '-,e ,-'n 0 com pet c he [\I\,''LC n the 1:11's.(.J ves :;:1 t :r~lditi on in v, h ic h b, a J~ lcngers (,nltlrnt7zii) competed in terms of cngagrn ng in miracu [ous or more si rnply ~iicus acts (..;j·l ~~'l~'["':~i\.i\lI'Y],976) '"'] he I[he [11 e of the contest, oftc n ]n volving a ,degn~'t of trickery is of ourse one of th .. eldest an :~ e most wic ely .fC)U nd of J ~ fo~ e motifs and one that is also known throi ru,'~ho'Um: . rab worl kra the. '(I':L~,:,-[uJ~A'~,n·19 '5,~vol, ,2, .37... 523-24 .. " I OV,"e\N~r ruts ad .p,~" tion an ,- a loprion ~ ) ,~~.S part of a w ider body 0 I~re] i,gi ou s teach i~~, gs gives irn portant :i.:n,:sig~·· into (5
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the w,'~ys '~mwhich a olk narrative
oral
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device might ex~,erience ,.J shifi frun1. '[he
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the written :r.egilcr and 'i n so oing change its __caninj by hCico~ln.:i,:n'J j p,"-ru- of a vv~der Sy' ern 0 ~'re~ r rn,giou. know Ie ·I:e (G'IO(J[· Y I, 1(IH7'.: GR~J. _[j\}\:~ ~,iI7',_ S~rREE~r 19'4) In recogni z im the fact ~ha r over ti m e storie ... shi ~t ~ et ween Ig ora a nd writ ret modes, it is irnporta n t to SC{: oral co,m,:I·eririon storie ~ withiL fa wider CO[· '[tXI[ of the written ~W1: irion .of ,'_lusl in] religious knowledge ~ however loca I~ ~zedl i " fO,li:m ,~, Irru rn es, ~ . \", such, th 'Y ~'; 'rrn P'i!_ 0 ,~ wider t ,,[I',
i

ecumene ory~"e~ I()I·'C ru~ ural knov ledge made up at: ,~.point on irs (o,mpa,ss y 0'" kn owle '~: O~,'~]\1\~ ,t., va rie y of d j ffe rent ki ,nd5. and or i,gi ru '.' ~e i Like ,_,_~ COL~_,, lex c rutures, those of the Muslit :-: ,'",outh. Asia are' sus~ l rained by these l:ifle',f', ',flit k'·w,d, of input spoken and '.: ritten, ~.IC'~ and ,-Ian~
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narratives
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brine'(i'-i out these . l. Ill,· ..
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complexities well in bclor ging on the one hand to tc wider Indian folktale radition with countcn arts in 0' .her cultures elsewhere "~,n,.,0011 the other ro a ~ much more C'~ rcum scribed tradition f()cus-s:i"n'lg on ho~'Y men of only loca ~
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omcti mes expressed in r0111anCf' literature ..in which ,-Iindu Iqueens or other heroines re use [0 surmport _ nee, ~ ornpcti tion
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of ,a,rnother sort" was also

render to Turks (oltle_ ' referre IIto as ];'u,irir,€ls), though we should be careful of what are perh --Jl-S nachronistic readings of such idcntitie as sim ~l,ly 'MI l$~W m '\ crsus Hin(~I'U(I ~UF ~~Sz..J ill 920, 'I _IJ~IOrr I99 4 )1 ~i ."'nal sis of such narra ives has emonstrated th at dl ~y are certainly more subtle Ith.', n bal J exemplars of 'f\/i us ~ m su peri 10 ri ly (,-, '\)\j' ~ 1.1' 19) ~ F [0 m th e ea rl ie ,'[pOW n t~0 f'.lu;~d m con tact ,-_:i d In d i, ',~. eve ra ~Itra ,F t io n s of ""'f' usl '"Irn C['I,' '0' m r_,' 11 '"I'I) •ook - r'i1"1C"1I't' terest ].n n the rcligioi ~I~ svsterns of ']ndi ·"·l,_J~, ,I; "J'.Ii,.
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and, their exponents

{I'~ H,NS·[· 2003

FH]E:Dl\i[ANN

:~,97 )I.! The most -alTIOU,$ ··'

exemplar of this .cndency was the early polymath . I-Btrunl (d. '~'48) ~who wrote the cncyclopedi e Kiuib al-Hind (Book of Indi a). ] Ioweve r; the tradilion of Muslim- I ,i ndu :'n tcllcctual and spiritual dialo ue has '~een passed on via Persian translations of the religious and secular classics of Sa nskrit litC'UJ

erature
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sponsorc ~I 'by the M us ,h,~ls 'to more recent
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ltura ~ and religious
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threads of Indo-Muslim and """ indu '--I -. .. '.... -rn. _,ess ,.,J orner -.. umes "" I~'~,-), II·'" vie, lb. ".rn-, '. - .. [raLditio0111., ;;; : ... ,U,I, onern :1··, ll.U10UoS na .' cen aimost en. rewy ~" .ed ,.'" '11' " . 'P!i.;I' '-,,,," -I'~,.-.a , ru"gru:u,c, rn .111id ()-~:~,~,U1~",I,mccounts 10, h, leur own COH,_,m nuy p, ist so rnucn'II.. ,SOl that i~ i _' ossible ~,O read some ,g,e,nres of Indo-Muslim ~~It(:'~ aturc and be " ~I~I··. "In" ~JI'-' ide 1,'-11" d:-·" '.~ ,-t _t:: V'I'L IIuueo mro .orgcmng the '-,- er , oresence 0" a , Jncu ]' ,n,LW, s rrouncnng SUC.fl"-1
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I, .oJI· "' m rterai c traenuons 0'1c 'l!!' no~I' I] .arn 1 a ve a 1 Ian ,,:S; ,11 ,'ways pre-, H' O\\!IC'V'~:.r tnc non ..III"' sented a somcwha different perspective, reminding us of he stark differences between the world as created in writing and the world itself Indeed, "popu ~ar-- Islam 1n Indi a has Ion .~.been characterized by its absorption of

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elemen -s fro:m, its Indi; n, surroundings, element s which ,S,OITI,{: ,g:rOli ps of :Musli m re! igio < _. C errners over the past two cen tu ries ha V" I' een eager '[0 ~,,(9J,beas :;)1,~ e m'l,- n I.' !~~:~ '~'~ .:. 1~ASSY 1997, ,GABIO ~u 1. 1. n d u (' E EAU 199.·),. Th e 10 ve rru
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all-encoi passing labels as Islam and Hinduism by re n':nn ~:1S;'PIC,"ru k~i 'il n d:"u~~na:m,e: 10' o.,h 'tr.a,I Ii --m,on, ,_dt ,~c~ 1:5 in, 0 .h,eli ~~g I lolla parts of the '\vold,l has dlon'c' IID,u'eh to obscure th,(, ,a,IC[!UI: J naUJrn"c of trc~~g,ruon ii,n I [WI. ia,. ~'mJu:b b~ms,:ic ::_',UC' ~l7:, fht:, , .e:fin,itiortl.- 1:011:11 n ]I.arw,e:, iiI:__ :~ II n t:.·lracl[i~,on of the ii fIe' enl religiJo ns . I nlia m-'em~l n inad: 'q,'U ~nC'lly(:1 fih cptll,alizcd .,~' ,,-,l~,though,
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these issues are h:i.gh~y corn]' lex and prohl -matic, primary evidence of the \JV~Iys :i n wh ich d,iHc.rc nr rC'~1 ~;'~riou s ,(om In -1 ni rues ] n ,"ndin pc FO('iV'f' the W reli_ _fr ou s bou n Id ari c 5 a n ,~I j n aer ~II-lli n h e I, s 1[10 :,1Ji[ ~ east 0 p ren ~Wzc t b C _,( ope 0 ,.the
ru

qucsti on. "= he oral na rrativc presented n thi 7 article "O~·~_, one such cons ri,J bution by s~"owing some of' the 'w,~~ys rum: which stories ' J the competition
ru

between a 'u:puJa,r Sufi saint and his loca] non-Muslim local contexts of shrine and I-'"U'] to, 1"'b"C'~~ sa ~nt whose til (1 ra I radition is d L.C'Ul5,s'e II la rlv~ known ,~L, h:a,h Nur I hilm awl, 7 1;_;I:i (U ~,I[ centers s

rivals fir into their
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h WSarticle js PO~'U~ on the large sh d ne I{clargli'h) which surrounds hi tomb on the outskirts of the: Ind.i,an city or Auranga] ~ld [Maharashtra)," extual evidct cc inform us that Sh,ah" t1[ d ied ~n '[he yea r :~, ,6;~r2 ,a.n, J th, t his ,. h:rwne \~I",,"!; built sh ort ly aftcrw a rds by a devotee scrv ~ng run the oppe(" I~~;nks of the :\~uzhal administrarion 10 :dl'l:' ,ci~y: Although later oral an i textua tradition ,give a number of variant account .0': Shah N ur's origins, r'i!ng:inJ~ rr irn Baghda ~ to Khurasan, iI seems most lik.e,l,y that he orru_gina]]y rn i,.~Tah::d 'to . i~u~"a.ngabad frot11 northern India," 'A 'hile liulc mo.n,~~' be S'i, ru~J \,\ 'i (- certainty about J e hws[.('n~ruca,~ "h,ah t\: (1 r; can the saintlv Shah ·Nfir of larcr narrative tradition is a nueh more vm'\; wd and '" colorful Hgu Ire. ·'~Thle Au ran ·J1b, has seve ral other ~"lrgc and locally im ~o r~ rd
~I ru ~ _
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rant Muslim s,~rines, each with its own attendant

oral traditions,

none pres~

ents the inl1:-lgc of.'rn saint 5,) clearly at horne with his Indru'run environment. As ~in the clraracterization oudww cd above, the C~I["I/S. Muslim sain I': in this \'\"ay ~ ~ c.xle,rnl'IJ,~,rn~,he ,[",0 o rototvni al strands t Islnrn n Ind ia .. a either sta nd 'i n,,~:r

,.~ loof fr01TI, the wider trad it io n s 0 .~ region or absorl . m1~ .a n dl ada pti n,.g t h,C:1:11, the as ]'ts proper inheritance, Like many others of its kind across ~n.di,a'jl the shrine of Shah Nur is notable tClr its shared Muslim and Hit rdu clientele "In. 1 :i t is the ~. escrr e ..~, ~" i."h,~~ 'I: clie rn el e ~hat makes the corn petition r th f,C', na rra[i\N~'S ~,~~ the more compelli n~.I.1 Aurangabad itse]. V\ as '~oun :_ed in 16K:[ as one of the last major urban centers of the- !VNughal cmpi rc and as p;:u~~ ![~ e indepct of lent princely sratc of Hydcrabad remained under Muslim po~:jlical c .ntrol until 194,., Sometimes seen ' ,S the birthplace '0 ~, Jrdu lircrarure. i!.ur;;ln.~_,.a.b,d,d has :10 I g
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high cu .tu re ~n both its ~, cu ~ar and rel igm{lll.: ~o]""n1,s,. N onctheless, the :rV[USH1TIS have ,~l~VV~lYSbeen a minority ,CO," -, unity in the city. ,c_-J'[hol],gh they arc' d,e,mo,gra ph j, -f.l:l] y ~nosl den se ly concer trnted in '[he old ci~y rather than the surroun- _~n,g countryside overall rl ey s~jU f()fWll ~_ mere ~0 ~ crcent of ... III r~~ ",gab,a 's :11' >lPu lat i on", a ~,·I~iO~,·'( rt ahat has rtio I~ !:!C(~I III '.~!.,W sin cc tnc l1C :g-ru n rn nJ1" 0' f~hl C t \1\'" n It~ hl ce n Ull- l~, .' rnce rror 1 r;11.' II ~ ,. I cna ,n,~ tl C ~ if ~ ~ J sheer derm ..o-nlphic overbalance. the rninnrirarianism ofrhe city's Musli ms is exacerbated by the fa,ct t hat the surround rung state of Mahan JJ tra has seen l~ de\IC~~OI~r)'m'~I'[of PtlVV't! Ifu ~I Ma If,atha ~~_ I' I in d u nariona list mov ·'t:w e n't5 he ~d
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O~~A[.~'.~n]Vt]·rv, S OF 1\f[IQJS' 11v[ /IN ) m . ~INl)U

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since the nineteer rh century 1(1 OI{JlAlJ~ m,19!,4)~ince ,1v~,c_r,adlW lrun,gu:i,; tic S nationalism has P_' }rc! ~ an '~,nl~' ortan role in this - i~ is of more than mere tee h Ill. ic a .1, ~,n rest '[:11 l It hi" ' n a rra Itmves presen ted here wert; re 0 U n ~,f.>"- in r 'r u te a .'t'-'- ransrabad h istoric linn ua franca~ ,~
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'~' ' cif P 'len .at ,spe,(] , C, d ItS. .I; urai SUI rounJ,ngs,. The compe, itior s tha t. til narratives describe make reference 'to places knOW'D '-0 each mem ber of [heir audiences. This is especially notable since , ve na hi ' N,""'ut=' rum ,~I ~',~, \\ 1. ~,' ]~, __.J ' ,:,l' ~ I .' -", is ,J~, :yb, -l'~' ~:,,' to h-'13.::-, come [0 A',_U--, '- "- ~I-,a t: , 'rar ieve ra,ngal~ 'd- rrorn f:~ '. I "ID,~ay !£ru,oDo.rd,wn,g Ito' rn' r ren versions of h,,~ life st "r)' ,i ,:~ :fa r as, B"a,gh,adadi, s --'I---'b ""-' ,- ' ,t" c' norn tern ' ,S","'l ria. or eastern " [ ,fRO,•. '" evertnetess, des ""-, . ,-,I,1~ ~:.-- "'i-'~ " -'an,d- m.ys~ "l ,., "(-:" ","'-,,,,..,, CJt:Spru t -' re nge t
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ric of f~H=["[W;i~)_~1 aurhei tici[y: I hie' evident physical real ~ of (he setring lendi ng ty credence to the historicity of C,ne events described, 'Ye"[ there i more to the th " ttus, ""J c.-_.,- .. -.1, .J ,-",' '", '- " matter t . an :_1,. ."". as tn.. ' ,l ~rs 0,f' ~ e nan at! \N~Soemonstra res we'-1-[ ',-" ,-:', ':""hi"'~- '-N····· ur e counters.. ,-1_ .... (USC1Jwt: ~I-,[0fa ,r:..,. ~.~ .. , .,-. ' ~I,:,_·,. . sth .' .. ] ]" n ~L"', 1!J..u,lS narranve e__ ,,~wl< Colle , a HI.mOllS .10ugn ,-,,-_ -,"" d· W_-!r'" ;.~ - - saanu an.d oernons ~ ,-:,rates "tne " " upenonty'1 --" 'f nis own pOWiel • ~'d' I, ,'I ',-. -. '-:, '" h' s , unname .1[ .ll.rn.n,u,u, a
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tha r 1[_-1,1t: silc/bit?: was :Iivru n'g' in a temple at Sita ra, e was l~vingth,I "n" he tri; ru, ,,.. ~.II .,- ,- oi '-I 'h ose n me ~i e H' ,II w, ~ L n ,nwho ~"Ii"u'''''~ ~" 'v ~"dl g', '0' 11',n br~n,_g _,~ood fo,F" him e'~e,fl aa]" Glore he lA", ,Ajdin,:,~, r brrun.',-_, the faa '.' .. Hazrat Shah Ntlr I ~:" -,alvli' glanced air him , and he ,(:'U down, Bump, '"'I· nat h ppcneo ···1__ -~ I I,., '-[." :s,a~(}-:·_ ,i'~l!I,·;, you Il:lrl.ng me .. own i '(.:'ll~ if ,.".:1' ·W,r.,-":-Ik~" .',I(] dow .... it na .... -' ,~[!(!,I . ~lie ' yaJfB' (ft~end) .,' I :h,a:v(;to go to bri:ng my nl.asler'~:s food.,n I' [,e [Sh,ah 'N'u,r~1 told ,h,ru m,~, HB,l7d,' (bro-,'her)" every day you (tt7-) rn"e,com ~in. _~','and .'<o~ ng~ "W'_':i"~ >"~ 0 ne S;gUO.. '1' 'I)nng , ,{ __ .' ~I [,rom 11",.,- h-"'1. .[-_~IIb.. - IS, ·· ',., · l!J.u.alt .:_. uere ttl e you ,g)Hl,: .' rOOi W !1~~l,S, .,;'l., ,• -I' . - - --:::r ,;, -Jl= '" -'"" varanaSWj '.~I .f' ,- my mast'tL -i ',,'y~.ng - ,tle au" I go 0 ~~r~e --- . 'I .' .- I'/'··]'~ lor run. -]. temp~e 111 ~as 11 r - h. -h f~ ,~.(..i~'J: ... ' '" S'~ [S'--"I- 1 .':-"" -] "d- [0 llm'-'fU:U'IJ' ~,j'B' ,an d , w~[e[c. '[ ,!C :~"OO(I,oil()Jat2'. ). ~o> la- 1 1<_ ur 8,~'U ,-, ']. every .;~n 1-, 1 . 'b d,.a_~, yo ~,,a re ru ,;.[:::r \f ,1,1_ Ie" g,Y","'.' ru ".U~:!~l U, ~!. e.!, e., "r, '[_1a,[. 1. a 1'~, ,;;\, 0 "lU"". ,··1tlm..• ~, Ii ii, ~I B; w],e n wl"a'[ docs he Ifdl(!' :m,;;]lS['f'l] dl·. a ,ny"l\"(l[Y ?~. SOi,~, Itbe p-upwJ 1_ ie '"'_f1l1e n,':---;r'V-u,s ,at ,[hi s
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'.iuing on i~. "10 he I Shah Nfl, I~ S l id t.o the stream I J..!J IS c' I01manJ. Ilv.1' with shira-pttri?' I metnl plan '.:, f!ih'jrJ~J ilr1 ,~ n \~ d '[ ')r and to 'h ru', d 'l} the na me of the st ,'~ m ~,-, 'Ih ~r rpurj. I-I"" ~ I' . ,! j s'. ~,"~tl:'L. ] upi ,I J ate th: ~-.lfif(J~1 iirj' a uti ~,""r\ :orne [a. L:', _ ',"::[(".'1: an d told '.' him : '\'.. :rr~hi:n(T. I lis .astcr 'vV~L sitting in th temple aa Sita fa and h told hirr . ~NI' wiU nor serv c vou and now ':~ gain, there.' "\n,: he' carne am t H zr," [ [Shah u-I and 't:'~ rt 'cd h is . r\ ice, an J died his r.-1111, ',"fir'\1 -lii'~' f[~ne and he b rrucI' him, He.. p':~nl' L:"rn '~c n,-:rume !~'"h[~111llah and ····-,·.duJl~"h ans "the slav of': flf d And so it '\~'·1~,.1trearr
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is irs presentation and inde e.11 ,T~ 'eptanl[lr' I .! ~ the plur, ~wty . r,ne l di n " '~~.jou: lan lscapc. :_~dlt us h coi etin .~.the t\ ,Ii . .rt ligi o ~.'I:rngu r rs, ~1;1 S u ~ '~[. t ;,:ru 'II the J lalJ'fl j m .s-exist in '[11. world .. ~. narrative ani '~' vision of :.'_' ,I sacr d ~e ·"C,l7<~b.~lr" ~~ . ~:ut while at first the s.'ory s .crns to e otl crw 1St' clear W~irs symbolic vision. ofth superic rit of Islam over Iinduisn ~ a :n1lJ[ 'e nuan e.J line 11-[. rp:r,tarion reveal: a picture ~cs ,Jo.m.~n~~tted such all-en by npassing C~~,I'jou:
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UL ~Do ~ the na r ia[WVI ' n "~en~r~c." quii e di fh - I. nr[ ~ '. ,_~S VV[ have seen the stor takes place wirhi n a soecific local lam ls ,'ll,:<': 0'-:" ~ sacred PO\-\ ers Th 5(,1,dlu~~ ,IUpH in the ~1~lr~ is allied "0. the t .mpl in rh " nearby vi ~lag,' .If' Si [ ra, where his master r" : i !Ied \f\"lh 11_" Ii 1.11, '. ". (]. r; as "vcry-' S ne knows, ~s .'] be foun I, at his shrine : n [111.1._ d e o 'rh ~i-,. _ " 'he relercnce to 'the village of Sitara sorn five kilo nrr '[I' .rs distant franJ L ,C ~ hrine 0:1 Sh,!lh Nur; is ortant it is thc nee largestc nccnrration of 'hfih N ur's I-I:i:n!,u l,bHo'\\·. rs, nd· "elt the saint s atracl m 'n' '[.0 the people olthis \rHl IIa,:.-, is .... II .. at hie i. sorn :""[:i mes see n wan leri n 311 nif 'hi in the ~iL ~lnd h I, _~' L src: U II'LI In this, sc nse the sro kes :~ s~'e."ial : f~r n -:' t" : this Iind U cliem ('O:01.[]r ni ry that. lives v{~ry . lose to the fen: plc at Sitara, The ru t:w \1["_ .. ' dwr at .• Sitnra L '. 'n·~· (:f . he J lest 'a:. rive [[en]~,.lcs :'\J1JJu",an.aba region .~J d has _to.g formed ~l 'pO . uI. .:i t ri [~- " 9" -' ;';J·~t or Iin ~Iu , ornine If[ I . he cin an ,II I~u,r[ ndinsr ealU' tr side," n rcla ion to this d cd if: ated t '.,[h c :l\:,"~:r ~~ i eLI h (bTU re of KJ1.;ln.[ loba th e s I r~rei. ' h =-[-t< [I, r i' t :e closest pl sc . 0' pilgrim as to I: ival it ~~nlI I,'.c attention or devot es, :.',her i, la 'e'.. m' r . his roc: I. context the story thcrclore seems not so much parto ~', .·'ran:1 nar 'lILW'\~'e Muslim ... premacy than abo ~[[:.'I npctiof u -~.In between Lreal ..ources ofsu _e~' 4l n If'" ~ ro'''' cr [or rhe r:'~I[f" In"~~,~' :i,lled ~oca,1 clie tele, ~~~ nJ,·U rative is at. . h is level an artem ,.,1[ to re '1!,VIl:' On he f. vor of Shah N -nr)' a situu ion :"of ~'C i[--- h (]:rnpcti m'[1 'I --.t\,i\ "en I~! llrin' f Sha h '"j' t .~ t.he ~enl,i~ a~ ;.' it~.ra,. "1.he key' pain' he· c 'i.: that tht: r.a n n.!_ 'Ilc l~, .,.[ract,[ in [:I, ··-tory d ,·d _'Il rae' er a:r,1u . ~ ,~'ho:m' h{: ~ 'U'IF, til" re\' :Ih.I'!'~"~Ii
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I I 1-

sacred sites cc mpctc, SOl the ~I,"il rrntive revea ls a pictu re of bwlateral compcti[ion f 't this follower, wh was ,{1'S~ ,~ devotee f he st7,lJhl at Sitara before, in the key S(:'q uence of the n arrat ive, switching ~ allegiance o .hah _.... r, d e ..is u
I

,u:~;,of _,~l]r~ln,gabad,. I: [owcvcr, there is also wrn portan rural-urban dWfn'C'n~'ion 'to this 'p:rocc~ S 10 f cul It. trans (e.r,e",1('(;',. In real t r a s irulJ th c na rra t ruve, as th e v ii II,,~~,,~,'C rs
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abar don I heir simple tcmp]c ,.. Sitara tlhley are ~)le:i,n,g'brough1 into conta ct t with the religious nsti tutions of the ,city. Such ~~1:~gn ts of [ow-easte ru ral 1 men H ,;i n dus it!, '. u d 'a n Su ~1 hri n C'S, as th a t .seen here wi t h I[ ~ .'t:' ·H.~ u c li e 11. -,C le I[ s nd A,.,a h 'N (ill r ha ve been seen to, be among the fI rst sn 'ps o ~an ongoing ,'roc. '$5 I of COlli"rO~;a.te conversion to Islam (' ~-:AJ'\O'! 1985' -A'~I]~Ji'······ 1982),., .] he fact CE that ["JIlO zraves at the s:h,_inc of Shah NO,r ,J..rc revered as those of the two ~Ii ndu 0- ~O'\iV'le,~s associa ted wit t the saint in oral n ra -:i tion is certainly ~,IJ,'-','" gesriv - of such ai ,ilh loption of I' lamic r,e,~:ru.,~, ious '_ustoms 3~ongs,~dethe aban .. donment of the 'I ~'WW du f ~~,g:i,.ous requirement Fa,C' 'ernate (he body" 13 lU despite theories suggesting an effective conversion ofgiven communities by Sufi shrines over the lOI,lg,tU!' duree. more C fl,' ww is the faCt that like the Hindu clients of Shah Nar certain social gro'Up~ ~_,av.'i111'ln ged 1[0 mainrr I[.~ ei r :1:11':1'i ,11 al re] i,g'··.~ou.s,osi-".~on, 'i over extender _ periods of ~ me. Oocrarins run a un ive rs th a It acco I'd n,g' 1[,.0 111'0 In0 ~ rh ic con, ce _-It - -,~~~ m 10 Ic ~ :i s nei the r f ~~ [ s, ~ Islamic nor :1I:iIldu is ~'r' su,c,blgroups, there ore a pCf,manen[ \'~,ilI.y of ~ru_e rather ~ha n a stagi n~ post on. a ~o,nge',1f~"rn.stolrrucal process of religious cha n,.~t:"i Gi ve n I~_hcundoubted aml ,i,guj... ,~e~of living j n this liminal posit ion, [he na rrati ve ..... rhe .slidh,u S . ol lower i[1 this sense ocrh 'PS also acted as a ~ istorica I f charter fair the' Hindus of Sirara, describing how I[.hey carne '[.0 be the clien .5 of rhe s~;~·i:.ne Sh,;·.h N [h" withi U~ formally convertins to Islam, It ,'rovmd~-, of a jru,s'r~f.'w_ ,.~ aetiology for I[~h, now customary ,fil~~ru,~~lei to Shah I ""]ra '. col"ir lectjve '.'u pe nat u raj patron .. \~hil~ ..~,- fo,'n rung" s~.lro·g sanctifier of ",-storn, '[he S[Of'Y also shows ~IS t how ,S,U pcrnatural .o"/cr W,i'~,S expressed by n,arrati ve L neans in the conrext of a saintly marketplace n It -: is competitive con text, i, n w,h ich the CUJ re of wi l... ness or the finding of 'WOI: k might be the miraculous t~eal that was sought, then: V\'~~ alw ty,· the risk that allegiance might be switched elsewhere. '¥t'I[. it ..'" is also clea r 'rom ..his ha po~cntial c~ -1,'[5 mr de their choices not merely rue Ion - ~ ncs 0, ~'COOlmun ,~re ~'ilalruou.siden.ti~y but ,~ in the lore si m,~le terms lso of I _C e~,rcrun(} 0 :"'[he-u.p ,',niL tural service provi ~,t:, l. There is then jlJ (~cr[,~~L_ n ,aT've p r~,gnl,~] s min s to r j, e"s. s u! ..has th is t h..a. t i~, •. ',~ru :1 ove:d 0[)kJ~' . '. L~'s.s ,~;]p,~ ~ ti s g:i y ra
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in c uestion se rved insteac ([0 advertise [~ If shrine of Shsh N u r a~ the most ,_'reicti'\fI[~ loc,a,~~I-- -tree of the ~]O~\h'r over their de stinies .hat was requested :-.y the J,rin -,~'"lientele in exchange for their r " ular visits ,~UlIJ c devono ," A version olthe sam c story recou nte ,-~ ,~1Hi ndu follower of ISha.h<:" G r by highligh ts thei ierne of the replacement of' 0 ie cult b another even 1ll110rC' c learl '.
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had the pO\Ner of Hig:h,c,. Ie used 'to Hy. I Ic used, to ly to his guruv stay '[:h: re, an ~ '[h, n cow c h, ick, li\!~uch larer, after '~or-y years, the ,~',uru was :1 'h !L" ~ · t"'"'fI': . S ptease d with u:inl ,3.L· 'I·'s,~nd,~'·Jle" I'] m It'" \\ ~. II. rnt rs you want: '.. So h e .' IDl.i:
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'm,erey (d,~ya).,'cc 'S,[' he ~ave hrwm a seed (bij)., It's not known what kind, of seed it was, He closed the seed in his fi.st and ~el t thcrc.iaud was :Hyrung fJ(rf' wh He he II' ••.....hah, N ur] V as si: trn n on the b:_n k of the stream. I Ie [Shah '-< o.:r"11 cast a. zlance l(n,,~Zti1''') at him, ~IDmJd so made hi:ITI fa U dow n 11,(, FeH d[o\'\ n _n d [J1..3, h f. 'U ,F,' ~ asked ~ m ,- "V\,h, at's ~n ) ou r
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me." I Ic [Shah Nur] rook '[he seed anri threw it in the strear :,.Theft:

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water fliw,ru n,g i~,n strea m, :E Ie ! the stltilu11 became ve:ry sad 'that he had; the ,VI l ir [the' :eed J 0 1y 1'.1 f'c r ,t~o,rty'ye~j L ~l,d [h is rna n had ~h .rOWJ), it awav I m1 'I ne sai " I tOI c~1dll~i~1 T I ··V"~ avcma ~I au 0 .. rm ru 'II w orx V'1U''I. id I [~ ,,:'fir ""JIlOU,~ l ,,,'U1C II _if 1~~. naro ,Jnat) useless." So ,he [~ hri'h, Nar] made into a ,"~n:pat:m,,'uJlJY' trees. And
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'IraYClr that the seed be Ichangel -[

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i.imrncdia t .!y 1 became :Il1,a,n'y sur~:,'r~s',d. I Ie rushed back Ito his ~r and when he J]·U
he one seed ~~ o ,many trees carne from the throwing S

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t.: 't III'} -,- ,I·pparent In. rus narranve ~,.S.J l.C ,Ul,VQ,n!e,- ,'""" - 0 a ·d" rreret ,- ki nl 0,"'f f1,. -,,,I, ment of ~ rn ,- t cmo A-,-,--", gious practice to that '[:;]_ugh~ .he sa,d/ut ~~ gUI ru, In. the place of yc.a:rs of Cr:F t, by less ascetic "r,a,c'ti.cc ~t reco _-~ mends a pad, of sim ple Ievotion '[0 ,he saint a
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ronndi,ng region to It. e ~mditiot of bbiiJ(t.'i devotionalism th . .'t have often tr _L"'"' I' 99'"'I \-, [ ,e same time d ~,gIIOU:S b seen dec ·'re II,. ,. oounoa fie. ('',lu\EFFl{E 1-''",~.,i) I ,_,-"I he samc time.j ,~t a f 'COD ~~,t:' demonstrated the greater power and generosity 0, ,~' Shah ,< '0,(, in comparise ,I[ ..: '\i\!"" - "'' ' ,.",,~,;.. !, [0 tnat 0, 'J'~ IV.· ms n vas~I ,-~, ~ ur u,,, .Jclll,o~eVC1'i :;],gi:iu,n~~ see"~'Itnat .-- .rC,,~ . He, e ru.gU:ln as s ucn, either as a corporate mo l,'~ of identity or as a. iscr t.,e' -'. ody of knowledge an :1 practice. '\l\,I"~lS ,nul[ en1pl1asiz'cd by' I[ l.e llarra£i'fc ~ '~-'b,at '\-.'"""', Ique-don in \\.".a. ~I ~ '" . d-· "d ~I , ,. ra'i 1 ~wle rewatW'\N:' pow r ano ~ ,g,rnerosrnty 0<f 1['""0 U~I: l'v:ru lil..~h',aJl,c"y'b exten,SI,()ln~er ~I
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229

narrative addressed is less an abstract .heological one' than a localized .pt,a,c~ . d' ·'1·' nca 1- ano pragmatic. one concer nlng t If' accessi b·1 . i ' 0'. f supeI n,dtu.f€l l, caoi ~" 'LIly '" capita . ' . ", .', ,,11 '".. S " .' . ,-',-' .,.', ,. b a"d" [ J =1 _ U[ leuran.ga 0"-1,,len" orat~ rra d'~ W,O,Wconcerneo d"l .... ail Nur' S arrrvai·'1 In -. '-"1--" A··--"·" region and his primary encounter in the forests surrounding the city with its .' "I ,'" ,', . L,'·'·.~., ,''.... .. orru,glna 11,·:,: nn d U In 1tannants.c I'" ~I·-I..'... '.._- " In the ,1.O,u,Q iW~" , nar ran _e, S,I·-1 Y ~"'. owever, .' " .ne ~·~I'~I __ lng . Jail No. r ad 0 pts 111anY' o f rh e na rr _ att ri bu te s more com m on] y a ssoci a tie d w i~h rive .he likes of the very gu ru he challenged in the previous story
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wayfaring (s,~:yii:l1f;l§.) he carne '[0. Daularabad and there he became IlL. • l ~ ( 1:) a 'b b d In 'worSU1 ( manu-c- If."b d. osornen . ibddat} ano :11· in t 1 la~ ansorpt .' won IJ1Ultl(j' white ants made an anthill around him. so. i[ ..at his '"1hole body was covered with e.a,rrh., Hazrat j al ~'.-Tn ' :: amawl, whose tom " (1?2t1zii'r) is in ' front of [~e Powerho u se --in Aurangabad, wrote in, his 'book that Sh,:].h Nur Hamawl was '~i'rm that con -ition for ,e':w_ghte,en )!'ea"fs,. There are some other traditi ons I{r£wayat) that it lasted for seventy ye.~l[S~After a long ., '1 _, ,. ~ ~I time someone saw t 1lC ant 11:1. ]" in t' hie J'ung",~ean·d, saw r1-· :U was mace lar completely like an idol (bu,t) ~ And so the Hindus I 'egan to worship (pi2jii)1 it, because the idol 'W,~~.,S! made by ,any human but by the ants. nor When '[he people of insight (aJ1l~,e~t1;(J;zar) among the Musli ms saw ir, they said that rut was a, great ,saint (,allah:tv:a:lr .buzurg) and not an idol, And so. there was a c ispute about i-" and neither of the g.rou"PS cou ld decide whose spiritual master (buzurg)1 it was, At the time 'when a, riot f!aJad)1 was about '[0 take . lace, Ha.z:rat Ghaws~e~,:Pa.k~' ru"n Baghdad ord ered a me m ber of his fa 01 ily (I~:hlj;11.(lllf1;) [0 go to India an d awa ken Shah N (ill r from his absorption in worship imahu-e- i£bil,dat). So Qadir -. L_ A" ]~'-- wnose torn ':mazart ~ ~ _. '.,-- t z.arar A W.lya, ,-,-111. - ,-_ - - b. (" " -.-.'!!!',). IS near th e. Z" ,e. r ...ate [,'n ,_:U ran abad] '. ==,g,_:_,:", came to India and saw tha both of the ,groups I Iindu and Muslim, were quarrelling, He asked them. what ~~r d if rna tter and they told s him everything, So he said [0 them [the ,I lind', IS], ",' ook brother, )"OU say something to .he idol and if rut. replies -0' you. then it is Y'O'u.rs~ [Otherwise] I will a.sk it sornething and if 'rut replies, '~[will be ours," And so it was decided, 'Th.'L Hind us and the-if gurus. gathered and began to p,er orm worship (pL7}a), singru,n,'g hymns (bhtl,j'arJs) ,- and from early morning until evening they carried on .' oing the same. But there was no reply At the time of the sunset (l:n,agh~"ib); Q'1dru"f ,A,:v~~ya sked permission to a
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marn le, at. a de 'per level -he saint's identity in the n rrative is constr icted ,f' ",' " ,-,· I ·1,· --:, .-l " ,--,I)~I ... rrorn tne S), moour - "V'C,[lfHJ..a, -1- rv Ow me trao inona ] 'ou th A--':, ,-"" r~ ,r .L .':;'; .J:", ~....• L,_, '-, SIan ascetic. _'racco m ,.",- , loc ... ."],---", ~l.],, ~ ,So -I1 ,__ -I~ -', ,:--_,'ltl, ,-." s" n a r ra ,-", VC HJ, en u,- was n(D'W a S S'C m ~ c C~ -. , ~I Ia - "--; _' ,-- • ,- --. -, ,11 U1. [{),3, oca ~ n sc e .. a], .... U -~, ' ,J ,,", --. 1:31 ~ro'm:],speC'ts 0' -'the arch itcctur ~ inla,~O"e-ry of [he sites associated with h ~i ~JII ~rn and around the ci:)( for in this narrative we sec the' : U iii p~.intcd in the bright 'I tJ~' '-1 I' -~ 'J 'I I (O"Of.! 0,1 rne '"n" '. ~alfl-lnCs.(apc" UCl ',OC~L'I t: ~j (:,111,(:"[· \\ CIt: 0 f'-ten accentuatcc '~ 0'-, er versions 0'"' the ~torv rh rou h dcsc d ntiot S' 0 "the (']lre,~lln umber 0 _' h .. ' y'c. ~r· Shah N'Or .~~: exercising breath control inside '[he anthill or of a icnt ,. 'I '~l cornmonon 0, f ~.,hmi ~"_ nrnng jlU1.C1-ex~,Iosi osions 'r\ itnesseo 'I wnen ··'_1,,;), 1 -',-ur awo k....~ .... ~ 'T' h .c Inlagr 0 f' L1C S,H nt l id.oen ,U, t 1 an t 111 ,JJ,~:S ru racr pI oven ,~ POl!\! r... ~ int ,11., ~ . 1~ "~~~ n 'E _', · fll:1 moti f in. rna ny t i, r~L:t.nt rcl igi CHJS con exts ac r .;s South A$],dU. Th c tra ~i,lid 'I. I ·1'l v : 'I..' '[:Iun.: aut nor 0' f"" th: 1:'\'lJnllytl}u1:'~f~Hn.l[ ki \ -- ~J,e t: tne Antrut I IS tnc OflV~OUS ,,[:' u t Ir example, j!!.... thou ~J:1reference It V also be made [0 stories associati ng, .•.... :\ffi.-\'''~!na J '-~ fi~' fiIi·~ =J' anc ~3 d'~~" - tr ~c"UWOnJ \t\,1[,11 -rne antm . , m .. [,I, - '-I' - ' . - '~'I h ,m d ot er .. gures jam jou (, lW O f~ ("'R"\ r 19·,2)1., On a,more ~ocaJ level, -he story of rh ' holy body mn l~-c anthill ,. ~ ,,00\\ n m 111. ~urrnu.n.(un,:g "I "aaaras ~-lLr.1 W\g~,orrum connecnon wu L ,. 'I ~ .. II '." ,.. -~ ~s arso k
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longevity Simi I,.ttdy ":h,a,h u,r'!-erio.~ of i,1I1111l1,1C'_ sion in, idle breath control (/"tl!;s-e-dru:n) ~or,:hich he was renowned lasted like the mcdit tions of'\o"i \
in he earth, . periods ofuo te seven ye,a.rs,.N Reflecting this tra1.1 iti ]1" clairns : -f in some Co scs up to se'Vente'erl,-yc~lr~ ,eriod,s of breath contro] were made for "ha.11 :N'ur by his devotees." s the s[olry demonstrates, :'h,'- h No. II" was '-1,[ times a coi .posite .figure. his identin built according to the predispo. itions of his di\ en clientele, I 'nlike the monovalent Islan ic i [entities o_~~the other saints of \u:r;~- ,g.ab'''~.1 rcifie ~through lear and authoritative Persian and Urdu tcxtu. ~ traditions, '::,h,~: ~'." Or was presented n ora I, tradition as ~1, different kin' of Sufi. As his h ... .
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in which [he wor hippers ;'1 he anthill then converted '[0 Islam .- his was by no means the case with an narrators. Like that of the encounter with the follower of the J'-{idlni . the story if the IdJj,W _thiU benef ts frOom, ,J, rca ing ca utious i, n :iIS adherI!'.il"lii ~ , ,1!'"'lI11t1Ik - I'I~'I"ii,.-U'l . ". lu sli m· 'i~C:_ 11','. P,ij" '0. -; nter '. r .'11-'" ~ 'he tctura ~I com~v ,w_~ ~ p one III [, .'. I[)',~ the sro r y re ve a~ ra I[ ~_it: r rno re, fC)!:I;" "fV ruIt h 'u r ~ 0 pm:.~0 na ~'C'm P hasis on [S' conversion to :I~d·lnl.~ story described an a, lhcrence to ehc sainr that did nor the necessarily involve formal conversion [0 any wider belief syste other [han that of _·'ayru ..n.,g. lcvotion to the saint. W~ at is irnportant her is the theme of c -I '-I ~II' I~ · I,. i ~ ~~I' :1'. .- us. ,'. t]IC:' forest \JV,10Se C,'t\n~wJers ""C .$_ O!'U I~ n.ot I(,~.t(:': i,nz,e [000 re:aornw) ,·;ruS;~.'~1.:I,nl ' ...
;.]dl,ough. some versions of the S~Of]' added an epilogue
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it wa: not I indu worsh ip rha - \-\\f3S bein~' lpaIf die ,s sue Irm',jbut rather the model ignoran -c f d- e on:.'~.t dwellers." In dOH! conrex of'the cult, the narrt rive seems therefore [0 :re.;' Icct a movement ou tsidc "o,[Fm"a~Isla m by which the- people of the countryside were brought 'm the fo~d o '[he relinto rious for n of the town, As wi h -. e tradition °,'_' _lyi.ng ll~ndu pupil, 'the h '[he narrative io,rrne'd ,a, s('f cr:io~u~1fOY the H m .1~J fo~ ,~ojo,r [owers of S"hah "fir I ,j~'(U, Sitara and other s uroundir ,b villages d ,;~lre ~,C'C_CI '_ the dis nity ofthc sh ririe's H n duo c i, ie n t s own re ~ ~ P ra cti C C s il I'~ i_. (J us ropoJ those of rh c S U rrou ntj :i, n ~~ [0U! ntry ,and village people unconnected to the s] rine 1-'~1etheme of interaction be- ween Su 1ian.' Hindu. 'was further illus ... trated in a tr,~d:i,ltruo,n current at the Ji,~'rlhil lodge l(n1.atJ~) of M 1,nprQr:i l)ra':ad at .hen ea rbv town 0 f' ••u h~raJ a t~'~ n ~ U rT Pra S3,d was acco rl ng' . '0 0' net raa l'vta, dition ~ rhc 1~ID:indu. ornpa __ c ion of' :,h,~,h N Cit: though :il[ is a siznifica nt reflec won of the' role of texts ·a....m rkers ofboundarics that M,arq:uJ.rrn does nat feature in any of the 'written accounts of ·.~~l~ih Nur, The tradition of Shah -U,~""'5 ricndsl ~,p with ,'rvl'a,rrpu til Prasad :i s 0 :~' special :i nte res' in adapting a ;ah:!~t 'l e s "a, U l,r a ss oc iat ed \<v,ith rl e thern e 0_., n t lv ri va I ry to t'h c rvclq' i esa. u merits 0_'" saintly fr,at(~'fn ily. Accordi n,'_ to '[he or. J, trad ition prevalen t i[1, Daulataba. i,,",h.:ih ',<"ij,r and :rvla,npu:ri were born ~n the same villaze. They spent their early wanderings together before ['C,:!,ehing the' Sultan Gan] mounta wn on the outskirts of' ·· •. ·au~;~.'[a,b,~d,. [I:.is point Shih ~NOr received a P\,'[ isiot bestowing A uranm tad upow h'inIl'eL" and Daularabad unon hw' jell/lui co,rn,p,3,n iom In the wake of their years companionship, the [ita, ·~~-~.'ti,VIC' below e:XI .ressed thei.t ~o,n,ging' for o.nea not ~"cr an d dies ri I 'cd! thei r su \$(:(lu.enl meeting after their' cparation to oversee their respective territories,
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visit bis frien"d I: '0 see '\'~ hat he was doin . so hie- caught a tisrer anc carne hc:r_ [to ',aulalaJ]ad J . on his bac k lM I Iei t:' du ring the se - aration IU-u,dai)., hie' II !\ima"mt purl] had become ver'y 'weak. ~,nd thin because he didn't eat for six months. Ie on ly d rank water, I-:lc was so wea k -_I:"'urut cou ldn't move I Ie was wash .., he in~w b is mo u t b s mtl,i D,g 0 n th is '\.\ t:I:1. e n a rra tor poi n t s]. I' wa s ea d y ru n '.~e morning, rhe ti.I11,'C; of the d, wn if'tjt!) ~r,a,:) r, So when he saw that e his _i~wen,_' hah :_<,.,'0, r I had comc.. '..' There was a stream here [poi nt:LngJI So he [l\·1:.~l.n ri I sa id to the wall, 0' wa ~l po. move ow ~I have no :po~llel" (tii,qat') to move.« ...• 'O(t le't it, [110\11(:" SOlthe wall began to walk G (.r/ullnJ)., And whe [] t e [Sha ~ 'N Ci --I '':",'~1W that that lifeles (h.ejii.1.1;)1 'thing Sh,i,h:
,

'fi.:r thouel
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at he

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ano 'I wh iSPC'ffi' din. his ear n ~~ylru rne has C{1I,I]1,1: a nl,_'I wi U it:." ] Ie pv ';;ln~, rI J ,t] aid, IIIf you die, ] \;tVW .rnakc ,~ l ~vjIl:- sanu;ldh,f I{zinda SCtJ11{J,tlh,F) [tha'[ is ~~
'it." .'
.

'I' ' '/. '!III-·. ~. -,. \~as \\~U,KJ,n;~.. c une UO\I\ n. ,rrom. ~' ru .' ne . ..- do 'I me ,

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d .........., 1... .~r ano embrace'
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of the narrative did stress the' heme of sai n t1 ICO m pe ~wt ~ n like orhe r cx,..m ples 1(1,' the ,ri, -,ru n., wall stor y fro m else ~ 0 where in .he Deccan as we] ~ ..", ior hem lm, _ia western Iran, an 1 eastern Tu rkey (' .noo l<J~, ~,926 ::: ,liD8",/[ ' ; BY 19'9 4.. 'VA") ,I' I~,: IN ES SE~ 1991) , flu. [ although 'h m,s, narrative is, ILk·, its predecessors, con .erned with the themes of sa in tly ,powe rove r the natural worl 'i: and ~'h. a u t ho rity 0,." p,a, rt ru,c u L_r a in ~s over well-defined ' erritorial '~'ri ",lictions, ir is ,(,)1':0 si,!,Yn.if cant fot its visior of s ain d,y co- exi ten ce Fo r ,run , _~,,''''',_ '-~ r's v is ion ,- ,8, ,- isr rnn c terri to f" s wa U ot ~ h .;' ted tO e ac h Sat j, [II' '. 'I'l]J"rn 0 nee ,a··3:~.ns h O\~,~'Sthe im po r a ,Wce of t he p ri m a r'y ca -~ S egory of sa wnthood and saintly power over against the corpor,' re c:al[e,~[)i,r)f of specific relizious ide','tines. J USi[ as the s:ii,dh'l:7 an t:,... f competed only as cornu parable manifestors of divine, su -ernatura,il powle'f so here was territorial authority shat eldlbetween rhe two fi,gu,('1r:s."ItS saint' alone and not primarily ~" r-ii&p r"-~~~lfl~ ,m;,~" 't::, 0" . 'I .', 'd ~ rJi'-II'~;tP or cu II vst em c '0'- - r , ~I ..m' 0' r . 1. w,~ ,.,
I I"

I~.rn,s,~ Oc sible that an earlier fotm

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refere ce that .. he tradition makes to the (:00101. In. ,g'~:O~ of both figu,rcs in -hie same vi:J.I~"a"'~c',,lca,v:in,g aside any ofthe ,~rear cities of Islam [such as Bazh -ad) .ound in 'both '[he and some versions of the oral tradition in Aur: ~n· ~a' ad, shov s h. iw easily markers of Muslim identity -.. ay be placed onto a tradsrion ,. "S well : ts removed in tllJl rn.
·.1

f Iinduism, Th e graphical ori zins references to the textual [11":"1. .. ition

k!'li[S:h- ,·,;;h', ', ....ii11 r 1,'"' ~Id' b e erceived .... e.., ,~, 'W'~',[-"Ii,. 'If ~ n'du ~v Ib,., 'C ends .". 1 ., ld so "I· ~I h~· "f . saints, th en 't 1 couu a I" ac ,1.5 [1Je rrvars [hi, ' 0 tner Mus J" uns sam :$" =B· U1, le}" "'ac~ ,- .- " bad ,'[,11(j 'was seem In, connecnon " "witt. ~ .. "',-1=-' ,,' ,'1- ,..... ,' ' , ' ' ,~,,' " - "., ,."' rne presence' . 0 f'~.~, ' , mrnor , " ,, , ,~.", A urangana rwo
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shrines whose sa ~ were identified with the sa me QI,ii,diri. order (tarlqa) of nts : ",-iCe; ',: "1[11" ~" '~d-·~,m'· _ ""0'- ,,:~~13J.~1 " U r, . ~ I I"" ,-~11 f se -:-,:,~- net .' ,lilJ ,w1, "f.~n W ~_m,. WW UI,!l, us ~rn n" c vo te es O~,I.E ,n ,1,1 en. thlC ~ de -'Ii-,'· ' ,;-,,~ shri nes cou -,-I b ' seen as dividi na the territory of the c~t)r into ZOin.IC", of their res ,Iecti\ff: W fhJ e 111,1(1e' h ere ex~ n ,sted n:~ rrative s t h a li rm ly su bjl U:', tied I[ he i1" power' '[. tha C of the shrine of ~~i~.'l~ 'Ntrn r, U Th is is seen in the [WoO ~:oUo\fvi g' n , " ," ~,. , ,', " ," ,,~-"" ~ -,' _ I.. " . £I '",' '_, -I 1-" ",' narrati ves. ....m"'" ne,~ f~',... ," " ,,' ,!!! .trst- nat rarrve ~L~Qrenects 'L1C-' [-1·' _' - ie I'or ",1-1;:11 ... ttl,,)1,,, ari rv J.l~ in" aen ',_' ,.i~ s .. ,.,."" ~I" . [he city ~ln,. his establishment of not on,~y his own, following but ",~,?O of the · f' A' b d-·' ] f- In th .;, '. ~I·' ~ .0'1, sru ~' ~, .. I( [[y 0,_, __JJ r _n,~,a,,~ll"U::se, ':., n h~w e. :na rra U,re [[ ~', C.W:_:._ ~ _ eo 'ul ('l'~ wl.,"7', W ,.,<. (i, r s p os'ru,~, J . , :i,on in :\uran, ,,_Ib, d :had 'be-Iew t;:'n[ru:~,u~dto ,an. .'..rl..l'cr':uh \'~Ilhom, h' ~-ad 00\1\, i
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Cou rruded by ,Ma,~:i.k ~,n- "ar.. :~', that [im'e its rn ,,~~,m,e 'W,~]" l~h.:irki, ~~ So \hJhe,n ~,e [Sh,a,h,,'ii.rJI ca.n1.e_. ,.., 1 here: is nF]J shrine [d,u:gill]1 flle,:;u~ ~he r.aih" ,~1r_sta ~,~ n th,a ~ be 10n:- ' , to I~.,a f,(J 1<, I.:'_ Sf)kh ttl . 0 Z :ivnl~,n" (;_jI',C 'w~~axl already' ~I ~ad" ~or ITis '\~'~~ d s,aid'll -:10 :n.o'. a kc the
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h Y'a [1[er hi death the re \'\'C WlC' two

v g.rOUiS arnonj hi iscinle .. One ~grrotiU1 was .:::wn.g:·, ~ The Sarkar-e-do ,I ~ J' .a.~.am.V~ad'i'na'~m:I,:'that is, the Prophet Muhai unad] was ,gruven the ablul I 1[~!On",so why no~. h irn? Is he b:rugge:r' than he is? lIVe sl 0'] ld f'o~ low the M u slim law (J/iaJ~l!at) and ,gruve him rhe ablurion too." The other aro'Up 'V\t- nred to! act accordi rn to his will, and so t_ ~cywere azai rnst d e ,'rub]ution. ,":0 :~ i th e si [U,~[[ ~0 n w - :i In d isp ure. ,-o I 1Z;1 Z ra ~ r~J,h,a. No, r ~I a rna VI/I we nt ga n i h II,L$1>r--'.p and asked what '1--~1I[1" rn iii".J narrated. Wh... L!I hi..... "" tarter 'vV' <~._ ~~I'B'U'I the w l,nIp sto.• was(I,'" ~ .. .._.. 1_ , So ,I~'M;:: asked ,VIr- ,'11 c- 'r of water and put the .'mall finer [of Shah - o,kh1taJ .. 1-[0.··. 'r~ Tl f: ~ il" I d ~. k 'I '- T'~1""" m lltn, .. .. 10' - .0"k.....1-~... In' 1·;f.'i! '1'(" -lEo .
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". ..s . .. -I b~- . rmn d anc 'I I~]'U .oJ]- ,1'rrn wit- ]-)OU[- rne amunon, n rrcc " ~i •

-_ 'iL..,', [0"F" g~,ve UTI. ,".IIl. u tne
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n a rrati 'lie ie] e a rl~r de sc ribe s th L ,~r riva I, [ .[- Sb,a h, >0. F n the c il It'~ 'i; n ; such a \;\',ay as 'to establish his posit ru~]n f\{\ hich is to say that ofhi~:, shrine) visI~,"'vis Shah Sokhta the other saint or that p~H"1t. of'rhe ern.'F (and his shJ'rum c), Ar the same Itru me il '.ovidcs ,rn aetiology in wh ic] S hah Or was the pnJ'iti ,gor . 'I ' m,~'· 1I' mst 0,.f' S] h Ski' '1.,a ,:(t.1-~~'-';' unusuai 'I name 0' .. . tne b urnt samr-xmg "" ~U1CI ',1J~
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"un- Islam rue" Throuah these means

ri il:1 ~ \~!~: cb is the chic mirac ~e associated ,_ith him. i ~ 'I he narrative categorizes rhe nearby shrine of Shah ,:o,khta. as subordin _,r to 'th it of Shah " ~'u '_' it.h Sh,~.[~1. fir g~'vin,g, . uid ..nnc r, r ~ .. '1:1 fO '" i~ k'~ ..~! ~ '-I '-I . II • 1.. "I 1[[. tne :0..1.'0',1\ ers 0 ' - n,~n c fi _,~nIta ,:I ter ~1 ~~[ E,\J_ t ~l, r aere IS ~:tlt't:e quesnon U1 t 1e' story as to which s[~~nt and ,\\,'h weh, sh wine is dl1 higher ranking of d1 C two ..
U rru sual u~)U
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ru

1

'Yet in charac eristics .. ~y Indic m'. ry~ t ~ c narrative also cha ra tcrizes ~ ... the two Sufis as b~,~n~ dru11I{:rent kinds of saint. Burning U'I-) with the inner
ru
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he .. of his austerities, Shah Sokhta is re',~ t arded by hi: followers as ~~,}~~"al.f biibii,[ as a saint manifesting the "hot" and violent aspect of divine pO'wer (l!AV'tY '~989;, 13'9-4-1),. He is, reminiscent in this respect of the traditional irnage of the ,Sal/I,'ll: sec r hing from the i1:11 ncr ~ cal of his ascesis (Zt1t'tlJj'£I)., "r~is special '11.uaki "J of Shah ''',okh:a is also ..een eo have specific topographical dimensions, 'or oral tradition clai m s d) a -I an Vi, , c rcpcatin the l1~lm,c i' '~jod besi,de h:is 'totn b Vlb_ rn IbC(OnleO ~li It he '\;\'O'U L 'be- (o[tioed to t,·" .'V'C ~ ,·jrds ~d 1 '. ~i~ ~ d ,. .d '4 m IlL ,lYing ov,e-.r S1] 1-,5~~,ta ~S S 1 '. are .. ··.··.:la lrulrC' r{;quentwy I~]ou.rne. up Wfl mirur~ '. '- . ,w'ru,,~iu, ~'. 0.:1"- by (ont~~ast is ,r- 'ga f_Co_ as a rafuull'rl f bllba, as a s,a.irn wn,\ m1 ~ ~t:,,-:ting the a~'ntle:ml ess and c.om,] ",";]'ssin:nof 'G'cd,~ 'vVhen he i:· seen in vis~ons ~'e' co,rre~ . I "k-'~~ £., -l' d- 0 "[ d,-,pan d ,run,gy t3.:es tl1:b ,1:O'li-:l:11 (l~1. ,{],F1' '1'Y o '... ,m~[.n b' r:1 a '[ - ..,~ ' -e,' ng "an.tern ~ _\. (l~Jferent m1.,~rr-,'ltolr C(lnl[l~n u.es the S'toty nf,~,h,~,h, ".''ti,r' ,~l~ie he d~a. h l~ Ii
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place, and S~iy, ..(1 [here iin a lmosq_u,f',. lie' ounu ,;;1, 1(0 J~ Ic of disciples _n',~url,d$] there. ,:J" er rfIL!~I[rung the disciples, [he carne I 1[0 the north o,~ t, ~ 'II~I II ru" I _,.J -'1,). ~ 1 . 'I 'I . " ,"tm ran,_,_,_" 'I),aJ,C" \'\'\1 ere t -I:1ICIU'C 'I,S a wh ~ , .. 0 ma snrrne \,(,~,tU,trUZ,' It' ant! ,If
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stayed [here. u.

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., ~~I ,. JI" - -, - . ~ ~ ,:~ n_ , • , £_'.,. . .. more.• c~el;ltwy ex.prcsst:a, 11' , ~,wl/0WS L1C snrme Ow,'S··]'l.iL~lfl., '"~ ,-~ •. • .,' u rn_. . ~ ., '·1 .... ~ 'L ,..... ur assurnn ,: . '[1 succes...,.,. . ,:... :-I:~' ,.:..Ii . . " .. ,'~.~'.. ' .1!',. ] . I~, ..' . '. '.-,. ",' ...- ~I. .-. .. . .f ,:.: I ...kl .,. '" ' .. ... :-- .....c:; , . '...,. SID]] ano seruor uy over C n~wg 100rtng rn nrso ieum 0, ·,1a:'1 soknta, J ust as
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Aurangabac '. ,~, iccon Hn,S to [oca] Muslim devon es, Qadir\,'{\JHy~J is the rhrurn-'d IQ,;,diri Su h sa nt of :u r n _abad along with ;,:hah 1 ur a nd Shah Sfik~hta. Qadi r ,\\/~ ruJc is iden ·w _ i-·II. t ')f some devotees of :.:h,'~~,h ''ll.r with the :f{]!_~lllo;\'~!er ,-, ;·r,.. [~···UI" surnrnouc Ir m) 5,1 U:, n), sumrrroncd __ I. om.... D' .. n,·d~-· ,~ a wa,~I",_,-· , 'IInan ":::: _ ,10m 'I.-,·.~ state I[l, na, ~ a.d o W\.e,n, ~1 .... . IL:U rns state , ·11-'" ~', of rne " ..'~ m -ru ' .. ~.'.-. ,--],·,·'1]entrancement lin ,-·1 - slOt ~ 0, th ann , ,l., ,W rou' .~.,n... tms rcaome , "-.ru-~, : n[.:1.1.. , L1C rnc
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the narrative
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Shah S·.····.·',0'1~'h'l undc...·:IIL~;IU'1ii~ ,, ~,~rn~,~, .. ~,W
VI~I:lI.

W-'W!

,i"fj·u'w-m ...... ·.iiP;;'!'·Y'"·I.lJ..,o· til .I1l!L
.

with th ..C' ], mer seen as ,h"nr:i.n,gummoned Qadir ",::i\fvliy5, to =;'.ur,anga,h~h l, The' s ". ,-'" ~I'nat .,' ..,.' , ,. ,. tnts way ensureo ·'ct. " ,', ,'L1C,., two omer Oa :I'~-- s~--c sru,,~,,-:,,'~In tl ,-lrun,...un .~ mes ,-; , I~ orai . , . ranves In "~.. tnat ,·'1 .. the city were subord in ated to that of .~,~,h. ,"U r through the elucidation of sac re d top ',g:r-,'~ h y d ,t It was ca re fu n,y structu re d t 11. rough na r rat iv e. It wa S a p na ..rative topography i n wh we__ the shrine of Sb"ffih . OJ r wa s presente ] as the r m os t powerf ru l0 cal 5.0 U rce 0 f su pc rnatu ra ~ pow'e r, ~
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...

'ON··L •I. ~ ' - " cT0··N'l"(" ....' .;)< ~'l ,,;iIo

For some of the ~:jmuslim 11"011 ~O\"LI~, .of Sha 'W ' .....••. 0 r the competiti on stories ha \ . ,eI': eell 0 (~LnlJ<',lrltlr,a.'t' -Jlll(: - u,pc',lfrn.o,l'ir- , ofrheir .'\vn _,:~i ; . ,(1 Oil[ her tellers of he com pe'l _,U[]ln storic: .sorncti cs:h ighli,ghtf'd,., - one' _'_,el.(:ss \iVh' in SC'C'ml against dmc con' r,"~. ~lru,ng '"a<k,gl:,·,und,f"'-t 'v ritte:n ttra,ditio,n a,n,d in thew~" CO~ [(:'xt of a multifa,:rious c~,~c_,_xt.:'le,~ ompl:truri,on nal'ra,r:i.ves show us SI ,me of the 'w,ays in c '\I-vh.k:h, socrueti.'c's ' Ie'al, v\i:i,dl :inte'~naJ dwfftrcnti,~IDtion .. As :1'l~l,l·I;,~~tivc., ~lI:-,e '[h',.'[ ,c~os'e 'to the grou n .1- th'e oral tr,-_dition of Shah N'or i:llustrates how th,~' ! ou,ndar~,es. form.'e,d by thL'·U.'cccssh~~' la.yers of relL",jnus 'L.nd Icuhu.r·-d, s- ~perstfuctu,r:~s dlat :fo.rn1,ulare religious i~ewltity and druffe'r,ence ~n,,·'.y0..[1, a lOiC,~~ ~e'Ve] be both re~ iter,aled ,a.nd s'l],b'vcrt,.!d ,'rut - ~_cs,~,mne ~ime throu,~h the cHlffi·r"m1t pn<~sibh: readings of'th"f' 5rori,e~ a'ilo t c· ,nl~, t~,ln,g:··ain~·,. ,··oS ,;vc h"avc ···(,:'cn. tLc nai[un:. ofd ,e e onnl,peluuom can, Iru,·l,Uy be re,ad ,~.' on.'e- et-:-\, (!'n dw'lwnct n:~~,:ion~~" bel'iveen e ind rn\ i.duaJ. holy n1.'e or ,. -lS'f be~woen riv,id :reH,gio ~,...:ins£:ituil~,onj'~.,. Till,:~ue ~ tr~~O,:11U:Hll 0,[~~' ,', ha h ...-u r 1.5 no'~,a-b '.' ' :a mon,g ~ne sa ~ L! na:rra~n~t~s ....;1··' l I. '-I "' O,IF"h _ _. Ul ,Au:ra.. ,gab,~],,- In ,its a(,kno'w~e.(~:'e:[lacn1 .0:' d"u! presence of:1 ind us a.nd :ilS n bri,ngwml,g of dl,a't p~~cs~'n,ce[0 the centre o.,~ 1 Ul,:rU]jf 0.·' .hs naFfat~'ves;, Frhis ,must[
i,

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. 'r he wri ttcn
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s!' cru[·.~ ~- nus :~nd th·. incr ,",:-.~n·.. cndcncv .
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wi h rVlu,lim.'·,.inc'" both Muslims in - - [, -:, 'I ~.. -urranga-r b ao can vel yO: fr en spc {~ t.'I sa H1,C ,'1 d ,-. 1,' lE __ Ul,Ud,',_ e, [ hi.IS rna UeI to ~ nom '.~ .. _ te b .S .~'\'-~'n[0 ' . qu stion of the al i.l:i.ty· to . rid the :nllY lifi.ed.r. b -I f' ian scri ~ -sed rQir the writine of~. Irdu :1:1. is this ~ cioline istic: 0:" ~w't. . ac . ,th'aJl[ ~ ..W~
j
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be tU.r.Hluhlh:'
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c n .., l". . tr UI-"I ft·, hazi II' 'f'- ph '"1] \ . , d as ..he cornl ~n"·. 'I pr ..~uct of the ~'.r. ,grn!: ,I ic acce] tano . ['.r·_ l
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cssors of su I, rnarural J"I\!vcr ~w .. he surroundir and "'~~I rum . licit p co- ition idle plur lity of ao irnmon regional ~ !!"""I[.,'~7 ,-, 'e c h~' he- n 1'1....- rive [1,,[· ['" n tr,' tc l'~ pro ..-.S s [) m ns of v;",~ h tra nsm: region al religious i ra ~ itiot ~s ~~e loc al ized d11 ough the co-option r attril utes · nd ~m!·l.~ r) bl 'nr-;~n~. 1[, an ~n' ~'r_'('L': IU'~' ml iolic univ rse nil' h:rou:~h the of _ .u ~[t hgllJ re \\ ~th pecitic fe turcs of ~ cal [O~ I I,gr' ,~" :15

or

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ph '. '1~\It in .' for : II I'~IJ au H" nceh I.iral 1,[L ati c: ,",1" ch \\ h"l\ I:' tarnU d :' r\ ed to anchor .,·,h·51 N o.r t a ~II IhlJ· al .~,nd si ~'Ie 0 les: [1[' localized network .: ' r H§.!;i:U,' figu reo ' ,J nd their represent tiv j nstitu io '\ . I[ i also notewor I, Y that ei her rc li,~,Hl nor ~~,_Jtion form pr:'" .inent fr:-lrnes 0..' re crcnce .j n the .. ."1 rra ti ve s wh ich we ~rave exam ined, He re we see ~...:- rh :i..m ;ortanc of I he living prcscnc a mixed 'li 'nt t~· the; JO_I~ mati ·n ()I such a multivalct t ora] tn d:i .~{ n, O'-rht' refcrcncr ':, which the n. rra. ive fUji ,"~r'\; I.U·( 1m", are .. '~(,) :iaUr i,nd; . ." .tive I ..~ he t\'~rl -\\ a: ralhc b twee nd , ~~.du racri e v!lhwl~ t :_C' cult of Shah C"'n_- h,r".. at ti af orded. Th U'~· while the h'r.rn:'~ puprn~ of 'he s-dh;,a ~,s (:'\.':-11' u .. ~ny "
if1

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i

..·h,5h :~Ii(Hth'[a his part tra ~'{n'"

IIUi

rcsses the J.,e:,g,~..~ ,F,eq,uirerncn

ts 01"

Islam ic bur-

ia I by r,t!'_ ng d _e ri tu a~ '_~lb~ usi ution and by' instea - bei n,g':~':)HTl.~ O:I.:i'~~l:U'Ycremaredl in rr,~'A'l:cjOin of Hi ndu norms. ~~lmp.~rucit in d..if' narratives therefore i~, the sug;wg,t:'stion ![[i-unthe newer ·ru.nd a nhorirv of' .he saint, an 1"50 (II uotient th nt is, II J,i.' the '.levotion .- r~]r:dc(11 ,il im by his fOUO'A ers, are both rnore e H'cc't'i V,," an -~more binding h,m those, 'fb.. great traduions of'either Hind u ism or Islam (c _~ e p:tru.fr: \ -i\~m1E\'-~'LlJ~'~9>7).Ir is of course, a claim that has . chcc th r -''U]: zhout ~
" a;...J
1

.he relisious hi .-o ,Ii'-.~ uf Sourh Asia n

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ff;iOrn :1'99'9 ~~J.2 fU) ~,~ ~.,~Iru"h,t" ':

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lH!'~'I

a[ I ..ru ~y I\,i[., rg,~llliic[ l '~aII '"

(~t:urgl: ~see 'W( )iLl~ u .2 01 ~[)" I~

O~l:("J£idU 1m rs.ru I"I" ~ am ~r,~~tc 'U] h) Stuart Blackburn. Fn ncis Rob:i nson, '_nd (J;m,ristopher ive -:h~l(kl,(; Ir(li:U". (~~,~i catHC!!l'VCn~:~H'~:],,~ of this 3rt.:~c.I,c. i n~ . ~".For ,~l I1UU sp,~u:~,~]]1 '-', SJ'H.!C[ive relating [0 the' shared Isla rno-Ch risrian H,~u~~KJ'l it'; -is'~ I
Co I,

2. ~~otdiscussion
Pe IIJ'S i., . n Ou rnn ~ see ,~,
(~,8R1'-190[ }.

of this theme
Jv] II J.~, ,1994,.

\¥i,dl reference

'[0

the poetic ci. ic often described as ;'·'d'IJC'
PRITCII ETT (,19,g'i}

3, F{ r p::tir:1Ud.,.:;in

It,his wider ~ndian

folklore tradition, sec

~~ud1 'F1v~Pl;.F.
I

~:I,. LCJ;;t:,,~]d s CoO nc t: rn I,n g I I:~ Iu n'

q uee n s al so at tim e s b ecarn e co n H'

-c ted

\~1'i

rh Su j s h r in cs,

At rh e sh lid :iIJJ't.: of' Uri 'lin • ~, lin ~In \'h ~~l'"pur (J\f~.a a ra sht ra) \~'rusi ito rs re sh own ~: c pu rP(}r('~'{ I rom b -~ h 11 n r;rn ~,O( I '['In ~! Ii 1ri,nc e:-;,~ n (~\,\~'~I:-; '\ ilii :i~ ~~:~ u k n whose de-yo r~ '[.0, th e sai n t wa s sue h ~h a~ in co non rr ad ict ion to I ~n fu ne r,;t rye ru 'CHn Soh !begged to be bu ricd, be si di(' the sa in f s [~: n J,. nthw S e '5, liar "!I[ IIU.;Ii I'i l~,t: r 'f t:'~ ~~ ~Iph: S 0 f ~~I: u a nd ,~~ sl i; m e rO$S~ ~[,i z~ t· O'~l" see ,~,:[,\\: u ili~N r~, Ir ilnd 'U illi (10fH)) :H ,tl J\tt-\TIU~(;,il~ (1~1'92)~OlfDJ Hinc u-Muslim inreraction ~Il. ',Ull shrines elscwl ere in _. uthern Indiia,~ sec '''I~K.l'\~I'' (2UOl). o f), ,I~':O rece nt ~Iru;on:'[ lie'~I: adv ~JiI1.c.('. ~ see RuY .i 99 {)J and Str :\\II',.\'RT (2'( U I,) . r I, i, I H. o~,dc'lr [h,ough nu\-\,' ~c'., wideseread I[rude is ".,hah I-'fir ~-~',!Imnmi (,'·,0" [ ~c bjil[h-

~e

h'nlll.~t:' ;.') ,
, ~'~Olll S.m ,:~

llcl111' or: ~1'[11i3dlili:on~, of o[j"I.~~It:

\UII~'II~g:a~d

saints

~nr.'erra.C'[~lIliIig \_,~~thl!l,~

,t'S ffltlf111 [~IH!

ci - Y~ s

II IP" SW'i Sloe" •.•, 1~'KI',NI( 2:( ll 4,) ,11111 ~eginn" s(."\cSONTI U-:l~MEI~ . 99,6), I( 9',. ~rbdi,~~, wwnl)~ru. il'l}' s'U~~gcs'lt'd ~.n. n ~.'~ a
Irn},r~
~ I~

m:h.c ~Ni,detr ora ~Ileu I~u re :~~,d [POI: ~d'i f rc I i,gilo f1 0 f [hi ·
a.((OiiJilnt. ,of

Sh.ih. :N'Ii]lf re\co.rdcd
:.:

~n II~'M.'t'::1.rl,'~' t':'rn,:,:h~~e. 'l~
~ ~

'ccnt!,;l,ry (SII~i\I'I 'N~\\Vi\ZKI i;l~i\: m 9 ~[-1'95'1: 41"1-17),

I,n.

{) n

sa i nit I y !C'U ~l S
\JlC_ ~ ion

l"

hl.~'~. 11en: :sh,:lti(c (.1 i~)ct~JVC1t:'rn~} l u :s;~:~. l 1\ filS
1 ~i'

h ri.~t'i a n s; a 'n(!I "c \'\')!i,~ ,~~~. A'"(] U n

s uf I[h t' ~IIU· h L ~hc ~-n,:-JIJ h.:i r:n sc I f ,w:h 0 j,$ (U r.t:ct:~~~t :]Iugh l, 111,c$sO (i 11 ~ SI[C.r 11" Slur~jlt~., Su ~ru-s(_7dlu~ .' -If'OUlnU{'' s ~n dlC' I[r,~, li~ion. of [he' nca,ri1Y to'\!\'~1I{]I P,~ilh", n" ~l:'l' Vi\N of SllKym L'\:\'\,11\. ~19;93), hDr fUI-,lh,t:1 t:'XillHfl!J'Dlph:s 0',. SU:1 ~:m, $i/,Jltfi cOIl~lriCt'il~ Il,.h.;·~OJ see ~)Ir;u\, (lUnu~. I( i ion ~, :, -7 h"t~r I ;] fu did i~In ,~:i id w qui" ;,n M: F";l i(!"ii""",, 12. ,:CDC 111h(:lr' .~, 1 d 9'99.,

(1'9(.19) , [~,d (:AN,\}\:\1 (I, 92'i)~

l L ~n ut h C'f

l.~ ·li~l('lu:ru~ vcr.~,~un~,. ,f (Urnllb rH:lrul~O'm1Ii [larm',~t'i,res ~ha\'r,~. of[:en been n1lJo'~c cxp~li

'he'

losill:l,~

or ~,hc' C,[nu.:~[ 'wirn,h

i~l

rnn i(Jl'n'IW'i)f~n,g

,~ formal

,cnnv'l:rs:io!n

1[[[1'

·~d.:lml,

\V:i.~.h iU'lcga,f" I tn, Nh~£i,r.al ,:l[~-din

..-:\~m',:rulDliJg5b.idrn· ,(d, ~,72(J),! ~nl,onb,cr of Illra,e~,ulli $,~i:lllts of l\u r.~ng~b.r~(t. ~uC'h :'. '. o!1l,'c'rsiun \~': ~

dcs,cri}). din an e rly-twcnticth-ccnrur y h~ giogra phy as h..vi ng been LU, dertakcn b,},"m,~ll1y of the foil. wers Cf::l fCl'nak )10[1"] ':ro~ Sholapur who 'VV3.~ involved in a cornpctition wirl him for 11 the att, chmcru of a ~vo .ee .'i\'iALKApO Hi I,,Ii) l/I 'l : ~: l ( 94'-1096). l4. Shihabuddin, dlc'!lotec 0:- .~ hJ,h ,- Or, in' ervicv =] September 200ft l~he importance of the 'vi IIa. _~e W'-, ~ also een in au oral ~,rad i[~, l ati n~, aU of the carl: r meeting, of :'-:hah ·N··u in r and l)iY'dn~~[Khan rher rather (han ]]1 the city's. Mochiwara ~\J' rter as r counted in other oral n a rra Il i'lies.

:1J;t~ (1[ th, ~{h'ul~uL-a cult in Maharashtra irs. see '-'HElhiER (I (97) .. , I, The shrine '. f·· h.ih Nur \,V~s Iby no mea ns the on ly l\i[ usli 11'1 shrine i.n ~.hc;rczior to r05~ St:'S s plll:r po ned b u ria ~s ites 0 f .]~H u ~,1 rc s. . A rrn pare note -l. nd g;u r7.~h~VL jL a I Ii:rHJIJ "1 rvote ':_-. hiih Ni1r interview . ~'anll~.u) ,~r, . 'I·, Such ell ltu ral common ~rou nd h ... ~: long h istory in the )ecc,an region ::~nLIwas carlier seen n,n the Isla rn'i7.~~t] n (:f 1,[ a ~ n. trrarive Ihc:nlCs. in IH '_ J\ll u:gha.:1 [)~ k .. .111 poetrj
.I. 5.

F

rr Inure

'0,

t: :,

VOR(}V.~\

2.0( ): ~-'1 -}..

I 9. The theme .. of ~.h{:' z uti in the v.. ilderncss ' -

Hrml u or torest ,~. opt ir tradition '.j, C\NElrn p" ).. , 20., This refere nee ro [hit: ptriud of d](~ rnajnr rnedieval S u (i i-\b :~a l-Oudd Q~ Gangohi (d. 1-)) 7 reflects the \V~" lcsprcad I. icf that Shah Nnr arrived In India some .h F'C centu ri ' 1 cf().rc he; even [ lly me t hi" Je' [b, in Au ransabad. 2:L This name is an honorific of the gn::., t Sufi. saint uf I :Jghdad~ ~AJ]d al-'Q,a, lir Jillni (d . .ll6~ v"rlu en] ·ys ~: e It pre ti.ge in ,the I c "c.' nand S"1..1.th 'sia i c' nert ~. :,.~lIah 'N U.D"is wideIy :regar, led as one o.f his de', cendents, 22. : ad.:. P:~f. a well-known devotee Dr Sh5 h (. Or. intcrvi \1\'" 19 C· ober [99('. , 23. K: shifud 'Un :KJI:'H], sajjid'J nashin ,:' he s' rine ofBanc :rvUy;:J.i1 interview, 2'~ ':_up·ust 2 )( '". l"~'.Cornpara] le traditions also relate ~D "LI.Ch.U"'.l.~·'C~J rl_.i~ ( ~H~JOKE ~,926). y 25. In '1 unu sual example of ~hc; cxtual tradi i, n U( - oing the oral (laJhm,on, the c],[,b:[·", nth('t' nru r;. :~, ?:~.ogTa]l e r B,,"h a ' a l-dl 11 - .asa 11 a h r U i df.:~(rib\~ ~,hl h N i.1 r rna ki ng ,' single . 'l:~ en [y~ )1';"0;: II nolli:.:' Il;:U~O nd 1'J'ttdJSr£:rdtOCU iJ1. l he '~)\\J I ,t. f, \ h m, d pur (ZA~,I '~'Rj,~ll. lL~ U 2). 26. In both Hindi and" -rdu .omm n S,=.I; c, the c'nnilu4i ("'uf the f re t") i, a jorauve term lise 1 to le ignare the crude and u[1. 50 ph isricatcd. 2:7- 'J 'he sire of one of the [lIDS I: i rnporra In fortres e· in the I :IC-C(;ri~n~ ·3'lJkltahkld lie ., twelve I ki orne tre ... u r .id . .\U [" .t ,~J"ahad_ h 11...", b ' n cl " elv 1]1.ked [0 the cit" o( ~·U.Ir~1F. ibad si n ce '[he n I~H r ' s ,~)U 11ella ri UL re 1:. Tbe tiger, .:ornerimes with fi,[ :ril~,cr carryi ng (~sn ake \,vh i p, '\:Vi .~, C, UTH11011 if't:al ure ,)~:'[':js slLry 't} pl,:'~w ile [I,. e S more J..{cllerally have a 1,:,C'. ati n wi' h Sufi in' ourh Asi I an I an; ofren ·een lying docile at the fcc! 0 .-' [i ndu a rul Muslim ascetics i 11 Indian mini atu rc paintings, The N orth .:fr~·an [ avcler IH:,\" B. , ~rL'T"\ claimed [ ~.h ave met a .: U f ~ r 'i\/[adunl:i e... in south India wit h a tame lion In his fel 1(1 (·c.,.(2)... :..:£1 unonyrnous n i n ereenrh-ccnturv ]..u.r0pc.:an 'visitor Ito Au rangabad 5i~111ilady rem .rked on lccal tradirion: ;;~SS( jat Ing l'~gcrs with c . he gu'f .diartship saintly shrine ( ::-.If ;...:r.MOC·~ ,ll:"'6, I :1). 19 .. j\l[a 'FsiIJ."I,"Ii~ devutce l ,fSh,~,h N'u'f' and ~[jnpii:ril Pu-a"ad,.I·a.ula'l"bl. 'ad~ ~" . "'<:bruary 2UOO. 30. A li:[crary vc:rsion of rh '11i/cl'l] ~dcr ~Jtor', (01 uu':'c-It('tl ·\{'l.r:ithtbe me J itv" ~, N'onh Ind~.an. Su t~, KJvvva'i~ Gu:rg ":as f~lo ~:L ~duntc ~.in "he ha_g~, graph:kal A .. t.d~l1Ulj··iibil1 (~ l dff 1t94 , 1H ) .. (rar J ]. ~rh j,5i, nt;'['Iolir0 rk In, '" r.jj;_U . C lopogra i: ph Y 1i,PI,'a· ,!,5 0 reo B ec h::,d :u rh (" '[0 I ()~T.a ph i" ~1.rL; ngen mt.fit nruund .'\U -an~aba 'I of rh~: ;)\,rtS " f [he; u bordinau:: ·I~plnie." (kludifas} of du: s.a·.n[ '.. iza['n, a.~-dl"n '::\~vr.·aba ~[(d, 172(). \'vh 'sc sh ri n· i~"r.o I c.a(t.:d in l\ur::I,ngab·,uJ,. 32. rh is i.5 '" rt:'~.cren.(e [,0 the 6irsl inc ..:r,nati.on of j\i.:n"'ang;3Jb:n! Ith~n\~"a.sf[lun .Ie, I i~J, 1.6.l0 I.n. thli.: [,a~:ne f ~ht: lZ ..nl '·'ih~h, \hm,;dld na,ga.1I I y ~h 'i r . ,·dl it: pia n ..ent:'rdl iVl::II:ik ~,. nl,Kl i'. '
I~
j,
'I

is often. also found without the rnoti f 0 : the associat c·d wi ~h 1\'I'u;~[; shrine cu lts.. -lsewhcre in Suurh m

,I

e'

,,G

I

l

or

ij " ..'

,LL

or

33.] la I ir, i nterview 19 I: ,((ober '199'. 34. Ano nv 1110U' de V ~ 'tee. :~ter v~ n ew, [1 '" ovc rnber 1999 a nd Ba sh ar ',,",;:n; a z i, rUJ':: r \I icw, 20 J [anuary 200 re'~, e, tivelj, The i'_ ine stor is " ls ),~oLI with r eard to botb the shrine: of [he: SUJI saint R~]iu Q1au='1 at, ne :rby Khu Id bad !U~A:] the Si\l temple established by a sl:[n:i-Icg:cndary f{_.nHI,Ic: Jiidbf(; art' he nearbv -,Iin u pilgrimage centre of I h rishmc t '~I.~,i-'h alcvolcru m f<:rua:lt: saints and g- ,d esse are a loa corn mon feature of [he religious landscape of the Tarni I south (B.,\Y:~.Y ],'989: ~,31-3 5)" ?5., Shihabuddin. an cldcrlv devotee of-h'-I~r1r ] nrcrvicw, 5 _--. mber 2000. P'I 3 (i ~,- rra fud ,!:i n S i.dd:i.'IU:~lin te r 'V iew l 2 D ece mber 2000, ha ,1+ This ~dso seems (0 b(' [he case with regard "". the l~i~11,OUghybrid go /saint 0'''' Bengal, atya Ptr (,.Tf:'~;lARr20' . J). 38,. 'c':nI11b:un{.:d ~'~'i,ndu-,~!flLusl !lJ nerary practices "U'Ie ~j][5l1 ~I, [(:;,;d,ure of (he - u It of the SuE im Faql --- m] at Shi rha t]r in '[{_,~rlli1J:;~l"aka(-l~N ~_, ( 1[: ] 4-). v\1'fj 2
,'I I' •

!I!

rtEl ERE
,ALr\,M~ '..•. l.

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P pular I,]em"}f~ In

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.J'ndian·:ocie'tYJ

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to L ~ ..?AITl in India. In Appro(.u:iles to lsiam in
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'L

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Hullhc S~,h,. In Deootional L':leral!U'ft(.-. 111 South Asia, cd, ,~~'(G:rt:gor, R. S", 190-200. (:,';~ b ri,dgc:: a m,b.ri,(:~gc U' n ivers iI~y Pre ss rn tV[IILI,~"i,. i\,,_, J\.. :1,99'5,' Folk [,radi tio ii Illi t hc J.\'~,~~~1n f[~ ,ill nd ~ '~,I ::;U_i ~!1I,~~'V i, n (0 Ik '1i",~H:1-( ion, I~ l!O(!ory: ,{nul ~n hc ii ,J.\t/yst i~~i~irn lsl« m: ~rl~t, t'yit(.rgt' of R,N:l'j'J'J~'j' C ,:1..8a ,I~a ni, ,,' ,,~ H O'~f~ m1iJ usi a n ~ ,:rn ~I,~I ,~}'~, H .R G,.. S~I h '. l 36-77.. " '£~ m bri,d ~]"c:C a m,'hfwd0 'U n ive r$.:~ Press. beg Vl: n
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Urdu. :Ri'\i'cn:l~lJc-:: Riverdalc i :01.

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n" d'. (c, ~,9R ) i~fiab-,e-,D{J'k(ln.. Au ran gahad ::N ,.1:. I, U rd La. ~ i)

RoY, A.
~1996 lil'lrn h~' S(}utJ~'t~Lf.i_~: R~'l!'Of1!["l1 Pt'lsJu~:n~{)l'f,. cl'h~:;South : ,A, D
S.1-t~,I:~1\~ i\Z K.l1liL'l' I t\\\
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Publishers.
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114(1 ~(uJ:l. a:i'=u mara. ir

~1wa n s, H, B everidge,

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B:lng,",:~[gl'l': '" '; 1l1aY;lL

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SOl"

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Kit~g of f-lu~uers, Hlan~i(Jn.~' SlJc:'plu:rai:" _"~iUj'

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l\rl~]~iik. nd ]1., :BrU(lkl~ ('c"~' D,el h'i~I [uJi,i,r.;w 'G',§wndlh~ Narional a er, ~_ '~I, ' oha 1". nd "'n:~rnllF.I ~\ I'E N IG -D, cd,. l'9~Ui ,fo'(;/k' r::ullttn"" f(Jlk Rt4',gi(JJ'l l~'I,'UlOr~'l 1la'tii$io,r,I 'I$~' (~(jn.ll)()1U:l~t ,;',1
Cu It are. D'C'~h i,~ :~VLln(,11 ar, ) S'rE"""/\ ..[;: H.,. ur

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20UO Alternate structures of 21Ju,thuJrity= S,~~ty.:q, on the frO]l[i~t'rsolBengal. In l3'cycnul 'nuit Pir l~',rui nd«: RC"'IJ1 in,k ing Rr:,uglm(i,;i 1(if:1Uilli(;s' i'~1l's:I(M'1,1,ic(f,,l,r;: ·"o#lI~ /"t~,,.:Q.', ed, IG' i £1] a II[ in ~1.,~ /;"'f,i ~I, I B" [t' awre n CC~ .21-)~" IG,~_ inesvi I,[~l:,:1_ 'n wvcrs:i t)t of Flo i~d PJes<5., n a 1:( rn ~ n sea 1D",e ()f ,e'l u iv.\111,C:fU:C ~ Co il,cch rum1Ilg II he ~[u s I:iL ~ ~ ~ ndu encou n e r '[11h, _Iil'oug'h l:rafi1:~l:1iJI:io,n l[hCO:fJ+ ,f/"~;IiJ'~y of Re/~',~ons 'J(J.:- 1: I: Or-'i"
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Suvun.ov/\. It
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'ambridge U niversitj Press,

,2000 AJiasl.uuli: A Stu,djr of V'r(h~ Romence. Karachi: Oxf )rd U~:1,~'Vcr.5dtyPress,

199

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