Essae Chandran Institute

Stratification
Divide and Conquer

Essae Chandran Institute

Stratification
A technique used to divide data into sub–categories or

classification to

provide useful

insight into the problem.

Essae Chandran Institute

Meaning of “Stratification”
• Root Word is “Strata” which means
– – – – – Group Division Sub–class Levels Layers

• Stratification is an act of dividing data based on group, division, sub – class, causes etc.

• Divide the data and Conquer the Information. . comes from difference – E. Cities. • • Data sometimes information. : Different Machines.g.Essae Chandran Institute Rationale & Benefits • Data sources. Operators etc. masks real Stratification helps in getting meaningful information from data. Instruments.

23/7. 6/7.Essae Chandran Institute Example : Late to Work • Reached late to office on following dates (un–stratified data) – 2/7. 16/7. 30/7 • Stratified data by day of the week. – – – – – – Mon ⇒ 5 Tue ⇒ 0 Wed ⇒ 0 Thu ⇒ 0 Fri ⇒ 1 Sat ⇒ 0 . 9/7.

Example : PCB Rejection Essae Chandran Institute Un–stratified Data Date Rejection 3/6 33 4/6 30 5/6 32 .

Example : PCB Rejection Essae Chandran Institute Stratified Data Time 9:00 – 10:00 10:00 – 11:00 11:00 – 12:00 12:00 – 1:00 1:00 – 1:30 1:30 – 2:30 2:30 – 3:30 3:30 – 4:30 4:30 – 5:30 3/6 15 1 2 1 10 3 0 1 4/6 14 2 0 0 Lunch 11 1 2 0 5/6 16 0 1 1 12 0 1 1 .

of Accidents 12 10 13 11 9 12 Month .Essae Chandran Institute E. Accidents in Machine Shop 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun No.g.

of Accidents 12 9 Press Shop Welding 11 8 10 8 3 2 1 Mar 1 Apr 2 0 May Jun Month .Essae Chandran Institute After Stratification 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Jan Feb No.

Interpret the Data . Collect and Stratify Data 3. List all conditions 2.Essae Chandran Institute Steps in Stratification 1.

Essae Chandran Institute Step 1 : List all Conditions • List all conditions that may seem to be the cause of the problem. – – – – – – – Shift Location Raw Material Source Operator Product Machine Inspection Equipment – – – – – Day of Week Time of Day Material Batch Inspector Production Batch .

Essae Chandran Institute Step 2 : Collect and Stratify Data • Collect additional data based on classification. • Stratify data based on the classification . if necessary.

Essae Chandran Institute Step 3 : Interpret the Data • Calculate average classification or plot graph. of each appropriate • Look for significant differences OR abnormalities in data. • Generate a list of possible causes. .

Essae Chandran Institute Pareto Chart Vital Few and Trivial Many .

.Essae Chandran Institute Pareto Chart Pareto Chart is a diagram that shows the order of the largest number of occurrences by item or by classes. and the cumulative sum total.

Joseph M. • Dr. Juran applied this principle to Quality Management and called it the Pareto Principle.Essae Chandran Institute Genesis of Pareto Chart • Vilfredo Pareto (1848 – 1923). . an Italian economist discovered in 1897 that 80% of a nation’s wealth was owned by 20% of the population.

Essae Chandran Institute Pareto Principle Inputs Causes Effort 20% 80% Outputs Effects Results .

. • Helps the team to focus on those causes that will have the greatest impact when solved. • Displays relative importance of causes of a problem. • Distinguishes between vital few and trivial many.Essae Chandran Institute Rationale and Benefits • Pareto Principle : 80 % of the problems comes from 20% of the causes.

Essae Chandran Institute Causes for Starting Late to Office 100% 140 78% 120 100 60% 80 60 40 20% 20 0 Newspaper Bathroom Overslept Delay 0% 40% Causes Garage I ron Clothes Others Door Cumulative Percentage 80% Frequency .

Causes for Surface Defects Essae Chandran Institute 160 140 120 100% 84% Cumulative Percentage 80% Frequency 100 80 60 40 20 0 60% 40% 20% 0% Stain Scratch Peeling Causes Crack Pinhole Gap Others .

Others Causes Cumulative Percentage 80% Frequency .Essae Chandran Institute Response 60 What did you like least after the surgery ? 76% 100% 50 40 60% 30 40% 20 20% 10 0 0% Waiting Nursing No Privacy No Empathy Pain No I nfo.

Select the problem. 7. 2.Essae Chandran Institute Steps in making a Pareto Chart 1. 8. 6. Draw the cumulative percentage line. Draw the axes. Identify Vital Few from the Trivial Many and plan further action. 4. Sort data & calculate cumulative percentage. Title and label the chart. 3. 5. Collect data. . Construct the bars.

• Decide what data will be necessary and how to classify them. • Design a separate Check Sheet if necessary.Essae Chandran Institute Step 1 : Select the Problem • Select the problem for investigation. . • Determine the method of collecting data and period of data collection. • Eg : Causes for Service Complaints of Computer System.

Essae Chandran Institute Step 2 : Collect Data Causes Print Problems Rodent Problem Server Crash Boot Problems Bad Configuration Virus Attack System Re-configuration Operating Corrupted Loose Connection Others System Frequency 11 3 23 8 6 52 3 9 4 5 12 Email not functioning .

Essae Chandran Institute Step 3 : Sort Data & Calculate Cumulative Code A B C D E F G H I J K Causes Virus Attack Server Crash Print Problems Operating Corrupted Boot Problems Bad Configuration Loose Connection Email not functioning System Re-configuration Rodent Problem Others System Freq.Cumulative Percentage uency 52 23 11 9 8 6 5 4 3 3 12 Freq. 52 Cumulative % age 52/136 = 42% 52+23=75 75/136 = 55% 75+11=86 86+9=95 103 109 114 118 121 124 136 63% 70% 76% 80% 84% 87% 89% 91% 100% .

Essae Chandran Institute Step 4 : Construct the Axes 136 100% 120 136 = 100% Cumulative Percentage 80% 100 Frequency 80 60% 60 40% 40 20% 20 0 0% A B C D E Causes F G H I J K .

Essae Chandran Institute Step 5 : Draw the Bars 136 100% 120 100 80 60% 60 40% 40 20% 20 0 0% A B C D E Causes F G H I J K Cumulative Percentage 80% Frequency .

Essae Chandran Institute Step 6 : Draw the Cumulative Percentage Line 136 100% 120 100 80 60% 60 40% 40 20% 20 0 0% A B C D E Causes F G H I J K Cumulative Percentage 80% Frequency .

Essae Chandran Institute Step 7 : Label & Title the Chart Pareto of Service Complaints 136 100% 120 100 80 60% 60 40% 40 20% 20 0 0% A B C D E Causes F G H I J K Cumulative Percentage 80% Frequency .

Essae Chandran Institute Step 8 : Interpret the Chart 136 Pareto of Service Complaints 100% 120 100 70% 60% 80 60 40% 40 20% 20 0 0% A B C D E Causes F G H I J K Cumulative Percentage 80% Frequency .

Essae Chandran Institute Flat Pareto ?? 100% 120 80% 100 80 60% 60 40% 40 20% 20 0 0% A B C D E Causes F G H I J K Cumulative Percentage Frequency .

• Wherever possible. compare monetary data with frequency data. Tips for Making a Good Pareto Chart . • If the cause of a problem can be solved easily. • Draw the Pareto chart before and after improvement.Essae Chandran Institute • It is undesirable that “others” represent a high percentage (should be < 10%). implement it even if it belongs to the trivial many.

in '000 800 60% 60% 80 60 40 20% 200 20 0 0% 20% 120 80% 100% 140 Rejections by Rs.Essae Chandran Institute Which problem to solve ? Rejections by PPM 1200 80% 1000 100 Rs. 100% PPM 600 40% 40% 400 0 0% A B C D E F G H I J K D B C E A G F J I H K .

Essae Chandran Institute Frequency 30 40 50 60 10 20 0 Waiting Nursing No Privacy Before and After Improvement Causes No Empathy Pain No I nfo. Others 0% 10 0 20 50% 30 40 100% Frequency 50 60 Nursing No Privacy No Empathy Improvement Causes Waiting Pain No I nfo. Others 0% 100% .

Essae Chandran Institute Brainstormin g Creativity at Work .

Problems Improvements Solve and Prevent Effect and .Essae Chandran Institute Brainstorming Creativity and Collective Wisdom at Work Place. Diagnose.

Essae Chandran Institute Brainstorming – Contd. Technique for a team to creatively and efficiently generate the greatest possible number of ideas on any topic. ..

. in 1941. Osborn of U.Essae Chandran Institute Father of Brainstorming • Brainstorming was first effectively used and introduced by Alex F.S. • An Advertisement cutive.A. Exe- • Author of Book “Applied Imagination”.

developing new ideas by unrestrained and spontaneous participation in discussion. stimulating creative thinking. amassing information. – The Random House Dictionary .Essae Chandran Institute Brainstorming Brainstorming is a conference technique of solving specific problems.

• Encourages OPEN thinking.Essae Chandran Institute Rationale and Benefits • Person close to the job knows more about the job. . • Minimizes domination by a few people. • Enables people to participate in a creative way. • Self – Fulfilling.

.Essae Chandran Institute Types of Brainstorming Brainstorming Structured A process in which each team member give ideas in turn. Un–Structured A process in which each team member give ideas as they come to mind.

Stating the Problem. 2. Re – stating the problem. Brainstorming. Evaluating the ideas produced. 3. .Essae Chandran Institute Stages of Brainstorming 1. 4.

. • All should participate. • Information to all members about the theme of the session. if necessary.Essae Chandran Institute Pre–Requisites • Relaxed and cordial atmosphere. • All ideas should be recorded and recalled.

Essae Chandran Institute Four Rules of Brainstorming Encourage Wild Ideas “Quantity” rather than Quality Ideas   .

Ride on Another’s Suspend Judgement Idea – Piggyback .Essae Chandran Institute Four Rules of Brainstorming – Contd.

Stupid. Erratic. Off–beat.Essae Chandran Institute Guidelines and Ground Rules • Freewheeling is encouraged. Trail– blazing. – Wilder. Impractical ideas are welcomed – Be open minded – Spontaneity required – Evoke fun atmosphere – Heart rules over Head .

Six Minutes Formula.Essae Chandran Institute Guidelines and Ground Rules – Contd. – Participation by All. • Quantity is encouraged. – Structured or Unstructured. • Judgement Suspended. – Piggyback. • Six Persons . • Combination and Improvement of Ideas. .. – Criticism Ruled out. – Cross Fertilisation.

Essae Chandran Institute Cause and Effect Diagram Identify and Cure Causes .

Definition shows the a Quality the Cause – JIS .Essae Chandran Institute Cause and Effect Diagram A diagram which represents meaningful relationship between an effect and its causes. A diagram which relation between Characteristic and Factors.

Essae Chandran Institute Rationale and Benefits • Enables a team to identify. . explore and graphically display all the possible causes related to a problem. • A cause and effect diagram is good for seeing the whole “causal” relationship. • Enables identification of root causes and not symptoms.

Kaoru Ishikawa developed the first cause and effect diagram in 1943 while consulting for Kawasaki Steel Works.Essae Chandran Institute Father of Cause & Effect Diagram • Dr. • Dr. Juran named it Ishikawa diagram. as .

Essae Chandran Institute Structure of C & E Diagram Causes (Factors) Big Bone Medium Sized Bone Back Bone Effect (Characteristic) Small Bone .

Essae Chandran Institute C & E Diagram is also known as Fishbone Diagram .

Cause – Enumeration type. Process Flow Classification type. Dispersion Analysis type. 3. Note : Dispersion Analysis type and Cause – Enumeration type differ only in the method of construction. .Essae Chandran Institute Three Types of Cause and Effect Diagram 1. 2.

6 Size 6 Large G axle bearing Material Quality 11.4 Small Central axle Materials Large 2.Essae Chandran Institute Dispersion Analysis type Cause and Effect Diagram workers Content Over experienced Experienced Under-experienced 6.6 Material quality Threads Nuts Loose Tight Training Knowledge Uneven Personality F Cover Axle hole 9 Interval Off-centre Measurement Errors Measuring tool Judgement Training Adjustment Off-centre Wobble Cover hole G axle bearing cover G axle cover Inspector Experience F axle cover Metal drill Axle stop Judgement method Uneven Plating Punch width F cover Inspection Tools .

Essae Chandran Institute

Process Flow Classification type Cause & Effect Diagram
Bench movement Roll Dropping Impurity Bunching Group movement Flare Conveyor Bench movement Common aberration

Loosening

Position placement

Material

Pipe making

Correcting
Bench rolling

Planning

Water Pressure test
Difference

Bed removing

Inspection

Steel Pipe scars

Movement Weight Polishing Weight Arrange bench drop Polish Movement

Position placement Bench rolling

Surface paint Bunching Wire Value Carriage

Essae Chandran Institute

Steps in Constructing Dispersion type C & E Diagram
1. State the undesirable effect. 2. Identify the main cause groups. 3. Identify causes and sub–causes. 4. Identify potential root cause(s).

Essae Chandran Institute

Step 1
State the undesirable effect and draw the back bone and draw a line.
Causes Effect

High Process Rejection

machine. method. material. Causes Effect Machine Man High Process Rejection Material Method .Essae Chandran Institute Step 2 Identify the main cause groups such as man. measurement. tool.

Causes Machine Man Effect Not Specified to Vendor No Inspection High Process Rejection High Hardness Rod Bent Poor Handling Material Method . Ask “WHY” several times.Essae Chandran Institute Step 3 Identify the causes and sub – causes.

Causes Machine Man Effect Not Specified to Vendor No Inspection High Process Rejection High Hardness Rod Bent Poor Handling Material Method .Essae Chandran Institute Step 4 Identify potential root cause(s).

Essae Chandran Institute Identify Significance of Each Cause     High Significance Moderate Significance Weak Significance .

main process flow 3. Identify potential root cause(s).Essae Chandran Institute Steps in Constructing Process Flow Type C & E Diagram 1. State the undesirable effect. Identify the cause and sub–causes at each stage of the process. 4. Draw the diagram. . 2.

Effect Causes Delay in Delivery .Essae Chandran Institute Step 1 State the undesirable effect and draw a verticle line.

Essae Chandran Institute Step 2 Draw the main process flow. Causes Effect Material Receipt Machining Assembly Inspection Delay in Delivery .

Essae Chandran Institute Step 3 Identify the cause and sub–causes at each stage of the process. Causes Material Rejected Capacity Constraint Absenteeism Incomplete Assembly Effect Material Receipt Vendor Tool Damaged Machining Assembly Inspection Delay in Delivery Material Shortage Machine Breakdown High Cycle Time Rectification .

Effect Material Receipt Vendor Tool Damaged Machining Assembly Inspection Delay in Delivery Material Shortage Machine Breakdown High Cycle Time Rectification .Essae Chandran Institute Step 4 Causes Material Rejected Capacity Constraint Absenteeism Incomplete Assembly Identify potential root cause(s).

Arrange causes and sub–causes showing the relationship between cause and effect.Essae Chandran Institute Steps in Constructing Cause Enumeration Type C & E Diagram 1. 3. 4. State the undesirable effect. 2. List all possible causes using brainstorming. Identify potential root cause(s). .

Essae Chandran Institute Step 1 State the undesirable effect. Time for Installation of Machine is High .

Time for Installation of Machine is High Relevant Forms not received Lorry not availabl e Performance problems during installation No communication to branch on civil work Customer’s Project Postponed Poor followup by branch Civil work not commenced Lack of Funds Customer wants see our installation Do not have license for stamping Payment not collected as per terms Parts not available on time .Essae Chandran Institute Step 2 List all possible causes using brainstorming.

Essae Chandran Institute Step 3 Arrange causes and sub–causes suitably. HO Delay Parts not available on time Branch Causes Delay Relevant Forms not received Effect Poor follow-up by branch Do not have license Poor information for stamping Performance problems Payment not on site readiness during installation collected as per terms Lack of Funds No communication Customer wants to branch on civil see our installation work Project Civil work not Postponed commenced Lorry not available Time for Installation of Machine is High Customer Delay Others .

HO Delay Parts not available on time Branch Causes Delay Relevant Forms not received Effect Poor follow-up by branch Donot have license Poor information for stamping on site readiness Performance problems Payment not during installation collected as per terms Lack of Funds No communication Lorry not to branch on civil work Customer wants available see our installation Project Civil work not Postponed commenced Time for Installation of Machine is High Customer Delay Others .Essae Chandran Institute Step 4 Identify potential root cause(s).

Essae Chandran Institute

Hints for Constructing a C & E Diagram
• Identify all the relevant causes (factors) & the causes most strongly influencing the effect (characteristic). the effect (characteristic) • Express “negatively”. • The linking question between effect and its cause is “WHY ?”. • Make the same number of cause and effect diagrams as that of effects.

Essae Chandran Institute

Scatter Identifying Correlation Diagram

Essae Chandran Institute

Scatter Diagram
A chart used to study and identify the possible relationship between two variables.

 To establish the – Existence of correlation – Type of correlation – Strength of the relation .Essae Chandran Institute Scatter Diagram – Contd.  To identify the possible relationship between the changes observed in two variables..

.  Provide a good follow up to a cause and effect diagram to find out if there is more than just a consensus connection between causes and effects.  Provide both visual and statistical means to test the strength of a potential relationship.Essae Chandran Institute Rationale and Benefits  To confirm a hypothesis (assumption) that two variables are related.

Essae Chandran Institute Examples of Two Variables  Cake height and Oven temperature.  Population & Literacy levels in a state.  Nonconformance & Operator experience .  Weight error and Earthing voltage.  Weight and Height of a person.

 Hardness & Carbon content  Inspection Mistakes & Illumination levels  Elongation of threads & Moisture content  Child’s height & Father’s height  Quality characteristic affecting it.. and the Factor .Essae Chandran Institute Examples of Two Variables – Contd.

Weight & Height of a Person Essae Chandran Institute 110 100 90 Weight (kg) 80 70 60 50 40 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190 Height (cm) .

5 2 1.Essae Chandran Institute Capacitance & Line Width Capacitance (Pictofarads) 3.5 3 2.5 1 0.5 30 40 50 60 70 80 Line Width / Spacing (in microns) .

Choose independent and dependent variable. Label and title the chart 6. 3. Plot the points 5. . 4. 2. Interpret the chart. Draw the axes. Collect paired data.Essae Chandran Institute Steps in making a Scatter Diagram 1.

Y) between which you want to study the relation. 3. and construct a data sheet Sample Oven Temperature Cake Height 1 2 3 . . . .8 cm 3. 68o 3.3 cm .Essae Chandran Institute Step 1: Collect Data Collect 50 – 100 paired data (X.2 cm 2.0 cm . 60 60o 49o 57o .

. when the two variables consist of a factor and quality characteristics. – Oven Temperature = Independent – Cake Height = Dependent  Find the respective maximum and minimum values of the variable.Essae Chandran Institute Step 2 : Choose Independent and Dependent Variables.  Always choose ‘X’ axis for the cause and ‘Y’ axis for the effect.

5 4.5 2 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Dependent Variable. Oven Temperature .5 3 2.Essae Chandran Institute Step 3 : Draw the Axes.5 4 3. Cake Height Independent Variable.

5 4 3.5 2 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 .5 3 2.Essae Chandran Institute Step 4 : Plot the data 5 4.

Cake Height 5 Cake Height (cm) 4.5 3 2.5 4 3.Essae Chandran Institute Step 5 : Label & Title the chart Oven Temperature vs.5 2 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Oven Temperature (oC) .

will increase y 2. Dependent 3 2 1 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Variable x.Step 6 : Interpreting the Chart Essae Chandran Institute 3.5 Variable y.5 Strong Positive Correlation Increase in x. Independent .5 1.

-1 35 -1.5 Strong Negative Correlation Increase in x.Essae Chandran Institute Step 6 : Interpreting the Chart – Contd. Dependent -2 -3 Variable x. will decrease y 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 -2.5 Variable y.5 -3.. Independent .

Essae Chandran Institute Step 6 : Interpreting the Chart – Contd.5 Variable y. may increase y 3 2 1 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Variable x.5 1. Dependent Positive Correlation Increase in x.5 2. Independent .. 3.

5 Variable y. -1 35 -1.5 Negative Correlation Increase in x. Independent .5 -3 -3.. may Decrease y 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 -2 -2. Dependent Variable x.Essae Chandran Institute Step 6 : Interpreting the Chart – Contd.

5 2. Independent . Dependent 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Variable x.Essae Chandran Institute Step 6 : Interpreting the Chart – Contd. No Correlation 3 3.5 1 Variable y.5 2 1..

Essae Chandran Institute Control Chart Understanding and Reducing Variation. .

.Essae Chandran Institute Control Chart It is a type of run chart used for studying process performance over time in order to understand and reduce variation.

.  He was working in Bell Labs on a project to make all telephones alike.Essae Chandran Institute Father of Control Chart  Dr. Shewhart invented the control chart.  Published the book “Economic Control of Quality of Manufactured Product” in 1931. Walter A.

more the loss to society. a. Common Cause (also known as Chronic cause.Essae Chandran Institute Principles of Variation 1. 2. Every process is subject to variation. Two types of causes affect variation. More the variation in the process. 3. Chance cause) .

.. b. Assignable cause) 4. Special Cause (also known as Sporadic cause.Essae Chandran Institute Principles of Variation – Contd. Action on variation entirely depends on type of cause identified.

. Special Cause One or a few causes of variation that result in a large variation in the process.Essae Chandran Institute Common Cause The cumulative effect of many small and “individually uncontrollable” causes of variation in a process.

variation. few causes.Essae Chandran Institute Common vs. • Results in relatively • Results in smaller variation. • Process is consi• Process is unstable. large • Process need not • Process needs to be tampered with. dered stable. Special Cause Common Cause Special Cause • Consists of many • Consists of one or a individual causes. . be investigated and corrected.

Essae Chandran Institute

Rationale and Benefits
 Control chart is used for differentiating between common causes and special causes of variation.  Control chart also helps in determining whether the
– process is stable. – process is capable.

 It helps in predicting process performance.

Essae Chandran Institute

Types of Data
Variable Data Data that can be measured. E.g.: Weight, Length, Diameter, Hardness, Angle. Attribute Data Data that can be counted. E.g.: Defects, Scratches, Spatters, Blow holes, cracks.

Dent,

Essae Chandran Institute

Classification of Control Chart
Control Chart Variable Data X – R Chart X – mR chart mX – mR Chart Attribute Data p chart c chart np chart u chart

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 UCLR R LCLR Sub-group .0 0.5 1.00 24.50 25.25 Diameter (mm) 26.00 25.5 0.75 25.0 Range (mm) 1.25 25.75 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 UCLx X LCLx 2.Essae Chandran Institute Example of Control Chart 26.

75 25.75 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Sub-Group Contro l Limits Data Points .25 25.50 25.25 26.Essae Chandran Institute Parts of a Control Chart X – Axis Variable Data Central Line UCLx X LCLx Diameter (mm) 26.00 25.00 24.

Essae Chandran Institute Definition of Terms  Sub Group – Smaller groups of sample data collected over time. .  Control Limits – The outer limits of “Process Variation”.  Central Line – The average of all the sub group averages.

Specification Limit Control Limit  Variation in the process.  Indicates Requirement. the  Limits change with setting. the Specification Limit  Requirement of the customer. .  “Noise of process”.  Indicates Capability.  “Voice of customer”. correction.  Limits change only when customer wishes to change. process changes etc.Essae Chandran Institute Control Limit vs.

8. Interpret the chart. Compute average of range. 2. Collect the data. Calculate control limits for X and R 7. Plot the chart. 3. 6. 5.Essae Chandran Institute Steps in Constructing a Control Chart 1. Calculate the range. Calculate overall average. 4. . Calculate sub–group average.

SubGroup 1 2 3 4 X1 47 19 29 28 X2 32 37 11 29 X3 44 31 16 42 X4 35 25 11 59 X5 20 34 44 38 .Essae Chandran Institute Step 1: Collect Data Collect and stratify data into sub-groups.

6 5 where n is the size of the subgroup. X X1 + X 2 + X 3 + X 4 + X 5 X1 = n 47 + 32 + 44 + 35 + 20 X1 = = 35. .Essae Chandran Institute Step 2: Calculate Subgroup Average.

6 + 29 . X X1+ X 2 + X 3 + X 4 X = k 35 .2 X = 4 where k is the number of subgroups. .Essae Chandran Institute Step 3: Calculate the Overall Average.2 + 39 .2 + 22 .

R R = Maximum Value – Minimum Value R1 = 47 – 20 = 37 .Essae Chandran Institute Step 4: Calculate the Subgroup Range.

R R1 + R 2 + R 3 + R 4 R= k 27 +18 + 33 + 31 R= = 27 .25 4 where k is the number of subgroups.Essae Chandran Institute Step 5: Calculate the Average of Ranges. .

Essae Chandran Institute Step 6: Compute Control Limits  Control Limits for  Central Line = Xchart X  Upper Control Limit :  Lower Control Limit : UCL X = X + A2 R LCL = X − A R X 2  A2 is the coefficient whose value depends on the subgroup size .

Essae Chandran Institute Step 6 : Control Limits for R Chart  Central Line : R  Upper Control Limit :  Lower Control Limit : UCL R = D4 R LCL R = D3 R  D3 and D4 are coefficients whose value depend on the subgroup size. .

534 .577 0.114 2.693 2.483 D3 0 0 0 0 0 R Chart n 2 3 4 5 6 D4 3.729 0.880 1.059 2.326 2.282 2.128 1.023 0.574 2.Essae Chandran Institute Step 6: Coefficients for X chart Subgroup Size –R X Chart A2 1.267 2.004 d2 1.

 Draw the control limit lines.Essae Chandran Institute Step 7 : Plot the Control Chart  Vertical Axis:X and R values  Horizontal Axis : Sub–group number  Draw the central line : X and R. .

 Plot the X and R values and join the points.Essae Chandran Institute Step 7 : Plot the Control Chart – Contd.  Write necessary items like name of the process. product. shift. work conditions.. . size of the subgroup. etc.

– Should be random and not a systematic pattern.Essae Chandran Institute Step 8 : Interpret the chart Process Stability  Look at the pattern of variation. .  Compare with customer specification and establish process capability. Process Capability  Establish process variation.  Look for presence of special causes. – 5 rules of special cause identification.

Random variation and no systematic pattern .Essae Chandran Institute Stable Process X bar or R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 .67) .No action required (if Cpk > 1.

Identify root cause and take action.Presence of special cause . .Essae Chandran Institute Rule 1: Points beyond Control Limit X bar or R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 .

Process has shifted.Essae Chandran Institute Rule 2: Run of 7 points on one side of Central Line X bar or R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 . .Presence of special cause .

.Presence of special cause .Essae Chandran Institute Rule 3: Six Consecutive Points Increasing or Decreasing X bar or R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 .Process is deteriorating.

Periodic Interference in the process. .Presence of special cause .Essae Chandran Institute Rule 4: Periodicity X bar or R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 .

Identify root cause and take action.Essae Chandran Institute Rule 5: Fourteen Consecutive Points Alternating Up and Down X bar or R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 .Presence of special cause. . .

Essae Chandran Institute

Process Capability Process Capability is a measure of inherent variability of the process when compared with the customer requirements.

Essae Chandran Institute

Rationale and Benefits
 Assess capability of a process to meet customer’s requirement.  Assist in selecting or modifying a process.  Assist in selection of machine.  To build quality into the product and process rather than achieving quality by inspection.

Essae Chandran Institute

Process Capability Assessment
 Establish Process Variation Process Variation = 6

R σ= d2
 d2 is a constant based on sub – group size. – Refer slide number 101 / PST&T / O 22

33.Essae Chandran Institute Compare with Customer Specification Customer Requirement Capability Process Variation = USL − LSL Cp = 6σ Cp > 1. Process is more capable than customer requirement .

Process is just capable of meeting customer’s requirement Cp< 1.Essae Chandran Institute Compare with Customer Specification – Contd.0. Process is not capable of meeting customer’s requirement . Cp = 1.0..

.  3σ 3σ   Cpk = Cp..  (USL − X ) ( X − LSL)  Cpk = Minimum  . Cpk  Cp.Essae Chandran Institute Compare with Customer Specification – Contd. respect Process is centred with to customer’s requirement. Process is NOT centred with respect to customer’s requirement.

Essae Chandran Institute Accidents in a Factory Total Accidents A B C D E F .Accidents with respect to Head .Accidents with respect to Face .Accidents with respect to Body .Accidents with respect to Leg : .Accidents with respect to Hand : : : : : 94 1 3 7 9 69 5 94 .Accidents with respect to Fingers : .

42 % 95.Essae Chandran Institute Cause Percentage Percentage Cummulative Percentage E D C F B A 69 / 94 x 100 9 / 94 x 100 7/ 94 x 100 5 / 94 x 100 3 / 94 x 100 1 / 94 x 100 = = = = = = 73.19% 1.57% 7.40% 9.00% 73.97 % 90.32% 3.00% .45% 5.93% 100.40 % 82.07% 100.74% 98.

Essae Chandran Institute Pareto Chart 90 80 70 60 69 73. A = TRIVIAL MANY 9 7 5 F 3 B 1 A E D C Causes . C.4% Frequency 50 40 30 20 10 0 E : VITAL FEW D. F. B.

Pareto Chart Essae Chandran Institute “VITAL FEW FROM TRIVIAL MANY” A “PCB” Rejected 30% @ Wave Soldering Stage Causes : A B C D E .Wrong Mounting Compt Missing Dry Solder Compt Jumping Wrong Polarity 3 2 16 8 1 30 .

66% E 1 1 /30 * 100 = 3.00% A 3 90.66% 3 / 30 * 100 = 10.00% 8 8 / 30 * 100 = 26.33% 2 2 / 30 * 100 = 6.66% 16 / 30 * 100 = 53.34% D 80.Pareto Chart Essae Chandran Institute Rearranging the same Causes : C 16 53.33% .00% B 96.

6 90 80 100 % 20 15 10 8 3 5 2 B 1 E C+D Percentage : 80% A Frequency 16 0 C D A. E : 20% Causes .Pareto Chart Essae Chandran Institute 30 25 96. B.

25% 3 Due to Miscellaneous causes .Pareto Chart Essae Chandran Institute Eg : A casting machine had 32% rejection Causes : A B C D E Due to Workmanship Due to Casting Quality Due to Cutter Problem Due to Machine problem : : : : 32 : 8 18 2 1 81.

00 9.25 90.37 6.87 100.25 3.Essae Chandran Institute Pareto Chart Data Structuring Item Number Cummulative Percentage Cummulative Total Percentage C B A D E 18 8 3 2 1 18 26 29 31 32 56.13 56.00 .25 81.25 25.62 96.

2 5 96.Essae Chandran Institute Pareto Chart 40 100 35 30 25 60 20 15 56.13 Cummulative Percentage 90.8 80 7 Percentage .2 5 25 18 8 40 C+B : 81.25% = Vital few 10 A.6 2 81.25 3. E = Trivial many 20 5 9. D.37 3 2 D 0 C B A 1 E 0 6.

Style Resignations Wages Transport Environment Excessive Overtime Quality High Turnover .Essae Chandran Institute Cause & Effect Diagram Performance Monitoring Efficiency Planning Scheduling Capacity Assessment Shortage Identify Line Balance Bottle Neck MRP Work Load Monitoring Rejections QC Training Rework QC Mgmt.

psychological) Miser Spend Thrift Spirituality Affairs Character Monetary Behavioural Insecurity Personal Workaholic Failure in expectations Money Over Possessivenes s Distraction s .Essae Chandran Institute Cause & Effect Diagram depicting the causes for Divorces Incompatibility Sexual Social Family Over family affiliation by either spouse Family Pressure Demands Disliking Family (Like Dowry) Members Ego Popularity Family Torture Successful Profession Superior Educatio n Special Talent Rich Family Background Staying away Thought Religious Work Cultural Sexual Non availability Materialistic Popularity Inability to earn Greed Divorce Illness (Like mental.

Case Studies Essae Chandran Institute         Reducing Rejections Reducing Cycle Time Reducing Consumables Cost Reducing Energy Cost Design Change Improving manufacturing process Eratic behaviour of machine Elimination of canteen Coupons .C.Q.C .

C .C.Q.Case Studies Essae Chandran Institute         Elimination of Leave Application Elimination of mosquito menace in the colony Raising blood donations Reducing accidents Improving management education Improving security of goods in an organisation Improving Environment of Organisation Improving Safety provisions .

5 in 10 scale scale 9.0 in 10 9. On time Delivery 500 PPM 100 PPM >98% 100% 3.5 in 10 scale scale 9.0 in 10 9.Otto Bilz India Pvt. Supplier Satisfaction To be measured 9. Customer Satisfaction 7. Employee Satisfaction To be measured 5. Quality level 2. Goals Present / 2002 43545 PPM 43.No .5 in 10 scale 2004 2005 1.3 in 10 Scale 4.05% Targets 2003 2000 PPM >95% 8.5 in 10 scale 8. Ltd.0 in 10 9.5 in 10 scale 8. Essae Chandran Institute World Class Manufacturing Goals & Targets Sl.5 in 10 scale scale .

SGA 8. OEE 7.No . Essae Chandran Institute World Class Manufacturing Goals & Targets Sl. 7 mandays / Employee 40% 5 man-days @ 5 man-days / 35% Employee 16% 25% . Training Hrs / Employee / Year 10.Otto Bilz India Pvt. 1000 Nos. 600 Nos. New customer for existing product New product for existing customer 43% 0 0 >65% 60 Nos. 6 mandays /Employee 35% >85% 120 Nos. Suggestion / Kaizen 9. Ltd. >75% 100 Nos. Goals Present / 2002 Targets 2003 2004 2005 6. 300 Nos.

Std hrs cleared / Employee / month 14.Otto Bilz India Pvt. Sales Turn over 13. Debtors’ Turnover Ratio 15. Inventory Turn over ratio 12. Certification 3. Goals Present / 2002 Targets 2003 2004 2005 11.95 8 crores 80 hrs 69 days Preparation 8 10 crores 125 hrs 45 days ISO 14001 / TS 16949 OSHAS 15 15 crores 140 hrs 40 days 25 25 crores 160 hrs 30 days .No . Ltd. Essae Chandran Institute World Class Manufacturing Goals & Targets Sl.

07% 5 Sigma Rs. Quality cost / Sales Nil Nil Implementation Golden peacock Award 2006 Preparation Nil Three Rs.3% Initiation Rs. 6 Sigma 20.02 . Ltd. Essae Chandran Institute World Class Manufacturing Goals & Targets Sl.3% 4 Sigma Rs. Goals Present / 2002 Targets 2003 2004 2005 16. Deming Award 19.4300000 @ 5.Otto Bilz India Pvt.1 lakh @ 0. CII Excellence award 18.No .3 lakhs @ 0. Golden peacock award 17.50000 @ 0.

25 2004 2 20% 15% 3. Customer complaints 2.Otto Bilz India Pvt. -1.5% 4. Value added Per Employee EVA : Economic Value Addition . Operating profit % to sales 3. Essae Chandran Institute World Class Manufacturing Internal Goals & Targets Sl.No . EVA % to Expected return 4.0 1. Goals Present 30 nos. Ltd. Energy cost to sales 5.3% -5% 5% 2.14 lakhs Targets 2003 5 15% 5% 4% 3.5 2005 0 25% 30% 3% 7.

 Piling small improvements on top of each other .Essae Chandran Institute What is Kaizen ?   Kaizen means continuous improvement Kaizen is basically small small improvements carried out by the person who is doing the job in his day to day work Continuous improvement everyday through involvement of everyone in the organisation is the key for excellence.

What is Kaizen ? Essae Chandran Institute The Kaizen philosophy implies that :  Whatever we do can be continuously improvedbe it our working life or personal life. aspects of work to improve upon. resourcefulness. every operator must devote time for making improvements. seeking out area. Kaizen means looking at everyday work in a new way. common sense and determination – to break the status quo. and the means adopted to overcome these struggles – with intuition.   . Kaizen is something that anybody can do. it represents the struggles on the job. creativity.

What is Kaizen ? Essae Chandran Institute  Kaizen in essence. one in which problems are not shunned but eagerly sought out.Y. means adopting a new way. welcomed and solved. not just of doing work. . Kaizen means creating a place where employees feel better at work. Yasuda . but a new way of thinking.

Essae Chandran Institute KAIZEN Small Steps Conventional Know-How Efforts Process-Oriented Slow-Growth Economy INNOVATIO N Big Steps Technological Breakthrough Investment Result-Oriented Fast-Growth Economy .

Cultural Differences Between Kaizen and Traditional Organisations Item Kaizen 1. Shop floor (GEMBA) 5. Shop floor methods 6. Support staff 8. Measurements 7. View of people 4. View of customer 3. Problem focus of solutions Market-In Assets Improvement Source Crisis Product-Out Costs Traditional Problem / Failure Source Constant ImprovementStatic and Routine Trends of Improvement Serving Shop Floor Treasures End result only Critical of shop floor Rejection . Management Culture Preventive 2.Essae Chandran Institute Sl.N o.

Development 13. Management Concern Cross – Functional Functional control Support Process Results only. Results change long Routine short term term . Information Shared / Open Restricted / Closed Weakness Adversary Do as told Specialise Inspector Fast / Skimming 10. Approach to Employee Strengths 11. Cultural Differences Between Kaizen and Traditional Organisations Item Kaizen Traditional 9. Movement Partners On-going learning Despecialise Coach Slow / Broadening 16. Supervision 14. Career approach 15.Essae Chandran Institute Sl.N o. Appraisal Unions 12.

Essae Chandran Institute ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Market-In TQC Industrial Robots QC Circles Suggestion System Automation Discipline in the workplace TPM ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ Kanban Quality Improvement Just-In-Time Zero Defects Small Group Activities Labour-Management Relations Productivity Improvement New-Product Development ▲ ▲ KAIZEN UMBRELLA .

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