HE POOR PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND OTHER DISCIPLINES IS LARGELY DUE TO THE NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF PIDGIN ENGLISH
. INTRODUCTION Critics on the poor performance of English language at the West African School Certification Examination have always commented that Pidgin English has not only affected students in their subjects area but also hampered their chances in other disciplines.
It is the mind of the researcher to investigate and verify the above claim and possibly ascertain the extent of the negative effect of Pidgin English among students in Secondary School in Nigeria The researcher in this work is out to investigate the influence of Pidgin English on the use of Standard English among secondary school students and suggest the possible means of eliminating the adverse effects and the possibility of it standardization in Nigeria SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY As more and more people including students speak pidgin, the need therefore arises for the examination of its influence on standard English among the secondary school students in Nigeria. Read more in Languages « Re-conceptualizing English Words; the EAD Concept Swedish Vocabulary: Parts of The Body (A~l) » However, the researcher will bring to light the possibility of standardizing the use of Pidgin English and finding solutions to the problems caused by Pidgin English in the proper mastery of the standard English. The result of this study may expose the teachers in secondary schools in Ika North East Local Government in particular and Delta State in general to the problems posed by pidgin in learning of English language and will enable them adopt corrective methods to suit students need especially in a multi-lingua society like ours. In addition, the result will aid future researchers who will want to carry out further research on Pidgin English or related topic in higher education. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERTURE The use of Pidgin English in our society has assumed a wider dimension than previous periods in history. The widespread is so much that it has spilled over into classrooms in schools. According to Akporero (1989), the use of Pidgin English by student and teachers in our school has assumed alarming proportions that there is no longer any unidentifiable factor as causative. From Akporero’s assertion, only one characteristic remains prone factor- literacy. The implication here is that literacy is tending to accelerate the use of Pidgin English rather than eliminating it. Akporero is of opinion that Pidgin English is a language of its own, whose formation is consequent on a multiple borrowing of different words from more than one language. This in itself goes to emphasize the convenience of its use especially by persons from different linguistic communities who have no need for a bi-lingual intermediary. Gilbert Ansré (1971) observes that “it is not quite correct to say that one language has influenced the other. By this, he implies that language it self is an abstraction from human social behavior and so one language cannot influence another except through the mediation of users of the two languages. Thus when we say one language has influenced another, we are merely inferring that the speaking of the language have incorporated items of another in their own.
there has a mediator between the two languages. the influence of Pidgin on English language is mostly marked on pronunciations. but such a policy is rarely in
. Given such co-existence. While acknowledging the inherent similarities in pidgin and English languages. Educator’s especially of English language discipline take strong disagreement to the adulteration of the language. When a status of mother tongue. it is obvious that chunks of native language infiltrate into the English tends to have universal application in our society. In the initial stages of context. the adjective and noun as well as occasionally by a numeral. What Ellis and Tomlinson did not however examine is the nature of the influence of one language on the other nevertheless. for every instance of a language influencing another. Children form this background therefore become so highly addicted to its use that they ever neologises pidgin words in the class. From this remark. construction. its influence on English language cannot be over emphasized. considers “Pidgin English as a marginal language when arises to fulfill certain restricted communication among people who have no common language”. This price is doubly unacceptable when one realizes that a similar case of acquisition could be achieved by using culturally relevant material in the standard language. In this context. is determined by factors that can other than just their co-existence and the linguistic characteristics of these two languages. One of the biggest problems facing the teaching of English language in the third world countries says White-head “is but the introduction of local languages 1964”. simplicity of usage therefore.Most of the influences result from the use of loan words or phrases and users are quite oblivious of the fact that they are loan – words. plurality is marked in the article. Todd (1974). it proves very important in a multi-lingual society and because of it’s usefulness. The mere co-existence within a society of two languages over a long period of time does result in the inter-change of items between them. They are at pains to conserve the purity of the language. it is only natural to expect that those countries which have had English colonial rulers and associates would have language that exhibit English influence. Read more in Languages « Re-conceptualizing English Words. John Spencer (1974) asserted that “the initial case of pidgin language acquisition may exert on unacceptably high price the limiting of literacy for many to the pidgin. the EAD Concept Swedish Vocabulary: Parts of The Body (A~l) » Rod Ellis and brain Tomlinson (1980) have reason to believe that the inter-ference of pidgin in English language performance by student is mostly form the stand point of the relationship that exist between the two languages. however. generation and semantics. Educationists and theorists may argue for wide spread use of pidgin in the classroom. it was soon used and further developed in multilingual areas.
The syntactic structure of Pidgin English is less complex and less flexible than the structure of languages which they were in contact and though many Pidgin English features clearly reflect usages in the contact language. Nevertheless. In this context. others are unique to the pidgin language. It is determined by socio-cultural factors. the major flow of linguistic items will primarily be from the direction of the language of the dominant culture group to that of the dominated speech community. Randolph Quirk et al (1975) positively identify “the infiltrations of pidgin language into English as consequence of various factors which are social and psychological”. They note that in the West African. accounts for its rapid spread. it is extended and used beyond the original limited function. syntax. In English language for example. Pidgin English in Nigeria attained its’ present range `of use because having come into contact between white and black. communication as often limited to transactions where detailed exchange of ideas is not required and where a small vocabulary is drawn almost exclusively from one language suffices. and also a situation in which the culture of the speakers of one language are regarded as socially and technologically dominant. The direction of the flow of these items. All language have element of redundancy. But pidgin language has no such complex syntactic rules. it may be remark that the difference con be explained by reference to English language. Serious observation and experiments have shown that when two people who speak English try to communicate in English language one of them who is not as fluent as the other use a lot of pidgin words to fill in the gaps that exist in his language competence. It is important to note that there are different degrees of influence.
Finally. Read more in Languages « Re-conceptualizing English Words. was chosen as Nigeria's only official language with this goal in mind. the writer however recommends that emphasis be layed on Pidgin English and the text dealing with Pidgin as its influence on the performance of students in Standard English should be published to compliment the section of literature review. However. As a result. Overview of Nigerian Pidgin English Nigeria is a land of many languages. It is also correct to say that with eighty percent (80%) pidgin affects negatively the pronunciation of Standard English. and frequently used in business and education. The writer also suggests that the period of research should be extended for a better and positive result. This has contributed greatly to the delay of this research work. It is widely learned as a second language by speakers of many different Nigerian languages. with ninety percent (90%) the researcher would say that Pidgin English should not be use side by side with Standard English and should not be made lingua franca in Nigeria.keeping with the desires of the parents or with the mature needs of the pupils. Pidgin English has greatly affected the performance of the students in the use of Standard English. It is also proved that pidgin has a negative effect and influence on the performance of students in other disciplines. with over 500 spoken by its inhabitants. It is also a fact that the constant use of Pidgin English reduces the vocabulary of the Standard English. English. the time involved in the research work is inadequate. This involves the problem of time. Education is meant to open doors not to barricade them from within. It is also time consuming administering the questionnaires to the different secondary schools which were located at different places in the Local Government Area. Inadequate materials also posed problem to the researcher as she searches for textbooks and other materials. As is commonly the case when a language is heavily used between non-native speakers. the EAD Concept Swedish Vocabulary: Parts of The Body (A~l) »
The work has not been free from a number of problems. RECOMMENDATION AND SUGGESTION For a better result and effective research on the study of Pidgin English and its influence on the students in the mastery of Standard English. Finance was also a major problem. a new way of
. introduced to Nigeria during the colonial era. If more time is given. This is because. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION As stated earlier. finance and inadequate textbook. not all the English spoken in Nigeria is the "standard" English recognizable in most English-speaking countries. the use of Pidgin English in the classroom situation should not be encourage as it negatively affects the performance of students on Standard English. the country has a great need for a common form of communication across ethnic groups. This is because the researcher who has other academic commitment has to travel from place to place in search of materials. Finally. A research work of this nature involves much money to type both the questionnaires and the research work itself. First is the Problem of Time. this project work would have been more lucid than what it is now.
Historically. and some have become regular parts of the language. Pidgins are thus created out of necessity. and even when they do. Spelling. Nigerian Pidgin English is a good example of a language on the border between a pidgin and a creole. they may dramatically change the language . although basic standards tend to emerge over time. However. It is not unusual to find words from these languages mixed into Pidgin English sentences. some of the new secondary meanings may eventually become more widespread than the initial meanings. and vocabulary. too. the language has become extremely widespread within the country. In the process. Nigerian Pidgin English is written with the Latin alphabet. Creoles have a more stable form than pidgins. depending on the ethnic and linguistic background of the speakers involved. often referred to simple as "Pidgin" by those who speak it.as the name implies . and adding words from their own languages as needed. or dismissed as merely an uneducated dialect of the standard language. They also rely heavily on context and non-verbal clues. The number of natives may be small compared to the total number of speakers. In linguistic terms. sounds that do not occur in many of those languages and may be difficult for their speakers to pronounce are usually eliminated. there is discussion as to whether it should still be considered a pidgin . The Pidgin English Alphabet and Pidgin English Pronunciation Because it evolved from English. Nonetheless. pronunciation. adapting the pronunciation to eliminate difficult sounds. "chop" can mean "food" and "yarn" can mean "talk". These terms often vary from place to place in Nigeria. when the region came under the rule of Great Britain and many native Nigerians who spoke mutually incomprehensible languages were required to communicate with each other in English. At that point. however. It is still used mostly between speakers from different ethic groups rather than speakers from the same group. or may take place unevenly in different areas. It was formed during the colonial era early in the 1900s. and Yoruba.
. both in vocabulary and grammar. and do not have native speakers. A creole. In particular. is what happens when children grow up speaking a pidgin as their primary language. and must thus speak to one another using a language in which none of them are fluent. For example. but it is sizeable enough to have drawn increased attention to Nigerian Pidgin English in recent years. and there are wide variations in how the language is spoken from place to place in Nigeria. Not all pidgins evolve into creoles. words often take on expanded meanings so that a limited vocabulary can cover a wide range of situations. Nonetheless. and communities of native speakers have developed in certain areas. it ceases to be merely a second language learned as needed and becomes the native language of a new generation. Pidgin English Vocabulary The meanings of words in Nigerian Pidgin English may also differ from their standard English counterparts. the transition may be gradual. with sufficient differences in vocabulary and structure to distinguish it from standard English. the vast majority of its speakers learn it as a secondary form of communication. some have looked down upon it as a type of "broken English". Nigerian Pidgin English Language Status There is debate among scholars and speakers as to how to formally classify Nigerian Pidgin English. recognizes it as a language in its own right. More recent understanding.speaking has developed. During the formation of a pidgin. particularly from Hausa. Nigerian Pidgin English also draws a considerable amount of vocabulary from the other African languages spoken around it. is greatly simplified and usually phonetic. Even today.or whether it has developed sufficiently to be considered a creole. This form of communication is Nigerian Pidgin English. and the pronunciation has been influenced by various native African languages. As the pidgin evolves. in Nigerian Pidgin English. in contrast. The result is that many words look and sound quite different from the standard English terms from which they were derived. however. not as a primary language. a pidgin is a simplified language developed for communication between two or more groups of people who do not share common languages. Igbo. with its own unique grammar.greatly reducing the complexity of the grammar. not all of the letters are used.
or a decreolised acrolect by different speakers. Onitsha varieties. who may switch between these forms depending on the social setting. right?" becomes Şe you dey come? or You dey come abi? Another example. It is often not considered a creole language since most speakers are not native speakers. that test hard no be small. Sapele. For example. it is the unofficial lingo. These are often used at the start or end of an intonated sentence or question. also reflects the influence of the surrounding languages. despite its common use throughout the country. based on what is most familiar and comfortable to them. The language is commonly referred to as "Pidgin" or "Brokin".. Benin. He asked. Introduction. For example. 1996. Nna also used at the beginning of some sentences to add effect. rather than by changes within verbs. a language spoken and understood by the majority. the Igbos added the word. Nigerian Pidgin is most widely spoken in the oil rich Niger-Delta where most of its population speak it as their first language. has no official status. Nonetheless it can be spoken as a pidgin. Transparent Language's Pidgin English software program can be a unique resource for those interested in Nigerian Pidgin English. though they usually have their own additional words." obong: "IAH. Best of luck with your language learning endeavors! Nigerian Pidgin is an English-based pidgin and a creole language spoken as a lingua franca across Nigeria. tenses are usually indicated by context or time-related words. Descriptive Grammar. although many children do learn it early. or a terribly misguided step
. man! that test was hard becomes Nna. the Yorùbás use the words Şe and Abi when speaking Pidgin.. For example. Pidgin English. Port-Harcourt.everyone would be able to relate too" obong: "Universal Declaration of Human Rights . Dialects of Nigerian Pidgin may include the Warri. Nicholas C.. a creole. Ihemere (2006) reports that Nigerian Pidgin is the native language of approximately 3 to 5 million people and is a second language for at least another 75 million.Pidgin English Grammar The grammar of Nigerian Pidgin English reflects the simplification process that is typical of pidgin formation. Speakers with different native languages may use different grammar structures when they speak Nigerian Pidgin English. "What are the short comings of pidgin English as a common language in Nigeria? Already. Pidgin English isn't hard to read at all. Nigerian Pidgin. reading and speaking. The grammar. in place of Queen's English? Or should we just improve the quality of English Language education? Will it be a step in the right direction. Infact.. you're right. Lagos especially in Ajegunle. speakers who are regularly exposed to standard English will tend to use a more standard sentence structure than those who rarely hear it. in countries such as Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. pidgin is very sweet. but its cool all the same to speak and to write in" Imnakoya believes that Nigerian pidgin might be suitable s Nigeria's common/official language. Furthermore. especially voluminous reading. "You are coming.. Faraclas. For example. Nigerian Pidgin also varies from place to place. Nigerian Pidgin English Version" (link)" Others are more skeptical: trae_z: "Pidgin English is a pain in the Bottom when reading." Scorpio: "[Google in Yoruba is ] really cool though. Variations Each of the 250 or more ethnic groups in Nigeria can converse in this language.why are we deceiving ourselves with this queens english that is only well spoken by few?" Should we restructure our educational system around pidgin English. but I would've preferred it if it was in pidgin . it makes whatever you are reading more interesting. Variations of Pidgin are also spoken across West Africa. like the vocabulary.