Leveling

Height of Collimation Method

520 47.195 STEP 3 Sight and Book all intermediate sights that can be viewed from station S1 to S4 Booking Sheet Surveyor______________________ Chainmen_________________________________ Instrument No___________________ Date__________________ Backsight Intermediate Sight 1.575) and book this your field notes.This method is used more day to day by builders. The actual Reduced Level of the Bench Mark is also recorded Booking Sheet Surveyor______________________ Chainmen_________________________________ Instrument No___________________ Date__________________ Backsight Intermediate Sight Fore sight Height of Collimation 1.850 1. It is also an easier method for “On the Fly Levelling” A closed traverse to measure heights at 5. It can also lead to errors as levels may be anticipated.920 47.195 47.770 Reduced Level Top Bottom Dist Remarks 47. STEP 1 Set up the instrument where the benchmark can be viewed within correct parameters and a reasonable number of sights can be viewed.770 1.330 1.0m intervals is to be taken through the center of a large residential block.575 48.250 0. It is more convenient for “Area Levelling” but it can become cumbersome on long traverses. This is recorded as a backsight and establishes the height of the instrument above the benchmark. There are two existing structures on site that will obscure the view to some of the positions.190 Top Bottom Dist Remarks S1 S2 S3 S4 . This location is identified as L1 STEP 2 Read a backsight to the benchmark that is on the kerb and gutter (1.580 Reduced Level 47.440 47.575 Fore sight Height of Collimation 48.

250 0.550 1.580 2.920 47.575 48.190 47.770 Remarks BM S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 STEP 5 Move instrument to position L2 and read backsight to changepoint S5 Booking Sheet Surveyor______________________ Chainmen_________________________________ Instrument No___________________ Date__________________ Backsight Intermediate Sight Fore sight 1.190 48.770 1.195 47.330 1.440 47.920 47.520 47.850 1.250 0.440 47.575 Height of Collimation 48.580 1.330 1.450 49.Step 4 The sight to S5 will be a change point so it will be recorded as a foresight.870 Reduced Level 47. Note when moving the instrument the change point at S5 will become a backsight for the new set up Booking Sheet Surveyor______________________ Chainmen_________________________________ Instrument No___________________ Date__________________ Backsight Intermediate Sight Fore sight Height of Collimation 1.850 1.450 Reduced Level Top Bottom Dist 47.320 Top Bottom Dist Remarks BM S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 .520 47.195 47.770 1.

890 48.550 1.330 1.950 46.550 1.870 1.520 47.575 Height of Collimation 48.250 0.770 1.710 1.190 47.160 48. Note when moving the instrument the change point at S11 will become a Backsight for the new set up.575 48.920 47.440 47.STEP 6 Sight and Book all intermediate sights that can be viewed from station L6 to L10.840 1.890 48.980 1.190 47.520 47.030 47.980 1.760 1.840 1.160 48. Booking Sheet Surveyor______________________ Chainmen_________________________________ Instrument No___________________ Date__________________ Backsight Intermediate Sight Fore sight 1. This is called an open traverse.110 48.250 0.250 49.330 1.580 2.760 1.770 1.850 1.710 1.920 Reduced Level Top Bottom Dist 47.110 48. we need to close the survey to check for errors. Booking Sheet Surveyor______________________ Chainmen_________________________________ Instrument No___________________ Date__________________ Backsight Intermediate Sight Fore sight Height of Collimation 1.580 2.870 Reduced Level 47.440 47.620 Top Bottom Dist Remarks BM S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 (CP) .850 1. At this point all required observations required for the task have been taken.320 47.195 47.030 47.950 Remarks BM S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 STEP 7 Take sight to S11 this will be a change point so it will be recorded as a foresight.920 3.450 1.195 47.920 47.450 49.320 47.

890 48.250 1.330 1.193 Top Bottom Dist Remarks BM S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 (CP) BM .520 47.258 5.320 47.520 47.451 1.760 1.920 1.550 Top Remarks BM S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 (CP) BM STEP 9 Total Backsights column and Tally Foresight column Booking Sheet Surveyor______________________ Chainmen_________________________________ Instrument No___________________ Date__________________ Backsight Intermediate Sight Fore sight 1.850 1.190 47.710 1.450 49.950 46.250 0. Booking Sheet Surveyor______________________ Chainmen_________________________________ Instrument No___________________ Date__________________ Backsight Intermediate Sight Fore sight 1.258 48.850 1.760 1.330 1.450 49.770 1.710 1.110 48.770 1.956 5.030 47.870 3.920 47.440 47.980 1.250 1.195 47.980 1.920 47.195 47.575 Height of Collimation 48.620 47.950 46.958 48.840 1.190 47.250 0.440 47.STEP 8 Take Backsight to Sll than close traverse with foresight to B.160 48.580 2.550 1.920 1.M.958 -0.870 3.831 Bottom Dist 47.575 Height of Collimation Reduced Level 48.002 Misclose Reduced Level 47.320 47.831 5.620 47.890 48.840 1.030 47.110 48.580 2.193 1.160 48.451 1.

620 47.770 1.956 – Foresight 5.450 49.575 Height of Collimation 48.250 0.580 2.258 5.451 1.190 47.550 1.110 48.950 46.760 1. The allowable misclose 12 x SQRT (0.5.958 -0.250 1.920 47.980 1.890 48.850 1.320 47. To determine misclose Backsight 5.002 Top Bottom Dist Remarks BM S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 S10 S11 (CP) BM .956 5.520 47.002 Misclose End RL Start BM Misclose Reduced Level 47.870 3. Due to errors and limitations of the instruments there may be a discrepancy this is called a misclose.958 48.710 1.920 1.160 48.330 1.440 47.002mm Note always remember to take foresight from backsight and note negatives In this case as there is only a -2mm misclose(Foresight is Larger than Backsight.As the survey is a closed the Backsights should equal the foresights.193 47.193 47. Booking Sheet Surveyor______________________ Chainmen_________________________________ Instrument No___________________ Date__________________ Backsight Intermediate Sight Fore sight 1.831 5.840 1.030 47.2mm therefore results are OK STEP 10 The next step is to compare start benchmark with the calculated end benchmark.195 -0.195 47.194)= +/.958 -0.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful