# Additional Mathematics Project Work 2/2011

Name : Amirul Mukminin bin Ahmad Jaflus Class : 5 Science 1 (2011) I/C No : 940912-14-6679 Teacher : Pn. Rohaida binti Deraman SPM Number :

Amirul Mukminin

Elements Page No.

Acknowledgements

Introduction Definition History

Rubric & Guidelines

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Part 1

Cakes & Mathematics in the Making

Part 2

Question I Question II Question III

Part 3

Calculus & Algebra

Further Exploration

Reflection Appendix / Credits

SPM 2011

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11 12 17

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Acknowledgements
I would like to say thanks to Principal of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Seksyen 7, Shah Alam, Selangor, Puan Hajah Salehah binti Mohd. Amin who allow us to create Additional Mathematics Project Work 2 Folio 2011 until it is done. Also, I would like to say thanks to my Additional Mathematics teacher, Puan Rohaida binti Deraman for helping me by giving the rubrics and guidelines for this folio. Also thanks to my parents, En. Ahmad Jaflus bin Mat Derani and Puan Zalina binti Zainal for their support and always help me to finish this folio. To my beloved friends, thanks greetings for all the ideas, advices and help that you can share with me. Finally, I would like to say thanks for those involved in the making of this folio regardless where are you come from. Hopefully God may bless your kindness. Thank you.

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Introduction
There are a lot of things around us related to circles or parts of a circle. A circle is a simple shape of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane which is the same distance from a given point called the centre. The common distance of the points of a circle from its center is called its radius. Circles are simple closed curves which divide the plane into two regions, an interior and an exterior. In everyday use, the term "circle" may be used interchangeably to refer to either the boundary of the figure (known as the perimeter) or to the whole figure including its interior. However, in strict technical usage, "circle" refers to the perimeter while the interior of the circle is called a disk. The circumference of a circle is the perimeter of the circle (especially when referring to its length). A circle is a special ellipse in which the two loci are coincident. Circles are conic sections attained when a right circular cone is intersected with a plane perpendicular to the axis of the cone. The circle has been known since before the beginning of recorded history. It is the basis for the wheel, which, with related inventions such as gears, makes much of modern civilization possible. In mathematics, the study of the circle has helped inspire the development of geometry and calculus. Circles had been used in daily lives to help people in their living.

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Definition

Pi, has the value of 3.14159265. In Euclidean plane geometry, defined as the ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter.

is

The ratio is constant, regardless of a circle's size. For example, if a circle has twice the diameter of another circle it will also have twice the circumference, C, preserving the ratio . 

Alternatively can be also defined as the ratio of a circle's area (A) to the area of a square whose side is equal to the radius.

.

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History
Pi or is a mathematical constant whose value is the ratio of any circle's circumference to its diameter in Euclidean space; this is the same value as the ratio of a circle's area to the square of its radius. It is approximately equal to 3.14159 in the usual decimal notation. is one of the most important mathematical and physical constants: many formulae from mathematics, science, and engineering involve . is an irrational number, which means that its value cannot be expressed exactly as a fraction m/n, where m and n are integers. Consequently, its decimal representation never ends or repeats. It is also a transcendental number, which means that no finite sequence of algebraic operations on integers (powers, roots, sums, etc.) can be equal to its value; proving this was a late achievement in mathematical history and a significant result of 19th century German mathematics. Throughout the history of mathematics, there has been much effort to determine more accurately and to understand its nature; fascination with the number has even carried over into non-mathematical culture. The Greek letter , often spelled out µpi¶ in text, was adopted for the number from the Greek word for perimeter " ", first by William Jones in 1707, and popularized by Leonhard Euler in 1737. The constant is occasionally also referred to as the circular constant, Archimedes' constant (not to be confused with an Archimedes number), or Ludolph's number (from a German mathematician whose efforts to calculate more of its digits became famous). The name of the Greek letter is pi, and this spelling is commonly used in typographical contexts when the Greek letter is not available, or its usage could be problematic. It is not normally capitalised ( ) even at the beginning of a sentence. When referring to this constant, the symbol is always pronounced like "pie" in English, which is the conventional English pronunciation of the Greek letter. In Greek, the name of this letter is pronounced /pi/. The constant is named " " because " " is the first letter of the Greek words (periphery) and (perimeter), probably referring to its use in the formula to find the circumference, or perimeter, of a circle. is Unicode character U+03C0 ("Greek small letter pi").

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Guidelines for the Implementation of Additional Mathematics Project Work 2011
1. Every student taking Additional Mathematics is required to carry out a project work in Form 5. 2. The aims of carrying out this project work are to enable students to: a) apply mathematics to everyday situations and appreciate the importance and the beauty of mathematics in everyday lives; b) improve problem-solving skills, thinking skills, reasoning and mathematical communication; c) develop positive attitude and personalities and intrinsic mathematical values such as accuracy, confidence and systematic reasoning; d) stimulate learning environment that enhances effective learning, inquiry-based and team- work. e) develop mathematical knowledge in a way which increases students¶ interest and confidence. 3. The project work can be done in groups or individually but each student is expected to submit an individual written report. The written report should emphasise among others problem-solving strategies, communication in mathematics and reasoning, as clearly outlined in the rubric. The duration to complete this project work should not exceed three weeks. 4. The task and the rubric are to be distributed to the students together with the guidelines. Teachers need to discuss with their students the content of the guidelines and the rubric so that students are able to gauge the needs and requirements to complete their project work. It is also necessary that teachers organize, guide and monitor groups so that each member of the group would be able to work effectively as a team.

5. The individually written report must be handed in by the end of the third week. Students¶ written report will be marked according to the rubric. Oral presentation by the students is highly encouraged in order to develop social skills and presentation skills. 6. The use of technology such as graphing calculator and computer software is strongly encouraged. Using software such as Microsoft Excel, Geometer¶s Sketchpad and GeoGebra as aids in solving problems will enable complex calculations to be solved much easier besides giving the students experience and useful skills in using technologies. 7. It is suggested that this project work contributes 10% of the marks for the trial examination of the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM). Certificates will be awarded to students who hand in their written reports. Certificates are based on the following scores and grades.

SCORE
80 ± 100 60 ± 79 40 ± 59 20 ± 39 0 ± 19

Excellent Good Satisfactory Achieved minimum requirements Does not achieve minimum requirements

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Cake & Mathematics in the Makin
C come i a variet of forms and flavours and are among favourite desserts served during special occasions such as birthday parties, Hari Raya, weddings and etc. Cakes are treasured not only because of their wonderful taste but also in the art of cake baking and cake decorating. Find out how mathematics is used in cake baking and cake decorating and write about your findings. Cake is a form of food, typically a sweet, baked dessert. Cakes normally contain a combination of flour, sugar, eggs, and butter or oil, with some varieties also requiring liquid (typically milk or water) and leavening agents (such as yeast or baking powder). Flavourful ingredients like fruit purées, nuts or extracts are often added, and numerous substitutions for the primary ingredients are possible. Cakes are often filled with fruit preserves or dessert sauces (like pastry cream), iced with butter cream or other icings, and decorated with marzipan, piped borders or candied fruit.

Cake is often the dessert of choice for meals at ceremonial occasions, particularly weddings, anniversaries, and birthdays. There are countless cake recipes; some are bread -like, some rich and elaborate and many are centuries old. Cake making is no longer a complicated procedure; while at one time considerable labour went into cake making (particularly the whisking of egg foams), baking equipment and directions have been simplified that even the most amateur cook may bake a cake. Cake baking and decorating are not just pure culinary art but also where mat ematics h and science are involved and applied to make a perfect cake.In math application, cake baking involves ratios and proportions for the ingredients used and geometry to determine the shape of a cake, the price and volume of the cake .

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Cake decorating applies calculus such as differentiation to determine minimum or maximum amount of ingredients for cake-baking, to estimate minimum or maximum amount of cream needed for decorating and size of cake produced and to prevent wastage of ingredients used.

In a baking of more complex cakes such as multi-storey cakes or multilayered cakes, progressions are applied. Progressions allow us to calculate the size or volume or volume of a subsequent layer. Also, it allows us to estimate the quantity of ingredients needed. Usually, geometric progressions are used. Besides that, baking cakes also requires you to do the accurate calculations such as baker¶s percentage which is the baker¶s notation method indicating the flour-relative proportion of ingredients used when making breads, cakes, muffins and other pastries. It is also referred to as baker¶s math, or otherwise contextually indicated by a phrase such as based on flour weight.

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Question I
Best Bakery Shop received an order from your school to bake a 5 kg of round cake as shown in Diagram 1 for the Teachers¶ Day celebration.

h cm

d cm
1) If a kilogram of cake has a volume of 3800 cm3, and the height of the cake is to be 7.0 cm, calculate the diameter of the baking tray to be used to fit the 5 kg cake ordered by your school. [Use Answer: The diameter of the cake is required to solve this question. = 3.142]

Volume of cake = 3800 cm3 × 5kg Total volume of cake = 19000kg Height of the cake, h = 7 Radius, r = 
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Amirul Mukminin

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Questi n
2) The cake will be baked in an oven with inner dimensions of 80.0 cm in length, 60.0 cmin width and 45.0 cm in height. a) If the volume of cake remains the same, explore by using different values ofheights, h cm, and the corresponding values of diameters of the baking tray to beused, d cm. Tabulate your answers. Answer: Form the formula for d in terms of h by using the above formula for volume of cake, V = 19000 and create table to get the right answer, that is: 

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        

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Amirul Mukminin

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Table of Height of Cake and Diameter of Baking Tray to be Use
                       

b) Based on the values in your table: i. State the range of heights that is NOT suitable for the cakes and explain your answers. Answer: is NOT suitable, because the resulting diameter produced is too large to fit into the oven. Furthermore, the cake would be too short and too wide, making it less attractive.

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ii.

Suggest the dimensions that you think most suitable for the cake. Give reasons for your answer. Answer: , because it can fit into the oven and the size is suitable for easy handling.

c) Based on the values in your table: i. Form an equation to represent the linear relation between h and d. Hence, plot a suitable graph based on the equation that you have formed. Answer:

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ii.

Questions: (a) If Best Bakery received an order to bake a cake where the height ofthe cake is 10.5 cm, use your graph to determine the diameter of the round cake pan required. Answer: When       

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(b) If Best Bakery used a 42 cm diameter round cake tray, use your graph to estimate the height of the cake obtained. Answer:         

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Amirul Mukminin

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Question III
3) Best Bakery has been requested to decorate the cake with fresh cream. The thickness of the cream is normally set to a uniform layer of about 1 cm. a) Estimate the amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake using the dimensions that you have suggested in 2(b)(ii). Answer: 
                       

Volume of cream at the sides           

Therefore, the estimated amount of fresh cream required to decorate the cake 

b) Suggest three other shapes for cake, that will have the same height and volume as those suggested in 2(b)(ii). Estimate the amount of fresh cream to be used on each of the cakes. Answer: Find the length, width and height (if required) of the respective shape to get volume of cream used.

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1st Shape: Rectangular-based Cuboid

8 cm

47.5 cm 50 cm 

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    

         

By trial and improvement,    (Length = 50 cm, Width = 47.5 cm, Height = 8 cm) Volume of cream required                     2nd Shape: Triangular-based Prism

50 cm

8 cm

95 cm

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     

           

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By trial and improvement,   (Length = 95 cm, Width = 50 cm) Slant length of triangle =  

   

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 

Volume of cream required 
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3rd Shape: Pentagonal-based Prism

8 cm 19 cm 25 cm 25 cm 

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Amirul Mukminin

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By trial and improvement,   (Length = 25 cm, Width, 19 cm) 

Volume of cream required                   c) Based on the values that you have found, which shapes requires the least amount of fresh cream to be used? Answer: From the values, the pentagonal-based cake the least amount of fresh cream to be used, which is used only 3135 cm3.

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Amirul Mukminin

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Calculus & Algebra
Find the dimension of a 5 kg round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate. Use at least two methods including Calculus. State whether you would choose to bake a cake of such dimensions. Give reasons for your answers. Answer: There are two methods to get the minimum amount of fresh cream which are differentiation by second derivative and completing the square. Method 1: Differentiation by Second Derivative 


Volume of cream = Volume of cream at sides + volume of cream at the top , where the height of cake From , 

Substitute

into : 

    

    

 

  

Minimum value, thus turning point,

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Amirul Mukminin

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  

      

    

  

  

Substitute 

into equation : 

Therefore, the dimensions of a round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate is radius,  and height, .

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Method 2: Completing the Square Expressing the volume of cream as a function and obtain minimum point by completing the square, then substituting the volume of cake into the value. 


Volume of cream = Volume of cream at sides + volume of cream at the top , where the height of cake From ,

In equation , let V be

, where

Therefore, function is a minimum graph. Minimum value = When Substitute , then into equation 

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SPM 2011

Substitute 

into equation : 

Therefore, the dimensions of a round cake that requires the minimum amount of fresh cream to decorate is radius,  and height,  whereas the diameter,  . I would choose not to bake a cake with such dimensions because its dimensions are not suitable because the height is too high and therefore less attractive. Furthermore, such cakes are difficult to handle easily.

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Further Exploration
Best Bakery received an order to bake a multi-storey cake for Merdeka Day celebration, as shown in Diagram 2.

The height of each cake is 6.0 cm and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0 cm. The radius of the second cake is 10% less than the radius of the first cake, the radius of the third cake is 10% less than the radius of the second cake and so on. a) Find the volume of the first, the second, the third and the fourth cakes. By comparing all these values, determine whether the volumes of the cakes form a number pattern? Explain and elaborate on the number patterns. Answer:

Identify the Problem:
Question asks to obtain the volumes of the first, second, third and fourth cakes and compare the values to determine whether the volumes form a number pattern. After that, provide explanation and elaboration.

Strategy:
Given height of cake is 6.0 cm each and the radius of the largest cake is 31.0 cm. The radius of the second cake is 10% less, the third radius is 10% less than the second cake and so on. Use the information given to obtain the volumes of the cakes and compare by division to determine the existence of the number pattern.

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Conjecture:
The volumes of the cakes form a number pattern which is geometric progression that decreases.

Working:
Volume of cake Given height of cake = 6 cm and radius of largest cake = 31 cm which decreases by 10%: Volume of 1st cake 

Volume of 2nd cake  

Volume of 3rd cake 

Volume of 4th cake 
   

Conclusion:
Therefore, the numbers form a geometric progression with the first number, and a common ratio, The conjecture is proven. Volume of cake forms a geometric progression.

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(b) If the total mass of all the cakes should not exceed 15 kg, calculate the maximum number of cakes that the bakery needs to bake. Verify your answer using other methods. Answer:

Identify the Problem:
Question asks to calculate the maximum number of cakes to be baked by the bakery if the total mass must not exceed 15 kg. After that, verify the answer using other methods.

Strategy:
Express the mass of the cake given 1 kg of cake has a volume of 3800 cm3. Then find the number of terms using the formula to given the sum is a geometric progression. After that, verify the answer by trial and improvement to prove the number of cakes that the bakery needs to bake.

Working:
Given mass of cake should not exceed 15 kg and 1 kg = 3800 cm3, 15 kg of cake    

   

                

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    

  

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Since .

is an integer and number of cakes must NOT exceed   

, thus

Verifying the answer: When , 

Given    

 

, 
 

Therefore, When ,

is not suitable as mass has exceeded 15 kg. 

Given    

 

, 
 

Therefore

is suitable as mass is less than 15 kg.

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Importance of Additional Mathematics to Myself & Around Us
Add Maths, I hate it once, Hard to score, cumbersome, I·ve realised Add Maths is crucial« To us.
,QWKHPDNLQJRIWKLVSURMHFW,KDYHVSHQWFRXQWOHVVKRXUVGRLQJWKLVSURMHFW,UHDOLVHG WKDWWKLVVXEMHFWLVDFRPSXOVRU\WRPHDQGLPSRUWDQWIRUPHQRWMXVWWRJHWDQ\$IRU 630EXWIRUDEULJKWHUIXWXUH  I¶ve also realised that, Add Maths is all around us, We implement Add Maths in our daily lives without realising it, Tall skyscrapers, high speed cars, computers and almost everything, Requires Add Maths skills, To use integration, progression, probability and much more. Without it, The things that we use everyday vanished, And the world will never be the same again as today. From now on, I will do my best on every second to learn Additional Mathematics and implement in my daily life not just today but for tomorrow!

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