Under West Bengal University of Technology (U. Tech.)

Year : 2005-2006

Name of the Project : PWM based

Inverter fed Induction Motor
Submitted by –
Group Workers University Roll No. Roll No. 12003 12004 12007 12008 12010 12012 12022 12024 12042 12716021046 12716021004

Abhra Ray

Amit Nag

Arijit De Arijit Dey

12716021047 12716021011

Arkendu Mitra Ayanava Chatterjee

Kunal Pahari Mainak Dey
12716021021 12716021031

Soumya Subhra Niyogi

Saurav Paul
12716021048 12716021051

12043 12050

Subrata Sinha Roy

This project is done under the guidance of Mrs. Shilpi Bhattacharya

81, Nilgunj Road Agarpara, Pin - 700109

We, the student of Electrical Engineering, Narula Institute of Technology, 81 Nilgunj Road, Kolkata – 700109, have completed our project successfully under the guidance of Mrs. Shilpi Bhattacharya, Lecturer, Department of Electrical Engineering, Narula Institute of Technology, Agarpara, without whose guidance, advice, interest, encouragement and also disbursement of money for purchasing the components at proper time, our project could not have achieved its grand success. We also express our respect and profound sense of gratitude to Prof. Amlan Chakrabarti, Head of the Department, Electrical Engineering, Narula Institute of Technology, Agarpara for his moral encouragement and advisement at different stages to build up our project. At last, we will thankful endlessly to the respective personality, Prof. Biswarup Basak, Department of Electrical Engineering, Bengal Engineering & Science University, Shibpur, who spent his expensive time to illustrate how the project circuitry can be developed. NAME Abhra Ray Amit Nag Arijit De Arijit Dey ROLL 12003 12004 12007 12008 UNIVERSITY ROLL NO. 12716021007 12716021008 12716021004 12716021047

Arkendu Mitra 12010 Ayanava Chatterjee 12012 Kunal Pahari 12022 Mainak Dey 12024 Soumya Subhra Neyogi 12042 Saurav Paul 12043 Subrata Sinha Roy 12050

12716021011 12716021013 12716021046 12716021021 12716021031 12716021048 12716021051

Topic 1. 2. Introduction to Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) Objective Speed Control of Induction Motors 2.1 Pole Changing 2.2 Stator Voltage Control 2.3 Supply Frequency Control Advantages of Frequency Control Advantage and Disadvantage of PWM 4.1 Advantage 4.2 Disadvantage Industrial Applications of PWM Overview of the Project 6.1 Controlling Part 6.2 Power Part 6.3 Loading Part Components Tools and Instruments 8.1 For Testing Purpose 8.2 For Final Project Circuitry Bolck Diagram of the Whole Project Total Project Circuitry Project Details 11.1 Controlling Part Page No. 1 2 2 2 4 4 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 9 9 9 10 11 12 12

3. 4. 5. 6.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11.


12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Power Part 11.2.1 Supply Part 11.2.2 Inverter Bridge Part 11.3 Loading Part Test Tools Test Procedure Test Results Precautions Inference

24 24 24 25 27 27 27 28 28


Introduction to Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)
In this technique several pulses are produced in each half – cycle but the width of the pulses is not the same as in case of multiple – pulse width modulation, however the width of each pulse is varied in accordance with the amplitude of the sine wave reference voltage. The width of the pulse at the center of the half – cycle is maximum and decreases on either side. The figure 6(a) shows the generation of the output signal by comparing a sinusoidal reference signal fr with a triangular carrier wave of frequency fc. The carrier and reference waves are mixed in a comparator and when sinusoidal wave of has a higher magnitude than the triangular wave the comparator output is high, otherwise it is low. This output of comparator is used to turn on the MOSFETs in the bridge configuration of Figure 6(b), which generates the output voltage. The reference signal frequency fr determines the output frequency fo of the inverter, and its peak amplitude Ar, controls the modulation index M, and thereby the rms output voltage vo. Thus varying the amplitude of the sine wave within the range of zero to Vp, where Vp is the peak of the triangular wave, controls the output voltage. The number of pulses in each half – cycle depends on the carrier frequency. If the ratio of these two signals (reference and carrier) is equal to m, then the number of pulses in each half – cycle is (m - 1).













(c) Fig. – 1 Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (a) Single Phase bridge inverter (b) Gate signal voltage and (c) Output Voltage


1. Objective :
To vary the speed of a single phase squirrel-cage induction motor by varying supple frequency with the help of Pulse Width Modulator (PWM) based Inverter. (Note: to change the frequency we change the resistance of controlling circuit.)

2. Speed Control of Induction Motors :
Induction motors are of two types - Squirrel-cage motor and Wound-rotor motor. There are various types of speed control methods of induction motor. These are – (i) Pole Changing, (ii) Stator Voltage Control, (iii) Supply Frequency Control, (iv) Eddy-current Coupling,

3. – 2 Stator phase connection for 6-poles Figure 2(a) above shows a phase winding consisting of six coils divided into two groups – a-b consisting of odd number coils (1. An economical and common alternative is to use single stator winding divided into few coil groups.4. If the current through the coil group a-b is reversed [Fig. Theoretically by dividing winding into a number of coil group and bringing out terminals of these group a number of arrangements of different pole numbers is obtained. Changing the connections of these coil groups change number of poles. Here again the direction of current through coils can be obtained by connecting two sections a-b and c-d either in series or parallel for both pole numbers 6 and 12. Fig. Provision for changing of number of poles has to be incorporated at the manufacturing stage and such a machine is called “pole changing motor” or “multi-speed motor”. For squirrel-cage type motor. But for wound rotor arrangement for changing the number of poles in rotor is required. With this connection machine has six poles. motor speed can be changed by changing the number of poles.1 Pole Changing : For a given frequency speed is inversely proportional to number of poles. stator voltage control and supply frequency control methods are discussed. and therefore. which complicates the machine. The machine will now have 12 poles. Synchronous speed. So there is no provision for changing the number of poles. Fluxes coming out of the north poles will now find paths through Interpol spaces for going out consequently producing south poles in Interpol spaces. (i) is applicable for squirrel-cage motor.6) 3 connected in series. .5) connected in series and c-d consisting even numbered coils (2. 3(a)]. (vi) Slip Power Recovery. then all coils will produce north poles. here pole changing. In squirrel cage motor the number of poles are same as the Stator winding. So it is only used for Squirrel cage induction motor. 2. (ii) to (iv) is applicable for both wound-rotor and squirrel-cage motor and (v) and (vi) is applicable for wound-rotor. A simple but expensive arrangement for changing number of stator poles is to use two separate winding which are wound for two different pole numbers.(v) Rotor Resistance Control. The coils can be made to carry currents in the given directions by connecting coil groups either in series or parallel as shown in figure B and C.

– 3 Stator phase connection for 12-poles Further three phases of the machine can be connected to form delta or star connection by choosing a suitable combination of series and parallel connection between coil groups of each phase. – 4 Constant torque control Fig. Fig. and star and delta connection in each phase. speed change can be obtained with constant power or variable torque operation. Connections and speed-torque curves for these operations are shown in Figs.Fig. – 5 Constant power control 4 . 4 to 6.

Obviously the voltage should only be reduced below the rated value.2 Stator Voltage Control : This is a slip control method with constant frequency variable voltage being supplied to the motor stator.Fig. – 6 Variable torque control 2. For a motor operating at full load slip. it is evident that varying synchronous speed. It is a commonly used method for ceiling fans driven by single-phase induction motors that have large standstill impedance limiting the current drawn by the stator. Also. Therefore. f . P And. a decrease in flux is also avoided to retain the torque capability of motor.3 Supply Frequency Control : f . Therefore. It has a limited use for motor driving fan type load whose torque requirement is proportional to the square of speed. The 2 motor.44k w φm f sT ps Any reduction in the supply frequency f s keeping the supply voltage constant causes the increase of air-gap flux φm . if the slip is to be doubled for constant load torque then the voltage must 1 be reduced by a factor of and the corresponding current rises to 2 of the full load value. Synchronous speed N s = 120 E = 4. N r = (1 − s ) N s . Then the supply voltage will become proportional to f s and φm . variable frequency control below rated frequency is generally carried out at rated air gap flux by varying V supply voltage with frequency so as to maintain ratio constant at the rated value. which can vary by varying the supply frequency. The method therefore is not suitable for speed control. motor speed. increase in core loss and stator I 2 R loss and produce a high-pitch acoustic noise. the increase in flux will saturate the motor. tends to get overheated. V = 4. Induction motors designed to operate at the knee point of the magnetization characteristic to make a full use of magnetic material. 2. Now. Voltage induced in stator is proportional to the product of supply frequency f s and air-gap flux φm . This will increase the magnetizing current and distort the line current and voltage. therefore.44k w φm f sT ps If stator drop is neglected. can vary the motor speed. then E is equal to V.

pumps. it can be operated in an explosive and contaminated environment. fans. The squirrel cage motor has a number of advantages over a DC motor. Because of the above advantages we are dealing with this type of speed control for controlling induction motor that has a large number of industrial applications as follows – (i) It can be used for any type of underground and underwater installation.5 3. Because of absence of commutator and brushes it requires practically no maintenance. voltages and power ratings. steel mills. It is cheap. . The most important advantage of variable frequency control is that it allows a variable speed drive with above mentioned good running and transient performance to be obtained from a squirrel cage induction motor. and can be designed for higher speeds. (ii) During transient the operation can be carried out at the maximum torque with reduce current giving good dynamic response (iii) Copper losses are low and the efficiency and power factor are high. spindle drivers etc. blowers. (iv) Drop speed from no load to full load is small. (ii) In applications involving explosive and contaminated environment (iii) In application in tractions. Advantages of Frequency Control : The variable frequency control provide good running and transient performance due to the following features – (i) Speed control and breaking operation are possible from zero speed to base speed. compressors. But because of the advantages listed above the induction motor drives of variable frequency type is mostly preferable over DC motor drives. rugged and long lasting. Though the cost of induction motor is lesser than DC motor of same power rating but still the cost of variable frequency drive are higher in general.

whereas large and expensive high power variable resistors are needed for resistive controllers. and in some cases. may minimize RFI. Industrial Applications of PWM : PWM A. A resistive speed control will present a reduced voltage to the load. using short leads. Finally. The industries that use PWM drive are 1. Etc. 3. in a PWM circuit.2 Disadvantage : The main disadvantages of PWM circuits are the added complexity and the possibility of generating radio frequency interference (RFI). 2.C. production can be varied as needed. using additional filtering on the power supply leads. . drive is very popular in industry.6 4. which can cause stalling in motor applications. Conveyer belt. Lift. Locating the controller near the load. An additional advantage of pulse width modulation is that the pulses are at the full supply voltage and will produce more torque in a motor by being able to overcome the internal motor resistances more easily. Advantage and Disadvantage of PWM : 4. common small potentiometers may be used to control a wide variety of loads. 4.1 Advantage : Load efficiency is almost always a critical factor in renewable energy systems. 5. Water plant. By controlling the speed of the induction motor.

This D. These power transistors or power MOSFETs are needed to be triggered and that triggering pulse is sending from the control circuit. Overview of the Project : Basically the speed of a “single phase permanent capacitor squirrel-cage induction motor” which is fed from a PWM based inverter circuit. 6. The entire circuit is divided into three parts. by PWM based inverter. 6.7 6. is controlled. . Inverter circuit consists of power transistors or power MOSFETs (depending upon the rating of the machine). produce air-gap flux and help to run the motor. just vary the external resistance of the sinusoidal circuit through POT. There a sinusoidal pulse and a triangular pulse is generated separately and then compare these pulses by comparator and get triggering pulse to trigger the PWM based inverter circuit.3 Loading Part : In the loading part single-phase squirrel cage permanent capacitor induction motor is loading where single-phase line enters. Though this converted A. supply is inverted to A.C. is not an exact sinusoidal response by taking consideration of harmonics we get sinusoidal pulse.2 Power Part : For power part a D. 6.C. supply of 220V is used. PWM based Inverter circuit (Pulse Width Modulation inverter) is used for frequency control technique.C. To vary the frequency.1 Controlling Part : To control the speed of the induction machine a control circuit is made.C. The variable frequency helps to vary the timing of trigger of inverter. which varies the frequency of the supply of induction machine. Here sinusoidal pulse is the supply pulse of controlling network and triangular pulse is the carrier pulse of network.

capacitor charging and discharging phenomena is used from which we get square wave and then by using second order low-pass filter and integrator we get sinusoidal and triangular wave. . 5. Given in data sheet. POT CAPACITOR 47. 2 MΩ 10 nF. Given in data sheet. Then 75LS08N known as Logic AND Gate is used to ANDing the square pulse with the output of the OPAMP in which sine wave and triangular carrier pulse is compared. 1. No.8 7. Components : Sl. 2. To isolate the triggering pulses for buffering and then for sending to the inverter circuit. 100 nF. To generate sinusoidal and triangular pulse using opamp. 6. 3. Name OPAMP (741) GATE (7405. By using this we produce controlling pulses (comparing sinusoidal & triangular). Industrial Specification Given in data sheet. OPTOCOUPLER (MCT2E) POWER MOSFET (IRF720) RESISTOR Given in data sheet. It is variable resistance which is used to change frequency & leveling the pulses over a base line. To build controlling circuit we use external resistor of different specification. We use to build inverter bridge by which we invert the DC voltage into AC voltage by using gate pulse. 4. 75LS05N known as Logic inverter is used to invert the square pulse of 50 Hz. sometimes for getting desired time constant and sometimes for getting different gain for opamp output.  5. 7408) Components Character in Project It is the heart of the project.5 kΩ. It is used to design the comparator circuit.

Plus It is used to straight the wire. Name Vero Board Quantity 4 As required 1 1 1 . Tools and Instruments : 8. Name Bread Board Cutter Plus To remove insulation at the ends of the wires cutter is used. 4. 3. 5.9 8. 3. Solder Iron and It is used to design the circuit on Vero Board Solder Alloy permanently. 2.2 For Final Project Circuitry : Sl. also remove the broken wires from bread board. No. Multi-Stripped It is used to connect the component of the circuit Wire by shouldering. Cutter To use wire we have to remove insulation at the ends by cutter. In this board middle holes are on vertically same potential and up and down holes are on horizontally same potential.1 For Testing Purpose : Sl. also remove the broken wires from Vero board. 4. Quantity 4 As required 1 1 2. 1. 1. 8. Description of Tools and Instruments Use It is used to represent the final project circuit by shouldering. It is used to straight the wire. Description of Tools and Instruments Use The whole circuit design is done on this board. No. Hook up wire These wires do the whole circuit design.

Block Diagram of the Whole Project : Square wave (variable frequency) Second order Low pass filter Sine Wave (variable frequency) Inverter Inverted Sine Wave (variable frequency) Square wave (5 kHz) Integrator Triangular Wave (5 kHz) Comparator Comparator Logic AND Logic Inverter Logic AND B L O C K D I A G R A M Pulse Pulse OptoIsolator OptoIsolator + 1 2 3 4 Inverter .10 9.

D. - - Motor 11 10. Total Project Circuitry : .C.


12 11. Here a POT of value 2 MΩ is used to vary the frequency of the square wave above 50 Hz. Project Details : There are three parts in the total project circuitry. they are as follows – 11.1 Controlling Part : At first a square wave of 50 Hz is generated by an OP-AMP. The necessary circuit arrangement and its output are given below – R5 47kOhm_5% R1 Key = a 2M_LIN 75% 4 2 U1 6 3 7 C1 100nF V1 12V R2 10kOhm_5% 1 5 741 R3 100kOhm_5% square wave of variable frequency V3 12V (a) (b) .

Fig. RC The second-order low pass filter with specified components and its output is given in Fig. ω0 = 1 . To vary the frequency of sine wave. Q = 1. – . The function of the second-order low pass filter with an OP-AMP is describe below – The schematic diagram of a second order low-pass filter is shown below -V R Square wave of variable frequency R C R1 C 2 3 7 1 5 4 741 6 Sine wave of variable frequency +V Fig. – 7 Square Wave Generator (a) Required Circuitry and (b) Output Waveform 13 Then the square wave is filtered through a second-order low pass filter made by another OP-AMP to generate the required sine wave of 50 Hz. – 8 Second order Low-pass Filter The transfer function will be given by – H ( s) = vo v in = ( RC ) 2  1   1  s + s +    RC   RC  2 2 Kω0 2 2 = = ω  2 s 2 +  0  s + ω0 Q   K 2  s  1 s    +   +1 ω  Qω   0  0 where K = 2. just vary the frequency of square wave through the POT.

– 9 Second order Low-pass Filter (a) Circuitry with specified components and (b) Output Waveform .9kOhm_1% 2 6 3 C1 100nF 7 1 5 741 R3 1kohm 4 U1 R1 1kohm 2 6 3 7 1 5 741 4 U3 R6 200kOhm_5% square wave (variable) R7 R5 sine wave 49% 50kOhm Key = c V2 12V V1 12V R4 1kohm (a) (b) Fig.14 R2 C2 100nF 200kOhm_5% 49.

The OP-AMP makes use of single resistor (r1) and a single feedback resistor (r2). Thus the input and output signals of the inverting amplifier are not in phase with each other. This means that the voltage at the inverting terminal must be small. voltage gain output voltage vo r Av = = =− 2 input voltage vin r1 The inverting amplifier circuit with specified components and its output is given in Fig. The inverting amplifier produces a phase shift of 180° in voltage from input to output. The connection method for producing the inverted gain using OP-AMP is called inverting amplifier. r2 -V r1 Actual sine wave of variable frequency 2 3 4 741 7 1 5 6 Inverted sine wave of variable frequency +V Fig.Now with the help of another OP-AMP. As a matter of fact. an inverting amplifier (described below) is made. Now since the noninverting input is 15 grounded. the inverting input of an OP-AMP is also at the ground potential and is referred to as virtual ground. the input voltage at the inverting terminal will be very nearly at the same potential as the non-inverting terminal. which inverts the sine wave at a phase shift 180°. We know that OP-AMP gain without any feedback is very high. Mathematically. – . – 10 Inverting Amplifier Now recall that voltage gain (Av) of an amplifier is defined as the ratio of output voltage to the input voltage. Here another POT of value 50 kΩ is used to maintain the same level of two sine waves (actual and inverted).

– 11 Inverting Amplifier (a) Required Circuitry and (b) Output Waveform (inverted sine wave) After adjusting the level of two sine waves by the POT 50 kΩ. the obtained output is as below – .R2 1kohm 4 2 6 3 V1 12V 7 1 5 741 U1 R1 actual sine wave 1kohm inverted sine wave V2 12V (a) 16 (b) Fig.

The necessary circuit arrangement and its output are given below – 17 R3 10kOhm_5% U1 4 2 6 3 7 V1 12V R2 10kOhm_5% 1 5 741 R1 100kOhm_5% high frequency square wave C1 10nF V2 12V (a) . – 12 Two variable Sine Waves (actual and inverted) in a same oscilloscope Thereafter another square wave of fixed frequency (about 5 kHz) is generated.Fig.

The function of the OP-AMP is to linearize the output. 18 -V 4 R2 C Square wave of R1 high frequency 2 3 741 7 1 5 6 Triangular wave of high frequency +V Fig. – . But the problem with such a simple circuit is that the output voltage is not a linear triangular output as it should be. The RC circuit itself acts as a simple integrator. – 13 High Frequency Square Wave Generator (a) Required Circuitry and (b) Output Waveform Integrating this high frequency square wave. The description of integrator circuit with an OP-AMP is as follows – Integrator is a circuit whose output is proportional to the area of its input waveform. It may be noted from the diagram that the inverting input to the OP-AMP is held at virtual ground by the differential amplifier in the OP-AMP input circuit. – 14 Integrator The second-order low pass filter with specified components and its output is given in Fig. the triangular wave (also called carrier signal) is generated.(b) Fig.

C. Generally speaking.R2 15kOhm_5% C1 4 100nF 2 6 V1 12V 3 7 1 5 741 U1 R1 1kohm square wave (high frequency) triangular wave (carrier signal) V2 12V (a) (b) Fig. The comparator circuit using OP-AMP is as follows – The comparator is a circuit that is used to compare two voltages and provide an output indicating the relationship between two voltages. (ii) A changing voltage to a set D. as comparing two sine waves. . (i) Two changing voltages to each other. reference voltage. It may be noted that there is no feedback path in the circuit. comparators are used to compare either. In this circuit the sine wave (actual and inverted) is applied to the inverting input terminal and high frequency triangular carrier signal is applied to the inverting terminal of the OPAMP. Figure shows the circuit of an OP-AMP comparator. – 15 Integrator circuit with specified components (a) Required Circuitry and (b) Output Waveform 19 Now two sine waves (actual and inverted) and the triangular wave (carrier signal) are compared using two OP-AMPs.

-V 4 2 3 7 1 5 sine wave triangular wave R 741 6 R Output after comparison +V Fig. – 16 Comparator The simulation circuit and its outputs are given below – R1 4 2 6 3 7 1 5 741 U1 actual sine wave 1kohm R3 1kohm output of comparator I triangular wave R2 4 2 6 3 7 1 5 741 U2 inverted sine wave 1kohm R4 1kohm output of comparator II V1 12V V2 12V (a) 20 .

(b) Output Waveform of Comparator – I and (c) Output Waveform of Comparator – II At last the output of the first comparator is ANDed with the square wave of variable frequency by using chip 7408 and the output of the second comparator is ANDed with the inverted square wave of variable frequency (inverted by using logic inverter 7404) to generate the triggering pulse for triggering the POWER MOSFETs. The simulation circuit of ANDing and its outputs are given in the figure below – . – 17 Comparator circuit with specified component (a) Required Circuitry.(b) (c) Fig.

individual triggering pulses for each MOEFET are shown in Figs. – 18 ANDing the output of Comparator – I and II with Variable Square Wave (a) Required Circuitry and (b) Output Pulses The pulses are isolated trough four opto-couplers.. i. The opto-couplers connections and the outputs of four opto couplers.e. below – .21 square wave (variable frequency) U1A 1 2 3 comparator output I output pulse 74LS08N 1 2 U2A 74LS04N comparator output II U1B 4 5 74LS08N 6 output pulse (a) (b) Fig. so that each POWER MOSFET of the inverter bridge is being triggered separately.

0kOhm_5% (a) .3 V1 12V R4 1.0kOhm_5% U3 To MOSFET M4 V4 12V R1 1.0kOhm_5% To MOSFET M1 U1 V2 12V R3 1.22 U4 output of AND (7408) pin no .6 To MOSFET M3 V3 12V R2 1.0kOhm_5% To MOSFET M2 U2 output of AND (7408) pin no .

(b) 23 (c) .

The power part consists of two parts. (i) Supply Voltage Part. 230 V A.(d) (e) Fig.2.1 Supply Part : In supply part. voltage we can obtain by the following equation – Vac = 0. – 19 Separation of Pulses with Opto-isolators (a) Opto-isolator connection and (b) – (e) Four separate Pulses to trigger the MOSFET 1 – MOSFET 4 24 11. the value of required D. is required for the motor. 11. In speed variation of single phase induction motor by varying frequency variation method we have to vary external resistance of the control part of the control circuit to vary frequency of the supply of motor.612maVdc . To obtain this voltage.C. (ii) Inverter Bridge Part.C.2 Power Part : To run a motor we need voltage supply.

Now source pins of M1 and M3 are connected with the positive side of 230V D.7 × 270 = 116 V 11. Vsin ma = modulation index = Vtri Vdc = supply D. supply. current flows through it. The outputs of the controlling circuit are connected to the gate pins of all MOSFETs.C.7 But 270 V D. then M2 is ON and make a closed loop through load attached in the middle of the bridge. M3 is ON and D. The Inverter circuit and its output is given in the following Figs.C.612 × 0.2 Inverter Bridge Part : By using power MOSFET IRF720 the inverter bridge circuit is developed.612 × 0. one of which is earthed. Suppose we denote the MOSFETs by M1.where. – . When M4 become ON. Also drain pins of M4 and M2 are shorted.612ma 0. as we know that. the upper half of the sinusoidal pulse appears across the load. and M4. By using same convention.C. source is available in the laboratory.C. MOSFETs are automatic switches operated by gate pulse. we need two phases. The drain pins of M4 and M2 are connected with the negative side of 230V D. as we know inverter is used to invert DC voltage to AC voltage. supply.2. Vac = supply voltage for the induction motor. Next.C. current flows through it. the current flows through the load and the 25 lower part of the sinusoidal supply appears across the load. so the maximum voltage can be applied to the motor terminal is Vac = 0.C. Now we arrange the MOSFETs crosswise. voltage for inverter Vac 230 ∴ Vdc = = = 537 V 0. Now when M1 is ON due to gate pulse the D. In Inverter Bridge four IRF720 MOSFETs are used.C. M2. supply. M3. M1 M3 M4 M2 In the bridge for the source pins of M1 and M3 are shorted and the drain pins of these two are connected to the sources of M4 and M2 respectively. we use control circuit pulses to ON or OFF the MOSFETs of the bridge to get sinusoidal A. So.C. For single-phase A.

26 .8V ≅ 4V. The load part motor is of rating.0nF M2 (a) (b) Fig.0kOhm_5% triggering pulse M4 from opto-coupler 4 triggering pulse from opto-coupler 2 C1 2. supply for motor. fed to the motor Now we get the desired A.3 Loading Part : This part mainly consists of “SINGLE PHASE PERMANENT CAPACITOR INDUCTION MOTOR”.0nF C2 2.triggering pulse from opto-coupler 3 M1 M3 R1 L1 triggering pulse from opto-coupler 1 output (phase) neutral 270V 1.C.0uH 1. Here every MOSFET is become ON when the amplitude of the gate pulse is 3. – 20 Circuitry of the total Power Part (a) Inverter Bridge and (b) Output of the Inverter. 11.

Speed = 6500 r.8 (a) (b) Fig. This type of load is used in ceiling fans and table fans now a day.m. For that reason permanent split capacitor is used to generate two balanced phases.p. There are several types of single-phase motors in market but permanent capacitor type motors are used because here two balanced phases generate rotating flux for which the backward rotating flux is absent. In our project. – 21 Loading Part (a) The Single Phase Induction Motor and (b) Rating of the Motor As we know that in single phase the alternating phases are absent due to which the rotating flux is not generated. Due to which motor become more efficient and operated in better power factor. 12 Current = 0. By this supply starting torque is generated and the motor starts to rotate. so that it acts as neutral in singlephase supply.85 A. so rotation of the rotor is not possible. due to which a rotating flux generated. Voltage = 230 V.hp.. the two phases coming from Inverter Bridge is fed to the load where any one phase is earthed. Power = 1 . Power factor = 0.

27 12. At the begging of the project we make the total possible circuit in MULTISIM simulation software and see the responses of every possible part of circuit. Resistances used. Test Tools : Sl. These responses are compared with the original circuit responses and if there is any wrong thing appear we clarify the original circuit for better response. Capacitor = 0 nF to 10 uF 13. 1. To understand the speed variation we use tachometer to measure the speed. Name Oscilloscope Digital Multimeter Description of Tools Specification Use To get the response of the parts of the 230 V. 20 MHz control circuit. in the circuit. Test Results : Type of wave Square Sine Square Triangular Output Pulse Frequency (above) 50 Hz (above) 50 Hz 5 kHz 5 kHz Voltage (V) 11 (p-p) 7 (p-p) 11 (p-p) 10 (p-p) 4. Resistance = upto 400 kΩ capacitor used. 2. Test Procedure : For testing the circuitry we use oscilloscope to verify the response of the part of the circuit if the response is desirable then we proceed for the next portion of circuit. No. Also to verify Voltage = 0 to 1000 V whether parts of the circuit is active or not. To measure the voltage. But here we can’t vary voltage and frequency simultaneously so we vary frequency only over base frequency to do the speed variation] 14. V [Note: As we know that in PWM fed inverter the variation of should be f constant under base frequency.5 .

(iii) Use “chip base” to prevent the burning of chip due to direct soldering. (iv) Soldering should be done in right process otherwise there may appear short-circuit among pins and connecting wires. we know that. then we get sinusoidal pulse. 16. But. many noises in the required wave form etc. then integrator and we get carrier signal triangular pulse”. like using capacitor to block the noise. (v) Use Multi-Striped wire to prevent loose connection after soldering. many difficulties will occur such as frequency is not in the proper range. then second order filter. (ii) During soldering careful about burning hazards. (i) First of all things. 7(a). the frequency of the Square wave of Fig. frequency control below base speed can carry out by keeping V ratio constant. But in the case of hardware design. Inference : After finishing the “simulation of the circuit” by using Multisim software. (vii) Take measures to minimize the noise in the signal. Since there is no such option to vary the supply f . From all the above analysis and waveforms. we get the specific results and wave forms when we design the circuit part by part like “square wave generator. Precautions : To do this project various types of problems appear in front of us those are as follows with solve. (vi) All the open contacts should be closed to prevent shock hazards. So the frequency of the sine wave will also vary and as well as comparison of Sine wave with the triangular wave will vary and the frequency of the pulses which trigger the MOSFETs will also vary and at last we will get the variable inverter output. we conclude that if we vary the POT of Fig. Again square wave generator of high frequency pulse. connection should be correct and perfect.28 15. and so we use capacitors and resistors in much more quantity than that used in software. 7(b) changed as the time constant RC will be changed.

DATASHEET OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OP-AMP) LM741 . so the frequency as well as the speed of the motor is varied above the base speed.voltage with its frequency.


3 80 2. They are direct.3 80 2. Operating Temperature Range ± 22V ± 22V General Description Power Dissipation (Note 3) Storage features which make their appli−65˚C to +150˚C The amplifiers offer manyTemperature Range cation nearly foolproof: overload protection on the input and Junction Temperature 150˚C Features −65˚C to +150˚C 150˚C 260˚C −65˚C to +150˚C 100˚C 260˚C Connection N-Package (10 seconds) Diagrams J.8 nA µA MΩ MΩ Input Voltage Range TA = 25˚C TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX 00934107 ± 12 ± 12 ± 13 ± 13 V V © 2004 National Semiconductor Corporation www. VS = ± 20V 1.ers which feature improved performance over ± 15V ± 15V ± 15V Input Voltage (Note 4) the LM741C has their performance guaranteed over a 0˚C to industry stan.0 Max 6.or H-Package (10 seconds) Metal Can Package M-Package Vapor Phase (60 seconds) Infrared (15 seconds) Soldering Information 260˚C 300˚C 215˚C 215˚C 300˚C 300˚C Dual-In-Line or S.8 3.5 30 . LM201.0 500 0. M08A or N08E LM741A LM741 LM741C Min Typ Max Min Typ 1.national.210 0.0 15 7. when the 500 mW no latch-up 500 mW common mode mW 500 range is exceeded.0 Max 5.O.dards like the LM709. Parameter Conditions LM741AH/883 or LM741CH See NS Package Number H08C Input Offset Voltage TA = 25˚C Ceramic Flatpak RS ≤ 10 kΩ RS ≤ 50Ω TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX RS ≤ 50Ω RS ≤ 10 kΩ Average Input Offset Order Number LM741W/883 Voltage Drift NS Package Number W10A See Input Offset Voltage TA = 25˚C.0 30 70 DS009341 2 www.5 mV mV µV/˚C ± 10 3. plug-in Output Short Circuit Duration Continuous Continuous Continuous +70˚C temperature range. ± 30V ± 30V Differential Input Voltage The LM741 series are general purpose operational ± 30V The LM741C is identical to the LM741/LM741A except that amplifi.0 0.5 ± 15 20 85 200 500 ± 15 20 200 300 mV nA nA nA/˚C Typical Application Input Offset Current Average Input Offset Current Drift Input Bias Current Input Resistance Adjustment Range TA = 25˚C TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX Nulling Circuit Offset TA = 25˚C TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX TA = 25˚C.0 Min Typ 2. LM741CN See NS Package Number J08A. VS = ± 20V TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX.5 0.0 80 0. as well as freedom from oscillations. please contact the National Semiconductor Sales Office/ Distributors for availability and specifications. ESD Tolerance (Note 8) Note 1: LM741H is available per JM38510/10101 400V 00934102 400V 400V 00934103 Electrical Characteristics (Note 5) Order Number LM741H. MC1439 and 748 in −55˚C to +125˚C −55˚C to +125˚C 0˚C to +70˚C most applications.0 0. VS = ± 20V 00934106 Order Number LM741J. (Note 7) LM741 Operational Voltage Supply Amplifier LM741A LM741 LM741C ± 18V output.national. Package 215˚C 215˚C 215˚C 215˚C See AN-450 “Surface Mounting Methods and Their Effect on Product Reliability” for other methods of soldering surface mount devices.0 500 1.Absolute Maximum Ratings (Note 2) August 2000 If Military/Aerospace specified devices are required. LM741J/883. LM741H/883 (Note 1).0 Units mV mV 4.0 6. replacements for the 709C. instead of −55˚C to +125˚C.

7 2. 3 www. VO = ± 15V VS = ± 15V.7 80 150 50 165 135 60 100 85 50 85 2. VCM = ± 12V RS ≤ 50Ω. but do not guarantee specific performance limits.437 0.25 6. VCM = ± 12V TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX. Unity Gain TA = 25˚C TA = 25˚C VS = ± 20V VS = ± 15V 0. VO = ± 10V TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX. Operating Ratings indicate conditions for which the device is functional.5 1.national.0 0.3 1. VS = ± 20V. VO = ± 15V VS = ± 15V.8 dB dB µs % MHz V/µs mA mW mW mW mW mW Transient Response Rise Time Overshoot Bandwidth (Note 6) Slew Rate Supply Current Power Consumption TA = 25˚C.8 20 96 0.5 .5 0.Electrical Characteristics Parameter Large Signal Voltage Gain (Note 5) (Continued) LM741A Min Typ Max Min LM741 Typ Max Min LM741C Typ Max V/mV 50 200 20 200 V/mV Units Conditions TA = 25˚C. RL ≥ 2 kΩ VS = ± 20V.3 5 0. VO = ± 10V VS = ± 5V. Unity Gain TA = 25˚C TA = 25˚C.8 77 96 0. VS = ± 20V to VS = ± 5V RS ≤ 50Ω RS ≤ 10 kΩ 86 96 77 0. VO = ± 2V VS = ± 20V RL ≥ 10 kΩ RL ≥ 2 kΩ VS = ± 15V RL ≥ 10 kΩ RL ≥ 2 kΩ 32 50 V/mV 25 15 V/mV V/mV V V 10 Output Voltage Swing ± 16 ± 15 ± 12 ± 10 10 10 25 35 40 70 80 95 90 70 90 ± 14 ± 13 25 ± 12 ± 10 ± 14 ± 13 25 V V mA mA dB dB Output Short Circuit Current Common-Mode Rejection Ratio Supply Voltage Rejection Ratio TA = 25˚C TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX TAMIN ≤ TA ≤ TAMAX RS ≤ 10 kΩ.3 5 0.7 LM741A VS = ± 20V TA = TAMIN TA = TAMAX LM741 VS = ± 15V TA = TAMIN Note 2: “Absolute Maximum Ratings” indicate limits beyond which damage to the device may occur. RL ≥ 2 kΩ.

these specifications are limited to 0˚C ≤ TA ≤ +70˚C. 1. these devices must be derated based on thermal resistance. (listed under “Absolute Maximum Ratings”). Note 7: For military specifications see RETS741X for LM741 and RETS741AX for LM741A.Electrical Characteristics (Note 5) (Continued) Note 3: For operation at elevated temperatures. For the LM741C/ 4 . Note 6: Calculated value from: BW (MHz) = 0. −55˚C ≤ TA ≤ +125˚C (LM741/LM741A). Note 5: Unless otherwise specified.35/Rise Time(µs). Schematic Diagram 00934101 www.5 kΩ in series with 100 pF. Note 8: Human body model. Tj = TA + (θjA PD).national. these specifications apply for VS = ± 15V. Thermal Resistance θjA (Junction to Ambient) θjC (Junction to Case) Cerdip (J) 100˚C/W N/A DIP (N) 100˚C/W N/A HO8 (H) 170˚C/W 25˚C/W SO-8 (M) 195˚C/W N/A Note 4: For supply voltages less than ± 15V. and Tj max. the absolute maximum input voltage is equal to the supply voltage.







150" Narrow 14-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP).4mm Wide 14-Lead Plastic Dual-In-Line Package (PDIP).300" Wide Pb-Free 14-Lead Plastic Dual-In-Line Package (PDIP).300" Wide Device also available in Tape and Reel. 0. Specify by appending suffix letter “X” to the ordering code. JEDEC . 4. EIAJ TYPE II.November 1988 Revised February 2005 74AC08 • 74ACT08 Quad 2-Input AND Gate General Description The AC/ACT08 contains four.3mm Wide 14-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP). Use this number to order device. 0.4mm Wide Pb-Free 14-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP).4mm Wide 14-Lead Plastic Dual-In-Line Package (PDIP). 5.300" Wide 14-Lead Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC). JEDEC MS-012.300" Wide Pb-Free 14-Lead Plastic Dual-In-Line Package (PDIP). 0.fairchildsemi.150" Narrow Pb-Free 14-Lead Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC). 4. JEDEC MO-153. 0. Note 1: “_NL” indicates Pb-Free package (per JEDEC J-STD-020B). JEDEC MS-001. 0. JEDEC MS-001. 4. 0. JEDEC MS-001. JEDEC MS-012. JEDEC MO-153. Description Inputs Outputs © 2005 Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation DS009914 www. Features ICC reduced by 50% on 74AC only Outputs source/sink 24 mA Ordering Code: Order Number 74AC08SC 74AC08SJ 74AC08MTC 74AC08MTCX_NL (Note 1) 74AC08PC 74AC08PC_NL (Note 1) 74ACT08SC 74ACT08SCX_NL (Note 1) 74ACT08MTC 74ACT08MTCX_NL (Note 1) 74ACT08PC 74ACT08PC_NL (Note 1) DATASHEET OF LOGIC AND GATE 74AC08 Package Number M14A M14D MTC14 MTC14 N14A N14A M14A M14A MTC14 MTC14 N14A N14A Package Description 14-Lead Small Outline Integrated Circuit (SOIC). 0. JEDEC MS-012. 4. 2-input AND gates.4mm Wide Pb-Free 14-Lead Thin Shrink Small Outline Package (TSSOP). (PC not available in Tape and Reel.150" Narrow Pb-Free 14-Lead Small Outline Package (SOP). JEDEC MS-001. Bn On FACT ¥ is a trademark of Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation. Logic Symbol IEEE/IEC Connection Diagram Pin Descriptions Pin Names An . JEDEC MO-153.) Pb-Free package per JEDEC J-STD-020B.

0 PA V IOL IOL IOL VI VIL or VIH 12 mA 24 mA 24 mA (Note 3) VCC.99 4.76 4. one output loaded at a time.5 2.1V Input Voltage VOH Minimum HIGH Level Output Voltage VCC (V) 3.9 4.5V to VCC 20 mA 20 mA 0.1 3.36 r0.85 1.5 3.25 2.1V 0.5V Minimum Input Edge Rate ('V/'t) ACT Devices VIN from 0.5 5.44 r1. thresholds on input associated with output under test.0 4.0 4.5 5.0 4.1 VIN 0.0 4.1 0. www.65V Max 3.35 1.36 0.0V are guaranteed to be less than or equal to the respective limit @ 5.4 2.5 3.5 5. 4.5V DC Output Voltage (VO) DC Output Source or Sink Current (IO ) DC VCC or Ground Current per Output Pin (ICC or IGND) Storage Temperature (TSTG) Junction Temperature (TJ) PDIP r50 mA r50 mA 65qC to 150qC 140qC 125 mV/ns DC Electrical Characteristics for AC Symbol VIH Parameter Minimum HIGH Level Input Voltage VIL Maximum LOW Level 0.15 3.0 4.1 0.0V Recommended Operating Conditions Supply Voltage (VCC) AC ACT Input Voltage (VI) Output Voltage (VO) Operating Temperature (TA) Minimum Input Edge Rate ('V/'t) AC Devices VIN from 30% to 70% of VCC VCC @ 3.49 TA Typ 1.1V Note 3: All outputs loaded.4 5.56 3.65 2.85V Min VCC 5.5 2.25 2.5V.5 5.5V to 5.35 1.0 mA mA PA VOLD VOHD VIN or GND 1.86 0.15 3. The databook specifications should be met.86 4.1 3.9 4.46 3.5V 125 mV/ns Note 2: Absolute maximum ratings are those values beyond which damage to the device may occur.0V to 6.0V VCC @ 4.65 2.002 0.1 0.75 2.3V.0 75 75 20. 5.5 5. without exception.Absolute Maximum Ratings(Note 2) Supply Voltage (VCC) DC Input Diode Current (IIK) VI VI 0. and output/input loading variables.5 5.5V to 7.0 4.9 V VOUT or VCC 0.5 IIN (Note 5) IOLD IOHD ICC (Note 5) Maximum Input Leakage Current Minimum Dynamic Output Current (Note 4) Maximum Quiescent Supply Current 5.fairchildsemi.4 5.5 0.5V 0.5V. 5. to ensure that the system design is reliable over its power 2 .1 0.0V 4.49 5.5V VCC 0.5V to VCC 0. Fairchild does not recommend operation of FACT¥ circuits outside databook 2. GND V IOUT 50 PA V IOH IOH IOH VIL or VIH 12 mA 24 mA 24 mA (Note 3) V IOUT 50 PA 0.1V V Guaranteed Limits Units VOUT or VCC Conditions 0.36 0.5 5.5V VCC.5V 20 mA 20 mA 0.5V VCC 0.5V 0V to VCC 0V to VCC 40qC to 85qC DC Input Voltage (VI) DC Output Diode Current (IOK) VO VO 0.9 1.5 1.76 0.5V 0.1 0.44 0.44 0. Note 5: IIN and ICC @ 3.001 0.001 2.75 2.5 3.5 3.5 VOL Maximum LOW Level Output Voltage 3.8V to 2.5 5.4 VIN 2. Note 4: Maximum test duration 2.0 ms.85 0. temperature.1 25qC TA 40qC to 85qC 2.

001 TA Typ 1.76 4.5 4.4 3.85V Min VCC VOLD VOHD VIN or GND Note 6: All outputs loaded.5 5.49 2.5 6.5 1.5 7.5 4.8 4.44 r1.1 25qC TA 40qC to 85qC 2.86 0.0 0.5 5.0 1.0 3.0 0. one output loaded at a time.5 1.3V r 0.0 9.5 4.5 8.0 TA CL 25qC 50 pF Typ 6.0 ms.0V Conditions 3 www.5 5.1V 0.1 0.0 Units pF pF VCC VCC OPEN 5.0 10. GND VCC 2.0 V PA mA mA mA PA V V Guaranteed Limits Units V V V VOUT or VCC VOUT or VCC IOUT VIN IOH IOH IOUT VIN IOL IOL VI VI Conditions 0.5 Max 9.5 ns ns Units AC Electrical Characteristics for ACT VCC Symbol tPLH tPHL Parameter Propagation Delay Propagation Delay (V) (Note 9) 5.76 0.4 5.0 1.0 40qC to 85qC CL 50 pF Max 10.0 Min 1.3V Voltage Range 5.0 5.0 2.5 1.1V 1.5 1.1 0.5 1.5 4.5 5.0 5.8 0.8 0.5 5.8 4.0 is 5.0 TA Min 1.3 5.DC Electrical Characteristics for ACT Symbol VIH VIL VOH Parameter Minimum HIGH Level Input Voltage Maximum LOW Level Input Voltage Minimum HIGH Level Output Voltage VCC (V) 4.0 1.5 5.5 20.1V 0.4 3.5 4.0 .1V 50 PA VIL or VIH 24 mA 24 mA (Note 6) 50 PA VIL or VIH 24 mA 24 mA (Note 6) VCC.fairchildsemi. thresholds on input associated with output under test.0 ns ns Units Note 9: Voltage Range 5.86 4.001 0.5 5.0 40qC to 85qC CL 50 pF Max 10.3 is 3.0 0.5 5.44 0.5 VOL Maximum LOW Level Output Voltage 4.1 0.0 2.5 5.0 Note 8: Voltage Range 3.65V Max 3.5 25qC 50 pF Typ 7. Note 7: Maximum test duration 2. AC Electrical Characteristics for AC VCC Symbol tPLH tPHL Parameter Propagation Delay Propagation Delay (V) (Note 8) 3.5 9.5 5.5 5.5V TA CL Min 1.0 1.4 5.5 7.36 r0.0 1.5V Capacitance Symbol CIN CPD Parameter Input Capacitance Power Dissipation Capacitance Typ 4.36 0.0V r 0.0 1.0 is 5.1V 0.1 0.6 0.0 8.5 7.5 IIN ICCT IOLD IOHD ICC Maximum Input Leakage Current Maximum ICC/Input Minimum Dynamic Output Current (Note 7) Maximum Quiescent Supply Current 5.5 4.5 75 75 40.49 5.5 1.3 5.0 TA Min 1.5 Max 9.0V r 0.








C. Khanna Publishers. Sen – “Electric Drives”. Chakrabarti – “Circuit Theory (Analysis and Synthesis)”. D. Kemmerly. Durbin – “Engineering Circuit Analysis”.) Ltd. Jain – “Linear Integrated Circuits”. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. 2.C. BPB 10. Penram International Publishing (India) Pvt. Second Edition. S. Second Edition. De. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. and Applications”. Rashid – “Power Electronics Circuits. Third Edition. Ltd. Second Edition. Hayt. Publishers. Nisit K. Gopal K. Shalil B. 8. Dr. M. Tata McGrawHill Publishing Company Limited.. Devices. New Delhi. Narosa Publishing House. 5. Alok Jain – “Power Electronics and Its Applications”. Dhanpat Rai & Co. Dubey – “Fundamentals of Electrical Drives”. M. Steven M. P. Roy Choudhury. Bimbhra – “Generalized Theory of Electrical Machines”. Sixth Edition.”. 9. 7. Muhammad H. Morris Mano – “Digital Logic and Computer Design”. Jr. . William H. (Pvt. 4. Prentice-Hall of India Private Limited. Jack E. – “41 Projects Using 741 I. 6. New Age International (P) Limited. Sharma Publications. 3. Prasanta K. A.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful