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Design Duty Types Selection Dimensioning
This technical manual for Three-Phase Induction Motors is the first publication of a series on the topic of "Motor Management". With these published fundamentals the user will have a growing reference work on the performance and operational data required for design and application. The following topics will be covered: • Starting and operating motors • Protection of motors and drives • Selection and operation of controls • Communications Electric motors can be found in almost every production process today. Getting the most out of your application is becoming more and more important in order to ensure cost-effective operations. "Motor Management" from Rockwell Automation will help you • to optimize the use of your systems • to reduce maintenance costs • to increase dependability We are pleased that our publications may help you find economical and efficient solutions for your applications.
Copyright © 1996 by Sprecher+Schuh AG Rockwell Automation, Aarau. All information supplied is accurate to the best of our knowledge and without legal liability.
Three-phase Induction Motors
Table of Contents
1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.3
Three-Phase Induction Motors
How they work Stator Rotor Slip Losses Torque characteristic Basic characteristic Design measures Operating characteristics
1.1 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.8 1.10
2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 2.1.6 2.1.7 2.1.8 2.1.9 2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3
Duty Types of Electric Motors
Primary duty types S1... S9 2.1 S1: Continuous duty 2.2 S2: Temporary duty 2.3 S3: Intermittent periodic duty-type without starting 2.4 S4: Intermittent periodic duty with starting 2.5 S5: Intermittent periodic duty with starting and electrical braking 2.6 S6: Continuous-operation duty type 2.7 S7: Continuous-operation duty with starting and electrical braking 2.8 S8: Continuous-operation periodic duty with related load/speed changes 2.9 S9: Duty with non-periodic load and speed variations 2.11 Mean values of power, torque, and current Motor power and duty types Power increase compared to S1 Mechanical limit rating Power reduction compared to S1 2.12 2.14 2.14 2.15 2.15
Characteristic Load Torques
Load torques as a function of speed Torque remains constant
Three-phase Induction Motors
3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5
Torque increases proportionally to speed Torque increases with the square of speed Torque decreases in inverse proportion to speed Load torques as a function of angle Load torques as a function of path Load torques as a function of time Breakaway torque
3.3 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6
4.1 4.1.1 4.1.2 4.1.3 4.1.4 4.1.5 4.2 4.3 4.3.1 4.3.2 4.4 4.5
Choosing and Dimensioning Electric Motors
Motor capacity Catalog data and application parameters Determining the unit rating Catalog data Operating conditions Procedure for motor dimensioning Dimensioning using load torque Calculation using the acceleration torque or acceleration time Acceleration torque Acceleration time Calculation using change-over frequency Choosing with the use of catalog data
4.2 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.11 4.13
Synchronous speeds in a 50 Hz circuit are shown in Table 1. the incoming current will first magnetize the stator.1. Stator and rotor are made of highly magnetizable core sheet providing low eddy current and hysteresis losses.1: 1.2. whereas the rotor takes this role in three-phase induction motors. The rotor of three-phase induction motors sometimes is also referred to as an anchor.2 Rotor The rotor in induction machines with squirrel-cage rotors consists of a slotted cylindrical rotor core sheet package with aluminum bars which are joined at the front by rings to form a closed cage. is the most commonly used type of motor in industrial applications.1 Principles of Operation The electrical section of the three-phase induction motor as shown in Figure 1. 1. The currents in the rotor are induced via the air gap from the stator side. In electrical equipment the anchor's winding would be induced by the magnetic field.2.Three-phase Induction Motors 1 Three-Phase Induction Motors The three-phase induction motor. 1.2 consists of the fixed stator or frame.1. also called an asynchronous motor. There is no electrical connection between the stator and the rotor. This magnetizing current generates a rotary field which turns with synchronous speed ns. 1. When it is connected to the power supply. a three-phase winding supplied from the three-phase mains and a turning rotor.1 Stator The stator winding consists of three individual windings which overlap one another and are offset by an electrical angle of 120°. The reason for this name is the anchor shape of the rotors used in very early electrical devices. For the smallest pole number of 2p = 2 in a 50 Hz circuit the highest synchrof p ns = synchronous speed/minute f = frequency s-1 (per second) p = pole pair number (pole number/2) Synchronous speed ns = 60 nous speed is ns = 3000/min-1. In particular.1 . the squirrel-cage design is the most widely used electric motor in industrial applications.
This is called "skew". The interaction between the magnetic flux and the current conductors in the rotor generates a torque that corresponds to the rotation of the rotary field.1 Typical synchronous speeds in a 50 Hz circuit Synchronous speeds are 20% higher in a 60 Hz circuit Figure 1. At idle the rotor almost reaches the synchronous speed of the rotary field.2 .2 State-of-the-art closed squirrel-cage three-phase motor The stopped induction motor acts like a transformer shorted on the secondary side. the rotor winding (cage winding) to the secondary winding. and there would no longer be any torque.Three-phase Induction Motors Pole Number 2p ns in rpm 2 4 6 8 10 600 12 500 16 375 24 32 48 125 3000 1500 1000 750 250 188 Table 1. 1. its internal rotor current is dependent on the induced voltage and its resistance. voltage would no longer be induced. The cage bars are arranged in an offset pattern to the axis of rotation in order to prevent torque fluctuations (see Figure 1. current would cease to flow.3.2.1). If it were to turn exactly synchronously.2. The stator winding thus corresponds to the primary winding. Because it is shorted. since only a small counter-torque (no-load losses) is present.
the voltage induced in the rotor winding changes. The difference between the synchronous speed and the load speed is called slip s. The electrical output of the stator generated by the power supply is converted via the air gap into mechanical power in the rotor.3 . which in turn changes the rotor current and also the torque M.1 Forms of squirrel-cage rotor windings 1. As slip s increases. a single offset cage bars b double transposed cage bars Figure 1.1.3 Slip The difference between the synchronous speed ns and the speed n in rated operation is called slip s and is generally expressed in percent. Because the three-phase induction motor acts like a transformer.n ns s = slip ns = synchronous speed n = rotor speed Slip s = 1. ns .Three-phase Induction Motors During operation the speed of the rotor drops to the load speed n. in rated operation it is roughly 10 to 3%. the magnetization current and the actual load current. Depending on the size of the machine. the rotor current and the torque rise. the rotor current is transformed to the stator side (secondary side) and the stator supply current changes essentially to the same degree. Based on this load-dependent slip s.3. The stator current therefore consists of two components. Slip is one of the most important characteristics of an induction machine.
In addition.4. Dissipation in the rotor PVR = PD · s = ohmic loss PCuR in W The equation shows that the thermal danger is greatest for a stationary rotor at s = 1.1 The rotor voltage UR is a proportional function of slip s. This fact is confirmed in real-life applications by the high starting current (starting current inrush).Three-phase Induction Motors Figure 1.1. conventional selfventilated motors do not provide adequate cooling when stopped.4 . However the rotor resistance is not usually used for this purpose. In the stopped position. which also results in the strongest current flow. 1. The following formula applies to the rotor speed: n = rotor speed ns = synchronous speed s = slip Rotor speed n = ns · (1 . The difference PVR is lost in the rotor as heat.4 Dissipation Since the rotor speed n is less than the synchronous speed ns of the rotary field by the amount of slip s. Due to the increased starting current of induction motors the heat dissipation is a multiple of the rated motor power. since all the electric power input is converted to heat dissipation in the motor. This behavior can be modified by design variation. it peaks at n = 1 and s = 1. The torque also peaks during the stop period at a certain rotor resistance. These winding losses are thus directly dependent on the slip s.1 is proportional to the slip s. A rotor voltage of 10% corresponds to a slip of 10% The induced rotor voltage UR as shown in Figure 1. the mechanical rotor power P2 is also less than the electrically transmitted rotating field power PD.4.s) 1. Beginning with the first instant of the starting process all the power induced in the rotor is converted into heat.
In the rotor.Three-phase Induction Motors If we examine all power losses Pv in a motor. Therefore during operation they are roughly constant. we find the following individual losses: • • • • • • PFe PCuS PCuR PLu PLa Pzus Core loss in the stator Ohmic loss in the stator Ohmic loss in the rotor Windage loss Bearing friction losses Stray losses ⇒ roughly constant in operation ⇒ square function of current ⇒ square function of current ⇒ roughly constant in operation ⇒ roughly constant in operation ⇒ roughly constant in operation The core loss PFe in the stator is caused by hysteresis and eddy current losses which are dependent on the voltage and frequency. Ohmic losses occur in the stator PCuS and in the rotor PCuR.1 Output and losses in a three-phase induction motor 1. Both are a square function of load.5 . the losses are insignificant because of the low frequency of the rotor current during operation.5.5. Legend: P1 = electric power input PFe = core loss in the stator PCuS = ohmic loss in the stator Pzus = stray loss PD = rotor field power (air gap power) PCuR = ohmic loss in the rotor PLu = windage and ventilation loss PLa = bearing friction losses P2 = mechanical power output Figure 1. Windage losses PLu and bearing friction losses PLa are likewise constant due to the essentially constant speed in operation. as shown in Figure 1.1. Stray losses Pzus are caused mainly by eddy currents in the metal components of the machine.
i. The acceleration torque is defined as the entire range of the torque characteristic from stop to full speed.e. This can be increased up to a maximum value MK (pull-out torque) where the motor becomes unstable. When the motor is loaded..6 .997 . and the motor delivers a higher torque.1 Torque Characteristic Principal Characteristic Figure 1.0. In certain operating modes (S2. S3 and S6) the rated torque may also be exceeded to a certain degree.2 1. A standard motor must be able to deliver the rated torque in continuous operation without exceeding its temperature limit. 1. If the power is increased above the rated load Pn. Mn Rated torque during rated operation at rated power Pn and at rated speed nn.94. Mn = rated torque ML = load torque MK = pull-out torque MM = motor torque nS = synchronous speed An = nominal working point MA = breakaway torque MB = acceleration torque MS = pull-up torque nn = rated speed (0.. nS) Figure 1. its speed suddenly decreases at this slip value (breakdown slip) and the motor speed goes to 0.98. This is the maximum torque which the motor can deliver.1 Induction motor torque characteristic over speed MA Locked-rotor torque at stop. also called the breakaway torque.6 shows the typical torque characteristics of induction motors with squirrel-cage rotors which are identified by the following parameters. The values provided by the motor manufacturers should have tolerances from -15% to +25%. slip s continues to increase.99 . MK Pull-out torque. if the temperature limit is not exceeded.2.0. across the full operating range. At no-load the torque is very low and covers internal friction.6..Three-phase Induction Motors 1. nS) n = operating speed A = working point n0 = no-load speed (0. its speed drops slightly by the amount of slip s and the torque increases. speed n decreases.
The catalog data may have up to -10% tolerance. MB Acceleration torque as the difference of the motor torque MM minus the load torque ML In continuous duty with operating mode S1 and rated load Pn a properly sized motor rotates with rated speed nn and delivers the rated torque Mn: Pn nn Mn = rated torque in Nm Pn = rated power in kW nn = rated speed/minute Rated torque Mn = 9555 · Torque M can however also be computed using the electrical data of the motor: U I cosϕ η n = voltage in V = current in A = power factor = efficiency = speed Rated torque Mn = √3 · U · I · cosϕ · η · 9. provided the additional heat can be dissipated. MS Pull-up torque.Three-phase Induction Motors According to standards. is the smallest torque during acceleration. the pull-out torque must be MK ≥ 1. MM Motor torque. the counter-torque which represents the load during acceleration. Therefore induction motors are especially well suited for intermittent loads.55 n 1.3. In most motors the pull-out torque is significantly greater and usually reaches values of MK = 2..5 Mn. also called the pull-through torque.7 . In any case it must be greater than the simultaneously effective load torque ML since otherwise the motor cannot be accelerated.6 Mn and it must be possible to overload the motor for at least 15 seconds with this value at the rated voltage and rated frequency. ML Load torque.. also called the acceleration torque. Minimum values for the pull-up torque are specified in the standards for rated voltage operations.
this applies to all types of rotor designs.Three-phase Induction Motors During starting. an oversized motor should not be chosen.1 A high breakaway torque MA and a small starting current IA can be achieved by a relatively high ohmic rotor resistance in the starting torque.8 . In case of overload the working point A rises above the nominal working point An.2. Only the acceleration time would be shortened by a larger motor.8. i. The torque characteristic and also the size of the starting current are determined mainly by the type of rotor cage and the shape of the rotor slot as shown in Figure 1.. A larger motor also has a larger starting current IA since starting current is independent of the load torque..6. as shown in Figure 1. Important properties here are a low starting current IA and high starting torque MA. Below 50% of the rated load the efficiency η and the power factor cosϕ fall dramatically and motors no longer run economically. This is allowable only for a short time to avoid overheating the motor. 1.2 Motor Design The torque characteristics can be largely adapted to the application in threephase induction motors. the breakaway torque MA must be greater than the breakaway torque of the load and during the entire acceleration phase the motor torque MM must remain above the load torque ML.1.e.8. The following designs are distinguished: a single cage rotor for diecast version b deep slot version c double cage rotor Figure 1. Working point A however should not be too low either. Basically a more or less large "current displacement effect" (skin effect) takes place during starting.1 Slot shapes for squirrel-cage rotors 1. At the intersection of the two torque lines (operating point A) the motor operates with constant speed n.
especially since the desired characteristics can also be achieved with low-loss electronic devices.. In contrast to the current displacement rotor. resulting in uneconomical operation. since then the rotor frequency is high. have a slot shape as in a normal squirrel-cage rotor. • High-resistance squirrel-cage rotors. The effect is even more pronounced than in a current displacement rotor.10 x In. If the cage bars are made tall and narrow.. Ms) and proper dimensioning of the conductor cross sections. such as drives and soft starters. but use brass conductors or high resistance aluminum alloy instead of Al or Cu conductors. • Current displacement rotors. This effect causes a reduction of the effective conductor cross section and therefore an increase of the ohmic resistance. 1.Three-phase Induction Motors • Normal squirrel-cage rotors with single slot and round. also called deep-bar rotors. Al. Since the high ohmic resistance is maintained during operation.8.. The outside cage is made with high.2.5 x Mn and a high starting current of 5. since the rotor frequency is then very low and the motor has normal currents and torques. also called slip rotors. Therefore. relatively large losses occur. these rotors are not widely used today. during power-up current displacement takes effect. The current flows on the outside or "skin" of the rotor. During start-up. The result is good starting torque MA and a favorable low starting current IA. During operation the current is then distributed between the two cages according to their ohmic resistances.. current flows essentially only in the outside cage.9 . This is done by using an appropriate material (Cu. the inside cage with low ohmic resistance. rectangular or trapezoidal conductors usually made of aluminum with a relatively high starting torque of 1. this reduces the starting current IA and causes a relative increase of the starting torque MA. During operation current displacement no longer has any effect. • Double squirrel-cage rotors have the bar divided into two individual bars which are usually electrically isolated from one another. This causes the ohmic resistance to increase. it remains constant over the entire speed range and during operation leads to high slip with a flexible speed characteristic and without a pronounced pull-out torque. The starting torque MA is high according to the rotor resistance and the starting current IA is reduced.
10 .10.10.2 shows the operating characteristics of a typical induction motor.1 Fundamental torque characteristic of various types of cages 1. Figure 1.3 Operating characteristics Operating characteristics are a graphical presentation of the behavior of: • speed • current • power factor • power • efficiency • slip as a function of load.2 Operating characteristics of an induction motor as a function of load n P1 η I s = speed = power input = efficiency = current input = slip nS = synchronous speed P2 = power output cosϕ = power factor In = rated current Pn = rated power 1.Three-phase Induction Motors K = normal cage (Al) TN = deep-bar rotor (Al or Cu) DK = double cage rotor (Al or Cu or Al outside and Ms inside) W = high resistance squirrel-cage rotor MS M = torque n = speed Figure 1. Figure 1.10.
It generally peaks below the rated power Pn. Both values determine the economic efficiency during operation. Therefore closely sized. In addition. Current I increases proportionally beginning roughly at half-load. In the partial load range they both drop. (Constant magnetization) P The power P1 increases roughly in proportion to load starting from the no-load power. Slip s increases roughly proportionally as load increases. In the partial load range it is relatively unfavorable. ing overload.Three-phase Induction Motors n s The speed n decreases only slightly as load increases. Since the efficiency η and power factor cosϕ can have a major effect on the economic efficiency of a motor. highspeed motors are not only less expensive purchase. since even under partial loads magnetization is essentially constant. In the overload range it increases slightly faster since losses also increase faster. 1. knowledge of the partial load values is very important. cosϕ The power factor cosϕ depends largely on load and it peaks typically dur- η I Efficiency η exhibits a relatively flat characteristic and is almost constant above half-load.11 . Standard squirrelcage motors thus have "stiff" speed characteristics. Below half-load it decreases only slowly until it becomes the no-load current IO. but they also cost less to operate. in low-speed motors the power factor cosϕ is smaller than in high-speed motors.
since the power yield can diverge greatly from continuous output. others run all day.. Almost all cases which occur in practice can be assigned to one of these duty types: • • • • • • • • • S1: S2: S3: S4: S5: S6: S7: S8: S9: Continuous duty Temporary duty Intermittent periodic duty-type without starting Intermittent periodic duty with starting Intermittent periodic duty with starting and electrical braking Continuous-operation duty type Continuous-operation duty with starting and electrical braking Continuous-operation periodic duty with related load/speed changes Duty with non-periodic load and speed variations Motor manufacturers must assign the load capacity of the motor in one of these defined duty types and where necessary provide the values for operating time. Actuators are an exception. 2. S9 For design purposes information on the duty type must be as accurate as possible. Most motors however are operated with a duty type which is not continuous.Three-phase Induction Motors 2 Duty Types of Electric Motors Normally. load period. continuous duty three-phase induction motors are designed for the rated power. nine main duty types S1 through S9 were detailed in IEC 34. For the sake of agreement between manufacturers and operators. 2.. and numerous motors must accelerate a large flywheel or are run in a switched mode and electrically braked. In all these different duty types a motor heats up differently than in continuous duty.1 .1 Primary duty types S1. or relative duty cycle. but are only briefly loaded. Some motors are turned on only briefly. The number of possible duty types is thus theoretically unlimited. To prevent damaging the motor winding and rotor due to overheating. these special heating processes must be taken into account.
min = moment of inertia of the motor in kgm2 = moment of inertia of the load referenced to the motor shaft in kgm2 The speed n is usually specified in revolutions per minute. min. Figure 2. min = losses in kW tL = idle time s.1. or h = speed/min tr = relative duty cycle (%) = temperature in °C tS = cycle duration in seconds = maximum temp. 2. or h = time in s. If the type of load cannot be assigned to any of the defined duty types.1 Duty type S1: Continuous duty 2. if necessary with abbreviation S1. Duty types S1 through S9 cover many of the applications which occur in the field. The load period tB is much greater than the thermal time constant T Identification S1: Specification of power in kW.Three-phase Induction Motors In the descriptions and diagrams for duty types S1 through S9 the following symbols are used: P Pv n ϑ ϑmax t tB JM Jext = power in kW tBr = braking time in s.1 S1: Continuous duty Operation with a constant load state as shown in Figure 2. the exact cycle description should be indicated to the manufacturer or a duty type should be selected which conforms to least as heavy a load as the actual application. min.2.1 with a duration sufficient to reach thermal equilibrium. in °C tSt = stop period in s.2. or h T = thermal time constant in minutes = load period tA = starting time in s.2 . min. but in catalogs also the synchronous or rated speed is specified. Generally the rating plate gives the rated speed nn at full load.
1. and with a subsequent interval which lasts until the machine temperature differs by not more than 2 K from the temperature of the coolant. 11 kW.2 S2: Temporary duty Operation with a constant load state as shown in Figure 2.For the operating time tB periods of 10. 60 and 90 min are recommended.3.1 Duty type S2: Temporary duty 2.Three-phase Induction Motors 2. Identification S2: by specification of the load period tB and power P in kW .3 . Consult the manufacturer for details. 30. Figure 2. It is temporary duty when the load period tB ≤ 3 T (thermal time constant).Example: S2: 10 min. Compared to continuous duty the motor can deliver more power during the load period. .3.1 which however does not last long enough to reach thermal equilibrium.
4. min tr = relative duty cycle in % tB tB + tS · 100 ts = cycle duration in s. This is the case when tB ≤ 3 T. tS = 10 min applies.1. and 60%.Example: S3: 25%. 40%.Three-phase Induction Motors 2. 11 kW relative duty cycle tr = tB tB + tS · 100 Figure 2. Recommended values for the relative duty cycle tr are 15%.4. 11 kW .3 S3: Intermittent periodic duty-type without starting Operation as shown in Figure 2. The power during this time should be higher than the continuous output of the motor. Relative duty cycle tr = tB load period in s. but also by the relative duty cycle tr in % and by the cycle duration. cycle duration tS and power P.1 which is composed of a sequence of similar duty cycles with cycle duration tS at constant load and an interval which is generally so short that thermal equilibrium is not reached and the starting current does not noticeably affect heating. 60 min. Consult the manufacturer for details. min Identification: by specification of the load period tB.Example: S3: 15 min / 60 min. 25%.4 . 2. .1 Duty type S3: Intermittent periodic duty-type without starting If no cycle duration is specified.
Compared to continuous duty S1 a power reduction can be noted. or whether it is being stopped by a mechanical brake.5.Three-phase Induction Motors 2. 11 kW . 500 starts per hour. relative duty cycle tr = tA + tB · 100 tA + tB + tSt Figure 2. min Identification: by the relative duty cycle tr in %.Example: S4: 25%. whereby each cycle encompasses a distinct starting time tA. min tB = load period in s. time tB with constant load. this should be indicated. and interval tSt.plus information on the moment of inertia of the motor and load JM and Jext during starting.1. min tr = relative duty cycle in % tSt = stop period in s.1 Duty type S3: Intermittent periodic duty with starting Here it should be noted whether the motor stops under the effect of the load at the end of the cycle.4 S4: Intermittent periodic duty with starting Operation as shown in Figure 2. number ZL of starts per hour and power P . possible additional mass and a possible flywheel effect. 2. Relative duty cycle tr = tA = starting time s.5 . If the motor continues to run after it is shut off so that the windings cool down significantly. min tA + tB (tA + tB) · 100 = tS tA + tB + tSt · 100 ts = cycle duration in s.1 which consists of a sequence of identical duty cycles with cycle duration tS. If not indicated it is assumed that it will stop within a very short time.5. In this duty type the maximum no-load shifts Z0 are used as a basis from which the maximum frequency of operation shifts is computed according to the load torque.
min tSt = stop period in s.6. regenerative braking.In case of doubt and when the starting and braking times are long relative to the rated operating time. but also identified with specification of the type of braking (plug braking. plug braking. min = load period in s.1.) . min tr = relative duty cycle in % tBr = braking time in s. Relative duty cycle tr = tA tB ts (tA + tB+ tBr) · 100 = tA + tB+ tBr + tSt tA + tB + tBr · 100 tS = starting time s. etc.Example: S4: 25%. There is no interval.1 which is composed of a sequence of similar duty cycles with cycle duration tS. . Consult the manufacturer for details. whereby each cycle encompasses a distinct starting time tA.6 .Additional information on the moment of inertia of the motor and load JM and Jext during starting and braking. 2. time tB with constant load and time tB of high-speed electrical braking.5 S5: Intermittent periodic duty with starting and electrical braking Operation as shown in Figure 2. 11 kW .Three-phase Induction Motors 2. relative duty cycle tr = tA + tB+ tBr tA + tB + tBr + tSt · 100 Figure 2. Compared to continuous duty S1 a power reduction is necessary in this mode.1 Duty type S5: Intermittent periodic duty with starting and electrical braking. min = cycle duration in s.6. min Identification: similar to S4. 500 starts per hour. all three time intervals should be indicated separately.
40 min. by the duty cycle tB.7. but is ventilated during the idle time tL.6 S6: Continuous-operation periodic duty Operation as shown in Figure 2.Three-phase Induction Motors 2. tS = 10 min applies. This is the operating state when tB ≤ T. the power may be selected to be greater during operating time tB. Relative duty cycle tB ts tr = tB · 100 = tB+ tL tB · 100 tS = load period in s. min tL = idle time in s.1 which is composed of a sequence of similar duty cycles with cycle duration tS. relative duty cycle tr = tB tB + tL · 100 Figure 2.7 . 11 kW .1 Duty type S6: Continuous-operation intermittent duty Compared to continuous duty S1.If no indication is given for the cycle duration. 2. and power P . After operating time tB the motor continues to turn at no-load and due to the no-load current does not cool down to the coolant temperature. cycle duration tS.7.Example: S6: 25%. Consult the manufacturer for details. whereby each cycle encompasses a time tB with constant load and an idle time tL. min tr = relative duty cycle in % Identification: as in S3. min = cycle duration in s. with no interval.1.
whereby each cycle encompasses a distinct starting time tA.8.1 which is composed of a sequence of similar duty cycles with cycle duration tS.In case of doubt and when the starting and braking times are long enough in relation to the rated operating time. 2.Three-phase Induction Motors 2. time tB with constant load P and time tBr with high-speed electrical braking. 11 kW.8 . Consult the manufacturer for details. relative duty cycle tr = 1 Figure 2.1.7 S7: Continuous-operation duty with starting and electrical braking Operation as shown in Figure 2. Relative duty cycle tr = 1 Identification: like S4. etc). braking by plugging. regenerative braking.8. . There is no interval. . but with indication of the type of braking (plugging. identified without indication of relative duty cycle tr. all three time intervals should be indicated separately.1 S7: Continuous operation-duty with starting and electrical braking Compared to continuous duty S1 a power reduction is necessary in this mode.Additional information on the moment of inertia of the motor and load JM and Jext during starting and braking.Example: S7: 500 duty cycles per hour. .
Additional information on the moment of inertia of the motor and load JM and Jext during starting and braking. 2. 2 cycles per hour. by pole reversal. min tr = relative duty cycle in % tr3 = tA = starting time s. min tBr = braking time in s. .Example: S8: 30%. min tB = load period in s. There is no interval or idle time. 10 min.1.8 S8: Continuous-operation periodic duty with related load/speed changes Operation as shown in Figure 2.Three-phase Induction Motors 2. This mode cannot be recorded with one simple formula. for example. 11 kW .10.1 which is composed of a sequence of similar duty cycles with cycle duration tS. 1500/m 20 min. 3000/m.9 . each of these cycles comprises a time with a constant load and a certain speed. then one or more times with different loads which correspond to different speeds. except that for each speed the time must be specified during which these speeds occur within every cycle period. min Identification: like S5. A suitable continuous load must be used as the reference dimension for the load cycle: Relative duty cycle Relative duty cycle Relative duty cycle tr1 = (tA + tB1) · 100 = tA + tB1 + tBr1 + tB2 + tBr2 + tB3 tA + tB1 ·100 tS tr2 = (tBr1 + tB2) · 100 t +t = Br1 B2 ·100 tA + tB1 + tBr1 + tB2 + tBr2 + tB3 tS (tBr2 + tB3) · 100 tBr2 + tB3 = ·100 tA + tB1 + tBr1 + tB2 + tBr2 + tB3 tS ts = cycle duration in s.
10.10 .1 Duty type S8: Continuous-operation periodic duty with related load/speed changes Relative duty cycle tr1 = tA + tB1 100 tA + tB1 + tBr1 + tB2 + tBr2+ tB3 tBr1 + tB2 100 tA + tB1 + tBr1 + tB2 + tBr2+ tB3 tBr2 + tB3 100 tA + tB1 + tBr1 + tB2 + tBr2+ tB3 Relative duty cycle tr2 = Relative duty cycle tr3 = Compared to continuous duty S1 a power reduction is necessary in this duty type.Three-phase Induction Motors Figure 2. 2. Exact computation is very complex and is possible only with detailed information from the manufacturer.
1 Duty type S9: Duty with nonperiodic load and speed variations Compared to continuous duty S1 the equivalent continuous output of duty type S9 can be lower. or even higher.9 S9: Duty with nonperiodic load and speed variations In this mode of operation as shown in Figure 2. depending on the load characteristic and the length of the intervals. Load peaks which can be far above the rated power may occur frequently.11 . the same.11. Example: S9.Three-phase Induction Motors 2.11.1 the load and the speed change nonperiodically within the maximum operating range. A suitable continuous load must be used as the reference dimension for the load cycle: Identification: Manufacturers and users generally agree on an equivalent ("equ") continuous output instead of the varying load for different speeds and irregular operation including overload.1. 11 kW equ 740/min. 2. The overload can be taken into account by selective oversizing. 22 kW equ 1460/min Figure 2. The duty type cannot be recorded with one simple formula.
as shown in Figure 2. currents) can be replaced by a mean power Pmi.12. mean torque Mmi and mean current Imi (Ieff). Cycle Figure 1. However. Mean power Pmi = P1 · t1 + P2 · t2 + P3 · t3 t1 + t2 + t3 2 2 2 These values are determined by a quadratic conversion.12 . this type of averaging is not possible in S2. Since losses Pv change with the square of the load. Mean values of power. torque and current In many cases the actual use of a motor diverges from duty types S1 through S9 because the required power P or torque ML and thus current I are not constant.2.1 Determining mean power Pmi. torques. using the individual outputs and the associated effective times. the individual values (powers. The maximum torque which occurs here should not exceed 80% of the pull-out torque for a three-phase induction motor.1. 2.12.Three-phase Induction Motors 2.
7 kW for 2 minutes. I1 · t1 + I2 · t2 + I2 · t3 + .. t1 + t2 + t3 + .. and the calculations must be done with the mean current taken from the motor characteristics.. 2 kW for 3 minutes: What is the mean load? Pmi = P1 · t1 + P2 · t2 + P3 · t3 + . = t1 + t2 + t3 + . 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Mean torque Mmi= Mean current (Ieff) = When the powers differ by more than a factor of 2.. this averaging is too inaccurate... t1 + t2 + t3 + .. M · t1 + M2 · t2 + M3 · t3 + .Three-phase Induction Motors Mean power Pmi = P1 · t1 + P2 · t2 + P3 · t3 + .13 . Example: In an automatic industrial handling machine the following load cycles are determined for a cycle duration of 10 minutes: 6 kW for 3 minutes. 3 kW for 2 minutes. 3 t1 + t2 + t3 + .. 2 2 2 6·3+3·2+7·2+2 ·3 = 4.....85 kW 3+2+2+3 2 2 2 2 2.....
1 Power increase compared to S1 Since in duty types S2.Three-phase Induction Motors 2. S5. 2.3 Motor power and duty types Duty types S1 through S9 can be divided into two groups. Therefore.18. whereby an increase or decrease of the rated power over S1 is possible or necessary: ⇒ for S2.2) Relative duty cycle in % Ratio of ventilated/unventilated heat dissipation (Table 2.1) No-load reversing frequency per hour (Table 2. In determining the maximum increase the following variables play an important part: Pn Pmech Pth Mn MK T k0 tr h z0 Rated power of the motor in kW Mechanical limit rating of the motor in kW Thermal limit rating of the motor in kW Rated torque in Nm Pull-out torque in Nm Thermal time constant in minutes (Table 2.19. S7 and S8 Power increase compared to S1: Power reduction compared to S1: 2.18.3. The proper motor can be found quickly and reliably with their aid.1) Ratio of equivalent no-load/load losses (Table 2. and therefore it can overloaded mechanically and thermally during the load period tB.19. S3 and S6 the machine is not being operated continuously at full load.14 .2) To some extent the calculation is not simple. it can cool down again during the stop time tSt. but only in blocks. S3 and S6 ⇒ for S4. many manufacturers of three-phase induction motors also offer computer programs for motor calculation.
since in all these cases starting losses or braking losses play a major part.3.3.6 times the rated torque. Standards state: "It must be possible to overload multiphase induction motors regardless of their duty type and design for 15 seconds at the rated voltage and input frequency up to 1. The factor of inertia FI takes into account the external moments of inertia such as the moment of inertia of the motor JMot and load moment of inertia Jzus: Factor of inertia FI = JMot + Jzus JMot JMot = moment of inertia of the motor in kgm2 Jzus = load moment of inertia in kgm2 2. S7. and S6 the mechanical limit rating Pmech must be noted. and load factor. counter-torque factor.76 2. The computational method is based on the maximum no-load change-over frequency z0 as shown in Table 2.15 . Therefore the mechanical limit rating can be defined as follows with regard to catalog data: Mechanical limit rating Pmech ≤ Pn = rated power in W Mn = rated torque in Nm Mk = pull-out torque in Nm MK Pn · Mn 1.2 Mechanical limit rating When the power is increased in duty types S2. This is the maximum allowable hourly number of reversals without the motor becoming too hot.76 with respect to the new increased torque Mmax.19. S3.3 Power reduction compared to S1 In duty types S4.2. S5." Catalog data however are subject to tolerances up to -10% so that the pull-out torque MK should be higher by a factor of ≤ 1. The maximum allowable change-over frequency z for a certain load conditions can then be determined using reduction factors such as the factor of inertia.Three-phase Induction Motors 2. S8 and S9 the motor power must be reduced.
16 .. n = speed/min 2. the load torques of the driven machine must be converted to the motor speed nn: Converted load torques ML = M = torque in Nm η = gear efficiency ML1 · n1 ηG1 · nn + ML2 · n2 ηG2 · nn + . n2Mot The counter-torque factor kg takes into account a mean load torque ML which is present during acceleration and which must be overcome by the mean motor torque MMot: Counter-torque factor kg = 1 ML = load torque ML MMot MMot = motor torque When gears with gear efficiency hG are used and thus speeds are different.... all moments of inertia must be converted to the motor speed nMot: Converted load moment of inertia Jzus = J = moment of inertia in kgm2 n = speed/min J1 · n21 + J2 · n22 +.Three-phase Induction Motors If the speeds of the driven machine and the motor are not the same.
tSt = stop period. tB = load time.1 Duty type S4 for periodic duty of an automatic machining center Due to the effect of the starting and braking process with respect to heating.17. tSt = stop period. tS = cycle duration power P speed n Figure 2.5 1 n/ns Figure 184.108.40.206 . tA = starting time.3 Typical range of variation of the torque characteristic for three-phase induction motors 2. the rated power Pn of the motor should be chosen to be larger than is required by the actual power demand P.2 Duty type S5 for periodic duty of a circular saw 0 0. the rated power Pn of the motor should be chosen to be larger than is required by the actual power demand P. tS = cycle duration Figure 2. tA = starting time. tBr = braking time.Three-phase Induction Motors power P speed n Due to the effect of the starting process with respect to heating. tB = load time.
18.18 ..2.18.25 0.25 0..2 h = Ratio of ventilated /unventilated heat dissipation (Table 2.1 2 pole min 7 … 10 5…8 14 11 … 15 25 … 35 40 45 … 50 4 pole min 11 … 10 9 … 12 11 10 … 19 30 … 40 45 … 50 55 6 pole min 12 12 13 13 … 20 40 … 50 50 … 55 60 8 pole min — 12 … 16 12 10 … 14 45 … 55 55 … 65 75 Typical heating time constant T in minutes for induction motors Pn rated power kW 0..18.5 … 220.127.116.11..5 2.35 0.45 0.35 4 pole 0.ko)tr (1 .55 75.(P / Pn)2 · (1 ..1) tr = Relative duty cycle (see duty types S1.3 0.3 8 pole 0...35 6 pole 0.3 0.tr)h kL= Load factor P = Required power in kW Pn = Rated power of the motor k0 = Ratio of equivalent no-load/load losses (Table 2.09 … 1.2 2 pole 0.1 1..5 22 … 45 55 … 90 110 … 132 Table 2.Three-phase Induction Motors The load factor kL with which the load is taken into account during operation..0 4.S9) Pn rated power kW 0.0 5..ko)tr + (1 .3 0.5 22 30.3 Typical ratio of equivalent losses KO at no load to those in operation 2. In cases in which the load characteristic is not exactly known the following applies: Load factor kL = 1 .25 0.5 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.160 Table2.5 … 18.09.
2 4 pole 0.500 Table 2.5 0.3 Typical ratio h of heat dissipation between unventilated and ventilated motors Size 56 63 71 80 90S 90L 100L 112M 132S 132M 160M 160L 180M 180L 200L 225S 225M 250M 280S 280M 315S 315M 2-pole 2 300 3 000 4 000 1 700 2 000 2 000 1 000 720 450 400 400 200 150 90 60 41 39 34 32 4-pole 5 000 8 600 6900 5 000 3 000 2 500 4 000 1700 850 1000 900 900 600 550 400 280 270 200 130 120 100 90 6-pole 8 000 8 000 6 000 5 500 7 900 6 200 5 100 3 200 2 200 1 700 1 700 1 600 800 620 450 320 260 240 180 170 8-pole 7 000 8 000 11 000 11 000 10 000 2 500 2 800 3 000 2 300 2 300 1 200 900 700 670 500 400 370 300 269 Table 2.19 .Three-phase Induction Motors Equivalent losses are the sum of the percentages of individual losses which contribute to heating of the winding.09.19.45 0...1 2 pole 0.. Pn rated power kW 0. core and rotor losses. such as load.19.5 0.3 8 pole 0.5 22.2 Typical no-load change-over frequency z0 per hour 2.18.4 0..3 6 pole 0.
where it acts in the direction of motion. pumps and fans can be combined into one group. Any driven machine applies a certain torque against the motor which is generally dependent on speed. and traversing mechanisms. Furthermore. In addition there are acceleration and deceleration torques when the speed changes. The load torque characteristic in a motor is often typical and can therefore be described with certain features. Usually it can be described accurately enough by the torque characteristic ML = f(n) or ML = f(t). relative to the drive shaft. presses. depending on whether there is more or less process material in the machine. but also conveyor systems such as cranes. The torque characteristic of most driven machines can be assigned to typical and thus characteristic curves. speed as a function of time n = f(t). In very large and complex machinery such as rolling mills or paper-making machines. centrifuge. they are determined by the moment of inertia. knowledge of the behavior of the load torque ML as a function of speed is extremely important. It is also called the steady-state torque and is dictated essentially by the technological process. This is called the classification of driven machines. the system is divided into parts and the individual motors are examined separately. except in lifting mechanisms during the lowering motion.. For motor dimensioning and for verification of starting and braking cycles. Loads or driven machines are mechanical devices which are used to machine or shape materials. Then they will deliver the rated output Pn and consume the rated current In. this greatly facilitates motor design. The detailed structure of the driven machine is generally not considered for the motor design. by the maximum allowable acceleration/deceleration and the entire moment of inertia. such as machine tools.Three-phase Induction Motors 3 Characteristic Load Torques Motors are correctly sized when they are operated on the average with the rated torque Mn at the rated speed nn. conveyor belts. etc. 3. In general it acts against the direction of motion. The moment of inertia can also vary. calenders.1 . The characteristics generally differ greatly between no-load and full load.
1.1 and Figure 3.4. P = const.2.2.1 Torque or output characteristic for typical loads as a function of speed a b c d M ≈ const. During starting increased static friction must often be overcome. as shown in Figure 3.Three-phase Induction Motors In order to gain an overview of the many different driven machine designs.1 a. 3. In many cases the mean load torque MLm is important.1.1 Torque remains constant The torque of a driven machine results essentially from mechanical friction which remains constant in a wide range of speeds.2.2 . M ≈ proportional to n2 M ≈ proportional to 1/n ⇒ P proportional to n ⇒ P proportional to n2 ⇒ P proportional to n3 ⇒ P ≈ const.1 Load torques as a function of speed The physical principles of motor engineering teach that the mechanical power P of a motor is a function of the torque M and speed n or angular velocity ω: 3. Figure 3. M = const. depending on whether they are run under full load or no load. M ≈ proportional to n. For a known torque characteristic it can be determined according to the torque Mn after completed acceleration. Here it should be observed that for example fans and compressors exhibit different characteristics. It is better to start them unloaded. they are categorized by their typical load characteristics or output curves as shown in Figure 3. 3.
conveyor belts. in these applications the power P can be proportionally reduced by reducing the speed n.roller mills .in part also shears and punches .planers .piston pumps and compressors at constant pressure .grinders without fan action . 3.bearings. When the torque M increase proportionally.calenders.3 .eddy-current brakes The mean load torque MLm in these applications is roughly half the rated torque Mn / 2. gearing The mean load torque MLm in these applications corresponds roughly to the rated torque MN of the load. Cutting the speed in half cuts the power in half. feed motors . 3. textiles or rubber tiles.1. elevators. extruders . Thus.2 Torque increases in proportion to speed This relationship arises as shown in Figure 3.Three-phase Induction Motors P=M·2π ·n =M·ω At a constant torque M the power P is proportionally a function of the speed n P~n Examples of mechanical loads with constant torque are: . When the speed n is reduced the power P decreases by its square.paper and textile glazing .1 for example in speed-proportional friction (viscous friction) during rolling and processing of paper. winches . When speed n is cut in half the power P is only one fourth.2. power P increases with the square of the speed n: P ~ n2 Examples are: .lifting mechanisms.machine tools with a constant cutting force .
8 1. c' high-speed vehicles extruders calenders Compressors back-pressure piston compressors.8 0.0 compressors 1.2 0. feed motors metal-cutting machine tools slow-speed vehicles. f' unloaded back pressure rotary compressors.2 0.8 mills 0.0 0.8 fans 0.2 0 0 0.4 0.4 0.2 0. k' unloaded D l m n o Mills ball mills centrifugal mills hammer mills impact mills 3. i' fans unloaded k rotary piston blowers.4 0.4 0. lifts.2 1.4.8 1.0 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.1 Typical load-torque characteristic of driven machines with start-up A a b c d e B f g h Various applications elevators. g' unloaded turbocompressors C Fans i back-pressure fans or centrifugal pumps.8 1.6 0.Three-phase Induction Motors motors 1.6 0.2 0 0 0.0 Figure 3.6 0.2 0.0 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.2 0 0 0.8 1.2 1.2 0 0 0.4 0.4 .
As the speed increases. Instead of reducing the amount of delivery with a slide valve or throttle valve.1.1.propellers . for example.rotary peeling machines . Examples are: . in pump and fan motors for heating and ventilation motors. Because the torque M increases quadratically as the speed n increases.vehicles The mean load torque MLm is roughly one third of the rated torque: Mn/3.2. This relationship is important. 3. the power P increases with the cube of the speed n. P ~ n3 Examples are: .1. 3.coilers The mean load torque ML can only be determined on a graph.stirring apparatus.centrifugal pumps .1 primarily when there is gas or liquid friction.5 .Three-phase Induction Motors 3. P ≈ const. the torque drops.winding machines . it is better to adjust the speed of the drive motor. Cutting the speed in half requires only one eighth of the power. the power P is a function of the cube of the speed.blowers and fans of all types . When the torque M increases quadratically.4 Torque decreases in inverse proportion to speed If the torque M decreases in inverse proportion to the speed n. as shown in Figure 3.piston engines with delivery into an open pipe circuit .facing lathes .2.3 Torque increases with the square of speed This relationship arises as shown in Figure 3. centrifuges . the power P remains constant.
rock crushers . Example: The speed of an induction motor operated with a load controller can be infinitely adjusted between 50% and 100%. 3. In large machines with slide bearings it may significantly exceed the rated torque Mn.2. cableways and conveyor belts. The electric input current of the drive motor follows this motion cycle and can generate a rhythmically fluctuating voltage drop in the line. The delivery output is therefore proportional to the speed. 0.ball mills 3.4 Load torques as a function of time These motors are loaded intermittently or periodically. Examples are: .4.5 Breakaway torque Another important concept is the so-called breakaway or static torque which is caused by static friction. for example.hoists . in vehicles. They are also present in piston machinery (compressors in heat pumps) due to intermittent loading. How does this affect the delivery rate of a piston or centrifugal pump? • Piston pump: The torque demand is almost independent of speed as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. for example.3 Load torques as a function of path They are typical. 3. in table motors.2.2 Load torques as a function of angle These characteristics appear in machinery with reciprocating motion. Generally a so-called torque force diagram is plotted in the planning of these applications.50 = 50% 3.punches . Comparison with Figure 3. and the torque remains almost constant. this value should be known as accurately as possible and the starting torque MA of the motor should exceed the load torque. or in table motors.6 . In order for a motor to start reliably.Three-phase Induction Motors 3.1 shows that most of them have a typical characteristic and thus classification is possible.conveyor systems .1 a. At half speed it also falls accordingly to P' = P .1 shows certain torque characteristics of common driven machines.
3. 0.7 . The delivery rate can therefore be reduced to one eighth of the original value.53 = 0.125 = 12. The example shows how automatic speed control greatly influences the power of a driven machine.5%. At half-speed the power is thus P' = P . Therefore the power changes in the cube. there is a quadratic relationship between torque demand and speed.1 c.Three-phase Induction Motors • Centrifugal pump: In centrifugal pumps.2. as shown in Figure 3.
clutches. To choose and dimension a motor the relevant parameters of all element in the chain of energy flow. transmissions. vehicles .presses.feed devices. liquid. efficiency. brakes. fans.machine tools .power . But other concepts such as velocity. Solids.torque . the moving solid. Examples are: • All kinematic processes involve the quantities force . compressors . Electric motors draw energy from a utility supply and convert it into mechanical energy. or gas.energy and time.. also play a part. starting with the actual load. etc. requires more reactive power) and may load the machine with an excessively high acceleration torque. An undersized motor will fail in continuous duty.e. Even more important than the appropriate motor type with accessories such as gears. runs uneconomically (greater procurement costs. or gases change their location as a function of time. rolling mills. Auxiliary devices such as clutches. etc. Proper selection is therefore important. acceleration. An oversized motor causes unnecessary expenses. must be determined with relative accuracy. i. poorer operating efficiency and higher losses. robot applications . liquids. is the proper sizing of the motor. etc. Actuator processes: -slides and valves .1 . gears.pumps. calenders.kinematic processes in control linkages Electric motors are energy converters for kinematic processes as they occur in the technology of most driven machines..Three-phase Induction Motors 4 • Choosing and Dimensioning Electric Motors Motor applications: . elevators. brakes and driven machines can be located between the motor and the actual load.. bending machines. For proper selection of a motor it is necessary to find an ideal motor for the kinematic task at hand.cranes. 4.
4. If the duty cycle is short. is limited. the motor can accept a higher load since it cannot heat up to the temperature limit during this short time and cools down again during the intervals. operating mode.. • Undersized motors can be thermally overloaded because of an overly long starting time. i. the basic application conditions will have to be defined. Its application is limited only by its torque and speed characteristics. whereby the following factors are significant: • power transmission: As a single drive the motor can be coupled to the load directly or via a transmission. • space conditions and the layout possibilities of the entire system affect mainly the choice of motor accessories. this heat may not exceed the temperatures specified for insulation materials IP class. affect not only the motor size requirement. 4. etc.. frequency of starting. its variation over time.2 . • operating conditions such as overload capacity. but also the selection of motor accessories. belt and chain drives. During frequent starting processes the motor reaches its allowable temperature limit even without load torque and without an additional centrifugal mass. peak torques. whereas oversized motors would overload the transmission and the driven machine during the starting process.Three-phase Induction Motors In any case. the number of consecutive starts. Motors should be sized such that at constant load with rated power and rated cooling conditions they do not exceed maximum temperatures. The cooling time at switching intervals must be long enough to ensure that the temperature limit is not exceeded during subsequent starting. • The duty cycle is another important factor for selection. In the stator winding as well as in the rotor the current passage generates heat. or it can be used as a central motor connected to intermediate shafts. etc. ambient temperature. The starting current flowing during this time heats up the winding dramatically. • The maximum change-over frequency.e. • The torque required for accelerating the centrifugal mass increases motor acceleration time. The temperatures which develop depend on the level of the motor load.1 Motor Capacity The three-phase induction motor is most widely used in drive technologies because of its simple mechanical and electrical structure and due to its high reliability. and cooling conditions.
is used.1 Selection factors for motor type and rated power 4. a suitable motor and appropriate auxiliary devices can be selected.3 .1 Catalog data and application parameters For most application requirements a so-called "standard motor".acceleration torque . Induction motors can be used in a wide range of applications.3. operating and maintenance costs • service life • environmental protection and accident protection measures.motor heating Motor heating Torque characteristic Brake heat Capacity ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ Table 4.acceleration capacity .reversing frequency Operating modes Starting conditions Braking and reversing Thermal processes ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ ⇒ Motor feature Power Starting time Motor torque Optimization .Three-phase Induction Motors 4. Selection factor Torque Moment of inertia Typical load torques Design analysis by .starting time .acceleration time .1.load torque .motor torque . usually an induction motor. Based on these requirements. The following information applies to this type of motor unless indicated otherwise. In order to select a suitable motor in accordance with manufacturer specifications minimum requirements must be established. The objective is to establish requirements regarding • power supply • electrical and mechanical characteristics of the motor • operating conditions • investment.
Some of these parameters have been standardized.2 Determination of unit rating The unit rating of a motor can be determined according to various aspects. Many manufacturers offer modular motor designs. As a second step. The outline in Table 4.4 Operating conditions For design purposes the operating conditions and the parameters of the driven load are as important as the motor data.Three-phase Induction Motors 4. others are specific to the manufacturer or can be selected by the customer.1.. Therefore the design engineer often has a certain freedom of choice in defining the details of a motor. Table 4.1. In motors with complex operating modes (S2 . 4. the suitability of the motor for the starting conditions should be examined with respect to starting time or starting torque. In critical cases the proper drive motor for the given motor task should be selected in cooperation with the motor supplier. The following specifications can usually be defined when ordering • rotor design and thus the torque characteristic • cooling system • insulation class of the windings • style • type of installation • degree of protection and protective devices as well as other data.1.6.5. S9) basically the same considerations apply.1 indicates which selection factors are important: 4.5 Procedure for selecting motors Most motors are operated in continuous duty S1. generally from several alternatives.3 Catalog data The degree to which an individual motor meets requirements can be determined by comparison of the motor to the manufacturer's catalog data.4 . Since the service life of electrical machinery depends largely on the continuous operating temperature.1 lists the most important parameters to be observed. Table 4. since every application requirement is different. whereas consultations with the suppliers are usually necessary due to the changing load conditions and the fluctuating winding temperatures.1.. the choice must be made carefully. The first selection consideration is the output in continuous duty. 4.3. depending on the application. 4.1 shows the most important data to be observed for design.
. and mech.PTC resistors Table 4. surface cooling Separate. wound rotor Model IM. limit. Type of protection IP. starting time s Tolerances Type of design Switching Delta. H Vibration amplitude Noise level Special regulations Terminal box Shaft ends Built-on. closed circuit cooling Insulation class B. inner cooling Self. star Rotor type Cage rotor.Three-phase Induction Motors Data to be defined Electrical requirements Type of current Three-phase current.Bimetallic switch .Thermistor protection . Part 7 IEC 34-7. if required Normal or reduced db Elect. for multivoltage motors indicate all values and possible tolerances V Hz Manufacturer specifications For motors with several speeds. always specify delta IEC 34-7. rating per speed For motors with several poles. Type of cooling Natural. space heater Temperature measuring instruments . tachogenerator Separately ventilation.1 4. F. if necessary For bearings or stator windings Make contacts or break contacts Catalog data for motors ..5. single phase current Frequency Catalog Data Type designation Rating Speed Rated current A Breakaway starting/rated current Torque Nm Breakaway/rated torque Pull-up/rated torque Pull-out/rated torque Moment of inertia kgm2 Efficiency η % Max. built-in components Brakes. speed per output Manufacturer specifications Manufacturer specifications For special applications Manufacturer specifications Manufacturer specifications Manufacturer specifications Manufacturer specifications Manufacturer specifications Manufacturer specifications Manufacturer specifications Established in standards For star-delta starting. Part 7 Indicate temp. blocking time s Max.5 Remarks Operating voltage. regulations Indicate type of protection and design if necessary Indicate type of protection and design if necessary Indicate switch or plug.
Also consider relative humidity Force direction with respect to shaft position Indicate distance from shaft shoulder Important data for motor design 4. if necessary kgm2 Convert for max.constant ..Three-phase Induction Motors Data to be defined Counter-torque .to. if req. Plugging or dynamic braking Continuous operation Temporary duty Intermittent periodic duty-type without starting Intermittent periodic duty with starting Intermittent periodic duty with starting and electrical braking Continuous-operation duty type Continuous operation-duty with starting and electrical braking Continuous-operation periodic duty with related load /speed changes Duty with nonperiodic load and speed variations min % %.6.full load starting .special curve Moment of inertia of load Type of starting .6 .. counterclockwise. Soft starter or load controller. c/h %.star-delta . Discuss with manufacturer..other methods Electrical braking Operating mode S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 Ambient temperature Altitude Direction of rotation Speed adjustment Climatic influences Bearing and shaft load Axial force Radial force Rotary forces Table 4.no-load starting . if req.. c/h % c/h %.quadratically increasing . or both method and from.1 N N N oC Remarks Nm Convert for motor shaft if nec. c/h meters above sea level clockwise. motor speed Intensified star-delta starting.
55 · η In a hoist. fan) reach the rated value at the start (for example. If this is not the case. and with consideration of efficiency η. wood-working machines) be present constantly or intermittently For a constant load torque ML = const. According to the load characteristics the load torque during acceleration can gradually build up (for example.7 . for lifting power P with a certain speed v and force F. 4. we find: P = lifting power in W F = lifting force in N v = lifting speed in m/s η = efficiency Power P = F·v η At any time during acceleration the load torque ML must be lower than the respective motor torque MM.2 Dimensioning using load torque The load torque ML results from the counter-torque of the driven machine plus the efficiency η with which all mechanical losses are recorded. the calculation is done using the following relation: P = power in W M = torque in Nm n = speed/min η = efficiency Power P = M·n 9. hoists) be present only after acceleration (for example. and rated speed n.Three-phase Induction Motors 4. no acceleration to higher speeds takes place.
The acceleration torque and the flywheel moment of the motor. transmission..2 Acceleration time The acceleration time tA can be determined from the relation above. MM ML Mbmi nb motor torque load torque mean acceleration torque operating speed Figure 4.3. A relatively simple method of determining it is shown in Figure 4. For a certain starting time tA the required acceleration torque MB is computed as follows: Acceleration torque MB = Mm .3 4. The difference is called the acceleration torque MB.8. The motor torque MM and load torque ML are plotted on graph paper and then the mean torques can be defined graphically.Three-phase Induction Motors 4.55 · tA = motor torque in Nm ML = load torque in Nm = starting time in s α = angular acceleration/s2 = motor speed/min ω = angular speed/s = mean acceleration torque in Nm = moment of inertia in kgm2 reduced to the motor shaft 4. This assumption is reached by calculating an average load torque and replacing the variable motor torque by a constant mean acceleration torque which is determined from the characteristic.8.1 Calculation using acceleration torque or acceleration time Acceleration torque A load can only be accelerated when the driving motor provides a greater torque than the load requires at the time.8 . if the mean acceleration torque MB is known. e. The final diagram will show the mean acceleration torque MB.g. by counting the squares. and system to be accelerated yield the acceleration time tA.ML = J' · α = J' · MM tA n MB J' ω = tΑ J' · 2π · n 60 · tA = J' · n 9. In many cases the simplified assumption is made that the load torque is constant during acceleration.1.3.1 Determining the mean acceleration torque by balancing the area on graph paper 4.
1 kgm2 The effective acceleration moment together with the load can be derived from the difference of the mean acceleration torque of the motor minus the continuously demanded rated torque of the load: MB = 1.5·Mn (J'+ JMot) · n (10.5 Nm 9.55 · MB Acceleration time tA = b) Acceleration time with load The moment of inertia of the load converted to the motor speed is: J' = JL · (nL/n)2 = 1000 kgm2 · (300 rpm/2980 rpm)2 = 10.5 · 352 Nm = 528.5Mn .3 kgm2 · 2 980 VPM J·n = = 0. J = 1.Three-phase Induction Motors Acceleration time in s tA = J’ · n 9.5 Nm 2π · 2 980/min 2π · n Rated torque of the motor Mn = Acceleration torque MB = 1.5 · Mn = 1.76 s 9.3 kgm2 at no-load have an average acceleration torque MB = 1.7 Nm 9.55 · MB Acceleration time tA = = 20 s 4.5 .7 Nm 1.55 · 528.Mn = 0. How long is a) the starting time at no-load? b) the starting time together with a load of JL = 1000 kgm2 at a speed of nL = 300 rpm if it continuously demands the rated torque during acceleration? Solution: a) Starting time at no-load 110 000 W · 60 P · 60 = = 352.55 · MB MB = mean acceleration torque in Nm J' = moment of inertia reduced to the motor shaft in kgm2 n = motor speed/min Example: Let a two-pole motor with n = 2980 rpm.5 · 352.55 · 0.3) kgm2 · 2 980 rpm = 9. Mn.1+1. P = 110 kW.9 .
reach their idle speed very quickly. with consideration of the change-over frequency. calenders.4 1 2 4 10 20 40 Rated Operating Power kW 100 200 Figure 4. These applications often require special motors and the corresponding switchgear.04 0. This is called heavy starting. etc. Only when large centrifugal masses must be accelerated are starting times very long. This is also generally the case in starting with a load.1 0. must be shorter than the maximum time specified by the manufacturer.10.1 shows the reference values for the starting time of standard motors as a function of rated power. ball mills.2 0. Figure 4.11. 20% speed increase per segment).10. transport systems and large fans. 4.4 0. for example.10 . which is the case. in centrifuges.1 Typical reference values for starting time of standard motors as a function of rated operating power 1 no-load starting (motor + clutch) 2 starting under load (without large centrifugal mass) If the curve of the load torque ML is complex and the motor torque MM is not constant. it is advantageous to divide the computation into individual zones as shown in Figure 4.Three-phase Induction Motors In choosing the motor the acceleration time tA. 10 4 2 Starting Time (s) 1 0. Unloaded motors and motors with only little additional centrifugal masses such as clutches.2 0.02 0.1 Then the acceleration times for the individual zones plus the average acceleration torques which take effect in the segment are computed and added for the individual speed segments (for example.
The frequency of changeover plays an important role in operating mode S4. the number of change-overs at which the motor reaches its maximum temperature without load and without an additional flywheel moment during idle operation.Three-phase Induction Motors Acceleration time for non-constant torques tA = ∑J' · ∆n 9.11 .55 · MB tA = starting time in s J' = moment of inertia reduced to the motor shaft in kgm2 ∆n = speed difference in rpm MB = acceleration torque in Nm 4. 4.11.. rpm Figure 4.e. i. This mean value may not exceed the rated current of the machine.1 Acceleration torque for computing the acceleration time when the motor torque MM and the load torque ML are not constant and exhibit a dramatically different behavior.4 Calculation using change-over frequency Frequent starting of motors is called switching mode and the maximum changeover frequency per hour must be checked. It is derived from the square mean value of current from the cycle characteristic. The allowable frequency of change-over of a motor is determined by its temperature limit. The manufacturer's data usually show the allowable no-load switching per hour.
and jogging. Thus the following applies to the number zZul of allowable switchings per hour: zL z0 JM · (MM .ML) (JZ + JM) · MM zZul = zz · = z0 · and converted: 4. adjustments. In this case the number of allowable switchings zz per hour can be computed based on the switching mode energy principle: Allowable switching operations with additional mass zz = allowable switching operations per hour with zz = z0 · JM JM + Jz additional mass z0 = allowable no-load switching operations per hour JM= Massenträgheitsmoment des Motors in kgm2 Jz= reduced additional mass moment of inertia in kgm2 In switched duty with an existing load moment ML the number of allowable switchings zL per hour is determined as follows: Allowable switchings with load torque zL = z0 · (MM .Three-phase Induction Motors Excessive change-overs which cause a response of protective devices or even destruction of the motor often occur during the commissioning phase.12 .ML) MM zL = allowable switchings per hour with load torque z0 = allowable no-load switching operations per hour MM = mean motor torque during acceleration in Nm ML = mean load torque during acceleration in Nm In practice there are usually a load flywheel Jz and an additional load torque ML. Often an additional inertia mass causes a load condition.
Imi ≤ In Most motor applications can be assigned to the 9 duty types S1 through S9..Three-phase Induction Motors Allowable switchings with additional load and flywheel moment 1 ..... 4.8000 1500..09.150 30.13..400 90. This method..18...1 2-pole 1500... The motor manufacturer can supply these data....130 6-pole 5500..2. In more complex situations... whereby the corresponding catalog data may not be less than the computed averages: Pmi ≤ Pn..5000 800 300.1000 200 50.4000 600 200.. where a definite selection is not possible.160 Table 4....900 270.40 4-pole 2500.. a similar duty type can be defined and then converted to S1..13 ..600 170.....55 75.8500 800...400 Typical no-load change-over frequency z0 per hour 4...5 Choosing with the use of catalog data Using the mean values for power Pmi..5 22 30.10000 1200 500..11000 2000. Mmi ≤ Mn...MLmi / MMmi zL zL = z0 · 1 + Jz / JM = allowable switching operations per hour with load flywheel and load torque z0 = allowable no-load switchings MMmi = mean motor torque during acceleration in Nm MLmi = mean load torque during acceleration in Nm Jz = reduced additional mass moment of inertia in kgm2 JM = mass moment of inertia of the motor in kgm2 Pn Rated power kW 0.5 2. torque Mmi and current Imi that were computed for less demanding conditions a motor can be chosen using catalog data.. requires detailed knowledge with respect to thermal time constants and cooling conditions.1.260 8-pole 7000.4000 400. however..
Three-phase Induction Motors 5 f FI h I Imi In J' Jext Equation Symbols Meaning frequency factor of inertia ratio of ventilated/ unventilated heat release current mean current (Ieff) rated current moment of inertia reduced to the motor shaft load moment of inertia in reference to the motor shaft moment of inertia of motor motor moment of inertia reduced additional mass moment of inertia additional moment of inertia ratio of equivalent load/no-load losses counter-torque factor load factor torque breakaway torque acceleration torque pull-out torque load torque mean load torque during acceleration Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm motor torque mean motor torque during acceleration mean torque rated torque pull-up torque Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm A A A supply line current effective value maximum continuous current Unit s-1 Remark line frequency Symbol kgm2 kgm2 kgm2 kgm2 kgm2 kgm2 JM Jmot JZ Jzus k0 kg kL M MA MB MK ML MLmi MM MMmi Mmi Mn MS 4.14 .
Three-phase Induction Motors Symbol n n n0 nn ns p P P2 P1 PCu PCuR PCuS PFe PLa PLu Pmech Pmi Pn Pth Pv PVR Pzus s S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 speed Meaning operating speed no-load speed rated speed synchronous speed pole pair number (pole number/2) power output power input power load loss ohmic loss in rotor ohmic loss in stator core loss in stator bearing friction loss windage loss motor mech.without starting .15 ...with starting and electrical braking 4... limit rating average power rated power thermal limit rating losses loss in rotor stray loss slip continuous duty temporary duty intermittent periodic duty-type intermittent periodic duty intermittent periodic duty Unit rpm rpm rpm rpm rpm Remark kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW kW roughly constant in operation square function of current square function of current roughly constant in operation roughly constant in operation roughly constant in operation ...with starting .
with related load /speed changes with non-periodic load and speed variations s. min s. min s. min s.. min s.. min. h V h-1 (per hour) h-1 h-1 h-1 h-1 % °C °C rpm zz zzul η ϑ ϑmax ∆n cosϕ Table of symbols and units 4... h min s. min. with starting and electrical braking .. min. h s.. operating time operating time braking time no-load time relative duty cycle cycle duration stopping time voltage no-load change-over frequency no-load starting frequency allowable switching operations per hour with load torque and possible additional mass allowable switching operations per hour with additional mass allowable change-over frequency efficiency temperature maximum temperature speed differential power factor Unit Remark .16 . min. with interucittent periodic load . h % s.Three-phase Induction Motors Symbol S6 S7 S8 S9 t T tA tB tB tBr tL tr tS tSt U z0 zA zL Meaning continuous-operation duty type continuous-operation duty continuous-operation periodic duty duty time thermal time constant starting time load time.
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