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Submitted in partial fulfilment of: BITS C221/BITS C231/BITS C241 Practice School-I
Prepared by: Prashant Chhabra Prankur Sharma 2009B2A4395P 2009B3A4622P
14 June, 2011 Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences, Pilani
A comprehensive report always requires the goodwill, encouragement, guidance and support of many people. We are grateful to our Vice Chancellor Prof. B.N. Jain for all the inspiration and motivation given for this report. We specially thank Mr. P. Mara Pandiyan, Chairman, MPT for giving us the privilege to come here and do our Practice School programme. We also like to thank Mr. K. C. Kuncheria, CME who gave us our project and provided us the motivation to put our full effort towards it. We thank Mr. Athait, our project guide who always pointed to the right path and providing us with every facility required. We deeply acknowledge the contribution of Mr. Singbal who provided useful documents and insights. We are deeply indebted to Mr. Narayan Manjarekar our PS instructor for his unflinching support and guidance We also thank Mr. Tiko, Mr. Gupta and Mr. Joseph for showing us the plant facilities and giving an indepth explanation to many aspects of our project. At last we express our sincere thanks to all our friends for their constant encouragement, guidance and help rendered whenever necessary. We wish to express our appreciation to all friends who spared a great amount of time in going through the report and providing suggestions and error-free proof reading. It would be impossible to refer in detail to the many persons who have been consulted in the compilation of this work. We may be excused for not naming them individually. Prashant Chhabra Prankur Sharma
Mormugao Port occupies a prominent position as India's premier iron ore exporting port. This report gives a background of the Mormugao Port Trust. It lists the facilities available at the Port of Mormugao for Iron Ore cargo laying stress on the Mechanical Ore Handling Plant (MOHP) at Berth No. 9 of the Mormugao Port. It also explores the dynamics of Iron Ore Mining in the state of Goa while studying its availability and marketability. This report thus aims at documenting the contribution of Mormugao Port as a major centre of Iron Ore export and Iron Ore mining in the Goan context.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction 2. Some Basic Information about Mormugao Port 3. Brief History of Mormugao Port Trust 4. Imports and Exports through Mormugao Port 5. Berths and Mooring Dolphins 6. Facilities at Port 7. MPT and Iron Ore 8. Total Iron Ore Export through Mormugao Port over Last 3 Years 9. Mechanical Ore Handling Plant (M. O.H. P.) At Berth No. 9 10. Brief Description of the Facilties at MOHP 11. Transhippers 12. Map of the MOHP 13. Equipment at M. O. H. P. for handling of Cargo 14. Iron Ore Handling Facilities at Mormugao Port as compared to other iiiiiiMajor Indian Ports 15. Operation cycle at MOHP 16. Mining in Goa 17. Company Profiles of Major Players in Iron Ore Mining 18. Factors supporting Iron Ore Mining in Goa 19. Iron Ore Mining Areas in the state of Goa 20. Types of Iron Ores found in Goa 21. Case Study: Study of Operations of SESA-GOA 22. Conclusion 23. Bibliography 1 3 5 8 9 10 12 14 15 16 17 18 19
23 24 25 29 30 31 32 34 42 43
Table of Illustrations Illustration 1: Major Ports of India Illustration 2: Transworld Trade Links of MPT Illustration 3: Commodity . 9 Illustration 6: Shipper-Wise Exports of Iron Ore from Mormugao Port (In '000 Tonnes) Illustration 7: Schematic Diagram of the MOHP Illustration 8: Finger Jetty and T-Shaped Jetty Illustration 9: Barge Unloaders at MOHP Illustration 10: Conveyor Belt carrying Cargo at MOHP Illustration 11: Reclaimer reclaiming Iron Ore from the Stockyard Illustration 12: A shiploader loading a hatch of the vessel Illustration 13: Summary of Iron Handling Facilities at Major Ports Illustration 14: Schematic Diagram of the Stockyard Illustration 15: Investment Climate of the State with regard to Mining Illustration 16: Brief about the 4 Major Iron Ore Mining Companies Illustration 17: Minerals Map of Goa Illustration 18: Characteristic of Important Haematite Deposits in Goa Illustration 19: Content of Iron Ore Fines Gradewise Illustration 20: Content of Iron Ore Lumps Gradewise Illustration 21: Total Iron Ore Sales by SESA-GOA over Last 5 Years Illustration 22: Statewise Production of Iron Ore by SESA-GOA (in million tonnes) 14 18 19 20 21 21 22 23 24 26 29 32 34 34 35 40 41 8 9 12 3 4 .Wise Traffic Handled At Mormugao Port from 2007-2008 to 2009-10 Illustration 4: Berths and Mooring Dolphins at MPT Illustration 5: A ship being loaded at Berth No.
So. laminated. The balance resources are spread over in the state of Maharashtra. The vision for Mormugao Port Trust is: ―MPT wishes to be the preferred port for the region. Madhya Pradesh.004 million tonnes are reserves and 7. Major Haematite resources are located mainly in Jharkhand-4036 million tonnes (28%). Mormugao Port is the largest iron ore exporting port of India and is a major import port for cooking coal. laminated. The major deposits of iron ore are located in Jharkhand. providing quality of life for the workforce and support to the community. friable and also in powdery form. Karnataka-1676 million tonnes (11%) and Goa-713 million tonnes (5%). This strategic location of port makes it really important. Orissa. One of the twelve major ports in India is situated in Goa state. India possesses haematite resources of 14. The port has 11 berths of which the most important berth of the port is berth no.‖ The major commodity handled by this port is Iron ore. haematite is considered to be superior because of its high grade.9 which handles iron-ore. About 60% of haematite ore deposits are found in the Eastern sector and about 80% magnetite ore deposits occur in the Southern sector.626 million tonnes are remaining resources.630 million tonnes of which 7. Haematite and magnetite are the most prominent of the iron ores found in India. Indian deposits of haematite belong to pre-Cambrian iron ore series and the ore is within banded iron ore formations occurring as massive. 1 . To handle this voluminous cargo port has installed Mechanical Ore Handling Plant (MOHP). Chattisgarh-2731 million tonnes (19%). Introduction The Port of Mormugao. the port is easily accessible to the mines located in hinterland. especially in Karnataka. Chhattisgarh. The rivers Zuari and Mandovi are navigable for barges. Indian deposits of haematite belong to the pre-Cambrian iron ore series and the ore is within banded iron ore formations occurring as massive. Karnataka and Goa States. Port earns around 70% of its revenues from iron-ore export. efficiency in cargo handling and service to customers. Of these. between the major ports of Mumbai and New Mangalore. Orissa-4761 million tonnes (33%).1. recognised for its environmental policies. friable and also in powder form.
These interviews gave us more insight about the whole process than any other written document. (Goa region) about 40 Mt of iron ore is produced during 2009-10 and another 2. Uttar Pradesh and Assam together contain around 4% of haematite. Normally. 2 . manual and mechanized.5 times of the waste is excavated as overburden. The current production capacity of iron ore in India is around 160 Mt. i. hydraulic excavator and wheel loaders are the principal loading equipment used. Majority of the large mechanised mines are in the public sectors whereas manual mines are mainly in the private sector. Central and Southern zone do not contain much overburden material except laterite and some low grade ferruginous shales and BHQ patches. and 7Mts. technicians and the barge crew. height of benches is restricted between 4Mts. However. the mining can be broadly divided into two categories. For the preparation of our report we interviewed operators. The methodology being adopted for winning of iron ore is by shovel – dumper combination in case of major mechanised iron ore mines.e. The bench height generally adopted in iron ore mines in India is ranging from 6meters to 14meters and the slope of the benches ranging from 450 to 600 depending on the consistency / tensile strength of the rock. iron ore mining in India is done by opencast method and on the basis of mining methods. in Goa region where the ore is softer.5 to 3.. iron ore mining in India being done by developing benches from the top of the hill and carried downwards as the ore at the top gets exhausted. In general. The iron ore deposits of the Eastern. Rajasthan.Andhra Pradesh. whereas in Western zone.
Illustration 1: Major Ports of India 3 . It is an open type harbour protected by a breakwater and a mole built from the outer end of the breakwater and running parallel to the quay.2. The port is approximately 370 kms south of Mumbai and 300 kms North of New Mangalore and 575 kms north of Kochi. a protected open type natural harbour is situated on magnificent and hospitable coastline on the West Coast of India at in the State of Goa. Some Basic Information about Mormugao Port Mormugao Port. The harbour is also protected from the South West Monsoon as it has been constructed on the leeward side of Mormugao Headland.
GOA one of the oldest ports on the west coast of India. Steel slabs. The remaining traffic consisted of cargoes like fertilizer.1963.Mormugao Port. Japan.85 million tonnes which is 9% of the total traffic of 560. has been relentlessly serving the nation in its economic development for over a century.64 million tonnes of coal/coke and 1. A quantity of over 40.65 million tonnes. European and Gulf countries. limestone. The general cargo traffic was 6. Illustration 2: Transworld Trade Links of MPT Mormugao Port occupies a prominent position as India's premier iron ore exporting port. During the financial year 2009-2010 the port handled a traffic of 48. alumina. Bauxite etc.32 million tonnes of iron ore is exported in 2009-10 through this port mainly to China. 4 .01 million tonnes of iron ore.12. A quantity of 191. Korea. containerized cargo.815 tonnes (in 17297 TEUs) of containerized cargo was also handled at the port during the period.97 million tonnes handled by all the twelve major ports of India. The Port was declared a Major Port on 2.62 million tonnes of petroleum products and other liquid cargo.Steel Coil. with a fine natural harbour. H. The traffic during the year consisted of 40. This accounts for about 35% of the total iron ore export from India.57 million tonnes of iron ore including iron ore pellets. The Mechanical Ore Handling Plant loaded 12. 5. Sugar.R.
As the years rolled by. By 1922." In accordance with this.6. The Liberation of Goa on December 19. Pvt. A mole of 270 meters was added. The Port of Mormugao was now poised for a dramatic growth. envisaging "dedicated berth fitted with Mechanical Ore Loading Plants. 1961 marked the end of an epoch in Goan history. She introduced Goan cashew nuts to American chocolate makers. with a capacity of 1000 tph. Ltd.40 meters. a Master Plan was evolved by the Portuguese for the development of Mormugao Port as an iron ore terminal. The Port however. Berths 4 and 5 were built and the breakwater was extended to its present length of 522. But cashew nuts. The year was 1929. From 1948 onwards the iron ore traffic gained importance. provided and financed by various iron ore exporters. Others avenues had earlier been opened by enterprising foreigners. Berth 7 was constructed as an adjunct to it. Josephine Hougaz was one such an ethnic Syrian holding a US passport.3. With the emergence of mining as a major industry in Goa. Wall Street had crashed. in 1959 M/s Chowgule & Co. was permitted to set up Asia's very first Mechanical Ore Handling Plant at Berth No. It would no more be a sleepy port importing table wines from Portugal and exporting oil cakes from Hubli. operated its own railway system between Vasco da Gama interchange point and the harbour area. A couple of years after liberation. until then the preferred fillings for American chocolate and pastry makers had reached levels that were beyond most of their consumers. for almonds and walnuts. though subject to considerable sea freight additional for 5 . Japan preferred Goan Iron ore for its expanding steel industry on account of price consideration and other logistics. The Japanese were rebuilding their nation and Goan iron ore was fated to play a key role in the Japanese industrial renaissance. the infrastructure slowly kept growing. the Mormugao Port comprised of 3 berths along with a breakwater having a length of 358 meters. The main railway section from Vasco da Gama to the border of Goa was transferred to the Southern Railways. the port was delinked from the Railway management. Brief History of Mormugao Port Trust At the time of its commissioning in 1888. Mormugao Port went through a fair amount of change as the emphasis shifted to development of infrastructure.
In 1965 therefore. by the consulting engineering firm of Randal. Chowgule & Co. Ltd. Palmer & Tritton. seeking to develop Mormugao Port systematically for providing deep waters and high capacity loading. Ltd. a Perspective Plan was drawn up by a reputed firm of consulting engineers. obtained a concession from the Portuguese government and set up a Mechanical Ore Handling Plant with a handling capacity of 10. 6 . In 1959. In the years that followed. The declaration of Mormugao as a Major Port in 1964 was a milestone in the annals of its history as it joined the ranks of the country's ten major Ports.4 lakh to 14. the mineral ore industry today was seeing a sea of changes in iron ore market. Chowgule & Co.000 tonnes per day. which needed to be competitive in the international arena by reducing the transportation cost. It was. particularly in relation to iron ore exports. The growth of traffic accentuated the inadequacy of the available port facilities but it offered new opportunities to daring entrepreneurs. Pvt.8 million tonnes in 1973-74. The level of traffic at the port rose to over 2. it is claimed. obtained a concession from the Portuguese government and set up a Mechanical Ore Handling Plant with a handling capacity of 10.importers. the first of its kind in Asia. The Port administration could now embark upon a sustained development programme as its newly formed Board of Trustees was empowered to take major decisions financial or otherwise.78 lakhs tonnes in the year 1953. were in comparison cheap but nutritious and tasty American confectioners took to Goan cashew nuts in the year of the Wall Street crash.000 tonnes per day. brought about revolutionary changes in the pattern of Mormugao Port traffic. In 1959. a 20-year perspective plan for the port development was prepared in February 1965. As a first step in that direction. the iron exported through Mormugao constitutes 39 per cent of the total iron ore exports from India. Today. The exploitation of iron ore mines in Goa on a commercial scale since 1947. the traffic grew by leaps and bounds reaching the mark of 6. and the port occupies a prestigious position amongst the Major Ports of the country. With the rise of Brazil and Australia in recent times as aggressive ore exporters. The growth of traffic accentuated the inadequacy of the available port facilities but It offered new opportunities to daring entrepreneurs. Pvt.
berth No. In 1997. Ltd. were appointed to prepare the design study for the establishment of a modern mechanical ore handling facility for the port within the framework of the perspective plan. Meanwhile the Mechanical Ore Handling Plant installed in 1959 at Berth No. 8 was constructed in 1976. for installing a modern ship repair facility. Ltd. in February 1968. stockpiling.Thereafter.000 tonnes per hour. a dedicated mineral oil berth. Western India Shipyard Ltd. ore carriers initially.00 mts and 12.000 dwt. By this. Later on as the general cargo traffic was gradually picking up in the Port. 11 having draft of 11. Consequently. the Mormugao Port is now accessible for any part of the country through the broad gauge railway system. A number of developmental projects were implemented under the various Five Year Plans of the Government of India. Major developments of the Port were taken up only after it became a Major Port. reclaiming. which was commissioned in 1995. Two multi-purpose general cargo berths. As a follow-up on the report by HOWE (India) Pvt. berth No. 7 . sampling. The rated loading capacity of the ore handling system was of the order of 8. The dredging of the channel and berths was carried out to permit the loading of 60. a mechanized ore handling facility for receiving. Barge unloaders and rail wagon tippers were provided for quicker and more efficient handling of incoming ore. The age old berths 1 to 3 were leased out to a private company. HOWE (India) Pvt. 6 was de-commissioned in 1992 due to obsolesce.50 mts were constructed and commissioned in 1985 and 1994 respectively. a number of schemes were implemented with a view to augment the general cargo handling facilities at the Port.10 and No. the metre gauge railway of the Port linking to the south Central Railway was converted to broad gauge. and ship-loading of 12 million tonnes of iron ore annually was installed and commissioned in 1979. weighing.
and fertilizer (830 thousand tons). from 41. Other imports included coal (1. Mormugao Port is the premier iron ore exporting Port of India with an annual throughput of around 33.5 million tonnes a year earlier on increased shipments.Wise Traffic Handled At Mormugao Port from 2007-2008 to 2009-10 Imports The Port of Mormugao imported over 19. Other imports included limestone. liquefied petroleum gas (1. and Exports Iron ore exports from Mormugao Port in Goa may rise 10. 8 . Imports and Exports through Mormugao Port Illustration 3: Commodity .6 million tons of cargo Imports were dominated by 12. cement.81 million tones of iron ore traffic.4 million tons).8 per cent to 46 million tonnes in the current financial year. timber.8 million tons of POL Crude.7 million tons).4.
Berths and Mooring Dolphins The present berthing facilities available at the Port are as follows: Illustration 4: Berths and Mooring Dolphins at MPT 9 .5.
Berths. 5.2. all weather. Facilities at Port Harbour Data. Chart Nos. Approach Channel Length of Outer Channel : 5. 492. Moorings & Anchorage Facilities 1.) on the ships radar in X-band.0m 3. Pilotage Pilotage is compulsory for inward and outward movement of ships and movement between 10 .6. One Radio Beacon 'RACON' works round-the-clock in all weathers at Aguada Light House displaying two dashes and one dot (--. of 480 m diameter Tidal Range : Springs. Vessel Traffic Management System (VTMS) In tune with the latest practices in ports world-wide.2.4 m to 13.3 m/ Neaps-1. 2. 12. Communications Signal station situated on the north-west of the Mormugao Headland functions round-theclock with telephone service and VHF channel 16.1 m below chart datum Turning Basins : 2 nos. 1509. Vessel Traffic Management System (VTMS) on to provide a highly sophisticated computerized radar & AIS system for vessel traffic control and safety in the navigational channel and other areas of port waters.A. 2020. 14.kms Length of Inner Channel : 2. 2022 & 2078 and B. Navigational Aids The approach channel of Mormugao Port is marked by lighted buoys in addition to other navigational aids prescribed in the Indian Naval Hydrographical Chart nos. 4. 11 & 10 having the call sign "GOA PORT".3 kms Width of Channel : 250 m Depth : 14. Mormugao Port has commissioned state of the art.
etc. Pilotage service is provided round-the-clock with prior advice to the Harbour Master through agents. Anchorage The large roadstead to the West and the North-West of the Harbour provides anchorage in stream for more than 20 ships during the eight months fair season (October to May) and 8 ships can be accommodated inside the break water throughout the year. 6. One Self propelled water barge of 200 tonnes capacity One Dumb barge capable of handling mooring and channel buoys. Flotilla Four Launches for line handling. survey. One security launch for patrolling.berths and mooring within the harbour. pilotage is restricted to day light hours only. pilotage.slops. During monsoon season.m. 8. 11 . supplying 100 tonnes fresh water and receiving 50 cu. Tugs Two VST Fire Fighting Tugs of 45 T Bollard pull One ASD Tug of 45 T Bollard pull One VST Fire Fighting Tug of 30 T Bollard pull 7.
9 permits the loading of Panamax as well as Cape size vessels alongside the Mechanical Ore handling plant. is a unique instance of private investment. The port has constructed 3 mooring dolphins capable of handling three to four vessels at a time. countries like China. MPT and Iron Ore Over the years. This form of combination loading enables vessels of 2. The strength of this long relationship can be seen from the fact that the Port is consistently recording the highest export tonnage of ore in the country.000 DWT to be served at Mormugao port. During the economic blockade years of 1955-1961. it was iron ore that kept Mormugao port alive and functioning. considering 12 . in the process branching out into related industries that have made them increasingly self sufficient and reliant. 9 Ever since the inception of the iron ore trade in Goa. ore exporters have displayed a remarkable ability to adapt and devise innovative responses to changing circumstances and times. At present. South Korea. the port and the iron ore industry have developed a symbiotic relationship. importing 28.30 million tonnes of traffic annually.7. Today.50. which uptop the vessel in midstream. This facility can handle 5. the mine owners have acquired transhippers.76 million tonnes of ore during the year 2008-2009 Illustration 5: A ship being loaded at Berth No. Italy and other European countries have joined the roster of countries to which Goan iron ore is exported. China has replaced Japan as the largest consumer. Undaunted. The present draft at Berth No. helping to raise the port to international standards and enabling Goa retain its place in the world Iron ore market.
13 .the demand for trade.00 million tonnes of traffic annually. Recently the port has introduced Trade Promotion Scheme whereby Ships are permitted to load by Ships' own gears at West of Breakwater. additional 3 mooring dolphins are constructed which could handle 2.
2008 8252 2868 1823 2001 2251 414 106 489 66 274 498 2087 548 5625 27302 2008 . Salgaocar Sales International Prime Minerals Exp.8. VGM / VMCPL V. MMTC Bharat Mines & Minerals Ltd Timblo Pvt. Ltd Sociedade de Fomento Industrial Pvt. Ltd. Ltd MSPL Ltd Damodar Mangalji & Co Ltd OTHERS TOTAL 2007 .2009 11011 3167 2052 2204 2438 235 28 543 130 81 2504 1935 1407 6074 33809 2009 .2010 11531 3353 2490 3226 2910 275 47 444 92 532 3498 879 1759 9284 40320 Illustration 6: Shipper-Wise Exports of Iron Ore from Mormugao Port (In '000 Tonnes) 14 .S. Ltd Chowgule & Co Pvt. Ltd V.M.Salgaocar & Co Pvt. Dempo & Co Pvt. Ltd V. Total Iron Ore Export through Mormugao Port over Last 3 Years SHIPPER Sesa Goa Pvt.M. Ltd.
9 MPT provides a service to exporters for handling their iron ore. While ships of 70. feeding 3 Cross Conveyors. by aggregating the same at MPTs stockyard and loading it onto vessels nominated for export.A of up to 335 Mts.000 DWT to over 2. The Port provides a fully Mechanised Ore Handling Plant at berth no. O. which stack the cargo in the stock yard.H. stock-piling at the plots and loading in vessels of sizes ranging from 30. The MOHP has 8 Barge Unloaders and 1 continuous Barge Unloader.vessels can be loaded at this berth up to a draft of 14.9 to handle over 12 million tonnes of iron ore. The aim of the Plant is to ensure that productivity is maximized without compromising safety. at all stages of tide during fair season.3Mts. by receiving them from barges. In conjunction with high water and 13. bigger vessels can be loaded upto permissible draft and thereafter up-topped by privately owned transhippers. Mechanical Ore Handling Plant (M. and beam 50Mts.) At Berth No.000 DWT can be fully loaded at this berth. which are licensed to operate in this port. maintenance or the health of the Plant 15 .O. Each exporter has a plot of specified dimensions. per annum. in this stack yard. This ore is brought by river in barges and unloaded at the MOHP. P. 10.000 DWT with L. leading to the Stackers.1 Mts. This is achieved through the Mechanical Ore Handling Plant (MOHP).9.
10 lakh tonnes 115 lakh tonnes Average Ship loading rate: 45 -50. Brief Description of the Facilties at MOHP Acceptable size of vessel at Berth 9: Maximum Permissible LOA BEAM Air Draft Draft in conjunction with tide DWT (approx.000m2 approx.) Parcel size (approx.10.000 tonnes Stockyard at Mechanical Ore Handling Complex: Area Storage capacity Annual Capacity 80.75.000 1.50.0 m 2. 16 .) 335 m 52 m 19.5 m 14.000 tonnes per day.
Four transhippers operate except: during the monsoon period. The capacity of these transhippers is estimated at 11. each with an average loading capacity of about 15.5 million tonnes per year. Panjim. At times.000 tonnes or more by transhippers (loading vessels). Ship loading also takes place in the river at the mooring dolphins.9 to the permissible draft. the transhippers and the nearby competitor port. which are owned and maintained by the exporters. 17 . Transhippers. The transhippers thus play a complementary role in the port's operations and help raise Mormugao port to international standards. are all closed.000 tpd are operated by private exporters in mid-stream for uptopping large size vessels that are initially loaded by MOHP at berth No.000T/day is operating at west of breakwater.11. ships are permitted to be loaded wholly by transhippers in mid stream. Transhippers At present the limited draft at Berth No: 9. In addition to the above. particularly during the monsoon when Berth 9. carrying out both primary loading and uptopping. However the Cape size vessels can be up topped upto 200. one floating crane with loading capacity of 10. permits the loading of only Panamax size vessels.
12. Map of the MOHP Illustration 7: Schematic Diagram of the MOHP 18 .
limestone. Illustration 8: Finger Jetty and T-Shaped Jetty 2. or for forming basins along the sea-coast for ports in tideless seas.13.000 tons per hour. Continuous Barge Unloader (CBU) For high capacity unloading applications. and maritime works that are generally carried out in pairs from river banks. The Continuous Barge Unloader is designed to unload materials such as coal. This extremely efficient machine maintains a much higher average offloading rate than other types 19 . H. for handling of Cargo 1. The forms and construction of these jetties are as varied as their uses. Finger Jetty A jetty is any of a variety of structures used in river. efficient unloading option when compared with alternate unloading methods. Moreover. or out into docks. woodchips and grains from barges at free digging rates of up to 5. ore. CBUs and CSUs offer an economical. and outside their entrances. there should be sufficient water depth as the berths at finger jetty is relatively close to shoreline when compared with T-shaped jetty so that it is anticipated that vessels are required to berth at shallower water. P. However. petroleum coke. lime. Equipment at M. there should be no cross current to enhance berthing at both sides of finger jetty. Comparison between a Finger Jetty and T-Jetty: Finger jetty is a more efficient pier structure because it could accommodate vessels at both sides of the jetty. or in continuation of river channels at their outlets into deep water. dock. O.
moving the belt and the material on the belt forward. 20 A Simple Conveyor Belt System . The ship unloader typically incorporates a hopper that provides a metered material flow to the pier conveyor and traverses the ship on pier-mounted rails to access each hold. ores. The clamshell is suspended from a traversing trolley and is raised and lowered by a winch. bulk iron ore. The CBU is very easy to operate. caked or frozen lumps or pellets. There are two main industrial classes of belt conveyors. etc. with a continuous loop of material . The grab bucket is found suitable for handling or unloading from barges and storage areas. while horsepower requirements are less than pneumatic systems. Those in general material handling such as those moving boxes along inside a factory and bulk material handling such as those used to transport industrial and agricultural materials. 4. unloading with each scoop different quantities. generally in outdoor locations. depending on the design specifications. The powered pulley is called the drive pulley while the unpowered pulley is called the idler. coal. does not degrade fragile products and can be installed quickly due to modular construction. ore fines. A clamshell bucket is cycled In and out of the ships hold. Illustration 9: Barge Unloaders at MOHP 3. such as grain.of barge unloaders. Grab Barge Unloader (GBU) The grab type ship unloader is the traditional method to unload bulk cargo. Conveyor Belt A conveyor belt (or belt conveyor) consists of two or more pulleys.the conveyor belt . One or both of the pulleys are powered.that rotates about them.
Some stackers are able to rotate by slewing the boom. ores and cereals onto a stockpile. A stacker can usually move in at least two directions typically: horizontally along the rail and vertically by luffing its boom. A stacker's function is to pile bulk material such as limestone. but the main operation is performed on a fixed place.Illustration 10: Conveyor Belt carrying Cargo at MOHP 5. Stacker A stacker is a large machine used in bulk material handling applications. one on either side of the conveyor. The boom is luffed upwards as the stockpile height grows. 6. Luffing of the boom minimises dust by reducing the height that the coal needs to fall to the top of the stockpile. A stacker usually operates on a rail-like structure with movable wheels. This allows a single stacker to form two stockpiles. Reclaimer Illustration 11: Reclaimer reclaiming Iron Ore from the Stockyard 21 . Stackers are nominally rated in tph (tonnes per hour) for capacity and normally travel on a rail between stockpiles in the stockyard.
Illustration 12: A shiploader loading a hatch of the vessel It is usually mounted on rails and sometimes on tyres and can move in order to be able to reach the whole length of the ship. It mainly consists of an extendable arm or boom. a belt conveyor and a mobile structure to support the boom. 7. grains into marine vessels for transportation by sea. Bucket wheel reclaimers use "bucket wheels" for removing material from the pile they are reclaiming. A bucket wheel reclaimer can typically move in three directions: horizontally along the rail. up and down by separate drives so that it can fill all the corners of the ship holds. vertically by "luffing" its boom and rotationally by slewing its boom. A reclaimer's function is to recover bulk material such as ores and cereals from a stockpile. The boom also can move front and back. coal. fertilizers. Shiploader A Shiploader is a huge machine used for loading bulk solid materials like iron ore. Reclaimers normally travel on a rail between stockpiles in the stockyard.A reclaimer is a large machine used in bulk material handling applications. 22 .
Iron Ore Handling Facilities at Mormugao Port as compared to other iiiiiMajor Indian Ports Illustration 13: Summary of Iron Handling Facilities at Major Ports 23 .14.
second one can stack it on any of the plots on the sea side plot or middle plot and the third one can stack only on the sea side plot. This grab weighs around 8tons with shell assembly and saddle with chain links. middle plot and landside plot. It is operated with the help of hold/close wire ropes 2 nos. Illustration 14: Schematic Diagram of the Stockyard There are 3 stackers. The grab used for barge unloading is Smag /Scissor type. Operation cycle at MOHP The structure at unloading point: There are 5 finger jetties with 4 jetties having 2 Grab Barge Unloaders (GBU) each and the 5th one is having a Continuous Barge Unloader (CBU). 24 . There are winch drums for hold/close and wire ropes are separately powered by 250 KW gearboxes. The unloading of ore at Ore handling plant (OHP) in Goa. The first one can stack the ore at any of the plots on the middle plot and the land side plot. A maximum of 3 unloaders can feed one stacker.15. The stockyard is divided into 3 parts sea side plot. India is done with wire rope operated grab un-loader. each. one in between the land side and middle plot and second between the sea side and middle plot and the last one is on the other side of the sea side plot. These pick up ore from the barge and drop it in the hopper which is then transferred to the conveyor belt and through the system of conveyors is fed to the stacker which stacks the iron ore on the stockyard. The continuous barge unloader is faster but cannot handle certain grade of iron ore.
e.There are 3 streams i. There are 2 loaders which can load the ship at the same time. 25 . a system of conveyor belts and a stacker. which can carry 3 grades of iron ore from different exporters without contamination. One the reclaimer is between the middle plot and the land side plot which can retrieve the iron ore from any of the plots on land side or middle plot. From the reclaimers the iron ore is loaded into the vessels by loaders which get the iron ore from the reclaimers through conveyor belts. From the reclaimers the iron ore is loaded into the vessels by loaders which get the iron ore. There are 2 reclaimers to transfer iron ore from stockyard to the vessel.
which necessitates the removal of over-burden overlying the iron-ore formations. •Most mines in Goa are of the open-cast type. Brief Description of the Mining Industry in Goa •The mining belt of Goa covers an area of approximately 700 sq km and is mostly concentrated in the four talukas of Bicholim. manganese and bauxite ores are the major minerals found in Goa. Sanguemand and Quepem. Salcete. Overview Mining has been a very important element in the economic history of modern Goa and a significant foreign exchange earner for the state.9 million tonnes in 2008). Illustration 15: Investment Climate of the State with regard to Mining 26 .16. •Iron. •Mining (especially of iron-ore) along with tourism is an important industry and the state exports over 40 per cent of country‘s iron-ore (45.1. Recently.2. 16. it has been designated as the industry at par with tourism. Mining in Goa 16.
Bicholim of North Goa district and Salcete. opencast type of mining techniques is used to extract iron/manganese ores. The mining belt of Goa is divided into three regions based on the concentration of the iron ore.4. 16.3. in the process removal of which about 40 to 50 million of mining waste is generated. The pit configurations are planned in such a way that the overall pits slopes remains at 30 degree or less with the horizontal. The average annual production of iron ore is about 45 to 46 million tonnes. km and is mostly concentrated in four talukas namely. namely. Certain natural factors like the presence of coastline.It has provided the trigger to boost economy of the mining talukas. bench height and width are maintained at 7m and 10m respectively. Central and Southern Zone. Goa is a major iron ore exporting state and over 40% of Country's iron ore export is from Goa. On an average about 2. Northern. Usgao River is the dividing line for northern and central zone and Sanguem River between the central and southern zone.5000 crore per annum. Sanguem and Quepem of South Goa district. 16. Sattari and Quepem. It is carried out by forming systematic benches on the hilltop and along hill slopes and the pits are laterally extended in stages in all directions with increasing depth. Mining and associated activities have greatly affected the natural landscape in and around these areas. 27 . Operation mechanism In Goa.5 to 3 tonnes of mining waste has to be excavated so as to produce a tone of iron ore. Such a huge quantity of mining waste creates a problem for its storage thereby causing severe environmental pollution. which is characterized by the presence of pits and waste rejects. Mining in Goa is done by open cast method which necessitates the removal of overburden overlying the iron ore formations. Transport of ores by barges is the cheapest option as compared to road and rail transport. In terms of foreign exchange earnings it amounts to nearly Rs. The maximum area under mining is in Sanguem Taluka followed by Bicholim. a very good natural harbour at Mormugao and a number of navigable perennial rivers have promoted the economic exploitation of mineral deposits. In general. Mining Belt of Goa The mining belt of Goa covers approximately 700 sq.
16. c. The damage is more evidenced during monsoon where the rain water carries the washed out material from the waste dumps to the adjoining low-lying agricultural fields and water streams. The washed out material from the dumps and the flow of slimes from the beneficial plants besides polluting the water causes Siltation of water. Wet or dry processing of the mined material so as to attain the desired cut-off grade of the iron ore. Several major environmental problems caused due to mining operations are as under: Deforestation Land degradation Groundwater pollution Surface water pollution Dust pollution Damage to beaches 28 .ways. Extraction of lumpy ore zone followed by powdery ore zone.e. Such silting of water ways over the years may trigger years even flooding of the adjacent fields and inhabited areas. Systematic removal of lateritic overburden. Impact on Environment Mining has also created a degraded environment and is also a matter of concern. (i. It is stated that the slimes and silts. 62% of iron) for export purpose.5. and slimes from the beneficiation plant.Sequence of mining operation involves a. Drilling and blasting is practiced in hard and compact Laterite b. especially during monsoon. especially during monsoon. which enter the agricultural field are of such character that they get hardened on drying. Soft Laterite is removed by dozing and ripping. Damage to the environment is mainly done by the reject dumps. pumping out of muddy waters from the working pits including those where the mining operations have gone below the water table.
Company Profiles of Major Players in Iron Ore Mining Illustration 16: Brief about the 4 Major Iron Ore Mining Companies 29 .17.
Processing of the ore normally comprises of crushing to meet the requisite size specification and/or washing to remove the impurities as well as upgrade the iron content to the specific buyer requirement. lighterage. The Mormugao Port offers a wide range of standard facilities for pilotage. The major players in the Goan iron industry are Sesa Goa. However the Cape size vessels can be up topped upto 200. At present the limited draft at Berth No: 9. Factors supporting Iron Ore Mining in Goa Goa Iron ore Goa besides its popularity as a tourist destination is famous for its mining industry that largely comprises of iron and manganese ore mines. Manual Mid-stream loading. loading. Mormugao Port in Goa currently more than 50% of ore loading is done through Berth No: 9. Mormugao port has a mechanical ore-handling complex. unloading. permits the loading of only Panamax size vessels. bunkering. Fomento and the Timblos. China. The rest is through Transhipper harboured within the Port limits of Mormugao & Panaji Port. transit sheds. Mormugao Port. Japan. It may be considered a mono Port. Magnetic processing is also utilized to upgrade the iron ore. Dempos. as 85% of the cargo handled is Iron Ore. for different countries across Asia and Europe notably. Chowgules. Korea. warehouses. freighting. Berth No: 9 is exclusively allocated for handling Iron Ore. Salgaocars. towage.000 tonnes or more by transhippers (loading vessels). and at other specialised private firms. The most specialized services for ore handling are provided. The recent demand for iron ore from China has seen a boom in this industry that has seen large inflow of investment in processing plants and handling facilities as well as new entrants. The Goan iron ore is normally of iron content of 58%-63% and used as a blend with high-grade ore. 30 . Repair and service facilities are available at Goa Shipyard. Mormugao Port is a natural harbour. The iron ore exports comprise of fines as well as lumps. medical aid and supplies etc. The advantage of the Goan mining industry has been the network of rivers that connect the mines with the natural port that provides a cost effective and efficient mechanism to transport the ore besides the abundant reserve of iron ore deposits. The Goan iron ore deposits have been a source of iron ore to the steel industry.18. Government of India Undertaking. Goa has earned the status of the largest exporter of iron ore in India. It is a noteworthy fact that the Goan exporters are the major contributors to the flourishing of these ports. etc.
The transhippers thus play a complementary role in the port's operations and help raise Mormugao port to international standards. the Goan exporters have also invested in transfer vessel to uptop balance quantity.000 ~ 25. The congestion at Mormugao Port Trust is thereby reduced due to the introduction of Panaji Port.000 DWT can be easily loaded at an average output of around 20. On an average. Currently.000 DWT.which are owned and maintained by the exporters. The loading capacity is approximately 25000 tons per day. thereby able to export an average of 15 million tons due to the complimentary services provided by these transhippers. Panaji Port is a minor port. Transhippers Since the draft available at Mormugao Port is limited. Loading at this port is done with the help of transhippers. there are six transhippers operating within the Goan coast:(a) Maratha Deep (b) Swati Rani (c) Priyamvada (d) Sunrise (e) Orissa (f) Satisha(g) Goan Pride Due to these transhippers. vessels of more than 200. thereby enabling even larger capesize vessels to call on the Port. The Largest Iron Ore Vessel that has called in Goan Ports is M.Alster Cove. Goa is. 31 .V. which was 300. around 35 ~ 40% of the total exports from Goa is loaded by transhippers.000 tons/day per transhipper.
The mining industry in Goa provides employment to about 11. The land away from the coast is rich in minerals and ores and mining in Goa forms the second largest industry. high magnesia. They were leased out by the Portuguese authority in pre-liberation days. and inherited by the present owners. It also forms the backbone of Goan economy. Iron ore. manganese. Mining in Goa focuses on ores of iron.000 persons indirectly. Iron Ore Mining Areas in the state of Goa Mining in Goa started during the Portuguese period. manganese. Illustration 17: Minerals Map of Goa 32 . limestone and silica. limestone and clay are the chief minerals of economic importance found in Goa. the process underwent modernization only after independence.000 persons directly and about 10.19. bauxite. However. clays. bauxite. Most of the mines are in private hands. The iron ore industry is the main industry of mining in Goa.
Pale area Sancordem area Shigao . The deposits containing an average Fe content of 63% by and large are concentrated in North-North West. South-South East directions from North to the South .The iron ore deposits of Goa are essentially of hematite and are associated with the ferrogenous quartzite and phylites. These areas are: Bicholim .occupying nearly 1/5th area of the total territory. 33 .Kalay area Sanguem . Mining is both manual and mechanical employing opencast method.Quepem area. The main iron ore bearing zone is divided into four separate areas by major faults.
08 0. Types of Iron Ores found in Goa Haematite and magnetite are the most prominent of the iron ores found in India.08 0. laminated.05 10 7 4 0.20. Of these.06 0. friable and also in powdery form.05 10 6 4 0. Typical Specification Iron Ore Fines GOA GRADE (Fe) % Basis 56 57 58 59 60 Si O2 % Al2 O3 % Phos % Sulphur % Free Moisture Loss at 1050C Physical Composition 7 5 0. The major deposits of iron ore are located in Jharkhand.05 8 6 4 0. Chhattisgarh. Illustration 18: Characteristic of Important Haematite Deposits in Goa 20. which is consumed in a number of steel and sponge iron industries. Indian deposits of haematite belong to pre-Cambrian iron ore series and the ore is within banded iron ore formations occurring as massive.06 0. Karnataka and Goa States. Orissa.05 8 150 micron to 10mm 150 micron to 10mm 5 30 150 micron to 10mm 5 30 150 micron to 10mm 5 30 150 micron to 10mm 5 30 Oversize% (Max) Undersize % (Max) 5 30 Illustration 19: Content of Iron Ore Fines Gradewise 34 . haematite is considered to be the most important Iron ore because of its high grade quality.05 10 7 5 0.06 0.1.
06 0.05 7 6mm to 40mm 59 4 3 0.20.06 0.05 7 6mm to 40mm 60 4 3 0.2. Typical Specification Iron Ore Lumps GOA GRADE(Fe) % Basis 58 Si O2 % Al2 O3 % Phos % Sulphur % Free Moisture Loss at 1050C Physical Composition 4 3 0.05 7 6mm to 40mm (Only during Monsoons) Oversize% (Max) Undersize % (Max) 10% 10% 10% 20% 20% 20% Illustration 20: Content of Iron Ore Lumps Gradewise 35 .06 0.
Overview Sesa Goa Limited is part of the Vedanta Group. mining and processing of iron ore. their Iron Ore business is focusing on mining different grades of ore in India and is exported mainly to China. SESA-GOA‘s Acquisition of Dempo In June 2009. With over 80% of its sales in China. It drives the Group‘s ferrous minerals business with a commitment to create a world class enterprise with high quality assets. For over five decades it is engaged in the business of exploration. VSD either owns or has the rights to mineable reserves and resources estimated at 70 million tonnes of 36 . Sesa Goa has a niche positioning in the Chinese sea-borne iron ore business. The deal was signed for a total consideration of Rs. on a debt-free and cash-free basis. 145 crore (equivalent to US$31 million). 21. over the years has created ‗Sesa‘ brand of iron ore which caters primarily to the rapidly growing emerging economies of India and China.2. With its cost competitive ore base and mine locations having relatively good accessibility to China. Case Study: Study of Operations of SESA-GOA 21. which in turn. The acquisition was wholly financed by Sesa Goa‘s own cash resources. In fiscal 2010. 1. a diversified global metals and mining major. Sesa Goa is India's largest producer and exporter of iron ore in the private sector. it produced 21.5 million tonnes of iron ore. also held 100% equity shares of Dempo Mining Corporation Private Limited and 50% equity shares of Goa Maritime Private Limited. the Company got access to VSD‘s mining assets in Goa. and included net normative working capital of Rs.4 million tonnes and sold 20. low cost production and superior returns to stakeholders.750 (equivalent to US$368 million).21. With this acquisition.1. It is one of the low cost producers of iron ore in the world and is well placed to serve the growing demand of Asian countries Sesa Goa. Sesa Goa signed a definitive share purchase agreement under which the Company acquired all the outstanding common shares of VS Dempo and Company Private Limited (‗VSD‘ or ‗Dempo‘). While this is true across the Sesa Group‘s and the Company‘s different business segments.
with a view to reducing unit costs. During the course of the year. Sesa Goa has already started leveraging several synergies between the two Companies. Processing and grade optimisation: Process flows at Dempo mines are being reviewed to increase recovery. jetties. transhippers and loading capacities at Mormugao port. Mine planning and operations: With a central planning cell. and a composite exploration plan has been worked out. Port operations: The acquisition has resulted in additional stacking capacities and optimum utilisation of Dempo‘s transhipper Centralisation of common services: This includes integration of functions like marketing. impetus has been given to understand the resources at Dempo. These include: Exploration: With Sesa Goa‘s focus on exploration. particularly those with the same ore-body. HR.3. At the time of acquisition VSD was one of the largest exporters of iron ore from Goa with exports of around 4 million tonnes. In 37 . efforts are on to rationalize transport. which included its own production and purchased ore.iron ore in Goa. one in Codli village (in South Goa District) and the other in Sonshi village (in North Goa District). 21. In addition. Iron Ore Mining by SESA-GOA in Goa SESA-GOA‘s Goa operations consist of two major iron ore mining areas. the focus is on optimizing resources in all mines. etc. VSD‘s mining assets in Goa includes processing plants. mine planning. VSD sold 4. procurement.36 million tonnes of iron ore. logistics. Logistic (land and river fleet operation): With both companies having mines and river jetties in close vicinity. increasing throughput and improving logistic efficiencies. barges. In 2008-09. Not only has the acquisition added to Sesa Goa‘s resources but has also given the Company access to VSD‘s customer base.
One plant is provided with a dry circuit to process high grade ore. scrubbing. Logistics: Both processed and unprocessed ore is transported by road to a riverhead jetty by 38 . Codli is situated in South Goa.The nearest railway stations. Codli processing plants undergo regular maintenance and annual repairs. Goa. respectively. India.addition. They have four processing plants with a throughput capacity of 10 mtpa. respectively. which are normally conducted during monsoon seasons. are approximately 13 kilometres and 40 kilometres. Background Information: Codli mine first commenced production in 1973. approximately 50 kilometres east of Panaji.0 mtpa. log washing. from the mine. multi-pit. The river loading points at Sanvordem and Capxem are approximately 12 kilometres and 14 kilometres. Progressive increase in the production at the mine reached 3 mtpa by 1995. hydrocycloning. Major Mines in Goa owned by SESA-GOA 1. and magnetic separation with ultra fines recovery. OHSAS 18001:2007 & 5S Overview: Codli is the largest iron ore producing mine of Sesa Goa with a current production capacity of more than 7. ISO 14001:2004. Mining Type: Open Cast Products: Iron Ore fines Ore Production Capacity: 7. Processing: They have extensive ore processing facilities for upgrading the ore. from the Codli mines while the port is approximately 40 nautical miles from the river loading point.0 mtpa Certifications: ISO 9001:2008. dry screening. classifying. the capital of Goa. Codli Group of Mines Key Facts: Location: Codli Village. while the remaining three wet plants process low grade ores. 50 kilometres east of Panaji. Sanvordem and Margao. Codli group of mines are open-pit operation. they derive iron ore production from Sesa Resources mines and several satellite mines in North Goa and South Goa. 21. multi-lease fully mechanised mining units.4. which include crushing.
hydrocycloning. Sonshi Mines Key Facts: Location: Sonshi. OHSAS 18001:2007 39 .0 mtpa. and magnetic separation with ultra fines recovery.0 mtpa Certifications: ISO 9001:2008. India. which are normally conducted during monsoon seasons. 3. Goa. Sesa Resources Mines Key Facts Location: Sesa Resources Mines. Increase in the production at Sesa Resources mines reached 4. All Sesa Resources mines are open-pit operation and are fully mechanized mining units. log washing. India.0 mtpa Certifications: ISO 9001 & ISO 14001 Background Information: Bicholim and Surla mine first commenced production in 1958. classifying. Mining Type: Open Cast Products: Iron Ore fines Ore Production Capacity: 4. Goa. 35 kilometres from Panaji.10 tonne tipper trucks and then further transported by barges to the Goa ports or transhipper for onward shipment. The processing plants undergo regular maintenance and annual repairs. Sesa Resources mines are situated in Goa. Logistics: Both processed and unprocessed ore is transported by road to a riverhead jetty by 10 tonne tipper trucks and then further transported by barges to the Goa ports or transhipper for onward shipment. scrubbing. Processing: Sesa Resources has got a very extensive ore processing facilities for upgrading the ore. 2. Mining Type: Open Cast Products: Iron Ore fines Ore Production Capacity: 3. which include crushing. ISO 14001:2004. dry screening.
With the integration of Dempo‘s operations with Sesa Goa. 4. Performance of SESA-GOA Sesa Goa primarily caters to the global steel market.5. Record iron ore production of 17. Sonshi and Sesa Resources Mines. Other Mines In addition to Codli.6 million tonnes of iron ore production was added over a period of Illustration 21: Total Iron Ore Sales by SESAGOA over Last 5 Years 40 . Sonshi mine comprises of an open-pit mine and it is fully mechanised mining unit. Progressive increase in the production at the mine reached to the current level of 3. the capital of Goa.8 million tonnes from Sesa Goa‘s standalone operations. Sonshi is situated in North Goa. The river loading point Amona is 9 Kilometres from the mine while the port is approximately 35 nautical miles from the river loading point.2 mtpa.Background Information: Sonshi mine first commenced production in 1958. The processing plants at Amona and Cudnem undergo regular maintenance and annual repairs. approximately 34 kilometres from Panaji. Processing: At Sonshi they don't have an extensive processing plant onsite. Tivim is approximately 25 kilometres. Logistics: The processed and unprocessed ore is transported by road to a riverhead jetty by 10 tonne tipper trucks at Amona Jetty and then further transported by barges to the Goa ports or transhipper for onward shipment. 21. and being a core industrial product. which are normally conducted during monsoon seasons. The nearest railway station. they also derive iron ore production from several satellite mines in North Goa and South Goa. another 3.0 mtpa. The combined throughput capacity of the processing plants is 4. instead the extracted ore is transported by road to the processing plants at Amona (approximately nine kilometres away) and at Cudnem (approximately six kilometres away). steel consumption has a strong correlation with economic growth. from the mine.
Sesa Goa has a niche positioning in the Chinese sea-borne iron ore business.4 million tonnes). there was a net addition of 43 million tonnes to its iron ore reserves and resources. Illustration 22: Statewise Production of Iron Ore by SESA-GOA(in million tonnes) Over the last five to seven years. Sesa Goa caters primarily to the rapidly growing emerging economies of India and China. With its cost competitive ore base and mine locations having relatively good accessibility to China. There were all time high productions of iron ore (21. global steel production has been shifting away from developed countries to emerging economies. post depletion of 21 million tonnes of saleable iron ore production.4 million tonnes – a significant increase of 34% over 2008-09. With over 80% of its sales in China. Through its exploration activities. 41 . this business is focusing on mining different grades of ore in India and is exported mainly to China. particularly China. given the lower cost structures.approximately ten months taking consolidated iron ore production to 21.
The most important factor contributing to the phenomenal growth of traffic of this port is the excellent inland water-ways system made up of the two main rivers of Goa viz.13 million tonnes per annum. the ore is made marketable by processing. This inland water-ways system has been used to bring ore most economically from the mines to the Harbour. Mormugao Port has lived up to its original description of being a ‗golden gateway‘ of Goa. Goa is a very attractive place. for continued growth and further development of the port itself and that of Goa. Gifted with nature's bounty & a chequered historical background. The State of Goa over the last 40 years has experienced an unprecedented growth of population through the influx from neighbouring States of India. also has the credit of having pioneered the exports of iron ore from India. A fair share of the country‘s iron ore deposits is available in Goa. Goa is a small state on the Western Coast of India. fines and pellets. Excellent facilities. Conclusion Mormugao Port. Though the ‗Golden Gateway‘ has put Goa on the international map with its massive cargo capacity handled. The ‗Golden Gateway‘ port must take into consideration the competitive environment. With all these attributes. Goa exports 46. high productivity. Though ore is the predominant cargo. Although of low iron content. GOA is the premier iron ore exporting Port of India with an annual throughput of around 26. GOA has tremendous potential to cater to the needs of trade and industry and to contribute to the economic development of the Nation. which serve this port. Goa. The 2009 iron ore exports being 53. both nationally and internationally.22. and the ‗Cumbarjua Canal‘. The Port accounts for about forty percent of India‘s iron ore export.74 million tonnes of iron ore traffic.00% of India's Iron Ore. Ore is exported in the form of lumps. ‗Zuari‘ and ‗Mandovi‘. 42 . Mormugao Port. there has been a steady increase in liquid bulk and general cargo traffic ever since it‘s joining the ranks of the Major Ports of India. The proximity to a natural seaport with modern amenities adds to its advantages. streamlined administration and a dedicated workforce all go towards making this Port one of the most efficient Port in the Indian subcontinent.
Ports in India http://www. Mariappan. J.mapsofindia.mptgoa. V and Prabhu Gaonkar.. Bibliography http://www.sesagoa.com/ Dimel Roy.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=55&Item id=62 www. S. R Handbook:Mormugao Port http://www.com/ Industry Report—Shipping and Ports(ICRA Research Analysis) Maintenance analysis: a case in ore handling plant Sakhardande.gmoea. Bhatkar.23.htm 43 .com/maps/goa/goaminerals. M.com/index.
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