Department of Architecture Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur Thesis 2011

Land Use Transformation – Problems & Prospects
A case of Walled City, Jodhpur

Guide : Prof. Alok Ranjan
Submitted by: Kirti Kalla

St r uct u r e of Pr e se nt a t ion

2

AIM :
The aim is t o st udy problem s and prospect s of land use t ransform at ion : A case of Walled Cit y, J odhpur.

OBJECTIV ES :
To

st udy t he changes in land uses in t he walled cit y over a specified t im e period. To ident ify t he densit y pat t ern and t he pocket s of t ransform at ion in t he w alled cit y. To assess t he im pact of land use t ransform at ion over w alled cit y area. To provide suit able guidelines for fut ure developm ent of w alled cit y.

3

SCOPE OF TH E STUDY
• • A specific area of w alled cit y w ill be st udied t o support t he aim of t he st udy, t hrough prim ary survey. The findings & conclusions at m icro level w ill give som e guidelines for t he fut ure developm ent of t hese areas and also for ot her areas w hich are under t he process of sim ilar t ype of change. Det ailed st udy of all land uses are not in t he scope of t he st udy.

• •

LIMITATIONS
St udy has been conduct ed w it h t he available dat a (t ables, plans et c). St udy of change in land uses for a specific t im e period will be as per secondary dat a source. Det ailed invest igat ion of individual plot s are not included in t he st udy.

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METHODOLOGY
Aim: To study the problems & prospects of land use transformation, Walled city, Jodhpur Objectives

To study the changes in land uses in the walled city over a specified time period.
Walled

To identify the density pattern and the pockets of transformation in the walled city.

To assess the impact of land use transformation over walled city area.

To provide suitable guidelines for future development of walled city.

city profile Historical Background Change in Land uses

Land Ward

wise population & density Activity Pattern Micro level study area

Use conflicts Socio-Economic Status Urban form

Inferences Study Area Recommendations Walled city 5

WALLED CITY- LOCATION

Railway Station Central Bus Stand Area = 417 ha

6

WALLED CITYFEATURES

N

Walled City Limits

4

City Gates Water Bodies

5
FOR T

3

1 – Jalori Gate 2 – Sojati Gate 3 – Merti gate 4 – Nagauri Gate 5 – Chand Pol Gate 6 – Siwanchi Gate

2 6
Source: Municipal Corp. Jodhpur

1

7

WALLED CITY - CHARACTERISTICS
Road/ Street pattern: • Roads and street pattern is generally very narrow and designed only for pedestrian movement. The street pattern is irregular in shape and designed with a view point of safety and security.

Housing Typology (Mohalla type housing): Housing typology is of typical neighborhood planning as prevalent in the other old cities in India. Each Mohalla design / typology is based on the culture of the respective community.

Image Source: Pg 63 Heritage Conservation Zone, Jodhpur by INTACH, 1989 in association with Jain Associates, Ahmadabad.

8

WALLED CITY - CHARACTERISTICS
Low rise high density areas: • The built form in the walled city of Jodhpur is typical Indian old towns. Most of the houses are 2 to 3 story high very densely built with very narrow streets of 6 to 10 feet’s only. Typical House Design: • The architecture and design of houses is typical courtyard planning. As we move out from the walled city, one can notice modern architecture influence in the design of Havellies with lobby replacing the courtyards.

Image Source: Pg 54 Heritage Conservation Zone, Jodhpur by INTACH, 1989 in association with Jain Associates, Ahmadabad.

9

Population Growth Trends – Walled city, Jodhpur (1931-2001)

Source: Municipal Corp. Jodhpur

10

Decadal density distribution (ppha) – Walled City

Source: Municipal Corp. Jodhpur

11

Land Use – Walled City 1972 & 1991
S.No. Use 1972 Area (ha) % of urbanized area 47.0 4.1 0.4 6.7 0.6 8.4 66.2 18.2 12.2 3.4 100.0 1991 % of Area (ha) developed area 69.6 6.2 0.5 10.1 0.9 12.7 100.0 220.5 31.5 2.5 37.0 3.0 46.5 341.0 18.5 45.0 12.5 417.0 % of urbanized area 52.9 7.6 0.6 8.6 0.7 11.1 81.8 4.4 10.8 2.5 100.0 % of developed area 64.7 9.2 0.7 10.9 0.9 13.6 100.0 12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Residential Commercial Industrial

192.0 17.0 1.5

Public & Semi-Public 28.0 Recreational Circulation Other Vacant Land Hilly & Rocky Water Bodies 2.5 35.0 276.0 76.0 51.0 14.0 417.0

Developed Area

Urbanized area
Source: Municipal Corp, Jodhpur

Land Use – Walled City 1972 & 1991

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CASE STUDY
WALLED CITY , MEERUT WALLED CITY , LUDHIANA

  

I. Walled city, Meerut (1971-2001) – Land Use Plan
1971 1991 2001

Area – 127 ha

Source: Study of land use transformation: Walled City, Meerut, Thesis Report, School of Planning & Architecture

15

Walled City, Meerut
Inferences:  Property tax, water charges, electricity should be enhanced in case of commercial activities.  Further vertical extension in the height of the structure for commercial purposes should be restricted through proper enforcement of development control. • To increase the effective widths of roads encroachment should be removed. • Separate account for development of walled city should be maintained to be utilized only for up gradation of infrastructure & provision of community facilities. • Traffic Management – Channelizing traffic movement by diverting traffic. – Time restrictions for loading & unloading of goods. – Creating pedestrian path by removing encroachments. – Reorganizing informal sector to ensure smooth traffic movement. •

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II. Walled City, Ludhiana
Existing land use 2001
Area – 576 ha Density – 350 ppha

17
Source: Strategies for improving living environment in Indian Inner cities; a case study of Ludhiana, Thesis Report, CEPT, Ahmadabad

Walled City, Ludhiana
Inferences: • Limited access to vehicles especially service vehicles during a particular time (early morning/night) and emergency vehicles. • Fire Safety:

– Open electrical cables to be underground for fire safety. – No encroachments by the shop owners – No Hawkers allowed in some of the restricted bazaars which can be easily prone to Fire – No illegal or temporary structures in the congested bazaars To have rules and regulations regarding the change of Land use from residential to commercial and some fees to be paid to the Corporation for the same Conversion of old dilapidated structures to a formal open area.

• •
18

WALLED CITY
Ward Wise Population Growth Trends – Walled city, Jodhpur (Old Wards – 19)
S.No. Ward No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Total

Area (ha) 27.00 33.00 49.50 16.00 46.00 21.50 38.50 24.00 9.00 7.50 10.50 15.00 24.50 20.50 17.00 11.50 20.00 10.50 15.50
417.00

1971 Population 3490 5004 8145 8612 9193 7644 6981 7213 4654 4887 5469 5701 10473 6983 11636 7098 9426 6050 10413
139072

Density (ppha) 129 152 165 538 200 356 181 301 517 652 521 380 427 341 684 617 471 576 672
7880

1981 Population 5620 6719 9277 9544 10864 8003 8228 7895 5226 5707 6158 6454 12420 9728 8082 7540 11625 6738 12297
158125

Density (ppha) 208 204 187 597 236 372 214 329 581 761 586 430 507 475 475 656 581 642 793
8834

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33

Source: Municipal Corp. Jodhpur

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Ward Wise Population Growth Trends – Walled city, Jodhpur

Ward Number

Population

20

Ward Wise Gross Population Density (ppha) – 1971,1981

N

1971

1981
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Ward Wise Population Growth Trends – Walled city, Jodhpur (New Wards – 16)
S.No. Ward No Area (ha) 2001 Population 8669 11756 13488 10579 9063 11969 13117 10623 11702 12061 7115 9289 8104 10995 12970 10282
171782

Density (ppha) 284 460 505 473 791 359 509 631 221 191 514 519 360 846 593 634
7890

2008 (proposed) Population Density (ppha) 8617 11488 13147 10330 8753 11787 12783 10302 12053 14195 6932 9048 7924 10608 12595 9971
170533

2011 (proposed) Population Density (ppha) 8567 11233 12824 10093 8459 11614 12466 9998 12046 14195 6759 8819 7753 10240 12239 9675
166980

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Total

13 14 15 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 35 37 38

30.50 25.57 26.70 22.36 11.46 33.32 25.78 16.84 52.98 63.09 13.85 17.88 22.52 12.99 21.89 16.22
413.95

283 449 492 462 764 354 496 612 228 225 501 506 610 485 777 615
7856

281 439 480 451 738 349 484 594 227 225 488 493 344 788 559 596
7538

Source: Municipal Corp. Jodhpur & Appendix 10, City Development Plan

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Ward Wise Population Growth Trends – Walled city, Jodhpur

Ward Number

Population

23

Ward Wise Density - 2001

N

New wards were demarcated in 1998 which resulted into change in physical profile of previous wards. Area from wards 17, 19, 20 & 21(previous wards) were given to other wards of the Jodhpur city. 

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Change In Density Pattern of Walled City
The change in density is related to the type of activities prevalent in a particular ward. Ward 29 (earlier) has seen fall in density that is because of shift of low class people to hilly area of the walled city. Hilly areas still have low density while areas near to city gates mainly Jalori gate, Sojati gate & nagori gate have high density because of commercial activitities in those areas.

N


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Activity Pattern
1 – Jalori Gate 2 – Sojati Gate 3 – Merti gate 4 – Nagauri Gate 5 – Chand Pol Gate 6 – Siwanchi Gate

N

Walled City Limits

4

City Gates Water Bodies

5
FOR T

CBD Main Commercial activity

3

Tourism activities Residential areas

2 6 1 26

Activity Pattern
• • • • • Walled city is majorly characterized as residential area under proposed Draft Master Plan 2023, Jodhpur. The commercial activities are located along major streets in and around walled city. It is also spread in inner secondary streets & narrow lanes. Wholesale markets are located inside the walled city. Retail shops are majorly located on primary streets. Area around Fort, as marked in the plan earlier, majorly constitute residential area, hotels, guest houses, temples & other architectural landmarks including Jaswant Thada.

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PRIMARY SURVEY
Selection of study area was based on pre-research of existing areas of walled city which have seen transformation with due course of time. After selection of study area, primary survey was led to conduct study further .

CONTEXT
1 – Jalori Gate 2 – Sojati Gate 3 – Merti gate 4 – Nagauri Gate 5 – Chand Pol Gate 6 – Siwanchi Gate

N

Walled City Limits

4

City Gates Water Bodies

5
FOR T

CBD

3

Pockets of Transformation

A

B

2 6 1
R S

C
29

Factors for selecting Stretch A:  A stretch of 1.8 km length starting from Jalori gate & ending at inner city area called – Adaa bazar, this stretch has witnessed changes in land use because of it’s prime location & approachability.  Jalori gate is preferred as main entrance to the walled city hence type of activities have emerged differently onto this stretch.  Saturation of activities has still not been achieved onto this stretch as other part of the walled city area has already achieved.

N
30

Mix of activities

Mix of traffic

Narrow lanes with commercial activities both sides

Small shops in residences

New constructions changing old built form

Built form

Hanging wires can lead to serious problems 31

Inferences
§ 48% of the inhabitants of the surveyed area of the stretch are retail shop owners. 23% counts for wholesale businessman. § It is inferred that the community structure on the stretch is absolutely business minded. People are not dependent on govt/private jobs. § The stretch comprises of mostly such structures which has commercial establishments along with the residences. § Ancestral property is the main reason for opting house.

§ As per the family requirements, additional floors are added to the houses. 59% of the survey area has G+2 structures. § Out of 60 sample size, 56 houses has new construction i.e. addition of new floors to their premises. § 1 floor was added to most of the structures in past 10 years. § As business increased, people started using ground floor as retail areas and first floor as godowns or store houses. § § §

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Inferences
§ The commercial establishments on the stretch are majorly 10-20 years old which indicates that the development on the stretch has rise in past 20 years. § Due to established business & social network, people are not interested in moving outside the walled city. Some were ready to put their premises on rent only for commercial activities. This is an indication of further change in activity pattern of the walled city in near future. § Adequate water is supplied in the area. § SWM is an issue as the shop owners dumps the waste into ‘nalas’ which eventually choke the drains & in rainy season the waste flows with the water into houses. § Many of the small shop owners do not have commercial electrical connections which increases the burden over provision of electricity. § §
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Inferences
§ Through traffic creates congestion in the area. § The roads are narrow which bears the mix traffic. No pedestrian pathways/footpaths are delineated in the area. § On-Street parking is an issue in the area. Few houses have organized new parking system where group of houses pays for parking at an open piece of land which were earlier ‘Marriage gardens or Personal land’. But this system is not so prevalent in other part of walled city area. § Two wheelers are mostly owned by the residents of the area. § §

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Factors Contributing To Transformation
• Locational Factor – As the walled city forms the central part of the city, it is accessible to the public from every part of the city. – Most of the economic activities are concentrated within the area as major roads converging at the city center adds to its importance. – As a result people prefer to have business in this part of the city that enjoys the traditional good will as well. – This encourages concentration, growth of commercial activities in the walled city.

Source: Personal Survey conducted – Residents & Shop keepers

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• Factors Responsible for Change in Activity Pattern – As the population increases there is tendency for intensive mixed land use that brings about change in activity pattern. – Social factors such as attitude of people & security reasons lead to have business in more safe areas of the city such as jewelry market. – Accessibility is one the pre requisites for commercial activity, which is higher in the walled city. – Economic condition of the people living in the walled city also governs the type of activities. –

Source: Personal Survey conducted – Residents & Shop keepers

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Socio-Economic Status
Caste/Group Brahmin Jain/Oswal Ganchi Muslim Kumhar Occupation Govt Job, Teaching Private Jobs, (Tuitions, Wholesale Schools, Milk Sellers, Business Colleges) Shops Construction Workers, Textile Private Jobs, Printing & Potters, Shops Coloring Avg. family size 9 9 9 12 8 Avg. monthly income/person 15500/18000/7500/6500/11000/Building Height Avg. Plot Size G+3 G+2 G+2 G+3 G+3 18’x40’ 20’x40’ 12’x18’ 10’x12’ 12’x18’

Source: Primary Survey

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Issues
N

GROWTH IN COMMERCIAL AREAS SEVERELY CONGESTED MARKETS

WATER POLLUTING INDUSTRIES HAVE COME UP IN THE AREA

City Gates

INFORMAL ACTIVITIES LOCATED AT MAIN

38

Supporting Visuals
Encroachment on Water bodies Merging traffic

Loss of public squares

Mix of activities

Asymmetrical Built Form

39

Supporting Visuals
Encroachment on street Congested market areas Hawkers on junctions

Areas prone to fire

Vehicular encroachment on streets

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Identification of issues – Walled City level
• • • • • • • • • • Uncontrolled growth of commercial activities. Increase in informal activities on junctions & other streets. Encroachment of shops on streets minimizes the effective width of a street. Parking problem inside main areas. Streets are encroached with vehicles also. Loading & Un-Loading vehicles occupy streets most of the time. Load on infrastructure provisions especially electricity as many shops do not have separate commercial electrical connections. More than one floor of the residences is used for commercial activities. Recreational areas are very less. The few existing parks are also on the verge of deterioration. The existing water bodies are decaying with increase in encroachment over these areas. Absence of enforcement of building bye-laws .

• •
41

INFERENCES & RECOMMENDATIONS

WALLED CITY AREA

Land Use Conflicts – Walled City 1972 & 1991
Land Use Residential Commercial Industrial 1972 (Area in ha) 192 17 1.5 1991 (Area in ha) 220 31.5 2.5 37 3.0 46.5 18.5 45 12.5 Difference (ha) + 28.0 + 14.5 + 1.0 + 9.0 + 0.5 + 11.5 - 57.5 - 6.0 - 2.5

Public & Semi-Public 28 Recreational Circulation Other vacant land Hilly & Rocky Water Bodies 2.5 35 76 51 14

Other vacant areas have been decreased by 57.5 ha from 1972-1991. The hilly & rocky area around fort has been developed into residential area. Water bodies has been encroached by 2.5 ha. 

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INFERENCES
• Commercial land use has infringed upon residential land use mainly and result in increase. The change was accompanied by change in activity from low profit making activities to high investment returns activities. Informal commercial activities have rise mainly around junctions, squares (chowk) & both side of main commercial belts resulting in hindering the pedestrian & traffic movement.

RECOMMENDATIONS
• Wholesale commercial activities should be decentralized to other part of the city to lower the increasing burden over change in land use. Existing informal commercial activities should be shifted or planned to some new areas adjacent to the walled city. Few steps should be taken to control such activities. Conversion of residential use to commercial purpose should be highly taxed. This would help in regulating the high commercial developments.

WALLED CITY

COMMERCIAL


The residential land use has not much increased because of large increase of non-confirming land uses and less availability of vacant human habitable areas. This caused overburden on existing facilities & services, also it is


44

INFERENCES • Recreational areas are very less as in past the recreational activities were mainly performed in public squares, havelies etc. but now because of potentials & constrains of these areas are not suitable enough to perform such activities. Existing water bodies are decaying with increasing encroachments & no law exists till date to keep a check on such activities.  With consistent rise in water table in last decade, the basement of many houses filled up with water & lead to deterioration of building, material, water itself, surroundings and land quality.
 

RECOMMENDATIONS The water bodies can be developed as good recreational areas. This will help in enhancing physical & mental character of the people. Checking for encroachments over old water bodies & charging high penalties to avoid any future decay.

RECREATIONAL & ENVIRONMENT

WALLED CITY

• Local government has planned to tackle the issue & therefore they must look into the matter before situation gets worse.
45

INFERENCES • Circulation area cannot handle the traffic movement. Less right of way of the streets causing delay, pollution and sometimes freeze the traffic movement.  Non-motorized traffic reduced with time. Motorized-traffic increased in the study area that leads to rise in immense pollution within such highly crowded built mass resulted into worsening of air quality.  Loading & Un-loading vehicles often creates jam over streets.  Increase in vehicular traffic also gave rise to noise pollution in the study area.

RECOMMENDATIONS

TRAFFIC & CIRCULATION

WALLED CITY

The existing roads should be made free from encroachments to allow undisturbed flow of vehicular & nonvehicular traffic. Parking regulations should be implemented within the major commercial areas in the walled city to discourage the entry of excessive vehicular traffic. Time restrictions for loading & unloading of goods will improve traffic management. Timely checking of high noise & air polluting
46

INFERENCES

RECOMMENDATIONS

The irregular change in land uses gives birth to bad urban form resulting in loss of old architectural impressions. New hotels & guest houses are coming up near Fort area. The residences are being converted into such activities & sudden change in the area is noted due to such activities. High density of > 750 pph is found mainly around the work centers.

Change in land use should be governed effectively by concerned authorities. Areas of historical importance should be made restricted for any change in land use. This will help in conserving the old heritage form of the area. Density control measures should be framed to minimize the load of highly populated areas. Vertical extension in the height of the structure for commercial purposes should be restricted through proper enforcement of development controls.

WALLED CITY

URBAN FORM

• •

47

INFERENCES The load on infrastructure has increased due to change in land uses over period of time. Although the quality of infrastructure provision is adequate in walled city. Illegal use of residential electrical connections for non-residential activities is prominent problem in the area. This creates burden over supply of electricity. Check on SWM system is not proper though periodical cleaning of drains & roads is done.

RECOMMENDATIONS

WALLED CITY

INFRASTRUCTUR E

Governing the change in land uses will determine the exact requirements of infrastructure provisions & will lead to minimizing the load on infrastructure.

The concerned authorities should be more strict in checking the use of electricity & cross check with the other departments for confirming the land use activity of a particular premise. A complete inventory of sewerage and storm water drainage system to be prepared.

48

Other recommendations
– – Property tax, water charges, electricity should be enhanced in case of commercial activities. Fire safety measures need to be adopted for largely congested areas.
• Open electrical cables to be underground for fire safety • No encroachments by the shop owners • Hawkers should not be allowed in largely congested bazaars which can be easily prone to fire

– – –

Computerized technology should be used to improve ward wise data accessibility & management. Ward wise information should be made easily accessible to the public, research scholars & administrators.

49

Hanging Wires

Overhead Electrical cables can cause serious fire hazards

By undergrounding the cables, built form will be clearly visible & it will add to nice vista

50

Recommendations for Walled City
Area around fort should be prohibited for any land use change

Wholesale commercial activities should be decentralized.

N

Encroachment over water bodies should not be allowed

City Gates

Informal activities located at main junctions, chowks should be managed & relocation should be done.

51

INFERENCES & RECOMMENDATIONS

STUDY AREA

Land Use of study area

Area (ha)

Total Area of the stretch : 19.48 ha

53

Study Area – Land Use Table
Land Use/Year 1972
(Area in ha)

1991
(Area in ha)

% change

2011
(Area in ha)

% change

Residential Commercial Industrial Public & Semipublic Circulation TOTAL

11.6 0 0 0.6

12.99 0.196 0 0.69

11.98 19.6 0 15

9.68 1.17 0.09 1.54

-25.41 496.93 9.2 123.2

7.28 19.48 ha

5.61

-22.8

7.00

24.8

54

Study Area – Land Use Plan

N

2011

55

Identification of issues – Study area
• • • • • • • • • • Increase in commercial activities in and around residential areas. Rise of industrial units – Water polluting industries of tie & dye. Change in built form due to change in land uses & activity pattern. Public squares are decomposing into parking space. Commercial markets are developing around secondary streets. No proper parking area is delineated. Hanging wires can cause serious fire problems. As Jalori gate is the main entrance to the walled city, the traffic is high & congested in the study area.

56

Public Squares

N

EARLIER
§Streets were stone paved. §Trees around sitting block ‘chabutra’ where public use to gather & communicate. §Pedestrianization & NMV were the only means of traffic.

TODAY
§Streets are metalled. §Trees around sitting block ‘chabutra’ were cut down. §Parking of Motorized vehicles took place in the squares. §Circulation space got encroached.
57

Existing road section

58

Building Height

>G+2 G+2 G, G+1

59

INFERENCES

RECOMMENDATIONS

STUDY AREA

Residential land use has decreased by 25.41% during 1991 to 2011 due to pressure of market forces. An excessive increase of 496% has been identified in commercial land use during 1991 to 2011. Change in built form has been observed in the areas adjacent to main commercial belt resulting in deterioration of urban form.

The old conversions should be legalized and new conversions should be prohibited. Commercial activities should be allowed only up to ground floor to improve the built form otherwise floors will be added as per requirement & deteriorate the vista of the area.


60

Building Use
ISSUE

A model representing various deviations in the area.

RECOMMENDATION

Residential activity Residential activity Commercial activity Commercial activity

Commercial Residential
61

INFERENCES

RECOMMENDATIONS

STUDY AREA

Loss of open spaces in the form of public squares has been marked. This is due to uncontrolled encroachment over the time. Secondary streets adjacent to primary streets are also getting impact of market forces & hence development of commercial areas can be seen there. Hanging electrical cables on the streets can create grave fire hazards. They also destruct the vista.

The public squares should be made encroachment free and high penalties should be charged for future encroachments. This will bring back the beauty of squares & more people will communicate with each other. Mental & physical status of people will also improve. The commercial belts should be delineated in order to limit the growth of commercial activities onto adjacent vicinity of the study area. Electrical cables should be underground. It will help in improving the vista & built 62

INFERENCES

RECOMMENDATIONS Building bye-laws should be enforced & high penalties should be charged for illegal conversion of land use activity.  Land use zones should be defined for the whole area & should be enforced immediately to avoid future decay of the area.  Pedestrianization should be encouraged & mix of traffic can be avoided by diverting the traffic to the other part of the walled city.  The areas having maximum right of ways should be developed for on-street parking & parking fees should be charged.
 
63

In

STUDY AREA

absence of zoning regulations and enforcement by authorities, land uses are changing in haphazard way which ultimately creating different types of other high degree problems.

High speed & mixed mode of traffic is also creating the new type of problems on the traditional streets. Parking is big time issue in the study area because of lack of suitable spaces in & around houses for parking provisions.

Land Use – Study area
N
Water Polluting small scale industries should be relocated. Commercial activities on secondary streets should not be allowed.

Building use on main roads should be restricted to use of commercial activity limited upto ground floor

Public squares to be free from encroachments & use for commuting

Informal markets are generating around junctions & chowks should not be allowed & existing should be removed.

64

References
• • • INTACH, Jain Associates (1989), Heritage Conservation Zone, Jodhpur, Ch-6, Residential Areas & Houses, pg 54 & 63 Alka Sharma (2003), Study of land use transformation: Walled City, Meerut, Thesis Report, School of Planning & Architecture Shaveta Vij (2008), Strategies for improving living environment in Indian Inner cities; a case study of Ludhiana, Thesis Report, CEPT, Ahmadabad Jodhpur Municipal Corporation
– Plans of Walled city, Jodhpur – Land Use 1972 & 1991 – Population & Density figures

Sources


 

Primary survey & interviews of officials & local people conducted

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