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Variable

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Published by: Ravi Naagar on Jul 10, 2011
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MGT 6421

Quality Management II

Control Charts for Variables

Our objectives for this section are to learn how to use control charts to monitor continuous data. We want to learn the assumptions behind the charts, their application, and their interpretation. Since statistical control for continuous data depends on both the mean and the variability, variables control charts are constructed to monitor each. The most commonly used chart to monitor the mean is called the X chart. There are two commonly used charts used to monitor the variability: the R chart and the s chart. Procedure for using variables control charts: 1. Determine the variable to monitor. 2. At predetermined, even intervals, take samples of size n (usually n=4 or 5). 3. Compute X and R (or s) for each sample, and plot them on their respective control charts. Use the following relationships:

X=

i =1

∑ Xi
n

n

,

R = Xmax - Xmin,

s=

i =1

∑ ( Xi − X ) 2 .
n −1

n

Variables Control Charts - 1

After collecting a sufficient number of samples.2 . When the special cause is identified. conclude that the process is in control. we will first discuss the variability charts. The following additional calculations will be necessary: X= ∑ Xj . remove that point and return to step 4 to re-evaluate the remaining points. and use the calculated limits for future monitoring of the process. j=1 k k R= ∑Rj . you cannot draw conclusions from the X chart. • Because the limits of the X chart are based on the variability of the process.MGT 6421 Quality Management II 4. Variables Control Charts . conclude that the process is out of control. j=1 k k s= ∑ sj . 6. If so. j=1 k k 5. I suggest that you first determine if the R chart (or s chart) shows a lack of control. k (k>20). compute the control limits for the charts (see the table on page 4 for the appropriate control limit calculations). If all the points are within limits. and begin a search for an assignable or special cause. If any points fall outside of the control limits.

σ . or when a computer is available to automate the calculations. the estimate of the process standard deviation.3 .  Using the s chart. Variables Control Charts . The reason for taking a sample is because we are not always sure of the process distribution. This chart is called the s chart because the statistic being plotted is the sample standard deviation. is R .  Using the R chart. c4 The X Chart: • • • This chart is called the X chart because the statistic being plotted is the sample mean. d2 The s chart • • • The s chart is used to monitor process variability when sample sizes are large (n≥ 10). the estimate of the process standard deviation. By using the sample mean we can "invoke" the central limit theorem to assume normality. or to simplify the calculations made by process operators.MGT 6421 Quality Management II The R chart • The R chart is used to monitor process variability when sample sizes are small (n<10). is s . This chart is called the R chart because the statistic being plotted is the sample range. σ .

MGT 6421 Quality Management II Limits for Variables Control Charts Variability Measure Range Range Standard Deviation Standard Deviation Standards (µ and σ ) Known Not Known Known Chart X X X Limits µ ± Aσ X ± A2 R µ ± Aσ Not Known X X ± A3 s Range Known R centerline=d2σ LCL=D1σ UCL=D2σ centerline= R LCL=D3 R UCL=D4 R centerline=c4σ LCL=B5σ UCL=B6σ centerline=s Range Not Known R Standard Deviation Known s Standard Variables Control Charts .4 .

6 15.3 16.2 3.9 15.9 1.7 15.5 14.6 2.2 16.9 17.3 17.7 1.4 2.51 1.3 14.0 15. Irwin.6 2.4 15.5 16.2 16.5 .0 17.2 3.5 16.27 1..6 16.5 14.4 14.8 15.1 14.4 14.3 16.5 Room 3 17.3 16.0 15.65 0.MGT 6421 Quality Management II Deviation Not Known s LCL=B3 s UCL=B4 s • Example of Variables Control Chart 1 A large hotel in a resort area has a housekeeping staff that cleans and prepares all of the hotel's guestrooms daily.8 15.19 0.9 15.1 3. (1989). S.4 3.3 14.9 14.7 16.6 17.9 15.0 16. R.9 16.13 1. Dev 1.1 2.3 14.2 17.1 14.4 16.1 17.1 14.1 3.7 16.5 16.9 14.4 16.6 17.8 15.9 Average 15.1 14.4 16.7 17.0 Room 2 14.3 17.4 Room 4 14.7 2.5 15.2 14. a series of measurements is taken of the times to service rooms in one section of the hotel.. Gitlow.3 17.2 Range 3.9 15.5 2.3 14.0 14.3 1.69 1.02 0.98 1.5 14. and Oppenheim.5 17.3 17.6 14.7 14.8 17.4 3.0 15.9 15.58 1.3 17.9 15.9 16.7 17.5 15.5 16.2 14.85 1.5 16.1 3.7 17.6 14.3 15.7 17.3 16.3 16.0 15.2 14.2 Room 5 15.5 14.8 14.93 1. Inc.2 15.0 16. H.7 17.6 15.6 2. Variables Control Charts .3 17.8 1. Homewood.2 15.7 16.7 15.3 17.5 17.39 1.9 17.7 3. A.1 14.8 14.9 15.8 16.0 14. In an effort to improve service through reducing variation in the time required to clean and prepare a room.9 16.8 14.6 14.0 17.3 15.9 17.9 14.1 17. Cleaning times for five rooms selected each day for 25 consecutive days appear below: Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Room 1 15.1 14.40 1.16 0.2 17. IL: Richard D.69 1.7 16.6 14.8 16.6 17.6 15.5 16.0 14.9 17.4 17.2 16.5 15.19 1.37 1.7 St.6 15.6 17.6 15.8 15.9 17.2 16.41 1.26 0.4 16.71 1.7 14.8 16.4 3.0 16.4 14.0 3.3 14.8 15.9 15.. Tools and Methods for the Improvement of Quality.7 16.2 16.8 16.64 1 This example is taken from Gitlow.9 16.0 2.4 15. Oppenheim.2 17.1 1.00 0.8 3.3 15.0 17.5 15.24 1.56 0.2 16.59 0.0 16.0 17.

70 R 1.14 s Variables Control Charts .6 .MGT 6421 Quality Management II 15.94 X 2.

7 .MGT 6421 Quality Management II • For the R chart: • For the X chart (with R) _____________________________________________________________ • For the s chart • For the X chart (with s) Variables Control Charts .

MGT 6421 Quality Management II R chart 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 s chart 2.5 2 1.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Variables Control Charts .8 .5 1 0.

MGT 6421 Quality Management II X Chart 18 17 16 15 14 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Variables Control Charts .9 .

The solution is to take moving ranges. The procedure then becomes identical to traditional variables control charts.10 . • • • Limits: MR chart: Individuals chart: centerline= MR . and the chart for variability is called a moving range chart. The moving range is the absolute difference between consecutive individual measurements.267 MR centerline= X LCL= X UCL= X −3 MR 1.MGT 6421 Quality Management II Individuals and Moving Range Charts • Sometimes it is impossible or extremely costly to take samples.128 MR 1. LCL=0. The chart for central tendency is called an individuals chart. UCL=3.128 +3 Variables Control Charts . Individuals and moving range charts can be constructed under these circumstances. We cannot obtain a range or standard deviation with individual measurements. where n is assumed to be 2.

24. I have included 6 points just to reduce the computational burden.6. 23.1. the control limits are often based on 2 standard deviations rather than 3. Over the last 6 weeks I have measured the following gas mileage values: 25.11 .0.0. • We need to use some caution now because successive values on the moving range chart are not independent.MGT 6421 Quality Management II • Because only individual measurements are being taken.0. Variables Control Charts . the assumption of normality is more difficult to defend. 24.9. (NOTE: We clearly need more points than these 6 to construct the appropriate control chart(s). 26.) Find the control limits for the appropriate control chart(s). 24. For this reason. • Example: I want to monitor my gas mileage to determine if there is reason to believe the car needs to be serviced.

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