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Muslim Geography & Eu

Muslim Geography & Eu

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Published by A S M Hefzul Kabir

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Published by: A S M Hefzul Kabir on Jul 11, 2011
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03/28/2014

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gymwjg f~‡Mvj Ges cvðvZ Ávb

cð¨v‡Z¨i †fŠ‡MvwjK I Ab¨vb¨ Áv‡bi Drm m¤ú‡K© AwaKvsk †¶‡ÎB c~Y©mZ¨ cÖKvk Kiv nq bv| GKwU aviYv Ggb ‡h, †mLvbKvi †fŠ‡MvwjK Ávb wKQzUv ax‡i Z‡e gReyZfv‡e Ges evB‡ii †Kvb mvnvh¨ QvovB ¯^vaxbfv‡e weKwkZ n‡qwQj| Aciw`‡K wKQzUv D`vi Ges f~‡Mvjkv‡¯¿ gymjgvb‡`i Ae`v‡bi wKQzUv ¸i‚Z¡ ¯^xKvi K‡i Ab¨ GK aviYvq ejv nq, ga¨hy‡Mi BD‡ivcxq †fŠ‡MvwjK †jLbx I wPš—vavivi Ici gymwjg f~‡Mv‡ji D‡j­L‡hvM¨ ev eo ai‡bi †Kvb cÖfve wQj bvg| ev¯—‡e G‡Z Avmj mZ¨ cÖKvk bv Kivi gvbwmKZvB cÖwZdwjZ nq| wbi‡c¶fv‡e fŠ‡MvwjK I Ab¨vb¨ Áv‡bi BwZnvm ch©v‡jPbv Ki‡j wfbœ iKg wPÎ cÖKvwkZ nq| cy‡iv ga¨ hy‡Mi cwðgv †fŠ‡MvwjK iPbvmg~n ch©v‡jvPbv Ki‡j Zv‡`i G åvš— avibvi cÖwZdjb cvIqv hvq hv m¤ú~Y©iƒ‡c D™¢U I cÖK…Zv‡_© AÜKvi hy‡Mi gvbwmKZvi mv¶¨ enb K‡i| ga¨Gwkqv Ges f~-ga¨mvM‡ii Aci DcKzj I Gwkqv gvBb‡i Bmjvwg mf¨Zv cÖwZôv nIqvi ci, gymwjg `k©b I weÁvb †mLvbKvi Kzms¯‹vi I AÁZvi †`qv‡j fv½b awi‡qwQj Ges `k©b, weÁvb, †R¨vwZwe©`¨v, MwYZkv¯¿, wPwKrmvkv¯¿, f~‡Mvj I m„wóZË¡ cÖf„wZ †¶‡Îi wPš—vavivq axi¯’xi Aš—`k©bg~jK cÖwµqvi m~ÎcvZ N‡UwQj| cv`wi, bexb gbxlx, Abyev`K, ch©UK Ges Bû`x AwfevmbKvixivI Aí gvÎvq cvwÊZ¨c~Y© Kg©Kv‡Êi m~Pbv K‡iwQj| A·‡dv‡W©i weL¨vZ Av‡jviw`kvix iRvi †eKb (1214-92 wLª,), Ges IKnv‡gi DBwjqvg William of Ockham wQ‡jb AwZgvÎvq Aviwe g‡bvfvevcbœ Ges `k©b †_‡K ïi‚ K‡i MwYZ I f~‡Mvj ch©š— mv_©Kfv‡e PP©v K‡iwQ‡jb| iRvi †eK‡bi †fŠ‡MvwjK avibv wQj m¤ú~b© Avie cÖfvweZ| cÖMwZkxj avibv cÖ`v‡bi Rb¨ iRvi †eKb hv`yKi wn‡m‡e cwiwPZ wQ‡jb Ges Acivax mve¨¯’ n‡qwQ‡jb| Ab¨vb¨ A‡bK‡K †R‡j cvVv‡bv nq Ges Zv‡`i eB cy¯—K wbwk× †Nvlbv Kiv nq| Gwi‡÷vU‡ji Ici A‡bK Aviwe Abyev` cy¯—K wQj, wKš‘ G¸‡jv AcweÎ g‡b Kiv nZ| beg †cvc †MÖMix 1231 wLª. Gwi‡÷U‡ji wk¶vi wei‚‡× digvb Rvwi K‡ib| iRvi †eK‡bi Rxebxi GB As‡k wKfv‡e gymwjg bvg I kã weK…wZ Kiv n‡q‡Q Ges eZ©gv‡bI n‡‛Q Zv †`Lv‡bv nj ÒScholars have long held that Roger Bacon was a
pioneer in the introduction of the study of Aristotle as interpreted by Averroes and Avicenna to the University of Paris ca.1240.Ó

Recently, it has also been demonstrated that as Master of Arts at Paris (ca. 1240-48) during the period of the First Averroism, Bacon had confronted and reviewed some of the major issues concerning Latin Averroism that lead to a major crisis at Paris in the period 1266-1277.
1100 - 1166 [cartography, geography] Muhammad al-Idrisi, aka Idris al-Saqalli aka al-sharif alidrissi of Andalusia and Sicily, also known as Dreses in Latin. -http://www.klikunic.com

Bs‡iwR
Averroes Avicenna Averroism
Dreses

D‛Pvib Gfvi‡ivR Gwfwmbv GfviwiRg wWª‡Rm

cÖK…Z bvg
Ibn Rushd (Arabic: ‫)ابن رشد‬ Ibn Sīnā the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd's interpretations of Aristotle and his reconciliation of Aristotelianism with Islamic faith
Muhammed al-Idrisi(Arabic: ‫أب و ع بد اهلل محمد اإلدري سي‬‎ )

ïa~ bvg weK…wZB bq Giv gmjgvb‡`i wbKU †_‡K hv MÖnb K‡i‡Q Zv †hb †KD ai‡Z bv cv‡i †m Rb¨ †Kvb ¯’v‡b Z‡_¨i Drm D‡j­L Ki‡Zv bv| Aa¨vcK evb©v‡ji g‡Z, ewbqv`x hy‡Mi bMi iv‡óªi P~ovš— aŸsmmvab nIqvi c~‡e©B cvðv‡Z¨i cÖMwZkxj gvbe wPš—vaviv Awš—g `kvq †cuŠ‡QwQj| †iv‡g weÁv‡bi ‡Kvb Aw¯—Z¡ wQj bv| cwðg BD‡iv‡ci ee©i ivR¨¸‡jv‡Z weÁv‡bi ‡Kvb Aw¯—Z¡ Av‡`Š wQj bv| wMÖ‡mi HwnZ¨¸‡jv †hLvb †_‡K G‡mwQj, †m cÖv‡P¨B cÖZ©veZ©b Kij| wmwiqv, cvim¨ I fviZ GgbwK `~i cÖv‡P¨i Pxb ch©š— GjvKvq Bmjv‡gi cZvKv Z‡j be D¾xweZ weÁvb Kg©PvÂj¨ wd‡i cvq Ges †gavi PgrKvi mw¤§jb N‡U| GB Drm a‡i weÁvb I cÖhyw³ ga¨hyMxq BD‡iv‡c cÖ‡ek K‡iwQj Ges G‡Kev‡i Avw` c‡e©i ci, GLvb †_‡KB AvaywbK weÁv‡bi DrcwË n‡qwQj| W¨vgwcqvi e‡jb, BD‡ivc Avie‡`i KvQ †_‡K cÖPzi MÖnY K‡iwQj, hvi wk¶YKv‡j wQj cÖavib 800 n‡Z 1100 wLªóvã ch©š—| 12k I 13k kZ‡K BD‡iv‡ci weÁvb mvwn‡Z¨i cÖPwjZ fvlv wQj Aviwe Aviwe †_‡K Abyev` wMÖK †jLK‡`i iPbvewji †P‡qI AwaK m¤§vb †cZ| H mgq cvðv‡Z¨ emevmKvix Aviwe fvlvfvlx I Bû`x‡`i weÁv‡bi cÖwZ cÖK…Z AvMÖn wQj Ges gymjgvb †`k¸‡jvi ms¯ú‡k© G‡mB ga¨hyMxq BD‡ivcxiv Zv‡`i weMZ w`‡bi AÁ `„wó‡KvY cwiZ¨vM K‡i AwaZZi ev¯—em¤§Z gvbwmKZvq Af¨¯— n‡qwQj| gymwjg wek¦ wMÖK wk¶v‡K euvwP‡q †i‡LwQj Ges cÖvK…wZK weÁv‡b h‡_ó †gŠwjK Ae`vb †i‡LwQj| Bmjvgx ms¯‹…wZ, GKB m‡½ cyi‡bv ms¯‹…wZi aviK I weÁv‡bi be avivi

AbycÖ‡ekYvKvix wn‡m‡e KvR K‡iwQj| Bmjvwg •eÁvwbK KvRmg~n cvV Ki‡j †h †KDB AvaywbK weÁv‡bi Abyiƒc hyw³MÖvn¨ ch©v‡jvPbv †`‡L AbycÖvwbZ n‡Z cv‡i|

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