“GSM Based Irrigation System”
Submitted to,
The Institution of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineers, New Delhi at Rajkot center towards the partial fulfillment of the Degree of The Institution of Electronics & Telecommunication Engineers in “Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering”

Guided By. Dr. H.N. Pandya (Ms.C., Ph. D) H.O.D. Electronics. (Saurashtra Univerity) Rajkot. I.E.T.E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER

Submitted LAKHANI ARCHITA M (Mem. No.SG-172792)





This is to certify that this is a bonafide record of the project work done satisfactorily by LAKHANI ARCHITA (Mem. No.SG- 172792) towards the partial fulfillment of her AMIETE examination. This report has not been submitted for any other examination and is not from a part of any other course undergone by the candidate.

Guided By. Dr. H.N. Pandya (Ms.C., Ph. D) H.O.D. Electronics. (Saurashtra Univerity) Rajkot.






GSM Based Irrigation System
I hereby declare that the work presented in this project report entitled “GSM Based irrigation System” is a partial fulfillment of my AMIETE in Electronics institution of Electronics and Telecommunication and is an authenticated record of out under the valuable guidance of Dr. H. N. PANDYA The my own work carried degree or diploma.

matter embodied in the report has not been submitted for the award of any other


I have used AT89 C2051 as MicroControllers. Using different types of sensors the moisture is sensed and thus water supply is control to soil. Degree in Electronics and Telecommunication is a unique course in reputed IETE centers in India. N.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM PREFACE At present because of rapid globalization and industrialization there is a big need of skilled and trained engineers.E. All industries need good and trained engineers because of this reason “IETE” has adopted Degree in Electronics and Telecommunication. Student can get theoretical knowledge by experienced and learned professors of IETE centers. I.E. This course provides both theoretical and practical knowledge about Electronics.T. Pandya. Describing the various methods of irrigation I have constructed on “GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM”. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 4 . As a part of fulfillment of the degree I have selected a project Work on “GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM” after the enough discussion with my guide Mr. H.

T.E. I am thankful to Prof Dr. First of all I am very much thankful to “IETE” to include this kind of subjects in Degree syllabus in which students can get practical knowledge. I humbly pay my respect to IETE authority and director for giving me such opportunity to prepare my report. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 5 . N. I. PANDYA for giving me his valuable time and co-operation to develop the project on object counter by giving guidance. H.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is a great opportunity for a Degree student to prepare “Project Report” to know about of practical aspects of the field.E.


this has been the most common method of irrigating agricultural land. borderstrip or basin irrigation. or lifted by human or animal power to the level of the land.E.E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 7 . the water is pumped. usually plugged by soil.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Basin flood irrigation of wheat Various types of irrigation techniques differ in how the water obtained from the source is distributed within the field. the goal is to supply the entire field uniformly with water. It is often called flood irrigation when the irrigation results in flooding or near flooding of the cultivated land.T. This is often seen in terraced rice fields (rice paddies). so that each plant has the amount of water it needs. In some cases. where the method is used to flood or control the level of water in each distinct field. • Surface irrigation Main article: Surface irrigation In surface irrigation systems water moves over and across the land by simple gravity flow in order to wet it and to infiltrate into the soil. I. the levels are controlled by dikes. neither too much nor too little. Historically. Surface irrigation can be subdivided into furrow. In general. Where water levels from the irrigation source permit.

E. drop by drop. functions as its name suggests. drip irrigation is I.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Localized irrigation Spray Head Localized irrigation is a system where water is distributed under low pressure through a piped network. In modern agriculture. spray or microsprinkler irrigation and bubbler irrigation belong to this category of irrigation methods. and applied as a small discharge to each plant or adjacent to it.T. also known as trickle irrigation. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 8 . Water is delivered at or near the root zone of plants. if managed properly. • Drip Irrigation Main article: Drip Irrigation Drip Irrigation . in a pre-determined pattern. This method can be the most water-efficient method of irrigation. Drip irrigation.E. since evaporation and runoff are minimized.A dripper in action Drip irrigation.

can occur if a drip system is operated for too long of a duration or if the delivery rate is too high. The process is known as fustigation. further reducing evaporation. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 9 . pressure compensating emitters are available. Although it is difficult to regulate pressure on steep slopes. and is also the means of delivery of fertilizer. with the exception of low energy center pivot systems and surface irrigation systems. But drip irrigation can also be as low-tech as a porous clay vessel sunk into the soil and occasionally filled from a hose or bucket. and the system can be designed for uniformity throughout a field or for precise water delivery to individual plants in a landscape containing a mix of plant species.E. where water moves below the root zone. so the field does not have to be level. Hightech solutions involve precisely calibrated emitters located along lines of tubing that extend from a computerized set of valves. The tubes are usually black (or buried under soil or mulch) to prevent the growth of algae and to protect the polyethylene from degradation due to ultraviolet light. Both pressure regulation and filtration to remove particles are important.E.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM often combined with plastic mulch. Subsurface drip irrigation has been used successfully on lawns.T. Drip irrigation methods range from very high-tech and computerized to low-tech and relatively labor-intensive. Drip Irrigation Layout and its parts Deep percolation. I. but it is more expensive than a more traditional sprinkler system. Lower water pressures are usually needed than for most other types of systems.

Sprinkler irrigation Sprinkler irrigation of blueberries in Plainville. places the line underground and covers the slit leaving no soil exposed. when used for turf.E. Oxford shire. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 10 .GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Surface drip systems are not cost-effective (or aesthetically pleasing) for lawns and golf courses.E. Recent technology developments on drip installers like the drip installer at New Mexico State University Arrow Head Center. New York A traveling sprinkler at Millets Farm Centre. was the fact of having to install the plastic lines very close to each other in the ground.T. therefore disrupting the turf grass area. In the past one of the main disadvantages of the subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) systems. UK I.

the sprinkler is pulled across the field.5 to 1. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 11 .9 inches (10 to 50 mm). Rotors can be designed to rotate in a full or partial circle. usually with nozzle diameters in the range of 0. sports fields. These cable-type travelers are definitely old technology and their use is limited in today's modern irrigation projects.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM In sprinkler or overhead irrigation. Other travelers use a flat rubber hose that is dragged along behind while the sprinkler platform is pulled by a cable.E. Sprinklers may also be mounted on moving platforms connected to the water source by a hose. Higher pressure sprinklers that rotate are called rotors and are driven by a ball drive. and land application of waste water. but also for industrial applications such as dust suppression and logging. This type of system is known to most people as a "water reel" traveling irrigation sprinkler and they are used extensively for dust suppression. Automatically moving wheeled systems known as traveling sprinklers may irrigate areas such as small farms. pastures. Most of these utilize a length of polyethylene tubing wound on a steel drum. Center pivot irrigation I. or impact mechanism.E. or guns mounted overhead on permanently installed risers is often referred to as a solid-set irrigation system. and cemeteries unattended. except that they generally operate at very high pressures of 40 to 130 lbf/in² (275 to 900 kPa) and flows of 50 to 1200 US gal/min (3 to 76 L/s). water is piped to one or more central locations within the field and distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns. As the tubing is wound on the drum powered by the irrigation water or a small gas engine.T. Guns are similar to rotors. sprays. Guns are used not only for irrigation. gear drive. irrigation. When the sprinkler arrives back at the reel the system shuts off. A system utilizing sprinklers. parks.

The system moves in a circular pattern and is fed with water from the pivot point at the center of the arc.T. Photo by Gene Alexander.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM The hub of a center-pivot irrigation system. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 12 . Center pivot irrigation is a form of sprinkler irrigation consisting of several segments of pipe (usually galvanized steel or aluminum) joined together and supported by trusses. These systems are common in parts of the United States where terrain is flat. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. mounted on wheeled towers with sprinklers positioned along its length. I.E. Center pivot with drop sprinklers.E.

Precision controls. The crops are planted in a circle to conform to the center pivot. Grupo Chamartin. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. are now available.T. each with a wheel of about 1. This type of system is known as LEPA (Low Energy Precision Application). Valley. 2001.E. most center pivots were water powered. Wheel line irrigation system in Idaho. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 13 . wheel line) irrigation A series of pipes.E. thus limiting evaporative losses. Drops can also be used with drag hoses or bubblers that deposit the water directly on the ground between crops. Photo by Joel McNee. Originally. These were replaced by hydraulic systems (T-L Irrigation) and electric motor driven systems (Lindsay. are coupled together at one I. some with GPS location and remote computer monitoring.5 m diameter permanently affixed to its midpoint and sprinklers along its length.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Most center pivot systems now have drops hanging from a u-shaped pipe called a gooseneck attached at the top of the pipe with sprinkler heads that are positioned a few feet (at most) above the crop. Zimmatic. Lateral move (side roll. Reinke. This drives a reduction gearbox and transverse driveshafts transmit power to another reduction gearbox mounted behind each wheel. Most systems today are driven by an electric motor mounted low on each span. Pierce.


edge of a field. Water is supplied at one end using a large hose. After sufficient water has been applied, the hose is removed and the remaining assembly rotated either by hand or with a purpose-built mechanism, so that the sprinklers move 10 m across the field. The hose is reconnected. The process is repeated until the opposite edge of the field is reached. This system is less expensive to install than a center pivot, but much more labor intensive to operate, and it is limited in the amount of water it can carry. Most systems utilize 4 or 5-inch (130 mm) diameter aluminum pipe. One feature of a lateral move system is that it consists of sections that can be easily disconnected. They are most often used for small or oddly-shaped fields, such as those found in hilly or mountainous regions, or in regions where labor is inexpensive.

Sub irrigation also sometimes called seepage irrigation has been used for many years in field crops in areas with high water tables. It is a method of artificially raising the water table to allow the soil to be moistened from below the plants' root \zone. Often those systems are located on permanent grasslands in lowlands or river valleys and combined with drainage infrastructure. A system of pumping stations, canals, weirs and gates allows it to increase or decrease the water level in a network of ditches and thereby control the water table. Sub-irrigation is also used in commercial greenhouse production, usually for potted plants. Water is delivered from below, absorbed upwards, and the excess collected for recycling. Typically, a solution of water and nutrients floods a container or flows through a trough for a short period of time, 10-20 minutes, and is then pumped back into a holding tank for reuse. Sub-irrigation in greenhouses requires fairly sophisticated, expensive equipment and management. Advantages are water












maintenance and automation. It is similar in principle and action to subsurface drip irrigation.

Manual irrigation using buckets or watering cans
These systems have low requirements for infrastructure and technical equipment but need high labor inputs. Irrigation using watering cans is to be found for example in peri-urban agriculture around large cities in some African countries.

Automatic, non-electric irrigation using buckets and ropes
Besides the common manual watering by bucket, an automated, natural version of this also exist. Using plain polyester ropes combined with a prepared ground mixture can be used to water plants from a vessel filled with water. The ground mixture would need to be made depending on the plant itself, yet would mostly consist of black potting soil, vermiculite and perlite. This system would (with certain crops) allow you to save expenses as it does not consume any electricity and only little water (unlike sprinklers, water timers, ...). However, it may only be used with certain crops (probably mostly larger crops that do not need a humid environment; perhaps e.g. paprika's).

Irrigation using stones to catch water from humid air
In countries where at night, humid air sweeps the countryside, stones are used to catch water from the humid air by transpiration. This is for example practiced in the vineyards at Lanzarote.

Dry terasses for irrigation and water distribution
In subtropical countries as Mali and Senegal, a special type of terrassing (without flood irrigation or intent to flatten farming ground) is used. Here, a 'stairs' is




made trough the use of ground level differences which helps to decrease water evaporation and also distributes the water to all patches (sort of irrigation).

Sources of irrigation water
Sources of irrigation water can be groundwater extracted from springs or by using wells, surface water withdrawn from rivers, lakes or reservoirs or nonconventional sources like treated wastewater, desalinated water or drainage water. A special form of irrigation using surface water is spate irrigation, also called floodwater harvesting. In case of a flood (spate) water is diverted to normally dry river beds (wadi’s) using a network of dams, gates and channels and spread over large areas. The moisture stored in the soil will be used thereafter to grow crops. Spate irrigation areas are in particular located in semi-arid or arid, mountainous regions. While floodwater harvesting belongs to the accepted irrigation methods, rainwater harvesting is usually not considered as a form of irrigation. Rainwater harvesting is the collection of runoff water from roofs or unused land and the concentration of this water on cultivated land. Therefore this method is considered as a water concentration method.

How an in-ground irrigation system works
Most commercial and residential irrigation systems are "in ground" systems, which means that everything is buried in the ground. With the pipes, sprinklers, and irrigation valves being hidden, it makes for a cleaner, more presentable landscape without garden hoses or other items having to be moved around manually.

Water source and piping
The beginning of a sprinkler system is the water source. This is usually a tap into an existing (city) water line or a pump that pulls water out of a well or a pond.



RAJKOT SUBCENTER 17 . The pipes from the water source up to the irrigation valves are called "mainlines".GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM The water travels through pipes from the water source through the valves to the sprinklers.T. I. and the lines from the valves to the sprinklers are called "lateral lines".E. Most piping used in irrigation systems today are HDPE and MDPE or PVC or PEX plastic pressure pipes due to their ease of installation and resistance to corrosion.E.


GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Before taking project work for execution. it is quite necessary to have an exact idea of the word.T.E.  “C” Signifies Communication: For the execution of the plan.  “R” must stands be all for Resources: promote the Resources function in of are the order the plan. with planning body and engineering their engineers through Both the for bodies’ together good body work techniques production.  “J” stands for Joint effort: It means the combined efforts of worker and other staff to complete the work. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 19 .  “O” type stands of for Operation: which is to Operation be is actually by all the to work.E. “P R O J E C T ”  “P” stands for Planning: Planning is the word.e. which deals with the idea of act proposed to be done. to means. I. performed workers complete the object. the communication is very necessary. There maintain which guide to necessary resources good project work.  “E” stands for Explain Engineer function: i.

GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM  “T” Task word Symbolizes of working Task with is of techniques of of for the the working: working the co .As a matter of fact “PROJECT” and manufacturing purpose. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 20 .E.E.T. constructional I.operation used specially body and control working body.

E. will save a lot of time.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM ABSTRACT This system is a remote controlled pump control system. I. he hears the buzzer which will let him know that the farm has dried up. When the user call up the phone kept in the system. Then by pressing a particular switch on his phone he can switch on the water pump. The pump can be switched off in the same manner. This system. A simple modification can also make the system completely automatic. a buzzer is activated. When the sensors are dry. The remote control media used is the regular GSM cell phone. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 21 .T. energy and money of the farmers by automation of the job. The system installed at the farm has four moisture sensors which analyse the moisture content of the soil.E. if implemented.


E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 23 .E.1µ 22µ (4) RESISTOR (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 100KΩ 10K 2k2 220k 1k (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) Cell phone interface DTMF decoder section Moisture sensors Main controller section Indicator section Relay driver and the pump control section Power supply section I.T.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM LIST OF COMPONENTS USED FOR THE GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM (1) (2) DIODE TRANSISTOR (i)PNP (ii)NPN (3) TRAMSFORMER 230V 12-0-12V/500 MA CAPACITOR (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 10 µ 100µ 0.

E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 24 . 1.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION AND OPERATION This system can be used in fields for providing them with water by switching on and off the pumps at the field using a mobile phone. The moisture sensors 4. The main controller section 5. Multiple sensors are used so that moisture in the soil can be measured at more than one place. The indicator section 6. The power supply section The cell phone interface: this section is the heart of the entire circuit. The cell phone interface 2. The relay driver and the pump control section 7. Segregation according to small functional blocks can be done as below. It is the section with which the cell phone is attached to the system and through which it communicates with the system. The system has moisture sensors with variable sensitivity that can detect moisture levels in the soil. The cell phone that is attached to the system is kept I. The DTMF decoder section 3. For this purpose a cell phone with a sim card is to be attached to the system and placed at the farm itself. The system gives audible clues to the user about the moisture content and the pump status to the user or the person who call up the phone that is attached to the system and placed at the field. For better understanding the system can be divided in to smaller parts.E.T.

Along with this data. This chip accepts DTMF tones and converts them into BCD data corresponding to the switch that was depressed at the caller phone. The cell phone hands free is attached to a microphone is the system. Also more and more telecom service providers are giving CUG plans in which call rates are negligible or even zero.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM in auto answer mode after connecting a hands free set to it. Moreover when the call cost is compared with the cost of physical visit of the farmer to the field.T.5795MHz. it proves to be much cheaper.E. I. But since nowadays call costs are going so low that this is not much of a problem. it picks up the phone after which the DTMF tones generated by the calling cell phone will also be produced at the cell phone connected to the system. the decoder also generates one specific high signal called the StD signal from its pin 15. Initially this system would seem rather costly as whenever a pump is to be switched on or off or the status of the field is to be known. Whenever this phone is called up. This signal is generated whenever the chip receives any valid DTMF tone and last for the instant for which the tone lasts. a call has to be made. This fact is the essence behind the working of the entire project. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 25 . The DTMF decoder section: this section is fed input from the single stage transistor amplifier output. The output of the amplifier and thus the input to the decoder are the DTMF tones from the system cell phone which are in turn the tones which were send from the caller cell phone. These tones are very small in amplitude thus a single transistor collector feedback biased amplifier stage has been employed for amplifying the signals to a specific level so that they can be applied to the DTMF decoder for decoding. The mic picks up the DTMF tones from the hands free speaker. the output of the DTMF decoder is fed to the controller for further processing. The DTMF tones from the switches depressed at the calling cell phone are transmitted to the system cell phone via the GSM network. This signal is used to convey the micro controller that a new data nibble has arrived.E. The decoder exactly decodes the DTMF tones by the help of an in built oscillator that generates a very stable frequency with the help of an externally connected crystal resonator of 3. The decoder is built around a very popular ASIC the MT8870.

The best alternative is to use graphite rods as sensor probes. I. Other associated circuitry for the controller like the power-on-reset network and the manual reset network are also connected to the controller. Moreover the component count of the entire system remains small in the scenario when a micro controller is used.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM The moisture sensors: there are three moisture sensors employed in the system. The outputs of the sensors are active high which can be seen on an LED which has been connected on the output pin of each sensor so that the status of the sensor can be easily seen. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 26 . but material which are not corrosive or prone to rusting must be used.T. The outputs of the sensors are also fed to the microcontroller for further processing. It actually integrates the individual components and then unifies their functions as one. The sensors actually measure the soil resistivity to gauge the amount of moisture present in it.E. These rods can be easily available by breaking exhausted dry batteries. The sensors are fed from the probes that are to be inserted in the soil for measuring the resistance between the two points at which the probes are entered. These LEDs also help in setting the sensitivity of the sensors. The sensitivity of each sensor is adjustable using a preset. The micro controller is clocked by a 12MHz quartz crystal resonator. The controller that has been used here is the 89C2051 which belongs to the very popular 8051 series of micro controllers from Intel. The probes can be of any conductive material. of sensors can be used in the system although here only four are employed. The 2051 has been utilized because it is a 20 pin controller and thus far smaller in size than the usual 40 pin version. The main controller section: this section controls the entire system. Each sensor has been made using a 555 timer employed as a schmitt trigger.1uF capacitor to prevent false triggering. As many no. Less no of components mean less no of failure points which increases the system reliability. The main purpose of the controller to be used in this project is that by its usage further advancement and modification of the project becomes easy and feasible. The concept of multiple sensors is based on the fact that different parts of the field may have different amount of moisture at the same time and that has to be taken into consideration. Moreover each sensor has been fitted with fail safe mechanism in the form of a 0.E.

The transformer used is the 12-0-12V/500mA which is more than enough. To accomplish this two different buzzers are implemented. here audible indication is used. As the entire 8051 family is built in such a way as to accept active low interrupts. This impure unregulated dc is applied to a large value filter capacitor which smoothes the dc voltage. usually visual in the form of leds. The indicator section: contrary to other type of indicators.E. The power supply section. There are two problems in driving the relay directly from the controller. Finally the unregulated dc is then applied to the 7805 voltage regulator chip so as to obtain the necessary +5 volts needed by the electronics circuit. the signal from the DTMF decoder is first inverted with the help of a single npn transistor and then applied to interrupt the controller. I. The other buzzer is a continuous one which rings when all the sensors are dry. Display LEDs are also utilized for visual indication of the status.T. The relay driver and the pump control section: this section is connected to the output of the controller and is used to control the relay which in turn controls the pump.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM The controller accepts input on its port 1 which has been configured as the input port. The StD output of the DTMF decoder is applied as interrupt to the controller. This buzzer plays a music to distinguish it from the other continuous buzzer It stays on for the time the pump is on.E. The output ac voltage of the mains transformer is fed to a rectifier for converting it into dc. The first nibble to the input port is the data from the sensors whereas the second nibble is the data obtained from the DTMF decoder section. One of the buzzers indicates that the pump has been started and running. The other thing is that the controller is also not able to provided that high amount of current that is required by the magnetizing coils of the relay. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 27 . This is due to the fact that an audible clue about the status is to be given to the user on the phone. The first is that the outputof the controller is in the vicinity of +5V which will not be able to drive the 12V /200ohm relay.+5V dc for the entire circuit except the relay driver section and the relays themselves as both are rated at 12V. The system requires two distinct dc voltages to function.




Microcontroller is a computer on a single chip. Micro suggests that the device is small and controller indicates that the device can be used to control the events, processes or objects. Microcontroller is becoming a key component in many electronics products like washing machine, un-interrupted power supply, color television, CD player, remote control, robots, CNC machines, modems, printers, keyboards, advertisement displays. Temperature indicator and controller, pressure monitor, elevators, engine management system in automobiles, measurements instruments, mobile phones, security system, fire alarm system and many others. The use of microcontroller is so widespread that it is almost impossible to work in electronics field without utilizing it.




Overview Of Microcontroller
A microcontroller is an integrated chip that is often part of an embedded system. The microcontroller includes a CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O ports and timers like a standard computer but because they are designed to execute only a single specific task to control a single system, they are much smaller and simplified so that they can include all the functions required on a single chip. Early controllers were built from discrete components and they were large in size. Later microprocessors were build and microcontrollers were able to fit onto a circuit board. Microcontroller now places all of the needed components onto a single chip. With the advent of VLSI technology, microcontroller chip are becoming essentially single chip microcomputers. Microcontrollers collect data from the input devices, process the data and make decision based on the result of process. The input may be for sensing and measurement of some aspects of the environment and output may be generation of one or more control signals that effect the environment in a desirable manner. Input may be simple binary valued signal from switch, group of binary digits from ADC, serial data from computer, pulses from infrared receiver or signals from sensors. Output may be solenoid, relay, LCD, LED, indicators, Optodevices, motors etc. Assembly language is stored in either internal ROM or external ROM. Internal RAM is used for processing and temporary storage. Microcontrollers have become common in many areas, and can be found in variety of applications like intercom, telephones, mobiles, security system, door openers, curtain controller, answering machines, fax, television, CNC machines, washing machines, VCR/VCD, DVD players, remote controls, musical instruments, sewing machine, camera, Microwave ovens, laser printers computer equipments, instrumentation and many other home appliances. They are widely used in automobiles and have become a central part of industrial robotics. The microcontrollers is most essential IC for continuous process- based industries like chemical refinery, pharmaceuticals, steels, programmable logic control system(PLC) and distributed control system(DCS). I.E.T.E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 31


Microcontrollers do not require significant processing power because they are usually used to control a single process and execute simple instructions. The automotive market has been a major driver of microcontrollers, many of which have been developed for automotive applications. Because of automotive microcontrollers have to withstand harsh environmental conditions, they may be highly reliable and durable. Automotive microcontrollers, like their counterparts are very inexpensive and are able to deliver powerful features that would otherwise be impossible, or too costly to implement.

Brief History Of 8051 Microcontroller Family:-

Intel Corporation introduced an 8 bit 8051 microcontroller in 1981. This microcontroller has 128 byte RAM, 4K bytes ROM, two timers one serial ports and four I/O ports on single chip.8051 is a 8 bit processor because CPU can work 8 bit data at a time. If data is larger then 8 bit, it has to be broken into pieces of 8 bit. Intel allowed other manufacturers to make flavors of 8051 with the condition that it should be code compatible with Intel 8051. There are 20 vendors like Philips, siemens; Dallas, OKI, Fujitsu, Atmel, etc. are building their own versions of the 8051.

Comparison Of Some 8051 Family.

Chip 8031 8032 8051 8052 8751 8752 89C51 89C52 89C1051 (20 pin) 89C2051 89S51

ROM(bytes) --4K 8K 4K(EPROM) 8K(EPROM) 4K flash 8K flash 1K flash 2K flash 4K flash

RAM(bytes) 128 256 128 256 128 256 128 256 64 128 128

Timers 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 1 2 2

I/O pins 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 15 15 40


engines. All that is required is. ROM. buttons.T. RAM. I/O ports and timers like a standard computer. Etc. relays…. which attracted no such interest in the past. but because they are designed to execute only a single specific task to control a single system. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 33 .E. temperature. cleverly chosen electronics which is able to control a variety of processes and devices( industrial automatics.E. • Their low cost makes them suitable for installing in places. sensors. voltage. any PC (software is very friendly and intuitive) and one simple device (programmer) for loading a written program in microcontroller. I. they are much smaller and simplified so that they can include all the functions required on a single chip. etc) independently or by means of I/O instruments such as switches. Simplified block diagram of the microcontroller is shown in figure1. • Block Diagram Of Microcontroller:- A microcontroller is an integrated chip that is often part of an embedded system.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Reasons For The Success Of Microcontroller:- • Microcontrollers have powerful. LCD screens. • Writing and loading a program into microcontroller is very easy. The microcontroller includes a CPU. This is the fast accountable for today’s market being swamped with cheap automation and “intelligent” toys.

RAM. program counters. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 34 . I/O. I.E. In addition to these microcontrollers incorporates ROM. • Timers: Microcontroller has inbuilt timers. The 8085 microprocessor requires separate chips such as 8255 (programmable peripheral interface) to interface it with I/O devices.E. interrupts etc. 8051 has 2 16 bit timers. timing control unit.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Fig 1: simplified block diagram of the microcontroller Microcontroller incorporates all features found in microprocessor Such as ALU. For Example: 8051 contains 4 parallel input-output ports to interface with I/O devices. General purpose registers. Interrupt is generated when count value overflows. Timers provide real time interrupt to the processor for specific events. Typical example is object counter. accumulators. Serial communication with microcontroller is simpler.T. stack pointer. serial I/O. It can be used as a counter to count number of events. Parallel Serial Input-Output Port:- Microcontroller contains parallel input output ports to interface it with real world. Microcontroller also has in built serial port. timers etc.

• RAM: Microcontroller has inbuilt Random Access Memory. 89C51 has 4K flash memory. 8051 microcontrollers has 4K-ROM. 8031/8051has 128 bytes Ram while 8032/8052 has 256 byte of RAM.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM • ROM: Microcontroller has inbuilt Read only memory (ROM) which is used to store program code and data required during execution such as look up tables. It is ideal for fast development since flash memory can be erased and programmed in seconds.E.T. • General Microcontroller based System:35 I. Any information stored in the RAM is lost when power is switched off. CPU can write RAM as well as read it. 8751 has 4K EPROM (erasable programmable read only memory). It is used to store information for temporary use. ROM is programmed during manufacturing process. EPROM can be programmed using EPROM programmer. Erasing and programming can be done by microcontroller programmer unit itself. It needs to erase using ultraviolet eraser. RAJKOT SUBCENTER .E. 89C51 is very popular version of 8051 because it contains flash memory.

Microcontroller often uses flash.E.T.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Fig 2: general microcontroller based system Microcontroller are dedicated to one task and run one specific program. These are multiple architecture used in microcontrollers.e. the predominant architecture is CISC (complex instruction set computer). The program is stored in ROM (read only memory) and generally does not change. prototype is developed then OTP (one time programmable) microcontrollers can be used because they are chip.E. Once program is tested and found correct i. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 36 . EEPROM or EPROM as their storage device to allow field programmability so they are flexible to use. which allows the microcont- I.

which just means that they are part of an embedded system -. I. the parts can be simplified and reduced. components. Another is RISC (reduced instruction set computer ) architecture. RAM. A highly integrated chip that contains all the components comprising a controller.T.E. but delivers greater simplicity and lower power consumption.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM roller to contain multiple control instructions that can be executed with a single macro instruction. • MicroMo Electronics: Microcontrollers :Specializes in the control a particular system.E. I/O ports. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 37 . and timers.that is. some form of ROM. a microcontroller is designed for a very specific task -. Typically this includes a CPU. product datasheets and photos. and motion control systems. online ordering. one part of a larger device or system. assembly and application of high precision. As a result. which also includes all of these components. Unlike a general-purpose computer. • Parallax Microcontrollers:Broad-line distributor web site features real-time stock status and pricing. RFQ. which implements fewer instructions. technical support. which cuts down on production costs. Microcontrollers are sometimes called embedded microcontrollers. miniature DC drive systems.


E. but this is adequate for typical applications. and input/output devices. It is a type of microprocessor emphasizing high integration. microcontrollers make it economical to electronically control many more processes. remote controls. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 39 . microcontrollers often operate at very low speed compared to modern day microprocessors. Microcontrollers are frequently used in automatically controlled products and devices. selfsufficiency and cost-effectiveness. making them ideal for low power and long lasting battery applications. office machines. in contrast to a general-purpose microprocessor (the kind used in a PC). By reducing the size. and input/output interfaces. At clock speeds of as little as a few MHz or even lower. memory. In addition to the usual arithmetic and logic elements of a general purpose microprocessor. cost. appliances. read-only memory. power tools. such as flash for code storage.E. the microcontroller typically integrates additional elements such as read-write memory for data storage.T.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM A Microcontroller (also MCU or µC) is a computer-on-a-chip. Power consumption while sleeping may be just nano watts. They consume relatively little power (militates). such as automobile engine control systems. I. EEPROM for permanent data storage. and will generally have the ability to sleep while waiting for an interesting peripheral event such as a button press to wake them up again to do something. peripheral devices. low power consumption. and power consumption compared to a design using a separate microprocessor. and toys.

Input and output devices may be discrete switches. clocks. I. disks. and may read switches.E. or solenoids. relays or voltages. or other recognizable I/O devices of a personal computer. Using fewer pins. An embedded controller may lack any human-readable interface devices at all. Even if the cost of a CPU that has integrated peripherals is slightly more than the cost of a CPU + external peripherals. having fewer chips typically allows a smaller and cheaper circuit board. cheaper package. screens. Integrating the memory and other peripherals on a single chip and testing them as a unit increases the cost of that chip. printers. the chip can be placed in a much smaller. relays. variable resistors or other electronic devices. but often results in decreased net cost of the embedded system as a whole. embedded systems usually don't have keyboards. An embedded system may have minimal requirements for memory and program length. such as telephones.T.E. and vehicles. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 40 . appliances.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM EMBEDDED DESIGN:The majority of computer systems in use today are embedded in other machinery. For example. Microcontrollers may control electric motors. and reduces the labor required to assemble and test the circuit board. microcontrollers may not implement an external address or data bus as they integrate RAM and non-volatile memory on the same chip as the CPU. HIGHER INTEGRATION:In contrast to general-purpose CPUs.

allowing accesses to take place concurrently. commonly with the following features:• central processing unit . Microcontrollers have proved to be highly popular in embedded systems since their introduction in the 1970s. allowing control or detection of the logic state of an individual package pin serial input/output such as serial ports (UARTs) other serial communications interfaces like I²C.T. for example: 12-bit instructions used with 8-bit data registers. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 41 .often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal. EPROM. instruction words for the processor may be a different bit size than the length of internal memory and registers. with the pin function selected by software. [EEPROM] or Flash memory for program and operating parameter storage clock generator .GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM A microcontroller is a single integrated circuit.E. and watchdog volatile memory (RAM) for data storage ROM. and on low pin count devices in particular. event counters. each pin may interface to several internal peripherals. This allows a part to be used in a wider variety of applications than if pins had dedicated functions. PWM generators.E.or 64-bit processors discrete input and output bits.ranging from small and simple 4-bit processors to complex 32. Some microcontrollers use a Harvard architecture: separate memory buses for instructions and data. Where a Harvard architecture is used. I. resonator or RC circuit • • • • • • • • • many include analog-to-digital converters in-circuit programming and debugging support This integration drastically reduces the number of chips and the amount of wiring and PCB space that would be needed to produce equivalent systems using separate chips. Serial Peripheral Interface and Controller Area Network for system interconnect peripherals such as timers. Furthermore.

For example. Some designs include general- purpose microprocessor cores. LARGE VOLUMES Microcontrollers take the largest share of sales in the wider microprocessor market. Manufacturers have to balance the need to minimize the chip size against additional functionality. A typical mid range automobile has as many as 50 or more microcontrollers. where a microcontroller could have a single instruction that would provide that commonly-required function. A typical home in a developed country is likely to have only one or two general-purpose microprocessors but somewhere between one and two dozen microcontrollers.T. Microcontroller architectures vary widely. A microcontroller instruction set usually has many instructions intended for bit-wise operations to make control programs more compact. They can also be found in almost any electrical device: washing machines. Over 50% are "simple" controllers. I. microwave ovens. telephones etc.E. The microcontroller vendors often trade operating frequencies and system design flexibility against time-to-market requirements from their customers and overall lower system cost. a general purpose processor might require several instructions to test a bit in a register and branch if the bit is set. or I/O functions integrated onto the package. Other designs are purpose built for control applications.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM • The decision of which peripheral to integrate is often difficult. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 42 . and another 20% are more specialized digital signal processors (DSPs)[citation needed]. RAM.E. with one or more ROM.

GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Manufacturers have often produced special versions of their microcontrollers in order to help the hardware and software development of the target system. however there is a potential loss of functionality through pin outs being tied up with external memory addressing rather than for general input/output.E. rather than a more complex and expensive microcontroller programmer. The benefit of this approach is the release of microcontroller pins for Input and output use rather than program memory. but the package does not include the expensive quartz window required to admit UV light on to the chip. I.T. These kind of devices usually carry a higher cost but if the target production quantities are small. certainly in the case of a hobbyist. These kinds of devices are normally expensive and are impractical for anything but the development phase of a project or very small production quantities. may then be used. and is programmed on the same equipment. they can be the most economical option compared with the set up charges involved in mask programmed devices. A more rarely encountered development microcontroller is the "piggy back" version. A simple EPROM programmer. This uses the same die as the UV EPROM version of the part. ready for reprogramming after a programming ("burn") and test cycle. This device has no internal ROM memory. instead pin outs on the top of the microcontroller form a socket into which a standard EPROM program memory device may be installed. An economical option for intermediate levels of production (usually a few score to a few thousand parts) is a one-time programmable (OTP) microcontroller. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 43 .E. These have included EPROM versions that have a "window" on the top of the device through which program memory can be erased by ultra violet light. Other versions may be available where the ROM is accessed as an external device rather than as internal memory.

PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENTS Microcontrollers were originally programmed only in assembly language.T. mask-programmed parts cannot be updated in the field. I. Analog Device's Blackfin processors with the LabVIEW environment and its programming language "G". or versions of general purpose languages such as the C programming language. but various high-level programming languages are now also in common use to target microcontrollers. Where a large number of systems will be made (say.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM The use of field-programmable devices on a microcontroller may allow field update of the firmware or permit late factory revisions to products that have been assembled but not yet shipped. e. The Intel 8052 and Zilog Z8 were available with BASIC very early on. a socket may be used to hold the controller which can then be replaced by a service technician. if required. Programmable memory also reduces the lead time required for deployment of a new product. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 44 .g.E. However. several thousand). If product firmware updates are still contemplated. and the contents of the read-only memory are set In the last step of chip manufacture instead of after assembly and test. Interpreter firmware is also available for some microcontrollers. and BASIC is more recently used in the BASIC Stamp MCUs. A simpler integrated circuit process is used. These languages are either designed specially for the purpose. Some microcontrollers have environments to aid developing certain types of applications.E. Compilers for general purpose languages will typically have some restrictions as well as enhancements to better support the unique characteristics of microcontrollers. the cost of a mask-programmed memory is amortized over all products sold.

When an electronic device causes an interrupt. and then must be put back after it is finished. A simulator will show the internal processor state and also that of the outputs. the registers. Low-latency MCUs generally have relatively few registers in their central processing units. While on the one hand most simulators will be limited from being unable to simulate much other hardware in a system. as well as allowing input signals to be generated. and can be the quickest way to debug and analyse problems.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Simulators are available for some microcontrollers.T. microcontrollers used in embedded systems often seek to minimize interrupt latency over instruction throughput. they can exercise conditions that may otherwise be hard to reproduce at will in the physical implementation. the intermediate results. or they have "shadow registers". increasing the latency.E. INTERRUPT LATENCY In contrast to general-purpose computers. such as in Microchip's MPLAB environment. this saving and restoring process takes more time. Recent microcontrollers integrated with on-chip debug circuitry accessed by In-circuit emulator via JTAG enables a programmer to debug the software of an embedded system with a debugger. If there are more registers. have to be saved before the software responsible for handling the interrupt can run. a duplicate register set that is only used by the interrupt software. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 45 . These allow a developer to analyse what the behaviour of the microcontroller and their program should be if they were using the actual part. I.E.

The negative side of an LED lead is indicated in two ways: 1) by the flat side of the bulb. and 2) by the shorter of the two wires extending from the LED. The two wires extending below the LED epoxy enclosure. and draw currents between about 10 and 40 mill amperes.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM What is Inside an LED? LED's are special diodes that emit light when connected in a circuit. LED's operate at relative low voltages between about 1 and 4 volts. the semi-conductor chip. They are frequently used as "pilot" lights in electronic appliances to indicate whether the circuit is closed or not. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 46 . A a clear (or often colored) epoxy case enclosed the heart of an LED.T. I.E. The negative lead should be connected to the negative terminal of a battery. or the "bulb" indicate how the LED should be connected into a circuit.E. Voltages and currents substantially above these values can melt a LEDchip.

E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 47 . The chip has two regions separated by a junction. The n region is dominated by negative electric charges. The p region is dominated by positive electric charges.--> side lead on flat side of bulb = negative I. LED leads <-. Only when sufficient voltage is applied to the semi-conductor chip. can the current flow.E. The junction acts as a barrier to the flow of electrons between the p and the n regions. the junction presents an electric potential barrier to the flow of electrons. In the absence of a large enough electric potential difference (voltage) across the LED leads.T. and the electrons cross the junction into the p region.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM The most important part of a light emitting diode (LED) is the semiconductor chip located in the center of the bulb as shown at the right.

In the n region the electrons are more numerous than the positive electric charges. When an electron moves sufficiently close to a positive charge in the p region. and require different energies to light them. LED's that emit different colors are made of different semi-conductor materials. the two charges"re-combine". In the p region there are many more positive than negative charges. arsenic and phosphorus).T. When a voltage is applied and the current starts to flow.E. Once in the p region the electrons are immediately attracted to the positive charges due to the mutual Coulomb forces of attraction between opposite electric charges. electrons can move easily in only one direction across the junction between the p and n regions. Only photons in a very narrow frequency range can be emitted by any material. a quantum of electromagnetic energy is emitted in the form of a photon of light with a frequency characteristic of the semi-conductor material (usually a combination of the chemical elements gallium. For each recombination of a negative and a positive charge.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM • What Causes the LED to Emit Light and What Determines the Color of the Light? When sufficient voltage is applied to the chip across the leads of the LED. electric potential energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. I. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 48 . Each time an electron recombines with a positive charge. electrons in the n region have sufficient energy to move across the junction into the p region.E.

• FEATURES o o o o o o Photo detector and preamplifier in one package Internal band filter for PCM frequency Internal shielding against electrical field disturbance TTL and CMOS compatibility Output active low Small size package • SPECIAL FEATURES o o o o o o o Supply voltage 5.5 V Short settling time after power on High envelope duty cycle can be received Enhanced immunity against disturbance from energy saving lamps B.P. The epoxy package is designed as IR filter.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM • DESCRIPTION A miniaturized receiver for infrared remote control and IR data transmission.F Center Frequency 38khz Peak Emission Wavelength 940nm I.E. PIN diode and preamplifier are assembled on lead frame.E. The main benefit is the operation with high data rates and long distances. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 49 .T. The demodulated output signal can directly be decoded by a microprocessor.

Sharp Code. DVD. High Data Rate Code I. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 50 . Rca Code. CATV set top boxes. VCR. Sony 15bit Code Also suitable for: Grundig Code. Rc5 Code. Rcmm Code. R-2000 Code. The other equipments with wireless remote control. TV. Nec Code. Zenith Code Not recommended for: Rcs-80 Code. Home appliances such as Air conditioner.T. Multi-media Equipment. Fan etc.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM • o o o o o o o APPLICATION AV instruments such as Audio. CD. Sensors and light barrier systems for long distances • IR RECEIVER CODES o o o o o o o Best works with: Rc6 Code.E. MD etc. Sony 12bit Code.E.

RAJKOT SUBCENTER 51 .GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Diode Figure 1: Closeup of the image below.E. showing the square shaped semiconductor crystal Figure 2: Various semiconductor diodes. Bottom: A bridge rectifier I.T.E.

a diode is a two-terminal device (except that thermionic diodes may also have one or two ancillary terminals for a heater). Real diodes do not display such a perfect on-off directionality but have a more complex non-linear electrical characteristic. Today the most common diodes are made from semiconductor materials such as silicon or germanium. The varicap diode is used as an electrically adjustable capacitor. The directionality of current flow most diodes exhibit is sometimes generically called the rectifying property. which depends on the particular type of diode technology.E. Thus. • I.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Figure 3: Structure of a vacuum tube diode In electronics. The most common function of a diode is to allow an electric current to pass in one direction (called the forward biased condition) and to block it in the opposite direction (the reverse biased condition). and most are used for their unidirectional current property. the diode can be thought of as an electronic version of a check valve.E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 52 .T.Early diodes included “cat’s whisker” crystals and vacuum tube devices (also called thermionic valves). Diodes have two active electrodes between which the signal of interest may flow. Diodes also have many other functions in which they are not designed to operate in this on-off manner.

GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM • History Although the crystal diode was popularized before the thermionic diode.S.E. Braun patented the crystal rectifier in 1899 [1]. The first radio receiver using a crystal diode was built around 1900 by Greenleaf Whittier Pickard. and ode (from odos) means "path". RAJKOT SUBCENTER 53 .S. di means "two". Pickard received a patent for a silicon crystal detector on November 20. The principle of operation of harmonic diodes was discovered by Frederick Guthrie in 1873. The first thermionic diode was patented in Britain by John Ambrose Fleming (scientific adviser to the Marconi Company and former Edison employee[2]) on November 16.T. 1904 (U. At the time of their invention.S. Karl Ferdinand Braun. harmonic and solid state diodes were developed in parallel. 1906 [3] (U. Braun's discovery was further developed by Jag dish Chandra Bose into a useful device for radio detection. such devices were known as rectifiers.684 in November 1905).E. Patent 803.031 ). Patent 836.[1] The principle of operation of crystal diodes was discovered in 1874 by the German scientist. but developed the idea no further.[2] Thermion diode principles were rediscovered by Thomas Edison on February 13. I. William Henry Eccles coined the term diode from Greek roots.531 ). 1880 and he was awarded a patent in 1883 (U. In 1919. Patent 307.

Thermionic diodes are thermionic valve devices (also known as vacuum tubes). another filament treated with a mixture of barium and strontium oxides.) The heat causes thermionic emission of electrons into the vacuum. thermionic valve diodes were used in analog signal applications. a current is passed through the heater filament. a surrounding metal electrode. However.T. the components are the anode. called the anode. which are oxides of alkaline earth metals. electrons are not easily released from the unheated anode surface when the voltage polarity is reversed and hence any reverse flow is a very tiny current. (Some valves use direct heating. For much of the 20th century. these substances are chosen because they have a small work function. In forward operation. and as rectifiers in many power supplies. Early examples were fairly similar in appearance to incandescent light bulbs. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 54 .GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Thermionic and gaseous state diodes Figure 4: The symbol for an indirect heated vacuum tube diode. the cathode. valve diodes I. In thermionic valve diodes. Today. which are arrangements of electrodes surrounded by a vacuum within a glass envelope. is positively charged. and the heater filament.E.E. This indirectly heats the cathode. From top to bottom. so that it electrostatically attracts the emitted electrons. in which a tungsten filament acts as both cathode and emitter.

At this point. Current–voltage characteristic A semiconductor diode's current–voltage characteristic. conventional current can flow from the p-type side (the anode) to the n-type side (the cathode). For each electronhole pair that recombines. In a p-n diode. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 55 . an increasing electric field develops through the depletion zone which acts to slow and then finally stop recombination. conduction band (mobile) electrons from the N-doped region diffuse into the P-doped region where there is a large population of holes (places for electrons in which no electron is present) with which the electrons "recombine". is related to the transport of carriers through the so-called depletion layer or depletion region that exists at the p-n junction between differing semiconductors. However.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM are only used in niche applications.E.E. The region around the p-n junction becomes depleted of charge carriers and thus behaves as an insulator. the Schottky diode. and specialized high-voltage equipment. and a negatively charged dopant ion is left behind in the P-doped region. As recombination proceeds and more ions are created. is formed from the contact between a metal and a semiconductor rather than by a p-n junction.T. leaving behind an immobile positively charged donor on the N-side and negatively charged acceptor on the P-side. the depletion width cannot grow without limit. there is a "built-in" potential across the depletion zone. such as rectifiers in guitar and hi-fi valve amplifiers. Semiconductor diodes Most modern diodes are based on semiconductor p-n junctions. a positively-charged dopant ion is left behind in the Ndoped region. or I–V curve. both hole and electron vanish. but cannot flow in the opposite direction. I. When a p-n junction is first created. When a mobile electron recombines with a hole. Another type of semiconductor diode.

recombination can once again proceed. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 56 .E. the depletion zone continues to act as an insulator. The avalanche diode is deliberately designed for use in the avalanche region. However. Figure 5: I–V characteristics of a P-N junction diode (not to scale).T.E. For silicon diodes. beyond the peak inverse voltage or PIV. about 0.6 V will be developed across the diode such that the P-doped region is positive with respect to the N-doped region and the diode is said to be "turned on" as it has a forward bias. Thus. In the zener diode.6 V. resulting in substantial electric current through the p-n junction. This is the reverse bias phenomenon. the concept of PIV is not applicable.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM If an external voltage is placed across the diode with the same polarity as the built-in potential. At very large reverse bias. A diode’s I–V characteristic can be approximated by four regions of operation (see the figure at right). if the polarity of the external voltage opposes the built-in potential. if an external current is passed through the diode. preventing any significant electric current flow. I. the built-in potential is approximately 0. a process called reverse breakdown occurs which causes a large increase in current that usually damages the device permanently.

the diode current becomes appreciable (the level of current considered "appreciable" and the value of cut-in voltage depends on the application).T. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 57 . A drop of 1 V to 1. Both devices.4 V or more and blue LEDs can be up to 4. In the reverse bias region for a normal P-N rectifier diode. do have a limit to the maximum current and power in the clamped reverse voltage region.5 V is typical at full rated current for power diodes. and avalanche does not occur.E. In a normal silicon diode at rated currents. where only a small forward current is conducted. the current through the device is very low (in the µA range).GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM A zener diode contains a heavily doped p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the valence band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material. The third region is forward but small bias.7 volts.E.At higher currents the forward voltage drop of the diode increases. The second region.6 to 0.2 V and red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) can be 1. has only a very small reverse saturation current. The current–voltage curve is exponential. I. the arbitrary "cut-in" voltage is defined as 0.As the potential difference is increased above an arbitrarily defined "cut-in voltage" or "on-voltage". however.0 V. at reverse biases more positive than the PIV. and the diode presents a very low resistance. such that the reverse voltage is "clamped" to a known value (called the zener voltage). The value is different for other diode types — Schottky diodes can be as low as 0.

E. a temperature close to “room temperature” commonly used in device simulation software. At any temperature it is a known constant defined by: where q is the magnitude of charge on an electron (the elementary charge). The equation is: where I is the diode current.85 mV at 300 K. IS is a scale factor called the saturation current.E. The thermal voltage VT is approximately 25. The emission coefficient n varies from about 1 to 2 depending on the fabrication process and semiconductor material and in many cases is assumed to be approximately equal to 1 (thus the notation n is omitted). also known as the ideality factor. Scotty) is the I–V characteristic of an ideal diode in either forward or reverse bias (or no bias). VD is the voltage across the diode. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 58 . not to be confused with tetrode inventor Walter H.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Schottky diode equation The Shockley ideal diode equation or the diode law (named after transistor co-inventor William Bradford Shockley. and n is the emission coefficient. VT is the thermal voltage. I.T.

A specific example of diode modeling is discussed in the article on small-signal circuits. diffusion. and the current is a constant (negative) reverse current value of -IS. Additionally. Small-signal behavior For circuit design. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 59 . The reverse breakdown region is not modeled by the Shockley diode equation. T is the absolute temperature of the p-n junction in kelvins The Shockley ideal diode equation or the diode law is derived with the assumption that the only processes giving rise to current in the diode are drift (due to electrical field). so the subtracted ‘1’ in the diode equation is negligible and the forward diode current is often approximated as The use of the diode equation in circuit problems is illustrated in the article on diode modeling. I.For even rather small forward bias voltages (see Figure 5) the exponential is very large because the thermal voltage is very small. a small-signal model of the diode behavior often proves useful. and thermal recombination-generation.T.E. It also assumes that the recombination-generation (R-G) current in the depletion region is insignificant.E. it doesn’t describe the “leveling off” of the I–V curve at high forward bias due to internal resistance. Under reverse bias voltages (see Figure 5) the exponential in the diode equation is negligible. This means that the Shockley equation doesn’t account for the processes involved in reverse breakdown and photon-assisted R-G.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM k is Boltzmann’s constant.

GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Types of semiconductor diode:- Diode Zener diode Schottky diode Tunnel diode Light-emitting diode Photodiode Varicap Silicon controlled rectifier Figure 7: Some diode symbols There are several types of junction diodes.E.4–1. cuprous oxide and later selenium was used. doping level. with multiple cells stacked to increase the peak inverse voltage rating in high voltage rectifiers). much larger than a silicon diode of the same current ratings would require. are just an application of a diode in a special circuit. I. and required a large heat sink (often an extension of the diode’s metal substrate). which include two diodes per pin and many other internal diodes. Before the development of modern silicon power rectifier diodes.7 V per “cell”. or are really different devices like the Gunn and laser diode and the MOSFET: Normal (p-n) diodes which operate as described above. more rarely. Usually made of doped silicon or. The vast majority of all diodes are the p-n diodes found in CMOS integrated circuits. its low efficiency gave it a much higher forward voltage drop (typically 1.E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 60 .T. germanium. choosing the right electrodes. which either emphasize a different physical aspect of a diode often by geometric scaling.

E. and function like a two-terminal current-limiting analog to the Zener diode. These are electrically very similar to Zener diodes. The difference between the avalanche diode (which has a reverse breakdown above about 6. The only practical difference is that the two types have temperature coefficients of opposite polarities. and then level off at a specific I. typically galena or a piece of coal.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM • Avalanche Diodes:Diodes that conduct in the reverse direction when the reverse bias voltage exceeds the breakdown voltage.[4] The wire forms the anode and the crystal forms the cathode. so there are collisions between them on the way out. Cat’s whisker diodes are obsolete. The cat’s whisker diode consists of a thin or sharpened metal wire pressed against a semiconducting crystal. and are often mistakenly called Zener diodes. reminiscent of an avalanche. they allow a current through them to rise to a certain value. This occurs when the reverse electric field across the p-n junction causes a wave of ionization.T. Avalanche diodes are designed to break down at a well-defined reverse voltage without being destroyed.E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 61 . leading to a large current. • Cat’s whisker or crystal diodes:These are a type of point contact diode.2 V) and the Zener is that the channel length of the former exceeds the “mean free path” of the electrons. the avalanche effect. but break down by a different mechanism. Cat’s whisker diodes were also called crystal diodes and found application in crystal radio receivers. • Constant current diodes:These are actually a JFET with the gate shorted to the source.

such as gallium arsenide. “white” LEDs are actually combinations of three LEDs of a different color. carriers that cross the junction emit photons when they recombine with the majority carrier on the other side. I. or current-regulating diodes. An LED may be paired with a photodiode or phototransistor in the same package. 2. dipole domains form and travel across the diode. The forward potential of these diodes depends on the wavelength of the emitted photons: 1. constant-current diodes.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM value. These diodes are also the type most resistant to nuclear radiation. The first LEDs were red and yellow. • Light-emitting diodes (LEDs):In a diode formed from a direct band-gap semiconductor.E.T. With appropriate biasing. Also called CLDs. to form an opto-isolator. thus allowing amplification of signals and very simple bistable circuits. wavelengths (or colors) from the infrared to the near ultraviolet may be produced.2 V corresponds to red. • Esaki or tunnel diodes these have a region of operation showing negative resistance caused by quantum tunneling. All LEDs produce incoherent. LEDs can also be used as low-efficiency photodiodes in signal applications. • Gunn diodes:These are similar to tunnel diodes in that they are made of materials such as GaAs or InP that exhibit a region of negative differential resistance. diode-connected transistors. narrow-spectrum light. Depending on the material.E. and higher-frequency diodes have been developed over time. allowing high frequency microwave oscillators to be built.4 to violet. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 62 . or a blue LED with a yellow scintillator coating.

heat engines for thermoelectric cooling. Some metal migrates into the semiconductor to make a small region of p-type semiconductor near the contact. and are usually PIN (the kind of diode most sensitive to light). Photodiodes are intended to sense light(photodetector). A photodiode can be used in solar cells. The long- I. a laser can be formed. so most semiconductors are packaged in light blocking material. so they are packaged in materials that allow light to pass. but their construction is simpler. Charge carriers absorb and emit their band gap energies as heat. in photometry. • Peltier diodes:Are used as sensors. Laser diodes are commonly used in optical storage devices and for high speed optical communication. A block of n-type semiconductor is built. or in optical communications.T. and a conducting sharp-point contact made with some group-3 metal is placed in contact with the semiconductor. • Point-contact diodes:These work the same as the junction semiconductor diodes described above.E. These arrays should not be confused with charge-coupled devices. This is typically an undesired effect.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM • Laser diodes:When an LED-like structure is contained in a resonant cavity formed by polishing the parallel end faces. • Photodiodes:All semiconductors are subject to optical charge carrier generation. Multiple photodiodes may be packaged in a single device. either as a linear array or as a twodimensional array.E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 63 .

E. power MOSFETs.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM popular 1N34 germanium version is still used in radio receivers as a detector and occasionally in specialized analog electronics. Their forward voltage drop at forward currents of about 1 mA is in the range 0. PIN diodes are also used in power electronics. A switching diode provides essentially the same function as a switch. sometimes also called small signal diodes.15 V to 0. Furthermore. • Switching diodes:Switching diodes. while above that voltage it suddenly changes to the low resistance of a closed switch. or intrinsic. and thyristors. They have a lower forward voltage drop than p-n junction diodes. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 64 . They are also used as large volume ionizing radiation detectors and as photodetectors. which makes them useful in voltage clamping applications and prevention I.T. • Schottky diodes:Schottky diodes are constructed from a metal to semiconductor contact. are a single p-n diode in a discrete package. They are used as radio frequency switches and attenuators. • PIN diodes:A PIN diode has a central un-doped.45 V. layer. as their central layer can withstand high voltages. such as IGBTs. the PIN structure can be found in many power semiconductor devices. forming a ptype/intrinsic/n-type structure. Below the specified applied voltage it has high resistance similar to an open switch. They are used in devices such as ring modulation.E.

gold (or platinum) acts as recombination centers.[3] A typical example is the 1N914. Schottky diodes are majority carrier devices and so do not suffer from minority carrier storage problems that slow down many other diodes — so they have a faster “reverse recovery” than p-n junction diodes. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 65 . • Super Barrier Diodes:Super barrier diodes are rectifier diodes that incorporate the low forward voltage drop of the Schottky diode with the surge-handling capability and low reverse leakage current of a normal p-n junction diode. They can also be used as low loss rectifiers although their reverse leakage current is generally higher than that of other diodes.E.E. the reverse conduction will cease very abruptly (as in a step waveform). at the expense of a higher forward voltage drop.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM of transistor saturation. After a forward current has been passing in an SRD and the current is interrupted or reversed.[7]. Gold doped diodes are faster than other p-n diodes (but not as fast as Schottky diodes). which help a fast recombination of minority carriers.T. They also tend to have much lower junction capacitance than p-n diodes which provides for high switching speeds and their use in high-speed circuitry and RF devices such as switched-mode power supply. SRDs can therefore provide very I. mixers and detectors. They also have less reverse-current leakage than Schottky diodes (but not as good as other p-n diodes). • Gold-doped” diodes:As a dopant. • Snap-off or Step recovery diodes:The term ‘step recovery’ relates to the form of the reverse recovery characteristic of these devices. This allows the diode to operate at signal frequencies.

allowing the diode to be used as a precision voltage reference.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM fast voltage transitions by the very sudden disappearance of the charge carriers. but fixed-frequency. Some devices labeled as high-voltage Zener diodes are actually avalanche diodes (see below). crystal oscillator provided the reference frequency for a voltage-controlled oscillator. These are important in PLL (phase-locked loop) and FLL (frequency-locked loop) circuits. • Transient voltage suppression diode (TVS):These are avalanche diodes designed specifically to protect other semiconductor devices from high-voltage transients. allowing tuning circuits. to lock quickly.E. replacing older designs that took a long time to warm up and lock. They also enabled tunable oscillators in early discrete tuning of radios. occurs at a precisely defined voltage. • Varicap or varactor diodes:These are used as voltage-controlled capacitors. In practical voltage reference circuits Zener and switching diodes are connected in series and opposite directions to balance the temperature coefficient to near zero. called Zener breakdown. • Zener diodes:Diodes that can be made to conduct backwards. such as those in television receivers.E.T. A PLL is faster than an FLL. where a cheap and stable. This effect. Their p-n junctions have a much larger cross-sectional area than those of a normal diode. Two I. allowing them to conduct large currents to ground without sustaining damage. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 66 . but prone to integer harmonic locking (if one attempts to lock to a broadband signal).

though other colors are occasionally found such as dark red or dark grey. Clarence Melvin Zener of Southern Illinois University.T. a registered trademark). constitute a transient absorber (or Transorb. blue.E.E. One can also use a multimeter or ohmmeter to test the values of a resistor. in the same package.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM (equivalent) Zeners in series and in reverse order. Surface-mount ones are marked numerically. • IDENTIFYING RESISTORS Most axial resistors use a pattern of colored stripes to indicate resistance. The Zener diode is named for Dr. RESISTOR A Resistor is a two-terminal electrical or electronic component that opposes an electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in accordance with Ohm's law: The electrical resistance is equal to the voltage drop across the resistor divided by the current through the resistor. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 67 . or green. Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits. Cases are usually brown. I. inventor of the device.

GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOUR-BAND AXIAL RESISTORS Color Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Gray White Gold Silver None 1st band 2nd band 3rd band (multiplier) 4th band (tolerance) Temp.E.05% (A) 9 9 9 ×10 ×10-1 ±5% (J) -2 ×10 ±10% (K) ±20% (M) Electronic Color Code I. Coefficient 0 0 ×100 1 1 ×101 ±1% (F) 100 ppm 2 2 2 ×10 ±2% (G) 50 ppm 3 3 3 ×10 15 ppm 4 4 4 ×10 25 ppm 5 5 5 ×10 ±0.T. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 68 .1% (B) 8 8 8 ×10 ±0.5% (D) 6 6 6 ×10 ±0.E.25% (C) 7 7 ×107 ±0.

Each color corresponds to a certain number. 5%.E. or 10%. as defined above. These series are called E6.g.E. The scheme is simple: The first two numbers are the first two significant digits of the resistance value. shown in the chart below. only a limited range of values from the IEC 60063 preferred number series are commonly available. The tolerance for a 4-band resistor will be 1%. E24. can have 12 distinct values between 10 and 100. and the fourth is the tolerance of the value. E96 and E192. So resistors conforming to the E12 series.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Four-band identification is the most commonly used color coding scheme on all resistors. • NOISE I. the third is a multiplier. Resistors are often marked with their tolerance (maximum expected variation from the marked resistance). between 10 and 100. In practice. E12. whereas those confirming to the E24 series would have 24 distinct values. or between 100 and 1000). the discrete component sold as a "resistor" is not a perfect resistance.T. It consists of four colored bands that are painted around the body of the resistor. The number tells how many standardized values exist in each decade (e. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 69 . PREFERRED VALUES:Preferred Number Resistors are manufactured in values from a few milliohms to about a gigaohm.

resistors will naturally produce a fluctuating "noise" voltage across their terminals. As dissipative elements. and any resistor noise in the voltage divider will be impressed upon the amplifier's output.T. resistors frequently exhibit other. This Johnson–Nyquist noise is predicted by the FluctuationDissipation theorem and is a fundamental noise source present in all resistors which must beconsidered in constructing low-noise electronics. Noise considerations dictate that the smallest practical resistance should be used. since the noise voltage scales with resistance. are often utilized for their better noise characteristics. electronic noise becomes of utmost concern. "non-fundamental" sources of noise. For example. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 70 . the gain in a simple (non-)inverting amplifier is set using a voltage divider. though much more expensive.E. Wire-wound and thin-film resistors. • FAILURE MODES AND PITFALLS I." Thick-film and carbon composition resistors are notorious for excess noise at low frequencies.E. Noise due to these sources is called "excess noise. Although Johnson-Nyquist noise is a fundamental noise source.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM In precision circuits.

GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Like every part. Common metal film resistors show such effect at magnitude of about 20 µV/°C.05 µV/°C. care has to be taken to e. and specially constructed resistors can go as low as 0.g. Various effects become important in high-precision applications. Small voltage differentials may appear on the resistors due to thermoelectric effect if their ends are not kept at the same temperature. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 71 . mount the resistors horizontally to avoid temperature gradients and to mind the air flow over the board. resistors can fail. Carbon composition resistors and metal film resistors typically fail as open circuits. Some carbon composition resistors can go as high as 400 µV/°C. The voltages appear in the junctions of the resistor leads with the circuit board and with the resistor body.E. CAPACITOR I. the usual way depends on their construction.E. Carbon-film resistors typically fail as short circuits.T. In applications where thermoelectric effects may become important.

but opposite polarity. SMD tantalum at bottom left. and involves electric charges of equal magnitude. throughhole tantalum at top right. They can also be used to differentiate between highfrequency and low-frequency signals.E. Major scale divisions are cm. The process of storing energy in the capacitor is known as "charging".GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Capacitors: SMD ceramic at top left. A capacitor is an electrical/electronic device that can store energy in the electric field between a pair of conductors (called "plates"). Capacitors are often used in electrical circuit and electronic circuits as energy-storage devices. This is considered an antiquated term in English. like "Kondensator" in German.E. This property makes them useful in electronic filters. building up on each plate.T. I. Capacitors are occasionally referred to as condensers. but most other languages use an equivalent. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 72 . through-hole electrolytic at bottom right.

Since the farad is a very large unit. This electric field creates a potential difference V = E·d between the plates of this simple parallel-plate capacitor.E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 73 .T.E.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM • CAPACITANCE The capacitor's capacitance (C) is a measure of the amount of charge (Q) stored on each plate for a given potential difference or voltage (V) which appears between the plates: Q V C= In SI units. When there is a difference in electric charge between the plates. or picofarads (pF). nanofarads (nF). values of capacitors are usually expressed in microfarads (µF). I. an electric field is created in the region between the plates that is proportional to the amount of charge that has been moved from one plate to the other. a capacitor has a capacitance of one farad when one coulomb of charge is stored due to one volt applied potential difference across the plates.

E. The capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor is given by: C= εA d .T.E. the rotated molecules create an opposing electric field that partially cancels the field created by the plates. • STORED ENERGY As opposite charges accumulate on the plates of a capacitor due to the separation of charge. Ever-increasing work must be done against this ever-increasing electric field as more charge is separated. In the diagram. It is also proportional to the permittivity of the dielectric (that is. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 74 . A is the area of the plates and d is the spacing between them.A> d2 > where ε is the permittivity of the dielectric (see Dielectric constant).GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM The capacitance is proportional to the surface area of the conducting plate and inversely proportional to the distance between the plates. a process called dielectric polarization. in SI) stored in a capacitor is equal to the amount of work required to establish the voltage across the capacitor. a voltage develops across the capacitor due to the electric field of these charges. and therefore the electric field. The energy (measured in joules. The energy stored is given by: I. non-conducting) substance that separates the plates.

all capacitors made with the same dielectric have about the same maximum energy density (joules of energy per cubic meter). measured in amperes.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Where V is the voltage across the capacitor. A steady current through a capacitor deposits electrons on one plate and removes the same quantity of electrons from the other plate. dV/dt is the time derivative of voltage.E. and C is the capacitance in farads. measured in volts per second.The maximum energy that can be (safely) stored in a particular capacitor is limited by the maximum electric field that the dielectric can withstand before it breaks down. 1 1 Q2 1 = VQ 2 C 2 Estored= 2 CV DC SOURCES:- 2 = The dielectric between the plates is an insulator and blocks the flow of electrons. This voltage V is directly proportional to the amount of charge separated Q. developing a voltage difference between the plates. I.E. The current through the capacitor results in the separation of electric charge within the capacitor.T. equivalently. This process is commonly called 'charging' the capacitor. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 75 . this can be expressed mathematically as: I= dQ dV =C dt dt Where I is the current flowing in the conventional direction. which develops an electric field between the plates of the capacitor. Therefore. Since the current I through the capacitor is the rate at which charge Q is forced through the capacitor (dQ/dt).

the voltage and current are 'out-ofphase' by a quarter cycle. However.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM For circuits with a constant (DC) voltage source and consisting of only resistors and capacitors. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 76 . at no time do electrons actually cross between the plates.E. the capacitor current is non-zero at all times during a cycle. it is commonly said that capacitors "pass" AC. as shown above. For this reason. the current leading the voltage phase angle. unless the dielectric breaks down. The amplitude of the voltage depends on the amplitude of the current divided by the product of the frequency of the current with the capacitance. it is commonly s dV/dt is the time derivative of voltage. It can be shown that the AC voltage across the capacitor is in quadrature with the alternating current through the capacitor. I. measured in volts per second. the voltage across the capacitor cannot exceed the voltage of the source. and C is the capacitance aid that capacitors block DC. With the exception of the instant that the current changes direction. AC SOURCES:The current through a capacitor due to an AC source reverses direction periodically. C. Such a situation would involve physical damage to the capacitor and likely to the circuit involved as well. Since the voltage across a capacitor is proportional to the integral of the current. with sine waves in AC or signal circuits this results in a phase difference of 90 degrees. an equilibrium is reached where the voltage across the capacitor is constant and the current through the capacitor zero. Thus.E. That is. the alternating current alternately charges the plates: first in one direction and then the other. For this reason.T. That is.

so it can be used like a temporary battery.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM APPLICATIONS (1) ENERGY STORAGE:A capacitor can store electric energy when disconnected from its charging circuit.) (2) POWER CONDITIONING:- I. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 77 .E. Capacitors are commonly used in electronic devices to maintain power supply while batteries are being changed.T.E. (This prevents loss of information in volatile memory.

This is used in car audio applications. for example. The capacitors act as a local reserve for the DC power source. to shunt away power line hum before it gets into the signal circuitry. Audio equipment. thus transferring energy from one circuit to the other. A changing current in the first circuit (the primary) creates a changing magnetic field. The secondary induced voltage VS is scaled from the primary VP by a factor ideally equal to the ratio of the number of turns of wire in their respective windings: I. TRANSFORMER Transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through inductively coupled wires. Capacitors are connected in parallel with the power circuits of most electronic devices and larger systems (such as factories) to shunt away and conceal current fluctuations from the primary power source to provide a "clean" power supply for signal or control circuits. this magnetic field induces a changing voltage in the second circuit (the secondary).T. uses several capacitors in this way.E. They can also be used in charge pump circuits as the energy storage element in the generation of higher voltages than the input voltage. and bypass AC currents from the power supply.E. By adding a load to the secondary circuit. one can make current flow in the transformer. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 78 .GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Capacitors are used in power supplies where they smooth the output of a full or half wave rectifier. when a stiffening capacitor compensates for the inductance and resistance of the leads to the leadacid car battery. in turn.

75% of their input power to their output. permitting generation to be located remotely from points of demand. by making it less.T. transformers enable the economic transmission of power over long distances. Most wires have resistance and so dissipate electrical energy at a rate proportional to the square of the current through the wire. with some large units able to transfer 99. BASIC PRINCIPLES:- I.E. By transforming electrical power to a high-voltage. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 79 . A key application of transformers is to reduce the current before transmitting electrical energy over long distances through wires. though a variety of designs exist to perform specialized roles throughout home and industry. a transformer thus allows an alternating voltage to be stepped up — by making NS more than NP — or stepped down. Consequently. All operate with the same basic principles.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM By appropriate selection of the numbers of turns. transformers have shaped the electricity supply industry. All but a fraction of the world's electrical power has passed through a series of transformers by the time it reaches the consumer.E. Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a stage microphone to huge units weighing hundreds of tonnes used to interconnect portions of national power grids. and therefore low-current form for transmission and back again afterwards. Transformers are some of the most efficient electrical 'machines'.

the instantaneous voltage across the primary winding equals I.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM The transformer is based on two principles: first. that a changing magnetic field within a coil of wire induces a voltage across the ends of the coil (electromagnetic induction). one changes the strength of its magnetic field. the flux is the product of the magnetic field strength B and the area A through which it cuts. A current passing through the primary coil creates a magnetic field. INDUCTION LAW:The voltage induced across the secondary coil may be calculated from Faraday's law of induction. The area is constant. NS is the number of turns in the secondary coil and Φ equals the total magnetic flux through one turn of the coil. Since the same magnetic flux passes through both the primary and secondary coils in an ideal transformer.E. being equal to the cross-sectional area of the transformer core.T. a voltage is induced across the secondary. By changing the current in the primary coil.An ideal step-down transformer showing magnetic flux in the core A simplified transformer design is shown to the right. The primary and secondary coils are wrapped around a core of very high magnetic permeability. that an electric current can produce a magnetic field (electromagnetism) and.E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 80 . this ensures that most of the magnetic field lines produced by the primary current are within the iron and pass through the secondary coil as well as the primary coil. which states thatWhere VS is the instantaneous voltage. second. If the turns of the coil are oriented perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. since the secondary coil is wrapped around the same magnetic field. whereas the magnetic field varies with time according to the excitation of the primary. such as iron.

E. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 81 .GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Taking the ratio of the two equations for VS and VP gives the basic equationfor stepping up or stepping down the voltage • IDEAL POWER EQUATION I.E.T.

If this condition is met. and the contribution to the field due to current in the secondary circuit. This relationship is reciprocal. if the voltage is stepped up (VS > VP). Models of an ideal transformer typically assume a core of negligible reluctance with two windings of zero resistance.E. the incoming electric power must equal the outgoing power Pincoming = IPVP = Poutgoing = ISVS giving the ideal transformer equation Thus. then the current is stepped down (IS < IP) by the same factor. all the incoming energy is transformed from the primary circuit to the magnetic field and thence to the secondary circuit. Ideally.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM The ideal transformer as a circuit element If the secondary coil is attached to a load that allows current to flow. it ppears to the primary circuit to have an impedance of .T. driving flux around the magnetic circuit of the I. For example.[7] When a voltage is applied to the primary winding. if an impedance ZS is attached across the terminals of the secondary coil. the transformer is perfectly efficient. TECHNICAL DISCUSSION:The simplified description above avoids several complicating factors. electrical power is transmitted from the primary circuit to the secondary circuit. In practice. most transformers are very efficient (see below). The impedance in one circuit is transformed by the square of the turns ratio. so that the impedance ZP of the primary circuit appears to the secondary to be . a small current flows. so that this formula is a good approximation.E. in particular the primary current required to establish a magnetic field in the core. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 82 .

E. since the ideal core has been assumed to have near-zero reluctance. and so the voltages VP and VS measured at the terminals of the transformer. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 83 . The primary EMF. Since the ideal windings have no impedance. acting as it does in opposition to the primary voltage. The changing magnetic field induces an electromotive force (EMF) across each winding.E. are equal to the corresponding EMFs.T. although a presence is still required to create the magnetic field. PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS:- I.This is due to Lenz's law which states that the induction of EMF would always be such that it will oppose development of any such change in magnetic field. the magnetising current is negligible. is sometimes termed the "back EMF". they have no associated voltage drop. The current required to create the flux is termed the magnetising current.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM core.

and manifests itself as self-inductance in series with the mutually coupled transformer windings. mercury vapor lamps. Such flux is termed leakage flux. in some applications. leakage can be a desirable property. air gaps. or for safely handling loads that become periodically short-circuited such as electric arc welders. particularly under heavy load. but results in poorer voltage regulation.T. some flux traverses paths that take it outside the windings. and long magnetic paths.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Flux leakage in a two-winding transformer FLUX LEAKAGE: • Leakage Inductance The ideal transformer model assumes that all flux generated by the primary winding links all the turns of every winding. I. Air gaps are also used to keep a transformer from saturating.E. It is not itself directly a source of power loss. especially audio-frequency transformers that have a DC component added. In practice. causing the secondary voltage to fail to be directly proportional to the primary. and neon signs. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 84 . Leaky transformers may be used to supply loads that exhibit negative resistance.E. including itself. Distribution transformers are therefore normally designed to have very low leakage inductance However. such as electric arcs. Leakage results in energy being alternately stored in and discharged from the magnetic fields with each cycle of the power supply. or magnetic bypass shunts may be deliberately introduced to a transformer's design to limit the short-circuit current it will supply.

The EMF of a transformer at a given flux density increases with frequency. core cross-sectional area a and peak magnetic flux density B is given by the universal EMF equation: . In practice. and the supply frequency f. number of turns N. However properties such as core loss and conductor skin effect also increase with frequency.E.T. the flux would rise very rapidly to the point where magnetic saturation of the core occurred.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM EFFECT OF FREQUENCY The time-derivative term in Faraday's Law shows that the flux in the core is the integral of the applied voltage. transformers can be physically more compact because a given core is able to transfer more power without reaching saturation. work under direct-current excitation. All practical transformers must therefore operate under alternating (or pulsed) current conditions. Aircraft and military equipment traditionally employ 400 Hz power supplies which are less efficient but this is more than offset by the reduction in core and I. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 85 . An ideal transformer would. at least hypothetically. and fewer turns are needed to achieve the same impedance. an effect predicted by the universal transformer EMF equation. By operating at higher frequencies. causing a huge increase in the magnetising current and overheating the transformer. Transformer universal EMF equation If the flux in the core is sinusoidal.E. with the core flux increasing linearly with time. the relationship for either winding between its rms EMF E.

85%. operation of a transformer at its designed voltage but at a higher frequency than intended will lead to reduced magnetising current. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 86 . At a frequency lower than the design is dissipated in the windings. Larger transformers are generally more efficient. losses. and would therefore be 100% efficient. Operation of a transformer at other than its design frequency may require assessment of voltages. For example. with the rated voltage applied. Despite the transformer being amongst the most efficient of electrical machines. A small transformer. transformers may need to be equipped with "volts per hertz" over-excitation relays to protect the transformer from overvoltage at higher than rated frequency. and those rated for electricity distribution usually perform better than 95%.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM winding weight. such as a plug-in "power brick" used for low-power consumer electronics. core. Knowledge of natural frequencies of transformer windings is of importance for the determination of the transient response of the windings to impulse and switching surge voltages. the aggregate losses from the very large number of such devices is coming under increased scrutiny. Transformer losses are attributable to several causes and may be differentiated between those originating in the windings. and surrounding structures. and cooling to establish if safe operation is practical. In general. although individual power loss is small.T.E. may be no more than 85% efficient. sometimes termed copper I. ENERGY LOSSES:An ideal transformer would have no energy losses. with experimental models using superconducting windings achieving efficiencies of 99. the magnetising current may increase to an excessive level.

E.T. At higher frequencies.E. meaning that even an idle transformer constitutes a drain on an electrical supply. and lending impetus to development of low-loss transformers (also see energy efficient transformer). RAJKOT SUBCENTER 87 . Losses in the transformer arise from: • Winding Resistance :- Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors. a small amount of energy is lost due to hysteresis within the core. skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses. Winding resistance dominates load losses. and those arising from the magnetic circuit. The losses vary with load current. whereas hysteresis and eddy currents losses contribute to over 99% of the no-load loss. • Eddy Currents :- I. respectively. For a given core material.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM loss. and may furthermore be expressed as "no-load" or "full-load" loss. and is a function of the peak flux density to which it is subjected. the loss is proportional to the frequency. sometimes termed iron loss. • Hysteresis losses :Each time the magnetic field is reversed. The no-load loss can be significant.

and are responsible for resistive heating of the core material. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork. an effect known as magnetostriction. causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with each cycle of the magnetic field.[6] and in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible cores. This produces the buzzing sound commonly associated with transformers. adding to the buzzing noise. and a solid core made from such a material also constitutes a single short-circuited turn throughout its entire length.T.[19] • Stray losses :Leakage inductance is by itself lossless. • Mechanical losses :In addition to magnetostriction. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 88 . However. • Magnetostriction:Magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic material. The eddy current loss is a complex function of the square of supply frequency and inverse square of the material thickness. since energy supplied to its magnetic fields is returned to the supply with the next half-cycle. such as the core.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Ferromagnetic materials are also good conductors. I.E. any leakage flux that intercepts nearby conductive materials such as the transformer's support structure will give rise to eddy currents and be converted to heat. the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. and consuming a small amount of power.E. Eddy currents therefore circulate within the core in a plane normal to the flux.




































It can be used like this as a transducer converting position (angle of the control spindle) to an electrical signal. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 118 .T. This type of variable resistor with 3 Variable Resisto r (Potentiometer) contacts (a potentiometer) is usually used to control voltage.E.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Circuit Symbols Circuit symbols are used in circuit diagrams which show how a circuit is connected together. adjusting motor speed. I. This type of variable resistor (a preset) is operated with a small screwdriver or Variable Resisto r (Preset) similar tool. Presets are cheaper than normal variable resistors so they are often used in projects to reduce the cost. for example to limit the current Resistor passing through an LED. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment. This type of variable resistor with 2 contacts (a rheostat) is usually used to Variable Resisto r (Rheostat) control current.E. Resistors Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component A resistor restricts the flow of current. Examples include: adjusting lamp brightness. and adjusting the rate of flow of charge into a capacitor in a timing circuit. To build a circuit you need a different diagram showing the layout of the parts on strip board or printed circuit board. A resistor is used with a capacitor in a timing circuit. The actual layout of the components is usually quite different from the circuit diagram.

A capacitor is used with a resistor in a timing circuit.E. A transducer which converts electrical energy to light. A special diode which is used to maintain a fixed voltage across its terminals. to block DC signals but pass AC signals. Variable Capacito r A variable capacitor is used in a radio tuner. A capacitor stores electric charge. I. Diodes Component Diode LED Light Emitting Diod e Zener Diode Circuit Symbol Function of Component A device which only allows current to flow in one direction. It can also be used as a filter. to block DC signals but pass AC signals.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Capacitors Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component A capacitor stores electric charge. It can also be used as a filter. This type of variable capacitor (a trimmer) is operated with a small Trimmer Capacitor screwdriver or similar tool. This type must be connected the Capacitor. It is designed to be set when the circuit is made and then left without further adjustment.E. A capacitor is used with a resistor in a Capacitor timing circuit.T. polarized correct way round. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 119 .

E. A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 120 . Amplifier (general symbol) Really it is a block diagram symbol because it represents a circuit rather than just one component. Transistors Component Circuit Symbol Function of Component A transistor amplifies current.T. Earphone I. Pezos Transducer A transducer which converts electrical energy to sound. A transistor amplifies current.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Photodiode A light-sensitive diode.E. An amplifier circuit with one input. It can be used with Transistor NPN other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit. It can be used with Transistor PNP other components to make an amplifier or switching circuit.

Computer fundamental By. Ram I. Mehta. B. J. Gupta. Principal of electronics By.B. 3. V. Electronics projects September 2004 edition 2. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 121 .K. Electronics devices and circuits By. 4.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Books 1.E.T.E. 4.E.E.electronicsproject. www.T. www. RAJKOT SUBCENTER 122 I.GSM BASED IRRIGATION SYSTEM Web site 2. 3.

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