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Unit 5-Nervous System Brain Retina Questions

Unit 5-Nervous System Brain Retina Questions

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1. The diagram shows the structure of a synapse.

P r e s y n a p t i c
i m p u l s e
P r e s y n a p t i c
m e m b r a n e
P o s t s y n a p t i c
i m p u l s e
P o s t s y n a p t i c
m e m b r a n e
M i t o c h o n d r i o n
S y n a p t i c v e s i c l e s

(a) Describe what would happen in the presynaptic neurone as a result of the arrival of an
action potential.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(3)
1
(b) The graphs below show the changes in membrane potential in the presynaptic neurone
and the postsynaptic neurone as an impulse passes across a synapse.
+ !
+ " !
!
# " !
# !
# $ !
# % !
& " ' ( $
T i m e
) m s
M e m b r a n e
p o t e n t i a l
) m *
P r e s y n a p t i c
n e u r o n e
+ !
+ " !
!
# " !
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# $ !
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& " ' ( $
T i m e
) m s
M e m b r a n e
p o t e n t i a l
) m *
P o s t s y n a p t i c
n e u r o n e

(i) +n the graph for the postsynaptic neurone, indicate by using a letter S the point at
which the sodium channels open, allowing an increased flow of sodium ions into
the neurone.
(1)

(ii) +n the graph for the postsynaptic neurone, indicate by using a letter P the point at
which the potassium channels open, allowing an increased flow of potassium ions
out of the neurone.
(1)
(iii) -alculate the delay between the arrival of the action potential at the presynaptic
neurone and the production of an action potential in the postsynaptic neurone.
Show your wor.ing.
/nswer ..............................................................
(2)

(iv) 01plain the reason for this delay.
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)
3
2. 2n mammals, control of the rate of ventilation ensures that body cells have an ade3uate supply
of o1ygen. The diagram summarises the influence of carbon dio1ide concentration in the blood
upon ventilation rate.
2 n c r e a s e
d e t e c t e d
2 n c r e a s e i n
v e n t i l a t i o n r a t e
+ p t i m u m c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f - +
i n t h e b l o o d
D e c r e a s e
d e t e c t e d
D e c r e a s e i n
v e n t i l a t i o n r a t e
2 n c r e a s e i n - +
i n t h e b l o o d
2 n c r e a s e i n - +
i n t h e b l o o d
D e c r e a s e i n - +
i n t h e b l o o d
D e c r e a s e i n - +
i n t h e b l o o d
"
"
"
"
"

(a) 4ive the term used to describe a control mechanism such as the one shown in the
diagram.
....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) (i) 5ame the type of receptor which detects an increase or decrease in the
concentration of carbon dio1ide in the blood.
..........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) 5ame two places in the body where these receptors are located.
& .......................................................................................................................
" .......................................................................................................................
(2)
(c) 2dentify one physiological factor, other than a change in blood -+
"
concentration, which
would cause an increase in the rate of ventilation.
....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(d) 4ive one physiological effect, other than an increase in ventilation rate, that is caused by
an increase in the concentration of carbon dio1ide in the blood.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 6 marks)

3. The diagram below shows a section through a human brain.
A
B
C
5
-omplete the table below by writing in the letter and the name of the region of the brain that
carries out each function.
6unction 7etter 5ame of region
2nitiating and controlling
voluntary muscle
movement
-oordinating s.eletal
muscle movement, balance
and posture
-ontrolling heart and
breathing rate
(Total 4 marks)

4. The diagram shows a longitudinal section through part of the a1on of a myelinated neurone.
M y e l i n
s h e a t h

(a) Describe the structure of the myelin sheath.
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(2)
(b) The table shows the speed of conduction of an impulse along a1ons with different
diameters. Data from both myelinated and non9myelinated neurones are included.
Type of neurone
Diameter of a1on
)µ m
Speed of conduction
)m s
#&
5on9myelinated
5on9myelinated
5on9myelinated
Myelinated
Myelinated
"
&(
:!!
&!
&(
"
(
""
'!
%!

;ith reference to the data, describe and e1plain the effect that the myelin sheath has on
the speed of conduction of a nerve impulse.
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(5)
(Total 7 marks)

5. 4ive an account of the role of pigments in the detection of light by flowering plants
and animals.
(Allow three lined pages)
(Total 10 marks)
7
6. 2n an investigation into the effect of a drug on the nervous system, the reaction time of four
volunteers was tested by timing how long it too. for them to push a button after seeing a
lamp light up.
*olunteer / dran. (! cm
'
of water. *olunteers <, - and D each dran. (! em= of a solution
containing different concentrations of the drug. The reaction time of each volunteer was then
tested every ten minutes during the ne1t hour.
* o l u n t e e r
/
<
-
D
!
&
"
'
! m i n
! . '
! . '
! . "
! . '
& ! m i n
! . '
! .
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! . "
! .
! . $
! . >
' ! m i n
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! .
! . $
& . !
! m i n
! . "
! . '
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( ! m i n
! . "
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! .
! . >
$ ! m i n
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! . '
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! . >
- o n c e n t r a t i o n
o f d r u g )
a r b i t r a r y u n i t s
? e a c t i o n t i m e ) s e c o n d s

(a) Suggest what the data indicate about the absorption of the drug into the bloodstream.
4ive a reason for your answer.
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(2)

(b) Describe the effects that the drug had upon the reaction times of the volunteers during
the $! minutes of the investigation.
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(3)
(c) This drug is .nown to affect synaptic transmission. Suggest how the drug might cause the
effects you have described in (b).
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888888888888888888.888888888888888
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(3)

(d) 4ive three factors, other than the concentration of the drug, that would need to be
ta.en into account in this investigation.
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(3)
(Total 11 marks)

7. Multiple sclerosis is a disease of the nervous system in which the myelin sheath around the
neurones of the central nervous system is damaged. The symptoms of multiple sclerosis are
wide ranging, including loss of limb control, tiredness, speech impairment and eye problems.
The e1act cause of the disease is un.nown, but it appears to involve the body=s immune system
attac.ing the myelin. The myelin is made up of many cell membranes pac.ed closely together,
and so consists mostly of lipids and proteins. 2n multiple sclerosis, it is destroyed and replaced
by scar tissue.
Describe the role of the myelin sheath and suggest how damage to the myelin sheath could
interfere with the transmission of nerve impulses.
(Allow one lined page)
(Total 6 marks)
9
8. The diagram below shows the neurones involved in a spinal refle1 arc.
? e c e p t o r
0 f f e c t o r
S e n s o r y n e u r o n e
0 f f e c t o r ( m o t o r ) n e u r o n e
S y n a p t i c c l e f t
5 e u r o n e @
P o r t i o n o f
s p i n a l c o r d

(a) 5ame neurone @.
...............................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) 01plain the significance of this neurone in a refle1 arc.
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(2)
(c) Describe how an action potential is produced in the effector neurone, following the
diffusion of transmitter substance across the synaptic cleft.
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 7 marks)

9. The diagram below represents a section through the human retina.
- o n e c e l l
? o d c e l l
< i p o l a r c e l l
4 a n g l i o n c e l l
T o b r a i n

11
(a) 5ame the retinal pigment found in a rod cell.
............................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) 01plain how the pigment in rod cells is involved in the conversion of light energy into
nerve impulses.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
(4)

(c) Asing the information in the diagram, suggest why stimulation of cone cells results in a
more detailed image than stimulation of rod cells.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
(3)
(d) The eye of a species of moth contains three different pigments. The table below shows
the wavelengths and colours of light which are most strongly absorbed by these pigments.
Pigment ;avelength most strongly absorbed)nm
/ '(! (ultraviolet)
< ! (violet)
- ("( (green)
Asing information in the table, and your .nowledge of the retinal pigments in the human
eye, compare the sensitivity to colour of the mothBs eye with that of the human eye.
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

10. 4ive an account of the se3uence of events by which the arrival of an action potential at a
synapse results in an action potential in the post9synaptic neurone.
(Allow two lined pages)
(Total 8 marks)
13
11. The diagram below shows a transverse section of the spinal cord of a mammal.
/
<
-
; h i t e
m a t t e r

(a) 5ame the parts labelled /, <, and -.
/ .........................................................................................................................................
< .........................................................................................................................................
- .........................................................................................................................................
(2)
(b) The white matter in the spinal cord is mainly composed of the myelinated a1ons of
neurones. The graph below shows the conduction velocity of myelinated and non9
myelinated neurones.
%
$

"
!
! & " '
/ 1 o n d i a m e t e r ) m
- o n d u c t i o n v e l o c i t y ) m s
# &
M y e l i n a t e d
5 o n 9 m y e l i n a t e d

(i) -ompare the conduction velocities of myelinated and non9myelinated neurones.
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(3)
15
(ii) 01plain the role of myelin in nerve impulse transmission.
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(2)

(c) 01plain how simple refle1es are important in the responses of mammals to changes in the
e1ternal environment.
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(2)
(Total 9 marks)

12. The data below show some of the changes that occur in the cardiovascular system as a result of
different levels of e1ercise.
7evel of e1ercise
/t rest 7ight Medium 2ntense
Ceart rate
)beats min
#&
:" & &$! &>!
-ardiac output
)dm
'
min
#&
( &' &$ "&
(a) Asing the data from the table, calculate the stro.e volume when e1ercising at an intense
level. Show your wor.ing.
/nswer .........................................
(2)

(b) The graph below shows typical blood pressures at different levels of e1ercise.
< l o o d p r e s s u r e ) m m C g
" ! !
& ( !
& ! !
( !
!
/ t r e s t 7 i g h t M e d i u m 2 n t e n s e
7 e v e l o f e 1 e r c i s e
S y s t o l i c
p r e s s u r e
D i a s t o l i c
p r e s s u r e

(i) 01plain what is meant by the term bloo !ress"re.
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(1)
17
(ii) ;ith reference to the graph, describe the effect of e1ercise on blood pressure.
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(3)

(iii) Asing the data in the table and the graph, suggest why the systolic pressure rises
with increasing level of e1ercise.
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(2)

(c) State two sites in the body where blood pressure receptors are found.
& .........................................................................................................................................
" .........................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 10 marks)
13. Par.inson=s disease leads to the gradual loss of balance and movement, often with muscle
tremors. This disease is believed to be caused by a lac. of the neurotransmitter dopamine in
parts of the brain. The disease can be treated with the drug 79dopa.
(a) 01plain why the lac. of dopamine leads to the symptoms of Par.inson=s disease.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) Suggest why 79dopa, rather than dopamine, is used for the treatment of patients with
Par.inson=s disease.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) Multiple sclerosis is a disease that causes patches of inflammation in the brain. State the
name of an imaging techni3ue and describe how the images could be used to establish
which parts of the brain have been damaged in a patient with multiple sclerosis.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 6 marks)
19
14. There is much debate about the reasons for variation in human characteristics. +ne source of
evidence in this Dnature and nurture= debate is provided by studies of identical (monoEygotic or
MF) twins.
2n one study, which involved $> pairs of identical twins, fifty pairs of the twins had been
brought up together since birth and nineteen pairs of the twins had been brought up apart since
birth. The height, body mass and intelligence (2G) of each twin was measured and the difference
between each pair was determined for each characteristic.
The table below shows the mean differences between the pairs of twins.
Mean difference
-haracteristic (! pairs of identical twins
brought up together
&> pairs of identical twins
brought up apart
Ceight)cm 1.7 1.8
<ody mass).g 1.9 4.5
2ntelligence (2G) 3.1 6.0

(a) 01plain what these figures suggest about the effects of nature and nurture on these three
characteristics.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(b) Suggest two reasons why the conclusions drawn from the data above should be treated
with caution.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

15. (a) 01plain how nerve impulses are conducted along a myelinated a1on after an action
potential has been initiated. Hou should write your answer in continuous prose.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(6)
21
(b) Cabituation is a type of learning that allows animals to ignore repeated unimportant
stimuli. 6or e1ample, snails withdraw their tentacles when the tentacles are gently
touched, but if the tentacles are repeatedly stimulated in this way they are no longer
withdrawn.
The diagram below shows a synapse involved in this type of response.
- a
" +
- a l c i u m
c h a n n e l
5 e u r o n e & 5 e u r o n e "
;ith repeated stimulation the calcium channels become less responsive. Asing the
diagram of the synapse and your own .nowledge, suggest how changes in the functioning
of the synapse might bring about habituation.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(Total 10 marks)

23
16. The table below refers to some regions of the brain and their functions. -omplete the table by
inserting the correct word or words.
#e$%on o& bra%n 'ne &"n(t%on
Medulla
7earning and memory
-ontrol of balance and fine movement
Cypothalamus
(Total 4 marks)

17. 5eurones transmit electrical impulses along their cell surface membranes when stimulated to do
so. These impulses are called action potentials and involve changes in the electrical potential
across the membranes due to movement of positive ions.
The diagram below shows the distribution of charge inside and outside an unmyelinated a1on as
an impulse passes along.
) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) * * * * * * ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )
) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) * * * * * * ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )
* * * * * * * * * * * * * ) ) ) ) ) ) * * * * * * * * *
* * * * * * * * * * * * * ) ) ) ) ) ) * * * * * * * * *
D - < /
/ 1 o n
D i r e c t i o n o f i m p u l s e
(a) Ase the most suitable term from the list below to describe the state of the a1on in regions
<, - and D. ?egion / has been done for you.
Depolarising ?esting ?epolarising
/ ?esting
< ......................................................................
- ......................................................................
D ......................................................................
(2)

(b) The diagram below shows two action potentials recorded using an oscilloscope.
M e m b r a n e
p o t e n t i a l
) m *
+ $ !
+ !
+ " !
!
# " !
# !
# $ !
# % !
# & ! !
! & " ' ( $ : % >
@
T i m e ) m s
25
(i) 01plain how the change in membrane potential between !.( and ".! milliseconds is
brought about.
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................
(4)

(ii) -alculate the number of action potentials occurring per second. Show your
wor.ing.
/nswer .................................. per second
(2)

(c) 01plain what is ta.ing place during the period mar.ed @ on the diagram in part (b).
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 11 marks)

18. 4ive an account of the detection of light by pigments in the mammalian eye.
(Allow two lined pages)
(Total 9 marks)

19. (a) The table below compares three features of nervous and hormonal coordination.
-omplete the table to show the differences between the two types of coordination.
6eature 5ervous coordination Cormonal coordination
Method of transmission
Speed of transmission
Duration of the response
(3)

(b) 4ive one similarity between the methods of transmission involved in nervous and
hormonal coordination.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 4 marks)

20. 4ive an account of the location and functions of each of the following areas of the mammalian
brainI cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum and medulla.
(Allow two lined pages)
(Total 10 marks)
27
21. The diagram below illustrates some aspects of the regulation of heart rate.

(a) -omplete the flow diagram by naming the part of the heart that receives impulses from
the two nerves
(1)

(b) Strenuous physical activity will increase the volume of blood flowing through the venae
cavae and into the right atrium. This will trigger a refle1 action.
(i) 5ame the refle1 that will be initiated.
...............................................................................................................................
(1)
(ii) Asing your own .nowledge and the information provided, e1plain how this
increase in blood volume in the venae cavae and right atrium causes a change in
heart rate.
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c) The coordination of the heart beat is disrupted when the conducting systems of the heart
are damaged. This type of disease is called heart bloc.. Describe how an artificial
pacema.er can be used to treat this condition.
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
.......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 8 marks)
29
22. The diagram below shows a vertical section through a human brain.
A
B
C
+
,

(a) Asing the letters A, B, C, + or ,, state which region of the brainI
(i) coordinates movement
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) controls heart rate
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(iii) receives sensory input from the eyes.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(b) ?esearchers covered one eye of a new born .itten. Three months later, when the eye was
uncovered, the .itten remained blind in that eye. -overing the eye of an adult cat for three
months did not blind it. 01plain what these results show about how vision develops in
cats.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

23. The graph below shows the effect of light intensity on the area of the pupil in the human eye.
(

'
"
&
!
! & " ' ( $ : %
P u p i l a r e a
) m m
"
7 i g h t i n t e n s i t y ) a r b i t r a r y u n i t s

(a) (i) Describe the effect of changing light intensity on the area of the pupil.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
31
(ii) 01plain how the muscles in the eye bring about this change.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) -hange in area of the pupil is controlled by a refle1 action. 2n this pupil refle1, name
(i) the receptor
...........................................................................................................................
the effector
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii) 01plain why the pupil refle1 still occurs in an unconscious person.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) /tropine is used to dilate the pupil to allow the eye to be e1amined more easily.
/tropine inhibits the activity of acetylcholine. Suggest how atropine causes this
inhibition.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(d) The diagram shows a light sensitive cell from the eye. The activity of the cell in the ark
is shown.
? h o d o p s i n p i g m e n t
S o d i u m
( 5 a
+
) i o n s
+ u t e r
s e g m e n t
2 n n e r
s e g m e n t
5 e u r o t r a n s m i t t e r r e l e a s e d
< i p o l a r c e l l i n h i b i t e d
S y n a p s e
+ a r k
Asing the above diagram and your own .nowledge, e1plain how light causes the
depolarisation of the bipolar cell.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
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(5)
(Total 12 marks)
33
24. (a) The graph below shows the changes in membrane potential of a myelinated nerve
fibre when a nerve impulse travels along it. The ma1imum depolarisation in the nerve
fibre is +! m*.
& " ' ( $
T i m e ) m s
+ !
+ " !
!
# " !
# !
# $ !
# % !
M
e
m
b
r
a
n
e

p
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

)

m
*

(i) +n the graph, draw an arrow to show the time when the sodium ion channels open.
(1)
(ii) 01plain the meaning of the term m-el%nate.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

(iii) State what effect myelination has on the speed of conduction.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
35
(b) +n the graph below show the changes in membrane potential of a nerve fibre, with a
resting potential of #$!m* and a ma1imum depolarisation of +'(m*, during the passage
of an impulse.
& " ' ( $
T i m e ) m s
+ !
+ " !
!
# " !
# !
# $ !
# % !
M
e
m
b
r
a
n
e

p
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l

)

m
*
(2)
(Total 6 marks)
25. 5erve impulses travel across a synapse from a sensory neurone to a relay neurone in the spinal
cord.
Describe how a nerve impulse is transmitted across a synapse.
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................................
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(Total 6 marks)
37
26. The diagram below shows one type of mammalian neurone.
D e n d r i t e
- e l l b o d y
5 o d e o f ? a n v i e r
S y n a p t i c . n o b
(a) (i) 5ame the type and state the role of the neurone shown in the diagram.
TypeI ................................................................................................................
?oleI .................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)
39
(ii) Draw an arrow on the diagram to show the direction in which an impulse would
travel.
(1)
(b) State precisely where in the central nervous system the cell body of this type of neurone
is found and e1plain the importance of the dendrites.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
41
(c) Describe the node of ?anvier and e1plain its importance in the neurone.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
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(3)
(Total 8 marks)
27. The human brain has many different neurotransmitters which influence behaviour. +ne of these
neurotransmitters is serotonin. / lac. of serotonin in the brain can cause depression and an
e1cess can cause an1iety. Drugs that increase levels of serotonin are used as antidepressants.
The diagram below shows a synapse in which serotonin acts as a neurotransmitter.
* e s i c l e c o n t a i n i n g
s e r o t o n i n
S e r o t o n i n
s y n t h e s i s
p o s t s y n a p t i c
m e m b r a n e
p r e s y n a p t i c
m e m b r a n e
s y n a p t i c
c l e f t
. e -
S e r o t o n i n p o s t s y n a p t i c r e c e p t o r
S e r o t o n i n r e 9 u p t a . e m e c h a n i s m
S e r o t o n i n

(a) 2n sufferers of depression the levels of serotonin are reduced. Asing the diagram above,
suggest one e1planation for low serotonin levels.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)
43
(b) Ase the diagram and your own .nowledge of synaptic transmission to e1plain how
information is transmitted across a synapse.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(6)

(c) Asing the information given, suggest and e1plain two ways antidepressants wor..
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(d) The drug .nown as ecstasy (MDM/) can cause an1iety. The diagram below represents an
ecstasy molecule. Asing your .nowledge and the diagrams provided suggest how ecstasy
may have this effect.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 12 marks)

28. The diagram below shows a vertical section through a human brain.
(a) +n the diagram, draw an arrow to show the position of the h-!othalam"s.
(1)
45
(b) The forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain are the three main regions of the human brain.
State in which region of the brain the hypothalamus is found.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) 4ive two functions of the hypothalamus.
& ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
" ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)

29. The diagram below shows a section through part of a mammalian retina.
/
D
<
-

(a) (i) State which of the parts labelled /, <, - or D, contains %oo!s%n.
...........................
(1)

(ii) There are three different forms of iodopsin. State how many different forms of
iodopsin would be present in the cells shown in the diagram.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(b) 01plain how rhoo!s%n is involved in the conversion of light energy into electrical
energy.
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(4)
(Total 6 marks)

30. 4ive an account of how a nerve impulse is generated in a post9synaptic neurone following the
release of a neurotransmitter.
(Allow two lined pages).
(Total 10 marks)
47
31. (a) Pavlov carried out e1periments on dogs to investigate classical conditioning.

01plain how the dogs became conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell in Pavlov=s
e1periments.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) Asing operant conditioning, pigeons were presented with coloured .eys and taught to
pec. one particular .ey. Suggest how this operant conditioning was achieved.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(c) <riefly discuss the e1tent to which the study of learning in animals can help us to
understand learning in humans.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(d) 01plain how functional magnetic resonance imaging (fM?2) can improve our .nowledge
of human brain function.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 9 marks)
49
32. The picture below shows the response of a cat=s pupil to bright light.

(a) (i) Describe how the nervous system controls the pupil refle1 in a
mammal such as a cat, in response to bright light.
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(4)
(ii) Describe and e1plain how myelination of neurones is an advantage in this refle1
pathway.
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...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(b) Cubel and ;eisel covered one eye of .ittens of different ages to investigate the timing of
visual development in mammals.
Jittens which had one eye covered from the fourth to the fifth wee. subse3uently had
very poor vision in that eye. Jittens which had one eye covered at earlier or later times
had normal vision. Suggest an e1planation for these observations.
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(3)
51
(c) Some people have ethical obKections to animal e1periments. Suggest how a biologist
might Kustify the use of animals in e1periments.
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(2)
(Total 12 marks)

33. The diagram below shows a human brain seen from the side.
(a) 5ame the parts labelled B and C.
B ..................................................................................................................................
C ..................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) 4ive two functions of the part labelled A.
& ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
" ..................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 4 marks)
34. State three ways in which hormonal control differs from nervous control.
& ............................................................................................................................................
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" ............................................................................................................................................
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' ............................................................................................................................................
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(Total 3 marks)

35. (a) ;hen an action potential arrives at a synaptic .nob, acetylcholine is released.
Describe how acetylcholine is released into the synaptic cleft.
.....................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
53
(b) The graph below shows a recording of an action potential produced after the binding of
acetylcholine to receptors on a post9synaptic membrane.
+ ' (
!
# ' (
# : !
' " & !
T i m e ) m s
M e m b r a n e
p o t e n t i a l ) m *

(i) Ase the graph to state the time at which the sodium channels open to allow an
increased flow of sodium ions into the neurone.
.................................................... ms
(1)

(ii) Ase the graph to state the time at which the hyperpolarisation is at its greatest.
.................................................... ms
(1)
(iii) -alculate the number of action potentials that could occur in one second if the
stimulus is maintained. Show your wor.ing.
/nswer ....................................... action potentials per second.
(2)

(c) ;hen a transmitter substance called gamma9aminobutyric acid (4/</) is released at a
synapse, it causes chloride ion (-l#) channels and potassium ion (J
+
) channels to open in
the post9synaptic membrane. This results in chloride ions moving into the post9synaptic
neurone and potassium ions moving out.
01plain why an action potential is less li.ely to develop when 4/</ is released at the
same time as acetylcholine.
.....................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 9 marks)
55
36. Detection of light occurs in both mammals and flowering plants.
(a) 2n humans, the central region of the retina has very few rod cells. Cowever, in a dog
about %!#>!L of the photoreceptors in the central region of the retina are rod cells.
Suggest one advantage to a dog of having more rod cells in this region of the retina.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(3)
(b) Cumans have three types of cone cell. Cowever, dogs only have two types of cone cell.
/ra!h 1 below shows the percentage of light, of different wavelengths, absorbed by the
pigments in the two types of cone cell in a dog=s retina.
/ra!h 2 shows the percentage of light, of different wavelengths, absorbed by the
pigments in the three types of cone cell in a human=s retina.
& ! !
: (
( !
" (
!
! ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! $ ! ! $ ( ! : ! !
; a v e l e n g t h o f l i g h t ) n m
P e r c e n t a g e
o f l i g h t
a b s o r b e d ( L )
/ r a ! h 1
& ! !
: (
( !
" (
!
! ! ( ! ( ! ! ( ( ! $ ! ! $ ( ! : ! !
; a v e l e n g t h o f l i g h t ) n m
P e r c e n t a g e
o f l i g h t
a b s o r b e d ( L )
/ r a ! h 2
0 a 1 e l e n $ t h 2 n m C o l o " r
! ! * i o l e t
: ( < l u e
( & ! 4 r e e n
( : ! H e l l o w
( > ! + r a n g e
$ ( ! ? e d
T a b l e &

Three balls, that differed only in their colour, were placed in front of a dog and a human.
+ne ball was red, one yellow and one orange. Asing this data, e1plain why only the
human would be able to detect a difference between the colour of the three balls.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(2)
57

(c) Describe the detection of light in flowering plants.
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(3)
(Total 8 marks)

37. 4ive an account of the structure and functions of sensory, relay and effector (motor) neurones.
(Allow two lined pages).
(Total 10 marks)
38. The diagram below shows a rod cell from the retina of the human eye.
0 n d b u l b
2 n n e r
s e g m e n t
+ u t e r
s e g m e n t
- o n n e c t i n g p a i r
o f c i l i a
* e s i c l e s
( c o n t a i n i n g
p h o t o s e n s i t i v e
p i g m e n t s )
M i t o c h o n d r i o n
5 u c l e u s
The function of rod cells can be affected by the condition .nown as retinitis pigmentosa.
?etinitis pigmentosa causes the gradual brea.down of photoreceptor cells in the retina. /s these
cells degenerate and die, patients e1perience progressive loss of vision.
+ne of the most common forms of retinitis pigmentosa can be caused by a recessive allele
inherited from parents who have normal vision.
59
;ith reference to the function of rod cells and rhodopsin as photoreceptors, e1plain why people
with retinitis pigmentosa e1perience progressive loss of vision.
...............................................................................................................................................
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(Total 4 marks)

39. ?esearch on visual development in cats has led to .nowledge of how information is processed
in the visual corte1 of the brain. The diagrams below show the growth of neurones in part of the
visual corte1 after normal visual development and when the left eye has been deprived of
sensory information.
3 o r m a l 4 % s " a l + e 1 e l o ! m e n t 5 e n s o r - + e ! r % 1 a t % o n % n t h e
6 e & t , - e
7 e f t
e y e
? i g h t
e y e
- l o s e d
l e f t e y e
? i g h t
e y e
(a) Ase the diagrams above to describe differences in the visual corte1 after sensory
deprivation.
.....................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b) 01plain how this type of e1periment has provided evidence which shows the need for
e1posure to sensory information in normal visual development.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(2)

(c) Describe one other piece of evidence which suggests that humans must be e1posed to
particular stimuli if they are to develop normal vision.
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(1)
(Total 5 marks)
61
40. People with Par.inson=s disease have poor control over their s.eletal muscles, caused by a lac.
of the neurotransmitter dopamine. 7arge numbers of neurones secreting dopamine are found in
the basal ganglia region of the brain.
Par.inson=s disease can be diagnosed and monitored using brain scans. The fM?2 scans below
show the results of a study where subKects did a standard finger9tapping activity to investigate
the effectiveness of a new drug treatment.
The results below are from a healthy brain, a patient with Par.inson=s disease without drug
treatment and a patient with Par.inson=s disease ta.ing drug treatment. The scan shows a
horiEontal section with the front of the head at the top. The most active areas are white.

(a) Asing the fM?2 scans above, discuss the effects of this new drug on brain activity.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(3)
(b) 01plain how neurotransmitters, such as dopamine, stimulate neurones.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(4)

(c) People with Par.inson=s disease have much less dopamine in their brain than other
people. Asing the information already given in this 3uestion and your own .nowledge,
suggest and e1plain how Par.inson=s disease can be treated using drugs.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(4)
(Total 11 marks)
63
41. Answer the &ollow%n$ essa- 7"est%on.
Hou are e1pected to answer in continuous prose. Hou should use e1amples from the biology
course you have studied but need not restrict yourself to the course content.
Hou are advised to spend appro1imately ( minutes answering Guestion ' or Guestion ,
including planning time.
Mar.s will be awarded in the following areasI
BreathI selecting a range of aspects of biology from different parts of your /S and /" course
which are relevant to the 3uestion. ("! to 6 marks)
+e!thI developing the aspects you have chosen by including relevant details, e1amples and
discussion. ("! to 8 marks)
Balan(eI have you answered the 3uestion as.edM for e1ample, by dealing with the bigger ideas
which lie beneath the wording of the 3uestion, such as discussing implications, weighing up
benefits and ris.s, advantages and disadvantages or the e1tent to which an assertion in the
3uestion is or is not valid. ("! to 6 marks)
5t-leI coherence, clarity and e1pressionN for e1ample, good use of technical terms, sentences
and paragraphs, and weaving together information and ideas clearly to focus on the 3uestion.("!
to 4 marks)
+ur ability to detect and respond to changes in our e1ternal and internal environment has
enabled humans to survive on all continents and in a wide variety of potentially haEardous
situations.
;rite an essay onI 8The %m!ortan(e o& (ontrol an (oor%nat%on %n the bo-.9
(Total 20 marks)

42. (a) The table below refers to three functions of the human brain. -omplete the table to
show which region of the brain is responsible for each function.
:"n(t%on #e$%on o& the bra%n
/bility to learn
Thermoregulation
-ontrol of heartbeat
(3)
(b) The diagram below shows an image produced by an M?2 (magnetic resonance imaging)
scan. The region labelled ; is a tumour.
SourceI www.medicalprogress.org
Suggest two pieces of information this scan could give to a surgeon about this tumour.
.....................................................................................................................................
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.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 5 marks)

43. The diagram below shows the structures of the neurotransmitter, dopamine, and the drug, 79
dopa, used in the treatment of Par.inson=s disease.
C +
C +
5 C
"
C +
C +
5 C
"
+ C
+
D o p a m i n e
7 9 D o p a
65
(a) ;ith reference to the structures of dopamine and 79dopa, suggest why the drug 79dopa is
effective in the treatment of Par.inson=s disease.
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.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)
(b) Scientists believe that the release of dopamine from the presynaptic membrane is
triggered by certain emotional responses. Describe how the release of this
neurotransmitter generates action potentials in the postsynaptic neurone.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(5)
(Total 9 marks)
67
44. The retina of a mammal=s eye contains millions of receptor cells which are highly sensitive to
light. These receptor cells are protected from e1cessively bright light by the iris.
The diagram below shows part of a nerve cell pathway involved in the refle1 controlling the
siEe of the pupil by the iris.
(a) (i) Put a cross in the bo1 ne1t to the arrow that correctly shows the
direction of impulse travel in cell A.
i r i s m u s c l e
- e l l A
- e l l +
r e t i n a
- e l l C
- e l l B
(1)

(ii) 2dentify the type of neurone for cell A and cell B by putting a cross in the correct
bo1 in the table below.
#ela-
ne"rone
<otor
ne"rone
5ensor-
ne"rone
-ell A
-ell B
(2)

(b) (i) -omplete the e3uation below to show the chemical changes in
rhodopsin in the presence of light.
rhodopsin + light →opsin + ................................................
(1)
(ii) Describe the movement of sodium ions across the rod cell membrane, in the
presence of opsin.
...........................................................................................................................
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...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(3)

(iii) State the term that describes the electrochemical state of a rod cell in light.
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

45. Sea slugs are marine invertebrates with gills for gas e1change on their body surface. / sea slug
is able to withdraw its gill when touched. 2n an investigation into this response, the gill was
touched and the time ta.en for the gill to be e1posed again after withdrawal was measured. This
was repeated at half9minute intervals. The table below shows the results of this investigation.
To"(h T%me taken &or $%ll to be e=!ose a$a%n 2 se(ons
6irst "'.!
Second >.!
Third &$.!
6ourth .(
6ifth :.(
Si1th $.(
Seventh $.!
0ighth .(
5inth (.(
Tenth $.(
69
(a) Describe the effect of repeated touching on the time ta.en for the gill to be e1posed
again.
.....................................................................................................................................
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(3)

(b) 5ame the type of learning shown by a sea slug in this investigation.
.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c) 01plain how this learned response may be of benefit to the sea slug in its natural
environment.
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(4)
(Total 8 marks)

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