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CENT-112: Fundamentals of Electricity & Electronics

Dr. Van de Graaff (MIT Professor) designed and built this generator as a research tool in early atom-smashing and high energy X-ray experiments. This is the standard of excellence we should aspire to.

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Course Outline
Section 1: Fundamentals of Electricity & Electronics Section 2: Basic Circuits Section 3: Motors, Generators, & Power Distribution Section 4: Advanced Electrical Circuits Section 5: Electronic Communication & Data Systems
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CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Interest
The great end in life is not knowledge but action. Take your knowledge and use it as soon as you can. Use technology as a blessing to mankind and not as a curse. Einstein 1879-1955 Improvement ideas: tomsic@hawaii.edu Website: http://www.hcc.hawaii.edu/~tomsic 12 labs, 2 projects (audio amplifier & PS) 3 exams
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CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Introduce Yourself
Where are you from? How do you like Honolulu Community College? What experience do you have in electronics? What is something interesting about yourself? What do you want to learn in this class?
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CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Section 1: Fundamentals of Electricity & Electronics



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Safety Precautions Basic Electrical Terms and Circuits Basic Measuring Instruments Basic Electrical Circuit Materials Energy Sources of Electricity
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

A GOOD THING TO KEEP IN MIND!

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

THE BEST TOOLS EVER INVENTED HANDS!

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

SAFETY SHIELDS ARE EYE INSURANCE!

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

SAFETY SHOES ARE NOT FOR DEFEAT!

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

HEARING PROTECTION IS FOR WINNERS!

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Always check Electrical Circuits Deenergized


Discharge capacitors. Check Power Leads (T1-T3) Check Capacitors discharged. < 30VAC is deenergized.

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Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)


Invisible Threat 1 touch can ruin this card. Wear a wrist strap.

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CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

General Safety Rules


1. Do not work when you are tired or taking medicine that makes you drowsy. 2. Do not work in poor light. 3. Do not work in damp areas or with wet or damp clothing and shoes. 4. Use approved tools, equipment, & protective devices. 5. Remove all metal items when working around exposed circuits.
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CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

General Safety Rules Continued


6. Never assume that a circuit is off. Doublecheck it with an instrument that you are sure is operational. 7. Buddy system is used at circuit breaker supplying power if working on circuit. 8. Never override safety interlocks. 9. Keep all tools and test equipment in good working condition. 10. Discharge capacitors.
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CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

General Safety Rules Continued


11. Do not remove grounds and do not use adapters that defeat the equipment ground. 12. Use CO2 or halogenated-type fire extinguisher to put out electrical fires. Water conducts electricity! (i.e. galley fire in oven). 13. Store solvents and other chemicals in appropriate areas. (i.e. fire personnel incident). 14. Do not work on unfamiliar circuits. 15. Do not cut corners or rush. No horseplay or practical jokes in the labs (i.e. throwing caps, meggering). 15
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Shock Victim
Do not become part of the problem. Use non-conductive belt and break free shock victim. Call for medical assistance. (911)

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Review CPR
Check for response. Have someone call 911. Clear airway. Look, listen and feel for breathing. Give 2 full breaths. 15 compressions (1 and 2 and 3) Continue till medical help arrives, you are relieved or are too tired to continue.
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Questions
Q1. Who is responsible for safety? A1. Everybody is responsible for their safety. Q2. What protects electronic circuits from ESD? A2. ESD packaging & wrist straps. Q3. What is the worst electrical shock you have heard of or experienced? A3. Various.
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CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Prefix

Symbol

Scientific Notation
Decimal

Power of Ten

tera giga mega kilo basic unit milli micro nano pico
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T G M k m n p

1,000,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 1,000,000 1,000 1 .001 .000001 .000000001 .000000000001


CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

1012 109 106 103 103 106 109 1012

Ohms Law

E I
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Given: E = Voltage I = Current R = Resistance

R
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

E=IR I = E/R R = E/I

Basic Electrical Terms


Definitions
Current (I): Flow of electrons past a point. 1A = 1 coulomb of charge flowing past a point for 1 second. Unit of measure is amps. Resistance (R): Opposition to the flow of electrons. Unit of measure is ohms. Voltage: (E): Force behind electrical flow. Unit of measure is the volt.
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CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Questions
Q4. Given a 1 Megohm resistor with a 120 volt potential applied to it, what current will pass through it? A4. .12 milliamps Q5. Can this current kill you if you touch it? A5. No. .1 Amp for 1 second can be fatal. Q6. How many students know CPR? A6. It is a good thing to be qualified in CPR when working on or near electrical circuits.
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Questions Continued
Q7. Given a 1.5 Amp battery charger with a total circuit resistance of 8 ohms, what supply voltage is generated? A7. 12 volts Q8. What amperage is present when you place the new chip in your cellular phone? A8. micro amps. Q9. What amperage is present when you put leads on a new car battery? A9. milliamps

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Definitions
Atomic Theory Foundation for Solid State Devices Atom - Smallest part of an element that retains the characteristics of that element. Molecule Smallest part of a compound. Compound - 2 or more elements chemically combined.
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CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

The Atom
Atom Parts:
Electrons: Negative part of an atom. Protons: Positive part of an atom. Neutrons: Negative part of an atom.
E E P N N P E E E E E E E

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CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Static Electricity
Like charges repel each other and unlike charges attract each other. Walking across a wool or nylon rug , you can generate a static charge of electricity, discharging several thousand volts of electricity to a metallic object like a door handle.

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Definitions
Coulomb: Practical unit of measurement of the amount of electricity. Used to describe the flow of electricity.
1 Coulomb = 6.24 X 1018 electrons.

Electrostatic or Dielectric field: The field or force surrounding a charged body. Charge Transfer
Direct Contact Induction: Electron flow due to charged object in close proximity.
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CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Energy Band Diagrams


Valence Electrons are those electrons which are located in the outermost or Valence shell of an atom. The number of valence electrons an atoms has determines the electrical properties of that atom. < 4 electrons => Conductor > 4 electrons => Insulator 4 electrons => Semiconductor

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Energy Band Diagrams Continued


Conductor Semiconductor Insulator

Valence Band

Forbidden Band

Conduction Band

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Bonding
Covalent vs. Ionic Bonding Octet Rule and Covalent Bonding

N and P Crystals
Base Material - Silicon or Germanium Doping - Process by which impurity atoms are added into a pure base material to create a compound with improved electrical properties. This process is used when making semiconductors.

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Static Device Application


Electrostatic Precipitator: Collector Plates need cleaning.
Mechanical Filter Ionizer Plate: Positively charges Particles in air Collector Plate: Negative plates collects + ions.

Oil Mist

Clean Air

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Basic Electrical Circuit

Power Supply (Source) Load (Light) Conductor

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Types of Current
AC: Alternating Current
+ 0

DC: Direct Current


+ 0

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Circuit Flow
Conventional Current Flow: Hole flow.

Electron Flow
Series Circuit

Parallel Circuit Series/parallel Circuit


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Basic Instruments & Measurements

Simpson 260
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Fluke 177
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Interest
One of the first meter instruments was used by the Greeks (0 BC) and was the Sun Dial.

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Outline
Types of meter movement Types of meters
Voltmeter Ammeter Ohmmeter

Electrical diagrams

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Basic Multimeters
A meter is a measuring instrument. Ammeter: measures current. Voltmeter: measures the potential difference (voltage) between two points. Ohmmeter measures resistance. Multimeter: combines these functions and others into a single instrument.

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Ammeter
Measures current in amperes, milliamperes, microamperes depending on the meter scale. The coil in the meter movement is wound with many turns of fine wire. If a large current was allowed to flow the coil, it would burn it out, so a shunt or alternate path is provided for current. Most of the current flows through the shunt. Safety: Connect an ammeter is series with a circuit device. Never in parallel!
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Determining Shunt Resistors


Meter movement requires 1mA for full scale deflection. The resistance of the coil is 100. The ranges of the meter are: 0-1mA, 0-10mA, 050mA, 0-100mA.
E=IR = (.001)(100) = .1V without a shunt. For full scale deflection, .1V is required.

A shunt must carry 90% of the current for the 010mA scale.
Rs =E/I = .1/.009 = 11.1

Calculate the other shunt resistors.


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Voltmeter
To ensure voltages across the coil never exceed . 1V, multiplier resistors are placed in series with the meter movement coil using a switch. Voltage ranges 0-1V, 0-10V, 0-100V, 0-500V .1V can be placed across meter at any one time, therefore a resistor must drop .9V to use a 0-1V scale. Full scale current deflection is 1mA or . 001A Rm = E/I + .9V/.001A = 900 Calculate multiplier resistors for other scales.
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Ohmmeter
Uses non-linier scale: zero-infinite. Calibrate prior to use for analog meter. Check leads at 0 for good lead connections. Electrical leads safety story for finger stop.

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Moving Iron Vane Meter

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Moving Iron Vane Meter


Measure either AC or DC. It depends on induced magnetism for its operation. It utilizes the principle of repulsion between two concentric iron vanes, one fixed and one movable, placed inside a solenoid. A pointer is attached to the movable vane. When current flows through the coil, the two iron vanes become magnetized with north poles at their upper ends and south poles at their lower ends for one direction of current through the coil. Because like poles repel, the unbalanced component of force, tangent to the movable element, causes it to turn against the force exerted by the springs.
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D'ARSONVAL METER MOVEMENT


The permanent-magnet moving-coil movement used in most meters .

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D'ARSONVAL METER MOVEMENT


D'Arsonval meter movement is capable of indicating current in only one direction. Without a rectifier, or direct current of the wrong polarity, the meter would be severely damaged. Since the pointer will vibrate (oscillate) around the average value indication, damping is used.
1. 2. Airtight chamber containing a vane The movement of the coil (conductor) through a magnetic field causes a current to be induced in the coil opposite to the current that caused the movement of the coil.

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Digital Multimeters (DMM)


DMM are smaller and more accurate in measurement. Analog meters can measure transients information better. Measures resistance, DC & AC voltage, amperage, and diode testing.

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Questions
Q. What is the difference between diode testing and resistance checking? A. The diode check is more sensitive with an audible sound for continuity. Q. What are some experiences that you have with different meters? A. Various

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Electrical Diagrams
One line Diagram Wiring Diagram
i. e. Ceiling Fan
Antenna Speaker RF AMP Detector AF AMP

L1 M
Not Connected Connected

L2

i.e. Motor Controllers

Block Diagram
i. e. Car Stereo

Schematic Diagram
i. e. VCR player
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RC RB Q1

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Schematic Diagram
INPUT FROM LOGIC

Logic Output Amplifier Using a UJT and a SCR


+15 VDC LOGIC SUPPLY

10K

1K

LOAD
115 VAC

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Wiring Diagram
A>B A=B A0 A<B A1 A2 A3 B0 B1 B2 B3 U300 A=B A<B A>B A2 A3 A=B A<B U301 U300

U304 +12V

A0 A1

A>B A=B A>B A=B A<B A<B A0 A1 A2 A3 B0 B1 B2 B3

U302

S300
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 C Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q 10

B0 B1 B2 B3

A=B

D S Q

Q 11 R Q 12

U306
C Q R

D S Q M305B C R Q1

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Conclusion

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Basic Electrical Circuit Materials

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Interest
Optical fiber is a long, cylindrical, transparent material that confines and transmits light waves. Carries information in the form of light giving the fiber thousands of times more information-carrying capacity than copper, which uses electricity to transmit signals. 3 LAYERS:
1. Core: carries the light (silica glass) 2. Cladding: confines the light to the core (silica glass) 3. Coating: provides protection for the cladding (plastic)

Carries information so fast that you could transmit 3 television show episodes in just one second. This is impossible with copper wire.
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Basics
Conductor: Pathways that allow electrons to flow through an electrical circuit.
Electron flow Hole flow (+ charge flow, opposing viewpoint). Materials:
Copper: Most common. Silver: Better conductor, more expensive Aluminum: Used in high voltage lines because of its light weight. Center core is steel for strength. Brass: Used in electro-mechanical parts like relays and contactors.
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Conductor Sizes
American Wire Gauge System
The larger the gauge number, the smaller the cross-sectional area the wire will have.
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Circular Mils (cmil)


cmil = Diameter2 4 cmil = (2 mil wire diameter) 2 1 inch by inch wire = (1000 mils)(250 mils)/.7854 = 318,309 cmils

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36

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Conductor Insulation
Insulation: Conductor protective coating.
Materials: Rubber, plastic and other synthetic materials Factors: Extreme heat, cold, chemicals, and oil. Codings:
R: Rubber H: Heat C: Corrosion resistant

Types: High voltage, Coaxial, multiple conductors, stranded conductors, solid conductors, 3 conductor lighting cord.
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Conductor Resistance
Factors that effect resistance.
Cross-sectional area of the conductor: Larger diameter, lower resistance. Type of conductor resistance: Aluminum 1000 feet = 2.57 ohms. Copper 1000 feet = 1.619 ohms. Length of conductor: Longer conductor, higher resistance. Temperature of material: Higher temperature, higher resistance.
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Safety Standards
National Electrical Code (NEC) is a collection of electrical standards that must be followed to ensure safety of personnel and prevent electrical fires.
Maximum voltage drop for branch circuits (i.e. breaker panel to outlet) is 3%. CMA = (K)(I)(L)/VD where CMA = area in cmil, K = constant (K=12 for copper and 18 for aluminum), I = current, L = length of conductor, VD = voltage drop.
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Questions
Q. Given a copper conductor for a 20A drill 75 feet away, what size wire is needed? W. Length = (75)(2)=150 VD = (120)(.03)=3.6
CMA = (K)(I)(L)/VD CMA = (12)(20)(150)/3.6 = 10,000 cmils or No. 10 wire.

A. No. 10 wire

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Breadboards

Copper strips are run in parallel under the rows of holes and are used as conductor pathways. Jumper wires are used to connect all the solid state devices. Used to prototype a circuit.
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Breadboards

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Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

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Printed Circuit Board (PCB)


Heat Sink Conductor Path

Connection Pad

Edge Connectors

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Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

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Printed Circuit Board (PCB)

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Chassis
Chassis: Circuit using metal frame providing conduction path for the negative side (ground)
i.e. Tail light being supplied by car battery. i. e. Power supply using chassis resisters.

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Switches
Classified by the actuator which is the mechanical device that causes the circuit to open and close. SPST: Single Pole Single Throw
Single Pole: 1 path for electron flow to be turned on & off. Single Throw: Switch controls only one circuit.

DPDT: Double Pole Double Throw


Double Pole: 2 paths for electron flow to be turned on & off. Double Throw: Switch controls two circuits.
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Toggle Switch

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Slide Switch

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Rocker Switch

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Rotary Switch

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Rotary Switch Application

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Wafer Switch

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Limit Switch

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Dip Switch

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Questions
Q. What is something that uses a limit switch? A. Computer, Camera, Shredder, etc. Q. What is something that uses a dip switch? A. Back of computer to switch 120 to 240 VAC Q. What is something that uses a rocker switch? A. Light switch

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Switch ratings
Current: Maximum amperage rating to handle current safely. High current causes high heat. Voltage: Maximum voltage rating so that electromechanical circuitry will not fail.

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Splice lug: Connects 2 wires.

Connectors

Wire nut connector: Connect motor with controller.

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Wire Cutter Tools

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Fuses: Open/ blow for circuit protection.


120V5A

Circuit Protective Devices

Circuit Breakers: Protect larger rated equipment.


-Positions: on, off, trip-free -Explain troubleshooting ACBs.

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Incandescent Lamp
In 1879 Thomas Edison developed the 1st incandescent lamp. The tungsten replaced the carbon filament. The heat produced from current flow is usually what burns out the filament with time.
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Tungsten

Fluorescent Lamp

When the tube is energized, the filaments at the end will glow producing heat and little light. The heat vaporizes the mercury in the tube. Once the mercury is vaporized, electrons flow in the mercury vapor. Ultraviolet light is produced. The light strikes the phosphor coating and causes it to glow creating phosphorous light. (very little heat)
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Lighting Physical Diagram

Ballast

Starter

Light Clip

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Fluorescent Lighting Schematic

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Neon Light

2 Electrodes inserted in the ends of a long glass tube. Tube is filled with neon gas. A neon light transformer (10,000V) is used to create current through the neon gas. After the light is energized, the neon tube will glow. To create a variety of colors, other gasses are added. (i.e. argon and helium)
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LED Light

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Halogen Lamp
A tungsten filament is inserted through a glass tube filled with halogen gas. Produces more light. The halogen gas returns boiled of tungsten particles back to the filament making the filament last longer. Creates high heat. Filaments can be damaged from oil on fingers.
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light

filament

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Fiber Lighting from the Sun


Future of lighting

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Camera Flash Circuit

NE: Neon Lamp

FL: Flash

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Resistors
Demonstrate resistor software.

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Chip Resistors

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Potentiometers
Rotary knob varies resistance. Can use an eraser to clean carbon deposits between arm and resistor. Uses: voltage and speed adjust.
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Variable Resisters

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Wire Wound Resistors


Starting Resistors

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Conclusion
Q. When do a use a resistor in a circuit? A. provide opposition to current flow or develop a voltage drop. Q. What can cause a potentiometer to no longer work? A. Loose or broken arm.

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Sources of Electricity

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Interest
Solar power device use is on the increase. Devices include cars to radios.

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Basic Sources of Electricity


Friction Chemical Action Light Heat Pressure Magnetism

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Battery History
Luigi Galvani (1790): Frog supported on copper wires leg twitched when touched with a steel scalpel. Alessandro Volta: Invented electric/ voltaic cell by placing 2 dissimilar elements in a chemical building an electric potential creating electricity from chemical action.

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Battery Experiment
A grapefruit can be used to produce enough electricity to operate a small radio.

Nickel Penny

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Zinc Carbon Battery Cell


Zn + H2SO4 + H2O ZnSO4 + H2O + H2 - plate + electrolyte + water sulfated - plate + water + hydrogen gas.
- End of Life due to H2 blanketing around carbon rod.
Zn C H2

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+
H2SO4 + H2O

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Primary Cells
D Cell C Cell

AAA Cell

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AA Cell
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Primary Cells

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Primary Cells
Can not be recharged. Chemical action can not be reversed. Defect: Polarization: H2 blanketing around electrode. Depolarization agent is added to prevent the H2 blanketing around electrode . Compounds rich in oxygen (i.e. MnO2) are used. The O2 in the depolarization agent combines with H2 to form H2O. (2MnO2 + H2 2MnO3 + H2O): Local Action: Does not contribute to electrical energy.
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Battery Dry Cell


Flashlight Batteries: Zinc-carbon Cell

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AA Alkaline Cell
Anode: Manganese Dioxide Cathode: Zinc Powder Electrolyte: Caustic Alkali Separator: Separates + & -

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Mercury Cell
New type of dry cell. 1.34 VDC from chemical action between zinc (-) and mercury oxide (+). Costly to make Creates 5 times more current then other dry cells. Maintains terminal voltage longer. Uses: field instruments & portable communications.
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Lithium Cell
Lithium is bonded to a thin layer of conductive metal and has a porous separator between it and the cathode. This design allows for a large surface area, providing a large reaction surface & higher discharge rates compared to other Lithium cells.
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Silver Oxide Cell


Uses amalgamated zinc anode, silver oxide as the cathode material, & a potassium hydroxide electrolyte. Silver oxide cells are ideal for miniature devices where space is limited. Voltage: 1.5 to 1.2 V Uses: Watches

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Silver Oxide Cell

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Secondary Cells
Can be recharged or restored. Chemical action can be reversed.

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Battery Chargers
Used to restore the charge on rechargeable batteries. Used for: AA batteries and car batteries.

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Battery Chargers Schematic

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Battery Chargers P/S Schematic

Parts of a Power Supply



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Stepdown Transformer Bridge Rectifier Filters Regulator


CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Battery Charges
Normal: Done when battery is discharged Equalizing: Done to drive sulphates off of positive plate. Float: Keep at full charge. Freshening: New batteries

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Incidents
Battery fire due to charging battery.

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Battery Wet Cell

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Measuring Specific Gravity

Determines state of the charge on the battery.


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Lead Acid Battery

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Lead Acid Battery


Primary Chemical Reactions
Pb + PbO2 + 2H2 SO
-2 4

2PbSO4-2 + 2H2O + 5 echarge discharge

Half Cell Chemical Reactions


Pb + SO4-2 = PbSO4-2 + 2 e+ PbO2 PbO4 H+ + 2 e- + SO4-2 = PbSO4-2 Pb
2

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H2 SO4-2

H2 O

Electrolyte Separator
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Lead Acid Battery Description


In a wet cell, the metals are sponge lead (Pb) and lead peroxide (PbO2), and the electrolyte is dilute sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The reaction begins as sulfate (SO4) breaks away from the acid and unites with the lead of both the positive and negative plates to form lead sulfate (PbSO4). The oxygen (O2) is thereby liberated from the lead peroxide and joins with the hydrogen (H2 -- what's left over after the sulfate left the acid) to produce ordinary water (H2O), which dilutes the electrolyte.
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Lead Acid Battery


Terminal Post Terminal Post Plastic Case

Se pa ra to r

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Pl

at es

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Lead Acid Battery


Batteries self- discharge 1-25% per month in storage Lead sulfation starts occurring when the state-ofcharge drops below 100%. If left in a vehicle, disconnecting the negative cable will reduce the level of discharge by eliminating the load. Cold will slow the self-discharge process down and heat will speed it up. Batteries are recycled by law.
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Battery Safety

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Nickel-cadmium Cell

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Nickel-cadmium Cell
Chemical Reaction:
2 NiOOH + 2H2O + Cd
Oxy-Nickel hydroxide charge discharge

2 Ni(OH)2 + Cd(OH)2
Nickel hydroxide

Cadmium hydroxide

These batteries contain a Ni(OH)2 cathode, Cd anode and aqueous KOH electrolyte. Ni(OH)2 has a layered CdI2 structure, and NiOOH is apparently a complex, multiphase material. Advantages: High cycles (often 1000's) and long shelf life (possibly months without significant self-discharge). Disadvantages: Relative to Pb acid include lower power densities, greater cost, and a "memory" effect.
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Nickel-cadmium Cell
Memory effect: Unused capacity of a cell cannot be utilized if the cell is not fully discharged. Related to the formation of a passive surface on the electrodes that forms a barrier to further cell reaction.

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Nickel-cadmium Cell
Applications:
Cassette players and recorders Dictating machines Instruments Personal Pagers Photoflash equipment Portable communications equipment Portable hand tools and appliances Shavers Tape recorders Toothbrushes
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Questions
Q. What do you use batteries for? A. Radios, lights, fans, cars, toys, calculators, cameras, laptops. Q. What is the largest battery you have seen? A. Submarine battery. Q. What is the difference between rechargeable and disposable batteries? A. Rechargeable batteries are made of NiCAD while disposable batteries are alkaline because NiCAD can be cycled more.
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Dirty Cells cause grounds

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Cell Damage

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Questions
Q. What is the chemical reaction for a lead-acid battery? A. Pb+PbO2+2H2 SO4-2 2PbSO4-2+2H2O+5 e-.
charge discharge

Q. What is a button battery made of? A. Silver Oxide. Q. If your battery is grounded, how do you repair it? A. clean it & retest or take it to Sears to check the internal resistance.

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Batteries in Series
Physical Description _
1.5V@1A 1.5V@1A 1.5V@1A 1.5V@1A

Electrical Schematic _ + _ + _ + _ +

Output 6 VDC 1A

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Batteries in Parallel
Physical Description +
1.5V @1A 1.5V @1A 1.5V @1A 1.5V @1A

_ Electrical Schematic _ _ _ _ + + + +

Output 1.5 VDC 4A

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Batteries in Series-Parallel
Physical Description
1.5V @1A 1.5V @1A 1.5V @1A 1.5V @1A

_
1.5V @1A 1.5V @1A 1.5V @1A 1.5V @1A

Electrical Schematic _ _ _ _ + + + + _ _ _ _ + + + +
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Output 6 VDC 2A

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Battery Capacity
Look at manufacture chart for specifications. Capacity in Amp-Hours (AH) is the ability to produce current over a period of time. Rate of discharge must be considered in order to get maximum AH out of battery. Factors effecting capacity of battery:
Number of plates per cell. Kind of separators effect capacity & battery life. General condition of the battery. (i.e. age, grounds, state of charge).
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Other Sources of Electricity


Solar Heat Crystals Fuel Cells Diesels Generators

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Photovoltaic Cell

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Photovoltaic Cell
Schematic symbol
_ +

Physical description
L _ +

Sunlight

N type semiconductor P type semiconductor

Specifications: 1 cell produces 1 Watt and .5 Volts


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Cells can be connected into arrays. Arrays are build with cells in series and parallel.
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Photovoltaic Cell Application


Used to keep solar powered cars charged when not being driven.

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Questions
Q. What are some applications that you have used a solar cell for? A. Cars, calculators, heat new houses. Q. What is the current and voltage of 6-6 volt, 2 amp batteries placed in parallel in a spotlight? A. 6 Volts and 12 Amps.

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Photoresistive Cells
Schematic symbol

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Photoresistive Cell Application


Resistance is proportional to the light source applied. The circuit below uses a photoresistive call to bias the base of a transistor. The output of this amplifier could be used to power a light (Street +V Light). PILOT DEVICE
C C

+VOUT AC OR DC

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Thermocouple
Schematic symbol
_ +

Physical Description

Iron Wire

Copper Wire Thermocouple Match

Galvanometer: Measures very Small currents.

Thermocouple + Galvanometer = Pyrometer

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Group of thermocouples = Thermopile


CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Piezoelectric Effect
Definition: The property of some crystals (i.e. Quartz) that when a pressure is exerted on one axis, a proportional voltage is present on the other axis. Physical Description:
pressure electrical waves eSound waves Quartz Crystal Output

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Fuel Cells
Schematic symbol
FC

Operation
H2 gas supplied develops a potential on electrode & ionizes the electrolyte. O2 gas supplied develops a + potential on electrode & ionizes the electrolyte. H2O is waste product of chemical reaction with no heat loss. Used in the space program. Ratings: 1.23V, 2KW

Physical description
L Electrode Electrode

Hydrogen Gas

_ Potassium +
Hydroxide KOH

Oxygen Gas

Electrolyte

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Magnetohydrodynamic Generator
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electricity is generated when ionized gas is passed through a magnetic field. MHD converter
Gas heated by solar power > 2000F + _ Coil for Magnetic Field _ + Output Anode Plate Cathode Plate Ionizing Gas (Argon or Helium)

Ionizing Gas

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Generator
Schematic symbols
G

Output waveform
Phase A Phase B Phase C

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Generator
Generates 450 VAC, 60 Hz, 3 phase electricity.

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Conclusion
Q. Explain a way to produce electricity? A. Various Q. What is the output waveform of the Hawaiian Electric Company? A. 3 Phase Sine Wave.

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Series Circuits

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Interest
Knowing how to do calculations in series circuits is one of the basic building blocks in electronics. Electronics software products let you download software to run on your computer testing your knowledge of circuit calculations. Demonstrate in class. Resistor calculator software.
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Series Circuit Formulas


ET = E1 + E2 + E3 + EN RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + RN IT = I1 = I2 = I3 = IN

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Voltage in a Series Circuit


ET = E1 + E2 + E3 + EN Kirchhoffs voltage law: The source voltage of a series circuit is equal to the total value of each individual voltage drop. Example:
ER1 = 7V R1 ER2 = 8v R2 ER3 = 4V R3 ET = 19V

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Current in a Series Circuit


IT = I1 = I2 = I3 = IN Total amperes into the circuit is the same across each component that current travels through in a series circuit. Example:
IR1 = 2mA R1 IR2 = 2mA R2 IR3 = 2mA R3 IT = 2mA

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Resistance in a Series Circuit


RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + RN Total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual resistances in a series circuit. Total resistance is additive. Example:
R1 = 12 R1 R2 = 7 R2 R3 = 6 R3 RT = 25

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Determining Unknown Voltage


ER1 = 5V R1 ET = 24VDC ER5 = 1V R5 ER4 = 2V R4 R3 ER3 = ?V ER2 = 7V R2

Q. What is the voltage drop across R3? W. 24-(5+7+1+2)= A. 9 VDC

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Determining Power
ER1 = 2V R1 IT = 3A ER5 = 6V R5 ER4 = 5V R4 R3 ER3 = 4V ER2 = 3V R2

Given: Power = EI

Q. What is the total power in the circuit? W. (2V)(3A) + (3V)(3A) + (4V)(3A) + (5V)(3A) + (6V)(3A) = 6W + 9W + 12W + 15W + 18W = A. 60 Watts
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Questions
ER1 = 1V R1 IT = 5A ER5 = 2V R5 ER4 = 9V R4 R3 ER3 = 3V ER2 = 2V R2

Q. What is the total power in the circuit? W. (1V)(5A) + (2V)(5A) + (3V)(5A) + (9V)(5A) + (2V)(5A) = 5W + 10W + 15W + 45W + 10W = A. 85 Watts
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Questions Continued
ER1 = 1V R1 ET = ?VDC ER5 = 1V R5 ER4 = 2V R4 R3 ER3 = 5V ER2 = 3V R2

Q. What is the voltage of the power supply? W. 1+3+5+2+1= A. 12 VDC

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Questions Continued
ER1 = ?V R1 ET = 2, 555VDC ER5 = 500V R5 ER4 = .001MV R4 R3 ER3 = 45V ER2 = 1KV R2

Q. What is the voltage of R1? W. 2,555-(1000+45+1000+500)= A. 10 VDC

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Using Ohms Law in Series Circuits


ER2 = 12V R1 R2 R2 = 4 R3 R5 R4

Given: E = IR

Q. What is the total current in the circuit? W. 12/4= A. 3A

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Troubleshooting a Lighting Circuit


Half Wave Isolation Rectifier Transformer

IL1 =4A L1 R1

D1 24VAC T1

Q. RI has an open (is damaged), what will be the rating Of the new resistor? W. 24/4= A. 6
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Using a Voltmeter
Voltmeter 1 = 6 VDC Voltmeter 2 = 0 VDC

_ 6VDC +

F1

_ + SW1

10 R1 10 R4 +

10 R2 10 R3

Open

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Using a Voltmeter Continued


Voltmeter 1 = 0 VDC Voltmeter 2 = 1.5 VDC

_ 6VDC +

F1

_ + SW1

10 R1 10 R4 +

10 R2 10 R3

Shut

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R1 Shorted
Voltmeter 1 = 0 VDC Voltmeter 2 = 2 VDC

_ 6VDC +

F1

Shut

SW1

10 R1 10 R4 +

10 R2 10 R3 +

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R1 Open
Voltmeter 1 = 6 VDC Voltmeter 2 = 0 VDC

_ 6VDC +

F1

Shut

SW1

10 R1 10 R4 +

10 R2 10 R3 +

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Questions
Voltmeter 1 Voltmeter 2

_ 6VDC +

_ F1

Shut

SW1

10 R1 10 R4 +

10 R2 10 R3

Q. Fuse 1 has blown, what will be the voltage across it? A. 6 VDC Q. Fuse 1 has blown, what will be the voltage across R1? A. 0 VDC
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Conclusion
Q. How is E, I, R calculated in series circuits? A. 1. ET = E1 + E2 + E3 + EN 2. RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + RN 3. IT = I1 = I2 = I3 = IN Q. What voltage is read across a shorted resister in a series circuit? A. 0 V
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Parallel Circuits

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The resistors in chips

Interest

2X scale

10X scale

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Parallel Circuit Formulas


IT = I1 + I2 + I3 + IN ET = E1 = E2 = E3 = EN RT = 1/(1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + 1/RN) RT =R1R2/(R1 + R2)

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Parallel Circuit Voltage


ET = E1 = E2 = E3 = EN
R1 ER1 = 24V R2 ER2 = ?V R3 ER3 = 24V R4 ER4 = 24V

ET = 24VDC

Q. What is the voltage drop across R2? W. ET = ER2 A. 24 V

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Kirchhoffs Current Law


The algebraic sum of all currents entering any point will equal the sum of all currents leaving that point. Simply stated: The current flowing into a junction of parallel resistance is equal to the current flowing out of the same junction. Branch current: Individual currents. Mainline current: Total current.
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Parallel Circuit Current


IT = I1 + I2 + I3 + IN
IT = 16A R1 IR1 = 5A IT = 16A R2 IR2 = ?A R3 IR3 = 8A R4 IR4 = 1A

Q. What is the current passing through R2? W. IR2 = IT (IR1 + IR3 + IR4 ) = 16 (5 + 8 + 1) A. 2A

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Parallel Circuit Resistance


RT = 1/(1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + 1/RN)
R1 RR1 = 34 R2 RR2 = 17 R3 RR3 = 8.5 R4 RR4 = 4.25

RT = ?

Q. What is the total resistance in the circuit? W. RRT = 1/(1/RR1 + 1/RR2 + 1/RR3 + 1/RR4 ) = 1/(1/34 + 1/17 + 1/8.5 + 1/4.25) = 1/(1/34 + 2/34 + 4/34 + 8/34) = 1/(15/34) = 34/15 A. RT = 2.27CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

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Parallel Circuit Resistance


RT =R1R2/(R1 + R2)
R1 RR1 = 34 R2 RR2 = 17

RT = ?

Q. What is the total resistance in the circuit? W. RT = R1R2/(R1 + R2) = (34)(17)/(34 +17) = 578/51 A. RT = 11.33
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Parallel Circuit Resistance


RT =R1R2/(R1 + R2)
R1 RR1 = 7.5K R2 RR2 = 250

RT = ?

Q. What is the total resistance in the circuit? W. RT = R1R2/(R1 + R2) = (7500)(250)/(7500 + 250) = 1,875,000/7750 A. RT = 241.94
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Parallel Circuit Resistance


RT = 1/(1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + 1/RN)
R1 RR1 = 3.4K R2 RR2 = 2.1K R3 RR3 = 1.6K R4 RR4 = 2.1K

RT = ?

Q. What is the total resistance in the circuit? W. RRT = 1/(1/RR1 + 1/RR2 + 1/RR3 + 1/RR4 ) = 1/(1/3.4 + 1/2.1 + 1/1.6 + 1/2.1) = 1/(.294 + .476 + .625 + .476) = 1/(1.871) A. RT = .534K
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Parallel Circuit Equal Resistance


RT = R/N
R1 RR1 = 8K R2 RR2 = 8K R3 RR3 = 8K R4 RR4 = 8K

RT = ?

Q. What is the total resistance in the circuit? W. RRT = R/N = 8K/4 A. RT = 2K


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Parallel Circuit Troubleshooting


Voltmeter = 0 VAC

T2

L2 ET = 24VAC L1 R1 R2 R3 R4

Fuses Removed
T1

Q. What must be checked before working on a circuit? A. No voltage in circuit.

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Questions
Q. What law can be used to do calculations in parallel circuits A. Ohms Law Q. Given a total resistance of 12K, what would be the equal parallel resistance for 4 resistors in parallel? W. R = RRT/N = 12K/4 A. 4K
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Parallel Circuit Troubleshooting


Ohmmeter = 0

T2

L2 ET = 24VAC R1 R2 R3

RR4 = 250 R4

Fuses Blown
T1

RR1 = 250 RR2 = 250 RR3 = 250 L1

Q. What caused the fuses to blow? A. R1 shorted.

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Parallel Circuit Troubleshooting


Ohmmeter = 4

T2

L2 ET = 24VAC L1 R1 RR1 = 12 R2 RR2 = 12 R3

RR4 = 12 R4

Fuses Removed
T1

RR3 = 12

Q. What fault is present in this circuit and why? A. R4 is open. Rt should be 3 for 4 parallel equal resistors. R4 is visually open.
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Parallel Circuit Troubleshooting


Ammeter = ?A

T2

L2 ET = 24VAC R1 RR1 = 4 R2 RR2 = 2 R3

RR4 = 4 R4

RR3 = 2

T1

L1

Q. What is total circuit current indicated on the ammeter? A. 667mA?


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Conclusion
Q. How must an ammeter always be connected in a circuit? A. In series Q. What is a fault condition that can cause fuses to blow or circuit breakers to trip open? A. Shorted circuit component.

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Series-Parallel (Combination) Circuits

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Camera resistors: small and precise.

Interest

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Reducing a Complex Circuit


Total Resistance: Equivalent resistance in a circuit. Series-Parallel Circuit: Combination circuit. Reduce combination circuit to a simple series circuit.

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Reducing to a Simple Series Circuit


Step 1
RT = ? R1 RR1 = 6K R2 RR2 = 400 R3 RR3 = 1.6K

Q. What is the total resistance in the circuit? W. RR1-R2 = R1R2/(R1 + R2) = (6)(.4)/(6 + .4) = 2.4/6.4 RR1-R2 = .375 K RR1-R2-R3 = RR1-R2 + R3 = .375 + 1.6 A. RT = 1.975K 191 CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Reducing to a Simple Series Circuit


Step 1
RT = ? R1 RR1 =4 R2 RR2 =20

Step 2
R4 RR4 = 12

R3 RR3 = 12

Q. What is the total resistance in the circuit? W. RR1-R2 = R1 + R2 = 4 + 20 = 24 RR1-R2-R3 = RR1-R2 R3/(RR1-R2 + R3) = (24)(12)/(24 + 12) = 288/36 = 8 RR1-R2-R3-R4 = RR1-R2-R3 + R4 = 8 + 12 A. RT = 20

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Reducing to a Simple Series Circuit


Step 1
RT = ? ET = 10VDC R1 RR1 =3 R3 RR3 = 9 R2 RR2 =6

Step 2
R4 RR4 = 12

Step 3
R5 RR5 = 18 R6 RR6 = 9

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Step 4 Q. What is the total resistance in the circuit? W. RR1-R2 = R1 + R2 = 3 + 6 = 9 RR1-R2-R3 = RR1-R2 R3/(RR1-R2 + R3) = (9)(9)/(9 + 9) = 81/18 = 4.5 RR5-R6 = R5 + R6 = 18 + 9 = 27 RR4-R5-R6 = RR5-R6 R4/(RR5-R6 + R4) = (27)(12)/(27 + 12) = 324/39 = 8.308 RR1-6 = RR1-R2-R3 + RR4-R5-R6 = 4.5 + 8.308 A. RT = 12.808
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Formulas for the last circuit:


Determine overall values. ET/RT=IT

Using Ohms Law

Determine individual values using series & parallel rules. ER1-R2-R3 =ITRR1-R2-R3 ER1-R2-R3 =ER3 ER3 /RR3 =IR3 IT-IR3 =IR1-R2 IR1 =IR2 =IR1-R2 ER1 =IR1 RR1
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ER2 =IR2 RR2

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Ohms Law Combination Circuit 1


Step 1
RT = ? ET = 10VDC R1 RR1 =3 R3 RR3 = 9 R2 RR2 =6

Step 2
R4 RR4 = 12

Step 3
R5 RR5 = 18 R6 RR6 = 9

Step 4 Q. What is the total current in the circuit? W. IT=ET/RT=10/ 12.808 A. IT=.7808A Q. What is the current passing through R4? W. ER4-R5-R6 =ITRR4-R5-R6 =(. 7808)(8.308)=6.487V ER4-R5-R6 =ER4 =6.487V IR4 =ER4 /RR4 =6.487/12 A. IR4 =.5406A
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Ohms Law Combination Circuit 2


Step 1
RT = ? ET = 10VDC R1 RR1 =3 R3 RR3 = 9 R2 RR2 =6

Step 2
R4 RR4 = 12

Step 3
R5 RR5 = 18 R6 RR6 = 9

Step 4

Q. What is the current passing through R5? W. IR5 =IT-IR4 = (.7808)-(.5406) A. IR5 =.2402A Q. What is the current passing through R6? W. IR6 =IR5 A. IR6 = . 2402A

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Ohms Law Combination Circuit 3


Step 1
RT = ? ET = 10VDC R1 RR1 =3 R3 RR3 = 9 R2 RR2 =6

Step 2
R4 RR4 = 12

Step 3
R5 RR5 = 18 R6 RR6 = 9

Step 4

Q. What is the voltage passing through R5? W. ER5 =IR5 RR5 = (.2402)(18) A. ER5 =4.3236V Q. What is the voltage passing through R6? W. ER6 =IR6 RR6 = (.2402)(9) or ER6 =ER5-R6 -ER5 =6.487- 4.324 A. ER6 =2.1618V

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Ohms Law Combination Circuit 4


Step 1
RT = ? ET = 10VDC R1 RR1 =3 R3 RR3 = 9 A R2 RR2 =6

Step 2
R4 RR4 = 12

Step 3
R5 RR5 = 18 R6 RR6 = 9

Step 4 Q. What is the ammeter reading in the circuit? W. IT=ET/RT=10/12.808 A. IT=.7808A Q. What is the current passing through R3? W. ER1-R2-R3 =ITRR1-R2-R3 =(.7808)(4.5)=3.5136V ER1-R2-R3 =ER3 =3.5136V or Et-ER4-R5-R6 =10-6.487=3.513V IR3 =ER3 /RR3 =3.5136/9 A. IR3 =.3904A
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Ohms Law Combination Circuit 5


Step 1
RT = ? ET = 10VDC R1 RR1 =3 R3 RR3 = 9 A R2 RR2 =6

Step 2
R4 RR4 = 12

Step 3
R5 RR5 = 18 R6 RR6 = 9

Step 4

Q. What is the current passing through R1? W. IR1 =IT-IR3 = (.7808) - (.3904) A. IR1 =.3904A Q. What is the current passing through R2? W. IR1 =IR2 A. IR2 = .3904A

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Ohms Law Combination Circuit 6


Step 1
RT = ? ET = 10VDC R1 RR1 =3 R3 RR3 = 9 A R2 RR2 =6

Step 2
R4 RR4 = 12

Step 3
R5 RR5 = 18 R6 RR6 = 9

Step 4

Q. What is the voltage passing through R1? W. ER1 =IR1 RR1 = (.3904)(3) A. ER1 =1.1712V Q. What is the voltage passing through R2? W. ER2 =IR2 RR2 = (.3904)(6) or ER2 =ER1-R2 -ER2 =3.513-1.171 A. ER2 =2.342V

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A RT = ? ET = 12VDC

Sample Problem 1
R1 RR1 =6 R2 RR2 =2 R3 RR3 = 6 R4 RR4 = 4 R5 RR5 = 8

Q. What is the total resistance in the circuit? W. RR4-R5 = R4 + R5 = 4 + 8 = 12 RR3-R4-R5 = RR4-R5 R3/(RR4-R5 +R3)=(12)(6)/(12+6) = 72/18 = 4 RR2-R3-R4-R5 = RR3-R4-R5 +RR2 =4+2=6 RR1-5 =RR2-R3-R4-R5 RR1 /(RR2-R3-R4-R5 +RR1 )=(6)(6)/(6+6) A. R = = 36/12 3
T

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Sample Problem 1 Continued 1


A RT = ? ET = 12VDC R1 RR1 =6 R2 RR2 =2 R3 RR3 = 6 R4 RR4 = 4 R5 RR5 = 8

Q. What does the ammeter read in the circuit? W. IT=ET/RT=12/3 A. IT=4A Q. What is the current passing through R1? W. ET=ER1 =12V IR1 =ER1 /RR1 =12/6 A. IR1 =2A

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Sample Problem 1 Continued II


A RT = ? ET = 12VDC R1 RR1 =6 R2 RR2 =2 R3 RR3 = 6 R4 RR4 = 4 R5 RR5 = 8

Q. What is the current passing through R2? W. ET=ER2-R3 =12V IR2 =IR2-R3 =ER2-R3 /RR2+(R3,R4,R5) =12/(2+4) A. IR2 =2A Q. What is the voltage drop across R2? W. ER2 =IR2 RR2= (2)(2) A. ER2 =4V Q. What is the voltage drop across R3? W. ER3 =ET- ER2 = 12-4 A. ER3 =8V
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Sample Problem 1 Continued III


A RT = ? ET = 12VDC R1 RR1 =6 R2 RR2 =2 R3 RR3 = 6 R4 RR4 = 4 R5 RR5 = 8

Q. What is the current passing through R4? W. ER3 =ER4-R5 =8V IR3 =ER3 /RR3 =8/6=1.3A IR4 =IR2 - IR3 =2 - (1.333) Kirchhoffs Current Law A. IR4 =.6667A Q. What is the voltage drop across R4? W. ER4 =IR4 RR4= (. 6667)(4) A. ER4 =2.667V Q. What is the voltage drop across R5? W. ER5 =IR5 RR5= (. 6667)(8) A. ER5 =5.333V
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Sample Problem 1 Continued IV


A RT = ? ET = 12VDC R1 RR1 =6 Point 1 R2 RR2 =2 R3 RR3 = 6 R4 RR4 = 4 R5 RR5 = 8 Point 3 Point 2

Q. Explain Kirchhoffs Current Law. W. IT=Ipoint1 + Ipoint2 + Ipoint3 =2 + (1.333) + (.666) = 4A A. Total current in circuit = current out of circuit. Q. Why isnt the voltage drop across R3 = 12VDC? W. ER2 =IR2 RR2= (2)(2) = 4VDC A. 4 VDC is subtracted because of the nature of voltage in a series circuit within a combination circuit.
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A RT = ? ET = 9VDC R1 RR1 =3

Questions
R2 RR2 =9 R3 RR3 = 9 R4 RR4 = 6 R5 RR5 = 3 R6 RR6 = 18 R7 RR7 = 9

Q. What is the current passing through R2? W. RR6-R7 =RR6 + RR7 =18+9=27 RR5-R6-R7 =RR6-R7 R5/(RR6-R7 +R5)=(27)(3)/(27+3)=81/30= 2.7 RR4-7 =RR5-7 + RR4 =2.7+6=8.7 RR3-7 = RR4-7 R3/(RR4-7 +R3)=(8.7)(9)/(8.7+9)=78.3/16.7=4.689 RR2-7 =RR3-7 + RR2 = 4.689 +9=13.689 RT = RR2-7 RR1 /(RR2-7 +RR1 )=(13.689)(3)/(13.689+3)= 41.066/16.689 =2.461 IT=ET/RT=9/2.461= 3.657A A. IIR12=ER1 /RR1 =9/3=3A IR2 =IT- IR1 = 3.657- 3 R =.6667A
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Power
Power = Work/Time = (Force)(Distance)/Time P=EI given: Power (watts), E (volts), I (current) Watt: 1 volt of electrical pressure moves 1 coulomb of electrons past a given point in a circuit in 1 second.

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I E
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Ohms Law and Watts Law

EI E/R 2 P/E IR
P/R E /R E/I IR 2 PR E /P 2 P/I P/I
2
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P I RE

A RT = ? ET = 9VDC R1 RR1 =3

Questions
R2 RR2 =9 R3 RR3 = 9 R4 RR4 = 6 R5 RR5 = 3 R6 RR6 = 18 R7 RR7 = 9

Q. What is the total power in the circuit? W. PT = IT2RT = (3.657A)2(2.461 ) = (13.274)(2.461) A. PT = 32.913 W Q. What is the minimum power rating for R1? W. PR1 = ER1 RR1 = (9V)(3 ) A. PR1 = 27 Watts

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Troubleshooting
Eliminate parallel paths when checking electrical components.

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Conclusion
A G ET = 120VAC

R1 RR1 =2.4K

R2 RR2 =3.6K R3 RR3 = 1.2K

Q. What is the total power in the circuit in KW? W. W. RR2+R3 = RR2 + RR3 = (3600)+(1200 )= 4800 RT=RR2+R3 RR1 / RR2+R3 +RR1 =(4800)(2400)/4800+2400= 11520000/7200=1600 PT = ETRT = (120V)(1600 ) A. PT = 192KW

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Tuned Circuits
Series Tuned Circuits
1 . Theory
a . Ideal Series resonant circuit contains no resistance. It contains only inductance and capacitance that are in series with each other and with the source voltage.

2 . Operation
a . At Resonance ( XL = XC ); therefore, XL + XC = 0. The resultant reactance is equal to 0. Impedance ( Z ) is minimum. b . Since Z is minimum, current is maximum for a given voltage. Maximum current flow causes maximum voltage drops across individual reactances.
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Questions
Q. What is the formula for XL? A. XL = 2 II f L. Q. What is the formula for XC? A. XC = 1 / 2 II f C. Q. What is the resonant frequency in a typical tuned circuit? A. XL = XC, Fr = .159/Square root LC.

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Tuned Circuit Operation


2 . Operation (Continued)
c . When Frequency is < Resonance: - XC => current is lower => voltage drops across reactances are lower. d . When Frequency is > Resonance: - XL => current is lower => voltage drops across reactances are lower.

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Tuned Circuit Operation


e . Series Tuned Circuit (Schematic)

C1 GEN

L1

R1

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Tuned Circuit Operation


f . Series Tuned Circuit Analysis
R=Z 0o XL XL
IMPEDANCE CURRENT

XL

o
XC
RESONANCE

XL - XC

o
XC - XL XC

o
XC
ABOVE RESONANCE

BELOW RESONANCE

100

200

300

Fr

500

600

700

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Z=R
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Parallel Tuned Circuits


1. Theory a . Called a tank circuit because it can store energy. b . It has the ability to take the energy fed to it from a power source and store this energy alternately in the inductor and capacitor. c . The resulting output is a continuous ac sine wave. 2 . Operation a . Voltage is the same across the inductor and capacitor. (parallel) b . Current through the components varies inversely with their reactances. c . Total current through the circuit is the vectoral sum of the two individual component currents. d . IL and IC are 180o out of phase. e . At resonance, IL and IC cancel each other out => no current from source.
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3 . Application
a . At resonance, the circuit has a maximum impedance which results in minimum current drawn from the source.

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Parallel Tuned Circuits


4. Schematic Circuit

L1 GEN C1 R1

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Parallel Tuned Circuits


IL

5 . Circuit analysis
IC IC
IMPEDANCE CURRENT

o
IC
RESONANCE

I o

IC - IL

o
IL

IL - IC IL

Z
100 200 300

BELOW RESONANCE

ABOVE RESONANCE

Fr

500

600

700

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Parallel Tuned Circuits


6 . Applications a . Tuned Amplifier +
0

RB C1
VIN

+VCC

L1

IM X A

CC

RL

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Questions
Q. What are some examples of a parallel tuned amplifiers? A. Antenna tuners, air signal tracker, ham radio, transponders (ID aircraft etc). Q. What crystal can replace the RLC circuit to make it last longer? A. Piezoelectric Crystal.

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Pulsed Amplifier
b . Pulsed Amplifier: 3 main sections

1. Gain Amp 2. Input Gate Signal 3. +V R1 Tank Circuit


C C

+
0

C1
VIN

OUTPUT SIGNAL C2 L1

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Pulsed Amplifier

T0 INPUT GATE

T1

T2

T3

OUTPUT SIGNAL

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Tuned Amplifier
c. Tuned Amplifier: 3 main sections 1. Gain Amp 2. Positive +V Feedback Circuit 13. Frequency Determining R Device
C C

+
0

C1
VIN

OUTPUT SIGNAL Cy1 L1

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Overdriven Amplifier
SATURATION CUTOFF
C1 Q1 R2 C2

R1

INPUT
-VEE +VCC

OUTPUT

SATURATION CUTOFF

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Overdriven Amplifier
a . The input signal drives the transistor into and out of saturation and cutoff. b . When the transistor is in saturation and / or cutoff, that portion of the input waveform is clipped and the output is distorted.

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Magnetism and Relays

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The magnetic field of the sun

Interest

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Experiments Using Magnets


Horseshoe magnet Ring magnets Bar magnets Coils Ferris magnets

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Phobos Large Magnet

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Magnetic Poles

Basic Magnetic Principles

South Pole North Pole Magnetic lines of force exist between the north and south poles. Like poles repel. Opposite poles attract. Each magnetic line of force is an independent line. None of the lines cross or touch a bordering line.

Natural Magnets: Lodestones were used by mariners for navigation. The Earth is a large magnet surrounded by a 232magnetic field. (i.e. degaussing coils).
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Questions
Q. What are some uses for magnets? A. Relays, Levetron, hold things in place. Q. How can a magnet loose its magnetism? A. Pounding or dropping magnets upsets the molecular alignment and weakens the magnet. Heat sources also destroy magnets by causing increased molecular activity, expansion and a return to the molecules random positions.
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Magnetic flux: The many invisible lines of magnetic force surrounding a magnet. B=/A
B=Flux density in gauss (webers per square centimeter) (phi)=Number of lines A=Cross sectional area in square centimeters

Magnetic Flux

3rd Law of Magnetism:


The attractive force increases as the distance of the distance between the magnets decrease. Magnetic force varies inversely with (Distance)2 234
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LHR for Coils


Thumb: Points in direction Of flux Fingers: Wrap around coil In direction of current

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Magnetism in a Coil

Q. What is the direction of flux in this coil? W. Use LHR for coils. A. Thumb points right.
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LHR for Conductors

Fingers: Wrap around coil In direction of circular magnetic Field. Thumb: Points in direction of current.
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Magnetism Tools
Magneprobe

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Magnetism Computer Programs


Used for component design.

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Reluctance
=F/R
= Total number of lines of magnetic force in gilberts. F= Force producing the field. R= Resistance to the magnetic field. (Reluctance)

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Electromagnets
Parts of Electromagnets
Iron Core Coil

Residual Magnetism:
Retentivity of the iron core.

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Electromagnet Diagram
Q. What type of diagram is this? A. Wiring Diagram.

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Magnetic Relay

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Magnetic Relay Continued


Relay: Device used to control a large flow of current by means of a low voltage, low current circuit. A relay is a magnetic switch.
Coil: Attracts armature because of magnetism. Armature: Lever Arm. Contacts: Normally open (NO) Normally closed (NC)

Relay Maintenance:
Burnishing tool cleans contacts Silver plated armatures should be replaced if there is exposed copper.
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Magnetic Relay Physical Description

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Timing Relay
Timing Relays energize contacts for a specific amount of time based on the adjustable setting. Contacts are timed on and off.

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Relay Controller Schematic


M1
20A

~ 120 VAC, 60 HZ, 1

M2
20A

M1 E M2

TR2 TR1

A B TR C D E
A E

C D

Start Button

Reset Button

Stop Button

M
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Magnetic Circuit Breaker


Parts
Operating Mechanism Tripper Bar Arc Chutes Frame Rack out mechanism Indication
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Manual Breakers
Manual breakers are shut locally at the switchboard. Magnetic circuit breakers are shut remotely from a control station.

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Doorbell

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Buzzer Circuit

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Shielding is done using the permeability of some other substance. Magnetic lines of force flow through the path of least resistance.

Magnetic Shields

Shield
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Magnetic Levitation Transportation

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Magnetic Levitation Transportation


HSST is a magnetic levitation transportation system that has been developed in Japan by HSST Development Corporation established in 1993. The HSST is magnetically-levitated (not supported by wheels) and is propelled by a linear induction motor (LIM), not by conventional rotary electric motors.

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Conclusion
Q. How does a relay work? A. Coil energizes, armature engages, secondary contact shuts/opens. Q. When would a use a magnetic circuit breaker? A. Used in electric plants to parallel generators and switchboards. Q. What is the LHR for conductors? A. Fingers: wrap around coil. Thumb: points in direction of current.
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Diodes
Impurity Atoms: Trivalent: Boron (B), Aluminum (Al), Gallium (Ga), Indium (ln). Has three (3) valence electrons. Known as an Acceptor Impurity. Pentavalent: Phosphorous (P), Arsenic (As), Antimony (Sb), and Bismuth (Bi). Has five (5) valence electrons. Known as a Donor Impurity.
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PN Material
N - Type Material: Pure base material doped with a Donor Impurity. Majority Current Carrier: Electrons Minority Current Carrier: Holes P - Type Material: Pure base material doped with an Acceptor Impurity. Majority Current Carrier: Holes Minority Current Carrier: Electrons
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257

Construction
Old Method: Grown Crystals. Newer Methods: Alloy Fused: N & P material made using heat / pressure. Diffused: N & P gas and heat. Both methods are used to produce a PN Junction.
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Questions
Q) What is meant by a donor impurity? A) 5 valiant electrons in outer shell. Q) What are 4 examples of a donor impurity? A) Phosphorous, Arsenic, Antimony and Bismuth.
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Diode Definitions
Potential Hill (Junction Barrier) : Electrostatic field set up across a PN junction which prevents further combination of majority current carriers. The value of the voltage of the potential hill depends on the type of base material used during diode construction. 1. Silicon (.5 - .8V) 2. Germanium (.2V) Rated for up to 1500A / 3000V. Used primarily in Rectifiers.
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Operations & Definitions


Forward Bias: External voltage applied which opposes the potential hill, effectively reducing the width and resistance of the depletion region. => Majority Current Carriers flow through the PN junction. Reverse Bias: External voltage applied which aids the potential hill, effectively increasing the width and resistance of the depletion region. => No Majority Current Carriers flow through the PN junction.
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Rectifier Diode Block Diagram


Depletion Region Anode + + + + +
----++ ++ ++ ++

- - - N - -

Cathode

P + + +

Potential Hill (Junction Barrier)


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Rectifier Diode Schematic Diagram

Anode

Cathode

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Diode Forward Bias


Depletion Region Anode + + + +
+ + + +

- - - N - -

Cathode

P + + +

Potential Hill (Junction Barrier)


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Diode Reverse Bias


Depletion Region Anode + + + P + + + + +
- - - - - - - - +++ +++ +++ +++

- - - N - -

Cathode

Potential Hill (Junction Barrier)


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Characteristic Curve
+I (mA)

Forward Bias

-V a -c

+V a -c

Reverse Bias

Avalanche Breakdown 266

-I (uA)

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Zener Diode
The Zener diode is a heavily doped diode which, as a result of doping, has a very narrow depletion region. This allows the diode to be operated in the reverse biased region of the characteristic curve without damaging the PN junction. Zener Effect: The area of Zener diode operation (<5V) where the Diode maintains a constant voltage output while operating reverse biased. Avalanche Effect: >5V applied to the diode while reverse biased which tends to cause the diode to eventually breakdown due to heat generation within the lattice structure of the crystal.
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Zener Diode Schematic Symbol

Anode

Cathode

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Characteristic Curve
I (mA) Operating Region -Va-c Forward Bias

+Va-c

Reverse Bias

I (uA)

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Zener Operation
Ratings: .25V to 1500V Used in SSMG / SSTG AC voltage regulator for the reference circuit.
When a higher constant voltage is desired, the zener diodes will be Stacked together in series and their voltages will add together to make the higher desired voltage. This is the case in the SSMG / SSTG AC voltage regulators where four (4) 6v zener diodes are stacked to provide a 24V reference to the comparison circuit.

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Zener Diode Voltage Regulator


R1 Vin CR1 Vout

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Signal Diode
Same construction as the Rectifier Diode except that it is designed to operate with a very short reverse recovery time to allow it to rectify high frequency AC inputs.

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Power Supplies
Components and their function
Transformer - Receives the AC input from the distribution system and either steps up or down the voltage. Rectifier - Converts the AC input voltage from the transformer to a pulsating DC voltage. Filter - Smoothes out the DC pulsations or ripple received from the rectifier. Regulator - Receives a smoothed DC voltage from the Filter Stage and produces a steady DC voltage to be used by electronic circuitry.
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Half - Wave Rectifier

1:1

CR1

VIN T1

R1

VOUT

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Half - Wave Rectifier Operation


Positive half-cycle the diode is Forward Bias (FB), negative half-cycle the diode is Reverse Bias (RB).

VDC = VPK X .318


Where: VDC = Average DC voltage VPK = Peak input voltage .318 = Constant

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Full - Wave Rectifier


1:1 CR1

VIN T1

R1

VOUT

CR2

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Full - Wave Rectifier Operation


Positive half-cycle, 1 diode is FB, negative half-cycle the other diode is FB.

VDC = VPK X .637


Where: VDC = Average DC voltage VPK = Peak input voltage .637 = Constant

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Full Wave Bridge Rectifier


1:1
CR1 CR4 CR3 CR2

T1 R1 VIN
278

VOUT
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Full - Wave Bridge Rectifier Operation


Positive half-cycle, 1 diode is FB, negative half-cycle the other diode is FB.

VDC = VPK X .637


Where: VDC = Average DC voltage VPK = Peak input voltage .637 = Constant

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Filters
A filter uses the characteristics of Inductors and Capacitors to smooth the pulsating DC waveform supplied by the Rectifier. Types
High Pass - A series RC filter whose output is taken from the resistor. Series / Parallel - A filter configuration which uses combinations of capacitors and inductors to smooth the voltage and current pulsations from the rectifier output.
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Ideal filter characteristics


Rapid charge time constant for filter capacitors and inductors. Slow discharge time constant for filter capacitors and inductors.

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Capacitor Filter Configuration


Capacitor Input Filter Schematic Diagram

C1 VIN RB VOUT

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Capacitor Filter Operation


Charge RC time constant is developed from the internal resistance of the rectifier diodes and the capacitance of the filter capacitor. The net result is that the low resistance of the rectifier diodes develop a rapid charge RC time constant. Discharge RC time constant is developed from the filter capacitor and the load resistance. Since the load resistance is rather large, the discharge RC time constant is somewhat long. RB is called the Bleeder Resistor because it provides a path for the filter capacitor(s) to discharge when power is removed from the circuit. RB has a very large resistance and usually draws <10% of normal operating current.
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LC Choke Filter Configuration


LC Choke Filter Schematic Diagram
L1 VIN VOUT RB

C1

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LC Choke Filter Operation


Charge RC time constant is developed from the internal resistance of the rectifier diodes, the Low DC resistance of the inductor (L1), and the capacitance of the filter capacitor. The net result is that the low resistance of the rectifier diodes and inductor (L1) develop a rapid charge RC time constant. Discharge RC time constant is developed from the filter capacitor and the load resistance. Since the load resistance is rather large, the discharge RC time constant is somewhat long. The Inductor acts to smooth out the current pulsations produced by the rectifier and / or transformer stage of the power supply.
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RC PI Filter Configuration
RC PI Filter Schematic Diagram
Charge Path Discharge Path VIN R1 VOUT RB

C1

C2

VOUT(C1) 286

VOUT(C2)

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

RC PI Filter Operation
First Capacitor provides most of the filtering action. Second Capacitor Provides additional voltage filtering. Resistor limits current flow to the desired value and establishes the RC time constants for both filter capacitors.

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LC PI Filter Configuration
LC PI Filter Schematic Diagram
Charge Path Discharge Path VIN

L1

C1

C2

RB

VOUT(C1) 288

VOUT(C2)

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

LC PI Filter Operation
First Capacitor provides most of the filtering action. Second Capacitor Provides additional voltage filtering.

Inductor opposes changes in current flow to reduce current spikes and establishes the RC time constants for both filter capacitors.

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Voltage Regulators
Series Regulator
Acts as a variable resistor in series with the load.

Zener Diode Voltage Regulator


Schematic R1 Vin CR1 Vout

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Voltage Regulator Operation

Vin

R1

Vout CR1

VIN

VOUT

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Transistor Voltage Regulators

Vin

Vout

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OPAMP Voltage Regulators

Vin

Vout

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Tubes, Transistors and Amplifiers

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Interest
In 1947, Bardeen & Brattain at Bell Laboratories created the first amplifier! Shockley (boss), came near to canceling the project. The three shared a Nobel Prize. Bardeen and Brattain continued in research (and Bardeen later won another Nobel). Shockley quit to start a semiconductor company in Palo Alto. It folded, but its staff went on to invent the integrated circuit (the "chip") & to found the Intel Corporation. 295
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Tetrode Tube
(+) Plate
Control Grid: Controls amplification rate & electron flow with bias voltage. Shield: Screen gridincreases electron speed cathode to + plate. Heater: Heats gas to gas amplification state. Inert Gas: Mercury or Argon gas.

(-) Shield Control Grid (-) Cathode Inert Gas Heater


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Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)

3 Electron Beams (Red, Green, Blue)

(-) Cathode (+) Anode

Grids

Conductive Coating

The cathode is a heated filament (like light bulb filament) in a vacuum inside a glass tube. The ray is a stream of electrons that naturally pour off a heated cathode into the vacuum. The + anode attracts the electrons pouring off the cathode. In a TV's CRT, the stream of electrons is focused by a focusing anode into a tight beam and then accelerated by an accelerating anode. This tight, high-speed beam of electrons flies through the vacuum in the tube and hits the flat screen at the other end of the tube. This screen is coated with phosphor, which glows when struck by the beam.

Phosphor Coated Screen

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Bipolar Transistors
History Created in 1948 in the AT&T Bell Laboratories. Scientists were performing doping experiments on semiconductor material (diodes) and developed a semiconductor device having three (3) PN junctions.

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Bipolar Transistor Construction


NPN / PNP Block Diagrams
Emitter N Base P N Collector

Emitter P N P Base

Collector

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Bipolar Transistor Theory


For any transistor to conduct, two things must occur. The emitter - base PN junction must be forward biased. The base - collector PN junction must be reverse biased.
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Bipolar Transistor Biasing (NPN)

FB

RB

Emitter

Collector

Base +
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Bipolar Transistor Biasing (PNP)


FB RB

Emitter P

Collector P

Base +
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Bipolar Transistor Operation (PNP)


The + emitter repels the majority current carriers towards the emitter - base PN junction. Majority current carriers pass through the forward biased emitter - base junction and flow into the base. Once in the base, these current carriers now become minority current carriers and are attracted to the strong negative voltage applied to the collector. 90% of the current carriers pass through the reverse biased base - collector PN junction and enter the collector of the transistor. 10% of the current carriers exit transistor through the base. The opposite is true for a NPN transistor.
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Amplifier Operation
The transistor below is biased such that there is a degree of forward bias on the base - emitter PN junction. Any input received will change the magnitude of forward bias & the amount of current flow through the transistor. The magnitude of the output will be on the order of 1000x larger depending on the value of +VCC . RC +VCC Q1 +
0

+
0

RB

Input Signal
304

Output Signal
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Amplifier Electric Switch Operation


When the input signal is large enough, the transistor can be driven into saturation & cutoff which will make the transistor act as an electronic switch. Saturation - The region of transistor operation where a further increase in the input signal causes no further increase in the output signal. Cutoff - Region of transistor operation where the input signal is reduced to a point where minimum transistor biasing cannot be maintained => the transistor is no longer biased to conduct. (no current flows)
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Amplifier Electric Switch Operation


Transistor Q-point
Quiescent point : region of transistor operation where the biasing on the transistor causes operation / output with no input signal applied.
The biasing on the transistor determines the amount of time an output signal is developed.

Transistor Characteristic Curve


This curve displays all values of IC and VCE for a given circuit. It is curve is based on the level of DC biasing that is provided to the transistor prior to the application of an input signal.
306 The values of the circuit resistors, and VCC will determine the location of the Q-point.
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Transistor Characteristic Curve


IC
Saturation
90 uA 80 uA 70 uA 60 uA 50 uA 40 uA 30 uA 20 uA 10 uA 0 uA

IB Q-Point

Cutoff

VCE

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Transistor Maintenance
When troubleshooting transistors, do the following: Remove the transistor from the circuit, if possible. Use a transistor tester, if available, or use a digital multimeter set for resistance on the diode scale. Test each PN junction separately. ( A front to back ratio of at least 10:1 indicates a 308 good transistor).
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Transistor Maintenance
This chart shows the readings for a good transistor.
Test Lead Connection (+/ - ) Base- Emitter Emitter- Base Base - Collector Collector- Base Emitter- Collector Collector- Emitter
309

Transistor Maintenance Chart


HI GH LOW HI GH HI GH HI GH
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

NPN PNP Resistance Reading Resistance Reading (High / Low) (High / Low) LOW HI GH LOW HI GH LOW HI GH HI GH

Transistor Maintenance Chart


Advantages of junction transistors over point contact transistors: -Generate less noise. -Handles more power. -Provides higher current and voltage gains. -Can be mass produced cheaply.

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Questions
Q) What is the 7 step troubleshooting method? A) Symptom recognition, symptom elaboration, list possible faulty functions, identify faulty function, identify faulty component, failure analysis, repair, retest. Q) What was the most difficult problem you ever troubleshot? A) Various
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Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers


Amplifier Classification
Amplifiers can be classified in three ways:
Type (Construction / Connection)
Common Emitter Common Base Common Collector

Bias (Amount of time during each half-cycle output is developed).


Class A, Class B, Class AB, Class C

Operation
312 Amplifier Electronic Switch
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Common Emitter Schematic


Output Signal Flow Path RB RC +VCC Q1 +
0

+
0

Input Signal Input Signal Flow Path

Output Signal

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Kirchoff Voltage Law


DC Kirchoff Voltage Law Equations and Paths
+VCC

Base - Emitter Circuit


RB RC Q1

IBRB + VBE - VCC = 0 Collector - Emitter Circuit ICRC + VCE - VCC = 0

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Common Emitter Operation


+
0
RC

Positive Going Signal


Base becomes more (+) WRT Emitter FB IC VRC VC VOUT ( Less + )

Input Signal

RB Q1

Output Signal
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+
0

Base becomes less (+) WRT Emitter FB IC VRC VC VOUand ( More + ) CENT-112 Fundamentals of ElectricityT Electronics

Negative Going Signal

Common Base Schematic


Q1

Input Signal Flow Path +


0
RE CC

RB

RC

+
0

+VCC

Output Signal Flow Path


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Kirchoff Voltage Law


DC Kirchoff Voltage Law Equations and Paths
Q1

RE CC

RB

RC

Base - Emitter Circuit IBRB + VBE + IERE - VCC = 0 Collector - Emitter Circuit ICRC + VCE + IERE - VCC = 0

+VCC

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Common Base Operation


Q1

Positive Going Signal


RB RC

RE CC

+VCC

Base becomes more (+) WRT Emitter FB IC VRC VC VOUT ( More + )

+
Input 318 Signal 0 0

Negative Going Signal

Output Signal Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics CENT-112

Base becomes less (+) WRT Emitter FB IC VRC VC VOUT ( Less + )

Common Collector Schematic


Output Signal Flow Path +VCC +
0

RB Q1 + RE
0

Input Signal Input Signal Flow Path

Output Signal

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Kirchoff Voltage Law


DC Kirchoff Voltage Law Equations and Paths
+VCC RB Q1 RE Base - Emitter Circuit IBRB + VBE + IERE - VCC = 0 Collector - Emitter Circuit ICRC + VCE + IERE - VCC = 0

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Common Collector Operation


+VCC RB Q1 RE + 0
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Positive Going Signal


Base becomes more (+) WRT Emitter FB IE VRE VE VOUT ( More + ) Base becomes less (+) WRT Emitter FB IE VRE VE VOUT ( Less + )

Negative Going Signal

+ Input Signal 0 Output Signal

CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

AZAZA VOPINI & House of BEC


Common Common Common Common Common Common B B E E C C

Av = Voltage Gain Av = Voltage Gain Zo = Output Impedance Zo = Output Impedance Ap = Power gain Ap = Power gain Zin = Input Impedance Zin = Input Impedance Ai = Current Gain Ai = Current Gain
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Transistor Bias Stabilization


Used to compensate for temperature effects which affects semiconductor operation. As temperature increases, free electrons gain energy and leave their lattice structures which causes current to increase.

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Types of Bias Stabilization


Self Bias: A portion of the output is fed back to the input 180o out of phase. This negative feedback will reduce overall amplifier gain. Fixed Bias: Uses resistor in parallel with Transistor emitterbase junction. Combination Bias: This form of bias stabilization uses a combination of the emitter resistor form and a voltage divider. It is designed to compensate for both temperature effects as well as minor fluctuations in supply (bias) voltage. Emitter Resister Bias: As temperature increases, current flow will increase. This will result in an increased voltage drop across the emitter resistor which opposes the potential on the emitter of the transistor.
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Self Bias Schematic


+ o Initial Input +VCC

++ o
Self Bias Feedback + o RB

RC + Q1 o VOUT

=
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Resulting Input CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Emitter Bias Schematic


DC Component AC Component

+VCC RC RB
+ ++

+ Q1 o VOUT CE

+ o Initial Input
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RE
+

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Combination Bias Schematic


DC Component AC Component

+VCC RC
++ +

+ o Initial Input

RB1 RB2 RE

+ Q1 o VOUT CE

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Amplifier Frequency Response


The range or band of input signal frequencies over which an amplifier operates with a constant gain. Amplifier types and frequency response ranges.
Audio Amplifier
15 Hz to 20 KHz

Radio Frequency (RF) Amplifier


10 KHz to 100,000 MHz

Video Amplifier (Wide Band Amplifier)


10 Hz to 6 MHz 328
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Class A Amplifier Curve

IC
Saturation

90 uA 80 uA 70 uA 60 uA 50 uA 40 uA 30 uA

IB

Q-Point VCE

20 uA 10 uA 0 uA

Cutoff 329

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Class B Amplifier Curve

IC
Saturation

90 uA 80 uA 70 uA 60 uA 50 uA 40 uA 30 uA

IB

Q-Point VCE

20 uA 10 uA 0 uA

Cutoff 330

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Class AB Amplifier Curve


Can be used for guitar distortion.

IC
Saturation

90 uA 80 uA 70 uA 60 uA 50 uA 40 uA 30 uA 20 uA

IB

Q-Point
Cutoff 331

10 uA 0 uA

VCE

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Class C Amplifier Curve

IC
Saturation

90 uA 80 uA 70 uA 60 uA 50 uA 40 uA 30 uA 20 uA 10 uA 0 uA

IB

Cutoff 332

VCE

Q-Point

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Amplifier Coupling Methods


Direct: The output of the first stage is directly connected to the input of the second stage. Best Frequency Response No frequency sensitive components. Impedance (LC) Coupling: Similar to RC coupling but an inductor is used in place of the resistor. Not normally used in Audio Amplifiers. RC Coupling: Most common form of coupling used. Poor Frequency Response. Transformer Coupling: Most expensive form coupling used. Mainly used as the last stage or power output stage of a string of amplifiers.
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Direct Coupling Schematic


+VCC 2 +VCC 1 RC1 RB2 Q2 RB1 Q1
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RC2

RC Coupling Schematic
+VCC 2 +VCC 1 RC1 CC Q1
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RC2 RB2 Q2

RB1

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Impedance Coupling Schematic


+VCC 2 +VCC 1 RB2 CC Q1
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RC2

Q2

RB1

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Transformer Coupling Schematic


+VCC 2 +VCC 1 RC1 RB2 Q2 RB1 Q1
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RC2

T1

Silicon Controlled Rectifiers


Silicon Controlled Rectifiers (SCR)
Construction
Block Diagram

Anode P Left Floating Region N P N Gate

Cathode

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OPAMP Voltage Regulators

Vin

Vout

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SCR Schematic

Anode

Cathode

Gate

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SCR Bias
When the SCR is forward biased and a gate signal is applied, the lightly doped gate regions holes will fill with the free electrons forced in from the cathode.
FB Anode FB Cathode P N RB P N Gate

+
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SCR Operation
Acts as an electronic switch Essentially a rectifier diode which has a controllable Turn - on point. Can be switched approximately 25,000 times per second. Once the SCR conducts, the gate signal can be removed. The difference in potential across the anode & cathode of the SCR will maintain current flow. When the voltage across the SCR drops to a level below the Minimum Holding value, the PN junctions will reform and current flow through the SCR will stop.
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SCR Phase Control


The term Phase Control refers to a process where varying the timing of the gate signal to an SCR will vary the length of time that the SCR conducts.
This will determine the amount of Voltage or Power delivered to a load.

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Unijunction Transistors (UJT)


Construction: Originally called Double-based
Diodes. P Type material doped into the N type base material. Placement of the Emitter into the Base determines the voltage level (%) at which the the UJT fires.
This % is called the Intrinsic Standoff Ratio ( ).
Once constructed, the Intrinsic Standoff Ratio cannot be changed.

The actual voltage value at which the UJT fires is determined by the amount of source voltage applied.
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UJT Block Diagram


Base 2

Equivalent Circuit
Base 2

Emitter

Emitter

Base 1

Base 1

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UJT Schematic Symbol


Base 2 Emitter

Base 1

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UJT No Operation
When VE is less than or equal to the voltage base one to emitter requirement (VE-B1 ), the UJT will not fire.
Base 2 Depletion Region Emitter

++
No Current Flow

Base 1
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UJT Operation
When VE is more than the voltage base one to emitter requirement (VE-B1 ), the UJT will fire.
Base 2

++
UJT Fires

Emitter VE > VE-B1

Base 1
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UJT Sawtooth Generator

R1 E VOUT C1 Charge C1 Discharge C1

Q1

B2 B1 SW1

VBB

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UJT Relaxation Oscillator


VOUT VOUT

+
1

R1 Q1 VOUT
1

RB2 VOUT
2

VBB

+ 2 +
3

VOUT

C1 RB1

VOUT

SW1
3

C1 Charge C1 Discharge 350


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UJT Relaxation Oscillator


The output of the Oscillator can be used for sweep generators, gating circuit for SCRs, as well as timing pulses for counting and timing circuits.

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Lessons Learned
Video Card ruined from ESD < 20 V (Improper Handling). Bad Inductor in a regulator detected with Huntron Tracker. Slightly different oval.

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Summary
Q) What is the phase relationship between input and output voltage in a common emitter circuit? A) 180 degrees.

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Summary Continued
Q) What type of transistor bias uses both self and fixed bias? A) Combination bias. Q) What is the frequency response range of an RF amplifier? A) 10Khz 100, 000 Mhz.

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4 . Silicon Bilateral Switch (SBS)


a . Construction

J1 P N

J2 P

A1

A2

A2 G
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A1
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b . Schematic Symbol

Anode 2 A2

Anode 1 A1

Gate
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c . Characteristic Curve

I (mA)
Reverse Breakover Voltage Breakback Voltage

V A2-A1
Forward Breakover Voltage

Holding Current (IHO )

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d . Characteristics
1 . More vigorous switching characteristic. V to almost zero. 2 . More temperature stable. 3 . More symmetrical wave form output. 4 . Popular in low voltage trigger control circuits.

e . Theory
1 . Lower breakover voltages than Diac. (+/- 8V is most popular). 2 . SBS has more pronounced Negative Resistance region. 3 . Its decline in voltages is more drastic after it enters the conductive state.
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f . Operation
1 . As shown below, if a zener diode is placed in the gate circuit between G and A1, the forward breakover voltage (+VBO) can be altered to approximately that of the zener voltage (VZ).
a . -VBO is unaffected. SBS A2 A1

G 359
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2 . Characteristic Curve

I (mA)
Reverse Breakover Voltage Breakback Voltage

V A2-A1
Forward Breakover Voltage

Holding Current (IHO )

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5 Silicon Unilateral Switch (SUS)


a Construction

Anode

Cathode P N P N

Gate

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b . Schematic Symbol

Anode

Cathode

Gate

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c Theory
1 Similar to the four (4) layer diode except the +VBO can be altered by using the gate terminal voltage.

d Operation

Reverse Breakdown Voltage

Much greater than Forward Breakover Voltage

-V A-C

Forward Breakover Voltage

V A-C

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6 . Varactor
a . Construction

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b . Theory
1 . For testing purposes, a front to back ratio of 10:1 is considered normal. 2 . The size of the depletion region in a varactor diode is directly proportional to the amount of bias applied.
a . As forward bias increases, capacitance (Depletion region) decreases. b . As reverse bias increases, capacitance (Depletion region) increases.

3 . In the capacitance equation below, it is shown that only the distance between plates can be changed.

C=
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Where: A = Plate Area k = Constant Ak d = Distance between plates d CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

a . An increase in reverse bias increases the width of the gap (d) which reduces the capacitance of the PN junction and vice versa.

4 . Advantage: Allows DC voltage to be used to tune a circuit for simple remote control or automatic tuning function.

c . Operation
1 . used to replace old style variable capacitor tuning circuits. 2 . They are used in tuning circuits of more sophisticated communications equipment and in other circuits where variable capacitance is required.
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Depletion Region 20 F P 3V N P 6V 5 F

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A . Special Purpose Amplifiers


1 . Differential Amplifier
a . Schematic Diagram
+ VCC

RC (1) RB (1) VIN (1) Q1 VOUT

RC (2) RB (2)

VIN (2) Q2

RE - VEE

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b . Operation
+ VCC

+
0
VIN (1)

RC (1) RB (1)

++ +
Q1

VOUT

RC (2)

+
RB (2)

++ +

0
VIN (2)

RE - VEE

-Q

+
VOUT

(+) / (-) ARE ASSIGNED BY WHICH VOLTMETER LEAD IS USED AS THE REFERENCE

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1 . With the polarities shown previously:


a . On positive going signal, Base of Q1 becomes more (+) with respect to emitter => FB Q1 => ICQ1 => VRC1 => VCQ1
=>

(less +). Since ICQ1 => IEQ1

(IE =

IC + IB) => VRE

Emitter of Q2 becomes less (-) with respect to Base => FBQ2 => ICQ2 => VRC2 => VCQ2 (more +). Due to the

polarities assigned by our voltmeter, the difference between Q1 and Q2 is becoming less => VOUT (Negative Going).
b . On

negative going signal, Base of Q1 becomes less (+) with respect to emitter => FB Q1 => ICQ1 => VRC1 => VCQ1 (more +). Since ICQ1 => IEQ1
(IE =

IC + IB) => VRE

=>

Emitter of Q2 becomes more (-) with respect to Base => FBQ2 => ICQ2 => VRC2 => VCQ2 (less +). Due to the
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polarities assigned by our voltmeter, the difference between Q1 and Q2 is becoming larger => VOUT (Positive Going).
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c . With the resulting output achieved, it can be said that a positive going input on the base of Q1 caused VCQ1 to be inverted => the base of Q1 is called the Inverting Terminal. Since the positive going input caused VCQ2 to increase in a positive direction, the base of Q2 is called the Non-Inverting Terminal. d . If my voltmeter leads were changed, the output of the amplifier would also change. The Inverting and NonInverting terminals would also change.

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2 . Operational Amplifiers (OPAMPS)


a .Block Diagram (Basic)
+ vCC

INVERTING INPUT

DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER OUTPPUT AMPLIFIER

NON-INVERTING INPUT

+
- vEE

OUTPUT

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b . Ideal OPAMP Characteristics


1 . Infinite () Input Impedance a Draws little or no current from source. 2 . Zero Output Impedance 3 . Infinite () Gain 4 . Infinite () Frequency Response a Constant gain over any range of input signal frequencies.

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c . Types of OPAMPS
1 . Linear (Output is Proportional to Input) a . Inverting
RF

+ +
0

+
VOUT
0

VIN R1

+ -

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b . Non - Inverting

RF

+
R1

+
VOUT
0

+
0

VIN

+ -

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c . Summing

VIN 1 VIN 2 VIN 3 VIN 4

+
0

R1 VIN 1 VIN 2 R2 R3 VIN 3 R4 VIN 4 R5 RF

+
0

+
0

+ + -

+
0

VOUT

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d . Difference

VIN 1 VIN 2 VIN 3 VIN 4 VIN 5

+
0

R1 VIN 1 VIN 2 R2 RF

+
0

+
0

R3 VIN 3 VIN 4 VIN 5 R4 R5

+ + -

+
0

VOUT

+
0

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2 . Non - Linear (Output is not Proportional to Input) a . Comparator

VREF ATTACHED TO EITHER + OR - TERMINALS (EXAMPLE SHOWS OUTPUT WITH VREF CONNECTED TO THE NON-INVERTING TERMINAL.)

+
VIN
0

VREF

(WAVEFORM WOULD BE INVERTED IF VREF WAS ATTACHED TO THE INVERTING TERMINAL)

+ +
VREF VOUT

+
VOUT
0

VIN

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b . Differentiator

RF C1

+ +
R1 VOUT

+
0

VIN

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c . Integrator

C1

+ +
0

+
VOUT
0

VIN R1

+ -

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Field Effect Transistors (FETs)


Field Effect Transistor Types
Junction Field Effect Transistors (JFETs) (N and P Channel)
JFETs are voltage sensitive devices that use voltage vice current to control output. Current does not flow through a PN junction; however, a PN junction is used to control the size of a channel and to control current flow.

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N Channel JFET

Depletion Region P Source P Drain

--

N P

++

N P

382

Gate

Channel

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P Channel JFET

Depletion Region N N Drain

++

P N

--

P N

Channel
383

Gate

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JFET Schematic Symbols

Source

Drain

Source

Drain

Gate

Gate

N - Channel
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P - Channel

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JFET Characteristic Curve


ID Pinchoff Region

Avalanche Region 0 Ohmic Region


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VSD

JFET Operation Regions


Ohmic Region: As VSD increases, Drain Current (ID) increases in a nearly linear manner. Pinchoff Region: As VSD increases, Drain Current (ID) remains constant. Avalanche Region: As VSD increases, Drain Current (ID) increases uncontrollably and control of the FET is lost.
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JFET Operation
The voltage applied to the gate of a FET is reverse bias in nature and determines the size of the channel. When gate voltage (VG) is large enough, the depletion regions touch and drain current (ID) is cut off (Channel is Pinched Off). This is called the Pinchoff Voltage. With Gate Voltage (VG) held constant, as VSD increases, Drain Current (ID) increases and vice versa. This assumes that the FET is operating in the ohmic region of the characteristic curve.
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JFET Operation

ID VG = 1 VG = 2

VG = 0

0
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VSD
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MOSFETs
Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs) MOSFETs where originally called IGFETs due to the insulated gate portion of the the FETs construction. MOSFETs are extremely susceptible to damage from electrostatic discharge.

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Depletion Mode MOSFET


- Gate Source
N P

++ Drain

+ Source

+ Gate
P N

-Drain

Metal Oxide Layer

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Depletion Mode MOSFET


Schematic Symbols

Drain Source Gate

P - Channel

Drain

391

NChannel

Gate

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Depletion Mode MOSFET Curve


ID

VG

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N Channel MOSFET Operation


N Channel Depletion MOSFET Biasing / Operation Negative (-) on the Source, Positive (+) on the Drain, and Negative (-) on the gate. Negative (-) on the gate will induce positive ions in channel which creates an area within the channel where there are no majority current carriers. (Depletion Region) The amount of Gate voltage (VG) applied will determine the size of the channel thereby controlling the amount of current flow through the transistor.
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P Channel MOSFET Operation


P Channel Depletion MOSFET Biasing / Operation Positive (+) on the Source, Negative (-) on the Drain, and Positive (+) on the gate. Positive (+) on the gate will induce negative ions in channel which creates an area within the channel where there are no majority current carriers. (Depletion Region) The amount of Gate voltage (VG) applied will determine the size of the channel thereby controlling the amount of current flow through the transistor. N & P Channel Depletion MOSFET Biasing / Operation Depending on the polarity of the gate voltage (VG) applied, the depletion mode MOSFET can be made to operate either in the depletion mode or enhancement mode.
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Enhancement Mode MOSFET


Block Diagrams (N & P Channel)

- Gate + Source

++ Drain
N

+ Source

Gate

-Drain

N P

P N

Metal Oxide Layer

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Enhancement Mode MOSFET


Schematic Symbols (N & P Channel)

Drain Source Gate

P - Channel

396

NChannel
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

Gate

Enhancement Mode MOSFET Curve


ID

VG

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N Channel MOSFET Operation


N Channel Enhancement MOSFET Biasing / Operation The Depletion region Creates / Enhances channel formation. The amount of Gate voltage (VG) applied will determine the size of the channel thereby controlling the amount of current flow through the transistor.

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P Channel MOSFET Operation


P Channel Enhancement MOSFET Biasing / Operation The Depletion region Creates / Enhances channel formation. The amount of Gate voltage (VG) applied will determine the size of the channel thereby controlling the amount of current flow through the transistor.

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MOSFET Gate Voltage


Effects of Gate Voltage (VG) on Channel formation

+ Source Gate

++ Drain
N

+ Source

Gate

-Drain

N P

P N

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Common Source JFET Amplifiers


+VDD
Input Signal

+ RD
G

++
D

RG

VOUT

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Common Gate JFET Amplifiers


Input Signal

RS

++ RD

+
0

RG

+VDD

VOUT

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Common Drain JFET Amplifiers


+VDD
Input Signal

++
D G

+
0

+ RG
0

RS

VOUT

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Lessons Learned
MOSFET ruined from ESD < 20 V static electricity. Computer laptop not working anymore when soda spilled on keyboard. Computer motherboard overheated when cooling fan seized due to accumulation of dust over the years. New computer BIOS chip ruined upon installation because not using the proper tool.

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Logic Circuits
A . Boolean Algebra
1 . Developed by George Boolean, a 19th century mathematician.
a . His theories were used to develop an assembly of gears and pulleys to be used to drive a grain elevator. b . A Boolean expression is nothing more than a description of the input conditions necessary to get a desired output.

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Theorems and Postulates


c . Theorem 1 . A rule concerning a simple relationship between variables. d . Postulate 1 . A basic statement that is accepted as valid. a . Only two statements are true. b . X = 0 and X = 1

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Laws and Theorems


1 1. . Distributive Law. (Repeating) a . Example: A + (B * C) = (A + B) * (A + C) or A*(B+C) = A*(B+C) = (A*B) + (A*C) 2 . Double Negative Law. a .A=A 3 . DeMorgans Law 1 A + B = A * B or A*B = A + B 4. Law of Intersection 1. A(1) = A 2. A(0) = 0 4. Law of Union 1. A + 1 = 1 2. A + 0 = A
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Logic Gates
f Logic Symbols (Gates)
1 . Logical functions can be expressed in one of four (4) ways.) a . English Statement b . Boolean Expression c . Truth Table d . Logic Symbol 2 . AND Gate a . The AND function is considered to be logical multiplication. b . Any multiplication symbol can be used to express the AND function. (X, *, ( )( ), etc)

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AND Gate
c . English Statement - A and B equals Z d . Boolean Expression - A X B = Z, AB = Z, (A)(B) = Z, A*B = Z etc. e . Truth table A B Z

0 0 1 1
f . Logic Symbol

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1

A B
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OR Gate
a b c d . The OR function is considered to be logical addition. . English Statement - A or B equals Z . Boolean Expression - A + B = Z . Truth table

e . Logic Symbol

A 0 0 1 1

B 0 1 0 1

Z 0 1 1 1

A B
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NOT Gate
4 . Inverter NOT gate a . The NOT function is considered to be logical inversion. b . English Statement - NOT A equals Z c . Boolean Expression - A = Z d . Truth table

A 0 1
e . Logic Symbol

Z 1 0

A
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NOR Gate
5 . NOR gate a . English Statement - NOT A or B equals Z b . Boolean Expression - A + B = Z c . Truth table

A 0 0 1 1

B 0 1 0 1

Z 1 0 0 0

d . Logic Symbol

A B
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6 . NAND gate a . English Statement - NOT A and B equals Z b . Boolean Expression - A X B = Z, AB = Z, (A)(B) = Z, A*B = Z etc. c . Truth table A B Z

NAND Gate

0 0 1 1
d . Logic Symbol

0 1 0 1

1 1 1 0

A Z B
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XOR Gate
7 . XOR gate a . English Statement - A exclusively ord to B equals Z b . Boolean Expression - A + B = Z c . Truth table

A 0 0 1 1

B 0 1 0 1

Z 0 1 1 0

d . Logic Symbol

A B
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FLIP-FLOP
a . Logic - NAND logic
SET Q SET RESET FF OUT NO CHANGE (HOLD) Q=1 Q=0 AMBIGUOUS

RESET

1 0 1 0

1 1 0 0

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1 . Set = Clear = 1: This condition is the normal resting state and it has no change of the FF output state. 2 . Set = 0, Clear = 1: This will always cause the output Q to equal 1 where it will remain even after set returns to a 1 value. 3 . Set = 1, Clear = 0: This will always set the Q output to a logic 0. It will remain there until the clear in[put returns to a logic 1 value.
CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

FLIP-FLOP
4 . SET = CLEAR = 1: This condition tries to Set and Clear the FF continuously and can produce an ambiguous result. Do not use. b . Logic- NOR logic
SET Q SET RESET FF OUT Q=0 Q=1 AMBIGUOUS

RESET

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

NO CHANGE (HOLD)

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FLIP-FLOP
c . Set - Clear Flip Flop 1 . High Input Responding (Logic High)
SET FF CLEAR Q Q

SET CLEAR

FF OUT NO CHANGE (HOLD) Q=1 Q=0 AMBIGUOUS

0 1 0 1 417

0 0 1 1

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FLIP-FLOP
2 . Low Input Responding (Logic low)
Q FF CLEAR Q

SET

SET CLEAR

FF OUT NO CHANGE (HOLD) Q=1 Q=0 AMBIGUOUS

1 0 1 0 418

1 1 0 0

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FLIP-FLOP
d . JK Flip - Flop 1 . Logic Symbol

J CLK K

PS

FF Q CLR

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FLIP-FLOP
2 . Truth Table
INPUTS PRESET 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 CLEAR 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 CLOCK X X X 0 J X X X 0 1 0 1 X K X X X 0 0 1 OUTPUTS Q 1 1 0 Q 1 0 Q 1 0 1 Q 0 1

1 TOG GLE X Q Q

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Bipolar Integrated Circuit Logic

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Resistor - Transistor Logic (RTL)

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Diode - Transistor Logic (DTL)

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High - Threshold Logic (HTL)

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Transistor - Transistor Logic (TTL)

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Direct - Coupled Transistor Logic (DCTL)

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Emitter - Coupled Transistor Logic (ECTL)

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Integrated Injection Logic (IIL)

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Oscillating Circuits

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Transistor Oscillators
1 . Tickler (Armstrong) Oscillator
a . Schematic Diagram
FEEDBACK

L1

Q1

3 4

NPN RC

C1

OUTPUT

T1 VCC

CB

RB

RE

CE

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Tickler (Armstrong) Oscillator


b. Physical Description 1 .) Uses an LC tuned circuit to establish the base frequency. 2 .) Feedback accomplished by mutual inductance coupling between the tickler coil and the LC tuned circuit. 3 .) Uses class C amplifier with self - bias. c . Operational characteristics 1 .) Output frequency relatively stable. 2 .) Output amplitude is relatively constant. 3 .) RF frequency range 4 .) Local Oscillator in receivers. 5 .) Source in signal generators. 6 .) Radio - frequency oscillators in the medium and high frequency range.
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431

Hartley Series Fed Oscillator


Schematic Diagram

OUTPUT

RB C1 L2 L1

Q1 C3 RE CE VCC

C2

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Hartley Series Fed Oscillator


b .) Physical Description
1 .) Can generate a wide range of frequencies and is easy to tune. 2 .) Current Flows through the tank circuit in the series-fed, but not used in the shunt fed.

c .) Operational Characteristics
1 .) Ordinary Operation: Class C amplifier with self-bias. 2 .) When output waveform must be constant voltage of a linear wave shape => Class A amplifier is used.

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Hartley Series Fed Oscillator


d .) Operation (Voltage applied to circuit)
1 .) Current flows from battery (VCC) through L3 from collector to emitter, through RE, through L1, and back to the battery. 2 .) The surge of current through coil L1 induces a voltage in L2 to start tank circuit oscillations. 3 .) When current first starts to flow through coil L1, the bottom of L1 is negative with respect to the top of L2. 4 .) The voltage induced into coil L2 makes the top of L2 positive. 5 .) As the top of L2 becomes positive, the positive potential is coupled to the base of Q1 via C1. 6 .) An increasing (+) on the base of Q1 causes forward bias to increase => IC increases => IE increases => IL1 increases and results in more energy being supplied to the tank circuit which in turn increases the (+) at the top of L2 and increases the forward bias on Q1. 434
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Hartley Series Fed Oscillator


7 .) This action continues to raise and lower the potential on the base of Q1 to control the output current.
a .) L1 feeds the tank circuit with energy that is lost during normal operation. (REGENERATIVE FEEDBACK). b .) L2s magnetic field expands and collapses to maintain current flow in the same direction. (Lentzs Law) c .) L3 develops the output voltage.

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Colpits Oscillator
Schematic Diagram

RB

L2 (RFC) Q1 VCC

C3 RE L1 C1 C2 CE

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Colpits Oscillator
b . ) Operational Characteristics
1 .) Both the Armstrong and Hartley can be unstable in frequency due to inter-junction capacitance. 2 .) The Colpits has good frequency stability, is easy to tune, and can be used over a wide range of frequencies. 3 .) The large value of split capacitance (C1/C2) is in parallel with the PN junction and minimizes the effect of interjunction capacitance on frequency stability. 4 .) Two capacitors are used in the tank circuit instead of a center tapped transformer. 5 .) can change the frequency of oscillation either by changing the capacitance or inductance values. 6 .) No coupling capacitor is used. 7 .) Voltage across C2 is used as the regenerative feedback. 437
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Piezoelectric Effect
5 . Piezoelectric Effect Crystals
- A crystal is used as a frequency determining device and can act in both series and parallel tuned circuits. - Crystals used in oscillator circuits are thin sheets, or wafers, cut from natural or synthetic quartz and ground to a specific thickness to obtain the desired resonant frequency. - Crystals are mounted into holders which support them and provide electrodes by which a voltage is applied. - The holder must allow the crystals freedom for vibration.
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CRYSTALS
a . Theory QUARTZ CRYSTAL
ELECTRODES

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT R CP L CS
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FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF A CRYSTAL UNIT

CAPACITIVE

INDUCTIVE

CAPACITIVE

IMPEDANCE

FREQUENCY
SERIES RESONANCE

PARALLEL RESONANCE
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440

b . Theory

CRYSTALS

1 . Property of a crystal by which mechanical forces produce electrical charges and, conversely, electrical charges which produce mechanical forces. 2 . Voltage applied to a crystal produces mechanical vibrations which, in turn, produce an output voltage at the natural frequency of the crystal. 3 . Crystals have a much higher frequency stability than an LC circuit => theyre used in sine - wave generators. 4 . Crystals are capable of producing highly stable output at a precise frequency. 5 . Crystal types: - Quartz - Rochelle Salt - Tourmaline

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Crystal Controlled Pierce Oscillator


Schematic
Q1 RC C1 Y1 C2 RB RE CE COUT

RF VCC

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Crystal Controlled IC Chip Oscillator


U304 +12V
A>B A=B A0 A<B A1 A2 A3 B0 B1 B2 B3 U300 A=B A<B A>B A2 A3 A=B A<B U301 U300

A0 A1

A>B A=B A>B A=B A<B A<B A0 A1 A2 A3 B0 B1 B2 B3

U302

S300
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 C Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q 10

B0 B1 B2 B3

A=B

D S Q

Q 11 R Q 12

U306
C Q R

D S Q M305B C R Q1

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Semiconductor Gating Circuits


R1 R2 C C R1 R2 R3

Simple SCR Gate Control Circuit


R1 R2 C1 R3 C2

Improved SCR Gate Control Circuit


R1 R2 C

C
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Improvement to SCR Gate Control D SCR Gate Control Circuit using a Circuit in B above Four-Layer Diode CENT-112 Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics

UJT Relaxation Oscillator


+10V R2 R1 Q1 VOUT C1 R4 VOUT
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3

R3

VOUT

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Summary
Q. What solid state component in the UJT Oscillator is used for wave shaping? A. Capacitor

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Multivibrators
Monostable (One Shot) Multivibrator
-VCC

R1

R2 C1

R3

R4 OUTPUT

Q1

C2 INPUT

R5 +VBB

Q2 0

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1 .) Uses

Monostable Multivibrator
a .) Used for pulse stretching b .) Used in computer logic systems and Communication / Navigation systems.

2 .) Operational Characteristics
a .) +VBB is connected to the base of Q1 which places Q1 in cutoff. b .) Q2 is saturated by -VCC applied to its base through R2. c .) C1 is fully charged maintaining approximately -VCC on the base of Q2. d .) A negative gate signal is applied to the base of transistor Q1 which turns Q1 on and drives it into saturation. e .) The voltage at the collector of Q1 is then attached to the base of Q2 which turns Q2 off. f .) C1 is discharged to attempt to keep VC at Q2 constant. This maintains Q2 off. Fundamentals of Electricity and Electronics CENT-112

448

Monostable Multivibrator

g .) When C1 is discharged, it can no longer keep Q2 off. h .) Q2 turns on and saturates which causes its VC to go to approximately 0V. i .) This 0V is applied to the base of Q1 which turns Q1 off. j .) Q1s VC goes to -VCC and C1 charges to -VCC. k .) The multivibrator will remain in this original state until another gate triggering pulse is received. l .) Output from the circuit is taken from Q2s collector. m.) Only one trigger pulse is required to generate a complete cycle of output.
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b .) Bistable (Flip - Flop) Multivibrator

Bistable Multivibrator
-VCC

OUTPUT 1

R5

C3

C4

R6 0

OUTPUT 2

R3

Q1 C1 R1 R2 +VBB

R4

Q2 C2 0

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INPUT

Bistable Multivibrator
1 .) Physical Description
a .) Multivibrator that functions in one of two stable states as synchronized by an input trigger pulse.

2 .) Operational Characteristics
a .) Circuit is turned on. b .) One of the two transistors will conduct harder and thereby reach saturation first. (Assume Q2) c .) The 0V at the collector of Q2 is coupled to the base of Q1 which drives Q1 into cutoff. d .) The -VCC at the collector of Q1 is coupled to the base of Q2 holding Q2 in saturation. e .) An input trigger pulse is applied to the bases of both Q1 and Q2 simultaneously. Since Q2 is already in saturation, there is no effect on Q2.

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Bistable Multivibrator
f .) The trigger pulse turns on Q1 and drives the transistor into saturation. g .) The 0V on the collector of Q1 is coupled to the base of Q2 driving Q2 into cutoff. h .) The -VCC on the collector of Q2 is coupled to the base of Q1 holding Q1 in saturation. i .) This process will continue as long as there are trigger pulses applied to the circuit. j .) The output frequency of the waveforms will be determined by the frequency of the input trigger pulses.

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Astable Multivibrator
c .) Astable (Free - Running) Multivibrator
-VCC
OUTPUT 1 OUTPUT 2

R1

R2

R3

R4 0 C2 Q2

Q1

C1

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Astable Multivibrator
1 .) Physical Description
a .) Circuit has two outputs but no inputs. b .) R1 = R4, R2 = R3, C1 = C2, Q1 & Q2 are as close as is possible in their operating characteristics.

2 .) Operational Characteristics
a .) Circuit is turned on. b .) Assume that Q2 conducts harder than Q1 and goes into saturation first. c .) The 0V at the collector of Q2 is coupled to the base of Q1 which drives Q1 into cutoff. d .) C2 begins to charge. C1 is at -VCC and this voltage is applied to the base of Q2 to hold Q2 in saturation.

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Astable Multivibrator
e .) After a finite period of time, (as set by the RC time constant of C2 and R3), C2 reaches a voltage value sufficient to snap Q1 on. f .) Q1 quickly goes into saturation. The change in voltage from -VCC to 0Vcauses C1 to discharge. g .) This voltage is coupled to the base of Q2 Placing / holding Q2 in cutoff. h .) C1 begins to charge and will snap Q2 on when a sufficient voltage value is reached. i .) In Summary, whenever a transistor saturates, its VC will change from -VCC to 0V. This voltage will then be coupled to the base of the other transistor which will drive the other transistor into cutoff. The frequency of the output waveform will depend on the RC time constants established at C1R2 and C2R3. 455
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