ANSI Z535.


Safety Color


National Electrical Manufacturers Association 2101 L Street, N.W .. Suite 300 Washington. DC 20037-1580 (202) 457-8400

..-.. ~

American National Standard


Safety color sheet for use with ANSI Z535.1, Z535.2, Z535.3, Z535.4 and Z535.5-1991 Munsell Notation Value Hue Chroma Eguivalent CrE Data

Color Name



Approximate PMS Color

7.5R Safety Red





15 parts Warm Red 1 part Rubine Red 1/4 part Black

5.0YR Safety Orange





13 parts Yellow 3 parts Warm Red 1/4 part Black

5.0YR Safety Brown





9 parts Yellow 7 parts Warm Red 4-1/2 parts Black

5.0Y Safety Yellow 7.5G





Pantone 108 C




0 .. 121 4

Pantone 3415


Safety Green

2.5PB Safety Blue





13-1/2 parts Process Blue 2-1/2 parts Reflex Blue

i0.0P Safety Purple





Pantone 253 C

Safety White

1.0 (5R-5Y)





Safety Gray





1-1/2 parts Black 1/2 part Reflex Blue 13 parts Trans. White Black






Z535.1-1991 ANsfB> American National Standard for Safety Color Code Secretariat National Electrical Manufacturers Association National Institute of Standards and Technology ' Approved June 1991 American National Standards Institute. Inc. .

or using products. whether they have approved the standard or not. ~7 Copyright© 1991 by National Electrical Manufacturers Association All rights reserved. SUite 300. 10036. processes. from manufacturing. N. An American National Standard is intended as a guide to aid the manufacturer. and the general public.C. New York. American National Standards are subjected to periodic review and users are cautioned to obtain the latest ed~ions. Printed in the United States of America . without !he prior written permission of !he publisher.American National Standard An American National Standard in-plies a consensus of those substantially concerned with ~s scope and provisions. the consumer. D. Washington. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form. the employer. 42nc:1 Street. ADVISORY NOTE: This American National Standard may be revised or withdrawn at any time. marketing. The existence of an American National Standard does not in any respect preclude anyone. 11 W.W. Purchasers of American National Standards may receive current information on all standards by calling or writing the American National Standards Inst~ute. revise. or withdraw this standard no later than five years from the date of publication. I I Published by National Electrical Manufacturers Association 2101 L Street. The procedures of the American National Standards Institute require that action be taken to reaffirm. purchasing. in an eleclrOnic retrieval system or otherwise. or procedures not conforming to the standards.. New York.

.9 ... ..8 5 Safety White.. . .... ... . .8 Color specifications and test methods for relroreflective materials . . .. ... .. . ... .... ........ .. .......5 Safety Green ... ..... .2 8... • . . . .. . .. • . and Brown . . . . ..... ....... ... .. . . ... .... ...2 c ••••••••••••••••••••••••• Exceptions..... ...5 colors .....5 Traffic and housekeeping colors ....•. . . . ..... . .. ... ........ .•. .... . Color specifications and instrumental test methods for flUQrescent materials ... . . . ...5 Safety Purple 6.... . .. ...... .... ... . ... ... .... .. . .. .. . ....... . . .. 8... ... ... . . . ..9 _ 9 Instrumental.........9 .. . ..5 Safety Blue . .. . .. ....9 . . iii '.. ...3 10 General Visual ..... . .... ..... . . .1 9.. .... .. . .. : .Contents Page Foreword 1 Introduction ~ . . ...... ........ Gray. .. ...9 General CompHance Tests 9 '..•..... . . .. .. .. ...1 6.. .. .•.•.....2 . . ...9 13 Fundamental specifications of fluorescent safety colors References Tables 1 Specifications of the safety colors for CIE iIIuminant C (representative of overcast north sky daylight) and the CIE 1931 2· standard observer 3 . . 1 1 4 5 6 6.. .. ....6 6.. ·. ..3 9 9.. . . .... .. . '. .3 6. .. ... . . ......2 Color meaning Safety Red . .. . . . .1 7..... . . . ..••• Safety Orange 2 ' . ........ . . . 2 6. ... . 1 2 3 Scope Purpose Applications .... .........4 6.2 9.... : 7 Color specifications and test methods for ordinary surface 7. . . ... ... .. . . .3' 8 General Visual Instrumental . . ........ ...8 5 5 .. ........ . .. .. Black....•. .•.. ...2 . . ... . .. . .5 Safety Yellow . . ... .. • ........•..... ....... . ..2 7.. .. .. . . .. ..1 8..7 6.

gray......... geometry... .... 7 3 elE 1931 chromaticity diagram showing the areas representing fluorescent safety colors illuminated by a source equivalent to CIE Dss and measured using 45·'0· geometry 12 ii ..••. and expressed in the elE 1931 system ...•••••••••• 10 3 Ohromaticity coordinates of the comers ofthe recommended regions of fluorescent safety colors illuminated by a source equivalent to OlE 065.••. 10 4 Minimum permissible values of luminance factors and/or spectral (total) radiance factors.. of fluorescent safety colors illuminated by a source equivalent to OlE Des and measured using 45°'0' geometry Figures 1 CIE 1931 chromaticity diagram showing the areas representing the Safety Color Code 6 11 2 OlE 1931 chromaticity diagram showing the areas representing the safety color code for white.2 Equations of the boundary lines for the specified chromaticity regions of fluorescent safety colors illuminated by a source equivalent to OlE Des.. within the indicated wavelength· range.. and expressed in the elE 1931 system ...•. .. ....... measured using 45°'0. measured using 45°'0° geometry. .. . and black in larger scale .

a new standard. value (lightness) and chroma (saturation). is a revision of the American National Standard. The safety color codes formerly used in this standard were combined and adjusted to give the best feasible' discrimination for observers with either normal or color-deficient (color-blind) vision. The colors brown. 1945. a significant step forward was made toward increased safety through uniformity in safety color coding.Foreword (This fORlword Is not part of American National Standard for Safety Color Code. and symbols for safety signs used in environmental and facility applications (Z535. labels.Accident Prevention Tags (for Temporary Hazards). for safety colors. Peacetime work on revising the American War Standard containing the Safety Color Code began in 1946 under committee procedures of the ASA.4). Safety Color Code for Marking Physical Hazards. The committee also approved standard . ." Rve subcommittees were created and assigned the tasks of updating the Z53 and Z35 standards.International Commission on JIlumlnation. with the National Safety Council serving as sponsor of the project. Together. The Foreword is not to be considered part of this standard. safety color codes color tolerance charts were available for use with this standard. revieWed the War Standard and enlarged its application to include the colors orange.1-1979. Z53. symbols and colors specified after the approval of this standard comply with the standard. and writing two new standards.4 . the Z53 committee deleted the color blue and modified the application of the color yeUow. and accident prevention tags (Z535. Y) for each standard color and tolerance sample. This standard. blue.2). iii . application. Z53. The Sectional Committee on the Safety Color Code.5 . It is desirable that new signs. which updates Z35. The five standards include: 2535.Criteria for Safety Symbols. Z535.1 (1979).1-1991. In the fourth revision. For the first time.yjro_Qmental and Facility Safety Signs. blue.) This standard. In the 1971 revision. and purple. 1991. product applications (Z535. Z535.Product Safety Signs and Labels. these five standards contain infprmation needed to specify formats.2 . developed at the request of the War Department and approved by the American Standards Association (ASA) on July 16. Z535. which updates (~5_'_!.3 . Z535.~11972).definitions and limits for the colors. is the fifth revision of the American War Standard.En. Z535.1 . and as the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in October 1969. Each color tolerance chart shows the standard color and six color tolerances illustrating acceptable ranges in hue. y. which updates Z53. Z535 committee on Safety Signs and Colors.5). This committee has the following scope: "To develop standards for the design. colors. In 1979. and symbols intended to identify and warn against specific hazards and for other accident prevention purposes.due to confliCtswith other American National Standards. colors. approved by ANSI on June 6. 1953. The revised standard was approved by the ASA on September t t. and Table 1 was expanded to include the same information on most of the levels of the Universal Color Language (UCL) for the tolerance samples as for the 1 Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage . The ASA was reconstituted as the USA Standards Institute (USASI) in August 1966. and use of signs. Each color tolerance chart also lists the Munsell notation and equivalent CIE1 specifications (x. a new standard.2 (1974). theZ53 Committee on Safety Colors was cOmbined with the Z35 Committee on Safety Signs to form the.Safety Color Code. and gray were added.

Recent research is providing conclusive evidence that highly chromatic colors. esp. The limited color gamut and aging characteristics of fluorescent colorants combine to restrict the number and chromaticities of fluorescent safety colors. and for developing Section 9. Bell Association for Finishing Processes of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers iv . Z535. ReHly.standard or central sample of each Safety Color. each with specific uses.D. Future revisions of this standard shou Idconsider opportu nities for improving the visibility of safety signs. (Alt. Chairman. Jr. 42nd Street. The effect is more dramatic in the case of colored lights and colored retroreflective materials. Z535.) A. (Alt. New York. Winchell (Alt. Jr. Color Specifications and Test Methods for Ordinary Surface Colors. the color-rendering characteristics of several modern. Bresnahan Harry R. (This Foreword is not a part of American National Standard Safety Color Code.1-1991.) Gary M. For this reason. However.E. but that a consensus of all members was obtained. Kennebeck. The intent of this. . Committee approval of this standard does not necessarily imply that all committee members voted for its approval. P. Vanstrum (The 3M Company) for their efforts in revising Section 7. This standard was processed and approved for submittal to ANSI by the American National Standards Committee on Safety Signs and Colors. and members LCDR Daniel G. is to provide a series of visually distinguishable safety colors.1 Subcommittee Chairperson OrganizationRepresented Alliance of American Insurers American Society of Safety Engineers American Welding Society : Nameof Representative Thomas F. New York 10036.F. the fifth revision of the safety color standard. Secretary J. Jr.E. 1979). 11 W. categories of unrestricted red-orange and unrestricted yellow fluorescent colors have been added to supplement the restricted specifications that are equivalent to CIE international standards. Suggestions for irrprovement of this standard are welcome. colors and syrmols through the selective use of vividly colored retroreflectors. The unrestricted specifications may be used when no more than three distinguishable fluorescent safety colors are required for outdoor use for up to two years. Burtner. ANSI Z535. Billmeyer. Dobson. in some chromaticities. P. Manz Marvin E. P. Chairperson Carrol E.1. Color Specifications and Instrumental Test Methods for Fluorescent Materials. Travis Brooks.) At the time it approved this standard. It is therefore essential that candidate safety colors be examined under the actual light sources to be used in order to ensure that they can be suitably differentiated and individually identified with their assigned color names. Fred W. the Z535 Committee had the following members: Belinda L... high-efficiency light sources differ markedly from those of the average daylight source (CIE Source C) specified in Table 1. Jack H. Color Subcommittee Task Force. Special appreciation and thanks are extended to Dr. Sections 1-6 of the present standard rontain material similar to the fourth revision (Z53.. and Mr. They should be sent to the American National Standards Institute.) Thomas J. Collins. Ph. serve to increase or decrease the perception of lightness (for reflective materials) and brightness (for self-luminous objects). Robert C. Henderson (United States Coast Guard). Future revisions of this standard should also include test methods and color specifications for retroreflective materials..E.

Travis Brooks. Ph. Ph.•••••••••. Ferris John Kurtz Fred W. Howett. James Elmore Russ Szpot (Alt. Angonese John Drengenberg (Alt. Hale.D. Roslca Chemical Specialties Manufacturers Association D. Ph.•. Thomas Ralph F. Ph. Mandler..) Alan l. 1.) Avery International Research Center James F. Bruce Adams LK. White Grant F. Ph.N. (Alt. DelRio Richard A. Naser l.) Klaus Broschelt Matthew C. Dorris. Stelnflald(AIt.) Michael G. LNA National Institute of Standards and Technology Organization RSpI'8SBnted Natn8 of Representative James E.. Fisk Frank Wilcher.) Richard D.) Joseph C. Albert O.Association of American Railroads .. Mlngoia (Alt. Ph. Inc A. P. Dutton National Safety Council.H. Carr P...D. Green W. Peck (Alt. Jr. Jr. Nail & Tool Assoclatlon Inter-5ociety Color Councll.D.D. Gerald L. United Technologies : Steven A. Ph. Lee Stone (Alt.D. lundregan(AIt. Kaletta Joseph Slifka (Alt.) M.••••.D. Collins.) Rural Electrification Administration Harvey Bowles Safety Equipment Distributors Larry Nandrea '.) W. Miller.D. Brady Co Donald Lex v . Douglas Fratz Construction Industry Manufacturers Association Coming Glass Department of the Air Force Dorris & Assoclates Edison Electric Institute Exchange Carriers Standards Association Farm & Industrial Equipment Institute Federal Highway Adminlstratlon FMC COrporatlon Hale Color Consultants Hand Tools Institute Holst Manufacturers Institute Industrial Safety Equipment Association International Brotherhood of Painters & Allied Trades International Business Machines International Staple. R. Coast Guard Marc B.l.. Vanstrum Underwriters laboratorieS. Mitchell AL..• M. Borlels (Alt.. Marhefka(AIt. louis Nelson BeRoda l...S. Russell E.) System Safety Society Robert Cunilz...E..) Robert A. Hlght(AIt.. James P. 3M Corrpany Robert C.C.) Chemical Manufacturers Association Kathryn A.. Nora Olgyay Sonia Siobojan Swigart (Alt.) U.. (Alt. Dale Baker J. Hughes William N.•. Billmeyer.) Peter Wood(AIt.F.) SocIety of Environmental Graphic Designers . Charlton (Alt.) National Electrical Manufacturers Association John C.

1 The' intent of this standard is to establish a safety color code that will alert and inform persons to take precautionary action or other appropriate action in the presence of hazards. first aid kits. In order to increase uniformity of safety color coding within and between plants and organizations. 2 Scope This standard sets forth the technical definitions.2-1991. the safety color code has been adjusted to give the best feasible color discrimination for observers of both normal and color-deficient vision (colorblind).2 (1982) (R 1988): the Department of Transportation (~OT) Hazardous Malerials Warning labels and Placards. ANSI Z535. therefore. color standards and ooIor tolerances for Safety Colors. be carefully studied in order to keep the numberof markings at a minimum. to eliminate identifiable hazards. Generally speaking. and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA.2 This standard is not a substitute for engineering or administrative controls. thereby providing even greater emphasis for the markings that are finally adopted and used. industrial firms and other organizations.3-1991. It is intended that use of this Safety Color Code wiM supplement the proper guarding or warning of hazardous conditions. however.4-1991. 3.51991 .3 There are a number of existing American national standards which are recognized for particular industries or specific uses. The marking of a physical hazard by a standard color warning should never be accepted as a substitute for the reduction or elimination of the hazard wherever possible. and to increase spontaneity of action in times of emergency. ANSI Z535. spontaneity of action in times of er:nergencyis lost. ANSI 535. American National Standard for Product Safety Signs and Labels. American National Standard for Accident Prevention Tags (for Temporary Hazards). traffic aisleways.1-1991 American National Standard for Safety Color Code 1 Introduction Color schemes for the identification and location of fire extinguishers. stumbling and tripping hazards. 3.1 standard to replace existing standards or regulations which are uniquely apprlCable to a spa1 . and the applications of these Safety Colors to specific purposes in connection with accident prevention. ANSI C95. 3. EachJocation should. As a result. from lack of unifonnlty among plants or organizations. the Safety Colors are the same as those used with: American National Standard for Environmental and Facility Safety Signs. including training. As a result. American National Standard Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems. particularly by employees who have moved from one plant to another. have been developed in the past by a large number of . ANSI Z535. these color schemes have given satisfaction to those using them in individual plants.~EACANNAnONALsrANDARD ANSI 535. It is not the intent of this ANSI Z53S. Compliance with these standards may be considered for such particular industries or uses.1 (1985): American National Standard Radio Frequency Radiation Hazard Warning Symbol. DOT) Ambulance Orange and Ambulance Blue (see References 1011). eto.. They suffer. American National Standard for Criteria for Safety Symbols. when each has a different system. ANSI A 13. Purpose 3. It is recognized also that too many color identifications constantly in the field of vision of the employees are both confusing and fatiguing. radiation.

Brown. 4. likewise. and 14~ References 1. 6. WARNING). The following . especially lightness contrast. stationary machinery. 4. These locations.1 Commonly used examples. protective equipment. and Z535.5 Locations. Green. Marking exposed parts (edges only) of 2 Shall.2 The colors specified in this standard are intended for use on safety signs and symbols. 9. or safety signs that are color coded and for which "lumination must be provided shall be illuminated to levels which will permit positive identification of the color and the hazard or situation which the color identifies.1 The criteria of this standard shall2 apply to the use of safety color coding for the identification of physical hazards. safety Gray and safett Purple.1 Safety red. Z535. (3) Stop buttons or electrical switches used for emergency stopping of machinery. Safety Red shall be the color for the identification of DANGER and STCP.1-1991 cific industry or use. 6.6 To ensure optimum visibility..3.1-1988. Z535. (2) Marking the inside of movable guards or the inside of transmission guards for 'gears.2.12. etc. 6.4 ' This standard sets forth the specifICations of the Safety Colors for as wide a range of materials as possible to satisfy the many applications for these colors. ThIs ThIs WOI'd Is understood to be mancJalOly. the location of safety equipment. 6 Color Meahing This section provides meanings for the safety colors which are specified in this standard. Where an intermediate level of hazard (that is.1.11. objects. have been adopted but haw not been asslgned safety color meaning" They have been Included InTabie 1 for establishing color boundarlel and for gu1dance In use.1 Commonly used examples. or other guards around moving equipment are open or. See Z535. structures and facilities. 4.are examples of applications of the color Safety Orange: (1) Marking hazardous parts of machines which may cut. word II understood to be permissive. 6. 5 Exceptions The authority having jurisdiction may .5. 4 4 Applications 4. "safety Brown. For chemical products and chemical mixtures follow ANSI Z129. The following are some common examples of applications of the color Safety Red: (1) Rammable liquid containers such as safety cans.3 This standard shall apply to the use of the Safety Colors to minimize the possibility of accident or inj. pulleys'. colors selected for safety signs should3 have maximum color contrast. 4.10. or otherwise injure.JrY. chains. (2) Emergency stop bars on machines. portable powered hand tools. as set forth by other Z535 standards. crush. belt. the message the color identifICation conveys.2. dark colors (Red. exposing unguarded hazards.ANSI Z535. and emphasizing such hazards when enclosure doors are open or when gear. Blue.permit variations from this standard only when equal or greater safety is provided. 2 . (4) (5) Fire protection equipment and apparatus.2 Safetyorange Safety Orange shall be the color for the identification of hazardous parts of machines.removed. 8. while light colors (Orange and Yellow) are better seen contrasted with black. objects. or safety signs shall be illuminated with a light source which will not overly distort the color and. the color shall be Safety Orange. Table 1 provides fundamental colorimetric specificatiOns for each oolor.13. S Should. therefore. 4. It is the intent to encourage adoption of this standard in subsequent revisions of other standards and regulations. and Purple) should be used with white letters.4. is used. Thus. contrast must be achieved between the sign and its visual environment.

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1 Commonly used examples. The contents of the container shall be identified thereon. 9.3.7 Safety white. gears. and 15. falling. The following are examples of applications of the color Safety Green to show the locations of: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) 7 Color specifications and test methods for ordinary surface colors7 Gas masks.oJors. Examples of applications of the color Safety White and Safety Black are given in footnote references 1. cutting devices. and the preferred usage for combinations of Safety Black with Safety WhIte Is fOf Information r.1 Commonly used examples. a color identification and specification system based on equal visual spacing as described in American National Standard Method for Specifying Color by the Munsell System. First aid kits. 6. (3) References 1. 9. rollers.1) display the standard color and three pairs of tolerance colors.2. The following are examples of applications of the color Safety Yelbw. 10.5 Color meanings have not been assigned for Safety Purple. and 13. or combinations of Safety Black with Safety White or Safety Yellow shall be the colors for the designation of TrafficS or Housekeeping Markings. 8. and 12. and 11. Safety bulletin boards and signs. 13.1-1991 pulley. Safety White. References 1. Safety Blue shall be the color for the identifICation of SAFETY INFORMATION used used to produce this coIOf have been found 10 have poor aging characteristics In outdoor uses. 9.1. 6. Safety Green shall be the color for the identifICation of SAFElY.10. and 13. on informational signs and bulletin boards. and the location of FIRST AI D and SAFETY EQUIPMENT.emergency egress. tripping. 6.3 Safety yellow. ASTM 01535 (16). 6.ANSI Z535. 10. or unstable materials. 10. Storage cabinets for flammable materials.t General (6) (8) (7) Emergency Egress Routes.10.1 The primary color specifications are in terms of the Munsell Notation System.1. use of. Safety Gray. or movement of equipment that is under repair or being worked upon. 6.10. Safety Blue also has specific applications in the railroad area to designate warnings against the starting. Safety deluge showers. Safety Yellow. or yellow and black checkers shall be used for maximum contrast with the particular background.6 Safety purple. stumbling. and Safety Brown. Table 1 lists the Munsell notations for each standard and its surrounding tolerance limits. Solid yellow.3. (2) References 1. 5 Colorants 7. (1) Marking phySical hazards which might result in: striking against. yellow and black stripes. Such containers shall be yellow or identified by a yellow band around their middle at least 1/4 their height.1. • Ordinary surface colors are defined as colors of non-retrorefleelive and non-fiuorescent materials. 7. The following are examples of application of the color Safety Blue: (1) Mandatory action signs forwearing of personal protective gear such as hard hats.4. (4) References 1.rposes. First aid dispensary. and brown.8. 6. 5 .1). repre6 The preferred usage fOl'combinations of Safety Black with Safety Yellow Is for traffic markings. 6. etc. (2) (3) Containers for corrosives.2 The Color Tolerance Charts designed for use with this standard (see 7.1 Commonly used examples. 6. Safety Black. 8. 6. and provides equivalent data in the CIE 1931 system for use in section 7. or being caught in-between. 8.8 Traffic and housekeeping c. Safety Yellow shall be the color for the identification of CAUTION.5. References 8. Stretchers. black. 9. For containers of flammable or combustible materials (see Section 6.9. This limitation should be considered in future application of this color. gray.5 Safety blue. 8. power jaws. 7.11. Safety Black.4 Safety green. Individual color meanings and applications have not been assigned for Safety White. 9.

BOO Note: The small circlea Identify !he chromaticities of !he standard colors.600 .300 .600 _ .100 .1-1991 Figure 1 showing the areal representlhgthe CIE 1931 chromatlclty.dlagram safety color code 520 _BOO .400 .700 .300 .500 . 6 .100 .400 x .soo 500 y .200 .700 .200 .ANSI Z535.

--_...29 0... " ..34 0.....lty diagram showing the areas representing the safety color code for white.. Color white Munsell Value N 9/ N 5/ Munsell Chroma Tolerance 10.5 gray black ILLUHINAlT C N 1.31 X 0..33 0..30 0..34 legend ..ANSI Z535. ~..29 0.. gray J and black in larger scale ANSI NEUTRAL LIMIT AREAS 0. HH ••• O< ...5 19.5 to 11...0 10..1-1991 Figure 2 CIE 1931 chromatic......._...· •• _...30 0.33 y 0.--..31 0..5/ -1r.CIE STANDARD 7 ...32 0.

If these conditions are met. Standard Practice for Visual Evaluation of Metamerism. y.3 Testing for compliance by visual examination shall be limited to cases in which the specimens to be tested and the visual reference standards have similar spectral characteristics.1 The visual specifications and test methods for daytime color are contained in the Hazardous Materials labels and Placards Color Tolerance Charts adopted by the US. These data are equivalent to the Munsell notations described in Section 7. y.1. Table I shows the Munsell notations for each of these seven colors and the equivalent CIE x." The primary standard for reflectance shall be the perfect reflecting diffuser as defined by theCIE. value and chroma. 7. 7. x.1 The instrumental color specification for each color is a set of CIE 1931 chromaticity coordinates. The permissible areas appear on FIgures 1 and 2.3 Instrumental The ISCC-NBS (Inter-Society Color Council tionary designation of the Universal Color language (17) may be used as an auxiliary specification to describe approximately the standard of each Safety ColOr (see Table 1).mlnous reflectance.s 7. 8 8 .s and h. and other color samples whose values have been determined by instrumental measurement and converted to Munsell notation. Y data for Standard lIIuminant C and the CIE 1931 2" Standard Observer.2 Testing for compliance can be done through the use of spectrophotorneters" designed to measure reflecting materials. the test for compliance shall be made under actual daylight or any source designated for color matching of appropriate daylight quality. The intent of the permissible color range specified in Table 1 for SAFETY WHITE is to permit greater deviation from neutral white in the red to orange to yellow hue range. but may not measure accurately samples which are metamerio to the c:alibration standards. 10 CIE IIhAninant C and the CIE 1931 2° Standard Observer are used because these are the condilions for which the MunseH Notation System Is defined in erms of CIE ohromalldty coordna. and lesser deviation in the rest of the hue circle. provided that the restrictions of 7.3 are observed. Figure 1 shows the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram on which the permissible areas are defined by the boundary equations and the color names and Munsell Notations for each Safety Color. 7. Standard Practice for Visual Examination of Color Differences of Opaque Materials. Visual examination shall be conducted in accordance with ASTM D1729 (19).2. 7. with the data processed to yield CIE x.2. Washington. and appropriate to the Information of avallabllity of Hazardous Materials Labels and Placards CoIorTolerance Charts may be obtained from the Office of Hazardous Materials Transportation.3. that is.2 Visual 7. calculated for CIE Standard lIIuminant C and the CIE 1931 2" Standard Obsecver.1-1991 senting the upper (+) and lower (-) limits for the visual attributes of hue.2. From them are derived boundary equations defining areas in CIE color space (CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram) attha luminous reflectance of the standard (Y). as listed in Table 1. 7.3 The specification for Safety White (a neutral) is given in Table 1.2 Testing for compliance shall be by visual examination using visual reference standards annotated with Munsell notations. the specimens shall not be noticeably metameric to the standards as judged by ASTM 04086 (20). and by any observer having normal color vision. Ageing of white also resuHs in shifts in the same direction. g 7.als labels and Placards Color Tolerance Charts.National Bureau of Standards) Color Names Dic- color region of interest. Because it is diffICult to express this transition between chroma levels with change in hue without listing a large number of data points. for CIE Standard lIIuminant C and the 2 degree CIE 1931 Standard Observer.3. This deviation is necessary because most white colorants are really off-whites in the red-to-yellow range. and luminous reflectance Y.Y data. See ASTM E1164-87 (21) Standard Practice for Obtaining Spectrophotometric Data for Object Color Evaluation.4 The colors in the Safety Color Code have been chosen to provide maximum feasible recognition by both normal and color-deficient (specifically red-green confusing) observers.y. 7. Research and Special Programs Adrrii~istration.1.5 . users should be guided by the ovoid shown in Figure 2. Department of Transportation. DC 20590. appropriate colors from the Munsell Book of Color (18). Table 1 also gives the boundary equations of premissible areas on the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram and the luminous reflectance of the standard (Y) and the ISCC-NBS color names for the standard colors.2.1. ASTM E308-85 (22) Standard Method for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE Colorimeters may be used. Such standards include the Hazardous Materi. 7.ANSI ZS35.

1-1991 SyStem._ 11 Information on availability of HIgt'PNayColor Tolerance Charts can beobtalned from the Federal Highway Administration. 9.1 The visual specifications and test methods for daytime color are contained in the Highway Color Tolerance Charts adopted by the U.S. . Without the availabirrty of the Safety Colors in this medium. Furthermore.3 Fundamental specifications of fluorescent safety colors. in terms of CI E tristimulus values and chromaticity coordinates for these conditions calculated in the CIE 1931 system. To date. they should be used when the primary consideration is the differentiation among the three fluorescent colors red.length (to the nearest 10 nm) of maximum radiance factor. The data shall be processed to yield the spectral radiance factor (sum of reflected and fluoresced radiation) at the wave. Safety Orange. working standards in retroreflective material matching the Safety Color specifications and having adequate long-term color stability are not known to exist. There is only one specification for the color green. and CIE x. test ~thods and color specifICation do not currently eXIst. The fundamental specifications for each fluorescent safety colorare given in Table 2 in terms of the equations of the boundary lines on the CIE chromaticity diagram within which the colors will fall both before and after exposure. Federal Highway Administraton. Standard Practice for Color Measurement of Ruorescent Specimens (24). This section provides speclfications for measuring colors of fluorescent specimens as." The specifications designated "unrestricted" should be used when the primary consideration is the differentiation bet~een only yellow and red-orange fluorescent colors. and yellow." 8. The primary standard for reflectance shall be the perfect reflecting diffuser as defined by the CI E. Department of Transportation. It is recommended that these be used as the colors are quite close to Safety Red. y. Specifications and test methods are available for a series of six colors used by the Federal Highway Administration (2). Test for compliance shall be through the use of spectrophotometers designed to measure fluorescent materials. or ASTM 02244 (23).ANSI Z535. Safety Yelklw.1 The instrumental specifications and test methods for daytime color are contained in FP-85 and lS-300C (2). used together in a single system. Safety Green and Safety Slue.2 Compliance tests.1 General.3 Instrumental 8. Minimum values of the spectral (total) radiance factors and luminance factors are given in Table 4. DC 20590. 9 8 Color specifications and test methods for retroreflective materials 8. Two sets of specifications are provided:· Those designated "restricted" are identical with the current CIE specifications for fluorescent colors for visual signaling (25).2. and these regions are shown on the CIE chromaticity diagram in Figure 3.3. 8. Similar regions are contained in the United States Coast Guard Specifications for fluorescent signal colors for use in long term exposure in a marine environment (26). with the colorimeter being calibrated against this standard before making the measurement. instrumental test methods for measuring the daytime color of retroreflective materials have required the use of a specific colored working standard for each cobr. Standard Method for Ca~ulation of Color Differences From Instrumentally: Measured Color Coordinates. 12 Current state of !he art in manufacturing fluorescent surface· color materials is such that specimens meeting !he "restricted" specifICations are likely to be significantly poorer in resistance to light and outdoor exposure than lhase meeting only the "Unrestricted specifications. utilizing 45%° or 0°/45° geometry in which the specimen is directly illuminated by a suitable simulator of CIE Standard lIIuminant D65. 9 Color specifications and Instrumental test methods for fluorescent materials 9. The chromaticity coordinates of the corners of the chromaticity regions are provided in Table 3. but it is required that these colors remain distinguishable for long periods of time (26). Y data for Standard lIIuminant D65 and the 1931 2° Standard Observer.2 Visual 8. Washington. See ASTM E-991 . they would be perceived with the specimen illuminated by standard daylight. 9. orange.1 General.

690 0.0.500 0.310 0.697 .522 0.910-x 'I.522 0.0.ChromaticHy coordinates of the corners of the recommended regions of fluorescent safety colors illuminated by a source equivalent to CIE 065.341 0.595 0.360 0.453 0.483 0.013 0.493 .524x Green Table 3 .569 0.0.486 10 .205x '1.0.429 0.910-x Restricted Yellow 'I.39OX '1-0.535 0. measured using 45%° geometry.1-1991 Table 2 .ANSI Z535.470 0.e Yellow Equation of the Boundary Line 'I" 0. geometry.547x y-1.3t3 'I .429 0.the C IE 1931 system § 1 2 Color 3 y x x y x y y x Restricted Red Restrlcted Orange Unrestricted Red-Orange Restricted Yellow Unresl1icted Yellow Green 0.0.375 0.667x-0.0.207 + 0.x 'I.093 '1.427 0.534 0.measured using 45%° .0.707 '1.345 0.345 .100 x-0.e Yellow Orange White Green Orange White Green Yellow White Blue 'I + 0.051 x 'I" 0.610 0.404 0.0.3t5 0.390 0.655 0.209 0.412 0.0.265 + .477 0. and expressed in .477 0.051x '1.570 0.383 0.690 0.587 0.108+0.314 + 0.315 0.39OX Restricted Orange Unrestricted Red-Orange Purple Wh.910-x 'I" 0.35x .313 " 0.707x Unrestricted Yellow 'I" 0.506 0.108 + 0.243 + O.67OX 'I.310 0.570 0.470 0.440 0.313 0.506 0. and expressed in the CIE 1931 system Color Restricted Red Boundary Purple Whke Orange Red Wh.0.0.404 0.910 .440 0.465 0.D47x 'I.682 0.Equations of the boundary lines for the specified chromaticity regions of fluorescent safety colors illuminated by a source equivalent to CIE Dss.207 + 0.

Minimum permissible values of luminance factors andlor spectral (total) radiance factors. of fluorescent safetl ccPlors Illuminated by a source eQuivalent to CIE D65and measured using 45 /0 geometry Minimum Minimum spectral Wavelength Color range (nm) luminance factor (Y%) radiance factor (%) Reslricted Red Restricted Orange" Unrestricted Red-Orange ReslIided Yellow Unrestricted Yellow 25 40 100 - 60 600-630 .1-1991 Table 4 . within the Indicated wavelength range. 25 100 520-540 510-530 Green 30 11 .ANSI Z535.

.40 .10 .70 / _. <. 1\ IINR:F'~ rR: T ~ED- RANI c: ~ E GE N". .so I .. <.. « ~ k ['V" RE5 TRIC ED ElLO~ ~ ..10 \ 1\ o -. .50 ..-'" V "" V ORA 'E."'" ~TRfoTED RE ~ V .70 .ANSI Z535.-- . r-./ V /" V /' / . \ / <.~RE .90 . <.20 .60 . v y -.60 . o <:> V .20 \ ..30 .-.80 x 12 . "~ i~ ~ ~NRE TRI( TED /y LLO~ e" r-. r-. V r+-n .1-1991 Figure 3 ClE 1931 chromaticity diagram showing the areas representing fluorescent safety color illuminated by a source equivalent to elE D65and measured using 45%° geometry .50 \ GR EN '"r./ l.30 \.40 \ r-. f'.STRCTE --p---r-.

1976. Railroad Transportation: Standard·Code of the . also available from GPO.Washington. Title 49. Federal Highway Administration. ANSI A13. Ambulance Blue and Orange. Code of Federal Regulations.Ocean Engineering Division. Air Navigation: Federal Aviation Administration .S. and Judd. Other American National Standards in the Z535 series: ANSI Z53S.1-1985. ANSI N2. 22. 003-00301705-1).C.5-1991. 7. Standard Practice for Obtaining Spectrophotometric Data for Object Color Evaluation. American National Standard Radio Frequency Radiation Hazard Warning Symbol. Washington. Recommendations for Surface Colours for Visual Signalling. Washington. 17. ASTM 04086-82. 20402 (order by SD Catalog No. Automotive Fire Apparatus. 20402. 2. Report No. .21982 (R1988).1e-1989. Kenneth L. Block Signal Rules. 12. Obtainable from the Superintendent of Documents. ASTM E991-84. Munsell Book of Color. 1970. Color: Universal Language and Dictionary of Names (Combination of the Universal Color Language and the Color Names Dictionary). 1970 Revised Edition. ANSIIASTM 01535-80.3. Baltimore. 8. Government Printing OffICe. American National Standard Radiation Sym- 16. American National Standard Scheme for the Identification of Piping Systems. 25.10:440. ANSI Z53S. Recommendations of National Conference on School Transportation. 5. Munsell Color. Interlocking Rules. 19. School Buses: Minimum Standards for School Buses. U. General Services Administration.AC 70 7460-1. Uniform Marking of Rre Hydrants. ANSI 010. Kollmorgen Corporation. S. Product Safety Signs and Labels. Deane B.13 . 18. Hazardous Materials Warning Placards and Labels. 14. Accident Prevention Tags (for Temporary Hazards). American National Standard Adjustable Face" Vehicle Traffic Control Signal Heads. D. ANSI C9S. Standard Specifications for Construction of Roads and Bridges on Federal Highway Projects. Standard Practice for Color Measurement of Ruorescent Specimens. 13. ASTM D 2244-8S. NBS Special Publication SP440. 2441 North Calvert Street. Criteria for Safety Symbols. 24. Obstruction Marking and Lighting.2 (TC-1.4-1991. ANSI Z535. Association of American Rai/roads . 3. FP-8S.6) 1983. ASTM E308-85. Visual Signaling. 39. NFPA No. Theory and Application of Aids to Navigation. ASTM E 1164-87. .C. Standard Practice for Visual Examination of Color Differences of Opaque Materials. Paris.1-1991 10 References See the following documents for reference and information.1974.3-1991. Standard Practice for Visual Evaluation of Metamerism. Parts 100-199. Government Printing Office. ASTM 01729-82. Fluorescent Colours.11966 (R1970). Federal Specification KKK-A-1822. December 1976. 20. Environmental and Facility Safety Signs..11989. C13. Navigation of Waterways: United States Coast Guard . 11. Highway Transportation: American National Standard Manual· on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways.. NFPA No. D. 4. DOT. 291-1988. U. "21. American National Standard Method of Specifying Color by the Munsell System.Operating Rules. January 2. 1. Available from the Superintendent of Documents. 9. Standard Method for Calculation of Color Differences from Instrumentally Measured Color Coordinates.C. Kel~. D. and ANSI Z535. Bureau Central dela CIE. Federal Standard NO. ANSI DS. Standard Method for Computing the Colors of Objects by Using the CIE System. 10. in Publication CIE No. LS 300C. 19011985. Stock No. May 4-7. 37. 1983. 15. MD 21218. 23.S.2-1991. MIL-C-2S0S0. NEA Education Center.ANSI Z535. bol.

27. 20593. U. I I 14 .ANSI 2535.C.1-1988. April 1984. American National Standard for Hazardous Industrial Chemicals . Washington. Fluorescent Elastomeric Films Specification No. ANSI Z129.Precautionary Labeling.S. Ocean Engineering Division. D. Coast Guard.1-1991 26. G-EOE-339B.