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SCHOOL GEOMETRY
PARTS
III
IV
HALL AND STEVENS
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68. Lessons in Experimental and Practical Geometry. 48. Part II. Practical Geometry. Lines and Angles.A SCHOOL GEOMETRY. 6d. Parts III. 6d.. 8d.VI. 6d. Key. in one volume. Key..A. Parts IV.. 2s.—Separately. 8s. Part I. in one volume. 28. 6d. 8587. 6d. In one volume. IV. S.. in one volume. M. Parts I.—Circles. Crown 8vo. 28. Based on the recommendations of the Mathematical Association. 6d. Ss. Key. Ss. and IV. A School Geometry. 134. Parts I. 6d. Containing th« substance of Buclld Book III. in one volume.— Separately. Parts IV. Geometrical equivalents of of Euclid Certain Algebraical Formulae. together with Theorems relating to the Surfaces and Volumes of the simpler Solid Figures. Is. in one volume. 6d. Part III. 6. Is. and Book III. 121. Parts I. and F. V. and VI.—Containing the substance of EucUd Book VI. 6d. By H. Part VI. and II. Parts I. . IL. 2s. and part of Book IV. 8s. M.IV. v. in one volume.V. and V. and III. and VI. 6d. Is. and on the recent report of the Cambridge Syndicate on Geometry. Key to Parts V. Areas of Hectiliueal Figures. Containing the substance of Euclid Book II. 6d. Parts IIL. Crown 8vo. I.A.—Containing the substance of Euclid Book XI. Hall. Containing the aubstauoe Book I. Part I. Is. With Lessons Crown and in svo. Rectilineal Fig:ure8. Parts Experimental 28. Stevens. Is. Part II. 6d. in one volume. H. 6d. Parts I. and II.. 4s.—Squares and Rectangles. Is. Is.1. Part IV. Part v..
A SCHOOL GEOMETRY PARTS ILL AND IV. .
MACMILI.AN AND LONDON • • CO. OF TORONTO CANADA. Limited • BOMBAY CALCUTTA MELBOURNE MADRAS THE MACMILLAN COMPANY NEW YORK DALLAS • • EOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO • THE MACMILLAN CO.. LTa .
BY H. M.A SCHOOL GEOMETRY PARTS III. AND IV. STEVENS. H. M. S. MACMILLAN AND .A.) and III. CO. II. AND F.ST. HALL. (Containing the substance of Euclid Books and part of Book IV.. LIMITED MARTIN'S STREET.A. LONDON 1917 .
1908.COPYRIGHT. 1906. 1911 (twice). : . LTD. 1907 (three times). Reprinted 1905. 1910. First Edition 1904. 1916. 1913. OLASOOW PRINTED AT THB UNIVERSITY PRKSS BY ROBERT MACLRHOSE AND CO. 1912. 1917. 1915. 1909 (twice).
now mental and Practical Geometry.G. and experimental course is provided side by side with the usual of Triangles deductive exercises. are care fully specified. These. The principles which governed these proposals have been confirmed by the issue of revised schedules for all the more important Examinations. Easy Exercises . a graphical easiest types.S. furnished by our Lessons in Experi Such an introductory course H. Drawing . * and referred to the is Axioms on which they depend. Concurrently. Perpendiculars.PREFACE. of Hypothetical Constructions. before being employed in the text. intended be studied pari passu. as far as it goes. I. (ii) Theorems and Problems are arranged to. TV. These problems should be accompanied by informal explanation. h . and the results verified by measurement. and Parallels Use of Set Squares The Construction and Quadrilaterals. This arrangement is made possible by the now generally sanctioned. 134]. there should be a series of exercises in Drawing and Measurement designed to lead inductively to the more important Theorems of Part I. III. It is enough to note the following points (i) : We agree that a pupil should gain his first geometrical ideas from a short preliminary course character. we may point out that our book. and from the first is illustrated by numerical and graphical examples of the Thus. use. is complete in itself. The present work provides a course of Elementary Geometry based on the recommendations of the Mathematical Association and on the schedule recently proposed and adopted at Cambridge. in separate but parallel courses. . . throughout the whole work. consist of of a practical A suitable introduction to in and experimental the present book would to illustrate the subject . and they are now so generally accepted by teachers that they need no discussion here. matter of the Definitions Measurements of Lines and Angles Use of Compasses and Protractor Problems on Bisection. [Euc.* While strongly advocating some such introductory lessons.
the fundamental Theorems on Areas (hardly less than those on Proportion) may thus be reduced in number. I. work is 26 (Theorem 17). may and do derive real intellectual adrantage from lessons in pure deductive reasoning. Even of the Theorems we have distinguished with might be omitted or postponed at the discretion of the the formal propositions for which as such— teacher and pupil are held responsible. Euclid's treatment of Areas has already been mentioned in this section of the the only other important divergence the position of 16). and a wide Moreover field of graphical and numerical illustration is opened. (iv) An attempt has been made to curtail the excessive body of of Examinations have hitherto forced as text which the demands "bookwork" on a an asterisk) beginner's memory. . As regards the presentment of the propositions. without special aptitude for mathematical study. and under no necessity for acquiring technical knowledge. treatment in i^espect of logical thus getting rid of the In subsequent Parts a freer order has been followed. Nothing has as yet been devised as effective for this purpose as the Euclidean form of proof and in our opinion no excuse is needed for treating the earlier proofs with that fulness which we have always found necessary in our experience as teachers. which we place after I. nitudes. as important a part of a lesson in Though we have not always followed tions. here given a certain number (which teacher. and brought into line with practical applications. mind the needs . regard to the subjectmatter of Euclid Book logical sequence. I. might perhaps be still further limited to those which make the landmarks of Elementary Geo And — metry. 32 (Theorem tedious and uninstructive Second Case. apply his knowledge made and the working of examples should be Geometry as it is so considered in Arithmetic and Algebra. stantly kept in of that large class of students. greatly simplified. we have con who. The subject is placed on the basis of Commensurable certain difficulties Mag which are wholly beyond the grasp of a young learner are postponed. to preserve the essentials of his Our departure from . Euclid's order of Proposiin we think it desirable for the present.VI (iii) PREFACE.. Time so gained should be used in getting the pupil to . By this means.
In the case of a few problems (e. H. Vll The examples are numerous and for the most part easy.g. F.PREFACE. S. . A special feature is the large number of examples involving graphical or numerical woik. They have been very carefully arranged. H. In particular we wish to express our thanks to Mr. H. Problems 23. H. Beaven of Clifton College for the valuable assistance they have rendered in reading the proof sheets and checking the answers to some of the numerical exercises. 29) it has been thought more instructive to justify the construction by a preliminary analysis than by the usual formal proof. 44) to the rank of exercises. and are distributed throughout the text in immediate connection with the propositions on which they depend. C. and experimental work such as that leading to the Theorem of Pythagoras. 28. The answers to these have been printed on perforated pages. S. PREFATORY NOTE TO THE SECOND EDITION. STEVENS. November. Theorem 22 (page 62). C. HALL. HALL. Room has thus been found for more numerical and graphical exercises. H. March. F. 1903. STEVENS. in the shape recommended in the Cambridge Schedule. 22. H. Euclid I. We are indebted to several friends for advice and suggestions. 1904. In the present edition some further steps have been taken towards the curtailment of bookwork by reducing certain less important propositions (e. replaces the equivalent proposition given as Additional Theorem A (page 60) in previous editions. Playne and Mr.g. so that they may easily be removed if it is found that access to numerical results is a source of temptation in examples involving measurement. 43.
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that point is the centre of the circle. Conversely. it bisects it. III. it cuts the chord at right angles. Chords.] If a straight line drawn from 31. 148 Theorem [Euc. 3. Cor. [E^uc. circle lies wholly within it. III. 150 . Symmetrical Properties of Circles and First  139 141  Theorem [Euc. 2. chords which are equidistant from the centre are equal. III. PAGE Definitions Symmetry. Cor. Cor. PAET The Circle. Two circles cannot cut one another in more than two points without coinciding entirely. 3. 32. 145 146 147 147 147 Theorem and only one.] Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. The straight line which bisects a chord at right angles passes through the centre. 14. 1. the centre of a circle bisects a chord which does not pass through the centre.] If circumference. Cor. 2. if it cuts the chord at right angles. A straight line cannot meet a circle at more than 144 145 145 two points. 34. Conversely. The size and position of a circle are fully determined if it is known to pass through three given points. 1. 9.CONTENTS. A chord of a circle. Cor. III. Principles. One Hypothetical Construction Theorem from a point within a circle more than two equal straight lines can be drawn to the 33. can pass through any three points not in the same straight line.
162 If a pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral are supplementary. III. the greater is that which subtends the greater angle at the centre. the greatest is that which passes through the centre. [Eoc. not 36.] The angle in a semicircle is a 164 is is Cor. 40. its vertices are eoncyclic. III. that which is nearer to the centre is greater than one more remote.] In equal circles. circle is III. TIT.] Angles in the same segment of a 160 circle are equal.] If from any internal point. Equal angles standing on the same base. 35. arcs which subtend equal angles. 152 Cor. 31.] Of any two chords of a circle. 40. III. In equal circles sectors which have equal angles are . 165 Theorem 42. Converse of Theorem 163 Theorem 41. and on the same side of it. And of any other two such lines. 156 Angles in a Circle.] The opposite angles of any quadrilateral inscribed in a circle are together equal to two rfght angles. are equal. straight lines are drawn to the circumference of a circle. straight lines are drawn to the circumference of a circle. of which the given base is the chord. 153 Theorem [Euc. then the greatest is that which passes through the centre. [Euc. right angle. the centre. 21. III. 26. the greater of two chords is nearer to the centre than the less. equal. have their vertices on an arc of a circle. 15. The angle in a segment greater than a semi circle acute . and the least is the remaining part of that diameter. and the angle in a segment less than a semicircle obtuse. 20] The angle at the centre of a double of an angle at the circumference standing on the same arc. 166 166 Cor. 22. III. 154 Theorem [Euc. And of any other two such lines the greater is that which subtends the greater angle at the centre. Theorem 38. 8. 7. 158 Theorem 39. Conversely. 161 Theorem [Euc. and the least is that which when produced passes through the centre. either at the centres or at the circum ferences. [Euc. The greatest chord in a circle is a diameter.] If from any external point 37. Theorem [Euc.CONTENTS. Converse of Theorem 39. III. [Euc.
The radius drawn perpendicular to the tangent passes tlirough the point of contact. 2. 3. In equal circles chords which 169 Definitions and First Principles 172 174 Theorem The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius drawn to the point of contact. 168 Theorem Tangency. The perpendicular to a tangent at contact passes through the centre. 44. touch one another. Two tangents can be drawn to a circle from an external point. Given a circle. [Euc. 27. The angles made by a tangent with a chord drawn from the point of contact are [Euc. circle at 174 its point of 174 174 176 CoR. 48. III. To draw a tangent to a circle from a given ex 184 Problem To draw a common tangent to two circles. xi Theorem 43. 32. 29. which stand on equal arcs are equal. Cor. 183 21. a given point on the circumference. the major arc equal to the major arc. One and only one tangent can be drawn to a 46. 1. [Euc.CONTENTS. 20. 183 Problem 22. Problem To bisect a given arc. to a circle respectively equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. touch externally the distance beequal to the sum of their radii. III. Theorem Cor. either at the centres or at the circumferences. 185 . Geometrical Analysis 182 or an arc of a circle. 176 178 178 178 Theorem Cor. ternal point. arcs which are cut off by equal chords are equal. The two tangents to a circle from an external point equal.] In equal circles angles. and the minor to the minor. III.] 180 Problems. III. are 47. two If two circles tween their centres is CoR.] cut off equal arcs are equal. 23. Theorem 49. the centres and the point of contact are in one straight line. CoR. to find its Problem centre.] In equal circles. 45. 28. and subtend equal angles at the centre. If circles 1. 2. If two circles touch internally^ the distance between their centres is equal to the difference of their radii. 167 Theorem [Euc.
219 [Euc. PAGE of Circles 188 190 given straight line to describe a segment of a circle which shall contain an angle equal to a given angle. The Orthocentre of a Triangle Loci Simson's Line . 220 .  207 210 212 213 216 The Triangle and its Circles The NinePoints Circle PART Definitions IV. To draw an escribed circle of a given triangle. To cut off from a given circle a segment containing a given angle. Geometrical Equivalents of some Algebraical Formulae. 200 Problem 31. and from the point of contact to draw a chord making with the tangent an angle equal to the given angle. one is divided into any number of parts. the rectangle contained by the two lines is equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by the undivided line and the several parts of the 50. To inscribe a circle in a given triangle.. 1. 201 Circumference and Area of a Circle 202 Theorems and Examples on Circles and Triangles. 193 194 195 196 197 28. 27. 29. it is enough to draw a tangent to the circle.. To circumscribe a circle about a given triangle. II. About a given equiangular to a circle to circumscribe given triangle. Circles in Relation to Rectilineal Figures. a triangle about a Problem given 30.] Theorem If of two straight lines. To draw a circle (i) about a regular polygon. 191 Definitions 192 Problem Problem Problem Problem Problem 25.. In a given circle to inscribe a triangle equiangular to a given triangle. divided line. Cor.XU The Construction Problem 24. To draw a regular polygon in (ii) (i) in (ii) circle. 26. On a CONTENTS.
II. II. 225 54. point within are equal. 229 Rectangles in connection with Circles. 5 and 6.] In every triangle the square on the side subtending an acute angle is equal to the sum of the squares on the sides containing that angle diminished by twice the rectangle contained by one of those sides and the projection of the other side upon it. 56. [Euc. 2 and 3. and if the rectangle contained by the 59. 226 Theorem 227 Theorem In any triangle the sum of the squares on two sides is equal to twice the square on half the third side together with twice the square on the median which bisects the third side. and the other meets it . 233 Theorem [Euc. 58. [Euc. the square on the given line is equal to the sum of the squares on the two segments together with twice the rectangle contained by the segments. 7. the square on the side subtending the obtuse angle is equal to the sum of the squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle together with twice the rectangle contained by one of those sides and the projection of the other side upon it. II.] If two chords of a circle cut at a it. [Euc. III. 222 Theorem divided externally at any point. 52.] If a straight line is divided internally at any point. III. II. 37.] 221 Theorem [Euc. Theorem [Euc. 36. 55. when produced. 12. [Euc. a straight and also divided (inter nally or externally) into two unequal segments.] In an obtuseangled triangle. 35. the rectangle contained by these segments is equal to the difference of the squares on half the line and on the line between the points of section. III. 224 CoR. . the rectangles contained by their segments are equal. Theorem 57.J If from a point outside a circle two straight lines are drawn. the rectangles contained by their segments 232 Theorem [Euc. sum and If difference. Xlll PAGE Corollaries.] If two chords of a circle. cut at a point outside it. line is bisected. 4. 51. II. 13. the square on the given line is equal to the sum of the squares on the two segments diminislied by twice the rectangle contained by the segments. one of which cuts the circle.CONTENTS. And each rectangle is equal to the square on the tangent from the point of intersection.] If a straight line is 223 Theorem their [Euc.] The difference of the squares on two straight lines is equal to the rectangle contained by 53. II.
line which cuts the circle 234 Problems.  To draw an 242 244 The Graphical Solution of Quadratic Equations « Answers to Numerical Exercises. 34. . Problem 32. 238 Problem divide a given straight line so that the rectangle contained by the whole and one part may be equal to the square on the other part. then the line which meets the circle is a tangent to it. PACK whole and the part of it outside the circle is equal to the square on the line which meets the circle. To 240 Problem isosceles triangle having each of the angles at the base double of the vertical angle. To draw a square equal in area to a given rectangle.XIV CONTENTS. 33.
4. Definitions and First Principles. it is often used however for the circumference itself when no confusion is likely to arise. CIRCLE. 2. radius of a circle is a straight line drawn from the It follows that all radii of a centre to the circumference. that have the same centre are said to be . 1. Circles concentric. A circle is by a point which moves so that fixed point is always the same. Note. circle are equal. A 3. semicircle is the figure bounded by a diameter of a circle and the part of the circumference cut off by the diameter. According to this definition the term circle strictly applies to the Jigure contained by the circumference . and the bounding line called the circumference. diameter of a circle is a straight line drawn through the centre and terminated both ways by the circumference. a circle into 5. A A two It will be proved on page 142 that a diameter divides identically equal parts.PART THE III. a plane figure contained by a line traced out its distance from a certain The is fixed point is called the centre.
the greater is called the major Thus the major arc. Note. and the less the minor arc. these definitions From (i) we draw the following inferences circle is a closed curve. A its (iv) Circles of equal radii are identically equal. and the minor arc leas than the semicircuraference.: 140 GEOMETRY. (v) Concentric circles of unequal radii cannot intersect. (ii) is (iii) point is outside or inside a circle according as distance from the centre is greater or less than the radius. divides the circumference into two unequal arcs . A chord of a circle is a straight line joining any two points on the circumference. The major and minor arcs. are said to be conjugate to one another. into which a circumference is divided by a chord. this line if produced will cross the circumference at a second point. (vi) If the circumferences of two circles have a common point they cannot have the same centre. . so that if the circumference crossed by a straight line. An arc of a circle is any part of the circumference. is A The distance of a point from the centre of a circle greater or less than the radius according as the point is without or within the circumference. for the distance from the centre of every point on the smaller circle is less than the radius of the larger. unless they coincide altogether. 6. of these. which does not pass through the centre. From these definitions it may be seen that a chord of a circle. 7. arc is greater. For by superposition of one centre on the other the circumferences must coincide at every point.
it is clear that the two parts of the figure must have the same size and shape. That this may be possible.SYMMETRY OF A CIRCLK Symmetry. Then if the figure is folded about AB. Some elementary Definition 1. and MP=IVIQ. and must be similarly placed with regard to the axis. for the z. 14. the parts of the figure on each side of it can be brought into coincidence. Let AB be a straight line and P a point From P draw PM perp. Note.AMP = the Z. the point P may be made to coincide with Q. and produce it to Q. 2. on being folded about that line. page 91. For convenience the definition given on page 21 is here repeated. line The straight line is called an axis of symmetry. A point and its image are equidistant from every point on See Prob. the axis. A figure is said to be sjrmmetrical about a when. . making MQ equal to PM. and each point is said to be the image of the other in the axis. to AB.AMQ. 141 properties of circles are easily proved by considerations of symmetry. Definition outside it. The points P and Q are said to be symmetrically opposite with regard to the axis AB.
conversely. also passes through Q are symmetrically opposite with Hence. ference on each side of . with the l and the l . symmetrically opposite point with regard to any diameter. since P falls on Q.AOQ.. Thus every point APB must point in the arc AQB . MP=MQ. Let APBQ be a circle of which . If PQ is drawn cutting AB at M. The straight line passing through the centres of two circles is called the line of centres. that is. symmetrical about the diameter AB. if a it tlie circle passes through a given point P. may be made to And thus P will coincide with Q. since in the arc OP = OQ. It is required to prove that the cirde is symmetrical about AB. .*. AOQ Let OP and OQ be two on opposite sides of OA. being adjacent.. since the z.•. radii making any equal Then fall if the figure is folded about AB. . Definition. then on folding the figure about AB. .142 geometry. L'AOP.0 is the centre. OP along OQ. I. these angles. Some Symmetrical Properties of Circles. Corollary. the points P and regard to AB. and AB any diameter. OMP will coincide OMQ. are rt. l*. Proof. A circle is symmetrical about any diameter. coincide with some the two parts of the circum the circle is AB can be made to coincide.AOP = the Z. MP will coincide with MQ.
so that Then P and Q are symmetrically opposite points with regard to the line of centres OO' also since P is on the O*^ of both circles. II. circles cut at one point. they must also cut at a second point and the common chord is bisected at right angles hy the line of centres. by construction. perp. to 00'. and through O. SYMMETRICAL PROPERTIES..] And. the common chord PQ is bisected at right angles by 00'. O' be the centres of two circles. the line of centres divides each circle symmetrically. line Then AB and diameters and therefore axes of symmetry of their respective circles. Cor. ~A o 7B ^V o' 7b^ Let O. B'. That is. 143 Tvx) circles are divided symmetrically hy their line of centres. it follows that Q is on the O"^ of both. B and A'. A'B' are let the st.. [I. O' cut at the point P. and produce it to Q. . If two . Let the circles Draw PR RQ=RP. 111. O' cut the O"*" at A. . whose centres are O.
D. OD is perp. Let OD be perp. [Euclid III. Let ABC be a circle whose centre is O . BDO and these are adjacent angles. and OA = OB. 144 GEOMETRY. {AD = . OB. to AB. It is required to prove that OD bisect OD is perp. because the hypotenuse OA = the hypotenuse OB. .E. Q. BDO. Conversely. Proof. being the A ADO = the z.] If a straight line dravm from the centre of a circle bisects a chord which does not pass through the centre. to AB. .D. common DA = DB. Them. • .. 3. j iand OD that is.E. Join OA. 7. Thear. . Corwersely. 18. It is required to p'ove that OD bisects AB. . it cuts the chord at right angles. if it cuts the cltord at right angles. ODB are right angles..D. Proof. rthe L' ODA. Then in the A' ADO. In the A'ODA. it bisects it. Theorem 31. by hypothesis. ODB. and let a chord AB which does not pass through the centre. OD bisects AB at is . ON CHORDS. Q. radii of the circle OD is common.. BD. to the chord AB.
straight line cannot meet a circle at more For suppose a whose centre A and B. Calculate and measure the distance of each from the centre. {Numerical and Graphical. Verify the result graphically by drawing a figure in which 1 cm. A C B D AC the circle were to cut AB in a third point D. to AB. circle whose centre is O and whose find the area of the triangle CAB in square inches. and place in it a chord Calculate to the nearest millimetre the distance of the chord from the centre .) 1. 6"0 cm. 2. circle line meets a O is O at the points Draw OC perp. ThenAC = CB. EXERCISES. In the figure of Theorem 31. 146 bisects The straight line which a chord at right angles passes through the centre. which is impossible. to pass through P and Q. 2. Draw a circle with radius I 'T 7. 3. from the centre of a In a circle of 1" radius draw two chords I '6" and 1 "2" in length. Q . Draw a circle Find the distance from the centre of a chord 5 ft. if Now Corollary 3. OB.CHORD PROPERTIES. if AB = 8 cm. Calculate the length of a chord which stands at a distance 5" circle whose radius is 13". and verify your result by measurement. 5. Corollary 1.. in length. in a circle 6. Two points P and are 3" apart. and 0D=3 cm. in length whose diameter is 2 yds. Corollary than two points. and verify your result by measurement. and verify by measurement. whose diameter is 8 "0 cm. A st. 4. would also be equal to CD. A chord of a circle lies wholly within it. find Draw the figure. 2 in. AB radius is is 1 "3" a chord 24" long in a . Calculate the distance of its centre from the chord PQ. 10 in.. represents 10".
B. can pass through A. st. C be three points not in the same straight line.. Let A. B. through the three given points. . B. and C and there is no other point equidistant from A. Proof. and only one. One circhf and only one. O. q. EG is equidistant from B and C. every point on DF is equidistant from A and B. . and C.e. Let DF and EG meet in O. DF and Because DF bisects AB at right angles. Similarly every point on . Join AB. Frob. 14. lines Then since AB and BC are not in the same EG are not par'.a circle having its centre at O and radius OA will pass through B and C and this is the only circle which will pass . It is required to prove that one circle. BC.146 GEOMETRY.d. . EG. Let AB and BC be bisected at right angles by the DF. Theorem 32. line.•. and C. is equidistant from A.. B. the only point . can pass through any three points not in the same straight line. common to DF and EG.
The size and position of a circle are fully determined if it is krunun to pass through three given points . D and 2. Two circles cannot cut one another in rrwre than tivo points without coinciding entirely . Find the locus of the centres of all circles which pass through two given points. Two circles. are in the same straight line. circle that loe not in the For example. whose centres are at A and B. exercises on theorems 31 and (Theoretical. can be assumed to pass through the vertices of Definition. and is said to be The centre of the circle is circumscribed about the triangle. shew that the straight passes through the centre. The parts of a straight line intercepted between the circumferences of two concentric circles are equal. which AC are two equal chords bisects the angle BAG of a circle . 3. Hence prove angles. called the circumcentre of the triangle. The circle which passes through the vertices of a triangle is called its circumcircle. AB. a any triangle. Hypothetical Construction. is this When impossible ? . intersect at C.) 32. Shew that AM and BM 1. for then the position of the centre and length of the radius can be found. 147 Corollary 1. and the radius is called the circumradius. this impossible ? Describe a cirde of given radius to pass through two given points. that the line of centres bisects the common chord at right line 4. 5. for if they cut at three points they would have the same centre and radius. . M is the middle point of the common chord. From Theorem 32 it appears may suppose a circle to he drawn through any three points same straight line. its centre in Describe a circle that shall pass through two given points a given straight line.CHORD PROPERTIES. Corollary 2. is and have When 6.
thai point is the centre circle. Let D and E be the middle points of AB and BC respectively. In the A' ODA... AB at right angles. rt. and O a point within it from which more than two equal st. Join AB.e. Theor. 31. it may is be shewn that EO passes through the to O. these angles. and therefore 1. Similarly centre.*. are Hence DO bisects the chord passes through the centre. OB. 148 * GEOMETRY. BC. 7. Theorem 33. being adjacent. [Euclid III. 9. Theor. OE. lines are drawn to the O"*. which the only point common DO and EO. must q. Cor. It is required to prove that O is the centre of the circle ABC. of the Let ABC be a circle. . l". . be the centre.. ODB. Proof.] lines If from a point within a circle more than two equal straight can he drawn to the circumference. . . namely OA. Join OD. DO is common.d. by hypothesis theiLODA = thez. [and OA = OB. r because < DA=DB. OC.ODB.
it a chord Calculate (to the nearest millimetre) the distance of the chord from the centre. Two parallel chords of a circle : spectively 5" and 12" in length is either 8*5" or 3 "5". equal to the radius.) 149 are lines at right angles. in length respectively. Two circles. the point of intermust be at the centre of the circle. 9. 5). from the centre. B.) 8. Draw the circle through the points A. 10. CHORD PROPERTIES. and the perpendicular distance between them is 1 cm. 1. verify your result by measurement. Calculate (to the nearest millimetre) the length of the radius. intersecting chords of a circle cannot bisect each other unless each is a diameter. on the that if a circle has and passes through the point (6. two parallel chords of a Find the locus of the middle points of parallel chorda in a circle. Shew that rectangles are the only parallelograms that can be inscribed in a circle.. Draw 5. section of its diagonals a parallelogram can be inscribed in a circle. Shew on squared paper a. Find the distance between their centres.] its it also centre at any point passes through the point 5). 7. Calculate and measure the radius. the figure (scale 1 cm. and 8 cm. AB and BC 2. and verify your result by measurement. intersect at two points which are 4 feet apart. Two If 11. to 10"). EXERCISES ON CHORDS. whose radii are respectively 26 inches and 25 inches. (Numerical and Graphical.. {Theoretical. and Draw a circle on a diameter of 8 cm. in length stands at a distance of 3 cm. 4. and C find the length of its radius. [See page 132. and their lengths are 1 '%" and 3*0* respectively. Two parallel chords of a circle on the same side of the centre are 6 cm. and place in 3. and verify by measurement.axis (6. whose diameter is 13" are reshew that the distance between them 6. and verify your result by measurement. 12. Draw a circle in which a chord 6 cm. The line joining the middle points of circle passes through the centre. .
OC. First.. AB and CD are equidistant from O. . .OF bisects AB. by hypothesis. chords which are equidistant from the centre are C OF. equal. [Euclid III. Proof.D. OGC. Similarly CG is half of CD. AB = CD. Let AB. CD be chords of a circle whose centre OG be perpendiculars on them from O. Thecyr. . AB and CD are equidistant from O. Theor. 14.. and let It is required to prove tliat LetAB = CD. the hypotenuse OA = the 1 use C and AF = CG the triangles are equal in so that . 18. .] are equidistant from the centre. all respects . OGC are right angles. Join OA. 31. . Because OF is perp. Q. circle 34. in the A" Now OFA. But.150 GEOMETRY. hypotenuse OC. is 0. AF = CG. because ! [the OFA. Theorem Equal chords of a Conversely.E. to the chord AB.. AF is half of AB. OF = OG that is.
and OF = OG Them\ 18. she^vn that and CG Proof. ( Theoretical. may be AF is half of AB. shew that the segments 3. EXERCISES. Find If the locus of the middle points of equal chords of a circle. they are equal.. Q. the same for all positions of AB. AF = CGj . two chords If two equal chords of a circle intersect. Shew that the middle points of these chords on a circle. draw the 7. .E. Then {the in the A' OFA. and AB is any diameter : shew that the sum on PQ or difference of the perpendiculars let fall from constant. 2. {Graphical. 151 It is required to prove that it LetOF = OG. and circle. OGC. are right angles. In a given circle draw a chord which shall be equal to one given straight line (not greater than the diameter) 5. of the one are equal respectively to the segments of the other.D. Give a construction for finding the points of intersection of the two circles.)) . The . 65. [See Ex. of a circle cut one another. 1. centres of two circles are 4" apart. the doubles of these are equal that is. p. in length. and the radius of the larger circle is 37".'. OGC . and parallel to another. CHORD PROPERTIES. AB = CD. the hypotenuse OA = the hypotenuse OC. each 1 all lie In a circle of radius 4*1 cm. 4. and find the radius of the smaller circle. As before half of CD. A and B 9. that is. any number of chords are drawn 8 cm. and make equal angles with the straight line which joins their point of intersection to the centre.] 6. their common chord is 2*4" in length. PQ is is a fixed chord in a circle. AB = CD. C OFA. Calculate and measure the length q^ its radius.
is perp. [Euclid III. Join OA. OC = the on OG. then OF is less than OQ. OA = the sqq. FA. . Conversely. Let AB. CD be chords of a circle whose centre OG be perpendiculars on them from O. since the the sq. GC. is half of AB. the greater of two chords is nearer to the centre tJian the OF. Proof. on OQ. Now OA = OC. Similarly the sq.] that which is nearer to the centre Of any two chords of a circle^ greater than one more remote. GC. the sqq. sq. 152 GEOMETRY. on OF. bisects OF AF AB. on . ... the sq. Because OF . angle.. 15. Theorem is 35. on OC. . on OF.. and let if Of is less than OG. FA = the sqq. to the chord AB. is Similarly CG half of CD. on OFA is a rt. OC. sqq.. But . then AB is greater than CD t/AB is greater than CD. less. It is required to prove that (i) (ii) is O. on OA = the z.'.
what is the greatest.E.*.'. FA on FA on OF . and what the least length that XY may have ? AB Shew 5. Through a given point within a circle draw the least possible Draw a triangle ABC in which a = 3 5". Calculate and measure the radius. . on . the eircumcircle of a triangle whose sides are 26". (i) 153 Hence the sq. if then the . greater than GO : AB AB is greater than CD. origin. that XY increases. and XY any other chord having its middle point Z on AB . . OF Corollary. (ii) the coordinates of its middle point.. . CHORD PROPERTIES. Find (i) the length of the chord joining these points. The greatest chord in circle is a diameter. and 4. (Miscellaneous.. . (ii) But sq. as Z approaches the middle point of AB. Measure is a fixed chord of a circle. greater than the sq. Draw 3"0". 3. c = 3 7". its radius. the ends of the side a draw a circle with its centre on the side c. that a circle whose centre is at the passes through the points (2 '4".) . if is is given greater than CD. 6 = 1 2". L chord. GC sq. on GO. 24"). if the sq. on FA . is less is is than the sq. (iii) its perpendicular distance from the origin. EXERCISES. a on OG Q. (18". greater than that is.D. 2*8". on GC. the sq. is greater than the sq. Through 2. 1*8"). is less is less than the than OG. Shew on squared paper and whose radius is 3*0". OF OF FA is given less than OG on OG.*.
[Euclid III. let PA. circle. 154 GEOMETRY. POD subtended by PD. And of any other two such lines the greater is thai which sub tends the greater angle at the centre. be shewn to be greater than any other line drawn from P to the C* may is PA the greatest of all such lines. radii OC are together Thear. . OA are together greater than PC. that Similarly PA 8t. . not the centre. straight lines are drawn to the circumference of a circle. OD. is tlie least. tlien the greatest is tliat which passes through the centre. greater than PC. PO. and from P any internal point. so that PA passes through the centre O. and PB is the remaining part of that diameter.. PB. PD be drawn to the O**. which not the centre. Join OC. lines PA is the greatest. Theorem 36. and the least is the remaining part of that diameter. PA is greater than PC. 1 1 But OC = OA. is. . Also let the L POC at the centre subtended by PC be greater than the z. is PB PC greater than PD... is Let ACDB be a It is required to pi'ove that of these (i) (ii) (iii) st. the A POC. (i) In Proof.] If from any inferTial point. the sides PO. . PC. being . 7.
is common. any two straight lines drawn through a point of section. PD are together greater But OD = OB.. PO greater than PD. shew that the parts of it intercepted between the circumferences are equal. 19. 1. In the A" POO. and have their centres on a given straight line. EXERCISES. L POC is greater than the is POD . to the 3. If two circles cut one another. the sides OP. radii OP. 2"r' apart. DISTANCE OF A POINT TO THE CIRCUMFERENCE. and by measurement.*. (iii) {PO but the . Two circles of diameters 74 and 40 inches respectively have a : common chord 2 feet in length find the distance between their centres. 5. 6. Similarly any other st. 4. 155 AOPD. Draw two . OC = OD. any two parallel straight lines drawn through the points of intersection to cut the circles are equal.'. . and its distance from the two centres. Them.. Q. line drawn from P to the O*" be shewn to be greater than PB . are equal. making equal angles with the common chord. circles of radii I'O" and 1'7".) which pass through a fixed point. All circles 2. PD are together greater than OB. may PB is the least of all such lines. the length of the common chord.E. to represent 10") and verify your result by measurement. (ii) In the than OD. and with their centres Find by calculation. Take away the common part OP. Draw the figure (1 cm.D. If two circles which intersect are cut by a straight line parallel common chord. If two circles cut one another. then PD is greater than PB. being radii. z. {Mi&cdlantaus. POD. being . pass also through a second fixed point. and terminated by the circumferences.
C . (i) In the greater than PC. PD be drawn to the O"*. CD. A POC. are drawn to the cirmmference of a the greatest is that which passes through and the least is that which when pi'oduced passes through lines. Join DC. and so that the l POC subtended by PC at the centre is greater than the z. is PB PC great&r than PD. OA are together greater than is. the sides PO. Let ACDB be a lines It is required to prove that of these (i) (ii) (iii) st. Theorem If from any the centre. the centre. may be shewn to be greater than any other drawn from P to the that is. circle. 156 GEOMETRY. st. POD subtended by PD. PA is the greatest of all such lines. PC that Similarly PA line PA is greater than PC. PC. [Euclid III. . and from any external point P let the PBA. lines PA is the greatest. And of any other two such the greater is thai which sub tends the greater angle at the centre. radii OC are together But OC = OA. being ..] straight lines external point circle. 37. PO. Proof. 8. so that PBA passes through the centre O. . is the least.*.
the greatest is that which passes through the centre .. circles. {Miscellarieous. (ii) In the than PO.. . 157 APOD. . 19.. Find the greatest and least straight lines which have one extremity on each of two given circles which do not intersect. PB is the least of all such lines. EXERCISES. Draw on squared paper any two a. 5. and on its circumference take any number of points P. Repeat the same exercise with any other given angle at O.axis. What inference do you draw ? — . and of any two such lines the greater is that which subtends the greater angle at the centre. the sides PD. Q. line drawn from P to the shewn to be greater than PB that is.  11). Q. POD. 0) respectively. (PO is common. are circle straight lines to the circumference. being radii OC = OD. and cutting at the point (0. Theov. Draw an isosceles triangle OAB with an angle of 80° at its vertex O.) . DO are together greater . Draw on squared paper two circles with centres at the jwints Find (15..*. on the same side of AB as the centre. With centre O and radius OA draw a circle. 6. the remainder But OD = OB. is Of all straight lines drawn through a point of intersection of two and terminated by the circumferences. 1. circles on the and cut at the point (8. 8). R. R. the greatest is that which parallel to the line of centres. 2. Measure the angles subtended by the chord AB at the points P. (iii) may be In the A" POC. but the L . POO is is gi'eater than the L POD . O'^ Similarly any other st. 0) and (6. DISTANCE OF A POINT TO THE CIRCUMFERENCE. 4. the lengths of their radii.D. being radii PD is greater than the remainder PB.E. Q. and the coordinates of their other point of intersection. PC greater than PD. If from any point on the circumference of a drawn 3. which have their centres Find the coordinates of their other point of intersection.
2. But the . z_* OAB. required to prove that the l BOC is twice the l BAC.e. 2. the . and let be the angle at the centre. in Fig. . Theorem The angle at 38. follows in each case that the L BOC = twice the l BAC. BOD = the sum OAB. • . OBA = twice the of the l* Z. and produce Proof. Fig. Fig. the L BOD = twice the l OAB.*. 1. I. OBA . z. l DOC = twice the l OAC. Let ABC be a circle.] at the the centre of circumference standing on the a circle is double of an angle same a/rc. Join AO.OAB. because OB = OA.d. of the z. OAB = the L OBA. it to D. 20. [EucHd HI. of which O is the centre . A OAB. In the . the sum ext." and BAC an angle at the standing on the same arc BC.. AND ANGLES AT THE CENTRES AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES. It is BOC O**. it aijd taking the difference q. Similarly the . ON ANGLES IN SEGMENTS.. . adding these results in Fig.158 GEOMETRY.
circumference. they are said to be concyclic. We have seen in Theorem 32 that a circle may be drawn through any three points not in a straight line. on which the angles stand. 3. equal to. circle Definition. 4. cm the same arc BEC.ANGLE PROPERTIES. the L BOC = twice. the z. 4. If four or more points are so placed that a may be drawn through them. the Z. its base. is a semias in Fig. 3. shewing that whether the given arc is greater than. straight angle. . The chord of a segment is sometimes called An angle in a segment is one formed by two straight lines drawn from any point in the arc of the segment to the extremities of its chord. Obs.BOC at the centre is a and if the arc BEC is greater than a semias in Fig. Note. But it is only under certain conditions that a circle can be drawn through more than three points. BOC at the centre is re/lex. 159 Fig. A segment of a circle is the figure bounded by a chord and one of the two arcs into which the chord divides the circumference. 1 applies without change to both these sases. the l BAC. arc BEC. But the proof Fig. DEFINITIONS. for Fig. If the circumference. or less than a semicircumference.
E.160 GEOMETRY. and the Proof. BDC be angles whose centre is O. Q. Because the l BOC is at the centre. . OC.] circle m the same segment of a are eqmL Fig. Fig. 21. Thear. at the O**. the L BOC = twice the l BDC. Theorem Angles 39. same segment BADC of a It is required to prove that the l BAC = the l BDC. 38. BAC = the L BDC. L BAC the z. z. BOC = twice the l BAC.D. I. . Let BAC. . the above proof applies equally to both n cures. Similarly the • . standing on the same arc BC. [Euclid III. given on the preceding page. Join BO. 2.. in the circle.
and on the same side of it^ have their vertices on an arc of a circle. L .ANGLE PROPERTIES. 74°. B' Proof. find the 4. The locus of the vertices of triangles dravm on the same and with equal vertical angles. Join EC. L In Fig. A. find the number of degrees in the angle BAC and in the reflex angle BOC. and the angle XCD=25°. 1. Let BAG. 161 Converse of Theorem 39. BCD are respectively 43° and 82°. OBC.'. in the same segment. number of degrees in the angles BAC. Corollary. C must pass through D. EXERCISES ON THEOREM 39. D . is impossible unless the circle through B. let BD and CA intersect at X. BOC. It is required to prove that as its A and D lie on an arc of a circle having BC chord. Then the L BAC = the L BEC But. BDC be two equal angles standing on the same base BC. which . 2 the angle OBC always less than the angle BAC by a right angle. aide of a given base.. of which the given base is the chord. E coincides with the L BEC = the ZBDC. 1. if *the angle BDC is each of the angles BAC. If the angle DXC =40% 2.] H. is an arc of a circle. if the angles CBD. and on the same side of it. and suppose it cuts BD or BD produced at the point E. OCD. Let ABC be the circle which passes through the three points A. 3. by hypothesis. C . [For further Exercises on Theorem 39 see page 170. Equal angles standing on the same base. the . B.O. 2. In Fig. ABAC = the Z. is Shew that in Fig. find the number of degrees in In Fig.S. OBu.BDC.
E. rt. ABC together the reflex l AOC. angles.AOC and But these angles make up four . rt. the Z'BAD. Theorem The apposite angles of 40. standing . ABC together = two BCD together = two angles.. is ABC BCD together together = two = two rt. It is required to prove that (i) (ii) the C ADC. Since the l ADC at the O'* = half the l AGO at the on the same arc ABC and the l ABC at the O" = half the reflex l ADC at the centre. Similarly the Z'BAD. Suppose O the centre of the circle. learn that angles in conjugate segments are Definition. the L'ADC. From Theorem 40 wc supplementary. standing on the same arc ADC Proof. From Theorem 39 w© learn that angles in the same segment are tquod. 22. = half the sum of the Z. Q. . angles.D. A quadrilateral is called cyclic when a can be drawn through its four vertices. The results of Theorems 39 and 40 should be carefully compared. centre. [Euclid III. Note. angles. ]$2 GEOMETRY. Join OA. rt.. circle . Let ABCD be a quadrilateral inscribed in the OABC. angles. rt. the Z'ADC. OC..] circle any quadrilateral inscHM in a are together equal to two right angles.
Let ABCD opposite angles at be a quadrilateral in which the B and D are supplementary. Measure the remaining angles. the circle which passes through A.ABC . is 5. 2.AEC . In a the angle ABC circle of 1"6" radius inscribe a quadrilateral ABCD. that is. . 40. q. the supplement of the Z. But. and hence verify in this case that opposite angles are supplementary. C. is impossible unless A. Prove Theorem 40 by the aid of Theorems 39 joining the opposite vertices of the quadrilateral. Proof. the ADC is Z. E coincides with D. C. by hypothesis. : lie on a circle.•. and 16. are concydic. C must pass through D : D are concyclic. the parallelorectangular.*. and suppose it outs AD or AD produced in the point E. after first 3. the supplement of the Z. the exterior angle equal to the opposite interior angle of the quadrilateral. 40.ABC. D Let ABC be the circle which passes through the three points A.ANGLE PROPERTIES. and XY is drawn parallel to the BC cutting the sides in X and Y shew that the four points B.d. Join EC. If a circle can be described about a parallelogram. Y ABC is an isosceles triangle. EXERCISES ON THEOREM 1. If one side of a cydic qiiadrilateral is produced. the Z. gram must be 4.ADC.. B. is a cyclic quadrilateral. its If a pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral are supplementary. B. making equal to 126". . B. Then the since ABCE is Z. It is required to prove that the points ^. B. base X. C . which .AEC = the Z.e. 163 Converse of Theorem vertices are concyclic. C.
and a straight angle = two a rt. [Euclid III. rt. 2nd Proof. The lACB at the O** is half the straight angle at the centre. angles q. 31. Then because OA = OC. . together of = two two rt. And .d. the ^ OCA = the l OAC. angles. But the three angles . angle.] semicircle is a right angle. Theorem The angle in a 41. centre Let ADB be a circle of which AB is a diameter and O the and let C be any point on the semicircumference ACB. the iLOCB = the ^OBC.. .d. Join OC. • .ACB is angle.164 GEOMETRY.e. It is required to prove that the l ACB is a rt. AOB 1st Proof. . rt. the whole l ACB = the L OAC + the because of the z. Thear. 5. standing on the same arc ADB.*. angles : . q. l OBC.e.*. OB = OC. angle . the A ACB ACB = onehalf = one rt.*. the Z.
through a fixed point. A Definition. radii sector of a circle is a figure and the arc intercepted / \ . exercises on theorem 1. than one rt. 2. AQ are drawn. find the locus of its middle point. ACB is less is less than two rt. on.'. is (ii) If the segment a major arc . than one rt.. Shew that on one of the equal sides of an isosceles it passes through the middle point of 4 Circles described on any two sides of a triangle as diameters intersect on the third side. circle described . Find the locus of the middle points of chords of a circle drawn 6. Two circles intersect at A and B and through A two diameters AP. C 3 D The Z. one in each circle shew that the points P. Distinguish between the cases when the given point is within. B. 41. on the same arc ADB. A bounded by two between them. angle. The angle in a segment greater than a semicircle . angles. placed at right angles to one another . then ADB the L ACB the Z. on the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle at diameter. and the angle in a segment less than a semicircle is obtuse. ACB is less than a semicircle. 3. the Z. . . ANGLE PROPERTIES. straight rod of given length slides betM'een two straight rulers 5.AOB the z.ACB at the O'* is half the ZAOB at the centre. then ADB is a minor arc .ACB is greater is greater than two rt.*.. (i) If the segment ACB is greater than a semicircle. A circle is described triangle as diameter. or the third side produced. passes through the opposite angular point.'. : A Q are collinear. angle. 165 is acute Corollary. . the base. or without the circumference. angles.
GC will fall along HF. It is clear that and chords in equal circles any theorem relating to arcs. In equal circles sectors which Jiave equal angles Obs. z. 26.E. Theorem In equal circles. required to prove that the arc BKO = the Proof. Corollary. must also be true in the same circle . and . let the L BGC = the ^ EHF Thear.. Then because the L BGC = the EHF. .] the. BKC must coincide with the the arc BKC = the arc ELF.*. 166 GEOMETRY. arcs which subtend equal angles^ either at centres or at the circumferences. GB falls so that the centre Q on the centre H.*. are equal. 38. B will fall on E. F. are equal. arc ELF.D. And and C on entirely. [Euclid III. and the circumferences of the circles will coincide the arc . 42. and and consequently . angles. the L It is BAC = the z_ EDF at the O"**. falls Apply the O ABC to the O DEF. arc ELF Q. along HE. because the circles have equal radii. DEF be equal circles. at the centres Let ABC..
theiLBGC = theiLEHF. Q. the arc falls on ... 167 Theorem In eqiial circles angles. so that the centre along HE. . Let ABC. and the two O"" coincide F. circles have equal radii. ^nd.. and let the arc BKC = the arc ELF. [Euclid III.D. entirely. Proof. And since the l BAG at the O*^ = half the L BGC at the centre . EHF . the Z. and GB DEF. 27. DEF be equal circles.] at the circma either at the centres or which stand on equal arcs are equal. and consequently GC on HF.E. B . falls Apply the O ABG to the falls on the centre H... BKC = the arc ELF. BAG = the Z. falls on E. EDF. ARCS AND ANGLES. /ereTices. and likewise the L EDF = half the z. . It is required to prove that the also the L BGC = the L EHF l BAG = the l EDF at the centres at the O"". Q Then because the . by hypothesis. 43.
= {BG = EH. the z. Let ABC. . for the same reason. by hypothesis . EH. GC HF. being radii of equal circles. BKC = the minor arc ELF. But the whole 0<*ABKC = the whole C^DELF.] major arc equal arcs which are cut off by equal chords are equal to the majoi' arc. : q. 28. Proof. Join BG. . HF... DEF and be equal circles whose centres are let G and H : the chord BC = the chord EF. and BC = EF. GC. the remaining arc BAC = the remaining arc EDF and these are the major arcs. It is required to prove that the major arc md the minor arc BAG = the majoi' arc EDF. 42 and these are the minor arcs.'. Theorem In equal the circles.d. Theor. . EHF. In the A* BGC. 168 GEOMETRY.. BGC = the ^ EHF the arc BKC = the arc ELF . 7. arid the minor to the minor. 44. [Euclid III. Theor. .e.
... . the chord BC coincides with the chord EF. .] equal circles chords which cut off eqml arcs are equal.E. 169 Theorem In 45. BKC = the arc ELF. ABC to the DEF.D.. Join BG. Let ABC. DEF be equal circles whose centres are G and H and let the arc BKC = the arc ELF. 29. ARCS AND CHORDS.•. the chord BC = the chord EF. EH. so that G falls on H Then because the circles have equal radii. C falls on F. It is required to prove that the chord BC = the chord EF. . and the O"'^ coincide entirely. [Euclid III. and GB along HE. And because the arc /. B falls on E. Apply the Proof. Q.
: 4. PBA is constant. shew that AX = AY. PBA are bisected by straight lines which intersect at O. 10. PQ that the triangles and RS are two chords of a circle intersecting at PXS. and P. triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle. XAY are drawn terminated by the circumferences shew that the arcs PX. any point on the arc of a segment of which AB Shew that the sum of the angles PAB. EXERCISES ON ANGLES IN A CIRCLE. AC are any two chords of a circle . line PAQ is drawn terminated by the circumferences shew that PQ subtends a constant angle at B. and through these points lines are drawn from any point P on the circumference of one of the circles shew that when produced they intercept on the other circum: Two ference an arc which is constant for all positions of P. and the bisectors of the angles meet the circumference at X. by half the sum of the arcs they cvi If two chords to thcU cU the centre intersect without a circle. 11.170 GEOMETRY. subtended 7. The sum of the arcs cut oflF by two chords of a circle at right angles to one another is equal to the semi circumference. Shew that the angles of the triangle XYZ are respectively Q A 90°§. 8. Y. they form an angle equal off. . Two circles intersect at A and B . If two chorda intersect within a circle. circles intersect at A and B . 1. 90'. 90 12. then the bisector of the angle APB cuts the conjugate arc in the same point for all positions of P. and through A any two straight lines PAQ. If fi^B is a fixed chord of a circle and P any point on one of the arcs cut off by it. RXQ are equiangular to one another. QY P is any point on the arc of a segment whose chord is AB and 5. P is is the chord 2. Find the locus of the point O. . : 6. . if PQ is joined. AB. they form an angle equai subtended by half the difference of the arcs they cut off. the angles PAB. cutting AB in X and AC in Y. are the middle points of the minor arcs cut off by them . 9. subtend equal angles at B. Z. X : prove Two circles intersect at A and B and through A any straight 3. to that at the centre.
DC 18. and the opposite sides AB. equal circles intersect at A and B . 22. ABC BC : ED DEA . X are coneydie. in be equilateral ? ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. shew that the angle is half the difierence a diameter of the angles at B and C. Q. [See page 64. What relation must subsist among order that the figure BXAYC may the angles of the triangle ABC. the points P. shew that the bisectors of the vertical angles all pass through a fixed point. and E the middle point on the side remote from A if through E of the arc subtended by is drawn. is a triangle inscribed in a circle. 21. and X is the foot of the perpendicular let fall from one vertex on the opposite side: shew that the four points P. 16. and CB. are concyclic. 171 The straight lines which in a circle equal. R are the middle points of the sides of a triangle. R. Shew that the figure BXAYC must have four of its sides equal. 13. and having a given vertical angle. Through the points of intersection of two circles two parallel drawn terminated by the circumferences shew that which join their extremities towards the same parts : Two straight line that PAQ BP=BQ. : 15. XAY are drawn shew that the chord PX is equal to the chord QY. P. DA to meet at circumscribed about the triangles PBC. Q. Q : Q 19. Through A. a point of intersection of two equal circles. shew that are collinear. p. 2 also Prob. Ex. and the 17.EXERCISES ON ANGLES IN A CIRCLE. bisectors of the base angles meet the circumference at X and Y. two straight lines PAQ.] : 20. If a series of triangles are drawn standing on a fixed base. if the circles are produced to meet at P. R. join the extremities of parallel chords (ii) towards opposite parts. and through is drawn terminated by the circumferences A any : shew ABC is an isosceles triangle inscribed in a circle. 83. straight lines are the straight lines are equal. QAB intersect at R. 10. are 14. Use the preceding exercise to shew that the middle points of the sides of a triangle and the feet of the perpendiculars lei fall from the vertices on the opposite sides. (i) towards the same parts.
secant of a circle is a straight line of indefinite 1. 2. and is said to touch it at the point at which the two intersections coincide. namely the point of contact. Q moves on the circumference nearer and nearer Then the line PQ in its ultimate to P. and suppose it to recede from the centre. /* A a secant moves in such a way that the two points in which it cuts the circle continually approach one another. length which cuts the circumference at two points. then in the ultimate position when these two points become one. and though produced indefinitely does not cut the circumference. moving always parallel to its original position . become one point.: : 172 GEOMETRY. the straight In the ultimate position when P and line becomes a tangent to the circle at that point. when Q coincides with P. it is clear that a tangent can have only one point in common with the circumference. This point is called the point of contact. If For instance (i) Let a secant cut the circle at the points P and Q. and suppose it to be turned about the point P so that while P remains fixed. then the two points P and Q will clearly approach one another and finally coincide. TANGENCY. Hence we may define a tangent as follows 3. A tangent to a circle is a straight line which meets the circumference at one point only. at which two points of section coincide. Definitions and First Principles. Since a secant can cut a circle at tvx) points only. position. the secant becomes a tangent to the circle. . Q (ii) Let a secant cut the circle at the points P and Q. is a tangent at the point P.
then when Q is brought into coincidence with P. 3. Fig. in 4. circles which touch one another cannot have more than (me point in common. TQP is a common chord of two circles one of which is made to turn about P. Then in the ultimate position. 3. Fig:. . but do not cut one another. 2. such a way that Q continually approaches P. 1. Let two circles P and Q. Inference from Definitions 2 and If in Fig. or to have internal contact with it. 2. and let one which remains fixed. 4. Hence Two circles their point which touch one another have a common tangent at of contact. Hence circles are said to touch one another when they meet. the circles are said to touch one another at P.TANGENCY. Note. When each of the circles which meet is outside the other. 2 and 3). or to have external contact: when one of the circles is within the other. the line TP passes through two coincident points on each circle. and therefore becomes a tangent to each circle. of the circles turn 1) in the points P. 2 and 3. they are said to touch one another externally. as in Figs. as in Fig. as in Fig. intersect (as in Fig. Fig. I. when Q coincides with P (as in Figs. about the point two Since two circles cannot intersect in more than two points. namely the point of contact at which the two points of section coincide. the first is said to touch the other internally.
Q. he drawn to a a given point on the circumference. to PT. every point in it except P is outside the circle. from O to the line Since there can be only one perpendicular PT.D. . 174 GEOMETRY. it follows that the perpendicular to a tangent at its point of contact passes through the centre. Corollary to 1. Hence OP is perp. and join OQ. Then since Take any point Q in PT. the shortest distance from O to PT. OP this is true for every point Q in PT 1. Corollary 2. . 12. PT is a tangent. Theor.E. It is required to prove that PT is perpendicular to the Proof. p&rpmdiodar to the drawn to the Let PT be a tangent at the point P to a is circle whose centre radius OP. O. it follows that tlie radius drawn perpertr dicular to the ta/ngent passes through the point of contact. And . Since there can be only one perpendicular circle at OP at the point P. Corollary 3. it follows that one and only one tangent cam. Cor. Since there can be only one perpendicular to PT at the point P. Theorem The tangent radius at 46..*. circle is any point of a point of contact.. OQ is is greater than the radius OP.
1) circle whose centre P is is O. the l . It is required to prove that the tangent at the radius perpendicular to Let RQPT (Fig.'OQR.*. OP. Let P be a point on a OP.\ coincides with OP. be a secant cutting the Join 00.TANGENCY. Fig:. 2. j p „ ^' ' and therefore the equal z. OP is perp. .E."f p&rpeTidicular to the The tangent at any point of a drawn to the point of contact. is Q.D. the^0QP = th6^0PQ. 176 Theorem radius 46. OQR = the z. that is. of Limits. the supplements of these angles are equal. the secant QP be turned about the point P so that Q continually approaches and finally coincides with P. OPT. Because OP = 0Q. [By the Method circle is of Limits. to RT. OPT become adjacent. Note. Proof.*. I. let (i) (ii) Now OQ the secant RT becomes the tangent at P. and this is true however near Q is to P.. then in the ultimate position. . circle at Q and P. The method of proof employed here known as the Method . Fig.
to the radii OP. and OP = OQ. let Join OT. circle. Theor. each of the l'TPO. OP. It is required to prove that there can he two tangents the circle drawn to from T..E. OQ. TQO are right angles. point are equal. . Let PQR be a circle whose centre is O. the PQR. circle will cut the is OPQR in two T is without. and TSO be the circle on OT as diameter. TOP = the ^ TOQ.. Let P and Q be these JoinTP. Theorem Two tangents can he 47. is . Q. since This points. CJOROLLARY. 1 8. OQ respectively. {the L* TPO. being in a semiangle TP. TQ are perp. TQ. Forin the A'TPO. the hypotenuse TO is common. and let T be an external point. 46.'. TP = TQ. Proof. TQO.. . . and the z. 176 geometry. points. TQO. TP. and O within.D. Theor. Now a rt. being radii . The two tangents to a circle from an external and subtend equal angles at the centre. drawn to a circle from an external poi'/U. TQ are tangents at P and Q.
TANGENCY.
EXERCISES ON THE TANGENT.
{Numerical and Graphical.)
177
concentric circles with radii 5*0 era. and 3*0 cm. Draw a series of chords of the former to touch the latter. Calculate and measure their lengths, and account for their being equal.
1.
Draw two
2.
length. radius.
In a circle of radius 1 'O" draw a number of chords each 1 '&' in Shew that they all touch a concentric circle, and find its
The diameters of two concentric circles are respectively 10*0 cm. 3. and 5'0 cm. find to the nearest millimetre the length of any chord of the outer circle which touches the inner, and cheek your work by
:
measurement.
= 13", find the length In the figure of Theorem 47, if 0P=5", 4. of the tangents from T. Draw the figure (scale 2 cm. to 5"), and measure to the nearest degree the angles subtended at by the tangents.
T0
O
5.
The tangents from T
in length. the figure
to a circle whose radius is 0*7" are each 2*4" Find the distance of T from the centre of the circle. Draw and check your result graphically.
{Theoretical.)
6.
The
must
lines
7.
centre of any circle which toitches two intersecting straight lie on the bisector of the angle between them.
;
that
AB and AC are two tangents to a circle whose centre is O AG bisects the chord of contact BC at right angles. 8. If PQ is joined in the figure of Theorem 47, shew that the PTQ is double the angle OPQ.
shew
angle
9. Two parallel tangents to a circle intercept on any third tangent a segment which subtends a right angle at the centre.
10. The diameter of a circle bisects the tangent at either extremity.
all
chords which are parallel to
11. Find the locus of the centres of all circles which touch straight line at a given point.
a given
12.
two
Find the locus of the centres of all circles parallel straight lines,
which touch each of
13. Find the locu^ of the centres of all circles intersecting straight lines of unlimited length.
which touch each of two
the
14. In any quadrilateral circumscribed about a circle^ pair of opposite sides is equul to the sum of the other pair. State and prove the converse theorem.
sum of one
15. If a quadrilateral is described about a circle, the angles subtended at the centre by any two opposite sides are supplementary.
H.S.O.
M
;
178
GEOMETRY.
Theorem
If
tvx)
48.
circles
(ouch otic another, the centres
straight line.
and
the poiTU of
contact are in
om
Let two
point
It
P.
circles
whose centres are O and
and
Q
touch at the
is
required to prove that O, P,
Q
are in one straight line.
Join OP, QP.
Proof.
common tangent
Then
contact,
..
Since the given circles touch at at that point.
P,
they have a Page 173.
Suppose PT to touch both
since
circles at P.
OP and QP
OP and QP OP and QP
P,
are radii
drawn
to the point of
are both perp. to are in one
st. line,
PT
Thear. 2.
q.e.d.
.'.
That
is,
the points O,
and
Q
are in one
st. line,
Corollaries,
between their centres
(ii)
(i)
If two
equal
toiich
circles touch externally the distance
is
to tJie
sum
of their radii.
distance
If two
circles
internally the
between
their
centres is equal to the difference of their radii.
;
;
THE CONTACT OF CIRCLES.
179
EXERCISES ON THE CONTACT OF CIRCLES.
{Numerical and Graphical.)
draw two circles with radii 1*7" and 0'9" where do these circles touch one another ? If circles of the above radii are drawn from centres O'S" apart, prove that they touch. How and why does the contact differ from that in
1.
From
centres 2 '6" apart
respectively.
Why and
?
the former case
2.
Draw
A, B,
a triangle
;
From
3.
and C
as centres
4 '5 cm. respectively
which a=8 cm., h = 1 cm., and c = 6 cm. draw circles of radii 2"5 cm., 3'5 cm., and and shew that these circles touch in pairs.
ABC
in
In the triangle ABC, rightangled at C, a = 8 cm. and 6 = 6 cm. and from centre A with radius 7 cm. a circle is drawn. What must be the radius of a circle drawn from centre B to touch the first circle ?
are the centres of two fixed circles which touch inis the centre of any circle which touches the larger circle the smaller externally, prove that AP+ BP is constant. internally and If the fixed circles have radii 50 cm. and S'O cm. respectively, verify the general result by taking different positions for P.
4.
A and B
If
ternally.
P
5.
AC,
AB is a line 4" in length, CB semicircles are described.
and
C
is its
Shew
that
its
the space enclosed by the three semicircles
middle point. On AB, a circle is inscribed in radius must be §".
if
{Theoretical.)
straight line is drawn through the point of contact of two circles 6. rewhose centres are A and B, cutting the circumferences at P and are parallel. spectively ; shew that the radii AP and
A
BQ
Q
Two circles touch externally, and through the point of contact a 7. straight line is drawn terminated by the circumferences ; shew that the tangents at its extremities are parallel.
8.
Find the locus of the centres of all circles (i) which touch a given circle at a given point (ii) which are of given radius and touch a given
circle.
9.
circle.
From a given point as centre describe a How many solutions will there be ?
circle to
touch a given
10.
at a given point.
Describe a circle of radius a to touch a given circle of radius & How many solutions will there be ?
'.'. the Z'DBA. a tangent.*DBA. Again because ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. [Euclid III. Because the . Theorem 49. which is in the alternate segment. then the z. Take away the common l DBA. angle. 32. z. FBD = the L BAD. It is required to prove tliat (i) (ii) B. BAD together.D.*. and C any point in the segment which does not contain A.E. Q. is BA a diameter. z. which is in the alternate segment . . the . the LEBD = the angle in the alt&rnate segment BCD. BAD together = a rt. ADB in a semicircle is a rt. the point of contact. CB. DC. angle. arc of the Let BA be the diameter through B. the L FBA is a rt. the L BCD = the supplement of the l BAD = the supplement of the L FBD = the L EBD . Let EF touch the 0ABC at from B. Proof..] The angles made by a tangent to a circle with a chord drawn from the point of contact are respectively equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. BCD. angle.180 GEOMETRY. Join AD. and let BD be a chord drawn the L FBD = the angle in the alternate segment BAD . and But since EBF . .'. FBA = the z. EBD = the z. the z.
5. and the Z. one of them. BPA . segment. Prove Theorem 49 hy the Method of Limits. . BPA becomes the L BAT. EBD. the line of centres page 163. Deduce Theorem 48 from the property that a common chord at right angles. If EXERCISES ON THE METHOD OF LIMITS. 41. 1. Deduce Theorem 46 from Theorem . The straight line drawn perpendicular is a tangent. Two : circles intersect at A and B . 1. AXY Through A.FBD=72°. prove by the to the T diameter of a circle at its Method extremity 3. drawn shew that PX and QY are parallel. write circle down the 2. ultimately. €«id this is true however near to A. the perpendiculars dropped on the tangent and chord from the middle point of either arc cut off by the chord are equal. : 5. BCD. any point on drawn to cut the other at C and D 6. Theor. Deduce Theorem 49 from Ex. 5. In the figure of Theorem 49. chords APQ. From Theorem of Limits that 31. 3. the centre of the other prove that OA bisects the angle between the common chord and the tangent to the first circle at A. then the secant PAT' becomes the tangent AT. Use this theorem to shew that tangents to a from an external point are equal. BAT = the Z. Prove this (i) for internal. 181 if the Z. ACB be a segment of a circle of which AB is the chord and let PAT' be any secant through A. P approaches If P moves up to coincidence with A. AB is the common chord of two circles. are : 4. Then the L BCA = the Z. the point of contact of two circles.BCA. shew that CD is parallel to the tangent at P. Join PB. from the point of contact of a tangent to a circle a chord is drawn.ALTERNATE SEGMENT. values of the L* BAD. in the alt. ] 2. EXERCISES ON THEOREM 49. bisects 4. straight lines PAC. one of which passes through O... PBD are and through P. [Let . 39. (ii) for external contact. the Z.
But this arrangement. by building up known results in order to obtain a new result.] . This unravelling of the conditions of a proposition in order to trace it back to some earlier principle on which it depends. We therefore draw the in student's attention to the following hints. : Although the above directions do not amount to a method. trace the consequences of the assumption. If this attempt is successful. and try to ascertain its dependence on some condition or known theorem which suggests the necessary construction. PROBLEMS. 28. In attempting to solve a problem begin by assuming the required result . most cases affords little clue as to the way in which the construction or proof was discovered. Hitherto the Propositions of this textbook have been arranged Synthetically. that is to say. GEOMETRICAL ANALYSIS. [See Problems 23. they often furnish a very effective mode of searching for a suggestion. though convincing as an argument. is called geometrical analysis it is the natural way of attacking the harder types of exercises. then by working backwards. The approach by analysis will be illustrated in some of the following problems. and it is especially useful in solving problems. the steps of the argument may in general be rearranged in reverse order. and the construction and proof presented in a synthetic form.182 GEOMETRY. 29.
is Y equidistant from A and B Proh. Take two chords AB. at O. and bisect it at Construction. and bisect them at right angles by the lines DE. Join AB. Let ABC be an arc of a whose centre is to be found. to or an arc of a find its centre. the arc DA = the arc DB. PROBLEMS ON CIRCLES.. Then O is the required centre. Theorem 6. distant from A and B. Theor. is >C And every point in FG . . meeting Proh. a given be the given arc to be bisected. Proh. . DB. 183 Problem Given a circle^ 20. arc. 14. Then the Proof. Join DA. right angles by CD meeting the arc at D. O O is is equidistant from A. the L DBA = the L DAB the arcs. circle Construction. are equal that is. . equidistant from B and C. DE is equi Proh. Problem To Let ADB bisect 21. 2. circle. FG. 2.'. Every point in Proof. 14. the centre of the circle ABC. which subtend these angles at the O**.. BC. DA=DB. arc is bisected at D. . 33. .. Then every point on CD .*. B. and C.
Join OP. TP is a tangent at P. is the required tangent. TP at right angles to the radius OP.184 geometry. ^.. a second tangent TQ can be drawn from T. Theor. . the an^e PTQ becomes a straight angle. no tangent can be drawn.] T .•. with its centre at O be the point from which a tangent is to be drawn. as shewn in the figure. is a rt. since the . Problem To draw a tcmgent to 2*2. in a semicircle. being is . When T reaches the circumference. p. it describe a semicircle TPO to cut the circle at Join TP. [See Oba. When enters the circle. and let T Join TO. Then TP Proof. then the angle PTQ gradually increases. 94.'Q Let PQR be the given circle. Suppose the point T to approach the given circle. angle. Since the semicircle may be described on either side of TO. a circle from a given external poirU. Construction. Then lTPO. and the two tangents coincide. 46. and on P. Note.
circle. difference of With centre A. drawn from B to the circle of construction. and produce it to meet the circle (A) at D. and the z. . BE are on the same side of AB. common tangents. the radii of the given circles. to DE. and therefore one another. / 186 Problem 23. and Let A be the centre of the greater let B be the centre of the smaller circle. if Now be a rectangle. Since two tangents. draw BC first. And if AD. to To draw a common tangent two circles. Analysis. Join AC. ACB is a rt. such as BC. then the fig. angle. describe a circle. can in general be Ohs. Suppose DE to touch the circles at D and E. and a its radius and b its radius. so that BC were drawn pai^ to DE. DB would CD = BE = 6. and draw BC to touch it. then AC = ab. called the direct common tangents. Then the par^ to radii AD.. Then DE is a common tangent to the given circles. this method will These are furnish two common tangents to the given circles. Join DE. and thus lead to the These hints enable us to following construction. BE are both perp. and radius equal to the Construction. Through B draw the radius BE par^ to AD and in the same sense.
Then BC. and radius equal to the siim of the radii of the given circles. {Gcmtimied. angle. common if the circles are external tangents may be drawn. but draw BE in the sense AD. the i. two tangents may be drawn from B to the hence two common tangents may be the given circles. As circle of construction thus drawn to transverse common tangents. drawn par^ to the supposed common tangent DE. ACB is a rt. and draw BC to touch it.186 GEOMETRY. Then proceed opposite to as in the first case. Problem 23. to one another two mOTe Analysis. Hence the following Construction. would meet AD proditced at C and we should now have . Obs. AC = AD + DC = a + 6 . as before. before. circles at D and E In this case we may suppose DE to touch the so that the radii AD. construction. With centre A. describe a circle. These are called the . and. [We leave as an exercise to the student the arrangement of the proof in synthetio form. BE fall on opposite sides o/AB.) Again.] .
by measurement that it bisects the common tangents. 3*0" apart. and also the two transverse.) . Draw all the common 1"8" apart and whose radii are 0*6" and 1 "2" respectively. the parts of the tangents intercepted between the points of contact are equal. Draw two circles with radii l&' and OS" and with Draw all their common tangents. 7. . Theoretical. your answer by drawing two (i) and 1 "O" (ii) (iii) (iv) with with with with is rO" between 2*4" between 0'4" between 3"0" between the centres the centres the centres . {Numerical and Graphical. Draw 5. shew that the two direct. or Draw two circles with radii 20" and 0*8". 9. common fails. EXERCISES ON COMMON TANGENTS. 6. Draw the construction 2. placing their centres Draw the common tangents. Draw the direct their centres common ( tangents to two equal circles. the centres. direct. Produce the common chord and shew length of the common chord. both by calculation and by measurement. tangents in each case. Two given circles have external contact at A. . measure the length of the direct common tangents. and find their lengths between 2(f apart. the points of contact. COMMON TANGENTS. 3. 4. and note where the general modified. tangents to two circles whose centres are Calculate and Two circles of radii 1"7" and TO" have their centres 2r' apart.) 1. If the two If four common tangents are drawn to two circles external to 8. Also find the their common tangents and find their lengths. or the two transverse. one another. Q : . 187 How many common ? (i) tangents can be drawn in each of the following cases (ii) (iii) when the given circles intersect when they have external contact when they have internal contact. and a direct common tangent is drawn to touch them at P and shew that PQ subtends a right angle at the point A. common tangents are drawn to two circles. tangents intersect on the line of centres. circles of radii 1 '4" Illustrate respectively.
The The the centres of circles (iv) line. The locus of the centres of circles which touch two given straight lines. one point on the circumference. the position of (i) To find the position of the centre. (i) In order to draw a circle we must know the centre. as explained on page 93. in order to draw a circle three independent data are For example. which touch a given straight which tmich a given circle^ and Imve a given (v) locus of the centres of circles and have a given (vi) radius. more than one circle can be drawn Before attempting the constructions of the next Exercise the student should make himself familiar with the following loci. It will however often happen that satisfying three given conditions. On the Construction of Circles. each giving a locus on which the centre must lie . so that the one or more points in which the two loci intersect are possible positions of the required centre. 188 GEOMETRY. (i) Tlie locus of the centres of circles which pass through two given points. locus of the centres of circles radiiis. . two conditions are needed. (ii) line at (iii) The locus of the a given point. we may draw a (i) circle if we are given three points on the circumference its or or (ii) (iii) three tangent lines . (ii) The determined Hence required. (ii) the length of the radius. the radius if we know (or can find) any point on the circumference. centres of circles which touch a given straight which touch a given circle at The locus of a given point. is position of the centre being thus fixed. one tangent. and point of contact..
Given a circle of radius 3*5 cm. a circle touches lie ? a given line PQ at a point A. OB. A point P is circles of radius 3*2 45 cm. How many pp. to their centres being 6 touch each of the given circles externally. How many solutions will there be? What is the radius of the smallest circle that touches each of the given circles externally ? 6. 189 Draw a If its circle to pass through three given points. draw a circle of radius 3*5 cm. [See page 311. making an 1 •2" angle of 76°. on what line must its centre Hence draw 3. and If on what a circle touches a given circle line must its centre lie ? whose centre C at the point A. PQ at is the point A. 1. on what line must centre If a circle passes through two given points A and B.] such circles can be drawn ? [Further Examples on the Construction of Circles will be found on . apart. from a 7. cm. 11. line. to pass through P and to touch AB. that two such circles can be drawn. 2. and to pass through a given point B. distant from a straight line AB. OB. given circle at a given point. Draw a circle to touch the given circle (C) at the point A. 8. lie ? a circle to touch a straight line to pass through another given point B. cm. CIRCLES. to touch the given circle and the line AB.THE CONSTRUCTION OF EXERCISES. cm. and that they are equal. and also to touch a given straight line at a given point. Shew 9. given straight line AB . If a circle touches lie ? two straight lines OA. 311. 4. 246. draw two circles of radius 2*5 cm. on what line must its centre Draw OA. and to touch a Shew how to draw a circle to touch each of three given straight lines of which no two are parallel. respectively. with its centre 5 cm. parallel straight lines Devise a construction for drawing a circle to touch each of two and a transversal. Draw two cm. and 2 Given two circles of radius 3 5. Describe a circle to touch a given circle. and describe a circle of radius to touch both lines..] Describe a circle to touch a given straight 10.
pass through B. angle equal to C.. Problem On a shall contain 24. contains an Th^m: 49. From A draw AG Bisect Proof. alternate to the L BAD. At A in BA. 2. is equidistant from A and B Proh. perp. line. centre G. angle. Construction. given straight line to desciibe a segment of a circle which an angle equal to a given angle. angles by FG. Now every point in FG . make the l BAD equal to the 'L O. and C the given segment of a It is required to descnhe on AB a containing an angle equal to C. GA==GB. which must Tlieor. 46. Frob. In the particular case when the given angle is a rt. circle Let AB be the given st. 190 GEOMETRY. meeting AG Join GB. in G.] . d\ X angle. [Theorem41. to AD. the segment required will be the semicircle on AB asdiameter. and touch AD at A. AB at rt. With draw a circle.. 14. Then the segment AHB. Note. and radius GA.
the vertical angle. triangle on a given base having vertex on a given straight line. and containing an angle eqtial to the given angle. The following Problems are derived from Method of Intersection of Loci [page 93]. Join AX (or AY) cutting the arc of the first segment at C. Then ABC is the required triangle. of the perpendicular from the vertex to the base. the vertical angle. Construct the difference a triangle having given the base. Construct a triangle having given the base. With centre A. is tJie arc of the segment standing on this base. Describe its and having 2.. the vertical angle. K the given angle. this result by the EXERCISES. and of the remaining sides. describe a segment of a circle containing an angle equal to K Bisect the arc APB at P O*^* by drawing the arc APB. draw a tangent to the circle.] 5. the length (ii) (iii) (iv) the foot 3. describe a circle cutting the arc of the latter segment at X and Y. the vertical angle. On AB describe a segment containing an angle equal to K. Construct a the point at which the base triangle having given the base. and radius H. X the given point in it. and produce it to meet the 0'=® at C. and from draw a chord making with the tangent an It was proved on page 161 that The locus of the vertices of triangles which stand on the same hose and have a given vertical angle. . : PROBLEMS. and H a line equal to the sum of the sides. it 191 circle To is cut off from to a given a segment containing enough tJie point of contact to angle equal to the given angle. (i) and one other side.] [Let On AB complete the 4. sides. join PX. is cut by the bisector of the vertical angle. and K the given angle. also another segment containing an angle equal to half the L K. Then ABC is the required triangle. a a given vertical angle Construct a triangle having given the base. of the median which bisects the base. and the sum of the remaining [Let AB be the given base. 1. CJoROLLARY. a given angle. and AB be the base. the altilnde.
Decagon. A A Polygon is Regular when all its sides are equal. O rectilineal figure. 4. 2. A Polygon of jive sides called a Pentagon. rectilineal figure is said to be in3. Heptagon. A circle is said to be inscribed when . when all its angular points are on the circumference of the circle and a circle is said to be circumscribed about a rectilineal figure. when the circumference of the circle passes through all the angular points of the figure. Quindecagon. . L A Polygon is a rectilineal figure bounded by more than four sides. six sides seven sides eight sides ten sides twelm sides fifteen sides „ „ „ „ „ „ Hexagon. scribed in a circle. and all its angles are equal. 192 GEOMETRY. in a the circumference of the circle is touched by each side of the figure and a rectilineal figure is said to be circumscribed about a circle. when each side of the figure is a tangent to the circle. CIRCLES IN RELATION TO RECTILINEAL FIGURES. Definitions. Octagon.. Dodecagon.
: PROBLEMS ON TRIANGLES AND CIRCLES. the centre of the circumcircle falls within it if it is a rightangled triangle. 19a Problem To droumscrihe a circle 25. Let drawn.S. and every point in ES is equidistant from A and C . the required circumcircle.. meeting at 8. the centre of the required circle. the centre falls on the hypotenuse if it is an obtuseangled triangle. Obs. ^ From page 94 it is seen that if S is joined to the middle Note. B. the centre falls without the : triangle. Then S Proof. 2. H. then the joining line is perpendicular to BC. and C. the point of intersection being the centre of the circle circumscribed about the triangle. ES. A andB. angles by DS and Prob. and is. point of BC. Hence the perpendiculars dravni to the sides of a triangle from their middle points are concurrent. found that if the given triangle is acuteangled. U. and radius SA describe a circle. N . It will be.G. Bisect is AB and AC at rt. this will pass through B and C. therefore. S is equidistant from A. With centre S. Now every point in DS is equidistant from Prob. ABC be the triangle.. about which a circle is to be Construction. about a given triomgh.
the angle From II. . the point of intersection being the centre of the inscribed circle..*. p. F are right angles. Also the circle will touch the sides BC. IF I are all equal. a circle in a given triangle. IE.. ACB by circle. circle A . IE. is the centre of the required I From draw ID. Note. With centre and radius ID draw a circle this will pass through the points E and F. BA . CA ID . st. CA. I. Definition. ID is = = IF. ID. . Then every point in Bl is equidistant . because the angles at D. CA. Prob. And every point in CI . 1. in which a Construction. AB. to BO. which intersect at I Prob. E. Problem To insci'ibe 26. 194 GEOMETRY. . Then Proof. 96 it BAC : hence it is seen that follows that if Al is joined. then Al bisects The bisectors of the angles of a triangle are concurrent.. circle is to be inscribed. IF perp. equidistant from CB.. which touches one side of a triangle and the other two sides produced is called an escribed circle of the triangle. CI. A Let ABC be the triangle. Bisect the iL'ABC. the O DEF is inscribed in the A ABC. AB. IE. from BC. the lines Bl. 15.
Their centres are known as the Excentres. I^. . page 96. because the angles at F. BCE by the st.F IjF. 1. as in II. Clj Bisect the z. H are rt.. escribed circle of a given triangle.. It is clear that every triangle has three escribed oircles. Then every point in Bl^ is equidistant from BD. AE. to AD. that if Alj is joined. problems on triangles and circles. Note 2. circle. . G. It is required to describe a circle touching BC. angles. = I. AC Construction. the OFGH is an escribed circle of the A ABC. Let ABC be the given triangle of which the sides AB. Prob.. then Alj bisects the angle BAC hence it follows that : Note of two exterior angles of a triangle and the bisector of the third angle are concurrent. I. Similarly . I^G. It may be shewn. Also the circle will touch AD.. BC. BC. . and AE. BC. IjH are all equal. the point of intersection being the centre of an TTie bisectors escribed circle. AC are produced to D and E. lines Blj. From draw I^H perp. 15. 195 Problem To draw an 27.'CBD. which intersect at Then Proof. liG = ljH. and AB..G. With centre 1^ and radius IjF describe a circle this will pass through the points G and H. IjG. 1^ is 1^ the centre of the required I^F.
28. Frob. HAC equal to the z.) . E F. A = the l D. to given circle to inscribe a tricmgle equiangular a given A D Let ABC be the given Analysis. HAC. is inscribed from any point A on the O** two chords AB. Join BC. the steps. In drawing the figure on a larger scale the student should shew the construction lines for the tangent GAH and for the angles GAB. for then the z. B = the L E. 16. and DEF the given triangle. Then ABC is the required triangle. the z. At any point A on the O** of the OABG Construction. C = the Lf. l GAB = the L Reversing these we have the following construction. 196 . E. Problem In a triangle. draw the tangent GAH. . suggests the eqiial angle between the chord AC and the tangent at its extremity {Theor. At A make the z. so that. and make the z. and similarly. Note. AC can be so placed that. 49. equiangular to the A DEF. in the segment ABC. . then the L HAC = the z. geometry. if A A ABC. Now the L B. and Theor. GAB equal to the L F. 22.. circle. A similar remark applies to the next Problem. on joining BC. in the circle. the z. if at A we draw the tangent GAH.
MN. 197 Problem About a given a given triangle.BKA equal to the z." B and A are rt. and consequently. DEG and make the z. Then LMN is the required triangle. PROBLEMS ON CIRCLES AND TRIANGLES. . Now from the quad^ BKAM. NL perp. if we knew the l' BKA. drawn to the points of contact of the sides. Through A. KB. L'. that is. Hence we have the following Construction.N = 180° construction. ABC. BKC. the z. the z. for the tangents LM. KB. KC. 180° M= 1 80° E F. Find K the centre of the and draw any radius KB. C draw LM. to KA. since the the z. KB. circle to 29. KC.] . L BKA = z.L = the Z. Let us consider the radii KA. MN. circumscribe a triangle equiangular to MB Let ABC be the given G N circle. At K make the /. which the l M = the L E. N = the L F. DFH. E F H and DEF the given triangle. KC. Produce EF both ways to G arid H. [The student should no\r arrange the proof synthetically.D. Suppose LMN to be a circumscribed triangle in Analysis.. BKC equal to the z. NL could be drawn if we knew the relative positions of KA. similarly the BKC = 180° . B.
B. C to the opposite sides. the same circle circumscribe a second equilateral triangle. circle of radius 5 cm. Explain why the second and third radii are respectively double and treble of the 3. inscribe an equilateral triangle .. if radius of the incircle. first. Draw triangles from the following data (i) : a=25". shew that is the centre. 6 = 4 cm. and c = 51 cm. Find the area is of the inscribed equilateral triangle. 8 cm. Verify this formula by measurements for a triangle whose sides are 9 cm.. and escribed circles. Draw an equilateral triangle on a side of 8 cm. verify this result by measurement. and r the length of the Hence prove that AlBC = iar. On Circles and Triangles. be ca ah — . Account for the three results being the same. 6 = 3'0om.. and verify by measurement. and shew that it one quarter of the circumscribed equilateral triangle.. If a = 5 cm. and Circumscriptions. 7. a = 25".. 6. Find by measurement the circumradius of the triangle ABC iE which a = 6*3 cm.: 198 GEOMETRY. If r^ is the radius of the excircle opposite to A. C = 23^ Circumscribe a circle about each triangle. B = 66°. by comparing the vertical angles. AICA=i6r. inscribe an equilateral triangle. AIAB = ^cr. In the triangle ABC.. 4. circumscribed.. and find by calculation and measurement (to the nearest millimetre) the rswiii of the inscribed. {Inscriptions 1. prove that AABC = i(&lca)ri. I 6. c =3 cm. In a and In 2. to the nearest hundredth of In a circle of radius 4 cm. and measure the radii an inch. Draw and measure the perpendiculars from A. (ii) (iii) a = 2'o". Calculate the length of its side to the nearest millimetre .. EXERCISES. C = 44°. B = 72^ 6 = 41% C = 50?.) about each case state and justify your construction. If their lengths are represented by 7?i jP2 Pa verify the following . AABC = i(a + & + c)r. and 7 cm. » » statement circumradius =jr—=^r— = rr 2pi 2p3 2pj J.
Of all rectangles inscribed in the circle shew that the square has the greatest area. 6 denote the lengths of their sides. . a square inscribed in a circle. 8. a a circle.) Draw a it. (ii) (ii) a square about a given rectangle.. A If a and 7. and P is any point on the arc AD shew that the side AD subtends at P an angle three times as great as that subtended at P by any one of the other sides. 199 EXERCISES. Find the area of the inscribed square. a square in a given quadrant. {Inscriptions 1. and Circumscriptions. and give a theoretical proof. and verify by measurement.) PROBLEMS ON CIRCLES AND SQUARES. 11. is Draw a square on a side of 7 "5 cm. Circumscribe a rhombus about a given circle. circle of radius 1 '5". its Inscribe a square in a given square ABCD. shew that 3a2=262. angular points shall be at a given point X in AB. and test your di'awing by calculation. 6. In a given square inscribe the square of Describe Inscribe (i) minimum area. •2. inscribing a circle in Justify your construction 4. Find the approximate length of the other side. so that one of 9. In a circle of radius 1 8" inscribe a rectangle of which one side 5. 10. and find a construction for inscribing a square in Calculate the length of the side to the nearest hundredth of an inch. Prove that the area of the square circumscribed about a circle double that of the inscribed square. by considerations of symmetry. square and an equilateral triangle are inscribed in a circle. (i) circle. Circumscribe a square about a circle of radius 1*5". is : ABCD (Problems. and state a construction for it. 12. On Circles and Squares. Measure the diameter to the nearest millimetre. measures 3"0". Circumscribe a circle about a square whose side is 6 cm. State your construction. shewing all lines of construction. 3.
2W
GEOMETRY.
ON CIRCLES AND REGULAR POLYGONS.
Problem
To draw a regular polygon
(i)
30.
(ii)
in
about a given
y"^'^
circle.
Let AB, BC, CD, ... be consecutive sides of a regular polygon inscribed in
a circle whose centre
is
^^—^^^ ^^D
/'
O.
...
/
are con/
I
\
Then AOB, BOC, COD,
_/
/'"
And if gruent isosceles triangles. the polygon has n sides, each of the
.L'AOB, BOC,
(i)
\
/^\
/
COD,
...
=
n
^<Z__A^
sides in a given circle,
.
Thus
to inscribe a polygon of
draw an angle AOB
at the centre equal to
n
This gives
the length of a side AB ; and chords equal to AB may now be The resulting figure will set oflf round the circumference. clearly be equilateral and equiangular.
(ii) To circumscribe a polygon of n sides about the circle, the points A, B, C, D, ... must be determined as before, and tangents drawn to the circle at these points. The resulting figure may readily be proved equilateral and equiangular.
Note.
the angle
This method gives a
360"
strict
geometrical construction only
when
n
can be drawn with ruler and compasses.
EXERCISES.
1. (i)
Give
strict constructions for inscribing in
;
a regular hexagon
2.
(ii)
a regular octagon
;
(iii)
a circle (radius 4 cm.) a regular dodecagon.
About a
(i)
circle of radius 1 '5" circumscribe
a regular hexagon ; (ii) a regular octagon. Test the constructions by measurement, and justify them by proof.
3. An equilateral triangle and a regular hexagon are inscribed in a given circle, and a and b denote the lengths of their sides prove that
:
(i)
area of triangle = i (area of hexagon)
;
(ii)
a^=3b^.
4.
By means
circle of radius 2".
measure
of your protractor inscribe a regular heptagon in a Calculate and measure one of its angles ; and the length of a side.
.
problems on circles and polygons.
201
Problem
To draw a
circle (i)
31.
in
(ii)
about a regular polygan.
Let AB, BC, CD, DE, ... be consecutive sides of a reeular polyeron of n sides.
Bisect the ^'ABC, CO meeting at O.
//
//
/<^^^^^^~^^^^vXv
^\\
\\
jj^D
BCD by
BO,
a(
Then O
inscribed
is
the centre both of the
circle.
and circumscribed
^^ N ^^/ \\_ V] \Sv / xy// ^\>^ ^^^Kl/
f
I
Outline of Proof.
Join
OD; and from
the congruent
A'OCB, OCD, shew that
conclude that All the hisectoi's of
(i)
OD
bisects the Z.CDE.
Hence we
the angles of thejpolygon
meet at O.
6.
Prove that OB = OC = OD=...; from Theorem Hence O is the circumcentre.
(ii)
Draw
*
OP, OQ, OR,
...
perp. to AB, BC, CD,
...
;
...
Prove that
'
OP = OQ = OR=
Hence O
is
from the congruent A'OBP,
the incentre.
EXERCISES.
a regular hexagon on a side of 2*0". Draw the inscribed and circumscribed circles. Calculate and measure their diameters to the nearest hundredth of an inch.
1.
Draw
2. Shew that the area of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle threefourths of that of the circumscribed hexagon.
is
Find the area of a hexagon inscribed in a circle of radius 10 cm. to the nearest tenth of a sq. cm.
is an isosceles triangle inscribed in a circle, 3. If of the angles B and double of the angle A ; shew that a regular pentagon inscribed in the circle.
ABC
C
BC
having each is a side of
4.
On
a side of 4 cm. construct (without protractor)
(i) a regular hexagon ; (ii) a regular octagon. In each case find the approximate area of the figure.
' ;
GEOMETRY.
THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF A CIRCLE.
By
its
of the circumference of a circle is
:
experiment and measurement it is found that the length roughly 3 times the length of diameter that is to say
circumference
_
^^
,
diameter
^
^
all circles.
and
it
can be proved that this
is
the same for
correct value of this ratio is found by theory to be 31416 ; while correct to 7 places of decimals it is 314:15926o Thus the value 31 (or 3* 14^5) is too great, and correct to 2 places only.
A more
The
ratio
is
diameter
Or,
which the circumference of any circle bears to denoted by the Greek letter tt ; so that
circumference
its
= diameter x tt.
if
r denotes the radius of the circle,
circumference
= 2r x tt = 27rr
where to
are to give one of the values 3, 3*1416, oi 31415926, according to the degree of accuracy required in the final result.
tt
we
Note. The theoretical metliods by which ir is evaluated to any required degree of accuracy cannot be explained at this stage, but its value may be easily verified by experiment to two decimal places.
For example round a cylinder ends overlap. At any point in through both folds. Unwrap and the distance between the pin holes
:
ference.
strip of paper so that the the overlapping area prick a pin straighten the strip, then measure this gives the length of the circumMeasure the diameter, and divide the first result by the second.
:
wrap a
Ex.
find of TT.
1.
From
these data
CiRCUHFERENCR.
and record the value
Find the three results.
mean
of
the
Ex. 2. A fine thread is wound evenly round a cylinder, and it is found that the length required for 20 complete turns is 75*4". The diameter of the cylinder is 1 2" find roughly the value of t.
:
bicycle wheel, 28" in diameter, makes 400 revolutions in travelling over 977 yards. From this result estimate the value of ir.
Ex.
3.
A
then : and this is true Now so that as the (i) (ii) however great n may be. Area of circle =J =1 . . angles. Suppose the circle divided into any even number of sectors having equal central angles denote the number of sectors bj"^ 7i. and this is true if however many sides the polygon may have. and the angles at D and B tend to become rt. CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF A CIRCLE.TERNATIVE METHOD. AAOB = 7^. number of sectors is increased. Let AB be a side of a polygon of n sides circumscribed about a circle whose centre is O and radius r. each arc is decreased the outlines AB. 203 THE AREA OF A CIRCLE. Then we have Area of polygon = 71. the area of the circle = the area of the fig. . circumference x r 27rr . CD tend to become straight. . Xr AI. jABxOD = J nAB xr = J (perimeter of polygon) x r .. the perimeter and area of the polygon may be made to differ from the circumference and area of the circle by quantities smaller than any that can be named hence ultimately the of sides is increased Now number without limit. Let the sectors be placed side by side as represented in the diagram . ABCD .
The . THE AREA OF A SEGMENT. they cut off an arc whose length = ^^ of the circumference (ii) a sector whose area = ^^^ of the circle . arc AB X radius. whose length is the semicircumference of the circle.27rr xr=7rr2. ABCD ultimately becomes a rectangle. = J. 204 GEOMETRY. . the fig.. If two and make an angle of 1°. then radii of a circle (i) (i) the arc AS = ^^ of the circwmference of the area of the (ii) the sector AOB = k^t: circle = ^^ of (J circumference x radius) =J . Thus when n is increased without limit. The area of a minor segment is found by subtracting from the corresponding sector the area of the triangle formed by the chord and the radii. .'.if the angle AOB contains D degrees. and whose breadth is its radius. Thus Area of segment ABC = sector OACB triangle AOB. :. Area of circle = ^ circumference x radius . area of a major segment is most simply found by subtracting the area of the corresponding minor segment from the area of the circle. THE AREA OF A SECTOR.
Prove that the circles touch one another. circular ring formed by two concentric circles whose radii are 5 '7" and 43". Draw a . : circles 3. 12. '\ v so as to give a result of the assigned 1. Find to the nearest hundredth of a square inch the areas of the whose radii are (i) 2*3". In a circle of radius 7*0 cm. Find area 9. (ii) 10*6". and its width is 1 '0" as ^^. find approximately the radii of the two circles.. circle. whose 2. [In each case choose the value of degree of accuracy. t of the ring is 22 square inches. and 6*0 cm. Find to the nearest millimetre the circumferences of the circles (ii) 100 cm. a square is described find to the nearest square centimetre the difference between the areas of the circle and the square. is to the nearest tenth of an inch the side of a square whose equal to that of a circle of radius 5". taking 10. 8. Find to the nearest hundredth of a square inch the area of the 5. circle of radius I'O" having the point (TG". 0) and (0. Draw on squared paper two circles whose centres are at the points (1'5". 205 EXERCISES. two concentric 7. Find to the nearest hundredth of a square inch the difierence between the areas of the circumscribed and inscribed circles of an equilateral triangle each of whose sides is 4". "8"). 11. and find approximately their circumferences and areas. and whose radii are respectively '7' and 1 "O". CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF A CIRCLE. is inscribed in a Calculate to the nearest tenth of a square centimetre the total area of the four segments outside the rectangle. centre. Shew that each of the last two circles touches the first. A circular ring is formed by the circumference of The area two concentric circles. Find to two places of decimals the circumference and area a square whose side is 3*6 cm. circles is equal to the area of a circle whose radius is the length of a tangent to the inner circle from any point on the outer. of a circle inscribed in 4. Shew that the area of a ring lying between the circumferences of 6. A rectangle whose sides are 8*0 cm. 1*2") as Also draw two circles with the origin as centre and of radii 1*0^' and 3'0" respectively. radii are (i) 4'5 cm.
If I . and Escribed Circles of a Triangle. ABC is a triangle. The sum at If the circle inscribed in the triangle ABC touches the sides D. B. that the centres of tlie circles circumscribed about the four triangles AOB. if A. 9»' 9016. DOA are at the angular points of a parallelogram. and of the diameters of the inscribed and circumscribed a rightangled triangle is equal to the sum of the sides containing the right angle. tqual circumscribed angles. : . 11. S S are the centres of the inscribed are collinear. . : 10. circle . Al is if I is the centre of the inscribed circle. circumscribed circles shew that IS subtends at A an angle equal to half the difference of the angles at the base of the triangle. difference of the segments into which the third side is divided at the point of contact of the inscribed circle. and that they are equal.and I. Circumscribed. BOC.) Describe a circle to touch two parallel straight lines and a third straight line which meets them. Three circles whose centres are A. In any triangle ABC. 1. drawn perpendicular to BC. 12. (Theoretical. then Al is the The diagonals of a quadrilateral ABCD intersect at O shew 9. shew that AB = AC. B. In any triangle the difference of two sides is equal to the 7. F the triangle ABC is the circumscribed circle of the triangle DEF. and S are the centres of the inscribed and 8. the centre of the escribed circle which touches BC shew that Ij. E. Triangles which have equal bases and eqtud vertical angles have 2.206 GEOMETRY. I : Hence shew that if AD is bisector of the angle DAS. F . EXERCISES. . I. COD. Shew that two such circles can be drawn. Given the base. In the triangle ABC. I. altitude. C are concyclic. circles of 5. shew that the angles of the triangle DEF are respectively 904. Ij is the centre of the circle inscribed in the triangle ABC. and the radius of the oiroumscribed construct the triangle. and if O is produced to meet the circumscribed circle at O shew that the centre of the circle circumscribed about the triangle BIC. On the Inscribed. C touch one another shew that the inscribed circle ol externally two by two at D. E. circumscribed circles . and 3. 4.
= the vert. the DEC = the A DOC. to AB. CF meet at the point O. : 16. C. let AD.'. BE. the points O. AB. same segment. ODC are rt. because the . (i) The vertices of intersection of the perpendiculars drawn from the a triangle to the opposite sides is called its ortliocentre. Z D are concyclic : .THE ORTHOCENTRE OF A TRIANGLE. BE be the drawn from A and B to the opposite sides and let them intersect at O. the sum of the L" FOA. . It IS required to to shew that CF is perp. AEB. Then.DEB = the LDAB. the Z. Join DE." same segment.D. CF is perp. D. angle Theor. /. Definitions. . : the points A. the remaining Z. DEB = a rt. Join CO and produce it to meet AB at In . in the Again.•. because the angles. angles.'. L FOA. The perpendiculars drawn from the vertices of a triangle to the opposite sides are concurrent. Z. ^"^ OEC. ADB B in the are rt. THE ORTHOCENTRE OF A TRIANGLE. opp.'. angle: that is. . FAO = the sum of the L" DEC. F.E. Q. are concyclic . E. Hence the three perp» AD. (ii) The is triangle formed by joining the feet of the perpen diculars called the pedal or orthocentric triangle. .AFO = art. perp" the A ABC. I. E. 207 THEOREMS AND EXAMPLES ON CIECLES AND TRIANGLES.•.
Similarly it may be shewn that the L* by BE and CF.. ODE = the ^ODF. E are concyclic .d.. AEF.C. ODE = the Z.FEA = the LB. Z.BAC.FDB = the Z. BE. If the angle BAC is obtuse. meeting at the ortho CF centre O . be the perp» drawn from the vertices to the opposite sides.A. C. in the Similarly the points O. BE. B. II. ° same segment. ODE = the comp* of = the Z. In an acuteangled triangle the perpendictUars draxon from the vertices to the opposite aides bisect the angles of the pedal triangle through which they pass.OCE Z. let AD.OCE. DBF are equiangular to Note.' one another (ii) The triangles and to the triangle DEC. In the acuteangled A ABC. EFD. CF the L* FDE.e. DEF. DEF. . D. :.OBF. as in the last theorem. (i) Every tioo sides of the pedal triangle are equally inclined to that side of the original triangle in which they meet.EFA = the Z. of the But the Z. bisect respectively It is required to "prove that AD. it the Corollary. EDO = the Z. that the the Z. BE. and the Z.BAC. EFD are bisected q. CF . the Z. Similarly it Z. each being the comp' . may be shewn .'. ABC. that the points O.FDB = the In like manner may be proved that Z. D.BAO. and let DEF be the pedal' triangle. . then the perpendiculars bisect externally the corresponding angles of the peaal triangle.DFB = the Z.DEC = the Z. It may be shewn. Z.ODF=the Z. F are concyclic in the the Z.OCE = the Z.OBF. the same segment. Corollary.208 GEOMETRY. For the L EDC = the comp* of the the Z. Z.
shew that the angles BOC. ABC is : circumcircle 8. prove that ABC 0D 2. I/O is the orthocentre o/ the triangle ABC. BAC 4. 12. base. and D. having given a vertex. A. a triangle. to meet the circumcirde in G. its orthocentre o/ the triangle ABC. BE and AE. then any one o/ the C is the orthocentre o/ the triangle whose vertices are The three circles which pass through two vertices o/ a triangle orthocentre are each equal to the circumcircle o/ the triangle. are supplementary. 3. are produced to meet the circumcircle at P and shew that PQ is parallel to the base. and 9. 7. is the I/O four points O. Three circles are described each passing through the orthocentre of a triangle and two of its vertices : shew that the triangle formed joining their centres is equal in all respects to the original triangle. B. and the centre of the . O is its orthocentre. the other three. Q : The distance o/ each vertex o/ a triangle /ram the orthocentre is 10. and AK a diameter of the shew that BOCK is a parallelogram. E are taken on the circumference of a semicircle described 6. double o/ the perpendicular draum /rom the centre of the circumcircle to the opposite side. 209 EXERCISES.THE ORTHOOENTRE OF A TRIANGLE. the orthocentre. the straight line joining the orthocentre to the middle point of the base. In an acuteangled triangle the three aides are the external bisectors of the angles of the pedal triangle : and in an obtuseangled triangle the sides containing the obtuse angle are the internal bisectors of the corresponding angles of the pedal triangle. The orthocentre of a triangle is joined to the middle point of the and the joining line is produced to meet the circumcircle prove that it will meet it at the same point as the diameter which passes : through the vertex. I/O is the AD is produced orthocentre of the triangle and if the perpendicular = DG. circumcircle. 5. The perpendicular from the vertex of a triangle on the base. BD intersect (produced if necessary) at F and G shew that FG is perpendicular : : toAB. 1. by Construct a triangle. 11. on a given straight line AB the chords AD.
.*." OFA. taking the differences of the equals in . Since the Z.*. angles angles angle. fuigles. having its vertical Z. supplement is constant is that is. I eentre. (i) . and let BAG be any triangle on the base BC. CI be the Then is the inbisectors of its angles. . B. . is constant the loous of is the arc of a segment on the fixed chord is I I 80 . and let Al. Bl. III. Then from the (i) A BIC. Denote the angles of the A ABC C . But A . the supplement of the Z. the vert. But the A is constant. and constant vertical angle . I and from the (ii) A ABC. find the locus qf the incentre. OEA are rt. A + B + C = two rt.A equal to the L X. : I and (ii).'. LX . so that . hence the locus of its vertex O is the arc of a segment of which BC the chord. angle + ^A. .•.'.iA = one rt.X. CF. Proof. : the points O. opp. constant. angle = one rt. A BOC is the supplement of the Z. FOE L its . . having its vertical angle equal to the given Z.: . being always equal to the L X . LOCI. A IV. /. JA + ^B + ^C = one rt. 210 GEOMETRY. Let BC be the given base. Z. A. Draw the perp» BE. by A. and X the given angle . and let the L BIC be denoted by I. It is required to find the locus of O. the BOC has a fixed base. It is required to find the locus of I. E are concyclie is the Z. Given the base and vertical angle of a triangle. Proof.•. F. being always equal to the . + iB + iC = two rt. Let BAC be any triangle on the given base BC. its Given the base and vertical angle of a triangUy find the locus oj orthocentre. intersecting at the orthocentre O. A. I or.
through a fixed point. drawn from 5. Given the base BC and the vertical angle the locus of the excentre opposite A. sum of thd sides containing the vertical angle : find the 8. AB is a fixed chord of a circle. find the locus of the intersection of its diagonals. any triangle described on the fixed base BC and having and BA is produced to P. the circumference of one of them. on. section of the bisectors of the angles PAB. to cut the other circle at X and Y find the locus of the intersection of AY and BX. A and B is and PQ and QB. any diameter: find the locus of the intersection of PA BAG is a constant vertical angle equal to the locus of P. 7. find the locus of the interparallel straight lines AP. a fixed point to a system of concentric circles. are drawn . two straight lines PA. and produced if necessary. and PAQ is any other straight line similarly drawn find the locus of the intersection of HP and QK.: EXERCISES ON LOCI. : 9. Find the locus of the points of contact of tangents 4. . and from its extremities PX. QBA. : . Find the locus of the intersection of straight lines which pass through two fixed points on a circle and intercept on its circumference an arc of constant length. 1. BQ Find the locus of the middle points of chords of a circle drawn 3. 11. so that BP is . straight rod PQ slides between two rulers placed at right angles to one another. Two circles intersect at A and B HAK is a fixed straight line drawn through A and terminated by the circumferences. find Through the extremities of a given straight line AB any two 2. 6. or without the circumference. and AC is a moveable chord passing through A if the parallelogram CB is completed. are drawn perpendicular to the rulers find the locus of X. A QX : Two circles intersect at A and B. Distinguish between the cases when the given point is within. A of a triangle . any point on 10. 211 EXERCISES ON LOCI. are two fixed points on the circumference of a circle. PB are drawn. and through P.
From any point P on : 2. : the points P. the circumcircle of the triangle ABC. the ^PEF = the ZPAF. C are concyclic. will be shewn to be in the same straight Join PA. PCD = the supp* of the L PEF. Z. are collinear. PDC angles. EXERCISES. E. are rt.•. . Find the locus of a point which moves so that if perpendiculars are drawn from it to the sides of a given triangle. Again because the .•. Z Ohs.PCD. sides <^ o Let P be any point on the circuni circle of the A ABC and let PD. . their feet are collinear. drawn from P to the sides. 2%€ feet of the perpendicvlara drawn to the three triangle from any point on its circumcircle are collinear. A . or FD produced. B'C are collinear. PE. PF are drawn to BC and AB if FD. angles. BC. the . PC. F Join FE and ED : then FE and ED line. FE and ED are in one st. triangle The line FED is known as the Pedal or Slmson's Line of the ABC for the point P. V. and any point P on the circum4. L PAB B are concyclic. Because the . simson's line. 1. F are concyclic .'.« PEA.*. E. D. It is required to prove that the points D. in the same segment the = the suppt of = the Z. A. Proof. 3. and meet again at P shew that the feet of perpenP to the lines AB. ference is joined to the orthocentre of the triangle: shew that thii joining line is bisected by the pedal of the point P. shew that PE is perpendicular to AC. since the points A. E. cuts AC at E. triangle is inscribed in a circle. L? PEC. the points P. line. perpendiculars PD. PFA are rt. PED = the supp* of the Z.. C. AC. .212 GEOMETRY. PR be the perps. P. ABC their oircumcircles diculars drawn from and AB'C are two triangles with a common angle.
213 D. CDi=:CEi=5&. ITS CIRCLES. Ej. (iii) (iv) (V) (vi) CD =BDi. ITS CIRCLES. Fj the points of contact of the escribed circle. BDi = BFi=sc.THE TRIANGLE AND THE TRIANGLE AND VI. s the semiperimeter of the triangle. BD=BF=86. The area of the A ABC=rs =r^{8a). which touches BC and the other sides produced : a. o denote the length qf the sides BC. and BD=CD. points of contact of the inscribed circle of the triangle ABC. Tj me radii of the inscribed and escribed circles. and r. AB . CA. Prove thefdlomng equalities : (i) AE =AF =8 a. and D^. EE. r. = a.. (vii) Draw the above figure in the case when C is a right angle. . b. F are the. = FF. = 8b. CD =CE =sc (ii) AEi=AFi=s. E. and prove that r=sc.
I 'a* 's BC. I. Ig. each of which passes through three of the are all equal. circles. I3. .214 VII. points I. . CI2A. aiid C. Ij. The points The 77ie 1. (ii) A. I. In the triangle ABC. Ij and Ij. I. B. \ are collinear 1^ : so are B. Ig . i > GEOMETRY. I3. Is. AB Prove (i) the following properties : The points A. (iv) triangle Ijljls is equiangular to the triangle formed by joining the points of contact of the inscribed circle. ea^h is the orthocentre of the triangle whose vertices are the other three. are collinear so are I3. and ^he centres of the escribed circles touching resvectively the sides and the other sides produced. (v) Of the four points I. (iii) triangles BIjC. AI^B are equiangular to one another. C. . (vi) The four Ij. is the centre of the inscribed circle. CA.^. I2. Ig.
or base produced. and the point of contact with the base of the incircle . construct the triangle. Given the base. Given the base. Given the base and vertical angle of a 4. circle. find 5. which touch AC. construct the triangle. ing one another two by two. CIA. D3. triangle are the centres 2. shew that llj. C. (i) With (iii) DD2=DiD3=&. find the locus of the 3. Ig. . DDi = 6'C. the vertical angle. Given the centres of the threfe escribed circles. and the point of contact with' 7. escribed circles . shew that the centre Given the base BC. How many solutions will there be ? 11. the vertical angle. and the centres of 12. centre of the escribed circle which touches the base. of the circumcircle is fxed. that the centres of the circles circumscribed about the triangles BIC. perimeter. Ig. the figure given on page 214 shew that if the circles whose centres are I. circles (ii) (iv) DD3=DiD2=c. I3 the are bisected by the ABC is a triangle. circumference of the circumcircle.D2D3=6 + c. and radius of the inscribed construct the triangle. construct the triangle. 6. Ig. With three given points as centres describe three circles touch10. Ij. II3 llg. . and the vertical angle A of the triangle. a triangle. I3 touch BC at D. and Ij. AIB lie on the circumference of the circle circumscribed about the given triangle. is the centre of the inscribed circle . I and construct In a triangle ABC. Given the vertical angle. and Ig. 215 EXERCISES. Given the vertical angle. and AB respectively shew that the points B. Shew that the orthocentre and veHicea of a of the inscribed and escribed of the pedal triangle. shew 15. the radius of the inscribed 14. Dg. l lie upon a circle whope centre is on the circumference of the circum: circle of the triangle ABC. 13. the base. two circle .THE TRIANGLE AND ITS CIRCLES. the locus of the centre of the escribed circle which touches AC. t7'iangle. I3 the centres of the escribed circles 9. of an escribed circle . the length of the perpendicular from the vertex to the base the triangle. Given the centre of the inscribed circle. Given the base and vertical angle of a triangle. construct the triangle. 8. then 1. I is the centre of the circle inscribed in centres of the escribed circles. Dj.
a is and Xa of the circle which passes through X. VIII. a. the Ex. THE NINEPOINTS CIRCLE. is BX = XC.'. p. be shewn that E and F the points X. as diameter passes through D. angle with angle. y Join XY. aDX Similarly . 216 GEOMETRY. Y. and the middle points of the lines joining the orthocentre to the vertices are concyclic. OC. may be shewn that /S and y is lie on the O" of this oirole. . rt. Za. ZX is since BZ = ZA. since the circle on Xa a rt. XZ. In the A ABC. it may on the 7 are of this oirole Q. . Y are concyclic that is. D. AC BO produced makes a . angle. p.*. In any triangle the middle points of the sides. F. a. F be the feet of the perp' to these sides from A. many of its properties may be deriv^ from the fact of its being the oiroum« oirole of the pedal triangle. Y. Z. Z. C . 64. O It is required to prove that /S. OB. from the A ABO. Ya. F. Similarly. . E. CA. the nine points X. E. From this property the circle which passes through the middl« Obs. Z. and a. rt. let be the orthocentre. AZ = ZB. lie /3. And from But A ABC. the points X.•. and Aa = aO. angle. a. E. the feet of the perpendiculars from the vertices to the opposite sides. y the middle points ot OA. lies it C : Similarly . the L XZa a .. Z on the a diameter of this circle. Y. points of the sides of a triangle is called the NinePoints Circle .. O" Again. Now since . are concyclic.'. Y. let X. the L XYa is a rt.B. Xa. Z be the middle points of the sides BC. Za is par» to BO. B. concyclic. D. X and DC .•. let D. 2. par* to AC.D. AB.
F middle points of the sides . and the centroid is collinear with the circumcentre. . But SA is a radius of the circumcircle . angles the intersection of the lines which bisect Theor. . It may be shewn that the pern. the centre N is the middle point of SO.*.d. the ninepoints the orthocentre. and . and Xo is a diameter of the ninepoints circle . point of To prove that N is the middle SO. since and EY are chords of the ninepoints circle.*. the middle point of Xa is its centre but the middle point of SO is also the centre of the ninepoints circle. In the A ABC.e. 31. C SN = ON. is land the Z. (ii) the radius of the ninepoints circle is half the radius of the circumcircle. Examples 2 and 3. SX = Oa =Ao. Z be the D. respectively. because ( NX = Na.THE NINEPOINTS CIRCLE. To prove that the radius of the ninepoints circle is half the (ii) radium of the circumcircle. Similarly the perp.ONa.•. {Proved.e. Cor. . SA = Xa.. XD XD is 1. its centre : . the radius of the ninepoints circle is half the radius of the ciroum< circle. 267. Y.] q. to XD from its middle point bisects SO (i) . 22. fSee also p. to EY at its middle point bisects SO that is. also par^ to Aa.) Hence Xo and SO bisect one another at N. : Then from the A» SNX. E. And SX . and EY at rt. (iii) centre.d. S and N the centres of the circumscribed and ninepoints circles .. these perp» intersect at the middle point of : SO : And .*. let X. Xa is a diameter of the ninepoints circle. the feet of the perp* O the orthocentre .SNX = the Z. ONa. Theor. q. By the last Proposition. To prove (i) 217 that the centre of the ninepoints circle is the middle point of the straight line which joins the orthocentre to the circumcentre.
If I.d. since aN = NX. And from the A Xap. EXERCISES. BOO. Cor. G is the centroid of the triangle ABC. l^. 1. O. Given the base and vertical angle of a triangle. shew that one 5. Join AX and draw ag par' to SO. Given the base and vertical angle of a triangle. COA. For some other important properties of the Ninepointa page 310.e. To prove that the centroid is collinear with points S. angle and one side of the pedal triangle are constant. O.. . then the circle circumscribed about ABC is the ninepoints circle of each of the four triangles formed by joining three of the points I. 97.. q. kg=gQ. 2. p. III. is. and .. O. All triangles which have the same orthocentre and the same circumscribed circle. Ex. .2. the centre of the circle which passes through the three escribed centres. Theor.*. whose orthocentre is also the ninepoints circle of each of the triangles AOB. p. Then from the A AGO. Circle see Ex..218 (iii) GEOMETRY. Let AX meet SO at G. gQ^GX. That the centroid is collinear with the points S. of a triangle ABu. and ag is par' to OG. AG = §of AX. I3. N. 1. 4. N. 64. . 54. is The ninepoints circle of any triangle ABC. is :. I2. Ij. since Aa=oO. U are the centres of the inscribed and escribed circles 3. find the locus of 6. Note. have also the same ninepoints circle. NG par' to ag. find the locus of the centre of the ninepoints circle. Given the hose and vertical angle of a triangle. 1.
AB AB said to be divided internally at X. XB being in either case the dividing point .i two segments AX. line AB is the different of the . Obs. AB is the sum of In external division the given segments AX. contained by two adjacent sides AB. divided externally at X. the segments the distances of w. this is equivalent to the product AB AD. . In internal division the given line the segments AX. 2. AD is denoted AB. 1. Similarly a square on AB. by the sq. XB. or in AB produced. A the red. then X is said to divide AB into the a ~ x ' B Fiff. PART IV. AD for these sides fix its size A and shape. THE GEOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS OF CERTAIN ALGEBRAICAL FORMULA Definitions. drawn on the side AB is denoted by 2. In Fig. XB. In Fig. If a point X is taken in a straight line AB. X of the given line AB. or AB^.. rectangle whose adjacent sides are AB. rectangle ABCD is said to be i. ON SQUAKES AND EECTANGLES IN CONNECTION WITH THE SEGMENTS OF A STRAIGHT LINE. X from is the extremities ^ ^ B ^^S2. AD .
AX. YC = rect. ck . which contain respectively a. AB.E. 1. XF + the fig. K {fig. K = rect. and contains ak units of area bk XY. ck. YB. and let AB be divided into any number of parts AX. AE + the (a fig. and the several parts of a k k be k Let AB and K be the two given st. YC. namely that {a + b + c)k= ak + bk + ek. K or. [Euclid 11. AB. Construction. K.D. YB. to prove that the AB. It is required rect. and contains + b + c)k units of area AE = rect. lines. K.] straight lines. fig. XY.. to AB and equal to K. Through X. K + rect. Y. . AX. Through D draw DC par^ to AB. YB. XY. and c units of length. the rectangle contained by the two lines is equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by the v/ndivided line the divided line. AC = the fig. K . Hence the rect. of these. YF. so that AB contains a + b + c units. 220 GEOMETRY. YB. XF = rect. Theorem If of two 50. b. Draw AD perp. . = rect. bk + + Q. K. . AC = rect. K + rect. Let the line K contain k units of length. B draw XE. fig. AX. K (o + 6 + c)^= ak + rect. K + rect. and The fig. Proof. XY. BC par^ to AD. fig. K . one is divided into any number of parts. by construction.
] Corollaries. [Euclid II.AX = (AX + XB)AX = AX2 + AX. AB. AB. when the D EC sq. A X B Then the That is. 221 3. AX.AX + AB.: : SQUARES AND RECTANGLES. (i) When AB is divided only at one point X. 2 and Two special cases of this Theorem deserve attention.XB. Then the That equal is. and when undivided line the AD is equal to AB. D on AB = the the given EC rect. Or thus AB. Or thus AB2 = AB. (ii) When AB is is undivided line AD divided at one point X. The square on lirie is equal to the contained by the whole lin^ and eojch sum of the rectangles of the segments. . XB. sq.XB. The rectangle contained by the whole to tJie square on that segment with and one segment is the rectangle contained hp the two segments. AX = the on AX + the line rect. AX + the rect. and equal to one segment AX.AB = AB(AX + XB) = AB. AB. XB. rect.
222 GEOMETRY. the square on the given line is equal to the sum of the squares on the two segments together with twice the rectangle contained by the segments. Theorem If a 51. 4. [Euclid II.] straight line is divided internally at any point. (aV .
B ^X . the square sum of the squares on the two rectangle containsd by the A* a. 223 Theorem If a on 52. 7.] straight line is divided externally at the given line is equal to the segments diminislied by t%dce the any point.SQUARES AND RECTANGLES. [Euclid II.
224
GEOMETRY.
Theorem
The
53.
[Euclid
11.
5 and 6.]
lines is equal to the
difference of the squares
on two straight
difference.
rectangle contained by their
sum and
A<.
gC
Let the given
lines AB,
AC be placed
b units of
and
let
them contain a and
in the same st. length respectively.
line^
It is required to prove that
AB2  AC2 = (AB + AC) (AB  AC)
namely that
Construction.
a^
;

b^
={a + b){ab).
ACFG
;
On AB and AC draw the squares ABDE, and produce CF to meet ED at H.
Then GE = CB = a&
units.
Proof.
Now
AB2  AC^ = the
sq.
AD  the
sq.
AF
= the rect. CD + the rect. QH = DB.BC +GF.GE = AB.CB +AC.CB = (AB + AC)CB = (AB + AC)(ABAC).
That
is,
a2

62
=(a + b)(ab).
Q.E.IX
:
;
SQUARES AND RECTANGLES.
225
Corollary. If a straight line is bisected, arid also divided (internally or externally) into two unequal segments, the rectangle contained by these segments is equal to the difference of the squares on
half the line and on the line between the joints of
section.
A
X
Fig.
I.
Y
B
A
X
Fig.
2.
B
Y
That
is, if
AB
1,
1,
is
bisected at
X and
in Fig.
also divided at Y, inter2,
nally in Fig.
and externally
.
then
in Fig.
in Fig.
2,
AY YB = AX2  XY^ AY YB = XY^  AX2.
.
For in the
first case,
AY YB = (AX + XY) (XB  XY)
.
= (AX + XY)(AXXY) = AX2XY2.
The second
case
may
be similarly proved.
EXERCISES.
1.
Draw diagrams on squared paper
is
(i)
to
shew that the square on a
;
straight line
fourtimes the square on half the line
nine times the square
(ii)
on onethird of the
line.
2.
Draw diagrams on squared paper
(i)
to illustrate the following
algebraical formulae
(x + 7)2=a;2+14a; + 49.
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
3.
+ c)2=a2 + 62 + c2 + 26c + 2ca + 2a6. + bd. (a; + 7){a; + 9) = a;2+16x + 63.
{a + b){c{d)=ac\ad{bc
(i), if
(a + 6
In Theor.
In Theor. AB.
In Theor.
sq.
50, Cor.
fig.
AB = 4
cm., and the
fig.
AE = 96
sq. cm.,
find the area of the
4.
XC.
(ii), if
50, Cor.
AX = 21", and
the
fig.
XC = 336
sq. in.,
find
5.
51, if the fig.
AG = 36
sq.
cm., and the rect. AX,
XB
= 24
6.
cm., find AB.
if
In Theorem 52,
,
the
fig.
AG = 9 61
sq. in.
,
and the
fig.
DG = 6 '51
sq. in.
find
AB.
p. 230.]
[For further Examples on Theorems 5053 see
H.S.O.
P
GEOMETRY.
Theorem
In an oUusean^led
the
64.
[Euclid
II. 12.]
triangle, the square
on
the side svhtending
obtuse angle
is
equal to the
containing the obtuse angle tained by one of those sides
sum of tlie squares on the sides together with twice the rectangle conand
the projection of
the other side
upon
it.
Let ABC be a triangle obtuseangled at C; and let AD be drawn perp. to BC produced, so that CD is the projection of the side CA on BC. [See Def. p. 63.]
It
is
required to prove tlmt
AB2 = BC2 + CA2 + 2BC.CD.
Proof.
^
\
Theak^ 51.
\
Because
..
BD
BD2
is
the sfum of the lines BC, CD,
.
= BC2 + CD2 + 2 BC
of these equals
CD.
DA^.
To each
add
Then BD2 + DA2 = BC2 + (CD2 + DA2) + 2 BC.
But BD2+ DA2 = AB21 „ >, and CD2 + DA2 = CA2J'
Hence
for the
,
.,
CD.
,
z.
,
r^ D
.
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.
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2BC CD. (i) D .] every triangle the square on the side subtending an acute angle that angle those sides sum of the squares on the sides containing diminislied by twice the rectangle contained hy one of and the projection of the other side upon it. Hence AB2 = BC2 + CA2 . . equal to the Fig:. • IS a rt. [Euclid II. Then BD2+ DA2 = BC2 + (CD2+ But BD2 + DA2 = ABn f . DA2... 2.SQUARES AND RECTANGLES. ^ . Q. or BC produced . and is let CD the required to prove that Proof. AB2 = BC2 + CA2 . for the and CD2+DA2 = CA2j' 4. AD Let ABC be a triangle in whicb the z. of these equals Thear. to BC. L. 52. so that projection of the side CA on BC.D.2BC CD. 22? Theorem In is 55. 13. C is acute be drawn perp. Since in both figures BD is the difference of the lines BC. To each add DA2) r^ z. CD.CD. 2BC CD . BD2 = BC2 + CD22BC. i. It is . ^Q^ ' ^ ^^ iV .E.
54 and 55. 1. in this case.ACB is AB2 = BC2 + CA2. the Z. (i) (ii) if shew that if LC = G0\ ^C = 120% then c'^=a^ + b'^a^. ABC is an isosceles triangle in which AB = AC and BE is drawn : . 3. then c^=a'^ + V^+db.' . D (i) C If D B is obtuse. 6 = 17 cm. a = 21 cm. a right angle. when the aACB is right. If the Z. Thus the enunciation less three results may be collected in a single The square on a than the side of a triangle is greater than.ACB is acute. 55. CD. 228 GEOMETRY. many 2. (iii) The&r. TJieoi'.: . In the A ABC. so that CD (the projection of CA) vanishes hence. C(D) B DC The&r. difference in cases of inequality being twice the rectangle contained by one of the two sides and the projection on it of the other. 2BC CD = 0. equal to. 54 If the Z.. CD. By how square centimetres does c^ fall short of a^ + b^^ Hence or otherwise calculate the projection of AC on BC. Summary of Theorems 29. according as the angle contained by those sides is obtuse. . Shew the the that BC2 = 2AC C£. 29. c = 10 cm. AB2 = BC2 + CA2 . In a triangle ABC. or the sum of the squares mi the other sides.. or acute . EXERCISES.2BC . perpendicular to AC. AD coincides with AC. Observe that in (ii).ACB AB2 (ii) = BC2 + CA2 + 2BC a right anghj .
one is obtuse. The proof may easily be adapted to the case in which the perpendicular AD falls outside the triangle. we have AB2 + AC2 = 2BX2 + 2AX2. Thecyr. Then of the z. .D.*AXB. to . and the other acute. Let ABC be a base BC. Thear. In any triangle the difference of the squares on two sides is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the base and the intercept between the middle point of the base and the foot of the perpendicular draion from the vertical angle to the base. AXC. And from the A AXC. BC and consider the case in which AB and AC are unequal. 55. triangle. . In any triangle the sum of the squares on two sides is equal to twice the square on half the third side together with twice the square on the median which bisects the third side. and AD falls within the triangle. and AX the median which bisects the It is required to prove that AB2 + AC2 = 2BX2 + 2AX2. Adding these results.E.2XC . 54. EXERCISE. Note. 229 Theorem 56. Let the ^AXB be obtuse. XD. perp. Draw AD Then from the A AX B. AC2 = XC2 + AX2 . and remembering that XC = BX.squares and rectangles. AB2 = BX2 + AX2 + 2BX XD. Q.
as Y moves If AB example to trace the changes from A to B. if a perpendicular is drawn from the right angle to the hypotenuse. the square on this perpendicular is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the hypotenuse. the midpoint of AB. Case 7. use the result of the last in the value of AY^ + YB'^. (ii) may is be derived from Theorem 52 in a similar way. YB = 8AX2. then AB2=AX2 + XB2 + 2AX. If a straight line is divided internally at Y. Also deduce 4. In the formula (a + &) (a  &) = a^ .i^. (ii) — ^ ) ~ ( o ) * 6. and AY is drawn to cut the base Prove that YC. Use the CJorollaries of Theorem 50 to shew that if a straight line AB is divided internally at X. internally or externally at Y. If a straight (ii) nally. b = —n^* DC "4" 7/ iK t/ and enunciate verbally the resulting theorem. and also divided (i) interexternally into two unequal segments at Y. 9. substitute a = ^ —^. 1. shew that the 5. AY2 = AC2 .2ah.X Y2) . Explain this statement by reference to the diagram of Theorem 52. sheio that in either AY2 + YB2=2(AX2 + XY2). Deduce this (i) from the Corollary of Theorem 53 from the formula a6= f . EXERCISES ON THEOREMS 5053. shew that AY = 2AB. If a straight line AB is bisected at X and produced to Y. In a rightangled triangle.2 (AX + X Y) AX = 4AX2 . for external section. 10. case line AB is bisected at X. YB continually diminishes as Y moves from X.2AY YB = 4AX2 .BY . 80 . ( X Y) Theor. 8. for internal section . 2. 51. rectangle AY. twice the rectangle contained by the straight lines.] divided internallj' at Y. The sum of the squares on two stinight lines is never less than 3. (i).2 AX2 .230 GEOMETRY. and if AY. ( =2AX2 + 2XY2. 9. AY2= AC2+ BY . it from the formula (a . 53. YC.h)^ = a^\lfi. [Euclid II. TJieor.] [Proof of case AY2 + YB2 = AB2 . ABC is an isosceles triangle.XB.
a circle is drawn . In any quadrilateral the squares on the diagonals are together twice the sum of the squares on the straight lines joining the middle points of opposite sides. In a triangle ABC.2U sq. prove that if BE. AB is a straight line 8 cm.. by considering a falls CAB in the limiting position when the vertex C if at Y in the base is AB. AB respectively'. on the straight 8. find the locus of the vertex. in length. . 7. and : section of tha diagonals. shew that the base BC divided at X so that 7wAB2+wAC2=wBX2 + nXC2+(w+w)AX2. Three times the sum of the squares on the sides of a triangle equal to four times the sum of the squares on the medians. . .. the base 6 = 15 cm. Prove 12. ABC : is a triangle.EXERCISES. \4) Prove that the sum of the squares on the sides of a parallelogram equal to the sum of the squares on its diagonals. triangle 6. if P is any point on circumference. line which joins the middle points of the diagonals. in.. find the distance a rectangle. «iBX=nXC.. 64. as centre with radius 5 cm. and on deduce the Z. then AY2 + YB2 = 2 (AX2 + X Y2). 230 Ex. and from its middle point 1. The sum of the squares on the sides of a quadrilateral is greater than the sum of the squares on its diagonals by four times the square 7. and O the point of intersection of its medians shew that AB2+BC2 + CA2=3(OA2 + OB2 + OC2).A. p.BF + AC. cm. the angles at B and C are acute are drawn perpendicular to AC.2±OC2. shew that the O AP2+BP2=82sq. If a straight line AB is bisected at X. ] this from Theorem 56. [See Ex. BCi^s^o5_and OA. is 10. The base theother sides = 122 is of a triangle = 10 cm. If a =17 cm. 3. and the sum of the squares sq. 2. and also divided (inter nally or externally) at Y. cm. In a triangle ABC. calculate the length of the median AX.CE. 9.] l^ A BCD is O any point within it shew that OA^ + O02=OB2 + OD2.. to within 'Or'. In a triangle ABC. of a ^35ESoft^r diagonal eqHgiJ to ^_^_^^ rhombus and its shorter ndiagonat isach measure S" . cm. 11. and c =S BC is bisected at X. CF BC2=AB. [See p. EXERCISES ON THEOREMS 5456.
E. . Proof. XB = the rect.] it. is CX. thord which JEach rectangle equal to the square on half the is bisected at the given point X. circle. and r the radius.232 GEOMETRY.EX) = (AE + EX)(AEEX) = AE2 . OX. If two chords of a circle cut at a point within contained by their segments are egimh the rectangles D In the point ABC. XD. Corollary. KECTANGLES IN CONNECTION WITH CIRCLES. XD. = the L' at E are rt. l'. XB = the recL CX. to the chord AB. AX. let AB.D. XD = r2OX2. CX. r2  0X2. . of the given Supposing bisecting it. Q. Let O be the centre. = (AE2 + OE2)(EX2 + OE2) 53. CD be chords cutting at the interna] X It is required to prove that the red AX. and therefore Join OA.. OE drawn perp. 35. the rect. since Similarly it may be shewn that the rect. XB = (AE + EX) (E B . AX.EX2 Thear. THE0REai5jJ [Euclid III. The rect.
= the z. AX.AE2 Them. CX. AX. circle. Q. . XD = 0X2 _ ^2. OT.^2^ . OE drawn perp. the rect.. XD = the sq. 58. OX." 0X2 _ j2^ gince at E are it rt. and let XT be a tangent drawn from "^ that point. at the externaL^oint X . 36. on XT. XT2 = 0X2 . XB = (EX + AE) (EX . AX. The rect. XB = the rect. [Euclid III. The&r. CD be chords cuttin^when produced. And since the radius OT is perp. on XT. _ It is required to prove that the rect.E. tangent XT. Let O be the centre. XB = ^^e reel CX. XD = the sq. and therefore Join OA.] cut at when produced. to the Similarly . 233 Theorem If two chm'ds of a circle. Proof. = (EX2 + OE2)(AE2 + OE2) 53.^4et AB. • . CX.D. 2 9.RECTANGLES IN CONNECTION WITH CIRCLES. the rectangles contain^ed hy their segments are equal. to the chord AB. and r the radius of the given Suppose bisecting it. a point outside it. from the point oj \ In f^e 0ABC. And each rectangle is equal to the square on the tangent intersecti&n. ^^ may be shewn that the rect.EB) = (EX + AE)(EXAE) = EX2 .
XB = the sq. then the lin£ whicJi meets the circle is a tangent to it. we may include both Theorems in a single enunciation.D.E. 58. XC is a tangent to the circle. 234 GEOMETRY. circle Hence XC cannot meet the section coincide again unless the points of that is. of which XA cuts the circle at A and B. XC.. . internally in Theorem 57.] two straight lines are drawn. NoTK ON Theorems 57.. Suppose XC meets the circle again at D then XA XB = XC XD. . and XC meets it at C and let the rect. It is required to prove that XC touches the circle at C. let two straight lines XC be drawn. 58. circle circle. XA. are in each case AX. the rectangles are draion through a given point contained by the segments of the . Remembering that the segments into which the chord AB is divided at X.. one of which cuts the circle. XA XB = XC^ . Q. If any number of chords of a within or vnthout a chords are equal. [Euclid III 37. XB. XD = XC. . . and the other meets it . From X a point outside the ©ABC. But by hypothesis. Theorem If from a point outside 59. . and externally in Theorem 58. on XC.XD = XC2. circle a XA. Thear. and if the rectangle contained by the whole line which cuts the circle and the part of it outside the circle is equal to the square on the line which meets the circle. Proof.
XB = IVIX2. and XA = 45 cm. secant XAB and a tangent external point X. A point X moves within a circle of radius 4 cm. straight lines intersecting at X. D are concyclic. and compare the results. (i) (ii) AX and MX=2(y'. of CX = 27".. If of the semicircle.. 5 cm. (i) Measure the segments of AB and CD hence find approximately the areas of the rectangles AX.. {Numerical and Graphical.XQ=12 sq. find XT. (i) rectangles (ii) Measure XA. (iii) Find by how much per from its cent. . your estimate of the from its true value. CD and two XB = l2". and PQ is any chord passing through X .. C. Draw . and from the rect. from the centre O. Through X draw any two secants XAB. (ii) Draw the chord rightangled triangle M N which OXM calculate is bisected at X . from the centre O. a perpendicular ference at M shew that : drawn on a given line AB and from X.XB and CX.RECTANGLES IN CONNECTION WITH CIRCLES. are AB. and XB=24". and within it take a point X 3 cm. hence find approximately the XA XB and XC XD. EXERCISES ON THEOREMS 5759. Draw a ment. find the length XD. XB Draw a circle of radius 3 cm. Draw the tangent XT . CD. Through X draw any two chords AB. true value. B.. B.XQ = 20sq.XD.) 235 a circle of radius 5 cm. find XB. if in all positions PX. and AX = 49 cm. your estimate of the rect. cm. XD. 5. and take an external point X 2. (i) A XT are drawn to a circle from an If If (ii) XA=06".. XCD.. hence find the diameter If the radius of the semicircle = 3 '7 cm. AX. find XB . C. What will the locus be if X moves outside the same circle. find MX. 6. If A. XT=75 cm. circle through A. AX. XB and XC. the value of XM^. (iii) differs Find by how much per cent. and from the rightangled triangle XTO . XB differs 3. AX. any XM is drawn to AB cutting the circum. and check your result by measure 4. A seraicircle is point in AB. =25". and compare the 1. so that PX. find the locus of A.? . results. calculate the value of XT^. AX = 18''. cm. .
AjIO is a triangle rightangled at C and from drawn to the hypotenuse shew that is . diameter of a . 2. and intersect at O : A AO.DB = CD2. a point of intersection of two circles. 8.OP=BO. DAF are drawn. A is . if in AP a point Q is taken so that AP AQ is constant. each passing through a centre and terminated by the circumferences shew that 9. B.XD. : CA. circle. 11. common chord produced common tangent are equal.236 GEOMETRY. BQ are drawn from shew that to the opposite sides. and through any point one in each X in their common chord two that chords AB. two straight lines CAE. 12. . tangents drawn to to them from any point circles in their 5. D are concyclic. . If two circles intersect.XD. Through A. perpendiculars AP. find the locus of Q.0Q=r3. : ABC C a perpendicular AD. P and any straight at Q. shew 3. 4. ^1^ If from any external point P two tangents are drawn to a O and radius r .AF.OQ. line is and CD is perpendicular to drawn from A to cut CD AP AQ = constant. CD are drawn. shew that If AB produced bisects PQ.AE = DA. AX. and from drawn to the hypotenuse shew that is : ABC C a perpendicular AB. shew that if . 7. CD is a triangle rightangled at C. AB at (or AB is a fixed AB produced) the circle circle. two straight = CX. is If a PQ drawn two which cut at A and 6. C. Deduce from Theorem 58 that the tangents drawn rom any external point are equal. {Theoretical.AD=AC2. a fixed point. and CD a fixed straight line . AP is anv straight line drawn from A to meet CD at P. to a circle If two circles intersect. . CD intersect at X so that AX XB deduce from Theorem 57 (by redrictio ad absurdum) that the points A. and B In the triangle ABC.XB=CX. B. lines AB. EXERCISES ON THEOREMS 5759.) /\. given circle whose centre is shew that of contact at . and if OP meets the chord Q 0P.
A semicircle is described on AB as diameter.PDfAM. 6. when cZ=l'2". PIV2=PC. Hence ^ (^ ^ 2r) = t^. Hence find the approximate distance at which a bright light raised 66 feet above the sea is visible at the sealevel. hy a diagram in which 1" Employ the equation h{2rh) = c^ is to find the height of an arc whose chord 16 cm. r. find roughly the diameter of the earth. . If h is the height of an arc of radius prove that b^=2rh.) : RECTANGLES IN CONNECTION WITH CIRCLES. tangents AE and DF are drawn if the common chord is produced to meet the tangents at G and H. drawn intersecting at P : shew that AB2=AC. and the two direct common 8.. 2. 3. and any two chords BD are AC. of the arc=^. If and PM from an external point P a secant PCD is drawn to a is perpendicular to a diameter AB. the height Shew by Theorem 57 that h{2rh)=c'^. EXERCISES ON THEOREMS 5759. If the height is and its height is 18 feet reduced by 8 feet. 4. and h the chord of half the 7. and If the horizon visible to an observer on a cliff 330 feet above the 5. shew that circle. the find the diameter of a circle in a segment 8" in height. arc. 9. Hence which a chord 24" long outs off The radius of a circular arch is 25 feet. and t the length Theorem 58 that shortest distance from an external point to a' of the tangent from the same point. Two circles intersect at B and C. {Miacdlaneoua. ? the radius remaining the same.BP. The chord of an arc of a circle = 2c. shew by find the diameter of the circle verify your result graphically. If d denotes the circle. Explain the double result geometrically. by how much will the span be reduced Check your calculated results graphically represents 10 feet.MB. shew that : GH2=AE2fBC2. 237 radius = r. 1. find the span of the arch. sealevel is 22J miles distant. and t=2'4". and radius 17 cm.APfBD.
18. . a square eqwil in C Problem 32. Draw a Apply rectangle equivalent to this triangle. On AE draw Then BF Proof. and produce CB to meet the circumference at F. Produce AB to E. a semicircle. rectilineal figure. to the rectangle the construction given above. Corollary. of AE. = (rfXB)(rXB) = r2XB2 = FB2. from the rt. Let X be the midpoint Join XF. 17 Reduce the given figure to a triangle of equal area. PROBLEMS. to To describe a square equal in area any given Prob. angled A FBX. and r the radius of Then the AC = AB BE . ^ a a/rea to X Let ABCD be the given rectangle. Proh. rect. is a side of the required square.238 GEOMETRY. the semicircle. Construction. making BE equal to BC.
a line 8 cm. . of each side. a line 9 cm. first Hence give a graphical solution. 1. 9. of the equations xy=%. solve the following equations by a graphical construction. Draw a area. cm. and test your drawing by calculation. your unit of length. Noticing that (i) x"^ + y"^ = kE^ (ii) a:y=2AAPB=AB. .: PROBLEMS ON CIRCLES AND RECTANGLES. a. The area of a rectangle is 25 sq. so that square on a side of 4 cm. in length. Draw any rectangle whose area square of equal area. correct to one decimal figure Taking yu' as : x + y = 40. and measure the length of its side. devise a . Construct an equal square.. by 2 cm. is 3 75 sq. and construct a Find by measurement and calculation the length . and the length of one side 7*2 cm. 245. xi/=lQ. xy=^Q. [Problem 18]. Draw a quadrilateral . 5. ' 6. so that square on a side of 6 cm. of x + i/=9. and denote these lines by x and y. is xy = lQ9. Draw an equilateral triangle on a side of 3". Test your work oy measurement and calculation. On a straight line AB draw a semi circle. AX XB = lhe Hence Divide AB. externally at X. What is rectangle 8 cm. BC=CD=5 cm. . in.] find a graphical solution. graphical solution of the equations a. rectangle of equal area [Problem 17]. Find graphically the side of a square equal in area to a rectangle whose length and breadth are 3*0" and 1'5".2 : + y2=100. 7. 3. PX . and from any point P on the circumference draw PX perpendicular to AB. internally at X. 8. correct to the first decimal place. . PB. the length of each side ? and construct a square of equal 2. Hence find by construction and measurement the side of an equal square. Join AP. and construct a 4. Reduce this figure to a triangle and hence to a rectangle of equal area. .y=25. 239 EXERCISES. correct to the the simultaneous equations : decimal place. 10. find graphically the length of the other side to the nearest millimetre. AB = AD = 9cm. [See p. AX XB = the Divide AB. ABCD from the following data: A = 65°. in length.
ax. half AB. a. Hence illustrate the above proof graphically. EXERCISE. from the rt. BC = CD = . each of these equals take ax From then or. and a{ax). a^ax = x'^. . Problem To the whole 33.BX^AX^. to AB. AD = a. On AB. AX equal divided as required at X. = (ACBC)(AC + BC). S40 GEOMETRY. and on opposite sides of AB. H X G Let AB be divided as above at X. line to be divided at a point X in such a way that AB. BC perp. draw the squares ABEF. a{ax) = x'^. angled A ABC. and make BC equal to From CA From AB Then AB Proof. a^ = x{x\a) = x^ + ax. to AD. . Draw Construction. Let AB = a units and let AX = «. Now that is. is cut off cut off CD equal to CB. In this diagram name rectangular figures equivalent to a^.. of length. x{x + a).BC2. is. that AB. 3rvX ax R Let AB be the st.'.BX = AX2. AXGH and produce GX to meet FE at K. ThenBX = aic. Join AC. AB2 = AC2. divide a given straight line so that the rectangle contained hy and one fart may A^ he equal to the square on the other part. AX..
S.] Hence prove (i)AX = 22. and consequently BX = ax. Measure AX'. Ill IV. To obtain X'. 240 must be modified thus : CD AX' is to be cut off from AC produced from BA produced.BX = AX2. MEDIAL SECTION. explaining the geometrical meaning of the negative sign. the construction of p. shew that AC = ^. ( [Theor. line AB is divided at X. and from the greater segment a part is taken equal to the less.. shew that the greater segment is also divided in medial section. Divide AB. 3. Q . in the negative sense. then a{ax) = x^.BX' = AX'2.2. and find Divide a straight line 4" long internally in medial section. externally in medial section at X'. and or> if AB=a. Measure the greater segment. 1. a line 2" long. so that A (i) (ii) AB. AB may be divided internally at X. (n) AX'= .. and the roots the lengths of namely. EXERCISES. a? + axa'^=0. 29. If a straight line is divided internally in medial section. 241 straight line is said to be divided in Medial Section when Note. and externally at X'. the rectangle contained by the given line and one segment is equal to the square on the other segment.BX=AXa. of this quadratic. In the figure of Problem 33. If a St. Algebraical Illustration. so that AB. —^ — « ^^^ ~ ( "^"^^ )' AX and AX'.G. that is to say. AB. This division may be internal or external . its length algebraically. 2. H. and obtain its length algebraically. AX = a. internally or externally.+ 2 )• 4.
CXB CX = CB = AX. and radius AB.the z. Then ABC Proof. . XCA . draw the 33 (This construction shewn separately on the chord BC equal to AX. XCA = twice the l A. CBX = the z. .) AB BX = AX2. the ^ XAC = the z. A.. To each add the l XCA then the l BCA = the l XAC + the l XCA = the ext. X and C. the L XAC + the z. segment. . in it place the BCD and Join AC. Prob. . XCA = twice the z. Join XC.. and suppose a circle drawn through construction. . having each of the angles at the base d&hble of the vertical angle. A. 59. the z. . at X. . With centre A. AXC at C Theor. B Construction. left. BC touches the = BC2..'. But the L ABC = the L ACB = the z. . in the alt. is the triangle required.. the z. Z. Pr&ved. Problem To draw an isosceles triangle 34.XAC.*. Now.CXB. . . . XAC 4.*. 842 GEOMETRY. * And the L BCA = the L CBA. c and divide it Take any so that is line AB. for AB = AC.BCX = the Z. by BA BX = AX^ .
B = the Z. S' the incentre and circumcentre of the triangle CBX. In the figure of Problem 34. may be constructed. 2 if • In the figure of Problem 34. 9. Z. How many 2. circumcircle of the triangle ABC . the circle (ii) (iii) AXC = the . In the figiire of Problem 34. I I ABC. shew that BC = CF. if is the incentre of the triangle I'. XC. q2 . 7. BC. If in the triangle ABC.MEDIAL SECTION. angle is In the figure of Problem 34 point out a triangle whose vertical three times either angle at the base. CF are sides of a regular decagon inscribed in the circle (iv) BCD CF AX. (i) the two circles intersect at F. triangle Shew how such a 4.Iv.C = twice the shew *^^^ BC_n/51 AB~ 5. shew that the centre of the circle 6. circumscribed al)out the triangle CBX is the middle point of the arc XC. 243 EXERCISES. are sides of a regular pentagon inscribed in the circle AXC.G. the rectangle con8. If a straight line AB is divided internally in medial section at X. Shew how a of right angle may be divided into five equal parts by means 3. Problem 34. tained by the sum and difference of the segments is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments. III. H. degrees are there in the vertical angle of an isosceles triangle in which each angle at the base is double of the vertical angle ? 1.S. by substituting the values given on page 241. and If a straight line is divided in medial section. shew that S' = S' I'. the I. shew that Also verify this result AB2 + BX^ = 3AX2.A.
and their values may be obtained by measurement. Note. viz. and DE equal to \/36 or 6 cm. to AB and From F draw FCC par^ to AB. two straight AB. XB represent the roots of the equation. a semicircle . divided as required at X. which depend on Problem 32. AB be the st. or graphically by nit'ans of Problem 32. Similarly AX'. to find two numbers whose sum and whose product is 36. AX XB = CX2 Prob.13x + 36 = 0. is 13. Now to solve the equation a. the square on DE. 32. line to be divided. The purpose of AX. Let square. term of the equation is not a perfect square. THE GRAPHICAL SOLXJTION OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS. If tlie last in ar*. is cutting the O"* at C and C. = BF2 = DE2. To do this graphically. . perform the above construction.. The segments AX. and their product. Application. having given their sum.. 4 . I. as 11=0. On AB draw equal to DE.7a. and also at X'. we have or 6". C'X' perp. and from B draw 6F perp. lines X'B = DE2. C. making AB equal to 13 cm.^. and DE a side of the givea Ck>nstruction. From the following constructions. To by the segments divide a straight line internally so that the rectangle contained may be equal to a given square. C draw CX. XB. this construction is to find viz. a graphical solution of easy quadratic equations may be obtained. v^l must be first got by the arithmetical rule. 244 GEOMETRY. From Then AB Proof. to AB.
and also at X'. may be obtained by measurement. 245 II.6a. and radius OF draw a semicircle to cut AB pro X and X'. With duced at centre O. To divide a hy the segments may straight line externally so that the rectangle contaitied be equal to a given square. a. as before. and DE equal to sfl^ or 4 cm.. Here we find two lines AX. = BF2 = DE2 Application.2. a:2_i0a. Proh.. to solve the equation x'^. viz. a. since AX = X'B. EXERCISES. The segments AX. Then AB is divided Proof externally as required at X.2_7a. DE the side of the given square.14a. 32. 5a.49=0. From B draw BF perp. and i\\e\r product. 10a. and test your results algebraically. to AB. 36=0.2. + 49=0. + 16=0. the square on DE.BX.16=0.GRAPHICAL SOLUTION OF QUADRATICS. XB. viz. AX. + 20=0. perform the above construction. making AB equal to 6 cm. we have to find is two 16. difference. difference is 6. a. Bisect AB at O. XB represent the roots of the equation.12a. of Obtain approximately the roots of the following quadratics by means graphical constructions . having given their AB. + 25=0. and equal to DE. and their values. Construction. Now or 42.XB=X'B. X' A line to B X be divided externally. numbers whose numerical and whose product To do this graphically. and Let AB be the st. .
(ii) the length of the tangent (0. B. . c. 5). 0). Measure the coordinates of the A. If r denotes the radius of the circle. 15. from the origin. (18. and hence determine a point P in the Xaxis such that PA. Calculate and measure OP. Find 5. Find the rectangle of the segments of any chord through O. (0. 7. shev/ that 0A2 + 0B2 + 0C2 + 0D2 = 4r». shew to draw a second circle of the same radius touching the given circle also touching the xaxis. Draw two intersecting circles. Verify your results by nteasurement. D are four points on the xaxis at distances 6. Shew that two circles of radius 13 may be drawn through the 8.PB=PC. 9). and the coordinates of the centre. (0. prove by Theorem 59 that it touches the ajaxis. 0) and find its radius. 25 10. C. i Draw a circle through the points (10. B. Also find the length of a the yaxis. B. 24). Plot the points A. 4. 6) a circle is drawn to touch the 2. C. Draw a circle (shewing (0. 0). the centre being at the origin. f 6. 0). 9) touches the Calculate and measure the length of OP. 0). and verify by measurement.. prove that OP=(o6cd)/(crf6 cd). . D from O are a. point (0. through the points (0. D from the coordinates (12. If the distances of A. Also find the rectangle of the segments of any chord through the point 3. 246 GEOMETRY. 12). (0. (0. EXERCISES FOR SQUARED PAPER. length of their 9. 9). 20). circles can first How many centre of that in the be so drawn? quadrant. B. 12). one through A. from the origin O. and the other through C. through the points (16. 8) to touch the xaxis and by means of Theorem 68 find the yaxis at the point . 0). 6. all lines of construction) to touch the and to cut the xaxis at (3.8) and prove by Theorem 57 that they are concyclic. Draw a circle (shewing all lines of construction) through the Find the length of the otlier intercept on points f6. d respectively. circle passes (ii) the length of the radius. C. 0). 0). 4). Prove that the circle must cut the tcaxis again at the point (27.PD. common chord. (i) (0. 9). sheiv If a by Theorem 58 that it Find (i) the coordinates of the centre. (24. . D. also passes through (0. (9. tangent to the circle from the origin. 0). yaxis. 9. how and Given a circle of radius 15. A circle passing Xaxis at P. (0. With centre at the point (9. 1. 6.
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3*14 sq. 520". 32 cm. 173". 3. 305 sq. 37". . ^ercises. in. 4 '4". 2. Page 6. 1. 23 cm. 8. cm. 154 sq. cm.. Exercises. 4. Page 4. 64sq. 16".39". 90°. (ii) 77*25 sq. in. 3. 3". Page 3. 212". 283 cm. 10cm. cm. 56 4". in. 69 cm. . 1131 cm. sq. cm. 4. (ii) 6283 sq. Page 630 sq. 15 cm. 4Or. 108% 108°. Exercises. sq. 231. 199. Page 181. 20* Exercises. 3. Exercises. 1. cm. 1. Exercises. 46 em. 1257 sq. in. Exercises. 6.. Page 187.. cm.GEOMETRY. cm. 4. Page 2. 6. 6. 1662 sq. 63". 4. 8 5 cm. (i) Page (i) 205. 2078 sq.1. 4. cm. 225. 11. 1. 5. 85 cm. 6 cm. Page 198. 10. cm. 346". 228. 89". Exercises. 4. 2. 025". 450 sq. 198". (i) 2598 sq. 1". 4. cm. in. .. 201. . 16". 4398 in. 4157 sq. in. Exercises. 7. Exercises. (ii) 35299 sq. 2. 128f . Page 200. 7. . 17". A circle of rad. 2. 69 cm. 72°. Areas. 1.. Circumferences. 1018 8. 9.
cm. cm. 16". Exercises. cm. Exercises. (i) (ii) 16 sq. 41". 4. . Two concentric circles. (i) m 235. (i) Page 2. (ii) (i) (ii) 16 sq. 16 sq. 1. and 6 cm. 125 em. 16 sq. Page 237. cm. 3. radii 2 cm.ANSWERS. (ii)3ocm. 5. 12". 08". 1. 6.
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based on the recommendations of the Mathematical Association. 6d. Part I. 6<f. 6d. Part II. VI. 1«. and IV. S.. together with Tiieorems relating to the Surfaces and Volumes of the simpler — — — — Solid Figures. HALL. 4«. 6d. XI. Kky.V. M.. Lines and Angles.—Separately. Books!. as follows . Globe 8vo. Parts III. and II. and V. M. 1«. Containing the substance of Euclid Book III 134. 2«. LESSONS IN EXPERIMENTAL 8vo. Part I. Parts I. Rectilineal Figures. Parts IV. WITH LESSONS m EXPERIMENTAL AND PRACTICAL GEOMETRY. Circles. Parts I. Parts I. and F. and V.. Qd. 6d. in one volume.. Pari II. Kby. Containing the substance of Euclid Book VI. Squares and Rectangles.: — WORKS BY H. A SCHOOL GEOMETRY. A. 1«. Parts I.. in one volume. 6d.. together with Additional Theorems and Exercises.. in one volume. and Book III^ 3537. Key to Parts V. 3s. 2b. . .. 2». STEVENS. 1«. separately. including GEOilETRY.. Containing the substance of Euclid Book I. H. Containing the substance of Euclid Book II. M. A TEXTBOOK OF EUCLID'S ELEMENTS. and II. 6d. in one volume. Boolcs I. 8«. M. Part IV. 2«. classified Alternative Proofs.A. in one volume. 4». 6J. 1«. in one volume. PARTS I. 1 and 3. 1». 3». in one volume. . in one volume. and on the recent report of the Cambiidg* Syndicate on Geometry. Areas of Rectilineal Figures. Parts IV.VI. 6d. Crown A SCHOOL GEOMETRY. 0«. Crown 8vo. Part V. Bookly . Parts III. AND II. and arranged.. 4». Also in parts. Part VI. Part III.. AND PRACTICAL Crown 8to. and XII. Geometrical equivalents of Certain Algebraical Formulae. 6d. and VI. 6d.VI. II. 8».IV.— Separately. Containing the substance of Euclid Book XI. 6d. 2a.. lU. and part of Book IV. 6rf. Third Edition enlarged. IV. v. 121. Parts l. U. Key. Props.
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