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SCHOOL GEOMETRY
PARTS
III
IV
HALL AND STEVENS
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in one volume. 6d. in one volume. 8s.—Containing the substance of EucUd Book VI. Part II.—Containing the substance of Euclid Book XI. Part IV. Key to Parts V. 2s.1. 6d. 2s. and Book III. Parts I. Part VI. 121. and II. S. 6d. 6. in one volume.VI. 28. M. together with Theorems relating to the Surfaces and Volumes of the simpler Solid Figures. Part v. With Lessons Crown and in svo. Areas of Hectiliueal Figures. Practical Geometry. Rectilineal Fig:ure8. Lines and Angles. 6d. and F. Part II. A School Geometry.. and II. 6d. 6d. Hall. Is. IL. Geometrical equivalents of of Euclid Certain Algebraical Formulae.. and on the recent report of the Cambridge Syndicate on Geometry.. Is. Is. Part I. and VI. 6d.A. and IV. I. Based on the recommendations of the Mathematical Association. Parts I. in one volume. Parts I. Ss.— Separately.—Separately. 28. Parts III. Crown 8vo. Is. Ss. Containing the substance of Euclid Book II. Parts I. Key. in one volume. 8d. 68. M. Parts IV.A SCHOOL GEOMETRY.. Is. 8s. . in one volume.. v. Part I. In one volume. Parts I. 8587. Part III. Parts IIL. 6d. IV. Lessons in Experimental and Practical Geometry. Crown 8vo. Is. H. 6d.—Circles. Parts IV. and VI. 6d. Key.A.—Squares and Rectangles. V. 134. Containing th« substance of Buclld Book III. 6d. Containing the aubstauoe Book I. Key.V. and III. 6d.. 6d. Parts Experimental 28. Is. and V.IV. Stevens. 4s. By H. and part of Book IV. in one volume. 48.
.A SCHOOL GEOMETRY PARTS ILL AND IV.
OF TORONTO CANADA.AN AND LONDON • • CO.MACMILI. Limited • BOMBAY CALCUTTA MELBOURNE MADRAS THE MACMILLAN COMPANY NEW YORK DALLAS • • EOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO • THE MACMILLAN CO.. LTa .
. AND IV. II. CO. S. M.A. STEVENS.A. MACMILLAN AND .) and III. LIMITED MARTIN'S STREET. LONDON 1917 . (Containing the substance of Euclid Books and part of Book IV. BY H.A SCHOOL GEOMETRY PARTS III.ST. H. HALL. AND F. M.
1916. 1909 (twice). 1910. 1913. OLASOOW PRINTED AT THB UNIVERSITY PRKSS BY ROBERT MACLRHOSE AND CO. 1911 (twice). 1908. LTD. 1907 (three times). Reprinted 1905. First Edition 1904. 1912. 1906. 1917.COPYRIGHT. : . 1915.
134]. and from the first is illustrated by numerical and graphical examples of the Thus. now mental and Practical Geometry. is complete in itself. intended be studied pari passu. before being employed in the text. [Euc. consist of of a practical A suitable introduction to in and experimental the present book would to illustrate the subject . as far as it goes.* While strongly advocating some such introductory lessons. .PREFACE. and the results verified by measurement. of Hypothetical Constructions.S. This arrangement is made possible by the now generally sanctioned. there should be a series of exercises in Drawing and Measurement designed to lead inductively to the more important Theorems of Part I. These. and they are now so generally accepted by teachers that they need no discussion here.G. The present work provides a course of Elementary Geometry based on the recommendations of the Mathematical Association and on the schedule recently proposed and adopted at Cambridge. Perpendiculars. These problems should be accompanied by informal explanation. throughout the whole work. Concurrently. in separate but parallel courses. I. matter of the Definitions Measurements of Lines and Angles Use of Compasses and Protractor Problems on Bisection. The principles which governed these proposals have been confirmed by the issue of revised schedules for all the more important Examinations. * and referred to the is Axioms on which they depend. (ii) Theorems and Problems are arranged to. h . furnished by our Lessons in Experi Such an introductory course H. we may point out that our book. are care fully specified. III. TV. It is enough to note the following points (i) : We agree that a pupil should gain his first geometrical ideas from a short preliminary course character. and experimental course is provided side by side with the usual of Triangles deductive exercises. a graphical easiest types. Drawing . . and Parallels Use of Set Squares The Construction and Quadrilaterals. Easy Exercises . use.
. Euclid's treatment of Areas has already been mentioned in this section of the the only other important divergence the position of 16).VI (iii) PREFACE. might perhaps be still further limited to those which make the landmarks of Elementary Geo And — metry. and a wide Moreover field of graphical and numerical illustration is opened. to preserve the essentials of his Our departure from . treatment in i^espect of logical thus getting rid of the In subsequent Parts a freer order has been followed. and under no necessity for acquiring technical knowledge. nitudes. we have con who. as important a part of a lesson in Though we have not always followed tions. here given a certain number (which teacher. the fundamental Theorems on Areas (hardly less than those on Proportion) may thus be reduced in number. apply his knowledge made and the working of examples should be Geometry as it is so considered in Arithmetic and Algebra. By this means. The subject is placed on the basis of Commensurable certain difficulties Mag which are wholly beyond the grasp of a young learner are postponed. and brought into line with practical applications. work is 26 (Theorem 17). greatly simplified. without special aptitude for mathematical study. As regards the presentment of the propositions. stantly kept in of that large class of students. Euclid's order of Proposiin we think it desirable for the present. (iv) An attempt has been made to curtail the excessive body of of Examinations have hitherto forced as text which the demands "bookwork" on a an asterisk) beginner's memory. which we place after I. regard to the subjectmatter of Euclid Book logical sequence. may and do derive real intellectual adrantage from lessons in pure deductive reasoning. mind the needs . 32 (Theorem tedious and uninstructive Second Case. Even of the Theorems we have distinguished with might be omitted or postponed at the discretion of the the formal propositions for which as such— teacher and pupil are held responsible. Nothing has as yet been devised as effective for this purpose as the Euclidean form of proof and in our opinion no excuse is needed for treating the earlier proofs with that fulness which we have always found necessary in our experience as teachers. I. I. Time so gained should be used in getting the pupil to ..
In the case of a few problems (e. Vll The examples are numerous and for the most part easy. and experimental work such as that leading to the Theorem of Pythagoras. C. H. Problems 23. We are indebted to several friends for advice and suggestions. In particular we wish to express our thanks to Mr. S. The answers to these have been printed on perforated pages. PREFATORY NOTE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 43. HALL. Theorem 22 (page 62). 1903. S. so that they may easily be removed if it is found that access to numerical results is a source of temptation in examples involving measurement. November. replaces the equivalent proposition given as Additional Theorem A (page 60) in previous editions. 1904. STEVENS. H.PREFACE. C. March. Room has thus been found for more numerical and graphical exercises. 28. In the present edition some further steps have been taken towards the curtailment of bookwork by reducing certain less important propositions (e. F.g. 44) to the rank of exercises. F. Playne and Mr. H. H. . H. A special feature is the large number of examples involving graphical or numerical woik.g. H. Beaven of Clifton College for the valuable assistance they have rendered in reading the proof sheets and checking the answers to some of the numerical exercises. They have been very carefully arranged. 29) it has been thought more instructive to justify the construction by a preliminary analysis than by the usual formal proof. STEVENS. and are distributed throughout the text in immediate connection with the propositions on which they depend. HALL. in the shape recommended in the Cambridge Schedule. Euclid I. 22.
.
Cor. Two circles cannot cut one another in more than two points without coinciding entirely. A straight line cannot meet a circle at more than 144 145 145 two points.] If a straight line drawn from 31. 145 146 147 147 147 Theorem and only one. 14.] If circumference. 32. The straight line which bisects a chord at right angles passes through the centre. that point is the centre of the circle. Principles. 2. PAET The Circle. the centre of a circle bisects a chord which does not pass through the centre. it cuts the chord at right angles. Chords. Symmetrical Properties of Circles and First  139 141  Theorem [Euc. A chord of a circle. 3. 9. 1. chords which are equidistant from the centre are equal. III. Cor. Cor. Conversely. it bisects it. One Hypothetical Construction Theorem from a point within a circle more than two equal straight lines can be drawn to the 33. 34. III. III. III. 148 Theorem [Euc. [E^uc. Cor. Conversely. PAGE Definitions Symmetry. 150 . circle lies wholly within it. if it cuts the chord at right angles.] Equal chords of a circle are equidistant from the centre. Cor. 1. The size and position of a circle are fully determined if it is known to pass through three given points. 2. can pass through any three points not in the same straight line.CONTENTS. 3.
III.CONTENTS. 154 Theorem [Euc. III. circle is III. the centre. then the greatest is that which passes through the centre. straight lines are drawn to the circumference of a circle. 26.] The opposite angles of any quadrilateral inscribed in a circle are together equal to two rfght angles. 166 166 Cor. the greatest is that which passes through the centre. And of any other two such lines the greater is that which subtends the greater angle at the centre. that which is nearer to the centre is greater than one more remote. 15. 8. 153 Theorem [Euc. III. In equal circles sectors which have equal angles are . [Eoc. of which the given base is the chord. 22. 156 Angles in a Circle. either at the centres or at the circum ferences. The greatest chord in a circle is a diameter. are equal. Conversely. 152 Cor. have their vertices on an arc of a circle.] The angle in a semicircle is a 164 is is Cor. right angle. TIT. and the least is the remaining part of that diameter. 31. 165 Theorem 42. 162 If a pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral are supplementary. the greater is that which subtends the greater angle at the centre. [Euc. and the least is that which when produced passes through the centre.] Angles in the same segment of a 160 circle are equal. and on the same side of it. 40. not 36. Converse of Theorem 163 Theorem 41. and the angle in a segment less than a semicircle obtuse. 7. [Euc. 158 Theorem 39. arcs which subtend equal angles. equal. straight lines are drawn to the circumference of a circle. 40. Converse of Theorem 39. The angle in a segment greater than a semi circle acute .] Of any two chords of a circle.] If from any internal point. its vertices are eoncyclic. And of any other two such lines. III. III. the greater of two chords is nearer to the centre than the less. III. 161 Theorem [Euc. 35.] In equal circles.] If from any external point 37. 21. 20] The angle at the centre of a double of an angle at the circumference standing on the same arc. [Euc. Theorem 38. Equal angles standing on the same base. Theorem [Euc.
Problem To bisect a given arc. The two tangents to a circle from an external point equal. 176 178 178 178 Theorem Cor. Theorem 49. 185 . 1. ternal point. and the minor to the minor.] In equal circles. are 47. touch externally the distance beequal to the sum of their radii. 45. circle at 174 its point of 174 174 176 CoR. which stand on equal arcs are equal. III. 32. The radius drawn perpendicular to the tangent passes tlirough the point of contact. 167 Theorem [Euc. If circles 1.] 180 Problems. 44. the centres and the point of contact are in one straight line. [Euc. to a circle respectively equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. arcs which are cut off by equal chords are equal. 23. 20. One and only one tangent can be drawn to a 46. The angles made by a tangent with a chord drawn from the point of contact are [Euc. Cor. 2. a given point on the circumference. III. two If two circles tween their centres is CoR. either at the centres or at the circumferences. CoR. 183 21.] cut off equal arcs are equal. 183 Problem 22. 28. [Euc. The perpendicular to a tangent at contact passes through the centre. touch one another. 27. Geometrical Analysis 182 or an arc of a circle.] In equal circles angles. In equal circles chords which 169 Definitions and First Principles 172 174 Theorem The tangent at any point of a circle is perpendicular to the radius drawn to the point of contact. 29. xi Theorem 43. the major arc equal to the major arc. To draw a tangent to a circle from a given ex 184 Problem To draw a common tangent to two circles. III. III.CONTENTS. 48. If two circles touch internally^ the distance between their centres is equal to the difference of their radii. Theorem Cor. 2. 3. Given a circle. 168 Theorem Tangency. to find its Problem centre. and subtend equal angles at the centre. Two tangents can be drawn to a circle from an external point.
a triangle about a Problem given 30.. divided line.] Theorem If of two straight lines. II. About a given equiangular to a circle to circumscribe given triangle. one is divided into any number of parts. 191 Definitions 192 Problem Problem Problem Problem Problem 25. Circles in Relation to Rectilineal Figures. 200 Problem 31. To draw an escribed circle of a given triangle. 220 . 26. 219 [Euc. and from the point of contact to draw a chord making with the tangent an angle equal to the given angle.XU The Construction Problem 24. Cor.. PAGE of Circles 188 190 given straight line to describe a segment of a circle which shall contain an angle equal to a given angle. it is enough to draw a tangent to the circle. The Orthocentre of a Triangle Loci Simson's Line . Geometrical Equivalents of some Algebraical Formulae. To draw a regular polygon in (ii) (i) in (ii) circle. 1.. 29. the rectangle contained by the two lines is equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by the undivided line and the several parts of the 50. To draw a circle (i) about a regular polygon. In a given circle to inscribe a triangle equiangular to a given triangle. 193 194 195 196 197 28. To cut off from a given circle a segment containing a given angle. 201 Circumference and Area of a Circle 202 Theorems and Examples on Circles and Triangles. To inscribe a circle in a given triangle. 27.  207 210 212 213 216 The Triangle and its Circles The NinePoints Circle PART Definitions IV. On a CONTENTS. To circumscribe a circle about a given triangle.
[Euc.] If a straight line is 223 Theorem their [Euc. [Euc. 4. 233 Theorem [Euc. 7.CONTENTS.] If a straight line is divided internally at any point. . And each rectangle is equal to the square on the tangent from the point of intersection. Theorem 57. 12. 229 Rectangles in connection with Circles. 51. the rectangle contained by these segments is equal to the difference of the squares on half the line and on the line between the points of section.] In an obtuseangled triangle. the square on the side subtending the obtuse angle is equal to the sum of the squares on the sides containing the obtuse angle together with twice the rectangle contained by one of those sides and the projection of the other side upon it. 58. 224 CoR.] 221 Theorem [Euc. [Euc. one of which cuts the circle. 52. point within are equal. III. 5 and 6. and the other meets it .J If from a point outside a circle two straight lines are drawn. 37. the square on the given line is equal to the sum of the squares on the two segments together with twice the rectangle contained by the segments. 55. the rectangles contained by their segments 232 Theorem [Euc. 225 54. and if the rectangle contained by the 59. Xlll PAGE Corollaries. 35. II.] If two chords of a circle.] In every triangle the square on the side subtending an acute angle is equal to the sum of the squares on the sides containing that angle diminished by twice the rectangle contained by one of those sides and the projection of the other side upon it. [Euc. II. II. II. II. cut at a point outside it. line is bisected. 13. III. 56. 226 Theorem 227 Theorem In any triangle the sum of the squares on two sides is equal to twice the square on half the third side together with twice the square on the median which bisects the third side. 2 and 3. II. III. a straight and also divided (inter nally or externally) into two unequal segments.] If two chords of a circle cut at a it. Theorem [Euc. the square on the given line is equal to the sum of the squares on the two segments diminislied by twice the rectangle contained by the segments. sum and If difference. the rectangles contained by their segments are equal.] The difference of the squares on two straight lines is equal to the rectangle contained by 53. 36. 222 Theorem divided externally at any point. when produced.
 To draw an 242 244 The Graphical Solution of Quadratic Equations « Answers to Numerical Exercises. 33. Problem 32. To 240 Problem isosceles triangle having each of the angles at the base double of the vertical angle. 34. then the line which meets the circle is a tangent to it. line which cuts the circle 234 Problems.XIV CONTENTS. To draw a square equal in area to a given rectangle. PACK whole and the part of it outside the circle is equal to the square on the line which meets the circle. . 238 Problem divide a given straight line so that the rectangle contained by the whole and one part may be equal to the square on the other part.
it is often used however for the circumference itself when no confusion is likely to arise. semicircle is the figure bounded by a diameter of a circle and the part of the circumference cut off by the diameter. and the bounding line called the circumference. a circle into 5. Definitions and First Principles. 4. that have the same centre are said to be . CIRCLE.PART THE III. According to this definition the term circle strictly applies to the Jigure contained by the circumference . Circles concentric. A 3. circle are equal. Note. 2. A A two It will be proved on page 142 that a diameter divides identically equal parts. 1. diameter of a circle is a straight line drawn through the centre and terminated both ways by the circumference. A circle is by a point which moves so that fixed point is always the same. radius of a circle is a straight line drawn from the It follows that all radii of a centre to the circumference. a plane figure contained by a line traced out its distance from a certain The is fixed point is called the centre.
these definitions From (i) we draw the following inferences circle is a closed curve. arc is greater. the greater is called the major Thus the major arc. (ii) is (iii) point is outside or inside a circle according as distance from the centre is greater or less than the radius. so that if the circumference crossed by a straight line. A chord of a circle is a straight line joining any two points on the circumference. unless they coincide altogether. of these. For by superposition of one centre on the other the circumferences must coincide at every point. which does not pass through the centre. and the minor arc leas than the semicircuraference. this line if produced will cross the circumference at a second point. A its (iv) Circles of equal radii are identically equal.: 140 GEOMETRY. and the less the minor arc. An arc of a circle is any part of the circumference. Note. 7. for the distance from the centre of every point on the smaller circle is less than the radius of the larger. is A The distance of a point from the centre of a circle greater or less than the radius according as the point is without or within the circumference. The major and minor arcs. are said to be conjugate to one another. From these definitions it may be seen that a chord of a circle. divides the circumference into two unequal arcs . into which a circumference is divided by a chord. . (v) Concentric circles of unequal radii cannot intersect. (vi) If the circumferences of two circles have a common point they cannot have the same centre. 6.
AMP = the Z. to AB. the axis. and each point is said to be the image of the other in the axis. page 91. Let AB be a straight line and P a point From P draw PM perp. Note.AMQ. it is clear that the two parts of the figure must have the same size and shape. 14. 2. on being folded about that line. A figure is said to be sjrmmetrical about a when. The points P and Q are said to be symmetrically opposite with regard to the axis AB. . Some elementary Definition 1. Then if the figure is folded about AB. line The straight line is called an axis of symmetry. 141 properties of circles are easily proved by considerations of symmetry. and MP=IVIQ. A point and its image are equidistant from every point on See Prob. That this may be possible. the point P may be made to coincide with Q. and must be similarly placed with regard to the axis. and produce it to Q. Definition outside it. For convenience the definition given on page 21 is here repeated. the parts of the figure on each side of it can be brought into coincidence. making MQ equal to PM.SYMMETRY OF A CIRCLK Symmetry. for the z.
0 is the centre. . being adjacent. MP=MQ. with the l and the l . Thus every point APB must point in the arc AQB .142 geometry. If PQ is drawn cutting AB at M. A circle is symmetrical about any diameter. Definition. that is. OMP will coincide OMQ. if a it tlie circle passes through a given point P. .AOQ. AOQ Let OP and OQ be two on opposite sides of OA. coincide with some the two parts of the circum the circle is AB can be made to coincide. . since in the arc OP = OQ. also passes through Q are symmetrically opposite with Hence. symmetrically opposite point with regard to any diameter. radii making any equal Then fall if the figure is folded about AB. conversely. the points P and regard to AB. The straight line passing through the centres of two circles is called the line of centres. then on folding the figure about AB. Let APBQ be a circle of which . symmetrical about the diameter AB. Corollary. these angles.. It is required to prove that the cirde is symmetrical about AB. ference on each side of . since P falls on Q.*. may be made to And thus P will coincide with Q. Some Symmetrical Properties of Circles. are rt. Proof. OP along OQ. l*. and AB any diameter. MP will coincide with MQ.AOP = the Z. L'AOP. I.•.. since the z.
If two . Cor. and produce it to Q. SYMMETRICAL PROPERTIES. the common chord PQ is bisected at right angles by 00'.. O' cut at the point P. [I. circles cut at one point. B'. 143 Tvx) circles are divided symmetrically hy their line of centres. to 00'. line Then AB and diameters and therefore axes of symmetry of their respective circles. perp. That is. . so that Then P and Q are symmetrically opposite points with regard to the line of centres OO' also since P is on the O*^ of both circles. the line of centres divides each circle symmetrically. Let the circles Draw PR RQ=RP. II. . and through O.. B and A'. they must also cut at a second point and the common chord is bisected at right angles hy the line of centres. by construction. ~A o 7B ^V o' 7b^ Let O. O' cut the O"*" at A. O' be the centres of two circles. whose centres are O.] And. 111. it follows that Q is on the O"^ of both. A'B' are let the st.
radii of the circle OD is common. Let ABC be a circle whose centre is O . Q. ODB. BDO. it cuts the chord at right angles. by hypothesis. BDO and these are adjacent angles. Then in the A' ADO. if it cuts the cltord at right angles. 3. 18. Them. . common DA = DB.D. D. . j iand OD that is. Q. BD. Proof. to AB. and let a chord AB which does not pass through the centre.E. Conversely. because the hypotenuse OA = the hypotenuse OB.. 144 GEOMETRY. [Euclid III. rthe L' ODA. Proof. being the A ADO = the z. ODB are right angles. it bisects it. to the chord AB. and OA = OB.. OD bisects AB at is . • . ON CHORDS. Let OD be perp. OD is perp. . {AD = .] If a straight line dravm from the centre of a circle bisects a chord which does not pass through the centre. It is required to p'ove that OD bisects AB. In the A'ODA. Join OA. . Thear. OB. Theorem 31. Corwersely.D.E. It is required to prove that OD bisect OD is perp.. to AB. 7.
Corollary than two points. circle whose centre is O and whose find the area of the triangle CAB in square inches. ThenAC = CB. if Now Corollary 3. 2. in length whose diameter is 2 yds. Calculate and measure the distance of each from the centre. to pass through P and Q. straight line cannot meet a circle at more For suppose a whose centre A and B. 5. 10 in. circle line meets a O is O at the points Draw OC perp. Corollary 1. OB.) 1. in a circle 6. whose diameter is 8 "0 cm. 3. 146 bisects The straight line which a chord at right angles passes through the centre. EXERCISES. A C B D AC the circle were to cut AB in a third point D. Verify the result graphically by drawing a figure in which 1 cm. AB radius is is 1 "3" a chord 24" long in a . in length. and verify your result by measurement. A st.. which is impossible. 6"0 cm. and verify by measurement. 4.. A chord of a circle lies wholly within it. 2. Calculate the distance of its centre from the chord PQ. represents 10". Q . if AB = 8 cm. Draw a circle Find the distance from the centre of a chord 5 ft. Two points P and are 3" apart. {Numerical and Graphical. Draw a circle with radius I 'T 7. from the centre of a In a circle of 1" radius draw two chords I '6" and 1 "2" in length. In the figure of Theorem 31. and 0D=3 cm. 2 in. and verify your result by measurement.CHORD PROPERTIES. find Draw the figure. to AB. would also be equal to CD. Calculate the length of a chord which stands at a distance 5" circle whose radius is 13". and place in it a chord Calculate to the nearest millimetre the distance of the chord from the centre .
Let AB and BC be bisected at right angles by the DF.. every point on DF is equidistant from A and B.•. and C. 14. can pass through A. common to DF and EG. Similarly every point on . EG is equidistant from B and C. Let A. C be three points not in the same straight line. can pass through any three points not in the same straight line. q. and C and there is no other point equidistant from A.e. line. the only point . B. . through the three given points. EG. Join AB. One circhf and only one. B.146 GEOMETRY. BC.a circle having its centre at O and radius OA will pass through B and C and this is the only circle which will pass . and only one.d. Theorem 32. . . Frob. st. Let DF and EG meet in O. B. It is required to prove that one circle. DF and Because DF bisects AB at right angles. O. and C. lines Then since AB and BC are not in the same EG are not par'. is equidistant from A.. B. Proof.
D and 2. Shew that AM and BM 1. can be assumed to pass through the vertices of Definition. for then the position of the centre and length of the radius can be found. Corollary 2. . From Theorem 32 it appears may suppose a circle to he drawn through any three points same straight line. which AC are two equal chords bisects the angle BAG of a circle . and is said to be The centre of the circle is circumscribed about the triangle. The size and position of a circle are fully determined if it is krunun to pass through three given points . is and have When 6. that the line of centres bisects the common chord at right line 4. intersect at C. for if they cut at three points they would have the same centre and radius. Two circles cannot cut one another in rrwre than tivo points without coinciding entirely . its centre in Describe a circle that shall pass through two given points a given straight line. whose centres are at A and B. 3. The circle which passes through the vertices of a triangle is called its circumcircle. exercises on theorems 31 and (Theoretical. 5. M is the middle point of the common chord. 147 Corollary 1. Find the locus of the centres of all circles which pass through two given points. called the circumcentre of the triangle. are in the same straight line. and the radius is called the circumradius. Hypothetical Construction. The parts of a straight line intercepted between the circumferences of two concentric circles are equal. a any triangle. shew that the straight passes through the centre. is this When impossible ? . this impossible ? Describe a cirde of given radius to pass through two given points. AB.CHORD PROPERTIES.) 32. Two circles. circle that loe not in the For example. Hence prove angles.
31. it may is be shewn that EO passes through the to O. OB. Let D and E be the middle points of AB and BC respectively. and O a point within it from which more than two equal st. these angles.d.e. Theor.] lines If from a point within a circle more than two equal straight can he drawn to the circumference. being adjacent. Join AB.. 7. [Euclid III. BC. AB at right angles. . 148 * GEOMETRY. . Theor. Similarly centre. OE. OC. be the centre. [and OA = OB. namely OA. ODB.ODB.. and therefore 1. are Hence DO bisects the chord passes through the centre. must q. Proof. . . thai point is the centre circle. l". In the A' ODA. which the only point common DO and EO. r because < DA=DB. Theorem 33.*. 9. DO is common. by hypothesis theiLODA = thez. It is required to prove that O is the centre of the circle ABC. Join OD. lines are drawn to the O"*. Cor.. rt. of the Let ABC be a circle.
Two circles. Two If 11. CHORD PROPERTIES.] its it also centre at any point passes through the point 5).) 8. two parallel chords of a Find the locus of the middle points of parallel chorda in a circle. EXERCISES ON CHORDS. in length respectively.. and the perpendicular distance between them is 1 cm. and their lengths are 1 '%" and 3*0* respectively. The line joining the middle points of circle passes through the centre. [See page 132. 9. the point of intermust be at the centre of the circle. and Draw a circle on a diameter of 8 cm. B. and verify by measurement. equal to the radius. Shew on squared paper a. and verify your result by measurement. Draw the circle through the points A. . 4. 10. it a chord Calculate (to the nearest millimetre) the distance of the chord from the centre. and C find the length of its radius. (Numerical and Graphical. on the that if a circle has and passes through the point (6. whose radii are respectively 26 inches and 25 inches. 5). section of its diagonals a parallelogram can be inscribed in a circle. from the centre. verify your result by measurement. 1.. 7. Draw a circle in which a chord 6 cm. Calculate (to the nearest millimetre) the length of the radius. and verify your result by measurement. and 8 cm. Find the distance between their centres. the figure (scale 1 cm. to 10"). Draw 5.) 149 are lines at right angles.axis (6. {Theoretical. in length stands at a distance of 3 cm. Two parallel chords of a circle : spectively 5" and 12" in length is either 8*5" or 3 "5". AB and BC 2. Two parallel chords of a circle on the same side of the centre are 6 cm. 12. and place in 3. whose diameter is 13" are reshew that the distance between them 6. intersect at two points which are 4 feet apart. intersecting chords of a circle cannot bisect each other unless each is a diameter. Calculate and measure the radius. Shew that rectangles are the only parallelograms that can be inscribed in a circle.
Similarly CG is half of CD. Because OF is perp. by hypothesis. is 0. and let It is required to prove tliat LetAB = CD. chords which are equidistant from the centre are C OF. to the chord AB. OGC are right angles. . . Proof. Join OA.D.150 GEOMETRY. Theorem Equal chords of a Conversely. Q. OC. circle 34. . AF is half of AB. because ! [the OFA. the hypotenuse OA = the 1 use C and AF = CG the triangles are equal in so that . Theor.] are equidistant from the centre. . Thecyr. First. 14. all respects . AF = CG. in the A" Now OFA. equal. 18. [Euclid III.. 31. AB and CD are equidistant from O. AB and CD are equidistant from O. OF = OG that is. CD be chords of a circle whose centre OG be perpendiculars on them from O. OGC... hypotenuse OC. But. AB = CD.OF bisects AB.E. Let AB. .
and OF = OG Them\ 18. and find the radius of the smaller circle. 4. two chords If two equal chords of a circle intersect. each 1 all lie In a circle of radius 4*1 cm. their common chord is 2*4" in length. that is. p. Shew that the middle points of these chords on a circle. and make equal angles with the straight line which joins their point of intersection to the centre. ( Theoretical. draw the 7. the doubles of these are equal that is. may be AF is half of AB. AB = CD. the same for all positions of AB. OGC . Then {the in the A' OFA.E. of a circle cut one another. Calculate and measure the length q^ its radius. Find If the locus of the middle points of equal chords of a circle. Q. A and B 9.] 6. AF = CGj . 65. are right angles. OGC.'. of the one are equal respectively to the segments of the other. and parallel to another. 2. EXERCISES.)) . in length. she^vn that and CG Proof. and the radius of the larger circle is 37".. {Graphical. Give a construction for finding the points of intersection of the two circles. PQ is is a fixed chord in a circle. and AB is any diameter : shew that the sum on PQ or difference of the perpendiculars let fall from constant.D. 151 It is required to prove that it LetOF = OG. centres of two circles are 4" apart. C OFA. [See Ex. In a given circle draw a chord which shall be equal to one given straight line (not greater than the diameter) 5. AB = CD. As before half of CD. the hypotenuse OA = the hypotenuse OC. any number of chords are drawn 8 cm. The . and circle. . shew that the segments 3. CHORD PROPERTIES. they are equal. 1.
on OF. is half of AB. less. .] that which is nearer to the centre Of any two chords of a circle^ greater than one more remote. Now OA = OC. the sq. then AB is greater than CD t/AB is greater than CD. sqq. since the the sq. 152 GEOMETRY. on OF. on .. is Similarly CG half of CD. on OFA is a rt. OC. OC = the on OG. Theorem is 35. But . 15.. Proof.. on OA = the z. Conversely. the greater of two chords is nearer to the centre tJian the OF. FA. on OC.. OA = the sqq. bisects OF AF AB. GC.'. It is required to prove that (i) (ii) is O. and let if Of is less than OG. .. GC. on OQ. [Euclid III. is perp. Join OA. . the sqq. then OF is less than OQ. Similarly the sq. FA = the sqq. sq. to the chord AB. CD be chords of a circle whose centre OG be perpendiculars on them from O. angle. Let AB. Because OF .
on GC. and 4. Through a given point within a circle draw the least possible Draw a triangle ABC in which a = 3 5". c = 3 7". . greater than the sq. greater than GO : AB AB is greater than CD. (18". OF OF FA is given less than OG on OG. that a circle whose centre is at the passes through the points (2 '4". GC sq..*. . (Miscellaneous. Draw 3"0". 2*8". a on OG Q.E. is less is is than the sq. 1*8"). 3. Measure is a fixed chord of a circle.D. EXERCISES. if is is given greater than CD. L chord. 24"). greater than that is. The greatest chord in circle is a diameter. and XY any other chord having its middle point Z on AB . if then the . on GO. OF Corollary. Through 2.'. (iii) its perpendicular distance from the origin. (ii) the coordinates of its middle point.*. its radius. and what the least length that XY may have ? AB Shew 5. that XY increases. . what is the greatest. Calculate and measure the radius. as Z approaches the middle point of AB. 6 = 1 2". origin. CHORD PROPERTIES. FA on FA on OF . the ends of the side a draw a circle with its centre on the side c. is greater than the sq. if the sq. the sq. the eircumcircle of a triangle whose sides are 26". . (i) 153 Hence the sq. Find (i) the length of the chord joining these points.. (ii) But sq. on .) . Shew on squared paper and whose radius is 3*0". on FA . is less is less than the than OG.
straight lines are drawn to the circumference of a circle. Theorem 36. . PB. [Euclid III. being . tlien the greatest is tliat which passes through the centre. 1 1 But OC = OA. radii OC are together Thear. (i) In Proof. not the centre. and the least is the remaining part of that diameter. PA is greater than PC. PO. is PB PC greater than PD. which not the centre. circle. PD be drawn to the O**. lines PA is the greatest. and PB is the remaining part of that diameter. the sides PO. . greater than PC. 154 GEOMETRY. . 7. . is Let ACDB be a It is required to pi'ove that of these (i) (ii) (iii) st. Join OC. PC.. the A POC. that Similarly PA 8t. OD. so that PA passes through the centre O. let PA. POD subtended by PD. is tlie least.] If from any inferTial point. be shewn to be greater than any other line drawn from P to the C* may is PA the greatest of all such lines.. Also let the L POC at the centre subtended by PC be greater than the z. OA are together greater than PC. And of any other two such lines the greater is thai which sub tends the greater angle at the centre. and from P any internal point. is..
Similarly any other st. If two circles cut one another.. . making equal angles with the common chord. may PB is the least of all such lines. Two circles of diameters 74 and 40 inches respectively have a : common chord 2 feet in length find the distance between their centres. pass also through a second fixed point. any two parallel straight lines drawn through the points of intersection to cut the circles are equal. being . any two straight lines drawn through a point of section.) which pass through a fixed point.D.E. is common. (ii) In the than OD. Take away the common part OP.'. If two circles which intersect are cut by a straight line parallel common chord. 1. 5. In the A" POO. PD are together greater than OB. If two circles cut one another. 19. OC = OD. 6. z. (iii) {PO but the . line drawn from P to the O*" be shewn to be greater than PB . and terminated by the circumferences. radii OP. shew that the parts of it intercepted between the circumferences are equal. circles of radii I'O" and 1'7".. then PD is greater than PB. EXERCISES. Draw the figure (1 cm. to the 3. 4. and by measurement. PO greater than PD. PD are together greater But OD = OB. being radii. to represent 10") and verify your result by measurement. the length of the common chord. 2"r' apart. {Mi&cdlantaus. L POC is greater than the is POD . Draw two . DISTANCE OF A POINT TO THE CIRCUMFERENCE.*. and with their centres Find by calculation. POD. All circles 2. and have their centres on a given straight line. Them. 155 AOPD. Q. are equal. the sides OP. and its distance from the two centres.
is PB PC great&r than PD. Join DC. (i) In the greater than PC. OA are together greater than is. . so that PBA passes through the centre O. Theorem If from any the centre. [Euclid III. And of any other two such the greater is thai which sub tends the greater angle at the centre. radii OC are together But OC = OA. the centre. . PD be drawn to the O"*. st. PC. and so that the l POC subtended by PC at the centre is greater than the z. is the least. A POC. CD.] straight lines external point circle. are drawn to the cirmmference of a the greatest is that which passes through and the least is that which when pi'oduced passes through lines. being .. the sides PO. circle. PC that Similarly PA line PA is greater than PC. POD subtended by PD. 8. C .*. and from any external point P let the PBA. Let ACDB be a lines It is required to prove that of these (i) (ii) (iii) st. 37. may be shewn to be greater than any other drawn from P to the that is. 156 GEOMETRY. lines PA is the greatest. Proof. PO. PA is the greatest of all such lines.
which have their centres Find the coordinates of their other point of intersection. O'^ Similarly any other st. What inference do you draw ? — . Theov.  11). being radii PD is greater than the remainder PB. PB is the least of all such lines. on the same side of AB as the centre. (PO is common. Draw an isosceles triangle OAB with an angle of 80° at its vertex O. 0) respectively. 4..) . 19. . the lengths of their radii. the sides PD.*. EXERCISES.. 0) and (6. Q. Q. (ii) In the than PO. Draw on squared paper two circles with centres at the jwints Find (15.D. the greatest is that which parallel to the line of centres. and the coordinates of their other point of intersection. and on its circumference take any number of points P. PC greater than PD. is Of all straight lines drawn through a point of intersection of two and terminated by the circumferences. R. {Miscellarieous. With centre O and radius OA draw a circle. and of any two such lines the greater is that which subtends the greater angle at the centre. 157 APOD. Measure the angles subtended by the chord AB at the points P. Draw on squared paper any two a.E. the greatest is that which passes through the centre . Q.. line drawn from P to the shewn to be greater than PB that is. DO are together greater . DISTANCE OF A POINT TO THE CIRCUMFERENCE. 8). R. being radii OC = OD. 5. the remainder But OD = OB. circles on the and cut at the point (8. 2. POD. . and cutting at the point (0. Repeat the same exercise with any other given angle at O. (iii) may be In the A" POC. POO is is gi'eater than the L POD . but the L . 1. are circle straight lines to the circumference. Find the greatest and least straight lines which have one extremity on each of two given circles which do not intersect.. 6. circles.axis. If from any point on the circumference of a drawn 3.
of which O is the centre . . AND ANGLES AT THE CENTRES AND CIRCUMFERENCES OF CIRCLES. of the z. follows in each case that the L BOC = twice the l BAC." and BAC an angle at the standing on the same arc BC. l DOC = twice the l OAC. 2. ON ANGLES IN SEGMENTS. OBA = twice the of the l* Z. I. 20. It is BOC O**. 2. in Fig.OAB. Theorem The angle at 38. 1. required to prove that the l BOC is twice the l BAC. z. BOD = the sum OAB. and produce Proof. Fig.*. • . OBA .] at the the centre of circumference standing on the a circle is double of an angle same a/rc. because OB = OA.158 GEOMETRY. the L BOD = twice the l OAB. Let ABC be a circle.. and let be the angle at the centre. the . adding these results in Fig. z_* OAB. Similarly the . the sum ext. In the .. [EucHd HI. A OAB. Fig. .d. it aijd taking the difference q. But the .e. it to D. OAB = the L OBA. Join AO.
the Z. BOC at the centre is re/lex. If the circumference. the z. circle Definition. 3. shewing that whether the given arc is greater than. arc BEC. the L BOC = twice. 3. 4. Note. on which the angles stand. 1 applies without change to both these sases. A segment of a circle is the figure bounded by a chord and one of the two arcs into which the chord divides the circumference. DEFINITIONS. the l BAC. cm the same arc BEC. for Fig. But the proof Fig. they are said to be concyclic. . We have seen in Theorem 32 that a circle may be drawn through any three points not in a straight line. circumference. Obs. 159 Fig. 4. or less than a semicircumference. straight angle.ANGLE PROPERTIES. The chord of a segment is sometimes called An angle in a segment is one formed by two straight lines drawn from any point in the arc of the segment to the extremities of its chord. If four or more points are so placed that a may be drawn through them. equal to. its base. is a semias in Fig.BOC at the centre is a and if the arc BEC is greater than a semias in Fig. But it is only under certain conditions that a circle can be drawn through more than three points.
Q. Theorem Angles 39. Let BAC. 21. BAC = the L BDC.] circle m the same segment of a are eqmL Fig. standing on the same arc BC. .160 GEOMETRY. Similarly the • . . Because the l BOC is at the centre. Join BO. I. BOC = twice the l BAC.. . OC. the above proof applies equally to both n cures. same segment BADC of a It is required to prove that the l BAC = the l BDC. at the O**. and the Proof. 2. L BAC the z. given on the preceding page. in the circle.D.E. the L BOC = twice the l BDC. Fig. BDC be angles whose centre is O. Thear. z. 38. [Euclid III.
Let ABC be the circle which passes through the three points A. by hypothesis.BDC. E coincides with the L BEC = the ZBDC. is impossible unless the circle through B. 74°. BOC. In Fig. BCD are respectively 43° and 82°. C must pass through D. and the angle XCD=25°.O. if the angles CBD. BDC be two equal angles standing on the same base BC. 2. in the same segment.S. find the number of degrees in the angle BAC and in the reflex angle BOC. find the 4. EXERCISES ON THEOREM 39. 1. aide of a given base. OBu. is an arc of a circle. Equal angles standing on the same base. and on the same side of it^ have their vertices on an arc of a circle. ABAC = the Z. the . OBC. 2 the angle OBC always less than the angle BAC by a right angle. is Shew that in Fig. The locus of the vertices of triangles dravm on the same and with equal vertical angles. if *the angle BDC is each of the angles BAC..] H. D . [For further Exercises on Theorem 39 see page 170. OCD. 1. L In Fig. number of degrees in the angles BAC. B. of which the given base is the chord.'. 3. and suppose it cuts BD or BD produced at the point E. C . let BD and CA intersect at X. find the number of degrees in In Fig. which . If the angle DXC =40% 2. 161 Converse of Theorem 39. B' Proof. L . A. Let BAG.ANGLE PROPERTIES. Then the L BAC = the L BEC But. and on the same side of it. Join EC. Corollary. It is required to prove that as its A and D lie on an arc of a circle having BC chord.
Suppose O the centre of the circle. Q.E.. is ABC BCD together together = two = two rt.] circle any quadrilateral inscHM in a are together equal to two right angles. angles. angles. From Theorem 39 w© learn that angles in the same segment are tquod. ]$2 GEOMETRY. Since the l ADC at the O'* = half the l AGO at the on the same arc ABC and the l ABC at the O" = half the reflex l ADC at the centre. The results of Theorems 39 and 40 should be carefully compared. ABC together the reflex l AOC. rt. . From Theorem 40 wc supplementary. rt. Join OA. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral inscribed in the OABC.. the Z'BAD. Theorem The apposite angles of 40. It is required to prove that (i) (ii) the C ADC.D. the Z'ADC. centre. standing on the same arc ADC Proof. 22. learn that angles in conjugate segments are Definition. angles. standing . angles.. circle . Similarly the Z'BAD. ABC together = two BCD together = two angles. the L'ADC. [Euclid III. OC.AOC and But these angles make up four . rt. Note. A quadrilateral is called cyclic when a can be drawn through its four vertices. = half the sum of the Z. rt.
EXERCISES ON THEOREM 1. 40. Y ABC is an isosceles triangle. Let ABCD opposite angles at be a quadrilateral in which the B and D are supplementary. by hypothesis. . 2. . : lie on a circle. B. D Let ABC be the circle which passes through the three points A. is impossible unless A. base X. In a the angle ABC circle of 1"6" radius inscribe a quadrilateral ABCD.d.ADC. B. Measure the remaining angles. C.*.•. B. gram must be 4. is a cyclic quadrilateral.ABC. its If a pair of opposite angles of a quadrilateral are supplementary. E coincides with D. the Z. If one side of a cydic qiiadrilateral is produced. and hence verify in this case that opposite angles are supplementary. the ADC is Z..AEC . 40. It is required to prove that the points ^. making equal to 126". C .ANGLE PROPERTIES. and XY is drawn parallel to the BC cutting the sides in X and Y shew that the four points B. after first 3. C. C must pass through D : D are concyclic. Proof. the supplement of the Z. Then the since ABCE is Z. If a circle can be described about a parallelogram. q. is 5. the exterior angle equal to the opposite interior angle of the quadrilateral. that is. But. Join EC. and suppose it outs AD or AD produced in the point E. the circle which passes through A. and 16. the supplement of the Z. 163 Converse of Theorem vertices are concyclic. B. which . the parallelorectangular.AEC = the Z. C.ABC . Prove Theorem 40 by the aid of Theorems 39 joining the opposite vertices of the quadrilateral.e. are concydic.
standing on the same arc ADB. But the three angles . the ^ OCA = the l OAC. angles q. 5. l OBC. Thear. angles : . 2nd Proof. the iLOCB = the ^OBC..e. Theorem The angle in a 41. The lACB at the O** is half the straight angle at the centre. Join OC.d. angle . centre Let ADB be a circle of which AB is a diameter and O the and let C be any point on the semicircumference ACB. OB = OC. together of = two two rt.d. q.164 GEOMETRY. And . 31. . rt.*.*. . the Z. It is required to prove that the l ACB is a rt.*.] semicircle is a right angle. angles. angle. Then because OA = OC. • .e. the whole l ACB = the L OAC + the because of the z. AOB 1st Proof. [Euclid III.ACB is angle. rt. . and a straight angle = two a rt. the A ACB ACB = onehalf = one rt.
on the hypotenuse of a rightangled triangle at diameter. A Definition. B. than one rt.. or the third side produced. A bounded by two between them.ACB at the O'* is half the ZAOB at the centre.'. C 3 D The Z. or without the circumference. 41. straight rod of given length slides betM'een two straight rulers 5. . AQ are drawn. ANGLE PROPERTIES. Shew that on one of the equal sides of an isosceles it passes through the middle point of 4 Circles described on any two sides of a triangle as diameters intersect on the third side. than one rt. . . the Z. : A Q are collinear. ACB is less is less than two rt. angle. A circle is described triangle as diameter. 165 is acute Corollary. through a fixed point. circle described . on the same arc ADB. 2.AOB the z.*. Distinguish between the cases when the given point is within. and the angle in a segment less than a semicircle is obtuse.'. angles. angle. exercises on theorem 1. passes through the opposite angular point. on. The angle in a segment greater than a semicircle . (i) If the segment ACB is greater than a semicircle. then ADB the L ACB the Z. the base. placed at right angles to one another . angles. one in each circle shew that the points P. ACB is less than a semicircle. is (ii) If the segment a major arc . radii sector of a circle is a figure and the arc intercepted / \ .ACB is greater is greater than two rt. find the locus of its middle point. 3. Find the locus of the middle points of chords of a circle drawn 6. Two circles intersect at A and B and through A two diameters AP. then ADB is a minor arc ..
E. B will fall on E. are equal. arc ELF Q. DEF be equal circles. because the circles have equal radii. and the circumferences of the circles will coincide the arc . And and C on entirely. let the L BGC = the ^ EHF Thear. must also be true in the same circle . [Euclid III. arc ELF.. z. falls Apply the O ABC to the O DEF.*. 42. It is clear that and chords in equal circles any theorem relating to arcs. arcs which subtend equal angles^ either at centres or at the circumferences. BKC must coincide with the the arc BKC = the arc ELF. Theorem In equal circles. GC will fall along HF. the L It is BAC = the z_ EDF at the O"**..] the. required to prove that the arc BKO = the Proof.D. and . Then because the L BGC = the EHF. at the centres Let ABC.*. along HE. F. . 166 GEOMETRY. and and consequently . angles. In equal circles sectors which Jiave equal angles Obs. 38. are equal. GB falls so that the centre Q on the centre H. Corollary. 26.
falls on E. by hypothesis. the arc falls on . so that the centre along HE. Q Then because the .. Let ABC.D. [Euclid III. BKC = the arc ELF. /ereTices. EHF . and consequently GC on HF. 167 Theorem In eqiial circles angles. 43. BAG = the Z. and likewise the L EDF = half the z. Proof.. and GB DEF.. 27.] at the circma either at the centres or which stand on equal arcs are equal. the Z. circles have equal radii. entirely. And since the l BAG at the O*^ = half the L BGC at the centre . EDF. It is required to prove that the also the L BGC = the L EHF l BAG = the l EDF at the centres at the O"". . and the two O"" coincide F. B . . falls Apply the O ABG to the falls on the centre H.. Q. theiLBGC = theiLEHF.. ^nd. and let the arc BKC = the arc ELF.E. DEF be equal circles. ARCS AND ANGLES.
. Proof.. for the same reason. : q. Let ABC..d. by hypothesis .'. GC HF. 7. and BC = EF. . [Euclid III. GC. Theor. being radii of equal circles. EH. 28. = {BG = EH. Join BG. DEF and be equal circles whose centres are let G and H : the chord BC = the chord EF.. 42 and these are the minor arcs.] major arc equal arcs which are cut off by equal chords are equal to the majoi' arc. In the A* BGC. the remaining arc BAC = the remaining arc EDF and these are the major arcs. HF. 168 GEOMETRY. BGC = the ^ EHF the arc BKC = the arc ELF . arid the minor to the minor. But the whole 0<*ABKC = the whole C^DELF. . BKC = the minor arc ELF. EHF. Theorem In equal the circles. 44. It is required to prove that the major arc md the minor arc BAG = the majoi' arc EDF. Theor.e. the z. .
[Euclid III. and the O"'^ coincide entirely. so that G falls on H Then because the circles have equal radii. It is required to prove that the chord BC = the chord EF. 169 Theorem In 45. Let ABC. Q. And because the arc /.•. . C falls on F. Apply the Proof. EH. .. DEF be equal circles whose centres are G and H and let the arc BKC = the arc ELF.. Join BG.D.E. B falls on E. ARCS AND CHORDS. ABC to the DEF. . 29. . the chord BC coincides with the chord EF.. and GB along HE. BKC = the arc ELF.] equal circles chords which cut off eqml arcs are equal. the chord BC = the chord EF.
PQ that the triangles and RS are two chords of a circle intersecting at PXS. by half the sum of the arcs they cvi If two chords to thcU cU the centre intersect without a circle. and the bisectors of the angles meet the circumference at X. the angles PAB. Z. QY P is any point on the arc of a segment whose chord is AB and 5. subtend equal angles at B. Y. 90 12. cutting AB in X and AC in Y. then the bisector of the angle APB cuts the conjugate arc in the same point for all positions of P. they form an angle equai subtended by half the difference of the arcs they cut off. and through these points lines are drawn from any point P on the circumference of one of the circles shew that when produced they intercept on the other circum: Two ference an arc which is constant for all positions of P. circles intersect at A and B . If fi^B is a fixed chord of a circle and P any point on one of the arcs cut off by it. . Two circles intersect at A and B . AB. RXQ are equiangular to one another. XAY are drawn terminated by the circumferences shew that the arcs PX. X : prove Two circles intersect at A and B and through A any straight 3. 9. . are the middle points of the minor arcs cut off by them . 8. to that at the centre. any point on the arc of a segment of which AB Shew that the sum of the angles PAB. triangle ABC is inscribed in a circle. if PQ is joined. If two chorda intersect within a circle. and through A any two straight lines PAQ. and P.170 GEOMETRY. AC are any two chords of a circle . The sum of the arcs cut oflF by two chords of a circle at right angles to one another is equal to the semi circumference. P is is the chord 2. : 4. : 6. Find the locus of the point O. PBA are bisected by straight lines which intersect at O. Shew that the angles of the triangle XYZ are respectively Q A 90°§. EXERCISES ON ANGLES IN A CIRCLE. 90'. they form an angle equal off. 11. PBA is constant. . 1. subtended 7. line PAQ is drawn terminated by the circumferences shew that PQ subtends a constant angle at B. 10. shew that AX = AY.
a point of intersection of two equal circles. R are the middle points of the sides of a triangle.] : 20. and E the middle point on the side remote from A if through E of the arc subtended by is drawn. DC 18. in be equilateral ? ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral. R. are concyclic. are 14. if the circles are produced to meet at P.EXERCISES ON ANGLES IN A CIRCLE. (i) towards the same parts. 171 The straight lines which in a circle equal. and the 17. join the extremities of parallel chords (ii) towards opposite parts. and CB. DA to meet at circumscribed about the triangles PBC. straight lines are the straight lines are equal. Through the points of intersection of two circles two parallel drawn terminated by the circumferences shew that which join their extremities towards the same parts : Two straight line that PAQ BP=BQ. 22. shew that the bisectors of the vertical angles all pass through a fixed point. 13. If a series of triangles are drawn standing on a fixed base. equal circles intersect at A and B . Use the preceding exercise to shew that the middle points of the sides of a triangle and the feet of the perpendiculars lei fall from the vertices on the opposite sides. 83. is a triangle inscribed in a circle. 10. P. and X is the foot of the perpendicular let fall from one vertex on the opposite side: shew that the four points P. R. bisectors of the base angles meet the circumference at X and Y. the points P. Q. and having a given vertical angle. Q. Ex. two straight lines PAQ. and through is drawn terminated by the circumferences A any : shew ABC is an isosceles triangle inscribed in a circle. ABC BC : ED DEA . XAY are drawn shew that the chord PX is equal to the chord QY. QAB intersect at R. 16. p. 2 also Prob. shew that are collinear. X are coneydie. Shew that the figure BXAYC must have four of its sides equal. Through A. 21. and the opposite sides AB. shew that the angle is half the difierence a diameter of the angles at B and C. Q : Q 19. [See page 64. : 15. What relation must subsist among order that the figure BXAYC may the angles of the triangle ABC.
If For instance (i) Let a secant cut the circle at the points P and Q. and suppose it to be turned about the point P so that while P remains fixed.: : 172 GEOMETRY. . at which two points of section coincide. the straight In the ultimate position when P and line becomes a tangent to the circle at that point. TANGENCY. length which cuts the circumference at two points. and is said to touch it at the point at which the two intersections coincide. it is clear that a tangent can have only one point in common with the circumference. Hence we may define a tangent as follows 3. /* A a secant moves in such a way that the two points in which it cuts the circle continually approach one another. position. the secant becomes a tangent to the circle. and suppose it to recede from the centre. Q (ii) Let a secant cut the circle at the points P and Q. then in the ultimate position when these two points become one. This point is called the point of contact. then the two points P and Q will clearly approach one another and finally coincide. become one point. A tangent to a circle is a straight line which meets the circumference at one point only. 2. Since a secant can cut a circle at tvx) points only. is a tangent at the point P. when Q coincides with P. Definitions and First Principles. secant of a circle is a straight line of indefinite 1. Q moves on the circumference nearer and nearer Then the line PQ in its ultimate to P. moving always parallel to its original position . and though produced indefinitely does not cut the circumference. namely the point of contact.
Fig. of the circles turn 1) in the points P. but do not cut one another. I. . Hence circles are said to touch one another when they meet. Let two circles P and Q. 1. Fig. or to have internal contact with it. 2 and 3). Then in the ultimate position. 3. 2. as in Figs.TANGENCY. Hence Two circles their point which touch one another have a common tangent at of contact. about the point two Since two circles cannot intersect in more than two points. When each of the circles which meet is outside the other. the line TP passes through two coincident points on each circle. namely the point of contact at which the two points of section coincide. in 4. as in Fig. 3. TQP is a common chord of two circles one of which is made to turn about P. the first is said to touch the other internally. or to have external contact: when one of the circles is within the other. as in Fig. such a way that Q continually approaches P. then when Q is brought into coincidence with P. and therefore becomes a tangent to each circle. 2 and 3. and let one which remains fixed. Inference from Definitions 2 and If in Fig. circles which touch one another cannot have more than (me point in common. 2. intersect (as in Fig. they are said to touch one another externally. Note. when Q coincides with P (as in Figs. Fig:. the circles are said to touch one another at P. 4.
Corollary 2. PT is a tangent. to PT.. it follows that the perpendicular to a tangent at its point of contact passes through the centre. O. circle is any point of a point of contact. 12. OQ is is greater than the radius OP. p&rpmdiodar to the drawn to the Let PT be a tangent at the point P to a is circle whose centre radius OP. and join OQ. . Theorem The tangent radius at 46. it follows that tlie radius drawn perpertr dicular to the ta/ngent passes through the point of contact. Theor. Hence OP is perp. Corollary 3. It is required to prove that PT is perpendicular to the Proof. every point in it except P is outside the circle. from O to the line Since there can be only one perpendicular PT. Corollary to 1. it follows that one and only one tangent cam. OP this is true for every point Q in PT 1. . Cor. the shortest distance from O to PT. he drawn to a a given point on the circumference. 174 GEOMETRY.D. And . Then since Take any point Q in PT.. Q. Since there can be only one perpendicular circle at OP at the point P.*.E. Since there can be only one perpendicular to PT at the point P.
.*. 2. is Q. It is required to prove that the tangent at the radius perpendicular to Let RQPT (Fig. OP. of Limits. Because OP = 0Q. and this is true however near Q is to P. the supplements of these angles are equal. 1) circle whose centre P is is O. OPT become adjacent. Let P be a point on a OP.D.E. Fig:.TANGENCY. . be a secant cutting the Join 00. OP is perp. The method of proof employed here known as the Method . 176 Theorem radius 46. circle at Q and P.'OQR.\ coincides with OP. then in the ultimate position. [By the Method circle is of Limits. Note. that is. the l ."f p&rpeTidicular to the The tangent at any point of a drawn to the point of contact. the secant QP be turned about the point P so that Q continually approaches and finally coincides with P. let (i) (ii) Now OQ the secant RT becomes the tangent at P. the^0QP = th6^0PQ. to RT. I. . Proof.*. OPT. j p „ ^' ' and therefore the equal z. OQR = the z. Fig.
The two tangents to a circle from an external and subtend equal angles at the centre. It is required to prove that there can he two tangents the circle drawn to from T. TQO are right angles.D. OQ respectively. and TSO be the circle on OT as diameter. CJOROLLARY.E. OQ. {the L* TPO. Theor.. points. since This points. Q. Forin the A'TPO.. TP. 1 8. to the radii OP. circle. drawn to a circle from an external poi'/U. TQ. TP = TQ. Now a rt. let Join OT. circle will cut the is OPQR in two T is without. 46. the PQR.'. and the z. TQO. . being in a semiangle TP. Let PQR be a circle whose centre is O. and O within. OP. Proof. and OP = OQ. being radii . . TQ are perp. the hypotenuse TO is common. point are equal. Theor. is . Let P and Q be these JoinTP. TQO. . Theorem Two tangents can he 47. 176 geometry. and let T be an external point.. TOP = the ^ TOQ. TQ are tangents at P and Q. each of the l'TPO.
TANGENCY.
EXERCISES ON THE TANGENT.
{Numerical and Graphical.)
177
concentric circles with radii 5*0 era. and 3*0 cm. Draw a series of chords of the former to touch the latter. Calculate and measure their lengths, and account for their being equal.
1.
Draw two
2.
length. radius.
In a circle of radius 1 'O" draw a number of chords each 1 '&' in Shew that they all touch a concentric circle, and find its
The diameters of two concentric circles are respectively 10*0 cm. 3. and 5'0 cm. find to the nearest millimetre the length of any chord of the outer circle which touches the inner, and cheek your work by
:
measurement.
= 13", find the length In the figure of Theorem 47, if 0P=5", 4. of the tangents from T. Draw the figure (scale 2 cm. to 5"), and measure to the nearest degree the angles subtended at by the tangents.
T0
O
5.
The tangents from T
in length. the figure
to a circle whose radius is 0*7" are each 2*4" Find the distance of T from the centre of the circle. Draw and check your result graphically.
{Theoretical.)
6.
The
must
lines
7.
centre of any circle which toitches two intersecting straight lie on the bisector of the angle between them.
;
that
AB and AC are two tangents to a circle whose centre is O AG bisects the chord of contact BC at right angles. 8. If PQ is joined in the figure of Theorem 47, shew that the PTQ is double the angle OPQ.
shew
angle
9. Two parallel tangents to a circle intercept on any third tangent a segment which subtends a right angle at the centre.
10. The diameter of a circle bisects the tangent at either extremity.
all
chords which are parallel to
11. Find the locus of the centres of all circles which touch straight line at a given point.
a given
12.
two
Find the locus of the centres of all circles parallel straight lines,
which touch each of
13. Find the locu^ of the centres of all circles intersecting straight lines of unlimited length.
which touch each of two
the
14. In any quadrilateral circumscribed about a circle^ pair of opposite sides is equul to the sum of the other pair. State and prove the converse theorem.
sum of one
15. If a quadrilateral is described about a circle, the angles subtended at the centre by any two opposite sides are supplementary.
H.S.O.
M
;
178
GEOMETRY.
Theorem
If
tvx)
48.
circles
(ouch otic another, the centres
straight line.
and
the poiTU of
contact are in
om
Let two
point
It
P.
circles
whose centres are O and
and
Q
touch at the
is
required to prove that O, P,
Q
are in one straight line.
Join OP, QP.
Proof.
common tangent
Then
contact,
..
Since the given circles touch at at that point.
P,
they have a Page 173.
Suppose PT to touch both
since
circles at P.
OP and QP
OP and QP OP and QP
P,
are radii
drawn
to the point of
are both perp. to are in one
st. line,
PT
Thear. 2.
q.e.d.
.'.
That
is,
the points O,
and
Q
are in one
st. line,
Corollaries,
between their centres
(ii)
(i)
If two
equal
toiich
circles touch externally the distance
is
to tJie
sum
of their radii.
distance
If two
circles
internally the
between
their
centres is equal to the difference of their radii.
;
;
THE CONTACT OF CIRCLES.
179
EXERCISES ON THE CONTACT OF CIRCLES.
{Numerical and Graphical.)
draw two circles with radii 1*7" and 0'9" where do these circles touch one another ? If circles of the above radii are drawn from centres O'S" apart, prove that they touch. How and why does the contact differ from that in
1.
From
centres 2 '6" apart
respectively.
Why and
?
the former case
2.
Draw
A, B,
a triangle
;
From
3.
and C
as centres
4 '5 cm. respectively
which a=8 cm., h = 1 cm., and c = 6 cm. draw circles of radii 2"5 cm., 3'5 cm., and and shew that these circles touch in pairs.
ABC
in
In the triangle ABC, rightangled at C, a = 8 cm. and 6 = 6 cm. and from centre A with radius 7 cm. a circle is drawn. What must be the radius of a circle drawn from centre B to touch the first circle ?
are the centres of two fixed circles which touch inis the centre of any circle which touches the larger circle the smaller externally, prove that AP+ BP is constant. internally and If the fixed circles have radii 50 cm. and S'O cm. respectively, verify the general result by taking different positions for P.
4.
A and B
If
ternally.
P
5.
AC,
AB is a line 4" in length, CB semicircles are described.
and
C
is its
Shew
that
its
the space enclosed by the three semicircles
middle point. On AB, a circle is inscribed in radius must be §".
if
{Theoretical.)
straight line is drawn through the point of contact of two circles 6. rewhose centres are A and B, cutting the circumferences at P and are parallel. spectively ; shew that the radii AP and
A
BQ
Q
Two circles touch externally, and through the point of contact a 7. straight line is drawn terminated by the circumferences ; shew that the tangents at its extremities are parallel.
8.
Find the locus of the centres of all circles (i) which touch a given circle at a given point (ii) which are of given radius and touch a given
circle.
9.
circle.
From a given point as centre describe a How many solutions will there be ?
circle to
touch a given
10.
at a given point.
Describe a circle of radius a to touch a given circle of radius & How many solutions will there be ?
the point of contact. 32. the . BCD. angle. BAD together = a rt. . the L BCD = the supplement of the l BAD = the supplement of the L FBD = the L EBD . is BA a diameter. Proof. angle.180 GEOMETRY. . z. angle. the LEBD = the angle in the alt&rnate segment BCD. a tangent. z.E.'. [Euclid III.'. Join AD. Again because ABCD is a cyclic quadrilateral.*DBA. CB. the z. arc of the Let BA be the diameter through B. ADB in a semicircle is a rt. and let BD be a chord drawn the L FBD = the angle in the alternate segment BAD .. EBD = the z. and C any point in the segment which does not contain A. the L FBA is a rt. and But since EBF . It is required to prove tliat (i) (ii) B. the Z'DBA. then the z.*.'. which is in the alternate segment . FBA = the z. Take away the common l DBA.D. Let EF touch the 0ABC at from B. FBD = the L BAD.] The angles made by a tangent to a circle with a chord drawn from the point of contact are respectively equal to the angles in the alternate segments of the circle. which is in the alternate segment. DC. Theorem 49. Q. Because the . BAD together.
Use this theorem to shew that tangents to a from an external point are equal. : 5. Prove this (i) for internal. 1. Deduce Theorem 48 from the property that a common chord at right angles. Join PB. Theor. the Z. EBD. chords APQ. any point on drawn to cut the other at C and D 6. straight lines PAC. are : 4. 5. €«id this is true however near to A..ALTERNATE SEGMENT. BPA becomes the L BAT. PBD are and through P.FBD=72°. P approaches If P moves up to coincidence with A. write circle down the 2. one of them. Deduce Theorem 49 from Ex.BCA. 41. The straight line drawn perpendicular is a tangent. 3. [Let . values of the L* BAD. segment. from the point of contact of a tangent to a circle a chord is drawn. ACB be a segment of a circle of which AB is the chord and let PAT' be any secant through A. then the secant PAT' becomes the tangent AT. Deduce Theorem 46 from Theorem . In the figure of Theorem 49. 5. the point of contact of two circles. If EXERCISES ON THE METHOD OF LIMITS. From Theorem of Limits that 31. the perpendiculars dropped on the tangent and chord from the middle point of either arc cut off by the chord are equal. prove by the to the T diameter of a circle at its Method extremity 3.. and the Z. 1. bisects 4. ] 2. BPA . one of which passes through O. . drawn shew that PX and QY are parallel. Then the L BCA = the Z. BCD. the centre of the other prove that OA bisects the angle between the common chord and the tangent to the first circle at A. the line of centres page 163. AXY Through A. ultimately. shew that CD is parallel to the tangent at P. 39. BAT = the Z. Two : circles intersect at A and B . EXERCISES ON THEOREM 49. Prove Theorem 49 hy the Method of Limits. (ii) for external contact. AB is the common chord of two circles. 181 if the Z. in the alt.
the steps of the argument may in general be rearranged in reverse order. GEOMETRICAL ANALYSIS. 29. In attempting to solve a problem begin by assuming the required result . though convincing as an argument. But this arrangement. is called geometrical analysis it is the natural way of attacking the harder types of exercises. that is to say. they often furnish a very effective mode of searching for a suggestion.182 GEOMETRY. This unravelling of the conditions of a proposition in order to trace it back to some earlier principle on which it depends. and try to ascertain its dependence on some condition or known theorem which suggests the necessary construction. Hitherto the Propositions of this textbook have been arranged Synthetically. and it is especially useful in solving problems. The approach by analysis will be illustrated in some of the following problems. and the construction and proof presented in a synthetic form. If this attempt is successful. : Although the above directions do not amount to a method. then by working backwards. PROBLEMS. 28. [See Problems 23.] . by building up known results in order to obtain a new result. most cases affords little clue as to the way in which the construction or proof was discovered. We therefore draw the in student's attention to the following hints. trace the consequences of the assumption.
meeting Proh. DE is equi Proh. and bisect them at right angles by the lines DE. O O is is equidistant from A. . the arc DA = the arc DB. Then every point on CD . FG. 183 Problem Given a circle^ 20. Join AB. and bisect it at Construction. Then O is the required centre. the L DBA = the L DAB the arcs. distant from A and B. 14. . Proh. Every point in Proof. circle Construction.. 14. PROBLEMS ON CIRCLES. B. . 2.. is >C And every point in FG . equidistant from B and C. Take two chords AB. . circle. arc. which subtend these angles at the O**. 33. Let ABC be an arc of a whose centre is to be found. Problem To Let ADB bisect 21. DB. are equal that is. . DA=DB. a given be the given arc to be bisected.*. Theor. Join DA. at O. 2. is Y equidistant from A and B Proh. to or an arc of a find its centre. Then the Proof. the centre of the circle ABC. BC. Theorem 6. right angles by CD meeting the arc at D.'. arc is bisected at D.. and C.
since the . angle. as shewn in the figure. Suppose the point T to approach the given circle. . it describe a semicircle TPO to cut the circle at Join TP. TP is a tangent at P. and the two tangents coincide. Then TP Proof. a second tangent TQ can be drawn from T. with its centre at O be the point from which a tangent is to be drawn. When T reaches the circumference. p. being is . Construction. then the angle PTQ gradually increases. a circle from a given external poirU. the an^e PTQ becomes a straight angle. 94. Since the semicircle may be described on either side of TO. is a rt.•. no tangent can be drawn. and on P. Problem To draw a tcmgent to 2*2. Join OP.] T . is the required tangent. Note.. When enters the circle. ^. Theor. 46. TP at right angles to the radius OP.'Q Let PQR be the given circle. and let T Join TO.184 geometry. in a semicircle. [See Oba. Then lTPO.
the radii of the given circles.. / 186 Problem 23. Since two tangents. common tangents. this method will These are furnish two common tangents to the given circles. Join DE. and thus lead to the These hints enable us to following construction. and produce it to meet the circle (A) at D. if Now be a rectangle. difference of With centre A. to DE. and radius equal to the Construction. then the fig. angle. draw BC first. Then the par^ to radii AD. BE are both perp. and therefore one another. Suppose DE to touch the circles at D and E. can in general be Ohs. BE are on the same side of AB. so that BC were drawn pai^ to DE. . and Let A be the centre of the greater let B be the centre of the smaller circle. ACB is a rt. DB would CD = BE = 6. and the z. Analysis. circle. Through B draw the radius BE par^ to AD and in the same sense. And if AD. describe a circle. Join AC. Then DE is a common tangent to the given circles. to To draw a common tangent two circles. and draw BC to touch it. such as BC. drawn from B to the circle of construction. and a its radius and b its radius. then AC = ab. called the direct common tangents.
describe a circle. circles at D and E In this case we may suppose DE to touch the so that the radii AD. as before. [We leave as an exercise to the student the arrangement of the proof in synthetio form.186 GEOMETRY. As circle of construction thus drawn to transverse common tangents. to one another two mOTe Analysis. and draw BC to touch it. construction. drawn par^ to the supposed common tangent DE. Hence the following Construction. {Gcmtimied. common if the circles are external tangents may be drawn. but draw BE in the sense AD. Problem 23. These are called the . before. angle. BE fall on opposite sides o/AB.) Again. ACB is a rt. the i. two tangents may be drawn from B to the hence two common tangents may be the given circles. and. With centre A. Then proceed opposite to as in the first case. would meet AD proditced at C and we should now have . Then BC.] . and radius equal to the siim of the radii of the given circles. AC = AD + DC = a + 6 . Obs.
Draw two circles with radii l&' and OS" and with Draw all their common tangents. and find their lengths between 2(f apart. or the two transverse. the parts of the tangents intercepted between the points of contact are equal. and note where the general modified. Also find the their common tangents and find their lengths. 6. . tangents in each case. 9. your answer by drawing two (i) and 1 "O" (ii) (iii) (iv) with with with with is rO" between 2*4" between 0'4" between 3"0" between the centres the centres the centres . the points of contact. common fails. common tangents are drawn to two circles. and also the two transverse. shew that the two direct. 3. Draw all the common 1"8" apart and whose radii are 0*6" and 1 "2" respectively. by measurement that it bisects the common tangents. 3*0" apart. direct. one another. Theoretical.) 1. placing their centres Draw the common tangents.) . EXERCISES ON COMMON TANGENTS. Draw the direct their centres common ( tangents to two equal circles. Q : . and a direct common tangent is drawn to touch them at P and shew that PQ subtends a right angle at the point A. 4. Draw the construction 2. {Numerical and Graphical. . If the two If four common tangents are drawn to two circles external to 8. tangents intersect on the line of centres. Produce the common chord and shew length of the common chord. tangents to two circles whose centres are Calculate and Two circles of radii 1"7" and TO" have their centres 2r' apart. Draw 5. Two given circles have external contact at A. circles of radii 1 '4" Illustrate respectively. 7. both by calculation and by measurement. measure the length of the direct common tangents. 187 How many common ? (i) tangents can be drawn in each of the following cases (ii) (iii) when the given circles intersect when they have external contact when they have internal contact. the centres. COMMON TANGENTS. or Draw two circles with radii 20" and 0*8".
one tangent. which touch a given straight which tmich a given circle^ and Imve a given (v) locus of the centres of circles and have a given (vi) radius. the radius if we know (or can find) any point on the circumference. and point of contact. The locus of the centres of circles which touch two given straight lines. two conditions are needed. more than one circle can be drawn Before attempting the constructions of the next Exercise the student should make himself familiar with the following loci. (i) Tlie locus of the centres of circles which pass through two given points. so that the one or more points in which the two loci intersect are possible positions of the required centre. 188 GEOMETRY. (i) In order to draw a circle we must know the centre. centres of circles which touch a given straight which touch a given circle at The locus of a given point. (ii) line at (iii) The locus of the a given point. It will however often happen that satisfying three given conditions. we may draw a (i) circle if we are given three points on the circumference its or or (ii) (iii) three tangent lines . (ii) The determined Hence required. one point on the circumference. the position of (i) To find the position of the centre. (ii) the length of the radius. On the Construction of Circles. as explained on page 93. is position of the centre being thus fixed.. in order to draw a circle three independent data are For example. each giving a locus on which the centre must lie . The The the centres of circles (iv) line. locus of the centres of circles radiiis. .
cm.. Shew 9. 1. on what line must its centre Draw OA. 246. [See page 311.THE CONSTRUCTION OF EXERCISES. PQ at is the point A. on what line must centre If a circle passes through two given points A and B. from a 7. to their centres being 6 touch each of the given circles externally.] Describe a circle to touch a given straight 10. Given a circle of radius 3*5 cm. cm. OB. and to pass through a given point B. 11. 4. making an 1 •2" angle of 76°. and 2 Given two circles of radius 3 5. Draw two cm. parallel straight lines Devise a construction for drawing a circle to touch each of two and a transversal. If a circle touches lie ? two straight lines OA. 189 Draw a If its circle to pass through three given points. draw a circle of radius 3*5 cm.] such circles can be drawn ? [Further Examples on the Construction of Circles will be found on . and to touch a Shew how to draw a circle to touch each of three given straight lines of which no two are parallel. apart. and If on what a circle touches a given circle line must its centre lie ? whose centre C at the point A. to touch the given circle and the line AB. respectively. given straight line AB . and also to touch a given straight line at a given point. 311. How many pp. distant from a straight line AB. and describe a circle of radius to touch both lines. 2. How many solutions will there be? What is the radius of the smallest circle that touches each of the given circles externally ? 6. lie ? a circle to touch a straight line to pass through another given point B. OB. Describe a circle to touch a given circle. given circle at a given point. draw two circles of radius 2*5 cm. line. Draw a circle to touch the given circle (C) at the point A. on what line must its centre Hence draw 3. and that they are equal. A point P is circles of radius 3*2 45 cm. that two such circles can be drawn. to pass through P and to touch AB. with its centre 5 cm. a circle touches lie ? a given line PQ at a point A. cm. CIRCLES. 8.
[Theorem41. In the particular case when the given angle is a rt. From A draw AG Bisect Proof. GA==GB. is equidistant from A and B Proh. which must Tlieor. d\ X angle. Note. line. 14. circle Let AB be the given st.] . and C the given segment of a It is required to descnhe on AB a containing an angle equal to C. pass through B. in G. AB at rt. Problem On a shall contain 24. Frob. Then the segment AHB. 190 GEOMETRY. make the l BAD equal to the 'L O. At A in BA. and touch AD at A. meeting AG Join GB. angle. 2.. centre G.. to AD. angle equal to C. and radius GA. 46. alternate to the L BAD. Construction. contains an Th^m: 49. the segment required will be the semicircle on AB asdiameter. perp. given straight line to desciibe a segment of a circle which an angle equal to a given angle. With draw a circle. angles by FG. Now every point in FG .
sides. and of the remaining sides. (i) and one other side.] 5. join PX. draw a tangent to the circle. and H a line equal to the sum of the sides. The following Problems are derived from Method of Intersection of Loci [page 93]. the length (ii) (iii) (iv) the foot 3. also another segment containing an angle equal to half the L K. and containing an angle eqtial to the given angle. Describe its and having 2. K the given angle. and K the given angle. Then ABC is the required triangle. the vertical angle. and produce it to meet the 0'=® at C. Construct a triangle having given the base.] [Let On AB complete the 4. With centre A. X the given point in it. is tJie arc of the segment standing on this base. is cut by the bisector of the vertical angle. a given angle. the vertical angle. describe a segment of a circle containing an angle equal to K Bisect the arc APB at P O*^* by drawing the arc APB. the vertical angle. this result by the EXERCISES. Construct the difference a triangle having given the base. it 191 circle To is cut off from to a given a segment containing enough tJie point of contact to angle equal to the given angle. of the perpendicular from the vertex to the base. the altilnde. Then ABC is the required triangle. CJoROLLARY. describe a circle cutting the arc of the latter segment at X and Y. and radius H. and the sum of the remaining [Let AB be the given base. of the median which bisects the base.. triangle on a given base having vertex on a given straight line. Join AX (or AY) cutting the arc of the first segment at C. a a given vertical angle Construct a triangle having given the base. 1. and AB be the base. On AB describe a segment containing an angle equal to K. the vertical angle. Construct a the point at which the base triangle having given the base. : PROBLEMS. . and from draw a chord making with the tangent an It was proved on page 161 that The locus of the vertices of triangles which stand on the same hose and have a given vertical angle.
192 GEOMETRY. and all its angles are equal. rectilineal figure is said to be in3. 2. when each side of the figure is a tangent to the circle. A Polygon of jive sides called a Pentagon. Heptagon. scribed in a circle. when the circumference of the circle passes through all the angular points of the figure. when all its angular points are on the circumference of the circle and a circle is said to be circumscribed about a rectilineal figure. A circle is said to be inscribed when . 4. Dodecagon. Octagon. O rectilineal figure. Quindecagon.. A A Polygon is Regular when all its sides are equal. six sides seven sides eight sides ten sides twelm sides fifteen sides „ „ „ „ „ „ Hexagon. in a the circumference of the circle is touched by each side of the figure and a rectilineal figure is said to be circumscribed about a circle. Decagon. L A Polygon is a rectilineal figure bounded by more than four sides. CIRCLES IN RELATION TO RECTILINEAL FIGURES. Definitions. .
H. the centre falls without the : triangle. With centre S. angles by DS and Prob. S is equidistant from A. this will pass through B and C. the point of intersection being the centre of the circle circumscribed about the triangle. and is. 2. the centre falls on the hypotenuse if it is an obtuseangled triangle. the centre of the circumcircle falls within it if it is a rightangled triangle. then the joining line is perpendicular to BC. Then S Proof. the required circumcircle. B. It will be. 19a Problem To droumscrihe a circle 25. Let drawn. and C. therefore. meeting at 8.. and every point in ES is equidistant from A and C . about a given triomgh. A andB. U.S. ^ From page 94 it is seen that if S is joined to the middle Note. Obs. found that if the given triangle is acuteangled. the centre of the required circle. point of BC. Now every point in DS is equidistant from Prob.G. : PROBLEMS ON TRIANGLES AND CIRCLES. ES. Bisect is AB and AC at rt. about which a circle is to be Construction.. and radius SA describe a circle. Hence the perpendiculars dravni to the sides of a triangle from their middle points are concurrent. ABC be the triangle. N .
*. the lines Bl. 96 it BAC : hence it is seen that follows that if Al is joined. ID. . . circle A .. IE. a circle in a given triangle. the O DEF is inscribed in the A ABC.. AB. from BC. Then Proof. Note. Then every point in Bl is equidistant . because the angles at D. CA ID . A Let ABC be the triangle. which intersect at I Prob. to BO. CA. CA. ACB by circle. ID is = = IF. Prob. IF perp. then Al bisects The bisectors of the angles of a triangle are concurrent. IE. circle is to be inscribed. IF I are all equal. 15. the angle From II. p. CI. AB. Bisect the iL'ABC. in which a Construction. st.. Problem To insci'ibe 26. Definition. the point of intersection being the centre of the inscribed circle. . E.. 1. And every point in CI . IE. I. BA . is the centre of the required I From draw ID. F are right angles. equidistant from CB. which touches one side of a triangle and the other two sides produced is called an escribed circle of the triangle. 194 GEOMETRY. Also the circle will touch the sides BC. With centre and radius ID draw a circle this will pass through the points E and F.
and AB. then Alj bisects the angle BAC hence it follows that : Note of two exterior angles of a triangle and the bisector of the third angle are concurrent. G. Prob. Note 2.G. = I.. It is clear that every triangle has three escribed oircles. Similarly . which intersect at Then Proof. Let ABC be the given triangle of which the sides AB. AC are produced to D and E. the point of intersection being the centre of an TTie bisectors escribed circle. Then every point in Bl^ is equidistant from BD. It is required to describe a circle touching BC. 1. It may be shewn. IjG. 15. to AD. liG = ljH.. BC. angles. lines Blj. escribed circle of a given triangle. Clj Bisect the z. BC. From draw I^H perp.'CBD. . problems on triangles and circles. because the angles at F. Their centres are known as the Excentres. AE. IjH are all equal. With centre 1^ and radius IjF describe a circle this will pass through the points G and H. BCE by the st. I^. BC. .. circle.. . as in II. AC Construction. Also the circle will touch AD. 1^ is 1^ the centre of the required I^F. 195 Problem To draw an 27.F IjF. the OFGH is an escribed circle of the A ABC. I. and AE. H are rt.. that if Alj is joined. page 96. I^G.
draw the tangent GAH. Now the L B. 28. Then ABC is the required triangle. C = the Lf. is inscribed from any point A on the O** two chords AB. GAB equal to the L F. At A make the z. 196 . l GAB = the L Reversing these we have the following construction. in the segment ABC. At any point A on the O** of the OABG Construction. in the circle. In drawing the figure on a larger scale the student should shew the construction lines for the tangent GAH and for the angles GAB. and similarly. A similar remark applies to the next Problem.) . E F. the z. B = the L E. HAC equal to the z. HAC. the z. and Theor. AC can be so placed that. to given circle to inscribe a tricmgle equiangular a given A D Let ABC be the given Analysis.. and DEF the given triangle. . 49. the steps. E. Note. then the L HAC = the z. Frob. on joining BC. suggests the eqiial angle between the chord AC and the tangent at its extremity {Theor. Problem In a triangle. 22. circle. if A A ABC. 16. and make the z. . equiangular to the A DEF. A = the l D. geometry. if at A we draw the tangent GAH. so that. Join BC. for then the z.
drawn to the points of contact of the sides. since the the z. KC. MN. the z. L'. KB. 197 Problem About a given a given triangle." B and A are rt. and consequently. circle to 29. NL could be drawn if we knew the relative positions of KA. Through A. circumscribe a triangle equiangular to MB Let ABC be the given G N circle. ABC. KC. MN. PROBLEMS ON CIRCLES AND TRIANGLES. which the l M = the L E. At K make the /. for the tangents LM. B. Find K the centre of the and draw any radius KB. Hence we have the following Construction. DFH.. Produce EF both ways to G arid H. 180° M= 1 80° E F. Then LMN is the required triangle. N = the L F. DEG and make the z. E F H and DEF the given triangle.BKA equal to the z. Let us consider the radii KA. [The student should no\r arrange the proof synthetically. NL perp. similarly the BKC = 180° . BKC. Suppose LMN to be a circumscribed triangle in Analysis. KB.D. C draw LM. L BKA = z. .] .L = the Z. that is. if we knew the l' BKA. KC. KB. to KA. Now from the quad^ BKAM.N = 180° construction. the z. BKC equal to the z.
a = 25". Draw triangles from the following data (i) : a=25".: 198 GEOMETRY... and escribed circles. Account for the three results being the same. verify this result by measurement. inscribe an equilateral triangle. 7.. the same circle circumscribe a second equilateral triangle. In the triangle ABC. prove that AABC = i(&lca)ri. Find the area is of the inscribed equilateral triangle. C to the opposite sides. C = 44°. first. 8 cm. and Circumscriptions. C = 23^ Circumscribe a circle about each triangle. Calculate the length of its side to the nearest millimetre . to the nearest hundredth of In a circle of radius 4 cm. be ca ah — . Explain why the second and third radii are respectively double and treble of the 3. Draw and measure the perpendiculars from A. c =3 cm. and r the length of the Hence prove that AlBC = iar.) about each case state and justify your construction. shew that is the centre. and measure the radii an inch. Find by measurement the circumradius of the triangle ABC iE which a = 6*3 cm. 6 = 3'0om. {Inscriptions 1. circle of radius 5 cm. by comparing the vertical angles. EXERCISES. In a and In 2. B = 72^ 6 = 41% C = 50?. 6.. If their lengths are represented by 7?i jP2 Pa verify the following . AABC = i(a + & + c)r. (ii) (iii) a = 2'o".. and shew that it one quarter of the circumscribed equilateral triangle. 4. B = 66°. and verify by measurement. if radius of the incircle. and find by calculation and measurement (to the nearest millimetre) the rswiii of the inscribed. » » statement circumradius =jr—=^r— = rr 2pi 2p3 2pj J. AICA=i6r. circumscribed. Verify this formula by measurements for a triangle whose sides are 9 cm... I 6. AIAB = ^cr.. and c = 51 cm. B. On Circles and Triangles. and 7 cm. 6 = 4 cm. inscribe an equilateral triangle . Draw an equilateral triangle on a side of 8 cm. If a = 5 cm. If r^ is the radius of the excircle opposite to A.
A If a and 7. 6. and Circumscriptions. 199 EXERCISES. In a circle of radius 1 8" inscribe a rectangle of which one side 5. State your construction. a a circle. •2. {Inscriptions 1. square and an equilateral triangle are inscribed in a circle. inscribing a circle in Justify your construction 4. so that one of 9. shewing all lines of construction.. On Circles and Squares. is : ABCD (Problems. . Circumscribe a square about a circle of radius 1*5". and P is any point on the arc AD shew that the side AD subtends at P an angle three times as great as that subtended at P by any one of the other sides. and test your di'awing by calculation. is Draw a square on a side of 7 "5 cm. (ii) (ii) a square about a given rectangle.) Draw a it. and state a construction for it. 10. and find a construction for inscribing a square in Calculate the length of the side to the nearest hundredth of an inch. 11. 8. measures 3"0". 12. 6 denote the lengths of their sides. circle of radius 1 '5". Find the approximate length of the other side. In a given square inscribe the square of Describe Inscribe (i) minimum area. Circumscribe a circle about a square whose side is 6 cm.) PROBLEMS ON CIRCLES AND SQUARES. its Inscribe a square in a given square ABCD. (i) circle. a square inscribed in a circle. 3. Prove that the area of the square circumscribed about a circle double that of the inscribed square. by considerations of symmetry. and give a theoretical proof. Circumscribe a rhombus about a given circle. Of all rectangles inscribed in the circle shew that the square has the greatest area. shew that 3a2=262. Find the area of the inscribed square. a square in a given quadrant. and verify by measurement. angular points shall be at a given point X in AB. Measure the diameter to the nearest millimetre.
2W
GEOMETRY.
ON CIRCLES AND REGULAR POLYGONS.
Problem
To draw a regular polygon
(i)
30.
(ii)
in
about a given
y"^'^
circle.
Let AB, BC, CD, ... be consecutive sides of a regular polygon inscribed in
a circle whose centre
is
^^—^^^ ^^D
/'
O.
...
/
are con/
I
\
Then AOB, BOC, COD,
_/
/'"
And if gruent isosceles triangles. the polygon has n sides, each of the
.L'AOB, BOC,
(i)
\
/^\
/
COD,
...
=
n
^<Z__A^
sides in a given circle,
.
Thus
to inscribe a polygon of
draw an angle AOB
at the centre equal to
n
This gives
the length of a side AB ; and chords equal to AB may now be The resulting figure will set oflf round the circumference. clearly be equilateral and equiangular.
(ii) To circumscribe a polygon of n sides about the circle, the points A, B, C, D, ... must be determined as before, and tangents drawn to the circle at these points. The resulting figure may readily be proved equilateral and equiangular.
Note.
the angle
This method gives a
360"
strict
geometrical construction only
when
n
can be drawn with ruler and compasses.
EXERCISES.
1. (i)
Give
strict constructions for inscribing in
;
a regular hexagon
2.
(ii)
a regular octagon
;
(iii)
a circle (radius 4 cm.) a regular dodecagon.
About a
(i)
circle of radius 1 '5" circumscribe
a regular hexagon ; (ii) a regular octagon. Test the constructions by measurement, and justify them by proof.
3. An equilateral triangle and a regular hexagon are inscribed in a given circle, and a and b denote the lengths of their sides prove that
:
(i)
area of triangle = i (area of hexagon)
;
(ii)
a^=3b^.
4.
By means
circle of radius 2".
measure
of your protractor inscribe a regular heptagon in a Calculate and measure one of its angles ; and the length of a side.
.
problems on circles and polygons.
201
Problem
To draw a
circle (i)
31.
in
(ii)
about a regular polygan.
Let AB, BC, CD, DE, ... be consecutive sides of a reeular polyeron of n sides.
Bisect the ^'ABC, CO meeting at O.
//
//
/<^^^^^^~^^^^vXv
^\\
\\
jj^D
BCD by
BO,
a(
Then O
inscribed
is
the centre both of the
circle.
and circumscribed
^^ N ^^/ \\_ V] \Sv / xy// ^\>^ ^^^Kl/
f
I
Outline of Proof.
Join
OD; and from
the congruent
A'OCB, OCD, shew that
conclude that All the hisectoi's of
(i)
OD
bisects the Z.CDE.
Hence we
the angles of thejpolygon
meet at O.
6.
Prove that OB = OC = OD=...; from Theorem Hence O is the circumcentre.
(ii)
Draw
*
OP, OQ, OR,
...
perp. to AB, BC, CD,
...
;
...
Prove that
'
OP = OQ = OR=
Hence O
is
from the congruent A'OBP,
the incentre.
EXERCISES.
a regular hexagon on a side of 2*0". Draw the inscribed and circumscribed circles. Calculate and measure their diameters to the nearest hundredth of an inch.
1.
Draw
2. Shew that the area of a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle threefourths of that of the circumscribed hexagon.
is
Find the area of a hexagon inscribed in a circle of radius 10 cm. to the nearest tenth of a sq. cm.
is an isosceles triangle inscribed in a circle, 3. If of the angles B and double of the angle A ; shew that a regular pentagon inscribed in the circle.
ABC
C
BC
having each is a side of
4.
On
a side of 4 cm. construct (without protractor)
(i) a regular hexagon ; (ii) a regular octagon. In each case find the approximate area of the figure.
' ;
GEOMETRY.
THE CIRCUMFERENCE OF A CIRCLE.
By
its
of the circumference of a circle is
:
experiment and measurement it is found that the length roughly 3 times the length of diameter that is to say
circumference
_
^^
,
diameter
^
^
all circles.
and
it
can be proved that this
is
the same for
correct value of this ratio is found by theory to be 31416 ; while correct to 7 places of decimals it is 314:15926o Thus the value 31 (or 3* 14^5) is too great, and correct to 2 places only.
A more
The
ratio
is
diameter
Or,
which the circumference of any circle bears to denoted by the Greek letter tt ; so that
circumference
its
= diameter x tt.
if
r denotes the radius of the circle,
circumference
= 2r x tt = 27rr
where to
are to give one of the values 3, 3*1416, oi 31415926, according to the degree of accuracy required in the final result.
tt
we
Note. The theoretical metliods by which ir is evaluated to any required degree of accuracy cannot be explained at this stage, but its value may be easily verified by experiment to two decimal places.
For example round a cylinder ends overlap. At any point in through both folds. Unwrap and the distance between the pin holes
:
ference.
strip of paper so that the the overlapping area prick a pin straighten the strip, then measure this gives the length of the circumMeasure the diameter, and divide the first result by the second.
:
wrap a
Ex.
find of TT.
1.
From
these data
CiRCUHFERENCR.
and record the value
Find the three results.
mean
of
the
Ex. 2. A fine thread is wound evenly round a cylinder, and it is found that the length required for 20 complete turns is 75*4". The diameter of the cylinder is 1 2" find roughly the value of t.
:
bicycle wheel, 28" in diameter, makes 400 revolutions in travelling over 977 yards. From this result estimate the value of ir.
Ex.
3.
A
Xr AI. number of sectors is increased.TERNATIVE METHOD. angles. . Then we have Area of polygon = 71. then : and this is true Now so that as the (i) (ii) however great n may be. circumference x r 27rr . the area of the circle = the area of the fig. jABxOD = J nAB xr = J (perimeter of polygon) x r . Suppose the circle divided into any even number of sectors having equal central angles denote the number of sectors bj"^ 7i. Area of circle =J =1 . each arc is decreased the outlines AB. 203 THE AREA OF A CIRCLE. and this is true if however many sides the polygon may have. the perimeter and area of the polygon may be made to differ from the circumference and area of the circle by quantities smaller than any that can be named hence ultimately the of sides is increased Now number without limit. CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF A CIRCLE.. Let AB be a side of a polygon of n sides circumscribed about a circle whose centre is O and radius r. . AAOB = 7^. . ABCD . Let the sectors be placed side by side as represented in the diagram . and the angles at D and B tend to become rt. CD tend to become straight.
. Thus when n is increased without limit. they cut off an arc whose length = ^^ of the circumference (ii) a sector whose area = ^^^ of the circle . . :. 204 GEOMETRY. THE AREA OF A SEGMENT. Area of circle = ^ circumference x radius . . whose length is the semicircumference of the circle. then radii of a circle (i) (i) the arc AS = ^^ of the circwmference of the area of the (ii) the sector AOB = k^t: circle = ^^ of (J circumference x radius) =J . Thus Area of segment ABC = sector OACB triangle AOB.if the angle AOB contains D degrees. and whose breadth is its radius. ABCD ultimately becomes a rectangle. the fig. = J.27rr xr=7rr2.'. If two and make an angle of 1°. THE AREA OF A SECTOR. area of a major segment is most simply found by subtracting the area of the corresponding minor segment from the area of the circle. The . The area of a minor segment is found by subtracting from the corresponding sector the area of the triangle formed by the chord and the radii. arc AB X radius.
t of the ring is 22 square inches. is to the nearest tenth of an inch the side of a square whose equal to that of a circle of radius 5". 0) and (0. Find to the nearest hundredth of a square inch the area of the 5. Shew that each of the last two circles touches the first. Find to the nearest hundredth of a square inch the areas of the whose radii are (i) 2*3". centre. whose 2. and whose radii are respectively '7' and 1 "O". [In each case choose the value of degree of accuracy. radii are (i) 4'5 cm.. and find approximately their circumferences and areas. circle of radius I'O" having the point (TG". circles is equal to the area of a circle whose radius is the length of a tangent to the inner circle from any point on the outer. (ii) 10*6". '\ v so as to give a result of the assigned 1. and 6*0 cm. Shew that the area of a ring lying between the circumferences of 6. Prove that the circles touch one another. "8"). CIRCUMFERENCE AND AREA OF A CIRCLE. 12. two concentric 7. circle. : circles 3. Find to the nearest hundredth of a square inch the difierence between the areas of the circumscribed and inscribed circles of an equilateral triangle each of whose sides is 4". find approximately the radii of the two circles. In a circle of radius 7*0 cm. is inscribed in a Calculate to the nearest tenth of a square centimetre the total area of the four segments outside the rectangle. 205 EXERCISES. taking 10. A circular ring is formed by the circumference of The area two concentric circles. Find area 9. of a circle inscribed in 4. Draw a . Find to two places of decimals the circumference and area a square whose side is 3*6 cm. circular ring formed by two concentric circles whose radii are 5 '7" and 43". a square is described find to the nearest square centimetre the difference between the areas of the circle and the square. Draw on squared paper two circles whose centres are at the points (1'5". 1*2") as Also draw two circles with the origin as centre and of radii 1*0^' and 3'0" respectively. A rectangle whose sides are 8*0 cm. and its width is 1 '0" as ^^. Find to the nearest millimetre the circumferences of the circles (ii) 100 cm. 11. 8.
circumscribed circles shew that IS subtends at A an angle equal to half the difference of the angles at the base of the triangle. and 3. circle . If I . . (Theoretical. S S are the centres of the inscribed are collinear. E. circumscribed circles . COD. 9»' 9016. . In any triangle ABC.) Describe a circle to touch two parallel straight lines and a third straight line which meets them. I.206 GEOMETRY. then Al is the The diagonals of a quadrilateral ABCD intersect at O shew 9. In any triangle the difference of two sides is equal to the 7. Triangles which have equal bases and eqtud vertical angles have 2. DOA are at the angular points of a parallelogram. Ij is the centre of the circle inscribed in the triangle ABC. On the Inscribed. and if O is produced to meet the circumscribed circle at O shew that the centre of the circle circumscribed about the triangle BIC. and of the diameters of the inscribed and circumscribed a rightangled triangle is equal to the sum of the sides containing the right angle. In the triangle ABC. the centre of the escribed circle which touches BC shew that Ij. difference of the segments into which the third side is divided at the point of contact of the inscribed circle. C are concyclic. BOC. 4. I : Hence shew that if AD is bisector of the angle DAS. : . : 10. F . I. F the triangle ABC is the circumscribed circle of the triangle DEF. Al is if I is the centre of the inscribed circle. Shew that two such circles can be drawn. Three circles whose centres are A. E. shew that the angles of the triangle DEF are respectively 904. 1. and the radius of the oiroumscribed construct the triangle. drawn perpendicular to BC. The sum at If the circle inscribed in the triangle ABC touches the sides D.and I. if A. Circumscribed. shew that AB = AC. circles of 5. B. Given the base. 11. altitude. C touch one another shew that the inscribed circle ol externally two by two at D. EXERCISES. tqual circumscribed angles. and S are the centres of the inscribed and 8. 12. and that they are equal. and Escribed Circles of a Triangle. that the centres of tlie circles circumscribed about the four triangles AOB. ABC is a triangle. B.
: 16.THE ORTHOCENTRE OF A TRIANGLE. : the points A. F. the points O. the remaining Z. AB. Q.'.E.'. /. angle Theor. CF meet at the point O. the Z. Z D are concyclic : . . Hence the three perp» AD. = the vert. Then. (ii) The is triangle formed by joining the feet of the perpen diculars called the pedal or orthocentric triangle. because the . . THE ORTHOCENTRE OF A TRIANGLE. . let AD. opp. It IS required to to shew that CF is perp. angles.D. the sum of the L" FOA. L FOA. ADB B in the are rt. angle: that is. ^"^ OEC. perp" the A ABC. . are concyclic . BE. D. The perpendiculars drawn from the vertices of a triangle to the opposite sides are concurrent. Definitions.'. to AB.AFO = art. E.•. DEB = a rt." same segment. ODC are rt. because the angles. the DEC = the A DOC. Z. 207 THEOREMS AND EXAMPLES ON CIECLES AND TRIANGLES. (i) The vertices of intersection of the perpendiculars drawn from the a triangle to the opposite sides is called its ortliocentre. I. C. E. Join DE. AEB. CF is perp. Join CO and produce it to meet AB at In . BE be the drawn from A and B to the opposite sides and let them intersect at O. same segment. in the Again.DEB = the LDAB.•. FAO = the sum of the L" DEC.
Z. the same segment.BAC. and the Z.d. EFD.C. CF .A. BE. Similarly it Z. It may be shewn.OBF. E are concyclic . ODE = the ^ODF. ODE = the comp* of = the Z. each being the comp' . Z.'. In the acuteangled A ABC. B. ° same segment. D. BE.EFA = the Z. :.DFB = the Z. EDO = the Z. meeting at the ortho CF centre O . may be shewn . D.ODF=the Z. EFD are bisected q.BAC.FDB = the In like manner may be proved that Z. DEF. ABC. DBF are equiangular to Note. be the perp» drawn from the vertices to the opposite sides. then the perpendiculars bisect externally the corresponding angles of the peaal triangle. II.. F are concyclic in the the Z. the Z. Corollary.FDB = the Z.OCE = the Z. of the But the Z. C.e.208 GEOMETRY. CF the L* FDE. let AD. Similarly it may be shewn that the L* by BE and CF. ODE = the Z. DEF. and let DEF be the pedal' triangle. in the Similarly the points O. If the angle BAC is obtuse.OBF. . that the the Z. In an acuteangled triangle the perpendictUars draxon from the vertices to the opposite aides bisect the angles of the pedal triangle through which they pass. that the points O.OCE Z. it the Corollary. bisect respectively It is required to "prove that AD.FEA = the LB.OCE. For the L EDC = the comp* of the the Z.DEC = the Z. as in the last theorem. .' one another (ii) The triangles and to the triangle DEC. Z. (i) Every tioo sides of the pedal triangle are equally inclined to that side of the original triangle in which they meet. BE. AEF.BAO..
In an acuteangled triangle the three aides are the external bisectors of the angles of the pedal triangle : and in an obtuseangled triangle the sides containing the obtuse angle are the internal bisectors of the corresponding angles of the pedal triangle. on a given straight line AB the chords AD. circumcircle. Three circles are described each passing through the orthocentre of a triangle and two of its vertices : shew that the triangle formed joining their centres is equal in all respects to the original triangle.THE ORTHOOENTRE OF A TRIANGLE. prove that ABC 0D 2. base. and AK a diameter of the shew that BOCK is a parallelogram. 3. the orthocentre. the other three. are supplementary. and the centre of the . The perpendicular from the vertex of a triangle on the base. 1. by Construct a triangle. is the I/O four points O. I/O is the AD is produced orthocentre of the triangle and if the perpendicular = DG. having given a vertex. O is its orthocentre. to meet the circumcirde in G. double o/ the perpendicular draum /rom the centre of the circumcircle to the opposite side. 7. a triangle. 209 EXERCISES. the straight line joining the orthocentre to the middle point of the base. BE and AE. 11. B. BAC 4. its orthocentre o/ the triangle ABC. 5. E are taken on the circumference of a semicircle described 6. and D. I/O is the orthocentre o/ the triangle ABC. and 9. Q : The distance o/ each vertex o/ a triangle /ram the orthocentre is 10. ABC is : circumcircle 8. BD intersect (produced if necessary) at F and G shew that FG is perpendicular : : toAB. then any one o/ the C is the orthocentre o/ the triangle whose vertices are The three circles which pass through two vertices o/ a triangle orthocentre are each equal to the circumcircle o/ the triangle. are produced to meet the circumcircle at P and shew that PQ is parallel to the base. shew that the angles BOC. A. 12. The orthocentre of a triangle is joined to the middle point of the and the joining line is produced to meet the circumcircle prove that it will meet it at the same point as the diameter which passes : through the vertex.
angle + ^A. F. Then from the (i) A BIC. Proof.•. Since the Z. : I and (ii). supplement is constant is that is. angle = one rt. I or. . CI be the Then is the inbisectors of its angles. is constant the loous of is the arc of a segment on the fixed chord is I I 80 . and let Al. I and from the (ii) A ABC. Bl. But the A is constant. It is required to find the locus of O. fuigles. find the locus qf the incentre.*. so that . + iB + iC = two rt. the vert. by A. E are concyclie is the Z. /. Let BAC be any triangle on the given base BC.: . A. . . But A . being always equal to the L X .'. LOCI. 210 GEOMETRY.X." OFA. FOE L its .'. and let the L BIC be denoted by I.•. . Given the base and vertical angle of a triangle. OEA are rt. intersecting at the orthocentre O. LX .A equal to the L X. Denote the angles of the A ABC C . Let BC be the given base. A IV. its Given the base and vertical angle of a triangUy find the locus oj orthocentre. and let BAG be any triangle on the base BC.*. and X the given angle . (i) . : the points O. Proof. A BOC is the supplement of the Z. having its vertical angle equal to the given Z. hence the locus of its vertex O is the arc of a segment of which BC the chord. angles angles angle. opp. and constant vertical angle . the BOC has a fixed base. It is required to find the locus of I. Draw the perp» BE. the supplement of the Z. B. constant. III. A + B + C = two rt. Z. A. being always equal to the . I eentre. JA + ^B + ^C = one rt. having its vertical Z.iA = one rt. . CF. taking the differences of the equals in .
two straight lines PA. sum of thd sides containing the vertical angle : find the 8. 11. and PAQ is any other straight line similarly drawn find the locus of the intersection of HP and QK. Given the base BC and the vertical angle the locus of the excentre opposite A. 7. A QX : Two circles intersect at A and B. Find the locus of the points of contact of tangents 4. Two circles intersect at A and B HAK is a fixed straight line drawn through A and terminated by the circumferences.: EXERCISES ON LOCI. QBA. find the locus of the interparallel straight lines AP. to cut the other circle at X and Y find the locus of the intersection of AY and BX. straight rod PQ slides between two rulers placed at right angles to one another. and AC is a moveable chord passing through A if the parallelogram CB is completed. are two fixed points on the circumference of a circle. on. 211 EXERCISES ON LOCI. through a fixed point. and through P. Distinguish between the cases when the given point is within. are drawn . so that BP is . . Find the locus of the intersection of straight lines which pass through two fixed points on a circle and intercept on its circumference an arc of constant length. A of a triangle . any diameter: find the locus of the intersection of PA BAG is a constant vertical angle equal to the locus of P. any triangle described on the fixed base BC and having and BA is produced to P. A and B is and PQ and QB. and produced if necessary. find Through the extremities of a given straight line AB any two 2. section of the bisectors of the angles PAB. find the locus of the intersection of its diagonals. 1. or without the circumference. are drawn perpendicular to the rulers find the locus of X. : 9. 6. and from its extremities PX. AB is a fixed chord of a circle. BQ Find the locus of the middle points of chords of a circle drawn 3. : . a fixed point to a system of concentric circles. the circumference of one of them. PB are drawn. drawn from 5. any point on 10.
the circumcircle of the triangle ABC. D.. PR be the perps. sides <^ o Let P be any point on the circuni circle of the A ABC and let PD. A .212 GEOMETRY. . BC. A. and any point P on the circum4.PCD. the ^PEF = the ZPAF. simson's line. F are concyclic . It is required to prove that the points D. V. FE and ED are in one st. triangle The line FED is known as the Pedal or Slmson's Line of the ABC for the point P.*. their feet are collinear. line.•.•. ABC their oircumcircles diculars drawn from and AB'C are two triangles with a common angle. AC. PF are drawn to BC and AB if FD. : the points P. PED = the supp* of the Z. triangle is inscribed in a circle. PFA are rt. PE. C are concyclic. Again because the . C. since the points A. are rt. Because the . the . shew that PE is perpendicular to AC. 3. From any point P on : 2. . Find the locus of a point which moves so that if perpendiculars are drawn from it to the sides of a given triangle. in the same segment the = the suppt of = the Z. will be shewn to be in the same straight Join PA. or FD produced. and meet again at P shew that the feet of perpenP to the lines AB. E. E. Z. PC. B'C are collinear. the points P. Z Ohs. P. 1. F Join FE and ED : then FE and ED line. PDC angles. L? PEC. . drawn from P to the sides. 2%€ feet of the perpendicvlara drawn to the three triangle from any point on its circumcircle are collinear. perpendiculars PD. are collinear. PCD = the supp* of the L PEF. EXERCISES. L PAB B are concyclic. Proof. ference is joined to the orthocentre of the triangle: shew that thii joining line is bisected by the pedal of the point P. E.« PEA. cuts AC at E.'. angles.
213 D. ITS CIRCLES. CA. Tj me radii of the inscribed and escribed circles. AB . points of contact of the inscribed circle of the triangle ABC. = a. and r. r. (iii) (iv) (V) (vi) CD =BDi. Fj the points of contact of the escribed circle. s the semiperimeter of the triangle. and BD=CD. and D^. = 8b. F are the. ITS CIRCLES. b. E. CD =CE =sc (ii) AEi=AFi=s. = FF. The area of the A ABC=rs =r^{8a).. BD=BF=86. Prove thefdlomng equalities : (i) AE =AF =8 a. CDi=:CEi=5&. (vii) Draw the above figure in the case when C is a right angle. Ej. . and prove that r=sc. BDi = BFi=sc. o denote the length qf the sides BC. EE. which touches BC and the other sides produced : a.THE TRIANGLE AND THE TRIANGLE AND VI.
is the centre of the inscribed circle.^. \ are collinear 1^ : so are B. aiid C. and ^he centres of the escribed circles touching resvectively the sides and the other sides produced. I. I 'a* 's BC. .214 VII. (iv) triangle Ijljls is equiangular to the triangle formed by joining the points of contact of the inscribed circle. Ig. B. In the triangle ABC. I3. are collinear so are I3. ea^h is the orthocentre of the triangle whose vertices are the other three. AB Prove (i) the following properties : The points A. i > GEOMETRY. circles. (iii) triangles BIjC. Ij and Ij. (ii) A. I. Ij. C. CA. I2. (v) Of the four points I. I3. Ig. . points I. each of which passes through three of the are all equal. The points The 77ie 1. I. Is. . AI^B are equiangular to one another. Ig . (vi) The four Ij. CI2A.
Dg. the figure given on page 214 shew that if the circles whose centres are I. find the locus of the 3.THE TRIANGLE AND ITS CIRCLES.D2D3=6 + c. shew that llj. Given the base and vertical angle of a 4. centre of the escribed circle which touches the base. the radius of the inscribed 14. How many solutions will there be ? 11. Given the base. AIB lie on the circumference of the circle circumscribed about the given triangle. construct the triangle. I is the centre of the circle inscribed in centres of the escribed circles. Given the base. and the centres of 12. the length of the perpendicular from the vertex to the base the triangle. 215 EXERCISES. and AB respectively shew that the points B. construct the triangle. I and construct In a triangle ABC. and Ig. Ig. I3 touch BC at D. l lie upon a circle whope centre is on the circumference of the circum: circle of the triangle ABC. construct the triangle. is the centre of the inscribed circle . that the centres of the circles circumscribed about the triangles BIC. the base. and the point of contact with' 7. Ig. circumference of the circumcircle. Dj. and Ij. . ing one another two by two. Ij. I3 the centres of the escribed circles 9. two circle . of the circumcircle is fxed. triangle are the centres 2. 6. find 5. t7'iangle. then 1. II3 llg. circles (ii) (iv) DD3=DiD2=c. which touch AC. Given the base and vertical angle of a triangle. and radius of the inscribed construct the triangle. D3. . shew 15. of an escribed circle . the vertical angle. (i) With (iii) DD2=DiD3=&. Given the vertical angle. Given the vertical angle. 8. Given the centre of the inscribed circle. or base produced. 13. DDi = 6'C. C. shew that the centre Given the base BC. With three given points as centres describe three circles touch10. perimeter. Given the centres of the threfe escribed circles. a triangle. construct the triangle. the vertical angle. and the point of contact with the base of the incircle . Shew that the orthocentre and veHicea of a of the inscribed and escribed of the pedal triangle. circle. escribed circles . the locus of the centre of the escribed circle which touches AC. CIA. and the vertical angle A of the triangle. I3 the are bisected by the ABC is a triangle. Ig.
and the middle points of the lines joining the orthocentre to the vertices are concyclic.B. may be shewn that /S and y is lie on the O" of this oirole. Y are concyclic that is. And from But A ABC. the Ex. angle. AC BO produced makes a . D. . from the A ABO. AB. Z on the a diameter of this circle. angle with angle. Now since . F be the feet of the perp' to these sides from A. points of the sides of a triangle is called the NinePoints Circle . a. a. rt. THE NINEPOINTS CIRCLE. E. is BX = XC. Z. In the A ABC. In any triangle the middle points of the sides. F. O It is required to prove that /S.D. as diameter passes through D. since the circle on Xa a rt. a.'. y the middle points ot OA. C . D. the nine points X. the feet of the perpendiculars from the vertices to the opposite sides. lies it C : Similarly . 64. the L XYa is a rt. O" Again. the L XZa a . AZ = ZB. let be the orthocentre. and Aa = aO. Z. E. par* to AC. XZ. p. Y.. . ZX is since BZ = ZA. aDX Similarly . angle. concyclic. VIII. rt. Za is par» to BO. Y. it may on the 7 are of this oirole Q. From this property the circle which passes through the middl« Obs. B.. Ya. OC. CA.'. y Join XY. Za. lie /3.•. a is and Xa of the circle which passes through X. Z. p. 2. 216 GEOMETRY. let D. Y. be shewn that E and F the points X. Similarly. are concyclic.•. Y.*. F. Xa. E. X and DC . . many of its properties may be deriv^ from the fact of its being the oiroum« oirole of the pedal triangle. let X. and a. Z be the middle points of the sides BC. the points X. OB.
Cor. : Then from the A» SNX. and the centroid is collinear with the circumcentre. point of To prove that N is the middle SO. and Xo is a diameter of the ninepoints circle . (ii) the radius of the ninepoints circle is half the radius of the circumcircle. is land the Z. In the A ABC. also par^ to Aa.d. fSee also p. the ninepoints the orthocentre. and EY at rt. {Proved. By the last Proposition. to EY at its middle point bisects SO that is.THE NINEPOINTS CIRCLE. angles the intersection of the lines which bisect Theor.*. SX = Oa =Ao. To prove (i) 217 that the centre of the ninepoints circle is the middle point of the straight line which joins the orthocentre to the circumcentre.e.ONa. S and N the centres of the circumscribed and ninepoints circles . And SX . because ( NX = Na. let X.SNX = the Z. 22. 31.) Hence Xo and SO bisect one another at N. respectively. since and EY are chords of the ninepoints circle. Similarly the perp. 267.. the radius of the ninepoints circle is half the radius of the ciroum< circle.•. the centre N is the middle point of SO.d. these perp» intersect at the middle point of : SO : And . F middle points of the sides . To prove that the radius of the ninepoints circle is half the (ii) radium of the circumcircle.*. C SN = ON. It may be shewn that the pern. Examples 2 and 3. . . the middle point of Xa is its centre but the middle point of SO is also the centre of the ninepoints circle. the feet of the perp* O the orthocentre . its centre : . (iii) centre. XD XD is 1. . Y.e.] q. Z be the D.*. But SA is a radius of the circumcircle . q.. ONa. and . to XD from its middle point bisects SO (i) . SA = Xa. Theor. Xa is a diameter of the ninepoints circle. E.
p. 2. gQ^GX. . And from the A Xap. is :. N. O. 1. BOO. the centre of the circle which passes through the three escribed centres. whose orthocentre is also the ninepoints circle of each of the triangles AOB. since Aa=oO.. 54. 64. Theor.218 (iii) GEOMETRY. shew that one 5. III. angle and one side of the pedal triangle are constant. is The ninepoints circle of any triangle ABC. Ij. If I. 97. 1. l^. 1. Given the base and vertical angle of a triangle. .2.. All triangles which have the same orthocentre and the same circumscribed circle. EXERCISES. 4. Given the hose and vertical angle of a triangle. of a triangle ABu. G is the centroid of the triangle ABC. p. find the locus of the centre of the ninepoints circle. then the circle circumscribed about ABC is the ninepoints circle of each of the four triangles formed by joining three of the points I.. U are the centres of the inscribed and escribed circles 3. O. COA. and . Ex. is. find the locus of 6. kg=gQ.*. and ag is par' to OG. For some other important properties of the Ninepointa page 310. Note. I2.. N. Then from the A AGO. Given the base and vertical angle of a triangle. have also the same ninepoints circle. To prove that the centroid is collinear with points S. since aN = NX. I3. Join AX and draw ag par' to SO.e. AG = §of AX. That the centroid is collinear with the points S. O. NG par' to ag. Circle see Ex. Cor. . q. Let AX meet SO at G.d.
THE GEOMETRICAL EQUIVALENTS OF CERTAIN ALGEBRAICAL FORMULA Definitions. ON SQUAKES AND EECTANGLES IN CONNECTION WITH THE SEGMENTS OF A STRAIGHT LINE. AD is denoted AB. line AB is the different of the . rectangle ABCD is said to be i. or in AB produced. AD for these sides fix its size A and shape. contained by two adjacent sides AB. XB being in either case the dividing point . PART IV. AB is the sum of In external division the given segments AX. In Fig. XB. In internal division the given line the segments AX. 1. the segments the distances of w. drawn on the side AB is denoted by 2. by the sq. rectangle whose adjacent sides are AB. this is equivalent to the product AB AD. or AB^. AB AB said to be divided internally at X. . divided externally at X.. XB. If a point X is taken in a straight line AB. AD . A the red. X from is the extremities ^ ^ B ^^S2. Similarly a square on AB.i two segments AX. 2. In Fig. Obs. then X is said to divide AB into the a ~ x ' B Fiff. X of the given line AB.
. YB. and contains + b + c)k units of area AE = rect. Through X. XY. namely that {a + b + c)k= ak + bk + ek. AE + the (a fig. K. K + rect. Y. fig. to AB and equal to K. b. AX. so that AB contains a + b + c units. [Euclid 11. to prove that the AB. K . BC par^ to AD. the rectangle contained by the two lines is equal to the sum of the rectangles contained by the v/ndivided line the divided line. AC = the fig. YB. K = rect. one is divided into any number of parts. XY. ck . Theorem If of two 50. and the several parts of a k k be k Let AB and K be the two given st. . YC. It is required rect. of these. AB. AX. lines. YC = rect. K or. K + rect. = rect. Let the line K contain k units of length. XY. K. B draw XE. K . Proof. AB. XF + the fig. YB. . Draw AD perp.D. and c units of length. YB.] straight lines. AC = rect.. and contains ak units of area bk XY. 220 GEOMETRY. Hence the rect.E. Through D draw DC par^ to AB. YF. ck. Construction. and let AB be divided into any number of parts AX. and The fig. AX. K (o + 6 + c)^= ak + rect. K. which contain respectively a. bk + + Q. fig. K {fig. XF = rect. fig. K + rect. by construction. 1.
AX = the on AX + the line rect. rect.AX = (AX + XB)AX = AX2 + AX. 221 3. D on AB = the the given EC rect. A X B Then the That is.] Corollaries. The square on lirie is equal to the contained by the whole lin^ and eojch sum of the rectangles of the segments. and when undivided line the AD is equal to AB. (i) When AB is divided only at one point X.AX + AB. Or thus AB. AX.AB = AB(AX + XB) = AB. The rectangle contained by the whole to tJie square on that segment with and one segment is the rectangle contained hp the two segments. AB. AX + the rect. Then the That equal is. (ii) When AB is is undivided line AD divided at one point X. 2 and Two special cases of this Theorem deserve attention.XB. sq. Or thus AB2 = AB.: : SQUARES AND RECTANGLES. and equal to one segment AX. AB. AB. . XB. when the D EC sq.XB. [Euclid II. XB.
4. (aV .] straight line is divided internally at any point. the square on the given line is equal to the sum of the squares on the two segments together with twice the rectangle contained by the segments.222 GEOMETRY. [Euclid II. Theorem If a 51.
[Euclid II.] straight line is divided externally at the given line is equal to the segments diminislied by t%dce the any point. 7. 223 Theorem If a on 52. the square sum of the squares on the two rectangle containsd by the A* a.SQUARES AND RECTANGLES.B ^X .
224
GEOMETRY.
Theorem
The
53.
[Euclid
11.
5 and 6.]
lines is equal to the
difference of the squares
on two straight
difference.
rectangle contained by their
sum and
A<.
gC
Let the given
lines AB,
AC be placed
b units of
and
let
them contain a and
in the same st. length respectively.
line^
It is required to prove that
AB2  AC2 = (AB + AC) (AB  AC)
namely that
Construction.
a^
;

b^
={a + b){ab).
ACFG
;
On AB and AC draw the squares ABDE, and produce CF to meet ED at H.
Then GE = CB = a&
units.
Proof.
Now
AB2  AC^ = the
sq.
AD  the
sq.
AF
= the rect. CD + the rect. QH = DB.BC +GF.GE = AB.CB +AC.CB = (AB + AC)CB = (AB + AC)(ABAC).
That
is,
a2

62
=(a + b)(ab).
Q.E.IX
:
;
SQUARES AND RECTANGLES.
225
Corollary. If a straight line is bisected, arid also divided (internally or externally) into two unequal segments, the rectangle contained by these segments is equal to the difference of the squares on
half the line and on the line between the joints of
section.
A
X
Fig.
I.
Y
B
A
X
Fig.
2.
B
Y
That
is, if
AB
1,
1,
is
bisected at
X and
in Fig.
also divided at Y, inter2,
nally in Fig.
and externally
.
then
in Fig.
in Fig.
2,
AY YB = AX2  XY^ AY YB = XY^  AX2.
.
For in the
first case,
AY YB = (AX + XY) (XB  XY)
.
= (AX + XY)(AXXY) = AX2XY2.
The second
case
may
be similarly proved.
EXERCISES.
1.
Draw diagrams on squared paper
is
(i)
to
shew that the square on a
;
straight line
fourtimes the square on half the line
nine times the square
(ii)
on onethird of the
line.
2.
Draw diagrams on squared paper
(i)
to illustrate the following
algebraical formulae
(x + 7)2=a;2+14a; + 49.
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
3.
+ c)2=a2 + 62 + c2 + 26c + 2ca + 2a6. + bd. (a; + 7){a; + 9) = a;2+16x + 63.
{a + b){c{d)=ac\ad{bc
(i), if
(a + 6
In Theor.
In Theor. AB.
In Theor.
sq.
50, Cor.
fig.
AB = 4
cm., and the
fig.
AE = 96
sq. cm.,
find the area of the
4.
XC.
(ii), if
50, Cor.
AX = 21", and
the
fig.
XC = 336
sq. in.,
find
5.
51, if the fig.
AG = 36
sq.
cm., and the rect. AX,
XB
= 24
6.
cm., find AB.
if
In Theorem 52,
,
the
fig.
AG = 9 61
sq. in.
,
and the
fig.
DG = 6 '51
sq. in.
find
AB.
p. 230.]
[For further Examples on Theorems 5053 see
H.S.O.
P
GEOMETRY.
Theorem
In an oUusean^led
the
64.
[Euclid
II. 12.]
triangle, the square
on
the side svhtending
obtuse angle
is
equal to the
containing the obtuse angle tained by one of those sides
sum of tlie squares on the sides together with twice the rectangle conand
the projection of
the other side
upon
it.
Let ABC be a triangle obtuseangled at C; and let AD be drawn perp. to BC produced, so that CD is the projection of the side CA on BC. [See Def. p. 63.]
It
is
required to prove tlmt
AB2 = BC2 + CA2 + 2BC.CD.
Proof.
^
\
Theak^ 51.
\
Because
..
BD
BD2
is
the sfum of the lines BC, CD,
.
= BC2 + CD2 + 2 BC
of these equals
CD.
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Hence
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.,
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.
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22? Theorem In is 55.2BC CD. AB2 = BC2 + CA2 . . and is let CD the required to prove that Proof. To each add DA2) r^ z. so that projection of the side CA on BC. It is . 2BC CD .SQUARES AND RECTANGLES. ^ . Since in both figures BD is the difference of the lines BC. 2. Q.. DA2. 52. to BC.E.2BC CD.] every triangle the square on the side subtending an acute angle that angle those sides sum of the squares on the sides containing diminislied by twice the rectangle contained hy one of and the projection of the other side upon it. i. AD Let ABC be a triangle in whicb the z. ^Q^ ' ^ ^^ iV . of these equals Thear.CD. 13. (i) D . BD2 = BC2 + CD22BC. C is acute be drawn perp. [Euclid II. equal to the Fig:. • IS a rt. Hence AB2 = BC2 + CA2 .. CD. or BC produced .D. Then BD2+ DA2 = BC2 + (CD2+ But BD2 + DA2 = ABn f . for the and CD2+DA2 = CA2j' 4. L.
: .. 55. when the aACB is right. Shew the the that BC2 = 2AC C£. EXERCISES.ACB AB2 (ii) = BC2 + CA2 + 2BC a right anghj . a right angle. CD. so that CD (the projection of CA) vanishes hence. then c^=a'^ + V^+db. or the sum of the squares mi the other sides. Thus the enunciation less three results may be collected in a single The square on a than the side of a triangle is greater than. TJieoi'. Summary of Theorems 29. 29. c = 10 cm. according as the angle contained by those sides is obtuse.ACB is AB2 = BC2 + CA2. By how square centimetres does c^ fall short of a^ + b^^ Hence or otherwise calculate the projection of AC on BC. ABC is an isosceles triangle in which AB = AC and BE is drawn : . D (i) C If D B is obtuse. CD. (i) (ii) if shew that if LC = G0\ ^C = 120% then c'^=a^ + b'^a^. 228 GEOMETRY.. 3. AD coincides with AC. equal to. many 2. or acute .ACB is acute.2BC . perpendicular to AC. 54 and 55. the Z. If the Z. C(D) B DC The&r. 54 If the Z. In a triangle ABC. 6 = 17 cm. 1. (iii) The&r. difference in cases of inequality being twice the rectangle contained by one of the two sides and the projection on it of the other. in this case. In the A ABC. Observe that in (ii). a = 21 cm. . 2BC CD = 0.' . AB2 = BC2 + CA2 .
D. EXERCISE.squares and rectangles. 55.E. Draw AD Then from the A AX B. we have AB2 + AC2 = 2BX2 + 2AX2. triangle. and AX the median which bisects the It is required to prove that AB2 + AC2 = 2BX2 + 2AX2. Let ABC be a base BC. and remembering that XC = BX. The proof may easily be adapted to the case in which the perpendicular AD falls outside the triangle.*AXB. . to . one is obtuse. In any triangle the sum of the squares on two sides is equal to twice the square on half the third side together with twice the square on the median which bisects the third side. Adding these results.2XC . In any triangle the difference of the squares on two sides is equal to twice the rectangle contained by the base and the intercept between the middle point of the base and the foot of the perpendicular draion from the vertical angle to the base. Note. AXC. Then of the z. 54. And from the A AXC. Let the ^AXB be obtuse. and AD falls within the triangle. and the other acute. perp. Thecyr. AB2 = BX2 + AX2 + 2BX XD. 229 Theorem 56. XD. . Q. AC2 = XC2 + AX2 . Thear. BC and consider the case in which AB and AC are unequal.
9. Also deduce 4.2AY YB = 4AX2 . if a perpendicular is drawn from the right angle to the hypotenuse.i^.2 AX2 . case line AB is bisected at X. If a straight (ii) nally. 2. for external section.XB. AY2= AC2+ BY .230 GEOMETRY.h)^ = a^\lfi. 10. as Y moves If AB example to trace the changes from A to B. 80 . and also divided (i) interexternally into two unequal segments at Y. In the formula (a + &) (a  &) = a^ . b = —n^* DC "4" 7/ iK t/ and enunciate verbally the resulting theorem. the square on this perpendicular is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments of the hypotenuse. 51. rectangle AY. EXERCISES ON THEOREMS 5053. and AY is drawn to cut the base Prove that YC. TJieor. ABC is an isosceles triangle. twice the rectangle contained by the straight lines. AY2 = AC2 .X Y2) . ( =2AX2 + 2XY2. shew that AY = 2AB. ( X Y) Theor. sheio that in either AY2 + YB2=2(AX2 + XY2). In a rightangled triangle. internally or externally at Y. Case 7. YB continually diminishes as Y moves from X.] divided internallj' at Y. Use the CJorollaries of Theorem 50 to shew that if a straight line AB is divided internally at X. Deduce this (i) from the Corollary of Theorem 53 from the formula a6= f . then AB2=AX2 + XB2 + 2AX. The sum of the squares on two stinight lines is never less than 3. If a straight line is divided internally at Y. the midpoint of AB. (ii) — ^ ) ~ ( o ) * 6. (ii) may is be derived from Theorem 52 in a similar way.] [Proof of case AY2 + YB2 = AB2 .BY .2 (AX + X Y) AX = 4AX2 . If a straight line AB is bisected at X and produced to Y. 53. and if AY. 8. 9. it from the formula (a . for internal section . YB = 8AX2. 1. (i). Explain this statement by reference to the diagram of Theorem 52. use the result of the last in the value of AY^ + YB'^. [Euclid II. YC.2ah. substitute a = ^ —^. shew that the 5.
AB is a straight line 8 cm. BCi^s^o5_and OA. and : section of tha diagonals. In any quadrilateral the squares on the diagonals are together twice the sum of the squares on the straight lines joining the middle points of opposite sides.. CF BC2=AB. a circle is drawn . .EXERCISES. in length. Prove 12. 230 Ex. if P is any point on circumference.2±OC2. 64. 7. of a ^35ESoft^r diagonal eqHgiJ to ^_^_^^ rhombus and its shorter ndiagonat isach measure S" .CE..2U sq. find the distance a rectangle. the angles at B and C are acute are drawn perpendicular to AC.A. on the straight 8. by considering a falls CAB in the limiting position when the vertex C if at Y in the base is AB. If a =17 cm.BF + AC. line which joins the middle points of the diagonals. shew that the O AP2+BP2=82sq. 2. to within 'Or'. in. ] this from Theorem 56. prove that if BE. In a triangle ABC.. shew that the base BC divided at X so that 7wAB2+wAC2=wBX2 + nXC2+(w+w)AX2. calculate the length of the median AX. cm. triangle 6. ABC : is a triangle. In a triangle ABC. Three times the sum of the squares on the sides of a triangle equal to four times the sum of the squares on the medians. then AY2 + YB2 = 2 (AX2 + X Y2). and O the point of intersection of its medians shew that AB2+BC2 + CA2=3(OA2 + OB2 + OC2). The sum of the squares on the sides of a quadrilateral is greater than the sum of the squares on its diagonals by four times the square 7. the base 6 = 15 cm. 11. «iBX=nXC. cm. 3. If a straight line AB is bisected at X. [See p.. . cm. . p. as centre with radius 5 cm. and from its middle point 1.] l^ A BCD is O any point within it shew that OA^ + O02=OB2 + OD2. The base theother sides = 122 is of a triangle = 10 cm. [See Ex. \4) Prove that the sum of the squares on the sides of a parallelogram equal to the sum of the squares on its diagonals. AB respectively'. and also divided (inter nally or externally) at Y. and c =S BC is bisected at X. and on deduce the Z.. 9. is 10. find the locus of the vertex. and the sum of the squares sq. In a triangle ABC. EXERCISES ON THEOREMS 5456.
OE drawn perp. Let O be the centre. since Similarly it may be shewn that the rect. and r the radius. Corollary. KECTANGLES IN CONNECTION WITH CIRCLES.EX2 Thear. .D. XD. CX.E. AX. XD. = (AE2 + OE2)(EX2 + OE2) 53. and therefore Join OA. XD = r2OX2. circle. the rect. Proof. The rect. to the chord AB. . If two chords of a circle cut at a point within contained by their segments are egimh the rectangles D In the point ABC.] it. THE0REai5jJ [Euclid III. OX. XB = (AE + EX) (E B . XB = the recL CX. 35. l'. AX. CD be chords cutting at the interna] X It is required to prove that the red AX. Q. let AB. = the L' at E are rt. thord which JEach rectangle equal to the square on half the is bisected at the given point X. XB = the rect. of the given Supposing bisecting it.. r2  0X2.EX) = (AE + EX)(AEEX) = AE2 . is CX.232 GEOMETRY.
tangent XT. • . OX. at the externaL^oint X . the rectangles contain^ed hy their segments are equal. = the z. XB = (EX + AE) (EX .EB) = (EX + AE)(EXAE) = EX2 . CX. Q. ." 0X2 _ j2^ gince at E are it rt. XD = 0X2 _ ^2. 2 9. AX.^4et AB. 58. from the point oj \ In f^e 0ABC.RECTANGLES IN CONNECTION WITH CIRCLES. on XT. to the chord AB. _ It is required to prove that the rect. CD be chords cuttin^when produced. Proof. AX. Let O be the centre. XB = the rect. = (EX2 + OE2)(AE2 + OE2) 53. XD = the sq.E.AE2 Them. CX..^2^ . And since the radius OT is perp.] cut at when produced. and let XT be a tangent drawn from "^ that point. And each rectangle is equal to the square on the tangent intersecti&n. and r the radius of the given Suppose bisecting it. XT2 = 0X2 . circle. The rect. 36. [Euclid III. to the Similarly . and therefore Join OA. XD = the sq. ^^ may be shewn that the rect. 233 Theorem If two chm'ds of a circle. the rect. AX. XB = ^^e reel CX. on XT.D. a point outside it. OE drawn perp. OT. The&r.
Thear. From X a point outside the ©ABC. Proof. 58.E. then the lin£ whicJi meets the circle is a tangent to it. XB. and if the rectangle contained by the whole line which cuts the circle and the part of it outside the circle is equal to the square on the line which meets the circle. on XC. XC is a tangent to the circle. XB = the sq. . one of which cuts the circle. Remembering that the segments into which the chord AB is divided at X..D. and XC meets it at C and let the rect. XD = XC. Suppose XC meets the circle again at D then XA XB = XC XD. circle circle. XC.. 58.] two straight lines are drawn.. [Euclid III 37. Theorem If from a point outside 59. XA XB = XC^ . circle a XA.XD = XC2. . let two straight lines XC be drawn. circle Hence XC cannot meet the section coincide again unless the points of that is. of which XA cuts the circle at A and B. Q. and the other meets it . NoTK ON Theorems 57. . . It is required to prove that XC touches the circle at C. . the rectangles are draion through a given point contained by the segments of the . If any number of chords of a within or vnthout a chords are equal. 234 GEOMETRY. But by hypothesis. and externally in Theorem 58. internally in Theorem 57. are in each case AX. we may include both Theorems in a single enunciation. XA.
and XB=24". and take an external point X 2. Draw a ment. from the centre O.XQ=12 sq. {Numerical and Graphical. AX. any XM is drawn to AB cutting the circum.? . (i) (ii) AX and MX=2(y'. C. your estimate of the from its true value. 5. XB and XC. and from the rightangled triangle XTO . a perpendicular ference at M shew that : drawn on a given line AB and from X. the value of XM^. XB differs 3. 5 cm. (i) Measure the segments of AB and CD hence find approximately the areas of the rectangles AX. calculate the value of XT^.XQ = 20sq. XB Draw a circle of radius 3 cm. AX. your estimate of the rect. What will the locus be if X moves outside the same circle. (i) rectangles (ii) Measure XA. AX = 18''.XD. and compare the results. and from the rect.. and XA = 45 cm. (ii) Draw the chord rightangled triangle M N which OXM calculate is bisected at X . find XT. 6.) 235 a circle of radius 5 cm. =25". XD. find MX. B. XCD. (iii) Find by how much per from its cent. cm. and check your result by measure 4. Through X draw any two chords AB. D are concyclic. and AX = 49 cm. straight lines intersecting at X. find XB. EXERCISES ON THEOREMS 5759.. . (iii) differs Find by how much per cent. Draw the tangent XT . Through X draw any two secants XAB. and compare the 1.RECTANGLES IN CONNECTION WITH CIRCLES. of CX = 27". if in all positions PX. find XB . CD. CD and two XB = l2". find the locus of A. B.XB and CX. secant XAB and a tangent external point X. from the centre O. cm. circle through A. and PQ is any chord passing through X . hence find the diameter If the radius of the semicircle = 3 '7 cm. If A.. results. AX. . C. If of the semicircle. and within it take a point X 3 cm. true value. (i) A XT are drawn to a circle from an If If (ii) XA=06".. Draw . so that PX. are AB. A seraicircle is point in AB. A point X moves within a circle of radius 4 cm. find the length XD... hence find approximately the XA XB and XC XD..XB = IVIX2. XT=75 cm.
OQ.OP=BO. B. each passing through a centre and terminated by the circumferences shew that 9. CD is a triangle rightangled at C.AF. D are concyclic. and B In the triangle ABC. Deduce from Theorem 58 that the tangents drawn rom any external point are equal. : ABC C a perpendicular AD. 11. if in AP a point Q is taken so that AP AQ is constant. shew that If AB produced bisects PQ. shew 3. a point of intersection of two circles.) /\. is If a PQ drawn two which cut at A and 6. and from drawn to the hypotenuse shew that is : ABC C a perpendicular AB. common chord produced common tangent are equal. given circle whose centre is shew that of contact at . a fixed point. 12. and CD a fixed straight line .236 GEOMETRY. 4. 7. two straight = CX.XD.DB = CD2. lines AB. perpendiculars AP. shew that if .AE = DA. C. 8. EXERCISES ON THEOREMS 5759. line is and CD is perpendicular to drawn from A to cut CD AP AQ = constant. two straight lines CAE. .0Q=r3. .AD=AC2. Through A. : CA. diameter of a . CD intersect at X so that AX XB deduce from Theorem 57 (by redrictio ad absurdum) that the points A. find the locus of Q. CD are drawn.XB=CX. AX. A is . ^1^ If from any external point P two tangents are drawn to a O and radius r . {Theoretical.XD. circle. tangents drawn to to them from any point circles in their 5. P and any straight at Q. AB at (or AB is a fixed AB produced) the circle circle. AP is anv straight line drawn from A to meet CD at P. to a circle If two circles intersect. and intersect at O : A AO. and if OP meets the chord Q 0P. BQ are drawn from shew that to the opposite sides. DAF are drawn. . and through any point one in each X in their common chord two that chords AB. If two circles intersect. AjIO is a triangle rightangled at C and from drawn to the hypotenuse shew that is . 2. B.
A semicircle is described on AB as diameter. 3. tangents AE and DF are drawn if the common chord is produced to meet the tangents at G and H. shew that : GH2=AE2fBC2.BP. If d denotes the circle. of the arc=^.PDfAM. ? the radius remaining the same. If and PM from an external point P a secant PCD is drawn to a is perpendicular to a diameter AB. hy a diagram in which 1" Employ the equation h{2rh) = c^ is to find the height of an arc whose chord 16 cm.. Explain the double result geometrically.) : RECTANGLES IN CONNECTION WITH CIRCLES. and t=2'4".APfBD. and h the chord of half the 7. PIV2=PC. sealevel is 22J miles distant. by how much will the span be reduced Check your calculated results graphically represents 10 feet. Two circles intersect at B and C.MB. and If the horizon visible to an observer on a cliff 330 feet above the 5. 4. and radius 17 cm. 237 radius = r. {Miacdlaneoua. and any two chords BD are AC. when cZ=l'2". the find the diameter of a circle in a segment 8" in height. The chord of an arc of a circle = 2c. 9. 1. If the height is and its height is 18 feet reduced by 8 feet. arc. If h is the height of an arc of radius prove that b^=2rh. EXERCISES ON THEOREMS 5759. Hence find the approximate distance at which a bright light raised 66 feet above the sea is visible at the sealevel. 2. drawn intersecting at P : shew that AB2=AC. 6. and the two direct common 8. the height Shew by Theorem 57 that h{2rh)=c'^. and t the length Theorem 58 that shortest distance from an external point to a' of the tangent from the same point. . shew by find the diameter of the circle verify your result graphically. find roughly the diameter of the earth. shew that circle. Hence ^ (^ ^ 2r) = t^. Hence which a chord 24" long outs off The radius of a circular arch is 25 feet. find the span of the arch. r.
rect. to To describe a square equal in area any given Prob. the semicircle. Draw a Apply rectangle equivalent to this triangle. Construction. rectilineal figure. ^ a a/rea to X Let ABCD be the given rectangle. and produce CB to meet the circumference at F. to the rectangle the construction given above. . 17 Reduce the given figure to a triangle of equal area. Let X be the midpoint Join XF. PROBLEMS. is a side of the required square.238 GEOMETRY. a semicircle. On AE draw Then BF Proof. making BE equal to BC. Proh. a square eqwil in C Problem 32. 18. of AE. angled A FBX. and r the radius of Then the AC = AB BE . from the rt. = (rfXB)(rXB) = r2XB2 = FB2. Produce AB to E. Corollary.
1. externally at X. [See p. a line 9 cm. a. is xy = lQ9. Draw an equilateral triangle on a side of 3".2 : + y2=100. a line 8 cm. first Hence give a graphical solution. 5.y=25. correct to one decimal figure Taking yu' as : x + y = 40. and construct a Find by measurement and calculation the length . . BC=CD=5 cm. Hence find by construction and measurement the side of an equal square. internally at X.] find a graphical solution. and measure the length of its side. Noticing that (i) x"^ + y"^ = kE^ (ii) a:y=2AAPB=AB. and construct a 4. find graphically the length of the other side to the nearest millimetre. 3. and denote these lines by x and y. solve the following equations by a graphical construction. and the length of one side 7*2 cm. so that square on a side of 4 cm. ABCD from the following data: A = 65°.: PROBLEMS ON CIRCLES AND RECTANGLES. Draw a area. Draw any rectangle whose area square of equal area. in length. . cm. 9. Join AP. xy=^Q. rectangle of equal area [Problem 17]. Draw a quadrilateral . [Problem 18]. of each side. AX XB = lhe Hence Divide AB. correct to the the simultaneous equations : decimal place. PB. AX XB = the Divide AB. your unit of length. the length of each side ? and construct a square of equal 2. of x + i/=9. correct to the first decimal place. Construct an equal square. graphical solution of the equations a. and from any point P on the circumference draw PX perpendicular to AB. On a straight line AB draw a semi circle. PX . devise a . by 2 cm. is 3 75 sq. The area of a rectangle is 25 sq. in. Find graphically the side of a square equal in area to a rectangle whose length and breadth are 3*0" and 1'5". What is rectangle 8 cm. . in length. 245.. 239 EXERCISES. 7. Reduce this figure to a triangle and hence to a rectangle of equal area. 8. 10. so that square on a side of 6 cm. ' 6. . . and test your drawing by calculation. AB = AD = 9cm. Test your work oy measurement and calculation. of the equations xy=%. xi/=lQ.
On AB. angled A ABC. that AB. Hence illustrate the above proof graphically.. of length.BC2. . ThenBX = aic. draw the squares ABEF. AD = a. each of these equals take ax From then or. AXGH and produce GX to meet FE at K.'. a^ = x{x\a) = x^ + ax. to AD. BC = CD = . Problem To the whole 33. AX equal divided as required at X. half AB.. a^ax = x'^. AX. BC perp. EXERCISE. = (ACBC)(AC + BC).BX^AX^. x{x + a). In this diagram name rectangular figures equivalent to a^. line to be divided at a point X in such a way that AB. and make BC equal to From CA From AB Then AB Proof. AB2 = AC2. a{ax) = x'^. ax. a. S40 GEOMETRY. divide a given straight line so that the rectangle contained hy and one fart may A^ he equal to the square on the other part. to AB. and a{ax). H X G Let AB be divided as above at X. 3rvX ax R Let AB be the st. from the rt. and on opposite sides of AB. Let AB = a units and let AX = «. Now that is. . is cut off cut off CD equal to CB. Join AC. is. Draw Construction.BX = AX2.
and consequently BX = ax. a? + axa'^=0. and externally at X'. This division may be internal or external . 3. explaining the geometrical meaning of the negative sign. Q . internally or externally. In the figure of Problem 33. Algebraical Illustration. 29.. so that AB. 1. MEDIAL SECTION.G. 2. AB may be divided internally at X. 241 straight line is said to be divided in Medial Section when Note. shew that AC = ^. and the roots the lengths of namely. the construction of p. H. AB. its length algebraically. of this quadratic. shew that the greater segment is also divided in medial section.BX' = AX'2. so that A (i) (ii) AB. If a St. that is to say. then a{ax) = x^.S. To obtain X'. Measure the greater segment.2. in the negative sense. the rectangle contained by the given line and one segment is equal to the square on the other segment. (n) AX'= .] Hence prove (i)AX = 22. Ill IV. ( [Theor. Measure AX'. If a straight line is divided internally in medial section. and obtain its length algebraically. and or> if AB=a. EXERCISES. and from the greater segment a part is taken equal to the less. a line 2" long. line AB is divided at X.BX = AX2. —^ — « ^^^ ~ ( "^"^^ )' AX and AX'. and find Divide a straight line 4" long internally in medial section.+ 2 )• 4.BX=AXa. Divide AB. AX = a.. externally in medial section at X'. 240 must be modified thus : CD AX' is to be cut off from AC produced from BA produced.
Prob. Problem To draw an isosceles triangle 34. Pr&ved. segment. c and divide it Take any so that is line AB. and suppose a circle drawn through construction. Z. * And the L BCA = the L CBA. A. XCA = twice the z.. .CXB. left. 842 GEOMETRY.the z. .'.) AB BX = AX2. . B Construction. XCA = twice the l A. CBX = the z.XAC. But the L ABC = the L ACB = the z.*. is the triangle required.. X and C. the z. To each add the l XCA then the l BCA = the l XAC + the l XCA = the ext. CXB CX = CB = AX. Now. . XAC 4. by BA BX = AX^ . .*. . and radius AB. . A. . at X.BCX = the Z. Join XC. draw the 33 (This construction shewn separately on the chord BC equal to AX. in the alt.. 59. BC touches the = BC2. the L XAC + the z. for AB = AC. AXC at C Theor. .. XCA . the z. Then ABC Proof. the ^ XAC = the z. . having each of the angles at the base d&hble of the vertical angle. in it place the BCD and Join AC. With centre A. .
BC. If in the triangle ABC. by substituting the values given on page 241. shew that the centre of the circle 6.C = twice the shew *^^^ BC_n/51 AB~ 5. the rectangle con8.MEDIAL SECTION. XC. the I.G. If a straight line AB is divided internally in medial section at X. CF are sides of a regular decagon inscribed in the circle (iv) BCD CF AX. are sides of a regular pentagon inscribed in the circle AXC. shew that Also verify this result AB2 + BX^ = 3AX2. q2 . 7.Iv. Shew how a of right angle may be divided into five equal parts by means 3. III.B = the Z. 9. if is the incentre of the triangle I'. 2 if • In the figure of Problem 34. and If a straight line is divided in medial section. tained by the sum and difference of the segments is equal to the rectangle contained by the segments. In the figure of Problem 34. angle is In the figure of Problem 34 point out a triangle whose vertical three times either angle at the base. degrees are there in the vertical angle of an isosceles triangle in which each angle at the base is double of the vertical angle ? 1. may be constructed. I I ABC.A. triangle Shew how such a 4. circumcircle of the triangle ABC . shew that S' = S' I'. Problem 34. How many 2. 243 EXERCISES. the circle (ii) (iii) AXC = the .S. In the figiire of Problem 34. Z. (i) the two circles intersect at F. circumscribed al)out the triangle CBX is the middle point of the arc XC. S' the incentre and circumcentre of the triangle CBX. H. shew that BC = CF.
Note. C. If tlie last in ar*. The segments AX. . The purpose of AX. two straight AB.^.. and DE a side of the givea Ck>nstruction. XB. viz. C'X' perp. or graphically by nit'ans of Problem 32. 244 GEOMETRY. XB represent the roots of the equation. divided as required at X. v^l must be first got by the arithmetical rule. this construction is to find viz.7a. 32. making AB equal to 13 cm. and their values may be obtained by measurement. is cutting the O"* at C and C. the square on DE. having given their sum. to AB and From F draw FCC par^ to AB. as 11=0. and their product. To do this graphically.. 4 .13x + 36 = 0. to find two numbers whose sum and whose product is 36. is 13. to AB. AB be the st. THE GRAPHICAL SOLXJTION OF QUADRATIC EQUATIONS. line to be divided. perform the above construction. AX XB = CX2 Prob. Now to solve the equation a. term of the equation is not a perfect square. we have or 6". From the following constructions. lines X'B = DE2. Let square. a semicircle . From Then AB Proof. On AB draw equal to DE. I. To by the segments divide a straight line internally so that the rectangle contained may be equal to a given square. which depend on Problem 32. and also at X'. Similarly AX'. = BF2 = DE2. and from B draw 6F perp. Application. and DE equal to \/36 or 6 cm. C draw CX. a graphical solution of easy quadratic equations may be obtained.
since AX = X'B.XB=X'B. Bisect AB at O. Now or 42. Here we find two lines AX. 245 II. and Let AB be the st.2. we have to find is two 16.. a.. XB represent the roots of the equation.GRAPHICAL SOLUTION OF QUADRATICS. a:2_i0a. Then AB is divided Proof externally as required at X.BX. to solve the equation x'^. difference. may be obtained by measurement. X' A line to B X be divided externally. With duced at centre O.2_7a. 5a. making AB equal to 6 cm. The segments AX. AX. having given their AB. 10a. = BF2 = DE2 Application. 36=0. difference is 6. XB. From B draw BF perp. DE the side of the given square. 32. viz. of Obtain approximately the roots of the following quadratics by means graphical constructions .14a. to AB. and DE equal to sfl^ or 4 cm. and also at X'. viz. numbers whose numerical and whose product To do this graphically. and test your results algebraically.49=0. the square on DE.12a.16=0. + 25=0. as before. + 16=0. and equal to DE. a. . To divide a hy the segments may straight line externally so that the rectangle contaitied be equal to a given square. and their values.6a.2. and i\\e\r product. and radius OF draw a semicircle to cut AB pro X and X'. Proh. + 49=0. perform the above construction. a. + 20=0. Construction. EXERCISES.
9). Verify your results by nteasurement. the centre being at the origin. 8) to touch the xaxis and by means of Theorem 68 find the yaxis at the point .8) and prove by Theorem 57 that they are concyclic. tangent to the circle from the origin. If the distances of A. C. 6. D. 0). (24. With centre at the point (9.PB=PC. (0. . 0). 9. (0. (9. 9) touches the Calculate and measure the length of OP. 24).PD. and hence determine a point P in the Xaxis such that PA. C. 5). 0). (0. circle passes (ii) the length of the radius. also passes through (0. and the other through C. yaxis. Also find the rectangle of the segments of any chord through the point 3. from the origin. Find 5. 0). A circle passing Xaxis at P. . 246 GEOMETRY. 9). c. point (0. Also find the length of a the yaxis. circles can first How many centre of that in the be so drawn? quadrant. 12). prove by Theorem 59 that it touches the ajaxis. prove that OP=(o6cd)/(crf6 cd). and verify by measurement. through the points (0. 6) a circle is drawn to touch the 2. Draw two intersecting circles. Find the rectangle of the segments of any chord through O. D from O are a. Draw a circle (shewing (0. 4). Shew that two circles of radius 13 may be drawn through the 8. Plot the points A. shev/ that 0A2 + 0B2 + 0C2 + 0D2 = 4r». D from the coordinates (12. 25 10. through the points (16. 1. all lines of construction) to touch the and to cut the xaxis at (3. (i) (0. f 6. B. 12). 6. If r denotes the radius of the circle. 0). Prove that the circle must cut the tcaxis again at the point (27. 15. 0). one through A. Measure the coordinates of the A. C. B. length of their 9. . d respectively. EXERCISES FOR SQUARED PAPER. Calculate and measure OP. 4. 0) and find its radius. (0. 9). (0. B.. 0). B. 20). Draw a circle (shewing all lines of construction) through the Find the length of the otlier intercept on points f6. and the coordinates of the centre. i Draw a circle through the points (10. common chord. sheiv If a by Theorem 58 that it Find (i) the coordinates of the centre. 7. (ii) the length of the tangent (0. from the origin O. shew to draw a second circle of the same radius touching the given circle also touching the xaxis. (18. D are four points on the xaxis at distances 6. 0). how and Given a circle of radius 15.
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. . Exercises. Page 3. 025". 4398 in. Page 187. 2. 6. 3. 10cm. sq. 4157 sq. Exercises. 450 sq. . 15 cm. Page 2. 8 5 cm. Exercises. 3*14 sq. 4 '4". 199. (ii) 77*25 sq. 17". 2. 32 cm. 1. (i) 2598 sq. cm. 4.1. 201. Exercises. Exercises. 3". in. Page 181. 46 em. .. 305 sq. 1. 23 cm. 6. 16". 7. 8. Page 198. 1131 cm. cm. 20* Exercises. cm. 520".. 1018 8. 108% 108°. cm. 85 cm. (ii) 6283 sq. 2. 1". Circumferences. Exercises. sq. Page 6. 69 cm. (i) Page (i) 205. 1. 212". A circle of rad. 154 sq. 2. cm. in. 228.. 3. (ii) 35299 sq. 128f . in. . cm. 225. 69 cm. ^ercises. 11. 90°. cm. 346". 4. cm. in. Areas. 89". Page 200.. 4. 4. 2078 sq. 4. 1662 sq. 37". in. 63". 7. 4. 6 cm.GEOMETRY. cm. 1257 sq. 4Or. cm. 3. 6.. 10. 16". Exercises. 72°. Page 630 sq. 1. 283 cm. 64sq. 5. Page 4. 1. 56 4".39". Exercises. in. 198". 9. 173". 231. 4.
cm. (i) (ii) 16 sq. 3. Exercises. 4. 16". . cm. cm. 1. 12". radii 2 cm. and 6 cm.ANSWERS. 08". 125 em. (i) Page 2. 1. Exercises. (i) m 235. 6. Two concentric circles. 41". cm. Page 237. 16 sq. 5. (ii) (i) (ii) 16 sq. 16 sq. (ii)3ocm.
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