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Student's Handbook2

Student's Handbook2

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Published by: Teo Pilapil on Jul 11, 2011
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Student’s Manual for Effective Studying

By TP Pilapil

“Consult not your fears, but your hopes and your dreams. Think not about your frustrations, but about your unfulfilled potential. Concern yourself not with what you tried and failed in, but with what it is still possible for you to do.”
-- Pope John XXIII, theologian


o two people study the same way. What works for one person may not work for another. Everyone is different. For some students, studying and being motivated to learn comes naturally, while to some, additional effort is required. However, there are some general techniques that seem to produce good results. Success in high school or college is dependent on our determination to study effectively and efficiently. Success in studying does not just happen. It takes, among other things, dedication, commitment and motivation. It needs an active participation from the concerned student. This book aims to provide condensed guidelines and techniques required to be an effective, efficient and successful student. Effective students accept personal responsibility for creating the outcomes and quality of their lives. They discover life’s purpose to motivate them, characterized by well-defined goals and dreams which they consistently plan and take effective actions in pursuing them. Effective students become lifelong learners, finding valuable lessons in nearly every experience they have. They develop emotional maturity, characterized by optimism, happiness and peace of mind. Above all, they believe in themselves, feeling capable, lovable and worthy human beings. This material relies on hard work and determination. This is written primarily for high school and college students. Studying independently, away from the watchful eyes of their parents, these students need to develop a good system of studying in order to be an effective learner. In this day of information explosion, they need to study at peak efficiency. This is also written for parents. They have great influence in developing the student’s attitude towards studying. They provide input to students and this book is geared to help them understand better what the students need and should do in order to get more of studying. Teachers and school counselors can also make use of this book. Success or failure of a student reflects the teaching capability of a teacher. It is not enough for the teachers to improve their teaching efficiency. It is also important that the teacher learns how to improve the learning capability of the students. This book is written based on common sense and experience. To make use of this book, one must desire to possess a mind that is always open, malleable, teachable, and enthusiastic for newness. This book does not promise immediate results. Most techniques presented here involved character change for self-improvement. Changing character for the better needs time, hence, require determination and perseverance. These depend on one thing, and that is your willingness to improve and do well in school. You are the one who is responsible for your education, and effective

study skills can help you only if you do your job. So, invest in your future. Use this book to start changing. Take the first step and the next one will be easier. Go for it and start now!

Hitting and Setting Goals

hy do we need to go to school? Why do we need to study? When we are young we go to school because our parents wanted us to. But as we go older, we need to understand why our parents are doing it. We need to find the reasons why they get upset every time we show resentment in studying. For now we should be aware that success in life depends on how we prepare for it. It depends on our attitude towards studying, acquiring knowledge or learning new things. Knowledge is not acquired by chance. We need to work for it. Our parents try their best in developing our attitude towards learning. They tried to expose us to the right environment. They choosed our toys, our books, our friends, our school and even the way they talked to us were properly planned, especially when we were still very young. They believed that our capability of learning new things depends on our attitude towards it. But as we grow older we gradually take control of our life. Defining our targets and structuring ways to hit them has now become our prime responsibility. 1. The importance of setting goals With very few exceptions, nothing worthwhile in our studies really happens by accident. But what if it is as simple as deciding where you want to go and planning the route to get there? Goal setting is the process of deciding where you want to go in life and then mapping out a series of small steps to get you there. Success in studying is something we make for ourselves. Luck has nothing to do with it. Hitting a target starts with defining where the target is, knowing what is it then aim for it. All successful people set goals. Some may have a structured routine, others a “vision”. Some may not even consciously set goals at all. But the process is all the same. Successful people know what they want, determine the steps that will get them there and then they implement them. "Long-range goals keep you from being frustrated by short-term failures."
--James Cash Penney, retailer

By setting goals, you will use your time more productively, perform better and more efficiently and with every goal you achieve, your self-confidence will increase, motivating you to aim ever higher. If you have goals, you have purpose. If you have purpose, you have direction. If you have

family. physical. personal life. It is what you want that is important. Don’t put limits on yourself. Visualize yourself living your ideal life. but you’ll at least reach your destination eventually. 3. financial. Goals focus attention. Goals provide direction and motivation for any undertaking. But if you leave without a map at all. They get us where we want to go. Be positive. provide motivation and are means to measure progress. Some criteria for goal setting Now that we have a vision for our life. They are like road maps. not what others want for you or for themselves through you. Would you even put the key in the ignition unless you had a destination in mind and a map to get you there? Your studies and eventually your life is the longest and most exciting adventure you will ever take. you do not waste time on activities and things that will not get you where or what you want. Goals create purpose. pleasure and attitude. . You are the architect of your future. consistent action creates good habits and good habits produce good results. social. spiritual. you may just waste the entire journey driving around in circles and achieve nothing worthwhile. purpose generates plans of action. Begin defining your goals by writing a master list. You may decide to take some side trips along the way. Planning is a blue-print of something we want to achieve or make happen. How to set goals The major cause of student’s failure to complete their studies is the lack of focus and determination. What kind of house do you want to live in? Where do you want to live? What type of car do you want to drive? What exciting destinations do you want to travel to? There are no limits. plans produce action. it is time to start crystallizing our dreams and expressing them in terms of specific objectives. The first step to setting effective goals is to know what it is you want. Don’t censor yourself. You may even find some shortcuts. Before beginning the work of actually setting sub-goals and supporting tasks it is important to understand the criteria for setting effective goals. Perhaps to be selfemployed.direction. Lack of these two factors result from insufficiently defined and studied goals. 2. For example “to be successful in life and retire at 50” could be your master goal and “completing a college degree” could be one of your sub-goals. Think of a single master goal and then subdivide it into several sub-goals. Think of it as setting out on a long journey to somewhere you have never been before. Make sure you have a map before you start out. The best way to get good results is through proper planning and consistent implementation of what has been planned. Perhaps it is to be at the top of your profession. education. You are limited only by your imagination. Think of categories such as career.

you will not know whether you have achieved them or not. . choosing goals sometimes mean choosing a career. which activities we love to do most. we need to consider ourselves. we need to research which career are available where. we must already have a short-list of careers we may possibly be considering. If you don’t have that kind of feeling for what it is you’re doing. we need to consider also our financial capability. How to choose goals In schooling. we need to consider three areas. If we don't have any idea what we want to do. 4. seek ideas from counselors. then we need to research various careers. By now. what is available where and what is in the market. what are our strengths. Furthermore. etc. Director. There are many career goals we can choose from. Star Wars movie First. Whatever you want to achieve in the future. We go to school because we want to be someone someday. family and friends and take general survey courses to see what interests us. Will our studies be financed by our parents. We need to know who we are. To choose the right one for us. Do not set something for a goal if you can achieve it without doing any extra effort. While it should be challenging. These three areas include us. At this stage. ourselves or through scholarship. We need to check which school they are available. Whatever you set as a goal must be within your power. Also. they must also be challenging if you are to gain any real benefit from them. you will not be able to internalize them in a way that will allow you to decide on precise actions to take to achieve them. your subconscious won’t perceive them clearly enough to act on them. Make it challenging. "You have to find something that you love enough to be able to take risks.Be specific. Financial aspect can also dictate where we will study aside from choosing the best school in terms of quality and reputation. While your goals must be realistic. If they are fuzzy and ill-defined. jump over the hurdles and break through the brick walls that are always going to be placed in front of you. Make your goals specific. Second. Make it realistic. you’ll stop at the first giant hurdle. know that education is just an instrument of achieving it. We have to concentrate on the positive aspect of our well-being. it must also be something that you can achieve as a result of your own efforts and not something that depends on someone else doing something. what subjects we can learn more easily than others." --George Lucas. teachers.

what information and knowledge. it is necessary for us to learn how to like what we don’t like. we might be forced to decide to study a career we don’t like. got the degree they desired but still find it difficult to earn a living. it is changeable or could be improvised. be depth free at 40 so that you can retire at 50. at 30. TV pioneer 5. Many students choose to study the career they like. After considering these three areas." --David Sarnoff. We should never decide on any career until we learn how to like it because this could greatly affect our performance in school. a goal should be fixed. To be practical.Third. Hence. It is controlled by our mind. with too few jobs for too many job seekers. The goal plan Now that you have written down your master goal list and understand the criteria for effective goals it is time to begin translating your list into a goal plan. express each sub-goal in terms of a long-term objective. Think about what skills you will need to acquire and how to get them. For example if you want to retire at 50. For example. assistance and . Now we have chosen which career we will pursue. breaking your objective down into more manageable sub-goals. we need to do our best. we need to check what is hot in the market. "Nobody can be successful unless he loves his work. we might find out that the career we like to pursue is too expensive or is not available locally. To win this competition. We’ll concentrate on the positive aspect of things. etc. establish your own business at 30 and let it grow. You may want to complete your degree at 20 and start working. But it is not possible to work efficiently in something we dislike. we need to be flexible with ourselves. you need to define where you will be at 40. we might find ourselves in a dilemma. you will need to work backwards. or the career that would possibly give us a good-paying job is not the one we like. Remember. The end result should be a daily “to do” list. Take a moment to think though what you will need to achieve those longer term goals. what help. Starting with your master goal. We will learn more on how to be a top-notch student and stay at the top in the later chapters of this book. But is choosing a career already enough? Many people achieved their goals. Likes and dislikes are not something that is fixed within any individual. hence. only to find out in the end that such career is already too saturated. For longterm or “life-time” goals. at 20. And the best way to prepare for this competition is to start early – right at the start of classes. This is because finding a job itself is a competition. Changing goals along the way could be disastrous simply because time spent will never come back. In this case. etc. The objective of starting long-term and working backwards is to break each objective down into manageable steps.

6. . then perhaps they are not good enough reasons. Preparing to hit a target does not just consist of making sure your gun is loaded. This is what separates the success from failure. "The person who makes a success of living is the one who sees his goal steadily and aims for it unswervingly. You will learn there is a certain feeling of satisfaction and sense of accomplishment in completing a task. Don’t let your objectives lock you into a path you don’t want to go down. With a daily task list. Unless you are committed to improving your life nothing will happen to you. The trick. If this happens to you. Hitting your goal Now that you broken down your long-term goal into a daily task. change it. These activities will bring structure and purpose to your day and eliminate time wasters. Soon you will find yourself becoming discriminating in what you give your time to. Then try and anticipate obstacles and plan a way around them. Designing a goal plan and sticking to it requires commitment. You will feel secure in the knowledge that you are taking care of your education. Over the course of a lifetime you will go through many changes. There are four keys to staying on track: commitment. Success is attainable only if we concentrate on our goals not on the obstacle. Remind yourself constantly of your objectives.collaboration. what resources. If the target moves you need to re-position yourself. Movie Producer But along the way you will encounter unexpected setbacks. you have now a clear direction of where you are going. Once you have a clear idea of what you will need. What was important to you ten years ago may not be a priority any more. You may find you get bored doing the same things day after day or any task not achieved. Maybe the objective is not something you want badly enough. Read them every morning and evening. These are all perfectly natural and normal. DeMille. discipline. Setting and achieving goals is a lifetime process." Cecil B. Be flexible. you can be sure that you're investing your time and energies in activities that will bring you long-term benefit. is not to let them derail you from your course. Write the reasons why you want to achieve a particular objective next to the objective in your goal plan. Prepare for all foreseen contingencies. If so. determination. though. flexibility. If your reasons don’t compel you to keep striving. Write your goal in a poster-size paper and post it in place where you can see it frequently. let it go. you can build these things into your goal plan. It also includes putting yourself in the best position where you can clearly see the target.

Determination or persistence is what separates the winners from the losers.Learn how to discipline yourself. When you suffer setbacks. Reach out and take it! . Your success is in your own hands. Anyone can give up when the going gets tough but it is those who keep going in the face of setbacks who are ultimately victorious. Many of the tasks you have to do on a daily basis to achieve your longer-term objectives will be laborious and may become boring. just hang on and keep going. Never ever let anyone else make you doubt whether you can achieve your goals. Never give up. Discipline yourself to carry out those tasks every day even if you don’t feel like it.

we have to make studying a habit." --Thomas Alva Edison. Others have learned how to manage their time effectively so that they have time to play. These aspects should include proper scheduling.Effective Studying ffective studying requires good planning which should consider several aspects. As much as possible. inventor 1. This is a nice schedule when followed strictly. choosing the right place to study and pacing your work. A general rule is to budget about 3 to 4 hours of study for every hour of class. Following a study schedule strictly doesn’t necessarily mean cutting ourselves from other activities. say.. This is important for conditioning our mind and making studying a habit. But we can only follow a schedule strictly if we have self discipline. then we are prepared to take any exam any time. It should be the time where we are usually free from any distractions and when we are usually not sleepy. the difference between low performers and high performers lies in the number of hours devoted each week to studying. The general idea of studying is to prepare ourselves for future “encounters” with the teacher. Scheduling study time and following it strictly with consistency and self discipline is a requirement for better grades. time to eat and sleep. 7 to 9PM everyday. Seeming to do is not doing. If we follow our schedule diligently and go to school well-prepared. preparation. It’s a wrong attitude to study only in preparation for exams. and honest purpose. We can always give ourselves a break but if we are serious in getting most of studying. time with friends. we need to have studying time everyday day. . intelligence. and still have sufficient time to study. Generally. This is what we call “proper scheduling”. Consistency is very important in scheduling our time to study. system. Proper scheduling A good student should set aside a special time each day for studying. as well as perspiration. We need to find which time in any given day is suited for studying. planning. "Being busy does not always mean real work. The object of all work is production or accomplishment and to either of these ends there must be forethought. etc. Consistency means we study even after some exams.

There is no difference between us and them as long as we do what we are supposed to do as students. perhaps just before lunch or late in the evening when everything is quiet. and stick to it.Prepare a Time Chart (Weekly Schedule). most students who are high-performers in school learned to use time to their own benefit. Create favorable conditions. generate a positive attitude and develop good techniques. Preparing yourself Preparing ourselves to get most of studying has three requirements. club meetings. As students. clothing designer . but never move it to the following day. Make a list of what you intend to study.Kenneth Cole. Maybe our best period of concentration is in the morning. 2. "How you see yourself is the way you’ll end up being. religious services." -. They are not the slaves of time as long as they use the time they have wisely. studying is more important to us than any other things. eating and sleeping time. Fill in the time blocks with your known time commitments such as classes. Try to choose hours for studying when you know that you can get some peace and quiet moments and concentrate on what you are going to do. Proper scheduling Choosing the right place to study Preparing yourself Effective Student Concentration Get organized Repeat and recall Pacing your work In determining which hours are best for studying it is important to bear in mind that we probably perform better at different times of day. prioritize the list. Generally speaking. Better move the schedule earlier than later. You can move your study time to accommodate any important event. sports and other activities in which you know you will be participating and which will be taking time out of your daily schedule.

Get to know your classmates. But before we teach ourselves to have positive attitude towards anything. hence. whether it's something you can use now or later. an hour there. This technique may not be applicable to subjects which don’t require problem solving. So it is very important that we know how to develop a positive attitude towards anything. Avoid or remove distractions. we'll only be in high school. Loud music or any TV reduces effectiveness. It is not possible to get better grades if we ourselves believe we are losers and not capable of doing anything. For example. We are already aware of the fact that some of the things we will be studying can be directly used in our eventual employment or in graduate school. Other subjects may not be so easily integrated into our life. no single technique can be applicable to all. Creating favorable conditions generally means making a study schedule in such a way that it can be easily followed. an hour here. It can easily get exhausted. Make use of everything coming your way. Each individual must develop his own technique for every subject. and when you study the easier ones. When you study difficult subjects first. Most of us vary in many different ways and subjects are different from each other. From here we can develop a system where we can get most of studying. solve problems as many as you can. We need to stop thinking “they are better than us” rather. Try to find something in every subject that you can personally use. Preparing ourselves to be effective students requires that we need to be masters of ourselves. But in order to get good grades in all subjects. Break up times as much as possible. We need to think we are winners and act like one. Consider that your mind is not a machine. we need to make ourselves believe that we can be whatever we want to be. We can draw support from each other and help each other. Remember. Get to know other students in your classes who are also concerned about learning and getting better grades. We cannot reach a goal we have not set. Or to get most in reading . these will also appear difficult you. It is normal that we like some subjects and dislike others. We need to know where we are fast and where we are slow. So study easier subjects first when you are still fresh. regardless of whether we like them or not. Develop good techniques. Generate a positive attitude. Make this a habit.Create favorable conditions. we need to have a positive attitude towards ourselves also. share notes and thoughts about the subject which should result in better performance in school. We need to make the subject meaningful to us in some ways. your mind is already tired. the best way to study mathematics effectively is to practice solving problems. Plan to study specific times each week. It's important that we develop a positive attitude concerning the act of studying. we need to face them all. by the time you finished studying it. especially if we don’t like it. college or university once (most likely) so we should not waste our time. Choose a location where you can concentrate.

If your goal is to double your effective study time then increase the amount of time you study a little each week until you are satisfied that the time given to study is sufficient for completing your studies on schedule. It needs to have comfortable chairs. any noise should be predictable and of low volume to avoid distractions. others read in bed. It is a break to refresh your mind of what you have studied so far. 3. 4. conducive to learning but not sleeping. Look for your special place. For intensive memorization. If you yourself are efficient only for the first two hours of continuous studying. It should be relatively quiet. create questions for each major topic. Choosing the right place to study Most successful students usually devote one place where they do nothing other than to study. As a student. It should be well lighted. create a onepage summary sheet. Some students can easily get into the mood for studying. Some people can study more effectively in the first 1 hour only of a continuous studying. clean. If we can concentrate on what we're studying we can absorb more in less time.textbooks. some do their studying at the library and even have their own special studying room. etc. then decide at what rate you would like to work in the future. Every 20 to 30 minutes. Some like to work in their bedroom at a desk. not crowded. this is not a break to relax and take your snack. good writing surface at right height. then create your own. This will make reading easier and less tiring on your eyes. Feeling comfortable is an important part of effective studying. Pacing your work All people are capable of learning but not all people learn at the same rate. review them now and check if any were answered by this time and how. you may need to survey first the section or chapter. you may be able to increase the effectiveness of your studying. It should be a place where you can concentrate. Some people can learn more in a four-hour study period than others. Pacing is a goal in itself. The area should be comfortable. when they have a "special" place to study. You need to determine at what rate you work now. you need to find your own rhythm. check key words. Remember. while other could study effectively for the first three hour of continuous studying. Vocalize important parts. At most. Having a special place to go where all we do is study can help towards creating an environment which aids in concentration. . create flash cards and practice often. If you listed down questions. Use repetition to increase absorption. schedule a study break to recall what you have studied and to check through it once more. no bad smell. Through practice. read and answer these questions. It will force you to organize the material in a way that is natural for memory improvement. and can study longer and study more efficiently. You will not tire as easily as you might with poor lighting. If you can not fine one. then you need to have time breaks every two hours. figures and summaries.

keep it there. If you catch yourself daydreaming stop it immediately. of other information. our stored information may soon be gone or be forgotten. having 2 to 3 minutes break in between. Like a nail.5. and above all. stand up. Don't waste valuable time looking for books. . put them where you can reach them easily. walk around. then gradually build up to longer sessions. Storing and recalling information is what studying is all about. After you have assembled the items you need. Repeat and recall Effective studying means effectively storing information into one’s mind and recalling them once needed. it is beneficial that we take a break. Without reinforcement through repetition. Drumming a fact into your head repeatedly is still the best and fastest way to remember something. however. Have a consistent place for everything. This means that we need to study a subject or topic several times when necessary in order to effectively digest it. 6. Sometimes. When this happens. think of something else but then get right back to the job at hand. Having knowledge of something means being able to recall any stored information when the need arises. To take a break. we find it difficult to concentrate. Have everything needed for study handy beforehand. Concentration To concentrate properly on a subject matter and keep paying attention is vital to the learning process. 7. information should be hammered several times to effectively store it in place. Storing information is best accomplished by repetition. Get organized Create your own system of organizing yourself. concentrating as hard as you can. Try a short span at first. Be mentally aware of which things are placed where. There is no point to waste a whole study session to accomplish little. notes. Looking for a pen amidst cluttered papers can be time consuming sometimes. Do not day-dream.

Positive and negative thinking are both contagious. instead they are usually dependent to other students. People do not change their attitude and thoughts overnight. poisons are released into the blood. words and images that promotes growth. but eventually they do. joy. They don’t bother themselves with anything they can not do. Students who are good performers in class believe in themselves. which cause withdrawal feelings. Thinking positive requires vigilance. "It is not the brains that matter most. Negative thinking is the way to failure. . unhappiness and more negativity. but that which guides them – the character. Importance of positive thinking to students Most students don’t do better in class because they believe they are. Their lack of self confidence is their usual stumbling block towards getting good grades. and circumstances will change accordingly.Writer "How you see yourself is the way you’ll end up being. and their results are very obvious. the constant guarding of the mind against negativity. frustration and disappointment.Kenneth Cole. health and a successful outcome of every situation and action. expansion and success. 1. When the mind is negative. If you choose the former you gain a great and beneficial power. progressive ideas." --Fyodor Dostoyevsky . words and attitude bring up negative and unhappy moods and actions. Think positively. Poor performers on the other hand believe that their capability is very limited when compared to other students." -. the generous qualities. It does not matter what your circumstances are at the present moment. it finds. instead they strive to find “how’s” to their every “why’s”. It may take some time for the changes to take place. Some students continue to get poor grades because they concentrate on the obstacles rather than concentrating on their goals. Their confidence in themselves is their motivation or driving force to move on. A positive mind anticipates happiness. This makes it very difficult for them to try new things. clothing designer Negative thoughts. Consistent application is necessary. Whatever the mind expects.Positive Thinking hinking positively means admitting into the mind only thoughts. Most people are not successful because they think they can not be one. the heart. expect only favorable results and situations. It is the expectation of good and favorable results.

whether we know it or not. It is as if there are two pictures in front of us. We don’t wait to get motivated. we have to be aware of it and endeavor to replace it with a constructive one. In fact. Founder of Mary Kay Cosmetics In every class. you can. Not every lecture will be pleasing to our ears. The biggest difference between people is their attitudes. The first one does not easily gets tired hence. concentrating only on the positive aspects of anything. A positive thinker is comparable to a person who while climbing a mountain is enjoying the scenery. For some. "If you think you can. For others. hence. almost every lecture is boring. Once a negative thought enters our mind. This will lessen the inflow of negative ideas into your mind." --Mary Kay Ash. They undergo a process of change. look for positive people to associate with. and we choose to look at one and disregard the other. Avoid negative thinkers. And if you think you can’t. We need to make adjustments within ourselves. . We are in control. learning is just okay. your progress will be faster. We have to teach ourselves how to get motivated. Concentrate on these ideas to get motivated. enthusiastic or dull. we need to look for one or more interesting ideas. We need to keep our mind focused on important things. For many. Creating positive mindset People do not become positive thinkers by chance. in every lecture. students who are positive thinkers or those who have a great deal of self confidence are motivated to spend more time in studying while those who lack self confidence usually find studying boredom. something required on the road to a job. while a negative thinker likens to a person who while climbing a mountain is cursing the mountain itself. positive commitment to oneself. We can be positive or negative. you’re right. 2. and then we have to replace it again with a positive one. They are made. active or passive. Then we get what we deserve. Set goals and priorities for what you think and do. This requires commitment. we should believe we deserve it. gradually rejecting negative thoughts and accepting or entertaining only positive ones.In general. learning is drudgery. To be positive. learning is enjoyable and exciting. If we want good grades. The negative thought will try again to enter our mind. Persistence will eventually teach our mind to think positively and ignore negative thoughts. has a great possibility to arrive at its destination in still great shape. We can not change the lectures according to our own taste. It is just not possible for someone to learn while at the same time thinking that the subject matter is too difficult to tackle.

as this helps to think positively. you will transform the way your mind thinks. With every idea you learned. This happens instinctively and on a subconscious level. They dislike and avoid anyone broadcasting negativity. Always visualize only favorable and beneficial situations. This is why we need to be around with positive persons and shun negative ones. Positive thinking is power in itself. do not give up. When the attitude is positive we entertain pleasant feelings and constructive images. Your questions will invite more questions from other students. All of us affect. tackle it positively. or through body language. This will deepen your knowledge of the subject matter. and see in our mind's eye what we really want to happen. rather. good and happy thoughts in your mind. Prepare questions not only for things you don’t know but also for those you already know. Smile a little more. explain it to your friends. This will increase your knowledge and strengthen your positive mindset. whether positively or negatively. Don’t bother yourself with every negative reaction from your friend. If you feel inner resistance when replacing negative thoughts with positive ones. through thoughts and feelings transference. Use positive words in your thoughts or when talking with others. If you persevere. but keep looking only at the beneficial. People are more disposed to help us if we are positive. prepare questions for the teacher. . Disregard any feelings of laziness or a desire to quit. the people we meet.Before attending any class.

Whether he is being paid or not. what subjects to take in what semester. There is no such thing as free education even if we are on scholarships or even if the teacher is doing the teaching as a volunteer. but it is my chief duty to accomplish small tasks as if they were great and noble. especially when the students enter high school or college where in general they prefer more independence. Some students managed to complete a five-year course in four years time. time and energy is being wasted. the student should become a teacher to himself. more self-directed and more self-critical. direction. social activist. Be an active learner. "I long to accomplish some great and noble task. Control your own learning process. 2. evaluation and help. The fact is the teacher is exhausting his energy and time for the student’s sake.Student’s Responsibilities efore we decide to go schooling. then learn how to feed yourself. It is important to realize at this point that it is the student’s future that is at stake here. it is important to know what our responsibilities are as a good and responsible student. It is the responsibility of the student to do his part in the learning process. The learning process Education is a two-way activity. direction and monitoring. It is very irresponsible on the part of the student to go to school and wait to be fed. Make a general program of the whole course. Students’ responsibilities Take control of your own learning process. The first student controls his own learning process while the second one used the “free-wheeling” style of learning. students should become more self-sufficient. be your own teacher. education already consists of an active participation between the student and the teacher at school and between the students and parents at home. However. . author 1. Originally. even at the very early stage. the teacher provides example. If you want to be a good and responsible student. As we grow older the participation of the parents become less and less. Yet some were able to complete their course in twice the usual time duration. Finally. When the student is in pre-school. If you are used to be in school where “spoon-feeding” is the way of teaching. The parents usually prepare the students how to behave in school. The role of the teacher should be reduced to giving scope. as time goes on." --Helen Keller.

You can not do anything unless you believe you can do it. make use of your payment. people define success as an attainment of a certain goal. discover what your strengths are then make use of it to your advantage. Accept and develop only positive ideas. It will only show that you are not listening or participating actively in class. If you like the subject. You paid them to teach you. Do not repeat the questions of other students. Ask questions. Identify your negative aspects and make way to rectify it to your advantage.Organize the subjects. Always ask questions. make use of it. Most students consider studying as a simple reading and memorizing activity. You need to know what success means to you. Develop your own personal learning strategies. Learn how to optimize the use your resources. Define success in your own terms. Then out of your general goal. Screen ideas that enter your mind. Usually. Treat yourself like and adult. why you go to school to study. Define your general goal. Take control of your own learning process through good planning. You may also seek extra help from your friends and classmates. Rectify your failures to your advantage. techniques that enable them to get more by exerting less. It is the responsibility of the students to seek extra help. But most good performers have developed their own learning techniques. Some questions will invite follow-up questions from other students. act like an adult and others will treat you as an adult. Concentrate on your positive aspects and develop it. check which subjects are prerequisites to which subjects. An adult makes his own decisions and thinks independently. Feel good about yourself regardless of your abilities. Concentrate on positive questions. monthly goal. even if you already know the answers. develop yearly goal. etc. Your teacher will be glad to know you are interested to learn in his subject. Concentrate on open-ended questions. check which subjects are more difficult than the others. learn how to spend less time in it so that you will have more time to other more difficult ones. Act like a competent adult. Monitor your success. Think and act positive. Most teachers are required to allocate consultation time for the students. Seek extra help. weekly goal and daily goal. Seek extra help from your teacher. Most students . An adult takes responsibility of all his words and actions. with respect. Do not compare yourself with others because whether you like it or not there are always things where others are better than you. It will increase your knowledge in the process. questions that could encourage participation of others and could invite more questions. Explore your self. Some students consider it an opportunity to help others because they also learn more things in the process. make it a success and use it to achieve goals.

It is the student’s responsibility to develop good techniques for efficient studying. Always turn in your homework even if it’s not completed. can do assignments and homeworks correctly and submit them on time. competition is intense and there is a tendency for those good performers to shun helping others. Some students also seldom attend classes especially if the teacher is not very particular with class attendance. To actively participate in class. In some classrooms. etc. interview other experts. especially our classmates. we will discover some of our mistakes and other weak points and learn that there are still areas that we have not studied in detail. Aside from learning more out of helping others. So. So if you are serious in learning. Some students attend class just for the sake of showing up. unless you have exceptional intelligence. This is wrong because to be successful students we need to get good grades in all subjects. Attend and actively participate in class. Partial credit is always better than no credit. Do homeworks and assignments. because some teachers give up to 10% credits from class attendance. This is a wrong attitude. use as many books as they can. Attending class is the best way to learn what you’re supposed to learn. including group projects are very important tools for learning because it gives the students the opportunity to learn at their own pace and strategies. So. whether it is announced or un-announced. Help others in need. The source of learning avenues is endless. hence we are always on the lead. They are also well-informed hence. students like these seldom get good grades unless they really get perfect scores in exams. you need to be punctual in attending classes. we also learn. you’ll also end up having a free lunch.spend more to subjects they like. In most cases when a teacher gives an assignment. As learners ourselves. They can open their notes. and what’s expected of you in your homework. you need to prepare. in helping others. . only very few students do their assignments diligently while others just wait and then copy. what your professor will put on the exam. when we teach others. Assignments and homeworks. Homeworks and assignments are two very important learning tools that most students take for granted. for taking exams and for solving problems. It shows your professor what you know. But in general. Students who actively participate in class and attend class regularly perform well in any exam. Helping or teaching others doesn’t mean losing something because we gave it to others. do your homeworks and assignments diligently. we will be facing a lot of questions from our classmates. Organize tutorial classes. know and study in advance the next topic. In trying to answer those questions.

. Cut out some of the non-productive activity in the learning process and focus on that which is productive. Do that and you will learn more and get better grades. not just harder.Work smarter. Concentrate and prioritize doing activities that will yield the greatest benefit. Continue improving yourself.

When a driver first study how to drive. In other words. But when he is already used to driving. Developing learning habits means overhauling ourselves. How? By choosing our environment – we choose our friends. This is how successful people hit their goal. They endured long and tiring training/studies in developing effective skills. musicians develop musical skills. it is developed without the person actively knowing it. check which ones are effective and which are not. Each of us may have different learning styles in any subject. To most of us. managers develop managing skills. he will be doing these things automatically without consulting his mental list. improving good habits we already have. But it doesn’t happen like magic – that if we follow what we outlined to do then the habit will automatically develop. learners therefore need to develop learning habits. habits are something that is developed in a person naturally. It is purely natural development. check how . If we can control it then we can choose which habit we want to develop. 1." -. They attained it by making training and studying a habit. when to do it. There is no magic formula.John Dryden. how to do it. Our subconscious mind works through repetition. In order to find success in schooling. we actively give direction to our life. Usually. Our subconscious mind is continuously collecting information from the environment and stores it in our brain. "We first make our habits. Observe also other students. Our brain works that way. like adjusting first his seat and checking the mirrors before turning on the ignition switch. Improving and managing learning styles Improving and managing learning styles consists of planning. we choose what to do. etc. etc. writer If we study closely the process how our habits are developed. he mentally prepares a list of things to do to start driving or while driving. and then our habits make us. Building good habits can help us to be effective in studying. monitoring and evaluating our own learning styles. We need to identify them. The development of a habit of a person is influenced mainly by the environment where that person is exposed to. look left and right before crossing a street. then we should not be reading this article. we will notice that we can actually take control in its development.Building Good Habits f studying things is our habit. Athletes develop athletic skills. learning new ones and throwing out those which we think detrimental to our goal.

Keep improving your learning styles and make it a habit. rather enjoy yourself learning. Positive thinking It is your responsibility to educate yourself." -. They discuss together. time-management. Don’t limit yourself to only one option. Check which one is effective to you. Though you paid the school or teacher. nothing will happen to you. writer 3. So take charge of your future.John Wooden. do not wait until you are alone in order to study. You need this to develop self confidence and self-esteem. Take charge of your own education. Others gather as much books as possible. Try different learning environments. Develop the habit of accommodating only positive thoughts. We need to know other styles so that we may have several options to develop our own effective learning styles. activities you can do in times you . when you are in a group. Time management Develop the habit of managing your time. Try them and identify which one fits on you. For example. Checking means you have to try them. The point is you need to know what to do in any given situation. From time to time. asking each others questions. note-taking and/or problem-solving. and follows that plan. Others browse the internet to gather more information. Try different learning avenues or tools. big goals and do positive actions towards it. Many high-performing students use any style applicable in any given situation. Make a daily schedule and identify mentally which time could be squeezed and which one needs to be expanded. The choice is endless. basketball coach "He. Others study in groups or find study partner or partners. check how you do in reading. "Do not let what you cannot do interfere with what you can do. Others form groups to study together. Do not consider learning as a burden. Make use of what is presently available. Always budget time to every activity and follow it faithfully. Without your active participation. who every morning plans the transactions of the day. but they are just instruments for you to learn. Also prepare some filler activities.Victor Hugo." -. carries a thread that will guide him through a labyrinth of the most busy life. Others don’t start studying until they gathered all the information available. Be flexible. 2. writing.they study effectively. Other prefers outdoors and study alone quietly. Set goals. listening. Other stays in their room and study quietly. Keep monitoring and improving your learning styles and skill.

Develop this habit.are vacant. cause/effect. deductive and inductive reasoning. attribute listing. originality.being in control of yourself. students must possess a balance of creative and critical thinking skills. To be successful problem solvers. With self discipline you can change your life anyway you want to. sequencing. But nothing will really happen if we ourselves don’t take positive actions. It affects how you see yourself . The aim of creative thinking is to stimulate curiosity and promote divergence. You will need this kind of attitude for making decisions and solving problems. fluency. processes. guardians and teachers try their best in instilling discipline in us. 6. forecasting and planning. It is needed in identifying main ideas and . It’s the art of asking questions. metaphorical thinking. 5. It enables you to stay in control of yourself and of your reactions to any situation. Creative thinking is generally considered to be involved with the creation or generation of ideas. Spend your time wisely. forced relationships.your self image is so much better when you know you can succeed and change. good plans. Always make yourself busy. Creative thinking involves creating something new or original ideas. associative thinking. Critical thinking involves logical thinking and reasoning including skills such as comparison. In every situation. critical thinking is concerned with their evaluation. webbing. analogies. especially our teacher. Creative and critical thinking Critical and creative thinking can be described as qualities of good thinking processes and as types of thinking. patterning. and refine creative ideas. nice goals. especially in dealing with other people. Time is expensive and never comes back once spent. Ask questions like a child and make it a habit. It involves the skills of flexibility. classification. but there’s one aspect in a child’s life which we need to retain. It allows you to stay focused on your goals. Self discipline Our parents. but you can never follow or attain them unless you know how to discipline yourself. Asking questions It’s a part of our natural process to grow up. subject or topic. brainstorming. 4. Self discipline builds your confidence . your emotions and actions boosts your confidence and esteem. try to be creative and critical at the same time. You can always make good schedules. analyze. Develop the habit of self-discipline. modification. You can cut out bad habits and create new good ones. imagery. It affects your ability to make foresights. experiences or objects. etc. This requires will power and determination but if you have self discipline you are in control. elaboration. Critical thinking involves skills that enable the student to sort.

Being early in class brings many good things in us. Try to eliminate them. Identify which one you need to develop. improving memory. focusing concentration. Make it easy to follow and implement. Make a planning in developing this new habit. The whole subject is discussed here. procrastination. There is a big difference between the time “beating us” and “us beating the time”. but let us accept the fact that there are always communication losses. If your absorption capability is only 50% and so do with your friend. do not wait for results. Being late means the time is pressing us. Additional works will be assigned to you from time to time. 7. Always have your calculator on your desk and have your text book out. exams. If you do have to miss a class. You do it while it is fresh in your mind and while you still have plenty of time to try different materials and methods. This will keep you informed of all the rules regarding absences. Keep track of your progress and evaluate your self from time to time. Make it a habit of attending and never missing a class unless you are really sick. It is also useful in generating interest. lack of time. Make it a habit of being in the classroom a little bit early. then you loss 75% of what is being discussed in the class when you are absent and just rely on the input of your friends.supporting evidence. how the teacher is going to handle it and what is expected of you. lack of self confidence. Identify obstacles. Always try to create a good relationship with your teacher. Justify to yourself how important it is to your life or your studies. You can always borrow notes or ask your friends what was discussed in the class. Make it a habit of being an active participant in the class. Make it a habit of attending and never missing the first class meeting. It is needed in expanding our knowledge. etc. Make extra reading to cover up your losses. Teachers often do problems out of the book as examples. This will make you more active rather than passive. This is how losers and winners are distinguished. You do not absorb 100% of what you hear and this is a reality. etc. motivation. This first classroom instruction is usually devoted for orientation. Whatever or whoever he is. If the teacher or any of your classmates is making some sort of computation in the board. you will . Make it a habit of getting to know well three to four of your teachers. assignments. Doing this means we are pressing the time. Implement and follow your schedule faithfully. For example. work along with him/her. Make it habit of doing your homework the same day it is assigned to you. Make it a habit of reading the class syllabus and handouts the teacher passes out in any meeting. This lets you know what the subject is all about. Doing it later will force you to squeeze your time and effort. always call or see a classmate after the class to find out what you missed and if your teacher assigned anything that will be due when you return. check the habits of other successful people. even if you don’t like him/her. Create a step by step process with time allotments. etc. Create new habits Always study your environment.

Experience and exposure is what you need now. identify their good habits. Observe always your environment to scout for effective habits. accept what is available. Don’t care too much about salary. Mind always your existing habits. . Study the lives of other successful people. ask questions and show your interest. Make this a habit. show your enthusiasm. Not only will you be doing something more mentally stimulating. Make it a habit of getting summer jobs that are related to your course of study. You don’t have to invite him/her for dinner. improve those needing improvements and eliminate those that need to be eliminated. Just be active in class.need him in the near future. but you will also be getting to know people who have first hand experience of what you are studying.

we need to have a goal. 1. Time management means listing all your activities.Peter F. two or three semesters. It is abundant to those who are doing nothing and scarce to those who are doing something. The flow of time cannot be delayed and cannot be controlled. Student’s life is busy and full of challenge. Then in every subject we are taking in any given semester. work and play will compete with your education for time and resources. overwhelming tasks into small manageable tasks." --Mark Twain.Time Management ime is one very important resource we have which we rarely give due consideration. If for example we choose to study a four-year course. before we embark into all-out studying. we need to make monthly targets or monthly goals. when are we going to achieve it. Listing of activities As discussed in chapter 1. friends. We again need to breakdown these monthly goals into weekly goals. and then starting on the first one. goal per month. we break it down to goal per year. breakdown complex activities into several minor activities to make them manageable. then to daily goals. goal per week and goal per day. The only way to make use of time is to manage it properly. etc. Don't leave it to a chance that you will study whenever. Any given year might compose of one. goal per semester. You should make out daily plans for a week at a time. determine which activities cannot be done without completing the other. Don't miss an important meeting or exam because you forgot. Schedule study time. we need to break it down in such a way that we will know what we will be doing in any given year. Drucker. Listing of activities does not just mean setting down and listing down every activity that come into our mind which we think needed in our endeavor." -. The secret of getting started is breaking your complex. Whatever our goal is. or simply a list of monthly activities for such subject. and unless it is managed nothing else can be managed. You don't need to waste time or make life more difficult by being disorganized. There . "Time is the scarcest resource. we need to set time limit. "The secret of getting ahead is getting started. allot time requirements for each activity and define priorities. We again need to know what subjects we need to load in any given semester. If necessary. writer So from one single complex goal. author Family.

plan time for study. However. First. First we need to consider the activity versus ourselves. try to allocate at least three to four hours of advance study for every hour of class. 3. As a rule of thumb. For the yearly schedule and schedule per semester. The more units the subject has the more important it is. The weight of any subject is usually given in terms of “units” which corresponds to the number of hours of classes each week. Assigning time durations to each activity does not just consist of closing the eyes and jotting down whatever time duration which come into our mind. Next. social event. Define priorities Now. Whatever this system is. A six-unit subject is two times heavier than a three-unit subject though they may require the same length of time to study. lecture. Thus a six-unit subject means you have to attend six hours of classes per week. Time assignments Time management does not stop at listing or breaking down of activities. we have to consider that time is not free. we need to set the priorities by ourselves. thus needs to be prioritized. labs. we need to consider the time available. A schedule should take into account every class. 2. weekly and daily schedule. priorities are usually defined by pre-requisites. for monthly. There has to be some criteria we need to consider. and then each major activity into several sub-activities. Some subjects need to be taken first before the others. and so on. What do we do next? At this point we need to consider that not all activities are equally important. Indicate times for classes. With what is left. social. We need to familiarize ourselves with our own natural capabilities. and this set up is usually controlled by the school. If we have exam the following week. Also allocate a period for sleeping and relaxation each day. then we need to assign time durations in such a way that we have enough time to study all the subjects. Defining priorities means re-arranging the list according to its importance. Setting priorities means deciding which activity we have to do first before others. we have a list of activities with corresponding time assignments. You can always revise your schedule as circumstances warrant. laboratory. and work time. up to a level we consider manageable. There are basic activities such as classes and so on that has to be incorporated. consider the weight of the subject. We assign longer time durations to more difficult subjects.has to be a system we need to follow that could simplify the studying process. You must focus on the "free time" available and how you will use it. and other work in which you engage. Though we don’t buy time. The problem is how to determine that an activity is more important than the others. There are really subjects which we are fast learners and there are some that are simply more difficult. lectures. This gives you a rough estimate of the time available. We need to assign time duration into major activities and all its sub-activities. . though all of them should be done. It needs to follow a system too. it should consider breaking the main objective into several major activities.

Third. Fourth. There is a need for us to constantly monitor our current standing for every subject. a listing of subjects that need to be taken by the student every semester. We make monthly schedule for every subject. and even take summer classes. Scheduling of activities Now. Yearly and semestral goals Schools usually have a prepared prospectus for every course of study. After all. the school was able to come up with this prospectus. need more concentration. In effect. consider difficult subjects and prioritize them. This could end in a disaster. consider your current standing. we have a list of activities with corresponding time assignments. Most of us like easy subjects because this means easy work but we should always consider that we need to do all the activities. There are still a lot of criteria that we can consider. with easy and difficult subjects distributed evenly. month or year. hence. all subjects are important. we need to get good grades in all subjects. Monthly goals Monthly schedules are prepared every semester. which . But we still don’t know which to do in a given day. This time. 4. consider easy subjects and prioritize them. preserving our energy for the more difficult ones. we may find it necessary to revise this schedule. A good schedule should be well-balanced. They end up completing their course of study ahead of time. However. Some students however. The point is. we can do it more quickly and our brain does not exert much effort thus. though not equally. Here. in their senior years they are forced to take all difficult subjects in a semester. To be a successful student.Second. Most difficult subjects are heavyweights (having big units). Subjects which we are performing poorly at any given time need special attention. There is always a danger of not finishing all the activities we plan to do. week. by taking more subjects than required in any given semester. and we also know which one to do first or which activities are dependent on other activities. abuse this flexibility and find themselves enrolling those easy subjects first. whether we like it or not. prioritize means doing them first before studying or doing the more difficult ones. A good schedule should be flexible and should permit revision. as we go along with our studies. prioritize means assigning them more time to study. hence it is important to define priorities. It’s a matter of arranging which to do first. since the activity is easy. Some students also are wise enough to re-arrange the prospectus given by the school. But prioritize does not mean assigning more time to it. So we should not trap ourselves into spending more time on easy subjects just because we like it. Through research and years of experience. This is prepared once we have finished enrolling the subjects we need to take in a semester. Initially. it is enough for us to follow this yearly/semestral schedule.

we will be forced to follow it diligently because we see the whole picture. with corresponding time when to do them. how many major exams will be given and the tentative dates of the major exams. With all the activities scheduled to be done in a specific time. with no specific timing. Eliminate procrastination With a well-prepared schedule. weekly schedule should be updated every week to take into account the actual progress. Our instructor will usually give us the subject outline at the beginning of each class in a semester. When we budgeted two hours for a certain activity and we finished it in less than two hours. Daily schedule is prepared so we may know the activities to be done in a day. In preparing weekly schedule we need to consider also other activities aside from studying. Advantages of proper time management Converting impossible into possible At first. With detectable problems. we can achieve our goal one step at a time. We list down all the routine activities we need to do in a day. it should be prepared in such a way that progress can be monitored and corrective action could be taken once our actual progress lags behind the schedule. Like any other schedule. etc. Also. Measure progress With a well-defined schedule. From our list of activities. take a bath. we group together the activities we need to study in any given week. we can easily measure our progress and detect possible problems. Also. Study periods should be distributed throughout the day to avoid overloading our mind. From this list. We need to have time being with friends and/or relatives. Daily schedule should also permit revision but revision should be done mentally. we go directly to the next activity. . We are social beings and our life will be very boring without social activities. procrastination could be eliminated. we will know which time of the day we are free. our goal would seem difficult or may be impossible to achieve. Don’t waste time. our productivity is improved and possible problems could easily be rectified without spoiling other activities. From this data we can prepare our monthly schedule. 5. etc. then we can insert in our study periods. eat. attend classes. we know we have to do it because there is another activity schedule for eight o’clock. Monthly schedule should be flexible enough to permit revision once the need arises. time for relaxation and entertainment. meetings. etc. Daily goals Weekly schedule is still difficult to implement because it is still too general. listing down the topics to be taken up. If we schedule the activity to be done at seven o’clock. daily schedule should be flexible enough to our own advantage. We know what will happen if we don’t follow the schedule.chapter or chapters will be done this month. Weekly goals Monthly schedule is broken down in a weekly basis. time for worship. We set the time we wake up in the morning. But by breaking down our goal into sub-goals up to a more manageable level.

Some students are effective at studying during night time. e. and yet some at early dawn. so that you can put it in your pocket or handbag.g. Poor mind can not study efficiently hence. ." If there are times in the residence halls or your apartment when you know there will be noise and commotion. This keeps you from getting fatigued and "wasting time. need more time to learn. know which time is best for you to study. Some tips for proper use of time Know yourself There are times of a day when we are mentally alert and when we are mentally down. some during morning.6. Poor health is therefore a waste of time when it comes to studying. Distribute study time Study in shorter time blocks with short breaks between. the brain is still processing the information. use that time for mindless tasks. use the down times for routines such as laundry and errands." This type of studying is efficient because while you are taking a break. Be health conscious Have enough sleep. Make your study materials handy and portable Write your notes and other study materials in flashcards. Poor health means poor mind. Make this a habit. while waiting for a bus or while waiting for your turn in a bank. Use your power times to study. exercise regularly and have proper diet. Choose study areas that are conducive to studying This will allow you to reduce distractions which can "waste time. small notebooks or a loose sheet of paper.. Know your self. You can open them anywhere when you find extra time.

unless you have exceptional intelligence. students like these seldom get good grades unless they really get perfect scores in exams. Develop your own style of taking notes. and which ones did not. ask your instructor if you can record the lecture. Smedley. Students who actively participate in class and attend class regularly perform well in any exam. Write down ideas and put them in words you understand. If there is a word or phrase you don't know. Toastmasters International 1. It will be these things you will want to pay special attention during the lecture. Usually the professor reveals that in class. In general." --Ralph C. most often during the first week. Participate actively in class. if you know how and when to speak. your chances of real success are proportionately increased. "Whatever your grade or position. Knowing the objectives will provide a framework for your studies for the entire semester. If you think you need every word. The biggest mistake students make is that they don’t know what they’re supposed to learn in their classes. Be prepared to take notes and raise questions. 2. You can ask the instructor about it or look it up at a later time. Read assigned pages/chapters before coming to class. If you try to keep up with a lecturer by taking down every word you won't be able to understand it. Taking Notes Students don't always recognize how important it is to take good notes. especially during study time. . write it down. you need to prepare. know and study in advance the next topic.Classroom Instructions ome students attend class just for the sake of showing up. It is advisable to write down keywords or phrases only. Preparing for class Make it a habit of attending class well-prepared. Some students also prefer not to attend classes especially if the teacher is not very particular with class attendance. Note what parts of the readings made sense to you. So. hence get good grades. Rarely will you discover the objective by reading the textbook. Don't take down every word. you need to be punctual in attending classes. To actively participate in class. The importance of note taking is to maximize retention and for easy recollection of the lecture. and when to remain silent.

You can also arrange and re-arrange them as you like. Review the last lecture notes. Convince yourself it's important.As soon after class as possible. You may find it necessary to edit this list from time to time. ask the teacher what will be covered next time. create a short outline about the lecture. then the notes. formulate questions as you listen. Cover your main notes and recite key points out loud. Think about how your notes relate to other parts of the class. make sure you understand what you're writing. review and edit your notes. This recitation is one of the best ways to strengthen understanding. and then later reorganize them in your own words. readings and assignments. It is more likely to show up on tests. Come to class with all homework finished. review your outline and notes. . Add and edit the notes for accuracy and to make them read more clearly. As you write notes. concentration and a systematic method of recording information. It takes too much time and effort and you can not catch-up with the lecture. 3. Within 24 hours. Get them down. don't be too lazy to the extent of missing some points. Don't write complete sentences. After class. Make an attempt to understand how the various parts fit together. Sit in front of the room. If you wait weeks or even a day or two before reading your notes you will have lost a lot. To be a good listener. Try to develop and keep your own set of abbreviations. You may use notebooks or loose papers. thumb through the chapter on the topic for the day. Be flexible. Check the notes of your classmates to see if you missed any important items. you must learn to focus and concentrate on the main points of the lecture. review the outline first. Review them while they are fresh in your mind. Copy anything put on the board. 4. Write down the information presented in as organized a way as possible. Be active and be prepared. Teachers usually try to integrate lectures. Always put a date in your notes. Don't let the lecture become meaningless material. Good note taking requires motivation. except for definitions or quotations. Don't write too much or too little. On the other hand. Getting most from lectures Some students watch lectures like they watch television. When you listen to a lecture. Taking accurate and concise lecture notes is essential. Your main job in taking lecture notes is to be a good listener. As soon as possible. Preview material before lecture. Loose papers are considered best because you can insert handouts and other notes into them. Within 7 days. Review again. Effective note taking Be physically and mentally present in class. as passive spectators. You will need this in increasing your notetaking efficiency. Don't talk to others regarding other matters during lecture. Add comments. Generate interest and motivation.

Be active in class to be less affected by distractions. The secret to aggressive listening is to make your mind like a radar. curious. These are the questions in the form of “cause and effect”. Learn how to listen aggressively. either in class or after class. Both are naturally curious." You may go into advanced form of questions as you go deeper into the topic. Both seek answers to their every question. or in other ways become aggressively involved in cementing the material in your memory. 6. when. Curiosity and questions are the motivation and means of learning. By the time you get to high school or college. who and how. generate some questions and have them ready to roll. it is assumed that you know how to ask good questions. sit near the front of the class. where. clarify ideas. Generally. even if you don't verbalize them out loud. Pay attention to the course outline or syllabus. Effective listening also needs the use of your mouth.5. Don't be afraid to ask the teacher if there is something you don't understand. and there are far less distractions at the front than any other location. Be aware how the lecture fits with the objective. Dealing with distractions Distractions in the classroom are sometimes cannot be avoided. Note taking also aids in increasing your absorption efficiency. These are the familiar questions starting with "what. Listen with aggressiveness Be physically and mentally present in the class. . How to Use Questions Questions can be used to organize information. discuss it. While you’re taking notes. Twenty-four hours after a class. you will remember only about 10 percent of what you heard unless you repeat it. You're less likely to miss something important. stimulate interest. Average students are able to recall about eight times more of the content when they become involved than when they just listen. Most teachers will be glad to clarify for you. It will help you focus on the lecture. To help avoid distractions. You’re alert. The two most effective groups of learners are children and scientists. Refresh yourself always about the object of the lecture. and aware of what’s being said and what’s going on around you. apply it. Examine and probe the topic carefully in order to gain full understanding. or “what if” scenario. 7. improve listening skills and improve test-taking. Ask questions to clarify a point. Be like children and scientists. why. important points and materials are referenced here and repeated. Learn how to use basic forms of questions.

Read the table of contents. Look at the table in some detail. also to make the information flow in the most logical and natural way. "Employ your time in improving yourself by other men’s writing so that you shall come easily by what others have labored for. Textbook authors go to great pains to select appropriate titles for their books and chapters. most students give it no thought whatsoever. Every line in here is important. Try to know in advance what the book is all about. Now you can read the main text with a better idea of where to focus your attention. Some need to read and reread the topic several times before he can fully absorb it. They are the ones you need to concentrate your subsequent study efforts on. what the author thinks is important for you to know and how the information is organized. is it that you are looking for? You need to be motivated. Read the preface. Before reading the main text turn to the end of the chapter and read the summary. You want to learn as much as possible. Read all the headings and subheadings. If the text provides a glossary at the end of each chapter read it next. There have to be some questions which answers you are trying to search. Just reading one paragraph after another with tidbits of information strewn . As a student. Start reading the parts of the book which give overall picture of the whole book. Reading textbooks Read the summary and conclusion first. Still. Learning to read effectively is an important study skill. Some students can easily absorb what he is reading. It often contains hints on why the book was written. Don't read a textbook like you would a novel from the front to the back. Survey the material and the information contained therein. Make a note of them.Effective Reading earning how to read and retain what you read is critical to being a successful student. exactly. you need to develop techniques to improve your absorption efficiency. It aids in the retention of information and serves as a necessary addition to the information you gain in class. Try to absorb. Doing this gives you an idea of what the author thinks is important.” --Socrates 1. You can improve your reading skills by making the following changes in your current style. You need to be finding something in what you are reading. Be motivated You might be very enthusiastic to start reading the first chapter. But what.

Read a recommended reading or reference. you are reading a textbook. . Unlike novels. and only then. Try to read them if you have time or if you can get hold of them. It will give you a broader understanding of how the author summarizes and integrates information. purpose or hypothesis of research. wastes a lot of time. Use a highlighter to mark up important points. not a novel. In the end you may get nothing you need or get many things you do not need. wanted them to jump out at you. any independent and dependent variables. photos and inserts. read this first then go to the summary and conclusions section at the end of the article. Research articles usually include a summary. Then think about how the reading relates to lectures and assignments. or copy word for word. are you ready to start the textbook with chapter one. how these variables were measured. especially if they are assignments. "The man who does not read good books has no advantage over the man who can not read them. Take note of the author(s). however. Those are sample questions you are required to answer correctly as affirmation of your learning progress. Pay special attention to graphs. at the end of the book. 2. you empower the learning process. Like your textbook. you stay alert. tables. Take notes. Try to make a wild guess of the answers in advance before you start reading.” --Mark Twain. Then. Having questions in your mind which need answers you are now ready to read with purpose. Look them up now. title. Take notes as you read. Do not try to re-write the book. textbooks give sample questions at the end of each chapter or near the end of the book. referred to as abstract of 100 to 250 words. Be aware of how the current chapter relates to other parts of the book. key findings. read them before class. writer Like the textbook.here and there. Sometimes. The author. Fortunately. Reading research articles For some introductory and many advanced courses you will be required to read related published research articles. This will definitely arouse your curiosity and that assures that you become properly motivated. Too often students tend to skip over these. the author will list some recommended readings and references. check if they are consistent with the hypothesis and conclusion.

If you're wrong. Create motivation and interest. Try to survey the book first. You need to be interested on what you are reading. this is a lifetime project. Only highlight or underline main ideas. Try to develop a systematic reading style. Good writers construct paragraphs that have a beginning. don’t overdo it with your highlighter. You might carry around a pocket dictionary and use it to look up new words. the faster is your comprehension. table of contents. magazines and books. try to learn why the book is written and what is being achieved. make notes in the margin of each page referring to the other page that has related information. summarize and review important ideas. As you read the main text. To develop a deeper understanding. names of important people or dates. concentration and good study techniques. Study pictures. key terms. or statements that summarize the main elements of the passage. 3. Keep building up your vocabulary. You can do this by reading first the preface. this reinforces your understanding. use a highlighter to highlight some important lines in the book.Pay special attention to tables. Also. Or. Often. Try to anticipate the author and predict future ideas and questions. If you see a point on a page that relates to something you have read previously. the first sentence will give an overview that helps provide a framework for adding details. phrases or paragraphs that change the topic. graphs and inserts. Also. Become interested in world events. summary and glossary or index. These are what the author thinks are most important. introduction. For most educated people. Improving reading comprehension Reading comprehension requires motivation. mental frameworks for holding ideas. try to develop questions which answers you need to find out in reading the main text. If you're right. Think about how this research is related to other readings. If you are reading your own book. keep a dictionary to check for words you don’t understand. Keep pouring ideas into your mind. abstract. Keep reading. Just reading a book once is not enough. Try to find out why your instructor wanted you to read it. middle and end. you can keep a list of words to look up at the end of the day. As you read. keep a paper and pen handy to take down notes. Before reading the main text. The stronger your interest. Always keep a dictionary with you while reading. graphs and headings. Broaden your background knowledge by reading newspapers. look for transitional words. Use cross-referencing while you read. you have to highlight. you make adjustments quicker. . lectures and assignments for the course.

5. review mentally what you have learned from the reading. Controlling your environment in this way will help you concentrate and get more out of what you are reading. Verbally summarize what you have read to help improve your retention. while others prefer to read mentally. It is important to monitor your attention. Go through your notes. Right reading environment Before you start reading. Try to find which way you can concentrate effectively. In addition to the steps in reading other textbooks. Reading problem-solving textbooks Reading mathematics and science books involve problem solving to acquire mastery of the subject. Make sure that you aren’t hungry or too full. you need to add “practice” stage for solving problems during the review stage of your reading. concentration and effectiveness. If you have trouble solving the problems. Make sure that the room is well-lighted. Make sure all the problems are solved before you move on to the next chapter. Write down any areas that were confusing or if you had questions about and ask your instructor as soon as possible. Then review the book to find out what you have missed. Review what you’ve read frequently. If you move on without understanding the prior information. Some can read a book while the mind wanders away. it is important to prepare yourself. a place where you can concentrate in your work or where you can not disturb anybody if you wish to read aloud.After reading the main text. 4. Others find it beneficial to read aloud. Try to stay focus on what you are reading. . Make sure that the place where you want to read is conducive to reading. or over-tired. form a study group with others or visit your instructor. you are likely to understand even less in the following chapters. and that you keep distractions to a minimum.

They usually don't do well on their tests because they were not prepared.Ta k i ng E x a m s ost students can be found in hallways or at their desks just before an exam hurriedly going through their notes or texts. Keep a pocket-sized or notebook calendar with you in all your classes and when you study. US Army general We are talking here about exams that are scheduled and/or unscheduled. be an active student. chances are you are also prepared to take that scheduled exam Don't let yourself get into this situation. "Most battles are won before they are ever fought. Being prepared builds up confidence. You can almost see the desperate and panicky look in their eyes. You are not supposed to be one of them. relaxed and have increased your odds of performing better. The point is. There is only one formula in getting more in any exam aside from having good health. if you are prepared to face unscheduled exams. This is the only way to get good results in any exam. In other words. Unscheduled exams are those given by teachers when he feels he likes to. etc. Do your assignments ahead of time. during and after the exam. assignments. "By failing to prepare. you are prepared. There is no specific technique to handle unscheduled or scheduled exams. do your home-works diligently. field trips and anything else that is related directly to your class work. Confidence makes us relax before. Keep a record of assignments. papers." --Benjamin Franklin . Be prepared. You'll walk into exams relaxed and ready to perform well. These include daily quizzes. you are preparing to fail. No matter how you look at it. Active students are those who are making actions. prepare your outlines or term papers and projects ahead of schedule. home works. short tests. Being relax gives us focus. Scheduled exams are those major exams that are announced in advance. Passive students are those who used to wait for actions then make reactions. tests. You'll have enough time to show your professor your written work and still have the time to modify it if there is such a need." --George Patton.

But the fact is exams are a part of our student’s life. quizzes. what is the coverage of the major exams. how he give grades. our learning rate will be faster and we should not have trouble if the teacher gives any test any time. what is his grading system. In this way. in turn. Many students don't read the assigned readings and few read the suggested one.. studying overnight the whole week. Readings should be kept up with and read before the class. Make sure to attend every class. A week or less before any major exams they go into extensive preparations. Leave time for review. Learn how to handle every situation to your benefit. we should prepare as many questions as we can before attending any class. homeworks. they learn very little and their health could be affected. Ask other students who have experience with him being his teacher. This will help us in our every encounter with the teacher and this will greatly affect our performance in the class and our grades. Chances are. Preparing for short tests or quizzes The best preparation for any exam is to be prepared for class everyday. Concentrate on the positive aspect of anything. Good preparation. leads to confidence and being relaxed. etc. Do the assignments and exercises. Teach yourself how to convert into positive whatever negative feelings you may have. how often he gives short exams. We need to review our goal. The teacher may give a short quiz any time and the student should be prepared for this. if he used to give assignments. Follow your study schedule diligently. They seldom perform well in any exam. We should not wait to be asked questions. It consists of the active participation of the both parties. Preparation The key to getting good results in any exam is preparation. A majority of students prepare for major exams only. Classes are supposed to be a two-way activity. the teacher usually gives an orientation. The day or two before an exam should be for review not to do the readings or assignments. the students and the teacher. his background. Whatever our goal is. Review your notes. Sometimes. We need to know whom we are dealing with. A class does not just consist of a teacher giving a lecture alone. Sometimes. etc. He usually tells the student how he handles the subject matter. Read your assignments. Neither students nor teachers like exams. we should already have a picture of what will be discussed in the class. the student is not performing well because he doesn’t like the teacher. we need to have good grades no matter if we like the teacher or not. well prepared. etc. rather. if he is very particular with attendance. taking exams with no enough sleep. Be an active student. . if he is generous in giving grades. Before attending a class. More often than not these skills are tested on exams. In the first day of classes. It is the student’s responsibility to know who his teacher is. our performance in class is affected by our personal feelings towards the teacher. Teachers usually make assignments and exercises to teach specific skills.1.

try to anticipate questions. etc. Try to get enough sleep at least two nights before the exam and especially the night before the exam. As a result. the possible topic. An accidental lower score may only confuse and upset you. One secret in preparing for any exam is to be actively engaged on the subject matter. try to know in advance what type of exam he will be giving. It’s examination time. Make an effort to avoid making any last minute reading and especially avoid talking about your prospects with other students. Review your notes. we are also prepared to take any long exams. You may find it useful to form a study group with your friends then take the mock exam together. Your friends will ask some questions and you will find out that there are still areas which you need to study more. Be early to the test. some not. not carbohydrates (they can make you sleepy). 2. relax and be confident in having done all that preparations. then study more. pens. Check all the things you need to bring. papers. don't chat with others. Do not bring notes or books to the examination room unless your teacher tells you that the exam would be an open books/notes exam. Take a rest. It would be counter-productive. Coverage of scheduled long exam is usually announced in advance. Some teacher will include your assignments or homeworks in the exam to check if you were really the one who did them. check if you missed anything.Preparing for major exams If we are prepared to attend every class everyday. Make your own test questionnaire. resting and relaxing. You can only get depressed recalling the topics you should have paid more attention to but for some reason have not. chances are. The day before the exam should be devoted to review. But this is not enough. Monitor your efficiency. Monitor your health. This will give you an idea what type of exam he will be giving. snacks. Eat a light high-protein meal. Review your assignments and homeworks. Keep to yourself and remain confident that you have done every preparation necessary. the possible question or whether the exam is difficult or not. Put time allotment in every question or topic. Some teacher will announce the type of exam. Think positive. Talk to your teachers. Taking the exam Do not go to the examination room with an empty stomach or with an overloaded stomach. you will learn more. Never take any mock exam the day before the test. In general. Then answer your own questionnaire diligently. calculator. We need to review the coverage of the exam. bring extras. Check if you already have studied them all. Relax. pencils. . as if you are taking the real exam – no open books or notes. Check also if the exam would be an open books/notes exam. you'll find your teachers are cooperative and appreciative of the fact that you care enough about your participation in class to come in and clear this matter up for yourself. review the areas where you perform poorly. Preparations are over.

don't make any guess unless you can reduce the choices to two. go on to another question. In guessing. only one alternative is correct. and then expand your argument.Before starting the test When the go-ahead signal is given to start the exam. even though the answers themselves are the same. Indicate your answers exactly the way the directions state. Your job is to pick the alternative that is more nearly true than the others. If you answer the exam in chronological order. Put this on a scratch paper then label or number it according to its importance. Discard first those choices which you are sure are obviously not the correct answer before making your guess. put a marker indicating that you have not answered it yet. use the elimination technique. Make sure your answers are clear. be sure to number your answers exactly to match the questions. Essay type questions Read all the questions first and budget your time. leave the question for a while. Usually. Multiple-choice questions Multiple choice questions are essentially true-false questions arranged in groups. Your energy might be exhausted and your valuable time might be wasted. You can come back to it later when you have answered all the easy ones already. Easy to read and well-written grammatically correct answers almost always receive higher grades than poorly written grammatically incorrect answers. you can always come back to it later if you still have time. . organize your ideas before writing your answer. Always start answering with the easy ones and do not spend much time on the questions you are not sure of the answer. Determine what the scoring rules for the test are and follow them to your advantage. if wrong answers are penalized. The important points here are budgeting your time and preserving your energy. Go on to the next question. Read multiple-choice questions the same way as for true-false. This is to make sure you don’t miss anything. Then for each question. You can come back to it later if you still have time. The general rule is not to get carried away on one or two questions to the extent that you cannot answer the other questions in the time allotted. If the exam allows you to choose from a number of questions. Your mind might be cleared about its correct answer as you go through with the other questions. do not start immediately without surveying first what the exam is all about. Read the directions word for word and make sure you understand it. Check which part of the exam you know best. Good handwriting and correct grammar is also very important in essay-type exams. Read the questions very carefully and be sure you understand them fully before selecting the correct answer. For example. If you are not sure of the answer. Do the easy questions first. and you might not have enough time and energy to answer those easy ones. Use guessing only as a last resort and make sure there is no penalty for guessing. Make your first sentence answer the question. chances are you may be answering difficult questions first. If you get stuck. Glance through the test briefly and budget time mentally according to points assigned to questions. Don't "write around" the question but answer it directly.

You must have developed a system how to deal with this kind of exam. Make sure your teacher can follow your solution. You need to know by heart whether your answer is practically correct or not. Sometimes answers will just pop-up in your mind as you go along with other questions. something must be wrong with your solution. Know the practical limits. Other types of exams The methods used to answer true or false and multiple choice questions apply to matching questions as well. This can happen to anyone no matter how prepared you are. most difficult problems usually have more points assigned on them. Sometimes you are not allowed to box or en-circle your answer. Like other exams. And remember. Label every step or equation you make. Try your solutions first in a scratch paper before finalizing it in the test paper. For example if the problem is asking for a speed of a man running and you arrived at an answer greater than 100 mph. Mental block Some people develop a mental block when the exam paper hits their hands. If you get stuck in one problem. List down the data given and what is required. Read all the questions briefly before you start answering. If you don't know the answer. Write legibly. Close your eyes and try to recall any moment when you were very confident of yourself. but use guessing only as your last option. You can go back to it later if time permits. try to spot which problem or problems appear easy to you. Other problems which appear difficult to you might require more time. Be systematic with your solution. Present your solution in a step by step fashion. Don’t waste any time trying to beautify your solution. be sure that you have studied the theory and principles in detail. Always start with the easy ones and solve it as fast as you can. along with extra pencils or pens. read the problem again. Clarify with the teacher first if formulas are supplied or whether you are allowed to use calculators. you must have practiced with problems like this at home already. give it your best guess. . Be careful in writing the final answer. In taking math or science exams. leave it. When this happens. Use your common sense. Check the instructions again. Try to go on with the other questions first. Before you start answering. A man could not run that fast. Always read the entire list of alternatives before selecting the match. always bring a lot of scratch papers. Don’t worry and don’t panic. Try to identify key words in each list. proceed to another problem. Read the problem very carefully. you have to budget your time well. you might be required to make assumptions.Math or science problems Before you take any math or science exams. If you think the data is lacking. This is one way of simplifying the problem. Check with the formula if you can arrive at the answer with the given data. Before you take exams of this type. Do not spend too much time in one problem. You might not be able to complete the whole exam. just relax.

worry and panic will just make the situation worst. Remember. It’s examination time. nobody can help you but yourself only. Then give yourself the 'go ahead' signal. . Your composure will slowly go back. Deal with the present situation positively with confidence.Recall how you did your assignments and try to feel you are actually doing it. You are alone. You can do it! Now open your eyes and start. Read the examination paper and select the easiest question to start with.

don't wait too long. take positive actions. The tutor learns because he prepares for his assigned topic. Don’t wait. The tutees learn from what the tutor teaches and from the questions ask by the tutees themselves. no time restrictions. assigned their respective topics. tutoring is a learning matrix wherein every participant learns. another withholds what he should give.just at the right pace. It is far easier to stay up with a class than it is to catch up. It is usually composed of students actively seeking knowledge. The most important advice to students who need help is. They may invite a teacher friend as a tutor or seek volunteers from among the group to act as tutor. and sometimes they just limit the tutorial class to their members. and only suffers want" --Proverbs 12-24 What makes tutoring work is the one-on-one involvement and focused help . Tutoring is one of the best ways to learn. both for the tutor and the tutee. and tutee or tutees who receives such information. "One man gives freely. He even learns more when the other members ask him questions which can make him think hard for answers. yet grows all the richer. Sometimes. and get involved with tutorial activities. If you're having trouble.Making Use of Tutoring utoring is a method of learning that’s gaining popularity among students. they invite other students to attend their tutorial class. What makes tutoring even better is the fact that it is usually free of charge with less time constraints and pressures. Some students just form a group and organize tutorial classes. Associate with other students who are actively pursuing their dreams. each member given the task to be a tutor. It is composed of a tutor to share information to other students. Everyone needs a tutor at some time. clear it up quickly. In other words. some students who find it difficult to participate in the usual student-teacher class can easily participate in tutorial classes. usually. Because the learning environment is informal. Get involved with tutoring Be an active learner. It is simply a group of students teaching other students. 1. The tutor can be a teacher or just a fellow student. .

In sharing you will learn more. A tutorial class should be more on a hands-on exercise or a work-shop type rather than discussing theories. Though it is usually free of charge. View tutoring as a form of . Do not ask the tutor to do your work. Let them do the work rather than you do it.Robert Collier.” -. You must be continually giving -. Focus on quality. 3. rather than quantity. If you have good grades.Participate in tutorial classes. Everyone can be a tutor at some time. you should seek outside help. It should be more on problem solving and questions and answers session. a topic should be thoroughly learned before jumping to another subject matter. The goal of any tutor is to provide an encouraging environment that helps the students learn better and easily. but you still need tutorial classes when it is available. get involved with tutoring. If you are not satisfied with your performance in class. The tutor's role is to help you do the work. it can be tailored to suit our needs. Being a tutor The role of the tutor is similar to that of the teacher – to let the tutees learn. One good thing with tutorial class is that. You will get more out of tutoring through active participation. You might not be attending a tutorial class as a tutor but you should know what you need from this tutorial class.and getting. 2. it is worthwhile to share your techniques to others. Prepare as many questions as you can think of and attend tutorial class with a positive attitude. Do not attend a tutorial class without preparing yourself. Don't come if you haven't read the book or tried the homework. Remember. rather than waiting to be fed. The tutor should focus on guiding or showing the tutees what to do. "You cannot hold on to anything good. Participate actively. A tutee will learn more easily when praised rather than criticized. Either way. publisher You may or may not be satisfied with your grades. if there are no tutorial classes available. rather than telling them how to do it. You cannot hold on to your seed. He should prepare in advance to appear knowledgeable in front of the tutees. the tutor is just a student like you.and reap anew. Therefore. Do your homework yourself and seek help if needed. Because there are no commitments to complete a topic at a certain time frame. You must use them and get other riches in return. So. somebody has sacrificed his resources for your benefit. You must sow it -. You cannot hold on to riches. writer. Being a tutee Do not take tutorial classes for granted. it can be organized. His knowledge is still very limited. talk to your classmates and organize your own.

To get the most of it. . students should follow a more active and more responsible role in the learning process. Everybody contributes.cooperative learning. everybody learns.

If you find sleeping is difficult. Schedule your sleeping time and follow it diligently. In intellectual terms. a yearly flu shot. Maintaining good health and preventing illness need our active participation. For freshmen or students who are away from their family for the first time. measles-mumps-rubella. Make sure to sleep in a comfortable quarter. Immunization and other preventive shots do not work unless we actively pursue good health. Don’t just wait until you feel sleepy. Talk to your doctor about preventive actions needed. literally. This is the reason why studying should be done regularly.Health Maintenance eading off to school means heading off to a new environment. Getting immunized put our health safe against most known disease which could undermine our learning capability or which could keep us away from school. and if you have it. they end up having sleepless nights and they rarely make good in any exam. this can be stimulating. If you have health insurance. a blessing that money cannot buy. As a result. and value it next to a good conscience. regardless of whether there are exams or not. Sleeping is too easy for some and could be too difficult for others. . praise God. this means learning to care for their own health.Isaak Walton You may consider getting immunized. etc. it needs your active participation. Make sure your bed is comfortable to you. Have just enough sleep and make it a habit. meningitis inoculations. Others spend several hours in the bed and still can not find sleep. make sure you carry a valid insurance card at all times and know how to use it. But there are also less known health hazards which could not be prevented through immunization which we need to address. Both need self discipline to get most of studying. say. for health is the second blessing that we mortals are capable of. tuberculosis. heading to more challenges and adventures. Most people sleep best in a room that's a bit cooler than normally desired when awake. Say good night to your worries and shut the bedroom door on them. Make sure your bedroom is conducive to sleeping. 1. Remove all factors that could undermine your sleeping." -. Have enough sleep Some students postponed studying until the exam is only few days away. hepatitis B vaccine. Do something. "Look to your health. and tetanus vaccines. Others find studying too difficult because they easily feel sleepy when studying. with geographically diverse populations now converging on campus. it simply means exposing yourself to more health risk. In health terms.

don't live to eat. Eat just enough. You can't force yourself to sleep. seeds and grains. feel and do our best. Too much or too little is counterproductive. Eat to live. 3. emphasize on fruits. Fitness can be described as a condition that helps us look. And. you may as well be productive. Put "exercise appointments" on your calendar. and the muscles of the body. High protein meals give high energy and are best eaten in the morning. stop what you are doing and eat. In other words. After another 30 minutes or so. High carbohydrate meals produce sleepiness and are best eaten in the evening. You need to be aware of it. Forget about those scary movies. Exercise must become one of those things that we do without question. fitness influences to some degree qualities such as mental alertness and emotional stability. The late afternoon workout provides a welcome change of pace at the end of the work day and helps dissolve the day’s worries and tensions. not your craving. Follow your schedule diligently. The goal is to increase the blood oxygen level reaching the brain. Make use of your time. Let your mind rest. Allow yourself to sleep. nuts. or stay awake. intense conversations. Stick to a regular time every day. The decision to carry out a physical fitness program requires a long term commitment of time and effort. Unless you are convinced of the benefits of fitness and the risks of unfitness. since what we do with our bodies also affects what we can do with our minds. Eat just enough good food. Do not take food that contributes more harm than good to promote good health. get up after 30 minutes or so and do something you like or need to do. etc. you will not succeed. Do this regularly. To be useful. Physical fitness involves the performance of the heart and lungs. Do not skip eating or postpone it at a later time. vegetables. Make exercise a habit. The hour just before the evening meal is a popular time for exercise. concentrate on sleeping. Another popular time to . Eat healthy foods. problems. As the vehicle does not run without fuel. like bathing and brushing our teeth. When it’s eating time. try sleeping again. don't try to force or control anything. Stop thinking. It enables us to perform up to our potential. the exercise has to raise heart and breathing rates. Continue studying or read something. If you can not sleep. 2. If you can't sleep. things to do. Include daily exercise in your schedule.Sometimes we find it difficult to sleep because our mind is actively wandering away. Do physical exercise regularly Physical fitness is to the human body what fine tuning is to an engine. if your body so chooses. so is your mind without proper nourishment. Be patient. Let your mind take control. Eat enough good food Eat just enough good food.

Some people need them occasionally. . such as eating right and being active. tendons and ligaments flexible so it's easier to move around. Deficiencies in vitamins and minerals can produce serious health problems. Minerals play an important role in controlling the actions of certain hormones and enzymes in your body. Vitamins and minerals Vitamins help store and release energy and maintain your bones. It helps relieve stress and anxiety. Your exercise schedule should correlate to your study schedule.work out is early morning. your attitude is something you can control. It also helps to a get a partner. But the reverse is also true. Regular exercise reduces the risk of heart disease. diabetes and obesity. It keeps joints. blood. body function. Some minerals also provide the raw materials your body needs to build and maintain body parts such as your bones and teeth. and health. and a host of other diseases. A good goal for many people is to do physical exercise 4 to 6 times a week for 30 to 60 minutes at a time. then try a daily vitamin and mineral supplement for three months to see if you feel better. A "can-do" attitude may be just what it takes to jumpstart a healthier lifestyle. cancer. and nerves. 4. we need to choose something we like to do which suits us physically. Your thoughts can be defeating. To start and stick with an exercise program. Some people never need vitamins and minerals. you'll feel better about yourself and be able to perform better in whatever you do. Chances are when you choose to think positively. high blood pressure. osteoporosis. Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients: substances required in small amounts that are nevertheless vital for normal growth. If you get sick or have low energy levels or eat mostly processed food. Positive thinking and good health Your thoughts are in your control. you can do it. Positive thoughts can motivate healthy behaviors. helps us sleep better and helps us maintain a normal weight by increasing our metabolism. You need to find out what you need or if you really need some. Vitamins help you to digest your food and make new cells. Best of all. increases energy and endurance. It contributes to our mental well-being and helps treat depression. They also aid in protecting you from heart disease. and they can be very powerful. Some people need them most of the time. If you set your mind to something. before the work day begins. You have the choice to have a positive outlook. Exercising with someone else can make it more fun. 5. which can often be avoided by taking supplements. Vitamins and minerals are vital for good health.

When you are under extreme amounts of stress. But remember. you can turn around a negative situation. Start dealing with harmful stress by transferring doubts and worries to a list and by relaxing. Get some water and help your body return to its normal state. laugh often. exercising and cultivating a positive attitude. you have to take care of yourself. You believe you'll just have to cope until the situation improves. Sometimes it is actually best to put aside a stressful problem until a later time when it can be dealt with more effectively. such as becoming more physically active or limiting your sugar intake. uncertainty about jobs. This can lead to dehydration and even more severe symptoms.Positive thinking can help you achieve and maintain healthy behaviors. . Uncertainty puts an extra burden on the body's adaptive system by keeping a person in a constant state of worry and tension. Try to improve each day. worry won't help. The good thing is you don't have to put up with the negative effects of stress. A positive self-image is crucial for success. By dealing with your stress in a positive manner. you start to sweat and your heart begins to palpitate. Overcoming stress The major cause of stress is uncertainty. It's not hard to do. Your mouth gets dry. Sometimes when under stress. it can be improved. friends. you may feel like there is no way you can overcome your problems. As with any problem. school. money. You can fight back and come out on top. lovers and self-esteem. Fortunately. Practice positive thinking and positive self-talk. Smile easily. You know how it feels when things get tough. you may also forget to drink. in order to feel better. if you can't control something. Visualize yourself being the person you want to be. and be friendly and helpful. health. 6. Drinking water can greatly improve how you feel.

June 1995 1. is the technology that delivers on the promise of the information superhighway. you will know what you can get from them. The fastest way is to have your own computer and learn by yourself. Some learn from their friends. These are basic tools you will need in computer-based learning. and the reach of television . By understanding how the computer and internet works. Above all. 2. However. you need to keep using it to gain mastery. This can be best learned through your own initiative. or its future descendant. Learning computer is like learning how to play a guitar.. You don’t have to attend formal education for this matter. You will need more as your computer-based knowledge increases. To acquire and retain the skill. Learn and understand also how the internet works and how you can benefit from it. We can also contact and communicate with anybody from any part of the globe to discuss or share any information.PC World. you need to learn some basic word processing and spreadsheet software as well. .Making Use of the Internet ith cyber technology. Most schools have computers with internet access for the students to use. this should not be considered and obstacle." -. learn and understand how your studies can benefit from this technology. Learn how to upload or download files. learning is no longer limited to the classrooms or libraries. On-line access A computer set is quite an expensive tool. With computer and internet access. Computer skill There are many ways to acquire computer skill. It combines the impact of the printing press. we can now obtain unlimited information anytime with just a click of the mouse from the comfort of our room. Having an internet access needs additional budget. To get most of studying through the internet. learn and understand the electronic mail system and how you can make use of them. You may start with Microsoft Word and Microsoft Excel as your initial word processing and spreadsheet tools.all in a point-and-click interface.. . the interactivity of the telephone. Apart from learning the basics of computer. we need the following: "The Web. some took computer classes while some learn by themselves.

The computer will return with thousands of results. all we have to do is open yahoo or goggle then search “quadratic equation”. Most of these free email accounts are more than enough for the students’ need and can be accessed in any computer connected to the internet. we don’t have any more reasons not to learn. Lack of books or lack of reading materials is no longer a valid reason to keep us from learning. Learn how to work independently. Free email accounts are also available from Yahoo. its power is dependent on how motivated we are of learning how to make use of it. we will be presented with so many article. Sometimes. some we really need and some we just want but not necessarily need in our studies. When we search some information in the internet. We could be losing our valuable time. it is most likely that we will lose control of using our time. Don’t wait to be told. we can obtain information from experts without disturbing them in their busy schedules. if we want to know how to solve quadratic equations. For example. etc. Most internet subscription already includes an email account.For those who have their own computers. Learn how to create your own motivation. Our time is limited hence need proper budgeting. So with internet. Learning is easier and more effective with shared-document conferencing where postings and comments can be in the same document and where groups can jointly construct assignments. 4. 3. group meetings can not be done due to physical constraints. World-wide-web by its name is very wide – it covers the whole world – at our fingertip. Self-discipline Time is one very important resource we have which use needs thorough planning. Motivation Internet could be a very powerful tool for your studies. As an optional tool. or use MS XP built-in) to keep hackers out of your computer. Be an active learner. . with our unlimited access to whatever information we want in the internet. you may need also a good anti-virus software (McAfee or Norton) and Firewall (Zonelabs. Documents can be shared around very easily. you need to have at least 56K modem and email account. With the use of email. With internet. unless we ourselves really don’t want to learn. However. However. do not be dependent heavily on others. group meetings can be done without leaving your room. or we could be gathering a lot of information that we no longer have enough time to process them. MSN. many will appear to be very important to our studies. Gmail. Our mind will be craving for more information.

. we know how much time is allotted for web-surfing. We need to follow it. From our schedule.Self-discipline is what we needed here. We should not attempt to gather “everything” to the point that we could no longer handle them to our own advantage. we need to set limits in gathering information from the net. We should not use our scheduled time for gathering information not needed in our studies. Also.

. The flow of time cannot be delayed and cannot be controlled. Budget your resources well. whatever errors I have committed. Time management is discussed in detail in Chapter 7. you are possibly not earning your own money yet. nuts. Always remember. The resources which the student should utilize properly depend on the individual but will usually include time. Time Time is one very important resource we have which just come and go freely. Emphasize on fruits. seeds and grains. Let your mind take control. vegetables.Bernard M. Financier Budgeting means tight monitoring of all the resources we need with little to no flexibility in adjusting it. Act like an adult and don’t expect anybody to do the planning for you. It is your reference point for all the resources needed in building the infrastructure. food supplies. so it is worth planning. Concentrate on stocking healthy foods. books. Too much flexibility could result in overspending and could kill the budget. Eat to live. Use your resources wisely. supplies. 1. etc. The only way to make use of time is to manage it properly. 2. not a cost. as a student. money.Managing Your Resources t is difficult to build a structure without a blueprint. notes. This means the budget is considered an investment. not your craving. "Whatever failures I have known. A budget must be well-planned. they are not always available. Baruch." -. Food supplies Stocking food supplies is connected to our eating habits. even if you belong to a rich family. You are using money which is not a fruit of your own labor. Budget preparation could also be an opportunity to influence change in our personal habits and guide our overall direction. don't live to eat. To build the foundation of our future we need to be aware of the resources we need and learn how to utilize them properly. whatever follies I have witnessed in private and public life have been the consequence of action without thought.

plan in advance. We can obtain books by purchasing. say for a week. With this information you can decide if you need to buy books or not. 3. If you indeed need to buy the books you need. . We need books all the time. Sometimes we need to borrow notes from our classmates. Always refer to your schedule. Before the start of every semester or school year. apply your time management. Do not put yourself in a situation where you still have to find food when you need one. you need to use your own book. This may take time. concentrate only on the books you need. it is also possible that we let our classmates borrow our notes. You also need to consider your own studying habit. if you are shopping weekly. How often do you receive money from home. and we might find it necessary to order them somewhere. Notes Notes are one of the important resources the student must have. Be aware about your study times and scheduled exams. do not borrow or rent. we might no longer need it. Sometimes. Stock enough food. Check if it is worth buying the book even if the library has enough copies of it. be aware of your ideal consumption rate. First. But first. check your school library if it has enough books for the class. Books and other reading materials When we study. the books we need are not available in a local book store. Read them frequently to keep the lectures and reading fresh in you mind. it might not yet be available. Make this known to your borrowers.Schedule shopping. Check which bookstores they are available. 4. If you used to write something in the book while reading or studying. sometimes from other countries. Make sure that your notes are available to you when you need them. borrowing or renting them. not you want. These are gathered and accumulated through lectures and reading. You also need to consider the importance of the subject with regards to your chosen field. Check also your friends who have taken the subject already about reference books they can recommend. Be aware of the rate of inflow of money. Budget your stock well to avoid unnecessary out-ofschedule shopping. and maybe by the time we need to use the book. Minimize time spent on shopping. determine in advance what are the books you need and where to get them. we need to rely on somebody’s work. hence. Make sure they are complete and well organize. Check also if the books are available for rent for the whole term or if they are available only for short term borrowers. etc? Also. and when the book arrives. be aware of the books you need. Be careful. Check also your library if it has enough reference books. Coordinate with your teacher regarding books requirement. You might find it necessary to adjust your eating habit to suit your budget.

just a way of making it sure that your supplies will last as intended. rather than wants. Money Whether you get supports from your parents. you can have your notes bookbound and it can last longer. you need to budget your money and spend them wisely. a waste. if given a chance to save. Being a student. As with bond paper versus notebooks. experience suggests that it is better to use bond paper for taking notes than notebooks. Make a list of probable expenditures in advance. at the end of the semester. glue. it’s nobody’s fault. 6. 5. save any extra money you may have. it is also possible that we let our classmates borrow our books. etc. sometimes we need to borrow books from our classmates. budget your supplies well. Bond papers on the other hand are handy. you can bring only what is needed. Be aware of the usual inflow of money. your budget should be based of. revise it. you use only what you need. you are not in control of the inflow of money and you should consider that just like other resources. Just like your other resources. in which. At the end of the semester. self supporting or on a scholarship. just as you are beginning the project that is due the following day. money is not always available. In most cases. hence. Hence. in the order of priority. Supplies Stay well stocked. paper. but yours. pencils. most notebooks are not fully used. Keep your supplies away from the site of your friends. Establish yearly. The same with notes. straight edge. borrow or rent a book. and you can keep your notes together using a ring binder. This means that when you go to school. The book must be available by the time you need them. hence. Concentrate on what is needed. monthly and weekly budgets. Purchase good school supplies and keep them in stock. If you find your budget is too lax. Have enough stock of notebooks. .Whether you buy. If you put yourself in a situation wherein it’s already time to study and you are still looking for your study material. Nothing is more frustrating than discovering you are out of glue or your markers are all dried up. Make sure that your books are available to you when you need them. Don’t be extravagant in using your supplies. plan in advance. pens. This is not selfishness.

Asian Institute of Technology. please email: tppilapil@gmail. Mindanao State University. COMMENTS ABOUT THIS BOOK For any comments about this book. Thailand in 1990 to 1992.About the Author TP Pilapil is a practicing Structural Engineer and presently residing in New Zealand.com . He was a recipient of the MSU Full Scholarship grant for his Civil Engineering degree. Philippines in 1979 to 1984 and the King’s Scholarship grant for his Master’s degree in Construction Engineering and Management.

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