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··· All glories to Çré Guru and Çré Gaurangä ···


Dedicated to ISKCON Founder Acarya - His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, by whose mercy the name and glories of the most merciful incarnation of Sri Krsna as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in kali-yuga is being heard in every part of the world. 1


1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................................... 6 1.1 Who Is Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu? .......................................................................................................... 6 2 GURU PARAMPARA – DISCIPLIC SUCCESSION ....................................................................................................... 8 2.1 The Disciplic Succession and Its Unique Characteristics: Of Which We are a Part ............................. 10 2.2 Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Sampradaya – Disciplic Succession............................................................. 20 3 SRI GAURA PURNIMA MAHOTSAVA ..................................................................................................................... 83 4 PREDICTION OF SRI CAITANYA MAHAPRABHU’S APPEARANCE IN THE VEDAS.................................................... 84 4.1 Sri Caitanya Upanisad from the Atharva Veda...................................................................................... 84 4.2 Specific Reference In The Vedas As To When And Where Sri Caitanya Was Scheduled To Appear? . 96 4.3 Other Relevant Scriptural References Describing The Appearance Or Qualities Of Sri Caitanya? ..... 96 4.4 Prediction in the Srimad-Bhagavatam Describing The Appearance Of Lord Caitanya. ....................... 98 4.4.1 The Yuga-Avataras And More Direct References In The Srimad Bhagavatam ............................. 99 4.4.2 How Does This Krsna Varnam Verse Refer To The Advent Of Lord Caitanya? ........................ 103 4.4.3 Did He Come With Associates Or Intimate Companions? .......................................................... 104 4.4.4 How Is This Yuga-Avatara Or Incarnation Of The Age Of Kali-Yuga To Be Worshipped? ....... 105 4.4.5 How Do The Six Goswamis Explain This Famous Verse? ........................................................... 105 4.4.6 Other Verses From The Srimad-Bhagavatam Which Describe The Advent Of Sri Caitanya .... 107 4.5 Description Of Lord Caitanya’s Future Advent In Other Vedic Literatures........................................ 109 5 LORD KRSNA REVEALS DETAILS OF HIS GAURA INCARNATION AS STATED IN THE VAYU-PURANA..................... 124 6 LORD SIVA DESCRIBES LORD CAITANYA’S APPEARANCE IN ANANTA-SAÀHITÄ ................................................ 136 7 DESCRIPTION OF THE LORD’S ADVENT AS DESCRIBED IN CAITANYA-MANGAL ................................................. 170 7.1 Krishna's Decision to Descend as a Devotee......................................................................................... 170 7.2 Narada Muni Visits Dvaraka ................................................................................................................ 171 7.3 Rukmini's Lamentation.......................................................................................................................... 172 7.4 The Power of Krishna's Lotus Feet........................................................................................................ 172 7.5 The Power of Radharani's Pure Love .................................................................................................... 173 7.6 Lord Krishna Reveals the Form of Gauranga ....................................................................................... 174 7.7 Narada Visits Uddhava in Naimisaranya ............................................................................................. 175 7.8 Narada Muni Visits Lord Siva in Kailasa ............................................................................................. 177 7.9 Narada Waits Twelve Years for Maha-prasada ................................................................................... 178 7.10 The Effect of Maha-prasada on Lord Siva ............................................................................................ 179 7.11 The Vishnu-Katyayani Samvada from Padma Purana ......................................................................... 180 7.12 Narada Visits Brahmaloka .................................................................................................................... 181 7.13 The Yuga-Avataras................................................................................................................................ 183 7.14 The Bhagavata Predicts Gauranga's Advent......................................................................................... 184 7.15 Sri Krishna: Three Colors, Four Yugas................................................................................................. 185 7.16 Gauranga, Kali-Yuga, and Sankirtana ................................................................................................. 186 7.17 Lord Jagannatha Glorifies Gauranga ................................................................................................... 188 7.18 Narada Visits Vaikuntha ....................................................................................................................... 190 7.19 Narada Sees Gauranga in Goloka ........................................................................................................ 190 7.20 Gauranga Tells Why He Descends........................................................................................................ 192 8 DOES LORD CAITANYA APPEAR IN EVERY DAY OF LORD BRAHMA? ................................................................. 193 9 DESCRIPTIONS OF LORD CAITANYA'S BODILY FEATURES ................................................................................. 194 9.1 Specific Bodily Features And Markings ................................................................................................ 197 10 WHY DID LORD KRSNA APPEAR AS LORD CAITANYA? ..................................................................................... 200 11 SRI NAVADVIPA DHAMA - THE DIVINE ABODE OF LORD CAITANYA ................................................................. 204 11.1 Lord Çiva's glorification of Navadvipa to Pärvaté in the Urdhvämnäya Tantra. ................................. 207 11.2 Antardvipa ............................................................................................................................................. 224 11.3 Simantadvipa ......................................................................................................................................... 225 11.4 Godrumadvipa ....................................................................................................................................... 225 11.5 Madhyadvipa ......................................................................................................................................... 226 11.6 Koladvipa ............................................................................................................................................... 226 11.7 Rtudvipa ................................................................................................................................................. 226 11.8 Jahnudvipa ............................................................................................................................................. 226 11.9 Modadrumadvipa................................................................................................................................... 227


11.10 Rudradvipa............................................................................................................................................. 227 SRI PANCA TATTVA: THE LORD IN FIVE FEATURES .......................................................................................... 236 12.1 Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.................................................................................................................. 238 12.2 Lord Nityananda Prabhu....................................................................................................................... 240 12.3 Sri Advaita Acarya ................................................................................................................................ 241 12.4 Sri Gadadhara Pandita.......................................................................................................................... 243 12.5 Sri Srivasa Thakura .............................................................................................................................. 244 13 THE SIX GOSWAMI’S OF VRNDAVANA: SIX PRINCIPAL DISCIPLES OF LORD CAITANYA .................................... 246 13.1 Srila Rupa Goswami .............................................................................................................................. 246 13.2 Srila Sanatana Goswami ....................................................................................................................... 248 13.3 Srila Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami....................................................................................................... 250 13.4 Srila Raghunatha Das Goswami ........................................................................................................... 251 13.5 Srila Jiva Goswami ................................................................................................................................ 253 13.6 Srila Gopala Bhatta Goswami............................................................................................................... 255 14 LORD CAITANYA AND HIS ETERNAL ASSOCIATES SPIRITUAL IDENTITIES ......................................................... 256 15 GLORIES OF LORD CAITANYA’S HOLY NAMES................................................................................................... 257 16 THE YUGA-DHARMA AND THE HARE KRSNA MAHAMANTRA ............................................................................ 258 16.1 The Sequence Of The Mahä-Mantra ..................................................................................................... 262 16.2 Hare Krsna Maha-Mantra – The Great Chanting For Deliverance In Kali-Yuga............................... 264 16.3 Sri Kalisantarana Upanisad .................................................................................................................. 271 16.4 Lord Caitanya’s Instruction to Chant Hare Krsna Maha-mantra........................................................ 273 16.5 Meaning Of The Hare Krsna Mahamantra........................................................................................... 277 16.5.1 Mahamantra-vyakhya - The Lord's divine qualities revealed in the Mahamantra................. 285 16.5.2 Mahamantrasya madhuryamayi vyakhya - The Lord's intimate qualities revealed in the Mahamantra.................................................................................................................................................... 285 16.5.3 Mahamantrasya yugalasmaranamayi vyakhya - Remembering the Divine Couple through the Mahamantra.................................................................................................................................................... 286 16.6 Commentary On The Maha-Mantra by Çréla Jéva Gosvämé................................................................. 286 16.7 Explanation of the Hare Krsna Maha-mantra by Srila Saccidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura........... 288 16.8 Explanation of the Mahamantra by Srila Gopala Guru Goswami .......................................................... 288 16.9 The Glories Of The Holy Name............................................................................................................. 292 16.10 The Holy Name Is Everything ............................................................................................................... 301 12



All Glories to Jagadguru Srila Prabhupada All Glories to Sri Sri Guru and Gauranga All Glories to Sri Sri Radha Madhava gaura-vag-vigraham vande gaurangam gaura vaibhavam gaura sankirtanon mattam gaura-karunya-sundaram “I offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of my spiritual master who is the embodiment of Lord Gauranga’s instructions. He is always intoxicated by the constant performance of the congregational chanting of the holy name inaugurated by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Indeed, the spiritual master is the personal expansion of Lord Caitanya Himself, and his bodily lustre is of the same golden hue. His unexcelled beauty is only enhanced by the storehouse of Lord Caitanya’s compassion.” vande ’haà çré-guroù çré-yuta-pada-kamalaà çré-gurün vaiñëaväàç ca çré-rüpaà sägrajätaà saha-gaëa-raghunäthänvitaà taà sa-jévam sädvaitaà sävadhütaà parijana-sahitaà kåñëa-caitanya-devaà çré-rädhä-kåñëa-pädän saha-gaëa-lalitä-çré-viçäkhänvitäàç ca I offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of my spiritual master and unto the feet of all Vaiñëavas. I offer my respectful obeisances unto the lotus feet of Çréla Rüpa Gosvämé along with his elder brother Sanätana Gosvämé, as well as Raghunätha Däsa and Raghunätha Bhaööa, Gopäla Bhaööa, and Çréla Jéva Gosvämé. I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Kåñëa Caitanya and Lord Nityänanda along with Advaita Äcärya, Gadädhara, Çréväsa, and other associates. I offer my respectful obeisances to Çrématé Rädhäräëé and Çré Kåñëa along with Their associates Çré Lalitä and Viçäkhä. namo maha-vadanya, krishna prema pradaya te krishnaya krishna caitanya namne gaura-tvishe namaha “O most munificent incarnation of the Lord, You are Krishna Himself appearing as Sri Caitanya. You have assumed the golden color of Radharani, and you are freely distributing what no other incarnation has ever distributed pure love of God.” ananda lilamaya vigrahaya hemabha-divya-cchavi-sundaraya tasmai maha-prema-rasa-pradaya caitanyacandraya namo namas te “O Lord Caitanyacandra, O Lord whose form is full of blissful pastimes, O Lord whose complexion is as splendid as gold, O Lord who gives in charity the nectar of pure love for


Caitanya-candra Lord Krsna, I offer my respectful obeisances unto You. I offer my respectful obeisances unto You.” (Sri Caitanya-candramrta 2.11) nityananda namastubhyam premananda-pradayine kalau kalmasa nasaya jahnava-pataye namah “I offer my respectful obeisances unto Lord Sri Nityananda Prabhu who bestows the bliss of divine love, who eliminates the filth of the age of Kali, and who is the master of Sri Jahnavidevi.” ajanu-lambita bhujau kanakava datau samkirtanaika-pitarau kamalaya-taksau visvambharau-dvijavarau-yuga-dharma-palau vande jagat priyakarau karuna-avatarau “I worship Their Lordships Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Sri Nityananda Prabhu, whose long arms extend down to Their knees, whose beautiful complexions are radiant yellow like molten gold and whose elongated eyes are like red lotuses. They are the topmost brahmanas, the guardians of religious principles for this age, the munificient benefactors of all living entities, and the most compassionate incarnations of Godhead. They initiated the congregational chanting of the holy names of Lord Krsna.” (Sri Caitanya-Bhagavat 1.1) çré-kåñëa-caitanya prabhu-nityänanda çré-advaita gadädhara çréväsädi-gaura-bhakta-vånda I offer my obeisances to Lord Çré Kåñëa Caitanya, Prabhu Nityänanda, Çré Advaita, Gadädhara, Çréväsa and all others in the line of devotion. hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare



1.1 Who Is Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu?
According to the revealed scriptures Lord Caitanya aka Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu, is Krishna Himself who appeared as His own pure devotee with the golden complexion and sentiments of Srimati Radharani in order to teach the religious process (yuga-dharma), for this age. In previous ages religious processes were more rigorous but in this age, the age of Kali, (quarrel and hypocrisy), Lord Caitanya taught that one can gain full enlightenment simply by performing congregational chanting of the holy names of Lord Hari, more precisely chanting Hare Krsna maha-mantra (Hare Krishna, Hare Krishna, Krishna Krishna, Hare Hare/ Hare Rama, Hare Rama, Rama Rama, Hare Hare). To enact His mission, He appeared with His associates. Thus Sri Krishna Caitanya is often worshipped in His form as pancha-tattva, accompanied by His immediate expansions, Nityananda Prabhu, Advaita acarya, Gadadhara Pandit and Srivasa Thakur. The vedic scriptures confirm that Lord Caitanya is not an expansion of the prakasa or vilasa forms of Sri Krsna; He is the svayam-rupa, Govinda. Srila Rupa Goswami, the Rasa-Acarya of the Gaudiya Vaisnavas, and many other exalted authorities, also accept Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu as none other than the Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna, who incarnates in the form of a devotee, to enjoy rasa. In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, (Adi lila, 1.3) Sri Caitanya is described as follows: yad advayam brahmopanisadi tad apy asya tanu-bha ya atmantaryami purusa iti so ’syamsa-vibhavah sad-aisvaryayaih purno ya iha bhagvan sa svayam ayam na caitanyat krsnaj jagati para-tattvam param iha “What the Upanisads describe as the impersonal Brahman is but the effulgence of His body, and the Lord known as the Supersoul is but his localized plenary portion. Lord Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna Himself, full with six opulences (beauty, fame, wealth, strength, knowledge and renunciation). He is the Absolute Truth, and no other truth is greater than Him.” In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, (Adi-lila, 1. 4) it is further stated: anarpita-carim cirat karunyavatirnah kalau samarpayitum unnatojjvala-rasam sva-bhakti-sriyam harih purata-sundara-dyuti-kadamba-sandipitah sada hrdaya-kandare sphuratu vah saci-nandanah “May that Lord, who is known as the son of Srimati Sacidevi, be transcendentally situated in the innermost chambers of your heart. Reslpedent with the radiance of molten gold, He has appeared in the age of Kali by His causeless mercy to bestow what no other incarnation has


" Lord Caitanya descended to this material world for two purposes. I bow down to Him. Adi-lila 3.” (Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. Srimati Radharani. realizing the four mellows of loving devotional service. Although Radha and Krsna are one in Their identity.” (Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. who has manifested Himself with the sentiment and complexion of Srimati Radharani although He is Krsna Himself. They separated Themselves eternally. Adi-lila. 1. the maintainer of the universe (visvambhara).56) Similarly. and He has appeared to show us how to perform sankirtana. the congregational chanting of the holy name.19 Lord Caitanya says: yuga-dharma pravartaimu nama-sankirtana cari bhava-bhakti diya nacamu bhuvana "I shall personally inaugurate the religion of the age — nama-sankirtana. Now These two transcendental identities have again united in the form of Sri Krsna Caitanya. I shall make the world dance in ecstasy. or one and the same. as Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu. to spread the chanting of the holy names of God(Krsna) to deliver all the people from their material bondage. and taste the pleasures of divine love. in Mayapura Dhama. In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta.” Sri Caitanya is Krsna. His mood is just like that of a devotee — not just any devotee. 4. but they have taken two bodies.” Furthermore Srila Krsna dasa Kaviraja Goswami explains in Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. Sri Sri Radha-Krsna have appeared in one body.5) radha-krsna eka atma dui deha dhari' anyonye vilase rasa asvadana kari “To taste this divine mellow. the mellow of conjugal love. that Sri Sri Radha and Krsna are one divine self. and to 7 . Srila Vrndavana das Thakur states in Sri Caitanya-Bhagavat: sri krsna caitanya radha krsna nahe anya “Sri Krsna Caitanya is none other than the combined form of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna. This is clearly explained in the following verse: radha krsna-pranaya-viktrir hladini sakitr asmad ekatmanav api bhuvi pura deha-bhedm gatau tau caitanyakhyam prakatam adhuna tad-dvayam caikyam aptam radha-bhava-dyutisuvalitam naumi krsna-svarupam “The loving affairs of Sri Radha and Krsna are transcendental manifesations of the Lord’s internal pleasure giving potency. Both Radha and Krsna constantly enjoy each other.Caitanya-candra ever offered before: the most elevated mellow of devotional service. Adi-lila. but He appears in the mood of His topmost devotee.

Purusottama Ksetra. in Kali-yuga there will be only four authorized sampradayas [disciplic successions]. 2 GURU PARAMPARA – DISCIPLIC SUCCESSION rädhäkänta samärambhäm madhva-mädhavendra madhyamäm asmadäcärya paryantäm vande guru-paramparäm “I offer my respectful obeisances to that glorious disciplic succession. Rudra. Utkal. it is stated: sampradaya vihina ye mantras te nisphala matah atah kalau bhavisyanti catvarah sampradayinah sri-brahma-rudra-sanaka vaisnava ksitipavanah catvaras te kalau bhavya hy utkale purusottamah ramanujam srihi svicakre madhvacaryam caturmukhah srivisnusvaminam rudro nimbadityam catuksanah “If one is not initiated by a bonafide spiritual master in the sampradaya. In the Padma-Purana. and came through Sripada Madhvacarya to Sri Madhavendra Puri down to my own spiritual master. Sripada Visnuswami will be chosen by Rudra (Lord Siva) to establish his sampradaya and Sripada Nimbarkacarya will be chosen by the four Kumaras (Sanaka. Brahma. Sripada Madhvacarya will be chosen by Lord Brahma to establish his sampradaya. In other ages the Lord incarnates along with His weapons for destroying the demons. In Kali-yuga there are practically only demons on this earth. The glories of Lord Caitanya and His associates can only be understand through the disciplic succession. and Sanatana) to establish their sampradaya. as it was tasted by His topmost devotee. and purify the entire earth during the age of Kali” It is further mentioned in Padma Purana: sampradaya-vihina mantraste nishphala matah 8 .Caitanya-candra simultaneously taste the nectar of the pure love of God. then whatever mantra he/she will receive will be ineffective or fruitless. Sanatkumara. Sripada Ramanujacarya will be chosen by Sri (Laksmi-devi) to establish her sampradaya. Therefore in the future. Sanandana. Instead He chose to kill the demoniac tendency within the heart of the demons by giving them Krishna bhakti through the sankirtana yajna. and Kumara sampradayas and to represent each there will be four great acaryas. These sampradayas will establish unalloyed pure devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Purusottama [Krsna]. but in Kali yuga He shows special mercy to the demons by delivering them with nama-sankirtana. which starts with the Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna. so if the Lord were to kill the demons there would be nobody left. disciplic succession. Srimati Radharani. These four sampradayas are: Sri. who is the internal energy of Krishna. which is the conclusion of the Vedas. They will come to Jagannatha Puri . Krishna.

audible or inaudible. as any word. ancient or contemporary outside their auspices prove to have absolutely no efficacy. Brahma. sampradaya vihina ye mantras te nisphalah smritah tasmacca gamanang hyasti sampradaya narairapi These four authorised and empowered spiritual channels of disciplic succession are to be fully accepted by all beings. Madhvacarya. verses 23. Ramanuja and Nimbaditya will appear respectively as a portion of Vamana. ete kalau yuge bhavyah sampradaya pravartakah samvatsare vikrama catvarah ksiti pavanah These four saviours will be the establishers of the four authorised and empowered spiritual channels of disciplic succession in the period calculated from the reign of King Vikrama in 54 B.” Sri Visnuswami Sri Nimbarkacarya Sri Ramanujacarya Sri Madhvacarya It is verified in Garga Samhita: vamanas vidih sesah sanako visnu vakyatah dharmartha hetave caite bhavisyanti dvijah kalau Vamana. 26) 9 . Ananta Sesa and Sanaka Kumara. subsequently through the 432. combination of words or formulation of sound frequencies. (Garga Samhita. 24. chapter 61. 25. Canto 10. By chanting such mantras one cannot achieve perfection even in a very long period of time.C. visnuswami vamanangsastatha madhvastu brahmanah ramanujastu sesangsa nimbaditya sanakasya ca Visnuswami. secret or revealed. for the preservation of eternal righteousness in kali yuga.000 year cycle of kali yuga. Ananta Sesha and Sanaka Kumara will appear as brahmanas by the order of Visnu. Brahma.Caitanya-candra sadhanoghaih na siddhayanti koti-kalpastair api “If mantras are not received in the disciplic succession or sampradaya then it is fruitless. invoked or addressed.

Caitanya-candra 2. the hladini-shakti. Even if one has already attained enlightenment in a previous life and is automatically born with such knowledge. the goal of a devotee of Lord Caitanya. following in the footsteps of His associates. and His feminine expansion as the personification of Lord Krishna's pleasure potency. Lord Caitanya exhibited this love and instructed His associates. which descends from Lord Krishna and then Lord Brahma. to write volumes of devotional scriptures about the nature of this devotional love for Lord Krishna. Srimati Radharani similarly captivates Lord Krishna by Her love and charming qualities. C. scholar and incarnation of Lord Krishna who appeared only 500 years ago. He revealed to the world what is rarely obtained and what had never before been given--love of Lord Krishna as practiced by the most intimate inhabitants of the spiritual world in Goloka Vrindavana. In this way. through Madhvacharya. She is the topmost devotee of Lord Krishna. the unique transcendental message flows through the disciplic succession in a continuous. pure and non-contaminated form. but much deeper than that. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. His mission was not merely to teach the way of devotion to God. Out of so many spiritual processes for realizing one's spiritual nature. this is the most intimate of all spiritual loving sentiments. one must learn it from those who are descendants from that supreme spiritual realm. the 10 . the great sage. He appeared with His eternal associates to relish and display the loving sentiments of devotion for Lord Krishna. The sampradaya of which we are a part is the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya. This is the mystery of receiving pure spiritual knowledge through a genuine line of masters. who descends in the mood of Radharani. proper etiquette dictates that one approaches a spiritual master. or line of disciplic succession of other spiritual masters from whom he has received knowledge. The deepest level of this love is to understand how to meditate on becoming a maidservant of Srimati Radharani. Such a master must be in an authorized sampradaya. is to meditate on becoming a maidservant of Srimati Radharani to assist Her in giving that love to Lord Krishna. You will find none more sublime than this. especially through the congregational chanting of the Hare Krishna mantra. like the Six Gosvamis of Vrindavana. In order to understand the transcendental science of the loving affairs of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna and Their associates. This is the unique character of the BrahmaMadhva-Gaudiya sampradaya. However. it is not easily understandable. in order to more thoroughly understand and relish the love Srimati Radharani has for Him. Srimati Radharani's love for Lord Krishna is so condensed and sweet that Sri Krishna is so maddened by it that He accepts the form of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu.1 The Disciplic Succession and Its Unique Characteristics: Of Which We are a Part by Sri Nandanandana Das It is established that everyone who seeks spiritual knowledge and enlightenment must accept a genuine teacher. and you cannot comprehend it by the standard materialistic methods. Just as Sri Krishna captivates all the living entities by His beauty and loving characteristics. Therefore. Srila Prabhupada was the disciple of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati. The most recent representative of our sampradaya is His Divine Grace A. and through Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (Gaudiya). She is the enchanter of Lord Krishna Himself. It provides a seeker with the knowledge and books from those who have personal experience of such spiritual realms and divine consciousness.

Because these 11 . known as sakhis. Madhava. Lord Brahma. nitya-sakhis. However. They are in the same age group of Radharani. Others are equally affectionate toward Sri Sri Radha-Krishna. we do not have spiritual masters in our line who merely have an intense devotion to Lord Krishna and Srimati Radharani. The manjaris are the direct maidservants of Srimati Radharani. along with Svarupa Damodara and Sanatana Gosvami. Jaya Tirtha. the maidservants. then to Narottama das Thakura. Lord Caitanya taught by example that everyone should accept a spiritual master. There are five kinds of sakhis. are unlimited in number. They are younger. Brahmanya Tirtha. prana-sakhis. A sakhi is one who expands and facilitates the conjugal love of Lord Krishna and His enjoyment among the gopis. Akshobya. Occasionally. Narada Muni. Vidyanidhi. Rajendra. massaging Her feet. headed by Lalita and Vishaka. and the exclusive maidservants of Radharani. Raghunatha dasa Gosvami and Jiva Gosvami. Providing short descriptions of the spiritual qualities of the great personalities in this sampradaya. The sakhis of Srimati Radharani. offering Her water. Bhaktivinoda took shelter and instructions from Jagannatha das Babaji. Krishna dasa Kaviraj. our line of spiritual masters goes back through Madhavendra Puri. priya-sakhis. They are simply pleased by engaging others in the service of the Lord. not more than thirteen years old. The manjaris are thus allowed to personally serve in the inner areas of the groves (kunjas) of Vrindavana. The sakhis help provide a variety of facilities for the pastimes of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. Jnansindhu. The gopis in general bring Radha and Krishna together and give Them assurance to enjoy spiritual pastimes. Radharani makes arrangements for the sakhis to have direct association with Lord Krishna. It is understood that you cannot give such loving devotion to others unless you have it yourself. and parama-prestha-sakhis. the most recent incarnation of God who descended to distribute love of God to all conditioned souls. Therefore. Madhvacarya. Many of these masters have descended into the material realm to explicitly describe their direct view of these pastimes from their own experience in the spiritual world. Purushottama. we will see how fortunate we are to have come in contact with them since many have been identified as having direct spiritual relationships with Lord Krishna and Srimati Radharani in the form of either manjaris or sakhis.Caitanya-candra disciple of Gaurkishora das Babaji and son of Bhaktivinoda Thakura. and. while sometimes they are more affectionate toward Srimati Radharani. and their books are filled with such descriptions. Srila Vyasadeva. while the nitya-sakhis are more affectionate toward Srimati Radharani. The regular sakhis are more affectionate toward Sri Krishna. thus. innocent girls. Then we arrive at Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. and Lord Sri Krishna. Jayadharma. Nrhari. as we shall see in the descriptions that follow. and He took initiation from Ishvara Puri. Dayanidhi. then to Lakshmipati. Vyasa Tirtha. Padmanabha. That is the transcendental pleasure of the gopis. From there the line of masters and disciples goes back to Visvanatha Chakravarti Thakura. Srimati Radhika. From Ishvara Puri. They are already perfected or descended masters who have come to awaken and guide us back to their own areas of intimate service to Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. Then it continues to Sri Rupa Gosvami. The gopis never act for their own personal satisfaction. they sometimes deal directly with Lord Krishna. As Srila Raghunatha das Gosvami writes in his Vraja Vilas Stava (text 31): "I take shelter of Sri Rupa Manjari and the other very dear maidservants of the great queen of Vrindavana. and arranging for Her rendezvous with Krishna. who please her by offering Her betel. they witness the intimate loving pastimes of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna and relish the highest levels of devotional bliss. where the sakhis have no access.

Hardly anywhere else can you learn such privileged information about the spiritual world. as a follower of Rupa Gosvami. Many of these volumes have been translated into numerous languages around the world. which is one of the few. who gave him sannyasa initiation in 1959." Starting with Srila A. he has given us everything we need. Bhaktisiddhanta is also considered a ray of Vishnu. even more than we can hope to understand in this lifetime. has been recognized as Vinoda Manjari in his spiritual identity. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta revealed his own spiritual identity (svarupa) as Nayana Manjari to some of his close associates. they are even more dear to Radhika than the sakhis such as Lalita. He was a forceful and powerful preacher and scholar. can freely enter those kunjas where even the prana-prestha sakhis hesitate to enter. this sampradaya became a global movement. which are specifically meant to promote being absorbed in the loving sentiments and mood of the cowherd damsel servants of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. Srila Prabhupada has offered the path to the divine pastimes of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna by providing the knowledge as well as methods of meditation and service through which we can learn and absorb ourselves in the ways of the residents and damsels of Vraja. It spread Krishna consciousness all over India. and others. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura. now have access to this Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya. no matter how spiritual they may be. he wrote over 80 volumes of authoritative translations. and he was given credit for being the senapati bhakta (great devotee commander) who was predicted by Srila Bhaktivinoda and Lord Caitanya Himself who would come and preach in different countries and flood the world with the chanting of Hare Krishna. who themselves are more dear to Her than life itself. Plus.Caitanya-candra maidservants can enter the area where the Divine Couple enjoy their most confidential pastimes without feeling shy. headed by Sri Rupa Manjari. Srimad-Bhagavatam. Srila Bhaktivinoda had prayed to the Lord to send him one of His associates as a son to help him spread the Lord's mission. and he wrote numerous 12 . genuine lines of disciplic succession broadcasting the intimate pastimes of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna in the company of Their confidential maidservant associates in the spiritual realm of Vrindavana. So this most beneficial line of spiritual teachers has appeared to allow us to take shelter of them through their instructions and books. Since all acharyas in our sampradaya from Srila Madhavendra Puri have the same mood as their initiating masters. This most transcendental loving emotion is being passed down through the disciplic succession. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. especially those of us in the West. the manjaris. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta had done wonders in spreading the teachings of Lord Caitanya and expand the efforts of his father. it is. is also in the same madhurya-rasa. if not only. In other words. Thus. Srila Prabhupada took initiation from Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura. therefore. Few people. such as the Bhagavad-gita. and which is still being offered by the efforts and mercy of His Divine Grace Srila Prabhupada and his genuine followers. It was through Srila Prabhupada that we. commentaries and summary studies of the religious texts of India. This is what Lord Caitanya came to give 500 years ago. most likely that Srila Prabhupada. known as madhurya-rasa. or mood of a loving maidservant of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. he was especially empowered to deliver this message and took the mission of the previous acharyas and Lord Caitanya to spread love of God to all souls. Bhaktisiddhanta had established the Gaudiya Math institution with numerous temples. Even now. In this way. Srila Bhaktiprajnana Keshava Gosvami Maharaja. Thus. Even Srila Prabhupada's godbrother. among his numerous preaching activities. the mantras that are offered to the brahminical initiates include the Gopla mantra and the Kama-gayatri. have any idea of this level of spiritual taste or relations. Due to his efforts. C.

Members of the Ramanuja (or Sri) sampradaya had challenged the authenticity of the Gaudiya sampradaya. Sri Navadvipa-bhavataranga and Gita Mala. and referred to him as the Commander-in-Chief of the Vaishnavas. Srila Bhaktivinoda revealed his spiritual identity as Kamala Manjari. Baladeva Vidyabhushana was originally in the disciplic line of Madhvacharya. Srila Bhaktivinoda is the eternal assistant of Ananga Manjari.Caitanya-candra articles. which he wrote in a very short time. In his books. Thereafter. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura also wrote numerous books and many songs in the mood of being absorbed in the pastimes of serving the lotus feet of Sri Sri Radhika and Madhava (Krishna) as a maidservant. This was called the Govinda-bhashya. that was not the most important thing he accomplished. and foresaw the day when the message would travel throughout the world and bring numerous people from all over to Mayapur to glorify Lord Caitanya. Then it was Srila Prabhupada who greatly expanded the efforts of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta by taking the message of Lord Caitanya far outside the borders of India. Srila Bhaktivinoda did much work and writing to help spread the Gaudiya Vaishnava mission. As explained in the Sri Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika by Srila Kavi-karnapura. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura had taken Jagannatha dasa Babaji as his instructing guru. Jagannatha dasa Babaji [Rasika Manjari] was the disciple of Srila Madhusudana dasa Babaji. Sri Caitanyacaritamrita. established the Shyamasundara Deity in Vrindavana. or topmost gopis. So Vishvanatha sent Baladeva Vidyabhushana in his place. including the Bhagavad-gita. he became his ardent follower. Lord Nityananda is the spiritual brother of Lord Caitanya and incarnation of Lord Balarama. There is a very nice story of what he did that helped give recognition to the Vaishnava tradition. However. All of these contributed greatly to the authority of the Vaishnava tradition and to spiritual consciousness in general. under the instruction of his father. books and commentaries. Srila Rupa Gosvami explains in his Sri Sri RadhaKrishna ganoddesha-dipika that Ananga Manjari is one of the vara. Soon after meeting Vishvanatha Chakravarti Thakura (late 17 century) who was the head of the Gaudiya Vaishnava community at the time. Lord Krishna's brother. the eternal consort of Lord Nityananda. Baladeva became a babaji. the eternal assistant of Ananga Manjari. These two wives also appeared as the wives of Lord Nityananda under the names of Srimati Vasudha-devi and Srimati Jahnava-devi. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta had taken initiation from Gaura-kishora das Babaji. yet they wanted to see a direct written commentary. The Deity of Govindaji appeared in a dream to Baladeva and instructed him on the proper commentary to write. Gaura-kishora had taken babaji initiation from Bhagavat dasa Babaji. Brahma-samhita. This was in spite of the fact that the SrimadBhagavatam had already been accepted by the Vaishnavas as the ultimate commentary on Vedanta. especially that there was no proper commentary on the Vedantasutra from the Gaudiya school of thought. He was able to debate with them successfully on the grounds of philosophy. and accepted disciples. the great Gaudiya Vedanta acharya. Both of them are considered expansions of Ananga Manjari. as well as sister of Srimati Radharani. but after meeting Radha Damodara Deva Gosvami he converted to Gaudiya Vaishnavism and became the disciple of Radha Damodara Deva th Gosvami. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura revealed the spiritual identity of Gaura-kishora das Babaji as Guna Manjari in his Gaudiya Patrika. Furthermore. who was a direct disciple of Jagannatha dasa Babaji. signifying 13 . as expressed by Sri Caitanya. and numerous others. The king of Jaipur notified Vishvanatha Chakravarti Thakura of this. but he was now too old to travel to meet the challenge. who was the disciple of Srila Baladeva Vidyabhushana. Thus. whose guru was Srila Uddhava dasa Babaji. Lord Balarama's two wives are Srimati Varuna-devi and Srimati Revatidevi.

She performs the service of applying mascara on Radha and Krishna in the spiritual abode. Santosh Datta. the brother of both Rupa and Sanatana Gosvamis. was the guest of honor. He had also toured Vrindavana with Mother Jahnavi devi. while six Deities were installed. poets. for the installation ceremony. but only after giving full blessings to Baladeva Vidyabushana. and also established a great temple for the pleasure of Narottama and Lord Caitanya. Vishvanatha Chakravarti Thakura had taken initiation from Sri Radha Ramana Chakravarti. who continued to preach in Manipur. Gopinatha Acharya. it is said that Lord Caitanya Himself. took initiation from him. who took charge of the Gaudiya sampradaya at the time. had heard Lord Caitanya instruct Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya on the accurate elaboration of Vedanta. When the commentary was presented in the assembly before the king and members of the Sri sampradaya. Jiva Gosvami had also inspired other great devotees. He was a follower of one of the great Vaishnavas. It was this Gopinatha Acharya who again took birth as Baladeva Vidyabhushana to reveal the Sri Govinda-bhashya. along with many of His associates. Madhavendra Puri. He then became the assistant of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvamis. He wrote at least 25 books and commentaries. after receiving the blessings of the Sri 14 . At the same time as Narottama. and with his efforts. The commentary justified the Gaudiya sampradaya's connection with the line of Madhvacharya. Great kirtans.D. he made great advancement.D. It was also during this same time that Srila Krishnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami wrote the Sri Caitanya-caritamrita on the life of Lord Caitanya. who was the disciple of Sri Yuta Krishna Charana Chakravarti. pandits. When Narottama lead the kirtans. and guided numerous devotees on the path of devotional service and the teachings of Lord Caitanya. After the disappearance of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvamis. Jiva Gosvami was orphaned when only several years old. it is mentioned by Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Navadvipa-dhama-mahatmya that the associate of Lord Caitanya. and attained the help of many prominent persons. He was the main acharya of all Vaishnavas in Bengal. great preaching went on among many of the Vaishnava authorities and disciples in a most cooperative way with big festivals and temples being established. Orissa and elsewhere. and feasting took place. they were awed by this presentation and were willing to become Baladeva's disciples. Mother Jahnavi. the wife of Lord Nityananda. whole kingdoms took up the Vaishnava tradition. Srinivasa held huge kirtan rallies among the general mass of people. and Ishvara Puri.) was the son of Anupama. It is explained that Srila Jiva Gosvami is the incarnation of Vilasa Manjari. the eternal consort of Lord Nityananda. Vishvanatha Chakravarti Thakura left this world. to preach in the region of Bengal and Orissa. Narottama's cousin. In light of this. appeared and manifested the ecstatic spiritual world there. Jiva Gosvami (1513 A.Caitanya-candra that it was the commentary as given by the Govinda Deity. When Anupama left this world. congregational chanting. and was one of the great preachers in the region of Bengal and Orissa.. he became the most prominent Vaishnava preacher and scholar at the time. etc. As we now continue to trace our sampradaya back farther. In this way. Narottama dasa Thakura. Narottama dasa Thakura had been inspired by Jiva Gosvami. such as Srinivasa Acharya (who was specifically blessed by Lord Caitanya to be a great preacher) and Duhkhi Krishnadasa (Shyamananda). which became a Vaishnava kingdom. and the distribution of the writings of the Six Gosvamis. Soon after this. such as Ganganarayana and Ramakrishna. coming through Lakshmipati Tirtha. Under their care. He had composed many devotional songs. the natural commentary on the Srimad-Bhagavatam. along with other devotees. Invitations went out all over India to kings. and had powerful disciples. Srinivasa became one of the greatest preachers of that era. to 1598 A.

Raghunatha still managed to escape and meet Lord Caitanya at Jagannatha Puri. Srila Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami's spiritual identity is Raga Manjari. Srila Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami is the incarnation of Rasa Manjari. Gopal Bhatta's father. Raghunatha Bhatta attained perfectional love of Krishna. This is why they have a unique perspective and understanding of the pastimes of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna.10. and was only concerned with chanting the holy names of Krishna. many of which have been used as the foundation of the standards the Gaudiya Vaishnavas continue to follow. Srila Gopala Bhatta Gosvami is an incarnation of Ananga Manjari or Guna Manjari. Her service is painting in the spiritual abode. 10. Therefore. During that time Gopal Bhatta served the Lord and was later initiated by his uncle. and the means to become absorbed in the madhurya-rasa of loving Sri Sri Radha and Krishna as a maidservant. but joined the Gaudiya sampradaya. However. and how to best live one's life to enter into those pastimes in the spiritual world. Later. residing mostly at Radha Kunda near Vrindavana. they are not merely authorities in the art of devotion. the great sannyasi Prabodhananda Sarasvati.) Raghunatha dasa Gosvami (1495 A. Raghunatha was just a boy. Starting from the youngest to the oldest. Dana-carita and Mukta-carita.D.D. the father of Raghunatha Bhatta. His writings include the 15 . Adi-lila. what they offer is not merely a process for attaining knowledge of one's spiritual identity. to 1578 A. he had no attachment for it.105. When he grew to a young man. She performs the service of offering water to Sri Sri Radha and Krishna.D. Srila Gopala Bhatta Gosvami (1503 A. He lived a long time. intimate associates of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna from the spiritual world. Srila Krishnadasa Kaviraja is an incarnation of Kasturi Manjari. as mentioned above. When Lord Caitanya toured South India. He went on to write three books. He gave up most eating and sleeping.) formerly belonged to the Ramanuja sampradaya. the Lord ordered him to go to Vrindavana under the care of Srila Rupa Gosvami.) met Sri Caitanya when He visited Varanasi and stayed at the house of Tapana Mishra.Caitanya-candra Madana-mohana Deity. They were also authors of important Vaishnava literature which reveal the science of devotional service to Sri Sri Radha-Krishna. the Stava-mala (Stavavali). From Jiva Gosvami we trace our sampradaya directly to the other five of the Six Gosvamis. His eyes were always full of tears of ecstasy. Though his father and uncle put up guards to prevent him from leaving. She messages the feet of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. By regular recitation of the Srimad-Bhagavatam for Rupa Gosvami.D. He went to Vrindavana and was cared for by Sanatana and Rupa Gosvami. His history is more fully explained in the Caitanya-caritamrita (Adi-lila. or sometimes called Rati Manjari or Tulasi Manjari.154 onwards). but they provide the doorway into the most intimate pastimes in the spiritual world. (His story is found in Caitanyacaritamrita.D.D.D. 10. Although he was a family man.91) Srila Rupa Gosvami (1489 A. or how to gain liberation form the material existence. to 1564 A. two of whom Jiva was directly related. he visited Lord Caitanya at Jagannatha Puri for eight months.Adi-lila. We should relate here that these Gosvamis were intimate associates of Lord Caitanya who appeared around 500 years ago.pur. but washed the Lord's dishes and massaged His legs. this includes the following: Srila Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami (1505 A.) was directly instructed by Lord Caitanya.) came from a family of Vaishnavas.D. He also established the Radharamana Deity in Vrindavana and accepted Srinivasa Acharya and Gopinatha Pujari as two of his disciples. to 1579 A. (Cc. but they have been identified as incarnations of manjaris. He stayed four months at the house of Venkata Bhatta. Her service is in offering Their Lordships in the spiritual world sandalwood pulp for decoration and cooling fragrance. His writings were extensive and quite advanced. to 1571 A.

one of the nitya-sakhis. Her spiritual service is offering garlands of cloves to Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. Visakha Gopi would have been the perfect person to help Lord Caitanya reveal the highest levels of service to Srimati Radharani. specifically in the form of the Hare Krishna maha-mantra. Lalita-madhava. such as Brihad-Bhagavatamrita. For example. the person who had the conversation with Lord Caitanya which revealed the highest ideals of spiritual devotional sentiment. Srila Sanatana Gosvami is Lavanga or Lila Manjari. Other associates of Lord Caitanya include Sikhi Mahiti. Her service includes offering betel nuts for the pleasure of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. Govinda Ghosh is the incarnation of Rangadevi. has been identified as an incarnation of Visakha Gopi. In the spiritual realm of Goloka Vrindavana she engages in offering golden colored betel nuts to Their Lordships. as well as priyanarma sakha Arjuna and pure sambandhi Pandava Arjuna.D. to 1558 A. Kavikarnapura has identified Ramananda Raya as Lalita Sakhi. Svarupa Damodara is an incarnation Lalita Sakhi. Ujjvala-nilamani. Srila Rupa Gosvami is the incarnation of Sri Rupa Manjari. Shivananda Sena is the incarnation of Champakalata. an assistant of Srimati Radharani. one of the leaders of Srimati Radharani's maidservants. Basu Ramananda is the sakhi known as Indurekha. Other associates of Lord Caitanya are the sakhis in the spiritual world. He established temples in Vrindavana and wrote several prominent books and commentaries. Vasudeva Datta was the incarnation of Prahlada Maharaja. Her special service is to offer jewels and waving the camara fan for their Lordships. Haridas Thakura was the incarnation of Lord Brahma. Raghunatha Vaidya was formerly Revati. However. sometimes called Rati Manjari. The person known as Govindananda is Chitra Sakhi.D.) was also directly instructed by Lord Caitanya. but with the roles of teacher and student reversed.Adi-lila.10. and others. Her special service is in offering water. Ramananda Raya. (Cc.000 times a day. He used to chant the Lord's holy names 300. Vakreshvara Pandit is an incarnation of Tungavidya Sakhi. the twin sister of Tungavidya. He was the noted acharya of the chanting of the holy names of the Lord. also called Anuradha. who was formerly Ragalekha. Her service is assisting Sri Sri Radha and Krishna in dressing. She offers the Divine Couple honey in the spiritual realm. who is an incarnation of Manjulali Manjari. Gauridasa Pandita. As Pandava Arjuna.Caitanya-candra Vidagdha-madhava. 16 . according to the Gaura-ganoddesap-dipika. Her service in the spiritual realm is to decorate Sri Sri Radha-Krishna with cloths and ornaments. the wife of Lord Balarama. Her service is offering garlands of cloves to Their Lordships.pur) Another associate of Lord Caitanya is Srila Lokanatha Gosvami. Hari-bhakti-vilasa. was an incarnation of Lord Krishna's friend Subala. Her service is to offer sandalwood pulp. Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu.84. It was after Lord Brahma's humble prayers to take birth and become an associate of the Lord in His earthly pastimes did Brahma become blessed to appear as Haridasa Thakura. Her special service is singing and dancing for the pleasure of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. Vaishnava-toshani th (commentary on the 10 Canto of the Srimad-Bhagavatam). one of the param-prestha sakhis. Srila Sanatana Gosvami (1488 A. some feel that the conversation between Ramananda and Lord Caitanya is the reenactment of speaking the Bhagavad-gita. and with higher spiritual truths being revealed regarding the devotional love capable of being developed by a devotee. and Brihad-vaishnava-toshani (full commentary on the Bhagavatam). Vasudeva Ghosh is the incarnation of Sudevi.

1. Adi. such a path and high mood is available only through this Gaudiya disciplic succession from Lord Caitanya. and more influential than prema. to 1534 A. Srimati Radharani Herself (Cc. Gadadhara Pandit's descendants and followers were also important devotees (described in Cc. and Nayaka Vaninatha. this is all highly advanced in devotional understanding and realization. He especially showed by example and taught the principle of offering all of one's love to Sri Krishna in the mood of the gopi maidservants of Vrindavana. called bhava.107). I become most happy when Radha and Krishna come together and enjoy each other's company. the ruffians who threatened Lord Nityananda and Hari Thakura.10. (Cc.80). Therefore. King Prataparudra was previously King Indradyumna who had established the Jagannatha temple in Puri many hundreds of years previous. Nonetheless. was an incarnation of Baladeva. as well as a combination with Lalita Sakhi. 1486 A. Otherwise such ecstasies are the monopoly of Srimati Radharani (Cc. can taste His own sweetness (Cc. were formerly the two gatekeepers of Vaikuntha. in bhava. son of Jagannatha Mishra. As a gopi of Vrindavana. Such a mood is expressed as follows: "I dedicate myself to the service of Sri Rupa Manjari and Sri Rati Manjari under the guidance of Sri Lalita Sakhi and Sri Visakha Sakhi in trying to please Radha and Krishna. is especially attractive to Lord Krishna. 12. and his five sons. This intense mood (rasa) of devotion. It is through Lord Caitanya that Lord Krishna. the most elevated mellow of devotional service. it is said that one can hear Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu through the parampara. Jagai and Madhai. who were also Hiranyaksha and Hiranyakashipu in previous incarnations. Subhanidhi. Gopinatha Acharya. Sri Krishna feels that He is incapable of adequately returning the deep loving sentiment and thinks He is indebted to such affectionate devotees. Bhavananda Raya was formerly Pandu. were formerly the five Pandavas. Lord Caitanya's family brother. Pattanayaka Gopinatha. He is actually described as an incarnation of the pleasure potency of Lord Krishna. one of the greatest logicians at the time. Kalanidhi. the highest attainment is service to Lord Krishna in the manjari bhava.D. and such a mood must be gradually and practically attained through the process of sadhana-bhakti. He later took birth again in his own family to participate in Lord Caitanya's pastimes as King Prataparudra. during Krishna's time.Adi.132). It was the Supreme Lord as Sri Caitanya who came in this age of Kali to bestow what no incarnation had ever offered before. One person who was more than simply a devotee associate of Lord Caitanya was Srila Gadadhara Pandit. Vishvarupa. and through the books of the pure Vaishnavas of the parampara. regulated devotional service under the guidance of a similarly realized devotee spiritual master. he became His student. wanted to teach Lord Caitanya Vedanta.2. Kubja.6. husband of the sister of Sarvabhauma.15 and Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika 147-53).). Thus. the mood of conjugal love to Lord Sri Krishna. appearing as His own devotee.Mad. As many as 33 17 .Caitanya-candra Kashi Mishra was formerly the hunchback. Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya. It is recognized that Sarvabhauma was an incarnation of the great sage Brihashpati. All of these personalities were direct associates of Lord Caitanya (February 18. However.D.Antya.Adi-lila. was formerly the gopi in the spiritual world named Ratnavali. In fact. one must somehow be connected with this disciplic line. Jaya and Vijaya. or parampara." Of course.81 onwards). Krishna's brother. namely Ramananda Raya. but after hearing Lord Caitanya's explanation. regular loving devotion in which Krishna reciprocates His devotee's love. So to attain such a lofty position or sentiment in one's spiritual realization. among the Gaudiya Vaishnava devotees.

They continued the preaching in many ways. Sadashiva Kaviraja and his son Purushottama dasa were also prominent devotees of Lord Nityananda. since things were deteriorating so badly. the brother of Lord Krishna. friend of Krishna and Balarama. Before the appearance of Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityananda. (Cc. was Prema Manjari. became the leaders there and had many followers. Kanu Thakura. a great friend of Lokanatha Gosvami. His wife and eternal consort. many of which are identified as manjaris or sakhis. Achyutananda. Bhugarbha Gosani. Chapters Ten and Eleven. 12. Many more personalities are described in Caitanya-caritamrita. Krishnadasa Brahmacari was one of the main eight sakhis (asta sakhis) named Indulekha. there was Srila Advaita Acharya.17. Lord Caitanya. before which 18 . Sivananda Chakravarti was also said to be Lavanga Manjari. Sometime thereafter. Kamsari Sena. The Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika (text 156) relates that the beloved gopi of Krishna. Ishvara Puri had gone to Navadvipa and lived for a few months in the house of Gopinatha Acharya. The Caitanyacaritamrita (Adi-lila. however. Ishvara Puri and Sri Advaita. It is Sri Advaita Acharya who is recognized as an incarnation or expansion of Lord Maha-Vishnu.Caitanya-candra personalities are described all together. Lord Nityananda was the spiritual brother of Lord Caitanya and incarnation of Lord Balarama. Next we come to Ishvara Puri. Lord Caitanya ceased involving Himself in so many debates with scholars and philosophers. took birth as Sadashiva Kaviraja. Purushottama dasa had many disciples and a son. That was when Lord Caitanya became acquainted with Ishvara Puri. purport) gives a history of Sri Advaita's sons. along with other prominent devotees and acharyas. giving out the ecstasy of love of God to all.11) However. Madhavendra Puri gave him his great blessings. before initiating Lord Caitanya. the son of Lord Shiva. and an incarnation of Kshirodakashayi Vishnu. Madhavendra Puri was is in the disciplic line from Madhvacharya and was the direct disciple of Lakshmipati. 9. Madhavendra Puri established the worship of Radha and Krishna together in this sampradaya. He had worshiped the Lord to descend and deliver the people of this age. and Sridhara Brahmacari. Virabhadra Gosani is described as a disciple of Jahnavi devi. He also had many followers. Ishvara would take care of him and clean him. These included Sri Dhruvananda who was an incarnation of Lalita. who was identified as the cowherd boy Dama during Lord Krishna's time. from whom Lord Caitanya took initiation. Adi-lila. who was the gopi Chandralatika. After that. Lord Caitanya went to Gaya with the purpose of performing rites for his deceased father. Lord Nityananda was the leader of the Vaishnavas in Bengal. Thus. Another was Parameshavara dasa who was formerly the great warrior Arjuna. One of these. and. and merely engaged in the congregational chanting of the Lord's holy names.Adi-lila. formerly the gopi named Acyuta. Mother Jahnavi. He had two principal disciples. and that his father. and to prevent people from accepting impersonalist philosophies. according to others. Ishvara Puri was such a great devotee and disciple of Madhavendra Puri that when Madhavendra Puri became an invalid at the end of his life. and through Him there were also many followers of the Vaishnava tradition. is described in the Gaura-ganoddesha-dipika (87-8) as the incarnation of Karttikeya. After His disappearance. This is one reason why Lord Caitanya accepted him as His spiritual master. out of which Sundarananda was identified as the incarnation of Lord Krishna's classmate Sudama. Lord Nityananda and Sri Advaita played the parts of devotees to instruct the importance for the conditioned souls to engage in devotional service to the Supreme. and Virabhadra. His son by His other wife Vasudha devi. Candravali. but also became initiated by Ishvara Puri while there. Lord Nityananda had many devotees and followers. was formerly the gopi named Ratnavali in Krishna's pastimes.

Therefore. That is the most unique characteristic about this line of disciplic succession. and to participate in the Lord's pastimes. mostly through the process of writing and distributing books and publications. Only by their cooperation can such pastimes be broadcast. unless one is connected to the disciplic succession of Madhavendra Puri. we can understand that for the most part all of the spiritual masters and personalities connected with the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya parampara from the time of Madhavendra Puri are all incarnations of great personalities. the mood of the loving maidservants. There is no other procedure for understanding. Otherwise. to benefit society with the facility to approach the portal through which one can return to the spiritual worlds. in case you would like to continue this line of study. numerous members of the Lord's associates came to help manifest the spiritual atmosphere on earth. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta compared writing and publishing to the great mridanga drum used for congregational chanting. He asked His associates to appear before Him in preparation for His descent. the ecstasy of the confidential pastimes of Their Lordships cannot be tasted or known. how was it that so many of the intimate associates of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna in the spiritual world descended into the material manifestation. manjari-bhava. This is something that all of the acharyas spent much time focusing on. Only through their assistance can one enter into these pastimes. we have to take shelter of the gopis who have appeared in this sampradaya if we wish to enter such intimate and ecstatic love and service. Only by following in their footsteps can one engage in the service of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna in the mood of the gopis in the groves of Vrindavana. Even after the Lord's disappearance such associates have continued to appear on this planet. Therefore. Thus. and through congregational chanting of the holy names of Sri Krishna. the maidservants of Radha and Krishna. He never comes alone. Much of the information regarding the spiritual identities comes from the Gaura-ganoddeshadipika by Sri Kavi-karnapura. there is much more information in separate books and biographies about the exemplary lives of all of them. we should take advantage of it by understanding this spiritual knowledge. writing and publishing preserves one's words and gives the facility to reach many more people from many parts of the world. The idea is that rather than merely reaching people in the vicinity of one's voice. many other associates of Lord Caitanya not mentioned in this article are also described as being incarnations of intimate gopis. One additional conclusion of this article is to understand that this sampradaya is not only one for distributing the intimate love for Krishna in the mood of the intimate maidservants. and by writing new publications that follow this line for the benefit of society. Furthermore. Therefore. Such books about these devotees are 19 . Adi-lila. no one else can open them for our view. It can be explained that before Lord Krishna descended as Lord Caitanya. Although this article gives only brief glimpses into the lives of the great personalities connected with this sampradaya. for Lord Sri Krishna. We can ask. Therefore. It is also a preaching line. From the evidence in this article. we can especially stay connected to the previous acharyas by continuing this process of distributing this knowledge through their books. Such a rare opportunity may never again avail itself for thousands of lifetimes. there is no possibility of awakening the symptoms of ecstatic love in one's devotional service to Sri Sri Radha and Krishna. and mostly in the madhurya-rasa.Caitanya-candra time Krishna was worshiped alone. Chapters Ten and Eleven. especially in this Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya. sakhis and manjaris of Sri Sri Radha and Krishna in the Caitanya-caritamrita. Without the gopis. It is he who is accepted as the root of worship in ecstatic love. just as a great king also appears with his huge entourage. However.

I strongly suggest you use the links in this website to look into finding out how you can acquire some. whose disciple was Narahari. the Vedic scriptures must be understood only through the guru-sisya parampara and not through mental speculation as it is done today. Madhva’s disciple was Padmanabhacharya. Only then whatever mantra one chants will be effective. 2. the master of this universe.2 Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya Sampradaya – Disciplic Succession By Jaya Tirtha Carana Das According to the Vedic scriptures one must take diksa. Madhava’s disciple was Akshobhya. Also. the knowledge is its purest form.Caitanya-candra extremely insightful. His disciple was Narada and Vyasa became the disciple of Narada. who was followed by 20 . who was followed by Madhava Dvija. Sukadeva became Vyasa’s disciple through the awakening of spiritual knowledge. One must guard against accepting an unauthorized person as ones guru and also hearing spiritual discourses from such a person. the actual teachings and understandings of the Vedic literatures remain unchanged i. The following is the list of the guru parampara as taken from the Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika(21): paravyomesvarasyasic chishyo brahma jagat-patiù / tasya sishyo narado’bhut vyasas tasyapa sishyatam // suko vyasasya sishyatvaà prapto jïanavabodhanat / vyasal labdha-krishna-diksho madhvacaryo mahayasaù // tasya sishyo’bhavat padmanabhacaryo mahasayaù / tasya sishyo naraharis tacchishyo madhava-dvijaù // akshobhyas tasya sishyo’bhut tac-chishyo jayatirthakaù / tasya sishyo jïana-sindhus tasya sishyo mahanidhiù // vidyanidhis tasya sishyo rajendras tasya sevakaù / jayadharma munis tasya sishyo yad-gana-madhyataù // srimad-vishnu-puri yas tu bhaktiratnavali-kritiù / jayadharmasya sishyo’bhud brahmanyaù purushottamaù // vyasatirthas tasya sishyo yas cakre vishnu-saàhitam / sriman lakshmipatis tasya sishyo bhaktirasasrayaù // tasya sishyo madhavendro yad-dharmo’yaà pravartitaù / tasya sishyo’bhavat sriman isvarakhya-puri-yatiù // kalayamasa sringaraà yaù sringara-phalatmakaù / advaitaà kalayamasa dasya-sakhye phale ubhe / isvarakhya-purià gaura urarikritya gaurave / jagad aplavayamasa prakritaprakritatmakam // Brahma. especially in Kali-yuga. Madhvacharya took initiation in the Krishna mantra from Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa. This is because in the guru-sisya parampara system. The science of Krsna consciousness has been passed down through the following unbroken chain of gurus without any adulteration.e. was the disciple of the master of the spiritual world Supreme Lord Sri Krsna. enlightening and enlivening. The International Society for Krsna Conciousness (Hare Krsna movement) belongs to the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya. spiritual initiation from a guru who belongs to any of the above-mentioned four disciplc successions.

Caitanya-candra Jayatirtha. His disciple. Badarayana and Vedavyasa) (5) Bhagavatapadacarya Srila Madhvacarya (also known as Srila Vasudeva. while Advaita Acharya [also the disciple of Madhavendra] took up the moods of servitude and friendship. was Purushottama’s disciple. Srila Jiva Goswami (25) Srila Krsnadas Kaviraja Goswami (26) Srila Narottama das Thakura (27) Srila Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura (28) (Gaudiya Vedantacarya Srila Baladeva Vidyabhusana) Srila Jagannatha das Babaji Maharaja (29) Srila Saccidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura 21 . the author of Bhakti-ratnavali and Purushottama the lover of Brahmin culture became his disciples. Sarvajna. Lord Gaura accepted Isvara Puri as his guru. a reservoir of devotion. Lakshmipati Tirtha. the author of Vishnu-saàhita. was Vyasa Tirtha’s disciple. and it is by him that this religion was founded. Sukha Tirtha and Ananda Tirtha). and then flooded the material and spiritual worlds [with divine love]. took up the mood of conjugal devotion. Jïanasindhu. Gaudapurnananda. Jayadharma Muni was one of Rajendra’s many disciples and Vishnu Puri. (1) Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Sri Krsna (2) Sri Caturmukha Brahma (3) Sri Devarsi Narada (4) Sri Krsna Dvaipayana Vyasa (also known as Srila Vyasadeva. Purnabodha. Srila Sanatana Goswami) (24) Srila Raghunatha das Goswami. Madhavendra Puri was the disciple of Lakshmipati. Purnaprajna. Sukadeva Goswami (6) Srila Padmanabha Tirtha (7) Srila Nrhari Tirtha (8) Srila Madhava Tirtha (9) Srila Aksobhya Tirtha (10) Tikacarya Srila Jaya Tirtha (11) Srila Jnanasindhu Tirtha (12) Srila Dayanidhi Tirtha (13) Srila Vidyadhiraja Tirtha (also known as Srila Vidyanidhi Tirtha) (14) Srila Rajendra Tirtha (15) Srila Jayadharma Tirtha (also known as Srila Vijayadhvaja Tirtha) (16) Srila Purusottama Tirtha (17) Srila Brahmanya Tirtha (also known as Srila Subrahmanya Tirtha) (18) Srila Vyasa Tirtha (also known as Srila Vyasa Raya) (19) Srila Laksmipati Tirtha (20) Srila Madhavendra Puri Goswami (21) Srila Isvara Puri Goswami (Sri Nityananda Prabhu. Vyasa Tirtha. the sannyasi Isvara Puri. Vidyanidhi and Rajendra. Mahanidhi. Srila Advaitacarya) (22) Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu (23) Srila Rupa Goswami (Sri Svarupa Damodara.

The following are the names of the eight Udupi Mathas and their main heads: 1.Caitanya-candra (30) Srila Gaurakisora das Babaji Maharaja (31) Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Goswami Prabhupada (32) ISKCON Founder-Acarya : Jagadguru Srila Abhaya Caranaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada (33) ISKCON Guru-vrnda : Srila Tamala Krsna Goswami Gurudeva. Srila Bhaktisvarupa Damodara Goswami Sripada.Upendra 5. The Deity is holding a curd-making stick in one hand and a string. Kanuru . Though the Deity was very heavy. Adamara . Here are their abridged biographies.Adhoksaja The following are the names of the Deities in the above mentioned maths respectively: Sri Ramacandra. His childhood name was Vasudeva. This list was first published by Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura and enumerates the most prominent members of the guru-parampara. Bhuvaraha deva. Srila Gopala Krsna Goswami Bhagavatpada. Krsnapura . Vitthaladeva. Pejavara . His sannyasa name was Purnaprajna Tirtha.Sri Hrsikesa Tirtha 2. Srila Mukunda Goswami. installed by Madhvacarya. Vitthaladeva.Vamana 6. Srila Satsvarupa das Goswami. Srila Bhakticaru Swami. His parents were Sri Madhyageha Bhatta and Srimati Vedavidya.Srirama 8. Madhvacarya carried it alone from Vadabhandesvara. At the beginning of the Bhagavad-gita As It Is by A. Srila Madhvacarya He was born in a Sivanni brahmana class family in the Pajakaksetra of Udupi village in the year 1040 Saka. Sode . Nrsimha deva. Gitabhasya 2. The following are books written by Madhvacarya: 1. Brahma Sutrabhasya 22 . Srila Jayapataka Swami and other present ISKCON acaryas. At the age of twelve he was initiated by Acyutapreksa. In the Sri Krsna matha there is a Deity of Balakrsna. This accounts for some time gaps. Caturbhuja Kaliya-mardana Sri Krsna.Narahari 3. Kavi Karnapura in his Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika (22-) lists the gurus up to Lord Chaitanya. used for Figure 1Madhva recieves instruction from Vyasadeva pasting curd. Sri Krsna. He obtained the Deity of Udupi Krsna (Nrtya Gopala) from a boat full of gopicandana. Siruru . Srila Bir Krsna das Goswami.Janardana 4. 5.C. and Vitthala deva. Srila Hrdayanada das Goswami Acaryadeva. Palimara . Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada there is a list of disciplic succession. in the other hand.Visnu 7. Puttige .

Out of gratitude. had a tradition that the State send out the "State elephant" to find the Prince Regent. although there are a few poems and devotional compositions. near Hampi. Sri Krsnamaharnava 11. Yamaka Bharata is a poem narrating the story of Mahabharata in Yamaka verse. but his proficiency in fourteen branches of learning were silenced in fourteen seconds by Acarya Madhva in 1265 AD.Caitanya-candra 3. but his change of name came upon meeting Madhva when Madhva returned to Udupi from his northern tour. and the Bhagavad-gita. the new King wanted to bestow some gifts on Narahari. (This is confirmed by Hrsikesa Tirtha in his book Sampradaya Paddhati and Guru-acarya. preaching and seniority enabled Madhva to make him the first to sit on the Pitha after Madhva's disappearance pastime. The elephant placed the coronation garland around his neck to the surprise of the accompanying state ministers. Madhva always praised him. Hanuman gave Him to Bhima during the time of Krsna's advent on this earth. from time immemorial. The King's ministers. The story follows that during his spell in office. Narahari asked for the Deity of Mula Rama that had been kept by the descendants of the Gajapati Kings and Who was originally worshiped by Maharaja Iksvaku. His samadhi tomb remains there to this day. Pramana-laksana 5. Upanisads. Tattva-viveka 6. 7. By the Lord's arrangement the elephant came across Narahari. on the sacred Tungabhadra River in 1324 AD. Gita Tatparya Nirnaya 9. and was performing this task for around thirty years. when the King's infant son and heir to the throne came of age after twelve years. He relied heavily on evidence from the Puranas. 278-279) 6. Srimadbhagavata Tatparya 12. Nrhari (Narahari) Tirtha Narahari was a leading minister in Kalinga. rather than on the Vedic texts or logic. Upanisada bhasya 8. However. Dvadasa Stotryas 10. Padmanabha Tirtha He was a native of Uttara-Karnataka which in those days stretched to the area known as Andhra Pradesh. pp. Sri Mahabharata Tatparyanirnaya 13. Sri Krsna Stuti The major works of Madhvacarya are his commentaries on the Brahmasutras. He was a renowned and distinguished scholar of the day. being the senior-most disciple among those outside the Tulu area. the father of Lord Rama. where he states that Padmanabha Tirtha came from Uttara-Karnataka of the Telegu speaking people around the area where the Godavari River flows. and his learning. and in due course he was placed on the throne. who used to hang Him around his neck. (An Encyclopedia of South Indian Culture. the King of Kalinga died. Most of his thirty-four works are philosophical. then given to Maharaja Dasaratha. At that time the royal elephant walked out of the palace and through the city to the place where Narahari was. This Deity of Rama was then passed down to Laksmana and from him to Hanuman. He was also wrote commentaries on some hymns in the Rg Veda. Anubhasya 4. Soon he became one of the most trusted disciples of Madhva. Rigbhasya 7. and Bhima gave Him to 23 . Padmanabha Tirtha left this world at Navavrindavanas. Narahari gave it up. Orissa. Bharata Tatparya Nirnaya are his learned critiques on the Bhagavata and the Mahabharata.) His previous name was Sobhanabhatta.

The very next day. This poor shepherd had heard that Madhava Tirtha. Before this. B. and he became known as the King of that local country which governed five groups of communities . when he passed away. Two other hands hold a conch and cakra. There is a story in this connection how Madhava Tirtha founded the city of Vijayanagar after the discovery of a huge amount of hidden treasure. "One day you shall be the King of all Industan. he made arrangements for the tank to be dredged. Negapatao and Badagas. dancing pose. Canguivaro. the great sannyasi. however. At the time of dividing the Mutts at Kanya Tirtha. He made a commentary on the Parasara Smrti called Parasara Madhva-vijaya. Karnataka. Sometimes it is suggested that he was the disciple of Padmanabha Tirtha but this is not supported anywhere in the mutt listings. Madhava Tirtha blessed him saying. Narahari Tirtha was initiated before 1264 AD. This Deity of Krsna is dancing on the head of the Kaliya serpent. Taligas. with one leg lifted up dancing. one hand in a balancing. and so was considered like a siksa disciple of the Pitha Adi Patya Padmanabha Tirtha Swami. and the other holding his tail up. Bukka conquered many kingdoms from the time he came to rule in 1343 AD. Madhava Tirtha Previously known as Visnu Sastri. Madhva being 19 years of age. and some other books have also been accredited to him. Madhava Tirtha was quite often confused with. due to the similarity in name. but his Gita Bhasya and Bhavaprakasika are the only two of which any trace is kept. It is said that his bodily remains were 24 . 8. statesmanship and swordsmanship. He was the son of Mayana and Srimati and the elder brother of Sayana and at one time a minister of King Bukka of Vijayanagar. he dreamt that a Deity of Lord Visnu was at the bottom of the town pond (tank). The town is now called by the name of the pastime. Sharma suggests that he was probably about 22 years of age when Narahari and Madhva first met. Madhava Tirtha lived an austere life as an ascetic in the mountains of Karnataka. immediately all the local shepherds made him their head. There are local inscriptions of the time preserved in the Srikurma and Simhacala areas of Orissa which glorify Narahari for many great feats. Narahari wrote fifteen books. and there He was! A Deity was taken out and installed at that place. was there absorbed in thoughts of Lord Narayana. This is near Hospet Taluk of Bellary District. Once whilst Narahari Tirtha was on a preaching tour. Madhava Tirtha was the third acarya to reside on the Pitha after Madhvacarya." By this blessing. he preached Vaisnavism and made many devotees from the princes and aristocratic nobility in general at the time in the areas of Orissa and Andhra.K.Caitanya-candra the Gajapati King. Narayanadevarkere (the tank of Lord Narayana). This Deity of Mula Rama was then placed in the Uttaradi Mutt. by his influence. or known as Madhvacarya or Madhva. instead what is pointed out is that due to the seniority of Padmanabha Tirtha.Canara. Madhvacarya gave Narahari the Deity of Kaliyamardana Krsna with four arms. Narahari Tirtha was more than willing to serve him as the representative of his spiritual master Sripada Madhvacarya. In this kingdom he became known as Bukka Rao and reigned for thirty seven years by the blessings of the great Madhava Tirtha.N. but as little is known of him there is much confusion misidentifying him with others. Madhava Tirtha was in office at the Vedanta Pitha from 1333 AD until 1350 AD. and so he decided to daily bring him some simple foodstuffs. secured in his day by Kavindra Tirtha. but now resides at the Raghavendra Tirtha Swami Mutt at Mantralayam. who once found himself being frequented by a shepherd of the name Bukka. but even whilst performing these kingly tasks.

with stubborn determination they have yearly been coming back to get smashed. Jaya Tirtha Jayatirtha renounced the world and took sannyasa at twenty years of age. and the action is real but done in connection with material nature causing reaction. He points out the differences between real. Later a descendant in the parampara of the name Vyasatirtha wrote down Jayatirtha's life story.) His main "claim to fame" was the way he refuted the philosophy of "tat tvam asi" . the big. He wrote about twenty books. In the years to follow Aksobhya spent his time training Jayatirtha in Dvaita philosophy.. eclipsing those of his forerunners like Trivikrama Panditacarya.Caitanya-candra entombed at Hampi. hence Jayatirtha was called the Tikacarya. ".1365 AD. He was a genius. and the Mayavadi way as being really false. The relationship was so nice that Aksobhya gave his every breath to make Jayatirtha the most proficient and dynamic preacher since Madhva. the servant of Madhvacarya. temporary and permanent. There is an historic incident which is understood to have taken place at Mulbagal near Kolar. not false. but he was always humble. Aksobhya Tirtha smashed Vidyaranya so badly that in history this was considered the turning point in the new Madhva faith of Dvaitavada. knowing they are wrong. giving all credit to Aksobhya Tirtha. 9. Thus soundly defeating the Mayavadi philosophy around "brahma satyam jagan mithya". seeing through the foolishness of Mayavada. which is also real but not permanent. but have since been moved to Manur on the Bhima River of Bijapur District. Aksobhya Tirtha taught him how to search out hidden significances in the words of Madhva which others missed. Amalananda. Citsukha and Vijnanasana.e..The co-existing of both their negations. He did so from 1350 AD . Padmanabha Tirtha and Narahari Tirtha. and even making commentaries on Ramanuja's works. the elements are real."you are the same as". "Critique of Mithyatva" or "The Falsity Of The World" was one of his main works. where he describes how this world is temporary. which is where he met his future disciple Jayatirtha. though some say this is Krsna with Rukmini and Satyabhama. which further demolished the hostile Advaita monism. therefore. the positive being this world is temporary though genuinely existing. By this time no one could philosophically touch him. accompanied by Sri Devi and Bhudevi. even the Advaita Mayavadis. concluding. Aksobhya Tirtha Aksobhya Tirtha was the last of Madhva's direct disciples to sit on the Pitha. Vivarankara." I. most illogical and can never be accepted by sane men. Previously his name was Govinda Sastri and he came from UttaraKarnataka. big scholar and guru descendant of the Advaita line of Sankara. giving further strength to the Vaisnava truths and making the Mayavadis all look foolish. (Krsna standing with His hands of His hips. His victim was Vidyaranya. unreal. whereby we have found this information. Madhvacarya gave him the Deity of Aja-Vitthal. and how to write books on those points called tikas (short commentaries). at the same time and with reference to the same locus is. various works on subjects of Vaisnava studies and logic were written by Jayatirtha. 25 . 10. To this day the philosophy of Dvaita (dualism) has not been defeated. Aksobhya Tirtha moved after this a little north to Pandharapur on the banks of the Bhimarathi River. He even pointed out the differences in the basic understandings of Advaita philosophy of their own leading Sankarites like Vacaspati.

was seen often dressed in full armour. a hot summers day at noon. whilst still mounted upon his horse. but he had been covered for so many years thinking that he was the son of a nobleman. On one such occasion. Raghunatha was his father's name) of either Visvamitra gotra or Bharadvaja gotra. riding his mighty war horse around the area. and amazingly the snake died! Everyone was awe struck. These kind of statements made some of Madhva's sannyasa disciples quite envious. Dhondo Pant. being up to his neck in the water as an animal would. ears pricked up and forward in an attentive mood. There is an interesting story in this connection. Dhondo Pant. he stopped at a stream for fresh water. standing in the water. but his drinking of water was not an ordinary sight.Caitanya-candra Jayatirtha's previous name was Dhondo Pantraya Raghunatha (Dhonduraya. Dhondo Pant would enter into the river fully dressed (with armour. which made the young horseman's mind spin into thoughts of his previous births. He was protecting his dear devotee who had surrendered his life to the service of Madhva's preaching mission. He was a great horseman and would ride sometimes on journeys all over the district. On this day an incredible meeting took place. but could at once appreciate the motive and kindness of Madhva. the snake came and bit the bullock. He could actually remember Madhva. you have shed my ignorance of my real self. came to mind. Suddenly philosophical questions. He gained some intense realizations which enabled him to see quite clearly how previously he was actually the bullock who was used to pull around Acarya Madhva's books as Madhva traveled and preached all over. addressed the humble and aged mendicant Aksobhya Tirtha as follows. who are you. "My dear sir. accompanied by his men. he would drink water at water level directly into his mouth. As per the curse. Madhva heard about the curse and blessed the bullock that he would not be harmed. You must be my guru. allrevealing state.the bullock taking his birth in a family of greatly pious ksatriya kings in Karnataka and being further brought up to know the Vedic literature according to the teachings of Madhva. Tradition has it that in actuality this was no ordinary bullock in the first place. you have opened my eyes which were blinded for so long. Wherever Madhva would preach the bullock would turn up. being like a local prince. helmet.old age. Madhva could sometimes be heard saying that simply by his attentive hearing this bullock was making great advancement. shield. the King of the demigods and Lord Ananta Sesa. from where did you come. helmet and all. Unlike most persons taking water. Obviously the Lord deemed it now the right time for his real self realization to again be invoked. his faithfulness and loyalty knew no bounds. On the other side of the stream was Aksobhya Tirtha. so much so that they cursed the bullock to die from snake bite. Please 26 . etc)." and these few words put the horseman into a strange. So again it was no ordinary thing what had happened . deep. After some years the bullock passed away of natural causes . Please tell me more. and how do you know me? Simply by the words emanating from your mouth my life has changed. He was the son of a high ranking military man and had two wives. his commanding but sweet voice elaborating upon the various kinds of Vedic literature. Anyway back to the river. Dhondo Pant could now remember his time spent with Acarya Madhva. O my guide. He was reputed to be a partial incarnation and joint expansion of both Indra. plume. Aksobhya called to the horseman. watching this extraordinary sight. Madhva would quite often glorify this bullock by saying to the assembly that actually this bullock listened better and assimilated the philosophy quicker than any of Madhva's students. breast plate. Now he could remember all kinds of incidences that made his hair stand upon end. then. "Hey. you drink water just like a bullock. sword.

He then started to study sastra from Aksobhya Tirtha intensively until Aksobhya Tirtha finally passed away. This is said by some to be the place where Jayatirtha passed away on the Pancami (fifth day) of the dark fortnight in the month of Asadha (June-July) 1388 AD. Some do not agree with this story. Dayanidhi Tirtha 13. Dhondo had his plan. Jayatirtha toured several times all over India. but soon fear overcame her and she fled the room screaming and fainted on the floor just outside.Aksobhya's disciple was Jayatirtha. Dhondo followed his father without any protest. destroying the philosophy of the impersonalistic rascals. After also seeing the captivating sight and seeing the snake revert back to the form of his son. He was undefeated and became well known as the pure Vaisnava acarya that he was.. Kavikarnapura's Sri Gaura Ganoddesa Dipika." He was so amazed and became so agitated from gratitude by this meeting that he asked to become Aksobhya Tirtha's formal disciple. in the Gulbarga district.. Mysore state. knowing this not to be an ordinary situation. In due course. Raghunatharaya. He spent his closing years at Malkhed (or Manyakheta). News soon reached the boy's father who personally went to reclaim his son and took him home. To save any further quarrel. the father of Dhondo. she out of respect for the wondrous sight paid her prostrated obeisances before the serpent. Text 22 mentions ". Vidyanidhi's disciple was Rajendra. However. on his return home. O Gurudeva. to her surprise there was an incredibly magnificent cobra sitting coiled up on the bed. and next to that as a sannyasi mendicant.Caitanya-candra instruct me so my life can become perfect. Jnanasindhu Tirtha 12. An amusing story is revealed of the night that he returned to his wives. Jnanasindhu's disciple was Mahanidhi. Enchanted by the sight. The snake swayed mystically as though one absorbed in transcendental trance. In the Madhva Mutts there is an air of vagueness and uncertainty of dates and even the lineage. Jayatirtha's disciple was Jnanasindhu. This happened in the year 1368 AD. The only written work accredited to him was a commentary on the Bhagavad-gita. once the capital of the Rastrakuta kings of Karnataka. Dhondo Pant was initiated and given the order of sannyasa and the new name Jaya Tirtha. Vidyadhiraja (Vidyanidhi) Tirtha The Guru-acarya listings assign Vidyanidhi Tirtha a period of seven years. feared that something would happen and so was close by. there are carvings of him as a ksatriya prince. When Dhondo Pant's beautiful young wife entered the bed chamber to be with her husband. nine months and thirteen days as the next pontiff on the Vedanta Pitha." 27 . the link was there and soon he came back to Aksobhya Tirtha who accepted him as his sannyasa disciple and gave him the name Jaya Tirtha. 11. Then they returned to the estate of his father without Dhondo. saying that it would not have been allowed in the strict Brahmana society of the 14th century... But whether one accepts the story as explained by Srila Vyasatirtha or not. there is also a samadhi tomb of his in northern Karnataka. please save me from the clutches of repeated birth and death. next to the samadhi of Padmanabha Tirtha. The other horsemen joined Dhondo Pant in crossing the river and spent some time in discussion with him. but even though the enraged father came to collect him. Mahanidhi's disciple was Vidyanidhi. Raghunatharaya reluctantly allowed Dhondo to return to the aged mendicant Aksobhya Tirtha. his mission completed. to start with he had his marriage consumed. On this samadhi tomb at Anagoendi (Hampi) on the Tungabhadra river.

The times of office range from three years. Previously his name was Krsnabhatta (though the Guru-acarya gives him the name Nrsimha Sastri). Lord Sri Krsna. Madhva Vijaya. Actually. and lastly sixty four years. of my own accord. For myself certainly. The Guru. it doesn't necessarily mean other disciples of Jayatirtha.. the incident of Madhvacarya calling eight of his sannyasa disciples around him at Kanya Tirtha during the Caturmasya. we are making an attempt at shedding some light on this subject. certainly he may have given some instruction." he also says how Madhva called his disciples in pairs and the fourth pair was Rama Tirtha of Kaniyur Mutt and Aksobhya Tirtha of Pejawara Mutt. The line coming from Rajendra Tirtha is now represented by Vyasatirtha and Gosale Mutts and that line still continues. whereas both Kavikarnapura and Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati lean more towards siksa lines. otherwise how could the sampradaya be revealed. Jayatirtha's service was for his disciple Jnanasindhu.. Seeing that Madhava Tirtha (Dvija) was a forerunner of Aksobhya Tirtha to the Vedanta Pitha. In Narayana Panditacarya's commentary on his own book. There is one story which tells of how the guru parampara divided at that time. The principle disciple of Aksobhya Tirtha was known as Jayatirtha. This devotee's name was Kavindra Tirtha. 28 . to four years. that much we can ascertain. It is understood that he was a brahmacari. as I have collected this information. Being of seniority in his learning and devotional understandings. feeling his life passing. However. but he did not arrive in time. that is. ordained another disciple to guarantee that he would have a successor.a pure Vaisnava acts only to satisfy the Lord. the foremost dear disciple of Madhvacarya. Rajendra Tirtha Rajendra was his first disciple and their relationship was always very close." Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura accepts the version of Kavikarnapura's Gaura Ganoddesa Dipika and they both say that Madhava Tirtha has taken Aksobhya Tirtha as his disciple. In the Madhva Vijaya this is also recorded. but by the mercy of the Vaisnavas and of my diksa and siksa gurus. ". 14. Some say he called Kavindra due to a need for the preaching to spread. Vidyadhiraja Tirtha was extremely sick so he sent word to Rajendra to come immediately. I do not. such as Jnanasindhu Tirtha and Daya(Maha)nidhi Tirtha didn't also give their worthy assistance. These incidents are included in the "Sampradaya Paddhati" of Hrsikesa Tirtha. everyone has stressed Madhvacarya's disciples and this parampara. In the same way. but the Mutt itself is silent on this matter. know anything about Vaisnavism or the Supreme Personality of Godhead.this is stated in the Guru-acarya listings. Rajendra became the disciple of Vidyadhiraja Tirtha.Madhava Tirtha accepted the great paramahamsa Aksobhya Tirtha as his disciple.Caitanya-candra However. Vaisnavas are always grateful for their many siksa gurus. The descendants of Madhva are more strictly followers of a diksa line. but one cannot guess the reasons why . As we just stated. Vidyadhiraja Tirtha was the immediate disciple of Jayatirtha. and because his direct disciple Vidyadhiraja was the next to accept office at the Pitha. he also became the successor on the Pitha. Dayanidhi received the science of devotional service from Jnanasindhu and the servant of Dayanidhi was Vidyanidhi (Vidyadhiraja Tirtha). entitled "Bhava Prakasika. the Madhvas say that Aksobhya Tirtha was the direct disciple of Madhvacarya . nine months and thirteen days. though still accepting both on their own validity. in Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati's "Guru Parampara" he says. Jayatirtha certainly had many disciples. In the humble attempt to compile this work I have accepted many as my instructing gurus and I am very grateful to them for their advice. but his time on the Vedanta Pitha is not clearly established.

the following is only details of Vijayadhvaja's early days. the young sannyasi. As we have stated. using some simple forest spinach. His commentary of Bhagavatam went under the title "Bhakti-ratnavali" and is said to have greatly influenced his disciple. including B. Sridhar lived in a very dangerous time to be a Vaisnava. began to make some arrangements to cook very simply. sacrificing their own reputations. However many devotees. say that Sridhar Swami was an impersonalist. Vidyadhiraja Tirtha passed away at Ergola near Malked. and which he became famous for. even well being. Vibudhendra Tirtha of Raghavendra Swami Mutt and Vidyanidhi Tirtha of Uttaradi Mutt. Jayadharma (Vijayadhvaja) Tirtha Between Rajendra and Vyasatirtha we have Vijayadhvaja Tirtha. he had to keep the real and personalistic understandings of the Bhagavatam covered for there were many devious Mayavadis ready to corrupt anything that glorified Krsna. even to this day. but actually this is not so. Some say that Vijayadhvaja was ostracized by Raghunatha Tirtha of Uttaradi Mutt for the sin of crossing the ocean to visit Dvaraka and thus as a penance to atone for this he was commissioned to write a commentary on Srimad Bhagavatam. on one occasion. Constantly traveling. Sharma. unmotivated Vaisnava sannyasi. we should be grateful to all of these great and devoted personalities. The old town of Ergola now lies in ruins and this is believed to be where the tombs of both Vidyadhiraja and Rajendra Tirtha are. Many. a sannyasi. Vijayadhvaja Tirtha and some details concerning the controversy regarding his complete and devotional commentary on the Srimad Bhagavatam: Practically speaking. Looking at the many and wonderful ways the devotees have struggled. The Deity of Sri Rama that was worshiped by Vijayadhvaja Tirtha is still in the Pejawara Mutt. He is listed in the Mutt genealogical tables as being a member of the Pejawara Mutt coming from Aksobhya Tirtha.N. bringing out the dualist's point of view from the seemingly hidden meanings of Sripada Sridhar Swami. 15. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. which he wrote under a pipal tree at Krsna Mutt. particularly on this west coast of Karnataka. alias Jayadharma. "making 29 . but alas. but at the time of Ramacandra there again was some heavy disagreement that apparently nearly stopped the line at that time. says that this story is bogus and malicious. alias Jayadhvaja.K. to somehow or other ensure that these priceless gems of pure personalism could find their way down through the ages into our unworthy laps and beyond. In his commentary there are many references to the original compiler. As with many sannyasis of the line. Inevitably it caused a split and now those lines come down via his two disciples. cooking. the great Sridhar Swami of the Bhagavat School. he would have to maintain himself by collecting alms (bhiksa). Srila Vijayadhvaja Tirtha was the sixth in the lineage of the Pejawara Mutt and he passed away on the Aksaya Tritya day.Caitanya-candra The other line (that from Kavindra Tirtha) continued on to Vagisa and Ramacandra Tirtha. Vijayadhvaja (Jayadharma Muni as he is also known) clarified the meanings of Sridhar Swami. but it is an interesting story that brings out his conviction as a pure surrendered. and so kept his meanings covered. Out of dire need and hunger. Vijayadhvaja Tirtha took sannyasa as a very small boy. the Madhva scholar. Visnu Puri. One much older and senior sannyasi came by and was horrified seeing Vijayadhvaja Tirtha. sometimes he would have to go without food for three or five days.April/May). a few rocks and twigs that he had found by the side of the road. His samadhi (Vrndavana) is at Kanya Tirtha. which falls on the third day of the light fortnight in the month of Madhusudana (Vaisakha . as it is well known that Vijayadhvaja's commentary on the Srimad Bhagavatam was purely out of love and spontaneous devotion.

Caitanya-candra arrangements to enjoy" and by the side of the road. I have written this commentary of Srimad Bhagavatam just to please You. much of which was unseen to the general populace. He then informed the boy that the only way to counter this kind of independent activity was suicide . Everything was going on still. the second sannyasi. that of position. instructed the boy to compile an edition of Srimad Bhagavatam and by this everything would be resolved. therefore you cannot. this highly devotional piece of literature was entitled "Pada-ratnavali.N. I may always rest in You and that I may attain You and always remain with You as Your foot servant. B. that I may always have the opportunity to study Bhagavatpadacarya Madhva's devotional works on Krsna consciousness. He severely chastised him saying that this kind of action was against sannyasa dharma or character. This second sannyasi then inquired from the boy why he had taken to this decision. and lastly by doing so. This will be brought up again where the reasons for Madhavendra Puri Goswami accepting the title "Puri" instead of the traditional "Tirtha" are discussed in a short while. Visnu Puri. please grant me three boons that I should always remain a poor man in this and any future lives. So doing. and upon seeing the preparations for death. 30 . Various intimate associates of the Lord were taking their births in the families of the Vaisnavas for the purpose of setting back the flow of the Kali-yuga and smashing the illusory philosophies of the impersonalists. who some say was Rajendra Tirtha. You are a sudra. that 'I am a brahmana so I can know God. the influence of this edition of the Bhagavatam and the subsequent commentary by Visnu Puri. At this time another sannyasi happened to come by. This devotee who we have just mentioned. Dr. This will be dealt with in connection with the next few acaryas who came. the celebrated compiler of Bhakti-ratnavali and disciple of Sri Vijayadhvaja Tirtha. At the end of this commentary Vijayadhvaja Tirtha prayed earnestly to Lord Sri Krsna: vyakhya bhagavatasya krsna racita tvat priti kamatmana pretascet pradadasi tat pratinidhim tat trin varisye varan prana niskincanatam tava pratibhavam padaravindatmana samsaktim sukhatirtha sastra vijarajarasya param taya "Dear Lord Sri Krsna.K. So the humble and pure-hearted young Vijayadhvaja Tirtha Swami prepared to give up the world." To this day followers of Madhva hold this devotional work as a standard text for reference. and gives some detail to that point. At this time amazing things were going on." As we will read a little later. saying that in the 15th century Rajendra Tirtha carried the message of Madhva to the far north and also into Bihar and Bengal where many of these great devotees were waiting to take up their particular missions. Hearing the story. Sharma also mentions (History of Dvaita School of Vedanta. but enhanced a natural loving progression to develop. could understand what was on Vijayadhvaja's mind. assisted a great change to take place . but as previously there had been some dissatisfaction with the struggle against the Mayavadis. amongst whom are Laksmipati Tirtha and Madhavendra Puri Goswami. is believed to have influenced many prominent personalities. Some were neglecting the pure teachings of Vaisnavism and were starting to get a little caught up in other circles. as an acknowledgement of the same.' Certain sways started to take place and angles that had not been propounded externally were now to be taught. There were some very radical devotees around who were out to make a wonderful thrust to ensue.then and only then would he be free from any reaction. page 540) that there is a tradition which supports all these stories. now there had become struggles of another nature. If You are pleased.not so much a change.

Caitanya-candra Sambidananda dasa brahmacari (the disciple of Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura) has written in his book relating to medieval Vaisnava schools, that even the meeting of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and the Tattvavadi head of the time, Raghuvarya Tirtha, which came a little later, was not an ordinary thing. There he makes a statement very boldly saying that the reason for the difference of opinion over sadhya (spontaneous service - the raga marga performed on the liberated devotional platform) and vaidhi bhakti, devotional service in practice where full love of Godhead is not fully manifest, was due to the fact that at that time those particular Tattvavadis had deviated somewhat from the pure teachings presented by Madhva. However we see that after the visit of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to Krsna Mutt, the purity was again sought out. Primarily this was done by Vadiraja Tirtha who again reestablished many of Madhva's principals. It was Vadiraja who reintroduced kirtana (the chanting of the holy names) back into the Mutt. His guru, Vyasatirtha, who was practically a contemporary, did many great works also to re-establish the proper standards that were free from any material bodily conceptions of life. In "History of the Mutts" booklet it is mentioned that due to some problems around the time of Vagisa Tirtha the pure line was nearly lost, but due to the preaching and management of Vyasatirtha and especially Vadiraja Tirtha the desire of Madhvacarya was again instilled. 16. Purusottama Tirtha 17. Brahmanya Tirtha He was the third descendant from Rajendra Tirtha in the senior line of disciples coming from Vidyadhiraja Tirtha. I could find very little on his life, save and except where B.N.K. Sharma says that it was due to the blessings of Brahmanya Tirtha that the parents of Vyasatirtha (Brahmanya Tirtha's disciples), owed the birth of their children - notably of Vyasatirtha. As his permanent residence, Brahmanya Tirtha lived mostly at Cannapatna or Abbur in Karnataka State, as mentioned in the Vy-carita, Page 26. There he had a Mutt of his own which later he was to entrust to his disciple Sridhar Tirtha. His other disciple was the famous Vyasatirtha. It is so unfortunate that these great devotees' lives have slipped into obscurity, whether it was by their choice out of humility or just the influence of time. I guess now we will never really know. The Lord has his plan. 18. Vyasa Tirtha Otherwise known as Vyasaraya and Vyasaraja Swami, as we briefly mentioned, he was the disciple of Brahmanya Tirtha. Born around 1460 AD in the village of Bannur in Mysore district, his father's name was Rallanna Sumati and his gotra was Kasyapa. As previously stated, he took his birth by the blessings of Brahmanya Tirtha. Altogether, Vyasatirtha's parents had three children, a girl and two boys. In his childhood Vyasatirtha was known as Yatiraja. At the age of five he underwent the vidyarambha samskara to begin his formal education, starting with writing the alphabet, and at seven took upanayana (the sacred thread.) He stayed at gurukula for only four years after that. At eleven he went to his home and continued his studies of poetry, drama and grammar for about five years. Before Vyasatirtha's birth, his father promised his second son to Brahmanya Tirtha. He gave the boy the name Yatiraja to indicate his future as a renunciate, and in due course he was given to Brahmanya Tirtha as an assistant. After some time, however, Yatiraja, being unsure of Brahmanya Tirtha's intentions, slipped away and ran into the forest and headed for the direction of "home," away from the hermitage. One night whilst sleeping in the forest under a tree, Lord Visnu came to him and told him what to do. The teenager returned to the asrama


Caitanya-candra hermitage that very same day and shortly after this, upon proving his dedication to his guru, young Yatiraja was formally initiated and given the name Vyasatirtha. Some time shortly after the two year famine of 1475 and 1476 Brahmanya Tirtha, his guru, left this world. Vyasatirtha came to the Vedanta Pitha about 1478 in his late teens. Due to his young age and little time spent with his guru, he didn't really know the conclusions of the Madhva sastras very well, so he went to Kancipuram to study, where, after a very short time, he became a renowned pandit. Whilst in that area he was entrusted with the worship of Srinivasa (Lord Visnu) at Tirupati. Vyasatirtha's Mutt is still at Tirupati on the hill (Tirumala). Before leaving that place, after about twelve years of being there, he gave the worship over to his disciples. In local history corresponding to the time, it is mentioned that the King of Bisnaga used to listen daily to a great Madhva Vaisnava sannyasi who had never married or touched a woman in his life. Though his name is not directly mentioned, history infers that this was Vyasatirtha. From Kancipuram he went to Vijayanagar and became known for his radical statements regarding Brahmanism, Vaisnavism, varnasrama, and who was worthy to worship the Lord. It was at this time and place where he was challenged to a debate by brahmana pandits from all over India. The pandits were led by the learned brahmana Basava Bhatta of Kalinga (Orissa). They all pinned their challenges to the pillars of the palace. After a thirty day discussion, Vyasatirtha emerged triumphant and his reputation earned him the respect of King Krsnadevaraya (1509) who regarded him as guru and gave him all honors. He awarded him the order of the camel on a green flag and a drum on the back of a camel as a mark of respect. This is still kept by the Vyasaraya Mutt at Gosale. Once the flag was taken by King Nrsimha in his attacks against the Muslim sultans who caused threats and violence to devotees and temples in South India, but between Krsnadevaraya, Sivaji and others, the sultans were stopped before getting very far. There are many nice stories telling of the great King Krsnadevaraya, who ruled the Vijayanagar kingdom on the Tungabhadra River in Karnataka in connection with his guru. Vyasatirtha gave the King formal initiation and then out of gratitude and love for his guru, Krsnadevaraya had made beautiful Deities of Vitthala (Krsna) and Rukmini and established the fine Vitthala Rukmini temple which still stands there today. On the temple wall there are inscriptions giving the date 1513 AD and refers to Vyasatirtha as the guru of Krsnadevaraya. There is also mention of Vyasatirtha ceremonially bathing Krsnadevaraya at his initiation, following in the method of Madhvacarya's puja manual entitled "Tantrasara" (Chapter 2.1011), in which the Tantrasara points out that the ceremonial bathing (abhiseka) of a disciple by the guru adds to the glory of the disciple. As we can see by the next brief story, this did make him glorious. Once a Gajapati King of Orissa tried to humiliate Krsnadevaraya by sending Advaita Mayavadi philosophical points to him to try to catch him out, but on the instructions and potency of his guru Vyasatirtha, Krsnadevaraya was, as usual, victorious. Out of gratitude Krsnadevaraya gave the village of Bettakonda to Vyasatirtha in 1526, and a huge lake was dug for the pleasure of guru called Vyasa samudra. The dates vary from 1523, 1524 and 1526 by various records, but all the points are substantiated by the writings of devotees of the time, including Purandara dasa. It is also recorded that Krsnadevaraya literally bathed Vyasatirtha in jewels as well, performing "Ratnabhiseka" (bathing him in jewels). Generally to install a person, an abhiseka is done with ghee, milk, yogurt, gaur, honey, sugar-water and tender coconuts in this part of the country, but this was done with priceless gems. After the death of Krsnadevaraya in 1530, Acyutaraya continued to honor Vyasatirtha for a few years until


Caitanya-candra Vyasaraya's demise. Krsnadevaraya, by the way, is always referred to as probably the most spiritually enlightened of the Vijayanagar dynasty. He established many fine temples and Deities in this area under the guidance of Vyasatirtha. To this day there still stands the Deity of Laksmi Nrsimha standing twenty five feet tall in the banana fields. The Deity was carved from one stone under Krsnadevaraya's instructions. After his demise, the invading Muslims smashed many temples out of their envy of Vaisnava culture. Many Deities like Vitthala Rukmini and Krsnaswami were moved further south, but although the Muslims tried to smash the Deity of Lord Nrsimha, still He stands, though His temple lies in rubble around Him. This old and sacred place is the old Kiskinda mentioned in the Ramayana where Hanuman was born and where Rama killed Vali and put Sugriva on the throne. There are numerous glories of Srila Vyasatirtha to be sung. It is not unintentional that I have said "sung" in his connection, for the highly controversial and powerful preacher, the third moon of the Madhva line, was always absorbed in harinama sankirtan. Many say this was due to the influence of his teacher, Sripadiraja Swami, who is renowned for his poems and songs glorifying Lord Sri Krsna. Some say he was the instigator of the Hari dasa or Dasakuta Movement. Anyway, during his life Vyasatirtha established 732 temples of Hanuman all over South India and composed poems and songs based on the Srimad Bhagavatam, Mahabharata and Ramayana. One day after composing his famous work called "Krsna Ni Begane Baro" which, for the last four centuries has become a Bharat Natyam dance repertoire, a strange thing happened. Vyasatirtha was taking a little rest when Lord Sri Krsna appeared in his dream and proceeded to address him. "You are a sannyasi, you do not have any wife or children. On the other hand, I am very much married and leave a large family - so why is it that you only call Me Krsna?" From that day on in any further compositions, Vyasatirtha always referred to his Lord as Sri Krsna. Once Vyasatirtha was sitting upon the pitha amongst his many, many disciples, when out of nowhere one low-born farmer happened to come into the assembly requesting mantra diksa initiation from Vyasatirtha. The farmer humbly begged, but in his humility he was persistent. The many other disciples, who were mostly brahmana stock, viewed him as being completely unqualified due to his birth and education, or rather lack of it - not being born in a brahmana family like all the other disciples. Vyasatirtha however, being pure and free from bodily conceptions of birth, etc. was of a different mind and to everyone's amazement Vyasatirtha told the farmer to chant the name of Yamaraja's bull. Going away and coming back after some time after chanting that name, the farmer's voice was again heard. "Swamiji, Swamiji, he is here," the farmer exclaimed. When the devotees peaked outside the Mutt, to their surprise there was Yamaraja's bull Mahisa, big as a mountain, right there outside the door of the Mutt. "Now what shall I do Swamiji?" the farmer inquired from Vyasatirtha. Vyasatirtha instructed him to take the bull to the river where there was one huge boulder that hundreds of men couldn't move. The farmer went to the river and requested the bull to move the boulder out of the main stream of the river to allow the water to flow to reach the crop irrigation areas downstream. That rock, which was in itself like an island amidst the river, the bull submerged beyond sight simply with the lifting of his hoof and resting it upon it. To the delight of everyone the water again began to flow. Soon after this incident the bull returned to Yamaraja, his master. The farmer then asked Vyasatirtha for more service. Vyasatirtha, who was always compassionate, then engaged him in looking after the Mutt's gosala. Not long after that, an annual festival for the Deity came around on the calendar, and a huge festival was put on for the Lord. The high point was the abhiseka bathing ceremony in which the Deity was to be bathed in many different auspicious by-products of the cow. However,


Caitanya-candra just as the bathing commenced, the Deity of Udupi Krsna suddenly disappeared right in front of everyone's eyes. Everyone was very confused except for Srila Vyasatirtha, who asked all the assembled devotees to conclude as to what had happened. The debating took some time and the disciples came to their conclusion that due to the offense of allowing the low-born farmer to look after the cows and procure the milk, yogurt, ghee, etc. for the puja, the Lord had disappeared. Indirectly they were blaming their guru, saying that this was his offense, for they were still on the bodily concept of life, thinking themselves as brahmanas and he a mere vaisya farmer. Vyasatirtha very tolerantly tilted his head and asked everyone to follow him for a moment. Everyone went to the gosala headed by Vyasatirtha. As they looked into the gosala they saw the farmer scrubbing down the cows, brush in one hand and a bucket of water in the other. In his total absorption of serving the Lord's cows, the farmer didn't even notice that the Deity had manifested His Gopal form and was standing beside him holding the bucket for him. Needless to say, all of his disciples were amazed that Udupi Krsna personally served this nonbrahmana farmer, but Srila Vyasatirtha explained that, "No, the Lord had come to serve His pure devotee. Previously he came for Acarya Madhva to have him glorified and now he has found another worthy soul." Srila Vyasatirtha later formally initiated the farmer as his disciple. Vyasatirtha passed away at Vijayanagar on the caturthi (fourth) day in the dark fortnight in the month of Phalguna (Jan-Feb), corresponding to Saturday 8th March, 1539 AD. His tomb remains on the island of Navavrindavanas in the Tungabhadra River, half a mile from Anegondi (Hampi). Vyasatirtha was, as some say, almost the second founder of the system of Madhvacarya, after the great Madhvacarya. Vyasatirtha influenced many, including the aristocracy, and many of his disciples traveled north preaching his glories to places which included Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharastra, and even Rajasthan and Uttara Pradesh. According to Kavikarnapura in his Gaura Ganoddesa Dipika, Vyasatirtha wrote the famous book, "Sri Visnu Samhita", and had a disciple by the name Laksmipati Tirtha who was originally from North India. The following is a story in connection with the disciple of Vyasatirtha who was given the name Laksmipati Tirtha, and who became the next to be recognized as the acarya in the line in which we follow. 19. Laksmipati Tirtha Once Lord Balarama (Krsna's elder brother) appeared to Laksmipati Tirtha to break the ground for a change in the regular line of the Madhva sampradaya. Big changes were to take place that would eventuate in a revolution in thought and deed. Lord Sri Krsna and His brother Lord Balarama were about to appear in the dress of devotees within the Madhva sampradaya. brajendra nandana yei saci-suta hoilo sei balarama hoilo nitai Narottama dasa Thakura sings in his "Ista Deve Vijnapti" in simple Bengali that "Lord Krsna, the son of Nanda Maharaja, the King of Vraja, became the son of Saci (Lord Caitanya) and Balarama became Nitai (Nityananda). We have discussed in brief some of the situations that arose around this time that warranted these changes. We have also introduced some of the Vaisnavas who performed this task for the Lord. The change itself to many meant seeing heart rendering devotion to the Lord, which was in many cases unable to be contained


Caitanya-candra because of its intensity. Some objected to this as being mere sentimentalism, some even suggested that though the external sentiments were seen, other things were in the heart. This section from here on deals with some of those feelings. Obviously these situations are not to be imitated, as some cheaters do. As you will read shortly, these are insights to the personal relationships between the Lord and his pure devotees. This is not an ordinary thing, but by these personal dealings based on love is specifically how the Madhva sampradaya has come to be known all over the universe by the desire and preaching of it's members. One story which is quite heart rending is the following story of Laksmipati Tirtha, the best of the sannyasis, who on one occasion was sitting in a solitary place performing his bhajana throughout the night. He was singing the glories of Lord Balarama. His unalloyed devotion was so intense he would sometimes cry or call out, "O Baladeva, kindly show me Your favor. I am so fallen and wicked." Tears would come from his eyes and he lost all patience and composure due to his old age and intense desire to see the Lord. He would sometimes collapse on the floor, stunned. This day, due to the devotional traumas he had undergone, he slept. It is described that Lord Nityananda, in His usual prankish mood, appeared to Laksmipati in His original form as Lord Balarama. Lord Balarama, Krsna's brother, appeared before Laksmipati in a dream, telling him that a wandering brahmana, in the form of an avadhuta madman had arrived in town. "He will come to you. Initiate him into the Vaisnava diksa mantras and accept him as your disciple." Then Lord Balarama spoke the mantra into Laksmipati's right ear and Laksmipati awoke. After a short time Laksmipati saw the avadhuta brahmana and his mind became full with anxious anticipation. When they met, Laksmipati couldn't take his eyes off the beautiful form of the Lord, His aura and His moonlike face and unblinking eyes. Hearing the sweet words of Lord Nityananda, Laksmipati's eyes brimmed over with swelling tears. That very day Laksmipati fulfilled the order of Lord Balarama and Nityananda became the favorite of Laksmipati. nityananda prabhu vande srimad laksmipati priyam sri madhva-sampradaya vardhanam bhakta vatsalam "Respectful obeisances unto You, Nityananda Prabhu, the dear favorite of Laksmipati Tirtha. He (Nityananda) increases the bliss of the entire Madhva sampradaya and He has the innermost needs of the devotees foremost at hand." Laksmipati couldn't understand his intense attraction for Nityananda or the bliss he felt just being near Him. On Nityananda's absence from his sight for a moment, intense separation came over him. Laksmipati stayed awake that night pondering over things. He had dozed off slightly, when again in a dream the Lord appeared. He was whitish in complexion, dressed in a blue dhoti. It was Nityananda in his dream, but then Nityananda transformed into Lord Balarama. Laksmipati was amazed and he bathed the Lord's feet with ecstatic tears from his eyes. He prayed to the Lord, "Surely You have made a fool of me and put this fallen wretch into much distress. Please show me Your mercy. You are my Lord. I take shelter at Your lotus feet." That same Sri Nityananda Rama (Balarama) fulfilled all of Laksmipati's cherished longings, though He forbade him from telling a soul of His identity, and then disappeared from sight. When Laksmipati awoke in lamentation upon the Lord's disappearance, he saw that night had become the morning. Laksmipati changed from this day on. He didn't speak ever again, as his mind was always absorbed elsewhere. He looked terrible and his disciples became full of anxiety. Within a short while, without any warning, Laksmipati left this world. Who can


Caitanya-candra understand properly the character and pastimes of the Lord and His pure devotee Laksmipati Tirtha? Just see the purity of Laksmipati, that the Lord appears directly to play with him. Usually it is accredited to Madhavendra Puri Goswami, the disciple of Laksmipati, as being the spiritual master of Lord Nityananda Prabhu, but here it is mentioned otherwise. Let us substantiate this story a little. In the Caitanya Caritamrta, Madhya lila (3.85) Srila A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada writes: "In Khadadaha, sometimes people misunderstood Nityananda Prabhu to belong to the sakta sampradaya whose philosophy is antah saktah bahih saivah sabhayam vaisnavo matah. According to the sakta sampradaya, a person called kaulavadhuta thinks materially while externally appearing to be a great devotee of Lord Siva. When such a person is in an assembly of Vaisnavas, he appears like a Vaisnava. Actually Nityananda Prabhu did not belong to such a community. Nityananda Prabhu was always a brahmacari of a sannyasi of the vaidika (Vedic) order. Actually He was a paramahamsa. Sometimes He is accepted to be a disciple of Laksmipati Tirtha. If He is so accepted, Nityananda Prabhu belonged to the Madhva sampradaya. He did not belong to the tantrika sampradaya of Bengal." In a conversation I had with HH Bhakti Hridoy Mangal Maharaja, Secretary General of the Sri Caitanya Gaudiya Mutt, he remembered hearing personally an instance that was related by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Goswami Maharaja Prabhupada (sometime in the late 1920's during a class), wherein Lord Nityananda walked off with a sannyasi who came to beg alms at His parent's house (as mentioned in Caitanya Bhagavata). The sannyasi asked Hadai Pandit, the father of Lord Nityananda, as is traditional, for some alms and so Hadai Pandit as a dutiful householder agreed. But when the sannyasi asked him to give him the boy (Nityananda) as alms, Hadai Pandit nearly died. Considering his life useless and a bad example to the boy if he didn't fulfill the desires of his saintly guest, he gave the boy to the sannyasi as his assistant - this sannyasi was Laksmipati Tirtha. It is interesting to note that the boy Nityananda simply walked off with the sannyasi without even so much as looking back, just as Lord Rama left His father, Dasaratha, to go to the forest. Though different circumstances, both Maharaja Dasaratha and Hadai Pandit died within a very short time due to intense separation. However in Caitanya Caritamrta, Madhya lila (8.128) purport, Srila Prabhupada says: "Sri Nityananda Prabhu was initiated by Madhavendra Puri, a sannyasi. According to others, however, He was initiated by Laksmipati Tirtha." Visnu Puri Around the same time was a great Vaisnava preacher by the name Visnu Puri. We briefly mentioned something about him in relation to his guru, Jayadharma Tirtha, in that section, so at this point let us look a little closer at his pastimes. Though he was directly one of the noted acaryas in the guru parampara, certainly it appears that he must have been a great devotee to have gained recognition by the great Kavikarnapura, the celebrated compiler of the Gaura Ganoddesa Dipika. If Kavikarnapura thinks his name worthy of mentioning, then who am I to deny him a mention? According to history he was a sannyasi of Tirhit district. One report is that Visnu Puri met Lord Caitanya at Kasi (Benares) while Lord Caitanya was on His way back to Nadia from Vrndavana. They were charmed with each other naturally. The following story is mentioned by B.D. Basu, in his presentation of Visnu Puri's book Bhaktiratnavali, which says that at their meeting a wonderful interaction took place. By the bhakti and learning of Visnu Puri, Lord Caitanya became inspired, and by the grandeur and personal magnetism of Lord Caitanya, the Personality of Godhead, Visnu Puri was inspired. Later a disciple of Visnu Puri left Benares for Jagannatha Puri to bring greetings to Lord Caitanya


Visnu Puri was previously known as Visnu dasa. so he returned and took a second wife." But in the Kantimala. Sharma points out that there is a traditional line stating that Rajendra Tirtha carried the message of Madhva north to Bihar and Bengal and that Rajendra Tirtha's disciple was Jayadhvaja Tirtha. There is no doubt that his preaching from the Bhakti sastra. The date recorded on this book. is 1555 Saka era or 1633 AD. B.Caitanya-candra from his guru. The Tirtha pandits say that in a dream Lord Siva told him to resume family life. Visnu Puri must have lived for close on one hundred and fifty years. as with the previous parampara acaryas. among them the great Madhavendra Puri. but when the temper of his wife became too much for him. it states: iti sri purusottama-caranaravindakrpa makaranda-bindu pronmilitaviveka-tairabhukta-paramahamsasri visnu-puri grathita-sri bhagavatamrtabdhi labdhasri bhaktiratnavali kantimala samapata This indicates that Visnu Puri had some kind of disciple relationship with Purusottama Tirtha (Brahmanya). Sharma's "History of Dvaita Vedanta" he makes a point to say that up until this time this was the parampara which came to be known as the Vyasaraja Mutt line of the Madhva Mutts. the Gaura Ganoddesa Dipika (Text 22) of Kavikarnapura says: "Rajendra's disciple was Jayadharma Muni. he left home and took the dress of a sannyasi. inspired many. though taking diksa initiation from Laksmipati. Among Jayadharma's disciples was Sriman Visnu Puri. Substantiating the facts presented here. Filling in the details over the past couple of generations.K. who was the guru of Visnu Puri. Bhakti-ratnavali. if not his particular kind of guru-disciple relationship. at least this confirms the time.the necklace of priceless jewels of the Srimad Bhagavatam. thus this is why the title "Puri" was added to his name instead of Tirtha. as there is no mention of receiving the name from another source. Of course that is presuming that the dates that we have are exactly correct. Actually he was referring to Visnu Puri's Bhakti-ratnavali . It is believed by many that Madhavendra Puri Goswami. Srimad Bhagavatam. 37 .K. Another disciple was Brahmanya Purusottama. following down to the disciples of Vyasatirtha. so at Siva Puri it is suggested that this is when he added Puri to his name. to remember that holy place. but it is humbly suggested that this is the date Bhakti-ratnavali was transcribed from the original. This was one year before Lord Caitanya passed from the devotees' physical presence. that Lord Jagannatha. In the dream Lord Siva also gave him the Visnu mantra. B.N. in a dream came to Visnu Puri and told him to compose and send these prayers to Him in the form of Lord Caitanya. In Dr. There is another version of this story recorded. "Make Me a garland of jewels". a strict Madhva line. Lord Caitanya sent him back to Kasi with a message. Everyone was astounded when they heard the greatest renunciate asking for jewels. To have been a disciple of Jayadharma who occupied the Pitha from 1448-1460 AD and to have met Lord Caitanya in Kasi. He first led his life as a householder with wife and children. who became the next in the disciplic succession. Everyone tried to pacify him but he would not return. was given siksa (instruction and inspiration) from Visnu Puri. not the date of the actual composition. He wandered and settled in Mithila at the shrine of Lord Siva (which is also known as Siva Puri). the famous author of the Bhakti-ratnavali. but they had not the boldness to ask Him why He asked for this. He was a learned brahmana who belonged to the Vaisnava school of Madhva and was a disciple of Jayadharma Tirtha.N.

or applying medicine from the Ayurveda.172. one's acceptance into a particular philosophical line would stand as more important than one's family initiation into a mantra for charming snakes. Sri Isvara Puri. Sri Krsnananda Puri. 5. 3. hrdayam tvadlokakataram dayita bhramyati kim karomyayam The people of Gauda have accepted this stanza as the sum and substance of the mood of separation. 1. Vrndavana dasa has also described Madhavendra Puri's delight upon having the company of Sri Nityananda. B. Sri Brahmananda Bharati. But in CBh. CBh. When Sri Madhavendra Puri left this material world.96. 20. 1. he mentions that Nityananda Prabhu did meet Madhavendra Puri. (Bhaktiratnakara 5. Sri Madhavendra Puri was one of them. and Madhava Puri left on pilgrimage for South India. Sri Kesava Bharati. Sri Ramacandra Puri. Lord Caitanya was overwhelmed with joy upon remembering this sloka. and taught love and devotion throughout the world. save and except that he headed to North India to preach. Paramananda Puri and some other sannyasis. and the exact number of his disciples is not known.N. Sri Paramananda Puri.158-188. 1.175. he was the root of the tree of prema bhakti. Sri Nityananda returned to Vrndavana. Sri Pundarika Vidyanidhi. When Lord Caitanya was absorbed in his childhood pastimes. He visited many places throughout India. Sri Nrsimha Tirtha.11. 1. Five padas composed by Madhavendra Puri have been included in Padyavali (nos.4. Sri Sukhananda Puri etc.59. Sharma says that Visnu Puri was a contemporary of Jayadharma who followed the great Sridhar Swami and due to his dedication to the bhakti marga (devotional line) this could have been a great source of influence on Laksmipati Tirtha and Madhavendra Puri Goswami. Sri Brahmananda Puri.17): ayi dinadayadaranatha hey mathuranatha kadavalokyase. Sri Madhavendra Puri was quite an old man. Sri Nityananda Prabhu.433-507).2330.2272-2274. Another thing is that there is no record of Visnu Puri's activities in South India. 3. He also states that Nityananda Prabhu spent a few days serving Sri Madhavendra Puri and accepted him as His spiritual master.160.9. when Sri Vrndavana dasa Thakura describes the pilgrimage of Sri Nityananda Prabhu. Madhava Puri was a sannyasi belonging to the Dasanami Sankara sect. Sri Ranga Puri.9. Sri Raghupati Upadhyaya.164. the following sloka was uttered by him (CC 2. After spending a few days with Madhava Puri. Before the Lord appeared in this world he sent His personal associates beforehand.Caitanya-candra In these days sometimes one would accept a particular mantra or philosophical point from someone and in that way he would become one's guru.286. Outwardly. Generally Madhavendra Puri was accompanied by Sri Isvara Puri. Some of his prominent disciples were Sri Advaita Acarya..3. 3. Later some of Visnu Puri's previously used verses of Sridhar Swami found in his Bhakti-ratnavali turned up in Rupa Goswami's "Padyavali" with reference to Bhakti-ratnavali.2332. But in fact. For example.125.9. we can say that Laksmipati and Madhavendra Puri were both from North India and were influenced by Visnu Puri to develop the spontaneous mood of bhakti. 79. So sometimes certain initiations held more importance than others.3. To conclude. There is no mention of any meeting between Mahaprabhu and Sri Madhavendra Puri in CC or CBh. Madhavendra Puri Srimad Krsnadasa Kaviraja has described Sri Madhavendra Puri as the root of all transcendental joy. Krsnadasa Kaviraja and Sri Vrndavana dasa Thakura have not mentioned anything regarding Madhavendra Puri's caste or creed. Sri Madhavendra Puri lived for many years.330) 38 .K. Sri Ranga Puri.

If this were the case then Nityananda would have been the great-guru of Lord Caitanya and a friendly relationship could not have existed between the two.11 p.161-170. 21b. Nityanda's past name was Kuvera and He was an avadhuta.avadhuta-upanisad and the Brhad-avadhuta-upanisad.70-126. with their identity in Caitanya-lila: Sridama (Ramadasa Abhirama of Khanakul-Krsnanagar in Hooghly) Sudama (Sundarananda Thakura.8. called "most free") are usually associated with the Saivite tradition but there is a little known branch of Vaisnava sannyasis known as turiyatit-avadhuta." In the same book (3.Caitanya-candra His worshipable Deity. while the latter showed guru-like reverence to the former. associates of Sri Nityananda. His father was Hadai Pandita (Hado Ojha) and his mother was Padmavati. and is worshiped by the followers of Vallabhacarya. Nityananda Prabhu See also Laksmipati Tirtha He was Halayudha in Krsnalila. Buchanan Hamilton has recorded a brief history of Nityananda's family in the Purnea Report. CC 2. He was born in a brahmana caste of the Radha clan in Kumarahatta village.13: "Nityananda was considered an avadhuta sannyasi. 1. is presently residing at Nathdwar in Rajasthan. Three slokas composed by Isvara Puri have been included in Padyavali (nos. He was instrumental in inspiriting Nityananda Prabhu to leave home (Premavilasa 7 and 23). brahmana ascetic) Vasudama (Dhananjaya) Subala (Gauridasa Pandita) Mahabala (Kamalakara Pipalai) Subahu (Uddharana Datta) Mahabahu (Mahesa Pandita) 39 .46-162. Steven Rosen (Satyaraja das) says in his book Panca-tattva. The family name of Isvara Puri is not known.17.40) he lists twelve gopalas.29. Isvara Puri He was the diksa-guru of Lord Caitanya.9. They are described in the Narada-parivrajakaupanisad.2206-2209. Madhavendra Puri dealt with Nityananda as a friend. presently known as Halisahar. According to CBh. 21a. 16. According to Premavilasa 24. But Bhaktiratnakara states that Nityananda took diksa from Laksmipati who was the guru of Madhavendra Puri. 2. Avadhutas (the pure ones. Turiyatit. Nityananda Prabhu was born on the thirteenth day of the bright fortnight of Magha (Feb. in SB 4. His paternal grandfather. Also see Bhaktiratnakara 12. Sundaramalla Nakadi Baduri was a brahmana of the Radha clan.10. Sri Jiva states that Nityananda was a disciple of Sankarsana Puri who was a disciple of Madhavendra Puri.26-30. 62 and 75).131-150. The following are the references showing Isvara Puri in the biographies of Lord Caitanya: CBh. His father was Syamasundara Acarya. Nityananda was a disciple of Isvara Puri.11. 3.-March) in the village of Ekacakra in the district of Birbhum in 1395 Saka (1473 AD). 1. 1. Gopalji. After personally carrying out an investigation. although it is said that He never formally adopted sannyasa order.

BA. Dhyana and Gayatri dealing with Nityananda: see Paddhati (as above) 50. It forms a commentary to Siksastaka. Nama dvadasaka on Nityananda composed by Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya. revelation of Viracandra.12-99. Nityananda Astaka composed by (1) Sarvabhaumma and (2) Vrndavana dasa Thakura.a total of six sections. Sesa.1. 21c.9.115) His childhood sports up to twelve years of age are described in CBh. as well as a note on His true nature (prakrtisvarupa). by Vrndavana dasa Thakura.Caitanya-candra Stokakrsna (Purusottama) Arjuna (Paramesvara Dasa) Dama (Purusottama Nagara) Labanga (Kala Krsnadasa) Madhumangala.10. Advaita Prabhu was born in 1434 AD and met Vidyapati in 1458 AD.3.100-136. a disciple of Nityananda. His two 40 . The contents are as follows: Avatarahood of Viracandra. The ms. Nityananda Bhasya written by Ramrayaji. genealogy of Viracandra. The following are some primary works on Nityananda Prabhu: Nityanandoprabhoraisvaryamrtakavyam. hymns sung by Abhirama in praise of Ganga devi. Baranagar Pathavadi (Calcutta manuscript no. and is depicted as the trunk of the tree of bhakti (CC 1. in the form of Prakrti indirectly and in the form of Purusa directly. B 46. According to Bangabhasa O Sahitya. Premavilasa narrates the following information relating to Nityananda Prabhu: marriage of Nityananda.1202. His pilgrimage tours up to twenty years of ages in CBh. etc. or Kusumasava (Sridhara) Sri Nitai is Isa prakasa (CC 1. (Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 63-64). 2. settled life at Khardaha with Vasudha-Jahnava.18-19). Advaita's former name was Kamalaksa (Kamalakanta) Vedapancanana. Advaita Acarya He is a disciple of Madhavendra Puri. Another manuscript with similar contents titled Rasakalpasaratattva is also attributed to Vrndavana dasa and is available at Pathavadi collection ms. Astottarasatanama (108 names) of Nityananda (1) in Brahmanda Purana and (2) by Sarvabhauma. (2) Aisvaryamrtakavya and (3) Rasakalpasara tattva. both stayed alive and healthy despite Abhirama's offering of obeisances.1.9. Nityananda tattva: Mahasankarsana. and constitutes one of the figures amongst the Pancatattva. in the village named Lauda in Srihatta. This Sanskrit text consisting of 128 slokas is said to have been written by Vrndavana dasa Thakura. copying date is 1260 BS (1853 AD). birth of Viracandra and Ganga later. Nityananda mantra: see Brahmanda Purana and Dhyanacandra Gosvami's Paddhati (56-57). See Dharanisesa Sanvad in Brahmanda Purana of Vrndavana dasa Thakura. In an earlier incarnation he was Lord Siva. deals with descriptions of various aisvarya and madhurya-lilas of Nityananda Prabhu.7-11). the cherished goal of Gaudiyas (CC 1.76. His arrival in Navadvipa at the house of Nandana Acarya and his meeting Lord Caitanya is described in CBh. He disappeared by merging with the body of Banka (Bankima) Raya Deity in Ekacakragrama. no. Nityananda Vamsavistar. His appearance place. death of seven sons soon after birth when Abhirama conveyed his humble obeisances to each. 1355 Saka (1433 AD). Jahnava's pilgrimage to Vrndavana.9.21. He was born in a varendra brahmana family on the seventh day of the bright fortnight in the month of Magha. 1. 1. in two parts . Sandhinisakti. 1.4. inward descent of Anangamanjari (Anangamanjari Samputika). 72.

followed by Krsnadasa. Sri Kuvera Pandit floated in that ocean of joy. and Jagadisa Misra. and Advaitavilasa. Also books such as Valyalilasutra (in Sanskrit). One manuscript of the Bhagavata which was copied by Vidyapati is still available and carries the date of copying as 1379 Saka (1457 AD). it is known that in 1330 Saka (1408 AD) Vidyapati received the endowment of Bisaphi village from Sivasimha. Sitacarita (in Bengali) present detailed information on Advaita Prabhu. at the age of fifty two. Advaita Prabhu moved to the village of Navahatta and later to Santipura. Gopala. jaya jaya advaita isvara avatara krsna avatari kaila jagat-nistara "All glories to Advaita Prabhu." [CC Antya 8. The residents of Navagram came running to see the child. according to Premavilasa 24. To verify the meeting of Advaita with Vidyapati. and that in his old age? 41 . The foremost of all the Vaisnavas who reside at Navadvipa is Sri Advaita Acarya. From Lauda. and whatever scriptures that exist within the three worlds he explains in the light of Krsna-bhakti. arrived at the room where Lord Gauranga was born.e. Much earlier he undertook a pilgrimage. reach the ears of Sri Krsna. Hence his meeting with Vidyapati should be taken as a fact. He also had a house at Navadvipa. In 1480 Saka (1558 AD). He studied the Vedas and other scriptures under a scholar named Santacarya in Phullavati village near Santipura. Who appeared from the womb of Sri Nabhadevi as the moon appears in the autumn sky. Advaita Prabhu was born in Santipura. Hearing this loving summons saturated with devotion. With the intense eagerness he continually worships Sri Krsna with Tulasi manjaris and Ganges water. Vidyapati was born around 1307 Saka (1385 AD). the incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Balarama. He is the most prominent preceptor in all fields including knowledge. Then his own face began to shine by the reflected light of that moon-like personage. Advaita Prakasa. resounding throughout Vaikuntha. Evidence shows that Vidyapati was alive until 1401 Saka (1479 AD).Caitanya-candra wives were Sita Devi and Sri Devi. the great ocean of ecstasy swelled to its limits. Very quietly he approached the maternity room to get a glimpse of his newborn son. In great happiness he gave many gifts in charity to the brahmanas (who voluntarily accept vows of poverty). His son Acyutananda was born of Sita Devi (1425 Saka 1503 AD). at the age of 125 years (i. In explaining Krsna-bhakti he is like unto Lord Sankara himself. While Sri Devi gave birth to one son named Syamadasa (Premavilasa 24). He induced Krsna to descend and thus delivered the entire world. 25 years after the disappearance of Lord Caitanya) Advaita Prabhu passed away. Vidyapati mentions their meeting one another in songs he composed in 1325 Saka (1403 AD). Svarupa. What a pious activities his father must have been performed to get such a jewel of a son.4] "On the seventh day of the bright fortnight of the month of Magh. whose virtuous presence has made all the worlds blessed. In 1485 AD Advaita Prabhu. being forcibly attracted by the moon of Advaita. Sri Krsna advents Himself. Everyone remarked that they had never seen such a beautiful baby. The genealogy of Advaita Prabhu can be found in Premavilasa 24. Advaitamangala. His father. his loud shouts pierce the coverings of this universe and. By the momentum of his spiritual force. where he was awarded the title Acarya. renunciation and devotion. and was a contemporary of Candidasa. (Advaita Vilasa) However.

"yasya namadyavayave sah krsnacaitanyah". All glories to Mahaprabhu who reclines on the bed of Ananta Sesa. the Lord of all that lives. Some argue that the name Gauranga was uttered by Kesava Bharati at the time of Lord Gauranga's sannyasa initiation. His eyes brimming with tears.an auspicious offering of rice." First Advaita Acarya washed the Lord's two lotus feet with water scented by flower petals and then with water scented with sandalwood.28. similarly the term Krsnavarna indicates Krsnacaitanya (In this connection refer to the tika of the sloka 'sriya savarnena. flowers. All glories to He who is decorated with the ornaments of Srivatsa and Kaustubha. durva grass. the term 'Krsnavarna' mentioned in Srimad Bhagavatam refers to Krsnacaitanya. 22.116] Hearing Advaita's prayer's Mahaprabhu replied.3)." According to the Tantra tradition." Mahaprabhu replied. fashioned after a picture of Sri Sri Madan-Gopal that were worshiped by Advaita Acarya are still residing at Santipur in Madan-Gopal Para.167] A Nrsimha-sila and Deities. offering prayers. Then He placed on His lotus feet Tulasi manjari dipped in sandalwood paste along with arghya . thus Your are called Sri Krsnacaitanya. Lord Caitanya The origin of Lord Caitanya's name is mentioned in CBh. and some foodstuffs. "Today all the days of my life have produced a successful result. sandalwood paste. by Your causeless mercy. Madhya 6. just as Satya refers to Satyabhama. "All glories to the Lord and maintainer of the universe. he offered incense. Once when Advaita performed worship. All glories to Gauracandra. Madhya 6.. All glories to the most munificent incarnation of Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu. "Acarya. yogurt etc.1759] The child was named Mongal and his other name was Kamalaksa. His two consorts. Santipur is a short distance from Krsnanagara. the ocean of mercy. whatever gods and demigods He used to meditate upon He saw all gathered at Lord Caitanya's lotus feet. Ramabhadra Vaisnavacarya Gosvami has said. 2. All glories to He who has revealed the Hare Krsna Maha-mantra. now you should perform My worship." Then Advaita requested that. Advaita Acarya is the combined incarnation of Mahavisnu and Sadasiva (who resides in Goloka). I have directly perceived Your two lotus feet.3. [CBh. Now you can ask from me any benediction you like. whose form is all-enchanting. as all my desires have been fulfilled.179. All glories to the refuge of all living entities." [Bhaktiratnakara 12. All glories to He who enjoys the pastimes of accepting devotion unto Himself. You have revealed Yourself to Me. Raising up his two hands.181: "You aroused everyone's spiritual consciousness (Caitanya) and inspired the entire world to chant the holy name of Krsna. After offering various prayers he loudly proclaimed the Lord's glories with auspicious shouts. [CBh.. Now. I am very pleased by your prayers. My birth and activities have finally born fruit. and Bhima refers to Bhimasena. "My only request is that you distribute love of Krsna even to women. "My dear Acarya. Sita and Sri are manifestations of Yoga Maya. thus the name 'Gaura' (referring to Him as a 42 . ghee lamps. A temple has been built in memory of Advaita Acarya's pastimes there. Advaita exclaimed in great ecstasy. which are proclaimed throughout the four Vedas but are unattainable thereby. laborers and the ignorant fools as well.'Bhagavatam 3. The place on the banks of the Ganga where Advaita Acarya worshiped salagram and called out to the Lord to please descend to the world is known today as Babla.Caitanya-candra Thus Ghanasyama sings about this occasion.

Caitanya-candra resident of Navadvipa) should be considered His foremost name. 10. Sacinandana-vijayastakam.1. by Acyutananda Gosvami (son of Advaitacarya). Advaitaprakasa 10 and 12 6. However this is not rationally tenable when considered from a theological viewpoint.e.250 9. by Narahari-sarakara Thakura. Isanasamhita 3. Caitanyamangala 4. (probably same as "Dasa Gosvami") 43 . Simply by looking at the titles of the major biographies of the Lord's life (i.22-34. the preacher of Gauraparatamyavada. Sacisunvastaka by Dasa Gosvami. Gaura-Gadadhara-yugalastakam. etc. Although Locana Thakura. Caitanya Bhagavata 1. 12. sloka 18. dealt with the nama-gunalila etc. Caitanyacaritamahakavya 5.3. Gaudiya Vaisnava Abhidhana Vol. Caitanyastakam (3). Caitanya Bhagavata. Sri Caitanyacandrodaya 9 5.2.31 7. Urdhvamnayatantra 3. by Rupa Gosvami. Thus we can conclude without any doubt that Caitanya was the foremost name. Tika of Caitanyacandramrta (31) by Anandi The following are the astakas (eight lined hymns) composed in praise of Lord Caitanya: Sacisutastaka by Narahari Sarkara. Caitanyastaka by Rupa Gosvami. 3. Gaurangastakam.14-16 (manuscript from the collection of the Madras Oriental Mss. CC. Murari Gupta's Kadaca 7. of Gaura in his composition Dhamali. Paddhati written by Dhyanacandra Gosvami 54-55 4. by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura. by Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya. Library) 2. nevertheless the biography he wrote was entitled Sri Caitanyamangala.59-60. CC. Gaurakrsnodaya-mahakavya of 1680 Saka. Caitanyacandrodaya 6. Caitanyamangala.10. by Rupa Gosvami. In one continuous lila numerous names of the Lord have been mentioned. Caitanyastakam (2). Caitanya Caritamrta 3. by Rupa Gosvami. Gaurakrsnodaya The Gauramantra is mentioned in the following works: 1. Prabodhananda Sarasvati writes about the dhyana of Gauranagaravana in his Sri Caitanyacandramrta (132). by Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura. p. by Raghunatha-dasa Gosvami. yet the most frequently used name is Caitanya. Sacinandanastakam. For details see the following biographies of Lord Caitanya: 1. Gaurasudhakaracitrastaka by Prabodhananda.) it is evident that Sri Krsna Caitanya was His foremost name. Maha-prabhor-astakam. 1. Sacisunvastakam. 8. Caitanya Bhagavata 2. Caitanyastakam (1).

Caitanyavilasa of Madhava In Vrajbasa: 1.Caitanya-candra Sacisutastakam. Caitanyadeva by Sundarananda Vidyavinoda In Oriya: 1. Smaranamangala by Visvanatha Cakravarti. Sacitanayastakam. Gauranga-maha-prabhu-dhyanam. anonymous. Caitanyacaritamrta of Suvalasyama In Hindi: 1. Gaura-Nityananda-pranamah. Gauranga-maha-prabhu-vijnaptih. Caitanyacarita In Urdu: 1. sriman-maha-prabhor asta-kaliya-lila-smarana-mangala-stotram by Visvanatha C:. Sri-gauranga-sahasra-nama-stotra. by Raghunandana Gosvami. Gaurangastavakalpataru by Raghunatha Dasa Gosvami. anonymous. Amiya-Nimai-Carita 2. by Ramaraya Gosvami. Sri Gaurasundara by Syamalal Gosvami 2. Gauranga-maha-prabhu-pranamah. from Moksarnava-tantra. Astottarasatanama by Sarvabhauma. Sri Nimaicand of Krsnaprasada Duggul 44 . Sahasraka: one each by Narahari Sarkara. Praty-anaga-varnanakhya-stavaraja by Advaita Prabhu. Gaurasataka by Ratikanta Thakura. by Bhaktivinoda Thakura. Gauranga-stotram. by Nanda-kisora Gosvami. Namadvadasaka. Kavikarnapura. Paddhati 72-77 by Dhyanacandra Gosvami. Namavimsatistotra by Sarvabhauma. Sataka: Caitanyasataka by Sarvabhauma. Sri-krsna-caitanya-candrasya sahasra-nama-stotra. Caitanya caritavali of Prabhudatta Brahmacari In Gurmukhi: 1. Books on Lord Caitanya: In Bengali: 1. by Sri-Caitanya-dasa Ciranjivi-sarvadhikari Stava: Navadvipacandrastavaraja by Raghunandana Thakura. by Bhaktivinoda Thakura. Sri-Gauranga-lila-smarana-mangala-stotram. Caitanyabhagavata of Isvara dasa 2. Amiya-Nimai-Carita by Sisir Kumar Ghosh 3. Siva to Gauri. and the Bengali work Gauracaritcintamani by Narahari Cakravarti. Godruma-candra-bhajanopadesa. and Rupa Gosvami. Caitanya Premasagara of Pandita Ramananda 3. by Sri Bhakti-desika Maharaja. Gaura-prema-stava-raja. sriman-maha-prabhor asta-kaliya-lila-smarana-mangala-stotram by Rupa Gosvami:. Astakaliya sutra: Bhavadhyalila by Rupa Gosvami. Sri-Gaura-premollasa-stotram. Gauranga-virudavali.

He occupied a responsible post in the service of the Badshah Hussain Shah of Gauda.V. and (2) to write and preach Vaisnava theology. Tirtha 4. He later renounced everything and surrendered himself at the feet of Lord Gauranga. Sri Krsna Caitanya by N. Sri Caitanyasiksamrtam 3. He then visited his native home where he settled his property concerns. Sen 8. Only those who appreciate the true Vaisnava spirit will understand the immense pleasure which Lord Caitanya and His associates derived from listening to this drama. Sanyal 3. According to Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 180 he was Sri Rupa manjari in Krsna lila. Sarvasamvadini. Rupa Gosvami was specifically commanded by Lord Caitanya to carry out two tasks: (1) to re-locate and preserve the lost pilgrimage places of Vrndavana. After surcharging and empowering Rupa Gosvami with divine energy. etc. Tirtha 5. Dhar 9. Pillai. This task was taken up by Jiva Gosvami. From Prayaga Rupa Gosvami went to Vrndavana. In Nilacala Lord Caitanya also gave him the same instruction. the Lord Himself did not write any theological treatises. Lord Caitanya sent him back to Vrndavana. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu B.P. etc. Caitanya by G. Sarkar The famous Siksastaka was composed by Lord Caitanya. Narottama Thakura has rightly praised him as "Sri Caitanyamanohabhista. Gauranga and His Gospel by M. However.stapaka" (the implementor of Lord Caitanya's desires). Bhaktamala. The Universal Religion of Sri Caitanya by N. Life and Teaching of Gauranga by P.N. who compiled a number of philosophical works such as Satsandarbha.K. While staying at Gauda. Chaterjee 10. Kramasandarbha. Caitanya's Pilgrimage and Teachings by J. Life of Sri Caitanya by C. Sanatana Gosvami Gaudiya Vaisnava Abhidhana p. 45 . while in Satyabhamapura he was commanded by Satyabhamadevi to write two separate dramas. Caitanya and His Companions by D. Rupa Gosvami. Thereafter he traveled on to Nilacala to meet Lord Caitanya. Trilokekar 7. Rupa Gosvami developed the desire to write the Vidagdhamadhava and Lalitamadhava nataka.S.P.Caitanya-candra In Telugu: 1. Madras In English: 1. Although a number of other small astakas are considered to have been composed by Lord Caitanya. The commentator Vitthalesvara states that Sri Krsna premamrta stotra was orally propounded by Lord Caitanya. Lord Gauranga In Tamil: 1. Lord Gauranga by Sisirkumar Ghosh 2. His fascinating biography is described in the CC. 23a. Initially he planned to present the Vraja-lila and the Pura-lila together in one drama with the view of calming the intensity of the Vrajaviraha by including the Dvaraka-lila. Lord Caitanya by B. Sri Caitanyalilamrtasaram 2. Tucci 6. 1350-1351: Rupa Gosvami was one of the six Gosvamis associated with Sri Gauranga-lila.C.

and the balance he brought in two boats to a place called Bakla Candradvipa. He is said to have settled for some time at Fateyabad . Danakelikaumudi. The three most renowned sons of Kumaradeva were Sanatana. Kumara deva moved to Bakla Candradvipa (in Jessore). out of fear of the Yavana King. Hamsadutam. Knowing that he wanted to resign his post. Laghubhagavatamrta. Sanatana and Anupama.Caitanya-candra The following is a list of the most well-known books of Rupa Gosvami: Bhaktirasamrtasindhu. When Mahaprabhu started for Vrndavana. then he personally came to see why Sanatana was not attending to official business.D. he sent two people to Jagannatha Puri to find out when the Lord would leave for Vrndavana. Uddhava Sandesa. Kumara deva. Mathura-mahatmya. Rupa Gosvami deposited ten thousand gold coins with a grocer. Rupa and Anupama (Vallabha). Though reluctant to accept the Bhadshah's offer. they agreed to take the post. he sat home and studied Srimad Bhagavatam with learned brahmana scholars. When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu arrived at the beautiful village of Ramakeli the brothers met the Lord and were overwhelmed with joy. Sanatana Gosvami told the Nawab that he was sick and could not attend to his work. There he divided this money among the brahmanas.D. Sri Rupa and Sanatana thus lived in the village of Ramakeli. Badshah Hussain Shah of Gauda appointed the two brothers as ministers in the court. He blessed Sri Sanatana and Rupa by saying. their other teachers were Sri Paramananda Bhattacarya and Sri Ramapada Bhadrapada. was an extremely religious man. "Very soon Krsna will free you from the entanglement of material life. Sri Rupa Gosvami was born in 1493 A. the famous Vidyavacaspati. Vidagdhamadhava. Both brothers appointed some brahmanas to perform purascarana ceremonies and chant the holy name of Krsna. The Nawab then went off to attack Orissa. Prayuktakhyatamanjari. As mentioned in the Dasama Tippani of the Bhagavata. When their father died. 46 . The Nawab Hussain Shah first sent his personal physician to see what the real facts were. When religious upheaval occurred in Naihati. Natakacandrika. the Nawab had him arrested and imprisoned. Rupa left home and sent news to Sanatana that he was leaving with his younger brother (Anupama Mallika) to meet Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Nikunjarahasyastava.located between Naihati and Bakla." After the Lord departed from Ramakeli Rupa and Sanatana began to devise means to get out of their government service. Giving this excuse. (1410 Saka). Sri Radha-Krsna-ganoddesa. Stavamala. and a portion he kept for emergency measures and personal needs. When Rupa Gosvami was informed that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was going to Vrndavana from Jagannatha Puri through the forest of Madhyapradesh. Hussain Shah happily offered them enormous amounts of wealth and riches. the son of Mukunda. In order to complete their education they lived at their uncle's house in a small village named Sakurma near the capital of Gauda. Many great brahmana scholars from different parts of the country visited their house regularly. these three sons went to their maternal uncle's home in Sakurma near the capital of Gauda where they continued their studies. Lalitamadhava. Sri Sanatana Gosvami was born in 1488 A. were very devotionally inclined. Vaisnavas and his relatives. The brother of Sarvabhauma. From their early childhood Rupa. On the eve of the Lord's departure from Ramakeli. and the two brothers took great pleasure in serving and arranging accommodations for them. (1415 Saka). Meanwhile.dipika. Ujjvalanilamani. the capital of Gauda. Having heard the glories of Sri Rupa and Sanatana from many intelligent persons. was the philosophy teacher of Sri Rupa and Sanatana. Sri Krsnajanmatithividhi.

Caitanya-candra Rupa Gosvami finally reached Prayaga. While Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was sitting in a solitary place in the home of a Deccan brahmana, Rupa Gosvami and Sri Vallabha (Anupama) came to meet Him. At the time of Mahaprabhu's visit to Prayaga, Sri Vallabhacarya was living in the village of Araila on the other bank of the Triveni. One day he invited the Lord to his house for lunch and Sri Rupa and Anupama accompanied Him. Due to the great crowds in Prayaga, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu went to a place called Dasasvamedha-ghata. It was there that the Lord instructed Sri Rupa Gosvami for ten successive days and empowered him to understand the philosophy of devotional service. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu taught Rupa Gosvami the ultimate limit of the truth about Lord Krsna, the truth about devotional service and the truth about transcendental mellows, consummating in conjugal love between Radha and Krsna. Finally He told Rupa Gosvami about the ultimate conclusions of Srimad Bhagavatam. By entering the heart of Rupa Gosvami, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu empowered him to ascertain properly the conclusions of all truths. He made him an experienced devotee whose decisions correctly agreed with the verdicts of the disciplic succession. Thus Sri Rupa Gosvami was personally empowered by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. After giving so much instruction, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu advised Sri Rupa to go to Vrndavana. The Lord then departed for Varanasi. With a grievous heart due to separation from the Lord, Sri Rupa and Anupama started for Vrndavana. In Vrndavana, Rupa Gosvami began to write a drama. In particular, he composed the introductory verses to invoke good fortune. On his way to Gauda-desa, Rupa Gosvami had been thinking of how to write the action of the drama. Thus he had made some notes and begun to write. In this way the two brothers Rupa and Anupama reached Bengal, but when they arrived there Anupama passed away. After performing the funeral rites, Rupa Gosvami traveled on. In the province of Orissa, Rupa Gosvami rested for a night at Satyabhama-pura. That night he dreamed that a celestially beautiful woman had come before him and very mercifully gave him the following order. "Write a separate drama about me. By my mercy it will be extraordinarily beautiful." After having this dream, Rupa Gosvami considered, "It is the order of Satyabhama that I write a separate drama for her." Thus absorbed in thought, he quickly reached Jagannatha Puri. When he arrived, he approached the hut of Haridasa Thakura. Out of affectionate love and mercy, Haridasa Thakura told Rupa Gosvami, "Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has already informed me that you would come here." Shortly thereafter the Lord arrived and warmly embraced Rupa. They sat down together and inquired from one another about auspicious news. The Lord asked Rupa about Sanatana. Rupa explained that he had not met Sanatana and informed the Lord of Anupama's disappearance. On the next day, Caitanya Mahaprabhu again met Rupa Gosvami, and with great mercy the Lord introduced him to all the devotees. Every day the Lord would go to see Rupa Gosvami, and whatever prasada He received from the temple He would deliver to Rupa Gosvami and Haridasa Thakura. During the Ratha-yatra ceremony Rupa Gosvami heard a verse uttered by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu during the ceremony, and he immediately composed another verse dealing with the same subject. Only Svarupa Damodara Gosvami knew the purpose for which the Lord


Caitanya-candra recited that verse. According to the Lord's attitude, he used to quote other verses to enable the Lord to relish mellows. Rupa Gosvami, however, could understand the intention of the Lord, and thus he composed another verse. After writing this verse on a palm leaf, he put it somewhere in his thatched roof and went to bathe in the sea. At that time, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu went there to meet him, and when He saw the leaf pushed into the roof and saw the verse, He read it and was overwhelmed by ecstatic love. At that time Rupa Gosvami returned and offered his obeisances. The Lord slapped him mildly in love and said, "My heart is very confidential. How did you know My mind in this way?" Svarupa Damodara said, "I can understand that You have already bestowed Your causeless mercy upon him. No one could otherwise understand this meaning." One day while Rupa Gosvami was writing his book, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu came to the cottage of Haridasa Thakura. The Lord inquired, "What kind of book are you writing?" He held up a palm leaf that was a page of the manuscript, and when He saw the fine handwriting, His mind was very pleased. "The handwriting of Rupa Gosvami is just like rows of pearls," He said. When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu ordered Rupa Gosvami to read from his book, Rupa Gosvami, because of great shyness, did not read it but instead remained silent. When the Lord persisted, Sri Rupa read, much to everyone's pleasure. After hearing from him, both Ramananda Raya and Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya said to the Lord, "Without Your special mercy, how could this Rupa Gosvami have understood Your mind?" Ramananda remarked to Sri Rupa, "This drama of yours is a mine of conclusive statements." After four months had passed and the Dola-yatra festival ended, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu bade farewell to Rupa Gosvami. The Lord empowered him and bestowed upon him all kinds of mercy. "Now go to Vrndavana and stay there," the Lord said. "You may send here your elder brother, Sanatana. When you go to Vrndavana, stay there, preach transcendental literature and excavate the lost holy places. Establish the service of Lord Krsna and preach the mellows of Lord Krsna's devotional service. I shall also go to Vrndavana once more." Having thus spoken, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu embraced Rupa Gosvami, who then placed the lotus feet of the Lord upon his head. When Sri Sanatana Gosvami and Sri Rupa Gosvami lived in Vraja, they won the heartfelt affection of all the residents there, who regularly brought the two brothers gifts of curd and milk. The Gosvamis also regarded the inhabitants of Vraja as the dear associates of Lord Krsna. They respected them in that way and were always concerned about their well being. When they visited different areas of Vraja, the inhabitants there did not want them to leave their village. If many days passed without a visit from the Gosvamis, the Vrajavasis would anxiously seek them out. Thus the Vrajavasis were the life of Sri Rupa and Sanatana, and Sri Rupa and Sanatana were the life of the Vrajavasis. The Books of Sri Rupa Gosvami: 1. Hamsaduta 2. Uddhava Sandesa 3. Sri Krsnajanmatithividhi 4. Sri Radha-Krsna-ganoddesa-dipika (Brhad and Laghu) 5. Sri Stavamala 6. Sri Vidagdha Madhava (drama) 7. Sri Lalita Madhava (drama) 8. Danakeli Kaumudi 9. Sri Bhaktirasamrtasindhu 10. Ujjvala Nilamani 11. Prayuktakhyatacandrika


Caitanya-candra 12. Sri Mathura-mahatmya 13. Padyavali 14. Natakacandrika 15. Samkhepa Bhagavatamrta 16. Samanya Virudavali Laksmana 17. Upadesamrta Rupa Gosvami left this world in 1486 Saka era, 1564 A.D., on the day of Sukla Dvadasi in the month of Sravana (July-August). According to another view, he disappeared in 1490 Saka era, 1568 A.D. 23b. Svarupa Damodara Sri Svarupa Damodara is the eternal associate of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. His previous name was Sri Purusottama Acarya and he was born at Bhitadia to Padmagarbha Acarya. He lived at Navadvipa. He was always present with Mahaprabhu. When Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu accepted sannyasa, Svarupa Damodara became like a madman and, journeying to Varanasi he also accepted sannyasa from one sannyasi named Caitanyananda. His sannyasa guru ordered him that, "You should yourself study the Vedanta and also teach it to others." Sri Purusottama Acarya didn't accept the garments of sannyasa, but simply gave up his sikha and brahmana thread. Therefore his name became Svarupa (a brahmacari name). Thereafter, by the order of his guru, he came to Nilacala, where he again met Mahaprabhu. Though his scholarship was practically unlimited, he spoke very little with others and preferred to remain alone. Thus very few were aware of his actual position. He was completely conversant with the understanding of the mellows of devotion to Sri Krsna and his body was fully imbued with love for Him. He was as though a second Mahaprabhu. Whenever anyone wanted to present to Mahaprabhu some book, verse or song that they had composed, Svarupa Damodara would first hear what they had written before it could be presented to Mahaprabhu. If these compositions contained any points which were in contradiction to the superior position of bhakti, as concluded in scriptures, then hearing these writings would not be a source of transcendental pleasure for Mahaprabhu. Therefore Svarupa Gosai would first examine what had been composed and if it was untainted then it could be presented to Mahaprabhu. Usually he would recite Sri Gita Govinda, and the writings of Candidasa and Vidyapati, for the transcendental happiness of Mahaprabhu. In music and singing he was like a Gandharva and in knowledge of the sastras he was like Brhaspati. There was no one to compare with him in talent and intelligence. He was extremely dear to Sri Advaita and Nityananda Prabhu and was the life and soul of devotees like Srivasa and others. When Sri Svarupa Damodara arrived in Puri from Kasi (Varanasi) he recited this sloka in praise of Mahaprabhu: "Oh You, who are the personification of mercy - Sri Caitanya. That which very easily causes grief to retreat far away, and which is spotlessly pure; which causes the appearance of the highest happiness, and by whose appearance disputation over the intricacies of scriptural statements ceases; that which causes the spirit to become extremely agitated in ecstatic love, by a shower of grace and beauty; may that extremely expansive and auspicious mercy by its sweetness and dignity shine its rays upon me." (Sri Caitanya Candrodaya Nataka.) Seeing that Svarupa Damodara was offering his dandavats to Him, Mahaprabhu picked him up and as He embraced him he said, "I saw in a dream this morning that you had come. Just


Caitanya-candra as a blind man finds unlimited happiness by regaining his eyesight, so I am feeling by regaining your association." Svarupa Damodara replied: "Prabhu, please forgive me. By leaving You and running off to Varanasi, I made a great mistake. I don't have even a hint of attachment to your lotus feet, and I have actually become a great sinner by leaving you and going to a distant country. I gave up your association, but You didn't give me up. Binding the rope of mercy around my neck You brought me again to Your lotus feet." [CC Madhya 10] Hearing these words spoken in such humility, Mahaprabhu again embraced him and said: "Krsna is very kind. He has very mercifully brought us together again." Mahaprabhu kept Svarupa Damodara close to Him. Whenever Mahaprabhu became immersed in a particular ecstatic emotion, Svarupa Damodara would perform a kirtan in that particular mood. During this period Raya Ramananda also arrived from Vidyanagara in South India. Thus the two of them, Svarupa Damodara and Ramananda Raya, would enhance the ecstatic moods of Mahaprabhu by singing different songs and reciting various poetic verses. During the day, Mahaprabhu would engage in his pastimes of sankirtan with His devotees, and at night He would taste the mellows of the ecstatic love of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna in the company of these two. As Lalita and Visakha were very intimate with Srimati Radharani, Raya Ramananda and Svarupa Damodara were similarly intimate with Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Mahaprabhu entrusted him to look after and instruct Raghunatha dasa Gosvami. Svarupa Damodara's place of residence in Puri was the "Satasan Math". This is located near Bhaktivinoda Thakura's Bhakti kutir, near the ocean at Svarga Dwar. Svarupa Damodara Gosvami disappeared on the second day of the bright fortnight in the month of Asar. 24. Raghunatha dasa Gosvami Sri Raghunatha dasa took his birth in the village of Sri Krsnapura in the district of Hooghly. His father's name was Sri Govardhana, whose elder brother was Sri Hiranya dasa. Both of them were respectable wealthy land-holders belonging to the Kayastha caste. Their title, which was given by the King, was "Majumdar". In his childhood Sri Raghunatha dasa studied at the house of the priest, Acarya Sri Balarama dasa. Haridasa Thakura was very merciful to Balarama dasa and occasionally visited his house. At these times Raghunatha dasa had the good fortune of relishing Thakura Haridasa's association and listened to philosophical discourses from him. Sri Raghunatha dasa was the only son in the family of Hiranya and Govardhana and there was no limit to the care and affection which was showered upon him. Though he was brought up just like the son of a king, by the powerful influence of saintly devotees, he realized at a very young age that material existence is temporary and a mood of detachment towards wealth, parents and relatives began to grow within him. Upon hearing the glories of Sri Gauranga and Nityananda, he became extremely eager to have darsana of Their lotus feet. When he heard that Sri Gaurasundara had taken sannyasa and was leaving Nadia forever, he rushed madly to the home of Advaita Acarya in Santipura to meet the Lord. Seeing Raghunatha fall at His feet, Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu could understand that this was His dearmost eternal associate, and He embraced Raghunatha firmly. Crying, Sri Raghunatha appealed to the Lord, "I will also go with you." But the Lord replied that He


Caitanya-candra would not take him along at that time, yet upon His return from Vrndavana, Raghunatha should, under any pretext, come to Nilacala to see Him. In CC Antya lila, Sixth Chapter, there is a narration of how Sri Raghunatha dasa was arrested by the Nawab's men and his subsequent release from the bondage of family life. In that chapter there is also a description of the Panihati festival, as well as Raghunatha's pastimes in Jagannatha Puri with Sri Gaurasundara. Sri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami passed his days in the highest happiness, continually bathing in the shower of Mahaprabhu's mercy. But upon the disappearance of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, Raghunatha's world grew dark. In separation from their Lord, the devotees' hearts burned with anguish. Raghunatha dasa also burned in that fire of separation, but taking the order of Mahaprabhu on his head, he went to Sri Vrndavana. Previously Sri Sanatana, Sri Rupa, Sri Gopala Bhatta, Sri Raghunatha Bhatta, Sri Lokanatha, Sri Kasisvara, and Sri Bhugarbha Gosvami had already gone to Vrndavana and were living there by the order of the Lord. Though they all burned in the fire of separation, they pacified themselves by gathering together and discussing and writing the conclusions of the teaching of Mahaprabhu. It was the dawn of a golden age in Vraja. Sri Vallabha Acarya also visited Vrndavana at that time. Sri Raghunatha used to reside at Sri Radhakunda. At that time Radhakunda had not yet been excavated, though Raghunatha often meditated upon how to beautify the kunda. Once a wealthy merchant walked the long, difficult road to Sri Badarikasrama. With great devotion he worshiped Sri Badarinarayana and offered a large portion of his wealth in charity. That night Sri Badarinarayana appeared to him in a dream and said, "You should go to the village near Vraja named Arit-grama where you will find my devotee, Sri Raghunatha dasa Gosvami. To him you should deliver all your wealth. If he refuses to accept it, tell him I sent you and remind him about restoring Radhakunda." The merchant happily returned to his home and then went on to Vraja where he met Sri Raghunatha and explained everything to him. Astonished, Raghunatha gave him permission to restore both Radhakunda and Syamakunda. On the banks of the kunda grew five trees, which were actually the five Pandavas. Once there was some talk of cutting the trees down, but that night the Pandavas appeared to Raghunatha and forbade the trees to be cut. To this day the trees still grow there. The devotees were overwhelmed with happiness to see the restoration of Sri Radhakunda and Sri Syamakunda. On the outskirts of these two ponds, groves of the Asta-sakhis were planted. Raghunatha did not have a fixed residence, but stayed either on the banks of Sri Radhakunda or on the banks of the Manasa Ganga. At that time both places were surrounded by a fearful jungle inhabited by ferocious tigers and other wild beasts. One day Sri Sanatana Gosvami arrived at the bhajan kutir of Sri Gopala Bhatta Gosvami on the banks of the Manasa Ganga where he would take his midday meal. When going for a bath at Pavan Ghat he saw a tiger very nearby who had just drunk water in the ghat. Just a little further on, Raghunatha dasa sat at the base of a tree deeply absorbed in his bhajan. Sanatana Gosvami was alarmed and requested Raghunatha to practice bhajan in a cottage or hut. From that day on Raghunatha performed his bhajan in his hut. Raghunatha dasa Gosvami was always engaged in worshiping Sri Radha-Govinda within his mind. One day, in his meditation he prepared and offered sweet-rice to Sri Radha and Krsna. In great happiness They and the gopis ate the sweet rice, and he accepted Their remnants. While he was honoring their Lordship's prasada, he was filled with intense love and ate slightly more than what he was accustomed to. The next day, from morning until late afternoon his door remained closed, causing the devotees some concern. After they knocked repeatedly on his door, it finally opened and they saw him lying down. "My health is not good," he explained to Sridasa. The devotees were unhappy and immediately sent word to


Caitanya-candra Sanatana Gosvami in Mathura. At that time Sri Sanatana was staying at the house of Vallabha Acarya. Upon hearing the news, Vallabhacarya's son, Sri Viththal, sent two doctors to see Raghunatha dasa at Radha-kunda. Seeing his condition the physicians insisted that Raghunatha's illness was the result of eating too much sweet rice. The devotee were dumbfounded by such a suggestion, but eventually understood the mystery. The worship of Raghunatha dasa Gosvami was very wonderful. Kavi Karnapura has written in Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika (186) that Sri Raghunatha was Rasamanjari in Krsna lila. According to some other persons he was Ratimanjari or Bhanumati. Raghunatha dasa wrote many books such as: Stavavali, Danacarita, Muktacarita, etc. He also composed many padas. He was born in the Saka era of 1428 and left the world in the Saka era of 1504, on the twelfth day of the bright fortnight in the month of Asvina. (CC 1.10.91-102, 3.6.35-154, Gaura-ganoddesa-dipika 186, Premavilasa 16.127) His name has been mentioned in the following texts: Vaisnava Vandana of Jiva Gosvami (149150), of Devakinandana (55), and of Vrndavanadasa (49); Krsnacaitanyacaritam of Murari Gupta 4.17.21; Karnapura's Caitanya Candrodaya Nataka 10.3.; CC (R.G. Nath ed.) 2.1.269. 25. Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami Sri Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami was born in a Nadiya family of physicians at the village of Jhamatpur, within the district of Barddhaman, near Naihati, in 1496 A.D. His father was Sri Bhagiratha, and his mother was Sri Sunanda. He had a younger brother named Syama das. The deity of GauraNityananda installed by Sri Kaviraja Gosvami is still being worshiped there. It appears that his family line is no more. More information about the early life of Sri Kaviraja is available in a book called Anandaratnavali. In Caitanya-caritamrta, Adi-lila chapter five, Sri Kaviraja relates the cause of his leaving family life. Lord Nityananda appeared in his dream and ordered him to go to Vrndavana. He accepted the Gosvamis Sri Rupa, Sri Sanatana, Sri Jiva, Sri Raghunatha, Sri Raghunatha Bhatta and Sri Gopala Bhatta as his instructing spiritual masters. From Sri Lokanatha Gosvami and Sri Raghunatha Bhatta Gosvami he begged permission to write Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. Lokanatha directed Sri Kaviraja that he desired to be unmentioned in his book; that is why, in Sri Caitanya-caritamrta, hardly a reference about Lokanatha Gosvami is to be found. Sri Krsnadasa Kaviraja Gosvami compiled the following books still extant: Sri Govindalilamrta, Krsna-karnamrta commentary (Saranga-rangada-tika) and of course, Sri Caitanyacaritamrta. His disappearance is on 12th day of bright fortnight in month of Asvin (the year is not known). 26. Narottama dasa Thakura Kayastha by caste, Narottama was the son of King Krsnananda Datta. Krsnananda was the Zamindar of Gopalpur Pargana in the Rajsahi district of Bangladesh. His capital was located at Kheturi, about a mile northeast of Prematali on the bank of the river Padma, about a distance of twelve miles northwest of Rampur Boalia. Narayani devi was Narottama's mother. Narottama was born about the middle of the fifteenth Saka century (Bhaktiratnakara 1.466468). From his childhood he was extremely attracted to Lord Caitanya. According to some,


and the Lord explained that the person whose touch would make her surge up would be none other than Narottama. The brief write-up titled 'Hatapaltana' is also attributed to Narottama but the contents do not seem to be in harmony with historical events and thus some believe that it is a fake work. and how he received the grace of his spiritual master Lokanatha Gosvami. Some argue that Narottama wrote Siddhabhakticandrika. Sometime after his return from Vrndavana. which is famous amongst all Vaisnavas. His parents tried every means by which keep him with them." Tears streamed from the Lord's eyes and He appeared to be restless. He arranged this musical tradition in a way as to accommodate all parsada (associates) of both prakata and aprakata lila of Lord Gauranga. Narottama was the first exponent of the Garanhati tradition of kirtana. about two miles away from the capital of Kheturi. he received all instructions regarding the practice of spiritual life. Narottama installed six Deities. "Narottama. With the approval of the local Vaisnavas. the river surged forth. Premavilasa 8 narrates as follows: One day while dancing in kirtana at Kanair Natsala village. Jiva Gosvami deputed Srinivasa. Leaving behind all worldly bondage Narottama rushed for Vrndavana. At the age of twelve Narottama had a dream in which Nityananda Prabhu appeared to him and commanded that he collect the prema which was left in the custody of the river Padma. After Narottama was initiated by Lokanatha Gosvami. Narottama. Santosa Datta. Narottama entrusted his elder paternal uncle's son. Ramacandra Kaviraja was a very close companion of Narottama throughout his life (see Bhaktiratnakara and Narottamavilasa for details on Narottama's biography). Upon receiving this divine love Narottama's bodily complexion changed. Through his preaching many fallen souls were purified. Vallabhikanta. with the responsibility of the royal duties and left for Vrndavana. From evidence in older manuscripts Haridasa dasa has concluded that the real author was one Ramesvara dasa. As soon as his feet touched her. Narottama is widely believed to be the incarnation of Nityananda Prabhu. Mahaprabhu explained to Nityananda that he wanted to deposit the treasure of love of Godhead on the bank of the Padma for Narottama to pick up later. Lord Radhamohan and Lord Radhakanta. Early in the morning Narottama went alone to the river Padma to take his bath. named Bhajantuli. Narottama established his asrama. which gave immense pleasure to the audience. Lord Gauranga. Lord Vrajamohan. Remembering the words of Lord Caitanya the Padma now transferred the treasure to Narottama. Among the writings of Narottama. Although they were properly escorted by protected vehicles and guards. Srinivasa then sent Narottama to Kheturi and Syamananda to Utkala. The river Padma then asked the Lord how she would be able to identity Narottama. Lord Caitanya suddenly began calling out the name. the books were stolen near Vanavisnupur. Premavilasa 11 explains how Narottama was comforted by the divine touch of Rupa and Sanatana Gosvami.Caitanya-candra after the disappearance of his father. Narottama Thakura was always engaged in the singing the glories of Sri Gaura and Nityananda. After speaking with Nityananda Prabhu the Lord expressed His desire to visit Gaderhat on the bank of the Padma. Narottama and Syamananda to carry the Gosvamis books to the devotees in Gauda. On the occasion of this installation ceremony Narottama held a grand festival at Kheturi. Prarthana and Premabhakticandrika are the most wellknown. Narottama was spiritually named Campakamanjari. Lord Krsna. 53 . but Narottama was drunk with the nectar of Lord Caitanya and Nityananda and could not be kept in check.

183. See the following Bengali books for further information on Narottama: 1. 2nd ed. Jagadbandhu Bhadra argues that in 1664 A. Scholars differ in their views regarding Visvanatha's period. When Srinivasa Acarya heard this he could not bear the shock and after a few days he too disappeared. 1310. Slowly the sankirtana party proceeded to the bank of the Ganga. Burdwan." Visvanatha stands as a remarkable example of Bengali intellect. Both Nikhilnath Roy and Bimanbihari Majumdar hold that Visvanatha was born toward the early part of the 17th century Saka (see Mursidavadera Itihasa p. Visvanatha disappeared shortly after 1704 A. He gathered all the devotees around him in the temple of Sri Mahaprabhu and started sankirtana. p. Sitting knee deep in the water he continued singing loudly. 1: Biography and collected works. However proper evidence in support of the above arguments is lacking. Vipra Jagannatha. Camatkara candrika. 98).D. published in Bhaktiprabha 1335). With eyes full of tears. University of Burdwan. pp. 27. (see Vangala Sahityera Itihasa Vol. Murarilal Adhikari writes in Vaisnava Digdarsani that the period was 1646-1754. 4. introduction p. His place in the Vaisnava world remains unsurpassed as far as erudition. Calcutta University. 154 ka.D. along with Sri Ramakrsna Acarya and Sri Ganganarayana Cakravarti. Part 2. Thakura Mahasaya's body simply merged with the sacred water of the Ganga.Caitanya-candra Sadhyapremabhakti. 393) 54 . (Saka 1586) Visvanatha was born. (1626 Saka).D.-Nov. was a disciple of the famous Visvanatha Cakravarti. Calcutta. Thus he must have been alive around 1704 A. which he himself states at the conclusion of the book. Narottama requested that they massage his body as he continued singing. He was worshiped by his contemporaries as an example of unblemished ascetic life and an ideal follower of Ragamarga. (1555-60 Saka) and disappeared around Saka 1625-30 (Sri Krsna Bhavanamrta.. Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura The biography of Visvanatha has been translated from the following Bengali publications: Mihir Caudhuri Kamilya. Thus on the fifth day of the dark fortnight in the month of Karttika (Oct.D. 1. When this news reached Srila Thakura.. but these are not published works and the few mss. Madhusudana Tattvavacaspati guesses that Visvanatha was born around 1633-1638 A. 1981. Narottama Dasa by Rammohan Mallik 3. As they massaged him. poetic talent and appreciation of rasa. (quoted in the book Caitanyottara Yugera Gaudiya Vaisnava p. According to Sukumar Sen. Narottama dasa O Tahar Racamavali by Niradprasad Nath. 308). Narottama did translate Smaranamangala into Bengali verse. etc. no. 1-15 Narahari Cakravarti writes as follows in Bhaktiratnakara (Pathavadi ms. 2. Visvanatha completed Sararthadarsini in 1704 A. Narottama Thakura Kheturir Nitai by Narendranath Cattopadhyay 4. which are available do not seem to be in Narottama's writing style. p. According to Syamalala Gosvami it was 1626-1708 A. theological knowledge. Narahari Cakravarti: Jivani O Racanavali (Life and works of Narahari Cakravarti) Vol.) he entered into the eternal pastimes of the Lord. 1965. "My father.D. In Gaurapadatarangini 1st ed. Sri Ramacandra Kaviraja went to Sri Vrndavana.D. In eleven slokas this work describes the pastimes of Radha Krsna in eight parts of the day (astakaliya). Narottama-lila va Sri Gaura Premavatara by Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami The following is a narration describing the disappearance of Thakura Mahasaya: After taking permission from Narottama. 2341-24. Narottama fell prostrate on the ground and entered into the Ganga to take bath. p. a few months thereafter he breathed his last. he was overwhelmed with grief and began singing in a choked voice.

Some say that Visvanatha was educated under Ganganarayana Cakravarti of Saidavad (Premavilasa J.Caitanya-candra Visvanatha was born at Devagrama (see ms. Visvanatha himself writes about his spiritual lineage in one sloka of Sararthadarini. 276). Mukhopadhyaya 'Padakarta Harivallabha'). At the command of his father. Vol. defeated this scholar in argument. 183. Ramabhadra was an accomplished theologian and a disciple of Gopikanta. p. Jivanikosa by Sasibhusana Vidyalankar. Raghunatha.N. Visvanatha's brother Ramabhadra arranged for Visvanatha's marriage at an early age. None of the old mss. a mere adolescent. This account seems to be an interpolation at a later date. 2336 (21). But Visvanatha. and lineage drawn from Bhattanarayana (see Vaisnavacarya Visvanatha by Nanigopala Gosvami in Bharatavarsa 1351).21. Nadia: Svadhinata Rajatajayanti Smarakagrantha. of Narottamavilasa at Pathavadi no. Pathavadi mss. pp. Visvanatha's family was brahmana by caste from the Radha clan. 25). 31 kha). p. p. 1773. Krsnagore 1973. As a child Visvanatha completed his studies at Devagrama and thereafter went to Saidavad. p. Vaisnava Digdarsani p. Others argue that Devagrama falls under Sagaradihi police station of the Mursidabad district (see 'Padakarta Harivallabha' by Harekrsna Mukhopadhyay in Ananda Bajara Patrika special Puja no. Sandilya gotra. 31 kha). p. Once a highly renowned scholar visited Devagrama and the local pandita's became unnerved upon meeting him. Radharamana was the name of Visvanatha's diksa guru. Talukdar ed. It is said that as soon as Visvanatha was delivered a strange halo of light appeared around his body. 1369. In the said mss. Some believe that this village belongs to Kasiganj police station of the Nadia district (Gaurapadatarangini. 120. 31 kha. His eldest brother was Ramabhadra and the next oldest was Raghunatha. From his childhood Visvanatha was of a detached temperament. In chapters 2-7 of Stavamrtalahari Narahari also gives details on the spiritual lineage or guru-pranali of Visvanatha as follows: Lord Gauranga | Lokanatha | Narottama | Ganganarayana | Krsnacarana | Radharamana (alias Sri Rama) (son & disciple) | Visvanatha Visvanatha's guru and parama-guru belonged to the spiritual lineage of Narottama Thakura. of 'Narottamavilasa' of Pathavadi no. That light illuminated the entire delivery-room and then disappeared. No evidence in support of these views has yet been found. of 'Narottamavilasa' p. Visvanatha was the youngest child in the family. of 'Narottamavilasa" state that Visvanatha's father's name was Ramanarayana Cakravarti. while others argue that Ganganarayana's adopted son Krsnacarana actually taught Visvanatha (H. 206-7).K. 2336. introduction p. record the names of Visvanatha's parents. was also a great scholar (mss. an account is given relating to Visvanatha's birth. the disciple of Ramacandra Kaviraja who belonged to the spiritual lineage of Srinivasa. The second brother. This Gopikanta was the son of Hariramacarya. 55 . 5.

Visvanatha began copying Srimad Bhagavatam. Visvanatha narrated the pastimes of the Lord in a most fascinating manner. 1. Visvanatha also arranged to renovate a large number of temples. "Being deeply immersed in singing kirtana of the Lord. Visvanatha himself installed the Deity of Gokulananda and took charge of serving Govardhana sila. He reinstated different priests to begin the service of the Deities in various places. And the devotees were in a state of constant fear. 1. he renounced home. through studying Srimad Bhagavatam Visvanatha developed a deep spirit of renunciation. Visvanatha served the deity of Sri Gokulananda with great pleasure and devotion. Krsnadasa Kaviraja and Narottama Thakura (CC Sukumar Sen ed. 31-32 ka). Narottamavilasa pp.Caitanya-candra However. Anyone who had the good fortune to set his eyes upon Visvanatha felt immediately soothed from the pangs of material existence. During his stay in Vrndavana many loyal workers and scholars such as Baladeva Vidyabhusana were deeply impressed upon seeing Visvanatha's devotion. 56 . Visvanatha installed the deity of Gopala (Harekrsna Mukhopadhyaya p. This enabled devotees of all types to understand and appreciate the essence of the Gosvamis' works. 276) At the command of his guru. a disciple of Krsnadasa Kaviraja on the bank of the Radhakunda. which Visvanatha had to abide by (mss. Visvanatha also arranged for the wide distribution of books which Vaisnavas needed for daily study and spiritual practices. by Satyendranatha Vasu). as well as presenting abridged forms of the original works. A large number of Mathas had been destroyed by the Muslims. p. At that time there was little access by the common people to the works of the Gosvamis. What Visvanatha did was to prepare simple and lucid commentaries for these works. 19. 42). strength of mind and hard working nature. Regarding sadhana (spiritual achievements). Visvanatha was one of the most accomplished preachers of madhurya-bhava in ragamarga. After completing his studies he took spiritual initiation and gradually developed an intense love for Krsna. 2.4. This was due to the fact that there were no proper analysis and interpretation of these theological treatises. 4. Priests migrated from Vrndavana taking away the deities which were in their charge. A number of deities were left standing alone and received no service. Visvanatha became determined to bring back the lost glory of Vrndavana. Regarding his spiritual practices Narahari writes as follows. however. p.13). He also organized classes to be held on them to impart instructions. Finally. The following are some of his achievements. Visvanatha went home for one night to meet his wife. Narottamavilasa p. p. Visvanatha settled on the bank of the Radhakunda in Vrndavana. Visvanatha's name is placed after Raghunatha dasa Gosvami. After visiting several holy places Visvanatha finally sought the shelter of Mukundadasa. As directed by his guru. It was through his initiative that the Sri Vardhana Matha of Kongala and some new Mathas at several other places were set up (Visvakosa V. 32 ka). one day." When Visvanatha arrived in Vrndavana he noticed that with the disappearance of the six Gosvamis the beauty of that holy place was no longer visible. No one is competent enough to speak of his spiritual practices. The devotees present there urged this young renunciate to return home. heard nothing other than Krsna katha from her husband throughout the night (see mss. 3. His wife. Possibly this was the time when Visvanatha went to Patadanja where he is said to have realized his spiritual goal. People in general were in no mood to devote attention to the study of the scriptures (see Madhurya Kadambini introduction. took the vow of a renunciate and went to Vrndavana. Early the next morning Visvanatha left home and took shelter of his guru.

D.. In Vrndavana Visvanatha's literary talent blossomed and beautiful compositions began to flow like many streams of nectar. This Mukunda dasa was a poet and disciple of Krsnadasa Kaviraja. introduction).a Sanskrit tika on Narottama's Prema-bhakti-candrika 8) Sukhavartini . Titles of such commentaries are as follows: 1) Sararthadarsini (1704 A. Visvanatha's close follower. They say that Krsnadeva Sarvabhauma. p. Apart from practicing smarana (remembrance). detailed descriptions of Radha Krsna lila. Jaipur in 1718 A. p. Mukunda dasa had some books to be completed. 1751-52. a disciple of Jiva Gosvami wrote the tika of Lalita-madhava (see Haridasa dasa Gaudiya Vaisnava Abhidhana. 32 ka. while Radhakrsna dasa.tika on Bhagavad-gita 3) Sri Caitanya-caritamrtera tika (the first commentary in Sanskrit on a Bengali book) 4) Brahmasamhitara tika 5) Anandacandrika . Both in prakata and aprakata lila Visvanatha considered Sri Radha and the gopis as the parakiya heroines of Lord Krsna. Gopinatha Kaviraja ed.tika on Gopalatapani 11) Hamsaduta tika . This made it difficult for the lay-devotee to study and understand the proper conclusions. Visvanatha had deep faith in the astakaliya nitya-lila described by Kavi Karnapura and Krsnadasa Kaviraja (Padavaliparicaya 2nd ed. Visvanatha remained deeply absorbed in the service of Radha Krsna with loyalty to the Vrajavasis. Narottamavilasa p. details on the sadhana practiced by sakhi-manjari or kinkari. he thus requested Visvanatha to complete those books.) .D. Upon his arrival in Vrndavana. was the writer of the Vidagdha-madhava tika. also Baladeva Siddhantaratna. pp. Pathavadi mss. In order to help the students to learn easily Visvanatha wrote a simplified commentary titled 'Suvodhini' on Kavi Karnapura's Alamkara Kaustubha. 1745) 2) Abridged Works: 57 . Due to his own success in practice and realization. This is said to be Visvanatha's first literary work.tika on Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu of Rupa Gosvami 7) Prema-bhakti-candrika-kirana . As a youth in Saidavad Visvanatha set up a Sanskrit school and accepted a teaching career. To remove these obstacles Visvanatha wrote simple Sanskrit commentaries on many of the Gosvamis' works. Another remarkable achievement of Visvanatha's was to establish Gaudiya Vaisnavism and its theology through Baladeva Vidyabhusana. a unique analysis of ragamarga sadhana. 396. the mystic significance of bhajan and the method of bhajan. manana (contemplation) and sankirtana. Visvanatha was able to write beautifully describing the proper method for astakaliya nitya-lila. refers to this but does not give the names of the works.Caitanya-candra Visvanatha was an out and out parakiya-vadi. His complete works can be classified under four groups: 1) Commentary works (Tika Grantha): At that time most of the manuals and other books which Vaisnavas needed to consult daily were full of difficult theological concepts mostly written in Sanskrit. at the meeting of Vaisnavas held at Galta.tika on Danakeli Kaumudi of Rupa Gosvami 10) Bhakta-harsini . (Saka 1640) (see CC introduction 4th ed.tika on Ujjvala-nilamani of Rupa Gosvami 6) Bhakti-sara-pradarsani . 86-87). Visvanatha sought the refuge of Mukundadasa.tika on Rupa Gosvami's Hamsadutam 12) Tika on Rupa Gosvami's Vidagdha-madhava 13) Lalita-madhavera tika Some scholars argue that the tika on Lalita-madhava and Vidagdha-madhava were not works of Visvanatha. a disciple of Visvanatha. Noting Visvanatha's devotion and erudition.a tika on Kavi Karnapura's Ananda-vrndavana-campu 9) Mahati .tika on Srimad Bhagavatam 2) Sararthavarsini .

230 B 17) 3) Stavamrta-lahari: This is one of the best works of hymns. 4) Padavali Samkalam (compilation of Vaisnava poems) 5) Ksanada-gita-cintamani (known briefly as 'Ksanada' or 'Gitacintamani'). Gokulananda and Lord Krsna. Govindadeva.D. the poet's own guru.D. is Gauraganasvarupa-tattvacandrika. no. 2615 (24 ga). while keeping the unique characteristics of Radha Krsna lila in tact. He was gifted with the talent of communicating deep philosophical concepts in a simple way. General Library 58 .D.D. Pathavadi no. These reveal Visvanatha's genuine devotion and reverence for his superiors. Calcutta 5th edition (1369) Bimanabihari Majumdar.e Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu-vindu on Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 3) Kana i. 2613 (24 ka). hymns in praise of various lila sites such as Vrndavana.): describes madhurya of Radha 10) Sankalpa-kalpadruma (1678 A. [Ksanada-gita-cintamani mss. paramaguru. paratparaguru. p. etc.): description of the pastimes of Radha Krsna in the quiet of midnight. etc. Gopinatha. Pt.D. Lokanatha.): describes astakaliya nitya-lila of Radha Krsna 2) Ragavartmacandrika: a guide to and an account of raganuga bhakti and its methods 3) Madhurya-kadambini: reveals the subtle concepts on rupa and madhurya of Lord Krsna 4) Aisvarya Kadambini: a scriptural account of Lord Krsna's aisvarya (opulence) 5) Camatkara-candraka: mystic sports of Radha Krsna 6) Gopipremamrta: reveals the love of the gopis and concepts regarding svakiya and parakiya 7) Mantrartha-dipika: explanation of kamabija and kamagayatri mantras 8) Vraja-riti-cintamani: describes the sites of Lord Krsna's Vraja-lila 9) Prema-samputa (1684 A. Most of his original works relate to sadhana-bhajan as follows: 1) Sri Krsna-bhavanamrta (1679 A. Krsnakunda. Bhagavatamrta-kana on Laghu-bhagavatamrta 3) Original Works: Visvanatha's thoughts had originality and depth. Then invocation of the mercy of the famous Deities Gopaladeva. Vaisnava acaryas. and the holy places of Lord Krsna's pastimes. invocation of the grace of Radha and Vrnda devi. Nandisvara. 1. 2) Sri Gauranganoddesa-candrika: A brief account on the close associates of Lord Gauranga (a similar manuscript of Visvanatha's dealing with the associates of Lord Gauranga is available in the collection of Barahanagar--Sri Gauranga Granthamandir--the title of the said mss. Narottama. It consists of a total of 28 hymns which deal with the guru. cherished Deities.): describes prayers to Sri Radha to grant sevavrtti 11) Nikunja-keli-virudavali (1678 A. The following is a list of these works: 1) Sriman Mahaprabhorastakaliya Smaranamangalastotram: A guide book describing Lord Gauranga's astakaliya lila.).Caitanya-candra Visvanatha felt that many of the Vaisnava works were difficult for the lay-devotee to grasp.e Ujjvala-nilamani-kirana on Ujjvala-nilamani 2) Vindu i. See Vangala Sahityera Itihasa V.): describes the sports of Radha Krsna in the kunja 12) Surata-kathamrta (1678 A. 393] 2nd edition 1315 Vrndavana Kesighat (Krsnapada dasa Babaji) 3rd edition (?) Nitaipada Dasa 4th edition (1332) Nityasvarupa Brahmacari. Madanagopala. Sri Caitanya. Some other works by Visvanatha are written like hymns. 1. Three of these are works of Rupa Gosvami as shown below: 1) Kirana i.D. oldest edition 1282 (1875 A.e. He therefore extracted the most relevant information and presented an abridged form of various selected books.

2nd ed. p. The Purva Vibhaga of Visvanatha consists of a total of thirty Ksanada or themes. Each Ksanada or section is arranged in such a manner as it could be sung for one night. Varying in size. Some hold that Harivallabha was the name of Visvanatha's guru. Though Visvanatha was a highly imaginative poet he was a perfect erudite too. by his son Pitamvaradasa in 'Rasamanjari' and Mukundadasa. In 'Mantrartha-dipika' Sri Radha addresses Visvanatha in a state of dream as Harivallabha. Several of Manoharadasa's poems deal with Lord Gauranga. 102 b 393). However neither of these ideas is supported by evidence. A total of 308 pada are found in Purva Vibhaga containing the bhanita of 48 known and unknown poets (of these the compiler has 53 padas . the son of Visvanatha's disciple. In this book Visvanatha used the bhanita of 'Harivallabha' or 'Vallabha' on those poems composed by him. the writer of Anuragavalli. the priest of Radharamana of Vrndavana. 1. Some argue that Harivallabha was the sannyasa name of Visvanatha. 136). out of eleven Sanskrit padas two have bhanita of Harivallabha and four have the bhanita of Vallabha.. a disciple of Krsnadasa Kaviraja in 'Siddhantacandrodaya'. Sanskrit expression. Radhakunda. p.Caitanya-candra While compiling this Ksanada-gita-cintamani containing selected Vaisnava poems Visvanatha had in mind that devotees of raganuga marga may every night perform or listen to nama-guna etc. unadorned manner. of their cherished Deities. then follows Nityananda Vandana and concludes with poems of milana (comedy) or sambhaga. 1st ed. This compilation consists of Hindi poems. Haridasa dasa gives information in Gaudiya Vaisnava Abhidhana Vol. In the 'Pascima Vibhaga' there are six Hindi poems written by Visvanatha. Sukumar Sen argues that this compilation was done before 1704 A. This compilation was made with a view to serving aspirants with manjari-bhava eager to enjoy Vrajarasa. 59 . was found and published (Ksanada-gita-cintamani: Manoharadasa. P. Dr. compiled by Manohara dasa. but it is thought that Visvanatha disappeared before the later part was completed. This mss. clearly writes that Harivallabha was the name of Visvanatha. Bimanbihari Majumdar argues as follows: "Since Visvanatha compiled Vaisnava poems for the Bengalis to enjoy he titled them 'Purva Vibhaga' (eastern section) and his contemporary. In 'Gitavali' part of the book Stavamrta-lahari of Visvanatha.40 with the bhanita of Harivallabha and 13 with the bhanita of Vallabha). Earlier some attempts were made to prepare compilations of Vaisnava poems to some extent by Ramagopala dasa of Srikhanda in his 'Sri Sri Radhakrsnarasa-kalpavalli'. First there is Gaura Vandana.D. 2. Manohara dasa. or aksepanuraga and rasa. vatsalya or even themes relating to Mathura. However it was Visvanatha who first prepared this first compilation. Narahari. contains the first to the seventeenth section of Ksanada." In the second compilation there are twenty one poems of Manohara dasa. p. Mathura). None of these deal with sakhya. These themes are fitted each for thirty nights from the first night of the dark fortnight of one lunar month till the day of the new moon and from the first day of the bright fortnight till the night of the full moon. Kusumsarovar. who gave the bhanitas of Harivallabha or Vallabha. In between there are poems/lyrics dealing with abhisara. (see Gaudiya Vaisnava Sadhana by Harekrsna Mukhopadhyay. He never liked to compose poems in a simple. Pt. The first part of Ksanada is available. 3. along with those of Haridasa Svami etc. It was available from Advaitacarana Gosvami. All these compositions relate to madhurya rasa. published by Radhakrsna dasa. eight have small and sixteen have big padas.O. 1484 that a similar manuscript is available in the collection of Nimbarka sampradaya. In fact Ksanada is considered "the first perfect Padavali compilation" (Vangala Sahityera Itihasa V. compiled for the readers of western India and hence titled it 'Pascima Vibhaga' (western section). Recently the second part of Ksanada.

60 . and three pada of Visvanatha's out of 3101 total pada compiled in Vaisnava dasa's Padakalpataru. Sri Radha-Damodara Deva by name. there was not any pada of Visvanatha's. almost a contemporary of Visvanatha. rhetoric and logic and then went on pilgrimage. In all three languages Visvanatha composed a total of seventy padas of which the ones in Sanskrit are the best. Devotees hailed Visvanatha as 'the second svarupa of Rupa' or as 'avatara of Rupa'. Historians have estimated that he was born sometime in the eighteenth century.Caitanya-candra rhetorically rich language. It seems that Visvanatha's poems were not appreciated by his contemporaries. When critically evaluated as poetry Visvanatha's works do not rank in the first category although critics have praised most of his padas (see introduction by Bimanbihari Majumdar ed. most probably in Orissa (possibly near Remuna). Thus. Baladeva Vidyabhusana Baladeva Vidyabhusana was a highly renounced. He became a powerful exponent of this philosophy throughout India. 28a. thinker. Haridasa dasa. a disciple of Radhadamodara. Kanudasa. 33 kha). During this time he spent some time with the Tattvavadis in South India and thus became conversant with the teachings of Sri Madhvacarya. musician. Among other compilations of padas there are five padas of Visvanatha's in the total 1169 pada in Gitacandrodaya compiled by Narahari Cakravarti. Hindi and Sanskrit. 154). He compiled many books in order to benefit mankind. Among the devotees of Visvanatha nothing much is known about others except Krsnadasa (see mss. Visvanatha undoubtedly contributed immensely in leading Gaudiya Vaisnavism and sadhana bhakti forward. a compilation by Dinabandhu dasa belonging to a bit later period. after a few days he was initiated with Radha-Krsna mantra and began to study the Satsandarbha of Sri Jiva Gosvami. Most of the difficult treatises of Rupa Gosvami were presented by Visvanatha to devotees sometimes by adding simple commentaries and sometimes by preparing abridged editions. Nandakisora (see Rasakalika ed. with whom he discussed philosophy. 82. During his travels he again came to Utkaladesa (Orissa) and met with a grand-disciple of Sri Rasikananda Deva. These talks penetrated his heart and awakened divine love within. N. revered Visvanatha deeply as his guru. Hence in later compilation not many of Visvanatha's poems are found. p. one pada of Visvanatha's out of a total of 1119 pada compiled in Kirtanananda of Gaurasundara dasa. Neither can any pada of Visvanatha's be found in Sankirtanamrta. At a very early age he finished his studies of grammar. However he never mentioned his birth place or anything about his family background and therefore the details are not known for sure. The reason for this was that Radhamohana compiled the poems in Bengal while Visvanatha was in Vrndavana. chiming words and waves of rhythm enriched his poems which were equally rich with fascinating themes and deep rasa. poetry. Visvanatha had an extraordinary command of Vrajvuli. Vilasa p. Sri Radha-Damodara Deva explained the conclusions of Gaudiya Vaisnava philosophy as expounded by Sri Gaurasundara and requested him to consider the unlimited mercy of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. scholar and above all a devotee and preacher. Ksanadagitacintamani). In Padamrtasamudra of Radhamohana Thakura. Visvanatha stands as a remarkable outcome of Bengali intellect in 17th-18th century as poet. Judged from the standpoint of the preceding Vaisnava acaryas and the quality of rasa. theologian. p. who had not even a fraction of desire for name or fame. Some think that Krsnadeva Sarvabhauma was a disciple of Visvanatha. Baladeva Vidyabhusana. pure devotee.

With the permission and blessings of his guru. Sadacari Raja. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu." Having seen such a wonderful dream. refused to accept anything other than a direct commentary on the sutra. the members of the Sri sampradaya began to raise some arguments in the court of the king at Jaipur. Bringing the commentary with him. however. began to float in the ocean of bliss. "The originator of the Gaudiya Vaisnava sampradaya. as well as the other devotees. Baladeva fully accepted the Gaudiya Vaisnava philosophy and began to preach it with great vigor. Sri Baladeva. they were not qualified to worship the Deity and therefore the worship should be turned over to the Sri sampradaya.Caitanya-candra In a very short time he became very expert in Gaudiya Vaisnava philosophy. "I will dictate to you what to write and therefore no one will be able to refuse to accept it. and within a few days completed the commentary which was titled 'Sri Govinda Bhasya'. Thus the victory of the Gaudiya sampradaya was announced far and wide and the king. At that time Visvanatha Cakravartipada was very aged. He carefully instructed him in acintya-bhedabheda-tattva. has accepted Srimad Bhagavatam as the natural commentary on the Vedantasutra. After reading the commentary they were simply speechless. Thus he quietly sent word to Vrndavana." The scholars in the assembly. He further explained to them. They also objected to the worship of Srimati Radharani along with Sri Sri Govinda-Gopinatha as not being authorized anywhere in the sastras. The king. Sri Baladeva again came to the assembly of the Ramanandi scholars. The scholars then bestowed upon Sri Baladeva the title 'Vidyabhusana'. which He would compose. Having no other recourse. Around this time. who was fully conversant with the sastras and thus able to competently face the challenge. In a great assembly he posed such forceful arguments to the followers of Ramanuja that they could not reply to them. But at the same time the king was obliged to remove Radharani from the Deity room as well as suspend the Bengali Gaudiya Vaisnava pujaris from partaking in the Deity worship. as composed by Srila Vyasadeva Himself. This is proven in the Sat-sandarbha. Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura was extremely pleased to see the humble and gentle nature and the renunciation and profound mastery of the Vedas that characterized Baladeva. Baladeva was totally enlivened and felt renewed strength flow into his heart. and bestowed His favour by ordering me in a dream to write down His own commentary. and which attained such renown amongst the learned circles that they bestowed upon me the 61 . informed Sri Govinda of everything that had happened. vidya rupam bhusanam me pradaya kyatim nitya tena yo mamudarah sri govinda svapna nirdista bhaso radha bandhubandhurangah sa jiyat "May He Who so mercifully and munificently was kind towards me. informing the devotees there of what had happened. They complained that as the Gaudiya Vaisnavas had no commentary on the Vedanta-sutra. Feeling very aggrieved. Baladeva promised to present them with one. That night the Lord appeared to him in a dream and instructed him to write a commentary on the Vedantasutra. Thus he began to write. he moved to Sri Vrndavana dhama to further study these teachings under Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura. Sri Baladeva came to Sri Govindaji's mandira and after offering his prostrated obeisances. so it was not possible for him to make the journey to Jaipur. In his place he sent his student. was initiated within the Gaudiya sampradaya.

to present a composition named Vedanta-syamantaka. Sri Sri Radha-Syamasundara. Madhusudana dasa Babaji's disciple was Jagannatha dasa Babaji. Pada-kaustubha. He had two well-known disciples: Sri Vidya dasa and Sri Nandan Misra. Nataka-candrika-tika. were installed by Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana. After Sri Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura finished his pastimes in this world. Kavya-kaustubha. Returning from Jaipur to Vrndavana. composed by his mercy for the pleasure of Srimati Radharani. but the whereabouts of this Deity are at present not known. Srimad-Bhagavata-tika. Krsna-nandini. His disciple was Sri Madhusudana dasa Babaji who lived in Suryakunda. He used to sit up the entire night chanting the holy name and at early dawn finish his ablutions. Prameya-ratnavali. Vedanta-syamantaka. Sri Visnunamasahasra-bhasya. 28b. Vaisnava-nandini." This assembly took place in the year 1640 Sakabda (1718 A. Siddhanta-ratna-tika. Govindabhasya-suksma-tika. be glorified. Jagannatha dasa Babaji Jagannatha dasa Babaji was born in the Mayamanasimha district of West Bengal. Samsaya-satini. At the end of Vedanta-syamantaka. the Deities of Syamananda Prabhu. Isadi-upanisad bhasya. who holds Him dearer than Her own life. may that dear friend of Srimati Radharani. etc. he declined their request by stating that amongst the four authorized sampradayas. Stava-mala-vibhusana-bhasya. Sri Jaya and Sri Vijaya Govinda. he never hesitated to fast without taking any water for three days at a stretch. Krsna-bhavanamrta. Gaudiya Vedanta-acarya Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana had a disciple named Uddhava dasa. However. Sanksepa-bhagavatamrta-tippani-saranga-rangada. the Sri sampradaya was highly respectable and the foremost adherent of dasya-bhakti (devotion in servitorship). Gitabhusana-bhasya. residing at Gokulananda Mandira in Vrndavana. After accepting defeat. May that Sri Govinda be glorified. Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana became the next acarya of the Gaudiya Vaisnava sampradaya. Bhasya-pithaka.D. Sahitya-kaumudi-tika. 62 . Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana acknowledges his spiritual master thusly: "I have been sent here to Vrndavana by one brahmana guru.). the Ramanandi scholars expressed their desire to accept initiation from Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana. at Galta near the present city of Jaipur.Caitanya-candra title 'Vidyabhusana'. According to the opinion of some devotees. Jagannatha dasa Babaji was very austere. Sri RadhaDamodara Deva. Sahityakaumudi. Siddhanta-ratna. Candraloka-tika. Siddhanta-darpana. Sri Baladeva presented the certificate of victory to Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura and narrated all of the events that had transpired. All of the devotees were in great ecstasy to receive this news and Cakravartipada bestowed his full blessings on Sri Baladeva. Vyakarana-kaumudi. Baladeva Vidyabhusana installed the Deity of Vijaya Gopala there at Galta Mandira. He is the compiler of the following books: Sri Govinda-bhasya. Stava-mala-tika. Sri Baladeva Vidyabhusana began to write a commentary on Jiva Gosvami's Sat-sandarbha. were worshiped by Baladeva Vidyabhusana personally. If there was any cause of loss of respect to the sampradaya this might be considered an offense. commentaries on Gopala Campu. Tattvasandarbha-tika." Baladeva Vidyabhusana became known later as Sri Govinda dasa. From this day the Maharaja of Jaipur announced that Sri Govinda's arati would be performed first and then the other temples could perform their aratis. In the morning he took prasada of curd and flat rice. At this time.

and that night there was kirtan and Hari-katha. Seeing Bhaktivinoda Thakura's enthusiasm for preaching the holy name of Krsna. at Amalajora. I would like to go to Navadvipa. 2. in rushing to make their escape they stumbled on the door step and dropped the Deities. Some time later. please put this Deity in the care of someone else in Vrndavana. Bhaktivinoda Thakura again had the good fortune to take his darsana. Bhaktivinoda Thakura established his Prappanaasrama. Sometime later he again asked Biharidasa to locate another Deity for him. 63 . Once he asked his servant Biharidasa to locate a Deity to install there. to Suryakunda. 3. He stayed in Amalajora during ekadasi. a resident of Varsana 7. On the occasion of the installation ceremony a sum of Rs. At present these Deities are residing at Dhopapada in Gopalbag and are known as "Sonara Gaura". In 1880 Bhaktivinoda Thakura went to Vrndavana and saw him for the first time. to Mother-Gosvamini. along with all items for worship. The dacoits broke open the temple door and quickly gathered up everything they could find. Nityananda dasa Babaji. At present this Deity is being served at the lane of Nidhuvana. Biharidasa carried the Deities to Vrndavana where he handed Them over. Later. 25 from Mother-Gosvamini of Gayespur handed over the Deity as well as the money to Narottama dasaji. Babaji Maharaja visited the Barddhaman district during the month of Phalguna. At that time. This Deity belonged to Dinu Babaji. a resident of Kadamakhandi Jagannatha dasa Babaji lived in Vrndavana and performed his bhajan there for quite some time. He told them that he possessed nothing and they might look into the temple for booty. One day a band of dacoits approached him with the motive of stealing the Deities which they thought were made of gold.Caitanya-candra The following is a list of disciples of Siddha Jagannatha dasa Babaji: 1. Ramahari dasa Babaji 5. Let my body be offered at the lotus feet of Lord Gauranga." Biharidasa brought the Deity to Vrndavana and after receiving a donation of Rs. Ramadasa Babaji 6. a Manipuri Vaisnava residing in Mathura near Radhakunda. he received many instructions on Hari-bhakti from Jagannatha dasa. the head of the Gopalaguru Matha. For ten years thereafter Babaji Maharaja worshiped this Deity until one day he said. along with Rs. Biharidasa found a Deity of the six-armed Lord Caitanya which had been kept hidden in a bag of cattle-feed. including the Deities. Biharidasa brought the Deity to Vrndavana where he cleansed and decorated Him. Nitai-Gaura looked so beautiful when They were installed that it appeared as if They were made of gold. then carried the Deity. Biharidasa personally approached a weaver-caste Zamindar to help him in this regard.000 was spent to feed the Vaisnavas of Suryakunda and Radhakunda. "Bihari. Biharidasa Babaji 2. a resident of Gayespur in the district of Maldaha.000. Seeing that the sun had risen outside the dacoits left the Deities and rushed off with the rest of the booty. He stayed at a town called Amalajora. Bhagavata dasa Babaji 3. While there. The Zamindar thus arranged to bring Deities of Gaura-Nitai from Dainhata and gave them to Biharidasa. Gaurahari dasa Babaji 4. Babaji Maharaja was very happy. Harekrsna dasa Babaji. However. After this incident he asked Biharidasa to arrange for the Deities to be cared for by someone else.

Hearing this. The total came to two hundred rupees. Bihari placed some rupees in his hand and kept twelve rupees aside. whenever it was time for kirtana he would still raise his arms in ecstasy. "Bihari!. Even when he was nearly 135 years old. At that time. Babaji Maharaja one day called upon him to prepare the Vaisnava calendar in accordance with the proper siddhanta. Jagannatha dasa Babaji revealed many lost holy places in Mayapura. In his old age. Babaji Maharaja could not walk and Biharidasa used to carry him in a basket on his shoulders. you may take my plate away as well. Jagannatha dasa Babaji's servant's name was Biharidasa. He did not want to give them alms. He ordered Bhaktivinoda Thakura to build a hut so devotees could stay near his bhajan kutir. Babaji Maharaja would stay at the house of Bhaktivinoda Thakura on Manikatala Street. Many people would come to see him and to offer him donations for the service of Sri Krsna. In his old age. Srivasa Angana. "No. He was extremely strong and powerful. rasagulas. Even though his eyesight was failing. Bhaktivinoda was always very eager to invite him to his house for prasada. Babaji Maharaja ordered Biharidasa to take the money at once and buy sweetballs. His bhajan kutir and samadhi mandir are still there at present. but told them to do service. although he was almost paralyzed by infirmity. Babaji Maharaja made his wishes known as to how the money should be spent. When Biharidasa caught hold of one of the dogs to drive it off. 64 . Whenever Babaji Maharaja would take prasada. His servant Biharidasa would keep all these donations in a bag. Babaji Maharaja detected the discrepancy. "But guru maharaja. When asked about how many rupees were on hand. and Bhaktivinoda did so. living under a makeshift canvas tent. "Bihari! How many rupees have I got?" Biharidasa had put some rupees aside for some service he had planned to render Babaji Maharaja." he said." Many people used to come and beg alms from Jagannatha dasa Babaji. and others. These dogs are residents of the holy dhama. It is said that when he came upon the holy place of Mahaprabhu's birth he danced. but Babaji Maharaja would give him nothing. One day a man named Sri Gaura Hari dasa came and asked Jagannatha dasa Babaji for alms. I shall not eat today. he went on preaching the message of Sri Caitanya throughout the world for the benefit of the fallen masses. He did so and Babaji Maharaja was very pleased. When Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura was twelve years old. although he was very old and walked with difficulty. Bhagavata dasa in turn gave the dress of a babaji to Gaurakisora dasa Babaji. the Vaisnava calendar recording the dates of the appearance and disappearance of important Vaisnava saints and the celebration of important festivals. guru of Bhagavata dasa Babaji Maharaja. You may not abuse them. When he went to Calcutta. One day. Babaji Maharaja said. Once Babaji Maharaja was on the banks of the Ganges. Nearby that place there lived a dog with five puppies. His arrival in Surabhi-kunja was a wonderful event. however. including the Yogapitha. Babaji Maharaja was nearly blind. Babaji Maharaja told him: "Bihari! If you wish to drive these dogs off. the dogs would come around and lick the food from his plate. began. these dogs are unclean!" Babaji Maharaja remarked." When Bihari complained. Babaji Maharaja always had great enthusiasm for kirtan and Vaisnava seva. When he was in his old age. he was an expert in the Jyotisastras explaining Vedic astrology. With this.Caitanya-candra In 1893 Babaji Maharaja went from Koladvipa to Surabhi-kunja in Godrumadvipa. the Navadvipa Panjika. Jagannatha dasa Babaji was the vesa. Bihari surrendered the remaining coins to his guru. or Babaji. For some time he remained in Nadia and performed his bhajan on the banks of the Ganges. but Babaji Maharaja was very renounced and would come only occasionally. There he took his seat. and feed all the cows in Navadvipa dhama. "Why have you kept twelve rupees aside? Give me all the rupees!" Smiling at this fun.

This was because Vaisnavism was not very much respected in his family. he left that school when his older brother died unexpectedly of cholera. Babaji Maharaja finally relented. The aged Manamohini dasi. Srimad Bhaktivinoda Thakura remarked of Jagannatha dasa Babaji Maharaja that he was the topmost general among Gaudiya Vaisnavas. who had mastered British education. Sometime later Kedaranatha Datta Bhaktivinoda arrived there and both he and Biharidasa sought bhiksa from Nafar Pal Chowdhury of Mahesaganj and raised two shades. 40. He tore off a piece of his kaupina (undergarment) and gave it to Biharidasa. Awhile later. His childhood was spent at the mansion of his maternal grandfather Mustauphi Mahasaya. He got his elementary education at the primary school started by his grandmother. in Biranagara. started by the King of Nadia. He lived here for 32 years until his disappearance at the age of 147 years. a resident of Rana Ghata. the grant of land that had been conferred upon his grandmother changed owners. Such a person should worship the residents of Vrndavana with great care and attention. Sept. Rajarsi Banamali Raya Bahadur built three small rooms and fenced them in with a surrounding wall. One day Babaji Maharaja remarked about the professional readers of Srimad-Bhagavatam. at this time the family fell into a condition of poverty . Later Biharidasa bought ten cottahs of land from Madhava Datta for Rs. He was named Kedaranatha Datta by his Godfather. thereby informing the beggar that he must first learn to control his senses before taking up the profession of a saint. with the approval of Jagannatha dasa. his father passed away." In Navadvipa Jagannatha dasa Babaji preferred to live beneath a tree where now the bhajan kutir of Biharidasa stands. Around this time Kedaranatha's uncle Kasiprasada Ghosh Mahasaya Thakura. 2. Bhaktivinoda Thakura Bhaktivinoda Thakura was born on Sunday. Subsequently. Those who are involved in this professional reading should immediately give it up. Still. That plot had a huge ditch in it which Bihari filled up by carrying earth from the Ganges at night after Jagannatha dasa went to bed. His mother arranged a marriage for him when he was 12 (in the year 1850) to the 5 year old daughter of Madhusudana Mitra Mahasaya. with the instruction to present it to the beggar as alms. He would be known as daitya-kulera prahlada (Prahlada in the family of demons). on his mother's side. arranged to dig a well. Later he attended an English school in Krsnanagara.their great wealth proved to be illusory. He was also known as the great grandson of Madana Mohana and the third son of his Godfather Anandacandra. 1838 in Biranagara (Ulagrama) in the Nadia district of Bengal. "This kind of professional Bhagavata kirtana is simply prostitution. there was no respect for Vaisnavism at all. 29. When he was 11 years old. considering himself most fallen. and thus pray for forgiveness. Those who make their living by reading Srimad-Bhagavatam are offenders to the holy name of Krsna. He was the seventh son of Raja Krsnananda Datta. Kedaranatha Datta passed over these difficulties with great endurance. And one who listens to such offensive readings and thus commits offenses against the holy name of Krsna certainly goes to hell. His environment at this time was very opulent.Caitanya-candra When the man persisted for three days. his servant. fasting outside Babaji Maharaja's tent. came to Ulagrama after the death of his maternal grandfather. He 65 . No one should listen to the kirtana and Bhagavatam readings that they produce. a great devotee of Lord Nityananda. a resident of Kaigrama.

Kedaranatha assisted Kasiprasada by judging manuscripts submitted to the newspaper. In Bhadraka.Caitanya-candra schooled young Kedaranatha at his home in Calcutta. Kedaranatha began to consider the question of the means of his livelihood. Rajavallabha Datta. Emerson and Newman. was Kedaranatha's best friend during these years. and writer. these essays were published in local journals. but by the time he was 13 he was allowed to go to the big city. After some time he went to Puri and passed a teacher's examination. formerly an important Calcutta gentleman who was now living as an ascetic in the Orissan countryside. in 1860. this was at first resisted by the boy's mother. thus becoming a pioneer in English teaching in that state. who met Alexander the Great. Kedaranatha studied many popular Bengali religious sects. Soon after he went to Orissa to visit his paternal grandfather. Kedaranatha brought his mother and paternal grandmother with him to Calcutta. He established a school for English education in the village of Kendrapara near Chutigrama. his first son Annada Prasada (Acyutananda) was born. As the headmaster of the Medinipura high school. which he planned to complete in 12 books. this book received favorable mention in the work called "Orissa" by British historian Sir William Hunter. in Orissa. many writers came to him to learn the art of writing in correct English. being the editor of the Hindu Intelligencer newspaper. Hunter praised Kedaranatha's moral and religious character. At the end of 1858 Kedaranatha returned to Biranagara and found that the Muslim soothsayer's prediction about that place had come true: it was ruined and deserted. the eldest son of Maharsi Devendranatha Tagore and brother of the Nobel Prize winning poet Rabindranatha Tagore. He started writing extensively in both English and Bengali. His work was noted by the schoolboard authorities. He studied English literature at this time extensively. He published a book that year in English that described all the asramas and temples in the state. His days were coming to a close. he traveled to all the monasteries and temples in the state of Orissa. as he'd seen how the "necessary dishonesty" of the trade world had morally weakened the merchant class. particularly their philosophies and practices. These two books described the life of Porus. Kedaranatha entered college in Calcutta. or big brother. He attended Calcutta's Hindu Charitable Institution high school and became an expert English reader. He assisted Kedaranatha in his studies of Western religious books. The Muslim also predicted Kedaranatha would become recognized as a great devotee of Lord Krsna. After receiving his grandfather's last instructions. and found it more interesting than Hindu monism. His uncle's house was situated in the Heduya district of central Calcutta. Kedaranatha used to call Dvijendranatha "baro dada". speaker. Dvijendranatha Thakur. he got a teacher's post in a Cuttack school and later became headmaster of a school in Bhadraka and then in Madinipura. Theodore Parker. Kasiprasada was the central figure of the literary circle of his time. and he wanted Kedaranatha to be with him when he departed this world. He also could see the oppressive power wielded by the landowners of Chutigrama. He decided to become a school teacher. Between the years 1857-1858 he composed a two part English epic entitled "The Poriade". He concluded they were all cheap. He would spend many hours comparing the writings of Channing. He also lectured in both languages. In the year 1856. and taught speechmaking to a person who later became a well-known orator in the British Parliament. He was very taken by Christian theology. Kedaranatha became ill from the salty water of Calcutta. He returned to Ulagrama and was treated by a Muslim soothsayer who predicted that the village of Biranagara would soon become pestilence-ridden and deserted. He was not interested in business. Kedaranatha studied Kasiprasada's books and also frequented the public library. when he was 18. He came to understand that the only real religion that had ever been established in 66 .

and we trust that many more educated natives will have the good sense to devote their time and abilities to the attainment of this most desirable aim. He incessantly submitted heartfelt prayers for the Lord's mercy. a clique of tea planters made unjust demands of him. to read Srimad-Bhagavatam under the tree. unfortunately. He wrote an English book in 1863 called "Our Wants. he successfully opposed them. At this time he received copies of the Srimad Bhagavatam and Sri Caitanya-caritamrta from Calcutta. In Camparana people used to worship a ghost in a banyan tree which had the power to influence the mind of the local judge to decide in the favor of the worshiper. the tree crashed to the ground.premalankara. they gave birth to a new way of writing poetry in the Bengali language. which is quite free from those objectionable licenses of thought and expression which abound in many dramas recently published. His movement was not wellrepresented. becoming the Deputy Magistrate. was born. "We hope the author will continue to give his countrymen the benefit of his elegant and unassuming pen. during which time his second son. 67 . after whom the school was named. Later in 1863 he stayed at Burdwan. his faith in Krsna developed until he was absorbed in Krsna consciousness day and night. so in the town of Jakapura he married Bhagyavati De.Caitanya-candra Bengal was that of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. which was circulated by the government throughout the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. Kedaranatha engaged the father of Pandita Ramabhai. the site of the famous Krsna temple of Jagannatha. The school was successfully established. the talk he gave was instrumental in securing public aid for the school. Desiring to establish a school for teaching nyaya-sastra. And while at Saran he visited the Gautama Asrama at Godana." At this time he also constructed a home in Rana Ghata. Radhika Prasada. despite searching in bookshops. Then he became Collectorate Officer after seeing the corruption of the government workers. In 1861 Kedaranatha accepted the post of Deputy Magistrate in the Government of Bengal. saying. was where Caitanya Mahaprabhu had resided for 18 years as a sannyasi. a famous girl scholar. The want of the day is the creation of a literature for Hindu ladies. He also became quite fluent in Persian and Urdu. he delivered a speech in the form of a treatise he had written on the Srimad-Bhagavatam to a big congregation of many prominent men of letters from many parts of India and England. Kedaranatha's first wife passed away. In a place called Saran in Chapara. and many people found faith in the Srimad-Bhagavatam. He came to understand the supreme majesty and power of the one and only Absolute Personality of Godhead Sri Krsna." The rhyme and style of these two poems were original. while serving as deputy magistrate under the government of Bengal in Dinajapura. he was then transferred to Dinajapura (West Bengal) in 1868. He was transferred to Camparana. Kedaranatha could not even get a copy of the 16th century Bengali biography of Lord Caitanya's activities on earth called Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. In the year 1866 Kedaranatha took the position of Deputy Registrar with the power of a Deputy Collector and Deputy Magistrate in the district of Chapara. where he composed two novel poems in Bengali: "Vijinagrama" (deserted village) and "Sannyasi. He established an organization called the "Bhratr Samaja". Though Kedaranatha had no further part in the project after his speech. He read Caitanya-caritamrta repeatedly. Kedaranatha was transferred to Purniya from Chapara where he took charge of the government and judicial departments. the foundation-stone being laid in 1883 by Sir Rivers Thomson. this manual was used by the registration departments of those areas. he delivered a speech there (in 1866) which was well-received. Also in 1866 he translated the Balide Registry Manual into Urdu. In 1869." Volume 39 of the 1863 Calcutta Review praised these poems. He published a song about Lord Caitanya entitled Saccidananda. From Camparana he went to Puri which engladdened his heart because the holy city of Puri. libraries and monasteries all over Bengal. after one month.

but this rascal must be punished. where he was guarded by 3 dozen Muslim constables and 72 policemen from Cuttack day and night. The yogi kept his mystic power in his hair and hadn't eaten or drunk during the whole trial. as he did not wear kanthi-mala (neckbeads) or tilaka (clay markings on 12 places of the body). he'd better not interfere with him. Kedaranatha replied by acknowledging Bisakisena's accomplishments in yoga and invited him to come to Puri where he could see the Jagannatha temple. But Kedaranatha pronounced the man guilty and sentenced him to 18 months for political conspiracy. Moreover. requested Kedaranatha to bring Bisakisena to justice. Bisakisena haughtily said. so when his hair was shorn he fell to the floor like a dead man and had to be taken by stretcher to jail. Some wealthy landowners of Orissa came under his sway and were providing funds for the construction of a temple. subdivision officer at Kodar. he advised other Vaisnavas to avoid Kedaranatha's association. Kedaranatha knew it was the power of the yogi at work. Ravenshaw. While in Puri he established a Vaisnava discussion society known as the Bhagavat-samsad in the Jagannatha-vallabha gardens. After 3 months he was moved to the central jail at Midnapura where he took poison and died in the year 1873. "Why should I come to see Jagannatha? He's only a hunk of wood. I am the Supreme in person. cut off all the yogi's long hair. When Bisakisena was being readied for jailing. let us all die." The very next day in court the yogi announced he'd shown his power and would show much more. In Puri. later prosecuted them. He thought that Kedaranatha was unauthorized. copied out the Sat-sandarbhas of Jiva Gosvami and made a special study of Rupa Gosvami's Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu. Kedaranatha arrested the rogue. On the last day of the trial Kedaranatha himself became ill from high fever and suffered exactly as his daughter had done for one whole day. Bisakisena declared he'd drive the British rulers out of Orissa and make himself king. The trial lasted 18 days. Between the years 1874 and 1893. where the famous saint Sri Ramananda Raya stayed in meditation hundreds of years before. but Mr. The British thought him a revolutionary." Instantly furious. but within a day she had recovered. Mr. as they all feared the yogi's power. On 6th day of the trial Kedaranatha's second daughter Kadambini (age 7) became seriously ill and nearly died. the District Medical Officer. during which time thousands of people gathered outside the courtroom demanding Bisakisena's release. All the prominent Vaisnavas joined this group except for Raghunatha dasa Babaji. He warned Kedaranatha that since he (Bisakisena) was the Lord. but nobody in Orissa dared to act upon these orders. Dattakaustubha and Tattva-viveka and many other books in Bengali such as the Kalyana-kalpataru. "Yes. in the town of Kamanala. known as Siddha Purusa. Kedaranatha tried Bisakisena in Puri. They also sent him women with whom he engaged in "rasa-lila" enjoyments. Walter.Caitanya-candra Near Puri. he suggested that Kedaranatha should release him at once or face worse miseries. brought him to Puri and threw him in jail. He wrote several books in Sanskrit such as Tattva-sutra. But soon thereafter Raghunatha dasa Babaji contracted a deathly illness. district commissioner for Orissa. Bisakisena himself claimed to be Mahavisnu. Such inflammatory statements were circulated all around Orissa. so the District Governor of the National Government of Bengal drew up arrest orders. Kedaranatha went personally to Bisakisena. He had two companions going by the names Brahma and Siva. Kedaranatha studied the Srimad-Bhagavatam with the commentary of Sridhara Svami. who became popular by exercising mystic powers. Taylor. there lived a yogi named Bisakisena. "Brahma" and "Siva" avoided arrest by claiming they'd been forced by Bisakisena to do as they'd done. one Dr. who showed some powers and informed Kedaranatha that he knew well who he was and his mission. Lord Jagannatha appeared to him in a dream and told him to pray for the mercy of Kedaranatha if he at all 68 . Kedaranatha spent much time in seclusion chanting the holy name (though he still executed his worldly duties perseveringly). He remarked.

both at Rana Ghata. Near the Jagannatha-vallabha gardens. his seventh son. 69 . Kedaranatha became manager of the Jagannatha temple. In Naraila. after a long time Caran dasa Babaji came to his senses and begged forgiveness from Kedaranatha. the spiritual master of A. you have rendered an essential service to your co-religionists. He made notes on the Vedanta-sutra which were used by Sri Syamalala Gosvami in the edition of the Govinda Bhasya by Baladeva Vidyabhusana that he published. the Siddha Bakula tree and the Gambhira room. many people had formally adopted Vaisnavism. He was named Bimala Prasada (and would later be known as Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Prabhupada. Reinhold Rost wrote to Kedaranatha: "By representing Krsna's character and his worship in a more sublime and transcendental light than has hitherto been the custom to regard him." In 1877 Varada Prasada was born. A popular upstart holy man named Caran dasa Babaji preached and printed books advising a perverted style of kirtana (congregational chanting of the holy names of God). returning to Bengal where he visited the holy towns of Navadvipa. At the same time. when the last oblations were offered into the fire. The raja was angry at Kedaranatha and therefore. Kedaranatha was awarded by the Vaisnavas the title "Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura" in appreciation for his tireless propagation of the philosophy of devotion (bhakti) to Sri Krsna. the fourth son of Kedaranatha took birth. Two years earlier. Six months later Caran dasa went mad and died in great distress. Kedaranatha took formal Vaisnava initiation from Bipin Bihari Gosvami. Raghunatha dasa Babaji was blessed with a true awareness of Kedaranatha's spiritual position.Caitanya-candra wanted release from the illness and death. In the Jagannatha temple courtyard he set up a Bhakti Mandapa. so Kedaranatha forced the Raja to pay for the offerings of food to Lord Jagannatha. especially at the important sites of Sri Caitanya's pastimes like the Tota Gopinatha temple. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. and no one would have taken more delight in your work than my departed friend Goldstuecker. Kamala Prasada. A well-known saint named Svarupa dasa Babaji did his worship at Satasana near the ocean in Puri. He used his government powers to establish strict regularity in the worship of the Deity. Viraja Prasada. Santipura and Kalana. advising that one should chant the Hare Krsna Mantra in japa and Nitai Gaura Radhe Syama Hare Krsna Hare Rama in kirtana. began a yajna (fire sacrifice) meant for killing Kedaranatha which went on for 30 days. with the help of 50 brahmin priests. admitting his fault in spreading this nonsense fashion of chanting all over Bengal. In 1874 Kedaranatha discovered the Raja (king) of Puri had misappropriated 80 thousand rupees for his own sense pleasures.C. the sincerest and most zealous advocate the Hindus ever had in Europe. who was descended from the Jahnava family of Baghnapara. the sixth son. Within a few years after his initiation. 1880. Kedaranatha left Puri on special business. where daily discourses of Srimad Bhagavatam were held. In August 1878 he was made head of the subdivision Naraila in the Yashohan district. the king's own son and not Kedaranatha died. Dr. He did so. Lalita Prasada. In a letter dated April 16. Kedaranatha would spend long hours discussing Krsna and chanting the holy name. his third son. founder-acarya of the International Society for Krsna Consciousness). had taken birth. the tomb of Haridasa Thakura. in a large house adjacent to the Narayana Chata Matha. on the 5th day of the dark fortnight of Magha in the year 1874. This money belonged to the temple. Kedaranatha preached long and hard to him. While in Naraila he published two books on Krsna that became famous around the world: Sri Krsna-samhita and Kalyana-kalpataru. He was put in charge of the subdivision Mahisarekha in Haora. and in 1878. appeared at Rana Ghata. his fifth son. After that he was transferred to Bhadraka. Svarupa showed much affection for Kedaranatha and gave him many profound instructions on the chanting of the holy name of Krsna. Kedaranatha gave him special medicines and cured him.

and Vasu Ramananda. Bhaktivinoda Thakura wrote a Sanskrit commentary on the book and called it Sri Caitanya-caranamrta. dedicated to the preaching of pure bhakti as taught by Lord Caitanya. taking little food and hardly any sleep. a great associate of Lord Nityananda. At nearby Saptagram he visited the residence of the great Vaisnava saint Uddharana Datta Thakura. He called the house Bhakti-bhavan (place of devotion) and started daily worship of Sri Giridhara. Prema-pradipa and Manah-siksa. He had undertaken this task at the request of Babu Sarada Carana Mitra. He met Jagannatha dasa Babaji there. Bhaktivinoda Thakura traveled to many places in Bengal looking for it. It was a sellout when published. the result was Bankim Candra changed his ideas (which were mundane speculations about Krsna) and his book to conform with the teachings of Sri Caitanya. Bankim Candra showed him a book he'd written about Krsna to Bhaktivinoda. From Vrndavana he came to Calcutta and bought a house at 181 Manikatala Street. with his Amrta-prabhava Bhasya commentary. In Calcutta he set up the Sri Caitanya Yantra. Also he published his own edition of the Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. his Vaisnava journal. To publicize the work of the society. a printing press at the Bhakti Bhavana. which he translated into Bengali (the "Rasika-ranjana" translation). the land of Krsna. acknowledging his own indebtedness to Bhaktivinoda Thakura. this translation was called Amrta-bindu. finally. who preached to Bankim Candra for four days. Bhaktivinoda Thakura gave these simple devotees of Krsna shelter and instructed them in Vaisnava-siddhanta (the essential truths of Vaisnavism) most exactingly.Caitanya-candra but they were not trained in scriptural conclusions and thus were easily misled by upstarts who exploited their devotional sentiments. Sri Caitanya Siksamrta. From Barasat. Bhaktivinoda Thakura accepted Jagannatha dasa Babaji as his eternally worshipable siksa guru (instructing spiritual master). Madhusudana dasa Mahasaya translated the verses into Bengali. During his pilgrimage at this time he dealt with a gang of dacoits (highway robbers) known as the Kanjharas who robbed and killed many pilgrims. now called Ramasha Datta Street. He was also publishing Sajjanatosani magazine on a regular basis. he gave evidence to the government and a commission was formed to wipe out this scourge. and the places of another great Vaisnavas of that time. Abhirama Thakura. and gave assistance to the 70 . Bhaktivinoda Thakura published a small booklet entitled Visva-Vaisnava-kalpavi. Bhaktivinoda Thakura used to say that knowledge is power. at Khanakula. At Sriramapura he composed and published his masterly writing. He took three months for this purpose. he noted that all Bengali readers would be indebted to Bhaktivinoda for his saintly work. Prayaga. upon which he printed Maladhara's Sri Krsna-vijaya. Bhaktivinoda Thakura had previously pilgrimaged to the holy cities of Benares. Mathura and Vrndavana in 1866. Finding the Caitanyopanisad was a difficult task. who moved every 6 months between Navadvipa (in Bengal) and Vrndavana. Bhaktivinoda Thakura was transferred to Sriramapur. ex-judge of the Calcutta High Commission. At the close of his stay in Naraila he desired to again see Vrndavana. In 1881 Bhaktivinoda began publishing the Sajjanatosani. And he introduced the Caitanyabda or Caitanya-era calendar. In Calcutta Bhaktivinoda Thakura started the Sri Visva-Vaisnava Sabha. near Bidana Park. He was appointed head of the subdivision of Barasat where the well-known novelist Bankim Candra met him. Hardly anyone in Bengal had heard of it. his own Amnaya-sutra and the Caitanyopanisad of the Atharva Veda. at Kulinagrama. During the last year of his stay at Barasat (1886). Vaisnava-siddhanta-mala. one devoted Vaisnava pandita named Madhusudana dasa sent him an old copy he'd been keeping with him at Sambalapura. Bhaktivinoda Thakura published an edition of the Bhagavad-gita with the Sanskrit commentary of Visvanatha Cakravarti Thakura. Bankim Candra wrote the preface.

Navadvipa Dhama Parikrama by Narahari Sarkara.Caitanya-candra propagation of the Caitanya Panjika. He even tried to retire at this time. "You will certainly go to Vrndavana. In 1890 he established the "Nama Hatta" there. Bhaktivinoda renovated the house of Jagannatha dasa Babaji at Ravasghata. or Svarupa Ganga. Soon Bhaktivinoda Thakura was transferred for a few days to Ranighata. Bhaktivinoda published the Navadvipa Dhama Mahatmya. and uncovered facts about the modern-day Navadvipa. When will you do that?" When the Lord disappeared. and some old maps of the Navadvipa area. He turned down offers of big posts in Assam and Tripura. Navadvipa. Cupi. On the advice of Bhaktibhringa Mahasaya he thereupon applied for a transfer to Krsnanagara. He was put in charge of the Kalara subdivision in 1890. Kasthasali. Idrakapura. near the tree was a small building that gave off a remarkable effulgence. Sometimes Jagannatha dasa Babaji would come there and have kirtana. Baghnapara. and from there would often visit such holy places as Godadrumadvipa. He went to the village of Ballaladibhi and spoke with many elderly people there. In Dinajapura Bhaktivinoda wrote his Vidva-ranjana commentary and 71 . but his application was not accepted. He did so. In 1888 Bhaktivinoda took charge of the village of Netrakona in the district of Mayamanasimha. In the Hindu Herald. During his stay at Krsnanagara. In the year 1887 Bhaktivinoda Thakura resolved to quit government service and go to Vrndavana with Bhaktibhringa Mahasaya for the rest of his life. which elaborated the glories of the birthsite of Sri Caitanya. He lectured and gave readings on Vaisnava books in various religious societies. headed by Ksetra Babu and Vipina Babu. he had a dream in which Sri Caitanya appeared to him and spoke. the exact location of which had been lost in time. which established the feast day of Gaura Purnima. He took leave from office for two years and acquired a plot of land at Sri Godadrumadvipa. Deputy Magistrate of Krsnanagara. A great festival was held there. in December of 1887 he managed to trade posts with Babu Radha Madhava Vasu. where the government headquarters for the Navadvip district is situated. He built a retirement house there called Surabhi Kunj. One night in Tarakesvara. Lord Nityananda had established His Nama Hatta at the same place and Bhaktivinoda considered himself the street sweeper of the Nama Hatta of Nitai. Also in 1887. Sailaja Prasada was born there. This was confirmed by Jagannatha dasa Babaji. Pyariganga (the place of Nakula Brahmacari) and the place of Vrndavana dasa Thakura at Denura. One night he was sitting on the roof of the Rani Dharmasala in Navadvipa chanting on his beads. his youngest son. There he would hold kirtana with the devotees from a place called Amalajora. In the year 1887 he discovered that the place he'd seen from the dharmasala rooftop was in fact the birthplace of Mahaprabhu. Bhaktivinoda Thakura used to go to Navadvipa and search for the birthsite of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. when he spotted in the distance a very tall tala tree. they would sing poems like Soka-satana written by him. Bhaktivinoda awoke. When the birthplace was uncovered. he published a detailed account of Sri Caitanya's life. the head of the Gaudiya Vaisnava community in Navadvipa. and the next morning he was cured. Once one of Bhaktivinoda's sons contracted a skin disease and Jagannatha dasa Babaji told the boy to lie down at the birthsite of Lord Caitanya for the night. From Netrakona he came to Tangaila and from there he was transferred to the district of Vardhamana. Finally. the day of Lord Caitanya's appearance in the material world. Campahati. Soon afterwards. he went to the Krsnanagara Collectory where he began to study some very old manuscripts of Caitanya Bhagavata. because he could not keep good health in Krsnanagara and had requested transfer to a more healthful region. Samudragana. an English periodical. from where he came to Dinajapura again. but first there is some service you must perform in Navadvipa. Bhaktivinoda and Jagannatha dasa Babaji would worship Lord Caitanya there.

who was a Vaisnava. he visited all the forests and places of pastimes and he continued to give lectures and readings on Hari Nama in various places in Bengal when he returned to Calcutta. In February 1891 he gave a lecture on his investigation into the whereabouts of the exact birthsite of Sri Caitanya. agreed that the Yogapitha was the true birthsite of Mahaprabhu.Caitanya-candra translation of the Bhagavad-gita. desiring to help his son. The Nama Hatta became a self-sustaining success which continued to spread even after his return to government service. This he'd also often do in Krsnanagara. societies and organizations. In July 1896 Bhaktivinoda Thakura went to Tripura at the request of the the king. at age 56. 1891 was the year Bhaktivinoda Thakura took leave from the government service for two years. He stayed at Svarupa Ganga to worship. Sisir Kumar Ghosh was the founder of the Amrta Bazar Patrika and the author of the Sri Amiya Nimai-carita. It was reviewed in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society by Mr. Bhaktivinoda Thakura printed a small booklet written in Sanskrit under the title Sri Gauranga-lila-smaranamangala-stotram. with a commentary by Sitikantha Vacaspati of Nadia. "I have not seen the six Gosvamis of Vrndavana but I consider you to be the seventh Gosvami. In 1897 he went to many villages such as Medinipura and Sauri to preach. In 1892. His lecture on the first day amazed all the local panditas. That year. Back in Svarupa Ganga. His life and Precepts". He desired to preach the chanting of the Hare Krsna mahamantra. Bhaktivinoda Thakura published the book Vaisnava-siddhanta-mala from his headquarters in Bengal. having deliberated fully on Bhaktivinoda Thakura's evidence. All the learned pandits. it was published in 1891 with the commentary of Baladeva. on the next two days the royal family and general public thrilled to his talks on the pastimes of Mahaprabhu. lecture and revise his old writings. Later he printed its individual chapters as separate booklets for public distribution. In Vrndavana. From his base at Svarupa Ganga he used to visit such places as Ghatala and Ramajivana to lecture in clubs. had the monastery 72 . he went to Darjilim and Karsiyam. he stopped off at Amalajora to celebrate the Ekadasi day with Jagannatha dasa Babaji. he also took up the preaching of the holy name throughout Calcutta and in many villages in Bengal. In October 1894. In one of his letters to Bhaktivinoda he wrote. though this move was opposed by his family and the government authorities. requested by the Maharaja of Tripura. who became very enthusiastic at the news. All the while he was writing also. Sometimes he went to Calcutta. his audience included highly learned men from all over Bengal. He stayed in the capital for 4 days and preached the chanting of the holy name of Krsna. F. Fraser. the library of McGill University in Canada and other respectable institutions. In 1900 he published Hari-nama-cintamani in Bengali poetic form." Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati had been residing at Puri as a strict renunciate and was engaged in worship at the Gandharvika Giridhari Matha. This book found its way into the library of the Royal Asiatic Society in London. an erudite British scholar.W. on Gaura Purnima. he retired from his post as Deputy Magistrate. one of seven Mathas near the samadhi tomb of Haridasa Thakura. He published the Sri Visnu Priya O Ananda Bazar Patrika under the editorship of Bhaktivinoda. Out of this gathering the Sri Navadvipa Dhama Pracarini Sabha was formed for spreading the glories of the Yogapitha (the birthsite). In the rainy season of 1896. Bhaktivinoda Thakura. In March of 1892 he traveled and preached with a party of Vaisnavas in the Basirahata District. The introduction in English was called "Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He opened many centers of Krsna worship (Nama Hatta) in different districts of Bengal. He had great respect for Bhaktivinoda Thakura. a big festival was held that witness the installation of GauraVisnupriya Deities at the Yogapitha. From Basirahata he set out on his third trip to Vrndavana. there he begged door to door for funds to construct a Yogapitha temple.

whereas others were sincere and benefited greatly from his spiritual inspiration. the summer solstice had just begun when he had left his body. Sarada Carana Mitra. Bhaktivinoda Thakura left his body. wrote: "I knew Thakura Bhaktivinoda intimately as a friend and a relation. Now that Sir William was getting old. just before noon at Puri. He disliked theaters because they were frequented by public women. About Bhaktivinoda Thakura. no upstart could stand before him. however honorable. In 1908 Bhaktivinoda Thakura took vesa (the dress of babaji) at Satasana in Puri. and continued to write. Persian 73 . He began solitary worship (bhajan) at this time. Service of God is the only thing he longed for and service under the government. he had many visitors at this place. he wished to clear his conscience of guilty feelings from the past. calling it Bhakti Kutir. and avoided the luxurious life. claiming paralysis. and so confessed to Bhaktivinoda Thakura that he'd thought ill of him despite their close relationship." Pleased with Sir William. Until 1910 he would move between Calcutta and Puri. Very strong in his decisions. After Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati left Puri for Sri Navadvipa Mayapura. he would decide immediately. Sir William Duke greeted Bhaktivinoda Thakura on the street outside the building and personally escorted him into his office. he asked forgiveness for having once planned to remove Bhaktivinoda Thakura from his post of district magistrate. and equally befriended other castes. With folded hands. was in Calcutta. Bhaktivinoda Thakura's devoted assistant and disciple. He would shave his head monthly. On June 23. the British would not last much longer in India. dvaitadvaita-vada philosophy and the saintly work that lay before him. 3 months before Bhaktivinoda Thakura renounced the world. but after that he stopped all activity and remained in Puri. He never accepted gifts from anyone. Later Bhaktivinod Thakura admitted he was astonished that Duke wanted to harm him in some way." In executing his government service. our talk would turn in a few moments to the subject of devotion. He never allowed harmonium and he never had any debts. He shut himself up and entered samadhi. joined him there at this time. Urdu. This day was also the disappearance day of Sri Gadadhara Pandita. Bhaktivinoda Thakura would wear coat and pants to court.Caitanya-candra cleaned and repaired when he came to Puri himself at the beginning of the 20th century. this was because he thought that if such qualified Indians held such important posts. chief secretary to the government. Latin. Calcutta High Court Judge. was to him a clog. "I considered you to be a good friend and a well-wisher all along. Formerly Sir William Duke used to visit to Bhaktivinoda's house and would even take his meals there. Bhaktivinoda Thakura had served under him as a magistrate. English. and whenever I met him. He did not allow any humbug in his court. 1914. He spoke Bengali. Some of them simply wanted to disturb him. He was his constant attendant up to the end of Bhaktivinoda Thakura's life. he even declined all honors and titles offered by the government to him on the grounds that they might stand against his holy mission of life. He was very strict in moral principles. with double-size tulasi neckbeads and tilaka. Bhaktivinoda Thakura answered. absorbed in the holy name of Krsna. Sanskrit. He never showed pride. and his amiable disposition was a characteristic feature of his life. he gave him his blessings. Even under the pressure of official work as a magistrate in charge of a heavy district he could always find time for devotional contemplation and service. one of his sons who was working in a Calcutta government office came home to inform his father that Sir William Duke. Amidst sankirtana his remains were interred in Godruma after the next solstice. Bhaktivinoda Thakura made an appointment to meet him the next day at the government building. Such familiarity between British nobility and the native people of India was uncommon. Krsnadasa Babaji. he would not even chew betel. Bhaktivinoda Thakura constructed his own place of bhajana on the beach. He was always charitable to brahmanas. In 1908.

fruit 9:55 . chant japa 7:00 . the founder of the Caitanya Mathas and Gaudiya Mathas. For his clothing he used the discarded loin cloths from corpses left on the bank of the Ganges. His only clothing was a strip of cloth around his waist and often went totally naked.court finished. devoid of all possessions. He would lie prostrate. half-quart of milk. He joyfully moved throughout the groves located on the bank of the Ganges. During his stay at Navadvipa. and garnish it with salt and chilly. write 4:00 AM . couple capatis.write letters 7:30 . He started writing books at age 12. he would collect rice by begging. He always consulted a pocket watch. 1:00 PM . or continue to read 9:30-9:45 . After the passing away of his wife. considering them as embodiments of Lord Krsna.translate works from Sanskrit to Bengali Then take evening bath and meal of rice.read 8:30 . 2:00 PM .take rest 9:45 . trees. while at other times he would lie on the ground in an unconscious state. one of the foremost disciples of Jagannatha dasa Babaji. For food. offering his humble obeisances to the residents of Vraja. couple of capatis. and kept time very punctually.go to court in carriage 10:00 . Gaurakisora underwent various transformations of spiritual moods. As a householder. Gaurakisora was known by the name Vansidasa. At that time he was engaged in some agricultural trade and from the income took care of his wife and family honestly.take rest 4:30 . wash hands and face. He even offered his obeisances to the flowers. 30. He spent about thirty years at Vrajamandala serving the deities there. light oil lamp. This Vaisnava saint's life was an example of utter humility and poverty. He'd come home and bathe andrefresh. He chanted japa on beads or sometimes knotted a cloth and used that as a 74 . "Gaura. Gaurakisora dasa Babaji He was the guru of Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami. Afterwards he left for Navadvipa. Gaurakisora never accepted any material object from anyone. 5:00 PM . and land around him. where he was initiated into Vairagi Vesa by Bhagavata dasa Babaji.Caitanya-candra and Oriya. the true attributes of a Vaisnava.return to office. He never asked favors from anyone and lived a fully detached life. Gaurakisora renounced his home and went to Vrndavana. and continued turning out a profuse number of volumes up until his departure from this world.take rest 10:00 PM . Very little information is available about the past life of Gaurakisora except that he was born in a Vaisya family in the village of Bagjana near Tepakhola on the bank of the Padma. Sometimes he danced on the bank of the Ganges chanting.court began. soak it in river water.morning bath. considering them sites of the divine sports of Radha-Govinda. Gaurakisora lived on madhukari and slept beneath a tree.receive guests. breakfast of half-quart milk. Gaura". His schedule: 7:30-8:00 PM .rise.rise.

On the fourth day Gaurakisora explained that the prasada of the above festival had been financed by a woman of questionable profession. their offerings never reach Lord Gauranga and are never sanctified as prasada. Every virtuous person looked forward to rendering service to Gaurakisora. "Those who are nonvegetarian. Gaurakisora stayed in the rest-house at Phulia Navadvipa. and partake of the prasada. The devotee attending him asked who would provide them with the materials for the celebration. How can a worldly land-owner dare to hold land here and even think he can donate five kathas out of it? A mere grain of sand of the transcendental Navadvipa is more valuable than all the precious gems in this world put together. Once. urging him to partake of it. Some prasada was left in a vessel for him to respect later. on the eve of Sanatana Gosvami's disappearance day. Only through the chanting of the holy name can the true nature of the Lord be revealed. For this Gaurakisora stopped communicating with Haren for three days." Gaurakisora regularly begged for rice. a resident of Agartala (Tripura). Gaurakisora decided to celebrate the occasion. Gaurakisora suggested that instead of him visiting the palace. Gaurakisora. he rarely allowed anyone the chance to serve him. through the agency of an employee of a female estate owner." Narendra Kumar Sen. Once a devotee name Harenbabu partook of prasada offered at the festival held at bhajan kutir at Navadvipa. to obtain five kathas of land as a donation from the woman. Later he arranged. offer it. Gaurakisora advised the physician that if he truly desired to live in Navadvipa then he should give up the plan for a charitable practice because it would only encourage materially minded people to save money. As the Lord is revealed from the letters comprising the Nama. "The Supreme Lord cannot be realized through worldly knowledge. Moreover. Once a physician told Gaurakisora that he intended to move to Navadvipa and take up charitable practices. Hence. Gaurakisora told the devotee.Caitanya-candra substitute for japa beads. did not accept the Maharaja's invitation saying that if he visited the palace he may feel tempted by the wealth of the Maharaja which may result in a strained relation between the two. Those who sincerely practiced Hari bhajan should never get distracted by the chains of welfare activities. Gaurakisora replied: "Remember not to speak to anyone about it. he went to Godruma to listen to Bhaktivinoda Thakura recite Srimad Bhagavatam. When Gaurakisora heard about this he was extremely annoyed: "Navadvipa dhama is beyond this material world. however. sent a distinguished messenger to escort Gaurakisora to the former's palace. We shall miss a meal and continue around the clock chanting the holy name. the Maharaja of Kasimbazar. or offer food to Lord Gauranga with a particular motive. Meanwhile a snake passed by the vessel and a woman there 75 . A young seeker wearing a kaupina once stayed with Gaurakisora for some days. Gaurakisora told him. after which he would cook the rice. Once Manindracandra Nandi. Gaurakisora was very selective about accepting invitations for food knowing it could adversely affect the spiritual life. once approached Gaurakisora to learn about guru-pranali or siddha pranali. the devotee gradually begins to understand his own nature and becomes acquainted with seva. let the Maharaja free himself completely from the shackles of wealth by donating everything he owned to his relatives and then come to live with Gaurakisora in a specially prepared shed where both of them could practice Hari Bhajan in peace. This could be the typical festival for those of us who have taken the vow of poverty. He never touched any foodstuff offered by someone else. those who commit adultery. Occasionally. how advanced could this young kaupina-clad devotee be if he dares to collect so much land in lieu of his bhajan merit?" Once a devotee offered some sweets to Lord Gauranga and then took the offering to Gaurakisora. However. Once during monsoon.

and thereafter named the boy Bimala prasada. Upon meeting Gaurakisora. Bhaktivinoda Thakura was engaged as a prominent Deputy Magistrate and also served as the superintendent of the temple of Lord Jagannatha. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati was one of ten children born to Bhaktivinoda Thakura. firmly stated that he would not touch the prasada until the woman left. Gaurakisora remarked. He was born with the umbilical cord wrapped around his neck and draped across his chest like the sacred thread worn by brahmanas.' Those who recite Srimad Bhagavatam for payment are not entitled to chant the name of the Supreme Lord. He never allowed deceitful practices or any discussion which was not within the purview of the holy books. While living in a house named Narayana Chata. maya attempts to hit deep into her target slowly. 'Money. Money. Gaura". In November 1915 AD on Ekadasi day. Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati was born to Bhaktivinoda and Bhagavati Devi in Jagannatha Puri. Gaurakisora dasa Babaji breathed his last. A realized soul can practice Hari bhajan anywhere in an unconcerned manner. a great Vaisnava teacher in the disciple-line from Lord Caitanya Himself. One day when a devotee questioned Gaurakisora about a well-known reciter of Srimad Bhagavatam who was in the habit of chanting "Gaura. When Gaurakisora sat down to take prasada the woman appeared there and informed him about the snake.Caitanya-candra happened to notice it. "Look how maya works! Taking the form of compassion. Giribabu reluctantly arranged to have the toilet thoroughly cleaned and Gaurakisora used it for Hari Bhajan. Spontaneously. Gaurakisora was a highly spiritually advanced soul. While working to reform Gaudiya Vaisnavism in India. Bhaktivinoda Thakura's wife brought the infant onto the cart and approached the Deity of Lord Jagannatha. the infant extended his arms and touched the feet of Lord Jagannatha and was 76 . Gaura". Yet in spite of these responsibilities. Gaurakisora was moved by their sincere devotion and finally agreed to oblige them on the condition that he would live only in their toilet room where he would perform Hari bhajan. and wherever he resides. Maya can assume countless forms. Six months after the child was born. the Vaisnavas considered him the answer to his father's prayers. he prayed to Lord Caitanya." Gaurakisora never delivered discourses openly. that place becomes Vaikuntha. yet his spotless character drew everyone to him. Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati himself arranged to bury the mortal remains of his revered guru in samadhi. When." Giribabu and his wife once ardently requested Gaurakisora to stay in their house at Navadvipa. "He doesn't say "Gaura. he served the cause of Krsna with prodigious energy. on February 6. Around the same time the carts of the Jagannatha festival stopped at the gate of Bhaktivinoda's residence and for three days could not be moved. Gaurakisora said." Thus he prayed for a son to help him in his preaching mission. "Your teachings have been greatly depreciated and it is not in my power to restore them. even a staunch materialist would become inclined take up Hari bhajan. just near the temple of Lord Jagannatha in Puri. Rather what he means to say is. Giribabu tried to persuade him to change his mind but Gaurakisora remained firm. 31. She always prevents a mortal being from practicing Hari bhajan. however. Gaurakisora. Bhaktivinoda arranged for his son to undergo the annaprasana ceremony with the prasada of Vimala Devi. After the woman left. 1874.

Bimala Prasada. However. In 1897 he started an autonomous Catuspathi (Sanskrit school) wherefrom monthly journals entitled "Jyotirvid". he had memorized the entire Bhagavad-gita and could even explain its verses. he invented a new method of writing named Bicanto. he preferred to read devotional books rather than the school texts. where he admitted Bimala in the Serampore High School. On April 1. After a short period of time. nor to associate with bad company. and he had established himself as the author and publisher of many magazine articles and one ancient book. in Bengali and Sanskrit. considered himself an offender to the Lord and vowed never to eat mangoes again. One day. Later he was entrusted with the responsibility of educating the Yuvaraja Bahadur and Rajkumar Vrajendra Kisore. after three years Siddhanta Sarasvati also renounced his pension.) By the time Bimala Prasada was seven years old. malice and corruption surfacing in every corner of his inspection. By the time he was twenty-five he had become well versed in Sanskrit. When Bhaktivinoda Thakura learned that the Lord's garland had fallen on his son. In 1892. "Brihaspati". he studied Siddhanta Kaumudi under Prthvidhara Sarma. His father then began training him in proofreading and printing. Surya-siddhanta. (This was a vow that he would follow throughout this life. while teaching at Sarasvata Catuspathi. Bimala was admitted into the Sanskrit College of Calcutta. However. after finding envy. The Maharaja approved of Siddhanta Sarasvati's plans for renunciation and awarded him full-pay pension. although only a child. However. his father mildly rebuked him for eating a mango not yet duly offered to Lord Krsna. Bhaktivinoda was appointed the senior Deputy Magistrate of Serampore. Bimala Prasada stayed in Puri for ten months after his birth and then went to Bengal by palanquin on his mother's lap. at Bhakti bhavana. Siddhanta Sarasvati very quickly developed an aversion to state affairs and gave notice of his intention to retire to Maharaja Radhakisore Manikya Bahadur. After initiating his seven year old son. Bhaktivinoda and his wife were orthodox and virtuous. Siddhanta Sarasvati took up the responsibilities for inspecting various ongoing activities in the royal palace for the state of Tripura.Caitanya-candra immediately blessed with a garland that fell from the body of the Lord. he visited many tirthas and heard discourses from the learned panditas. However he did not continue with his college studies for long. in the course of excavating for the construction of the Bhakti bhavana at Rambagan in Calcutta. mathematics. in conjunction with the publishing of the Vaisnava magazine Sajjana-tosani. In 1895 Sarasvati Gosvami accepted service under the Tripura Royal Government as an editor for the biography entitled Rajaratnakara. As a student he contributed many thoughtful articles to various religious journals. and astronomy. He also studied the Vedas under the guidance of Prthvidhara Sarma. Seeing this the priests chanted the name of Hari and told the child's mother that the boy would certainly become a great devotee one day. When Bimala was a mere student in class five. There he spent considerable time in the library studying various books on philosophy. for which he received the epithet Siddhanta Sarasvati in recognition of his erudition. In 1898. With his father. Bhaktivinoda entrusted Bimala with the service of the deity of Kurmadeva. after passing his entrance examination. During this period he took lessons in mathematics and astrology from Pandita Mahesacandra Cudamoni. he realized that this was the son for whom he had prayed. the life histories of the royal line of the independent Tripura Kingdom. 1884. a Deity of Kurmadeva was unearthed. when Bimala Prasada was still a child of no more than four years. In 1881. and many old treatises on astrology were published. they never allowed their children to eat anything other than prasada. In October 1898 Siddhanta Sarasvati 77 . His infancy was spent at Nadia District's Ranaghat hearing topics of Sri Hari from his mother.

Prayaga. Remuna. Sarasvati gave lectures from CC with profound purports. and then take prasada. Gaurakisora dasa Babaji was the embodiment of vairagya and was very selective about giving diksa. Bhuvanesvara. Gaurakisora replied that he would not be able to give diksa unless he received the approval of Lord Caitanya. he sat beneath an umbrella. after properly washing them he would cook rice in them. offer it to Krsna. guided him to take initiation from a renounced Vaisnava saint. understanding the mind of his son. chanting. arranged to hold a large Vaisnava Sammilani at his palace. As instructed by Bhaktivinoda. He inspired many to take up the service of Lord Gauranga and instituted various Nama Hatta and Prapanna-asrama (Gaudiya matha centers). When Siddhanta Sarasvati was twenty-six his father. After Lord Caitanya's disappearance a period of darkness ensued in which the river of bhakti had been choked and practically dried up. On the third visit. and when the rainwater leaked trough the grass ceiling. Gaurakisora said that he had forgotten to ask Lord Caitanya. he did not take any food during the Sammilani because of the presence of various groups of sahajiyas. Gaurakisora was impressed and gave him diksa in the blissful grove of Godruma and told him. Generally he ate plain rice soaked in Ganga water garnished with chili and salt.Caitanya-candra accompanied Bhaktivinoda on a pilgrimage of Kasi. Hearing this Siddhanta replied that since Gaurakisora was the servant of Kapatacudamani (the Supreme deceiver) hence he must be testing Sarasvati by withholding his consent. the Maharaja of Kasimbazar. his inclination towards renunciation increased. Gaurakisora stated that Lord Caitanya had said that erudition is extremely insignificant in comparison to devotion to the Supreme Lord. He cooked rice once a day in an earthen pot and ate nothing more. The end of the period was brought about by the undaunted preaching of Bhaktivinoda Thakura. In 1912 Manindra Nandi. Following the advice of his father. Siddhanta Sarasvati went to Gaurakisora dasa and begged to be accepted as his disciple. After this talk Siddhanta Sarasvati's life seemed to take a turn. Sometimes he utilized discarded earthen pots. Later when Maharaja Manindra Nandi realized what had happened he was deeply aggrieved and came to Mayapura to apologize to Siddhanta Sarasvati. thus he too would wait patiently until the day that Gaurakisora would bestow his benedictions upon him. At the specific request of the Maharaja. when Siddhanta Sarasvati returned again. and he quietly continued to search for a guru. "to preach the Absolute Truth and keep aside all other works. and Puri. 78 . Sarasvati Gosvami attended the Sammilani and delivered four very brief speeches on suddha-bhakti on four consecutive days. However. Through the initiative of Bhaktivinoda Thakura the flow of pure bhakti again began to inundate the world. Gaurakisora dasa Babaji. He wrote a number of books on suddha-bhakti siddhanta and published numerous religious periodicals. he slept on the ground. Residing in Mayapur in a grass hut near the birthplace of Lord Caitanya. However Siddhanta Sarasvati remained firmly determined and remarked that Ramanuja Acarya had been sent back eighteen times before he finally received the grace of Gosthipurna. Gaya and other holy places. he chanted the mantra day and night. Seeing the commitment of Sarasvati. In 1905 Siddhanta Sarasvati took a vow to chant the Hare Krsna mantra a billion times. At Kasi a discussion was held with Ramamisra Sastri regarding the Ramanuja sampradaya. However." In March 1900 Sarasvati accompanied Bhaktivinoda on a pilgrimage of Balasore. After fasting for four days Sarasvati Gosvami came to Mayapura and took the prasada of Lord Caitanya. He lived beneath a tree near the bank of the Ganga and wore the abandoned clothes of dead bodies as a waist band (kaupina).

where panditas from all over India had gathered for a three-day discussion. while his aging father was lying ill. young Siddhanta Sarasvati wrote an essay. then he is not a brahmana. arranged a discussion. and thousands thronged around him. suddenly manifested before Siddhanta Sarasvati's vision and said: "Do not be disheartened. After his speech." and submitted it before his father. the relationship between the two. Some of the smarta panditas who spoke first claimed that anyone born in a sudra family. These smarta brahmanas.." After receiving this message. Bhaktivinoda Thakura was elated to hear the arguments that would soundly defeat the challenge of the smartas. But when he began discussing the actual qualifications for becoming a brahmana. regardless of birth. It was a victory for Vaisnavism. Accepting the instructions of his parents as his foremost duty. On the request of Madhusudana dasa Gosvami of Vrndavana and Visvambharananda deva Gosvami of Gopiballabhapur. Siddhanta Sarasvati traveled to Midnapur. is qualified to become a spiritual master and initiate disciples. Bhaktivinoda Thakura passed away in 1914 on the day of Gadadhara Pandita's disappearance. He began quoting Vedic references glorifying the brahmanas. misleading the people. Siddhanta Sarasvati launched a severe attack against those irreligious sects and did not spare anyone who deviated from the teachings of Lord Caitanya. Despite his poor health. Before her passing away. Baul. Daravesa. Siddhanta Sarasvati took up a challenge against pseudo Vaisnavas who claimed that birth in their caste was the prerequisite for preaching Krsna consciousness. the qualities of the Vaisnavas. despite his birth. Sarasvati Gosvami was filled with inspiration to preach the glories of Lord Caitanya enthusiastically. Siddhanta Sarasvati was congratulated by the president of the conference. During this period of solitude. she held the hands of Sarasvati Gosvami imploring him to preach the glories of Lord Gauranga and His dhama. in the garb of paramahamsa Gosvami gurus. take up the task of re-establishing Varnasrama with new vigour and preach the message of love for Sri Krsna everywhere. The caste-conscious brahmana community had become incensed by Bhaktivinoda Thakura's presentation of many scriptural proofs that anyone. one day Lord Caitanya. Siddhanta Sarasvati delivered his speech. Siddhanta Sarasvati conclusively proved from the scriptures that if one is born as a sudra but exhibits the qualities of a brahmana then he should be honored as a brahmana. could never become purified and perform the brahminical duties of worshiping the deity or initiating disciples. along with the six Gosvamis. out to prove the inferiority of the Vaisnavas. Sarasvati Gosvami took up this task of preaching with intense enthusiasm and vigour.Caitanya-candra During that time Bengal was full of sahajiya sects. And if one is born in a brahmana family but acts like a sudra. such as Aul. 79 . according to the Vedic literature. In 1911. "The Conclusive Difference Between the Brahmana and the Vaisnava. Thus he completely dissociated himself and resorted to performing bhajana in solitude. On behalf of his indisposed father. On the eve of his disappearance Bhaktivinoda instructed his son to preach the teachings of the six Gosvamis and Lord Caitanya far and wide. Kartabhaja. Sain etc. who followed worldly practices in the name of spiritualism. Mother Bhagavati Devi disappeared a few years later. even though initiated by a spiritual master. could become a brahmana-Vaisnava. and who. He also requested that Siddhanta Sarasvati develop the birthsite of Lord Gauranga. Neda-nedi. Finally. and at this the smarta scholars became very much pleased. Siddhanta Sarasvati was deeply grieved to see these groups of prakrita sahajiyas. Even some well-known persons bearing the surname of Gosvamis patronized these sahajiya sects during that period. the joy of the Vaisnava-haters disappeared.

he despised the practices of the sevadasis prevalent amongst the Baul sect. But due to committing an offense at the feet of Sarasvati Thakura. who simply encouraged him to remember the holy name of the Lord. Annada explained that in his past birth he had been a Vaisnava belonging to the Ramanuja sect. and his spiritual master a year later. chanting Harinama. after spending the whole day listening to Sarasvati Gosvami's teachings. a nephew of Justice Candramadhava Ghosh of Calcutta High Court and originally a resident of Bhola in Barisal (now in Bangladesh). a big mrdanga. Suddenly Rohini found himself being rescued from the clutches of the tigers by Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati. guided by Lord Caitanya. Without taking any prasada. However. Sarasvati Thakura was surprised to see so much prasada and the devotees explained what had happened. cottage-cheese etc. Apparently a zamindar named Harinarayana Cakravarti. in Mayapur. suffered with severe headaches shortly before his disappearance. Late that night. In his dream Rohini saw a Baul and his consort appear before him in the form of a tiger and tigress which were about to devour him. Siddhanta Sarasvati continued the mission of Lord Caitanya. Sarasvati Gosvami was engaged in bhajana at Mayapura but was feeling disturbed as he was unable to arrange for milk to be offered to the deity. He assumed editorship of Sajjana-tosani and established the Bhagwat Press in Krsnanagar. the elder brother of Sarasvati Gosvami. He thought of the printing press as a brhat mrdanga. the printing press. Before Annada passed a way he briefly regained consciousness and began apologizing to Sarasvati Gosvami. As soon as he began to think in this way he chastised himself: "Have I thought like this for my own sake? That is wrong. Rohini returned to his Baul guru's asrama at Kulia. Rohini took rest contemplating the lessons on suddha-bhakti which he had heard that day. After finishing his account Annada breathed his last. had sent the milkman with all the items. ksira. Then in 1918. However. one milkman turned up there wading through water and slush carrying a large quantity of milk. that afternoon. he sat down before a picture of Gaurakisora dasa Babaji and initiated himself into the sannyasa order. Trembling in fear Rohini desperately called out to Lord Caitanya. Once on the day preceding Janmastami in the Bengali month of Bhadra. After offering everything to the deity the devotees partook of the prasada joyfully. Why did I have such an uncalled for thought? To fulfill my desire You have inspired another person and arranged to send these things. Lord Caitanya's birth site was covered with water and was totally inaccessible except by boat. With this purpose in mind he came to Kulia in Navadvipa where he led the life of a Baul. Rohini was delighted to see the luminous appearance of Sarasvati Gosvami and fascinated by his words. as a result of his past merit he was fortunate enough to be born into Bhaktivinoda's family. From that day Rohini left the Baul guru forever and took shelter at the feet of Sarasvati Gosvami. However. whereas with the brhat mrdanga. At this time he assumed the sannyasa title Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami Maharaja. After taking prasada Siddhanta Sarasvati humbly appealed to the Lord: "I am very sorry to have caused You so much trouble. decided to renounce the world and engage himself in Hari bhajana. the message of Lord Caitanya could be spread all over the world.Caitanya-candra With the passing away of his father. On the day of Annada's disappearance Sarasvati Gosvami remained by his side all through the night." Because it was the monsoon season. One day Rohini Ghosh happen to come to the Yogapitha when Sarasvati Gosvami was lecturing there. Suddenly the tilak mark of the Ramanuja sampradaya became clearly visible on Annada's forehead." 80 . The mrdanga drum played during kirtana could be heard for a block or two. butter. Annada had to be reborn. Rohinikumar Ghosh. Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati was dedicated to using the printing press as the best medium for large-scale distribution of Krsna consciousness. Annadaprasad Datta.

Prarthana (by Narottama dasa Thakura) and Upadesamrta (by Rupa Gosvami) A few days before his disappearance Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati called his foremost disciples and showered his blessings upon all his devotees. Sri Krsna Bhajanamrta (by Narahari Sarkara) and Prema Bhakti Candrika (by Narottama dasa Thakura). Do not give up the worship of Hari even amidst hundreds of dangers. India. Puri. Mathura. Many educated persons from highly respectable families were attracted to him and thus dedicated themselves to the service of Lord Gauranga. Alalanatha. 1937 Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Gosvami passed away. He gave them the following instructions: "With the utmost enthusiasm preach the message of Rupa Raghunatha. Being humble like a blade of grass and tolerant like a tree. Delhi. constantly glorify Hari. to a reasonable extent. Kuruksetra. Chaka. Lucknow. Sarasvati Gosvami instituted Gaurapadapitha at Nrsimhacala on the top of the Mandara hill. Covoor. Vrndavana. Balasore. He published the following periodicals on Suddha Bhakti in different languages: 1. Sajjanatosani (a fortnightly Bengali 2. Assam. Chittagong. Do not become unenthusiastic upon seeing that the majority of people in this world are not accepting the message of Krsna's sincere worship. Patna. hundreds of insults or hundreds of persecutions. Dasamula Siksa (by Bhaktivinoda Thakura). After finishing his studies. Nadiya Prakasa (a Bengali daily) 6. 81 . He initiated twenty five highly educated persons into Bhagavata Tridandi sannyasa. in 1933 he got initiated as a disciple by Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati Goswami into Brahma Madhva Gaudiya sampradaya – the disciplic succession coming down from Lord Krsna Himself. He deputed well-disciplined tridandi sannyasi's to preach the message of Lord Gauranga all over the world. Calcutta. Remuna. Kirtana (an Assamese monthly) 7. Paramarthi (in Oriya) In addition he published a large number of Vaisnava books. Never give up the glorification of the topics of Krsna. Between 1918 and 1937 Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati founded sixty-four suddha bhakti Mathas at the following places: Navadvipa. Varanasi. Gaudiya (a Bengali weekly) 4. According to others. and outside India in London. The Harmonist (an English fortnightly) 3. they are your own personal bhajana and your very all and all. For six years he continued to supervise this preaching work and when he found that his mission had attained its goal." In the early hours of the day on January 1. Gaya. and at several places in South India. he heralded a new era in the spiritual world. they were Prema Bhakti Candrika. He recommended to all Vaisnavas to read these books: Caitanya Bhagavata (by Vrindavana dasa Thakura). All of you remain united in allegiance to the spiritual master (asraya-vigraha) in order to satisfy the senses of the Transcendental Entity of Non-Dual Knowledge. 32. Naryanaganj. Allahabad. he decided to pass into the eternal service of Lord Gauranga. Our ultimate goal is to become a speck of dust touching the lotus feet of the followers of Rupa Gosvami. Bhagavata (a Hindi fortnightly) 5.Caitanya-candra The world was amazed to see the supernatural power of Sarasvati Gosvami. Midnapore. Mayapura. and Rangoon. the God empowered personality appeared in this world in 1896 in Kolkata. Mymensingh. In fact. Srila Abhaya Caranaravinda Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada Srila Prabhupada (1896-1977). Madras. Hardwar.

He circled the globe 14 times on lecture tours that took him to six continents and authored more then 80 books on Vedantic philosophy. but for the benefit of the entire human race. Upon his arrival in America in 1965 within a short span of 12 years he established 108 temples. Yadi papi chadi dharma dure dese jaya mora senapatibhakta jaibe tathaya: “If some sinful people escape and giving up religious principles go to far off countries. which eventually became his mission. because he had accomplished what no one else has done in a most difficult environment and very tenuous circumstances.e.” That Senapati bhakta was none other than Srila Prabhupada who fulfilled these predictions by his factual accomplishments. religion. which distributes transcendental literatures at a rate unparalleled.C. 82 . In 1950 he retired from material life and travelled to Vrindavana to devote more time to his studies of Vedic scriptures and writing of books. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Saraswati requested Srila Prabhupada to broadcast Vedic knowledge in English. literature and culture. then my Senapati Bhakta will come at that time to give them Krsna consciousness. He distributed the love of Godhead to everyone without any discrimination. In 1959 he accepted the renounced order of life (sannyasa) and in 1965 he departed for America to fulfill the mission of his spiritual master and preach the message of Lord Caitanya i. Furthermore He said: "Taking the sharp sword of the congregational chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. translated Vedic literatures in English like Bhagavad-gita. When Lord Krsna appeared in Kali-yuga as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu approximately 500 years ago He predicted the appearance of a great senapati bhakta who would preach Krishna consciousness all over the world: "Prthivite ache yadi nagaradi grama. which is now one of the biggest book publishing houses in the world. the founder Acarya of ISKCON was the first acarya. in 1922. sarvatra pracara hoibe more nama" ("My holy name will be chanted in every town and village"). Srimad Bhagavatam. He had been the greatest acarya of the modern age. to teach the science of Krsna consciousness to the whole world. ashrams.Caitanya-candra At their first meeting. He established the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust. (nama-sankirtana) I will root out & destroy the demoniac mentality in the hearts of all the conditioned souls. gurukulas. He had presented in his numerous purports the true essence of the teachings of all the four Vaisnava sampradayas. He successfully established the Vedic religion in the western countries and changed the lives of thousands of people by introducing Krishna consciousness in their lives with its rich culture and tradition. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. farms. which is the goal of human life because the vedic religion is not only for Indians. initiated tens of thousands of disciples. His Divine Grace A. spiritual leader of the Vedic lineage who had ever travelled out of India and made so many devotees all over the world.

3 SRI GAURA PURNIMA MAHOTSAVA caitanyera-simhera nava-dvipe avatara simha-griva. spoke these attractive words for the welfare of all: The mlecchas who are born from mixed countries ruled by descendants of Kasyapa (demons) and the sudras will become brahmanas by initiation. the Supreme Lord Sri Hari Himself. Pratisarga Chapter 20 verses 71-73. the pithadipati of Sri Krsna Matha in Udupi in the following way: “The river Ganga is famous for her purifying effect. India. In this way. Swami Prabhupada has done something which is much greater than what Bhagiratha had done. it is mentioned: "Lord Jagannath. the protector of Sacidevi. That is why Bhagiratha is celebrated. He has the shoulders of a lion." It was certainly none other than Srila Prabhupada who fulfilled these predictions of the scriptures and the acaryas by spreading the teachings of the Vedas throughout the world. however. They will worship Me by the Yajna prescribed by the Lord of Lords. like Bhagiratha. all over the world. In Bhagavat Mahatmya (Uttara khanda of Padma Purana) Bhaktidevi personified says to Narada Muni: "idam sthanam parityajya videsham ganyate maya" . simha virya simhera-hunkara sei simha vasuk jivera hrdaya-kandare kalmasa-dvirada nase yanhara hunkare “Thus the lion like Lord Caitanya has appeared in Navadvipa. and the loud voice of a lion. It is Bhagiratha who brought the Ganga from the celestial planets down to the earth planet. the bhakti-ganga. At one time."I will leave this country. Swami Prabhupada. Another acarya of the Ramanuja sampradaya remarked in 1976 after viewing one of Srila Prabhupada’s books and witnessing the preaching of some of his young disciples: “This person is the summum bonum of all the acaryas”. Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. spread this devotion.” Srila Prabhupada fulfilled this prediction by initiating thousands of nonbrahmanas as brahmanas and sannyasi’s as per scriptures.Caitanya-candra In the Bhavisya Purana. and go abroad. the powers of a lion. Srila Prabhupada’s unique position has been very well summed up by HH Vishvesh Tirtha. this Ganga did not flow through the earth planet. They will wear sikhas and brahmana threads and will become well versed in the uncontaminated fruit of the Vedas (Srimad Bhagavatam). which no one ever did. May that lion be seated in the core 83 .

His Divine Grace A. Pippalada. On the Gaura Purnima day. 84 . He wrote a lucid sanskrit commentary called Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta. 3. It is to be noted that the great Sampradaya Acarya of the Gaudiya Vaishnavas and of the Krsna Consciousness movement. Bhavisya Purana. Vayu Purana. or the the nectar of the lotus feet of Lord Caitanya. but do not understand in totality who He is. Elsewhere most people have heard of Lord Caitanya. 4.C. Adi-Lila. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura. Madhusudana Maharaja. On the Gaura Purnima day devotees fast for the day till moonrise and engage in active devotional service throughout the day and prepare for the grand celebration in the evening. Holika Dahana is also celebrated together with Gaura Purnima. of Sambala-Pura.30-31) The divine appearance of Shri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu is celebrated on the full moon of the month of Phalguna (February-March) which is known as Gaura Purnima.1 Sri Caitanya Upanisad from the Atharva Veda In the beginning of creation Lord Krsna imparted all branches of knowledge to Brahma. Devotees have followed the teachings of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and have resultantly become maddened with the love of Sri Krsna. takes bath in the Ganges and worships Lord Caitanya will cross over the material ocean and attain Goloka. the Yuga-Avatara is described in many Vedic literatures like the Padma Purana. along with 1000 ancestors no matter where he dies. the Lord’s highest spiritual planet. This is recorded in the Atharva Veda in a portion called Caitanya Upanisad. Thus with His resounding roar may He drive away one's elephantine vices. 4 PREDICTION OF SRI CAITANYA MAHAPRABHU’S APPEARANCE IN THE VEDAS The appearance of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahapabhu. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. This Upanisad was published by the great pioneer of the Krsna Consciousness movement. Brahma is the engineer in charge of the creation of the universe. Among Brahma’s many sons. The Thakura searched the length and breadth of Bengal to procure an original copy of the manuscript of this rare Upanisad. Upon the request of many Gaudiya Vaishnavas of the time. Ananta Samhita.” (Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. It also describes the glorious position and importance of the Maha-mantra.a spiritually exalted living being. It is the most sacred and special festival to glorify the appearance in this world of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Garuda Purana. Thousands of years ago a discussion took place between Brahma and his son.Caitanya-candra of the heart of every living being. and etc. On this day one who fasts.one of them was Pippalada. Sri Krsna Caitanya in the year 1486. or the chanting of the divine name of Sri Krsna. which describes the unique position and advent of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The first edition of this book was originally printed in Calcutta. Bengal by the Sri Caitanya Press in 1887. He was finally provided a copy of the original handwritten manuscript from one pandita. Every year on the Phalguna-shukla paksha purnima tithi. there is an exceptional boon to be present in Maayaapura-Navadvipa( the birthplace of Lord Caitanya ).

bhagavan me subham kim atra caksvasveti atha-thereafter. Then. The following examples may be cited: (1) From the Caitanya Upanisad: Gaurah sarvatma maha puruso mahatma maha yogi tri gunatitah sattva rupo bhaktim loke kasyati.9. Lord Gaura who is the all pervading Supersoul. caksasva-please tell.Caitanya-candra has cited from this Upanisad in His Sri Caitanya-Caritamrta Bhasya [purport] of Adi-Lila 2.22.. the moon of Navadvipa. when Caitanya Mahaprabhu. approached Lord Brahma and said.panih-with sacrificial fuel [sacred wood] in hand. with the commentary of Srila Sacidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura . Harih Aum Text 1 atha pippaladah samit panir bhagavantam brahmanam upasanno. subham-auspicious.. He disseminates the cult of devotion throughout the world. even the sastras are in a covered form concerning the Supreme Lord Sri Caitanya who is to be worshipped in Kali-Yuga [or Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu appears in a covered form according to the sastras]. there are innumerable statements regarding Lord Caitanya's being the Supreme Lord Himself.” This Caitanya Upanisad which is included within the eternal Atharva-Veda. Pippalada. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. atra-in this world.. in this world. kim-what. appears as a great saint and powerful mystic. Pippaladah-Pippalada. appeared. TRANSLATION Thereafter.38). The current english translation of this rare gem was done in 1977 in Vrindaban by a disciple of His Divine Grace Srila Prabhupada. bhagavantam-the opulent. has thus far not been manifest due to being beyond the vision of persons who have become blinded by the influence of the illusory energy and whose minds are directed towards external matters. to explain the sacred divinity of Sriman Mahaprabhu: ". According to the authority 1 of the Srimad-Bhagavatam (7. and which is full of all bliss. bhagavanO My Lord. iti-thus. brahmanam-Lord Brahma. it became known. “O My Lord. Therefore it is not 85 . which is the form of the mellow of Lord Caitanya. samit. with sacrificial fuel in hand. please tell me what is the real auspiciousness?” Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: panca-tattvanvitam natva caitanya-rasa-vigraham caitanyopanisad-bhasyam karomyatma-visuddhaye “After offering obeisances unto the Panca-Tattva. me-unto me. I am writing this commentary on the Caitanya Upanisad.". Presented below is the complete translation of Sri Caitanya Upanisad from the Atharva Veda. for self-purification. Apart from the relevant scriptural evidence forwarded by Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Goswami..Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya. who is above the three modes of nature and is the emblem of transcendental activity. by the endeavor of the pure devotees. upasannah-approached.

come again. aha-said. ramasva-be pleased. Pippalada Muni. tapasa-with austerity. kalau-in Kali. by yoga practice and austerity. eva-only.” Text 3 sa tatha bhutva bhuya enam upasadyaha-bhagavan kalau papac channah prajah katham mucyeran iti sah-he. iti-thus. katham-how. in the age of Kali Yuga. how can those who are sinful by nature obtain liberation from the material condition?” 1 Vedic literatures 86 . vasacontrol . channahcovered. becoming pure in mind. uvaca-said. bhagavan-O my Lord. the fools who are engaged in karma and jnana have no faith in this connection. the four faced Lord Brahma with fuel in hand and asked. Pippalada.” Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: Lord Brahma said to him: “After spending one year acting for the purification of mind and body by pure behavior in renunciation. papat-due to sin. bhuya eva tapasa brahmacaryena sasvat ramasva mano vaseti sah-He. Pippalada. How can they obtain liberation?” Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: After practicing purification of the body and mind by celibacy and austerity. enam-thus. Pippalada again approached his guru and inquired. After examining many sastras1 and performing much worship. upasadyaapproaching. sasvat-always. desiring his own welfare. iti-thus. brahmacaryena-and celibacy. “Always be very pleased with only austerity. bhuyah-very. “What is best for me?” Text 2 sa hovaca. TRANSLATION He. bhuyah-very. due to misfortune. celibacy and control of the mind. “In Kali-Yuga. Lord Brahma. bhutva-becoming. again approached his father and said: “O my Lord Brahma. people are covered due to sin.Caitanya-candra surprising that. prajah-people. TRANSLATION Lord Brahma said. by celibacy. tatha-so. ha-indeed. approached the guru. mucyeran-can be liberated. manah-the mind.

the savior of Kali-yuga is proven. Text 5 sa hoväca rahasyaà te vadiñyämi. He will disseminate pure devotional service in the world. This is described in the following verses.Caitanya-candra Text 4 ko va devata ko va mantro bruhiti. dhamni-abode. mantrah-mantra. maha-yogi-the greatest yogi. vadisyami-I will tell. kah-which.or. navadvipe-in Navadvipa. loke-in the world. will appear again in Kali-yuga. Lord Brahma. golokaakhye. rahasyam-confidential truth. sah-he. Sri Caitanya. kasyati-will manifest. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: Oh. jahnavi-tire-on the bank of the Jahnavi. govindah-Lord Govinda. tri-guna-atitah-who is transcendental to the modes of nature. iti-thus. for the living beings whose minds are contaminated by Kali-yuga. sarvätmä mahä-yogé tri-guëätétaù sattva-rüpo bhaktià loke käçyatéti. slokah-verses. ha-indeed. for I will tell you the confidential truth. the Supreme Being. the supreme enjoyer. TRANSLATION Lord Brahmä replied: Listen carefully. jähnavé-tére navadvépe golokäkhye dhämni govindo dvi-bhujo gauraù. brohi-Please tell (me). uvaca-replied. bhavanti-are. tat-that. bhaktim-devotional service. the Supreme Personality of Godhead will assume a two-armed form of golden complexion in His abode of Goloka manifested on the bank of the Ganges in Navadvépa. The Supreme Personality of Godhead. and who is the all-pervading Supersoul residing in the hearts of all living entities. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: In the eleventh canto of the Srimad-Bhagavatam. please tell me which deity should be worshipped or which mantra should be chanted in order to be delivered.33-34 ) the state of being of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. kah-which. te-unto you. va-or. sarva-atma-the Supersoul. whose form is transcendental. ete-these. devata-deity. va. my Lord. Govinda. TRANSLATION Please tell me which deity or which mantra is worthy of service. maha-purusah-the greatest Personality. satva-rupah-the form of truth.5. gaurah-golden complexion. who is beyond the touch of the three modes of material nature. maha-atma. itithus. (11. Appearing as the greatest devotee.which is known as Goloka. 87 . dvi-bhujah-with two arms. tad ete çlokä bhavanti.

bhakti-dah-bestower of devotional service.Caitanya-candra dhyeyam sada paribhava-ghnam abhista-doham tirhaspadam siva-virinci-nutam saranyam bhrtyarti-ham pranata-pala bhavabdhi-potam vande maha-purusa te caranaravindam “O Supreme Person.13). I offer my respectful obeisances unto Your lotus feet which are worthy of being constantly meditated upon.You thus left for the forest in obedience to a brahmana’s curse to deliver the fallen conditioned souls. and yellow and now 88 . Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: In the Srimad-Bhagavatam (10. TRANSLATION The one Supreme Personality of Godhead. the goddess of fortune Your adorable consort and all her opulence. bhaktaof a devotee. He shall appear in the form of Gaura. bhakti-by devotional service.” tyaktva sudustayja-surepsita-rajya-laksmim dharmistha arya-vacasa yad agad aranyam maya-mrgam dayitayepsitam anvadhavad vande maha-purusa te caranaravindam “O Mahapurusa. He shall appear in the form of a devotee. Being the most faithful follower of religion. who are always in pursuit of the false enjoyment of illusion. I offer my respects and humble obeisances unto Your lotus feet.8. vai-indeed. He Himself is Caitanya. which dispel the distress of the devotees and which are a boat for crossing over the ocean of material existence. “He has been white. which are the shelter of all. which is most difficult to renounce. which are praised by Lord Siva and Lord Brahma. sveta-white. vedyah-He can be known. sah-he. upon whom one should meditate. syamala-blackish. devah-Lord. He has also appeared in various complexions such as red. akarah-the form. sarva-rupi-the form of all. blackish and white. caitanya-saktih-the embodiment of the spiritual potency. O Protector of the devotees. atmaHimself. maha-atma-greatest Personality. gaurahGaura. which destroy misery. which are the abode of all holy places of pilgrimage. At the same time You engaged in searching for Your desired object.” Text 6 eko devah sarva-rupi mahatma gauro rakta-syamala-sveta-rupah caitanyatma sa vai caitanya-saktir bhaktakaro bhakti-do bhakti-vedyah ekah-one. the embodiment of cit-sakti. the Supreme Lord. is also knows as Gaura. rupah-whose form. caitanya-Caitanya. rakta-red. to bestow devotional service to the Lord and He is also to be known by devotional service. You left Your household life. who appears in a variety of transcendental forms. yield all desire. the Lord’s characteristics are described by Gargamuni: suklo raktas tatha pita idanim krsnatam gatah. leaving Laksmi. red. who is worshipped even by the great demigods.

89 .. he is blackish. headed by Sathakopa. TRANSLATION I offer my respectful obeisances unto He who is to be understood by Vedanta. purusam-person. caitanya-conscious. na-not. puranam-the oldest. visva-yonim-the source of the universe. caitanyaya-unto Caitanya Mahaprabhu. eva-certainly. pantha-means.who can be known. He has exposed the transcen. viditva-upon knowing. who is Krsna. Ramanujacarya. caitanya-Caitanya. maha-antam-the greatest. Text 8 vedanta vedyam purusam puranam caitanyatmanam visva-yonim mahantam tam eva viditva ti-mrtyum eti nanyah pantha vidyatetyanaya vedanta-vedyam-who can be known by vedanta. atmanam-Himself. Nimbarkacarya. one can overcome death. the Supersoul. Text 7 namo vedanta vedyaya krsnaya paramatmane sarva-caitanya-rupaya caitanyaya namo namah namah-obeisances. the source of the universe and the greatest. who is Himself. in the form of a devotee as Sri Krsna Caitanya Himself and desiring to deliver love of God. ati-mrtyam-beyond death. vedanta-by vedanta. The confidential truth is that the Lord has descended with His own abode. vedyaya. ayanaya-for going. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: Even Lord Brahma offers his obeisances unto Sri Caitanya after considering His unlimited mercy upon Lord Brahma’s own Brahma Madhva sampradaya. who is the oldest personality. etc. anyah-another. Madhvacarya.” In Kali-Yuga. for the purpose of quickly bestowing auspiciousness unto the living beings in Kali-yuga.dental secret of madhurarasa which enlivens all the devotees in the material world. rupaya-whose form. He takes the form of a devotee. eti-one goes. Goloka-Dhama. whose form is conscious of everything. Bhakti vedyah means that the living entities can know the Lord by the practice of devotional service and not by the practice of dry philosophical speculation. Visnuswami. sarva-of everything. tam-Him.obeisances again and again. TRANSLATION By knowing Him. Caitanya. to the supremely sanctified land of Gauda. namah namah. krsnaya-unto Krsna. paramatmane-who is the Supersoul. There is no other means for going beyond Maya. vidyate-there is. Obeisances again and again unto Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. who is to be known by Vedanta.Caitanya-candra (in Dvapara-Yuga).

iti-thus.Caitanya-candra Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: Vedanta-vedyam means. He destroys the varieties of religion and irreligion which are similar to ignorance and darkness within of the heart of the conditioned soul. eva-certainly. The destination of those who practice dasya rasa etc. means the name of Krsna. it can also mean Hari. ca-and.. not the name of Caitanya. although in the form of a devotee can be known by Vedanta. mantrena-by the mantra. he speaks to Pippalada after reflecting upon the conclusion of all the Vedas. etc. For the living beings who have given up the material world. by the manifestation of knowledge of the Absolute Truth which is approved of by the pure conclusions of the Vedas. sarvam-everything. samvit-samvit (knowledge). as being directly Sri Krsna. whose source is His own name. is limited to Vaikuntha. parame-superior. Vibhuh means the Lord who possesses all opulence. TRANSLATION His superior energies are hladini (bliss). etc. This is apparent in their books. Sri Caitanya. the Lord pleases everything. dasyarasa. TRANSLATION By the mantra. Moreover. by the manifestation of devotional service (bhakti) and love of God (prema). And sarvam means all moving and non-moving living beings. there is no direct path. tasya-His. but specifically it means Krsna. This is because Sri Caitanya is the source of the universe and the only teacher in the matter of instructing vraja-rasa. Text 9 sva-nama-mula-mantrena sarvam hladayati vibhuh. iti dve-two. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: Two energies are acquainted with the Supreme Lord . 90 . He pleases everything. “by the mantra whose source lies in His Form”. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: Because there may be an incongruity with. sakti-potencies. His own name. without the shelter of the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya. nama-name. By hladini is meant. there is no other means for entering into the spiritual world. Bhaktivinoda explains that sva nama. and samvit (knowledge).hladini and samvit.. According to the evidence of Ramanuja. by the mellow of servitorship. By samvit is meant. mula-whose source. sva-His own. Text 10 dve sakti parame tasya hladini samvit eva ca. hladini-hladini (bliss).

Caitanya-candra Text 11 sa eva mula-mantram japati harir iti krsna iti rama iti sah-He. is called Hari. (Mundaka-Upanisad 2. Hrdaya-granthi. japati-chants. sucking the breast of Mother Yasoda. TRANSLATION He who removes the knot in the heart in the form of material desire. with beauty like a blackish tamala tree. He severs the knot within the heart and all doubts are cut to pieces. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: The Supreme Lord in the form of Gaura instructs the conditioned souls by chanting the supremely powerful. eva-certainly. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: The meanings of the above three names are explained. bhavati-is. krsih-the root krs. 91 . iti-thus. sarvam-everything.the knot. krsih smarane tac ca nastad ubhaya-melanam iti krsnah. harih-Hari. vasana-of material desire.2. TRANSLATION He chants the original mantra consisting of Hari. which takes its form in the desire for other mundane interests which is produced from the forgetfulness of the service of the Lord. nastat-the affix na. Krsna and Rama. rupamin the form. This is the conventional meaning. krsnah-Krsna. He who gives pleasure to everything is the form of bliss-Rama. ramayati sarvam iti rama ananda-rupah.21) He who takes away that knot is Hari. caand. smarane-by the remembrance. in other words.8 and Srimad Bhagavatam 1. the words of the Vedas and the Srimad-Bhagavatam are noteworthy: bhidyante hrdaya-granthis chidyante sarva-samsayah. means the inclination of the living entity whose factual constitutional position is to be a servant of Krsna. tat-that. ananda.and the affix -na.thus. iti-thus. The union by the remembrance of the root krs. krsnah-Krsna.2. the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. harihHari. melanam-the union. the Lord of Vrindavana. In this connection. ramayatiHe pleases.rupah-the form of bliss. iti-thus. Here is such a verse. granthim. harati-He removes. mula-mantram-the original mantra. slokah-a verse. iti-thus. hrdaya-in the heart. atra sloko bhavati. iti-thus. is the hymn of praise-Krsna. Krsna is to be remembered in His pastimes as the Supreme Lord. Sri Caitanya. ubhaya-of both. iti. ramah-Rama. atrahere. ramah-Rama. original mantra: Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare Text 12 harati hrdaya-granthim vasana-rupam iti harih.

By this mantra is meant. dhirah. vedyah-can be known.sober persons. nityam-regularly. he attains the state of assisting in the transcendental Vrindavana pastimes. tani nityam ye japanti dhiras te vai mayam atitaranti nanyah paramam mantram parama-rahasyam nityam avartayanti namani-names. etc. and the attainment of the Supreme enjoyment of rasa. 92 .6) Text 14 namany astav asta ca sobhanani. japanti-chant. astav asta ca-eight plus eight. the verse is to be reflected upon in this way. na-not. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: The confidential truth of this mantra can be understood only by those who have attained the prescribed method and not by those who are adherents of fruitive work (karma) and philosophical speculation (jnana). paramah-transcendental. Thus. that when the spirit soul gives up the conditioned state of existence. Rama pleases everything.2. nityamregularly. sa vai pumsam paro dharmo yato bhaktir adhoksaje ahaituky apratihata yayatma suprasidati The most perfect occupation for all humankind is what is conducive to the attainment of devotional service of transcendence to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. anyah -another means. TRANSLATION The Maha-Mantra is confidential. te-they. vai-certainly. avartayati-one should repeat. transcendental and can be understood only by devotional service. (bhakti-yoga). guhyah-confidential. parama-rahasyam-the supreme secret. bhaktiby bhakti-yoga. mayamthe illusory energy. Text 13 mantro guhyah paramo bhakti vedyah mantroh-the Hare Krsna Maha-Mantra.Caitanya-candra which is equivalent to another meaning from the statements of the Sandarbhas. atitaranti-cross over. ye-those who. Such devotional service must be unmotivated and undeterred so that the same shall completely satisfy the self. sobhanani-beautiful. tani-those names. (Srimad-Bhagavatam 1. mantram-mantra. paramamtranscendental.

paramesthi-the Supersoul. Documentation for this may be found in the Brahmanda Purana(Uttara-khanda. sarve-all. sarvani-all. bhutani-the living entities. vasudevah-Vasudeva. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: This mantra’s quality of yielding fruits to the devotees is apparent.To save oneself from the contamination of Kali-yuga there is no other alternative.6): hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare iti sodasakam namnam kali kalmasa nasanam natah parataropayah sarva vedesu drsyate Lord Brahma instructs his son and disciple. sankarsanah.55). regularly.6). the devotees transcendentally cross beyond the state of being overcome by the illusory. and in many other Vedic texts as well. There is no other means than this. the Kalisantarana Upanisad(5. Narada: “The sixteen words of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra-(Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare)-are especially meant for counteracting the sins of Kali-yuga. Those who chant them regularly are sober persons who are able to cross beyond the illusory energy. but to chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. 93 .” Text 15 caitanya eva sankarsano vasudevah paramesthi rudrah sakro brhaspatih sarve devah sarvani bhutani sthavarani carani ca yat kincit sad-asat karanam sarvam. sthavarani-non-moving. By regularly chanting this mantra consisting of sixteen names. Even the eternally perfect souls regularly repeat this mantra for the sake of their own dharma. caitanyah-Sri Caitanya. tad atra slokah. material energy.Caitanya-candra TRANSLATION These sixteen names are supremely beautified. devah. brhaspatih-Brhaspati. rudrah-Rudra (Siva). For instance the Hare Krsna maha-mantra has been prescribed by Brahma as stated in the Kalisantarana Upanisad(5. One should repeat this maha-mantra which is the supreme secret.6. eva-indeed. sakrah-sakra (Indra). There is no other means. It is the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra that the Vedic literature particularly recommends for the current age.After searching through all the Vedic scriptures one cannot find a method of religion for this age (Kali-yuga) so sublime as the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.the demigods.Sankarsana.

Sakra (Indra). yat-that which. he imagines himself to be the doer.Caitanya-candra carani-moving. Therefore. Text 16 yat kincid asad bhunkte ksaram tat karyam ucyate. tatthat. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: The spirit soul is eternal and the cause of that which is perishable. karanam-the cause. what need is there for worshipping other demigods. Text 17 sat karanam param jivas tad aksaram itiritam. param-beyond. asat-temporary. karanam-the cause. tat-that. bhunkte-one enjoys. TRANSLATION Whatever one enjoys which is temporary is known as an effect and is perishable. tat-that. atra-herein. sat-eternal. He is the cause of that which is perishable and also beyond that which is perishable. and everything which is temporary and external. iti-thus. ca-and. all the demigods. Text 18 ksaraksarabhyam paramah sa eva 94 . yat-which. Brhaspati. He is the cause of Rudra (Siva). he is perishable. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: This universe is temporary. sat-eternal. ucyate-is called. all moving and non-moving entities. TRANSLATION Caitanya is Sankarsana. TRANSLATION It is said that the spirit soul is eternal. kincit-anything. asat-temporary. sarvam-everything. Herein are the celebrated verses. Due to forgetfulness of his occupational duty because of the influence of the illusory energy. due to its quality of being an effect. slokah-the verses. and the Supersoul. Vasudeva. karyam-effect. ksaram-perishable. kincit-whatever. aksaramperishable. iritam-it is said. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: For the devotees of Sri Caitanya. jivah-the spirit soul.

papmanam-sin. Tattvam means that he understands the truth in terms of inconceivable oneness and difference between the energy and the energetic. The spirit soul is imperishable. TRANSLATION Anyone who develops love for Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. whose nature is that of the Supreme Person. 95 . evacertainly. sokam-lamentation. paramtattvam-the Supreme Truth. By this. bhajati-worships. dhyayati-meditates upon. sah-he. janati-knows.Caitanya-candra purusottamah caintanyakhyam param tattvam sarva-karana. sa tattvam janati. This means he devotes himself to Sri Caitanya due to His being the bestower of the conjugal mellow of Vrindavana. Thus ends the Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya. tasya-of him. or he worships. purusa-uttamah-the Supreme Person. For him. rasayati-develops love for. sah-he. tarati-overcomes. na-not. ksara-from the perishable. Having overcome that.karanam. Text 19 ya enam rasayahti bhajati dhyayahti sa papmanam tarati sa puto bhavati. means that after accepting his own constitutional position. putah-purified. akhyam-is called. he is purified by the spiritual nature. anyasya-another. aste-there is. bhavati-is. Bhajati. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: One who is a devotee develops love for Sri Krsna Caitanya. sarva-karana-karanam-the cause of all causes. sah-he. and overcomes lamentation. tattvam-truth. paramah-beyond. worships Him or meditates on Him is freed from sin. enam-this Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The name of the Supreme Truth. He overcomes sin in the form of ignorance. commentary on Sri Caitanya Upanisad. gatis tasyaste nanyasyeti yah-one who. becomes purified. tarati-crosses over. sah-he. the three truths of Vedanta are confirmed. aksarabhyam-and imperishable. gatih-destination. (acintya bheda-abheda-tattva). sah-He. the cause of all causes is Sri Caitanya. caitanya-Caitanya. there is no other destination. Sri Caitanya-Caranamrta Bhasya: The universe is perishable. understands the Supreme Truth. he renders service. Dhyayati means that he meditates. iti-thus. The supreme truth beyond both of these. sa tarati sokam. TRANSLATION He who is beyond that which is perishable and imperishable is the Supreme Person. And finally he overcomes lamentation. the cause of all causes is called Caitanya.

2 Specific Reference In The Vedas As To When And Where Sri Caitanya Was Scheduled To Appear? In the Atharva-Veda (Purusa-Bodini-Upanisad). “I will descend on the earth after the passage of four thousand years in the Kali-Age. I will have all auspicious signs. [kalau catuh sahasrabdhopari] and before the passsage of five thousand years [panca sahasra abhyantare]. the Supreme Person Sri Krsna says: ito’ham krta-sannyaso'vatarisyami sa-guno nirvedo niskamo bhu-girbanas tira-stho’ lakanandayah kalau catuh-sahasrabdhopari panca-sahasrabhyantare gaura-varno dirghangah sarva-laksana-yukta isvara-prarthito nija-rasasvado bhakta-rupo misrakhyo vidita-yogah syam. descend in a golden form to the earth. it is stated: atharva-vede-purusa-bodi'ny-upanisad saptame gaura-varna-visnor itya ena sva-saktya caikyam etya prante pratar avatirya saha svaih sva-manum siksayati. I will exhibit renunciation. in a place by the bank of the Ganges. I will have all the auspicious symptoms of an exalted person [dirghangah sarva-laksana-yuktah].” 4. I will be a devotee. accompanied by His own associates. the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna says: tathaham krta sannyaso bhu-girvano ‘vatarisye tire'lakanandayah punah punah isvaraprarthitah sa-parivaro niralambo nirdhuteh kalikalmasa-kavalita-janavalambanaya.” In the Sama Veda. practicing bhakti yoga. He will teach the chanting of His own names. I will taste the rasa of My own devotional service. “I shall come to the earth. the Supreme Personality of Godhead will. I will come on the earth on the bank of the Ganges.3 Other Relevant Scriptural References Describing The Appearance Or Qualities Of Sri Caitanya? In the Krsna Upanisad it is stated: sa eva bhagavan yuge turiye’pi brahma-kule jayamanah sarva upanisadah uddidirsuh sarvani dharma96 .Caitanya-candra 4. accompanied by My associates. “In the seventh manvantara. in the beginning of the Kali-Yuga. I will advent to save the people who are afflicted and devoured by the sins of the age of Kali. [tira-sthah alakanandayah]. I will be a tall and saintly Brahmana devotee.” In the Atharva Veda. I will manifest as an avadhuta Brahmana sannyasi.

” The Svetasvatara Upanisad (3.12) states: mahan prabhur vai purusah sattvasyaisa pravartakah sunirmalam imam praptim isano jyotir avyayah “Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” The Svetasvatara Upanisad (6. Lord Krsna will appear in a brahmana’s family. You are the controller of all controllers. whose appearance and birthplace were predicted and whose activities were also foretold.” Thus it is clearly established from the writings of the great Acaryas of the Gaudiyaparampara.Caitanya-candra sastrani vistarayisnuh sarvan api janan santarayisnuh sarvan api vaisnavan dharman vjtmbhayan sarvan api pasandan nicakhana “In the Kali-yuga.7) describes the qualities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. the Supreme Lord. Lord Caitanya: tam isvaranam paramam mahesvaram tam devatanam paramam ca daivatam patim patinam paramam parastad vidama devam bhuvanesam idyam “O Supreme Lord. Who is the source of the Supreme Brahman.13) it is stated: yada pasyah pasyate rukma-varnam kartaram isam purusam brahma-yonim sada vidvan punya-pape vidhuya niranjanah paramam samyam upaiti “One who sees that golden-coloured Personality of Godhead. that Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself. the Lord of everything worshipable. 97 . the Personality of Godhead. is liberated. He will defeat the atheists and offenders and He will establish the truth of Vaisnava-dharma. who disseminates transcendental enlightenment. Just to be in touch with Him is to be in contact with the indestructible brahmajyoti.” In the Mundaka Upanisad (3. the Supreme actor. you are the Supreme Mahesvara. the worshipable deity of all the demigods and the Supreme Lord of all Lords. He will teach the message of the Upanisads antd the dharma-sastras.

38. Dhanvantri. Srila Rupa Gosvami has enumerated the following twenty-five lila-avataras: Catuh-sana. but in disguise. Kalki. Rsabha. And this was the special feature of Lord Caitanya. which means that He is manifest in three yugas. in the age of Kali. Prahlada Maharaja directly hints at the hidden nature of the Supreme Lord’s appearance. paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam.Caitanya-candra 4. That is one of His holy names. animals. Varaha. for He appeared in the role of a devotee. In his book Laghu-bhagavatamrta. Balarama. His name is Triyuga. Vyasa. Treta and Dvapara yugas.He doesn’nt assert Himself as the Supreme Personality of Godhead.9. Not as the Supreme Lord. Raghavendra. Thus You illuminate the worlds with transcendendal knowledge. Nrsimha. Sri Prahalada Maharaja said: ittham nr-tiryag-rsi-deva jhasavatarair lokan vibhavayasi hamsi jagat pratipan dharmam maha purusa pasi yuganuvrttam channah kalau yad abhavas tri-yugo 'tha sa tvam “My Lord. A lila-avatara is an incarnation of Lord who performs a variety of activites without making any special endeavor. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is not mentioned as a lilaavatara because He is an incarnation in disguise (channa-avatara). He is sometimes said to appear in a concealed form. Buddha. Because the Lord is not directly perceived in Kali-yuga. In the age of Kali. Hamsa. Krsna. Kapila. therefore He is known as Triyuga. 98 . rsis. Narada. Parasurama. but is directly known in the other three yugas. this means that in the age of Kali the Lord appears not directly. Therefore You are known as Triyuga [one who appears in only three yugas]. However. demigods. Prsnigarbha.4 Prediction in the Srimad-Bhagavatam Describing The Appearance Of Lord Caitanya. 2 a great acarya of the Rudra Visnuswami sampradaya who wrote the commentary on Srimad Bhagavatam known as Bhavartha dipika which is well received by all Vaisnava sampradayas. Srila Sridhara Svami2 has also verified that Lord Hari incarnates for two purposes. Dvapara. Mohini. He does not directly kill demons and give protection to the faithful. Kurma. In the seventh canto of the Srimad-Bhagavatam. but in Kali-yuga the Lord appears disguised. Yagna. In the Srimad Bhagavatam 7. These purposes are visible in Satya. That is. Matsya. and these pastimes are fully controlled by the Supreme Person. aquatics and so on.You kill all the enemies of the world in Your multifarious incarnations in the families of men. Prthu. You sometimes appear in a covered incarnation.” The Supreme Personality of Godhead is known as Triyuga. In the age of Kali there is no lila-avatara of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. all full of transcendental pleasure. O Mahapurusa. that is . He always has one pastime after another. He comes to engage in pastimes with His devotees and to annihilate the demons. Nara-Narayana. Because the Supreme Lord is also called TriYuga. Treta). Dattatreya. or one who appears in only three yugas (Satya. Vamana. Hayasirsa (Hayagriva).

red. the colour of the incarnation of Supreme Lord is white. the Lord appears in a particular colour. and austerity was the yuga-dharma.as black. These are the colors of the incarnations in different millenniums. in the Dvapara-yuga the colour of the incarnation is blackish.. Treta and Kali respectively. Gargamuni the family priest of the Yadu dynasty. asan varnas trayo hy asya grhnatotnvyugam tanuh suklo raktas tatha pita idanim krsnatam gatah “This child formerly had three colors according to the prescribed color for different millenniums. Formerly He was white.when He appears in His transcendental form in different ages. his colour is yellowish (as in case of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu). In the current incarnation of Krsna. and in the Kali-yuga the colour is also blackish.” (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10. According to the yuga. and now He has assumed a blackish color. The Bhagavatam explains in the conversation between Karabhajana Muni and King Nimi: krte suklas catur bahur jatilo valkalambarah krsnajinopavitaksan bibhrad danda-kamandalu “In the Satya-yuga. Treta. explains that the young boy Sri Krsna has three colors . black and yellow respectively. the celebrated author of the Sri Caitanya-caritamrta.Caitanya-candra 4. He wore a sacred thread and a garland of rudraksa beads.. sukla rakta pita-varna-ei tina dyuti satya-treta-kali-kale dharena sri-pati “In the four yugas-Satya.1 The Yuga-Avataras And More Direct References In The Srimad Bhagavatam In the tenth canto of the Srimad Bhagavatam. He wore tree bark and bore a black antelope skin. chapter eight.” In Satya-yuga the Hamsa avatara of the Lord was white. Dvapara and Kali-the Lord incarnates in four colors: white.4. explains that the three colors of white.” In each millenium the Supreme Lord incarnates. red and yellow. In the Satya-yuga. red and yellow . and each incarnation has a different colour according to the yuga.13) Srila Krsna dasa Kaviraja Gosvami. red and yellow are the three bodily colors which the Supreme Lord assumes in the ages of Satya. and He was a brahmacari. the Lord appeared in a body colored white with four arms and matted hair. Such incarnations which reestablish religion are called yuga-avataras. 99 . in the Treta-yuga the colour is red . He carried a rod and a waterpot.8. but sometimes in a special Kaliyuga.white. He has appeared .

the Lord takes a red-coloured form to teach the religion of yajna. In Treta-yuga. Isvara. however. Raghupati. This was induced by the Personality of Godhead in His reddish incarnation. Sarvadeva. In Satya-yuga the Lord was glorified by the names Hamsa. His transcendental body is the colour of fresh green grass. However in some Treta-yuga. Kausalya-nandana and Sitapati. and Urugaya. and his hair was golden. The Lord is worshipped by the rituals of sacrifice taught in the Vedas. Jayanta. Ramacandra. In some Treta-yugas. sacrifice. friendly to every creature. Lord Rama forms alliance with the forest monkeys to vanquish the demon Ravana.Caitanya-candra In the Satya-yuga the people were generally advanced in spirtual knowledge and could meditate upon Krsna very easily. Incarnations like Rama and others who come to destroy the demons are called karya-avataras. Vaikuntha. and in this way He showed His causeless mercy. and He bore the symbols of a sacrificial spoon and so on. Dharma. non-envious. Suparna. the Supreme Lord taught religion and meditation. They were peaceful. Yogesvara. They worshipped the Supreme Lord by austere meditation and by internal and external sense control. Yajna. Purusa. His form manifested the Vedic knowledge. In Treta-yuga: tretayam rakta-varno’sau catur-bahus trimekhalah hiranya-kesas trayy-atma sruk-sruv-ady-upalaksana “In the Treta-yuga. Amala. the Lord appears as Lord Ramacandra. the Lord appeared in a body that had a reddish hue and four arms. Vrsakapi. There were three distinctive lines on His abdomen. and steady in all situations. In Dvapara-yuga: dvapare bhagavan syamah pita-vasa nijayudhah sri-vatsadibhir ankais ca laksanair upalaksitah 100 . Avyakta and Paramatama. He offered benediction to Kardama Muni. Many Treta-yugas have passed but they are not the same. As the white incarnation. Urukrama. Raghavendra.” The people’s occupational duty in Treta-yuga was to perform great sacrifices. Raghunatha. worshipped the Supreme Lord Krsna who contains within Himself all the demigods. Prsnigarbha. the Lord is glorified by the names Rama. In Treta-yuga the Lord is glorified by the names Visnu. those members of human society who are fixed in religiosity and are sincerely interested in achieving the Absolute truth. In Treta-yuga.

Caitanya-candra “In the Dvapara-yuga the Personality of Godhead appears in a blackish hue. Radha and Krsna have only one body. When the Krsna avatara. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakur compares it to the colour of the atasi flower. the topmost among yugas.” The syama color mentioned in the above verse is not exactly blackish. but They have separated as two 101 . independent and separate from Krsna. This is how His symptoms are described. because everyone can easily perform the yuga-dharma of chanting the holy names in the sankirtana. Lord Krsna does not appear in every Dvapara-yuga. Lord Gauranga worships Lord Krsna. the Supreme Lord appeared in a greenish body by his own personal expansion. By what activites did he establish the yuga-dharma? Scriptures say that temple worship is the religious process for Dvapara-yuga. came alone. She is individual. Krsna appears in expanded forms. When and where did Lord Krsna establish temple worship? The Lord Himself. He holds His own weapons. Lord Gauranga Mahaprabhu appears to preach Krsna consciousness in that particular Kaliyuga directly following the Dvapara-yuga in which the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Krsna appears. People receive great fortune in the Dvapara and Kali-yugas wherein both Krsna and Gauranga appear. the Lord manifested His form as Gauranga. the most perfect form. Also. the darling son of Nanda Maharaja. but not in his original forms. In order to perform pastimes in the form of Radha and Krsna. that Dvapara-yuga is the best of all the Dvaparas. Krsna and Gauranga perform their transcendental pastimes only once in a day of Lord Brahma. In other Dvapara-yugas. For this reason Lord Krsna is known as the purna-brahma. two incarnations appear called karya and yuga avataras. In Dvapara-yuga Lord Krsna comes as a yuga avatara. In other Dvapara-yugas. Radharani is the form of Krsna’s divine hladini-sakti. appears in a particular Dvapara. During the reign of Vaivasvata manvantara. the crest jewel and the essence of all incarnations. and invalid by inducing them to chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. Hari-vamsa and Mahabharata. Lord Caitanya delivers the lame. previous to Lord Krsna’s appearance. Lord Krsna and Lord Caitanya don’t appear in every Dvapara and Kali-yuga. the Lord of Dvapara. Although Sri Krsna. the completely independent Supreme Being. This is mentioned in the Visnu Purana. In other Dvapara-yugas. When the Lord appears as a yuga avatara He serves a particular purpose according to the needs of that specific yuga. Sri Krsna is the transcendental paramour lover of the Vraja gopis. Lord Syamasundara came as Lord Gauranga. It is not that Lord Krsna Himself appears in a blackish color in all the Dvapara-yugas. decides whether He’ll establish the yuga-dharma or simply enjoy pleasure pastimes.and He is decorated with the Kaustubha jewel and marks of Srivatsa. The two special yugas wherein Lord Krsna and Lord Caitanya appear are called svatantra. He is dressed in yellow. by doing hari-nama sankirtana. blind. Kali-yuga is glorious. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The wonderful thing is that He did everyhing at once. all the other incarnations and expansions of Godhead are contained within Him.

Caitanya-candra persons in order to perform pastimes. Lord Gauranga takes the name of Radha and joins with the gopis to serve Krsna. Radharani and the gopis, who are her personal expansions, serve Sri Krsna with pure transcendental love. However, Srimati Radharani alone is the personification of Krsna’s svarupa-sakti. Radha feels that Her love is always fresh, new and ever increasing. The Srimad Bhagavatam declares that this mood of loving service is hard to understand. In other Dvapara-yugas the Lord established religion by encouraging vows, charity and meditation. The people, though failed to capture the essence of religion whichis pure love of God. In the age of Kali, Lord Krsna came as Lord Gauranga specifically to give pure love of God to everyone. Assuming the molten gold colour of Srimati Radharani and Her mood of pure love within His heart, Krsna Himself appeared as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in this Kaliyuga. Covered by Radha’s mood, Lord Caitanya cries ouy in love. His body continually exhibits ecstatic symptoms like horripilation, and changing body color from gold to pink. Sometimes Gaura roars to awaken the sleeping souls of Kali-yuga. People experience real joy when they embrace Mahaprabhu’s sankirtana movement. After accepting the transcendental names of Radha and Krsna, they begin chanting, dancing, crying and laughing in ecstacy. Soon they emerge from the darkness of ignorance, and see the transcendental reality of blissful spiritual life. The Supreme Lord came in form of Gauranga to make the world Krsna-conscious. Adopting a humble mood, He teaches the science of loving Krsna. Lord Gaurasundara takes pleasure in giving Himself to others. Even without being asked, He gives away Krsna-prema to eveyone without discrimination. For this reason this yuga-avatara is called a complete incarnation of the Supreme Personality Godhead. In previous Kali-yugas the Supreme Lord came in the form of Lord Narayana. The two-syllable word Krsna is the name of the avatara who appeared with the colour of a parrot’s wing feather’s [bright yellow]. Great sages say that this person is also the colour of blue sapphires. The Gauranga avatara contains all the unlimited incarnations of God within Him. No other incarnation matches Gaura’s compassion. The sastras say that in Kali-yuga the Lord takes a golden form and spreads the sankirtana movement. This Lord is none other than Sri Visvambara. In Dvapara-yuga the people’s occupational duty was to worship the lotus feet of Krsna. Therefore Lord Krsna, appearing in a blackish body, personally induced people to worship Him. In Dvapara-yuga men who desired to know the Suprme Personaliy of Godhead, who is the supreme enjoyer, worshipped Him in the mood of honoring a great King, folowing the prescriptions of both the Vedas and the Tantras. In Dvapara-yuga the Supeme Lord was worsipped in the following way: namas te vasudevaya namah sankarsanaya ca pradyumna aniruddhaya tubhyam bhagavate namah. “I offer my respectful obeisances unto the Supreme Personalty of Godhead, expanded as Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna and Aniruddha.”



The great sage continues his instruction to King Nimi by saying that people in general in the age of Dvapara-Yuga worshiped the Lord of the Universe [iti dvapara urvisam stuvanti jagad isvaram]. In the age of Kali, they worship the Supreme Person by the regulation of the scriptures [tantra vidhana]. In Kali-yuga(11.5.32): krsëa-varëaà tviñäkåñëaà säìgopäìgästra-pärñadam yajïaiù saìkértana-präyair yajanti hi sumedhasaù “In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the holy name of Krsna. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Krsna Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions.” 4.4.2 How Does This Krsna Varnam Verse Refer To The Advent Of Lord Caitanya? Just as the symptoms and characteristics of the various previous incarnations are mentioned in the scriptures, similarly the symptoms of the appearance of Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu are described. Krsna-varnam indicates that He belongs to the category of Krsna. Krsna varnam also means one who constantly repeats and sings the name of Krsna. The main business of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was the chanting of the holy name of Krsna. Thus the words Krsna varnam and Krsna Caitanya are equivalent. Srila Krsna dasa Kaviraja Goswami has elucidated the two meanings of the words krsna varnam by stating: krsna ei dui varna sadayanra mukhe athava krmake tinho varne nija sukhe “Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu always sings the two syllables Krs-na [Krsna ei dui varna sada yanra mukhe], or He always relishes great transcendental pleasure while describing Lord Krsna [athava krmake tinho varne nija-sukhe].” His bodily complexion is not black [tvisa akrsnam]. Lord Caitanya appeared in a very light, golden like complexion. His complexion was yellow [akrma-varane kahe pita-varana]. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu was very beautiful. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is often described as Gaurasundara. Gaura means fair and sundara means beautiful. Sometimes He is also called Gauranga or one who has a very fair golden complexion.


Caitanya-candra Srila Rupa Goswami Prabhupada was one of the chief associates of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He was personally trained by Mahaprabhu Himself in the science of bhakti both in PuriDhama and Prayaga. He personally witnessed many intimate pastimes of Lord Caitanya at Jagannatha Puri. In his Stava- Mala, Caitanya-Astakam, He vividly describes the bodily color of Sriman Mahaprabhu. kalau yam vidvamsah sphutam abhiyajante dyuti-bharad akrmangam krsnam makha vidhibhir utkirtanamayaih “In the age of Kali [kalau], great scholars [vidvamsah] worship Lord Krsna by performing the sankirtana [makha-vidhibhih utkirtanamayaih]. Lord Krsna is now non-blackish [akrmaangam], because of the feelings of ecstatic love of Srimati Radharani.” This is the actual description of His bodily hue. Srila Kaviraja Goswami elucidates the above verse of Rupa Goswami: pratyaksa tanhara tapta-kancanera dyuti yanhara chataya nase aNnana tamastati “Anyone can vividly see the golden complexion of Lord Caitanya [tapta kancanera dyuti]. This beautiful golden color dissipates the darkness of ignorance.” Thus, the meaning of the words 'tvisa akrsnam' has been explained by the great acaryas, Srila Rupa Goswami Prabhupada and Srila Krsna Dasa Kaviraja Goswami. 4.4.3 Did He Come With Associates Or Intimate Companions? Lord Caitanya is always accompanied by His associates. His main associates are Lord Nityananda, Advaita Acarya, Srivasa, Gadadhara, Haridasa Thakura, etc. Whenever Lord Caitanya was present, they would assemble around Him and engage in hari-nama sankirtana. So in the incarnation of Lord Caitanya He comes with His soldiers and His associates [caitanya-krsnera sainya anga-upange]. Thousands upon thousands of persons would come and participate in the congregational chanting of the Hare Krsna maha mantra. sangopangastra parsadam (sa-anga upa-anga parsadam) Thus, Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu's characteristics and symptoms are described [krsnavarnam], and His bodily color is indicated [tvisa- akrsnam]. This famous verse from the Srimad-Bhagavatam also indicates that the incarnation for this age would also advent with His associates [sa-anga upanga astra parsadam]. The word anga is defined as a bodily limb [anga sabde amsa] and it is also sometimes called a part. A part of a limb [angera avayana] is defined as a partial part [upanea vyakhyana].


Caitanya-candra Krsna dasa Goswami also defines the word anga as referring to a plenary portion. Such divine portions are full of knowlege and bliss [sat cid ananda maya]. Sri Advaita Prabhu and Sri Nityananda Prabhu are the angas or plenary portions of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu [advaita nityananda-caitanyera dui anga]. They are the angas (limbs) of Sri Caitanya. The sub-parts of these two limbs are called the upangas or the constituent parts of the two major limbs. 4.4.4 How Is This Yuga-Avatara Or Incarnation Of The Age Of Kali-Yuga To Be Worshipped? This form of the Personality of Godhead, Sri Caitanya, is meant to be worshipped by the intelligent class of men [yajanti hi su-medhasah]. The word su means very good and medhasah means one who is intelligent, one who has good brain substance. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the propounder, also sometimes called the initiator, of the sankirtana movement of congregational chanting of the Divine Name of Krsna [sankirtana pravartaka Sri Krsna Caitanya]. Anyone who worships Lord Caitanya through the medium of sankirtana is fortunate [sankirtana yajne tanre bhaje sei dhanya]. Anyone who worships Lord Caitanya, by making a sacrifice of His life, wealth, time, and intelligence and words is very fortunate and is recognized by the Lord and gets the blessings of Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu. 4.4.5 How Do The Six Goswamis Explain This Famous Verse? Srila Jiva Goswami has explained the above verse in his commentary on the Bhagavatam known as Krama Sandarbha, wherein he says that Lord Krsna also appears with a golden complexion. That golden Lord Krsna is Lord Caitanya, who is worshipped by intelligent men in this age of Kali. Srila Jiva Goswami explains that krsna-varnam means Sri Krsna Caitanya. Krsna-varna and Krsna Caitanya are equivalent. The name Krsna appears with both Lord Krsna and Lord Krsna Caitanya. Lord Caitanya is the same Supreme Personality of Godhead, but He always engages in describing Krsna and thus enjoying transcendental bliss by chanting and remembering His name and form. Lord Krsna Himself appears as Lord Caitanya to preach the highest gospel. Varnayati means “utters” or “describes”. Lord Caitanya always chants the holy name of Krsna and describes it also, and because He is Krsna Himself, whoever meets Him will automatically chant the holy name of Krsna and later describes it to others. He injects one with transcendental Krsna consciousness, which merges the chanter to transcendental bliss. In all respects, therefore, He appears before everyone as Krsna, either by personality or by sound. Simply by seeing Lord Caitanya one at once remembers Lord Krsna. One may therefore accept Him as visnu-tattva. In other words, Lord Caitanya is Lord Krsna Himself. Sangopangastra-parsadam further indicates that Lord Caitanya is Lord Krsna. His body is always decorated with ornaments of sandalwood and with sandalwood paste. By His superexcellent beauty He subdues all the people of this age. In other descends the Lord sometimes used weapons to defeat the demoniac, but in this age the Lord subdues them with


Caitanya-candra His all-attractive figure as Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Srila Jiva Goswami explains that His beauty is His astra, weapon, to subdue the demons. Because He is all-attractive, it is to be understood that all the demigods lived with Him as companions. His acts were uncommon and His associates wonderful. When He propagated the sankirtana movement, He attracted many great scholars and acaryas, especially in Bengal and Orissa. Lord Caitanya is always accompanied by His best associates like Nityananda, Advaita, Gadadhara and Srivasa. Srila Jiva Goswami cites a verse from the Vedic literature which says that there is no necessity of perfoming sacrificial demonstrations or ceremonial functions. He comments that instead of engaging in such external, pompous exhibitions, all people, regardless of caste, color or creed, can assemble together and chant Hare Krsna to worship Lord Caitanya. Krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam indicates that prominence should be given to the name of Krsna. Lord Caitanya taught Krsna consciousness and chanted the name of Krsna. Therefore to worship Lord Caitanya we should chant together the maha-mantra. Srila Jiva Goswami Prabhupada has commented upon the verse krsna varnam tvisakrsnam, in the introduction of his Bhagavata-Sandarbha. He composed the famous verse antah krsnam bahir gauram. antah krsnam bahir gauram darsitangadi vaibhavam kalau sankirtanadyaih sma krsna-caitanyam asritah “I take shelter of Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu, who is outwardly of a fair complexion but is inwardly, Krsna Himself. In this age of Kali, He displays His expansions [His angas and upangas] by performing congregational chanting of the holy name of the Lord.” Srila Prabhupada explains the meaning of the above verse: “He [Srila Jiva Goswami ] has placed the verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam quoted in text 52 (krsna varnam tvisakrsnam ...) as the auspicious introduction to his Bhagavata-Sandarbha or Sat-Sandarbha. He has composed this text, which is, in effect an explanation of the Bhagavatam verse of the same work. The verse from Srimad-Bhagavatam was enunciated by Karabhajana, one of nine great sages, and it is elaborately explained by the Sarva- Samvadini, Jiva Goswami’s commentary on his own Sat-Sandarbha. Antah-Krsna refers to one who is always thinking of Krsna. This attitude is a predominant feature of Srimati Radharani. Even though many devotees always think of Krsna, none can surpass the Gopis, among whom Radharani is the leader in thinking of Krsna. Radharani's Krsna consciousness surpasses that of all other devotees. Lord Caitanya accepted the position of Srimati Radharani to understand Krsna; therefore He was always thinking of Krsna in the same way as Radharani. By thinking of Lord Krsna, He always overlapped Krsna. Sri Krsna Caitanya, who was outwardly very fair, with a complexion like molten gold, simultaneously manifested His eternal associates, opulences, expansions and incarnations. He preached the process of chanting Hare Krsna, and those who are under His lotus feet are glorious.”


Caitanya-candra 4.4.6 Other Verses From The Srimad-Bhagavatam Which Describe The Advent Of Sri Caitanya There are two other verses often cited by Srila Prabhupada and the previous acaryas which describe the appearance of Lord Caitanya. In the Srimad Bhagavatam (11.5.33) Sri Karbhajana Muni says: dhyeyam sada paribhava-ghnam abhista-doham tirthaspadam siva-virinci-nutam saranyam bhrtyarti-ham pranata-pala bhavabdhi-potam vande maha purusa te caranaravindam “O my dear Lord, You are the Mahapurusa, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and I worship Your lotus feeet, which are the only eternal object of meditation. Those feet destroy embarrasing conditions of material life and freely award the greatest desire of the soul,the attainment of pure love of Godhead. I bow to Your lotus feet Which are always fit to be meditated upon without the least restrictions of time and place, which destroy all impediments like, karma, jnana, yoga to the practice of unalloyed devotion to you, Which are the wish wielders, and holy because of their being the resort of the holy river Ganga. You destroy insults to Your devotees. You remove the distresses of Your devotees and satisfy their desires. My dear Lord, Your lotus feet are the shelter of all holy places and of all saintly authorities in the line of devotional service and ae honoured by powerful demigods like Lord Siva and Lord Brahma. My Lord You are so kind that you willingly protect all those who simply bow down to You with respect, and thus You mercifully relieve all the distress of Your servants. In conclusion, my Lord, Your lotus feet are actually the suitable boat for crossing over the ocean of birth and death, and therefore even Lord Brahma and Lord Siva seek of Your lotus feet. In the Srimad Bhagavatam 11.5.34 Sri Karabhajana Muni further says: tyaktva su-dustyajya-surepsita-rajya-laskhmim dharmistha arya-vacasa yad agam-aranyam maya-mrgam dayitayepsitam anvadhavad vande maha-purusa te caranaravindam “O Mahapurusa, I offer my respects and humble obeisances unto Your lotus feet, upon whom one should meditate. You left Your household life, leaving Laksmi, the goddess of fortune Your adorable consort and all her opulence, which is most difficult to renounce, who is worshipped even by the great demigods. Being the most faithful follower of religion,You thus left for the forest in obedience to a brahmana’s curse. Out of sheer mercifulness You chased after the fallen conditioned souls, who are always in pursuit of the false enjoyment of illusion. At the same time You engaged in searching for Your own desired object, the Supreme Lord Sri Syamasundara.” Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has a very young and beautiful wife, Sri Laksmidevi, and His mother, Sri Sacidevi, was very affectionate. At the age of 24 years old, He took the order of sannyasa and left home to go and preach.


Feeling depressed. Being totally absorbed in the company of his devotees. You will take sannyasa and distribute love of god. and you’ll never be able to enjoy family life.34 it is mentioned that Lord Caitanya left for the forest in obedience to a brahmana’s curse means that the Lord was unable to enjoy family life. what will be my destination?” Lord Gauranga said.” Then that Brahmana. the Brahmana became afraid and said. he returned home. NOTE: In the above verse from the Srimad Bhagavatam 11. This verse does not refer to Lord Ramacandra as He also left for the forest and gave up the association of Sri Sitadevi later.Caitanya-candra By examining His characteristics.” The the Brahmana fell at the Lord’s lotus feet. You are the complete whole. “You will also be kept outside your house. 2. The brahmana said. People will address you as ‘guru’. The story is narrated below.” Completely undisturbed. Lord Gauranga fulfilled the Brahmana’s desire by awarding him his own love. “the curse of this Brahmana is a great boon to me. be he a miscreant or a pious man. the Lord said . Lord Gauranga lifted him up and embraced him receiving the Lord’s mercy. You deliver the false logicians and mental speculators. O saviour of the fallen souls. he wasn’t allowed to see the Lord’s dancing. The next day when Lord Gauaranga was bathing in the Ganges. “Your curse is a great boon to me. “Gaurahari.” Hearing this. so I went to your house.5. “Yesterday. the Brahmana melted in the ecstasy of krsna-prema. almost fainting due his extreme anger. “What can I do? You caused me to speak the way I did. In Sri Caitanya Mangala there is an incident where a brahmana cursed Lord Caitanya. Lord Gauranga was unaware of the Brahmana’s visit.4 A Brahmana curses Lord Caitanya A brahmana once came to Srivasa Pandit’s house while Gauranga and all his devotees were joyfully dancing inside. then you’ll have no more fear. You promise to flood the entire universe with krsnaprema. which even Lord Brahma cannot attain. Althouugh the Brahmana wanted to. 108 . the supersoul within the heart of everyone. Without discrimination you will give mercy to everyone. I wanted to see Your dancing. the great Acaryas have pointed out that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is described in those verses of the Bhagavatam. which resulted in Him taking sannyasa. But some sinful brahmana checked me at the door and kept me outside. you are the crest-jewel of all brahmanas. snapped his sacred thread as he cursed Lord Gauranga. You will break open the treasure-chest of krsna-prema and give it to everryone. Only I am being deprived of your love. without your mercy. that Brahmana saw the Lord and said in an angry tone. If you fulfill my desire.

suvarna varna hemango varangas candanangadi sannyasa krt-chamah santo nistha santi parayanah “In His early activities Lord Caitanya comes as a householder.angadi]. ‘suvarna varna hemango varangas candangadi’ is from text 79 of the Visnu-Sahasra-Nama Stotra (suvarna varna hemango varangas candanangadi-viraha visamah sunyo ghrtasir acalas calah. He has a golden complexion [suvarna varnah]. Note: The above verse cited from the Sri Caitanya-caritamrta (CC Adi-Lila 3.Caitanya-candra 4.Sahasra-Nama.5 Description Of Lord Caitanya’s Future Advent In Other Vedic Literatures Srila Krsna dasa Kaviraja Goswami has cited a verse from the Mahabharata (Dana-Dharma. In this famous commentary he states that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is the highest abode of devotion and transcendental peace. 109 . He is fully sense-controlled or equipoised [sama]. [nistha]. indicating that He will appear as a sannyasi. He is completely fixed in the chanting of the holy name of Lord Krsna. He silences the mayavadi impersonalists [nistha santi parayanah]. This is supported by evidence from the Vedic Upanisads. The vedic text to support this point is: yada pasya pasyate rukma-varnam kartaram isam purusam brahma-yonim The words rukma-varnam kartaram isam refer to the Supreme Person [Sri Caitanya] who has a complexion like molten gold. The verse refers to Lord Caitanya as sannyasa-krta.Sahasra-Nama Stotra) to point out the divine characteristics of Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu’s appearance. The full text [62] is trisama samagah sama nirvanam bhesajam bhisak-sannyasa krt chamah santo nistha santah parayanam. The sanskrit words suvarna-varna indicate one who has gold-like complexion. He has the appearance of molten gold [hema-anga]. in which he has explained the meaning of the relevant verses from the Sahasra-Nama. called the Namartha Sudhabhidha. and is completely peaceful [santa]. The Supreme Lord Caitanya accepts the renounced order of life [sannyasa-krt].” Srila Prabhupada has explained that Sripada Baladeva Vidyabhusana has written a Gaudiya Vaishnava commentary on the Visnu-Sahasra-Nama.49) is actually cited from 2 different verses of the Visnu-Sahasra-Nama. Visnu. His limbs are very beautiful [vara-anga] and are smeared with sandalwood pulp [candana. The first part of the text.) The second part of the text cited in the Caitanya-Caritamrta (sannyasa-krt samah santo nistha santi parayanah) is from text 62 of the Visnu.

” (738)“I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who has a body like molten gold.” (582)“I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is completely peaceful.” (580)“I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who accepts the fourth order of life[sannyasa]. the renounced order of life. the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” (739)“I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead whose body is very beautiful.Caitanya-candra Note: Lord Caitanya was the only incarnation of the Lord to accept sannyasa. Similarly in Sri Visnu-Sahasra Namavali it is stated: aum sri suvarnavarnaya namah aum sri hemangaya namah aum sri varangaya namah aum sri chandanangadine namah aum sri sannyasa krte namah aum sri samaya namah aum sri santaya namah aum sri nisthayai namah aum sri santyai namah aum sri parayanaya namah (737)“I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who has a golden complexion.” (583)“I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is firmly fixed (in chanting the holy name of Sri Krsna).” (581)“I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is very self controlled.” Prediction of His advent as a sannyasi. Lord Sri Krsna speaks to Srila Vyasadeva: aham eva kvacid brahman sannyasa asramam asritah hari bhaktim grahayami kalau papa-hatan naran 110 . In the Upa-Puranas.” (740)“I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead whose body is smeared with sandalwood pulp.” (584)“I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who brings peace (by propagating the Hare Krsna maha-mantra).” (585)“I offer my respectful obeiscances unto the Supreme Personality of Godhead who is always in the ecstatic mood of devotional service.

” Prediction of the name of His mother and the actual name of His future birthplace. the Supreme Person says: kalina dakyamananam paritranaya tanu-bhrtam janma prathama sandhyayam karisyami dvijatisu “In the first part [prathama sandhya] of the age of Kali. I will come among the brahmanas [karisyami dvijatisu] to save the fallen souls. In the Garuda-Purana. I shall deliver all the worlds [lokam raksami sarvada].Caitanya-candra “O Brahmana. [paritranaya tanu. to save the embodied conditioned souls [uddharaya tanu-bhrtam] burning in the troubles of KaliYuga. In the Garuda-Purana. it is stated: kalina dahyamanam uddhararaya tanu-bhrtam janma prathama sandhyayam bhavisyati dvijalaye The Supreme Person will appear in the first part of the age of Kali [janma prathama sandhyayam].” Prediction of His actual time of incarnation.” Prediction of His advent in the form of a brahmana. I occasionally take the Sannyasa Asrama [sannyasa asrama asritah] in an attempt to bring the fallen people of Kali Yuga to take up the path of Bhakti or devotional service to Lord Krsna [hari bhaktim grahayami]. In the Kurma-Purana.bhrtam] who are being burned by the troubles of the age of Kali [kalina dahyamananam]. the Supreme Person says: aham eva dvija-srestho nityam pracchanna-vigrahah bhagavad-bhakta-rupena lokam raksami sarvada “I shall advent in the form of a Brahmana devotee [aham eva dvija-srestho] and I shall hide my factual identity [prachanna vigrahah]. He will appear in the home of a Brahmana [bhavisyati dvijalaye]. the Supreme Lord says: 111 . Description of the purpose of Sri Caitanya's incarnation. In the Adi-Purana.

will again come to this world to reveal the nature of pure spiritual love. near Lord Jagannatha who will appear in a divine wooden form. in Mayapura-Navadvipa [mayapure navadvipe]. At that time His name will be Caitanya. the godess of fortune].” Prediction of the name of His future first wife and His future assumption of the sannyasa order.” In the Garuda-Purana. Dama. I will come in my complete spiritual form in the first part of KaliYuga. who killed Kamsa. who enjoyed glorious pastimes with Sridama. further states: yo reme saha-ballavi ramayate vrndavane’har-nisam yah kamsam ni jaghana kaurava-rane yah pandavanam sakha so’yam vainava-danda-mandita-bhujah sannyasa vesah svayam nihsandeham upagatah ksiti-tale caitanya-rupah prabhuh “The Supreme Personality of Godhead. and other gopa boys in Vrndavana forest. who day and night filled the people of Vrndavana with happiness.” The Garuda-Purana.Caitanya-candra aham purno bhavisyami yuga-sandhyau visesatah mayapure navadvipe bhavisyami saci sutah “I will take birth as the son of Saci [bhavisyami saci sutah]. the Supreme Personality of Godhead will come in a gold-like form.kanto bhavisyati daru-brahma-samipa-sthah sannyasi gaura-vigrahah “In the first part of Kali-yuga. First He will become the husband of Laksmi [Srimati Lakshmidevi and Srimati Visnupriya. and who in the war between the Kauravas made friendship with the Pandavas. it is also stated: kaleh prathama sandhyayam lakshmi. In the same Garuda-Purana. who enjoyed pastimes with the gopis. Then He will become a sannyasi. both Lord Caitanya's consorts are incarnations of Laksmi. it is also stated: yad gopi-kuca-kumbha-sambhrama-bhararambhena samvarditah yad va gopa-kumara-sara-kalaya range subhandi-krtam yad vrndavana-kanane pravilasac chridama-damadibhis tat prema-prakatam cakara bhagavan caitanya-rupah prabhuh “The Supreme Personality of Godhead. will come again to the 112 . and whose eyes glanced at the gopis’ breasts.

Accompanied by My associates. the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Krsna declares: antah krsno bahir gaurah sangopangastra-parsadah saci-garbhe samapnuyam maya-manusa-karma-krta “Outwardly of a fair complexion.” In the Visnu-Purana. He will be a sannyasi and His name will be Caitanya. weapons. In the Nrsimha-Purana. it is said: satye daitya-kuladhi-nasa-samaye 113 .” In the Garuòa Puräëa it is said: sädhavaù kali-käle tu tyaktvänya-tértha-sevanam våndäraëye 'thavä kñetre nava-khaëòe vasanti vä “In the age of Kali the devotees will abandon the service of other holy places and live in either Våndävana or Navadvépa. and confidential companions. I will assume the role of a human being. His arm decorated with a bamboo danda. servants.Caitanya-candra earth.” In the Saura-Purana it is stated: su-pujitah sada gaurah krsno va veda-vid dvijah “The Supreme Personality of Godhead appears in two forms. and no yajnas with the chanting of vasatkara. a brahmana who knows the meaning of all the Vedas. He is either dark Lord Krsna. who is always worshiped by all.” In the Skanda-Purana. but inwardly Krsna. it is said: nihsvadhyaya-vasat-karo svadha-svaha-vivarjite tatah pravir asau viprah kvacil loke bhavisyati “ When in the world there is no Vedic study. svadha and svaha. or He is fair Lord Gaura. the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear as a brahmana.” Prediction of the bodily color of Sri Caitanya and the nature of His future activities. Of this there is no doubt. I will take birth in Sacidevi’s womb.

and I shall take birth as the son of Saci [bhavisyami saci-sutah]. and who is the master of all yogic practices [yogesvarah]. Description of the tune and place Sri Caitanya's future advent. will advent in His own divine form of Sri Caitanya [caitanya-vapah]. who is the object of the yogis’ meditation [yogicintyo. In the Narada-Purana. the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself states: kaleh prathama-sandhyayam gaurangotham mahi-tale 39 Caitanya-candra bhagirathi-tate ramye bhavisyami saci-sutah “I shall appear on this earth [mahi-tale] in the first part of Kali-yuga [kaleh prathama sandhyayam] in a beautiful place on the bank of the Bhagirathi [bhagirathi-tate ramye]. Janardana. and who in the Dvapara-yuga removed the earth's burden. I shall have a golden form [gaurangah]. and who in the Treta-yuga appeared as a person named Rama [Lord Ramacandra]. In the Padma-Purana.Caitanya-candra simhordhva-martyakrtis tretayam dasa-kandharam paribhavan rameti namakrtih gopalan paripalayan vraja-pure bharam haran dvapare gaurangah priya-kirtanah kali-yuge caitanya-nama prabhuh “The Supreme Personality of Godhead who in the Satya-yuga appeared as a half-man. and His name will be Caitanya.atmakah]. a person who defeated the tenheaded Demon Ravana. who is always full of divine transcendental ecstasy and bliss [sandra-ananda. the Supreme Personality of Godhead says: 114 . who saves the devotees from various sufferings. In the Padma-Purana. He will delight in chanting the Lord's holy names. will appear again in the Kaliyuga.” Prediction of the purpose of Sri Caitanya's advents.” Prediction of the future advent of Sri Caitanya by His direct name.janardanah]. and protected the Gopa [cowherd men] people of Vraja-pura. halflion to cure a terrible disease that had ravaged the daityas. His form will be golden. it is said: yatrayogesvarah saksad yogi-cintyo janardanah caitanya vapur aste vai sandranandatmakah The Supreme Personality.

” Prediction of the revelation of Sri Caitanya's form. I shall deliver all the worlds [lokam raksami sarvada]. In the Narada-Purana.bhakta-rupena] and I will save all the worlds [lokan raksami sarvada]. I will come disguised [nityam prachanna vigraha] as a devotee [bhagavad. the Supreme Person says: aham eva dvija-srestho nityam pracchanna-vigrahah bhagavad-bhakta-rupena lokam raksami sarvada “I shall advent in the form of a Brahmana devotee [aham eva dvija-srestho] and I shall hide my factual identity [prachanna vigrahah]. I will incarnate as the son of Saci [bhavisyami sacisutah] to inaugurate the congregational chanting of the name of Krsna [kalau sankirtana arambhe]. the Supreme Personality of Godhead states: divija bhuvi jayadhvam jayadhvam bhakta rupinah kalau sankirtana rambhe bhavisyami saci-sutah “O Divija (demigods). please come and advent as devotees on this earth [bhuvi jayadhvam jayadhvam] in the age of Kali-Yuga. the Supreme Personality of Godhead says: kaleh prathama sandhyayam gaurangotham mahi-tale bhagirathi-tate bhumni bhavisyami saci-sutah “I will reveal my eternal golden form [gaurangotham mahi-tale] in the first part of Kaliyuga [kaleh prathama sandhyayam].” Prediction of His advent in the form of a brahmana.” 115 .Caitanya-candra aham eva kalau vipra nityam prachanna-vigrahah bhagavad-bhakta-rupena lokan raksami sarvada “O Vipra.” Prediction of His mother's name and the nature of His specific preaching method [sankirtana].tate bhumni]. in the age of Kali. In the Brahma-Purana. I will advent on the earth on the bank of the Bhagirathi [bhagirathi. In the Narada Purana.

and a beautiful long neck [lamba-kanthah]. Note: This is an indirect prediction of the future advent of the members of the Panca-Tattva. I will appear as the son of Saci. Lord Krsna says: ajayadhvamaja yadhvam na sansayah kalau sankirtana arambhe bhavisyami saci sutah “In Kali-yuga.harsa-purnam]. In the Matsya-Purana. and inaugurate the sankirtana movement. the Supreme Lord says: anandasru-kala-roma harsa-purnam tapo-dhana sarve mama eva draksyanti kalau sannyasa-rupinam “O austere sage. it is said: çäntätmä lamba-kaëöhaç ca gauräìgaç ca surävåtaù The Supreme Personality of Godhead will come in a golden form [gaura-anga]. Prediction of the characteristics of Sri Caitanya. everyone will see my transcendental form as a sannyasi [kalau sannyasa rupinam]. He will be surrounded by many saintly devotees [sura-avrtah]. I will be exhibiting symptoms of ecstasy like shedding tears of bliss and hairs standing in ecstasy [anandasrukala-roma. In the Agni-Purana. you should know that in the age of Kali. the Supreme Personality of Godhead says: mundo gaurah su-dirghangas tri-srotas-tira-sambhavah dayaluh kirtana-grahi bhavisyami kalau-yuge 116 . full of peace [prasantatma].” Prediction of the color of Sri Caitanya and the nature of His future associates.” Prediction of the Lord inaugurating the sankirtana movement In the Bhavisya Purana. There is no doubt about this. In the Bhavisya-Purana.Caitanya-candra Prediction of the future sannyasi role and ecstasy of Sri Caitanya.

I will take birth in the womb of Saci [saci-garbhe ca sambhuya]. In the Vamana-Purana. I shall save the people. who will give up all proper good conduct [sarvan acara varyitan].” Prediction of one of the purpose of Sri Caitanya's appearance. I shall have a shaven head [mundah]. I shall deliver the people of the world [lokan raksami sarvada].Caitanya-candra “In the age of Kali. from the terrible darkness of the age of Kali-yuga [kali-ghora-tamas-channan].pracurya-vigrahah] in the form of a devotee [bhagavad-bhakta-rupena]. In the Markandeya-Purana. I will leave Goloka and. In the Varaha-Purana. I shall advent [bhavisyami kalau yuge] where the three rivers meet [trisrotas.” Prediction that the Supreme Lord will leave Goloka and corne in a golden form. the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares: kali-ghora-tamas-channat sarvan acara varjitan sacigarbhe ca sambhuya tarayisyami narada “O Narada Muni. the Supreme of Godhead declares: golokam ca parityajya lokanam trana-karanat kalau gauranga-rupena lila-lavanya-vigrahah “In the Kali-yuga. to save the people of the world. I will exhibit many pastimes [lila.” Prediction of the name of the mother of Sri Caitanya and His future role as the deliverer of the darkness of Kali-Yuga.” In the Devi-Purana it is stated: nama-siddhanta-sampatti- 117 . I will become the handsome and playful Lord Gauranga. the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares: aham eva dvija-srestho lila-pracurya-vigrahah bhagavad-bhakta-rupena lokan raksami sarvada “I shall come as the best of the brahmanas [aham eva dvija-srestha]. I shall have a golden complexion [gaurah].tira-sambhavah]. I will be very kind and always chant the holy name of Krsna [dayaloh kirtana-grahi].

” Prediction of Sri Caitanya's birthcity.” In the Tantras it is said: evam anga vidhim krtva mantri dhyayed yathacyutam kalaya-kusuma-syamam druta-hema-nibham tu va 118 . Sveta. Cetana. and Jaya-prada. the name of the river close to His birthsite. Paramanayaka. . Gunavarjita. . Damodara. the Supreme Personality of Godhead is worshipped simply by chanting His holy names. Gaura. In this age of Kali. Saci-suta. Cid-atmaka. His close associates and their divine roles in His lila. Nityananda. . In the Narayana-samhita it is said: dvapariyair janair visnuh pancaratrais tu kevalaih kalau tu nama-matrena pujyate bhagavan harih “In Dvapara-yuga. Krsna. His divine reason for incarnating as well as different narnes by which Sri Caitanya will be known.” In the Narada-pancaratra. . Ananta. devotees of Lord Hari rendered devotional service according to the principles of pancaratrika. Caitanya. His name will be Sri Krsna Caitanya and He will spread the chanting of Lord Hari’s holy names. (Bala-Krsna-Sahasra-Nama-Stotram). Advaita. Indra-darpa-hara. . Nila. . Sita. Ibhas-pati. .Caitanya-rupa. . Bhakti-data. the name of His rnother. . . Pitambara-cchada. . Advaitacara-nipuna.Caitanya-candra prakasana-parayanah kvacit sri-krsna-caitanyanama loke bhavisyati “The Supreme Personality of Godhead will again appear in this world. . it is said: bhakti-priyo bhakti-data damodara ibhas-patih indra-darpa-haro’nanto nityananda-cid-atmakah caitanya-rupas caitanyas cetana-guna-varjitah advaitacara-nipuno’ dvaitah parama-nayakah nilah svetah sitah krsno gaurah pitambara-cchadah saci-suta-jaya-pradah “The Supreme Personality of Godhead is known by the names Bhakti-priya.

” In the Urdhvamnaya-tantra. the Supreme Personality of Godhead further declares: avataram imam krtva jiva-nistara-hetuna kalau mayapurim gatva bhavisyami saci-sutah “In order to deliver the conditioned souls in Kali-yuga. and the other like molten gold. In Kali-yuga I will appear as golden Lord Gaura. I will go to Mayapura and become the son of Saci-devi. a person following the rules of scripture should meditate on the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead. who has two forms: one dark like a kalaya flower. the son of Purandara [Jagannatha] Misra and Saci-devi. I appeared as dark Lord Krsna.” In the Urdhvamnaya-tantra.Caitanya-candra “O dear one. it is said: kvacit sapi krsnam aha srnu mad-vacanam priya bhavata ca sahaikatyam icchami bhavitum prabho mama bhavanvitam rupam hrdayahlada-karanam parasparanga-madhya-stham krida-kautuka-mangalam paraspara-svabhavdhyam rupam ekam pradarsaya srutva tu preyasi-vakyam parama-priti-sucakam svecchayasid yatha purvam utsahena jagad-guruh premalingana-yogena hy acintya-sakti-yogatah radha-bhava-kanti-yuktam murtim ekam prakasayam svapne tu darsayam asa radhikayai svayam prabhuh 119 .” In the Kapila-tantra. the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares: sandhau krsno vibhuh pascad vevakyam vasudevatah kalau purandarat sacyam gaura-rupo vibhuh smrtah “In the sandhya at the end of Dvapara-yuga. the son of Vasudeva and Devaki.

in the southern part of the Ganges. . .” In the Kapila-tantra. in charming Navadvépa. who is a great treasure house of transcendental glories. . I yearn to become one with You. . in Jambudvépa. will take birth by the Ganges’ shore in order to teach the chanting of Lord Hari’s holy names. .Caitanya-candra “Then Sri Radha said to Lord Krsna: ‘O beloved. Their two forms joined and became one. . a form filled with auspicious and blissful pastimes. Please show a form where You and I embrace and Our two bodies become one. a form filled with the love I bear for You. bythe touch of His inconceivable potency. in the home of Purandara Miçra. in the womb of Çacé- 120 . on the full-moon night of the month of Pälguna. In a dream Lord Krsna showed all this to Sri Radha. in a brähmaëa's home. . please hear My words. . . the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares: jambudvépe kalau ghore mäyäpure dvijälaye janitvä pärñadaiù särdham kértanaà karayiñyati “During the horrible Kali-yuga.a single form endowed with Sri Radha’s divine love and glorious splendor. Lord Krsna passionately embraced Her. Hearing His beloved’s words.” In the Viçvasära Tantra Lord Çiva said to Caëòé: gaìgäyä dakñiëe bhäge navadvépe manorame kali-päpa-vinäçäya çacé-garbhe sanätanaù janiñyati priye miçrapuräëdara-gåhe svayaà phälgune paurëamäsyäà ca niçäyäà gaura-vigrahaù “O beloved.” In the Kulärnava-tantra it is stated: tataù kale ca sampräpte kälau ko 'pi mahä-nidhiù hari-näma-prakäçäya gaìgä-tére janiñyati “During the Kali-yuga. in Mäyäpura. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. which were filled with joy and love. . Then. . a form that unites Our two natures. . a form that brings bliss to the heart. the Supreme Lord will take birth and with His associates He will start the saìkértana movement.

” In the Krsna-Yamala. His limbs will be golden and His voice deep. to Mayapura in Navadvipa and become the son of Saci-devi. it is stated: iti matva krpa-sindhur amsena krpaya harih prasanno bhakta-rupena kalav avatarisyati gaurango nada-gambhirah sva-namamrta-lalasah dayaluh kirtana-grahi bhavisyati saci-sutah matva tan-mayam atmanam pathan dvy-aksaram uccakaih gata-trapo madonmattagajavad viharisyati bhuvam prapte tu govinde caitanyakhya bhavisyati amsena tatra yasyanti tatra tat-purva-parsadah prthak prthan namadheyah prayah purusa-murtayah “Thinking in this way. who is an ocean of mercy. 121 . the Lord will enjoy pastimes like a maddened elephant. the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear in a fair-complexioned form to destroy the sins of the age of Kali. He will be very merciful. He will be attached to chanting His own holy name. with all My powers and glories. Lord Krsna.” In the Krsna-Yamala. He will be the son of Sacidevi. Lord Krsna says: puëya-kñetre navadvépe bhaviñyami çacé-sutaù “I shall appear in the holy land of Navadvipa as the son of Sacidevi. the Supreme Personality of Godhead further declares: aham purno bhavisyami yuga-sandhau visesatah mayapure navadvipe varam ekam saci-sutah “During the first sandhya of Kali-yuga I will descend.Caitanya-candra devé. without giving any thought to ordinary. Loudly chanting the two syllables of His own holy name. peaceful decorum. He will yearn to taste the nectar of His own holy name. mercifully decided to appear as a devotee in Kali-yuga.” In the Krsna-Yamala.

Lord Krsna says.Caitanya-candra In this way Lord Krsna will have the name Caitanya. In that incarnation He will teach the chanting of Lord Hari’s holy names. they will have male forms. whose limbs are splendid like gold: ‘I bow down before He who is the son of gopa Nanda.” In the Brahma-Yamala.” In the Brahma-Yamala. in Sacidevi’s womb. His eternal associates will also come to this world and will also have different names.” In the Visnu-Yamala. it is also stated: gaurangam gaura-diptangam pathet stotram krtanjalih nanda-gopa-sutam caiva namasyami gadagrajam “With folded hands one should recite the following prayer before Lord Gauranga.’ ” In the Brahma-Yamala. Specifically. For the most part. it is stated: krsna-caitanya-namna ye kirtayanti sakrn narah nanaparadha-mutas te punanti sakalam jagat “They who once chant the name Krsna Caitanya become free of all offences and purify all the worlds. 122 . I appear as the son of Saci in Kali-yuga to start the sankirtana movement. before He who is the elder brother of Gada. athavähaà dharädhäme bhütvä mad-bhakta-rüpa-dhåk mäyäyäà ca bhaviñyämi kalau saìkértanägame “Sometimes I personally appear on the surface of the world in the garb of a devotee. Lord Krsna will appear in Navadvipa. it is also stated: kalau prathama-sandhyayam hari-nama-pradayakah bhavisyati navadvipe saci-garbhe janardanah jiva-nistaranarthaya nama-vistaranya ca yo hi krsnah sa caitanyo manasa bhati sarvada “In the first sandhya of Kali-yuga.

” 123 . Then He appears disguised as a sannyasi. to preach the glories of the holy names and to deliver the conditioned souls. Giving them the chanting of Lord Hari’s holy names. by the beautiful shore of the Ganges.” In the Jaimini-bharata. the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear in His eternal golden form. on the earth.Caitanya-candra In this way. I will deliver the people of the world. Lord Krsna will appear as Lord Caitanya.” In the Brahma-Yamala. However. His incarnation is hidden. it is stated: kaleh prathama-sandhyayam gaurango ’sau mahi-tale bhagirathi-tate ramye bhavisyati sanatanah “In the first sandhya of Kali-yuga. the Supreme Personality of Godhead declares: bhavisyami ca caitanyah kalau sankirtanagame hari-nama-pradanena lokan nistarayamy aham “In Kali-yuga I will appear as Sri Caitanya and I will start the sankirtana movement. He will accept the sannyasaasrama and His name will be Sri Krsna Caitanya. the Supreme Personality of Godhead will descend to the earth. it is stated: bhakti-yoga-prakasaya lokasyanugrahaya ca sannyasasramam asritya krsna-caitanya-rupa-dhrk “To show mercy to the people by teaching them the science of devotional service. it is further said: anyavatara bahavah sarve sadharana matah kalau krsnavataras tu gudhah sannyasa-vesa-dhrk “Lord Krsna descends to the world in many different forms.” In the Yoga-vasistha. in Kali-yuga.” In the Jaimini-bharata.

truth. your question is very good. O ocean of mercy. worship. went to Vaikuntha and spoke to Lord Narayana. the grandfather of the worlds. eternal knowledge. an answer that contains the most secret of all the secrets. How may the people in Kali-yuga be delivered?’” sri-gautama uvaca sadhu prstm tvaya putra guhyad guhytamam mama samahita-mana bhutva srnu tat paramadbhutam “Sri Gautama Muni said: ‘My son.’ sri-satananda uvaca katham vai brahmana tata 124 . or long life. to protect the people please tell why the hearts of the people in Kali-yuga have become dirtied with sin. charity. the master of the worlds.’ etad guhyatamam vakyam brahma loka-pitamahah vaikuntham nagaram gatva sendrair deva-ganaih saha vakta sri-loka-natham vai karunamaya-vigraham ‘Accompanied by Indra and the demigods.Caitanya-candra 5 LORD KRSNA REVEALS DETAILS OF HIS GAURA INCARNATION AS STATED IN THE VAYU-PURANA In the Vayu-Purana the Supreme Lord reveals the following most confidential truth: Presented below is conversation that took place between Sri Satananda and Sri Gautama Muni which is recorded in the Vayu-Purana sri-satananda uvaca bruhi tata krpa-sindho bhaktanugraha-katara paritranaya lokanam hetum kalmasa-cestsam na tapas ca na cejya ca na dhyanam jnanam avyayam na danam sattva-samyuktam kalau na dirgha-jivanam kenopayena nistaro bhavisyati kalau yuge “Sri Satananda said: ‘O father. Lord Brahma. meditation. In the Kali-yuga there is no austerity. O saint overcome with mercy for the devotees. Please attentively hear from me a wonderful answer.

Some are eager to snatch the property of others. the earth-goddess became unhappy with the burden she bore. In the contaminated Kali-yuga everyone is a sinner. or study the Vedas. She was filled with lamentation.Caitanya-candra prstah sri-purusottamah karanam tatra va kim vai kathyatam muni-pungava Sri Satananda said: ‘What question did Brahma present before the Supreme Lord? O best of sages. gatva vai brahma-sadanam rodamana punah punah sa-gadgada-vaco bhutva stutva brahmanam isvaram “She approached the demigod Brahma. Her face was filled with sorrow. Weeping again and again. please tell. a materialist. a blasphemer of demigods and brahmanas. with words choked with grief she said to him: sarve kali-mala-grastah papistha lobha-tat-parah maha-pataka-samyukta deva-dvija-vinindakah “Everyone in Kali-yuga is a great sinner. and a liar. iti viksya samudvigna dharani bhara-sankula dhenu-rupa-dhara dina krpana malinanana “Seeing this. Some are adulterers. 125 . Everyone is passionate.’ svadhyayadina rahita devata-tithi-vancakah parasva-lolupah kecit para-darabhigaminah ‘The people do not worship the demigods. hot-tempered.’ sri-gautama uvaca srnu putra prayatnena kalau kalmasa-sam jnake sarve papa-rata lokas canda mithya-vivadinah Sri Gautama Muni said: ‘O son. please listen carefully. obseve the holy days. She assumed the form of a cow.

went to Vaikuntha and offered prayers to the Supreme personality of Godhead. please do something to make them peaceful and saintly.” After speaking these words. glory to You! jaya pitambara-dhara jaya kaustubha-bhusana jaya padma-palasaksa jaya padmanana prabho 126 . the grandfather of the worlds.Lord Brahma. O Lord dark like a monsoon cloud.Caitanya-candra tesam pada-praharena kampate mamaki tanuh tasmat loka-paritranam prthivyam kena jayate “My body trembles when they walk. the earth goddess. glory to You! O ocean of mercy. glory to You! O master of Vaikuntha. O Lord marked with Srivatsa. troubled by the presence of so many demons. glory to You! O husband of Laksmi. lowered her face. glory to You! O Lord more handsome than millions of Kamadeva. glory to You! jaya nilambuja-syama nila-jimuta-saubhaga kandarpa-koti-saudarya jaya srivatsa-lanchana “O Lord dark like a blue lotus. How can these people of the earth be delivered? tad eva kuru devesa yena santair bhaven mama ity uktvadho-mukhi-bhuya sthita bhur asurakula “O master of the demigods. tatah sancitya devesm brahma loka-pitamahah vaikuntha-nagaram gatva stutva tam purusottamam “After thinking for some time.” sri-brahmovaca jaya krsna jagannatha jaya vaikuntha-nayaka jaya deva krpa-sindho jaya laksmyah pate prabho “Sri Brahma said: O Krsna. O master of the worlds.

glory to You! O Lord whose graceful nose is a sesame flower. glory to You! O Lord whose lotus feet are served by the goddesses Padma and Dharitri. who is an ocean of mercy and the master of the demigods. glory to You! O Lord whose face is a lotus flower. kindly asked the demigod Brahma: kim vrttam jagati-natha bruhi kim karavami te ity uktva padma-yonis ca provaca sri-gadagrajam “O master of the universe.” Hearing these words. 127 . club. The brahmanas act like sudras. Lord Krsna. glory to You! O Lord carried by Garuda. They neither study the Vedas nor follow their rules.Caitanya-candra “O Lord dressed in yellow garments. glory to You! O friend of the worlds. glory to You! O Lord whose eyes are lotus petals. glory to You! sri-gautama uvaca iti samstuyamano’pi sri-krsnah karuna-nidhih brahmanam deva-deveso jagada krpayanvitah “Sri Gautama Muni said: ‘After hearing these prayers. lotus. glory to You! jaya cakra-gada-padmasanka-hasta catur-bhuja jaya padma-dharitribhyam nisevita-padambuja “O Lord who hold a disc. Brahma spoke to Lord Krsna: sri–brahmovaca kalau papa-rata lokah svadhyaya-vidhi-varjitah sudra-vrtti-dvijah sudra brahmana-dvesa-karinah Sri Brahma said: “In Kali-yuga the people are sinners. glory to You! O Lord decorated with the Kaustubha jewel. how are things with you? What may I do for you? Please tell. and a conchshell in Your four hands. glory to You! jaya padma-dvandva tila-puspa-su-nasika jaya natha jagad-bandho vinatasuta-vahana “O Lord whose feet are lotus flowers. and the sudras hate the brahmanas.

lazy. sri-gautama uvaca iti samjnapito deva brahmana prabhur acyutah sa devan aha visnur guhyad guhyatamam vacah “Hearing Brahma’s words. short in stature. They abandon their prescribed duties. iti tad-bhara-magna sa dharani rudati punah tasmal loke-paritranam prthvivyam kena jayate tat kurusva jagannatha dina-durgati-nasana “Troubled by the burden of these sins. He said: ditija bhuvi jayadhvam jayadhvam bhakta-rupinah kalau sankirtanarambhe 128 . foolish. The sudras are now gurus and give mantras. mahaharah kharva-kaya alasa manda-buddhayah janas tvad-vimukhah sarve para-dravyabhilasinah “ The people are gluttonous. How may the people of the earth be delivered? O master of the worlds. greedy after others’ property. spoke to the demigods words that revealed the most secret of secrets. the earth goddess weeps again again. Brahminical status is determined only by possession of a sacred thread. Lord Visnu. please do something to deliver them.Caitanya-candra dvijanam gunato nicah sudra mantra-pradayinah sisnodara-para vipra vipratve sutra-dharinah “The brahmanas are degraded and addicted to pleasing their bellies and genitals. asat-patha-ratah sarve agamyagaminas tatha tyakta-sva-dharma-karmano deva-dvija-vinindakah “Everyone follows the wrong path. and averse to You. and blaspheme the demigods and brahmanas. the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead. commit adultery.

in Dvapara-yuga by deity worship. please describe to us the nature of this movement of chanting the Lord’s holy name. please listen carefully and I will describe to you the most exalted sankirtana movement. sri-bhagavan uvaca srnu brahman pravaksyami sankirtanam atah param samahita-mana bhutva sarat sarataram hi yat The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: “O Brahma. krte japair mama pritis tretayam homa-karmabhih dvapare paricaryabhih kalau sankirtanair api “ In Satya-yuga I am pleased by japa of my holy names. and in Kali-yuga I am pleased by the chanting of my holy names.” brahmovaca bruhi me karuna-sindho kirtanam kim svarupakam katham vatra bhagavatah para pritir bhavisyati The demigod Brahma said: “O ocean of mercy. mrdangaih karatalais ca svara-bhava-samanvitaih raga-raganvitam ganam yatah syat tulya-kirtanam “In the sankirtana movement are the sweet singing and the music of mrdangas. please take birth as devotees on the earth.Caitanya-candra bhavisyami saci-sutah “O demigods. te sabdenocyate radha na sabdenocyate janah teneti sruti-matrena yathaivardratarobhavam 129 . How should it be performed so that Your Lordship will be pleased. and other musical instruments. karatalas. in Treta-yuga by yajna and karma. a movement of chanting the holy names. I will take birth as Saci-devi’s son and I will start the sankirtana movement.

as many times as one is able. the syllable ‘te’ means ‘Radha’. destroy their enemies. yuga after yuga I kindly appear in many thousands of incarnations. they who are not my devotees of My devotees cannot approach Me. sarva-veda-vido viprah puranagama-paragah na cen mad-bhakta-bhaktas te dure tisthanti varitah “Even if they are learned in all the Vedas and even if they have traveled to the farther shore of the Agamas and the Puranas. In this way the word ‘tena’ means ‘O Lord Krsna. twice. O master of Radha!’ tatha catra bhavisyami bhaktyanugraha-kamyaya sahasraso’vatara me gita brahman yuge yuge “O Brahma. Of this there is no doubt. thrice.Caitanya-candra “Whenin the sankirtana there is the word ‘tena’. By chanting this mantra even a dogeater may become My devotee. I deliver the devotees. and the syllable ‘na’ means ‘person’. or again and again for as long as one lives. bana-margair veda-margai ripunam tatra sanksayam bhaktanam taranam krtva khyapitam sva-yasah ksitau “Walking either on the path of arrows or the path of the Vedas. 130 . This verse is: Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. a verse with My holy names will rise like a glorious sun. sakrd dvis trir yatha-sakti yavaj jivam athapi va vyaharan svapaco’pi syan mama bhakto na samsayah “One should chant this mantra once. kalau nasta-drsam esa mat-padyarka udesyat hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare “For they who have become blinded by Kali-yuga. and place My glory on the earth. They must stay far away from Me.

Caitanya-candra api cet su-duracarah pukkasah svapaco’thava mad-bhakta-bhakti-krt sa syan mama kaustubha-sannibhah “Even a barbarian. svarnadi-tiram asthaya navadvipe janalayah tatra dvija-kulam prapto bhavisyami janalaye “I will take birth in a brahmana family in Navadvipa. I will accept the form of a devotee and I will deliver My devotees from the terrible ocean of repeated birth and death. by the Ganges’ shore. if he has devotedly served My devotee. My name will be Sri Krsna Caitanya. My neck with Tulasi beads. I will become a sannyasi. almost touching My Kaustubha jewel. mad-bhakta vicarisyanti kalau bhagavatottamah “In Kali-yuga My devotees will work to convince the people to become devotees also. and My hands with the marks of a disc and conchshell. tilakancita-bhalah sritulasi-kanthikasritah sankha-cakra-lasad-bahumulah kaupinah vasasah “In that form of a devotee My forehead will be decorated with tilaka. bhakti-yoga-pradanaya lokasyanugrahaya ca sannyasa-rupam asthaya krsna-caitanya-nama-dhrk “To show mercy to the people and give them devotional service. anandasru-kala-purnah pulakavali-vihvalah 131 . I will accept the dress of a sannyasi. or a person who has performed the most abominable action may come very close to Me. bhakta-rupam aham dhrtva bhaktajna-paripalakah mat-paran uddharisyami ghora-samsara-sagarat “Fulfilling My devotee’ request. a dogeater.

yena lokasya nistaras tat kurudhvam mamajnaya dharitri bhavita cabhir mayaiva dvija-dehinah “By My order please act in such a way that the people of the world will become delivered. balaramo mamaivamsah so ’pi mat-prstham esyati nityananda iti khyato nyasi-cudamanih ksitau “Lord Balarama. He will be the crest jewel of sannyasis. krtvavadhuta-vesam sa dharman bhagavatan bahun 132 . will stay on My side. All of you please become My devotees on the earth. sadyas tatra sva-gopanam santa tu kamalalaya namna gadadhara iti vikhyato dharani-tale “The cowherd people of My Vraja village will also take birth on the earth. My eyes filled with tears. tenaiva sarva-lokanam nistaro vai bhavisyati man-nama-smaranat kincit kalau nasty eva vaidikam “By remembering My holy names everyone will be delivered. who is My incarnation. On the earth His name will be Nityananda. mad-bhakta yatra gayanti tatra tisthami niscitam tat svayam bhuvi bhakta vai jayadhvam bhakti-tat-parah “I stay wherever My devotees sing My glories. In this way I will accept the form of a brahmana and relieve the earth of her fears. I will give to the people the gift of devotional service. and the hairs of My bodily erect. She who is the resting place of the goddess of fortune will be known on earth as Gadadhara. In Kali-yuga it is not possible to follow the path of the Vedas.Caitanya-candra bhakti-yogam pradasyami hari-kirtana-tat-parah “Devoted in chanting the holy names of Lord Hari.

naicim tanum samasthaya loka-siksartha-tat-parah vikhyato hari-daso yo mama bhaktim karisyati “To teach the people what is genuinely important. the demigod Brahma will accept the form of a low-caste man. He will reveal His transcendental form to the people. brahaspatir vasavah-guruh sarvabhaumo bhavisyati nanante vasinas tatra 133 . They will diligently engage in My service. First He will be a sannyasi. jahnavy-adibhir atmanam darsayisyati manavan “Accompanied by Jahnavidevi and many other associates. and Tumburu will become Ramananda. rudro ’vatirya mad-bhaktim srimad-advaita-samjnakah grahayisyami lokams ca yatnat karunikah prabhuh “Merciful Lord Siva will accept the form of Sri Advaitacarya. naradah srinivaseti ramanandeti tumburuh vikhyatim prapya mad-bhaktau kurutam bhaktim avyaye “Narada will become Srinivasa.Caitanya-candra grahayitva janan ittham grhinam asramam tatah “He will giveto the people the gift of devotional service to the Lord. He will become a discipleof Jahnavidevi and he will deliver many people. kamadeva iti gatva dhruvanandeti samjnitah jahnavi-sisyatam etya lokan nistarayisyati “The demigod Kamadeva will be known as Dhruvananda. His name will be Haridasa and he will diligently engage in My devotinal service. He will give devotional service to many people. but then He will be a householder.

will become Sarvabhauma. indro ’vatirya matiman prthivyam prthivi-patih prataparudro vikhyato mad-bhaktanam samasrayah “Indra will descend to the earth as King Prataparudra. He will teach the truth contained in many scriptures. They will diligently engage in My devotional service. Brahaspati. candro bhaved vardhamano yas tu dayalutavadhih evam anye bhavisyati devah svamsena bharatah “Many other demigods will expand by their parts and appear on the earth. He will take shelter of My devotees. so their mercy and other virtues will also increase. 134 . anye deva-ganah sarve mad-bhaktah mat-parayanah kurvanti mamakim bhaktim srnu brahman samahitah “All the other demigods will also become My devotees. punah siromanir bhutva nyasadin prathayisyati “ The crest jewel of teachers. the demigods and others will return to their respective abodes. tatraiva bhavita brahman vyasah kesava-bharatih sannyasasyopadesena bhavisyati gurur mama “O Brahma. He will become My sannyasa guru. As the moon increases day by day. sarve samagamisyamah sva-sthanam punar acyutam prakasam mama devadyah bhaktah krsna-parayanah “After manifesting these pastimes as devotees of Lord Krsna to assist in My incarnation on the earth.Caitanya-candra sastrany adhyapayisyati “Indra’s guru. Vyasa will appear as Kesava Bharati. O Brahma. he will deiver many sannyasis and many others. please hear this with great attention.

the Supreme Personality of Godhead says: paurnamasyam phalgunasya phalguni-rksa-yogatah bhavisye gaura-rupena saci-garbhe purandarat svarnadi-tiram asthaya navadvipe janasraye tatra dvija-kulam prapto bhavisyami janalaye bhakti-yoga-pradanaya lokasyanugrahaya ca sannyas-rupam asthaya krsna-caitanya-nama-dhrk tena lokasya nistaras 135 . the master of the demigods. I will be very pure [suddhah]. The sins they committed in ten million births are at once destroyed. have a fair complexion [gaurah]. sri-gautama uvaca tato deva-ganah sarve brahma loka-pitamahah pranamya deva-devesam gantarah sva-puram yatha “Sri Gautama Muni said: ‘Accompanied by all the demigods. and then returned to his own abode. I shall come [bhavisyami kalau yuge] in a place on the bank of the Ganges [ganga-tira-samudbhavah]. I will be very merciful and always chant the holy names of Krsna [dayaluh-kirtana-grahi].Caitanya-candra idam ye srnuyan nityam bhaktitah parikirtayet koti-janmar jitam papam tat-ksanat tasya nasyati “They who with devotion regularly hear or recite these words become free of sin. bowed down before Lord Krsna.” In the Vayu-Purana.’ Prediction of the name of the river where Sri Caitanya will take his birth and other characteristics. the Supreme Personality of Godhead states: suddho gaurah-su-dirghango ganga-tira-samudbhavah dayaluh-kirtana-grahi bhavisyami kalau yuge “In the age of Kali-yuga. Lord Brahma. and be very tall [su-dirghangah]. In the Vayu-Purana. the grandfather of the worlds.

I shall make this earth fearless. I shall appear as a Brahmana.Caitanya-candra tat kurudhvam mamajnaya dharitri bhavita cabhir mayaiva dvija-dehina “I shall advent in the month of Phalguna. I shall incarnate in a golden complexion in the womb of Saci and Purandara[Jagannatha] Misra. the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna says: svayaà bhagavateritam kalau saìkértanärambhe bhaviñyämi çacé-sutaù svarëädi-téram ästhäya navadvépe janäçraye tatra dvija-kula-çreñöho bhaviñyämi dvijälaye “In the age of Kali. I will be known as Sri Krsna Caitanya. the shelter of the living entities. I shall take the renounced order of life [sannyasa] and show kindness to the people in general and engage them in Bhakti. in Navadvépa. in a brähmaëa's home. I shall descend as the son of Çacé-devi.” 6 LORD SIVA DESCRIBES LORD CAITANYA’S APPEARANCE IN ANANTASAÀHITÄ (Chapter 2. I will become the best of brähmaëas. in a Brahmana’s family. when the saìkértana movement is inaugurated. I will be born in the city of Navadvipa. By the Ganges' shore.” In the Vayu Purana. when the star Phalguni is conjoined with the full moon. part 2 of the Sri Caitanya Janma-khanda of the Ananta-saàhitä) Text 1 çré-pärvaty uväca ko vä sa kåñëa-caitanyo kià vä tac-caritaà çubham ananta-saàhitä kä vä kathaà kena prakäçitä Çrématé Pärvaté said to Lord Siva: Who is Kåñëa Caitanya? What are His auspicious activities? What is the scipture Ananta-saàhitä? By whom and under what circumstances was it spoken? Text 2 viñëor vividha-nämäni çrutäni tava vaktrataù 136 . All of you should follow My order and deliver the people of the world. on the Ganges’s shore.

A person not devoted to Lord Kåñëa is never qualified. Lord Viñëu Himself has said that you are equal to Çré Rädhä. but I have never heard the names Gauräìga and Kåñëa Caitanya. Text 6 ya ädi-devo 'khila-loka-nätho yasmäd idam sarvam abhüt parätmä layaà punar yäsyati yatra cänte taà kåñëa-caitanyam avehi känte O beloved. O beloved. who is equal to Lord Hari. the Supersoul. with clear words please speak both this all-auspicious name and the Ananta-saàhitä. and to Çré Rädhä. the master of all the worlds. the source from which everything has come and into which it will again enter at the end. because you have surrendered your body and intelligence to Lord Kåñëa you are qualified to hear about Lord Kåñëa Caitanya. you are very fortunate. Text 4 çré-mahädeva uväca aho 'ti-bhägyaà tava çaila-putri rädhä-samäà tvam hi jagäda viçëuù çré-kåñëa-caitanya-kathäsu känte yogyäsi kåñëärpita-deha-buddhiù O daughter of the mountains. 137 . Text 5 yasyästi bhaktir vraja-räja-putre çré-rädhikäyäà ca hareù samäyäm tasyästi caitanya-kathädhikäro harer abhaktasya na vai kadäcit A person who is devoted to Lord Kåñëa. which is a great ocean of auspiciousness. is qualified to hear about Lord Kåñëa Caitanya. know that Lord Kåñëa Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Text 3 dadhärordhva-mukhe kasmän nämedam sarva-maëgalam samhitäà ca çubhädhäräà präëa-nätha vadasva tat Why is this so? O lord of my life.Caitanya-candra gauräìga-kåñëa-caitanyau na kadäpi prakäçitau I have heard from your mouth many names of Lord Viñëu. the prince of Vraja.

Some say He is the master of all sacrifices. who is the life of Sri Rädhäräni and Lord of the universe. Some say He is the grandsire of everything. the wise call Him Kåñëa Caitanya. Text 11 ädhärasya kåñiù çabdo naç ca viçvasya väcakaù viçvädhäraà tu yad brahma tad vai kåñëaà vidur budhäù 138 . Others say He is the Supreme Person. appeared at the time of creation as Gaura.Caitanya-candra Text 7 brahmeti yaà veda-vido vadanti vidväàsam ädyaà khalu kecid ähuù éçaà tathänye jagad-eka-näthaà paçyanti kecit puruñottamaà ca They who know the Vedas say He is the Supreme Brahman. Others say He is omniscient Lord. Others say He is the first among the wise. because at that time He manifested a form made only of supremely pure consciousness (caitanya). Sri Kåñëa Himself. Text 10 kevalaà çuddha-caitanyaà tad eväséd varänane tasmät taà kåñëa-caitanyaà pravadanti manéñiëaù O beautiful faced Parvati. Others say He is the master of the universes. Text 9 ya eva bhagavän kåñëo rädhikä-präëa-vallabhaù såñöyädau sa jagannätho gaura äsén maheçvari O Mahesvari. the Supreme Person. Text 8 kecit karma-phalaà prähuù kecit ähuù pitämaham kecid yajïeçvaraà prähuù sarvajïam apare jaguù Some call Him the fruit of karma.

went to Çvetadvépa. one day noble-hearted Lord Ananta. and who creates the material universe. Text 15 ekadä bhagavän devi näga-räjo mahä-manäù çvetadvépaà yayau yatra viñëur aste tri-loka-paù O goddess. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. the king of serpents. who is the Supersoul. the goddess of the three modes of material nature. resides. The wise know that the name Kåñëa means "the Supreme Brahman who supports the universe. so the mahat-tattva and material elements were not yet manifest. Because He appeared at the beginning of the creation of the universe in a golden form. Text 13 na tadä prakåtir devé rajaù-sattva-tamo-mayé yayä visåjyate viçvaà uta kià mahad-ädayaù At that time Prakrtidevi. Text 16 taà praëamya mahä-bähuà sahasra-vadano vibhum 139 .Caitanya-candra The word kåñ means "support" and the word na means "the universe". the Vaiñëavas know Him as Gauräìga. was not present. where Lord Viñëu." Text 12 vistarän me nigaditaù çruto yaù kåñëa éçvaraù viçvädau gaura-käntitvät gauräìgaà vaiñëaväù viduù Previously you hear from me in detail about Krsna. whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss. the cause of all causes. Text 14 parätmane namas tasmai sarva-käraëa-hetave ädi-deväya gauräya sac-cid-änanda-rüpiëe Let me offer my obeisances unto Lord Gaura. the protector of the three worlds.

O omniscient one. Text 17 çré-nägaräja uväca näräyaëa dayä-sindho sarvajïa bhakta-vatsala anugraheëa te nätha bibhärmi påthivém imäm The king of the serpents said: O Lord Näräyaëa. the best of all spiritual abodes. except for beautiful Våndävana. O husband of the goddess of fortune. Text 20 tad ahaà gantum icchämi dhäma-çreñöhaà mahä-vanam kathaà gantuà hi çaknomi kåpayä tad vadasva me I desire to go to this great forest. with folded hands the thousand-headed Ananta asked the following question. O Lord who loves Your devotees. Now I desire to see the pastimes of Çré Çré RädhäMädhava. by Your mercy I have been able to see and understand all moving and non moving things. Text 19 prasädäc caraëäbjasya kñéroda-tanayä-pate sarvaträgäm ahaà deva ramyaà våndävanaà vinä O Lord. and glorifying Him with the puruña-sükta prayers. By Your mercy please tell me how I may go there. it is by Your mercy only that I support this world. Text 18 kåpayä tava deveça dåñöaà sarvaà caräcaram rädhä-mädhavayor léläà drañöum icchämi sämpratam O master of the demigods. 140 .Caitanya-candra stutvä puruña-süktena vyapåcchad vihitäïjaliù Bowing down before the all-powerful mighty-armed Lord. by the mercy of Your lotus feet I have gone to all places. O ocean of mercy.

can go there. Lord Hari. Text 25 na ca yätuà samartho 'bhüd garbhodaka-patir vibhuù na samartho maha-viñëuù käraëäbdhi-patiù svayam 141 . have you performed austerities or pious deeds that You now wish to go to Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa's beautiful abode? Text 24 gantuà samartho no yatra brahmä loka-pitämahaù ahaà ca pälako viñëur na ca devo maheçvaraù Neither Brahmä.Caitanya-candra Text 21 çré-mahädeva uväca nägaräja-vacaù çrutvä çvetadvépa-patir hariù prahasya kiïcin madhuraà uväca madhusüdanaù Lord Çiva said: When he heard Ananta's words. how did You get this idea? You wish to swim the ocean of birth and death by holding on to the tail of a dog. Text 23 kià vä tvayä kåtaà puëyaà tapo va dharaëé-dhara çré-rädhä-kåñëayor dhäma gantum icchasi sundaram O holder of the worlds. nor Lord Çiva. nor I. the grandfather of the worlds. mildly smiled and sweetly said: Text 22 çré-bhagavän uväca nägaräja mahä-buddhe kathaà te matir édåçé çuna-çephaù samäçrétya bhaväbdhià tartum icchasi The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O intelligent king of the serpents. the protector Viñëu. the master of Çvetadvépa and the killer of the Madhu demon.

cuckoos and other birds. where Lord Kåñëa enjoys with Çré Rädhä. Text 30 yasya darçanam icchanti brahmädyäù sürayaù sadä 142 . rivers. fruits. Goloka. hills. Text 29 tad eva sarva-lokänäà varaà dhama jaguù suräù golokaà yatra reme sa kåñëah çré-rädhayä saha The demigods proclaim this place. They are not born from matter. and lakes are all spiritual. flowers. and neither was Lord Mahä-Viñëu. is the best of all worlds. and deer and other animals are all spiritual. leaves. Text 26 na yatra vasate mäyä sarva-loka-vimohiné tad eva cin-mayaà dhäma kåñëasya rädhikä-pateù The illusory potency Mäyä cannot stay there. There everything is spiritual. Text 28 tatraiva cin-mayä bhümiù saritaù parvatä hradäù na ca prakåti-jaà tatra sarva-vastv eva cin-mayam There the ground. It is the spiritual abode of Kåñëa. the Lord of the Käraëa Ocean able to go there. Text 27 cin-mayäù padapä yatra patraà puñpaà phalädikam säraìgäù kuhukaëöhädyä mågädyäù paçavas tathä There the trees.Caitanya-candra The powerful Lord of the Garbhodaka Ocean was not able to go there. the Lord of Rädhä.

is the Lord's favorite transcendewntal abode. Våndävana. Text 32 kathaà tasmin pare dhämni tava täta spåhä bhavet svapnenäpi na paçyanti yad dhäma munayaù param O dear one. Text 34 sära-bhütäà mahä-léläà çré-rädhä-kåñëayos tayoù drañöuà na yogyaù kasmät tvaà drañöum icchasi cälpa-dhéù You are not qualified to see Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa's sublime transcendental pastimes. how is it that You desire this supreme abode the great sages cannot see even in their dreams.Caitanya-candra tasya priyatamaà dhäma våndäraëyaà mahat-padam This place. Lord Brahmä performed austerities at Puñkara-kñetra for a hundred years. Text 31 yasyaika-deçäj jäyante sthänäni näga-sattama vaikuëöhädyäni sarväëi loka-priya-karäëi ca O best of serpents. Text 33 yayoh pädäbja-rajasäà purä kämanayä vibhuù padmajaù puñkara-kñetre tapo 'karñéc chataà samäù Desiring to attain the dust of Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa's lotus feet. How have You become so unintelligent that You wish to see them? Text 35 tathäpi sädhu-varyaà tvaà manye nägädhipa hy aham 143 . which Brahmä and the demigods always yearn to see. from this place were born Vaikuëöhaloka and all other beautiful places.

Text 36 koöi-kalpärjitaiù puëyair vaiñëavaù syän mahä-mate tataù syäd rädhikä-kåñëaléläsu rucir uttamä O great-hearted one. Therefore. That is why You are attracted to Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa's transcendental pastimes. Only then will one be attracted to Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa's transcendental pastimes. with all Your heart You should always worship Lord Gaura. one will not attain s Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa.Caitanya-candra çré-rädhä-kåñëa-léläyäm édåçé te rucir bhavet O king of serpents. even by hearing and chanting Lord Viñëu's glories for hundreds of millions of kalpas. I think You are the best of saintly devotees. Text 39 gopé-saìgaà na cäpnoti çré-gaura-caraëäd åte tasmät tvaà sarva-bhävena çré-gauraà bhaja sarvadä Without the feet of Lord Gaura one cannot attain the gopés' association. after accumulation pious deeds for millions of kalpas one may become a pure devotee. Text 37 syäd yasya rädhikä-kåñëaléläyäà paramä matiù jévan-muktaù sa vijïeyaù püjyaù syäd daivatair api A person who fixes his pure heart on Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa's pastimes is liberated even as he continues to live in this world. Text 40 144 . Even the demigods worship him. Text 38 vinä çré-gopikä-saìgaà kalpa-koöi-çataà param çravaëät kértanäd viñëor na rädhä-kåñëam äpnuyät Without the association of the gopés.

has appeared as a peaceful devotee. Text 44 äjänu-lambita-bhujaç cäru-dåk ruciränanaù kåñëeti maìgalaà näma gäyan uccair nijasya ca 145 . the son of Mahäräja Nanda.Caitanya-candra gauräìga-caraëämbhojamakaranda-madhuvratäù sädhanena vinä rädhäà kåñëaà präpsyanti niçcitam They who become bumblebees tasting the honey of Lord Gauräìga's lotus feet certainly attain Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa without following any Vedic rituals. two-handed form. Text 43 gopé-bhäva-pradänärthaà bhagavän nanda-nandanaù bhakta-veça-dharaù çänto dvi-bhujo gaura-vigrahaù In order to give to others the love the gopés' felt. then go at once to Navadvépa and worship Lord Gaura. manifesting a faircomplexioned. Text 42 rädhikä-vallabhaù kåñëo bhaktänäà priya-kämyayä çrémad-gauräìga-rüpeëa navadvépe viräjate Desiring to please His devotees. Text 41 yähi türëaà navadvépaà bhaja gauram kåpä-nidhim yadi våndävane ramye çré-rädhä-kåñëa-sannidhau däsatvaà durlabhaà loke bhakti-säraà yam icchasi If You desire the best of all kinds of devotional service: direct service to Çré Çré RädhäKåñëa in beautiful Våndävana. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. who is an ocean of mercy. Rädhä's beloved Kåñëa is splendidly manifest in Navadvépa as Lord Gauräìga.

Text 46 evaà viräjamänaà taà çré-gauräìgaà dayäcalam präpsyasy ärädhya bhaktyä tvam rädhä-kåñëau mahä-vane By devotedly worshiping Lord Gauräìga. Sometimes He gives transcendental knowledge to the living entities. His face is handsome. Chanting "Kåñëa!". Then He went to Navadvépa. Sometimes He is overcome with ecstatic love. holding a daëòa and waterpot. the noble-hearted king of the serpents understood the trutù about Lord Gaura. Text 47 çré-mahädeva uväca evam ukto bhagavatä näga-räjo mahä-manäù çré-gaura-tattvaà vijïäya navadvépaà jagäma ha Lord Çiva said: Hearing the Supreme Lord's words. and who is an ocean of mercy. His eyes are charming. Thus ends the second Chapter of the second part of Çré Caitanya-janma-khaëòa of Çré Anantasaàhitä Chapter 3. He accepts sannyäsa. You will attain Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa in the great forest of Våndävana. part 2 of the Çré Caitanya-janma-khaëòa of the Ananta-saàhitä Text 1 çré-pärvaty uväca kutra vai sa navadvépo yatra gauro viräjate 146 . Text 45 gopé gopéti gopéti japann eva kvacit kvacit kvacit sannyäsa-kåd devo bibrad daëòaà kamaëòalum jévänäà jïänadaù kväpi mahä-bhävänvitaù kvacit Sometimes the Lord chants "Gopé! Gopé! Gopé!" Sometimes. who is splendidly manifest in this way. He sings His own auspicious name in a loud voice.Caitanya-candra His long arms reach to His knees.

My heart has been stolen by the auspicious name "Gaura".Caitanya-candra näga-räjo gatas tatra kià cakära mahä-matiù Çré Pärvaté said: Where is this Navadvépa. please tell me everything. O Lord Digambara. Text 3 våndäraëyasya mähätmyam çrutaà vistarato mayä navadvépasya mähätmyam vada deva digambara I have heard the glories of Våndävana in great detail. 147 . who holds a trident and is the master of the demigods. O great yogé. the abode where Lord Gaura resides with great splendor? What did the noble-hearted king of the serpents do when He went there? Text 2 tat sarvaà kathyatäà nätha mahä-yogin kåpä-nidhe gaureti maìgalaà näma mama cittaà håtaà balät O Lord. which destroy all sins and bring devotional service and spiritual love. O ocean of mercy. Text 4 çré-närada uväca iti devyä vacaù çrutvä deva-devaù pinäka-dhåk devém äliìgyaà taà dorbhyäm avocat sädaraà vacaù Çré Närada said: When He heard goddess Pärvaté's words. embraced her in His arms and respectfully said: Text 5 çré-mahädeva uväca çåëu gauri pravakñyämi sarva-päpa-praëäçanam navadvépasya mähätmyaà sa-prema-bhakti-daà nåëäm Lord Çiva said: O Gauré. now please tell me the glories of Navadvépa. please listen and I will speak Navadvépa's glories. Lord Çiva.

Simply by remembering it one attains pure love for Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa. Text 8 gaìga-yamunayor madhye dvépaù parama-çobhanaù yasya smaraëa-mätreëa çré-rädhä-kåñëayo ratiù In the middle of both the Ganges and Yamunä is a very beautiful island. O beloved. who is an ocean of mercy. Texts 10 and 11 dvépasyäsyaika-deçe ca tirthäni sakaläni ca åñayo munayo devas tathä siddhäçramäëi ca vedäù çäñöräëi sarväëi manträdéni maheçvari 148 . Text 7 yadvad våndävane ramye çré-kåñëo rädhayä saha reme bhaktänanda-karas tadvad dvépe nave sadä Lord Kåñëa. who delights the devotees. people who travel to thousands of holy places in this world but do not travel to Navadvépa will not attain Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa.Caitanya-candra Text 6 yathä våndävanaà dhäma çré-kåñëasya kåpä-nidheù navadvépas tathä känte satyaà satyaà vadämy aham The glories of Navadvépa are like the glories of Våndävana. eternally enjoys pastimes with Rädhä in Navadvépa. Text 9 yadi tértha-sahasräëi paryaöanti naräù kñitau navadvépaà vinä devi na rädhäà kåñëaà äpnuyät O goddess. just as He does in beautiful Våndävana. the abode of Lord Kåñëa. I speak the truth.

sages. The earth with its seven continents is purified by the dust of their feet. O Pärvaté. is attained millions of times over by meditating on Navadvépa. This is the truth. O Pärvaté. demigods. they become great saints. siddha-äçramas. Text 16 ye vasanti navadvépe mänaväù gaura-devatäù 149 . as well as väjapeya-yajïas. saints. how will I be able to describe the result attained by directly seeing Navadvépa? Text 14 sakåd yadi navadvépaà saàsmareyur narädhamäù sädhavas te tadaiva syuù satyaà satyaà hi pärvati If the lowest of men remember Navadvépa for a single moment. Texts 12 and 13 açvamedha-sahasräëi vajapeyadhikäni ca nänä-vidhäni karmäëi kåtvä bhaktyä muhur muhuù yat phalaà labhate martyo yogäbhyäsena yat phalam navadvépasya smaraëät teñäà koöi-guëaà labhet kià punaù darçanaà cäsya phalaà vakñyämi pärvati The result a human being attains by performing thousands of açvamedha-yajïas. or by diligently practicing yoga. Text 15 teñäà dine dine bhaktir vardhate nätra saàçayaù teñäà pada-rajah-pütä sapta-dvépä vasundharä Every day their devotion increases.Caitanya-candra vasanti satataà durge çré-rädhä-kåñëa-tuñöaye O goddess Durgä. this is the truth. Of this there is no doubt. and all Vedic scriptures and mantras eternally reside for the pleasure of Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa. and many other pious rituals again and again with great devotion. at a certain place on this island all holy places.

simply by remembering them great sinners become purified. Lord Kåñëa's supreme abode. He worshiped Lord Gauräìga for ten thousand years. Text 20 tatra gatvä navadvépe näga-räjo dhåta-vrataù püjayäm äsa gauräìgam api varñäyutaà priye O beloved. Following strict vows. cannot properly glorify it. Text 17 teñäà smaraëa-mätreëa mahä-patakino 'pi ca satyaà çudhhanti vai durge kià punar darçanädibhiù O Durgä. the wise know that Navadvépa is a staircase leading to Våndävana. Text 21 150 . They are the spiritual associates of Lord Gaura. with His thousands of mouths. Text 19 dhäma-särasya kåñëasya våndäraëyasya çailaje ärohanasya sopänaà navadvépaà vidur budhäù O Pärvaté.Caitanya-candra na ca te mänava-jneyä çré-gaurasya ca pärñadäù They who live in Navadvépa and think Lord Gaura their worshipable Lord should not be considered ordinary human beings. the king of serpents then went to Navadvépa. How much more are they blessed by directly seeing them or associating with them? Text 18 navadvépasya mähätmyaà païcabhir vadanair aham kià varëayämi nänantaù sahasrair vadanair alam What can I say of Navadvépa's glories with My five mouths? Even Lord Ananta.

the master of the universes. who was splendid as molten gold. whose two lotus feet were very handsome. Texts 23-28 tapta-jambunada-präkhyaà cäru-padma-pada-dvayam koöéndu-päda-nakharaà koöy-äditya-samujjvalam vana-mälä-bhüñitäìgaà çrévatsojjvala-vakñasam kñauma-vastra-dharaà devaà koöi-kandarpa-mohanam aàse nyastopavétaà ca candanäìgada-bhüñanam äjänu-lambita-bhujaà tulasé-mälya-dhäriëam kambu-grévaà cäru-netraà sa-smera-vadanämbujam maëi-makara-samyuktaçravaëaà cäru-kuëòalam su-bhruvaà su-nasaà santaà bhaktärcita-padämbujam täpa-traya-vidagdhänäà jévänäà träëa-kärakam gauräìgaà sac-cid-änandaà sarva-käraëa-käraëam väcä gadgadayänantaà tuñöäva dharaëi-dharaù To Lord Gauräìga. whose toenails were millions of moons. who wore silken garments. the king of serpents fell to the ground as a stick. who was 151 . Lord Gaura. whose chest was splendid with the Çrévatsa. who was decorated with forest-flower garlands. Text 22 näga-räjaù samälokya taà devaà parameçvaram nanäma daëòa-vad bhümäv utthäya vihitäïjaliù Seeing the Supreme Personality of Godhead.Caitanya-candra tataù prasanno bhagavän çré-gauro jagad-éçvaraù daåsayäm äsa svaà rüpam anantäya mahätmane Pleased by this. revealed His transcendental form to the great soul Ananta. When He rose His hands were folded together.

Caitanya-candra more enchanting than millions of Kämadevas. You are like a fire and the demigods. the destroyer of the sufferings of repeated birth and death. merciful. and other living entites are like sparks. the sole cause of the universes. the eternal Supremew Truth. whose smiling face was a lotus flower. Text 31 tyaktvä parätman bhavataù padämbujaseväà mahänanda-karià çubha-pradam jnänäya ye vai satataà pariçramaà kurvanti teñäà çrama eva kevalam O Supreme Soul. on whose ears were handsome jewel shark earrings. who is the savior of the living entities burning in the three-fold material miseries. whose neck was a concshell. independent. whose arms reached down to His knees. they who reject the blissful and auspicious service of Your lotus feet and instead struggle to attain transcendental knowledge attain only fatigue as the fruit of their labors. For this reason I take shelter of You. who wore a tulasé garland. who is limitless. who wore a sacred thread on His shoulder. Text 30 anantam antaà prkåtiù sanätané süte na sarvajna yad-ikñaëaà vinä tasmäd bhavantaà bhava-duùkha-näçanaà vrajämi satyaà çaraëaà sanätanam O omniscient one. who is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss. whose lotus feet were offered to the devotees. the eternal supreme person. Ananta prayed in a faltering voice. without Your glance neither Lord Ananta nor the eternal material energy would be manifest. who was peaceful. Text 29 çré-ananta uväca tvam ädi-devo jagad-eka-käraëaà svaräò dayäluù puruñaù sanätanaù agner sphuliìgä iva te mahätmano bhavanti jiväù sura-mänavädayaù You are the Supreme Lord. who was anointed with sandal paste. whose nose and eyebrows were handsome. human beings. who wore armlets. Text 32 vihäya däsyaà çatapatra-locana tvayy aikyam icchanti yamädi-sädhanaiù 152 . and who is the cause of all causes. whose eyes were charming.

O ocean of mercy. 153 . and desire to become one with You by controlling their senses and living a spiritual life are not intelligent. O master of the demigods. Text 33 vidhehi däsyaà mayi déna-bandho na kiïcid icchämi bhavat-padämbujät tvat-päda-padmäsava-tåpta-mänasair na kià su-labhyaà kñiti-pävana kñitau O friend of the poor. because we are able to see Your form. what is not easily attained in this world by they whose hearts are satisfied with the honey of Your lotus feet? Text 34 vayaà dhanyatamä loke jnänibhyo 'pi surottama yasmät tu édåçaà rüpaà paçyämaù prakåteù param O Supreme Lord.Caitanya-candra na te prthivyäà paripakva-buddhayo yasmäd bhavad-däsya-sukhena vaïcitaù They who reject service to You. please give me service to You. we are more fortunate than even the great philosophers. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss. Text 35 namas tubhyaà bhagavate sac-cid-änanda-mürtaye bhakta-labhya-padäbjäya tapta-jambunada-tviñe Obeisances to You. O lotus-eyed one. I do not want anything other than Your lotus feet. O purifier of the worlds. who is splendid as molten gold. and whose lotus feet only the devotees may attain! Text 36 punas tvaà drañöum icchämi çré-gauräìga dayä-nidhe yena rüpeëa deveça våndäraëye viräjate O Lord Gauräìga. I desire to see You again in the form You manifest in Våndävana. which is above the world of matter. In this world they are cheated of the happiness of serving You.

Text 40 våndävane yathänanta vasämi rädhayä saha rädhayä militäìgo 'haà tathaivasmin sadä vase O Ananta. Text 39 yathä mama priyä rädhä tathä våndävanaà mahat tadvad ayaà navadvépa iti satyaà vadämy aham As Rädhä is dear to Me. Navadvipa is equal to Vrndavana. Text 41 yathä våndävanaà tyaktvä gacchämi na ca kutracit tathä deva navadvépaà na tyajämi kadäcana 154 . so I also stay eternally in Navadvépa. I am pleased by your service. You are the greatest of My great devotees. as I stay in Våndävana with Çré Rädhä. so Våndävana and Navadvépa are also dear to Me. For this reason.Caitanya-candra Text 37 çré-bhagavän uväca tuñöo 'haà sevayänanta tvaà me bhaktottamottamaù yato 'smin mahati dvépe prabhavasyädi-sevakaù The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: O Ananta. You will appear as My best servant. My transcendental form embraced by Çré Rädhä. Text 38 ayam eva navadvépo våndävana-samo 'nagha anugrahäya jévänäà rädhayä nirmitaù purä O fortunate one. I speak to You the truth. when I appear in Navadvépa. Long ago it was created by Radha to bestow mercy on the living entities.

I will never leave You for even a moment. Text 45 asmin dvépe mahä-kñetre yadähaà prärthitaù suraiù avatérya dvija-väse haniñye kalijaà bhayam When the demigods appeal to Me with prayers I will descend in this sacred island of Navadvépa in the home of a brähmaëa and I will kill the fears created by the age of Kali. I appear in Våndävana during every kalpa. and I perform pastimes for the pleasure of the devotees and to purify the world. In another kalpa I will make You My elder brother in Våndävana. Text 46 155 . O king of the serpents. for the benefit of the world. I appear there. You will also appear with Me. Text 42 ahaà våndävane sädho kalpe kalpe satäà mude ävirbhüya kariñyämi yaà léläà loka-pävaném navadvépe ca nägendra täà sarväù parivarëaya O saintly one. Text 44 tväà santyajya kñaëam api na ca tiñöhämi mänada kalpäntare kariñyämi jyeñöhaà våndävane hy aham O glorious one.Caitanya-candra O Lord. whenever. so I do not ever leave Navadvépa. as I do not leave Våndävana to go to any other place. please describe those same pastimes as they occur in Navadvépa. Text 43 yadä prädurbhaviñyämi svayaà loka-hitäya vai tadaiva tvaà mahä-bhäga nityaà prädurbhaviñyasi O fortunate one.

and in this way make all living entities into My pure devotees.Caitanya-candra nityänando mahä-käyo bhütvä mat-kértane rataù vimüòhän bhakti-rahitän mama bhaktän kariñyasi You will then become Nityänanda. Text 47 mamaiva nityaà lélänäà säram uddhåtya sammate kåtvä su-saàhitäà jévän sarvän bhaktottamän kuru Consider the eternal essence of My pastimes. He then wrote the great Ananta-saàhitä. Text 48 çré-mahädeva uväca ity upamantrito 'nantaù pranämya jagad-éçvaram äkarñét saàhitäà devi mahatéà prema-bhakti-däm Advised in this way. noble-hearted Ananta became perfect. write it down in a beautiful scripture. Your body will be very tall and large. Text 50 ananta-vadanotthatvät sva-lélayä hy anantataù ananta-saàhitäà näma cakre 'syäù parameçvaraù 156 . and You will transform many bewildered fools who have no devotion into My pure devotees. Lord Ananta offered respectful obeisances to the Lord of the universes. You will be absorbed in the bliss of glorifying Me. with great devotion placing this saàhitä at Lord Jagannätha's lotus feet. Text 49 täm eva saàhitäà sädhvi jagannätha-padämbuje nivedya parayä bhaktyä kåtärtho 'bhün mahä-matiù O saintly Pärvaté. O goddess. which gives prema-bhakti to its readers.

Text 51 tam eva saàhitäà känte vaikuëöhe parameçvaraù sarva-loka-hitärthäya pradadau brahmaëe purä O beloved. Texts 55 and 56 snigdhaà pavitraà sambhütam ahaà bhagavatottamaù mohanäya ca jévänäà mukhenänena sundari 157 . chaste goddess. Text 54 dharayämy ürdhva-vadane deveçi saàhitäm imäm mantraà ca gauracandrasya nämedaà sarva-maìgalam O queen of the demigods. the Supreme Lord gave it the name "Ananta-saàhitä". when I was depressed because of drinking poison. Text 53 viñeëa dahyamänena mukhenordhvena sundari dadhära saàhitäm etäà çudha-sära-pravarñiëém O beautiful one. the Lord gave this transcendental Ananta-saàhitä to Me also.Caitanya-candra Because this book arose from the mouth of Lord Ananta. and also because it is filled with limitless (ananta) pastimes. in My mouth burning with poison I held the shower of nectar that is the Ananta-saàhitä. in another kalpa. in My mouth I hold both this saàhitä and the all-auspicious mantra of Lord Gauracandra's names. to benefit all living entities the Lord of Vaikuëöha originally gave the Anantasaàhitä to the demigod Brahmä in ancient times. Text 52 kåpayä täà maheçäni dadau ca saàhitäà paräm viña-pänäd viñannäya mahyaà kalpäntare sati O pious.

whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss and who is very kind to the devotees. in this way I became free from My sins and I became perfect. by His mercy one will become a gopé. O beloved. reading. O goddess. My lover. I gave the Ananta-saàhitä in the previous kalpa. simply by hearing. in this way My mouth. and after residing in Navadvépa for many kalpas. Text 58 asyäà ca varëayäm äsa kåñëa-léläà manoramäm çrémad-gauräìga-caritaà rädhä-kåñëäntika-pradam In the Ananta-saàhitä were described Lord Kåñëa's beautiful pastimes and Lord Gauräìga's pastimes. became clean and pure. O girl with the beautiful face.Caitanya-candra mäyävädam asat-çästraà yat kåtaà kåñëa-nindanam tat päpebhyo vimukto 'haà kåtärtho 'haà varänane O beautiful one. which was used to speak impious pseudoscriptures filled with blasphemous lies defaming Lord Kåñëa. Texts 59-61 yasya çravaëa-mätreëa paöhänät päöhanät çive gauräìgaà sac-cid-änandaà bhaktänugraha-kärakam samälokya navadvépe bahu-kalpädikaà priye uñitvä tat-prasädena gopé bhütvä maheçvari våndävane nikuïjädau çré-rädhä-kåñëa-sannidhau sakhi-bhävena nivaset satyaà satyaà na saàçayaù O auspicious one. After seeing Him. and will reside in the 158 . or teaching this scripture one will directly see Lord Gauräìga. Text 57 tubhyaà mad-anuraktäyai prak-kalpe pradadäv imäm strétvät jnänamayé väpi na samarthä maheçvaré To you. but because you are a woman you do not remember. which bring one to Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa.

again asked by goddess Pärvaté. Thus ends the third Chapter of the second part of Çré Caitanya-janma-khaëòa of Çré Anantasaàhitä Chapter 4. please diligently serve Lord Gauräìga. Text 62 gaura-mürter bhagavataù päda-seväà vinä sati bahu-janmärjitaiù puëyair na rädhäà kåñëam äpnuyät Without service the feet of this fair-complexioned form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead one will not attain Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa. This is the truth. O beloved. please hear Lord Gauräìga's pastimes day and night. O Pärvaté. This is the truth. Text 63 tasmäd gauräìga-caritaà çåëu känte divä-niçam kuruñva mahatéà seväà tasya devasya pärvati Therefore. merciful Lord Çiva eagerly spoke the pastimes of Lord Gaura. Text 64 çré-närada uväca mahä-devya punaù påñöo mahä-devo dayäcalaù jagäda gaura-caritam ürdhva-vaktreëa gautama Çré Närada said: O Gautama. Of this there is no doubt. part 2 of the Çré Caitanya-janma-khaëòa of the Ananta-saàhitä Text 1 çré-gautama uväca punaç ca pärvaté devé yad apåcchan maheçvaram tan me vada muni-çreñöha yadi me syäd anugrahaù 159 .Caitanya-candra groves of Våndävana as a friend of Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa. even with many births of pious deeds.

Caitanya-candra Çré Gautama said: O best of sages. Text 4 çré-mahädeva uväca niçämaya mahä-bhage dvépasyotpatti-käraëam ananta-saàhitäyäà ca näräyaëa-mukhäc chrutam Lord Çiva said: Listen. please tell me in truth. the eternal goddess said to Lord Çiva: Text 3 çré-pärvaty uväca kadä väyaà navadvépo nirmito rädhäya mahän kià arthaà vä maheçäna tattvataù kathayasva me Çré Pärvaté said: When did Çré Rädhä create Navadvépa? Why did She create it? O great Lord. if you wish to show kindness. which I have heard both in the Ananta-saàhitä and also directly from the mouth of Lord Näräyaëa. then please tell me what Pärvaté then asked Lord Çiva. to the account of Navadvépa's creation. Texts 5 and 6 yadä våndävane ramye çré-kåñëaù parameçvaraù reme virajayä särdhaà padminyä ñaöpado yathä tathä candra-mukhé devé rädhikä måga-locanä çrutvä sakhé-mukhät sarvaà yatra kåñëo drutaà yayau 160 . Text 2 çré-närada uväca navadvépasya mähätmyaà çrutvä devé sanätané utpatteù käraëaà jïatuà tasyoväca maheçvaram Çré Närada said: Having heard the glories of Navadvépa. O fortunate one. and wishing to hear how Navadvépa had come into existence.

Text 11 mågé-måga-gaëair yuktaà mithunänanda-daà param 161 .Caitanya-candra When. Kåñëa. Text 8 punaù kåñëena virajäà ramyamänäà niçamya sä na tatra gatvä dadåçe kåñëaà virajayä saha Although She heard that Kåñëa was enjoying with Virajä. when She went there She did not see Kåñëa with Virajä. trees. enjoyed with Virajä-gopé in beautiful Våndävana. . the Goddess. entered the area between the Ganges and Yamunä river with Her friends. . charming-eyed Çré Kåñëa at once disappeared and Virajä transformed herself into a river. for whom Lord Kåñëa was Her only worshipable Deity. as a bumblebee enjoys a lotus flower. . then moon-faced. hearing everything from the mouth of a friend. Text 7 äyätaà rädhikäà dåñövä çré-kåñëaç cäru-locanaù tatraiväntardadhe sadyo virajä cäbhavan nadé Seeing Rädhikä coming. the Supreme Lord. and bumblebee-couples. Text 9 cintayitvä mahä-devé manasä kåñëa-devatä gaìgä-virajayor madhye sakhébhiù samaà äyayau Thinking in Her heart for some time. doe-eyed Goddess Rädhikä. rushed to the place where Kåñëa was. Text 10 tatra gatvä mahat sthänaà cakära kåñëa-sundaré latäbhiù padapaiù kérëaà sa-stréka-bhramarair våtam There Lord Kåñëa's beautiful lover created a transcendental abode filled with vines.

. . . and other flowers.Caitanya-candra mallikä-mälaté-jätiprabhåti-puñpa-räjitam . Text 13 gaìgä ca yamunä caiva parikheva nirantaram bhäti tad-äjïayä yatra su-snigdha-jala-saikatam . . . Text 12 tulasé-känanair yuktaà änanda-sadanaà varam cid-änandamayaiù kuïjair vividhair pariçobhitam . . dressed in wonderful and colorful clothing and ornaments. . Goddess Rädhikä began to play sweet music on a flute that charmed the heart of Lord Govinda. .filled with tulasé forests. beautiful with many forest-groves filled with spiritual bliss. . by Her order the waters and shores shone with great splendor. Text 16 162 . splendid with mallikä. Text 14 nityaà viräjate yatra vasanto makaradhvajaù sadä pakñi-gaëä yatra kåñëeti maìgalaà jaguù . . . a blissful transcendental abode where. . where.blissful with the amorous happinesses of deer-doe couples. . jäti. . and where the birds eternally sing the auspicious sounds "O Kåñëa!" Text 15 tatra çré-rädhikä devé viciträmbara-bhuñaëä govinda-citta-haraëaà veëunä madhuraà jagau There. . the Ganges and Yamunä became like a moat.where springtime and Kämadeva eternally shine with great splendor. mälaté. .

Text 18 bhävaà vilokya rädhäyäù çré-rädhä-präëa-vallabhaù uväca täà mahä-devéà prema-gadgadayä girä Seeing Rädhä's love for Him. where is anyone as dear to Me as You? I will never leave You. Text 17 dåñövä taà rädhikä-käntaà çré-rädhä kåñëa-mohiné pragåhya päëinä päëià mahänandaà jagäma ha Seeing Her lover. His heart enchanted by Her music. O girl with the beautiful face. for Me no one is equal to You. Texts 20 and 21 etad eva paraà sthänaà mad-arthaà yat kåtaà tvayä sakhébhir navabhir yuktaà nava-kuïja-samanvitam nava-rüpaà kariñyämi tvayä särdhaà varänane 163 . He who is more dear to Rädhä than Her own life. with words choked with love said to the great Goddess: Text 19 çré-kåñëa uväca tvat-tulyä nästi me känte priyä kutra varänane na tyajämi kñaëaà api tvaà präëa-sädåçéà mama Çré Kåñëa said: O beloved. the Lord of Rädhikä. took Him by the hand and became very happy.Caitanya-candra tad-géta-mohita-matiù çré-kåñëo rädhikä-patiù ävirbabhüva deveçi sthäne tatra manorame O queen of the demigods. You are as dear to Me as My own life. Çré Kåñëa. appeared in that charming place. even for a single moment. Çré Rädhä. who enchants Lord Kåñëa.

Text 22 etasya dvépa-tulyatvän navadvépaà vidur budhäù atra sarväni térthäni nivasantu mad-äjïayä Because this place is like a group of islands.Caitanya-candra nava-våndävanaà tasmän mad-bhaktair géyate sadä In this transcendental abode of nine forests You and nine of Your friends have created for My sake I will manifest a new form and enjoy new pastimes with You. the wise know this place as Navadvépa (Nine Islands). Text 24 asmin ägatya ye martyäs tvayä maà paryupäsate sakhétvaà ävayor nityaà präpnuvanti su-niçcitam Human beings who come here and worship You and Me will certainly become Our eternal gopé-friends. I will eternally stay with You here in this transcendental place You have created to please Me. Text 25 etad eva paraà sthänaà yathä våndävanaà priye sakåd gamana-mätreëa sarva-tértha-phalaà labhet avayoù préti-jananéà bhaktià ca pralabhed dhruvam 164 . For this reason My devotees will eternally proclaim that this place is a new Våndävana. Text 23 mat-préty-arthaà yataù känte nirmitaà sthänaà uttamam nivasämi tvayä särdhaà nityaà atra varänane O girl with the beautiful face. By My order all holy places reside here. O girl with the beautiful face.

to serve Them. when Viçäkhä and the other gopés saw Lalitä transformed in this way. after speaking these words. O fortunate one. this transcendental abode is like Våndävana. they at once accepted male forms. accepted a male form full of love for Lord Gaura.Caitanya-candra O beloved. Texts 27 and 28 antaù kåñëaà bahir gauraà sac-cid-änanda-vigraham ekam advayam älokya tatraiva lalitä sakhé vihäya ramaëé-rüpaà çré-gaura-préti-bhäjanam jagräha pauruñaà rüpaà tat-sevärthaà maheçvari O goddess. Here one attains pure devotional service. seeing that They had both joined to become a single spiritual form of eternal bliss and knowledge. a form that was dark-complexioned Kåñëa within and faircomplexioned Gaura without. Text 29 lalitäà ca tathä-bhütaà viçäkhädyä vilokya täù babhüvuù sahasä devi puruñäkåtayas tadä O goddess. Text 26 çré-mahädeva uväca ity uktvä rädhikä-känto rädhäya priyayä saha eké-bhüya mahä-bhäge taträsét satataà priye Lord Çiva said: O beloved. Simply by going here one attains the result of all other pilgrimages. In that form He stays in that place eternally. Their friend Lalitä left her form of a beautiful girl and. which is very pleasing to Us. Rädhä's beloved Kåñëa became one with Rädhä. Text 30 jaya gaura-hare deva dhvanir äsén mahän tadä taà rädhä-ramaëaà tasmäd bhaktäù gaura-harià jaguù 165 .

Text 31 gauré çré-rädhikä devé hariù kåñëaù prakértitaù ekatväc ca tayoù skñäd iti gaura-harià viduù Fair Goddess Çré Rädhikä is known by the name Gauri and the dark Lord Sri Krsna is known by the name Hari. whose form gracefully bends in three places and who plays the flute became joined with new-lotus-eyed Goddess Rädhä in a single form. Text 34 navadvépe ca sa kåñëa ädäya hådaye svayam gajendra-gamanaà rädhäà sadä ramayate mudä In Navadvépa Lord Kåñëa takes into His heart Çré Rädhä. The wise know that because They both have become one in the form of Sri Caitanya. who is graceful as a regal elephant. and happily pleases Her there. Text 32 tat-kälam ärabhya su-padma-locanaù kåñëas tri-bhaìgo muralé-dharo 'vyayaù cakära yugmaà nija-vigrahaà paraà rädhä ca devé nava-padma-locanä From that time on eternal lotus-eyed Lord Kåñëa. Lord Kåñëa eternally and happily pleases Goddess Rädhikä. Text 35 lalitädyäç ca ya sakhyaù çré-rädhä-kåñëayoù çive 166 .Caitanya-candra Then there was a great sound of Jaya Gaura-Hari!" The devotees were calling Rädhä's lover Gaura-Hari. They are now known as Gaurahari. Text 33 våndävane sadä kåñëaà änanda-sadane mudä tad-väme rädhikä-devé sthitvä ramayate priye O beloved. who stays at His left side. eternally staying in the blissful abode of Våndävana.

accept the forms of devotees in Navadvépa where they eternally and joyfully serve Lord Gaura-Hari. Lalitä and the gopés who in their own forms eternally serve Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa in Våndävana forest. Texts 38 and 39 våndävane navadvépe bheda-bhuddhiç ca yo naraù tathaiva rädhikä-kåñëe çré-gauräìge parätmani mac-chüla-päta-nirbhinnadehaù so 'pi narädhämaù pacyate narake ghore yävad ähüta-samplavam With my trident I will cut into pieces anyone who thinks that Våndävana and Navadvépa are different. Text 37 ya eva rädhikä-kåñëaù sa eva gaura-vigrahaù yac ca våndävanaà devi nava-våndävanaà ca tat Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa are the form of Lord Gaura and Våndävana is the beautiful nine forests of Navadvépa. or that Lord Çré Gauräìga is not the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Text 40 etat te kathitaà devi dvépasyotpatti-käraëam sarva-päpa-haraà puëyaà bhakti-daà satataà nåëäm O goddess. or that Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa and Lord Çré Gauräìga are different.Caitanya-candra sevante nija-rüpeëa våndäraëye ca tau sadä navadvépe tu täù sakhyo bhakta-rüpa-dharäù priye ekäìgaà çré-gaura-harià sevante satataà mudä O auspicious one. who is Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa joined in a single form. Such a person is most degraded. 167 . O beloved. He will burn in a terrible hell until the time when the universe is flooded with water. This sacred narration removes all sins and gives eternal pure devotional service to the people. I have described to you the creation of Navadvépa.

ultimately attains Lord Gauräìga. in Våndävana. Text 45 etad rahasyaà kathitaà tava priye müòhän abhaktän na ca jätu varëaya bhaktäya deyaà pariçuddha-buddhaye çrotuà kim anyan mama sampratécchasi 168 . saw Lord Kåñëa.Caitanya-candra Text 41 prätar utthäya yo martyaù çré-gaura-gata-mänasaù prapaöhet çåëuyäd väpi sa gauräìgaà aväpnuyät A human being who rises early in the morning and. whose form is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss. Text 44 sa eva kåñëa-caitanyaù kalpe kalpe varänane ävirbhüya navadvépe prema-bhakti-prado bhavet O girl with the beautiful face. his mind fixed on Lord Gaura. who is more enchanting than Kämadeva and who is the master of the räsa dance. Text 42 adyäpi sac-cid-änandaà çré-gauräìgaà mahäprabhum navadvépe prapaçyanti tad-bhaktä na ca nästikäù In Navadvépa even now they directly see Lord Gauräìga Mahäprabhu. They who are atheists cannot see the Lord at all. reads or hears this narration. in the circle of the räsa dance. long ago. appear as Lord Gauräìga. kalpa after kalpa Çré Kåñëa Caitanya appears in Navadvépa and gives to the people pure love and devotion to Lord Kåñëa. Text 43 ahaà våndävane ramye gauräìgaà dåñöavän purä räse räseçvaraà devaà skñän manmatha-mohanam I myself.

This narration should be given to a devotee whose intelligence is pure. it is said: svarnadi-tiram asritya navadvipe dvijalaye sampradatum bhakti-yogam lokasyanugrahaya ca “To show mercy to the people and give them devotional service. the Supreme Personality of Godhead will appear in a Brahmana's home in Navadvipa by the Ganges’s shore.Caitanya-candra O beloved. it is said: avatirno bhavisyami kalau-nija-ganaih saha saci-garbhe navadvipe svardhuni-parivarite aprakasyam idam guhyam na prakasyam bahir mukhe bhaktavataram bhaktakhyam bhaktam bhakti-pradam svayam man-maya-mohitah kecin na jnasyanto bahir-mokhah jnasyanti mad-bhakti-yuktah sadhavo-nyasinotmalah krmavatara-kale-yah striyo ye purusah priyah kalau te’vatarisyanti sridama-subaladayah catuh-sasti-mahantas te gopa dvadasa balakah dharma-samsthapanarthaya viharisyami tair aham kale nastam bhakti-patham sthapayisyamy aham punah gacchantu bhuvi te putrah jayantam bhakta-rupinah dharma-samsthapanam kale kurvantu te mamajnaya krsnas caitanya-gaurango gauracandrah saci-sutah prabhur gauro gaura-harir 169 . please never speak this secret to fools or non-devotees. In the Ananta-Samhita. What more would you like to hear from me? Thus ends the fourth Chapter of the second part of Çré Caitanya-janma-khaëòa of Çré Anantasaàhitä In the Ananta-Samhita.

the abode of bliss and happiness. in My form as the incarnation of a devotee. For the benefit of everyone. Locana Dasa. who came to this world at the time of My advent as Lord Krsna. Gauranga. diligently engaged in My devotional service. By hearing them. Damodara Pandita asked Murari Gupta. Previously. Mahaprabhu. They who are bewildered by My illusory potency will not understand the great secret of the appearance in this world of Me in My personal form. Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu.” Note: Lord Krsna’s cowherd friends namely Sridama and Subala in the krsna-lila became Ramadasa and Gauridasa respectively as Lord Caitanya’s confidendial associates in the caitanya-lila. To establish the truth of religion. Sri Krishna. .Caitanya-candra namani-bhakti-dani me In Kali-Yuga. Damodara Pandita and Murari Gupta. 7 DESCRIPTION OF THE LORD’S ADVENT AS DESCRIBED IN CAITANYAMANGAL 7. My dear male and female associates. All glories to Srivasa. Gaura and Gaurahari. I will descend to the earth with My associates. in My form bearing the name of a devotee. "Please explain why Lord Gauranga appeared. pure. will be able to understand Me in these five forms. The Gopas will become the sixty-four mahantas and the twelve gopalas. two most intimate eternal associates of Lord Caitanya.widely to preach? Why did He cry when chanting "Radha-Govinda!" Why did He distribute prema-bhakti in each and every home? I. Gauracandra. At this time My names will be: Krsna Caitanya. All glories to Sri Gadadhara Pandita. I will take birth in Sacidevi’s womb. also work to re-establish the principles of true religion. Only the saintly. Why did the Supreme Personality of Godhead. which is surrounded by the Ganges. leave his syarna-varna [cloud-blue color] and assume a golden form? Why did He remove His dress as a gallant lover to adopt the dress of a sannyasi? Why did He travel so . This secret is not to be revealed to them. Sacisuta. In this way I will again reveal the path of devotional service. With all my heart. that most important discussion is retold here.1 Krishna's Decision to Descend as a Devotee All glories to Sri Krishna Caitanya and Sri Nityananda. Please listen carefully to the following topics about the Supreme Personality of Godhead. I will enjoy many pastimes with them. headed by Sridama and Subala. I worship the feet of the dear devotees of Lord Caitanya. My sons should also descend to the earth. in My form as the incarnation of devotion. All glories to Narahari Sarakara. in My form as a devotee.the ignorant people of the world will get salvation. In Navadvipa. and. I will become blissful by hearing these topics from you. discussed the appearance of the golden avatara. assume the forms of devotees. by My order. Sri Krishna Caitanya. will tell you all these most confidential topics. will come again during the Kali-Yuga. and in My form as the giver of devotional service. which has been destroyed in the course of time. renounced devotees. the authority on devotion. 170 . Chanting these names will bring devotion to Me. All glories to Sri Advaita Acarya.

the greatest among the sages. the Supreme Lord . I must immediately bring the Supreme Lord Krishna to the earth. "' Murari Gupta said to Damodara Pandita. Totally forgetting Krishna. and even Katyayani Devi took birth on earth when the Lord descended. Under the dense darkness of Kali. In Satyayuga. the essence of all incarnations. feeling compassion for humanity. Seeing that the snake-like Kali had swallowed everyone in sin. everyone becomes sinful and addicted to irreligious acts. and madness. Narada Muni. from the earth. envy. Then I will summon Sri Krishna. "While chanting the holy names of Krishna. Although that love filled Narada's body with ecstatic joy. "Narada Muni. in the spiritual world. the embodiment of religion. Murari Gupta replied. Narada sometimes became submerged in the mellows of Krishna-prema. 171 . people were madly pursuing sense enjoyment.' "Narada continued his contemplation. Dvapara-yuga has two. I' 11 also bring the demigods. Narada Muni set out for Dvaraka.relishes and sings Krishna's names and qualities. "So. being too attached to material existence. But unfortunately. 'Somehow or other. Narada appeared to re-establish religion. The venomous snake Kali had bitten everyone. Now I will explain the appearance of Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu. and truthfulness. great demigods like Brahma. [Krishna] into this Kali-yuga. anger. great sages like Narada Muni. People reject the rules of Varnasrama-dharma. Lord Krishna Himself. "Narada Muni thought to himself. and he thought of how to deliver them. "Listen carefully. listen to me. He was eagerly traveling throughout the universe giving out the holy names of Krishna. thought deeply about their deliverance. the people of the world could not appreciate it. "In Kali-yuga. Treta-yuga has three qualities. he felt sorry for their fallen condition. could rectify the situation. Glorifying Krishna with his vina. First let me observe the activities of the people in Kaliyuga. He displayed more compassion than any other avatara. they wasted the valuable human form of life without ever inquiring about their real friend. the scriptures say that dharma has four limbs: mercy. "Thus the great sage Narada. the personification of sin. infecting them with the poison of maya. decided to rout Kali.Caitanya-candra After hearing these questions." 7. 'If I am actually a true servant of Lord Krishna. Their hearts found delight in the endless waves of lust. Living the philosophy of "I" and "mine". and truthfulness. irreligiosity replaces religion. I will be able to bring Lord Yadu Raya. Kali-yuga has one---truthfulness. who always. "Amazed.2 Narada Muni Visits Dvaraka Murari Gupta continued. cleanliness. became greatly distressed by the sufferings of others. "Pandita Damodara. The Vedas and the Agama scriptures concur that the desire of Lord Govinda is one with the desire of His pure devotee.mercy. austerity. the people of Kali-yuga refused to accept the holy name.cleanliness and truthfulness. seeing the miserable condition of the people in Kali-yuga. members of the Yadu family expanded themselves to also appear on earth. Torrents of tears would rush from his eyes as he chanted Hare Krishna. Sometimes he became choked in ecstasy. sometimes Narada would cry or laugh loudly. Knowing that only the Supreme Personality of Godhead. and Krishna's intimate friends and followers who will act as His weapons and associates. cleanliness. I will explain these truths to you. illusion. greed. From Dvaraka. Only He can re-establish religion in this sinful age of Kali.

My heart weeps because soon You'll leave my palace and go away. 'My heart may be hard. O Devi. within Your heart. My dear? Are you still disturbed over that time I joked with you? Feeling guilty about that. she became filled with ecstasy. but I couldn't soften your heart. I can't understand why you are weeping. dressed nicely and personally cleansed her private chambers. night. My mind has become blissful just by hearing them. the goddess of fortune. 7. 'Have I disobeyed any of your orders. and the passing seasons.3 Rukmini's Lamentation "The good-natured. please tell only. even though everything else is known to You. Locana Dasa. but how is it that You don't understand the heart of one who loves Your lotus feet? You will understand the intensity of the love I feel if you cultivate Radha-bhava. or done anything wrong. You know everything there is to know. Placing pots full of xi. she lit ghee lamps and fragrant incense to provide an auspicious welcome for her Lord.' 'The fragrance of Your lotus feet spreads in all directions. becoming astonished. 'My Lord. joyfully received Lord Krishna. After drinking madhvika [an intoxicat'mg celestial drink].' "Remembering that time when Krishna spoke cruel words to her. You don't know the power of Your lotus feet. Rukmini cried uncontrollably.' "Rukmini continued. I tried to pacify you in many ways. Within Your heart You can't know why I'm crying. I have never heard before that there was something which I did not understand. 'O Devi. "Cakrapani [Krishna. hoping to attain Your lotus feet. I beg You. 'O Devi. Rukmini held them to her breasts. "Although the palace was already spotlessly clean. One who drinks the nectar of Your lotus feet becomes transcendental to day. asked Rukmini. describe these transcendental pastimes. The whole world knows that you are My favorite. Lord Siva dances continually. topmost Queen Rukmini. Musicians filled the air with sweet vibrations to greet the Lord. the wielder of the disc]. along with Mitravinda and Nagnajiti. Simply smelling that fragrance frees anyone from old age and death." ' With complete faith in the lotus feet of the Lord. 7. What is that rare substance which is most valuable in the three words? Though I cannot perceive the meaning of Your words. You are the crest-jewel of all transcendental qualities. Her body trembled in anticipation. Lord Krishna said. "Rukmini Devi. decided to visit the palace of Queen Rukmini.' "Becoming astonished by hearing these words' of His dearmost Queen Rukmini. While looking lovingly at the Lord. I didn't understand exactly what you just said. but still I am most fortunate in that You are my life and soul. Rukmini washed His lotus feet with scented water and offered arati. Prabhu. I. Who is more dear to Me than you?' "Krishna continued. "Me. in the ecstasy of receiving Lord Krishna in her palace. As soon as Rukmini learnt that Krishna was coming to see her. ater near the door. Lord Krishna asked her to explain it again. Rukmini. Your lotus feet are more dear to me than even You Yourself. 'My dear Lord. The pure devotees who lovingly clasp 172 . Taking Krishna's feet as her only property. Rukmini spoke in an angry tone mixed with affection. Lord Dvarakadisa. What is it that remains unknown to Me? Your words have captivated My heart. having just spent the night with Queen Satyabhama. the mood of Srimati Radharani's selfless love.4 The Power of Krishna's Lotus Feet Murari Gupta cont'mued. Please tell me why you are crying so profusely. replied to Lord Krishna.Caitanya-candra "At that time.

this was not a prayer of Rukmini Devi. May I become a honeybee forever attached to Your lotus feet. The taste of serving Your lotus feet overpowers my attraction to You. Murari Gupta continued narrating the story to Damodara Pandita. the goddess of fortune. It is a quality of Your lotus feet that they manifest pure ecstatic love of God in those who serve them. even if You neglect them. 'My dear Lord. Only Radharani who enjoyed with You in Vrndavana. my heart trembles in lamentation. and tears pour from Your eyes whenever You chant the name of Radha. Laksmi and Sarasvati think themselves most fortunate to have surrendered at Your feet. Lord Brahm^. the demigods. gushing from Her heartof pure devotion. meditate upon You. Krishna's heart danced in ecstasy. reddish like the rising sun. they are always amazed by the unique quality of Radharani's pure love for You. the goddess of fortune. Kamala. With folded hands. Thus. I. Because I am completely devoted and surrendered to You. and even residence on Vaikuntha. Even today. only Srimati Radharani knows how to relish the mellows of love and taste the highest transcendental pleasure. No one can compare with Radharani. the goddess of fortune longs for the mercy achieved by serving Your lotus feet. Whoever has intense attachment to serving Your lotus feet will definitely taste transcendental ecstasy. No one can control You. I pray to You.Caitanya-candra Your reddish lotus feet are worshiped by the whole world. and absorb themselves in Your pastimes. who always lies on your bed enjoying Your kisses and loving embraces. Now please listen. I'm going to tell You something from the bottom of my heart. And the world becomes auspicious by worshiping the feet of such pure devotees. can understand this completely. I can't help but cry. they all attained spontaneous devotional service. Your devotees always hanker for Your lotus feet. I can experience the ecstasy of worshiping Your lotus feet. sing the nectarcan glories of the Lord. Please give me this benediction. Grant me the boon that You' 11 never leave my home. always desires to attain Your lotus feet. 'Now I'm ecstatic to have Your lotus feet in my home. to be most insignificant. 'Laksmi Devi. filled with tears of compassion. my dear Lord. Although You are Her Lord and master. You fail to reciprocate with Her desire and give pain to Her heart. but rather an outburst of love. Fearing separation from You. however. are the Supreme Lord. Who can estimate the unlimited glories of Your lotus feet? 'Even after enjoying so much happiness. Murari said. 'You. Locana Dasa.' 7. Sitting on His throne. 'Whoever tastes the ecstasy of Your love considers the four kinds of liberation. Your feet are sweeter than lotus nectar.'" In reality. and the demigoddesses are all eager to serve Your lotus feet. His lotus eyes. "After hearing Rukmini Devi's wonderful words. 'Laksmi Devi always serves Your lotus feet with a desire to love You. In transcendental love. You are the only shelter of the pure devotees. Lord 173 . Fearing our inevitable separation. Whoever wants to taste an unlimited supply of nectar will find it by serving Your lotus feet.5 The Power of Radharani's Pure Love "Rukmini Devi continued. You control everyone in the three worlds. Just see the power of Radha's pure love. Although devotees discuss these topics throughout the day and night. By receiving the nectar of Your feet. Your heart pines for Her. It mystifies me how Radharani binds You so completely with Her transcendental qualities. so how can you understand this ecstasy? Besides me.

Caitanya-candra Krishna gently placed Rukmini on His lap and consoled her. I've never heard such an amazing and wonderful description. somehow you have forgotten about a previous event. and welcomed the sage with sweet words. I don't see any means of deliverance for these people. You are the Supersoul in all living entities.' "Hearing the words of Narada. preaching Your glories. '0 great sage. Narada couldn't speak due to the effect of transcendental ecstasy. it gives me great pain. Enchanted by Your transcendental qualities. Lord Krishna said. great sage. Narada was so overwhelmed from seeing Krishna that all He could do was cry. Waves of nectar overflowed from the ocean ofprema within their hearts. You are dearer to Me than My own life. that in the age of Kali. It devastates Me to see you in such a condition. and devoid of Krishna consciousness. Therefore. 'O My beloved. absorbed in materialistic activities. "Narada's eyes were reddish and brimming with tears of divine love.' 174 . bathed his feet. I shall become a devotee of Myself in order to taste the happiness relished by My pure devotees. I will appear in the transcendental abode of Navadvipa in Sridhama Mayapur. Narada. don't you remember the time you gave My rnaha-prasada remnants to Lord Siva. I know also that I am your very life and soul. Krishna offered an asana to Narada. In the association of other devotees. 'Although I am the Supreme Lord. I traverse the unlimited universes. Until today.6 Lord Krishna Reveals the Form of Gauranga "Suddenly. the Lord inquired about Narada's wellbeing. I just heard a wonderful description from Rukmini.' 7. when I can't hear Your names being chanted. by the mercy of Your lotus feet. the great sage Narada Muni arrived in Dvaraka. and when I see the conditioned souls intoxicated by pride. I want to promise you. congregational chanting of My holy names. "Lord Krishna said to Rukmini. 'My dear Lord. Sumeru. The incomparable beauty of My golden form will defeat the beauty of Mt. He held Rukmini's chin with His right hand and lovingly looked at her. and My arms will be long and beautiful. "Lord Krishna said to Narada Muni. 'Narada. no one has ever suggested to Me that I should personally taste the love that My pure devotees have for Me. I will appear as My own devotee.' "Narada Muni replied. just at that moment.' "'Then Krishna explained the qualities of His incarnation in Kaliyuga by which He would attract the conditioned souls. within the home of Sacimata. please tell us clearly why you are so unhappy and disturbed. 'However. Not only will I experience the bliss of premabhakti. In Your presence. and then affectionately embraced him. 'Listen. molten gold in color. I will manifest a form filled with humility. Though trying repeatedly. I will freely distribute My love by performing Hari-nama sankirtana. In a happy mood. my mind is always disturbed thinking about this. His heart was full of anxiety and he appeared disturbed. His voice was choked up and his body was shaking'. I feel greatly relieved. Lord Krishna smiled compassionately and said. My transcendental body will be tall. As a result of that. After Parvati Devi ate some.' "Lord Krishna continued. Narada. what shall I say? You are the lord of everything that exists. Singing Your holy names and qualities is my nectarean foodstuff. I have now revealed to You whatever sorrows I had in my mind. but I will give it out 'to everyone in the world. 'Listen Narada. she promised to distribute My rnaha-prasada to all living entities. RUkmini Devi stood up respectfully.

what a profuse expression of nectar I have seen. saturated with pure love of God." Locana Dasa says this was the first time that Lord Krishna revealed the transcendental form of Lord Gauranga. Murari Gupta continued his story. upon beholding this most beautiful form of Lord Krishna which would appear in the coming age. which I must tell you. Narada Muni's heart burst with love and tears rushed from his eyes in a thousand streams. Narada reflected on this wonderful pastime. I will preach pure love of God to unite all people. "Beholding such a wonderfully beautiful form.Previously. "Then Uddhava said to Narada. '0 Narada. I Will personally preach the glories of devotional service and give the bliss of Krishnaprema freely to all. for I have now attained perfection. I consider myself fortunate." 7. the sage arrived in Naimisaranya where he met with the great devotee Uddhava. Uddhava revealed his mind to the sage. My eyes and my life have attained perfection simply by seeing such an embodiment of the ocean of mercy. Uddhava immediately stood up.' "Narada's miseries and anxieties disappeared on hearing these divine words from the beautiful mouth of Krishna. but he was very eager to see the Lord's beautiful form as Gauranga once again. left Dvaraka. Returning to external consciousness.' "Narada gave Uddhava a deep embrace. Although over the ages..Caitanya-candra "While absorbed in this ecstasy. I will establish the yuga-dharma of sankirtana-yajna. My^ eyes long to see Gauranga again and again. After offering an asana to Narada. along with My intimate friends and followers. "Uddhava said to Narada. In this form of personified mercy. and smelled his head. Having his heart's desire fulfilled by the Lord. whose compassionate eyes appeared reddish like the rising sun. "Lord Krishna said. Narada expressed a mood of parental affection for the younger Uddhava. Please go throughout the universe and tell the residents of Brahmaloka and Sivaloka that I will soon incarnate in Kaliyuga as Lord Gauranga. Narada. Lord Krishna suddenly showed His form as Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu! Narada Muni fainted in divine rapture. Before today.7 Narada Visits Uddhava in Naimisaranya "While traveling through the airways.' "While meditating in this way. because at an auspicious moment you have come to Naimisaranya. Seeing Narada Muni. My heart can never forget Him. Narada thought. Vyasadeva 175 . playing his vina and singing Krishna's names. the sage closed his eyes and trembled in ecstasy. 'This day is most auspicious. and then bathed his feet. I saw the sweetest smile on Gaura's beautiful lotus face. Oh. The shining beauty of millions of moons and millions of Cupids would have been put to shame by His inconceivably beautiful face. many branches of religion have appeared in the world. Narada saw Lord Krishna before him. Gauranga's brilliant golden complexion was more effulgent than millions of suns. kissed his forehead. most fortunate sage. what unparalleled beauty have I just seen in the golden form of Lord Gauranga. Blinded by Gauranga's dazzling effulgence. 'Oh. I will appear on earth. I have never seen such a reservoir of love. "Seeing Narada's stunned condition. With them I will satisfy My cherished desire to relish the pure love that My devotees taste by serving My lotus feet. you will be loved wherever you go. 'Today is very special. 'Revealing the glories of Krishna's fioly names. offered dandavats to the great sage. the beautiful golden Lord. He is superior to all the Lord's previous incarnations. There is something that has pained me for a long time. Lord Krishna withdrew His glowing effulgencc and called out in a loud voice.

powerfully built with a broad chest. in the spiritual world.Caitanya-candra lived here in Naimisaranya compiling the Vedas. the darkest of ages. and fell down at Narada's feet. Treta. He promised to distribute His love. Lord Krishna was sitting on His throne with Queen Rukmini. I'm becoming overwhelmed with ecstasy simply to hear about it. molten gold in color. people in this age are the most fortunate. Now I will reveal a most confidential subject to you. I now understand the unique position of Kali-yuga. in the age of Kali. The Lord was telling Rukmini about His desire to distribute His own love to people in general. "Narada. just now. the process of self-realization is easy --. "Of course. But in Kalio yuga. Quite to the contrary. to explain the principles of religion I will present a meek and humble personality. 'Narada. When I arrived in Dvaraka. while describing this. I feel completely rejuvenated by your exciting news. and irreligious. Please dispel my doubt. will be the epitome of beauty. the Lord asked about my condition. people can attain freedom from the cycle of birth and death by dancing joyfully and happily singing the Lord's names and qualities. Locana Dasa lose myself in transcendental bliss. I. I will manifest a humble mood in order to taste the love of My beloved. and with a delighted heart said to Uddhava. you are a pure devotee of Lord Krishna. and long. If you don't understand my words. Now. everyone will be fallen.' "Listening to Narada's description. In the previous ages of Satya.' Then. I will give that love to the people. That humble form. So. Eager to taste the prema-bhakti of His beloved. will descend on earth in Kali-yuga. In the age of Kali. graceful arms. and Dvapara. 'By the mercy of Lord Krishna. The people of Kaliyuga are blinded by total absorption in sinful activities. In Kaliyuga. 176 ." 'Uddhava. people know nothing but impiety.to simply chant Lord Krishna's holy names. in a transcendental form of unlimited mercy and beauty. Uddhava became stunned with happiness. Then by your confidential instructions Vyasadeva wrote the Srimad-Bhagavatam in order to deliver the people in gereral. 'Uddhava. but he wasn't satisfied. people were religious. playing his vina. sinful. and your question fills me with joy. I felt the same anxiety that you do. At that time. Can you tell me how people in the age of Kali will be delivered? ' "Narada Muni smiled compassionately. Uddhava said. however. Not long ago." By reading the conversation of Narada Muni and Uddhava taken from the Jaiminiya Bharata [Asvamedha Parva]. then you can read the story yourself in the thirty-second chapter of Jaiminiya Bharata. Rukmini is telling Me about the glories of pure love. In Kali-yuga. please tell me about the future. He will be tall. started crying. the Lord suddenly manifested the golden form of Lord Gauranga. 'Narada. Seeing I was in a disturbed state. Then I expressed my heart to the Lord. went to inform the devotees about the Lord's incarnation in the age of Kali. Narada Muni. In previous ages it was always very difficult to follow the particular yuga-dharma [religious practices for perfection]. Since you can understand the mind of Lord Krishna. This is everything that happened to me in Dvaraka. you know the absolute truth and the science of Krishna consciousness. the embodiment of divine love. I'll travel throughout the world to broadcast the wonderful news of Gauranga's appearance. 'O Uddhava. listen carefully and I' 11 tell you about a wonderful pastime I saw in Dvaraka. the Supreme Lord. for no one surpasses your kindness. 'With a smiling face Lord Krishna said.

I am the life of all living beings. "My Lord." 177 . Hiking up his dhoti.8 Narada Muni Visits Lord Siva in Kailasa Murari Gupta continued his narration to Damodara Pandita. and he would speak in a faltering voice. If you listen to my narration. Nevertheless. You always desire the deliverance of the fallen souls. I am outside of everything. the next moment he would laugh loudly. Narada would sometimes jump around excitedly.take the dust of Lord Siva's feet. what will happen to the earth after Your disappearance? Will any devotees remain here? How will the conditioned souls in the age of Kali attain liberation?" 'Replying to Uddhava's question. Uddhava. "Narada's heart was so full of ecstatic love that sometimes he couldn't move. and at the same time. that he had just seen.' 'Lord Krishna said. Lord Siva's bull. Uddhava inquired of Lord Krishna. He taught Uddhava a philosophy by which a person could attain liberation by seeing the Supreme Lord everywhere and in everything. 'Goddess Katyayani and Mahesa. Kailasa. Narada Muni. the Lord will reveal the treasure of Sri Vrndavana-dharna. "In the mood of a loving mother. Siva. expressed his feelings to the Lord. the earth. and the tree. "Overwhelmed with spiritual rapture. striking his chest. You are like the mother and father of this universe. One moment he would cry. Narada Muni approached the door of Lord Siva's home. Siva and Parvati came out to greet the sage. I am the creator and I am the annihilator.Caitanya-candra 7. and the beautiful transcendental body.' "Thinking in this way. touching your feet. Lord Krishna taught the science of self-realization. Your lotus feet are more dear to me than You Yourself. I can't find the proper words to glorify the devotees who take shelter of the moonlike nails of Your lotus feet. His whole body would tremble. Is everything all right with you? All the truths in the fourteen worlds are known to you. Katyayani said to Narada. that most intelligent devotee. 'O great sage. Narada Muni came to Lord Siva's abode on Mt. and the Yaksa. more dazzling than the sun. please tell me. the Gandharva. Narada felt excited about his upcoming meeting with Mahesa [Lord Siva]. Now. always remember that I am the water. then surely I will receive your mercy. within the twinkling of an eye. "Narada was thinking to himself. please listen to my wonderful story. I will remind you of a confidential subject which you have forgotten. Ananta. By his grace I'll get strength to chant the holy name. the land. I will . I am within everything. By the mercy of Goddess Katyayani. fell down at the feet of Lord Siva and Parvati. was guarding the door of the powerful Lord Mahesa. I am the demigod. loudly roaring. He was eager to tell him all about his recent experiences with Lord Krishna. and Brahma are ever desirous of the pure love that the Lord will freely distribute to the fallen miscreants of Kali-yuga. "Uddhava. 1Narada would fall down on the ground again and again." 'After hearing Lord Krishna. After offering respects to the great sage. 'Krishna-bhakti is the most nectarean subject in the three worlds. "Gaura! Gaura! Gaura!" It was impossible for Narada to forget the nectarean love of Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu. Narada Muni traveled around the world informing the demigods about Lord Caitanya's appearance. where have you come from?' "Narada Muni said. I am convinced that You are allpervading. "Krishna. Feeling ecstatic in the presence of such a Vaisnava. "In a happy mood. On this most auspicious day. Nandi informed Siva and Parvati about Narada's arrival. Nandi. Mahesa will feel great happiness when he hears the good news. "While playing his vina and continually singing the glories of Gauranga. Lord Siva immediately lifted Narada up and embraced him. In Kali-yuga. ' 'Once upon a time.

Please glance favorably upon me and give me the booh of receiving a handful of Lord Narayana's maha-prasada. He wants nothing other than Your maha-prasada remnants. Therefore.prasada but she feared His reaction. the ability of this Haridasa to conquer Maya comes from eating Your rnaha-prasada remnants. I told Laksmi Devi.9 Narada Waits Twelve Years for Maha-prasada "Narada 'continued speaking to Parvati and Lord Siva. Simply on the strength of the Lord's maha-prasada." 'Smiling slightly with a sign of questioning in His eyes. I am holding Your feet. Everyone knows that I am your servant. How can I break the order of the Lord." 'Then Laksmi Devi said. Laksmi Devi wanted to ask the Lord about the maha." 7. Sudarsana spoke humbly to the Lord.46): "Simply by decorating ourselves with the garlands. Although nobody knows it. Please listen. fragrant oils. I visited Vaikuntha and rendered various services to Laksmi Devi. I offered him a boon. Then she submissively said. Then I'll collect His maha-prasada for you. but I am afraid to speak. Haridasa [Uddhava] had' become a powerful. Narada repeatedly asked for the same thing. I don't know the cause. I felt deprived because I had never tasted the Lord's mahaprasada. my dear Narada? But listen. Narada. My Lord. O abode of all transcendental qualities. Narada has served for twelve years. 'Laksmi Devi became astonished and surprised to hear my request. Uddhava praised that mahaprasada. please save Your maidservant. I have been feeling pain within my heart. "For a long time. however.6. Lord Narayana ordered Me not to distribute His maha-prasada remnants to anyone. and by eating the remnants of Your meals. But Narada Muni' s request has put me in anxiety. With folded hands. 'Hearing this conversation between Lord Krishna and Uddhava. But somehow. I became dumbstruck." 'After hearing Her offer. the Lord. I always desire to receive Your food remnants. so that He would give me a taste of His maha-prasada. "My Lord. what do you want? I will give you a boon. I have something to ask You. At that time. clothes and ornaments that You have already enjoyed. Being pleased. took Laksmi Devi by the hand and sat her down beside Himself. Beginning to tremble. however. I will disobey His order and give you some. Laksmi Devi said. Considering my predicament. With this idea. we. Lord Narayana cast a glance toward His sudarsana disc. I never got the chance to taste the Lord's maha-prasada." 'Uddhava continued. Then I thought of how to please the Lord with my actions.Caitanya-candra 'At that time. Laksmi Thakurani appropriately responded with such sweet and compassionate words. pure devoteepreaCher of the Supreme Lord. Sometime later. you must wait for some time. I have a problem and I need your help. 'Being satisifed with me. This is my only desire. In the presence of the Lord. still I had no idea about the potency of Lord Krishna's maha-prasada. 'In a very submissive voice. I decided to reveal my heart 's desire. Although I myself have been on the path of devotion for a long time. Although I have no power to disobey your order. Uddhava spoke this verse from the SrimadBhagavatam ( 11. I 178 . "Narada. "My Lord." 'Fully understanding my situation. 'Within my heart. and have been constantly chanting the holy name of the Lord. will indeed conquer Your illusory energy. Laksmi Devi affectionately said. my Lord. in a jolly mood. Your servants. "It's not Sudarsana's fault. "Tell Me. "Krishna. but it seems that Laksmi Devi has a problem.

"Then to everyone's surprise. I've never tasted so much bliss before in my whole life.' "After heating Mother Bhumi's plea. Narada. "With folded hands. Then Narada remembered that he still had a morsel of maha-prasada. Out of affection.10 The Effect of Maha-prasada on Lord Siva "Hearing Siva's statements of dissatisfaction. O. which is rarely attained. Feeling intense spiritual ecstasy. seeing Mt. the bottom of the universe. "Lord Siva's loud and euphoric roaring of the Lord's holy names bounced off the domelike covering of the universe. Mother Bhurnii appealed to Goddess Katyayani. "Overcome by the bliss of pure love of Krishna.Caitanya-candra carelessly gave this promise to Narada Muni. gave me some of Lord Narayana's maha-prasada remnants. Everyone became amazed. Lord Siva scolded him. "His ecstasy broken by Parvati's strong words. he quickly gave it to Mahesa. why do you appear so spiritually surcharged and effulgent?' "After hearing Narada describe his experiences. Narada hung his head down in shame. you have come to see me. my Lord. Without My knowledge. Kurma poked His head out of his shell and stared at Ananta. His devastating dance threatened to drive the earth planet down to Rasatala. Immediately." 'Understanding her dilemma. With folded hands. Lord Siva totally forgot himself. So you better do something if you want to save the creation from destruction. Mahesa Thakura [Siva] began dancing uncontrollably in the joyous ecstasy of love of God. Vasumati [Mother Earth] was also rocking dangerously. Of course. Parvati Devi spoke some harsh words to break Lord Siva's absorption. Lord Narayana said. 'Devi. Lord Siva regained exte. 'Narada. With great delight. you can secretly give My remnants to Narada. you ate it all yourself. and unable to tolerate the weight of Siva's dancing. Startled by this strange tickling sensation. due to Siva's powerful dance. and engage me in Your service. please. 'I must say. what you just did is not proper. but why didn't you bring any of this rare treasure?' 7. without offering any to me. I see that the whole material word is also in great danger. 'O Parvati Devi. My dear Laksmi. the incomparable effulgence of Lord Narayana's transcendental form defeats the combined brilliance of millions of moons and millions of suns. You made a big mistake. Feeling very sad. Lord Siva ate the maha-prasada. you have practically killed me. by the touch of the Lord 's maha-prasada. The hood of Ananta Deva was stretching back to the point of touching the back of Kurma. I chanted Hare Krishna and played my vina as I traveled to Kailasa to see you. you look extraordinary. I honored the maha-prasada to my full satisfaction. the mother of the universe. my own effulgence and spiritual potency has increased one hundred times. And His indescribable beauty puts millions of Kamadevas [Cupids] to shame. Tell my. You are acting like my enemy.' "Lord Siva said to Narada Muni. please save me. Why did you interrupt my ecstasy? By doing so. he said." 'After some days had passed. The earth trembled under the pounding of his feet. Parvati rushed to the place where Pasupati [Siva-the lord of the living entities] was dancing in a trance of divine ecstasy. reverberating throughout the ten directions. Sumeru rocking back and forth in ecstasy. Kailasa. I will die if your husband keeps on dancing. Seeing the whole universe shaking in ecstasy. after getting the Lord's maha-prasada. 'Yet. Why did you stop it?' 179 . Mother Bhumi [earth personified] ran to Mt. "Listen.rnal consciousness. Laksmi.

Please forgive me for my offense. You always engage in My devotional service. I thought that you were always kind and merciful to me. In all three worlds. you ate it all yourself. Lord Siva pardoned his wife. Narada. Pleasing you removes the. said.s the churning rod. Parvati humbly asked him a question.' "At that moment. which are mixed with the nectar of Krishna's lips.' "Sulapani [Siva. Although glorified in the Vedas. the possessor of all jewel-like qualities.' "Lord Vishnu. Seeing her husband in a relaxed mood. You are My adya-sakti. everyday you dance in the ecstasy of pure Krishna consciousness. If Lord Narayana bestows His compassion upon me. Please tell me. and I also have devotion for Lord Vishnu. Because you're threatening to destroy the universe. for you have accepted me as half of your body. Respectfully. I know that you have devotion for Me." Then Lord Vishnu spoke in a sweet voice. arrived in Kailasa to uphold Parvati's promise. continued speaking. Mahamaya [Parvati] said. gave me some of Lord Narayana's maha-prasada remnants. Please be assured I will keep your promise. It's all just pretension. You didn't even give me a speck of it. as Hara and Gauri knowing that you both are My very self. The weight of your dancing has pushed her down to the bottom of the universe. 'Listen. They used Mandara mountain a. even to the dogs and jackals. Parvati stood up and offered obeisances to the Lord. Today. why is it that today you displayed such unlimited rapture in Krishnaprema?' "Lord Siva replied. the great sage. the Lord of Vaikuntha. holder of the trident] feeling slightly guilty. 'You are My prakrti svarupini [the form of Vishnu's energy]. Now before this assembly. I will make sure that the Lord' s maha-prasada is distributed to everyone throughout tee universe. Katyayani Devi. the material creation can't exist. misconception that you and Lord Siva are different from Me. I've never seen you exhibit such a magnificent form. Without you. Now I'll tell you a secret about an ancient episode which will alleviate the miseries of the material world. 'But today. your false love is revealed. Today. No one knows the inner meaning of the story concerning the demigods' churning of the 'ocean of nectar. You cheated me! After getting that rarely attainable maha-prasada. 'Katyayani. Parvati Devi spoke again with doleful words. With tears in her eyes. 'Prabhu.' 7. I spoke such strong words to you.through you I manifest the entire material creation. she let out a sigh and told her problem to the Lord. and 180 . Lord Siva. and . I make a solemn vow. my life is a success.Caitanya-candra Feeling great distress. 'O Bhavani [Parvati.11 The Vishnu-Katyayani Samvada from Padma Purana "These words inflamed adya-sakti [Parvati] with furious anger. 'My Lord. just see the earth before you. I will personally distribute My maha-prasada to everyone in the univere. Vishnu's mahaprasada is inconceivably rare. 'For all this time. I received Lord Narayana's maha-prasada. By the mercy ofNarada Muni. goddess of the material energy] you have no right to receive this transcendental wealth. Vishnu Himself. 'One of my names is Vaisnavi. don't be in ignorance. Parvati said. listen to the joyful news of my good fortune. This is my real wealth and the source of my ecstasy.' "With a smile of satisfaction. As husband and wife we are one. 'Devi. it is very difficult to get the Lord's remnants. Why is it that today your dancing has pushed the earth down to Rasatala? Your spiritual effulgence is as brilliant as ten million suns. The whole creation worships you and your husband.' "Noticeably disturbed by her husband's statement.

embraced him. the supreme embodiment of pure mercy. At that time. As a result. which is called the Vishnu-Katyayani Samvada. I feel immensely satisfied to b. when he arrived in Brahmaloka he was covered with drops of perspiration. displaying His transcendental pastimes. the people follow a particular type of dharma. Kailasa. Tears flooded his eyes. The Supreme Lord in the form of Lord Gauranga will appear in a brahmana family. In a fathefty mood.12 Narada Visits Brahmaloka "As he traveled. 'This situation pained me so much that I went straight to the Lord. I will fulfill your vow Parvati. 'In the age of Kali. the king of the snakes. 'Within that special tree there was a transcendental effulgence emanating from the beautiful form of Lord Caitanya. people were full of sorrow and lamentation. the essence of all incarnations and full of all transcendental qualities. "Seeing his son in this condition. Narada offered respects to Brahma. a stream of nectarean melodies rose from his vina. Please keep this confidential topic secret. the Lord and His eternal associates will descend to earth to remove all calamities. his father and spiritual master. 'Mahesa. was taken from the Padma Purana. He is the fountainhead of all incarnations.was an ocean of transcendental qualities. Then Narada said. I boldly asked Him about the deliverance of the people in Kali-yuga. a tree which gives unlimited wealth and fulfills all a person desires. There has never been a form or incarnation equal to the form of Sri Krishna Caitanya. I will manifest the golden form of Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu to propagate the sankirtana-yajna. They became afraid of the upcoming age of Kali. congregational chanting of My holy names. Playing sweetly on his vina. Bliss filled the home of Lord Siva as everyone loudly chanted the holy names of the Lord. listen to a wonderful story.' 'The preceding conversation between Lord Vishnu and Parvati Devi. Please fill my ears with the nectar of your words. 'Brahma.Had! Had!" vibrated everywhere. At the end of Dvapara-yuga. who.. He will appear in the word. Brahma lifted him up. the people have very little inclination for religious practices. his body began trembling in transcendental ecstasy. and what have you experienced?' "Before Narada could answer. peope are extremely sinful. and his face turned red due to love. Losing external consciousness. I will distribute My mercy to the people in general. "Narada Muni continued talking to Lord Siva. and asked about his well-being. 'Narada. You are the creator of everything. The first object they produced from churning was a kalpa-taru. distributed these teachings throughout his empire. In Kali-yuga.ehold your beautiful face. 181 . and his face reddened with feelings of joy.' "Lord Siva and Parvati Devi became happy after heating the good news from Narada. In the form of Lord Gauranga. King Prataparudra. Although unaware of his fatigue.Caitanya-candra Vasuki. Taking the form of the golden avatara. "Lord Brahma said. 'and give love of Krishna to everyone. Lord Brahma had mixed feelings of concern and happiness as he welcomed the great sage. and the name brahmanda comes from your name. By preaching Krishna consciousness. enchanting the ears of the three words. I will deliver all people in Kali-yuga. as the rope. I told Him I was worded because the brahmanas are not following the Vedas. Heating you will soothe my heart. Narada couldn't walk properly. Sounds of ". 7. the L6rd ordered me to announce His upcoming appearance in Kali-yuga. 'According to the characteristics of each age. Narada Muni left Mt. Where have you been? Whom have you met.

the Lord.' 'The sages said. enjoying conjugal affairs. For many days. you are the dear son of the Lord. 'Narada. on whose tongue the Goddess 182 . and has no material form. So we want to know why the Lord disturbs our minds by perfonning such unusual pleasure pastimes? O Brahma." "Lord Brahma continued. Siva. He is full of spiritual energy. Brahma picked up Narada and placed him on his lap. the Lord spoke the nectarcan catuh-sloki. although the age of Kali is full of faults. austerity. 'O my dear sage." "On heating Narada's description. the Lord manifested. and then He ordered me to give this transcendental treasure to Vyasa. just by chanting My holy names one will obtain freedom from material existence. He is free from all contamination. and the controller of all controllers. though everyone knows that the Lord is the true atma of all living entities. People are blinded by sense gratification and ignorance of the truth. 'Overcome by bewilderment. This can be realized only by pure consciousness. "The Lord is inconceivable. my sons like Sanaka and other sages came here to reveal their minds. Please give some brief answers to our questions. Lord Brahma said." 'The sages continued. In the middle of the jungle. "Narada. said. who is full of all transcendental qualifies. I will now disclose this to you. and eternally blissful. please dispel our doubts by telling us the truth. The benefits one derives from charity. Vyasadeva doesn't know the inner meaning of My pastimes. and religious activities will automatically come. Then speak the Bhagavata to Narada Muni. Srila Vyasadeva stayed in Naimisaranya describing the Mahabharata and the Puranas. Lord Sri Krishna relished transcendental' rasa with the gopis in Vmdavana. I will also descend. 'At that time the Lord said. and the others. They said. and in the form of Lord Gauranga. Delivering fallen people is your only activity." Then those sages glorified the qualities of Lord Vishnu." "Lord Brahma said to Narada. After explaining these subjects.Caitanya-candra 'On hearing my words of distress. Summoning me. the solution to the sages' question appears in the catuh-sloki [four seed verses] of the Srimad-Bhagavatam. middle or end. He is all-pervading and the very form of religion. He appeared as the Hamsa avatara. I became morose. Literally there are hundreds of Brahmas like me who don't understand this subject. a seed of sweet love sprouted within the heart of Lord Brahma. Please listen attentively. simply by doing Hari-nama sankirtana. The Lord is unlimited and devoid of any material qualities. I will personally descend and preach the science of devotional service. the Lord seems to take birth in the material nature. He became overwhelmed with love of God. Give him these four verses and let him write the Srirnad-Bhagavatarn based on these slokas. your mercy fills my heart with pleasure." 'The Lord continued. whether man or woman. he didn't know what to do. "Brahmaji. No one in the universe knows the truth about this. please listen attentively. 'O Narada. Now please go to the abodes of Brahma. Tell them to take birth on earth in Kali-yuga. inexhaustible. sacrifice. 'Some time ago. I want to tell you about a recent experience. the embodiment Of compassion. Un9erstanding his difficulty. tears streamed down his cheeks. because I also could not fathom the mystery of the Lord's transcendental sports. These truths lie far beyond the knowledge of Vedanta.a wonderful form before me. 'While I was expressing my heart like this. By your mercy they will become free from Maya' s clutches. "At that time. very subtle. 'the Lord became compassionate'. to deliver the people in the age of Kali. Lord Hamsa said. he just lost external consciousness. He has no beginning. "Lord Brahma. I must tell you that the catuhsloki are the very source of all my bliss. "Although unborn. Hearing the-doubts of the sages filled my heart with anxiety. "Narada. "Lord Brahma. Vyasadeva still felt morose. He acted just like an ordinary lusty man.

"In Satya-yuga the Lord is white and four-armed. He appeared (as Lord Ramacandra) in the color of a suka. and the rod and waterpot of a brahmacad.19-3 1): "King Nimi inquired from Karabhajana Muni: In what colors and forms does the Supreme Personality of Godhead appear in each of the different ages. Dvapara and Kali--Lord Kesava appears with various complexions. He assumed three different colors---white. there are only four colors"white.13): "Your son Krishna appears as an incarnation in every rfiillennium. those members of human society who are fixed in religiosity and are sincerely interested in achieving the Absolute Truth. There is no other subject in the Bhagavata. friendly to every creature. and with what names and by what types of regulative principles is the Lord worshiped in society? "Sri Karabhajana Muni replied: In each of the four yugas. now I remember some Bhagavata verses spoken by Gargamuni at the time of Lord Krishna's name-giving ceremony on earth. which is contained in the Rg. "In Treta-yuga the Lord appears with a red complexion. Amala.13 The Yuga-Avataras 'Narada. They think that the Lord appeared in the four yugas in only three colors. prayer beads. Isvara. golden hair. Anyone who misunderstands this point is a fool. 'Some people question the break in the usual sequence of the four yugas. or ages~ -Satya. For the benefit of ignorant people. Lord Sri Krishna. Please consider which age Lord Gauranga belongs to. Suparna. in order to deliver all living entities. He embodies the knowledge of worship by sacrificial performance. Tell Narada that in every yuga he is the most merciful to the living entities. and yellow--and now He has appeared in a blackish color. In reality. worship Lord Hari who contains within Himself all the demigods. and steady in all situations. red. He carries a black deerskin. and other implements of sacrifice. Dharma. "In Treta-yuga. He has four arms. 'Narada. red. the Lord appears on the earth in various incarnations. I will now explain this by quoting various verses from Srimad-Bhagavatam ( 11. Treta. Yogesvara. Sama and Yajur Vedas.]" "Lord Brahma said. Avyakta and Paramatama.8. "In Satya-yuga the Lord is glorified by the names Hamsa." "Lord Brahma continued. has matted locks and wears a garment of tree bark. Narada. Vaikuntha. 183 . a parrot. you should teach the Bhagavata. Treta. The Lord is worshiped by the rituals of sacrifice taught in the three Vedas. Dvapara and Kali.Caitanya-candra Sarasvati always resides. They worship the Supreme Personality by austere meditation and by internal and external sense control. no other scripture compares with the SrimadBhagavatam which is completely transcendental. In the past.Satya.5. His symbols are the ladle. "People in Satya-yuga are peaceful. Gargamuni described that in different yugas. Gargamuni said in the SrimadBha gavatarn ( 10. and wears a triple belt representing initiation into each of the three Vedas. spoon. Purusa. names. and forms and is thus worshiped by various processes. non-envious. [In another Dvaparayuga. except the glorification of the supremely independent Supreme Personality of Godhead. a sacred thread. yellow and black---and four yugas--. 7. All such incarnations have now assembled in Krishna. or ages.

what to speak of the lowminded. At the time of Lord Caitanya. weapons. His sudarsana disc and other weapons appeared as His associates. servants. 'The common people will have difficulty understanding this. in Dvapara-yuga men who desire to know the Supreme Personality of Godhead. For this reason.14 The Bhagavata Predicts Gauranga's Advent "Lord Brahma said." 7. Sarvadeva. 'Narada. In Kaliyuga also. and black color avataras have appeared respectively. O Supreme Lord Vasudeva. appeared now as Sri Krishna Caitanya's companions and associates. Pradyumna and Aniruddha. Yajna. people worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead by following various regulations of the revealed scriptures. Therefore we sing "Gaura!" "Gaura!" The Lord incarnated with His eternal associates. His followers and His weapons which took the form of devotees. Now kindly hear this from me. best of all personalities. and He manifests His personal weapons. listen carefully to my explanation. and the white. O Lord Narayana Rsi. 'Listen Narada. master of this cosmos and original form of the universe. O creator of the universe. red." [end of SrimadBhagavatarn quote]' "Lord Brahma continued speaking to Narada Muni. Although His complexion is not blackish. wearing yellow garments. along with Narada and Prahlada.32): krishna~varnam tvisa-krishnam sangopangastra-parsadam yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi su-medhasah "In the age of Kali. He is Krishna Himself. the sage Karabhajana said sumedhasah--only intelligent people will 184 . Jayanta and Urugaya. which I call sanga.5. Srimad-Bhagavatam (11. all homage unto You. The great sage Karabhaj ana has explained this.Caitanya-candra "In Treta-yuga the Lord is glorified by the names Vishnu. Urukrama. He is accompanied by His associates.have already passed. who is the supreme enjoyer. following the prescriptions of both the Vedas and tantras. in this way people in Dvapara-yuga glorified the Lord of the universe. worship Him in the mood of honoring a great king. Sri Krishna's eternal associates who had served Him in His previous incarnations. Prsnigarbha. O Supersoul of all created entities. Whenever the SrimadBhagavatam mentions the two syllables krs and na--it refers to Lord Sri Krishna. and confidential companions. the three yugas-~Satya. intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incamarion of Godhead who constantly sings the names of Krishna. "Obeisances to You. The word akrishna [mentioned in the verse quoted above] means He was not black in complexion but golden. I say the word anga me^s Balarama. Vrsakapi. all obeisances unto You. someone will identify His associates and give their previous names in Krishna's pastimes. "My dear King. O Supreme Personality of Godhead. Now hear what the sage says about the incarnation in Kali-yuga. Dvapara and Treta-. "O King. and to Your forms of Sankarsana. "In Dvapara-yuga the Suprema Personality of Godhead appears with a dark blue complexion. 'The word upanga refers to all of His ornaments. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The Lord's transcendental body is marked in this incarnation with Srivatsa and other distinctive ornaments.

and in Kali-yuga. They are the same and they are also different. Krishna comes Himself in Dvapara. According to Vyasadeva in the 185 . Krishna came as Lord Gauracandra. present and future. Dvapara and Kali-yugas the Lord appears in white.white and red. the Supreme Lord Krishna Himself appeared on earth.' Locana dasa says please accept these statements as correct and don't ignore them. In Srimad-Bhagavatam verse 10. 'Who is the fountainhead of all incarnations? Sri Krishna. if you hear carefully. Krishna Himself is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Four Yugas 'Now I will explain again how Lord Krishna came in three different colors in the four yugas. The other yuga avataras are either parts or expansions of the parts of Lord Sri Krishna.3. But in Kali and Dvapara-yugas the Lord came in one color--black. In the age of Kali. A scholar can prove the meaning of the future by knowing the past. All of them appear on planets whenever there is a disturbance created by the atheists. In Dvapara-yuga. But thi^ pastime will happen in the future. you will understand the truth.28): ete camsa-kala pumsah krishnas tu bhagavan svayam indrari-vyakularn lokarn rnrdayanti yuge yuge "All the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord. "Lord Brahma continued speaking to Narada." 'Using the authority of the Srimad-Bhagavatam. religion will manifest in the form of sankirtana~yajna.13.13. then he must explain why Gargamuni used the word tatha in the verse. red and yellow colors in the three previous ages. Then in Kali-yuga. 'Narada. If someone doesn't accept my explanation. 'This explanation is the supreme proof which shows why Krishna is the avatara for Kaliyuga: Alth6ugh there is a debate about Krishna's appearance as an avatara outside of the normal time. but Lord Sri Krishna is the original Personality of Godhead. The Lord comes to establish religion and destroy the atheists. now listen to a blissful elaboration on the Sanskrit words used by Gargamuni.15 Sri Krishna: Three Colors. Gar^amuni has used the word idanim. After passing Satya and Treta yugas. red. I will explain why Krishna is called a yuga avatara. Gargamuni said that the four yugas appear within the three phases of time---past.Caitanya-candra understand. Only an intelligent devotee can understand.8. The yellow color will be seen in Kaliyuga when Lord Had appears in a yellow color as Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. as proven in the Srimad. The word bhavisya means future. Treta.8. 'Gargamuni said that in the four yugas. Intelligent people will taste'ecstasy by chanting the Lord's holy names. there is actually no break in the sequence of colors mentioned by Gargamuni in the Srimad-Bhagavatam 10. In Satya and Treta-yugas the Lord appeared in two colors. and future. He is not an incarnation. the Lord appeared in four colors in three different times--past. is the source. and all others are His expansions. The Lord incarnates to protect the theists. There he said the Lord appeared in white. 'This is sufficiently indicated by the word tatha [in that place] which refers to the Lord's red and white incarnations that have already been seen. who appeared in the Yadu dynasty. However. 7.Bhagavatam (1. present. which means recently. yellow and black colors respectively. Krishna Himself incarnates as His holy names. Gargamuni's realizations are difficult to understand for ignorant people like us. In Satya.

overwhelmed with ecstasy. His body is extremely beautiful [varangas]. austerity. it's explained in the Brhat Sahasra-Nama-stotra that Lord Siva appears in the beginning of Kali-yuga. and by satisfying everyone with knowledge and attachment to Krishna.8. and He is decorated with sandalwood pulp [candanangadi]. "The Lord will take sannyasa [sannyasikrc] and show equanimity [sama] in different ways by describing the mysteries of devotion to Sri Krishna. ' "After saying this. In the Bhagavad-gita (4." 186 . Then Brahma stood up suddenly and proclaimed. 'Not knowing this essential quality of the age of Kali. Due to ignorance people in Kali-yuga become absorbed in sinful activities and sense gratification. who else could have established the yuga-dharrna of Hari-narna sankirtana. 7. He silences those opposed to. Charity. and other religious principles are automatically attained by sincerely chanting Hare Krishna. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. These four are the symptoms of the Lord's grhastha-lila. Actually. His mind is always fixed [nistha] in performing Hari-nama sankirtana. and Sankirtana 'In every yuga.the Lord's service by teaching pure devotional service. and to glorify Kali-yuga and the process of Hari-nama sankirtana. sinful living entities can attain salvation simply by performing Hari-narna sankirtana. Kali-yuga is the most wonderful age because of this one quality. they remain bound in the miserable material existence. The unlimited glories and qualities of Krishna's holy names destroy ignorance and free one from the horrible cycle of birth and death. Dvapara and Kali. Krishna comes as the Gauranga avatara to propagate the chanting of the holy names as the universal yuga-dharma. in two yugas. Thus. He takes the form of Sankaracarya and promotes atheism by preaching impersonal philosophy. 'Narada. His limbs are the color of molten white gold [hemanga]. renouncing material desires. the Supreme Lord comes to earth to deliver the saints. which quickly and effectively removes the sins of the age of Kali. studying the scriptures. Lord Brahma. destroy atheism. The Lord is peaceful [santa] because He renounces all topics not related to the service of Krishna. His complexion is gold [suvarna] in His early pastimes. 'One will attain unlimited sense pleasure and satisfy all his desires simply by once seeing the radiantly beautiful form of Lord Gaurangaf ' "Lord Brahma continued his discusson by quoting some sastric verses to verify Lord Krishna's appearance as Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu. Glorification of God's holy names is the only religion for the age of Kali. He cited the Mahabharata (V'tshnu-sahasra-nama stotra): suvarna-varna hemango varangas candanangadi sannyasakrc camah santo nistha santi parayanah "When Krishna. appears as Sri Gauranga. the two incarnations of the Lord had the same color. self-control. He is the abode of the highest spiritual peace and devotion [parayanah] . He comes to earth to remove atheism and reestablish religion. warmly embraced Narada Muni. and reestablish religious principles. Kali-Yuga. In Kaliyuga. Krishna-. 'Other than the Supreme Lord Himself. sacrifice.16 Gauranga. Krishna promises that whenever and wherever religion is reduced.Caitanya-candra Srimad-Bhagavatam. From' any position. yajna. people think that this is just a dark age full of sins.blackish.9).

and they have forsaken the path of chastity 187 . If a materialist chants the name of Had.avisyami saci sutah "The Supreme Lord said. This fact is confirmed in the Srimad. the great devotee of the Lord. and conquer the Lord by his pure love.5.Bhagavatam (11. and sinful acts. Narada was extremely delighted to hear these things from Lord Brahma. the Lord will give him sense gratification. The age of Kali is full of darkness. Who can explain that premarbhakti of the gopis? Uddhava. the sage showered forth sweet music from his vina. I will appear as the son of Saci. Suddenly. it is quite clear that Kali-yuga is the best of all ages. listen to some more wonderful topics. There is no doubt about "Lord Brahma continued speaking. The age of Kali is so special that people from previous yugas want to take birth in this age.47. they attain freedom from material bondage. since in this age there will be many devotees of the Supreme Lord. There is absolutely no other dharma [religious practice] save and except the congregational chanting of Lord Krishna's holy names. and other family members. In summary. and by following religious rituals. 'Narada.38) 'The inhabitants of Satya-yuga and other ages eagerly desire to take birth in the age of Kali. but none of these compares with chanting Hare Krishna. One who chants with faith." 'When the all-powerful Supreme Lord Krishna came. sons.the holy names. Why? They want the opportunity to chant Hare Krishna and preach . Some people pass many kalpas entangled in fruitive activities. in order to get the dust from the feet of the gopis. Then they become so devoted to serving Krishna that they don't care a fig for the five kinds of mukti [liberation]. and inaugurate the sankirtana movement. going on pilgrimages. In appreciation. The essence of all religions is contained in Hari-nama sankirtana. 'Had-nama sankirtana is like a big ax to cut the hard knot of sinful activities. 'The chanting of the holy names will spread all over the world. however. chanting the Lord's names and qualities is the supreme religion.61 ): "The gopis of Vrndavana have given up the assQciation of their husbands. impiety. The few pious activities that remain are diminishing day by day. who are very difficult to give up.' "After full deliberation. The pure love of the gopis conquers the Lord of the three worlds in the same way that a paramour conquers her lover by her spontaneous love. by the grace of the Lord they get to render a little service to a Vaisnava. "Then Narada said. I want to say something about prema-bhakti and who is eligible to receive gopibhava [the love of the gopis]. 'Brahma. In Kali-yuga. even to the undeserving and unsurrendered? That type of compassion was unseen in any other yuga. 'In Kali-yuga. will give up all sense enjoyment. 'Brahma. why didn't He give prema-bhakti to the sinful? What other avatara would give prema. 'A religious man accumulates great benefits and destroys his impious acts by doing pious works. That supremely merciful form of the Supreme Lord is none other than Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu. was ready to take birth as a creeper in Vrndavana. Uddhava himself describes this in the Srimad-Bhagavatarn ( 10. Hearing the divine topics of Krishna from such a Vaisnava. what more shall I say? You have already said whatever I have kept in my heart and soul.Caitanya-candra "Lord Brahma quoted another verse to show that Lord Caitanya's appearance was also predicted in the (Bhavisya Purana): ajayadhvamaja yadhvam na sansayah kalau sankirtana rambhe bh. Lord Brahma came to this conclusion.

all glories to the Lord of the universe ! In Kaliyuga the Lord appears to propagate Krishnabhakti." Locana Dasa says Lord Gauranga's mercy will inundate the world with nectar. Although the four Vedas are constantly reciting the glories of the Lord' s lotus feet. he noticed a decline in the religious practices of the people. along with the auspicious sound of conches. Locana Dasa. All glories. The residents of every planet felt rejuvenated. Laksmi Devi massages those feet which have an indescribably sweet effulgence. Candra. 'Although it sometimes resembles the lusty dealings between mundane paramours. and karatalas. left Brahma's abode. Forgetting myself in the ecstasy of Krishna consiousness." 'The lotus feet of the Lord which are meditated upon by Lord Brahma. the Yogindras. as per the Lord' s request.' "Then Narada. which Ananta and Laksmi have never even heard of. "Indra. Sri Krishna Caitanya will first taste the sweet rasa of Vraja-prema. proclaim that in this way. Narada became convinced that during his visit to 188 . He was playing gently on his vina and singing sweetly. they have hardly reached the shore of the ocean where He rests upon the bed of Ananta Sesa. feeling ecstatic. Narada chanted 'Hari bol! Hari bol!' as he informed the three worlds of the upcoming appearance of Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu. Oh. There are also hundreds of devotees who have brought the Lord under control by following in the footsteps of the gopis. and words only to glorify their wives. Lord Gauranga will preach in the age of Kal^i. let me be fortunate enough to be one of the bushes. minds. Nobody cared a fig for yoga or self-realization.17 Lord Jagannatha Glorifies Gauranga "When Narada returned to the earth planet. because the gopis trample them and bless them with the dust of their feet. in whose house Gauranga appeared! Oh how wonderful! The glorious Lord Gauranga. blissful treasure of Vmdavana will appear on the earth. The Lord would come with His joyful associates. that very same Lord Himself worshiped the feet of the gopis. There is no comparison to the confidential pure love shared between the Vraja gopis and Krishna. Then He will distribute it to satisfy the hankerings of everyone from the candalas to the demigods. These nectarean sounds showered the world with bliss and enchantment. That quality of pure bhakti. Neglecting all pious activities. like dead trees sprouting anew. that love is totally pure and transcendental. Krishna. penances and austerities. Narada. 7. and the demigods became joyful and danced ecstatically upon hearing about the Gauranga avatara from Narada Muni. Absorbed in ecstasy. and the greatest yogis are rarely attained by them. men were using their bodies. asked Lord Brahma to tell everyone in Brahmaloka to expand themselves and take birth on earth in Kali-yt^ga in order to assist Lord Caitanya's pastimes. I. Siva. the munis. Observing these symptoms. In Kali-yuga the people and the land of Nadia are all fortunate. All glories to Jagannatha Misra. or herbs in Vrndavana. the avatara for the age of Kali. which one should search for by Vedic knowledge. "Narada continued visiting the demigods. creepers. will preach the transcendental glories of the Lord and flood the fourteen worlds with the mellow love of Krishna. the Supersoul of all living entities. Their love is matchless and supreme. mrdangas. After saying this. the supremely auspicious.Caitanya-candra to take shelter of the lotus feet of Mukunda. Men were totally infatuated with women and sense enjoyment. Murari Gupta continued speaking to Damodara Pandita. They had given up the practices of charity. 'Being controlled by their pure spontaneous love.

Have you forgotten the past? In order to fulfill the promise of Katyayani Devi. Controlled by their senses. 'Please Lord Jagannatha. He will have a tall golden form. similarly. Even when they're all together with Krishna. they're engaged in the most gross sinful activities. You should know that prema-bhakti-yoga far surpasses the four types of liberation. "Falling at Lord Jagannatha's feet. I have descended to distribute my mahaprasada to everyone. chant. the topmost spiritual planet. Indeed. and full of lamentation. He will preach. Along with their many expansions. 'The four types of salvation are given by the Lord of Vaikuntha. come to Nilacala [Jagannatha Puri] and obey My order. round lotus face of Lord Jagannatha. the Lord expanded Himself into many forms to enjoy the rasa dance in Vrndavana with hundreds of loving gopis. 'Just as sugar can't taste its own sweetness. all the ladies obey Rukmini Devi. "Narada saw Lord Jagannatha as the Supreme Personality of Godhead Sri Krishna. brilliant and beautiful than a million moons. but He is always in need of the taste of pure love. and glorify the holy names. Now. he saw the large. the age of Kali had arrived on earth. Liberation impedes the natural flow of pure devotional service. As the Lord of all lords. I am residing in Nilacala beside the sea for the deliverance of all fallen souls. The residents are happy there. Please bestow Your mercy. Even fallen people in the material word may attain liberation by rendering devotional service. Satyabhama enjoys charming pastimes encompassing the various rasa-laden arts. he heard a divine voice in the sky: 'I am Lord Jagannatha. Their minds are full of devotion and they always sing the Lord's glories. Narada sat down to meditate. Laksmi and many other ladies lovingly serve Lord Had who is the only enjoyer. Narada was thinking. they serve the Lord as His consorts. By freely giving His mercy He will mitigate everyone's suffering. the Lord is always rich. with the help of bhakti.Caitanya-candra Brahmaloka. how is it possible to describe the limitless glories of this sweet pastime? 'In Dvaraka. Only pure bhakti. but helps others to taste and enjoy it. the age of Kali has come. Radha and Rukmini are the principal queens. 'O Jaganrtatha L Playing his world-enchanting vina he hastened to Nilacala. She is the connoisseur of cleverness and knows the limits of rasa. Being surrounded by Laksmi Devi. 'The Supreme Lord of Goloka will come to Puri as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to distribute His mercy. salvation is automatically attained. she is the most beautiful woman in the three worlds. they experience individual flavors of rasa. Lord Gaurasundara is residing there. Feeling disturbed. Narada Muni left Puri and traveled to Vaikuntha. Entering the grand temple. the Lord of the universe. now you should go to Goloka.' "Lord Jagannatha smiled. Following in their footsteps. 0 best of the sages. Now go see Him and you' 11 get relief from all your miseries. the fountainhead of all incarnations. extremely degraded. however. He will distribute the bliss of pure Krishna-prema to deliver all people in Kali-yuga. "Suddenly.' "Overwhelmed with love. People are bewildered. touched Narada's hand and said confidentially. While moving. With one mouth. and I have appeared as daru brahma [form of the Lord in wood]. Narada cried out. Now He had appeared in a most merciful form as a worshipable Deity. hundreds and thousands of devotees also serve the Lord.' "After hearing from Lord Jagannatha. 'Narada. Narada said. 'Satyabhama serves the Lord with her incomparable beauty and matchless qualifies. 'I have heard many confidential talks in the Srimad- 189 . The Lord was full of ecstasy and had an effulgent smile. can control the Supreme Lord. His face was more cooling. 'After worshiping Srimati Radharani.

Narada praised Lord Vishnu with the most auspicious prayers. 190 . a soothing Vaikuntha breeze flowed over him.19 Narada Sees Gauranga in Goloka "Narada moved toward Goloka playing his vina and singing the glories of Hari. "Thousands of Cupids surrounded the Lord.Caitanya-candra Bhagavatam about mukti and bhakti.' ^ "Then Lord Narayana. turn his head around for no reason. 'I am all-pervading and within everything. "Suddenly. topmost spiritual planet called Goloka Vmdavana. the Lordssaid. what more can I say? In Your daru brahma form as Lord Jagannatha You told me about a wonderful form of Yours. In Goloka Vmdavana. Narada saw that the residents of Goloka were in a joyful mood. please reveal your mind to Me. The Lord of Vaikuntha was sitting on a jeweled asana. Immediately tell Me the secrets of your heart.' "With folded hands and a humble heart. the very embodiment of prema. I have also heard about that place which is unknown. Overwhelmed with ecstasy. his body showed various symptoms of transcendental love like hompilation. waiting to serve Him. Their talking was a shower of nectar singing. there is nothing but spontaneous pure devotional service. He became even more ecstatic when he heard the sweet singing of the residents of Vaikuntha. 'My Lord Narayana. the jewel mine of all transcendental qualities.18 Narada Visits Vaikuntha "Infatuated with Krishna-prema and playing his vina. I am the wealth of Laksmi Devi. O great sage Narada. I will easily reveal to you whatever you can't understand. "Laughing and smiling. Arriving at the gate. said. They serve Him in His unlimited number of incarnations. this Vaikuntha planet which you have come to is an expansion from the original. 'That form is My original form. Today I will see that place manifest before my eyes. and in the distance he saw a wonderful effulgence more cooling than a million moons. You are the Supersoul of all living entities. calling out "Gauranga!" The next moment he would stagger a few steps. the topmost planet among the Vaikunthas. and then run forward rapidly. Narada. fi^e supreme enjoyer. She alone controls Sri Krishna.' 7. 'Srimati Radharani is the original energy. Their bodily features were very attractive. 'Narada. He is a desire tree full of compassion. Their abode is called the Maha-Vaikuntha. unmanifest in this world and beyond the knowledge of the Vedas. Three-fourths of the Lord's energy is found in the spiritual world. Narada's senses became inert when he smelled the sweet fragrance of the Lord' s lotus feet. One momefit he would run. I am eager to fulfill your desire. Laksmi Devi and the four muktis [forms of salvation] follow Me. the siksa-guru for the whole world!' 7. Immediately the Lord picked him up and embraced him. The four types of mukti act here like a shadow covering the brilliant reality of bhakti. Since You already know everything. the great sage moved quickly to Vaikuntha. go to His abode and take shelter of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. 'I can definitely say that Gaurahari is beyond the touch of Maya. Now I want to see that form. Narada Muni fell at the Lord's feet in respectful submission. however. Narada replied. replete with many different energies standing like a shadow. surrounded by His eternal associates.

Soon Narada came to an attractive private grove in the inner portion of Goloka. holding golden waterpots containing jeweled water. She gave it to Rukmini who then used that celestial Ganges water to bathe Gauranga Mahaprabhu. everyone bathed the transcendental form of Lord Caitanya. he can't properly glorify you. garlands and ornaments to Laksmana.Caitanya-candra and their walking was full dancing and dramatic gestures. The throne was placed on a jewel. praising Him with select prayers. No amount of speculation can measure You. Seeing some flowering vines. the Lord picked up Narada and put him on His lap. holding jeweled waterpots. stood on the Lord's right side. "Radhika and Her gopi friends [representing the energies of Vrndavana]. the best meditation is to always remember the abhiseka of the Lord of Goloka. He fell upon the Lord's feet and bathed them with his tears. One can't get liberation even if he knows all about Your all-pervading energy. Never before have I seen such nectarean beauty compressed in one form. with thousands of mouths. Even my father. "At that time.studded platform under an incredibly beautiful desire tree. You are completely indescribable. padma. shining like the sun. sankha. you a^e very dear to me. I've never seen such amazing things. Your transcendental pastimes defy comprehension. That same form appears with four arms in Vaikuntha. passed it to Madhupriya. Although he's trying. who gave it to Candramukhi. dresses. sat there peacefully. "From all four directions. Others say Your existence defies definition. There he saw the golden form of Krishna. On the left side [representing the energies of Dvaraka] were Rukmini and her followers. the great sage became overwhelmed with divine love. Yogis and Sankhyaites believe the path of bhakti is the gross way to approach the Supreme. In this way. 'O my Lord. gada. 'Some say You are the supreme effulgence. A mango twig resting atop a covered water pot sat beside the throne. Nagnajiti gave a full pot of water to Mitravinda who in turn gave it to Sulakshana. jewels and ornaments for the Lord. Brahma. "The beautiful body of Mahaprabhu shone like molten gold. Subhadra and Bhadra. They seemed completely satisfied by an inner bliss created from pure love of God. The best minstrels stood near Lord Gaura Raya. His gentle face adorned with an ecstatic smile. The grove was illuminated by a bejeweled lamp. can't reach the end of Your transcendental qualities. Satyabhama gave celestial scents. sitting upon an ornately decorated. Smiling. She gave it to Radhika Rai [Radharani] who poured the water on Gauranga's head in abhiseka. celestial ladies came with wonderful clothes. Now my life is perfect. Some say that You're the topmost supreme personality. There's no example to describe Your effulgent aspect. Narada said. According to the Vedas. He was being worshiped by devotees chanting the four-syllable mantra. and He holds the four symbols of Vishnu in His four hands: cakra. By Your mercy I saw Your form as Lord Gauranga which was impossible for me to perceive otherwise. They say only through 191 . Nataria remembered Uddhava's desiring to take birth as a creeper in Vmdavana. There His body is the color of a newly-formed rain cloud. Sri Gauranga Mahaprabhu. His form was more nectarean and beautiful than the sweetness of honey. brilliant golden throne. "Sri Krishna Caitanya. You have destroyed all my pains and miseries. 'Ananta. "Kalpa-vrksa trees and Kamadhenu [surabhi cows] dotted the landscape. With golden waterpots full of celestial Ganges water soaked in jewels. "Tilottama [one of Indra's apsaras] filled another waterpot. His two arms were long and graceful. can't understand you. Gauranga Raya's left toe was touching the waterpot. "Upon seeing Gauranga. My dear Mahaprabhu.

20 Gauranga Tells Why He Descends Murari Gupta continues narrating to Damodara Pandita. dear associates. 'I reside in Svetadvipa along with My elder brother Balarama whose expansion is Ananta. I feel great anguish. "After Narada's departure. chanted 'Hari bol! Hari bol!"' Locana Das declares that one will be swept away in waves of ecstasy by hearing this transcendental conversation. 'In every age I appear in the material world to deliver the saints and to reestablish religion. He arranges for the incarnations to first enter the material world. Let us go to Navadvipa and we'll deliver the people of Kali-yuga by preaching My pure devotional service. I fully understand that You are beyond the reach of knowledge. Nevertheless. 'In My other incarnations I took fierce forms and powerful weapons to obliterate many huge and invincible demons. 'I will personally teach the people the difference between religion and irreligion. 'Narada. in His expanded form as Ksirodakasayi Vishnu. In My previous incarnations I killed the demons. the greatest of all controllers. Lord Caitanya said. They were all eager to listen to the Lord's nectarean words. Millions of eyes were not enough to appreciate the unique beauty of the Lord's face. the Lord thought to Himself and then announced to His beloved associates: 'Listen carefully as I explain why I incarnate on earth. In Kali-yuga. without understanding the Vedas. Some munis.' "The Lord. 'Please give me the mercy of Your lotus feet. They simply fix their minds on the lotus feet of the Lord and worship Him with undivided attention. Balarama. are now sporting in the ocean of milk. It hurts Me that after Satya-yuga sinful activities gradually increase with the progress of the ages. 'According to the Vedas. go quickly to Svetadvipa and ask the Lord to take the name of Nityananda and appear on earth with His eternal associates. some follow the path of Varnasrama~ dharma. Why do different philosophers present conflicting views? Some stubbornly insist that the Absolute Truth is non-differentiated oneness. In Navadvipa on the bank of the Ganges. and the potency of My prema-bhaktas [pure devotees]. All His delightful queens. As many cakora birds hanker after the rays of one moon. just let me die and be reborn so that I can attainprema-bhakti and lead a life of Krishna consciousness. "Revealing the purpose of His incarnation to all His eternal associates. however. He is served by Lord Siva and the eleven Rudras. Without understanding the purpose of My advent. king of the sages. similarly their eyes were thirsty to drink the nectar of the moonlike face of Lord Gauranga. always thinks about the welfare of the world. I'll appear as the son of Jagannatha Misra and Saci Mata. try to present the conclusion of Vedanta. 192 . qualifies. Narada. I'11 use the weapons of My transcendental holy names. feeling blissful and satisfied in his heart to hear from Lord Gauranga. 7. and intimate followers were also present. He was surrounded by Radharani on His right side and Rukmini on His left. and His wife Revati.' "Narada Muni.' "After hearing Narada Muni's appeal. Lord Gauranga smiled and said. Seeing the appalling condition of Kali-yuga. guess work or speculation. but as Lord Gauranga I'll conquer' them with My love. the devotees are resolute in their consciousness. My Lord. I '11 give them the most difficult-to-attain jewel ofpremabhakti.Caitanya-candra mysticism and meditation can one realize transcendence. I feel compassionate and personally incarnate in order to manifest My love. the ignorant people continue to commit sinful activities. just come with Me.

a devotee. of Brahma means 4. Paramahamsa: 600. ei mate kali-papa karibe sanhara sabe cala age pache na kara vichara In this way I will destroy all the sins in Kali Yuga. Australia.) 8 DOES LORD CAITANYA APPEAR IN EVERY DAY OF LORD BRAHMA? Just like the original Personality of Godhead. Lord Sri Krsna does appear once in every day of Lord Brahma. 3 Refers to Srila Prabhupada 193 . 600 milion years. yadi papi chadi dharma dure dese yaya mora senapati-bhakta yaibe tathaya If some sinful people escape and giving up religious principles go to far off countries. Srila Prabhupada once explained in Melbourne. ebe nama sankirtana tikshna khadaga laiya antara asura jivera phelibe katiya Taking the sharp sword of the congregational chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra. (senapati . My associates.000 years multiplied by one thousand the eight billion. that Krsna would come again after 8 billion.a military field commander.300.000. I will reveal these activities & rejuvenate pure devotional service unto Myself. calculate. (namasankirtana) I will root out & destroy the demoniac mentality in the hearts of all the conditioned souls. then my Senapati Bhakta3 will come at that time to give them Krsna consciousness. bhakta . I have already given the duration of one day.000. twelve hours.Caitanya-candra With these I'll conquer the people's demoniac mentalities and award them pure devotional service to Radha and Krishna. Devotee: How long do you say it is before Krsna comes to this planet again in His physical form? Srila Prabhupada: Now. in answer the question of how long it would be before Lord Krsna would come to this planet again in His physical form. Lord Caitanya will empower His own devotee to spread Krsna Consciousness around the world. nama-guna-sankirtana vaisnavera shakti prakasa karibe ami nija prema-bhakti Chanting of the name & qualities of Krsna is the life & energy of the Vaisnavas. go ahead and take birth on the earthly planet before My advent and don't remain behind. So all of you.

Treta. Devotee: Srila Prabhupada. O Lord whose form is full of blissful pastimes. same circulation.” Srila Prabodhananda Saraswati a great Vaisnava acarya of the Sri Ramanuja Sampradaya says: prabodhananda-vakyam yattad idam srnu sampratam stumas tam caitanyakrtim ati-vimaryada-pramadad bhgtaudaryam varyam vraja-pati-kumaram rasayitum 194 .. 9 DESCRIPTIONS OF LORD CAITANYA'S BODILY FEATURES Srila Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya. His body is beautiful and tall. Similarly. does Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu also appear every day of Brahma? Srila Prabhupada: Yes.. and Caitanya Mahaprabhu comes in the Kali-Yuga so almost the same year. Lord Caitanya's bodily luster. He is like molten gold. who appears in the age of Kali with a luster like molten gold. ananda lilamaya vigrahaya hemabha-divya-cchavi-sundaraya “O Lord Caitanyacandra. composed an entire series of prayers describing in detail the various features of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He appears. the spiritual master of the universe. called Sri Gauranga-Prati-Anga-Varnanakhya-Stava-Rajah. following Krsna.” Srila Prabodhananda Sarasvati Thakura also describes Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's golden complexion. and He is the delight of the son of Sacidevi. So next He goes to another universe. proclaiming the glory of each limb of Sri Gauranga.Caitanya-candra Srila Prabhupada: So Krsna comes after this period in one day. So Krsna come at the end of Dvapara-yuga. tapta hema dyutim vande kali-krsnam jagad-gurum caru-dirgha-tanum srimac chaci-hrdaya-nandanam “I worship Lord Krsna. after one day of Brahma. O Lord whose complexion is as splendid as gold.. one of the foremost disciples of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in Jagannatha Puri. and Kali. Let us carefully present a few of these divine gems. Krsna comes in the Dvapara-yuga. Dvapara. There are four sets of yugas: Satya. or the King of Prayers. Krsna appears in rotation in this universe after so many years. eight billion years... Srila Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya has described the complexion of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's body.

svayam devo yatra-kanaka-gaurah karunaya His complexion is as fair as molten gold." Sripad Prabodhananda Sarasvati also further describes Sri Caitanya’s golden complexion.” Similarly Sripada Kesava Kasmiri a prominent acarya of the Kumara Nimbaditya Vaisnava Sampradaya aserts Lord Caitanya as the Supreme Personlity of Godhead: saksat isvara kari’ prabhute janila “After understanding the transcendental position of the Lord he (Kesava) accepted that Sri Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead..” Sripada Vallabhacarya a great acarya of the Rudra Visnuswami Vaisnava Sampradaya prays at the lotus feet of the Lord as follows: tumi-isvara . “My dear Lord.. He has now appeared in the transcendental abode of Navadvipa as Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. even Krsna Himself. .. who has assumed the golden color of Srimati Radharani.Caitanya-candra visuddha-sva-premonmada-madura-piyusa-laharim pradatum canyebhyah para-pada-navadvipa-prakatam "Now please hear the statement of Srila Prabodhanda Sarasvati: 'Let us glorify the boundlessly merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead. Cited by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in Navadvipa-Dhama-Mahatmya. tapta hema sama kanti prakanda sarira ". because He is widely distributing freely what no one else has ever given -pure love of Krsna.'” .the luster of His expansive body resembles molten gold. 195 .Srila Prabodhananda Sarasvati Thakura statement.. as well as to give that nectar to others. . 5/14 Srila Rupa Goswami prays at the lotus feet of Lord Caitanya as follows: namo maha-vadanyaya krsna-prema-pradaya te krsnaya krsna-caitanya namne gaura-tvise namah “I offer my respectful obeisaces unto the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya. the prince of Vraja. and who is more magnanimous than any other avatara. You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead. To taste the intoxicating sweet waves of the nectar of transcendental love for Krsna.” Srila Krsna Dasa Kaviraja Goswami similarly describes Lord Caitanya.

kankanangada-vidyotiajanu-lambi-bhuja-dvayam “. extend down to His knees.. Prabhodananda Sarasvati Thakura describes the shoulders of Mahaprabhu.Caitanya-candra Sri Caitanya's beautiful hair.” sri-ganda-mandollasi- 196 . lasan-mukha-lata-naddha caru-kuncita-kuntalam "His lovely curling locks are interwoven with creepers of glistening pearls. ajanulambita bhujau kanaka vadatau Their arms ( Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityananda ) reach all the way to their knees. the powers of a lion.. and the loud voice of a lion." Sri Caitanya's shoulders and chest. whose shoulders are like a lion." Sri Caitanya's arms. ajanulambita-bhuja His arms reach all the way to his knees. simha griva simha-virya simhera hunkara "He has the shoulders of a lion. His nose is arched and is resplendent just like the sesame flower..His two arms. "May Lord Caitanya. They are most beautiful.. simha skandham.." Srila Krsna dasa Kaviraja Goswami also points out the nature of Sri Caitanya's shoulders and voice. glittering with bracelets and bangles.” Sri Caitanya's face... just like lakes of Krsna Prema. prema-pravaha-madhura raktotpala-vilocanam h la-prasuna-susnigdhanutanayata-nasikam “His beautiful eyes are just like reddish lotus flowers...

His nose is as beautiful as the sesame flower and his neck is like a three. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. Tantras and Pancaratric texts. Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura. May my Lord Gauracandra. and the incarnation of Sri Sri Radha and Krsna combined who has come to taste the transcendental bliss experienced by Srimati Radharani. Srila Sanatana Goswami. Srila Krsna dasa Kaviraja Goswami.1 Specific Bodily Features And Markings 197 .” vintala-kamala-vaktrah pakva-bi nbadharosthas tila-kusu na-su-nasah katnbu-kanthah su-dirghah suvaliuta-bhuja-dando nabhi-gambhira-rupah sphuratu hrdaya-madhye gaura-candro-natendrah “His face is flawless like a blooming lotus and His lips are red as ripe as bimba fruits. He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.C. the king of dancers. sankirtana-pravartaka sri krsna-caitanya sankirtana-yajne tanre bhaje sei dhanya “Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya is the initiator of sankirtana [congregational chanting of the holy name of Lord Krsna]. Srila Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Thakura. He reveals his pearl-like teeth out His kindness.ringed conch. He has a peacock feather placed near His left ear. Sri Krsna Caitanya Mahaprabhu is the Yuga-Avatara. This transcendental conclusion is supported by the statements of the Vedas. One who worships Him through sankirtana is fortunate indeed. various Samhitas. His navel is very deep. reveal Himself in the core of My heart.” madhura-sneha-susnigdha praraktadhara-pallavam isad-danturita-snigdha sphuran-mukta-radoijvalam “His lips are tender and very lustrous. the Srimad Bhagavatam. and many other great Acaryas and pure devotees.” According to the authoritative statements of the great purva-acaryas [previous authorized bona fide spiritual masters] such as Srila Rupa Goswami Prabhupada. Srila Jiva Goswami Prabhupada. He is very tall and His rod-like arms make artistic movements while He dances. and His Divine Grace A. the foremost representative of all the Acaryas in the Gaudiya Sampradaya. the Mahabharata.” 9. various Puranas. They resemble reddish blossoming flowers.Caitanya-candra ratna-kundala-manditam savya-karna-suvinyastasphurac-caru-sikhandakam “His cheeks are round and they shine brilliantly. He wears jewelled earrings.

24. Kapila Muni. but they are a characteristic of any genuine incarnation of the Lord.” Lord Ramacandra. “The marks of a flag. the son of Nanda Maharaja. Those footprints of the Lord. His eyes just like lotus petals and His lotus feet. barleycorn and elephant goad.25) quotes the gopis: padani vyaktam etani nanda-sunor mahatmanah laksyante hi dhvajambhoja vajrankusa-yavadibhih The gopis said. elephant goad. Srimad Bhagavatam (10. Seeing the lines of Lord Visnu’s palm on King Prthu’s right hand and impressions of lotus flowers on the soles of His feet.9-10) … “Lord Brahma.17) … “By mystic yoga and the practical application of knwoledge from the scriptures.30. made the ground wonderfully beautiful.” Similarly. distinguished by such marks as the lotus.” … and Lord Kapila Muni who appeared in Satya-yuga (3. which proves that one is a bonafide incarnation of the Supreme Lord. similar characteristics are observed regarding: … the empowered incarnation known as Prthu Maharaja (4.Caitanya-candra All genuine incarnations of God have specific bodily features and markings that distinguishes Him from common men.25) describes the marks on Lord Krsna’s feet: padani tasyakhila-loka-pala kirita-justamala-pada renoh dadarsa gosthe ksiti-kautukani vilaksitany abja-yavankusadyaih “In the cowherd pasture Akrura saw the footprints of those feet whose pure dust the rulers of all planets in the universe hold on their crowns. according to Srimad Ramayana also had such special markings on his body. 198 . These marks were not only on Krsna’s body. which bear the marksof lotus flowers. thunderbolt. lotus. the Skanda Purana gives the exact details and locations of the eleven marks on Krsna’s right foot and eight on his left foot. the master of the entire universe. will uproot the deep-rooted desire for work in this material world. barleycorn and so forth on these footprints clearly distinguish them as belonging to that great soul. arrived there accompanied by all the demigods and their chiefs. Lord Brahma could understand that King Prthu was a partial represntative of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. For instance. who is characterized by his goden hair. Srimad Bhagavatam (10.38. The hands and soles of the Lord’s feet have special markings. in Srimad Bhagavatam.” In these regard.15.

palate. has made the whole world peaceful. three small. Nilambara Cakravarti. Nowdays there are many imposters who claim to be God. teeth. a saviour of the world. nails. three broad and three grave. which refers to one who feeds the entire world. conchshell. He said “In the future this child will protect and maintain all the world.7): grhe dui jana dekhi laghupada-cinha tahe sbhe dhvaja. and upper and lower lips. six raised. but do not have any specific marks on their palms and feet except for the lines seen regularly on ordinary people. These marks are not like the regular lines which appear on the soles and palms of of ordinary men. The name Visvambhara is mentioned in the Atharva-veda-samhita (visvambhara visvena ma bharasa pahi svaha).15) describes even further bodily symptoms of an incarnation of God: panca-dirghah panca-suksmah sapta-raktah sad-unnatah tri-hrasva-prthu-gambhiro dvatrimsal-laskano mahan “There are thirty-two bodily symptoms of a great person: five of his bodily parts are large. sankha. arms. mina According to the astrologer Nilambara Cakravarti.five fine. chin. 199 . as in the past Narayana protected this earth in His incarnation as Varaha.his bodily limbs and zodiacal signs all indicated that he was none other than the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna.” Such are the specific marks on the palms and feet of all genuine incarnations.” The Caitanya-Bhagavat also confirms that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabu. in his small fotprints the specific marks of Lord Visnu were visible. fingertips. Because of His protecting and maintaining this world in the present Kali-yuga. The six raised parts are the chest. The five fine parts are the skin. seven reddish. palms. eyes and knee. Sacidevi’s father and the family astrologer. soles. Nimai (Lord Caitanya) was born at the most favorable moment of planetary conjunctions. disc and fish. The astrologer recognised on His person all the signs of an avatara. namely the flag. His horoscope indicated that he would be an intellectual genius. “When the Lord tried to walk. vajra. Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu is Visvambhara. both from the calculations and from the auspicious marks on His limbs. Looking at all this features Nilambara named the extraordinary child “Visvambhara. thunderbolt. Sri Caitanya-caritamrta (Adi-lila 14. The seven reddish parts are the eyes. could understand another way in which the boy was golden . a unique preacher of religion and would declare the dispensation for the present age (the chanting of the Lord’s holy name).” indicating the boy’s divinity. cakra. by his birth. hair on the body and hair on the head.” The seven large parts are the nose.Caitanya-candra The markings on Lord Caitanya’s feet are described in Sri Caitanya-caritamrta (Adi-lila 14. For this reason He is to be called Visvambhara.

wanted to relish the loving mellow in the position of the object. as the moon appears from the ocean. He manifests Himself as Radharani. The subject of those loving transactions is the Lord Himself. Sri Caitanya. the wonderful qualities in Him that She alone relishes through Her love. according to His authorised biographers and confidential associates possessed all the thirty-two marks of divinity incarnate (maho purusa laksanas). and to experience that attraction and understand the transcedental sweetness of Himself. to enjoy in the position of Srimati Radharani was impossible because that position was completely foreign to Him. the Supreme Lord Hari. who is the prime reciprocator of transcendental love of Sri Krsna. Thus the subject. The three grave parts are the navel. nose. Radharani’s attraction for Krsna is sublime. Lord Krsna is the reservoir of transcendental loving transactions with Srimati Radharani. to know the transcendental pleasure of loving. thighs and male organ. The three small parts are the neck. Radharani. The Lord thought that undoubtedly Radharani enjoyed His company and He enjoyed the company of Radharani. The first purpose was to relish the position of Srimati Radharani. 1. Krsnadasa Kaviraja Goswami has stressed that Lord Caitanya appeared for three principal purposes of his own. Therefore. The third reason that Lord Caitanya appeared was to enjoy the bliss tasted by Radharani. The second reason for His appearance was to understand the transcedental mellow of Himself. the Lord. richly endowed with Her emotions. Lord Krsna is all sweetness. He wanted to taste the feelings Radharani felt upon seeing Him. voice and existence. He accepted the mentality of Radharani. forehead. accepting the emotions and bodily luster of Srimati Radharani. and Radharani is the transcendental female. In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. and when Krsna desires to enjoy pleasure. waist and mouth. 10 WHY DID LORD KRSNA APPEAR AS LORD CAITANYA? In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. chest. Radharani felt more transcendetal pleasure in the company of Krsna than He could understand without taking Her position. nails. Krsna is the transcendental male. and Radharani is the object. appears from the womb of Srimati Sacidevi. The three broad parts are the waist.Caitanya-candra shoulders. Altogether these are the thirty-two symptoms of an incarnation.” Radha and Krsna are one. but to Sri Krsna. Adi-lila. and the happiness She feels when She realizes the sweetness of His love. Lord Krsna Himself appeared as Lord Caitanya. but the exchange of transcedental mellow between the spiritual couple was more pleasing to Srimati Radharani than to Sri Krsna.6 it is stated: sri-radhayah pranaya mahima kidrso vanayaiva svadyo yenadbhuta-madhurima kidrso va madiyah saukhyam casya mad mad-anubhavatah kidrsam veti lobhat tad-bhavadhyah samajani saci-garbha-sindhau harinduh “Desiring to understand the glory of Radharani’s love. It is explained in Srimad Bhagavatam that Krsna desired to know the glory of Radharani’s love for Him. 200 .

or congregational chanting of the holy name of the Supreme Lord. Apart from the above reason. since every one is mad like Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself’. He is the supreme enjoyed. He smiled and soon after displayed His pastime of disappearing. the concealed descent of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Krsna appeared as Lord Caitanya with the sentiments of Radharani. in other words He is a combination of Radha and Krsna united into one form. parents and lovers. The Vedas and Puranas foretell the appearance of Lord Caitanya. Srivasa Prabhu and other devotees to preach the special significance of chanting Hare Krsna mahamantra. In the form of Sri Krsna . 4 201 . the cause of all the causes. friends. but His pure devotees can recognize Him by his special features. According to the Vedic literatures. He sent a cryptic message to Caitanya Mahaprabhu. When Mahaprabhu received this message. the celebrated author of Sri Caitanya-caritamrta has fully discussed another reason for the descent of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Lord Caitanya is Krsna with the feelings of Radharani. Lord Krsna. Lord Krsna therefore personally appeared. The incarnation for this age especially preaches this process. after displaying His pastimes as Lord Krsna. thought it wise to make His advent in the form of a devotee to explain personally the transcedental mellow reciprocations of service and love beween Himself and His servants. The Supreme Personality of Godhead. but also of His disappearance. and also to answer the call of Advaita Acarya4 who constantly prayed to the Supreme Lord to personally descend to earth to establish the yuga-dharma. as Lord Caitanya. significantly. The appearance of Lord Caitanya is both significant and confidential. with His plenary portions.Caitanya-candra Krsna Himself could not understand the ecstatic feeling of Radharani towards Him. Gadadhara Prabhu. but the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In order to taste the essence of that loving affair. The Lord tried to conceal his identity as the Supreme Personality of Godhead by representing Himself as a devotee.They are the original source of all the incarnations. He is the supreme enjoyer and in the form of Sri Caitanya. Lord Caitanya appeared to fulfill these confidential desires and also to preach the special significance of chanting Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. and he has proved that Lord Caitanya appeared with his personal associates like Nityananda Prabhu. He can be appreciated only by pure devotees and only through the process of devotional service. Only a few of the intimate associates understood that this message meant that the yuga dharma of sankirtana had been sufficiently well established now that it could be carried on by empowered disciples. For this purpose the Lord appeared personally in Navadvipa in the form of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Advaita Acarya. No one should try to eliminate Lord Caitanya from Lord Krsna. Krsna and Caitanya are not incarnations. ‘rice is no longer needed in the market place. the foremost occupational duty for humanity in this age of Kali is hari-nama-sankirtana. and therefore He desired to accept the role of Radharani and thereby taste these feelings. Krsnadasa Kaviraja Goswami has described bodily symptoms in Lord Caitanya that are visible only in the person of the Supreme Lord. but only Krsna Himself can explain the confidential loving service performed in the four principal varieties of loving affairs between the Supreme Lord and His devotees. but still He is sometimes called. Sri Advaita Acarya is not only the efficient cause of the descent of the Lord.

31) it is stated that the Supreme Lord ordered Mahadeva. they can produce more population.9) that Lord Siva explained to his wife. Krsna and devotional service to Him (bhakti) are products of maya. (illusion). Parvati. Lord Siva says: “Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead has His transcendental spiritual body. the voidist philosophy of Buddha is more or less repeated in the Mayavada philosophy of nirakara-vada. Also according to the Mayavadis. The demons this time were none other than the Mayavadis. “By doing so you will attempt to make them atheists. In different forms and names. which in actuality is but a second edition of atheistic Buddhist philosophy. and the incarnations of God are all products of maya. Why. Mayavada has spread throughout India and beyond.” the Lord said.” More precisely the Supreme Lord ordered Lord Siva to deviate the human race from Him. By diverting people’s attention away from the Personality of 202 . all else is maya. that in Kali-yuga he would come in the form of a brahmana to preach imperfect interpretations of the Vedas. The answer is given in Padma Purana where Lord Siva states: mayavadam asac-chastram pracchanam bauddham ucyate mayaiva kalpitam devi kalau brahmana rupina “The Mayavada philosophy is veiled Buddhism”.Caitanya-candra Furthermore it is explained that Lord Krsna appeared as Lord Caitanya to kill the demons. Lord Siva. senseless. In the Padma Purana (62. impersonal. It is also stated in Padma Purana (25. In other words. The Personality of Godhead was to be covered so that people would be encouraged to generate more and more population. and it is known that Lord Siva is one of the great Vaisnavas. Sripada Adi Sankaracarya appeared in the beginning of Kali-yuga and promoted atheism by preaching Mayavada (impersonal) philosophy. then did he adopt the process of Mayavada philosophy?. Some basic tenets of Sankaracarya’s philosophy are as follows: God and the soul are identical. Sankaracarya was an incarnation of Lord Siva. but it had to be taught by him and because he (Sankaracarya) was ordered to teach it by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. They do not accept that the highest reality is the Personality of Godhead. They are impersonalists. however admits that this philosophy is manufactured by him in the age of Kali in order to mislead the atheists. I also explain the Vedanta-sutra according the same principles of Mayavada philosophy. impersonal Absolute is the only reality. the formless. (illusion).” The Mayavada philosophy taught by Sankaracarya is an imaginary explanation of the Vedas. (illusion). known as Mayavadism. “Mayavada” is another name for Advaita-vada philosophy of Adi Sankaracarya. but I describe the Supreme as nirakara. “After that. they think that God is formless (nirakara). Lord Siva. the Supreme Personality of Godhead for some time. The term “Mayavadi” means “a follower of Maya-vada. Sri Krsna. to present some imaginary interpretations of Vedic literatures. impersonalism. More precisely the followers of Sankaracarya are known as Mayavadis. They believe that everything is “one” and that the goal of spiritual life is to become “one with God”.

He is eternally situated in His transcendental form (sac-cid-ananda vigraha).17. Therefore. In the Bhagavat-gita (4. Adi-lila.8. Sripad Visnuswami and Bhagavan Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu.53 Lord Caitanya says: pasandi samharite mora ei avatara pasandi samhari’ bhakti karimu pracara “I have appeared in this incarnation to kill the demons [pasandis] and. In Sri Caitanya-Bhagavat Lord Caitanya says: sankirtana arambha amara avatara kirtana virodhi pape. and by giving them the false hope that they can “become one with God. Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” Mayavada has created havoc in the spiritual life of the world. and all other living beings (jivas) are His servants eternally. Vaisnava acaryas. He comes to remove atheism and reestablish religion. after killing them. they have systematically refuted Mayavada by exposing the numerous fallacies on which it is based. and a predominant rise in irreligion . karimu samhara “ I have incarnated to inaugurate the sankirtana movement and any sinful person who is against this sankirtana movement shall be kill by Me. people in Kali-yuga become absorbed in sinful activities and sense gratification. Sripad Nimbarkacarya. The correct understanding of the Absolute Truth is that Krsna is supreme. This is directly established by Lord Krsna in Bhagavat-gita and is thus accepted by all Vaisnava philosophers. He is not formless. The topmost understanding of transcendental reality is that GOD IS A PERSON.9).” Lord Caitanya’s mission is the same as that of Lord Krsna in Bhagavat-gita: yada yada hi dharmasya glanir bhavati bharata abhyutthanam adharmasya tadatmanam srjamy aham paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge “Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice.Caitanya-candra Godhead. In order to deliver the 203 . Using evidence from the sastra (scripture) and common-sense logic. Due to ignorance. Krsna promises that whenever and wherever there is decline in religion. to preach the cult of devotional service. especially Sripad Ramanujacarya.at that time I descend Myself.” Similarly in Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. staunchly oppose Mayavada. Sripad Madhvacarya. O descendant of Bharata.

7-8) As explained here . To maintain this principle is the mission of all avataras. one is doomed (Caitanya-caritamrta. 11 SRI NAVADVIPA DHAMA . Instead of killing the demons and thereby giving them liberration. Srila Vrindavana das Thakur has described the village of Navadvipa as bearing the name of Svetadvipa. 7. Here in Navadvipa what the yogis obtain after 10 nights at other tirthas’. In other incarnations the Lord descended with His armies and weapons. Through little more than the changing process.THE DIVINE ABODE OF LORD CAITANYA According to the scriptures. Lord Caitanya further says . Hence the region of Navadvipa. but in this incarnation His solders are His plenary parts and associates. In the Skanda Puräëa the Lord says: 204 . I advent Myself millennium after millennium. but instead killed the demoniac minds of such atheists by giving them the Hare Krsna maha-mantra which when chanted by one offencelessly develops love for Godhead. as well as to eestablish the principles of religion.129) Actually Lord Caitanya did not kill anyone physically. does not advocate such an idea. that both atheists and devotees are on the same platform. Therefore he warned all others not hear the Mayavada philosophy. Mahaprabhu was able to liberate all who ventured within Hus path. According to His teachings and the example of His followers. But Lord Caitanya was empty handed.169). Lord Ramacandra carried a bow and arrow for killing the demons.Caitanya-candra pious and to annihilate the miscreants. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu or Lord Krsna. Lord Parsurama carried an axe. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu gave protection to the devotees and killed many demons in the course of his preaching work. whereas devotees are to be protected. like so many rascal incarnations. we need only adopt the process. the birth place of Lord Krsna are considered manifestations of the spiritual world.” (Bg.(Caitanya-caritamrta. the real purpose of an incarnation of Godhead is to kill the atheists and maintain the devotees. In this Svetadvipa the concluding portions of the pastimes of Goloka exist eternally as the pastimes of Navadvipa. Madhya-lila. Mayavada-bhasya sunile haya sarva-nasa: simply by hearing the Mayavada interpretation of the sastras. His only accountrements are His associates and His only weapon is hari-nama sankirtana. He does not say. not by popular votes or mental concoctions. or incarnations. His plenary parts and associates peform the work of weapons as their own specific duties. being the birth place of Lord Caitanya. Lord Caitanya came with no weapons. Sri Navadvipa dhama. Atheists are punishable. He transformed them into devotees and conquered them by His devotion. Unlike other incanations of the Lord that descended prior to His appearance. The Lord comes along with His confidential associates and weapons.mayavadi krsne aparadhi: All the Mayavadis are offenders of Lord Krsna. 6. He specfically mentioned that the Mayavadi philosophers are the greatest demons. is obtained in 3 nights. is nondifferent from Sri Vrindavana dhama. holy places. the real Personality of Godhead. even Lord Krsna appeared with His lethal disc (sudarsana cakra). Madhya-lila. One must therefore identify an incarnation by his activites. Vraja and the realm of Goloka are the one and the same indivisible entity. 4.

who has taken birth in Navadvipa. and who gives to the sinful the sacred and glorious name of Lord Hari and makes them cross over the ocean of sins in this world.Caitanya-candra mäyäpuréà samaçritya kalau ye mäm upäsate sarva-päpa-vinirmuktäs te yänti paramäà gatim They who in the age of Kali take shelter of Mäyäpura and worship Me become free from all sins and attain the supreme destination. mäyä mäyäpuré skñät sarvänanda-vivardhiné çré-garga-saàhitäyäà sa kértitä päpa-näçiné Mäyäpura is the Lord's yogamäyä potency. the glory that shines in the three worlds. in ancient times it was said: kalau purëänandas tri-bhuvana-jayé gaura-sutanur navadvépe jätaù suradhuni-samépe narahariù dadat päpibhyaù saàstutam api harer näma sukåtaà taritvä päpäbdhià bhuvi vijayate çré-gauracandräbhidhaù “All Glories to Lord Gauracandra. and the fair complexioned human-like form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. yat térthaà vartate çrémän navadvépe vibhägaçaù tat-tértha-mahimä tatra çata-koöi-guëaà kalau The glories of other holy places are present hundreds and millions of times over in Navadvépa in the age of Kali. It is filled with ever-increasing bliss. yathä cintämaëeù saìgät dhätu-mülyaà pravardhate gaura-saìgät tathä térthamähätmyaà parivardhate As a metal's value increases with a cintämaëi jewel's touch. who is the perfect bliss in the age of Kali.” vande gaurävatäraà kali-mala-mathanaà çré-navadvépa-väsaà kaëthe mäläà dadhänaà çruti-yuga-vilasat-svarëa-saàsaktagaëòam keyüräìgada-divya-ratna-ghatitaà bahu-dvaye bibhrataà bhaktebhyo dadatäà maläpaharaëaà nämäpi sarvaà hareù 205 . In the Brhad-Brahma-Yamala-Tantra. so the glory of any holy place increases with Lord Gaura's touch.

and who gives to the devotees Lord Hari's holy name. who resides in Navadvépa. Kuruksetra is the most important holy place. lake Puskara is the most important holy place. Sridhama Mayapura is the divine abode of Lord Caitanya. who wears a garland on His neck.” In the Urdhvämnäya Tantra the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself said: vaivasvatäntare brahman gaìgä-tére su-puëya-de hari-näma tadä dattvä caëòälän haòòikäàs tathä brähmaëän kñatriyän vaiñyän çataço 'tha sahasraçaù uddhariñyämy ahaà tatra 206 . the Supreme Personality of Godhead. who wears splendid jeweled keyüra and aìgada armlets on His arms. “In Satya-yuga.5 In the Mukti-Sankalini-Tantra it is said: kurukñetraà kåte tértham tretäyäà puñkaraà småtam dväpare naimisäraëyam nava-khaëòaà kali kala In the Mukti-saìkaliné Tantra it is said: In Satya-yuga Kurukñetra is the most important holy place. in Dvapara-yuga. in Tretä-yuga Lake Puñkara is the most important holy place. in his Navadvipa Dhama Mahatmya (text 5): tan-madhye daharam saksan mayapuram itiryate tatra vesma bhagavatas caitanyasya paratmanah tasmin yas tv antarakaso hy antardvipah sa ucyate “The spiritual city in the shape of a lotus has the abode of Sri Mayapura as its heart. in Treta-yuga.7 The Chandogya Upanisad describes the place of advent of the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna Caitanya. and in Kali-yuga. to whose cheeks cling glistening golden earrings. This is explained by Srila Saccidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura. in Dväpara-yuga Naimiñäraëya is the most important holy place. who destroys the impurities of the age of Kali. Navadvipa is the most important holy place.” Mukti-SankaliniTantra cited by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Navadvipa-Dhama-Mahatmya . In the middle of Mayapura is the place called Antardvipa. Naimisaranya is the most important holy place. which destroys all sins.Caitanya-candra I offer my respectful obeisances to Gaura-avatära. and in Kali-yuga Navadvépa is the most important holy place. 4. Brhad-Yamala-Tantra as cited by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Navadvipa-DhamaMahatmya. 4.

I will go to Käïcana-gräma (Katwa) and aceept the renounced order (sannyäsa). a description that destroys all sins. Text 3 navadvépa-kathä puëya sarva-päpa-vinäçiné na kadäcit purä nätha kåpayä kathitä tvayä O Lord. 11. never before have You told me the sacred description of Navadvépa. Text 4 çré-mahädeva uväca çré-hareù paramä çaktiù svarüpäkhyä varänane 207 .Caitanya-candra tapta-svarëa-kalevaraù sannyäsaà ca kariñyämi käïcana-grämaà äçritaù O brähmaëa. and vaiçyas. Now please truthfully tell me the glories of Navadvépa. My form splendid as molten gold. brähmaëas. I have heard Lord Gaura's mantra from You.1 Lord Çiva's glorification of Navadvipa to Pärvaté in the Urdhvämnäya Tantra. during the Vaivasvata-manvantara. on the sacred banks of the Ganges I will give to the people the holy name of Lord Hari. Lord Viñëu's eternal illusory potency cheerfully and with great devotion asked Lord Çiva: Text 2 gaura-manträdikaà nätha çrutaà tavordhva-vaktrataù navadvépasya mähätmyaà idänià vada tattvataù O Lord. Text 1 çrutvä gaura-kathä devi viñëu-mäyä sanätané papraccha saìkaraà devaà bhaktyä paramayä mudä After hearing this description of Lord Gaura. çüdras. kñatriyas. I will deliver hundreds and thousands of caëòälas.

Texts 8 and 9 aprakåtaà navadvépaà cin-mayaà cid-viçeñaëam jaòätétaà paraà dhäma brahma-puraà sanätanam vadanti çrutayaù säkñäd daharaà sarva-sundaram nava-saìkhyäs tathä dvépä vartante padma-puñpa-vat 208 . His Mahä-mäyä potency consisting of the modes of nature. the wise know that Navadvépa-dhäma is eternally manifest from the Lord's transcendental potency with many fruits and flowers. Text 5 tat-prabhävas tridhä samvithlädiné-sandhiné priye sandhiné dhäma-nämäder hareù säkñät-prakäçiné The transcendental potency is of three kinds: samvit. and sandhiné. Text 7 phalaà puñpaà yathä devi çakter dhäma tathä çubhe ato nityaà navadvépaà prakataà hi vidur budhäù O goddess. The sandhiné potency reveals Lord Hari's holy name and abode. The sandhiné potency made Navadvépa visible to the eyes of this world. hlädiné. Lord Hari's transcendental potency is called Svarüpa-çakti.Caitanya-candra yasyäç chäyä-svarüpä tvaà mahä-mäyä guëätmikä Lord Çiva said: O girl with the beautiful face. sent the sandhiné potency to this world. who is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss. You. are a shadow reflection of the Svarüpa-çakti. Text 6 bhagavän sac-cid-änandas codayäm äsa sandhiném sä sandhiné navadvépaà akarod akñi-gocaram The Supreme Personality of Godhead. O beautiful one.

a transcendental abode. Text 10 çåëu devi pravakñyämi nava-khaëòa-svarüpakam yatra vai räjate nityaà çré-gaurasundaro hariù O goddess. an eternal spiritual city. Sindhü. Godrumadvépa. and Rudradvépa. and all other sacred rivers. but spiritual and full of knowledge. Godävaré. Text 11 antardvépas tathä devi simantadvépa-samjïakaù godrumadvépa-samjëo 'nyo madhyadvépas tathä paraù gaìgä-pürva-tate ramye devi dvépa-catuñtayam koladvépa-rtudvépo jahnudvépaù sureçvari modadrumas tathärudraù païcaite päçcime tate O goddess.Caitanya-candra The Vedas say Navadvépa is not material. and on the western shore are the five islands Koladvépa. Sarasvaté. Rtudvépa. Kaveré. on the Ganges' beautiful eastern shore are the four islands Antardvépa. Dåñadvaté. Gomaté. Modadrumadvépa. Yamunä. Payasviné. Text 12 gaìgä ca yamunä caiva godävaré sarasvaté narmadä sindhuù käveré tamraparëé payasviné kåtamälä tathä bhémä gomaté ca dåñadvaté sarväù puëya-jalä nadyaù vartante 'tra yathä-yatham navadvépo mahä-devi täbhiù sarvaiù pariväritaù O goddess. and Madhyadvépa. please listen and I will tell you of these nine islands where Lord Gaura-Hari eternally shines with great splendor. Kåtamälä. Sémantadvépa. beyond dull and inert matter. Bhémä. Navadvépa is surrounded by the pure and sacred waters of the Ganges. Narmadä. Jahnudvépa. Tamrapärëé. an all-beautiful lotus flower. 209 . The nine islands of Navadvépa are like a great lotus flower.

O beloved. The sages do not stay in the forest. Kurukñetra. Puñkara. Ayodhyä. Mandäkiné. The demigods do not stay in the upper planets. Alakänandä. Mathurä. Dvärakä. and Bhogavaté are the four streams of the Ganges that surround Navadvépa for 32 miles.Caitanya-candra Text 13 ayodhyä mathurä mäyä käçé käïcé hy avantikä dvärävaté kurukñetraà puñkaro naimiñaà vanam vartante 'tra navadvépe nitye dhämni maheçvari O goddess. Avantikä. Text 19 sarve vayaà navadvépe tiñthämaù prema-lälasäù 210 . You do not reside in my home. Käïcé. all the holy places of the upper and lower planets are present in Navadvépa. and Naimiñäraëya. Text 18 nähaà vasämi kailäse na tvaà vasasi mad-gåhe na devä divi tiñthanti åñayo na vane vane I do not reside in Kailäsa. Text 17 påthivyäà yäni térthäni rasäyäà divi vä priye täni sarväni tiñthanti navadvépe sureçvari O goddess. Käçé. Text 16 bhägirathy-alakänandä mandäkiné tathäparä bhogavatéti gaìgäyä asti dhärä-catuñtayam navadvépasya paridhiç catväri yojanäni ca Bhägérathé. are all present in the eternal transcendental abode of Navadvépa. Mäyä.

for the saintly devotees who live in Navadvépa Lord Caitanya Mahäprabhu is their only Lord both in this life and also after death. Overwhelmed with love. 211 . They who always meditate on handsome golden Lord Gaura and the Panca-tattva there are the most exalted of all exalted souls. Text 21 païca-tattvätmakaà gauraà kåñëa-caitanya-samjïakam ye bhajanti navadvépe te me priyatamäù kila They who in Navadvépa worship Païcatattvätmaka Gaura. Antardvépa is the whorl of that lotus and Sémantadvépa and the other islands are its eight petals. we perform saìkértana.Caitanya-candra gaura gaureti gäyantaù saìkértana-parä bhuvi We all stay in Navadvépa. who is known as Çré Kåñëa Caitanya. Text 22 padmäkäraà navadvépam antardvépaà ca karëikam sémantädi-sthalaàs tatra dalän añta-svarüpakän Navadvépa has the form of a great lotus. singing "Gaura! Gaura!" in the earthly sphere. Text 20 ye naräù kåtino devi navadvépe vasanti te jévena maraëe teñäà patir eko mahäprabhuù O goddess. are most dear to me. Text 23 karëikä-madhya-bhäge tu péthaà ratnamayaà param païca-tattvänvitaà tatra gauraà purata-sundaram ye dhyäyanti janäù çäçvät te tu sarvottamottamäù In the middle of that whorl is a sacred place of jewels.

Text 26 tatra räsa-sthalé divyä pulinaà balukamayam räsa-sthalé päçcime tu puëyaà dhéra-samérakam yad yad våndävane devi tat tat tatra na saàçayaù In this place is the transcendental räsa dance arena. Text 27 tvaà hi mäyä hareù çaktir durghatana-patéyasé cin-mayam antarädityam acchadayasi sämpratam You are Lord Hari's insurmountable illusory potency. Text 25 bhägérathé-tate pürve mäyäpuraà tu gokulam tasyäs tate päçcime hi våndävanaà vidur budhäù The wise know that on the eastern shore of the Ganges Mäyäpura is Gokula. whatever is present in Våndävana is also here. Of this there is no doubt. and on the western shore is Våndävana.Caitanya-candra Text 24 yatra tatra navadvépe sa sannyäsy athavä gåhé ha gaureti vadan nityaà sarvänandän samaçnute Whether a sannyäsé or a gåhastha. At the present time you cover the spiritual sun shining here. O goddess. a person who somewhere in Navadvépa calls out "Gaura!" always enjoys all trancendental bliss. Text 28 tato mäyäpura-khyätir yoga-péthasya bhü-tale prauòhä mäyä tava khyätiù sarvatra vartate priye 212 . On the western shore is a räsa dance arena filled with bakula flowers and gentle breezes.

you are famous everywhere as the great illusory potency of the Lord. Lord Caitanya-Hari.Caitanya-candra This sacred place is famous on the earth as Mäyäpura. Text 32 antardvépe hariù säkñäd brahmänäà kåpayä svayam gaurävatära-tätparyaà kathayäm äsa tattvataù In Antardvépa Lord Hari personally told the demigod Brahmä the real meaning of Lord Gaura's incarnation. Text 31 lélä-puñtià bhagavataç caitanyasya hareù svayam karomi satataà devi tava mäyä-balena hi O goddess. using your illusory power I always increase the transcendental pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Text 29 gate tu pulinäbhyäsaà käle çré-gaura-vigrahe vaàçévataà samäçritya tvaà päsi vaiñëavän janän When the form of Lord Gaura enjoys pastimes on the shore here. Text 33 sémanta-dvépam äsädya tvaà hi devi sanätané 213 . Text 30 ahaà våddha-çivaù säkñät prabhor ajïänusärataù kalpitair agamais tais tair vaïcämi bahir-mukhän I am the great Lord Çiva. O beloved. I cheat the fallen souls with many newly-created pseudo-scriptures. you stay nearby in Vaàçivata and protect the Vaiñëavas. Following the orders of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Text 37 mayamäréà tatottérya dåñtvä räma-paräkramam suvarëa-sena-durge sa nanarta kértane hariù After crossing over the place named Mayamäré. Text 38 214 . Lord Gaurasundara left Dvädaça-tértha and went to Kolaveca Çrédhara's house. Lord Hari danced in kértana in the home of Suvarëa Sena. in that place is transcendental Viçräma-kuëòa.Caitanya-candra dadärça sundaraà rüpaà gauräìgasya mahätmanaù O eternal goddess. Text 35 çodhitvä taà kértanädau çré-gaurasundaraù prabhuù térthaà dvädaçakaà tértvä çrédharasya gåhaà yayau After purifying it in His first public kértana. nearby is Mathurä City where in Kali-yuga Kaàsa was born in a yavana's house. O Gauri. you went to Sémantadvépa and there personally saw Lord Gauräìga Mahäprabhu's handsome form. Text 36 tad dhi navadvépe devi sudäma-puram éryate tatraiva vartate gauri viçräma-kuëòam uttamam O goddess Çrédhara's house in Navadvépa is said to actually be the hosue of Sudämä Vipra. Text 34 tat-samépe mahä-devi mathurä vidyate puré abhavat yatra vai kaàso yavanasya gåhe kalau O goddess. and after seeing Räma's prowess.

Text 42 tato mahä-prayägäkhyaà païca-veëé-samanvitam térthaà çré-jähnavéà tértvä koladvépaà jagäma ha 215 . the Lord then went to Devapalli. He flooded Brahmävarta and Kurukñetra with kértana. Lord Hari went to Godrumadvépa. where there is a surabhi cow. in Naimiña-tértha.Caitanya-candra deva-pallià tato gatvä devän sürya-mukhän prabhuù çré-kåñëa-kértanänande plavayäm äsa bhaminé O beautiful one. He danced with His associates and with Nityänanda Avadhüta. which gives liberation. Text 41 tato gatvä puñkaräkhyaà térthaà vipra-niñevitam brahmävartaà kuruñketraà plavayäm äsa kértanaiù The Lord then went to Puñkara-tértha. There the Lord danced in ecstacy with Märkaëòeya. in Saptarñi-maëòapa. where there are many brähmaëas. Text 39 kñetraà hari-haraà tértvä käçéà ca mokña-dayiném godruma-dvépam äsädya surabhi-sevitaà hariù nanarta paramäviñto måkaëòa-suta-sannidhau After going to Harihara-kñetra and Käsé. where He plunged Sürya and the demigods in the bliss of Kåñëa-kértana. Text 40 madhyadvépaà tato gatvä saptaåñi-maëòape hariù nanarta naimiñe térthe sävadhütaù sa-pärñadaù Lord Hari then went to Madhyadvé where.

Text 46 jahnudvépaà samäsädya dåñtvä jahnu-tapovanam modadrume räma-léläà smaran gauro mumoda ha Then the Lord went to Jahnudvépa where He saw the forest where Jahnu Muni performed austerities. where five rivers meet. He was reminded of Rädhä-kuëòa. In Modadrumadvépa was happy remembering Lord Räma's transcendental pastimes. Text 44 åtudvépaà tato gatvä dåñtvä çobhäà vanasya ca rädhä-kuëòädikaà småtvä ruroda çacénandanaù Then Lord Çacénandana went to Rtudvépa where.Caitanya-candra The Lord then went to Mahäprayäga-tértha. and He wept. Lord Hari and His associates saw Vidyänägara. seeing the beauty of the forest. absorbed in the bliss of saìkértana. Text 47 vaikuëtha-pura-madhye tu dåñtvä niùçreyasaà vanam 216 . the Lord then went to Campahatta. Then He crossed thw Ganges and went to Koladvépa. the home of the Vedas. Text 43 samudrasena-räjye tu gaìgä-sägara-saìgame kértayitvä harià devi campahattaà jagäma ha Performing hari-kértana in Mahäräja Samudrasena's kingdom where the Ganges meets the ocean. Text 45 tataù saìkértanänande çré-vidyänägaraà hariù dadarça pärñadaiù särdhaà veda-sthänam anuttamam Then.

There Lord Gauräìga Mahäprabhu performed Kåñëa-kértana. which had been the place of the Päëòavas. Then. remembering the räsa-dance pastime in the räsa-maëòapa by the riverbank. Text 51 småtvä räsätmikäà léläà mahä-bhäva-daçäà prabhuù lebhe tatra mahä-devi puline rasa-maëòape O goddess. the Lord became filled with ecstatic love. the Lord saw Niùçreyasa-vana. crossing to the other shore of the Virajä. Text 50 tatra räsa-sthalià dåñtvä sa-pärñada-ramä-patiù çré-bhägavata-padyena räsa-gétaà cakära saù The Lord. He saw five gardens there and then He went to Çré Çaìkarapura. in the company of His associates seeing the arena of the räsa dance there sang verses from Çrémad-Bhägavatam glorifying the räsa dance.Caitanya-candra brahmäëéà virajäpäre bhagavän çré-mahat-puram In the midst of Vaikuëthapura. who is the husband of the gosddess of fortune. Text 49 tataù pulinam äsädya péthaà våndävanätmakam dadarça kértayan kåñëam çré-gauräìga-mahäprabhuù He went to the riverbank there and saw the sacred place identical with Våndävana forest. He saw Brahmäëépura and Çré Mahatpura. Text 52 217 . Text 48 sthänaà ca paëòu-putraëaà kämya-näma vanaà çubham dåñtvä païca-vatéà cätra çré-saìkara-puraà yayau The Lord then went to the beautiful forest named Kämyavana.

Text 56 tato gatvä bharadväjasthänaà saìkértayän harim tato mäyäpuräväsaà praviveça svayaà hariù Lord Hari then went to Bharadväja-sthäna and performed hari-saìkértana and then He personally entered the abode of Mäyäpura. Beginning with the Chändogya Upaniñad. where He plunged the devotee-brähmaëas into a flood of kåñëa-prema. Lord Caitanya. enjoyed näma-saìkirtana everywhere in Rudradvépa. A shower of flowers fell. the son of Çacé-devé.Caitanya-candra divi dundubhayo nedur babhüvuù puñpa-våñtayaù jagadur munayo vedän chandogyädi-svarüpakän Dundubhi drums sounded in the celestial worlds. Text 55 bilva-pakñe tato gatvä viprän kåñëa-paräyaëän premëä samplaväyäm äsa käïcé-puraà jagat-patiù The Lord of the universes then went to Bilvapakña and Käncépura. the sages recited the Vedas. Text 53 çruti-müla-gate nämni dérgha-bähur mahäprabhuù hare kåñëeti saìkroçya cacäla jähnavé-tate When the sound the holy name entered His ears. 218 . long-armed Lord Mahäprabhu called out " Hare Kåñëa!" and wandered on the Ganges' shore. Text 54 bhägérathéà samuttérya sa-pärñadaù çacé-sutaù näma saìkértane reme rudradvépe samantataù After crossing the Ganges with His associates.

No deity is equal to Lord Gauräìga. offering çräddha. no place is equal to Navadvépa. but in Navadvépa there is no rule that they must be done. epecially for the Vaiñëavas.Caitanya-candra Text 57 çåëvanti parayä bhaktyä ye gaura-kértana-drumam na teñäà punar ävåttiù çive saàsära-sägare O auspicious one. No attainment is equal to pure love for Lord Kåñëa. Text 59 etad dhi janma-säphalyaà vaiñëavänäà viçeñataù bhajanaà çré-navadvépe vraja-lokänusärataù The success of life. Text 60 kñauram upoñanaà çräddhaà snäna-dänädikaà hi yat anya-tértheñu kartavyaà navadvépe na tad vidhiù In other holy places shaving the head. fasting. giving charity. performing ritual bathing. Text 58 navadvépa-samaà sthänaà çré-gauräìga-samaù prabhuù kåñëa-prema-samä präptir nästi durge kadäcana O Durgä. they with with great devotion hear about the tree of Lord Gaura's saìkértana pastimes never again return to the ocean of repeated birth and death. is to stay in Navadvépa and worship the Lord by following the path of the people of Vraja. and other duties are mandatory. Text 61 täni täni hi karmäni kåtäni yadi tatra vai naçyanti sahasä devi karma-granthi-nikåntanät 219 .

Caitanya-candra O goddess. They sing Lord Hari's holy names. Text 65 nava-rätre navadvépaà bhramanti bhakti-pürvakam jévanti paramänande mahä-prasäda-sevayä For nine nights they wander through Navadvépa with great devotion. whatever past karma there may be at once perishes in Navadvépa. They maintain their lives by blissfully honoring mahä-prasädam. The chain of fruitive actions is terminated when one sees Lord Gaura. for the knot of karma is cut. and all misgivings are cut to pieces. the great sages take shelter of Navadvépa and serve Çré Çré Rädhä-Kåñëa's lotus feet with unmotivated devotion. Text 63 ato vai munayo devi nava-khaëòaà samaçritäù kurvanty ahitukéà bhaktià rädhä-kåñëa-padämbuje O goddess. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Text 64 dvépe dvépe prapaçyanti viñëor avayavaà param gäyanti hari-nämäni majjanti jähnavé-jale On island after island they see Lord Viñëu's transcendental Deity form. Text 62 bhidyate hådaya-granthiç chidyante sarva-saàçayaù kñiyante jada-karmäëi gaure dåñte parät pare Thus the knot in the heart is pierced. They bathe in the Ganges' waters. Text 66 prasädaà parameçäni gauräìgasya mahäprabhoù 220 .

pitäs. cannot be attained by the sinful. Text 69 jäty-abhimäna-mohändhavidyähaìkära-péòitäù duñkåti-düñitäù sattväù prasäde rati-varjitaù They who are blinded by the illusion of noble birth. Text 67 ahaà brahmä tvam isäni deväç ca pitaras tathä munayo åñayaù sarve prasäda-yäcakä dhruvam I. which purifies all living entities. O goddess. all pray to get that prasädam. Text 68 gaura-niveditännena yañtavyäù sarvadä vayam pavitraà gaura-nirmalyaà grahyaà deyaà janaiù sadä We always worship the foodstuffs offered to Lord Gaura. Of this there is no doubt. they who are tortured by pride of knowledge. Text 70 ahaà tän raurave devi nikñipya yatanä-maye daëòaà dadämi satyaà te vadämi nätra saàçayaù O goddess. I punish them. and they who are dirty with many sins are not attracted to this prasädam.Caitanya-candra pävanaà sarva-jivänäà durlabhaà duñkåtäà kila O goddess. you. and åñis. Brahmä. and the devas. I cast them into a hell filled with tortures. Itell you the truth. Text 71 221 . the prasädam of Lord Gauräìga Mahäprabhu. The sacred prasädam offered to Lord Gaura should always given and accepted. munis.

prasädam should be eaten at once. in Navadvépa a brähmaëa should accept prasädam from even a caëòäla. in honoring food enjoyed by Lord Gaura there are no restrictions of what is the proper time. Text 72 çuñkaà paryuñitaà väpi nitaà vä bahu-dürataù präpti-mätreëa bhoktavyaà nätra käla-vicäraëä Whether stale. who is the proper recipient. There is no consideration of whether it is the proper time or not. by eating prasädam until one is filled up to the neck devotion for Lord Gaura is born. Death in any other holy place brings liberation or future sense-gratification. dried-up. Text 73 na deça-niyamas tatra na patra-niyamas tathä na dätå-niyamo devi gaura-bhakta-niñevane O goddess. There is no impiety in overeating what was enjoyed by Lord Gaura.Caitanya-candra yatra tatra navadvépe yad annaà tan-niveditam tad grahyaà brahmaëä säkñäc caëòaläd api caëòike O Caëòé. orwho is the proper giver. Text 75 aho dvépasya mähätmyaà na ko 'pi varëane kñamaù anya-tértha-måtiù puàsäà bhukti-mukti-pradäyiné navadvépa-måtiù säkñät kevalä bhakti-dayiné No one has the power to properly describe Navadvépa. Text 74 ä-kaëtha-bhojanäd devi gaure bhaktiù prajäyate na cäti-dharma-vädho 'sti gaura-bhukta-niñevane O goddess. but death in Navadvépa brings pure devotional service. or brought from very far away. 222 .

Text 80 bhojane parameçasya prasäda-sevanaà bhavet kià punaù çraddadhänasya hari-näma-parasya ca 223 .Caitanya-candra Text 76 akäla-maraëaà väpi kañta-måtyur gåhe måtiù apamåtyur na doñäya nava-khaëòe varänane O girl with the beautiful face. a painful death. a violent death. staying for a very long time at Väräëasé. In Navadvépa walking is like performing great yajïas and lying down to sleep is like offering repeated daëòavats. in Navadvépa neither an untimely death. Text 78 varaà dinaà navadvépe prayäge kalpa-yäpanät väräëasé-niväsäd vä sarva-tértha-niñevanät By staying for a single day in Navadvépa one attains the result of living for a kalpa at Prayäga. or serving all other holy places. Text 77 anyatra yoga-måtyur vä käçyäà jïäna-måtir bhavet tat sarvaà phalaà cärv-aìgi navadvépe måtasya vai All the results of dying in yoga trance in any other holy place or dying absorbed in transcendental knowledge in Käçé are at once attained by dying in Navadvépa. Text 79 yoge 'nyatra phalaà yat tad bhoge dvépe nave çubhe päda-kñepe mahä-yajïaù çayäne daëòavat phalam By merely living in Navadvépa one attains the result of practicing yoga in any other holy place. nor a peaceful death at home are at all inauspicious.

the sacred birthplace of Lord Caitanya. There are different islands in the Navadvipa area for the culivation of these nine varieties of devotional service. Text 82 dhanye kalau sampraviñte gaura-lélä manoramä prakatä bhavitä hy etat vyaktaà tadä bhaviñyati In the auspicious age of Kali Lord Gaura's beautiful pastimes will be openly manifested. The centre of Navadvipa is the yogapitha. (6) Rtudvipa. (5) Koladvipa. 11.” These nine islands. Actually Navadvipa is eight petalled with Simantadvipa. It is stated in the Srimad Bhagavatam that there are nava-vidha bhakti. Navadvipa means “nine islands. nine different activites of devotional service: sravanam kirtanam visnoh smaranam pada-sevanam arcanam vandanam dasyam sakhyam atma-nivedanam. Modadrumadvipa and Rudradvipa forming the petals. this summary I have spoken to you should be kept secret. Koladvipa. Rtudvipa.Caitanya-candra gaura-prasäda-bhaktasya bhägyaà tatra vadämy aham Even ordinary eating there becomes honor to prasädam. which occupy an area of land estimated at thirty-two square miles. (9) Rudradvipa. The present Navadvipa-dhama is but a part of the whole of Navadvipa. Godrumadvipa. Jahnudvipa.2 Antardvipa It is ten miles in circumference and Sridhama Mayapura is situated within Antardvipa. for this is Lord Gauräìga's wish. I tell you: what could be a greater good fortune for a faithful person devoted to the holy name of Lord Hari and devoted to honoring Lord Gaura's prasädam? Text 81 etat te kathitaà devi samäsena tavägrataù gopyaà hi bhavatä sarvaà gauräìga-prabhor icchayä O goddess. One who walks 224 . (2) Simantadvipa. In all nine of those islands of the Navadvipa area there are different places for cultivating devotional service. (8) Modadrumadvipa. Madhyadvipa. (4) Madhyadvipa. The corolla of the lotus is called Antardvipa. (3) Godrumadvipa. are surrounded by different branches of the Ganges. They are as follows: (1) Antardvipa. Srila Vrindavan das Thakur has described the village of Navadvipa as bearing the name of Svetadvipa. (7) Jahnudvipa.

” Hearing her husband’s sweet words. had obstructed the sankirtana (congregational singing of the Lord’s holy names) movement of Lord Caitanya.Caitanya-candra throughout Mayapura is freed from the influence of maya and the repetition of birth and death in this material world. To become free from the offence to the vraja-vasis (residence of Vrindavana).4 Godrumadvipa Here Indradeva and Surabhi cow worshipped Lord Gauranga and obtained His audience. Another place of interest is Narasimapalli. Lord Gauranga. Long ago during Satya-yuga Lord Siva began to dance madly while chanting the name of Sri Gauranga. you are My energy. Will I ever see Your pastimes. but for carrying out the activities in the material world. Surabhi cow eternally resides here beside a banyana tree. In the village of Narasimhapalli there is a very old deity of Lord Narasimhadeva. but You have cheated me. the half-man half-lion incarnation of the Supreme Lord. Gauracandra was pleased and He spoke to Parvati as follows. Her material expansion is Durga or you. “O Parvati. Due to a complaint from some envious locals the Kazi. “You are very merciful to all. and chanted His holy name. Lord Gauranga appeared before her in a form like molten gold. in the womb of Srimati Sacidevi. why have you come here. 11. Chand Kazi’s village is also found here. Without you My pastimes cannot be accomplished. My original spiritual energy is Radharani.” After saying this words. Parvati inquired. In the Skanda Puräëa.3 Simantadvipa Scriptural history relates the following information about Simantadvipa. the local Muslim magistrate. will distribute the jewel of krsna-prema (transcendental love of Krsna) to everyone without discrimination.” Saying this Gauranga dissappeared. “O Durgadevi. Very soon she became filled with the transcendental love for the Lord.” Parvati fell down at the lotus feet of Sri Gaurahari and said. Krsna in a golden form will descent in Kali-yuga at Mayapura. but later became his ardent follower. he performed further austerities here along with the Surabhi cow. Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. 11. He said . 225 . “Who is Gauranga?” Lord Siva meditated on Lord Gauranga and replied. “Immersed in the mood of Sri Radha. Indra was not fully satisfied with his worship of Lord Krsna in Govardhana-lila. She constantly meditated on the form of Sri Gauranga. Parvati quickly went to Simantadvipa. Godruma-mähätmya it is said: godrumäkhye hareù sthäne vasanti ye narottamäù sarva-päpa-vinirmuktäs te yänti paramaà padam They who reside in Lord Hari's abode named Godruma become most exalted. ‘Go’ means cow and ‘druma’ means tree thus deriving the name of this island as Godrumadvipa where Surabhi cow is constantly serving Sri Gauranga’s lotus feet. After killing Hiranyakasipu Lord Narasimhadeva came here to rest. Whoever does not drown in that flood of prema is most unfortunate. they attain the supreme abode. Parvati took the dust from the lotus feet of Lord Gauranga. Free from all sins. intoxicated in chanting Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare. You have appointed me to bind all living entities in the material world who are averse to You and I have thus been cheated of Your love.

Atri. mercy of the Lord is lost and the offender comes under his anger. Offence to vaisnavas completely checks spiritual growth i. makara-sthe harau mäghe prayäge snänam äcaret çatäçvamedha-jaà puëyaà sampräpnoti videha-räö O king of Videha. tat sahasra-guëaà puëyaà gomatyäà makare ravau gomatyaç caiva mähätmyaà vaktuà nälaà catur-mukhaù That pious result is multiplied a thousand times during Makara-saìkränti at the Gomaté. In the Garga-saàhitä in the glorification of the Naimiñäraëya situated in Madhyadvépa. Visvamitra. Of this there is no doubt.e. it is said: gomaté-térajaà puëyaà rajo yo dhärayen naraù çata-janma-kåtät päpän mucyate nätra saàçayaù He who takes the sacred dust on the shore of the Gomaté becomes free from the sins of hundreds of births. offence to vaisnavas or devotees of Visnu or Krsna. Gautama. Lord Gauranga appeared before them around noon (madhyan) thus this petal is called Madyadvipa.5 Madhyadvipa 11. 11.6 Koladvipa The present town of Navadvipa is located on this Koladvipa on the western bank of Ganges. Jamadagni and Bharadvaja to go to Navadvipa to attain prema. a person who bathes at Prayäga during Makara-saìkränti attains the pious result of performing a hundred açvamedha-yajëas. Kasyapa.Caitanya-candra In Satya-yuga Lord Brahma instructed the seven sages-Vasistha.7 Rtudvipa Valmiki Muni came here and received the Ramayana from Narada Muni. This place is greatly reputed for freeing one from the greatest danger to spiritual advancement – vaisnava aparadha (offence to devotees of the Supr me Lord Hari). They came to this place and performed austerity. Even Brahma with his four mouths cannot properly describe the Gomaté's glories. Brahma performed sacrifice here and the Lord appeared as Varaha to kill Hiranyaksa. Kola means boar. If an offender sincerely chants the holy names of Krsna – Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare\ Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. 11.8 Jahnudvipa 226 .on this island then they become freed from the worst of sins. 11.

life of a medicant for the welfare of all beings. I will accept your sampradaya . When Madhva awoke. The Lord had revealed to Janaki of His appearance in Kali-yuga in the home of Jagannatha Misra and Sacidevi.10 Rudradvipa 227 . a group of brahmanas came to engage in the worship of Lord Siva. When I will 3 appear here in Navadvipa. One night. The Lord told Madhva. Here He disclosed to Srimati Sitadevi in confidence that in future He will appear as Gauranga Mahaprabhu. "Will I ever see that beautiful golden form again?" A celestial voice from the sky replied. spiritual initiation from Srila Isvara Puri Goswami who was an acarya of BrahmaMadhva-Gaudiya Sampradaya. The eleven Rudras reside here constantly chanting the name of Sri Gauranga and dancing in bliss. saying. Just as Lord Visnu is very much pleased when He is offered the leaves of His most beloved Tulasi. for a period of one fortnight and satisfied Lord Siva greatly. the great acarya of Brahma sampradaya was travelling in the association of his disciples he arrived in Sri Navadvipa and decided to spend some days within the forests of Modadrumadvipa.9 Modadrumadvipa In Treta-yuga when Sri Hari in his form as Lord Ramacandra was banished to the forest. Lord Gauranga appeared to him in a dream. once as Srila Madhvacarya. "It is well known to everyone that you are My eternal servitor. Gauranga is another name of Lord Caitanya. 11. I will personally broadcast your pure teachings. Powerful Jahnu Muni suddenly opened his mouth and with his awesome yogic power drank the entire Ganges. he was astonished and as he remembered the Lord." Cited from Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura’s Sri Navadvipa-DhamaMahatmya. thus another name of Ganges is Jahnavi. when I appear. Once in a village near the forest of Bilva Paksha. He had also told Her of His mission to spread the Hare Krsna maha-mantra and His acceptance of sannyasa. Bhagirath worshipped the sage. Travel everywhere and carefully uproot all the false scriptures of the Mayavadis and reveal the glories of worshipping the personal form of mine (the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Krsna’s). he once came to Modadrumadvipa with Sri Lakshmana and Srimati Sitadevi and lived in hut under a huge banyan tree. Thus the brahmanas worshipped Lord Siva by offering bilva leaves." Saying this the Lord then disappeared. Madhva continued his travels more determined than ever to defeat the mayavadi philosophers (followers of Sankaracarya). as Madhvacarya lay sleeping. Also." Carrying these instructions within his heart. who then released the Ganges from his body. Note:Later on when the Supreme Personality of Godhead Lord Caitanya appeared.Caitanya-candra Puranic history relates that once long ago Jahnu Muni was sitting on this island chanting gayatri mantra (sacred mantra chanted by duly qualified brahmanas) when his purification cup fell into Ganga and was being swept away. so Lord Siva is pleased by offerings of leaves from the bilva or bael tree. he began to cry in separation. Later. He took diksa. 11. Ganga was swiftly following Bhagirath to deliver his forefathers. "Worship Me secretly and you will come to Me. daughter of Jahnu Muni.

we have been relieved of this sinful activity. the four Kumaras are absorbed in meditation. you should follow the instructions I have set forth therein. rapt in meditation. This is our intention. and Visnuswami are three and you are the fourth of these great souls. Laksmi accepted Ramanuja as a disciple. After this he quickly returned and prostrated himself once more before the effulgent brothers. in all humility. Madhva. Very soon Radha and Krsna revealed Themselves to Nimbarka. Opening their eyes. "at the edge of this village is a sacred bael forest. Lord Siva personally appeared to him. Being especially pleased with Nimbarka's devotion. and assume one form. seeming to be no more than five years in age. for you have performed sadhana in Sri Navadvipa. "O deliverers of the fallen. Previously we were engaged in meditating on the impersonal Brahman. knowing that Kali-yuga will be extremely troublesome for the living entities. "and why have you come here? We are certainly ready to answer all your prayers. In sweet voices They addressed him thus: "Nimbarka. With a sweet smile on his face Sanat Kumara then said. resolved to propagate devotional service to Himself." said Lord Siva. After taking initiation from me." Nimbarka fell at the feet of the four brothers like a rod. and with great humility he introduced himself." After saying this Lord Siva disappeared." said Nimbarka. They stood before him." At that moment Radha and Krsna combined and displayed Their form of Gauranga. in that forest. you are very fortunate. They were all very young. "The all-merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead. He had been particularly attentive in his worship of Lord Siva. "Nimbarka. breaking their meditation. With this goal in mind. He has empowered four personalities with devotion and sent them into this world to preach. until he finally found them. and with great pleasure they embraced Nimbarka. "Who are you. Ramanuja. "Hare Krsna!" This sudden sound startled the four brothers. one after another. they saw before them the blissful form of an ideal devotee. Nimbarka immediately went to that place and with great determination he searched for the four Kumaras in every direction. for they are your spiritual masters. Nimbarka was so excited that he cried out. I have composed a literary work entitled Sanat Kumara Samhita. and by rendering service unto them you will receive all that is of value. By their mercy you will receive transcendental knowledge. In that sacred bael forest Nimbarka began to worship Sri Sri Radha Krsna according to the Sanat Kumara Samhita and he chanted the mantra they had given him. They were seated on a very beautiful natural platform beneath a tree and they appeared like fire blazing on an altar. Brahma accepted Madhva. but they appeared most noble in character as they sat there naked. 228 . We both combine. as the son of Sacidevi. There." Nimbarka was greatly enlivened at the prospect of taking initiation and he immediately ran to take bath in the Ganges. Since I have realised that it is essential to preach pure devotional service." they asked. but by the causeless mercy of Lord Visnu. shining as brilliantly as the sun." The four Kumaras gave him the Radha Krsna mantra (Radhe Krsna Radhe Krsna Krsna Krsna Radhe Radhe Radhe Syama Radhe Syama Syama Syama Radhe Radhe) and instructed him in the method of worshipping Radha and Krsna with the sentiments of great love called bhava marga. Rudra accepted Visnuswami and meeting you today we have the good fortune of being able to instruct you.Caitanya-candra Amongst those brahmanas was one whose name was Nimbarka. spreading an effulgence which illuminated all directions. "please deliver this low-born rascal.

accepting the deity as an eternal spiritual being. However. that henceforth we will perfect a sampradaya teaching devotional service. the goddess of learning. "Never have I ever seen such a form at any time. There is nothing I will not give to the Vaisnavas. Now go out and preach the philosophy of suddhadvaita 229 ." After instructing Nimbarka in this way. he said. taking the essence of your philosophy and the philosophies of Madhva. you will realize My true identity. And from you I will receive two excellent principles: the necessity of taking shelter of Radha. He stayed the night with his followers here in Rudradvipa. Siva spoke to him. Giving up your false pride. The disciples began dancing and singing. and service to the devotees. filled with acstatic love. I will accept two great teachings: the concept of bhakti unpolluted by karma and jnana. Ask a boon. Your reputation and learning will be celebrated everywhere and you will be known as Kesava Kasmiri. Pleased by the discussion of bhakti. Thus you can satisfy Me by preaching the philosophy of dvaita-advaita. you will also appear. When I make My appearance and perform My education pastimes. From Visnuswami’s teachings I will accept two main elements: the sentiment of exclusive dependence on Krsna." he said. Visnuswami became startled. Nimbarka began to shed tears of love. “Gauracandra appeared to him in a dream and said. "Keep this form. ‘Give us this one gift. Upon Siva’s arrival in the assembly. Your discussion on devetional service has pleased me. Intoxicated with scholastic pride. "Never. by the mercy of Saraswati devi. After worshipping the lotus feet of his gurus and taking their permission. Visnuswami came here during the course of his tour to defeat opposing philosophies. From Ramanuja.From Madhva. In the future when I begin My sankirtana movement. Nimbarka began to tremble. Lord Gauranga disappeared. which I now show you. Visnuswami stayed here and worshiped Lord Gauracandra with a desire to attain love of God. Rudra consented and named the sampradaya after himself. ‘All of you Vaisnavas are dear to me. you will tour all over India defeating all opposition. and I will rant it. I will take great pleasure in defeating you. Thus Visnuswami’s sampradaya is called the Rudra-sampradaya. a secret for the time being. I will receive two essential items: his complete defeat of Mayavada philosophy. Keep My identity a secret.’ “In great bliss.Caitanya-candra Beholding this splendid vision. Ramanuja and Visnuswami. Nila-lohita mercifully appeared there. ‘Haribol!’ while Visnuswami recited prayers from the sruti. You are fortunate to attain the treasure of bhakti in Navadvipa. Whilst wandering in Sri Navadvipa you will come to Sri Mayapur. Taking birth in Kasmir as a great pandit. With the mercy of Rudra. Simply by hearing your name all the great pandits of Navadvipa will flee." Lord Gauranga then said.’ “Visnuswami offered his dandavats and. I will personally preach. he left Sri Navadvipa to begin preach ing krsna-bhakti. you will take shelter of Me and I will reward you with the supreme gift of loving devotional service and will again despatch you to preach. ) One time. Just preach about devotional service and the pastimes of Radha and Krsna. He folded his hands in prayers and recited appropriate praises. for I gain great satisfaction from this. (cited by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakur in his Sri Navadvipa-Dhama-Mahatmya. and the path of raga-bhakti. ‘ By Rudra’s mercy you have become My devotee. and filled with intense ecstacy. and the high esteem for the gopis’ love for Krsna. and his service to the deity of Krsna.

’ 230 . and you will perfect your sampradaya when you go to Mahavana. go to Kurma-sthana and join again with your disciples. earnestly worshiped the liìga of Lord Nélalohita and thus attained peerless opulence. néla-lohita-liìgaà tu yatra sampüjya yatnataù aiçvaryam atulaà lebhe rävaëo loka-rävaëaù In this place Rävaëa. where Lord Çiva is splendidly manifest as the deity Nélalohita. ) In the Garga-saàhitä. You will meet Me at Puri. Rudradvépa-mähätmya it is said: tathä vä uttare dvare kñetraà syän naila-lohitam yatra säkñän mahä-devo räjate nila-lohitaù In the north is a holy place named Nailalohita-kñetra. kailäsasyäpi yaträyäà yat phalaà labhate nåpa tasmäc chata-guëaà puëyaà nila-lohita-darçanät By seeing the deity of Lord Nélalohita one attains piety a hundred times greater than what one atains by going on pilgrimage to Mount Kailäsa. stay here while you go. O son of Kesava. go to Navadipa and see the form of Gauranga. Ramanujacarya once came to Jagannatha Puri and pleased the Lord with many prayers. who made the world cry. Lord Jagannatha appeared before him and said. so let your birth be successful with the mercy of Gaura. As My eternal servant and dear devotee. The time of My appearance on earth will soon come. At that time you will appear in the form of Sri Vallabha Bhatta. devatä munayaù sarve tathä saptarñayaù pare vasanti yatra vaideha tathä sarve marud-gaëäù O king of Videha. Sri Venkata (Tirupati). ‘Go and see Navadvipa-dhama. You have come to the earth to preach bhakti. My very dear abode. and Maruts live there. who are absorbed in dasya-rasa. and Yadava Acala. for I will soon appear there in the house of Jagannatha Misra. all the demigods. From Navadvipa. The entire spiritual city is situated within one corner of Navadvipa. Just one portion of Navadvipa contains Ranga-ksetra. saptarñis.’ ” (cited by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakur in his Sri Navadvipa-Dhama-Mahatmya. There is one more confidendial story. Let your students. Any living being who does not see Navadipa has been born uselessly. you should see Navadvipa.Caitanya-candra (purified monism). sages.

and that Vrndavana is fully manifest in the form of Navadvipa-dhama. the topmost abode in the universe. For now. ‘Everyone knows Krsna. resumed his journey. I eternally reside as Lord Gauranga in Navadvipa. I will preach gaura-lila throughout the three worlds. I find only some hint of the Gaura-tattva. ‘I must see Gaura’s actual lila on earth. while internally he was absorbed in gaura-lila. The scriptures cannot know your opulences. Ramanuja submitted to Lord Jagannatha. you will take birth here again. Only the devotes can understand by My mercy. then your devotion will dwindle day by day.Caitanya-candra “With folded hands. he took birth in Navadvipa as the devotee Sri Ananta.’ “Seeing Ramanuja’s eagerness. I do not know. Then Gauranga put His lotus feet on the head of Ramanuja. yet it remains without a scent of maya. is the father of Laksmipriya 231 . after going to Navadvipa. for the highest truth surpasses all reasoning power. If you say that Navadvipa is part of the material world. Jagannatha said. preach dasya-rasa. He said. Ramanuja secretly cultured his attraction for Navadvipa. whole vilasa-murti is Narayana. but exactly who He is. So that Gauranga’s pastimeswere not revealed prematurely. By my mercy that dhama has come within Bhu-mandala. After some days he arrived at Kurma-sthana and saw the place with his disciples.’ Gauranga disappeared and Ramanuja. my doubts are gone and the sweet mellows of Gauranga’s pastimes have arisen in my heart. This is the verdict of scripture. while in your heart worship Gauranga constantly. That Krsna. Simply by reading scriptures one will not get the highest truth. ‘Lord. I can never leave Navadvipa!’ “Gauranga said. Keep the confidential pastimes of Gauranga secret. your desire will be fulfilled. Lord Narayana then led Ramanuja to Vaikunthapura and mercifully showed Ramanuja His transcendental form of Sri. Please instruct me. is the Supreme Truth. contented. After hearings Your instructions. the Lord of Goloka. ) 5 Vallabhacarya.. the son of Jagannatha Misra. Ramanuja considered himself fortunate to obtain darsana of his worshipable Lord. Ramanuja swooned at the brilliance of the form. who was thus divinely inspired and recited prayers of praise.’ “Hearing this. I will give people evidence from the hidden scriptures and establish devotional service to Gauranga throughout the universe. when suddenly he saw the Lord assume the enchanting form of Gaurasundara. During his life he preached dasya-rasa throughout South India. and Nila. I have placed this spiritual abode within the material world by My desire and inconceivable energy.’ “Taking the Lord’s advice. ‘Ramanuja. Your pastimes are truly astounding. That Krsna is fully manifest in the form of Gaurahari. He went to Vallabhacarya’s5 house and saw the marriage of Laksmipriya and Gauranga. Why isn’t gauranga-lila clearly stated in the scriptures? When I closely examine the sruti and Puranas. and He resides in Vrndavana. ‘O son of Kesava.’ “The Lord mercifully replied to Ramanuja. or Vallabha Misra. When the Nadia pastimes will be revealed in the future. do not broadcast like this. Only after Gauranga has finished His pastimes with the general public receive them. (cited by Srila Bhaktivinoda Thakura in his Sri Navadvipa-Dhama-Mahatmya. By Gauranga’s mercy. ‘In Your narration You have mentioned Gauracandra. Bhu. If You order me. the sober-minded Ramanuja was agitated with love for Gauranga.

May that Supreme Personality of Godhead. also. There Goddess Bhakti is splendidly manifest in every home.Caitanya-candra Kavi-karëapüra has also described (Navadvépa) in the following verse of Çré Caitanyacandrodaya Näöaka: tenaiva varëitaà candrodayäkhye näöake punaù gauòa-kñauné jayati katamä puëya-térthävataàsapräyä yäsau vahati nagaréà çré-navadvépa-nämném yasyäà cämékara-vara-rucer éçvarasyävatäro yasmin mürtä puri puri parispandate bhakti-devé All glories to the crest-jewel of sacred places in Bengal that bears the name Navadvépa! There the Supreme Personality of Godhead descended in a form splendid as gold. His glory is manifested in Navadvépa. Others say that Navadvépa is actually the spiritual planet Goloka. show us His great causeless mercy. Lord Caitanya. Some say that Navadvépa is the planet Svetadvépa. 232 . All glories to the wonderfully glorious land of Navadvépa! Çréla Rüpa Gosvämé has said in his prayers to Lord Caitanya: gatir yaù pauëòräëäà prakaöita-navadvépa-mahimä bhavenälaìkurvan bhuvana-mahitaà çrotriya-kulam punäty aìgé-käräd bhuvi paramahaàsäçrama-padaà sa devaçcaitanyäkåtir atitaräà naù kåpayatu He is the shelter of the people of Bengal. which is worshiped in all the worlds. He purifies the paramahaàsa-äçrama in this world. Now please hear the statement of Çréla Prabodhänanda Sarasvaté: stumas taà caitanyäkåtim ati-vimaryäda-pramadädbhutaudaryaà varyaà vraja-pati-kumäraà rasayitum viçuddha-sva-premonmada-madhura-péyüña-laharéà pradätuà cänyebhyaù para-pada-navadvépa-prakaöam Let us glorify the boundlessly merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead. By birth He ornaments the brähmaëa community. By accepting it. To taste the intoxicating sweet waves of the nectar of transcendental love for Kåñëa. he said: çré-gaura-gaëoddeça-dépikäyäà ca rasajïäù çré-våndävanam iti yam ähur bahu-vido yam etaà golokaà katipaya-janäù prähur apare sita-dvépaà prähuù param api para-vyoma jagadur navadvépaù so 'yaà jayati paramäçcarya-mahimä Some learned devotees say that Navadvépa is identical with the land of Våndävana. the prince of Vraja. and others say that Navadvépa is actually the spiritual sky of Vaikuëöha. In Çré Gaura-gaëoddeça-dépikä.

where there are splendid holy places studded with jewels. The devotees celebrate eternal festivals glorious with the splendor of transcendental devotional service. and who eternally stay in Their eternal transcendental abode with Thier eternal devotees and with the eternal goddess of devotion. and Lord Caitanya.Caitanya-candra as well as to give that nectar to others. and filled with the sounds of many kinds of colorful birds. by the charming. shines with great splendor. charming with many kinds of flowers. tan-madhye dvija-bhavya-loka-nikarägäräëi ramyäìganam ärämopavanäli-madhya-vilasad-vedi-vihäräspadam sad-bhakti-prabhayä viräjita-mahad-bhaktäli-nityotsavaà praty-ägäram aghäri-mürti su-mahat bhätéha yat paööanam In the city of Navadvépa many brähmaëas and pious people have their homes. where the shores are filled with beautiful blossoming trees and vines. Çré Navadvépa. The following meditation on Navadvépa (is found in the Çré Caitanyacandrärcana-candrikä): phullat-çrémad-druma-valli-talla-jala-sat-térä taraìgävalé ramyä manda-marun-maräla-jalaja-çreëéñu bhåìgäspadam sad-ratna-khacita-tértha-divya-nivahä çré-gaura-pädämbujadhüli-dhüsaritäìga-bhäva-nicatä gaìgästi yä pävané tasyäs téra-su-ramya-hema-surasa-madhye lasac-chré-navadvépo bhäti su-maìgalo madhuripor änanda-vänyo mahän nänä-puñpa-phalädya-våkña-latikä-ramyo mahat-sevito nänä-varëa-vihaìga-mälini-nadair håt-karëa-häré hi yaù In the beautiful. a great flood of bliss. In every home the Deity of Lord Kåñëa shines with great splendor. where the waters are filled with waves. where there are gentle breezes. where the dust bears the impression of Lord Gaura's lotus feet. and there are many beautiful courtyards. He has now appeared in the transcendental abode of Navadvépa as Lord Caitanya Mahäprabhu. Çré Våndävana däsa Thäkura has said: çré-våndävana-däsa-öhäkurasya nityänandädvaita-caitanyam ekaà tattvaà nityälaìkåtaà brahma-sütram nityair bhaktair nityayä bhakti-devyä tätaà nitye dhämni nityaà bhajämaù We eternally worship Lord Nityänanda. fruits. sounds that charm the ear and heart. golden. trees. gardens. who are the single Supreme Personality of Godhead. Lord Advaita. served by the great souls. who are eternally decorated with spiritual glory. purifying Ganges. tan-madhye ravi-känti-nindi-kanaka-präkära-sat-toraëaà çré-näräyaëa-geham agra-vilasat-saìkértana-präìganam 233 . and bumblebees. very auspicious. nectar shore. lotus flowers. groves and splendid pastime places. and vines. swans.

and rooftop balcony. which eternally shines with great spiritual bliss on the very charming shore of the purifying Ganges in Gauda-desa (Bengal).Caitanya-candra lakñmy-antaù pura-päka-bhoga-çayana-çré-candraçälaà puraà yad gauräìga-harer vibhäti sukhadaà svänanda-sambåàhitam In Navadvépa Lord Gauräìga-Hari's delightful palace. pärçvädhaù-padma-paööé-ghaöita-harimaëi-stambha-vaidürya-påñöhaà citra-cchädävalambi-pravara-maëi-vara-mauktikya-känty-ujjvalam tuläntaç céna-celäsanam uòupa-mådu-pränta-påñöhopadhänaà svarëäntaç citra-mantraà vasu-hari-caraëa-dhyäna-gamyañöa-koëam The base and sides of the throne are fashioned from rubies. tan-madhye maëi-citra-hema-racite manträrëa-yantränvite ñaö-koëäntara-karëikära-çikhara-çré-keçara-sannibhe kürmäkära-mahiñöha-yoga-mahasi çré-yoga-péöhe 'mbuje äkäçätapa-candra-pätra-vimale yad bhäti siàhäsanam In the midst of that place is a wonderful golden six-petal lotus decorated with mantraletters and mystic patterns (yantras). glorious with a grand entrance-gate. enclosed by a golden wall eclipsing the sun's splendor. four doors with eight panels splendid with måñöamaëi jewels. bedroom. wonderful gold. kitchen. tan-madhye nava-cüòa-ratna-kalasaà vajrendru-ratnäntaramuktä-däma-vicitra-hema-paöalaà sad-bhakti-ratnäcitam veda-dvärä-sad-añöa-måñöa-maëi-rut-çobhä-kapäöänvitaà sac-candrätapa-padmaräga-vidhu-ratnälambi yan-mandiram The palace has a dome of jewels. a roof of diamonds. the legs from sapphires. other jewels. There. In the middle is the lotus whorl and filaments. and transcendental bhaktimaëis. and awnings of rubies. temple of Çré Lakçmé-Näräyaëa. splendid saìkértana-courtyard. Prayers glorifying Navadvépa by Çréla Rüpa Gosvämé: Text 1 çré-gauòa-deçe sura-dérghikäyäs tére 'ti-ramye iha puëyamäyyäù lasantam änanda-bhareëa nityaà taà çré-navadvépam ahaà smarämi I meditate on Çré Navadvépa. pearls. and the back from lapis lazuli. is a sacred place in the shape of a tortoise. candramaëis. The throne rests on an octagonal golden base where an eight-letter mantra of meditation on LordHari's feet is inscribed. There are soft moon-cushions covered with silken cloth. 234 . Navadvipa Stotra. There a lion-throne shines with great splendor. dining-room. splendid as sunshine and cooling as camphor. shines with great splendor. It is splendid with wonderful pearls and the best jewels.

all the eternal homes of the goddess of fortune.Caitanya-candra Text 2 yasmai paravyoma vadanti kecit kecic ca goloka itérayanti vadanti våndävanam eva taj-jïäs taà çré-navadvépam ahaà smarämi I meditate on Çré Navadvépa. where the waves of the great Ganges playfully splash against the golden shores decorated with golden stairs. Text 4 çré-svarëa-dhé yatra vihäritä ca suvarëa-sopäna-nibaddha-térä vyäptormibhir gaurava-gäha-mäyyes taà çré-navadvépam ahaà smarämi I meditate on Çré Navadvépa. where there numberless beautiful golden palaces. and they who know the truth say is Çré Våndävana. which some say is the spiritual sky of Vaikuëöha. where in every direction are cooling breezes and many trees where Lord Gaura enjoyed His noon pastimes. Text 6 vidyä-dayä-kñanti-makhaiù samastaiù ñaòbhir guëair yatra janaù prapannaù saàstüyamänä åñi-deva-siddhais taà çré-navadvépam ahaà smarämi 235 . some say is the realm of Goloka. Text 5 mahanty anantäni gåhäni yatra sphuranti haimäni manoharäëi praty-älayaà yaà çrayate sadä çrés taà çré-navadvépam ahaà smarämi I meditate on Çré Navadvépa. Text 3 yaù sarva-dikñu sphuritaiù su-çétair nänä-drumaiù süpavanaiù parétaù çré-gaura-madhyähna-vihära-pätrais taà çré-navadvépam ahaà smarämi I meditate on Çré Navadvépa.

where golden Lord Hari. the incarnation of 236 .Caitanya-candra I meditate on Çré Navadvépa. mercy. the results of all Vedic yajïas. svarupakam (an expansion of a devotee) indicates Sri Nityananda Prabhu. and Siddhas. plunged everyone into the brilliant ocean of ecstatic love of God. opulent with Lord Gaura's pastimes from His birth. tolerance. 12 SRI PANCA TATTVA: THE LORD IN FIVE FEATURES panca-tattvatmakam krsnam bhakta-rupa-svarupakam bhaktavataram bhaktakhyam namami bhakta-saktikam “I offer my obeisances unto the Supreme Lord Krsna who is nondifferent from His five features. demigods. the incarnation of Krsna’s immediate expansion Sri Balarama. Text 8 gauro yatra bhraman hariù sva-bhaktaiù saìkértana-prema-bhareëa sarvam nimajjayaty ujjvala-bhäva-sindhau taà çré-navadvépam ahaà smarämi I meditate on Çré Navadvépa. within which is the blissful home of Purandara Miçra. Text 9 etan navadvépa-vicintanäòhyaà padyäñöakaà préta-manäù paöhed yaù çrémac-chacénandana-päda-padme su-durlabhaà premam aväpnuyät saù May he who with a joyful heart reads these eight verses opulent with meditation on Çré Navadvépa attain rare love for Çrémän Çacénandana's lotus feet. where the people are glorified by the great sages. and the six great opulences. bhakta-avataram (an incarnation of a devotee) is Sri Advaita Acarya. by wandering everywhere and chanting the Holy Name with great love in the company of His devotees. Bhakta-rupa (in the form of a devotee) indicates Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. and are filled with knowledge. Text 7 yasyäntare miçra-purandarasya svänanda-gamyaika-padaà niväsaù çré-gaura-janmädika-lélayäòhyas taà çré-navadvépam ahaà smarämi I meditate on Çré Navadvépa. the combined incarnation of Maha-Visnu and Siva. bhaktakhyam (known as a pure devotee) refers to Sri Srivasa Thakura.

For the sake of relishing transcendental flavours in the absolute truth. who supplies energy to the devotee) is Sri Gadadhara Prabhu. Adi-Lila. Amongst these five diverse manifestations of the Supreme Lord (as the Lord Himself and His incarnation. and bhakta-saktikam (the energy of the Supreme Lord. in contrast to the conception of monotonous oneness. Similarly . These five tattvas incarnate with Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. and Gadadhara represents the internal energy of the Lord for the advancement of pure devotion. the pure devotee and devotional energy. Srivasa represents the pure devotee. by performance of sankirtana yajna. Now the author describes the other five tattvas (truths). From vedic literatures we undestand that the absolute truth. His energy tattva and His devotee tattva. there are five diverse manifestations. Lord Krsna .5. the author. His incarnation Sri Advaita Prabhu. the form of Lord Caitanya is that of the original Personality of Godhead. Nityananda and Advaita-belong to thecategory of Visnu-tattva. they are not different from the energetic. Such diversity is eternal and blissful. expansion and energies) there is no spiritual difference. devotional service has no meaning. isa-tattva (the Supreme Lord). In the Srimad-Bhagavatam there is the following statement regarding Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu: krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam sangopangastraparsadam yajnaih sankirtana-prayair yajanti hi sumedhasah "In the age of Kali. and Srivasa. people who are endowed with sufficient intelligence will worship the Lord.32) Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is always accompanied by His plenary expansion Sri Nityananda Prabhu. Lord Nityananda is the manifetation of the first expansion of the Supreme Lord.” In the first chapter of Caitanya-caritamrta. Although he is one without a second. in order to serve five specific spiritual purposes. namely. the identity of a devotee. Advaita Prabhu is an incarnation of the Supreme Lord. They are five in one absolute truth. Lord Caitanya appered with full diverse energies. Therefore Gadadhara and Srivasa. There is no difference between the energy and the enrgetic in regard to the Lord’s appearance as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and his four associates-Nityananda Prabhu. who is accompanied by His associates. Out of the five diversities in the absolute truth. These are called the form of a devotee. Gadadhara." (Srimad Bhagvatam. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. but they are manifest diversely for the sake of relishing transcendental relationships. The Supremely Powerful Lord Krsna is manifest in five different potencies. His internal potency Sri Gadadhara Prabhu and 237 . although included in the Visnu-tattva. Srila Krsnadasa Kaviraja Goswami. are dependent. 11. has described the initiator spiritual master and the instructor spiritual master in the verse beginning with the words vande gurun isa-bhaktan isam isavatarakan. These three-Caitanya. In other words. diverse energies of the Supreme Lord . He is manifest in five ways. the incarnation of Lord Krsna’s pleasure potency. and they are five in number. Without such a diverse exchange of transcendental flavors. the incarnation of a devotee. or the Supreme Absolute Truth. eternally exists with His diverse energies. Advaita Acarya. of which the truth regarding the spiritual master has already been described. The whole process of devotional service involves a transcendental reciprocation in the relationship between the worshipper and the worshiped. His expansion tattva. His incarnation tattva. therefore Lord Caitanya is said to be Krsna with diverse energies. In that verse there are six transcendental subject matters.Caitanya-candra Narada Muni. Sri Radha. and thus the Lord executes His sankirtana movement with great pleasure.

as Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Gadadhar pandit and Srivasa Thakur. Hare Rama. namely. That will be very effective. there are many unscrupulous devotees who manufacture a mahamantra of their own. Hare Krsna. Krishna Krishna Hare Hare Hare Rama. but these are not considered in the chanting of the Panca-tattva mantra.caitanya prabhu nityananda sri. Hare Rama. He appeared in the Kali yuga (the present age). Japa is the process of chanting the maha-mantra: Hare Krishna.krsna-caitanya prabhu nityananda sriadvaita gadadhara srivasadi-gaura-bhakta-vrnda. back to Godhead. we should also accept that Caitanya Mahaprabhu is an incarnation of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.advaita gadadhara srivasadi gaura-bhakta-vrnda. Hare Rama. It could be done congregationally. In the present age of Kali. Hare Krishna. in the mood of His own greatest devotee. we first offer our obeisances to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu by chanting this Panca-tattva mantra.5. Krsna Krsna. Hare Krsna. To enact His mission. Nityananda prabhu and the six Goswamis of Vrindavan. Thus to derive the full benefit of the chanting of the maha-mantra (Hare Krsna. Hare Hare/ Hare Rama. but these unscrupulous. Hare Krsna. Nityananda prabhu. Krsna Krsna. but the method prescribed by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu's pure devotees is to chant first the full Panca-tattva mantra and then chant the maha-mantra-Hare Krsna. 12. 513 years ago in 1486 AD. Rama Rama. Rama Rama Hare Hare 238 . Krsna Krsna. accompanied by His immediate expansions. Krsna Krsna. One should know that Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is always accompanied by these other tattvas. He is in the midst of them as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. the most magnanimous incarnation. weak intellect and a propensity to quarrel and cheat. people have short life spans.Caitanya-candra His marginal potency Srivasa Prabhu. Hare Hare/ Hare 70 Caitanya-candra Rama. by the sadhus (saintly persons) such as Srila Advaita acarya. less intelligent men confuse the entire process.32). to establish the process of Sankirtan Yajna to help people return back. Hare Hare). or it could be done softly in solace. learn the Panca-tattva maha-mantra. sadhus and guru. then we say.1 Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu is Sri Krishna Himself. as kirtans. since they are also devotees they can express their feelings in that way. for He does not consider the offenses of the fallen souls. sri. Rama Rama. Therefore our obeisances to Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu are complete when we say. sri krsna. Rama Rama. He appeared with His associates. we must first take shelter of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Hare Rama. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Srimati Radharani. Of course. Thus Sri Krishna Caitanya is often worshipped in His form as pancha-tattva. Advaita acarya. and then chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. Hare Hare. Hare Hare/ Hare Rama. Hare Hare. Hare Rama. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is known as mahavadanyavatara. Hare Hare.vrnda) and then the sixteen words Hare Krsna. Out of compassion for the fallen souls in this age. Hare Krsna. that began about 5000 years ago. Rama Rama. as japa. Since it is independently verified by the scriptures. The fact that Caitanya Mahaprabhu is non different from Krishna is substantiated by the scriptures such as the Srimad Bhagvatam (11. Caitanya Mahaprabhu appeared in this yuga to demonstrate the means for the people to return to Godhead. Actually one should chant the names of the full Panca-tattva (sri-krsnacaitanya prabhu nityananda sri-advaita gadadhara srivasadi-gaura-bhakta. Taking advantage of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Sri Krishna incarnated. Finally it is substantiated by all the gurus in bona fide disciplic successions. Hare Krsna. Hare Hare/ Hare Rama. As preachers of the Krsna consciousness movement. There are ten offenses in the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. Sankirtan is chanting the holy name of the Lord.

a Moslem by birth. and explained that the holy name is the sound incarnation of the Lord Himself. Caitanya Mahaprabhu lived an exemplary life that served as a model for people in the Kali yuga to follow and return to Godhead.the mood of a devotee. Though He inspired His followers to prolific writing. West Bengal as Vishvambhara. Caitanya Mahaprabhu left behind the essence of His teaching in only eight verses called the 'Siksastaka'.000 names of the Lord. a digvijaya (unconquerable) brahman from Kashmir. Caitanya Mahaprabhu predicted that the holy name of the Lord would be spread to every village and town all over the world. one of pure love of Godhead. may it be a learned brahman. He then conclusively established over and over again to prominent Vedic scholars of His time. and since the Lord is absolute. In addition to this. The immediate followers of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. In fact He showed that any living creature. In the Brhannaradiya Purana says: harer nama harer nama harer namaivia kevalam kalau nasty eva nasty 239 . But Caitanya Mahaprabhu then moved on to immerse Himself completely in the devotional worship of Krishna. Krsnadas Kaviraj Goswami and Vrndavan dasa Thakura wrote authoritative biographies of Sri Krishna Caitanya known as Caitanya Caritamrita and Caitanya Bhagvata.Caitanya-candra on the 108 tulasi beads of the japa-mala. which He directly took from the scriptures. as He is often also called was born in a brahman family in Navadvipa. he passes through three stage: the offensive stage. Caitanya Mahaprabhu taught and showed that this is the highest stage of perfection for the human beings. who daily chanted 300. He was also called 'Gauranga' on account of His golden body complexion and 'Nimai' partly because He was born under a neem tree. He glorified Haridas Thakur. could get Him to stop crying was by chanting the holy name. which maintains that the Supreme Lord is simultaneously one with and different from His creation. His birth was accompanied by an almost universal chanting of Haribol. which if understood properly. He was inducing the people to chant to names of God. when the material contamination's are cleared and finally the transcendental stage. They wrote this based on the personal instructions given by Caitanya Mahaprabhu to demonstrate that bhakti or love of Krishna is the ultimate goal of the Vedas. specially in the present age where people have limited intellect. the only way His parents. As a young boy. can elevate a person from the mundane plane of materialism to the highest form of devotion . wrote several authoritative books based on Vedic scriptures. As a child. wherein one may desire all kinds of material happiness. there is no difference between His holy name and His transcendental body. Krishna Caitanya. Caitanya Mahaprabhu also demonstrated that any one can become a devotee. that Krishna can never be approached by the dint of mental speculation. he defeated Kesava Kashmiri. He acquired a formidable reputation as a logician and vedantist. At a very young age. He thus showed that love of Godhead is an intrinsic quality of the spirit soul. Each of this verse is a pearl of spiritual wisdom. As one practices the process of chanting. the clearing stage. Therefore. He propagated the chanting of the maha mantra. Caitanya Mahaprabhu established that the name of Krishna is non different from Krishna Himself. He demonstrated it by practicing the chanting of the holy name Himself. and can be awakened from its dormant stage by the process of chanting and kirtan. a fallen shudra. Though He had no need for it.prema bhakti. Sacidevi and Jagannatha Misra. He followed the established practice of studying scriptures under the guidance of a guru in a tol (school). but can be only approached in the mood of love and surrender . chief amongst them being the six Goswamis. under the guidance of a qualified teacher. a criminal or even animals can become spiritually elevated by chanting or hearing the names of Lord. He established this on the basis of authorized scriptures and explained to the mass of people the philosophy of 'acintya-bhedabheda-tattva'. from the beginning. since it coincided with a total lunar eclipse.

His birthsite is commemorated by a temple named Garbhasva and is visited by throngs of pilgrims today. a mission that is still being carried forward by his disciples in ISKCON. and He enacted it with so many apparently authentic scenes not described in the Ramayana. and Ananta Sesa. chant the Holy name. Further Reading: Sri Caitanya Caritamrita by Srila Krsnadas Kaviraja Goswami. all the Vishu's. In the Kali yuga. He has a deep melodious voice. Sri Caitanya Mangala by Srila Locanadas Thakura. Nityananda Prabhu was born on the auspicious thirteenth day of the bright fortnight of the month of Maga. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. constant singing the glories of Sri Krishna and carries a red stick with benedictions for the devotees. a travelling sannyasi. As a child. but feared by the demoniac. In the manifested earthly lila. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. His garments resemble a cluster of blue lotus flowers and His effulgence is said to surpass the grandeur of a rising moon at sunset. Rarely is the name Nimai (Caitanya Mahaprabhu) taken without that of Nitai (Lord Nityananda). Recommendations for interested readers : Readers who are not already chanting are strongly encouraged in begin the all auspicious activity of japa meditation. enabling one to fully taste the nectar of the holy name. Hadai Ojha and mother Padmavati. translated into English by His Divine Grace A. The latest. the founder of acarya of ISKCON. no other way.2 Lord Nityananda Prabhu Lord Nityananda is the eternal associate of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He is the Lord's active principle in both creation and lila. 32 syllable Hare Krishna maha mantra is the most effective way of counteracting the contaminating effects of the Kali yuga. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Nitai (as Nityananda Prabhu was called). Many of His empowered devotees. with the whitish complexion of Lord Balarama. this spiritually uplifting process which cleanses the heart of all the dust accumulated over years. where He spend the first 12 years of his earthly life. Nityananda Prabhu is senior to Caitanya Mahaprabhu by more than a decade. As Vishnu tattva He and Advaita Acarya are worshipped in the same category as Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He has the carefree mood of a wild avadhuta. In following the instructions of his spiritual master and the mission of Caitanya Mahaprabhu.C. no other way!' The Kalisantarana Upanishad says that the 16 word. requested Nitai from his 240 . were pious Brahmans originally from Mithila. In the 13th year. manifesting as Balaram to Sri Krishna. that people would wonder if He was making it up or actually relishing His own pastimes. who is the cardinal guru of all the universes and serves as an intermediary between Mahaprabhu and His devotees. He is the second body of the Lord.C. 12. loved to enact the pastimes of Sri Krishna or Lord Rama. Sri Caitanya Bhagavata by Srila Vrndavana dasa Thakura. Nitai's favorite part was that of Lakshman. Bhaktisiddhantha Saraswati Thakura have since appeared to further this holy mission. so absorbed is He in the love of Godhead. enchanted by Nitai"s devotion and service. like Bhaktivinoda Thakura. chant the Holy name. like His Master. there is no other way. His father.Caitanya-candra eva nasty eva gatir anyatha 'Chant the Holy name. Lakshman to Sri Ram and Nityananda Prabhu to Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He is statuesque. He did this so authoritatively and with such rapture. said to be the famous Lakshmipati Tirtha. that the entire village would be immersed in the love of Godhead. All other forms and expansions of the Lord emanate from this second body. Nityananda Prabhu is thus the source of Sankarshan. Prabhupada propagated the chanting of the name of Krishna well beyond the borders of India. The village of Ekacakra was completely absorbed in the love of little Nitai. prominent personality in this line is His Divine Grace A. around the year 1474. Mahaprabhu cannot be approached or understood without the mercy of Nityananda Prabhu. in countries all over the world. a small village in present West Bengal. and no one knows what He will do next. Nityananda Prabhu was born in Ekacakra.

Caitanya Mahaprabhu aware of the arrival of His eternal associate dispatched Haridas Thakur and Srivas Pandit to search out Nitai. His mercy knew no bounds. and his sakti (power) is what gives the disciple the ability to perform devotional service and experience spiritual bliss. but they failed. Nityananda Prabhu had a son (Virchandara) and a daughter (Gangadevi) from Vasudha. and also became an instructing spiritual master to the likes of Shyamananda Pandit. When Nityananda Prabhu returned to Bengal at the request of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He also associated with another of Lakshmipati Tirtha's famous disciple.Caitanya-candra parents. who the brother of Gauridasa Pandit (an intimate associate of Caitanya Mahaprabhu and the spiritual master of the famous Shyamananda Pandit). He hid in the house of Nandanacarya. was revered by Nitai was as a spiritual master. one of the six Goswamis started the famous Danda Mahotsava festival of Panihatti. His parents. Orrisa). It was by His mercy that Raghunatha dasa. Jahnava devi is revered as a Vaishnavi and she established the pre-eminent positon of women in the Vaishanava tradition. Soon after Vasudha passed away and Jahanva devi looked after the children. could not refuse the request of a guest and reluctantly parted with Nitai. as a travelling companion. reminiscent of the manner that Balarama traveled while the battle at Kurukshetra raged on. Indeed His mercy knew no bounds. that Hadai Pandit soon gave up his life. known as Bankim Ray. and was thus able to serve Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Nitai traveled with Lakshmipati Tirtha for about 20 years. However. the two daughters of Suryadasa Sarakhel. to heighten the ecstasy of meeting through separation. for the guru is considered to be the living manifestation of Nityananda Prabhu's love and mercy. Nityananda Prabhu in His role as the original spiritual master. A temple called Sri Gaura-Nityananda commemorates this meeting place in Nadia. and one must pray very sincerely to Lord Nityananda Prabhu as the adi-guru (original spiritual master) to be delivered to the Lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Vaishanava acaryas emphatically state that people who try to understand Caitanya Mahaprabhu without getting the mercy of Nityananda Prabhu will never succeed. Shrivasa Pandit and Narottama dasa Thakur. Madhavendra Puri is famous for establishing the sweet truth of Madhurya-rasa which later become an integral part of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. bound by Vedic culture. The presence of Nityananada Prabhu is always felt in the presence of one's own guru.3 Sri Advaita Acarya 241 . 12. devastated by the separation with Nitai. Lord Nityananda wound up His earthly pastimes. and people fortunate to come in contact with Him were inundated with the love of Godhead. Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself went directly to Nityananda Prabhu and the ecstasy of the meeting was so transcendental that every one witnessing it were awed by the sublime experience. by merging into the deity of Krishna. was instrumental in spreading the yuga dharma of sankritana all over the Gaudia desh (Bengal. delivering them from the sinful lives and protecting them from the wrath of even Caitanya Mahaprabhu. It is said that when Nityananda Prabhu reached the land of Nadia. and Isavara Puri (the spiritual master of Caitanya Mahaprabhu). Finally unable to bear the separation any longer. Nityananda Prabhu met Caitanya Mahaprabhu in 1506. not far from Ekacakra. He married Jahnava devi and Vasudha. when He was 32 years old and the Lord 20 years. Among the other disciples of Madhavendra Puri is Advaita Acarya. and fortunate were the people who tasted the nectar of His instructions. His decided to abandon His avadhuta status and become a grahastha (householder). Nitai is said to be later on initiated by Lakshmipati Tirtha. She later initiated Virchandra. who although his godbrother. during which He visited all the holy places in the country. Madhavendra Puri. a tradition that continues to this day. He extended His mercy to even fallen souls like Jagai and Madhai.

who would later be His preceptor. King Divyasimha. He is invariably accompanied by His intimate associates and devotees. made with love and devotion will satisfy Him.Caitanya-candra When the Lord descends to perform His pastimes. The other two sons had become householders. Sri Advaita Acarya manifested as the child of Labhadevi and Kuvera. in a village named Lauda. but He always treated Nimai as the Supreme Personality 242 . The decline of religiosity and the suffering of people all around greatly perturbed Sri Advaita Acarya. When He reached His early teens. Who appeared to Him in a dream. On the instructions of the Madan-Mohana deity. both His parents passed away and Sri Advaita Acarya went on an extensive pilgrimage across the country. He was also instructed in a dream to establish deities to Srimati Radharani and Madan Gopala. innumerable associates from both the material and the spiritual world descended with Him to take this great opportunity to serve Him. offering flowers and tulasi leaves. who is non-different from Sri Krishna. and subsequently initiated Him. which in addition to Caitanya Mahaprabhu comprised of Nityanada Prabhu. He led a number of Braja residents to the secret hiding place of the deity and established a temple. As a young boy He was awarded the prestigious Veda-pancanana. which He did in Santipur. fainted with fright. At another time He refused even the Emperor’s order to bow to the deity of Mother Durga. While visiting the temples of Udupi. When Sri Krishna was came to perform His lila about 5000 years ago. His father was a Brahman. Advaitacarya. He would fervently pray on the banks of the river Ganges. So intimidating was His anger. water etc. Sri Advaita Acarya pleased Sri Krishna with His sincere devotion so as to descend as Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The Caitanyacaritamrta (Adi Lila 6) is entirely devoted to the glories of Sri Advaita Acarya. Similarly when Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu. As the disciple of Santacarya. He was completely surrendered to the instructions of His guru. He displayed many transcendental pastimes that bewildered and also gratified His parents. Sri Advaita Acarya quickly rose to the position of becoming a leading Vaishnava of His time. in present day Bangladesh. otherwise a brave lad. Along with Nityananda Prabhu. came about 514 years ago. non-different from Sri Krishna and is worshippable in that form. indicating that the Supreme Lord was descending and the event was awaited with much anticipation in the entire village. Sri Advaita Acarya was born after many auspicious dreams to mother Labhadevi. Just as Sri Krishna says that simple offering of flowers. He was also named Advaita (meaning non-different from God). Sri Advaita Acarya was named Kamalaksha (lotus eyed) at birth. As a child. the cause of His departure too. He is the combined incarnation of Maha Vishnu and Sadashiva. an advanced degree in Vedic scriptures. It was at this time that Srila Madhavendra Puri came and instructed Him on the esoteric details of worship. expert in Vedic scriptures and an advisor to the emperor of Sri-Hatta. even though He was far more advanced in scriptures. He is the cause of the advent of Caitanya Mahaprabhu to this world. and as we will see later. many of the same associates came again to serve Him. He is Vishnu tattva. leave. and their descendants are still there. In order to alleviate this. He gave the deity to Purusottama Chaube. Of these the most confidential were collectively addressed as the Panca Tattva. the same Brahman who would later give the deity to Sanatana Goswami. His knowledge of Vedic scriptures also grew enormously. He also displayed the quick temper found in Lord Shiva. Once He grew angry at the prince making fun of Vaishnava devotees. in the year 1434. As Sri Advaita Acarya grew. chanting. He refused to drink His mother’s milk unless she chanted Hare Krishna loudly. of which four had taken sannyasa. Later when the Moslems again pillaged the temple. He met Srila Madhavendra Puri Goswami. that the prince. Sri Advaita Acarya was in his fifties when Nimai was born. explaining and finally convincing him that devotion to Sri Krishna surpasses all forms of demigod worship. Previously Labhadevi and Kuvera had six sons. Gadadhara Pandita and Srivasa Thakura.

serving Him even after He took sannyasa and moved to Puri. since every one is mad like Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself ’. His mercy on the fallen souls of the Kali-yuga knew no bounds.4 Sri Gadadhara Pandita Caitanya Mahaprabhu. inseparable friend. He married Sitadevi. govindaya namo namah) When Sri Advaita Acarya was in His fifties. kicked and pummeled Sri Advaita Acarya. He smiled and soon after displayed His pastime of disappearing. When Sri Advaita Acarya answered knowledge (jnana). He did this on the instructions of His spiritual master. Only a few of the intimate associates understood that this message meant that the yuga dharma of hari-nama sankirtana had been sufficiently well established now that it could be carried on by empowered disciples. Here he met Caitanya Mahaprabhu and soon became His closest. Sri Advaita Acarya remained manifest on the earth for 125 years. Later when all was settled. worshipped without honoring the Pancha tattva. but also of His disappearance. perhaps an year later. Caitanya Mahaprabhu displaying a pastime of being furious. taught and inspired the very same instructions. the Lord's eternal associates who incarnated to assist Him in His pastimes. ‘ rice is no longer needed in the market place. and later her younger sister Sridevi. and from the age of thirteen moved to Navadvipa in his uncle's house. Gadadhara Pandit is understood to be an incarnation of Radharani. Gadadhara Pandit or Gadai. Who is non different from Lord Sri Krishna. Of His six sons. one of awe. Sri Advaita Acarya once again began teaching the principle of prema-bhakti very nicely. His eldest son. Jiva Goswami explains in the Bhagavatasandarbha that the Lord has basically three potencies. Of all the associates and disciples of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. When Mahaprabhu received this message. as he was know as a child. He unveiled the Lord’s most esoteric and intimate lila for the world and as an acarya. Gadadhara Pandit remained the longest in personal contact with the Lord.Caitanya-candra of Godhead. His father's name was Kasyapa Misra and mother's name Ratnavati. He sent a cryptic message to Caitanya Mahaprabhu. reverence and submissiveness to Sri Krishna. He was born around the same time as Caitanya Mahaprabhu. was born in Chittagong in a brahman family in the lineage of Kasyapa muni. He also wanted to establish that spiritual progress can be made as a householder. When Caitanya Mahaprabhu heard of this. Even though Sri Advaita Acarya’s mood towards Caitanya Mahaprabhu was always one of servitude. even when Nimai was playing His pastimes of being an intellectual. and first worshipped young Nimai with the Krishna mantra (namo brahmanya devaya go-brahmanahitaya ca. Rarely is Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Sri Advaita Acarya once started preaching mayavadi doctrines to His students. much to His delight and ecstasy. Indeed He was the first to boldly proclaim that Nimai was non-different from Sri Krishna. Caitanya Mahaprabhu always treated Him with deference and respect. In an effort to get some real mercy of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He rushed over to Sri Advaita Acarya and asked Him three time what was better. He rejected three for deviating into the mayavadi line. Acyutananda was to become a prominent Vaishnava in pure devotional service and is later said to have taken initiation from Gadadhara Pandita. knowledge or devotional love. Gadadhara Pandit is the perfect manifestation of the Lord's hladini potency. the sandhini potency by which He 243 . the bhava of Gadadhara Pandit was more that of Rukmini devi. lived. of which 25 were after the disappearance of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Whereas Caitanya Mahaprabhu incarnated Himself in the mood of Radharani in separation. jagad-hitaya krsnaya. so that there would be some one to carry on the deity worship of Madana Gopala. Sri Advaita Acarya is not only the efficient cause of the descent of the Lord. 12.

who are always willing to break all rules for a higher purpose. Gadadhara Pandit was often able to soothe the Lord when His anguish in separation would become intolerable. He only remained on the planet under the orders of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. requested Gadai to always remain by the side of Nimai. that the deity assumed a sitting position to help Gadadhara Pandit. Caitanya Mahaprabhu's body would turn blackish. So. that Gadadhara Pandit was reduced to a mere shadow of his old effulgent self. As a young man. Lord Krishna enchants the world. The essence of love of God is bhava. he was willing to break his vow so as to accompany Caitanya Mahaprabhu to Vrindavan. He is the perfect example of devotion in practice. She prayed for a male body so that She could freely associate with the Lord. is the highest and most esoteric of the Lord's energies. for He is a lifelong celibate. which is embodied in Srimati Radharani.cit (knowledge) and . Gadadhara Pandit was initiated by Pundarika Vidyanidhi. It is said that when Radharani in Vrindavan was constantly being scolded and forbidden by Her elders to associate with Sri Krishna. These three energies correspond to the three Vedic principle of existence: . So intense was the anguish of separation with his Lord. namely Srinivas Pandit. He is considered the best of the sadhus. to instruct a great saint of the next generation. a wealthy but pure devotee of the Lord. Once he was able to meet and instruct Srinivas Pandit. She is the supreme goddess. After the disappearance of the Lord. Even though Gadadhara Pandit has taken ksetra sannyas (vow of not leaving Puri). In doing so. This consummate love is manifested in the personality of Radharani.Caitanya-candra maintains His existence. the Lord glorified the deity and His worshipper. and to gaze upon His sweet smiling face is to see love personified. exhibiting all Brahminical qualities. Such is the mood of pure devotees. Caitanya Mahaprabhu's mother. His body radiance is unsurpassed. 12. the samvit potencies by which He knows Himself and His devotees understand Him. who is an incarnation of Maharaja Vrishbhanu. where he took the vow of caring for the Gopinatha deity for the rest of his life. the full power and She manifests in Caitanya lila as Gadadhara Pandit. Gadadhara Pandit spent his time in separation. but so intense was his desire to anoint the deity. and Gadadhara Pandit's body would glow with the golden effulgence of Radharani. . and the hladini potency. service to the Lord. above all others. It is said that when the nocturnal kirtans at Shrivasa Thakur's home became really ecstatic. let us pray to Gadadhara Pandit. so that He may show us the way of selfless surrender and pure devotion. He has the golden effulgence of Radharani and is meditated upon by those who are specially wise. worshipping the Tota-Gopinatha deity.ananda (bliss) The hladini potency. The worshippable deities of the pure devotees are non different from their Lord and should be considered as living expansions. It was in response to these prayers of Radharani that Gadadhara Pandit incarnated with a male body. Saci devi. Gadadhara Pandit. Therefore. unattainable in the material world.sat (eternity). and without His mercy it is impossible even to approach Krishna. He lived on the southwest side of the Jagannatha temple in a place called Yamesvaratota. the father of Radharani. Gadadhara Pandit wound up his earthly pastimes to rejoin his master in the eternal spiritual sky. In his old age he was unable to stand and garland the deity. or intense spiritual emotions.5 Sri Srivasa Thakura 244 . but Sri Radharani enchants Krishna. He is absorbed in the mood of madhuryarasa. through He and His devotees enjoy indescribable bliss. The Gopinatha deity is extremely special since it is one of the three place where Caitanya Mahaprabhu merged into when he exhibited His disappearance pastime. like that of Krishna. Witnessing this. She is the “param-shakti”. the very form of blissful love. Gadadhara Pandit later took sannyas and spent his days in ecstasy as one of the Lord's intimate associates in Puri.

The changed Srivasa became completely absorbed in the devotion of the Lord. as an incarnation of Narada. Gadadhara. Nityananda Prabhu.incarnation of Lord Balarama. restless. Here.Caitanya-candra Caitanya Mahaprabhu is always worshipped with His confidential associates. the courtyard of Srivasa Thakur's house is considered non-different from Vrandavan. though born in a pious Brahman family. Srivasa Thakur.the Supreme Personality of Godhead. fell from the balcony and apparently left his body. Prabhu Nityananda. Young Srivasa took this warning very seriously. displayed no Brahamanical qualities as a youth. Narada Muni is one of the 12 mahajans or bona fide Vedic authorities and perfectly pure devotees of the Lord. associating with His devotees and relishing His pastimes. and somewhat in the mood of Prakshit Maharaja. In the courtyard of the house of Srivasa Thakur. Till the age of 16 years. Srivasa Thakur is the ideal house holder devotee and is known as the acarya (teacher) of vaidhi-bhakti (devotion by rules and regulations). Later they relocated to Navadvipa. A facsimile of Srivasa Thakur's house exists to this day in Navadvipa. Srivasa Thakur and his wife Malinidevi became close friend of Jagannath Misra and Sacidevi. and reveal His mission. the embodiment of the Lord's intimate devotees like Radharani and the Gopis. As Nimai grew. He was the first to whom Caitanya Mahaprabhu revealed His divinity. he was able to enter his body again. After the year was over. infused with the spiritual potency of Narada Muni. One day in a dream. and Srivasa Thakur who personified unalloyed devotion to the Lord and is an incarnation of the premabhakti shakti (loving devotion) found in Narada muni. Srivasa Thakur was able to divine that He was non different from Krishna. conceited personality. that by the mercy of the Lord. and the unparalleled kirtans in his courtyard became legendary." Thus. Caitanya Mahaprabhu reminded him about his experience with death. and they were like surrogate parents to Him. Gadadhara Pandita. and Srivasa Thakur understood that it was all by the mercy of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Sri Advaita. offensive to Guru and Vedas and had a proud. It was here that Nityananda Prabhu first performed Vyasa puja of Caitanya Mahaprabhu and it was here that Caitanya Mahaprabhu first revealed His original position as 245 . and the family of devotees who follow in this line beginning from Srivasa Thakur.the combined incarnation of Sada Shiva and Maha Vishnu. Caitanya Mahaprabhu would conduct daily nocturnal kirtan with His closest associates. Srivasa and his brothers were raised by their father Jaladhara Pandita in the district of Sri Hatta. Indeed. Srivasa adi Gaura bahkta vrnda means. It is at this time. He has a spiritual body and can travel in both the material and the spiritual worlds and is completely absorbed in singing the glories of the Sri Krishna. Advaita acarya . and patiently waited for Caitanya Mahaprabhu to conclude His various lilas of childhood. Malinidevi actually assisted in the birth of Nimai. Srivasa. Srivasa Thakur is considered as the adi (original) devotee of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Nityananda Prabhu . The popular prayer: Sri Krishna Caitanya. Several years later. Srivasa Thakur and his brothers opened their house and all facilities to assist Him. scholar etc. "All glories to Krishna Caitanya. a divine voice informed him that he had only one more year to live. and he is clearly the best in performing devotional service. It was here that Caitanya Mahaprabhu inaugurated His sankirtan movement that would inundate the world with love for Godhead. Srivasa Thakur. who at that time was hearing the pastimes of Prahalda Maharaja in Srimad Bhagvatam. he was cruel. and became famous throughout the region as pure devotees of the Lord. So transcendental were these kirtans that the intimate associates would often reveal their original spiritual forms in the ecstasy of chanting and singing. They constitute: Caitanya Mahaprabhu . After Caitanya Mahaprabhu took initiation and began displaying His mood of an unalloyed devotee. who are collectively referred to as the Pancha Tattva. Advaita Acarya. Gadadhara Pandit. also emphasized chanting. officially beginning the sankirtan movement for the Kali yuga. prepared to die by dedicating his life to Krishna.

There. and tasting the nectar themselves. so is the Panca Tattva. glorifying Caitanya Mahaprabhu as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He then rejoined the kirtan. one of his sons all of a sudden died. Based on Sri Pancha Tattva by Steve J Rosen. without getting the mercy of the Lord and expressed distress at falling from its original spiritual home driven by a mad desire to enjoy separately from the Lord. by which the souls in the Kali yuga could be freed from the cycle of birth and death in the material world. 13 THE SIX GOSWAMI’S OF VRNDAVANA: SIX PRINCIPAL DISCIPLES OF LORD CAITANYA 13. during one of the nocturnal kirtans in the house Srivasa Thakur. In the second incident. will never be influenced by Maya. Caitanya Mahaprabhu glorified Srivasa Thakur as being His eternal father. He was not only delivering the process. The services of a devotee indebts the Lord. when Caitanya Mahaprabhu sensed the presence of the hidden brahman He became extremely furious. In the mood of a pure devotee. He thus demonstrated that all activities and austerities. The spiritual soul also revealed its own inability to escape the cycle of material birth and death. came to deliver the process of Sankirtan. the illusory power that binds one to the material world. devotees completely surrendered to the Lord continue to exist. Finally on the plea of Srivasa Thakur. The first happened when Srivasa Thakur. Srivasa Thakur went and found out what happened. allowed him to conceal himself in the courtyard and witness the divine nocturnal kirtan. The brahmnan was extremely pious. Sri Krishna experiences the highest pleasure when 246 . who revealed the teachings of Caitanya Mahaprabhu not only by their writings but also by their lives. After this is spirit soul once again left the body on its pre-destined path. Caitanya Mahaprabhu asked the body of the son to be brought in His presence. In the line of Srivasa Thakur.Caitanya-candra the Supreme Personality of Godhead (Mahabhava prakasha) in a pastime that lasted for 21 hours wherein the Lord displayed His transcendental incarnations and gave many benedictions to His devotees. assuming the mood of the His most intimate devotee Srimati Radharani. rather than interrupt the transcendental pastimes of the Lord. explaining the permanence of the spirit soul and the transience of the material body. which lasted for a full nine hours into early morning. but also relishing the taste of it Himself. Greatly touched and pleased by the mood of complete surrender.1 Srila Rupa Goswami The six Goswamis of Vrindavan are pre-eminent members of the immediate disciplic succession of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Caitanya Mahaprabhu. It was here also that Caitanya Mahaprabhu gave two very instructive lessons in devotional service. situated in the love of Godhead. Srivasa Thakur replied that he would have gladly forsaken all of his sons. and the six Goswamis were assisting Him in this task. Who is non-different from Krishna. He finally declared that Srivasa Thakur. He also showed that the Lord can never be attained directly but only my the mercy of His pure devotee. He exemplified that the love of a pure devotee binds the Lord Who is otherwise unconquerable. Srivasa Thakur consoled his wife. sensing what had happened. After the kirtan. taking mercy on a brahman. Mahaprabhu. However. inquired from Srivasa Thakur why he did not tell Him of the passing away of the son earlier. Who actually owns every thing and is never in the need of any thing. even if they are in the mode of goodness will not give one love for Godhead unless they are based on complete surrender to His lotus feet. the spirit soul of the son returned to his body and spoke very nicely. Mahaprabhu relented and gave His mercy to the brahman. a life long celibate and lived on only milk. Hearing the lamentation of his wife and other women. and where they are. by His divine instructions.

He was relishing the process himself and perfecting it for others to follow. a southern state of present day India. Rupa Goswami developed and refined the outline of his two famous plays Vidagadha Madhava (featuring Krishna's intimate pastimes as the cowherd boy of Vrindavan) and Lalita Madhava (featuring Krishna's majestic pastimes as the king of Dwarka). conscripted the two brothers into his service. When Caitanya Mahaprabhu first met the brothers in Ramakeli. Sanatan and Anupam) With superlative humility Rupa Goswami offered the now famous pramama mantra (greeting) to Caitanya Mahaprabhu: namo maha-vadanya. at that time it was mostly forgotten and neglected 247 . You are Krishna Himself appearing as Sri Caitanya. Even before the meeting with Caitanya Mahaprabhu. his elder brother Sanatan Goswami. instructing Rupa Goswami about the science of Krishna consciousness. left his body shortly after receiving the mercy of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. immersed themselves in the reading of the Bhagvatam and perfecting their own realizations. He also gave then their spiritual names (Rupa. called manjaris. that the six Goswamis were helping Caitanya Mahaprabhu Who had assumed the mood of Srimati Radharani. the brothers worked in prominent positions in the Shah's court. who experince even greater pleasure in serving Srimati Radharani. who as the most confidential associate of Caitanya Mahaprabhu assisted Him in spreading the Yuga dharma of Sankirtan. who is a manifestation of His own Hladini or pleasure giving potency. and you are freely distributing what no other incarnation has ever distributed pure love of God. While spending an additional ten months in Puri with Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Of the five sons of Revatidevi. He greeted them as His eternal associates. by threatening tribulations on the local people if they did not agree to work for him. in seperation from Sri Krishna. and his son Jiva Goswami. This manjari bahava is epitomized by Srila Rupa Goswami. three were famous for their spirituality. It is in this manjari mood.Caitanya-candra being served by Srimati Radharani. would become the most prolific writers of the six Goswamis. Rupa Goswami (1494-1564) was born of Kumardev and Revatidevi. But this pleasure is eclipsed a thousand times by the pleasure that Srimati Radharani experiences in serving Sri Krishna. When Rupa Goswami finally did go to Vrindavan. a disciple of Rupa Goswami. You have assumed the golden color of Radharani. Nawab Hussein Shah. Srimati Radharani is expertly assisted by special Gopis. Much against their desire. These were to become Rupa Goswami. the spiritual leader of the six Goswamis. they used their wealth and energies in the service of Krishna. At some point they migrated and settled in what is known as East Bengal today. krishna prema pradaya te krishnaya krishna caitanya namne gaura-tvishe namaha “O most munificent incarnation of the Lord. Caitanya Mahaprabhu spend 10 days in Prayag (Allahabad). and in his role in Caitanya leela. Rupa and Sanatan Goswami were famous for their intellect and renunciation. These plays were later completed and are regarded by Gaudiya Vaishnavas as the most important dramatic literature in Sanskrit. he is a close confidential associate of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. The third brother Anupam. keen to spread his influence on the local people. However as pure devotees. The Moslem emperor of Gauda desh.” Pleased by the prayers of His devotees. In this endeavor. by constructing an opulent 'hidden Vrindavan' in Ramakeli. so that She can perfectly serve Sri Krishna. he is a very confidential associate of Srimati Radharani. In his original spiritual identity as Rupa Manjari. who came from an exalted Saraswati Brahman lineage of Karnataka.

These works represent the highest realizations of Rupa Goswami. sri caitanya mano 'bhistam sthapitam yena bhu tale svyam rupah kada mahyam dadati sva padantikam When will Srila Rupa Goswami Prabhupada. and can guide a serious student through the various stages of self realization namely. that was established almost five thousand years ago by Vajra. Nawab Hussein Shah forced him and Rupa Goswami to work in the court under threat of doing harm to the local Brahmans if they refused. August 23rd is the disappearance day of Srila Rupa Goswami. He compiled huge volumes of Vaishanava literature. translated Upadeshamrita (Nectar of Instruction) and wrote a summary on the Bhakti-rasmrita-sindhu (Nectar of Devotion). Of the more famous works are his two plays. Sanatana Goswami was spontaneously attracted to the logic. established by Rupa Goswami.Caitanya-candra with the passage of time. where they are worshipped to this day. So famous was Sanatana Goswami for his wisdom that the Emperor of Gauda Desh. the Upadeshamrita (Nectar of Instructions). the most prolific writer and preacher of the six Goswamis was the son Anupama. to name a few.2 Srila Sanatana Goswami 248 . Belonging to the prestigious Saraswati Brahman ancestry from Karnataka. Sanatana Goswami grew up with his five brothers and one sister in the Jessore district of East Bengal. Pramananda Bhattacharya and the learned Ramabhadra.. He was conferred the title of 'Sakara Malik' 13. The members of ISKCON consider themselves to be followers of Rupa Goswami.000 verses in all. Srila Prabhupada. and the original deities moved to Jaipur. Unfortunately most of it was later demolished by the Mughal tyrant Aurangazeb. as the servant of the servant of the servant. who has established within this material world to fulfill the desire of Lord Caitanya. give me shelter of his lotus feet? Sanatana Goswami (1488-1588) is the senior most of the six Goswamis of Vrindavan and became the perfect instrument of Caitanya Mahaprabhu to establish the science of Bhakti Yoga. an incarnate aspect of Sri Krishna. renunciation. From the earliest age. Bhakti-rasmrita-sindhu (Nectar of Devotion). The Radha-Govindadev temple. The deity was later moved and can be today found in Kamyava (West Vraja). is the most opulent and majestic temple of Vrindavan and built under the patronage of the Mughal Emperor Akbar and the Hindu Raja Mann Singh of Jaipur. All this however changed after he was spiritually guided to a hidden deity of Sri Govindadev. a close associate of Caitanya Mahaprabhu concluded that he could only have done by receiving the mercy of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. as the proprietor of Vrindavan. in his opinion two extremely vital books on the philosophy of Krishna consciousness. The famous Rupa Goswami. Ujjvala-nilamani and Laghu Bhagvatamrita. The realizations of Rupa Goswami were so perfect. sambandha gyan (acknowledging a relationship with Krishna). the founder Acarya of ISKCON. rhetoric and the theistic message of the Srimad Bhagavatam. Let us pray for his mercy with the following pranama mantra. was his younger brother and considered himself to be his servant and disciple. If the magnificent temple is a testimony to dedication and devotion of Srila Rupa Goswami. of one who can serve Sri Krishna. philosophy. the great-grandson of Sri Krishna. so many times removed. Rupa Goswami established the deity of Vrinadadevi. worshipping in the Rupanuga form of bhakti. his literary works are even more so. Sarvabhuma Bhattacharya. knowledge. Shortly after arriving. Jiva Goswami. that Savrupa Damodar. Apparently resigned to his fate. the superlative manifestation of humility. He accepted instructions from such luminaries as Vidya Vachaspati. Rupa Goswami however was not able to make much progress earlier and would frequently lament his inability to carry out the wishes of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Sanatana Goswami settled in Ramakeli in Northern Bengal. the younger brother of Sanatana Goswami. abhideya gyan (establishing that relationship) and finally prayojana gyan (relishing the relationship). writing more than 100. dedication and compassion.

However Sanatana Goswami remained in Ramakeli. Caitanya Mahaprabhu. This is known as 'sambandha tattva' and from this platform only can a devotee advance to actually establishing a relationship with Krishna (abhideya 249 . The enraged Nawab had Sanatana Goswami temporarily thrown in jail. He used his time and wealth to help the Brahman community and prepare himself for his eventual service to the Lord. From here. Rupa and Anupama were able to immediately leave for Vrindavan. The omniscient Caitanya Mahaprabhu however sensed this and chastised him strongly. after which he proceeded to Vrindavan. worshipping of Madan-Mohan is on the platform of re-establishing one's forgotten relationship with the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The opulent temple of Sri Radha Madan-Mohan was built by a wealthy merchant Krishnadas Kapoor. who had prayed to Madan-Mohan to free his salt laden ship stuck in a sandbar. Sanatana Goswami resolved to end his life. Caitanya Mahaprabhu having imparted the most important lesson in devotion. simply by His touch and instructed him to establish temples at the birthplace of Lord Krishna. Unable to render any service to Caitanya Mahaprabhu. This final surrender is a demonstration of the loving relationship between the Lord and His pure devotee. After receiving many instructions from Caitanya Mahaprabhu. for attraction to Madan-Mohan nullifies all material attractions. and sure enough. Though the Brahman was first reluctant to part with the Deity. MadanMohan was initially worshipped by Sanatana Goswami in a very simple and humble manner. The Deities were later removed from here to Jaipur to protect Them against the tyrannical Mogul ruler. Quite appropriately. the brothers met Him in a meeting that is often described as pivotal in the annals of Gaudiya Vaishnava. which would started a tradition of temple building resulting in more that 5000 temples in Vrindavan. They were then moved to Karoli where They are being worshipped to this day. When Caitanya Mahaprabhu visited Ramakeli on the pretext of going to Vrindavan. he was later instructed in a dream and agreed to give the Deity to Sanatana Goswami. to wind up his material affairs. So competent were the brothers in administration that the Shah completely delegated the daily affairs to them and spend his time trying to expand his territory. The Nawab however became suspicious and sent his physician who discovered that not only was Sanatana Goswami in perfect health. Sanatana Goswami dreamt that a very beautiful Deity of Krishna was being worshipped by a humble Brahman. but his house was full of Brahmans who were studying and discussing Srimad Bhagavatam. Here he contacted some kind of skin disease which resulted in oozing wounds all over the body. waiting for instructions from his eternal master. feigning illness. the next day while begging for alms he came across the very same Deity being worshipped in the house of a poor Brahman called Purushottam Chaube. Sanatana Goswami was however able to bribe his way out and make his way to Benares to meet Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Madan-Mohan means one who attracts even Cupid. but had been lost over time. and this relationship is very relevant for neophyte devotees. However Sanatana Goswami was simply bidding his time. completely cured Sanatana Goswami. Here he remained for two months receiving several valuable instruction from the Lord on the science of Bhakti. The very first temple in Vrindavan. and the grateful merchant built a magnificent temple for Madan-Mohan. Aurangazeb. When Sanatana Goswami went again to meet Caitanya Mahaprabhu in Puri. the great-grandson of Sri Krishna.Caitanya-candra (revenue officer) and given immense wealth by the delighted Shah. One night. Sanatana Goswami stayed outside with Haridas Thakur the namacarya disciple of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Sri Radha Madan-Mohan was established by Sanatana Goswami. Not wanting to enter the holy temple of Jagannath Puri. The Deity of MadanMohan were first established by Vajra. Vrindavan. The ship was freed while the merchant was praying. he traveled in the most austere manner through the forests of Jharakandha. Finally Sanatana Goswami realized that on his own he was totally incapable of performing any act of devotion.

With his humble attitude. having accomplished His mission of converting the mayavadi philosophers of Benares to devotees of Sri Krishna. When Raghunath Bhatta eventually 250 . an intimate associate of Srimati Radharani. he revealed to Tapan Mishra for the first time His intention of establishing the yuga dharma of Sankirtana. Raghunath Bhatta was heart broken.Caitanya-candra tattva) and finally relishing the relationship (prayojana tattva). Foremost is the Hari-Bhakti-vilas (edited by Gopala Bhatta Goswami). Another of his work the BrihatBhagavatamrita. It is known that his ancestry hails from East Bengal and his father was Tapan Mishra a respected Brahaman scholar who had inquired from Caitanya Mahaprabhu about the meaning of life. On the instructions of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. keen intellect and complete surrender to the Lord. Sanatana Goswami is credited with several authoritative works on devotional service. types of devotees and their relationships to the Lord (rasas) In the second part it gives the glories of the spiritual world and the process of renouncing the material world. called the Dashama-tipani. Finally when he was twenty. It also describes the types of bhaktis.3 Srila Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami Raghunath Bhatta Goswami (1505-1579) is in many ways the most mysterious of the six Goswamis of Vrindavana. left for Puri. Though he was quite a bit older and despite several protests from Raghunath Bhatta. But he did not leave any literary contributions and very little is known of his antecedents. Raghunath Bhatta made several detours to visit the holy places. Raghunath Bhatta would soon become totally immersed in Krishna prema. scientific analysis of progress and pitfalls in bhakti. On the way. Ontologically Sanatana Goswami is considered to be an incarnation of Rati or Labanga Manjari. Sanatana Goswami lived. 13. Raghunath Bhatta and a servant left Benares for Puri. Even though Caitanya Mahaprabhu was at the time playing His pastime of an eminent scholar and logician. Here the Lord was served by the nine year old Raghunath Bhatta and inspired by the blessing and association. Later in 1514. When Sri Caitanya. He would constantly dwell on his memories of Caitanya Mahaprabhu and as he grew he developed longing to be re-united with the Lord and serve Him personally. the jewel amongst the four Kumaras sons of Brahma. preached and left for posterity the science of devotional service. bona-fide interpretation of the scripture. Caitanya Mahaprabhu considered his singing. by massaging his legs and carrying his luggage for him. Ramdas soon realized that Raghunath Bhatta was indeed a highly renounced devotee. Here is also met and befriended Ramdas and great devotee of Lord Rama. which describes in twenty chapters (or vilas) a detailed. He resided at the house of Chandrashekar and took His daily lunch at the house of Tapan Mishra. Ramdas insisted on serving him menially throughout the journey. which gives the Caitanyite perspective on the activities of Sri Krishna and is thus considered as the authoritative. It is also said that Sanatana Kumar. cooking and recitation of the Srimad Bhagavatam as unparalleled in the history of Vaishnavism. as was the custom of the times. Sanatana Goswami also wrote a insightful commentary on the Tenth Canto of the Srimad Bhagavatam. Caitanya Mahaprabhu stopped in Benares on His way back to Puri from Vrindavana. in its first part gives a detailed description of the universes from the material to the spiritual world. was also present in the incarnation as Sanatana Goswami. Tapan Mishra relocated to Benares in 1503 and two years later Raghunath Bhatta was born. Although very advanced himself. He was honored by everyone and was considered to be an extension of the transcendental body of Caitanya Mahaprabhu.

and in the mean time perfected his understanding and rendering of the Srimad Bhagavatam from an elevated devotee of the Lord. These instructions of the omniscient Lord would shape the future of Raghunath Bhatta. On reaching Vrindavan. even in those days. He himself would often display all the symptoms of maha-bhava at the recitations and discourses on the holy name. Raghunath Bhatta himself prepared several ornaments for the Deity. including a flute and a set of ear rings shaped like a shark. Raghunath 251 . One cannot penetrate the mysteries of the Srimad Bhagavatam without the guidance of a spiritual master in a disciplic succession. Despite this huge financial contribition the brothers had millions left over which they used abundantly for charity and pious activities. However after this Caitanya Mahaprabhu once again sent him away. this time to Vrindavan. Mahaprabhu demonstrated that dharma (worldly duties) and para-dharma (spiritual duties) could be nicely dovetailed together by an expert devotee. He lived the life of a genuine saint. And so Caitanya Mahaprabhu initially instructed Raghunath Bhatta Goswami to study in this way. His father Govardhana Majumdar and elder uncle Hiranya were multi-millionares. Even though he was deeply absorbed in the love of Godhead. He quickly endeared himself to the inhabitants of Vrindavan by his blissful recitations of the Bhagavatam. who were pleased to associate with such an elevated devotee. In asking him to serve his old parents. After eight months of association. Raghunath Bhatta once again returned to Puri and happily served His eternal master for another eight months. Raghunath Bhatta was keenly aware of his surrounding. Caitanya Mahaprabhu advised him not to marry. 13. Who allowed him to render service to Him and instructed him on the various intricacies of the Vedic philosophy. At other times he recited the Hare Krishna maha-mantra with such devotion that the listeners would swoon with ecstasy. So Raghunath Bhatta continued to serve his parents till the time they passed away. Raghunath Bhatta demonstrated how to assimilated it into one's life. he was joyfully greeted by Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He never spoke or listened to any mundane subjects. Observing his renunciation. Caitanya Mahaprabhu was very appreciative of his cooking and singing. talking and hearing about Sri Krishna. he saw every thing around him and utilized it in the service of Krishna. Soon Raghunath Bhatta took full shelter of Rupa Goswami's Govindadev deity and eventually had several wealthy disciples construct a gorgeous temple in the honor of Govinda. He was divinely intoxicated. he belonged to a fabulously rich family of landords. Having properly studied the Bhagavatam.4 Srila Raghunatha Das Goswami Srila Raghunatha Das Goswami (1495-1571) was the first of the six Goswamis to meet Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Caitanya Mahaprabhu instructed Raghunath Bhatta to return to Puri and serve his parents. He also advised him to hear and understand the Bhagavatam from a realized soul. if they have the desire to read and understand the unique love of Godhead coming through the Srimad Bhagavatam. Born in a small vilage of Chandpur (now called Sri Krishnapur) in West Bengal. the Emperor of Bengal went so far to lease the entire Saptagram district to the two brothers for an annual rent of 1. Here he received special mercy of the Lord. Soon Raghunath Bhatta became an expert cook and it is said that what ever he cooked tasted like nectar. to seek the shelter of Rupa and Sanatana Goswami and help them in their mission. day and night. with all encompassing love and humility and set up a model for devotees in the future to follow. He made the Srimad Bhagavatam his life and soul. Yet.2 Million Rupees. Even though Raghunath Bhatta did not leave behind any writings his life was an example of a pure devotee. Hussein Shah.Caitanya-candra reached Puri. Raghunath Bhatta Goswami would render the complicated verses of the Bhagavatam in three of four different melodies. Raghunath Bhatta placed himself in the guidance of Rupa and Sanatana Goswami. four years later.

Lord Nityananda Prabhu. So ecstatic was the prasadam distributed here that devotees from distant places rushed to partake the nectar. Furious the king ordered that he be tortured. Faithfully following the instructions of his Lord. but after hearing a great soliloquy from him on the virtues of kindness and brotherhood. At the height of distribution. who immediately surrendered to the Lotus feet of the Lord. eating only three meager meals in twelve days. once again in Santipur. one of the most intimate associates of Caitanya Mahaprabhu came to Pannihati. incited by an envious former governor of Saptgram decided to have the father and uncle of Raghunath Das arrested. The meeting was emotional and intense. Raghunath Das heard about Caitanya Mahaprabhu's visit to Santipur and despite resistance from his parents.Caitanya-candra Das was instructed in his boyhood by Balaram Acarya. he accepted him as his son and released him. Raghunath Das was able to meet his Lord and associate with Him. a great scholar and an advanced devotee of the Lord. Raghunath Das was unable to maintain even the semblance of materialistic life. the king was moved to tears. The king tried to get all kinds of information from Raghunath Das. the soldiers arrested Raghunath Das and bought him back. After ten days of blissful association. a village very close to Saptagram. though only a few advanced devotee could see Him. So with little resistance. materialistic lifestyle. After a lot of difficulty. By this time Raghunath Das's parents had resigned themselves to his spirituality and Caitanya Mahaprabhu had also become famous as a saint. He married a girl said to be of unexcelled beauty and seemed to settle down into an opulent. and an incarnation. chipped rice. placed His Lotus feet on the boy's head. Soon after the incident. Lord Nityananda had all the devotees bless Raghunath Das and also gave him His own blessings. Though Raghunath Das was eager to give up his family and riches. sweets and fruits. young Raghunath Das was able to meet Nityananda Prabhu and with great humility begged for His mercy to be able to serve Caitanya Mahaprabhu. walking several miles every day. unmindful of the danger of the ferocious animals around him. the body fasting while the spirit feasted at the prospect of seeking the shelter of his eternal Master. He also reached an amicable agreement regarding the mis-understandings with the management of Saptagram. Raghunath Das soon had the area inundated with prasadam comprising of yogurt. which he did not honestly have. He introduced Raghunath Das to Haridas Thakur. Raghunath Das began to responsibly manage his father's estate. This meeting was marked by the historic 'Danda Mahotasava' in which Lord Nityananda as a 'punishment' to Raghunath Das. milk. Caitanya Mahaprabhu manifested Himself. Since none of them were present at the time. Despite all this he finally managed to escape and headed for Puri to be united with His Lord. Caitanya Mahaprabhu was very 252 . the great Namacarya devotee of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Recognizing Raghunath Das to be an elevated devotee. At the age of 15. The festival of 'Danda Mahotsava' is celebrated to this day in Pannihati with great religious fervor. pastries. He hardly slept. who imparted a deep devotional spirit to Raghunath Das. He would have to wait for another four years before he would get another opportunity to associate with the Lord. However this would only last for two years before fate took a hand. Eager to use his wealth in the service of the Lord. He also directed Raghunath Das to arrange for prasadam for the hundreds of devotees who had accompanied Lord Nityananda. ran away from home to meet Him. This would be the first glimpse of the intense austerity that Raghunath Das would later be famous for. Caitanya Mahaprabhu instructed him to return home and live as a worldly man. Having received Bhakti from the most intimate associates of the Lord. He traveled with single minded determination. He tried to escape so often that his parent hired a large contingent of guards to accompany him every where. Caitanya Mahaprabhu left for Puri and Raghunath Das returned home with feeling of intense seperation from the Lord. Caitanya Mahaprabhu recognized His eternal devotee in the form of Raghunath Das. The Emperor of Bengal. He traveled with great austerity.

now reconciled to his departure would send him great wealth.5 Srila Jiva Goswami Srila Jiva Goswami is the most prolific. Raghunath Das Goswami would spend several hours on the banks of Radha-kunda. He also initiated the systematic preaching of Caitanya 253 . it just made Raghunath Das all the more humble. Sanatana Goswami saw Srimati Radharani. Raghunath Das Goswami stayed in Puri for sixteen years at which time Caitanya Mahaprabhu left the planet. scholars and spiritualist from far and wide. Two or three years later. abstracts and at least twenty authoritative works on the science of bhakti. Acknowledged as one of the greatest philosophers in all times. His personal assistant. Danacharita and Mukta-charita. He served Swaroop Damodar with great devotion. He asked him to build a small hut for his protection. sleeping for only one hour. Raghunath Das Goswami wrote deeply profound verses about the pastimes of Radha-Krishna. This would start the tradition of building bhajan-kutirs by devotees to chant and meditate in isolation. The parents of Raghunath Das. As the legend goes. His intense devotion and austerities attracted sages. he stopped accepting that also.000 verses of commentaries. Even though this was a great honor. He rarely approached Caitanya Mahaprabhu directly. He gave up all food and drink. and some time not even that. Caitanya Mahaprabhu gave him His personal stone from Govardhana Hill and a garland of Tulasi leaves. He also offered one thousand obeisances to the Lord and chanted at least one hundred thousand holy names daily. Appreciating his renunciation and devotion. Finally reasoning that he was not advanced enough to handle this materialistic wealth. With passing years the devotion and austerities of Raghunath Das only increased. He was totally detached from material enjoyment and is appropriately known as the prayojana acarya. but Raghunath Das would only use it entirely for the service of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. In Vrindavan. Sanatana Goswami witnessed that Sri Krishna. completely absorbed in his meditation of the Divine Couple. at the request of Rupa and Sanatana Goswami. smilingly holding Her garment to shield Her devotee from the intense sunlight. Svaroop Damodar also left his body. Herself drenched in transcendental perspiration. one who teaches by his own example about the ultimate goal of life. he is best remembered as the very emblem of renunciation. and Raghunath Das Goswami. which Raghunath Das Goswami complied with. Considering themselves to be the servants of Srimati Radharani. He would chant for twenty-two hours every day. Himself was guarding His devotee for a pair of tigers that had come to drink in the Radha-kunda. his spiritual master. considering himself to be unfit to associate with Him. These were incalculably precious items. These have been compiled into called the Stava-mala. exemplifying the 'dasanudas' (servant of the servant) mood of a pure devotee. Beyond his literary accomplishments. has dedicated an entire department to study the works of Jiva Goswami. 13. With characteristic humility he would offer obeisances to each of the around two thousand devotees who daily approached him.Caitanya-candra pleased to see Raghunath Das and entrusted him to the care of Svaroop Damodara. Sanatana Goswami chastised Raghunath Das Goswami for taking service from their Masters. taking just a few drops of buttermilk a day. His fame as a mystic became so widespread that devotees from miles across would come to see him. since they were personally present with the Lord for more than three years. following the last instructions of Caitanya Mahaprabhu left for Vrindavana to assist Rupa and Santana Goswami in their mission to re-establish Vrindavana to its rightful position at the apex of all holy places. He composed about 400. the Benares Hindu University. voluminous and versatile writer of the six Goswamis of Vrindavana. On one occasion. now forty years of age. Raghunath Das Goswami would spend two hours every day recounting the pastimes of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. On another occasion.

Jiva now proceeded to Vrindavana. On the pretext of visiting their ancestral home in nearby Fatehbad. While Jiva Goswami did not get the privilege of being instructed directly by Caitanya Mahaprabhu. humility and respect. In the spirit of true Vaishnava humility. a 'digvijaya' (one who had conquered in all directions) but. large shoulders and chest. Jiva had to resort to tricking his reluctant mother. an important disciple of Sarvabhauma Bhattacharya. the widow of the Lord. Before Rupa initiated Jiva. and a travelling scholar called Rupanarayana Saraswati arrived in Vrindavana.Caitanya-candra Mahaprabhu's mission by training and dispatching luminaries like Narottama Dasa Thakura. Here Jiva also had the privilege to honor prasadam prepared by Vishnupriya. and lived for one year in 254 . Rupa Goswami accepted him as his disciple. Jiva Goswami (1513-1598) is the youngest of the six Goswamis of Vrindavana. he was greatly inspired by his illustrious uncles in Vrindavana. hands reaching to his knees and the effulgence of molten gold. seeing Them as nondifferent from Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Nityananda Prabhu. Rupanarayana then proceeded to challenge Jiva. By the time Jiva reached Vrindavana. Anupama is the younger brother of Rupa and Sanatana Goswami and was initiated by Caitanya Mahaprabhu in Ramakeli. defeating scholars and then getting them to sign a letter of defeat. Following the instructions of Lord Nityananda. In Navadvipa he met Lord Nityananda Prabhu. Jiva first went to Benares to seek out Madhusudana Vachaspati. As Jiva grew into the teens he displayed a burning passion for spiritual enlightenment. Some months passed since Jiva's initiation. Rupa and Anupama left Ramakeli and later received many instructions from Him in Prayaga (Allahabad). In order to fulfill his burning desire to visit Navadvipa. the mother of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He severely chastised him and actually banished him from Vrindavana. He was a vastly learned scholar. Later when travelling to Puri through Bengal. He had lotus like eyes. Shrinivasa Acarya and Shyamananda Pandit. and surrendered to His Lotus feet for instruction. he was twenty years old and was greeted joyfully by his uncles Rupa and Sanatana Goswami. Rupa Goswami was very upset at this display of nonVaishnava behavior by Jiva. When his mother passed away Jiva resolved to live the life of a recluse in Vrindavan under the guidance of his two elevated uncles. both Rupa and Sanatana simply accepted Rupanarayana as their superior and signed the letter of defeat without engaging in any debate. poetry. In this way Jiva was visited all the nine islands of Navadvipa. In a relatively short time. His father. He took Jiva to meet Sacidevi. he had come to challenge them to a debate. his body acquired all the symptoms of a Mahapurush or an empowered divinity. Jiva had no interest in worldly affairs and constantly hoped to join his two uncles in Vrindavan. Jiva first approached his elder uncle Sanatana Goswami for initiation into the Caitanyaite Vaishnava line. high nose and forehead. who was also famous as a scholar. Jiva immediately recognized Him as non-different from Lord Balarama. Having heard of the fame of Rupa and Sanatana Goswami. Jiva became well versed in all aspects of Vedanta philosophy and acquired the reputation of an eminent scholar. he tested his mettle for one year. Out of humility. Following the instructions of Lord Nityananda. Sanatana Goswami referred Jiva to his younger brother Rupa Goswami. He was a child prodigy having mastered grammar. Jiva accepted the challenge and defeated him in a debate that lasted for seven days on the banks of the river Yamuna. Finally satisfied that Jiva in addition to being a brilliant scholar also had self-control. On the instructions of the Lord. unfortunately his pride was as vast as his knowledge. Jiva accepted the rebuke of his spiritual master. Anupama left his body on the banks of the river Ganges. by having him perform all kinds of menial service. Nityananda Prabhu took Jiva to the many sites where the pastimes of the Caitanya Mahaprabhu had been enacted. As he grew. He was in the habit of travelling to all places. Incensed at the boasting of the vain scholar. At this time he began to worship the deity form of Krishna-Balarama. Jiva proceeded to Navadvipa. logic and scriptures at a very young age.

and made the knowledge accessible to every one. Even though the brothers belonged to the Sri (Laxmi) Sampradaya.Caitanya-candra Mathura. Brilliant yet humble. Jiva' s victory was not for personal prestige but to refute Rupanarayana's unfounded claims of superiority over Rupa and Sanatana Goswami. which is know being closely scrutinized by scholars all over the world. Vyenkata Bhatta and his brothers. Spiritual knowledge in its purest form is delivered to the fullest extend in these literary masterpiece. He inspired His disciples. living in great austerities in the hollow of a tree and eating very frugally. he dedicated his life to the instructions of his spiritual master and Vaishnava teachers. Sri Sanatana Goswami. Sri Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami. that at the request of Jiva Goswami. But at the same time he unwaveringly accepted the chastisement of his spiritual master. till he was 255 . which follows the aishwarya (awe and reverence) mode of worship. chief amongst then the six Goswamis. The literary contributions of Jiva Goswami are too many to list here. who wrote and explained the philosophy of Bhakti Yoga. Prabhodhananda Saraswati and Tirumalla Bhatta were famous for their vast learning and piety. Prominent amongst them was Akbar. He was a crucial link between the immediate disciples of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. were instructed and inspired by Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself at various times and places. When Caitanya Mahaprabhu had undertaken His walking trip to South India in 1511. He worked hard to preserve the volumes of Vaishnava literature and with the help of Emperor Akbar. Finally by the mercy of Sanatana Goswami. Rupa forgave Jiva and accepted him back into Vrindavana. Jiva Goswami inspired many great kings of his time. Sri Raghunatha Das Goswami. Jiva Goswami also wrote elaborate commentaries on the works of his uncles. masterminded the construction of Granth Bhandara or a library of scriptures. His masterful Shat-sandarba is a six volume literary jewel that fulfills not only the goals of his prestigious uncles and Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Sri Rupa Goswami. Mahaprabhu convinced the brothers about the superiority of the ragunaga (spontaneous love) form of worship. the Moslem emperor of India. and the next generation of Vaishnavas who took these transcendental teachings and preached them to the world. Jiva Goswami was the personification of all Vaishnava qualities. following a vow of silence. 13. When the departure of Mahaprabhu became imminent. which provides a unique way of learning Sanskrit grammar through the names of Krishna. but should not tolerate any disrespect to his spiritual master or Krishna. So impressed was Akbar. he personally came and took many instructions from him. the pain of separation became unbearable for Gopal Bhatta. As a Vaishnava one is supposed to be meek and humble when one's own honor is insulted. Each of the six Goswamis. Prominent amongst them is Harinamamrita-vyakarana. specially the Radha-Damodar temple. Sri Jiva Goswami and Sri Gopal Bhatta Goswami. but of the entire world. he played a major role in establishing prominent temples of worship in Vrindavana. While Caitanya Mahaprabhu left only eight verse (Siksastakam) that were recorded by Damodara Svarupa and presented by Krishnadas Kaviraja Goswami in the biography Caitanya Charitamrita.6 Srila Gopala Bhatta Goswami The six Goswamis of Vrindavan were entrusted by Caitanya Mahaprabhu to provide extensive guidance to people on the path of spirituality. His father Vyenkata Bhatta was a priest of the famous Narayana temple of Sri Rangam. Having heard of the fame of Jiva Goswami. to write extensively. Young Gopal was a keen audience to these discussions and was greatly inspired by Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Gopal Bhatta (1503-1578) was born in an orthodox Brahman family in South India. with scientific precision the process of bhakti. The behavior of Jiva Goswami is exemplary in both respects. He spent the four rainy months of Caturmasa with them and engaged in deep discussion about philosophy and bhakti.

His greatest work is the Hari-Bhakti-Vilas. Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Gopal Bhatta felt constrained by his inability to dress and decorate the shilas. When Gopal Bhatta arrived to Vrindavan. humility and devotion. was also pleased and send him many personal articles and paraphernalia for worship. Gopal Bhatta's fame as a scholar and a pure devotee spread all over India. a sanskrit text of the Gaudiya 256 . Gopal Bhatta followed these instructions were assiduously. However on reaching Vrindavan. Gopinatha Pujari married and his descendants worship the Radha-Ramandev deity to this day. He is always revered as one of the six Goswamis of Vrindavan and to this day followers commemorate his exemplary life by visiting his samadhi (tomb) at the Radha-Ramandev temple in Vrindavan. poetry and Vedic scriptures from him. comprises of twenty vilas (chapters) that provided a scientific. Gopal Bhatta’s reputation as a scholar and a devotee reached unprecedented proportions. On the instructions of Gopal Bhatta (who himself was a lifelong celibate). Sri Gaura-gannodesa dipika. named as Radha Ramandev. With the combined assets of Prabhodhanada Saraswati's vast knowledge and divine inspiration of Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Gopal Bhatta carried back with him twelve shilas (special stones that are considered as incarnations of Krishna). he was met with great joy by the pure devotees residing there. is still worshipped in the same place in Vrindavan and is one of the most famous temples in the Vraja dhama. This deity. he felt himself unqualified to worship them and made the long. and takes one through the pitfalls and dangers in the path of spiritual advancement. His next book Samskara Dipika. elucidates the rules of behavior and conduct of the sannyasis or renunciants. step-by-step analysis of Vaishnava etiquette. one of the shilas. overnight acquired the form of a deity. Living his life as an embodiment of the scriptures. Gopal Bhatta initiated such luminaries as Shrinivas Acarya and Gopinatha Pujari who continued as the priest for Radha Ramandev. In a trip to the Gandaki River in Nepal. Taking this as a sign from Krishna. In time he decided that he was now ready to carry out the mission of Caitanya Mahaprabhu and proceeded to Vrindavan to meet Rupa and Sanatana Goswami. or eternally perferct. Responding to his intense desire. Gopal Bhatta is famous for his erudition. Caitanya Mahaprabhu personally instructed Gopal Bhatta to serve his parents while they were alive. His book Sat-Kriya-Sar-Dipika is a classic on the tenets of Gaudiya Vaishnavism. while his love and devotion for Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Sri Krishna catapulted him to the status of a saint. In time he accepted his uncle Prabhodhanada Saraswati to be his spiritual master and acquired a deep understanding of the Sanskrit. Once on a festival. grammar. The shilas however refused to be left in the water and repeatedly jumped back into his hand. 14 LORD CAITANYA AND HIS ETERNAL ASSOCIATES SPIRITUAL IDENTITIES All the associates of Lord Caitanya are nitya-siddha. called the Damodar shila.Caitanya-candra pacified by Caitanya Mahaprabhu in a spiritual dream where Mahaprabhu revealed His original identity as Krishna and instructed Gopal Bhatta to serve under Rupa and Sanatana Goswami in Vrindavan. His intense study and elaborate knowledge of scriptures acquired him a reputation as one of the most important religious scholar ever produced. now in Puri. much to the pleasure of Gopal Bhatta. Gopal Bhatta immersed himself in writing about the science of bhakti. Following these instructions. which he corroborated with Rupa Goswami. Before leaving how ever. Gopal Bhatta took them back with him and began worshipping them very nicely in Vrindavan. This delineates with great care the ten rituals or samsakaras giving common people valuable guidance on the gradual elevation to spiritual life while pursuing materialistic activities. The associates of Lord Caitanya are never imperfect. arduous journey back to place the shilas back in the river.

Raghunatha Bhatta Goswami was a gopi named Raga Manjari. the King of Vrajabhumi appeared as Jagannatha Misra. however. The two drunkard brothers namely Jagai and Madhai were actually Jai and Vijaya. the goddess of fotune. After these three incarnations. the guru of the demigods. And Mother Yasoda. Then as Ravana and Kumbhakarna. the wife of Lord Ramacandra and Rukmini. Hanumana the dearmost servent of Lord Ramacandra appeared as Murari Gupta in Kali-yuga. Virabhadra Gosani was an incarnation of Ksirodakasayi Visnu. The author of Sri Caitanya-Bhagavat. the father of Sri Caitanya. who appeared as the son of Rohinidevi and the brother of Sri Krsna in Dvapara-yuga. the wife of Lord Caitanya. Sri Kamalakara. Srila Vrindavan dasa Thakur was an incarnation of Srila Vyasadeva. And finally as Sisupal and Dantavakra. The same goddess of fortune descended as Laksmidevi. Sandipani Muni who formerly offered the sacred thread to Krsna and Balarama in Dvapara-yuga later became Kesava Bharati who offered sannyasa to Lord Caitanya. Sri Nityananda Prabhu is the same Balarama. Sanatana Goswami was a gopi named Rati Manjari. Here are some of the spiritual identities of some of the Lord’s associates. the mother of Lord Caitanya. Lord Caitanya’s second wife was also an incarnation of Laksmidevi. the Queen of Vrajabumi appeared as Srimati Sacidevi. Apart from this. This time as Jagai and Madhai. Kala Krsna Dasa. the dvadasa gopalas. And in this way they were blessed to take part in Lord Caitanya’s pastimes. they took birth as Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu. Sundara. a great friend of Narada. Ramananda Raya.Visvarupa was also an incarnation of Balarama. Visnupriya devi. Svarupa Damodara was the same gopi named Visakhadevi who serves the Lord in Goloka Vrindavana. the wife of Lord Krsna in Dvarka. Rama Dasa. there are other such spiritual identities of the associates of the Lord mentioned in the text. they again took a special birth in the material world. two great devotees of the Lord Visnu who were cursed to take three demonic births before returning to their rightful position in the spiritual wold. Vakresvara Pandita was Aniruddha. twelve cowherd boys of Vraja appeared again as Lord Caitanya’s associates. Rama Pandita. Sri Laksmidevi was formerly Janaki. Krsna Dasa. Gauri Dasa.and Uddharana Dutta. The two very fine singers of Vraja namely Madhukantha and Madhuvrata in krsna-lila appeared as Mukunda and Vasudeva Datta respectively in caitanya-lila. Srivasa’s younger brother was an incarnation of Parvata Muni. Purusottama. Lord Caitanya’s elder brother. Gopinatha Simha was previously Akrura. Isvara Puri’s godbrother was none other than Uddhava who was Lord Krsna’s friend and uncle in krsna-lila became the friend of Lord Caitanya and His uncle in terms of their relationship in the disciplic succession. Nanda Maharaja. mukhyan mukhyatamam prabhoh 257 .Caitanya-candra Vaisnavas gives the spiritual identity of Lord Caitanya’s eternal and confidential associates. Jiva Goswami was a gopi named Vilasa Manjari. 15 GLORIES OF LORD CAITANYA’S HOLY NAMES (III) In the Brahma-rahasya it is stated: krsna-caitanyeti nama. Namacarya Srila Haridas Thakur was a dual incarnation of Lord Brahma and Prahlada Maharaja. the compiler of the Vedic scriptures. Minaketana Ramadasa was none other than Sankarsana. The six principal disciples of Lord Caitanya: Rupa Goswami was a gopi named Rupa Manjari. First. Sarvabhauma Bhattacarya was an incarnation Brhaspati. Nilambara Cakravarti. the maternal grandfather of Lord Gaurahari was the same Gargamuni who in Dvapara-yuga was the guru of the Yadu dynasty. Paramananda Puri. a great devotee of Lord Caitanya was Arjuna (the son of Queen Kunti) in the previous yuga.Raghunatha Dasa Goswami was a gopi named Rasa Manjari and Gopala Bhatta Goswami was a gopi named Ananga Manjari in krsna-lila.

He is Krsna Himself.5. By chanting this name just once.” In the Srimad Bhagavatam (11. 258 . anya saba nama-mahatmya sei name pau. "The holy name Krsna Caitanya is the topmost even among all the important primary holy names of the Lord Krsna. a person attains the results (punya) of chanting all the other holy names of the Lord.Caitanya-candra helaya sakrd uccarya. punanti sakalam jagat. intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the holy name of Krsna. Such enlightened persons worship Kali-yuga because in this fallen age all perfection of life can easily be achieved by the performance of saìkértana of the Suprem Lord’s holy names. "The most powerful names of God are the names of the most merciful incarnation of God. kirtayanti sakrn narah. The glories and power of all the other names of God are completely present in the names of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. it is stated: krsna varnam tvisakrsnam | sangopangastra parsadam|| yajnaih sankirtana prayair | yajanti hi sumedhasah || “In the age of Kali.36) it is stated: kalià sabhäjayanty äryä guëa jïäù sära-bhäginaù yatra saìkértanenaiva sarva-svärtho ’bhilabhyate Those who are actually advanced in knowledge are able to appreciate the essential value of this age of Kali.32). weapons and confidential companions. who is known as Lord Gaura." 16 THE YUGA-DHARMA AND THE HARE KRSNA MAHAMANTRA What is the dharma in kali-yuga according to Vedic scriptures? In the Srimad Bhagavatam (11. sarva-nama-phalam labhet." In the Visnu-yamala it is said: krsna-caitanya-namna ye. He is accompanied by His associates. Although His complexion is not blackish. namaparadha-muktas te.5. "Those who chant the name of Krsna Caitanya even once become free from all offenses and purify all the worlds by their very presence. servants." Srila Jagadananda Pandita says in Prema-vivarta: gaura ye visala nama sei nama gau.

he remains unaffected by the reverses of Kali-yuga. have accomplished their desires in the age of Kali." (Brhan-naradiya Purana) dhyayan krte yajan | yajnais tretayam dvapare || 259 . There is no other way. in Treta-yuga by performing extensive yajnas. are addicted to congregational chanting (kirtana) and engage in the worship of Lord Hari. There is unlimited bliss in chanting the different names of Krsna: Hari. in Kali-yuga the same results are easily attained simply by the chanting of the holy names of Kesava (Krsna). For one who chants constantly with unflinching faith. Govinda.tretayam dvapare || rcayan yadapnoti tadapnoti | kalau samkirtaya kesavam || "The supreme goal which was attained in Satya-yuga by years of prolonged meditation.Caitanya-candra In the Srimad Bhagavatam (12. simply by chanting the Hare Krishna mahamantra one can become free from material bondage and be promoted to the transcedental kingdom." (Visnu Purana) harer nama harer nama | harer namaiva kevalam || kalau nasty eva nasty eva | nasty eva gatir anyatha || "In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy the only means of deliverance is chanting of the holy name of ONLY Lord Hari. Kesava." (Brhad Naradiya Purana) harinama para ye ca ghore kali-yuge narah | te eva krtakrtyasca na kalir badhate hi tan hare || kesava govinda vasudeva jaganmaya | itirayanti ye nityam na hi tam badhate kalih || "In this dark age of Kali-yuga. there is still one good quality about this age. Whatever result was obtained in Satya-yuga be meditating on Visnu. in Treta-yuga by performing sacrifices and in Dvapara-yuga by serving the Lord's feet can be obtained in Kali-yuga simply by chanting the Hare Krishna maha-mantra" dhyayan krte yajan | yajnais. There is no other way. Vasudeva and Jaganmaya. because his heart has become purified by chanting." (Brhan-naradiya Purana) hari-nama-para ye ca | hari-kirtana tat parah || hari-puja-para ye ca te | krtarthah kalau-yuge || "Those who engage in chanting the holy name of Lord Hari (japa). it is stated: kaler doña-nidhe räjann asti hy eko mahän guëaù kértanäd eva kåñëasya mukta-saìgaù paraà vrajet krte yad dhyayato visnum tretayam yajato makhaih dvapare paricaryayam kalau tad dhari-kirtanat Sukadeva Goswami says to Pariksit Maharaja: "My dear King. sincere devotees of the Supreme Lord Krsna should leave aside all other means for liberation and take full shelter of the holy name.3. in Dvapara-yuga by opulent and scrupulous Deity worship. There is no other way. This is their real responsibility and duty. although Kali-yuga is an ocean of faults.51-52).

Caitanya-candra ’rcayan yad apnoti tad apnoti | kalau sankirtya kesavam || "Whatever is achieved in Satya-yuga by meditation, in Treta by offering ritual sacrifices and in Dvapara by temple worship is achieved in Kali-yuga by chanting the names of Lord Kesava congregationally." (Padma Purana, Uttara Khanda 42nd Chapter) satyam kali-yuga vipra | sri harer nama mangalam || param svastyayanam nrnam | nasty-eva gatir anyatha || "Oh brahmana, chanting of the holy name of Sri Hari is the auspicious process in Kali Yuga. It is the highest auspiciousness for mankind. There is no other way." (Padma Purana) krsna krsneti krsneti | svapan jagrad vrajamstatha || yo jalpati kalau nityam | krsna-rupi bhaveddhi sah || "Whoever continuously chants Lord Krsna's holy name, even in his sleep, can easily realise that the name is a direct manifestation of Krsna Himself, in spite of the influences of Kaliyuga. This has been ordained by Lord Krsna. (Varaha Purana) kali-kala kusarpasya | tiksna-damstrasya ma bhayam || govinda-nama-danena | dagdhoyasyati bhasmatam || "I see that Kali-yuga is like a black, poisonous snake with a gaping mouth and fangs. But please be unperturbed dear devotees and listen with faith. Once the holy name of Lord Govinda is being chanted, it is like igniting a forest fire which will burn to ashes the poisonous snakes within the forest. (Skanda Purana) mahabhagavata nityam | kalau samkirtaya kesavam || "The hallmark of a mahabhagavata, the most elevated devotee in Kali-yuga is that he chants the holy name of Lord Kesava (Krsna) constantly. (Skanda Purana) varjams-tisthan svapannasnan svasan | vakya-prapuranenama-samkirtanam || visnor- helaya kali-vardhanam krtva | svarupatam yati bhakti-yuktam param vrajet || "In our normal activities of eating, sleeping, sitting, dreaming, etc. to chant Krsna's names, while nullify the ill effects of Kali-yuga, is the perfection of speech. Even it a person chants Krsna's names indifferently, he will surely achieve his svarupa, or original spiritual self and attain that state beyond all material fear and lamentation. He will reach Vaikuntha, the supreme goal. (Linga Purana) And finally, Srila Madhvacarya himself, quoting Narayana Samhita, in his Mundakopanisad Bhasya says: dvapariyair janair visnuh | pancaratrais tu kevalam || kalau tu nama-matrena | pujyate bhagavan harih ||


Caitanya-candra "In the Dvapara-yuga people should worship Lord Visnu only by the regulative principles of the pancaratra and other such authorized books. In the Age of Kali, however, people should only chant the holy names of the Supreme Personality of Godhead." PURIFICATION BY CHANTING The portency of the offenseless chanting is so immense that even the most fallen and sinful person can obtain enormous spiritual benefits by enganging in this process. aho bata sva-paco 'to gariyan yaj-jihvagre vartate nama tubhyam | tepus tapas te juhuvuh sasnur arya brahmanucur nama grnanti ye te || Oh, how glorious are they whose tongues are chanting Your holy name! Even if born in the families of dog-eaters, such persons are worshipable. Persons who chant the holy name of Your Lordship must have executed all kinds of austerities and fire sacrifices and achieved all the good manners of the Aryans. To be chanting the holy name of Your Lordship, they must have bathed at holy places of pilgrimage, studied the Vedas and fulfilled everything required. (Devahuti to Lord Kapiladev) (SB 3.33.7) tasmat sankirtanam visnor | jagan-mangalam amhasam || mahatam api kauravya | viddhy aikantika-niskrtam || My dear King, the chanting of the holy name of the Lord is able to uproot even the reactions of the greatest sins. Therefore the chanting of the sankirtana movement is the most auspicious activity in the entire universe. Please try to understand this so that others will take it seriously. (Sri Sukadeva Goswami to Maharaja Pariksita) (SB 6.3.31) namno hi yavati saktih | papa-nirarane hareh tavat || kartum na saknoti | patakam pataki narah || Simply by chanting the holy name of Hari, a sinful man can counteract the reactions of more sins than he is able to commit. (Brhad Vishnu Purana) THE REMEDY FOR THE AGE OF KALI The Srimad Bhagavatam, spoken 5,000 years ago accurately predicted the symptoms in the current age of Kali, also known as the age of quarrel and hypocrisy. However, this age has also received special benediction by the merciful Supreme Personality of Godhead, to make it very easy for us to return back home, back to Godhead. prayenalpayusah sabhya kalav asmin yuge janah mandah sumanda-matayo manda-bhagya hy upadrutah O learned one, in this iron age of Kali men have but short lives. They are quarrelsome, lazy, misguided, unlucky and, above all, always disturbed. [Sukadeva Goswami] SB 1.1.10 dure vary-ayanam tirtham lavanyam kesa-dharanam udaram-bharata svarthah satyatve dharstyam eva hi daksyam kutumba-bharanam yaso 'rthe dharma-sevanam


Caitanya-candra A sacred place will be taken to consist of no more than a reservoir of water located at a distance, and beauty will be thought to depend on one's hairstyle. Filling the belly will become the goal of life, and one who is audacious will be accepted as truthful. He who can maintain a family will be regarded as an expert man, and the principles of religion will be observed only for the sake of reputation. [Sukadeva Goswami] SB 12.2.6 THE POWER OF CHANTING All Vedic scriptures have glorified the chanting of holy name as the most portend method to free one from material attachments and develop a love for spirituality. The following verses from Srimad Bhagavatam nicely illustrate this point. apannah samsrtim ghoram | yan-nama vivaso grnan || tatah sadyo vimucyeta | yad bibheti svayam bhayam || Living beings who are entangled in the complicated meshes of birth and death can be freed immediately by even unconsciously chanting the holy name of Krsna, which is feared by fear personified. (SB 1.1.14 ) srnvanti gayanti grnanty abhiksnasah | smaranti nandanti tavehitam janah || ta eva pasyanty acirena tavakam | bhava-pravahoparamam padambujam || O Krsna, those who continuously hear, chant and repeat Your transcendental activities, or take pleasure in others' doing so, certainly see Your lotus feet, which alone can stop the repetition of birth and death. (SB 1.8.36) etan nirvidyamananam | icchatam akuto-bhayam || yoginam nrpa nirnitam | harer namanukirtanam || O King, constant chanting of the holy name of the Lord after the ways of the great authorities is the doubtless and fearless way of success for all, including those who are free from all material desires, those who are desirous of all material enjoyment, and also those who are self-satisfied by dint of transcendental knowledge. (SB 2.1.11) In the Vedic scriptures it is mentioned that to save oneself from the contamination of Kaliyuga there is no other alternative, but to chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. No other mantra is superior to this taraka-brahma nama (Hare Krsna) maha-mantra. There are no rules and regulations to chant this maha-mantra. It can be chanted anywhere, in any condition and by anyone. 16.1 The Sequence Of The Mahä-Mantra One school of thought says that the mahä-mantra should be chanted in the following sequence: hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare This understanding is based on the following points:


Caitanya-candra 1) The Kali-santaraëa Upaniñad, published by Venkatesh Press, Mumbai, states that this mahä-mantra begins with the words hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare followed by hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare. 2) In a book called Kalyäëa from Gorakhpura, the mahä-mantra is written in the above mentioned sequence. 3) Çré Räma appeared in Tretä-yuga. Later Çré Kåñëa appeared in Dväpara-yuga. It is therefore logical to chant hare räma first and then hare kåñëa. The above mentioned views are both illogical and unfounded: 1) Earlier publications of the Kali-santaraëa Upaniñad by Venkatesh Press, Mumbai, clearly state that the mahä-mantra begins with hare kåñëa and not with hare räma. These earlier publications are still preserved in libraries in Calcutta and Jaipura. 2) Kalyäëa, published by Gétä Press, Gorakhpura, is not a bona fide proof with which to support the above perspective. 3) That Tretä-yuga is followed by Dväpara-yuga has no effect on the eternal mahä-mantra. The mahä-mantra is beyond all yugas and time. This topic can only be understood by chanting the brahma mahämantra, the deliverer of all yugas. Reference to Çré Bhagavän’s names in the different yugas can found in the Ananta-Saàhitä: Satya-yuga: näräyaëa parä vedäh näräyaëa parä kñaraù näräyaëa parä muktiù näräyaëa parä gatiù “Näräyaëa is declared the Supreme in all the Vedas. Näräyaëa is the supreme of all letters. Näräyaëa is the supreme liberation. Näräyaëa is the supreme path.” Tretä-yuga: räma näräyaëa-ananta mukunda madhusüdana kåñëa keçava kaàsäre hare vaikuëöha vämana “He Räma! He Näräyaëa! He Ãnanta! He Mukunda! He Madhusüdana! He Kåñëa! He Keçava! He Kaàsäre! He Hare! He Vaikuëöha! He Vämana!” Dväpara-yuga: hare muräre madhu-kaitabäre gopäla govinda mukunda çaure yajïeça näräyaëa kåñëa viñëo niräñrayaà mäà jagadéça rakña “Hare, Muräre, Madhu-Kaitabäre, Gopäla, Govinda, Mukunda, Çaure, Lord of all yajïas Näräyaëa, Kåñëa, Viñëu! He Jagadéça, please protect me! I have no other shelter.” Kali-yuga:


Caitanya-candra hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare ñoòa-çaitäni nämäni dvätrinçad varëa käni hi kalau yuge mahä-mantraù sammato jéva täraëe “Hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare. This hare krsna mahä-mantra consists of sixteen names and thirty-two syllables. In Kaliyuga this mahä-mantra can deliver all jévas.” Thus, in regard to the third point, it is evident that the brahma mahä-mantra (Kåñëa’s name) was present as the deliverer even in Tretä-yuga, before the appearance of Kåñëa in Dväparayuga, with names such as Mukunda, Madhusüdana, Kåñëa, Keçava and Kaàsäri. Therefore, the advice and arguments given about the reversed sequence of the mahä-mantra are invalid. The çlokas of the Ananta-Saàhitä clearly state that in the Upanñads, such as the Kali-santaraëa Upaniñad, the mahä-mantra is written in the following sequence: hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare. Sri Närada received the mahä-mantra in this sequence from his guru, Brahmä, and this tradition is still practiced today in the Brahmä Madhvä Gauòéya Vaiñëava Sampradäya. In other sampradäyas, however, this mahä-mantra does not descend through the guru paramparä, and therefore its secret and sequence are unknown to persons in those sampradäyas. It is no wonder that they reverse the sequence of the mahä-mantra and begin it with hare räma. Other bona fide çästras give evidence regarding the form of the mahä-mantra: çiñya syodaì mukha-sthasya harer-nämäni ñoòaça saàçrävyaiva tato dagdhän mantraà trai-lokya-mangalam “Çré Gurudeva should recite the sixteen words of the hare kåñëa maha-mantra to the disciple before initiating him into the gopäla mantra, which brings auspiciousness to the three worlds. To receive this gopäla mantra, the disciple must sit facing north and receive the mantra in his right ear.” (Jïänämåta-sära) 16.2 Hare Krsna Maha-Mantra – The Great Chanting For Deliverance In Kali-Yuga The Hare Krsna maha-mantra has been prescribed by Lord Brahma in the Kalisantarana Upanisad (5; 6) of Krishna Yajur Veda as follows: hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || iti sodasakam namnam kali-kalmasa-nasanam | natah parataropayah sarva-vedesu drsyate || Lord Brahma instructs his son and disciple, Narada Muni as follows: “The sixteen words of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra - (Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare) - are especially meant for counteracting the sins of Kaliyuga. To save oneself from the contamination of Kali-yuga there is no other alternative, but to chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.After searching through all the Vedic scriptures one


Caitanya-candra cannot find a method of religion for this age (Kali-yuga) so sublime as the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.” In the Vedic scripture, Sri Brahma Yamala, it is stated as follows: harim bina nasti kijcat papani-starakam kalau | tasmal-lokod-dharana-artham hari-nama prakasayet || sarvatra mucyate loko maha-papat kalau yuge | hare-krsna-pada-dvandvam krsneti ca pada-dvayam || tatha hare-pada-dvandvam hare-rama iti dvayam | tad-ante ca maha-devi rama rama dvayam vadet || hare hare tato bruyad harinama samud dharet | maha-mantram ca krsnasya sarvapapa pranasakamiti || harià binä nästi kiïcat päpani-stärakaà kalau tasmäl-lokod-dhäräëa-ärthaà hari-näma prakäçayet sarvatra mucyate loko mahä-päpät kalau yuge hare-kåñëa-pada-dvandvaà kåñëeti ca pada-dvayam tathä hare-pada-dvandvaà hare-räma iti dvayam tad-ante ca mahä-devé räma räma dvayaà vadet hare hare tato brüyäd harinäma samud dharet mahä-mantraà ca kåñëasya sarvapäpa praëäñakamiti Lord Siva says to Parvati-devi: “O Mahadevi! Look! In Kali-yuga there is no easier way to eradicate sins than by the holy names of Lord Krsna. It is therefore essential to propagate the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra among the general populous. The people in Kali-yuga can be easily liberated from the greatest hell by performing sankirtana of this Hare Krsna maha-mantra. To chant the maha-mantra, first chant hare krsna twice, then chant krsna twice, then hare twice. After that, chant hare rama twice, then rama twice and again hare twice. Thus the maha-mantra: Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare, Hare Rama Rama Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. One should chant, articulate and perform sankirtana etc., of this Hare Krsna maha-mantra, which destroys all sins.” Furthermore, Sri Ananta-samhita states: hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || sodasaitani namani dvatrimsad varnakani hi | kalau yuge maha-mantrah sammato jivatarane || varjayitva tu namaitad durjanaih parikalpitam | chandobaddham susiddhanta viruddham nabhyaset padam || tarakam brahma-namaitad brahmana gurunadina | kalisantaranadyasu sruti-svadhigatam hareh || praptam sri brahma-sisyena sri naradena dhimata | namaitad-uttamam srauta-paramparyena brahmanah || utsrjyaitan-maha-mantram ye tvanyat kalpitam padam | mahanameti gayanti te sastra-guru langhanah || tattva-virodha-sanprktam tadrsam daurjanam matam |


has said. beginning with Narada. and by accepting it.Caitanya-candra sravatha pariharyam syadatma-hitarthina sada || hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || “’Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare’ . the cause of all perfection!” grhanad yasya mantrasya dehi brahma-mayo bhavet | sadhyah putah surapo ‘pi sarva-siddhi-yuto bhavet | tad-aham te ‘bhidhasyami maha-bhagavato hamsi || hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || iti sodasakam namnam tri-kala kalmasapaham | natah parataropayah sarva vedesu vidhyate || Sri Vedavyasa said to Romaharsana Suta “O my son the embodied soul who takes up the maha-mantra will become filled with transcendence. ’Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare’. can destroy the sins of the three worlds. attained perfection. or engage in chanting other metrical compositions of the name of Krishna that are against the pure conclusions of the scriptures. Lord Brahma. I will recite this mantra to you. O mother Mahamaya. mistress of the gods! Please explain the sequence of Hari-nama. "The srutis have declared this mantra to be the best means of deliverance in the age of Kali". Moreover. the sons and disciples of Brahma.” 266 . having meditated on it. thirty-two syllable mantra is the maha-mantra in Kali-yuga by which all living beings can be delivered. which delivers one from material existence. Having all heard this from Brahma. The Vedas do not mention a method for achieving liberation from material bondage superior to the chanting of this maha-mantra. in the Brahmanda Purana.This sixteen-name. the original guru. Radha Hrdya Khanda. About this divinely spiritual maha-mantra. even a drunkard will attain all perfections. Just see! The sixteen word maha-mantra. all accepted the Hare Krishna mahamantra and. One should never abandon chanting this mahamantra and take to other so-called purificatory processes which are practiced by rascals. Romaharsana Suta prays to Sri Vedavyasa as follows: yat tvaya kirtitam natha hari-nameti sanjitam | mantram brahma-padam siddhi karam-tad-vad-no-vibho || “O master. for you are a swan-like mahabhagavata and a suitable candidate. O mighty one! Please glorify the Hari-nama mantra situated in transcendence. the following is stated: srnu matarmahamaye visva-bija-svarupini | hari namno mahamaye kramaG vad suresvari || “Hear me. In Sri Radha Tantra. or are filled with rasaabhaas. kali-santararadi sruti. seed of the universe personified.

” The Hare-Krsna maha-mantra is also mentioned in the Sanat-Kumara-samhita as follows: hare-krsnau dvir avrttau | krsna tadrk tatha hare || hare rama tatha rama | tatha tadrg ghare manuh || ”The words hare krsna are repeated twice.” Also in the Brahmanda Purana. This verse is: Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare.” “One should chant this mantra once. thrice. a person who desires his own welfare should first hear this Hare Krsna maha-mantra from a bonafide spiritual master. yuga after yuga I kindly appear in many thousands of incarnations.” “For they who have become blinded by Kaliyuga. twice.” “Walking either on the path of arrows or the path of the Vedas.” At that moment the saintly Kratu Muni gave him the sixteen name maha-mantra (Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare). or again and again for as long as one lives. as many times as one is able. if you want to favour me.The mahamantra is thus: ’Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare’. the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna says to Lord Brahma: tatha catra bhavisyami bhaktyanugraha-kamyaya | sahasraso’vatara me gita brahman yuge yuge | bana-margair veda-margai ripunam tatra sanksayam || bhaktanam taranam krtva khyapitam sva-yasah ksitau | kalau nasta-drsam esa mat-padyarka udesyat || hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || sakrd dvis trir yatha-sakti yavaj jivam athapi va | vyaharan svapaco’pi syan mama bhakto na samsayah || “O Brahma. By clearly pronouncing 267 .” Also in the Vayu-Purana. a mantra with My holy names will rise like a glorious sun. and then krsna and hare are both separately twice repeated. In the same way. then please donate to me the names of Hari. rama and hare are twice repeated.55 it is stated: Pipplada mentions that Vrsabhanu Maharaja once prayed to Kratu Muni. By chanting this maha-mantra even a dogeater may become My devotee. is composed of sixteen names and thirty-two syllables: ’Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare’. hare rama. I deliver the devotees. “O Lord. This maha-mantra.Caitanya-candra hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || dvatrim sadaksaranyeva kalau namani sarvadam | etanmantram suta srestha prathamam srnuyan nar ah || Tripura-devi said: “O best among sons! The maha-mantra for Kali-yuga bestows all perfection. Therefore. and place My glory on the earth. destroy their enemies. Uttara Khanda 6.

Krishna and Rama. sarupya and sayujya). One should repeat this maha-mantra which is the supreme secret.” namany astav asta ca sobhanani | tani nityam ye japanti dhiras te vai mayam atitaranti nanyah | paramam mantram parama-rahasyam nityam avartayanti || These sixteen names are supremely beautified. Lord Brahma tells his son Pipplada as follows: mantro guhyah paramo bhakti vedyah “The Maha-Mantra is confidential.and the affix .” In the Padma Purana it is stated about the maha-mantra as follows: dvatrimsad-aksaram mantram nama-sodasakanvitam | prajapan vaisnavo nityam radha-krsna-sthalam labhet || "Those Vaisnavas who always chant the maha-mantra composed of sixteen names divided into thirty-two syllables (Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare) attain Sri Vrndavana.Rama.na. the fifth goal of human life (panca purusartha). is the hymn of praise Krishna . (bhakti-yoga). krsih smarane tac ca nas tad ubhaya-melanam iti krsnah. Not only that. transcendental and can be understood only by devotional service. the abode of Sri Radha-Krsna. This rootmantra is chanted as Hari. one can attain brahma (salokya. There is no other means. He who gives pleasure to everything is the form of bliss . samipya. regularly.’ ” In the Caitanya-Upanisad. is called Hari. Those who chant them regularly are sober persons who are able to cross beyond the illusory energy. Thus the verse becomes. atra sloko bhavati || 12 || “He who removes the knot in the heart in the form of material desire. In the Caitanya Upanisad it is further stated by Lord Brahma as follows: sva nama-mula-mantrena sarvam hladayati vibhuh | sa eve mulam-mantram japati haririti krsna iti rama iti || “The name is the root of all mantras." 268 . Krsna and Rama. The union by the remembrance of the root krs.” harati hrdaya-granthim vasana-rupam iti harih. the splendid one bringing joy to everyone.” sa eva mula-mantram japati harir iti krsna iti rama iti || 11 || “He (Lord Caitanya) chants the original mantra consisting of Hari. one can attain krsna-prema. Atharva-Veda. ramayati sarvam iti rama ananda-rupah.Caitanya-candra this maha-mantra.

the great chanting for deliverance in Kali-yuga. will attain the supreme goal of life. Just as the water of sacred rivers like the Ganga purify the universe. even neglectfully.Caitanya-candra In the Padma Purana the following statement on the congregational chanting of the mahamantra is also found: harer nama maha-mantrair nasyet papa pisacakam | harer agra svarair uccair nrtyam stan-namakrin. drawing from the Brahmanda Purana has presented the following meaning for the maha-mantra: vijjapya bhagavat-tattvam cid ghanananda vigraham | haratyavidham tatkaryamato haririti smrtah || harati sri-krsna-manah krsnahlada-svarupini | ato harety anenaiva sri-radha parikirtita || anandaikasukhah sriman syamah kamala locanah | gokulanando nanda-nandanah krsna iryate || vaidagdhi sarasarvasvam murtalila dhidaivatam | sri radham ramayan nityam rama ity abhidiyate || 269 . one obtains perfection. In the Smriti sastra it says: advitéyaà yathä mantraà tärakaà brahma nämakam | japitvä siddhim äpnoti satyaà satyaà vadämy aham | imam eva japan mantraà tryamabakas tripur äntakaù | Chanting the peerless taraka-brahma-mantra (Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare / Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare). Of this there is no doubt. purify the entire universe. similarly those who circumambulate Sri Hari and loudly perform nama sankirtana of the sixteen word maha-mantra with sweet voices and while clapping the hands. It is only by chanting this great mantra Lord Siva killed the Tripurasuras. which is taraka-brahma-nama. Gopala Guru Gosvami.nar ah | punati bhuvanam vipra! gaggadi salilam yatha || hare pradaksinam kurvann uccais tan nama krin nar ah | karataladi sandhanam susvaram kala sabditam || “Anyone who dances in front of Sri Hari and loudly chants the maha-mantra (Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare) will destroy all witches of sin.” In the Agni Purana it is stated: hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare ratanti halaya vapi te krtartha na samsayah Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare: Whoever chants this mantra. This is the truth. This is the truth.

Svarga Khanda 50.” The fruit of chanting the thirty-two-syllable maha-mantra is described in the Padma Purana.” By clearly pronouncing this mahä-mantra. He is very skillful at playing the flute as He stands in a charming tribhanga pose. The dark. are removed. is known as Krishna . who brings pleasure to Gokula. one can attain brahma (salokya. or in the shade of a kadamba tree in the beautiful Vrndavana forest. the Lord of all lords.6 as follows: harir eva samaradhyah | sarva deve suresvarah || hari nama maha mantrair | nasyatpapa pisacakam || All the grievous sins of one who worships Lord Sri Hari. He is ornamented (surrounded) by the cows and gopas. the maha-mantra (Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare). because He is the titulary deity of loving sports incarnate. and because he brings pleasure to Srimati Radharani. the fifth goal of human life (païca puruñärtha). sarüpya and säyujya). lotus-eyed lord.’ ” Çré Bhakti-chandrika. the only master of the highest joy. 7th Paöal states: atha mantra-varaà vakñye dvätrim-çad-akñarä anvitam sarva-päpa-praçamanaà sarva-durväsanä analam catur-varga-paradaà saumyaà bhaktidaà prema-pürvakam durbuddhi-haraëaà çuddha-sattva-buddhi-pradäyakam sarva-arädhyaà sarva-sevyaà sarveñäm käma-pürakam sarva-adhikär-samyuktam sarva-lokaika-bändhavam 270 . and chants the holy name. the son of Nanda. Krishna is also known as Rama because the joys of conjugal life are the essence of his being. bestowing mercy and kindness upon the bhaktas.Caitanya-candra “The Lord is known as Hari because he takes away the ignorance of his devotees by revealing to them the actual nature of the Supreme Lord and his personal spiritual form. and is accompanied by Sri Radha. Not only that. because She is the incarnation of Krishna 's joy. samépya. Because She steals Krishna's mind. Radha is also known by the name Hara. one can attain kåñëa-prema. The dhyana that accompanies this maha-mantra is also found in the Sanat-kumara-samhita as follows: dhyayed vrndavane ramye gopa-gobhir alankrte | kadamba-padapa-cchaye yamuna-jala-sitale || radhaya sahitam krsnam vamsi-vadana-tat-param | tribhanga-lalitam devam bhaktanugraha-karakam || “Sri Krsna is sporting in the cooling waters of the Yamuna.

It is the destroyer of all afflictions. This mahä-mantra is the personal well-wisher of everyone and is endowed with the potency to attract all. Sri Narada approached Lord Brahma and after offering his obeisances asked him: 'How may one overcome the evil effects of Kali-yuga?'" sa hovaca brahma sadhu prshto asmi sarvasrutirahasyam gopyam tacchrunu yena kalisamsaram tarishyasi | "Lord Brahma replied: 'You have asked me an excellent question. Even the eternally perfect souls regularly repeat this mantra for the sake of their own dharma. after traveling around the world. this mahä-mantra can destroy all evil habits and bestow dharma. the above verses clearly describe that the advent and purpose of Sri Caitanyadeva's appearance is to propogate the yuga-dharma Hari-nama sankirtan.3 Sri Kalisantarana Upanisad harih aum | dvaparante narado brahmanam jagama katham bhagavan gam paryatan kalim santareyam iti | 1 "At the end of Dvapara-yuga. Just as fire destroys. No external paraphernalia is required. It bestows the symptoms of prema-bhakti. Therefore it is clear that the yuga-dharma in this age is Hari-nama sankirtana. There is no other means than this. and it is the giver of çuddha sattvika intelligence. This secret must be preserved and protected. Its beautiful form (svarüpa) is capable of stealing all of one’s foolish. The mahä-mantra is worshipped just by saying it. All are qualified to serve this mahä-mantra. Furthermore. It is capable of giving results simply by its contact with the tongue. place and circumstance.'" 271 . as proclaimed in the above Vedic references. It does not consider the rules of dékñä. the devotees transcendentally cross beyond the state of being overcome by the illusory. Çré näma fulfills everyone’s desires. It is worshipable and is worthy of being served by all. and is not restricted by time. ignorant mentality. I shall reveal to you the most confidential secret of the entire Vedas.” This mantra’s quality of yielding fruits to the devotees is apparent. By regularly chanting this mantra consisting of sixteen names. 16. without considering the rules pertaining to time. käma and mokña. material energy. artha. meaning all are qualified to perform saìkértana of the mahä-mantra. by which one will cross over the (ocean of) samsara filled with the bad effects of the Kali Yuga.Caitanya-candra sarva-akarsaëa-samyuktaà duñöa-byädhi-vinäçanam dékñä-vidhi-vihénaà ca käla-äkäla-vivarjitam väë-mätreëärcitaà bähma-püja-avidhyan-apekñakam jihvä-sparçan-mätreëa sarveñäm phala-däyakam deça-kälä-niyamitaà sarva-vädisusammatam “This mahä-mantra is endowed with thirty-two syllables and can destroy all sins.

‘There are no rules and regulations for chanting this maha-mantra.’"'By merely uttering the names of that adi purusa who is Bhagavan Sri Narayana (Krsna). Then the Supreme Lord manifests before the jiva.Caitanya-candra bhagavata adi purushasya nar ayanasya namoccarana matrena nirdhrta kalirbhavati | Lord Brahma replied ‘O son.are especially meant for counteracting the sins of Kali-yuga. samipya. To save oneself from the contamination of Kali-yuga there is no other alternative. sarupya and sayujya. whether in a pure or impure state. one is freed from the clutches of Kali. ‘Oh Lord.e the four kinds of liberation.' naradah punah papraccha tannama kimiti | Narada asked again: 'What are those names of the Supreme Lord?'" sa hovaca hiranyagarbhah | hare krishna hare krishna krishna krishna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || iti shodasakam namnam kalikalmasha-nashanam | natah parataropayah sarvavedeshu drsyate || Lord Brahma instructed Narada as follows: “The sixteen words of the Hare Krsna mahamantra . but to chant the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.Hare Krsna Hare Krsna Krsna Krsna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare . what are the rules and regulations for chanting this mahamantra?’ tam hovaca nasya vidhiriti | “Lord Brahma replied by saying. Please hear the most confidential secret of the entire Vedas by which you can easily be freed from the clutches of Kali.'" yadasya shodasikasya sardha-trikotir japati tada brahma-hatyam tarati| tarati virahatyam | 272 .” iti shodasa kalavrtasya jivasya varana vinasanam | tatah prakasate param brahma meghapaye ravirasmi mandaliveti | "'This mantra destroys the sixteen kalas of the jiva. sarvada sucirasucirva pathan brahmanah salokatam samipatam sarupatam sayujyatameti | "'By always properly chanting this maha-mantra. beginning with the prana.’'" pu nar nar adah papraccha bhagavan ko asya vidhiriti | “Narada then asked. one can attain Brahma i. just as the sun’s rays shine brightly after a covering of cloud is removed. you have asked an excellent question. which constitute the veil of ignorance. salokya. After searching through all the Vedic scriptures one cannot find a method of religion for this age (Kali-yuga) so sublime as the chanting of the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.

Gods and human beings.'" svarnasteyat puto bhavati | pitr-deva-manushya-nama-pakarat puto bhavati | "'He becomes free from the sin of stealing gold. including the goal of life (sadhya) and the means for its attainment (sadhana).14. the only means for deliverance is the chanting of the names of Hari. ‘Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare. instructs everyone to perform saìkértana of the mahä-mantra.Caitanya-candra "'One who chants this mantra of sixteen names. who preached the chanting of the Lord’s holy names. for a total of one and one half crore times. Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. In this age of Kali. Srila Vrindavana Das Thakura describes Lord Caitanya’s instructions to Tapana Misra in the Sri Caitanya Bhagavata (1. He becomes free from the offenses committed against forefathers. It 273 . There is no other way. he becomes liberated immediately. there is no other way. there is no other way. Thus the Upanishad.4 Lord Caitanya’s Instruction to Chant Hare Krsna Maha-mantra Lord Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu.’ This verse of names is called the maha-mantra.143-147) as follows: sadhya-sadhana-tattva ye kichu sakala | hari-nama-sankirtane milibe sakala || 143 || harer nama harer nama harer namaiva kevalam | kalau nasty eva nasty eva nasty eva gatir anyatha || 144 || hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || 145 || ei sloka nama bali laya maha-mantra | sola-nama batrisa-aksara ei tantra || 146 || sadhite sadhite yabe premankura habe | sadhya-sadhana-tattva janiba se tabe || 147 || “Everything is accomplished by Hari-nama sankirtana. He becomes liberated immediately. He overcomes the sin of neglecting his domestic fire.'" sarvadharma-parityaga-papat sadyah sucita-mapnuyat | sadyo mucyate sadyo mucyate ity upanishat | "'He quickly becomes free from the sin of giving up all religious duties. he becomes free from the sin of killing a brahmana.'" **Thus ends Sri Kalisantarana Upanisad** 16.

in the words of the great acaryas and even in the orders and activities of svayam bhagavan Sriman Mahaprabhu we can find a lot of evidence for this.Caitanya-candra contains sixteen names of the Lord. and it is not be chanted in kirtana. dative case. it is to be chanted in japa while counting. Some people say: ‘There is no injunction that the mantra is to be chanted in loud kirtana.’ In connection with this it must be said that a mantra that is only to be chanted in japa (this means chanting within the mind) and not in kirtana is a formula which contains a bija and words like svaha. Perform japa of this mantra a prescribed number of times. Especially in the shastras. Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare. Chanting this mantra again and again will awaken the sprout of prema within the heart. There is nothing of the kind in the hare krishneti mantra. We will briefly quote a few. and in the verse ‘sarva kSaNa bolo ithe vidhi nAhi Ara’ it has also been ordered to chant loudly without counting (asankhyata).nama maha-mantra: Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare.” Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu has ordered all human beings of this age (Kali-yuga) to chant the 32-syllable ‘Hare Krsna’ or taraka brahma maha-mantra. All perfection will be attained through this.75-78): apane sabare prabhu kore upadese | krsna-nama maha-mantra sunoho harise || 75 || hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare | hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare || 76 || prabhu kohe kohilam ei maha-mantra | iha japa giya sabe koriya nirbandha || 77 || iha hoite sarva-siddhi hoibe sabara | sarva ksana bolo ithe vidhi nahi ara || 78 || “The Lord ordered everyone in great joy: ‘Listen to the Krishna. and which appears in the fourth. as stated in Sri Caitanya Bhagavata (2. it is understood that the 32syllable hare krishneti mantra is to be chanted both in japa as well as in loud kirtana.’ The Lord said: ‘I spoke this maha-mantra.’” In the above mentioned payara (verse) ‘iha japa giya sabe koriya nirbandha’ it is said that the maha-mantra must be chanted in japa according to rules of counting. which is sambodhanatmaka (in the eighth.23. calling this Krishna nama. Therefore a person in knowledge will have no doubt about it that this is for japa and for many kinds of kirtana as well. and thus the goal of life and the means for its attainment is understood. Following the order of Sriman Mahaprabhu. In Padma Purana it is described: harer nama maha-mantrair nasyet papa pisacakam | harer agra svarair uccair nrtyam stan-namakrin-narah | punati bhuvanam vipra! gangadi salilam yatha || 274 . consisting of thirty-two syllables. Chant this mantra every moment – there is no other rule. If the hare krishneti nama is a maha-mantra. vocative case).

Çré Väsudeva Särvabhauma Bhaööäcärya says: viñëëa-cittän kali-ghora-bhétän sanvékñya gauro hari-näma-mantraà svayaà dadau bhakta-janän samä-diçat saìkértaya dvaà nanu nåtya-vädhyaiù “Out of His causeless mercy. a person who is fortunate enough to receive this hari-näma. ‘O bhaktas.” Those who say that the maha-mantra can be chanted out loudly.’ ” harer-näma-prasädena nistaret pätaké janaù upadeñöä svayaà kåñëa caitanyo jagadéçvaraù kåñëa-caitanya-devena hari-näma-prakäçitam yena kenäpi tat-praptaà dhanyo’ sau loka-pävanaù “By the mercy of hari-näma. the barber who had been asked to shave Him felt morose and was perturbed. can also purify others by his association. you should collectively perform saìkértana by singing and dancing. but must nonetheless be counted while chanting. Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. became deeply pleased and said. Although he held the razor in his hand. and. Just as the water of sacred rivers like the Ganga purify the universe. fearful jévas of this Kaliyuga. Instead he simply wept.” The great poet Çréla Kavi Karëapüra states in his epic poem. Svayaà Çré Kåñëa Caitanya Mahäprabhu. Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu Himself gave the mahä-mantra to the helpless. which has been inaugurated by Çré Kåñëa Caitanya Mahäprabhu Himself. who was fully immersed in rädhä-bhäva. will easily understand from the above-quoted verses from Padma Purana that kirtana in which dancing takes place and hands are clapped is kirtana without counting. although he continued to 275 . Caitanya-Caritä (11-54): tatah çré gauräìgah samavadadtir pramudito hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare “At the time of Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu’s sannyäsa ceremony. similarly those who circumambulate Sri Hari and loudly perform nama sankirtana of the 16-word maha-mantra with sweet voices and while clapping the hands. a sinner can also be delivered because the instructor of çré hari-näma is the Lord of the universe. that barber began to chant. purify the entire universe. and that there is no evidence of kirtana without counting.Caitanya-candra hare pradaksinam kurvann uccais tan nama krin narah | karataladi sandhanam susvaram kala sabditam || “Anyone who dances in front of Sri Hari and loudly chants the Hari nama maha-mantra will destroy all witches of sin.’ Upon hearing these instructions from Çré Mahäprabhu. Therefore. he could not bring himself to shave off Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu’s beautiful hair. ‘O Barber! You must constantly and loudly chant hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare. and directed His devotees by saying. not with counting.

He became so absorbed in chanting the mahä-mantra that he manifested horripilation (romaïca) and his bodily hairs stood erect (pulaka). the hare kåñëa mahä-mantra. His face filled with pleasure as He chanted the hare kåñëa mahämantra. To remove Her fire of separation. Çrématé Rädhikä was feeling overwhelming distress due to separation from Her beloved Çyämasundara and She meditated upon meeting Him. One day when He came to the home of Advaita Ãcaryä.Caitanya-candra weep in distress.” Sri Caitanya Maìgala also states: hare kåñëa näma prabhu bole nirantara prasanna çré mukhe hare kåñëa kåñëa bali vijaya hailä gauracandra kutühalé hare kåñëa hare kåñëa bali prema sukhe pratyakña haila äsi advaita-sammukhe “Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu is always chanting çré näma. Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare’. Thus. he proceeded to shave off Mahäprabhu’s hair. came from the lotus 276 . She began to chant the hare kåñëa mahä-mantra. The kirtana that followed made that home become just like Vrindavana and a multitude of people gathered to hear and chant the holy names: ‘Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare. Kåñëa’s sixteen names consisting of thirty-two syllables.” Çréla Raghunätha däsa Gosvämé states in the introduction to his commentary on the mahämantra: ekadä kåñëavirahäd dhyäyanté priyasangamam manoväñpaniräsärthaà jalpatédaà muhurmuhuha hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare yäni nämäni virahe jajäpa värñabhänavé tänye va tadbhävayukto gauracandro jajäpa ha çré caitanya-mukhod gérëa hare kåñëeti varëakaù majjayanto jagat premëi vijayantäà tadä vayäù “Once. also chanted these names.” The following instance of Sri Caitanya’s chanting the maha-mantra is found in the Sri Caitanya Mangala of Sripada Locana Das Thakura: bähu prasäriyä prabhu brähmaëe tulilä tära ghare bhakti bhare gäna äraàbhilä brähmaëera ghara yena haila våndävana hari-näma çunibäre äise sarva-jana hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare “Once Mahaprabhu visited the home of a brahmana and embraced him. who is absorbed in the mood of Çrématé Rädhikä.

that He can do all kind of wonderful things. the addressing the Supreme Personality of Godhead. calling out to the Supreme Personality of Godhead along with His eternal consort. 2006 Hare Krishna means. Those engines actually make the aircraft float. Compare to many of those stars. And earth is static and. Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. But what an incredible amount of energy is record for that? How does the aeroplane fly? There are some very powerful engines. And we're seeing. here is the picture. and it's moving around the sun. When we say Krishna we don't just mean some Indian persons. static in the sense as floating. we see that so many stars and planets are floating in the space. who is making it happened? Krishna . And it's all floating in the space. I'm sure everybody knows. which makes the entire universe become absorbed in kåñëa-prema. And then there are so many stars and planets. Like. Jaya ho! Jaya ho! Let there be complete victory for the mahä-mantra!” 16. here is Krishna and there is the picture of Srimati Radharani. He is the Supreme Energetic and Srimati Radharani is His energy. what an incredible amount of energy is needed just for a small little aircraft to fly? Now consider all these planets. sun is just like a tiny spot. That is how powerful He is. doesn't need any name. And then there is sun. In Sanskrit we just called hladini-shakti. like a ball. Now. He can say 'let there be light'. He has inconceivable potency. and there was light. The Supreme Personality of Godhead is omnipotent or all-powerful. how it is possible for something to float in the space? Like an aircraft goes up in the sky and floats in the sky and moves in the sky. be graciously and conspicuously present above all else. huge so many million times larger than the earth. So.5 Meaning Of The Hare Krsna Mahamantra By HH Srila Bhakti Caru Swami— Germany . Now.Caitanya-candra mouth of Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu. all the living entities. have come to this material nature. You have seen our deities Radha and Krishna. His potency is so great. He can just glance. This earth planet – where is it. Krishna is God. His personification of His pleasure potency. when we look at the night sky. Just through His glance. May this mahä-mantra. And through His glance all of us. But still His devotees like to address Him in a certain way according to His 277 . That is how inconceivable this creation is. this earth planet? Is the earth flat or round? It is round. And where is the earth – it's in the space. and the whole material creation becomes manifest. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. God doesn't have.

they have an opportunity to tell the king. Omnipotent means – allpowerful.' And. when they surrender unto Him. address God in the Christian way of calling you is 'almighty' or omnipotent. And He did that. How will you feel? He will feel fascinated. God is all-knowing similarly God is also all-attractive. Isn't it? You will feel awestruck He will feel 'wunderbar'. But for us it is. (laughter) Isn't it? So. Specially when God Himself comes and speaks about Himself. But His names are indication of His qualities. Isn't it? 278 . and we he comes then the prisoners get an opportunity to see the king and surrender to him by recognizing 'o. So one who attracts is Krishna . His wonderful activities. And the Sanskrit expression for all-attractive is – K R I S H N A. if you get to hear that somebody just lifted the Mont Blanc . what to speak of a mountain. it is important that we take advantage of that opportunity. 'Okay. Just as omnipotent means – all-powerful. so let me surrender to him. And then what the king does? The king says. The similarly in Sanskrit He has many such names according to His qualities and according to His activities. And those who are present here at that time they could see. Mont Blanc maybe? If you got the news. Now who is all-powerful? (Devotee: Krishna ) God. how will you feel? Won't you feel awestruck? And he will not only lifted it.' Can the king say that? So. the king comes and sees the prison. Please forgive me'. All-attractive! Just as God is all-powerful. So. a person who makes all these stars and planets are floating in the space. not only he lifted it with his left hand. who created everything? God created everything. Just as I mention. Like His potency. And we are the prisoners. Krishna attracts everyone. He came here. 'I'm sorry that I committed the crime. He comes from time to time. he lifted it on the little finger of his left hand. what is the highest mountain in alps? Okay. he is the king. His identity is that He is God. His names are not His identities. So. God also visits this place. omniscient or He is addressed as the Supreme Father. we can see how. The word Krishna is derive from the root word karshan. 'O. therefore He is all-attractive. You said Krishna . You can be released. But He is the Supreme Personality. So. Latin expression is omnipotent. And he kept it holding for seven days. Now. if somebody lifts a table with his little finger and holds it for seven minutes will feel awestruck. which is like a prison. Like. in Bible you find God is addressed as omnipotent. you call. similarly the Supreme Personality of Godhead can also release the prisoners. which means to attract. Krishna in Sanskrit means – all-attractive. You don't have to suffer in the prison. So. in German also. Now tell me. how will you feel if you see that somebody just lifted the alps? Or. when we have the opportunity to get to know about Him.Caitanya-candra potency and according to His activities. Because we are so tiny. fine. Now. this is how the Lord came and performed His pastimes. This opportunity is available. Just like a king from time to time visits the prison. lifted it with his left hand. He came and He displayed His wonderful pastimes. Now. who is the Supreme Creator and who is the Supreme Maintainer. in Latin. He's so beautiful'. 5000 years ago. the person who makes all these stars and planets are floating in the space – for Him is it difficult to lift a mountain? No. according to His power He is called like.

you're actually a prince. and the reality is suffering. Now in reality. I have a nice car. very simple way to mitigate all our sufferings. And the result is we're struggling. A person maybe very. And our condition is not that we got lost but we deliberately rejected our father. Not only we are princes of a king. that is our condition. and when the prince was a little baby he got lost. I want to always be here'. and all of us sudden – she is gone. but we'll become independent. She was young. there is so much fun. then we naturally feel like surrendering unto Him. He tells us a very. very wealthy and influential and powerful person. very comfortably situated. Malati Manjari. And you fell that. Just to get a little food. that she got the news that yesterday her cousin died in an accident. But when he goes back to his father. they'll abuse him. is it going to happen only to somebody else? Can't this thing happen to us? Can't we get cancer? Can't we meet with an accident? It can happen with us. I don't want to leave this place. Let's consider a fairy tale. he had to beg from door to door and people threat him in a very. then what will be his condition? What was his condition? He was suffering. And this is why Krishna comes and displayed His pastimes. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. And when he got lost. or we're suffering here. that you come to Me and I will take care of you. Or even worst things can happen. But then somebody comes and tells him. And anyone. look. We decided that we won't take any help from my father. I'll make all arrangements for myself. but this is an European country. They'll exploit him. 'well. and specially if his father is a very. There was a prince. let it maybe a fairy tale. when he thinks deeply. he got lost. when we realize that our condition is suffering. We said: we don't want you!. that's why the Lord comes and displays His activities and pastimes. And He tells us how to get out of this material nature. so that we can recognize how great He is. This place is so wonderful. And he takes the prince back to the father. realizes that the enjoyments are so short lasting. And when we recognize how great He is. He gives us the message. Just like the father and mother. we are children of king. Then what will be the condition of the prince? He becomes completely free from all his miseries and all his anxieties.Caitanya-candra So this is how the Lord comes and enacts His activities or pastimes here. Do they take care of their children? But when the children runs away from their father. the condition of our mention the name of the country. So. So. But can anybody be here all the time? And can anyone have these facilities of enjoyment for all the time? Right? Time comes when one becomes distressed. so I'm so happy. Like a statistic so was taken. then he will suffer. what will be his situation like? Like just consider. Now Krishna comes and gives us that message that you surrender unto Me and I will free you from all your suffering. So this is the reality of this material nature. And he is your father. If the children runs away from the father and mother and becomes an orphan what will be his condition? He'll be undergoing so many difficulties. When this prince was a little child. We wanted to become independent. she was of her age. our father. You may think. And most of 279 . Now. then what we naturally want to do? We want to get free of this suffering. But what happens all of us sudden if he gets cancer? What happens? His whole world actually crumbles. That is what we are. Just today Malati was telling me. but we are the children of king of kings. I have a nice house. the statistic so was taken like how was the condition of the people there? And the statistics was about 85% of the population was feeling miserable. 'oh material nature is so wonderful. I have a beautiful family. very harsh way.

demons become powerful with their yogasiddhi. And they can become big. money can not buy. The only thing. and when one becomes very powerful. From a distance it may appear. But still he feels that he didn't have enough. So. and in that battle all the demons were destroyed. that the devotees will be on one side and the demons will be on another side. These are called yoga-siddhis. Although he had billions of dollars. In the battle of Kurukshetra Krishna arranged. they can become very small. And the battle was arranged. And he is 84 years old now. we want to be in a situation where we can be perfectly happy. I wish. at the age of only 45. His devotees. Now how does the father feel? Does all the money mean anything to him at that time? No. Krishna arranged the battle of Kurukshetra. everyone is so happy here. that they can enter through a keyhole. that I am living in. that was the average income. his only son. And these demons. he actually expanded the family business four times. this demons use to come. Like actually this person. all our sufferings are mitigated. I could get a better salary. if there is God. they're demons. I wish. And Krishna comes and tells us 'Yes. it is possible! You can be perfectly happy. trying to kill Him. Actually. The car that I have is not a good one. I wish. they can change their forms. And then ultimately as you know. I wish I have a better car. that we have to do. They perform yoga and as a result of their practicing yoga and perfecting yoga they achieve some power. that he didn't have enough. When you read Krishna ’s pastimes. they become very. is. And with this power they become very powerful. that he realize that money can not buy what he actually wanted. I could be in a better house. oh. They say. But look at what happened. These demons were extremely powerful people. what we actually want. Sometimes the demons would come. he is considered to be the richest man in India his name is Birla. Some people can be very. He is the richest man in India . who was the condition of the father his only son. With the mystic power they can do all kind of wonderful things. But you go and ask every individual – what will they say? I'm not happy. he didn't have enough. Not masculine power or mental power but with mystic power. A very rich man.Caitanya-candra them had a very. you will see how wonderful they were. So this is the state of affairs. we have to surrender to your Supreme Father. They're earning average about 7. But they are actually demons. not only in India – all over the world. although he has an empire. they can become so big. and still they were felling that they didn't have enough. und His shelter. what happens? When people become powerful they don't want to accept anybody more powerful than them. The house. when he was asked about his condition. is. they can become as big as a mountain. it's possible!' And Krishna’s representatives come and they also repeat Krishna ’s words and say 'Yes. very antagonistic to Him. And that is the condition of everyone in this world. very opulent situation. he's one of the richest men in the world. They don't even want to accept God. is not good enough.000 Euro a month. he mention. What he wanted. a brilliant person. I could have been something else. And when we surrender to the Supreme Father then the Supreme Father takes us under His wings. Now consider. So. The salary I'm getting is not good enough. when God comes. dear ones. then that's me. And they're miserable. So when Krishna was performing His pastimes in Vrindavana. He didn't have enough. and he got cancer and he died. 'Why God. what he meant is. very powerful with mystic power. 280 . I will disclose his identity. So small. Then all our miseries. His only son died. they're not God. But Krishna kills them one after another. And they try to harm God's favourite ones. five times. I am God. And what they try? They try to kill God. Those who deny God and want to be God themselves.

I come from time to time. Now. you may think. it was in early seventies. the man came about 4-5 feet away from them. go against Me. You don't have to surrender now. how do we surrender unto Krishna ? We surrender to Krishna the way Krishna appears. surrender unto Him. But then. So. That's what He broadcasted. 5000 years ago Krishna appeared as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. I'll give you some examples. you will win. or confront the man. And the man was coming charging and they as soon as they started to chant Nrisimha prayer. many wonderful things happen. just chant Nrisimha prayer.Caitanya-candra So in this way. just surrender unto Me. 500 years ago. Krishna Himself came to teach us Krishna is God. And in this way He is inducing us. it's all very nice. I'm fine. like a big man. He came as a devotee of the Lord. Giving up all your nonsense. He is aspiring us. But the leader of the group said. If you feel that way — wonderful. and he was previously drunk or I don't know what happened. And sometimes they used to go at night to chant in the most sinful areas. No the question is. that's what He told: paritranaya sadhunam vinasaya ca duskrtam dharma-samsthapanarthaya sambhavami yuge yuge. A simple message. This was long time ago. well. no matter how powerful you are. What Swamiji is saying. somebody was even thinking that he will take the karatalas and swing it. Then I will take care of you. Very simple message. very soon an ambulance came. gigantic. and then something happen — his body just went up and felt flat on the ground. Pauli. So immediately an ambulance came. Krishna makes one thing very clear: if you are with Me. you will win. He again came. at least when you are in difficulties please remember the words that I'm telling now and surrender unto Krishna at that time. you will lose. What is the most sinful area of Hamburg ? Reeperbahn. And side with Him means. He came as a devotee. But what was His message? His message was Krishna is God. Krishna comes to free this world from the demons and protect the devotees. If somebody comes with a gun and holds it on your head — then please remember Krishna and see what happens. So when you makes a proposal what should be the intelligent think to do? Side with Him. So they started to chant namas te nara-simhaya. He didn't come as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In order to establish dharma and in order to protect the devotees and annihilate the demons. But someday when you are in difficulty. then surrender unto Krishna . Don't worry about it. And the devotees were wondering what to do — now to run away. I'll give you two examples that happened in Germany . you're going to lose. their 281 . Reeperbahn area. And in Hamburg our devotees used to go out chanting the holy name. because they didn't have anything to defend themselves. So Krishna comes. and no matter how powerful the person you are taking shelter of is. I don't really have to surrender. That's a very simple message that He parcel. and Krishna came and Krishna will continue to come. If you can't surrender now. And when we surrender unto Krishna then what happens? As Krishna assure that we can become free from all anxiety. And that's what Krishna is suggesting in Bhagavad gita: sarvadharman parityajya mam ekam saranam vraja. he came to attack the devotees. Side with Me. you surrender unto me and 500 years back He came and again He reminded us surrender unto Krishna . Krishna says. He is encouraging us to surrender unto Krishna . In the early days our centre was actually in Hamburg . I've a nice situation. but I have made all arrangements. two things are always available: police and ambulance. And in St. And I tell you. If you go against Me. Now when Krishna comes. 5000 years ago Krishna told. they were chanting and there comes a huge person.

she was just attacked. And she didn't have any place to go she was just corned practically. Another way to look at it is a beautiful garden. So. After all it's the fathers creation so why you don't be beautiful? Whatever is created by Krishna is perfect and complete. They're happily playing with their friends. that if this material nature. Krishna is giving us the chance to play. And she started to chant. Krishna ’s creation is so wonderful. turned around and walked away. And then it becomes dark. I think that happened somewhere in south. while we are playing in the field. It becomes dark everybody goes away. One girl was distributing books and one man just attacked her. We are playing. And that's why I was saying that you . And the man just stopped. and they checked him and they said that he had a massive heart attack. Lord Nrisimhadeva takes care. where we have a Ferienlager for one week. Like as I was giving the example of a father — now what is our situation in relation to our father? Our situation is somewhat like we are bunch of children and we want to play. She took shelter of Nrisimhadeva. I was going to the alps. started to chant His holy name. she was going door to door and when she was going from one building to another.Caitanya-candra people already gathered there. can be so beautiful what must be Krishna ’s palace like? If the prison house is so beautiful what will be Krishna ’s palace like? What will be Krishna ’s own place like? We can't even imagine who beautiful the spiritual sky is. So our condition is somewhat like that. And you will see for yourself what actually happens. "Krishna. This material nature also is perfect and complete. if you feel that this is not the right time for you to surrender to Krishna. please take care of me. She was there. was it a heart attack or something else? Lord Nrisimhadeva is real. it becomes evening. I think I told you of. which is like a prison house. and I was telling. Krishna please help me. the Swiss devotee was driving me. So it’s a beautiful garden Krishna created for us. Now tell me. we forgot the father. Krishna is real. And He will because He is the father. please remember Krishna . What does the father do? The father sits on the bench and watches. but He's seeing us. and when you realize that there is no one there. The other day I was driving through Switzerland and I was telling. When there is no one to take care of. and here we all are playing. then the little child calls out to his father. We may not see Him. it's so beautiful. remember this words and please take shelter of Krishna and see what happens. 282 . And that's the thing. It was a lonely kind of area. But when it becomes dark. Don't the children forget the father? Forget everything else. then whenever you're in very. I just heard this story. It was when I was going to Ferienlager (holiday camp). in the garden. So all this kinds of wonderful things happen to the devotees when they take shelter of Krishna . 'Daddy. we are driving to the alps. take shelter of Him. then what you should do? We can call out to the father. Similarly another thing happened. In one way of course I said that it's like a prison house. and then the father is just sitting on a bench when the little boy plays or girl plays with their friends. very critical difficulty. Daddy where are you?' So what does the Daddy do at that time? He comes and picks up the child. all the other friends go away. when there is no one to submit yourself too.

So that is why it is called sankirtan. So. Please take shelter of Him. HARE KRISHNA HARE KRISHNA KRISHNA KRISHNA HARE HARE / HARE RAMA HARE RAMA RAMA RAMA HARE HARE. If you chant. So just take shelter of His lotus feet and see for yourself what happens to you. And that is the meaning of chanting Hare Krishna. Krishna we are you? HARE KRISHNA HARE KRISHNA KRISHNA KRISHNA HARE HARE / HARE RAMA HARE RAMA RAMA RAMA HARE HARE. I'm afraid. take shelter of your Supreme Father. we can really imagine how concerned He is about us. 'Daddy. Krishna we are you? Krishna . If you chant. You do not know how much He loves you. Please deliver me from this difficult situation that I am in. Now. please take me back to your lap. Chant the holy name of the Lord. 'oh. Because He loves you so much that's why He's taking care of you all the time in so many wonderful ways. So these two is what constitutes the yuga dharma of this age. Krishna please take me back to You. All you have to do is just call out to Him. Krishna . You can simply call out to Krishna . And that is what Prabhupada used to tell us. if we have a Supreme Father. or in prison house — wherever you are. I just said no. Or should I ask you. I can guarantee you there is somebody who is there to take care of you. And the way to take shelter of Him is just call out for Him. Krishna 's interest to take us back to Him is thousand times. the question is what we need to do? What we have to do is simply chant His name. than your life will be half perfect. Krishna. Krishna will take thousand steps to pick you up. I think in their 'Spiegel' there was a big article last week. they're not shy. Whether at your home. And He will act in that way. Daddy where are you'. We glorify Him and we also induce others to glorify Him. if you chant. And that is Krishna . Sankirtan means perfect glorification of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. whether in the office or factory or school or collage or university or in the playground. that's about all we have to say. So everyone is living in constant fear. As I said. And there is somebody I can assure you. Many of you come to the temple only on Sunday. is it a difficult process? No. Sometimes there is some fear. please deliver me from my miserable condition here. You don't have even come to the temple to call out to Him. is a little child more concerned about his father or is the father more concerned about his child? The father is more concerned about the child. How everybody in this world is in total anxiety today. The other half is the responsibility that you have to make others chant Hare Krishna. You can take shelter of Him anytime anywhere. I will take care of you'. That if you take one step towards Krishna. He is always waiting to take us back to Him. then I can 283 . This is the meaning of Hare Krishna maha mantra. The perfect spiritual practice of this age is chant yourself with full conviction and make others also chant the holy name of the Lord by taking shelter of Him. Krishna made arrangements. Perfect glorification. if I want to become a devotee of Krishna .Caitanya-candra Who is more concern. Yesterday someone was telling that. million times more than our desire to go back to Him. I'm worried. the article was on 'Angst – fear'. Is it a difficult process to chant the holy name of the Lord? Why you're thinking for so long? (Laughter) Or are you feeling shy? Germans are brave. Now the question is. So does it mean that you'll take shelter of Krishna only on Sundays? No. Krishna. than your life will be perfect. (Laughter) There's no need to feel shy about it. the son or the father? Is the son more concerned. Now when we are in such fearful condition what will we do? We try to get some shelter from somebody who will say 'Don't worry. well I'll make a little correction of this statement. Let's hear what you think.

then we have to chant the holy name. When Mahaprabhu said that. I can not do that or I have to do this' — don't worry about that. that's how easy this process is. But don't chant on your bead. Gopalguru Goswami. chores. you can chant 'Hare Krishna. That's about all that is needed. He asked Mahaprabhu: "If the time comes to leave the body in a dirty place. So that's how wonderful. because just as I mentioned. Nor that we have to always keep count. It is not that first we have to become sinless and then we have to become a devotee. anywhere. so that my tongue doesn't chant in a dirty place." And from that time. Everything else is secondary. So in this way Mahaprabhu reminded us we can chant the holy name anywhere at anytime on the any circumstances. 'See. should we chant the holy name?" And Mahaprabhu said: "Yes. don't worry. you can chant Hare Krishna. Caitanya Mahaprabhu came out of the toilet one morning. Sometimes devotees have a anxiety how to finish sixteen rounds. Krishna is not worried about the mistakes you are making. Don't worry. Krishna will be happy. So everybody ask. Today I learned something from Gopal. not to drive and chant in beads. Krishna Himself is in the holy name. 'well. You don't need your hands all the time to chant. I was in a dirty place and even in that dirty place my tongue was chanting the holy name. if Krishna 's entire potency is in the holy name. Those was a five year old boy. that means. No. So that's why I'm holding onto my tongue. Don't worry about them. So why risk it? Give both hands free. does the mother care? Does that mother think. you can chant. Don't worry about it. in each name Krishna has invested His entire potency. If you just chant. this little boy. anywhere on the any circumstances we can chant the holy name. because He learned something from Gopal. Gopal just asked a simple question. No. And they try to get all kind of times to finish their rounds. you can chant the holy name in which ever condition you maybe in. that He was biting onto His tongue with His teeth. Krishna will cover them. got the name Gopalguru. We you are cooking. In this respect I'll give you an example that Caitanya Mahaprabhu Himself has said. And there is no restriction of chanting this holy name of time. Does the father make any condition for his son to call out for him? Does the father say. Krishna will take care. his name was Gopal. is that difficult? Or when you are driving your car. cleans the baby herself. So if we have some defects. Because Mahaprabhu accepted him as His guru. or when you're doing your household. Krishna is simply concerned about how much you are surrendering yourselves to Him. and the devotee saw. only today we got to know that someone who is quite known left her body in an accident. Entire potency means. the mother picks up the child and cleans him. Tongue to chant and ears to hear. Hare Krishna'. Anytime. Krishna is not standing with a notebook and pen and taking notes. If you don't have time. You can chant anytime. Just chant the holy name. let the child first become clean and then I'll pick him on my lap? No. 'only when you are clean you can call me 284 . (Sanskrit-verse) Krishna has invested His entire potency in the holy name and there are innumerable names. Make it appoint. If the child is dirty.Caitanya-candra not do this. what happen? Why you are biting onto Your tongue? Then Mahaprabhu said. Give both hands on your steering wheel while driving. No matter how dirty the child is. place and circumstances. So name of Krishna is Krishna Himself. when you are going to your work. I couldn't stop my tongue from chanting. how many times you went off. At least when you are driving don't risk it. You can chant with your mouth and you can hear with your ears. I tell the devotees. Just take shelter of Krishna and He will take care of you in all respects. But.

knowledge and bliss absolute. Radha is also known by the name Hara. And that is the condition that Krishna is giving us. 16. the suffix na indicates the supreme joy. (Ramatapaniyopanisad.2 Mahamantrasya madhuryamayi vyakhya .Caitanya-candra father?' Does he make any condition like that? No.5. because she is the incarnation of Krsna's joy.1 Mahamantra-vyakhya . because of his love for his son he is happy to hear him call out to him anytime. on the any circumstances. And as soon as we call Him. That is the assurance that He has given. 1.5. of those who remember him. known as the Param Brahman is also called Rama.6) 16.The Lord's intimate qualities revealed in the Mahamantra vijnapya bhagavat-tattvam cid-ghanananda-vigraham haraty avidyam tat-karyam ato harir iti smrtah The Lord is known as Hari because he takes away the ignorance of his devotees by revealing to them the actual nature of the Supreme Lord and his personal spiritual form. Thus. krsir bhur-vacakah sabdo nas ca nirvrti-sucakah tayor aikyam param brahma krsna ity abhidhiyate The root krs indicates the supreme attractiveness of the Lord. Therefore that truth. We can call Him anytime. anywhere. harati krsna-manah krsnahlada-svarupini ato harety anenaiva sri-radha parikirtita Because she steals Krsna's mind. He will be there for us. anandaika-sukha-svami syamah kamala-locanah 285 .The Lord's divine qualities revealed in the Mahamantra hare krsna hare krsna krsna krsna hare hare hare rama hare rama rama rama hare hare Commentary on the Mahamantra harati tri-vidham tapam janma-koti-satodbhavam papam ca smaratam yasmat tasmadd harir iti smrtah The Lord is known as Hari because He takes away the sins and three types of suffering accumulated over millions of births. the name Krsna indicates the Supreme Brahman who is the acme of these two characteristics. ramante yogino'nante satyananda-cid-atmani iti rama-padenasau para-brahmabhidhiyate The yogis take pleasure in the Supreme Self which is existence.

the all-attractive one. but Çrématé Rädhikä captivates the mind of Çré Kåñëa by exercising Her unrivalled cleverness. and because he brings pleasure to Srimati Radharani. taking Her to a secluded kuïja within the räsa-maëòala. and their pride. and through the playing of his flute drew them out of their homes and into the forest.Remembering the Divine Couple through the Mahamantra mano harati krsnasya krsnahlada-svarupini tato hara sri-radhaiva tasyah sambodhanam hare Because she steals Krsna's mind and because she is the embodiment of Krsna's divine joy. 16. because he is the titulary deity of loving sports incarnate. lotus-eyed lord. who is adorned with qualities which bewilder the three worlds. Harä in its vocative case becomes Hare. their selfpossession.Therefore. Therefore. This has been learned from the words of mahä-puruñas. Hare is the vocative form of that name. Radha is known as Hara.3 Mahamantrasya yugalasmaranamayi vyakhya . He is called Kåñëa. She is known as Harä. is known as Krsna. he is known as Krsna. HARE—Çré Kåñëa kidnapped doe-eyed Çrématé Rädhikä. who brings pleasure to Gokula. the only master of the highest joy.6 Commentary On The Maha-Mantra by Çréla Jéva Gosvämé HARE—Çré Kåñëacandra’s transcendental beauty captivates the minds of all. ramayaty anisam rupa-lavanyair vraja-yositam manah-pancendriyaniha ramas tasmat prakirtitah Krsna is glorified by the name Rama because he constantly causes the Vraja cowherd women's minds and senses to enjoy the charms of his beauty. 286 . the son of Nanda. KÅÑËA—Çré Hari. 16.Caitanya-candra gokulanandano nanda-nandanah krsna iryate The dark. The vocative case of Harä is Hare. vaidagdhya-sara-sarvasvam murta-liladhidaivatam sri-radham ramayan nityam rama ity abhidhiyate Krsna is also known as Rama because the joys of conjugal life are the essence of his being.5. apagrhya trapam dharmam dhairyam manam vraja-strinam venuna karsati grhat tena krsno 'bhidhiyate Because he robbed the women of Vraja of their shame. attracts Çrématé Rädhikä by His youthful beauty and the sweet sound of His flute. their religious principles. Therefore. Rädhikä is known as Harä.

is known as Räma. She attracts Çré Kåñëa from dhämas like Mathurä and brings Him to Vraja. knows the art of embracing. playing and enjoying with Her in the kuïjas of Govardhana. the giver of pleasure to the bhaktas. saw all the Vrajaväsés fearful and weeping. Therefore. KÅÑËA—Çré Hari manifested Çyäma Kuëòa. Çré Kåñëa is known as Räma because He unites with Çré Rädhä. crest-jewel of the ingenious. For this reason She is called Harä (one who steals). RÄMA—When Çré Kåñëa. He is called Räma. in the forest of Vraja near Govardhana. Çré Kåñëa stole the life force of the strong bull-like demon. She steals all the miseries of the bhaktas and daily bestows inner happiness upon them. loudly chanted “Hari Hari!” For this reason Çré Rädhä is known as Harä. who call Him Kåñëa. Çré Rädhikä is so absorbed in playful pastimes and rasa. Harä is addressed as Hare. He did this in accordance with the desire of His beloved Çré Rädhikä. Therefore. Thus. Learned people. HARE—Çré Kåñëa went to Mathurä Puré to kill Kaàsa and other demons. 287 . thus giving them great pleasure. when learned scholars discriminate between rasas.This is why Rädhikä Devé is known as Harä. they refer to Her as Harä. that She steals away the flute which falls from the hands of Çré Kåñëa. That is why learned people call Him Kåñëa. His sole intention was to return to Vraja and meet with Çré Rädhikä. RÄMA—Çré Kåñëa. Harä is addressed as Hare. the topmost of all sarovaras. He is known as Räma because He wanders with Çré Rädhikä. Çré Kåñëa. She is known as Harä and is addressed as Hare. out of intense affection. He swallowed the forest fire. and He attracted all térthas to it. according to the definition of ramayati änandayati. Harä is addressed as Hare. HARE—Çré Rädhikä is most merciful. The address for Harä is Hare. understand this deep secret. Çré Kåñëa. Çré Kåñëa. RÄMA—The minds of the bhaktas who perform bhajana wander in the topmost ocean of bliss. HARE—Çré Rädhikä sings the pastimes of Çré Kåñëa in indistinct tones and sometimes. RÄMA—In the kuïjas Çrématé Rädhikä pleases Çré Hari with Her prema . and at that very moment Çrématé Rädhikä. That Rädhä-Ramaëa Çyämasundara is called Kåñëa.Caitanya-candra KÅÑËA—The magnificent effulgence that emanates from His limbs can convert gold into çyäma varëa (a dark sapphire lustre). Aristäsura. is called Räma. Therefore. For this reason that Çyämasundara vigraha. She sings loudly. HARE—In Våndävana. HARE—Whilst living in Vraja. in great jubilation. the all-attractive dhéra-lalita-näyaka Çré Hari is attracted by the transcendental mahäbhäva of Çré Rädhikä. ‘He who gives happiness’. KÅÑËA—Although His pastimes on the banks of the Yamunä in Våndävana bewilder the world. who arranges for His bhaktas to enjoy with Him.

That Nanda-nandana.8 Explanation of the Mahamantra by Srila Gopala Guru Goswami (Translated by Jagadananda Dasa) (1) hare . who is endowed with pastimes that captivate the mind of Çré Rädhikä. The word Hari becomes Hare in the vocative case. krsna . form. O Rama! Please engage me in remembering Your transcendental name. O Rama! Please reveal to me Your most cherished pastimes with Your beloved Sri Radha. O Krsna! Please make me able to relish Your transcendental name. O Rama! Please make me fit to serve You while remembering Your transcendental name. pastimes. Thus ends the commentary on the mahä-mantra by Çréla Jéva Gosvämé 16. qualities. pastimes. is called Hari. etc. attract my mind.he hare. etc. O Hari! Having accepted me as one of Your own servitors. please free me from material bondage. pastimes. qualities. etc. 16. O Krsna! Please make me able to relish Your transcendental name. form.7 Explanation of the Hare Krsna Maha-mantra by Srila Saccidananda Bhaktivinoda Thakura O Hari! Having captured my mind. O Hari! Please capture my mind by Your unsurpassed sweetness.Caitanya-candra HARE—Çré Nanda-nandana came from Mathurä and Dvärakä to steal away all the miseries of the Vrajaväsés. qualities. form. please enjoy me as You please. etc. O Krsna! Please purify my mind with knowledge about devotional service given to me by Your own devotee.he krsna. O Hari! Please enjoy with me in Your transcendental way. form. form. O Rama! Let me hear about Your most cherished pastimes in the company of Your dearest devotee. This is my humble request at Your lotus feet. hare . sva-madhuryena mac-cittah hara | 288 . mac-cittam akarsaya | Krsna! O Krsna. pastimes. mac-cittam hrtva bhava-bandhanan mocaya | Hare! O Hari. qualities. pastimes.he hare. O Krsna! Please attract my mind by pulling it to You. steal my mind and deliver me from bondage to this material world. qualities. O Hari! Please direct me to do some particular service for You. etc. O Hari! Please make me fit to serve You. O Hari! Please make me able to relish Your transcendental name. O Hara (Radha)! Please reveal to me Your most cherished pastimes with Your beloved Sri Krsna.

rama . Radha! Give me the opportunity to hear about your own favorite pastimes with your beloved Lord rama . form. hare .he hare.he krsna. qualities and pastimes. presthaya saha svabhista-lilam mam darsaya | Rama! O Rama! Give me the opportunity to see your intimate pastimes with your beloved Radha. qualities.he krsna. krsna . presthaya saha svabhista-lilam mam sravaya | Rama! O Rama! Give me the opportunity to hear about your own favorite pastimes with your beloved Radha. rama . krsna . form. hare . sva-presthena saha svabhista-lilam darsaya | Hare! O Hara. 289 .he rama.he hare.he rama. Radha! Order me personally in the service you wish me to perform. rucir bhavatu me | Krsna! O Krsna! Give me a taste for your name.he rama. sva-bhakta-dvara bhajana-jnana-danena mac-cittam sodhaya | Krsna! O Krsna! Send me the association of your devotees who will purify my mind through instructions about your devotional service. chanting and remembering your name. nama-rupa-guna-liladisu man-nistham kuru | Krsna! O Krsna! Give me unflinching faith in your name. nama-rupa-guna-lila-smaranadisu mam yojaya | Rama! O Rama! Engage me in hearing. qualities and pastimes. Radha! Give me the opportunity to see your intimate pastimes with your beloved Lord. sva-presthena saha svabhista-lilam sravaya | Hare! O Hara.he krsna.he hare. nija-seva-yogyam mam kuru | Hare! O Hari! Make me worthy to engage in your service. pastimes. form and pastimes. hare .Caitanya-candra Hare! O Hari! Capture my mind with the sweetness of your name. hare . krsna .he hare. sva-sevam adisaya | Hare! O Hara. form.

tasya sambodhane he krsna | Krsna. I call out to him. He is pulling on me.punar harsatam gamayati vanam karsatiti krsnah.radhaya manah karsatiti krsnah.radhaya lokalajjadhairyadi sarvam karsatiti krsnah. She steals everything of his and is thus known as Hara. make me worthy to engage in your service. Wherever Radha is standing. tasya sambodhane he krsna | Krsna! Then Krsna makes her feel a thrill of excitement as he pulls her to the woods. hare . O Radhe! O Hare! krsna . Krsna is watching me. I call out to her. he is touching me.krsnasya mano haratiti hara radha. O Lord! O Krsna! hare . (2) hare . I call out to him.krsnasya lokalajjadhairyadi sarvam haratiti hara radha. tasya sambodhane he krsna | Krsna! The Lord is known as Krsna because he attracts Radha's mind. maya saha ramasva | Hare! O Hari! Take pleasure in me and enjoy with me. Therefore I call out to him. he he is pulling on my bodice. she thinks. hare . tasyah sambodhane he hare | Hare! Radha is known as Hara because she steals Krsna's mind. Therefore I call out to him.he rama. tasyah sambodhane he hare | Hare! Radha steals Krsna's sense of public shame and his self-possession. or wherever she happens to be going. O Hare! O Radhe! krsna .yatra yatra radha tisthati gacchati va tatra tatra sa pasyati krsno mam sprsati balat kancukadikam sarvam karsati haratiti krsnah.he hare.Caitanya-candra rama . I therefore call out to her. mam svangikrtya ramasva | Hare! O Hari! Please accept me and take pleasure from the service that I offer you. O Lord! O Krsna! krsna . O Lord! O Krsna! krsna .he hare. O Lord! O Krsna! 290 . tatra mam nija-seva-yogyam kuru | Rama! O Rama! As I enter into those pastimes by the path of meditation. tasya sambodhane he krsna | Krsna! He drags away all of Radha's sense of shame and her self-possession.

punas tam krsnam harati sva-sthanam abhisarayatiti hara radha. tasya sambodhane he rama | Rama! Krsna delights in kissing Radha. In this way she disturbs his mind. O Lord! O Rama! rama . O Radhe! O Hare! rama . he sees Radha in front of him. tasya sambodhane he rama | Rama! All this brings extra delight to Krsna. O Radhe! O Hare! rama .punas tam purusocitam krtva ramayatiti ramah. making him come to her kunja. tasyah sambodhane he hare | Hare! She once again steals Krsna away.Caitanya-candra hare . He is thus known as Rama.punah rasante krsnasya mano hrtva gacchatiti hara radha.cumbana-stana-karsanalinganadibhi ramate iti ramah. making him come to her kunja. O Radhe. O Radhe! O Hare! hare . tasya sambodhane he rama | Rama! Krsna causes Radha to reach the pinnacle of sexual excitement. I call out to her. wherever he is situated. She is thus known as Hara. so that she becomes aggressively active in the love battle.tatkalikam dhairyavalambanadikam krsnasya haratiti hara radha. O Lord! O Rama! rama . I thus call out to her.punas tatra ramate iti ramah. tasyah sambodhane he hare | Hare! She once again steals Krsna away. I thus call out to him. O Hare! hare . O Lord! O Rama! hare . like a man. I thus call out to her. He is thus known as Rama. tasyah sambodhane he hare | Hare! She robs Krsna of the momentary self-control he is able to muster in her presence.krsnam vanam harati vanam agamayatiti hara radha. and so I call out to him. He is thus known as Rama. tasyah sambodhane he hare | 291 . O Krsna! O Rama! hare . in touching her breasts and in embracing her. and so I call out to him. tasyah sambodhane he hare | Hare! Wherever Krsna goes. by his side. She is thus known as Hara.ramayati tam narma-niriksanadiniti ramah.yatra krsno gacchati tisthati va tatra tatra pasyati radha mamagre parsve sarvatra tisthatiti hara. tasya sambodhane he rama | Rama! Krsna is known as Rama because he brings Radha pleasure with his joking words and his loving glances. and so I call out to him. all around him. and so I call out to her. She is thus known as Hara.

This holy name of Ramacandra is equal to one thousand holy names of Lord Visnu (Visnu-sahasranama-stotram).335) it is said: rama rameti rameti rame rame manorame sahasra-namabhis tulyam rama-nama varanane Lord Siva addressed his wife.33] The Prabhasa Khanda of Padma Purana states: namnam mukhyataram nama.9 The Glories Of The Holy Name In the Brhad-visnu-sahasranama-stotra. and I therefore call out to her.Caitanya-candra Hare! Once again. krishnakhyam me parantapa prayascittam asesenam papanam mocakam param. trir-avrttya tu yat phalam. "The pious results (punya) achieved by chanting the thousand holy names of Visnu (Visnu-sahasra-nama-stotram) three times can be attained by only one utterance of the holy name of Krsna. Uttara-khanda." In the Padma Purana it is mentioned: visnor ekaika namapi." 292 .radhaya mano hrtva gacchatiti harih krsnah tasya sambodhane he hare | Hare! Krsna also steals Radha's mind. rama nama samasmrtam "Each Name of Lord Vishnu is greater and more potent than the entire Vedas combined together. O Krsna! O Hare! 16. as she leaves to return home. sarva vedadhikam matam tadrk nama sahasrena. namaikam tat prayacchati. Padma Purana (72. ekavrttya tu krsnasya. taking it with him as he leaves. Rama. "O Arjuna. she steals Krsna's mind and takes it away with her. the Holy of Krishna is the most principal (mukhyataram) among all Names of God. O Radhe! O Hare! hare . She is thus known as Hara. at the end of the Rasa dance." [cited: Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Madhya-lila 9. and Lord Rama's Name alone is more superior that a thousand Names of Lord Vishnu.354) it is stated: sahasra-namnam punyanam. and I call out to him. I chant the holy name of Rama. Rama and thus constantly enjoy this beautiful sound. Durga: "O Varanana (lovely-faced woman)." In the Brahmanda Purana (quoted in Laghu-bhagavatamrta. He is thus known as Hari. One can atone for unlimited sinful deeds by chanting the Name of Krishna which is the supreme destroyer of all sins. 1.

karma. and one name of Sri Rama is more potent than a thousand names of Sri Vishnu. He has only one dharma. which is hari-nama. and the attributes of Krishna everything will be manifested to you.” “The Brahmäëòa Puräëa states: sahasra-nämnäà puëyänäà trir ävåttyä tu yat phalam ekävåttyä tu kåñëasya nämaikaà tat prayacchati “When the thousand transcendental names of Sri Vishnu are chanted three times they are equivalent to chanting one name of Krishna. Therefore. So from the above three very important verses we can easily come to the following conclusion: 1000 x Names of Lord Visnu = 1 x Name of Lord Rama (Visnu-sahasra-nama-stotram) 3 x Names of Lord Rama = 1 x Name of Lord Krsna (or 3000 Names of Lord Visnu) In Srimad-Bhagavatam 6. The name is everything! The name is everything! The Çata-näma-stotra states: viñëor-ekaikaà nämäpi sarva-vedädhikaà matam tädåk-näma-sahasreëa räma-näma-samaà småtam “One name of Sri Vishnu is superior to all the Vedic mantras. Name prasphutita haya rupa. we see that ‘ Krishna ’ is the supreme name. If you chant the holy name without offense .” From this it is evident that one thousand names of Visnu is equivalent to one name of Rama and three names of Rama is equivalent to one name of Krsna. guna. is the ultimate religious principle for the living entity in human society.Caitanya-candra A Vaishnava chants only one name. beginning with the chanting of the holy name of the Lord." 293 .“Thus. the transcendental pastimes of Krishna.then the all-beautiful form of Krishna.22 it is stated: etavan eva loke 'smin pumsam dharmah parah smrtah bhakti-yogo bhagavati tan-nama-grahanadibhih [Yamaraja to the Yamadutas]: "Devotional service.in other words. the pure name . we should always follow the instruction of Sri Gauranga and chant the mahä-mantra: hare kåñëa hare kåñëa kåñëa kåñëa hare hare hare räma hare räma räma räma hare hare.3.

When somehow or other uttered even once by a living entity.5. it is never conditioned by the laws of material nature. the crown 294 . the reservoir of all pleasure. there is no question of its being involved with maya. the Supreme Personality of Godhead. The holy name of Krsna is the highest nectar. and it is no less powerful than Krsna Himself. meditation and worship." In the Padma Purana it is stated: nama cintamanih krsnas caitanya-rasa-vigrahah purnah suddho nitya-mukto 'bhinnatvan nama-naminoh "The holy name of Krsna is transcendentally blissful. who has no material form.Caitanya-candra In Srimad-Bhagavatam 1. in the form of transcendental sound representation. Since Krsna's name is not contaminated by the material qualities. It is my very life and my only treasure. It bestows all spiritual benedictions." In Sri Brhad-bhagavatamrta (1. all glories to the all-blissful holy name of Sri Krsna. it is stated: nikhila-sruti-mauli-ratna-maladyuti-nirajita-pada-pankajanta ayi mukta-kulair upasyamanam paritas tvam hari-nama samsrayami "O Hari-nama! The tips of the toes of Your lotus feet are constantly being worshiped by the glowing radiance emanating from the string of gems known as the Upanisads. the holy name awards him liberation. Krsna's name is complete." In Namastaka (verse 1). Visnu. and it is the form of all transcendental mellows.38 it is stated: iti murty-abhidhanena mantra-murtim amurtikam yajate yajna-purusam sa samyag darsanah puman [Narada Muni to Vyasadeva]: "Thus he is the actual seer who worships. for it is Krsna Himself. Krsna's name is always liberated and spiritual. which causes the devotee to give up all conventional religious duties.9) it is stated: jayati jayati namananda-rupam murarer viramita-nija-dharma-dhyana-pujadi-yatnam kathamapi sakrd-attam muktidam praninam yat paramam amrtam ekam jivanam bhusanam me "All glories. It is not a material name under any condition. This is because the name of Krsna and Krsna Himself are identical.

You are eternally adored by liberated souls such as Narada and Sukadeva. just worship Sri Krsna. so a slight appearance of the holy name of Krsna can drive away all the darkness of ignorance that arises in the heart due to greatly sinful activities performed in previous lives.Visnu Purana it is stated: namno hi yavati sa papa-nirharane hareh tavat kartum na saknoti patakam pataki narah "Simply by chanting one holy name of Hari.1. for just as a slight appearance of the sun dissipates the darkness of night. unflinching mind. a sinful man can counteract the reactions to more sins than he is able to commit. The chanting of the holy name is the only means to cross the ocean of nescience.7] In the Garuda Purana it is stated: avasenapi yan-namni kirtite sarva-patakaih 295 ." Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (2. Hare Krsna. and the processes for satisfying the demigods-is included in the eight syllables Hare Krsna.103) it is stated: tam nirvyajam bhaja guna-nidhe pavanam pavananam sraddha-rajyan-matir atitaram uttamah-sloka-maulim prodyann antah-karana-kuhare hanta yan-nama-bhanor abhaso 'pi ksapayati maha-pataka-dhvanta-rasim "O reservoir of all good qualities. Worship Him with a faithful. whose name is like the sun." [cited: Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.2.71] Narada-pancaratra states: trayo vedah sad-angani chandamsi vividhah surah sarvam astaksarantahstham yac canyad api van-mayam sarva-vedanta-sararthah samsararnava-taranah "The essence of all Vedic knowledge-comprehending the three kinds of Vedic activity [karma-kanda. jnana-kanda and upasana-kanda].62] Brhad. the purifier of all purifiers. the chandah or Vedic hymns. O Hari-nama! I take complete shelter of You. Thus worship the Lord.Caitanya-candra jewels of all the Vedas. the most exalted of the personalities worshiped by choice poetry. This is the reality of all Vedanta. without duplicity and in a highly elevated manner." [cited: Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Antya-lila 3." [cited: Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Antya-lila 4.

When the holy 296 ." [cited: Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.7] In the Srimad-Bhagavatam 1.2.2. even in a helpless condition or without desiring to do so. one guarantees his path to liberation. just as when a lion roars. all the small animals flee in fear.40 it is stated: evam-vratah sva-priya-nama-kirtya jatanurago druta-citta uccaih hasaty atho roditi rauti gayaty unmada-van nrtyati loka-bahyah [Kavi to Maharaja Nimi]: "When a person is actually advanced and takes pleasure in chanting the holy name of the Lord.1." [cited: Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Madhya-lila 9. He also laughs.14 it is stated: apannah samsrtim ghoram yan-nama vivaso grnan tatah sadyo vimucyeta yad bibheti svayam bhayam [The sages at Naimisaranya to Suta Gosvami]: "Living beings who are entangled in the complicated meshes of birth and death can be freed immediately by even unconsciously chanting the holy name of Krsna.Caitanya-candra puman vimucyate sadyah simha-trastair mrgair iva "If one chants the holy name of the Lord. all the reactions of his sinful life depart. becomes agitated and chants just like a madman.2. cries. he is agitated and loudly chants the holy name. which is feared by fear personified.7] In Srimad-Bhagavatam 11.15) it is stated: tunde tandavini ratim vitanute tundavali-labdhaye karna-kroda-kadambini ghatayate karnarbudebhyah sprham cetah-prangana-sangini vijayate sarvendriyanam krtim no jane janita kiyadbhir amrtaih krsneti varna-dvayi "I do not know how much nectar the two syllables 'Krs-na' have produced." [cited: Srimad-Bhagavatam 6. who is very dear to him." In the Skanda Purana it is stated: sakrd uccaritam yena harir ity aksara-dvayam baddha-parikaras tena moksaya gamanam prati "By once chanting the holy name of the Lord. not caring for outsiders.262] In Vidagdha-madhava (1. which consists of the two syllables ha-ri.

and therefore all the senses become inert. sacrifices or fruitive activities. many mouths. even a person born in a family of dog-eaters immediately becomes eligible to perform Vedic sacrifices if he once utters the holy name of the Supreme Personality of Godhead or chants about Him. offers Him obeisances or even remembers Him." Srimad-Bhagavatam 3. When that name enters the holes of the ears. We then desire many. the tongue is purified.33. When a conditioned soul is awakened to Krsna consciousness and renders service by using his tongue to chant the Lord's holy name and taste the remnants of the Lord's food. And when the holy name dances in the courtyard of the heart. it conquers the activities of the mind." [cited: Sri Caitanyacaritamrta Antya-lila 1.Caitanya-candra name of Krsna is chanted.9." [cited: Srimad-Bhagavatam 2.99] Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu (1. because simply by either remembering Him or vibrating His holy name one can attain the perfection of all penances.33. and one gradually comes to understand who Krsna really is. it appears to dance within the mouth.234) states: atah sri-krsna-namadi na bhaved grahyam indriyaih sevonmukhe hi jihvadau svayam eva sphuraty adah "Therefore material senses cannot appreciate Krsna's holy name. the infallible. qualities and pastimes.7 states: aho bata sva-paco 'to gariyan yaj-jihvagre vartate nama tubhyam 297 . form. and this process can be universally followed. hears about His pastimes.6 states: yan-namadheya-sravananukirtanad yat-prahvanad yat-smaranad api kvacit svado 'pi sadyah savanaya kalpate kutah punas te bhagavan nu darsanat [Devahuti to Lord Kapila]: "To say nothing of the spiritual advancement of persons who see the Supreme Person face to face.36] Srimad-Bhagavatam 3.136] In the Skanda Purana it is stated: yasya smrtya ca namoktya tapo-yajna-kriyadisu nunam sampurnatam eti sadyo vande tam acyutam "I offer my obeisances unto Him.2. we desire many millions of ears." [cited: Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Madhya-lila 17.

Caitanya-candra tepus tapas te juhuvuh sasnur arya brahmanucur nama grnanti ye te [Devahuti to Lord Kapila]: "Oh.35 states: naham tisthami vaikunthe yoginam hrdayesu va tatra tisthami narada yatra gayanti mad-bhaktah "My dear Narada. how glorious are they whose tongues are chanting Your holy name! Even if bom in the families of dog-eaters. sarva-nama-phalam labhet. Persons who chant the holy name of Your Lordship must have executed all kinds of austerities and fire sacrifices and achieved all the good manners of the Aryans.24 states: tad asma-saram hrdayam batedam yad grhyamanair hari-nama-dheyaih na vikriyetatha yada vikaro netre jalam gatra-ruhesu harsah [Sukadeva Gosvami to Maharaja Pariksit]: "If one's heart does not change.24] Srimad-Bhagavatam 2. nor his hairs stand on end as he chants the Hare Krsna maha-mantra." In the Padma Purana it is stated: namaparadha-yuktanam namany eva haranty agham avisranti-prayuktani tany evartha-karani ca Even if in the beginning one chants the Hare Krsna mantra with offenses. actually I do not reside in My abode. they must have bathed at holy places of pilgrimage. This is due to his offenses at the lotus feet of the Lord's holy name." In the Brahma-rahasya it is stated: krsna-caitanyeti nama.30." Srimad-Bhagavatam 4. 298 . such persons are worshipable. one will become free from such offenses by chanting again and again. [cited: Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.3.3. his body does not shiver. nor do I reside within the hearts of the yogis. but I reside in that place where My pure devotees chant My holy name and discuss My form. pastimes and qualities. tears do not flow from his eyes. mukhyan mukhyatamam prabhoh helaya sakrd uccarya. it should be understood that his heart is as hard as iron. Vaikuntha. studied the Vedas and fulfilled everything required. To be chanting the holy name of Your Lordship.

110 it is stated: äkåñöiù kåta-cetasäà su-manasäm uccäöanaà cäàhasäm äcaëòälam amüka-loka-sulabho vaçyaç ca mukti-çriyaù 299 ." In the Padma Purana (Brahma khanda 25. and although the chanting was directed toward his son.15–18) it is stated: sivasya sri-visnor ya iha guna-namadi-sakalam dhiya bhinnam pasyet sa khalu hari-namahita-karah “To consider the names of demigods such as Lord Siva and Lord Brahma as well as other demigods as good as the name of Lord Visnu -. The glories and power of all the other names of God are completely present in the names of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. Hence adding someone’s name with the holy names of Lord Hari is one of the greatest offences.2. become free from all offenses and purify all the worlds by their very presence." In the Visnu-yamala it is said: krsna-caitanya-namna ye. "Those who chant the name of Krsna Caitanya even once. where is the doubt that he will return to Godhead." Srila Jagadananda Pandita says in Prema-vivarta: gaura ye visala nama sei nama gau. Rama) and His holy name is a great offence which must be avoided at all times. Madhya-lila 15. By chanting this name just once.or. mriyamano harer nama grnan putropacaritam ajamilo ‘py agad dhama kim uta sraddhaya grnan “While suffering at the time of death. anya saba nama-mahatmya sei name pau. punanti sakalam jagat. a person attains the results of chanting all the other holy names of the Lord.” Therefore equating any person with Lord Visnu (Krsna. who is known as Lord Gaura. Ajamila chanted the holy name of the Lord. in other words.” (Srimad-Bhagavatam 6. to think that Lord Siva and the other demigods are other forms of God and therefore equal to Lord Visnu -.49) In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. "The most powerful names of God are the names of the most merciful incarnation of God. kirtayanti sakrn narah. Therefore if one faithfully and inoffensively chants the holy name of the Lord. One must not commit such an offence. he nevertheless returned home.Caitanya-candra "The holy name Krsna Caitanya is the topmost even among all the important primary holy names of the Lord Krsna.is also a great offence. nanaparadha-muktas te. back to Godhead.

’” The Närada-païcarätra also praises the Hare Kåñëa mahä-mantra as follows: trayo vedäù ñaò-aìgäni chandäàsi vividhäù suräù sarvam añöäkñaräntaù-sthaà yac cänyad api väì-mayam sarva-vedänta-särärthaù saàsärärëava-täraëaù “The essence of all Vedic knowledge—comprehending the three kinds of Vedic activity [karma-käëòa. constant chanting of the holy name of the Lord after the ways of the great authorities is the doubtless and fearless way of success for all.’’ In Srimad Bhagavatam (2. including those who are free from all material desires. one can satisfy the Supreme Lord Viñëu by performing saìkértana. It is self-sufficient. This is the reality of all Vedänta. or Vedic hymns. Especially in the age of Kali. and it is identical with Kåñëa. It is the annihilator of all sinful reactions and is so powerful that. save for the dumb who cannot chant it.” 300 . pious activities or the puraçcaryä regulative principles generally observed before initiation. those who are desirous of all material enjoyment. jïäna-käëòa and upäsanä-käëòa]. it is readily available to everyone. The holy name of Kåñëa is the controller of the opulence of liberation.11) it is stated: etan nirvidyamänänäm icchatäm akuto-bhayam yoginäà nåpa nirëétaà harer nämänukértanam “O King. liberal people.1. the chandas. The chanting of the holy name is the only means to cross the ocean of nescience. the caëòäla. and also those who are self-satisfied by dint of transcendental knowledge.Caitanya-candra no dékñäà na ca sat-kriyäà na ca puraçcaryäà manäg ékñate mantro ’yaà rasanä-spåg eva phalati çré-kåñëa-nämätmakaù “‘The holy name of Lord Kåñëa is an attractive feature for many saintly. including the lowest type of man. immediate effects are produced. Chanting the holy name does not depend on initiation. and the processes for satisfying the demigods—is included in the eight syllables Hare Kåñëa. The holy name does not wait for any of these activities. When a person simply chants the holy name with his tongue. Hare Kåñëa.” Çréla Jéva Gosvämé has also cited the Cäturmäsya-mähätmya of the Skanda Puräëa concerning the necessity of chanting Hare Kåñëa in this age: tathä caivottamaà loke tapaù çré-hari-kértanam kalau yuge viçeñeëa viñëu-prétyai samäcaret “In this way the most perfect penance to be executed in this world is the chanting of the name of Lord Çré Hari.

is the incarnation of Lord Krsna.22) anäyäse bhava-kñaya. one associates with the Lord directly.(C. Ãdi-lélä 7. 86) There is no difference between the name of Krishna and Krishna Himself. Ãdi-lélä 7.“ (C. He is nama-avatara.” (C. Ãdi-lélä 17. kåñëa-prema.c. käma (sense gratification) and mokña (liberation) are known as the four goals of life.84) “pancama puruñärtha-premänand amåta sindùu brahmädi änanda yära nahe eka bindu” “The pleasure derived from dharma. The holy name of Kåñëa is so powerful that by chanting even one name. these appear as insignificant as straw in the street.” (C. but before love of Godhead. No other incarnation is there in Kali-yuga. the fifth and topmost goal. Ãdi-lélä 8.c.83) kåñëa viñayaka premä—parama purusärtha yära äge tåëa-tulya cäri puruñärtha “Dharma (religiosity). one makes such great advancement in spiritual life that simultaneously his material existence terminates and he receives love of Godhead.Caitanya-candra 16. the Hare Krsna maha-mantra.Ãdi-lélä 7. Ãdi-lélä 7. and especially in Kali yuga Krishna has incarnated Himself in the form of his holy name. he immediately develops his loving ecstatic relationship with Kåñëa. kali-käle näma rüpe kåñëa-avatära näma haite haya sarva-jagat-nistära In this Age of Kali.10 The Holy Name Is Everything Sri Caitanya-caritämåta states: kåñëa näma mahä-mantra ei ta’svabhäva yei jape täre kåñëe upajaye bhäva [Isvara Puri to Lord Caitanya]: “The nature of the hare kåñëa mahä-mantra is such that when a person chants it. artha. one very easily achieves these transcendental riches. kåñëa prema. (C. sarva çästre kaya” “The conclusion of all çästra is that one should awaken his dormant love of Godhead. käma and mokña appear like a drop in the ocean in the presence of a person who has developed bhäva. Anyone who does this is certainly delivered. artha (economic development).c.c.85) “kåñëa-nämera phala’ premä.” (C. Simply by chanting the holy name.c. the holy name of the Lord.28) 301 .c. kåñëera sevana eka kåñëa-nämera phale päi eta dhana As a result of chanting the Hare Kåñëa mahä-mantra.

It is understood that one who does not perform saìkértana has no intelligence and is a victim of Kali.c.c.” (C. and you will be elevated to the enjoyment of love of Godhead. ‘My dear Svarüpa Dämodara and Rämänanda Räya. at the stage of nämabhasa.’ ” (C.” (C. all your sinful reactions will go away.c. After you chant perfectly. In this way you will be able to attain liberation very easily. know from Me that the easiest way to attain salvation in this age of Kali is by chanting of the holy names of Krsna. Madhya-lélä 11.154) eka ‘nämäbhäse’ tomära päpa doña yäbe ära ‘näma’ la-ite kåñëa-caraëa-päibe “Begin chanting the hare kåñëa mahä-mantra and. you will get shelter at the lotus feet of Kåñëa.” (C.178) kali-kälera dharma—kåñëa-näma-saìkértana “The fundamental religious system in the age of Kali is the chanting of the name of Kåñëa.c.99) nirantara kara kåñëa-näma-saìkértana heläya mukti päbe. pabe prema-dhana “Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu continued.” (C. Madhyalélä 25. when your chanting is almost pure.” (C.199) nämera phale kåñëa-pade prema upajaya “The result of chanting näma without offence is that a person will awaken his ecstatic love for the lotus feet of Kåñëa. Antya-lélä 7. “Always discuss Srimad Bhagavatam and constantly chant the holy name of Krsna.c.c.Caitanya-candra avatari’ caitanya kaila dharma pracäraëa kali käle dharma—kåñëa-näma-saìkértana “Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu has descended in Kali-yuga to propagate the dharma of the age.” (C. Madhya-lélä 11. 8) saìkértana-yajïe kalau kåñëa ärädhana sei ta sumedhä päya kåñëera caraëa 302 . Antya-lélä 20. Madhya-lélä 25.11) harñe prabhukalena suna svarüpa-räma-räya näma-saìkértana-kalau parama upäya “In great jubilation Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu said.c. chanting the holy names of Kåñëa.98) saìkértana-yajïe täìre kare ärädhana sei ta sumedhä ära—kali-hata-jana “A person who worships Çré Caitanya Mahäprabhu by performing saìkértana should be considered to possess great intelligence. Antya-lélä 3.

Antya-lélä 20." ¯ Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Antya-lila 4. becomes manifest. he will certainly awaken his dormant love for Kåñëa’s lotus feet.” (C." Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Adi-lila 7.26 states: 'eka' krsna-name kare sarva-papa nasa premera karana bhakti karena prakasa "Simply chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra without offenses vanquishes all sinful activities. simply by chanting the Hare Krsna mantra one will be able to see the lotus feet of the Lord.73 it is stated: krsna-mantra haite habe samsara-mocana krsna-nama haite pabe krsnera carana [Srila Isvara Puri to Lord Caitanya]: "Simply by chanting the holy name of Krsna. undesireable habits.c.18) ei-mata haïä yei kåñëa-näma-laya çré kåñëa-caraëe täìra prema upajaya “If one chants the holy name of Krsna in this manner. This is the means of awakening all good fortune and initiating the flow of waves of love of Krsna.c.26) Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Adi-lila 8. the system for worshipping Kåñëa is to perform yajïa by chanting Çré Bhagavän’s name.” (C. which is the cause of love of Godhead. Thus pure devotional service.9) näma-saìkértane haya sarvänatha-näça sarva-çubhodaya kåñëa-premera ulläsa “Simply by chanting the holy name of Lord Krsna. and he will definitely attain the lotus feet of Kåñëa. Indeed. attains all perfection. one can be freed from all anarthas.c.71 it is stated: tara madhye sarva-srestha nama-sankirtana niraparadhe nama laile paya prema-dhana 303 .” (C. Antya-lélä 20. One who does so is considered to be intelligent.11) khäite çuite yathä tathä näma laya käla-deçä-niyama nähi sarva siddhi haya “Regardless of time or place. one who chants the name even while eating or sleeping. Antya-lélä 20.” (C.c. Antya-lélä 20.Caitanya-candra “In this age of Kali. one can obtain freedom from material existence.

This is the effect of chanting the Hare Krsna maha-mantra. purify the unclean heart and awaken all varieties of devotional service. They are one and the same absolute truth. one very easily obtains the most valuable love of Godhead. as if immersing himself in a great ocean of love.Caitanya-candra [Lord Caitanya to Sanatana Gosvami]: "Of the nine processes of devotional service. and even Lord Krsna Himself-becomes imbued with love of Krsna." Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Antya-lila 3. qualities and pastimes. Krishna and His name are identical. ara yata sthavara-jangame krsna-preme matta kare krsna-sankirtane "The holy name of Krsna is so attractive that anyone who chants it-including all living entities. From the holy name gradually blossom the Lord's form." Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Antya-lila 20. bhaja tanhara carane [Lord Caitanya to an inhabitant of Kulina-grama]: "A person who is always chanting the holy name of the Lord is to be considered a first-class Vaisnava.268 it is stated: krsna-adi. sarva-bhakti-sadhana-udgama krsna-premodgama. sevamrta-samudre majjana [Lord Caitanya to Svarupa Damodara and Ramananda Raya]: "By performing congregational chanting of the Hare Krsna mantra. and your duty is to serve his lotus feet." ataeva nama matra vaisnavera dharma name prasphuöita haya rupa. The result of chanting is that one awakens his love for Krsna and tastes transcendental bliss. 304 . guna. avoiding the ten kinds of offenses. If one does so.72 states: "krsna-nama nirantara yanhara vadane sei vaisnava-srestha. sei nama-eka-tattva haya Lord Krishna's name is like an eternal and transcendental touchstone. one attains the association of Krsna and engages in His devotional service.13-14 states: sankirtana haite papa-samsara-nasana citta-suddhi." Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Madhya-lila 16. krsna-nama cintamani anadi cinmaya yei krsna. moving and nonmoving. the most important is to always chant the holy name of the Lord. Ultimately. karma Chanting the holy name is the prime religious activity of a vaishnava. premamrta-asvadana krsna-prapti. one can destroy the sinful condition of material existence.

rama rama hare hare you'll get extreme pleasure.'bhinnatvan nama-naminoh. and without beginning or end . No other incarnation is there in Kali-yuga. There is no difference between the name of Krishna and Krishna Himself. This is the purport of all scriptures. He is nama-avatara.there is no difference between the name of Krishna and Krishna Himself . namely that of Lord Buddha. One must guard against accepting someone as an avatara without any reference from the scriptures. the holy name is the essence. which is the essence of all Vedic hymns. Paibe parama priti ananda apara . every intelligent person should have no difficulty in accepting Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu as Sri Krsna. This is the one dharma the jives in Kali-yuga should perform. 'yata mukti mahajana paravyome sada kare nama-sankirtana Again the Vedas say that all the liberated mahajanas.anadir adir govindah sarva-karana-karanam. ei shastra-marma In this Age of Kali there is no religious principle other than the chanting of the holy name. There is no other way. the only means of deliverance is the chanting of the Holy Names of the Lord. veda punah bale. hare nama harer nama harer namaiva kevalam kalau nasty eva nasty eva nasty eva gatir anyatha In this age of quarrel and hypocrisy.nama cintamani anadi cinmaya . There is no other way.eka-tattva haya . always chant Hare Krishna in the spiritual sky. Lord Caitanya. supreme pleasure. harinama-sara. Every future incarnation of the Supreme Lord has been mentioned in the vedic texts which is accepted as the ultimate authority to distinguish a genuine incarnation from an imposter. There is no other way. namera smarana ara nama-sankirtana ei matra dharma jiva karibe palana This is the only dharma in Kali-yuga: chanting the holy name and thinking of the holy name. According to the sriptures there are only three incarnations of the Lord in Kali-yuga. sei nama .Caitanya-candra Cintamani means desire. Apart from these three principal bonafide incarnations of the Lord there is no other incarnation to appear in this age of Kali.by chanting this Holy name of Krishna: hare krishna hare krishna. Krishna . Sri Caitanya has been accepted as the yuga-avatara on this basis along with his bodily markings. features and extraordinary activities. Only this. transcendental. Whatever you desire the name will give you. Yei krishna. krishna krishna hare hare hare rama hare rama. CONCLUDING WORDS After going through the scriptural evidences and the explanations of the great purva-acaryas presented above. and especially in Kali yuga Krishna has incarnated Himself in the form of his holy name. the Supreme Personality of Godhead.the holy name is spiritual. nama vinu kali-kale nahi ara dharma sarva-mantra-sara nama. In all the Vedas it has been said. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu is not a God of a particular sect 305 . and finally Lord Kalki.

and Rudra Visnuswami sampradaya. he must accept the shelter of the lotus feet of Lord Nityananda. 9. In his song Srila Locana dasa Thakur says: “The two Lords. the scholartly demons misuide the mass of people by directing them to the impersonal. His principal biographers were devotees of that sampradaya. Warning: one must not give more importance to Lord Caitanya and less importance to Lord Nityananda. Lord Caitanya taught direct worship of Lors 6 Gaura refers to Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu and Nitai refers to Lord Nityananda Prabhu. Srila Narottama dasa Thakur says that anyone who does not make a relationship with Lord Nityananda is simply spoiling the boon of his human form of life. Lord Krsna’s ultimate instruction in Bhagavad-gita is that everyone surrender unto Him. the greater one’s claim to the favour of Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. He has been accepted as the Supreme Lord by all the four bonafide vaisnava sampradayas namely Brahma Madhva sampradaya. Sri Ramanuja sampradaya. Hence one must take shelter at feet of Sri Sri Gaura-Nitai6 and follow Their teachings which is nothing other than worshipping The Divine Couple Sri Sri Radha Krsna through the sankirtana movement. Lord Krsna directly says: “Engage your mind always in thinking of me. In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityananda are compared to the sun and moon. unmanifest. He advices that if one actually wants to enter into the dance party of Radha-Krsna. Lord Caitanya does not give the information about the spirit soul that is already described in Bhagavad-gita. Despite being contaminated by all the bad qualities in this Kali-yuga. the Lord will surely and certainly deliver him. The present day Hare Krsna movement started by His Divine Grace A. One must only be sincere and serious. surely you will come to Me” (Bg.C. because Their merciful qualities are so great that They make even birds and beasts cry.Caitanya-candra of people only. Lord Krsna promises to take immediate charge of such a surrendered soul. Hence both the sun and the moon had risen simultaneouslly to dissipate the darkness of the material world. for They introduced chanting and dacing. It is the same sankirtana movement started by Lord Caitanya Himself. what to speak of human beings. A person who accepts Sri Rama and Sri Krsna as bhagavan must also accept Sri Caitanya as the Supreme Controller without any hesitation. Being completely absorbed in Me. offer obeisances and worship Me. There is no difference between the teachings of Lord Caitanya and the teachings of Lord Krsna in Bhagavad-gita. However because the Lord took initiation in the Brahma Madhva sampradaya. Instead one must give equal importance to Lord Caitanya and Lord Nityananda as there is no difference between Their Lordships. if one surrenders unto the lotus feet of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. NitaiGauracandra – Lord Nityananda and Lord Caitanya are very merciful. eternal.34) However. Lord Caitanya is a merciful incarnation having appeared especially to claim the claim the fallen souls. Rather. They are the essence of all incarnations. 306 . unborn truth rather than the Personality of Godhead. The teachings of Lord Caitanya are practical demonstrations of Lord Krsna’s teachings.Bhaktivedanta Swami in Western countries is not a new religion as many think. He begins from the point where Krsna ended His instruction. Within the three worlds there is no one like Lord Caitanya or Lord Nityananda. At the conclusion of the Ninth Chapter of Bhagavad-gita. The specific significance of these incarnations is that prosecuting Their way of self-realization is simply joyful. The more fallen one is. Kumara Nimbaditya sampradaya. Lord Krsna.

quality. He taught that in Kali-yuga. This is clearly stated by the Supreme Lord Sri Krsna Himself in the Bhagavad-gita (7. there is no use doing tapasya (meditation).” prasarita-mahaprema-piyusa-rasa-sagare caitanyacandre prakate yo dino dina eva sah “A person who does not take advantage of the nectar of devotional service overflowing during the presence of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu’s cult is certainly the poorest of the poor. (Adi-lila.” 307 . In Sri Caitanya-caritamrta. yajna (fire sacrifice) and arca-puja (temple worship) to achieve perfect self-realization. but to have died long ago. Lord Caitanya Himself performed hari-nama sankirtana in order to set an example to teach the general mass of people as to what should be done in this age of Kali.123) it is stated: paiya manusa janma. fire sacrifice and temple worship.Caitanya-candra Krsna who appeared as the foster child of Nanda Maharaja. Lord Caitanya condemned the worship of demigods as people of less intelligence worships the demigods for their various purposes. One who does not collect the valuable jewels within this ocean is certainly the poorest of the poor.20-28). In Kali-yuga. Lord Caitanya Mahaprabhu is Krsna consciousness personified. Sripada Prabodhananda Sarasvati has composed the following verses in his Sri Caitanya-candramrta: acaitanyam idam visvam yadi caitanyam isvaram na viduh sarva-sastra-jna hy api bhramyanti te janah “This material world is without Krsna consciousness.” Similarly.it would be better for him not to have lived. as they were recommended processes in the previous yugas. form. entourage and paraphernalia of Lord Krsna and Lord Krsna Himself. however.” avatirne gauracandre vistirne prema-sagare suprakasita-ratnaughe yo dino dina eva sah “The advent of Lord Caitanya is just like an expanding ocean of nectar. But intelligent people only worships the Supreme Personality of Godhead. If after getting a human body one drinks the water in a poison of material happiness instead of the water of such a river. He also explained that the place known as Vrndavana is as good as Lord Krsna because there is no difference between the name. ye na sune gaura-guna hena janma tara vyartha haila paiya amrtadhuni. 13. piye visa-garta-pani janmiya se kene nahi maila “Anyone who attains a human body but does not hear the qualities of Lord Gauranga is baffled in his opportunity. pastimes. certainly he is wandering uselessly in this world. Amrtdhuni is a flowing river of the nectar of devotional service. Therefore if a very learned scholar or scientist does not understand Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu. simply by performing hari-nama sankirtana (congregational chanting of only Lord Hari’s holy names and no one else’s names) all that is achieved that was achieved by performing meditation.

One may read Sri Caitanya Bhagavata written by Srila Vrndavana das Thakura. please contact your nearest ISKCON Temple. who are very merciful upon the fallen conditioned souls in Kali-yuga. C. Sri Caitanyacaritamrta written by Srila Krsnadas Kaviraja Goswami and Sri Caitanya Mangala written by Srila Locana das Thakura – authorized biographies of Lord Caitanya-complete with the Lord’s nectarial pastimes and teachings.Caitanya-candra Hence one should take shelter at the lotus feets of Their Lordship Sri Sri Gaura-Nitai. All Glories to His Divine Grace Srila A. All Glories to Sri Sri Gaura Nitai All Glories to Srila Prabhupada For more information on this subject matter. 308 . Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada by whose mercy the name and glories of the most merciful incarnation of Sri Krsna as Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu in kali-yuga is being heard in every part of the world.

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