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9342355 Sanskrit Grammar

9342355 Sanskrit Grammar

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Published by: Neeta Raina on Jul 12, 2011
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  • Lesson 1
  • Lesson 2
  • Lesson 3
  • Lesson 4
  • Lesson 5
  • Lesson 6
  • Lesson 7
  • Lesson 8
  • Lesson 9
  • Lesson 11
  • Lesson 12
  • Lesson 13
  • Lesson 14
  • Lesson 15
  • Lesson 16
  • Lesson 17
  • Lesson 18
  • Lesson 19
  • Lesson 20
  • Lesson 21
  • Lesson 22
  • Lesson 23
  • Lesson 24

Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

in front of the verb. classes: gam.). va (or). Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and).. balah kataj diwati | 2. phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad. class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI. Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?). kutra katah | 3.to -cch-: gacchati. bhojanaj tu (but the food. buddham eva (just the Buddha. yacchati. and I. tu (but).. devah phala (n. stha. eva (particle of emphasis. phalani Acc. "fruit") Nom. devan Voc. just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits). brahmanah sada yajanti devan | . So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going). the Buddha only). is (to want) changes -s.(to give) change -m.to -cch-: icchanti. Text (read and translate): 1.(to sit) changes -a.to -i-: sidati.Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m. Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na. devah Acc. the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence. sad. bhojanam atra (the food [is] here).(to go) and yam. phalani Voc. na vadanti (they do not say. In Sanskrit. they are not saying).(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi. "god") Nom..(VI.. ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits).

We praise the boys. there stay the houses. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. you are pointing the way. nagarameva gacchami | 9. 3. Where are the elephants? 5. nrpah kva sidati | 7. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. balah ksiramicchati | 23. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. Where the water does not flow. narandevah srjati | 13. there the people do not live. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. danani yacchanti | 10. tatha jivamah | 18. grhamatra tisthati | 6. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. 11. 4. margaj diwatha balah | 19. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. dhanamicchamah | 24.) going? 2. 9. 12. The exercise key . We are leaving the world today. 7. 8. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25. Brahmins still sit there. Where are you (pl. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5.4. devannamanti | 22. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. Do you want milk? 10. Boys. Where is the city. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. I want water. kada danani yacchatha | 26. 6. gramamadya viwamah | 14. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17.

: god. icchati (VI): to want.: milk gaja-. n. lord dhana-.: village jala-.: then.: when (relative) . srjati (VI): to create stha-.: city.: just.: elephant grama-.: thus. to prostrate. adv. to extol sad-. m. adv. n. to sit down srj-. diwati (VI): to show. m. to worship yam-. n. so tada. dhavati (I): to run nam-. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. to give up diw-.: wealth. at that time yatra. n.: mat ksira-. yacchati (I): to give viw-.: gift deva-. adv.: son marga-.Vocabulary is-. adv. m. m. adv. road eva. to stay sprw-. tyajati (I): to leave. only kada.: where (relative) yada. n. namati (I): to bow. money nagara-. tisthati (I): to stand. m. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-. town putra-.: way. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-. to point dhav-.: water dana-.: when? tatha. wajsati (I): to praise. sidati (I): to sit. to yearn for gam-. m. adv.

Acc. If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . jayati (to win. Accusative and Vocative cases: m. pibati (to drink). vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. jighrati (III. The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. the first grade is called guna. ji-. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. pa-. to smell). devau phale Voc. vad+a+tah They (two) say n. to conceal). to conquer). vrs-. bhavati (to be).Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. ruh-. Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). to shower). rohati (to grow). guhati (to hide. sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here). dru-. class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. dravati (to run). normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. ghra-. Nom. varsati (to rain. It has always the same form for Nominative. nayati (to lead). bhu-. class. vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. the second grade is vrddhi. But note some irregularities: guh-.

The Buddha speaks the truth. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. . Home (emphasized) go both boys. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. They give money and gifts. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. 8. Here stand (two) trees. Just today we both go to the city. anilah sada na vahati | 16. balau phale khadatah | 20. devavadya smaramah | 10. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. The ruler conquers both fighters.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. 5. 10. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. devau smaramah | 9. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. Here we (two) do not live. 4. Where are both horses? 3. dahasi he anala | 15. Just here are (two) horses. Where are you (two) going now? 9. 6. 2. To the forest run the (two) elephants. Where do you hide money? 11. 12. atraiva vasavah | 5. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. 7. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. he nrpau jayathah | 11. satyaj na vadathah | 18.

: tree satya-. jighrati (III): to smell ji-. m. to shower smr-. pibati (I): to drink bhu-. vahati (I): to carry. rohati (I): to grow vrs-. part. adv. fragrance megha-.: horse anala-. m.: everywhere he. to pour down. to conceal ghra-. nayati (I): to lead pa-. bhavati (I): to be. varsati (I): to rain.: forest vrksa-. dahati (I): to burn dru-. to blow. n.: fire anila-. to conquer dah-.13. m. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-.: truth iha. n. m. to become vah-.: cloud vana-. to flow ruh-. m. adv. Here sarvatra. dravati (I): to run ni-. guhati (I): to hide. m.: oh! . khadati (I): to eat guh-. smarati (I): to remember awva-.: scent. jayati (I): to win.: wind gandha-.

devah Acc. Abl. Locative: the location. devasya devayoh Voc. Dat. Accusative: the object (I see you). phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with").Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. deva And for neuter: phala (n. by carriage). it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). "because of". phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". . phalam Acc. as English "through". Ins. Abl. the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Dative: the indirect object. devau devau Pl. circumstances (in the city). Nom. "fruit") Sg. "god") Sg. giving. "by means of ". the agent in a passive construction. Dat. telling (to the boy). "by" (with the Buddha. phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen... devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. devam Du. Loc. phalasya Voc. is also used to denote reason (from anger). Ins. Loc. Nom.

mubcati (see Vocabulary). There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. If the following word beggins with a short a-. dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. -i before any vowel (except for -i. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root.the fighter says that he lives here). rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. n for t. j and sibilants). gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. -i.Vocative: the address (Who are you. Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. -u. The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). man?). b for c and j. m for p. duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . narah gacchanti (the men go). This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. For example: muc-. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here). -u before any vowel (except for -u. this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra.

m. n.: battle rama-. Traveler walks on the way to the village. 8. 4. force. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17. 5.: power.: brahmin . m. strength mrga-. Trees do not grow on high mountains. limpati (VI): to smear sic-. m. Men with boys go to the forest. n.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16./n. m. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12.11. brahmin pathika-. to practise muc-.: deer rana-. m.: "twice-born".: prince. n. People want happiness. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-. 2. hill bala-. mubcati (VI): to free. 6. krntati (VI): to cut car-. to discharge aranya-. to discharge yaj-. but not suffering. young man janaka-. m. 3.: suffering dvija-. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15.: father duhkha-. carati (I): to walk. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14. n. m. People do not live in forests. m. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. 7. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys. m. to roam. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle.: plough vipra-. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields.: forest kumara-.: traveler parvata-. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: mountain.

n. n. why? tu.: poison wiva-.: where from?.: happiness hasta-.: oblation. part.: high iti. why? kutah.: Shiva sukha-.: so kim.: hand huta-. m. part. adv.: what?.viwa-. adj. n. m. adv. offering ucca-.: but The exercise key .

Dat. anarya. Abl. poet tells to the seer). fire) Sg. vari Acc. water): Sg. varini varini Pl. agneh Voc. Du. sorrow. Ins. agni Pl. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati. . vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. "un-noble". Rama goes with the poets). varinah varinoh Voc. unhappiness. Abl. Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati..Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. the fire is here.(if it begins with a vowel). happines. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati. Loc. varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen.. agnih Acc. Ins. arya.(m. Dat. But if the following word begins with -r. vari varina varine Du. fire burns). Nom.(n. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen. For example: sukha-. noble. agne vari. Loc. asukha.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an. Nom.

dh. "You don't speak the truth". asks the king. 2. rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. Where people burn the forests. balau kuto rodatah | 2. If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. th. no elephants live. weep the boys. n) between them (so. nominative plural of vari is varini). 8. "Enemies rob the houses here". b). nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). retroflex (t. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. poet. . sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. dh. 3. asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. but from the Law [there is] happiness. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. Hari's horse is standing just here. Text (read and translate): 1. 9. Even today people remember Rama. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. harij ksirena yajatah | 18. ch. d. 5. 6. n) or dental (t.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. 4. "O. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. j. d. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. We live happily here in the mountains. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. jh. suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. 7. jalaj gireh patati | 10. th. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. From sin there is always suffering. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. says the brahmin to the poet. why don't you recite poetry?". agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20.

ruler pati-.: servant.: law. n. also. husband pani-. n.: food ari-.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-. n. m.: sword rsi-. righteousness.: hand. n. Law.: Lord. rodati (I): to weep lup-. m. m. tudati (VI): to strike. lumpati (VI): to steal.: king.: seer kavi-. m.: fire anna-. to recite rud-. m. m.: sin varuna-. master.: water sukta-.: person dasa-. m.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-.: body dharma-. m.: poetry giri-. pathati (I): to read. m. palm papa-. m. m. even though .: Vedic hymn hari-.: mountain jana-. n. part. lie asi-.: poet kavya-. even. Buddhism nrpati-. m.: enemy asatya-. m. mn. to pierce path-. n.: personal name api-. m. slave deha-.: "un-truth". to rob agni-.

Du. watroh Voc. watruh Acc. Therefore: drw-. pawyati (to see. watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen. Ins. For example a. class are thematic verbs. Loc. anayati (to bring). agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here). kupyati (to be angry).(to see) is irregular and defective. Dat.is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). The verb drw. . to look). Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-. Abl. watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. -h after any vowel and before t-. a vanat (only from the forest). it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). indicative uses different root (paw-). The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. But if a is used separately as a preposition. ch. th. Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. (enemy) Sg.is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes).means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). -h after any vowel and before c-. m. Nom. Only passive is constructed from this root. watru Pl.Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV.

watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11.) ." says the boy to the traveler. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. but father lives here. "What are you writing now. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21. 5." asks teacher the student. 2. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. 8. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. We do not live here.Text (read and translate): 1. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. The king with fighters comes to the city. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. 6. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. oh king. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 4. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8. 3. 7. or Dat. By the power of [your] arms you win. naro 'wvamarohati | 10. "There stands father's house. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4.

precious stone rawi-. n.: enemy wastra-. m. m. or Dat.: foot.: jewel.: gem. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-.: student.: enemy visnu-.: arm bindu-.) a+gam-. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. footprint bahu-. m. m.: teacher. or postp. nawyati (IV): to be lost. guru pattra-.: axe pada-.: drop mani-. m. law-book wisya-. m. agacchati (I): to come tr-. n. pupil saha.: with (with Inst.: bird watru-. m. n. or Loc. m. m. to desire (with Dat. or Loc. to look yudh-. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.) wus-. m. arohati (I): to ascend.: treatise.: ocean guru-. m. ahvayati (IV): to call here. to call in udadhi-. pawyati (IV): to see. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-. quantity ripu-.) hu-. lubhyati (IV): to long for. prep. yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-.krudh-. m.: heap. mass. to mount likh-.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-.: leaf. to perish drw-. m. precious stone ratna-.) . likhati (VI): to write lubh-. letter parawu-.

gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7. Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). mad-. madhu Acc. tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). kram-. vidhyati (to pierce). Nom. narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. Loc. Ins. madhu madhuna madhune Du. nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. Text (read and translate): 1. rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3.is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. madhuni madhuni Pl.Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). madyati (to be intoxicated). kramati (to walk). bhramyati (to wander). Abl. madhunah madhunoh Voc. the root vyadh. Dat. ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5.

Fighters play for money (Ins. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. 2.: eye. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. 4.: unrighteousness ali-. n. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18. to be finished wram-. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-.12. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13. harati (I): to take. to share a+kram-. 8.) div-. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-.: bee awru-. There are many things in the houses. m. Bees wander around flowers of the trees. rcchati (I): to get. to be satisfied (Ins. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. to rinse tam-.) tus-. to carry aksa-. Birds are flying to the tree.). bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. to take away. m. 6. to grieve (Abl. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-. Death conquers even unrighteousness. n. Tears are flowing on boy's face. 7. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. m. 3. anayati (I): to bring bhram-.: tear rksa-. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-. to obtain. 5. dice adharma-. acamati (I): to sip.: bear . guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16.

n.: eye puspa-.: hero bahu-. adj. n.: death vasu-.: thing.n. many . abundant.: flower bhaga-. m.: honey manusya-.: person mukha-. m. m. mouth mrtyu-.: part madhu-. wealth vira-.: face.kopa-. n. m.: numerous. m.: anger krodha-. n. m.: anger netra.

to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). bhi-. -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). jan-. vid-. devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). The vowel -a. ksalayati (to wash). grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house). bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4. rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). Text (read and translate): 1. janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7. corayati (to steal). suto 'wvanpidayati | 8. grhalloka agacchanti | 15. but: pid-. class add -aya. vedayati (to make known). pidayati (to torture). navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key . wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. bhayayati (to cause fear). Before palatals. to generate). suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. janayati (to give birth. If the root ends in a vowel. gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. narau rupakani ganayatah | 11.between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. dharayati (to hold).Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world).instead of just -a. Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2.

aharati (I): to bring danda-. 7. n. 5. kathayati (X): to tell. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns. n. pujayati (X): to honour. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9.: old story.: story wudra-. 2.: holy man suvarna-. m.: stick. to weigh dand-. m. m. m.: gold suta-.: coin vastra-. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword. dandayati (X): to beat. tolayati (X): to lift up.: servant ramayana-.: new iva.: epos Ramayana rupaka-. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. to narrate ksal-. robber navina-. corayati (X): to steal tad-.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 4.: thief. punishment punya-. Father tells son about fruits of sins. to hurt puj-.: as. n. Boys (Du. m. n.) wash their faces. as if mam: me (Acc. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-. I want new clothes. to punish pid-. m. n. n. to worship. Merit protects from grief. part. 8. like. "Why do you beat me.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-. n. ganayati (X): to count cur-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-. 6. to revere pr-. pidayati (X): to torture. 3.) . adj.: charioteer stena-.: clothing vrttanta-. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-." asks the servant the king.: merit purana-.

But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. labhate (to get. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. labhe Du. -o at the end of the word and before a. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. god Agni). But Dual endings -i. o. vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. "word for another"). Pl. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12. Text (read and translate): 1. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7. labh-. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. 1.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. labhase labhethe 3. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. But this initial a. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. ksatriya rsi sevante | . besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest).is unchanged. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). to obtain) A: Sg. Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2. But in Sanskrit. Before other vowels a final -e. fire. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. -e. agni iksate balah | 11.

cattle bhanu-.: benefit.) labh-. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5.: sacrificial animal. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-.) anartha-.: sun moksa-.) iks-. sevate (I): to serve. m. 8. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear. mriyate (IV): to die yat-. m. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. vandate (I): to praise. kampate (I): to shake. Father likes sons' discipline. m. 4. 6. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. n. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. 7. to endure sev-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc.. perseverance kalyana-. Boys like fruit. to tremble jan-. Holy men (Du. m. wiksate (I): to learn sah-. to honour (Acc. sahate (I): to bear.: tree dvijati-. m.17. iksate (I): to look at. n. The father is looking at son's face. to obtain vand-. goodness taru-. Gen. courage. to stare kamp-. member of a high caste dhairya-. rocate (I): to like (Dat.: sacrifice .) a+rabh-. labhate (I): to get.) ruc-.: poverty udyoga-. Children ask the father for food.: exertion.: patience. m. 3.: "twice-born". m. 2.: deliverance yajba-. to pay homage wiks-. firmness pawu-. bhasate (I): to speak.) begin with a sacrifice. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. to say mr-. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc.

m.: child samudra-.: discipline wiwu-.: ocean. m.: wind vici-. sea . m.vayu-. m. m.: wave vinaya-.

senayah senayoh Voc. satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4. Loc..(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s. Text (read and translate): 1.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve.is changed into -s.(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. sena Acc.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f. senam senaya senayai Du.(towards.after a prefix containing -r. following): anu+gacchati (to go after.(after. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para.(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari. army) Sg. -n. hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | .(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam. Dat. Abl. Ins. to honour).is changed into -n. Nom. sene sene Pl.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry). to follow) ava. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen.

he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. m. prapadyate (IV): to go to. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. 5. 4. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-.5. sajgacchate: to come together isu-. 2. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9. The king conquers enemies in the battle. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. 6.) descend from black horses. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. Many trees grow on the mountain. 3. The student asks householder's wife for alms. Here on the street kings (Du. 7.: girl. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6.: the river Ganga grhastha-. f. to take refuge in (Acc.) bhiks-. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11. daughter gavga-. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-.: householder . m.: arrow kanya-. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. 8. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. f.

adj.: street vidya-.: alms yamuna-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-. adj.: heaven hrdaya-.: gem rathya-. f.: refuge svarga-. sinful prabhuta-. adv. m.: wife bhasa-.: bad. f. n. many sahasa. wisdom vyadha-.: the river Yamuna ratna-. f. f. f.: knowledge. f. n. shade prayaga-.: fear bharya-.: hunter warana-.: shadow. n. n.: heart krsna-.: manifold.: language bhiksa-. f.: suddenly . f. m.chaya-. black papa-.

uhyate (to carry). Verbs of the X class drop -aya. rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. Text (read and translate): 1. jiyate. ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. pass. awvena jalaj piyate | 17. janairnagaraj gamyate | 6.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings.but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. pass. corayati. stuyate (to praise). -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. ucyate (to say). The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13. kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. coryate. pass. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. supyate (to sleep). vap-. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. pr-. tiryate. It is used with the instrumental case.Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. The consonant -v. Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. pass. diyate (to give). smaryate (to remember). mucyate. puryate (to fill).is changed into -u. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12. usyate (to dwell). he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. vad-. naraih katah kriyante | 8. mubcati. stu-. upyate (to sow). svap-. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. vah-.in these roots: vac-. udyate (to say). kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. vas-. sutenawvastadyate | 20. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7.

kriyate: to do ga-. 6. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). pass. 4. jar ghrta-. f. beggar mala-. m. n. m. badhyate: to bind vap-. dawati (I): to bite da-. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. pass. serpent ." is said by people. gayati (IV): to sing daw-. pass.: order kastha-.: clarified butter. 3. n. Grain is sown in the fields. "In the shade is comfortably slept.: snake. wisyate: to rule. 7.: wood gita-.: child sarpa-. to punish wru-. It is played with dices. ghee dhanya-. wruyate: to hear ajba-.: pot. n. 2. pass. 8. pass. diyate: to give pr-. n. Girls bind garlands (pass).: snare.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: Buddhist monk. Holy man always speaks truth (pass). trap bhara-. Jars are being filled with grain. m.: song ghata-. 5. vapati (I): to sow was-. puryate: to fill badh-. m.: garland rajya-. m.: burden. f. Hari is again praised by Rama. n. load bhiksu-.: kingdom wiwu-. mendicant.: grain pawa-. m. pass.

Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. aicchat (he wanted). wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. purena grhanyuhyante | . impf. a+vad+a+h 3. taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. It has special endings: Sg. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. Text (read and translate): 1. impf. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. 2. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. a+vad+a+t Du. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. If the verb is prefixed. jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. paryanayat. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6.

n. n. meeting. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. 5. 4.: sea grantha-. stream prasada-.: victory.: demon awa-. 8. When you were ("stood") in trouble.) sang the praise of Rama.: composition. f. to stand up artha-.: protection wakha-.: ode. Brahmins (Du. n. assembly surya-. m. He cut the branch with an axe.: palace matsya-. m.: flood. f. you asked the king for protection. m.: sun. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water. m. prosperity.: meaning. Men sat down on mats. 7. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-. m. vartate (I): to be. m. m. book (text) jaya-.: fish raksana-. m.: hope indra-.: branch wikhara-. The teacher hit the student out of the anger. Servants brought water in jars. 3. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-.: book (manuscript) pura-.: summit. 2. 6. f.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. uttisthati (I): to get up. m. to exist ud+stha-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. the god of the Sun stotra-. glory pustaka-. m. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood. a hymn of praise . top sabha-. wealth asura-.: congregation.

indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. satyameva jayate | 12. . Dat. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. 4. We bring water from the pond.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f.. Abl. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. nadyah nadyoh Voc. Nom. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. nadim nadya nadyai Du. Ins. nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. Loc. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. nadyau nadyau Pl. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. 2. 3. nadi Acc. river) Sg. Cities stand on the rivers' banks.

n.: clean. to return a+car-. n.) .: shore. adj. bank dasi-.: robe. pass. Even the king came with the soldiers. f. Indra's wife udyana-. pool vyaghra-.: goddess.: garden janani-.5. pratigacchati (I): to come back. to perform. f. f. f. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea.: female servant.: beautiful namas-. m. to hunt for vac-.: woman patni-. whole sundara-. f.: complete. f. adj. 6.: wife putri-. glory! (Dat. n. 7. acarati (I): to do. adv.: Indra's paradise nari-. f.: yoga vapi-.: hail!. to practise mrg-. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler.: great king maharani-. decoration indrani-.: earth bhusana-. f. m. f.: soldier pavitra-. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-.: Indrani. m.: daughter prthivi-.: city nadi-. mrgayate (X): to search for. n.: queen yoga-.: ornament maharaja-. mistress nagari-.: pond.: mother tira-. holy samagra-.: river nandana-. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. adj. female slave devi-. 8. to go back. f. ucyate: is called vrt-.: tiger sainika-. f. f. n. m.

cow): Sg. Abl. guru-.. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems".(broad). Ins. mati. Loc. The dative. mati mati Pl. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. dhenum dhenva Du. matih Acc. heavy).Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u. Loc. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen. dhenu dhenu Pl.and -y. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3.(f. many). bahvi. matim matya Du. punyena muktij labhadhve | . Text (read and translate): 1. bahu-. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. dhenuh Acc. Nom. f. f. Ins. Dat.. gurvi. Abl. f.(abundant. dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc.(serious. ablative. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc. mate dhenu. Nom. prthvi. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4. Dat. idea): Sg.(f.with -v-). bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5.

to appear vid-. m.: end kalaha-. f. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. f. m. caste dhrti-. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage." said a citizen to the king. upadiwati (VI): to teach. f.: fame gopa-. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. 5. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. vindati (VI): to get. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. firmness parthiva-. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8. fight kirti-. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. to instruct. 6. I worship Shiva for prosperity.6.: quarrel. 2. m. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. to acquire wubh-.: ruler . to admonish pal-. 7. m.) upa+diw-. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. 8. People of many castes lived in villages.: courage. 3. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. 4. prabhavati (I): to arise.: birth. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15.: cowherd jati-. wobhate (I): to shine anta-. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7.

Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-.: main. dream nica-. f.: wound. f. silence wruti-. prosperity bhumi-.: earth. n. m.: tradition. m.: holy.: deliverance rawmi-. sore wanti-. f. land. foremost sadhu-.: citizen buddhi-. ground maksika-. f.: Vedic scripture smrti-. f. adj.paura-.: well-being. f.: low mukhya-.: wisdom bhakti-.: ray vrana-. f. f. righteous . adj.: fly mukti-.: sleep.: devotion bhuti-. f.: peace. f. adj.

alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. against.Pl. In addition. Dat. p-.. to go back. pratigacchati. Ins. Abl.): dhi. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. they were seen). back: prati+gam-.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. above.. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. completely overcome adhi-. away: apa+ni-. nyasidat. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. to rule apa-. dhih Acc. alabhata Du. kh-.(f. dhiyau dhiyau Pl. nispadyate (to arise). to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s. Loc.changed into -is. this can also happen in Gen. Abl. Sg. completely. and Loc. to lead away. alabhe 3. apart: vi+dr-. to carry away prati-. to return vi-. wholly: ati+kram-. it is changed into s. Dat. dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. 1. nisidati. impf. on: adhi+stha-.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. vidiryate. Pl. to govern.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. . us: nih+pad-. dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen. Nom. Gen. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2.. atikramati. ph. pass. thought): Sg. adhitisthati. apaniyati. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems".

dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean.) girls home from the garden. Many tigers. elephants and bears were seen there. 5. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. atikramati (I): to cross over. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. Mother called (pass. When was the king's son born? 8. he returned to the city. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. 4. Where did you get white cows? 3. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. pratibhasate (I): to answer . Many arrows were shot on the tiger. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6.Text (read and translate): 1. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. to appear prati+bhas-. nispadyate (IV): to originate. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. Rama's father was always remembered by people. When the king talked with brahmins. padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. 6. 7. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. to transgress pra+jan-. dhyayati (IV): to think. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. to meditate nih+pad-. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 2. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12.

beauty. adj. n. m. m. firm wveta-. f.: sage.: lotus purusa-. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-. god kama-.rac-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent.: destruction.: man muni-. master. to rule. m. desire karana-.: beautiful dhira-.: lord.: white .: pleasure. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: cause dhi-. reason nawa-. f.: chariot lobha-. m.: delusion ratha-. f. to restrain ni+sev-.: whole caru-.: wise.: thought.: agreement iwvara-. adj. adj. wealth srsti-. m. to drive anujba-. n. f.: luck. saint moha-.: greed vasati-. annihilation padma-. m. f. m. adj.: dwelling wri-.: creation krtsna-. m. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-.

dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 7. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. Pl. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. . devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9. Text (read and translate): 1. ma gacchatu (let him not go). vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). vadama 1. 2. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. vada Du. "Study the treatises and speak the truth. 6. Let the men dig a pond. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. 2. Let charioteers do not torture horses. 4. pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7." orders students the tradition.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11. daughter. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6. daddy." said the father. annaj yaccha he janani | 13. Let the children show the traveler the way. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. "Come today." asked the boy father. 3. 5. "Give me food.

adv. untruth abhyasa-. adj.: highest.: long. audience pataliputra-. position kawi-.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-. form.: guest anrta-. f.: order asana-. m. to learn a+diw-.: for the long time sarvatah. adv.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-. adj. statue vaiwya-. studying adewa-. adv. m.: daddy darwana-.: bad. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-.: repeating. lower dirgha-. rotten para-.: different. close.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-. thoroughly. n. f. khanati (I): to dig atithi-. adv. m. m.: lesson. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-.: subject. m. by all means hrasvam. under (Gen.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-. abhyasyati (IV): to study. meeting. people murti-. m. in proximity va: or .: seat. different adhastat. study praja-.: everywhere. adj.: down. m. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-.: near. n. n.: image. adj.: seeing.) ciram. f.: lie. far dusta-.

vadhvah vadhvoh Voc. Dat. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. vadhu bhu. Nom. Ins. Abl. bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen. bhuh Acc. Loc. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. earth): Sg. Ins.(f. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | .. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. bhuvau Pl. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. Loc. Dat. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3..(f. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. bhuva bhuve Du. woman): Sg. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. Nom. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. vadhvau vadhvau Pl. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. vadhuh Acc. Abl.

: sacrificial ladle durga-.: teacher juhu-. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-. f. 7. People live on earth and gods in heaven. Let the student not argue with the teacher. pravartate (I): to become.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-. f. There is no water in the well. f. "Take away nice clothes. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3.: land. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-. m. 2.: praise .: the goddess Durga nivewana-. 4. m. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. f. m.: ruler vadhu-. to arise wuc-. 6.13. n. m. The eyebrows of beauties are always black. f.: queen laksmi-. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14. to seem vi+vad-.: moment guna-. 5. f. to steal ksana-.: woman.: beauty stuti-.: well bhupala-. 8. Who protects the earth is called a ruler.) apa+har-. pas. f.: mother-in-law sundari-. earth. apaharati (I): to take away." ordered the householder. f. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16. f. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: dwelling bhu-.: eyebrow rajbi-. Let us live there. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15. wife wvawru-.: quality acarya-. drwyate: to look (like). prasyati (IV): to throw drw-. ground bhru-. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri. f.

then.: daughter-in-law vakra-. as far as ya-. twisted yavat-tavat: when. pron..: which . adj.. rel..snusa-..: curved. f.

1. idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. 3.Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. Text (read and translate): 1. often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). Some verbs. satyaj sadocyatam | 10. Do not neglect illnesses. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). 2. This form is widely used especially in 3. labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. 4. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. 6. . Let an ascetic not converse with women. dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. Pl. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. labhai Du. otherwise active. Let it be thus! 5. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass).

pratiksate (I): to await. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-. drama niwcaya-. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-. m. adv. villain devalaya-.: food mahisa-. homage prayawcitta-. m. n. awrayate (I): to depend on. atonement bhojana-.7.: step.: now kalena. m. m. caus. place puja-. f. n. to talk with (Ins.: ascetic yuddha-.: decision pandita-. m. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-.) a+wri-. n. m.: scholar. adv.: bad man. best idanim. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-. learned man pada-.: expiation. n. death kalidasa-. ghatayati: to kill kala-.: war roga-. 8. m.: sometimes samyak. m.: grass. Let women and children are not killed in the war. adj.: worship.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung. adv.: play. rightly . m. sajbhasate (I): to converse. m.: buffalo yati-. to expect upa+iks-. pasture durjana-. m.: temple nataka-.: better. abhinayati (I): to conduct. to seek refuge in han-. to act bhan-.: time.: well. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-.: illness vara-.

kartuh Voc. Nom. Nom. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du.(m. mother): Sg. They differ only in Acc. Ins. pita Acc. Loc. pituh Voc. father): Sg. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. matar .Sg. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen.Du. maker): Sg. Ins. kartar pitr. Dat..Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns. Abl. Acc.Du. Nom. Dat. agent. Ins. matarau Pl.Pl. pitarau Pl. matra matre matuh matari Du. pitar matr. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. Dat.. and Nom. Abl. Abl.(f.(m.. 2) nouns of relationship. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du. Nom. mata Acc. Loc. sister and naptr-. Loc. kartarau Pl... kartr. matuh Voc. karta Acc. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen.

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.


Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

1. jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7. nauh Acc. brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. nausu yuddhamabhavat | . nauh As you have probably noticed. labheya 3. Nom. labheta Du. gacchati "[he/she] goes". Abl. nauh Voc. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3.. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows". Dat. let it be done). labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. boat): Sg.Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. Text (read and translate): 1. The declension of the word nau. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. Ins. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". nava nave nauh navi Du. labhevahi labheyatam Pl.(f. labhemahi labheran 2. navau Pl. Loc. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen.

: life nidewa-. m. m.: servant marana-.10.).: how. n. pass. 8.: garden krsi-. to welcome (Acc. balavudyane rameyatam | 11. 4. m.: death mitra-. adj.: service pawupalya-.: fear bhrtaka-. questionable yatha. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living .: same. as (relative) . abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. to perform apa+ni-. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-.: way. m.this we read in the treatises. n. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive).: business. viramate (I): to give up.) udyana-. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. trade vidhi-. 7. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-.: order seva-.) abhi+vad-. rule. May the friends be always remembered! 2.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-. 5. n. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy. 3.: agriculture jivita-. n. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt. Let new poems be written! 6. even sajdigdha-. n. Let women and children be taken away to the city. equal. direction sama-. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12. f. f. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. mode. n. anutisthati (I): to follow.: friend vanijya-.: doubtful. adv. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-. adj. to carry out. to abandon (Abl.

that is using the augment -aya-: jan. If the root ends in any other vowel. it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu. When translating the causative.(to fall. dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3. "to tell". kr.translate as "to recite". upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. The vowel -a.(to be). dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14. to make somebody to go). Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p.(to sing). "to report" etc. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key . gam. And also adhi+i. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4. adhyapayati (to teach).(to know).(to do). karayati (to cause to be done). wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8. patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. to beget). bhavayati (to make something happen). So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context .(to learn). kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13.(to go). The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody). janayati (see above). to water). ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. gamayati (to let go. gapayati (to let sing). ga.between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. to proclaim). nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10. suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. jbapayati (to make known. But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. Text (read and translate): 1.between the root and -aya-: jba. janayati (to give birth. vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9.Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class. "to sing". vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6. to fly). we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11.(to be born).

postp. They watered horses with water from the river.) the father the books. vedayati: to announce.: desire vrka-. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-. m.: coming kara-. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras. caus. amongst (with genitive) arthe.: messenger gostha-. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-. caus. to no avail . m.: hand. Let them allow the guests to enter. caus. 6. adv.: for the sake of vrtha.: between. m. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. ajbapayati: to order da-. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. m.: in vain. patayati: to knock down mr-.) the cows come into the cowshed. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. elephant's trunk.: wolf rupa-. m. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. 3. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. darwayati: to show apa+ni-. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. caus. Let the householder return home. to enlarge pa-. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. to make known vrdh-. n. beauty stri-. caus. postp. 5.: cowshed manoratha-. marayti: to kill vid-.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. caus. 8. Show (sg. 2. vardhayati: to make bigger. Let (pl.: woman madhye.: form. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. m. 7. f. caus. tax duta-. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. caus. caus. 4. caus. caus. caus.

te. . Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). Gen. Dat. Acc. Gen. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse. Loc.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. nah. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. me. Ins. Abl. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. nau. (you) Nom. Ins. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. tva. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. Abl. (I) Nom. Dat. Loc. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. Acc.

or Gen. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. Mother gives food to both you and me.) prath-. caus. 2. nivedayati: to announce. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. n.Dat. anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. to spread ni+vid-. to beg ksam-. offence amaru-. bhadraj te | 9. 5.: nectar (the drink of immortality) . to whom . I did not steal your gold (passive). caus. 4. Tell me the story of Urvashi. Let the gods protect your life! 6. prarthayate: to ask.: transgression. Our (Dual) parents died. 7. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. to disseminate. Elephants do not live in our country. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6. caus. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-.Text (read and translate): 1. I do not want your (Dual) money. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13. Let your father go with me.Acc. begged the boy mother. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15..: the poet Amaru amrta-. 8. kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2. 3. to report wru-. m. ksamate: to forgive (what . n. prathayati: to propagate.

m. n. m. contentedness ca .: speaker vanaprasta-. n. m. postposition: if wvas.: country naraka-.: treasure prana-. m.: breath. adv.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-.: tomorrow .: the nymph Urvashi katha-. recluse wobhana-. happiness. f.: hermitage urvawi-.: hermit.: ornament. m.: satisfaction. prosperity mayura-.ca: both . Pl. m. n.: story kapota-.: hell nidhana-.: frog dewa-. m. life bhadra-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-. m. m.ardha-. n. f.: bliss.: half awrama-.: pigeon taksawila-.: peacock mauna-. n.and cet. m. f. m. virtue wloka-.: silence vaktr-.

G en. at. G en. ns. this) Sg. bl. V oc. tau tau tabh yam Pl. this) Sg. at. h cc. L oc. te te Pl. cc. bl.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. N om. N om. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . she (sa. ns. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du.

at. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m. (which one [of many]) katarah m./ sarvam n./ ubhaya f. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a. tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m. (one) ubhayah m./ itarad n. N om. it (tad. (all) viwvah m./ ya f./ anyad n./ katara f./ katama f. Here they ./ katamad n. cc./ viwva f. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du. V oc. (other) The following words also follow this declension./ esa f. (all) ekah m.L oc. (which one [of two]) anyah m. L oc./ yad n. en.and esa. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa./ anya f./ katarad n./ sarva f./ viwvam n.follow irregular sandhi pattern. (different) itarah m. bl./ ubhayam n./ itara f. ns. except for nominative and accusative of neuter. (relative pronoun which) katamah m./ ekam n. V oc./ eka f. te te tabh yam Pl. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg. (this one) yah m./ etad n.

sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. caus. yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9.: end arya-. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5. yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3.change to -o and the following -a is lost. Husbands of these women went to war. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2.: advice. m./m. In this forest I saw a lion. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. Examples: sa purusah (this man). Adj. 4. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. 7. Other people than you won't accomplish this. m. prinayati: to please.: noble upadewa-. 5. sa isuh (this arrow). upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. caus. 2. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14. 6. Poor people live in the houses. I don't want these books. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. 3. so 'vadat (he said)./n." said the general. 10. instruction . 9. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. Text (read and translate): 1. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. In these rivers there are many fish. I don't like your behavior. to delight sidh-. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7.

: lion senapati-. offense wobha-. f. Adj.: hero vrtta-. m. emaciated pusta-.: fat murkha-.: general. not one krwa-. brilliance. m.: splendor.: foolish wiksita-. Adj.: donkey gardabha-.) aneka-. much. n.: fault. army leader adhika-. Adj.: donkey laksana-.) .: many. n.: behavior dosa-. m. beauty sijha-. Adj. Adj.: thin. m. m. characteristic. m.: bigger than (with Abl.: mark. Adj. sign vira-.khara-.: learned prati: towards (with Acc.

adv. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. n. under (Gen. to practise a+diw-. adhitisthati (I): to govern./n. agamayati: to let come a+hr-. m. f.: now adya. to seek refuge in abharana-. acarati (I): to do. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-. to learn abhi+nand-. ahvayati (IV): to call here. to drive adhika-. abhinayati (I): to conduct. much. adv. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-.: poverty aneka-. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-. m. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-. m. adv.: food anrta-. studying acarya-. not one anila-. dice ali-.: today. m. caus. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-. to act abhi+vad-. to call in a+jba-.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-.: robe. m.: unrighteousness adhastat. to rule. Adj. to mount a+wri-. to perform. to rinse a+car-.: down.: end .) abhi+ni-.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-.: bigger than (with Abl. decoration abhi+a+as-. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. n. caus.) a+ruh-. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. awrayate (I): to depend on. abhyasyati (IV): to study. m. m. m.: teacher adewa-.: many. n. n. n.: repeating. to welcome (Acc. m.: fire ajba-. now agamana-.: eye.: the poet Amaru amrta-. n.: lie.: bee amaru-.: order aksa-.) adhi+i-.: fire anartha-.) adhuna.: wind anna-. untruth anta-.: order adharma-. arohati (I): to ascend.: coming agni-. caus. Adj. m. acamati (I): to sip. m.

m.: horse badh-.: power. apaharati (I): to take away.: hermitage awru-. lie asi-.: meaning. m.: sun bhara-. postp. n. apanayayati: to lead away apara-. m.: hope awrama-.anta-. f.: part bhakti-. lower aparaddha-.: sword asura-. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-.: guest atra. m. m. avarohati: to descend awa-.: demon ati+kram-. bhasate (I): to speak. m.: boy. pass. strength bhadra-.: half ari-. to perform anujba-. prosperity bhaga-./m. n. happiness.: transgression. adj.: enemy arth-. even.: end anu+gam-. anutisthati (I): to follow. adj. badhyate: to bind bahu-.: tear awva-.: noble as-. to say . n. m. many bahu-. adv. m. m. to steal apa+ni-.: forest ardha-.: numerous. even though aranya-. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-. child bala-.: "un-truth".: wife bhas-.: seat. f. m. caus. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-. asyati (IV): to throw asana-. offence api-.: husband bharya-. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. load bhartr-.: for the sake of arya-.: agreement apa+har-. f. part. n. prosperity. force. Adj. m. wealth arthe.: different. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-. also. n.: here ava+gam-. atikramati (I): to cross over. m.: burden. position asatya-. abundant.) artha-. to carry out. f.: arm bala-. m. to transgress atithi-. m.: devotion bhan-.: bliss. n. n. m.

n. caus. m. m. corayati (X): to steal da-. mn.: ruler bhusana-.: wisdom ca . m. female slave datr-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-. adj. land. m.: fear bhaya-. m. n.: brahmin buddha-.: female servant.: gift dand-.: eyebrow bhu-. slave dasi-. n.: poor darwana-. f. meeting. m.: fear bhiks-. adv.: frog daridra-. dahati (I): to burn dana. f. f. f. beggar bhojana-. to become bhu-.: shadow. pass.: drop brahmana-. f. m. dapayati: to let give da-. m. n. f.: stick. f. bhavati (I): to be. mendicant. lord devalaya-.: seeing. m.: well-being.: god.bhasa-.: Buddha buddhi-. to practise caru-.: food bhram-. postposition: if chaya-.: temple . diyate: to give dah-.: servant bhru-. m. m.ca: both . m. to punish danda-.: food bhojana-. prosperity bindu-.: Buddhist monk. earth. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-. ground bhupala-.: alms bhiksu-. ground bhumi-. carati (I): to walk. n. m.: land.: servant bhrtya-.: brother bhrtaka-.: for the long time cur-. audience dasa-. shade ciram. to roam.: servant.: body deva. f.: earth.: language bhaya-. dandayati (X): to beat. m. f. n. punishment dardura-.: giver daw-.: beautiful cet.: ornament bhuti-. m. dawati (I): to bite deha-. adj.and car-.

n.: elephant gam-. m. jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-. firmness dhana.: law.: village . f. dhyayati (IV): to think. to meditate dirgha-.: mountain gita-. n.: fault. pawyati (IV): to see. rotten duta-. m.: cowshed grama.: unhappy.: courage. m. adj. jar ghra-.: thus ga-.: the goddess Durga durjana-. m.: grass. n. dhavati (I): to run dhi-. darwayati: to show drw-.: goddess..: suffering duhkhita.: long. m.adj. m. brahmin dvijati-. Buddhism dhav-. member of a high caste eva.: "twice-born".: the river Ganga ghasa-. adj.: "twice-born". d-vyati (IV): to play diw-.: song gopa-. to seem drw-. drwyate: to look (like).devi-. f. f. dravati (I): to run drw-. pas. m.: scent.: messenger dvija-. to point dosa-. gacchati (I): to go gan-.: bad. firmness dhya-. f.: bad man. m.: wise. courage. villain dusta-. m. n. Law. mistress dewa-. ganayati (X): to count gandha-. m. m.: thought. adv. caus. to look duhitr-. firm dhrti-.: country dhairya-.: cowherd gostha-.: daughter duhkha-. f. m. offense dru-. diwati (VI): to show. m. righteousness.: wealth. f. adj.: just. adv.: grain dharma-. only evam. ghee giri-. m. n. distressed durga-.: patience. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-. money dhanya-.: clarified butter. reason dhira-. m. n.: donkey gavga-. m. fragrance gardabha-. pasture ghata-.: pot. far div-.

: father janani-.: when? kala-. to take away. part. god jala.: sacrificial ladle kada. adv. close.: life juhu-.: sometimes kalidasa-.: so iva. m. guhati (I): to hide.: quality guru-. f. adv. n.: house grhastha-. m. adv.: personal name hasta-. m. master. m.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-. m.: near. m. to carry hrasvam. offering idanim. m. guru han-. n. m. part. m. jayati (I): to win. Indra's wife is-.: son-in-law jan-. n. death kalaha-. book (text) grha-. in proximity hrdaya-.: now iha.: benefit. here iks-.: heart hu-. part. m. like. m. n. caus. fight kalena.: arrow iti.: Indrani.: pleasure. f. m. desire kamp-.: composition.: as. adv. icchati (VI): to want. m. glory ji-. harati (I): to take.: time.: mother jati-.: water jamatr-. m.: teacher. m.: hand he.: oh! hr-. adv. jivati (I): to live jivana-. kampate (I): to shake.: lord.: life jivita-. caste jaya-. goodness kama-.: householder guh-. n. f.: person janaka-. n.: victory. jayate (IV): to be born jana-. to tremble .: birth. n. to conceal guna-.grantha-. to yearn for isu-. f. m.: Hindu god Indra indrani-. hvayati (IV): to call huta-. as if iwvara-. to conquer jiv-. m. iksate (I): to look at. ghatayati: to kill hari-. to stare indra-.: quarrel.: oblation.

adv. f. or Dat.: cause kastha-. m. f.: anger kr-. n.: anger krs-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-. labhate (I): to get. khanati (I): to dig khara-.: girl. adv. m. m. kriyate: to do krodha-.: fame klp-. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. m.Dat. adj. adv. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m. elephant's trunk. to narrate katha-.: donkey kim. m. black krt-. khadati (I): to eat khan-.: wood kata-.: what?. n.: agriculture krsna-.: where from? why? kutra. fighter ksetra-.: where? labh-. f.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-. why? kirti-.) ksana-. m. m.kanya-. adv. young man kunta-.: prince. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-. n.: pigeon kara-.: plough . kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m. krsati (I): to plow. to whom .. Adj. emaciated ksal-. characteristic.: whole krudh-.: poet kavya-.: thin. m. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. ksamate: to forgive (what .: mark. lance kup-. n. kathayati (X): to tell. tax karana-. f. pass.: milk kumara-. sign laksmi-.: how? kavi-.: story katham. m. to obtain laksana-. or Gen.: field ksip-.Acc. f.: moment ksatriya-.: hand. n.) krwa-. f. adv.: spear.: mat kath-.: where? kva.: kshatriya.) kupa-. to cultivate (field) krsi-. n.: poetry kawi-. n.: well kutah. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-. or Dat.) kopa-. daughter kapota-. m.

n. m. road masa-. Adj. m.: friend moha-. means also "people") lubh-.likh-. n. mrgayate (X): to search for. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-. m. n.: gem. town nagari-.: queen mahisa-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-. m.: death muc-. likhati (VI): to write lip-. manyate (IV): to think. m. saint murkha-. marayti: to kill mr-. m. modate (I): to delight in (Ins.: city . f.) mukha-.: way. m.: greed loka-. m. to suppose mani-. postp. statue nadi-.: world (in Pl. f. to rob mad-. m.: buffalo maksika-. f.: desire manusya-.: honey madhye. mubcati (VI): to free. m. n.: fish mauna-. m. m.: person marana-.: garland mam: me (Acc. lumpati (VI): to steal. f.) lup-. foremost mukti-. m. to desire (with Dat.: month matsya-.: peacock megha-. form. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-. adj.: deer mrtyu-. to discharge mud-. f. f. lubhyati (IV): to long for. or Loc. m.: city.: deliverance muni-. m. f.: cloud mitra-.: foolish murti-.) man-. m. mouth mukhya-.: fly mala-. caus.: deliverance mr-.: sage.: silence mayura-.: great king maharani-. n. n.: face. to hunt for mrga-.: between.: delusion moksa-.: river nagara. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-.: death marga.: main. precious stone manoratha-. m.: image.

n. m. pacati (I): to cook pada-.: man naraka-. adj.: hand. different para+ji-. to report nica-.. caus.: lotus pal-. adj.: highest. drama navina-. m. caus.: the grammarian Panini papa-.: grandson nara-. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-. king nrpati-.m. m. m.) nandana-. namati (I): to bow.: sin para-.: hail!. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-. adv. to perish nawa-. n. m. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-. pibati (I): to drink pac-. f.: axe pari+dha-.: new naw-.: foot. parinayati: to marry parthiva-. nispadyate (IV): to originate. adj. to appear nija-. m. ruler pa-.: leader netra. m.: play. m.n. palayati: to protect pa-.: Indra's paradise naptr-. annihilation netr. m.: destruction. nawyati (IV): to be lost.: decision nrpa-.: step. m.: ruler. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-.: low nidewa-. adj. m.: eye ni-.: woman nataka-. to prostrate. n. n. own nivewana-. footprint pada-. palayati (X): to protect pandita-. palm panini-. m.: treasure nih+gam-.nam-.: order nidhana-. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-. m.: bad.: ruler . place padma-.: dwelling niwcaya-.: king. n. nivedayati: to announce. n. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-. adj.: scholar. to worship namas-. glory! (Dat.: hell nari-. m. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-. n. sinful papa-.: one's. learned man pani-.

: breath.: snare. master. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-. pratigacchati (I): to come back. adj. Du. m. n. m. otec. study pathika-. m.: clean. pidayati (X): to torture. homage .: wife pattra-. m. prinayati: to please. m.parvata-. m. to expect prati+sidh-. caus.: sacrificial animal. hill pat-. to return prati+iks-. to arise prabhuta-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-.: manifold. pathati (I): to read. people prana-.: grandfather pitr-. life prasada-. to appear pra+jan-.: lesson.: traveler pati-. pass. patayati: to knock down pat-. cattle pawupalya-. atonement pri-. holy pawa-. to delight prthivi-. m. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-. to disseminate. adj. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. to restrain prayaga-. parayati (X): to overcome pr-. prapadyate (IV): to go to.: earth puj-. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. letter paura-. pujayati (X): to honour. pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. f. n.: expiation. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. ancestors pr-. patati (I): to fall.: leaf.: the breeding of cattle pid-. m.ch-. to revere puja-.: palace prath-. Pl. puryate: to fill pr.: subject. m. f.: Lord. to go back. to fly pataliputra-. prarthayate: to ask.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-.: worship.: citizen pavitra-. husband patni-.) prati+bhas-. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. caus. Pl. pravartate (I): to become. f. to take refuge in (Acc. caus. parents. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-. m. prabhavati (I): to arise. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-. to worship. trap pawu-. many praja-. pratiksate (I): to await. m. n.) pra+stha-. n. to recite patha-. f.: mountain. to beg pra+as-. prathayati: to propagate. to hurt pitamaha-. caus.

Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-. m. n. rodati (I): to weep ruh-. f. raksati (I): to protect raksana-.: coin sabha-. or postp. m.: holy man sagara-. precious stone rawi-.: enemy rksa-. n.: son putri-.: chariot rathya-. to endure saha.: heap.: with (with Inst. righteous sadhu-. n. to sit down sada.: kingdom raks-.: illness rsi-. m.: flower pusta-.: protection raksitr-.: man puspa-.: old story.) sahasa. ramate (I): to play rama-.: suddenly . sahate (I): to bear. rcchati (I): to get. m. m. adv. m. to obtain. n.) rud-.: seer ruc-. beauty rupaka-. n.: queen rajya-. adv.: again punya-. n. n.: holy. m. rocate (I): to like (Dat. f. n.: ray ripu-.: battle ratha-. m.: flood. adj.: daughter r-.: always sadhu-. mn. Adj. f. f.: fat pustaka-.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-. m.. prep. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-.: congregation.: street ratna-. f. adv.: gem ratna-. n. m. quantity rawmi-. f. n. m.: protector ram-.: epos Ramayana rana-.punar.: form. mass. rohati (I): to grow rupa-.: book (manuscript) putra.: protection raksana-.: bear roga-. assembly sad-.: sea sah-. m.: merit pura-. Gen. m. meeting.: jewel. to share rac-. stream purana-. sidati (I): to sit. m.

m. m.: beauty surya-.: truth senapati-.: general. adj. m. whole samudra-. smarati (I): to remember smrti-. a hymn of praise stri-.: gold svapna-. n.: everywhere satya-. robber stha-. m. tadayati (X): to beat tada.: ocean. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-. f. m. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-. adv.: service sevaka-.: sleep. f.: praise sukha-. equal. adj. f.: beautiful sundari-. even samagra-.: then. m. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. m. f. rightly sarpa-. dream svarga-. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-. to stay stotra-. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-. to discharge sidh-. f. the god of the Sun suta-. f.: Vedic hymn sundara-. adv. m.: satisfaction.: thief.: doubtful. adv. f.sainika-.: tradition. sajbhasate (I): to converse.: sister tad-.: everywhere.) seva-. sevate (I): to serve. questionable sajtosa-. m.: creator srj-.: daughter-in-law sprw-. by all means sarvatra.: same. army leader sev-. or Loc. caus. to honour (Acc.: sun. srjati (VI): to create srsti-. to talk with (Ins.) sam+gaj-.: complete. contentedness sam+a+car-.) snusa-. m.: charioteer suvarna-. sea samyak.: ode.: happiness sukta-.: creation stena-. n. tisthati (I): to stand. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. m.: lion smr-. adj. n.: snake. serpent sarvatah. n. sajgacchate: to come together sama-. at that time .: woman stuti-.: heaven svasr-. n. adv.: well. f. n.: servant sic-. m. adj.: soldier sajdigdha-. thoroughly.

adv. to grieve (Abl.: garden udyana-. m.: exertion. wife vah-.: pond. recluse vand-. to stand up udadhi-. instruction urvawi-. n. vandate (I): to praise. tudati (VI): to strike. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-. perseverance upa+diw-. m. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-.: water varuna-. f. vapati (I): to sow vapi-. n. m. best vari-.: shore. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-. uttisthati (I): to get up. vadati (I): to speak. to blow.: hermit. tusyati (IV): to rejoice.: clothing . m. m. pool vara-. to give up ucca-. tarati (I): to cross over tu. adv.taksawila-. pass. adj. n. n. upadiwati (VI): to teach.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-. adj. to be satisfied (Ins.: better. m. m. n.: but tud-.: advice. adj. to admonish upa+iks-. twisted vaktr-. tyajati (I): to leave. to pay homage vanijya-.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-.: garden udyoga-. f. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-.: daddy tatha.: speaker vana-. to weigh tus-. vahati (I): to carry. m. to flow vaiwya-.: business.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-.: ocean udyana-. trade vap-. f. so tatra. part.: dwelling vastra-. f. n. m.: high ud+pat-.: curved. to pierce tul-.) tyaj-. f. ucyate: is called vad-. tolayati (X): to lift up. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-. n.: thus.: forest vanaprasta-. to say vadhu-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. bank tr-.: tree tata-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-. to instruct.) taru-.: woman.: there tira-.

to acquire vidhi-.: wave vid-. m. vartate (I): to be.: disputation. rule. m. direction vidya-. pupil . n.: branch wam-. m. f. wisyate: to rule. m. m. n.) vi+vad-.: arrow warana-.: in vain. caus. argument viw-.: refuge was-.: discipline vipra-.: student.: hunter vyaghra-. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-. viramate (I): to give up. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-.: tree vrs-. m. mode.: wind vi+ram-. vartate (I): to live on vrtha. m. to make known vid-. n.: learned wisya-. m. wajsati (I): to praise. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-.: bird vihaga-. to pour down. n.: ruler.: summit.: hero vira-. pass. adv. m.: hero visnu-. m.: knowledge. wisdom vihaga-.: behavior vrttanta-.: brahmin vira-. m.vasu-. top wiks-. to shower vrt-. to no avail vrtta-.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-. to be finished wanti-. m.: poison vrana-. to abandon (Abl. n. n. "punisher" wastra-. m. vivadati (I): to argue vici-.: story vyadh-. m. vindati (VI): to get. to enlarge vrka-. Adj. f.: peace. vardhayati: to make bigger.: tiger wajs-. m. m. sore vrdh-.: enemy wikhara-.: thing. m. n. wealth vayu-. varsati (I): to rain. m. law-book watru-. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. f. m. to exist vrt-.: wound. caus. to punish wastr-. vedayati: to announce.: treatise. to extol wakha-. m.: bird vinaya-.: wolf vrksa-. silence wara-.: way.

: when (relative) yaj-. virtue wraddha-. m. m.: the river Yamuna yat-. wealth wru-. rel. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-. oblation for them wram-. pron. m. caus. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.) yatha. m. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas. f. m. yudhyati (IV): to fight .: tomorrow wvawru-. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-. m.: sacrifice yam-.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. beauty wobhana-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-.: Vedic scripture wubh-.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then….: ascetic yatra.: which yada. adv.: war yudh-. adj. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-.: splendor. beauty.wiva-.: child wiwu-. as far as yoga-. as (relative) yati-.: yoga yuddha-.: mother-in-law wvawura-. f.: white ya-. adv.: luck. adv. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: ornament. f. n.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-. m. wruyate: to hear wruti-. m.: how. m. m. adv.) wudra-. f. pass.: Shiva wiwu-.: child wloka-. f. brilliance. m.: father-in-law wveta-.

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