Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

stha. they are not saying). Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?). sad.in front of the verb. na vadanti (they do not say. va (or).(to go) and yam. brahmanah sada yajanti devan | . devan Voc.. "god") Nom.to -cch-: gacchati. yacchati. In Sanskrit. the Buddha only). class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI.). Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na. balah kataj diwati | 2. "fruit") Nom.(to give) change -m.to -i-: sidati.(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi. phalani Acc. the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence. So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going). ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits).(to sit) changes -a. devah Acc.. classes: gam. devah phala (n. phalani Voc. buddham eva (just the Buddha. eva (particle of emphasis.to -cch-: icchanti. bhojanaj tu (but the food.Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m.. kutra katah | 3. bhojanam atra (the food [is] here). just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits). is (to want) changes -s. phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad. tu (but).(VI. Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and). Text (read and translate): 1.. and I.

We praise the boys. 6. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. Boys. margaj diwatha balah | 19. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. nrpah kva sidati | 7. Where is the city. Where the water does not flow. there stay the houses. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. We are leaving the world today. danani yacchanti | 10. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. The exercise key . nagarameva gacchami | 9. tatha jivamah | 18. 11. devannamanti | 22. Brahmins still sit there. I want water.4. 9. 3. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25.) going? 2. 4. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. 12. dhanamicchamah | 24. balah ksiramicchati | 23. 7. Where are you (pl. grhamatra tisthati | 6. Where are the elephants? 5. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. Do you want milk? 10. 8. narandevah srjati | 13. kada danani yacchatha | 26. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. gramamadya viwamah | 14. there the people do not live. you are pointing the way. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17.

sprwati (VI): to touch kata-. to stay sprw-. to sit down srj-.: milk gaja-. dhavati (I): to run nam-. to give up diw-. tisthati (I): to stand.: just. adv. m. n.: village jala-. n. m.: thus. m. sidati (I): to sit. to prostrate. to yearn for gam-.: wealth. icchati (VI): to want. diwati (VI): to show. m. adv. m.: elephant grama-.: water dana-.Vocabulary is-. town putra-. to point dhav-.: god. wajsati (I): to praise.: then. lord dhana-. money nagara-. n.: gift deva-. srjati (VI): to create stha-. tyajati (I): to leave. adv.: son marga-.: city. m.: mat ksira-. only kada. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-. to worship yam-. to extol sad-. adv.: when (relative) . road eva.: where (relative) yada. adv. so tada. n. namati (I): to bow. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. yacchati (I): to give viw-. adv. n. at that time yatra.: way.: when? tatha.

normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. Accusative and Vocative cases: m. Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). the first grade is called guna. Acc. ji-. sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here). pibati (to drink). guhati (to hide. jayati (to win. ghra-. If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . rohati (to grow). bhavati (to be). vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. to conquer). the second grade is vrddhi. class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. to shower). It has always the same form for Nominative. dravati (to run). Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. vad+a+tah They (two) say n. to smell). bhu-. Nom.Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. pa-. nayati (to lead). jighrati (III. vrs-. dru-. But note some irregularities: guh-. to conceal). The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. ruh-. varsati (to rain. class. devau phale Voc.

2. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 8. 5. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. They give money and gifts. satyaj na vadathah | 18. 12. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. Where are both horses? 3. atraiva vasavah | 5. devau smaramah | 9. Home (emphasized) go both boys. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. Just here are (two) horses. The Buddha speaks the truth. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. 4. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. balau phale khadatah | 20. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. devavadya smaramah | 10. 7. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. Just today we both go to the city. Here we (two) do not live. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. 10. Here stand (two) trees. anilah sada na vahati | 16. Where do you hide money? 11. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. . he nrpau jayathah | 11. Where are you (two) going now? 9. dahasi he anala | 15. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. 6. To the forest run the (two) elephants. The ruler conquers both fighters. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21.

pibati (I): to drink bhu-. to pour down. to flow ruh-. to become vah-.: forest vrksa-.: wind gandha-. dravati (I): to run ni-. part. n.: horse anala-. dahati (I): to burn dru-. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-. smarati (I): to remember awva-.: scent.: cloud vana-. to conceal ghra-.: tree satya-.: oh! .13. Here sarvatra. to blow. adv. n.: fire anila-. rohati (I): to grow vrs-. m. guhati (I): to hide. m. to conquer dah-. bhavati (I): to be. varsati (I): to rain. m. m. vahati (I): to carry.: truth iha. jighrati (III): to smell ji-. fragrance megha-. to shower smr-. khadati (I): to eat guh-. m.: everywhere he. m. jayati (I): to win. nayati (I): to lead pa-. adv.

phalasya Voc. "because of". Dat. phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. "by" (with the Buddha. Accusative: the object (I see you). "by means of ". Ins. deva And for neuter: phala (n. circumstances (in the city). the agent in a passive construction.. Loc. devau devau Pl. devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. the goal of the motion (I go to the city). devah Acc. as English "through". it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". is also used to denote reason (from anger). . devam Du. Locative: the location. Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). Nom.Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. Abl. "god") Sg. Abl. devasya devayoh Voc. Ins. giving. Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). phalam Acc. Nom. Loc. Dat. phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). telling (to the boy). by carriage). Dative: the indirect object. phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen.. "fruit") Sg.

n for t. Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. man?). -u. If the following word beggins with a short a-. narah gacchanti (the men go). Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here). -i. ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. b for c and j. putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). -i before any vowel (except for -i. see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. megha jalaj sibcanti | 6.the fighter says that he lives here). mubcati (see Vocabulary). For example: muc-. j and sibilants). hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. m for p. -u before any vowel (except for -u.Vocative: the address (Who are you. The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit.

m.: mountain. limpati (VI): to smear sic-.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys.: power. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. m. 5. 8. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14.: father duhkha-. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. 2. Traveler walks on the way to the village. young man janaka-. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15. m. to discharge yaj-. m. brahmin pathika-. 6./n. to discharge aranya-.: battle rama-. People want happiness. n.: deer rana-. mubcati (VI): to free. m.: suffering dvija-. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 7. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. Men with boys go to the forest. to roam. n.11.: "twice-born". 3. n. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-. People do not live in forests. 4. strength mrga-. n.: plough vipra-. to practise muc-. m. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-.: traveler parvata-. m. carati (I): to walk. m.: forest kumara-. hill bala-. m. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. but not suffering. Trees do not grow on high mountains. force.: brahmin .: prince. krntati (VI): to cut car-.

n. part. m. offering ucca-. adv. why? tu.: oblation. n. part.viwa-.: happiness hasta-. n.: poison wiva-.: what?. adv. adj.: hand huta-.: but The exercise key .: Shiva sukha-. m.: high iti. why? kutah.: so kim.: where from?.

agnih Acc. fire) Sg. arya. vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. Loc.(if it begins with a vowel). Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. unhappiness. Abl. sorrow. Dat. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an. Dat. asukha.. agneh Voc. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati. . Nom. "un-noble". noble. Loc. agni Pl. vari Acc. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen. fire burns). varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. poet tells to the seer). agne vari. water): Sg.(n. Ins.. happines.Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. Ins.(m. Abl. vari varina varine Du. Nom. varinah varinoh Voc. But if the following word begins with -r. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati. Rama goes with the poets). varini varini Pl. For example: sukha-. anarya. the fire is here. Du.

d. 5. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. why don't you recite poetry?". balau kuto rodatah | 2. -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. dh. nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. 2. weep the boys. If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. Even today people remember Rama. retroflex (t. b). dh. jh. n) or dental (t. but from the Law [there is] happiness. d. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 9. "O. ch. "You don't speak the truth". 7. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. asks the king. nominative plural of vari is varini). "Enemies rob the houses here". asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. says the brahmin to the poet. 3. j. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. . nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. We live happily here in the mountains. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. poet. th. harij ksirena yajatah | 18. suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. no elephants live. 6. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. th. 4. Text (read and translate): 1. From sin there is always suffering. Where people burn the forests. 8. jalaj gireh patati | 10. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. Hari's horse is standing just here. n) between them (so. arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih).

n.: king. righteousness. pathati (I): to read.: enemy asatya-. m.: mountain jana-.: sword rsi-. palm papa-.: personal name api-.: servant. m. m. part.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-.: sin varuna-. Buddhism nrpati-. master. n.: "un-truth". m. lumpati (VI): to steal. n. even though . n.: fire anna-. husband pani-. m. m.: food ari-. lie asi-. m. m. to pierce path-.: body dharma-. rodati (I): to weep lup-. n.: Lord. to rob agni-.: person dasa-.: poet kavya-.: hand.: seer kavi-. m. n. even.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-. m.: water sukta-. m. ruler pati-. Law.: Vedic hymn hari-. m. tudati (VI): to strike. also. m.: law. slave deha-.: poetry giri-. m. mn. to recite rud-.

is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). Therefore: drw-. a vanat (only from the forest). Nom. The verb drw.(to see) is irregular and defective. it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). to look). Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-. Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. . Loc. Dat. watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here).is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). anayati (to bring). But if a is used separately as a preposition. (enemy) Sg. kupyati (to be angry). watru Pl. indicative uses different root (paw-). agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen. watruh Acc.means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). Only passive is constructed from this root. class are thematic verbs. For example a. -h after any vowel and before c-. The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. pawyati (to see. m. ch. watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes).Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV. th. Ins. Abl. -h after any vowel and before t-. Du. watroh Voc.

nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13." asks teacher the student. "What are you writing now. 4." says the boy to the traveler. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8. but father lives here. or Dat. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. 7. 3. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. By the power of [your] arms you win.Text (read and translate): 1. naro 'wvamarohati | 10. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. The king with fighters comes to the city. "There stands father's house. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. 8. 2. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. oh king. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. 5. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.) . nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. 6. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. We do not live here. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22.

) hu-.: bird watru-. ahvayati (IV): to call here. footprint bahu-. nawyati (IV): to be lost.) a+gam-. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-. m. n. m. m. to look yudh-. m.: teacher.: leaf.: ocean guru-. precious stone rawi-. to call in udadhi-.: foot.krudh-. to desire (with Dat.: student. lubhyati (IV): to long for. or Loc.) wus-. or Loc. m.: axe pada-. likhati (VI): to write lubh-.: gem. or Dat. m.: enemy visnu-. mass.: drop mani-.: heap.) . pawyati (IV): to see. letter parawu-.: treatise. m. to perish drw-. m. m.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-. quantity ripu-. n. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-. m.: arm bindu-. m. agacchati (I): to come tr-. to mount likh-. prep. precious stone ratna-. n. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-.: jewel. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m. law-book wisya-.: with (with Inst. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. arohati (I): to ascend. pupil saha. guru pattra-. m. or postp.: enemy wastra-.

Dat. Abl. mad-. Loc. madyati (to be intoxicated). Nom. nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. madhunah madhunoh Voc. madhuni madhuni Pl. Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. Ins. ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. madhu madhuna madhune Du. madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. madhu Acc.Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds).is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. bhramyati (to wander). The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). kram-. vidhyati (to pierce). the root vyadh. Text (read and translate): 1. Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). kramati (to walk). nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3. nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7. rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6.

There are many things in the houses. Fighters play for money (Ins. to be satisfied (Ins.).: bee awru-. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. 6. anayati (I): to bring bhram-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. 7. Bees wander around flowers of the trees. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. to obtain. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-. 3. wamyati (IV): to be pacified.: bear .) div-. dice adharma-. n. to rinse tam-. to be finished wram-. m. harati (I): to take. 8.) tus-. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. acamati (I): to sip. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-. 2. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. m. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. Tears are flowing on boy's face. Birds are flying to the tree. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. to take away.12. to carry aksa-. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16. 4.: eye. Death conquers even unrighteousness. 5. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14. m.: unrighteousness ali-. n.: tear rksa-. to grieve (Abl. rcchati (I): to get. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to share a+kram-. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18.

m. m.: flower bhaga-. many .: anger netra.: death vasu-.: eye puspa-. n.: honey manusya-.: thing.: hero bahu-.: part madhu-. adj. n. abundant.: numerous.kopa-. n.: person mukha-.n. m. m.: face. n. wealth vira-.: anger krodha-. m. m. mouth mrtyu-.

purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. suto 'wvanpidayati | 8.instead of just -a. narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. If the root ends in a vowel. jan-. Text (read and translate): 1. ksalayati (to wash). Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key . corayati (to steal). -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. janayati (to give birth. devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house). pidayati (to torture). bhayayati (to cause fear). vedayati (to make known). rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. grhalloka agacchanti | 15. wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7. Before palatals. Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. class add -aya. but: pid-. gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. The vowel -a.to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world). bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4. vid-.Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. bhi-. dharayati (to hold). lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people).between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. to generate).

m. n. tolayati (X): to lift up. to worship. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-." asks the servant the king. Father tells son about fruits of sins. n. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-. n. as if mam: me (Acc. to punish pid-.: as. dandayati (X): to beat. n. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. to hurt puj-. Merit protects from grief. ganayati (X): to count cur-. kathayati (X): to tell.: clothing vrttanta-. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. pujayati (X): to honour.) . n.: thief. part. n. "Why do you beat me.: coin vastra-.: story wudra-. aharati (I): to bring danda-. pidayati (X): to torture.) wash their faces. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9.: merit purana-.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-. 8. m. 7.: holy man suvarna-. adj.: charioteer stena-. 5. n.: stick. m. Boys (Du. to narrate ksal-.Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: new iva. punishment punya-. corayati (X): to steal tad-. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-. m.: servant ramayana-. 3.: old story. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword. like. 6. robber navina-. I want new clothes. m. 4. m. to weigh dand-.: epos Ramayana rupaka-. to revere pr-. 2.: gold suta-. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns.

wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. labhe Du.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. 1. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. But Dual endings -i. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). to obtain) A: Sg. labh-. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. labhase labhethe 3. ksatriya rsi sevante | . labhate (to get. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. "word for another"). besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. Text (read and translate): 1. Pl.is unchanged. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. But this initial a. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. fire. -o at the end of the word and before a. god Agni). vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. -e. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2. But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. Before other vowels a final -e. phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. agni iksate balah | 11. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. o. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. But in Sanskrit. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12. vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2.

mriyate (IV): to die yat-.) a+rabh-. m. courage. 7. iksate (I): to look at. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. m.: sacrifice . Boys like fruit. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc.: "twice-born". m. to say mr-. m.) labh-. labhate (I): to get.: sacrificial animal. sevate (I): to serve. kampate (I): to shake. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves.: tree dvijati-. 2. member of a high caste dhairya-.: deliverance yajba-.) iks-. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. to endure sev-. n. wiksate (I): to learn sah-. 4.) begin with a sacrifice. 8.: sun moksa-. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5. rocate (I): to like (Dat. Father likes sons' discipline. to pay homage wiks-.: poverty udyoga-.: patience. firmness pawu-. m.) anartha-. Children ask the father for food. goodness taru-. sahate (I): to bear. 6. The father is looking at son's face.17. 3. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-.: exertion. bhasate (I): to speak. to honour (Acc. to obtain vand-. perseverance kalyana-. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to tremble jan-. cattle bhanu-. Gen.: benefit. n. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. m. to stare kamp-. Holy men (Du. m.) ruc-.. m. vandate (I): to praise.

vayu-. m.: wave vinaya-. m. m.: discipline wiwu-.: wind vici-. m. m.: ocean.: child samudra-. sea .

only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry).(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni.(towards.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa. following): anu+gacchati (to go after. Text (read and translate): 1. army) Sg.. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen. to honour). satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f. sene sene Pl. to follow) ava.(after.is changed into -n. senam senaya senayai Du. Ins. sena Acc. Abl.after a prefix containing -r. Dat. -n. senayah senayoh Voc.(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari.(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve. Loc. hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | . Nom. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para.is changed into -s.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam.

The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. m.: girl. m. sajgacchate: to come together isu-. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-.) descend from black horses. 2. 5. 8. f. 3.: the river Ganga grhastha-. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-.) bhiks-. 6. daughter gavga-. The king conquers enemies in the battle. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. The student asks householder's wife for alms.: arrow kanya-. to take refuge in (Acc. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. f. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. prapadyate (IV): to go to. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15. Here on the street kings (Du. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari.: householder . Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. 7.5. Many trees grow on the mountain. 4.

: hunter warana-. m.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-.: fear bharya-. n.: suddenly .: heaven hrdaya-.: heart krsna-.: refuge svarga-. black papa-. sinful prabhuta-. f. m. adj.chaya-. f.: street vidya-. n. n.: wife bhasa-. adj.: shadow. many sahasa.: language bhiksa-. f. wisdom vyadha-. f.: bad. f. shade prayaga-. f.: the river Yamuna ratna-.: knowledge. f.: gem rathya-. n.: manifold. f. adv.: alms yamuna-.

sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. coryate. supyate (to sleep). Verbs of the X class drop -aya. he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. svap-. udyate (to say). pass. kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. corayati. pass. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. vap-. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13. stu-. kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. pr-. mucyate.in these roots: vac-. ucyate (to say).but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2. diyate (to give). janairnagaraj gamyate | 6. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. smaryate (to remember). vad-. puryate (to fill).Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. mubcati. The consonant -v. pass. naraih katah kriyante | 8. pass. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7. usyate (to dwell).is changed into -u. dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12. tiryate. awvena jalaj piyate | 17. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. Text (read and translate): 1. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. upyate (to sow). stuyate (to praise). vas-. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. sutenawvastadyate | 20. uhyate (to carry). sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. jiyate. ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. vah-. It is used with the instrumental case.

pass. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). 8. vapati (I): to sow was-. Hari is again praised by Rama. pass. n. load bhiksu-.: child sarpa-. 4. serpent . m.: kingdom wiwu-. n. ghee dhanya-.: snake.: garland rajya-. m. beggar mala-. It is played with dices. m. mendicant.: wood gita-. pass. m. Holy man always speaks truth (pass). Girls bind garlands (pass).: Buddhist monk. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-.: snare. badhyate: to bind vap-. 7. pass. to punish wru-. Grain is sown in the fields.: clarified butter. wisyate: to rule. pass. "In the shade is comfortably slept. f.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. puryate: to fill badh-. kriyate: to do ga-. trap bhara-. 5. n. n. 6. n.: order kastha-.: song ghata-. dawati (I): to bite da-. wruyate: to hear ajba-. f. m. 2. jar ghrta-. pass. Jars are being filled with grain.: pot.: grain pawa-. 3." is said by people. gayati (IV): to sing daw-.: burden. m. diyate: to give pr-.

rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. paryanayat. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. impf. purena grhanyuhyante | . yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). Text (read and translate): 1. It has special endings: Sg. impf. taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. If the verb is prefixed. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. 2. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. a+vad+a+t Du. gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. a+vad+a+h 3.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. aicchat (he wanted).

vartate (I): to be.: palace matsya-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood.: flood.: hope indra-. 8. m. a hymn of praise . 5. to stand up artha-. the god of the Sun stotra-.: sea grantha-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. stream prasada-.: sun. glory pustaka-. The teacher hit the student out of the anger. 2. m. m.: ode. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-.: meaning. 7. He cut the branch with an axe. uttisthati (I): to get up. 3. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water. meeting. top sabha-. m.: protection wakha-.: summit.: book (manuscript) pura-. Servants brought water in jars. When you were ("stood") in trouble. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-. m. Men sat down on mats. assembly surya-. f.: composition.: fish raksana-. book (text) jaya-.: branch wikhara-. Brahmins (Du.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-. n. f.: congregation. 4. n. m. m. prosperity. n.: demon awa-. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. f. m.: victory. wealth asura-. m. you asked the king for protection. m. m.) sang the praise of Rama. 6. to exist ud+stha-.

aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. . Cities stand on the rivers' banks. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. nadi Acc. Loc. nadyau nadyau Pl. Dat. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. 2. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. 3. nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. river) Sg. We bring water from the pond. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. 4. Abl. satyameva jayate | 12. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. Nom. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. nadyah nadyoh Voc. Ins. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4.. nadim nadya nadyai Du.

: wife putri-.: beautiful namas-. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler. mrgayate (X): to search for.: mother tira-. n. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-. 8. 7. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea. f. whole sundara-.: garden janani-. Even the king came with the soldiers. f. to go back.: daughter prthivi-. f.5.: queen yoga-. n. ucyate: is called vrt-. to practise mrg-.: female servant.: city nadi-. f. pool vyaghra-. to perform. f. holy samagra-. n. mistress nagari-.: tiger sainika-. f.) . f. m. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother.: Indrani.: earth bhusana-. female slave devi-. f. f.: Indra's paradise nari-.: goddess. adv.: soldier pavitra-. m.: river nandana-.: clean. m. Indra's wife udyana-.: ornament maharaja-. m. adj. decoration indrani-.: shore. to hunt for vac-.: great king maharani-. to return a+car-. pass.: hail!. n.: woman patni-. adj. 6.: pond. pratigacchati (I): to come back. adj.: complete.: robe. f. n. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. glory! (Dat.: yoga vapi-. f. bank dasi-. acarati (I): to do. f.

wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. idea): Sg. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen.Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u. f. many). gurvi. Dat. heavy).. guru-. Text (read and translate): 1.and -y. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen.(f. bahvi. dhenuh Acc. Ins. Ins. bahu-. Abl.(f. Nom. Nom. Abl. mate dhenu. bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5. mati. matim matya Du. Dat.(broad). matih Acc. prthvi. dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc.(abundant. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems".with -v-). cow): Sg. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3.. The dative. Loc. punyena muktij labhadhve | . f.(serious. f. dhenum dhenva Du. mati mati Pl. dhenu dhenu Pl. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4. Loc. ablative.

wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10.: courage. upadiwati (VI): to teach.: fame gopa-. to instruct. People of many castes lived in villages. 8." said a citizen to the king. fight kirti-. m. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12. f. 4. caste dhrti-. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11.: cowherd jati-. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. vindati (VI): to get. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies.: end kalaha-. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. to admonish pal-. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7. m. m.: birth. palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. I worship Shiva for prosperity. 3. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14.) upa+diw-. f. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. to acquire wubh-. to appear vid-. 6. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. f. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: ruler . 5. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8. 2. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage.6. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. firmness parthiva-. prabhavati (I): to arise. 7.: quarrel. wobhate (I): to shine anta-. m.

f.: peace. m. adj. f.: Vedic scripture smrti-.: well-being. f. n.: ray vrana-. f.: sleep. ground maksika-. f.: deliverance rawmi-. adj. foremost sadhu-. righteous . f.: tradition.: fly mukti-. m.: holy. adj. land. f.: wound. f.: low mukhya-. prosperity bhumi-. f. silence wruti-. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-. sore wanti-.paura-.: main. f.: earth.: citizen buddhi-. dream nica-.: wisdom bhakti-.: devotion bhuti-.

to govern. they were seen). dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du.. apart: vi+dr-. to lead away. ph. on: adhi+stha-. impf. kh-.): dhi. apaniyati. Dat. wholly: ati+kram-. . completely overcome adhi-. alabhe 3. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems". dhiyau dhiyau Pl. to carry away prati-. nisidati. to return vi-. Sg. thought): Sg. adhitisthati. back: prati+gam-.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. Pl. and Loc. Nom. nispadyate (to arise). completely. atikramati. us: nih+pad-. pratigacchati. above.Pl. Abl. alabhata Du.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. Loc. this can also happen in Gen. Gen. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2.(f.. Ins. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata. vidiryate. Abl. dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg.changed into -is. In addition. against. to go back. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. Dat. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s. away: apa+ni-.. it is changed into s. to rule apa-. 1. dhih Acc. p-. pass. nyasidat.

guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. to transgress pra+jan-. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. Many arrows were shot on the tiger. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. Many tigers. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. 2. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. to appear prati+bhas-. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. 5. Rama's father was always remembered by people. he returned to the city. Mother called (pass. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. dhyayati (IV): to think.) girls home from the garden. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. 6. nispadyate (IV): to originate. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. When was the king's son born? 8. atikramati (I): to cross over. to meditate nih+pad-. When the king talked with brahmins. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.Text (read and translate): 1. elephants and bears were seen there. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. pratibhasate (I): to answer . kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. 7. 4. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. Where did you get white cows? 3. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6.

: delusion ratha-.: beautiful dhira-. adj. m. f. desire karana-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. n. wealth srsti-.: cause dhi-.: sage. f.: pleasure. annihilation padma-. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-. n. master. m. f. saint moha-. adj.: thought. f. m.: dwelling wri-. m. adj.: white . adj. m. m. m. f.: man muni-. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: destruction. god kama-.: luck.: wise.: whole caru-. beauty.: lord.: creation krtsna-. to rule. m. firm wveta-.: lotus purusa-.: chariot lobha-. to drive anujba-.: greed vasati-. reason nawa-.: agreement iwvara-. to restrain ni+sev-.rac-.

Let the men dig a pond. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6. daughter. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. "Come today. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. 5. vada Du. 2. devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9. 2. Pl. Text (read and translate): 1. ma gacchatu (let him not go). 4. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. daddy. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. 3. annaj yaccha he janani | 13. 6. Let the children show the traveler the way." orders students the tradition. pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7. "Study the treatises and speak the truth. vadama 1. 7. ." said the father.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. "Give me food. Let charioteers do not torture horses." asked the boy father.

: repeating.: guest anrta-. m.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-.: subject.: near. people murti-.: bad.: for the long time sarvatah.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-. n. f.: lie. different adhastat. form.: different. lower dirgha-. m.: daddy darwana-. audience pataliputra-. meeting. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-. adv. adj. khanati (I): to dig atithi-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-.: everywhere. n. f. adv.: order asana-. studying adewa-. under (Gen. rotten para-. to learn a+diw-.: down. m. adj. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-. untruth abhyasa-. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-.: seeing.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-. m. statue vaiwya-. m. study praja-. adj.: seat. m.: long. m. by all means hrasvam. thoroughly.: highest.: lesson. adj. adv.) ciram. close. f. abhyasyati (IV): to study. n. adv.: image. in proximity va: or . position kawi-. far dusta-.

Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. earth): Sg. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc. bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen. Nom.(f. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. Dat. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. Ins. Abl. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. Dat. bhuva bhuve Du. vadhu bhu. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11. Abl. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. bhuh Acc. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. bhuvau Pl. Nom.. woman): Sg. vadhvau vadhvau Pl. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6.(f.. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. Ins. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. Loc. vadhuh Acc. Loc. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12.

Let us live there. 5. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-.: well bhupala-.: woman.: dwelling bhu-. f.13. m. f. m. f.: quality acarya-. m. n.: the goddess Durga nivewana-.: ruler vadhu-. People live on earth and gods in heaven. wife wvawru-.: land. apaharati (I): to take away. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14." ordered the householder. 2. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri. pravartate (I): to become. f. to arise wuc-. 4. ground bhru-. m. f. f. earth. pas. 7.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-. 6. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3. 8.: eyebrow rajbi-.: beauty stuti-. There is no water in the well. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16. f. Let the student not argue with the teacher. f. to seem vi+vad-. to steal ksana-.) apa+har-. drwyate: to look (like).: mother-in-law sundari-. "Take away nice clothes.: queen laksmi-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. The eyebrows of beauties are always black.: sacrificial ladle durga-. Who protects the earth is called a ruler.: moment guna-. f. f.: praise .: teacher juhu-.

: which . rel.: daughter-in-law vakra-. pron... as far as ya-..snusa-. then. adj. twisted yavat-tavat: when.: curved. f..

Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). 4. idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. 6. often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). . Text (read and translate): 1. labhai Du. 1. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. This form is widely used especially in 3. Let an ascetic not converse with women. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). 3. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. Some verbs. 2. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. person: kriyatam (let [it] be done).Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. Pl. kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. Let it be thus! 5. mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. Do not neglect illnesses. otherwise active. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. satyaj sadocyatam | 10. kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7.

: war roga-. m. learned man pada-. adv.: time. to act bhan-.: worship. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung. adj. villain devalaya-. m. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-. caus. m.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-. m. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-. homage prayawcitta-.: better.: grass. abhinayati (I): to conduct. m.: illness vara-. to talk with (Ins.: ascetic yuddha-. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-.: bad man.: step. to expect upa+iks-. atonement bhojana-. adv. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-. m.: food mahisa-.: scholar.: sometimes samyak.: now kalena. to seek refuge in han-. n. m.7. m.: well.) a+wri-. adv. 8. pasture durjana-. rightly . ghatayati: to kill kala-. n.: play. place puja-. drama niwcaya-. sajbhasate (I): to converse. n.: decision pandita-. awrayate (I): to depend on.: expiation. m. m. best idanim.: temple nataka-. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-. n. pratiksate (I): to await. m. Let women and children are not killed in the war. f.: buffalo yati-. death kalidasa-.

pitarau Pl.Pl.(m. Dat. pituh Voc. karta Acc.Sg. and Nom. They differ only in Acc. kartr. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. matar . pitar matr. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a. kartarau Pl.Du.. agent. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen. maker): Sg. Abl. 2) nouns of relationship. mother): Sg. Dat. Nom.(f. Loc. Ins. Acc. Ins. sister and naptr-. Nom.. Dat. pita Acc.. matarau Pl. Ins. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du. matra matre matuh matari Du. Abl. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen.(m. Loc. mata Acc. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. Abl.. father): Sg.Du. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du. Loc. matuh Voc. kartuh Voc. Nom.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns.. kartar pitr. Nom.

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.


Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. 1. navau Pl..Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2. Abl. labhemahi labheran 2. Text (read and translate): 1. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. labheta Du. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. let it be done). yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. nauh Acc. Ins. nava nave nauh navi Du. gacchati "[he/she] goes". sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5.(f. nauh Voc. Loc. nauh As you have probably noticed. The declension of the word nau. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows". boat): Sg. labheya 3. Nom. Dat. nausu yuddhamabhavat | . brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7.

abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-.: life nidewa-.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-. to abandon (Abl. even sajdigdha-. mode.: fear bhrtaka-. Let new poems be written! 6. n.) abhi+vad-. adj.: friend vanijya-.: same. n.: service pawupalya-. anutisthati (I): to follow. equal. m. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. Let women and children be taken away to the city. as (relative) . rule.: business. adj.: garden krsi-. f.) udyana-. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. adv. m.: agriculture jivita-. direction sama-.: doubtful.). n. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12.: servant marana-. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living . f. to carry out. 3. questionable yatha. to welcome (Acc. balavudyane rameyatam | 11. n.: order seva-. 7. m. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-. trade vidhi-. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive). 5. viramate (I): to give up. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy. n. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt.: how. pass.10. May the friends be always remembered! 2. m.: death mitra-. n.: way. 8. to perform apa+ni-. 4. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-.this we read in the treatises.

jbapayati (to make known. If the root ends in any other vowel. to water). ga. upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10. So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context . The vowel -a. kr.(to be born). suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11.(to know).Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class. gapayati (to let sing).(to fall. Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p. "to report" etc.(to go). vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6. gamayati (to let go. to make somebody to go). we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key . dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14. When translating the causative.(to be). The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody). vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4. "to tell".(to sing).translate as "to recite". to fly). "to sing". it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu. kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13. And also adhi+i. But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. Text (read and translate): 1. janayati (to give birth. adhyapayati (to teach).(to learn). to proclaim). bhavayati (to make something happen). deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8. that is using the augment -aya-: jan. gam. janayati (see above). suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2.between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9. patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-.(to do). to beget).between the root and -aya-: jba. karayati (to cause to be done). ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3.

elephant's trunk. 7. caus. postp. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-.: hand. Let them allow the guests to enter. m. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-.: for the sake of vrtha. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. caus. caus. marayti: to kill vid-. 2. beauty stri-. 8. to make known vrdh-.: messenger gostha-. vedayati: to announce. caus. 3. m. n. ajbapayati: to order da-.: woman madhye.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. caus. 6. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. caus. to enlarge pa-. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. Let (pl. adv.) the father the books.) the cows come into the cowshed. m.: cowshed manoratha-. caus. Let the householder return home. vardhayati: to make bigger. Show (sg. m.: in vain. apanayayati: to lead away pat-.: wolf rupa-. caus. caus. tax duta-. They watered horses with water from the river. patayati: to knock down mr-. caus.: between. 4. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-.: form. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras. postp. caus. to no avail . m. amongst (with genitive) arthe.: coming kara-. f. darwayati: to show apa+ni-.: desire vrka-. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. caus. 5. m.

Loc. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. nah. tva. Loc. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. Ins. Abl. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. Gen. Dat. Acc.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. Ins. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). . vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse. Gen. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. nau. Dat. Acc. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. Abl. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. te. (I) Nom. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. (you) Nom. me.

kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. 5.. to beg ksam-. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. to spread ni+vid-. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. or Gen. 7. to report wru-. n. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. bhadraj te | 9. Let your father go with me. 8. I do not want your (Dual) money.: the poet Amaru amrta-. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. nivedayati: to announce. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. prathayati: to propagate.: transgression. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 3. to whom . ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15.Text (read and translate): 1. m. begged the boy mother. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-. caus. Tell me the story of Urvashi. to disseminate. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13.: nectar (the drink of immortality) .Dat. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. Our (Dual) parents died. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14. caus. n. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6. anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10.) prath-. bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2. offence amaru-.Acc. Elephants do not live in our country. caus. ksamate: to forgive (what . Mother gives food to both you and me. Let the gods protect your life! 6. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. 2. prarthayate: to ask. 4. I did not steal your gold (passive).

n. m. m. m. contentedness ca .: satisfaction. m.: peacock mauna-. f. m. m.ardha-.: ornament. m. m.: hermitage urvawi-. Pl.ca: both .: tomorrow .: hermit.: hell nidhana-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-.: the nymph Urvashi katha-. postposition: if wvas.: breath.and cet.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-. f.: half awrama-. happiness.: bliss. m.: treasure prana-. recluse wobhana-. m.: pigeon taksawila-. n.: speaker vanaprasta-.: story kapota-.: frog dewa-. n. prosperity mayura-. n. m. n.: country naraka-. f. life bhadra-.: silence vaktr-. virtue wloka-. adv.

she (sa. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. L oc. ns. this) Sg. ns. V oc. cc. G en. at. N om. G en. this) Sg. N om.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. te te Pl. h cc. tau tau tabh yam Pl. at. bl. bl. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du.

te te tabh yam Pl./ viwva f. Here they ./ katamad n. it (tad. (other) The following words also follow this declension. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa./ yad n. V oc.L oc. (relative pronoun which) katamah m./ esa f.follow irregular sandhi pattern. (which one [of two]) anyah m./ anyad n./ ya f. L oc. ns./ itarad n. at. N om./ viwvam n. (which one [of many]) katarah m./ eka f. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a./ katama f. (all) ekah m./ ubhaya f.and esa. except for nominative and accusative of neuter. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m. cc./ ubhayam n. (all) viwvah m./ sarvam n./ katarad n. (this one) yah m./ itara f. V oc./ anya f./ katara f. en./ sarva f. tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m./ ekam n. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg. (different) itarah m. (one) ubhayah m. bl./ etad n.

prinayati: to please. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Husbands of these women went to war.: advice. m. 4. Poor people live in the houses. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. Other people than you won't accomplish this.change to -o and the following -a is lost. I don't want these books. m. In these rivers there are many fish. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3. caus. 5. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. 9. 2. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6.: end arya-. caus. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. Examples: sa purusah (this man). anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5." said the general. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. Text (read and translate): 1. 3. yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10./n. instruction . yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. so 'vadat (he said). na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. I don't like your behavior.: noble upadewa-. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. 10. 6./m. sa isuh (this arrow). to delight sidh-. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. Adj. In this forest I saw a lion. 7.

offense wobha-. beauty sijha-. Adj. n.: learned prati: towards (with Acc.: hero vrtta-. n. Adj. brilliance.: donkey laksana-.: splendor.) .: donkey gardabha-. Adj.khara-. m.: bigger than (with Abl. Adj. m. sign vira-.: foolish wiksita-. m.: thin.: many. f. army leader adhika-. Adj. m.: lion senapati-.: fault. m.: fat murkha-. m. emaciated pusta-. not one krwa-. Adj. much.: mark.) aneka-.: general.: behavior dosa-. characteristic.

adhitisthati (I): to govern.: the poet Amaru amrta-. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-. m. to rule. caus. to learn abhi+nand-.: order aksa-.: today. awrayate (I): to depend on. adv. to seek refuge in abharana-.) adhi+i-. m. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-. m. not one anila-. to mount a+wri-.: food anrta-.: robe. much. to welcome (Acc. n.: poverty aneka-. m.: bigger than (with Abl.: teacher adewa-. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. n. to drive adhika-. n. m. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-. studying acarya-.: down. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-. m. acamati (I): to sip.: now adya. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-. agamayati: to let come a+hr-.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. m.: end . adv. acarati (I): to do.) abhi+ni-.: lie. arohati (I): to ascend. n.: wind anna-. m.: many. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. dice ali-. to practise a+diw-.) adhuna.: fire ajba-. decoration abhi+a+as-. n. abhinayati (I): to conduct. m. ahvayati (IV): to call here. untruth anta-. to call in a+jba-. Adj.: eye.) a+ruh-. caus.: unrighteousness adhastat. under (Gen.: order adharma-. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-. adv. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-. to act abhi+vad-.: coming agni-. caus. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. abhyasyati (IV): to study. now agamana-.: repeating.: fire anartha-./n. m.: bee amaru-. f. to perform. m. to rinse a+car-. Adj. n.

caus. m. to carry out.: power. m. adv. n. force.: hope awrama-. f. offence api-. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-.: hermitage awru-. position asatya-. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. lie asi-. m. even though aranya-. m. many bahu-. m. f.: horse badh-.: noble as-. m. bhasate (I): to speak.: arm bala-.: devotion bhan-. apaharati (I): to take away. asyati (IV): to throw asana-.: seat. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-. to say . adj. to transgress atithi-. adj. m. badhyate: to bind bahu-. to steal apa+ni-.: numerous.: "un-truth".: different.: burden. m. n. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-.: for the sake of arya-.: transgression. even.) artha-.: boy.: husband bharya-.: demon ati+kram-. n. anutisthati (I): to follow. n.: tear awva-. to perform anujba-./m. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-. m.: meaning. n. apanayayati: to lead away apara-. f.: enemy arth-. part.: forest ardha-.: part bhakti-. f.: wife bhas-.: sun bhara-. also.: here ava+gam-. n.: bliss. n. m. atikramati (I): to cross over. m. load bhartr-. m.: end anu+gam-.: half ari-. m.anta-.: guest atra. postp. avarohati: to descend awa-.: sword asura-. prosperity. wealth arthe. lower aparaddha-. happiness. child bala-. strength bhadra-. pass. m.: agreement apa+har-. m. Adj. prosperity bhaga-. abundant. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc.

: temple . f. adj. f.: wisdom ca . shade ciram.: fear bhaya-. f.: land. m.bhasa-. prosperity bindu-. m. f. m. caus. dahati (I): to burn dana. mn. f. n.and car-.: seeing. adv.: Buddha buddhi-. to punish danda-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-.: well-being. m. m.: earth. n.: servant bhru-. meeting. pass. to roam. adj.: alms bhiksu-.: god. to practise caru-. m.: servant bhrtya-.: for the long time cur-.: food bhojana-. postposition: if chaya-. diyate: to give dah-. mendicant. f. m. ground bhumi-.: giver daw-.: shadow.: language bhaya-. ground bhupala-.: stick. female slave datr-.: drop brahmana-. m.: poor darwana-. bhavati (I): to be. slave dasi-. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-. f. f.: ornament bhuti-. audience dasa-.: frog daridra-.: Buddhist monk.: brother bhrtaka-.: female servant.: gift dand-. carati (I): to walk. f. dawati (I): to bite deha-. n. n. m. n. m. earth. punishment dardura-. lord devalaya-. land. to become bhu-. dandayati (X): to beat. m. m. m.ca: both . m.: servant.: fear bhiks-.: food bhram-.: ruler bhusana-.: body deva. n. beggar bhojana-.: eyebrow bhu-. dapayati: to let give da-. corayati (X): to steal da-.: brahmin buddha-. m.: beautiful cet.

f. to meditate dirgha-. n. far div-.: "twice-born". n.: "twice-born".: patience. ghee giri-. offense dru-. firmness dhya-. mistress dewa-. m. jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-. m. Law.: courage.: fault.: messenger dvija-.: daughter duhkha-. ganayati (X): to count gandha-.: cowherd gostha-. f. courage.: pot. only evam.: cowshed grama. adv. n. reason dhira-.: grain dharma-. firm dhrti-.: the goddess Durga durjana-.: wise. f. gacchati (I): to go gan-.: elephant gam-.: thought. m. to seem drw-.adj. to look duhitr-.: bad man. dravati (I): to run drw-. jar ghra-. adj. m.: unhappy. m. n.: suffering duhkhita. darwayati: to show drw-.: song gopa-. m. dhyayati (IV): to think.: country dhairya-. member of a high caste eva. m. distressed durga-. adj.: clarified butter.: thus ga-. diwati (VI): to show.: wealth.: bad. money dhanya-.: donkey gavga-. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-. fragrance gardabha-. n.: grass.: village . m. drwyate: to look (like).: the river Ganga ghasa-. pasture ghata-.: mountain gita-. caus. Buddhism dhav-. m.: scent. m. villain dusta-.: long. righteousness.devi-. m. dhavati (I): to run dhi-.: goddess. to point dosa-. f.. pas. adj. brahmin dvijati-. m. adv. f. firmness dhana. m. pawyati (IV): to see. m.: just.: law. f. m. rotten duta-. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-. n. m.

m.: water jamatr-. ghatayati: to kill hari-. adv.: oblation. m. desire kamp-.: father janani-.: householder guh-. m. adv. icchati (VI): to want. to conquer jiv-. goodness kama-.: mother jati-. fight kalena. jayati (I): to win. death kalaha-.: life juhu-.: sacrificial ladle kada. n. jivati (I): to live jivana-. to yearn for isu-.: quarrel.: when? kala-. n. kampate (I): to shake.: now iha.: composition. adv. m. guru han-. f. m. book (text) grha-. here iks-.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-. m. in proximity hrdaya-. god jala. glory ji-. n. m.: Hindu god Indra indrani-.: pleasure.: personal name hasta-. n.grantha-. caste jaya-.: quality guru-. part. hvayati (IV): to call huta-. n. to conceal guna-. f. m. to take away. offering idanim.: person janaka-. m. like.: arrow iti.: Indrani. f. Indra's wife is-. to carry hrasvam. jayate (IV): to be born jana-. m.: house grhastha-. guhati (I): to hide. f. adv.: hand he.: son-in-law jan-. iksate (I): to look at. caus. close. m. harati (I): to take. m. to stare indra-. adv.: life jivita-.: heart hu-. m. m. n. m. m.: oh! hr-.: so iva.: lord. as if iwvara-.: benefit. m.: as.: birth.: teacher. part. n. to tremble . part.: time. master.: sometimes kalidasa-.: victory.: near.

to whom . m. n. daughter kapota-. n. f. to obtain laksana-. labhate (I): to get. f.: plough . m. tax karana-.: whole krudh-. n.: agriculture krsna-.: anger kr-. khanati (I): to dig khara-. kathayati (X): to tell. to narrate katha-. young man kunta-. adj. or Dat.: mark.: poet kavya-.: milk kumara-.: fame klp-.: where from? why? kutra. f. m.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-.: cause kastha-.: where? labh-. m.: poetry kawi-.kanya-. m.Acc. sign laksmi-.: girl.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-.: story katham. m. n.: how? kavi-. krsati (I): to plow. m.: donkey kim. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.: field ksip-. m. f. adv. f. f.: prince.: mat kath-.) kopa-.: wood kata-. ksamate: to forgive (what . n. or Gen. black krt-.Dat..: anger krs-.: spear.: well kutah. m. kriyate: to do krodha-. n. why? kirti-. m. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-. fighter ksetra-.: hand. m. Adj. characteristic. pass. or Dat.: what?. khadati (I): to eat khan-. n.: moment ksatriya-. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. to cultivate (field) krsi-. elephant's trunk. adv.: kshatriya. adv. adv. emaciated ksal-.: thin. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. adv. lance kup-.) ksana-.) krwa-. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. m. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-.) kupa-.: where? kva.: pigeon kara-.

: deer mrtyu-. to hunt for mrga-.: cloud mitra-. foremost mukti-. to desire (with Dat. m.: honey madhye. mouth mukhya-.: city.) lup-. adj. m. n.: image. m. caus. f.: deliverance mr-. m. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-. n. lubhyati (IV): to long for. m. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-.: desire manusya-. m. n. m. lumpati (VI): to steal. n. likhati (VI): to write lip-. statue nadi-. f. saint murkha-.: garland mam: me (Acc.: fish mauna-. Adj.: silence mayura-.: city . f.: buffalo maksika-. town nagari-.) mukha-. to discharge mud-. m.: great king maharani-. m. m.: sage. precious stone manoratha-. mubcati (VI): to free. marayti: to kill mr-. m.: death marga.: death muc-. manyate (IV): to think. road masa-.: fly mala-.: deliverance muni-. m.: foolish murti-.: delusion moksa-. n. form.: gem.likh-. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-. to rob mad-. m.: between. or Loc. modate (I): to delight in (Ins.: friend moha-. postp. m. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-.: main. f.: world (in Pl.: peacock megha-. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-. m. f. to suppose mani-.) man-.: river nagara.: way.: face. mrgayate (X): to search for.: greed loka-.: queen mahisa-. n. m. f. means also "people") lubh-. f.: person marana-. m.: month matsya-.

n.: scholar. adj.: Indra's paradise naptr-.: treasure nih+gam-.: dwelling niwcaya-. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-. glory! (Dat. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-. n. m. m. palayati (X): to protect pandita-. m.: the grammarian Panini papa-.. nispadyate (IV): to originate. ruler pa-. m. own nivewana-. m. palayati: to protect pa-. f. m.: eye ni-. caus. m.m.: king. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-. adj. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-. n. different para+ji-.: ruler . caus. m. to perish nawa-. adv. n. king nrpati-.: one's.: hail!. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-.: lotus pal-. to prostrate. nivedayati: to announce.n. place padma-.: axe pari+dha-. namati (I): to bow. sinful papa-.: sin para-. m.: play. n. adj. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-. m.: woman nataka-.: highest.: hell nari-. drama navina-. n.: bad. m.: ruler. to worship namas-.: hand.: man naraka-. m. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-. to appear nija-.nam-. footprint pada-. parinayati: to marry parthiva-.: destruction. annihilation netr.: low nidewa-.: new naw-. adj. adj. to report nica-. pibati (I): to drink pac-.: decision nrpa-. m. pacati (I): to cook pada-.: grandson nara-.) nandana-. nawyati (IV): to be lost.: foot. n.: leader netra.: order nidhana-.: step. m. learned man pani-. palm panini-.

pratiksate (I): to await. study pathika-. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. caus. pratigacchati (I): to come back.: worship. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-.: wife pattra-. Du. to fly pataliputra-.: grandfather pitr-.: earth puj-. caus. adj. to take refuge in (Acc. to go back.) prati+bhas-. homage .: breath.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-. f. f. many praja-. pravartate (I): to become. patayati: to knock down pat-. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. cattle pawupalya-. prarthayate: to ask. n. to expect prati+sidh-. holy pawa-. to recite patha-. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-.: palace prath-. life prasada-. atonement pri-. otec. Pl. n. letter paura-.ch-. husband patni-.: manifold. f. m. to worship.) pra+stha-. to hurt pitamaha-. ancestors pr-. to delight prthivi-. m. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-.: traveler pati-. caus. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. m.: sacrificial animal. m.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-. to restrain prayaga-. prapadyate (IV): to go to. puryate: to fill pr. to beg pra+as-. trap pawu-. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-. pidayati (X): to torture. m.: Lord. prabhavati (I): to arise. n. pujayati (X): to honour.: leaf.: lesson.: subject. m. parayati (X): to overcome pr-.: mountain. m.: the breeding of cattle pid-.: clean. m. master. prathayati: to propagate. pass. to revere puja-. patati (I): to fall.parvata-.: expiation. to disseminate. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. to arise prabhuta-. f. people prana-. m. prinayati: to please. pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. to return prati+iks-. m. pathati (I): to read. caus. parents. n.: citizen pavitra-. to appear pra+jan-. Pl. hill pat-.: snare. m. adj.

quantity rawmi-. m. m.: protection raksana-. meeting.: seer ruc-. raksati (I): to protect raksana-.: protection raksitr-. ramate (I): to play rama-. mass. to share rac-.: suddenly . sahate (I): to bear. sidati (I): to sit. Gen.: battle ratha-.: flower pusta-.: chariot rathya-.: ray ripu-. rohati (I): to grow rupa-. mn. adv. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-.) rud-.: congregation. n. n. m. m. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-.: holy. stream purana-. n. or postp. m..: heap. n.: jewel.: again punya-. n. to endure saha. f. m. assembly sad-.: sea sah-. m.: fat pustaka-.: queen rajya-. n. f.: protector ram-. m.: daughter r-. f.: gem ratna-.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-. n.: always sadhu-. to sit down sada. n.: book (manuscript) putra.: with (with Inst. n. m. rodati (I): to weep ruh-. adv. prep. m. precious stone rawi-.: bear roga-. m. righteous sadhu-.punar. m. beauty rupaka-. Adj.: coin sabha-. adv.: old story.: illness rsi-. n.: man puspa-. to obtain.: kingdom raks-.: holy man sagara-.: epos Ramayana rana-. f.: merit pura-.: enemy rksa-.: flood.: form.) sahasa. m. m. f. adj.: son putri-.: street ratna-. rocate (I): to like (Dat. rcchati (I): to get. f.

m.: tradition. to talk with (Ins.: praise sukha-. f. f. by all means sarvatra.: same.sainika-. to honour (Acc. m. questionable sajtosa-.: truth senapati-. m. whole samudra-. adj. to stay stotra-. adv. rightly sarpa-. f. adj. adv. sajbhasate (I): to converse. caus.: creator srj-. f. m. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-.: sister tad-.: complete.: general.: doubtful. sajgacchate: to come together sama-.) sam+gaj-. f. n. dream svarga-.: beautiful sundari-. the god of the Sun suta-.: snake. f.: everywhere. m. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. tadayati (X): to beat tada.: satisfaction. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-. smarati (I): to remember smrti-. army leader sev-. adj. f. f. m. n. a hymn of praise stri-. sea samyak.: happiness sukta-. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-.: sleep.: ode. n. srjati (VI): to create srsti-. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-. n.: thief. or Loc. equal.: daughter-in-law sprw-. at that time .: soldier sajdigdha-. n. adv. contentedness sam+a+car-.: everywhere satya-.: charioteer suvarna-.: gold svapna-.: Vedic hymn sundara-. thoroughly.: ocean. to discharge sidh-.: service sevaka-. m. n.: servant sic-. m. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle.: woman stuti-.: then.: well.: lion smr-. sevate (I): to serve.: sun.) snusa-. m. even samagra-. tisthati (I): to stand. robber stha-.: beauty surya-. adv.) seva-. m. m. serpent sarvatah. m.: creation stena-. adj.: heaven svasr-.

: high ud+pat-.: ocean udyana-.: exertion. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. f.: curved. best vari-.: daddy tatha. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-. tarati (I): to cross over tu. tolayati (X): to lift up.: forest vanaprasta-. to be satisfied (Ins. m. f.: clothing .) taru-.: better. tudati (VI): to strike.: speaker vana-. perseverance upa+diw-. n. n.: garden udyana-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-. twisted vaktr-.: there tira-. to instruct. to weigh tus-. bank tr-. m. vandate (I): to praise. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-. adj.: shore. to give up ucca-. pool vara-. f. m.: hermit. vadati (I): to speak.taksawila-. vapati (I): to sow vapi-. wife vah-. to flow vaiwya-. upadiwati (VI): to teach. to blow.: garden udyoga-. ucyate: is called vad-. to say vadhu-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-.: water varuna-. trade vap-. adj. recluse vand-. adv. part. tyajati (I): to leave.: dwelling vastra-. to stand up udadhi-. pass.: but tud-. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-.) tyaj-. uttisthati (I): to get up. m. n. adj. to grieve (Abl.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-. instruction urvawi-. n.: thus.: tree tata-.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. so tatra. vahati (I): to carry. m. to pierce tul-. m. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-.: pond. m.: advice. n. m. f. f. n.: woman. to pay homage vanijya-. adv. n. to admonish upa+iks-.: business. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-. m.

: learned wisya-. m. wisyate: to rule. silence wara-.: ruler.: story vyadh-. n. f. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-. argument viw-. to shower vrt-.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-. "punisher" wastra-. n.: tiger wajs-. sore vrdh-. f.: way. wisdom vihaga-.: wolf vrksa-. m.: wind vi+ram-.: tree vrs-.: disputation. Adj. m.: refuge was-. m.: summit. vartate (I): to be. m. m. vindati (VI): to get. wajsati (I): to praise. vivadati (I): to argue vici-. to no avail vrtta-. to acquire vidhi-. m. m. n. m. m. to abandon (Abl. to exist vrt-. n.) vi+vad-. m. to punish wastr-. adv.: student. caus.: branch wam-.: wound.: brahmin vira-. pass.: in vain. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-. law-book watru-. pupil .vasu-. wealth vayu-.: knowledge. m. m. to be finished wanti-. caus.: poison vrana-. vartate (I): to live on vrtha.: enemy wikhara-. f.: wave vid-. direction vidya-. m.: hunter vyaghra-. vardhayati: to make bigger. m.: bird vinaya-.: thing. n. to pour down. viramate (I): to give up.: behavior vrttanta-. rule. n. to extol wakha-. vedayati: to announce. m. m.: bird vihaga-. m. to enlarge vrka-. to make known vid-. n.: arrow warana-. mode.: discipline vipra-.: treatise. m.: hero vira-.: hero visnu-. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. top wiks-.: peace. varsati (I): to rain. m. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-.

rel. f.: child wiwu-. brilliance. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-. wealth wru-.: the river Yamuna yat-.: sacrifice yam-. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-. adv.: when (relative) yaj-. m. pron.: ascetic yatra. m. adv.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-.: child wloka-. m. beauty wobhana-.: Vedic scripture wubh-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. beauty. n. f.: father-in-law wveta-. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-.: white ya-. as (relative) yati-. m. m. as far as yoga-. wruyate: to hear wruti-.: luck. adv.: Shiva wiwu-.) wudra-. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas.: tomorrow wvawru-.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-. m. m.: war yudh-.: which yada. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-. oblation for them wram-. m. m. f.wiva-.: splendor.: ornament. m.: mother-in-law wvawura-. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-. yudhyati (IV): to fight .: yoga yuddha-. adj. pass.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives. m.: how. virtue wraddha-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl.) yatha. adv. caus. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then…. f. f.

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