Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

tu (but). class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI.(to sit) changes -a. bhojanam atra (the food [is] here). buddham eva (just the Buddha.(VI.. sad. phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad. In Sanskrit.to -i-: sidati.to -cch-: gacchati. bhojanaj tu (but the food. Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na.(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi. phalani Acc. va (or).. they are not saying). and I. "god") Nom.(to give) change -m. stha. brahmanah sada yajanti devan | . phalani Voc. the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence..Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m. na vadanti (they do not say. Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?). devah Acc. just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits). ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits).(to go) and yam.. balah kataj diwati | 2. Text (read and translate): 1. devah phala (n. is (to want) changes -s.).in front of the verb. kutra katah | 3. devan Voc. Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and). So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going). yacchati. "fruit") Nom. the Buddha only). classes: gam. eva (particle of emphasis.to -cch-: icchanti.

jalaj na sprwamah | 21. 8. margaj diwatha balah | 19. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. narandevah srjati | 13. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. 6. kada danani yacchatha | 26. Brahmins still sit there. Where are you (pl. 7. you are pointing the way. 3. nagarameva gacchami | 9. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. The exercise key . there stay the houses. I want water. danani yacchanti | 10. 11. grhamatra tisthati | 6. Do you want milk? 10. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25. dhanamicchamah | 24. Where are the elephants? 5. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. Boys. balah ksiramicchati | 23. devannamanti | 22. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 9.4. 12. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. nrpah kva sidati | 7. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. tatha jivamah | 18. gramamadya viwamah | 14. 4.) going? 2. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. there the people do not live. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17. Where the water does not flow. We are leaving the world today. Where is the city. We praise the boys.

m.: when? tatha. to stay sprw-.: where (relative) yada.: god. at that time yatra. m. diwati (VI): to show. m. adv.: city. adv.: son marga-. n.: mat ksira-. dhavati (I): to run nam-. adv. to give up diw-. n. tyajati (I): to leave.: when (relative) . sidati (I): to sit. lord dhana-. to yearn for gam-. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-.: then. road eva. to prostrate.: milk gaja-. to extol sad-. money nagara-. icchati (VI): to want.: just.: wealth.: way. namati (I): to bow. n. yacchati (I): to give viw-. to point dhav-. srjati (VI): to create stha-. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-. so tada.: village jala-. m. adv.: water dana-. to sit down srj-. wajsati (I): to praise. n. tisthati (I): to stand.: thus. town putra-.Vocabulary is-.: elephant grama-. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-.: gift deva-. adv. n. m. only kada. adv. to worship yam-. m.

If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. the first grade is called guna. normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. It has always the same form for Nominative. rohati (to grow). ji-. vrs-. jayati (to win. Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. nayati (to lead). Nom. devau phale Voc. vad+a+tah They (two) say n. guhati (to hide. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. pibati (to drink). vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. class. bhavati (to be). sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here). to conquer). class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. the second grade is vrddhi. to conceal). But note some irregularities: guh-. jighrati (III. The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. dravati (to run). to smell). Accusative and Vocative cases: m. pa-. dru-. varsati (to rain. bhu-. ghra-. Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). ruh-.Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. to shower). Acc.

To the forest run the (two) elephants. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. balau phale khadatah | 20. . Just here are (two) horses. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. he nrpau jayathah | 11.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. 2. The Buddha speaks the truth. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. satyaj na vadathah | 18. Home (emphasized) go both boys. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. Here stand (two) trees. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. 6. devau smaramah | 9. 10. devavadya smaramah | 10. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. They give money and gifts. 12. atraiva vasavah | 5. 8. Just today we both go to the city. 4. anilah sada na vahati | 16. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. Where are both horses? 3. Where do you hide money? 11. Here we (two) do not live. 5. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. The ruler conquers both fighters. 7. dahasi he anala | 15. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. Where are you (two) going now? 9. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13.

m. smarati (I): to remember awva-.13. khadati (I): to eat guh-. guhati (I): to hide. Here sarvatra.: cloud vana-. adv. part. vahati (I): to carry. to conceal ghra-.: wind gandha-. to pour down.: forest vrksa-. varsati (I): to rain.: truth iha. nayati (I): to lead pa-. dravati (I): to run ni-. jayati (I): to win.: horse anala-. to conquer dah-. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-. to blow.: fire anila-.: tree satya-. n.: everywhere he. m. pibati (I): to drink bhu-. to flow ruh-. n. adv. m. fragrance megha-. to shower smr-. to become vah-. bhavati (I): to be. jighrati (III): to smell ji-.: scent. m. rohati (I): to grow vrs-.: oh! . m. m. dahati (I): to burn dru-.

Abl. Ins. "god") Sg. it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). "fruit") Sg. Dative: the indirect object. devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. Ins. Loc. Loc. Dat. phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). "because of". Nom. devam Du. phalam Acc. telling (to the boy). Abl. phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. the goal of the motion (I go to the city).. devau devau Pl. deva And for neuter: phala (n. Locative: the location. phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl.. . devah Acc. as English "through".Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). is also used to denote reason (from anger). Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). by carriage). Dat. circumstances (in the city). phalasya Voc. "by means of ". devasya devayoh Voc. "by" (with the Buddha. Accusative: the object (I see you). phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen. Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". the agent in a passive construction. Nom. giving.

n for t. -i. duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. -i before any vowel (except for -i. narah gacchanti (the men go). man?). see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here). For example: muc-. jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. If the following word beggins with a short a-. -u. b for c and j. see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10.Vocative: the address (Who are you. m for p. -u before any vowel (except for -u. j and sibilants).the fighter says that he lives here). mubcati (see Vocabulary).

: prince. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. 3. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17. mubcati (VI): to free. carati (I): to walk. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16. n. m. m. 6. force.: mountain. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle.: suffering dvija-. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-. hill bala-. n. 5. m. Trees do not grow on high mountains.: plough vipra-. m. n.: traveler parvata-.: forest kumara-. but not suffering. 2. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-.: power. krntati (VI): to cut car-. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14. Men with boys go to the forest. strength mrga-.: "twice-born". m. m. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m.11. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. to roam. People want happiness. 4. to discharge aranya-. limpati (VI): to smear sic-. m. 7.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-. Traveler walks on the way to the village.: brahmin . young man janaka-. 8.: deer rana-.: battle rama-. People do not live in forests. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15.: father duhkha-. to practise muc-. n. brahmin pathika-. to discharge yaj-. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12. m. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys./n.

: hand huta-. part.: happiness hasta-.viwa-. adv.: high iti. why? tu.: but The exercise key . offering ucca-. part.: so kim. adv. adj. n.: Shiva sukha-. m.: poison wiva-. why? kutah. n.: where from?.: oblation.: what?. m. n.

But if the following word begins with -r.(m. Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra.. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati. "un-noble".Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. . arya. fire burns). fire) Sg. noble. sorrow. agne vari. Loc. varinah varinoh Voc.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an. happines. poet tells to the seer). Loc.. varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati. Dat. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati. the fire is here. Abl. vari Acc. water): Sg. Dat. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen. Ins. Nom. Ins.(if it begins with a vowel). Nom. unhappiness. For example: sukha-. agneh Voc. Abl. agnih Acc. Rama goes with the poets). varini varini Pl. asukha. vari varina varine Du. vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. Du. agni Pl.(n. anarya.

but from the Law [there is] happiness. "O. harij ksirena yajatah | 18. 8. Even today people remember Rama. retroflex (t. satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. nominative plural of vari is varini). nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. 3. d. d. jh. says the brahmin to the poet. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. balau kuto rodatah | 2. j. rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. 6. b). rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. "You don't speak the truth". asks the king. 7. no elephants live. Hari's horse is standing just here. We live happily here in the mountains. 9. n) or dental (t. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. dh. nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. n) between them (so. "Enemies rob the houses here". poet. jalaj gireh patati | 10. Where people burn the forests. 4. 5. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. 2. ch. arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. th. th. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. dh. why don't you recite poetry?". If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. Text (read and translate): 1. . weep the boys. From sin there is always suffering. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.

m. m.: personal name api-.: "un-truth".: Lord. part. mn. n.: person dasa-.: seer kavi-. even.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-. master.: king.: poet kavya-.: fire anna-.: law.: servant. m.: enemy asatya-. n. also. ruler pati-. n. to pierce path-. m. Buddhism nrpati-. palm papa-. m.: mountain jana-. rodati (I): to weep lup-.: sword rsi-. m. lumpati (VI): to steal.: food ari-. husband pani-. to recite rud-. m. tudati (VI): to strike. m.: water sukta-. n. m.: hand. slave deha-. n. to rob agni-. lie asi-.: Vedic hymn hari-. m. even though .: body dharma-.: poetry giri-.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-.: sin varuna-. pathati (I): to read. m. n. righteousness. m. m. Law. m.

a vanat (only from the forest).(to see) is irregular and defective. watroh Voc. m. Therefore: drw-. Only passive is constructed from this root.means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). -h after any vowel and before t-. -h after any vowel and before c-. watru Pl. For example a. kupyati (to be angry). Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-. indicative uses different root (paw-). Du. The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen. to look).is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). Ins. ch. pawyati (to see. Loc. anayati (to bring). Abl. . But if a is used separately as a preposition. class are thematic verbs. watruh Acc. it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). Nom. Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. (enemy) Sg. The verb drw. th.is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes). Dat.Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV. watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here). agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire).

visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. 8. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7.) . naro 'wvamarohati | 10. 7. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8. By the power of [your] arms you win. 3." asks teacher the student. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21. 5. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. 6. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. but father lives here. or Dat. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. "There stands father's house. 4. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. 2. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. The king with fighters comes to the city. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12.Text (read and translate): 1. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. oh king. "What are you writing now. We do not live here." says the boy to the traveler. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city.

or Dat.) hu-. agacchati (I): to come tr-.: arm bindu-. pawyati (IV): to see.) a+gam-.: bird watru-.: student. law-book wisya-. n. m. letter parawu-. quantity ripu-. m. m. m. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. arohati (I): to ascend. precious stone rawi-.: enemy visnu-. yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-.: leaf.: ocean guru-.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-. m. m. m. mass. to call in udadhi-. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. or Loc. m. pupil saha. lubhyati (IV): to long for. or postp.) wus-. n. m. m. m. guru pattra-.: enemy wastra-. to perish drw-. m. ahvayati (IV): to call here. footprint bahu-. to look yudh-. n. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-.: with (with Inst. likhati (VI): to write lubh-.krudh-.: gem. to desire (with Dat. prep. nawyati (IV): to be lost. precious stone ratna-.: drop mani-.: teacher. m.: foot.) . to mount likh-. or Loc.: axe pada-.: jewel.: heap. tarati (I): to cross over naw-.: treatise.

rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3. ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. mad-. madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. Loc. Nom. kramati (to walk). madhu madhuna madhune Du.Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. madyati (to be intoxicated). Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). Ins. meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). Abl. rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). kram-. arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . madhunah madhunoh Voc.is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7. vidhyati (to pierce). madhu Acc. Text (read and translate): 1. madhuni madhuni Pl. gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. Dat. devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). the root vyadh. bhramyati (to wander).

m. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. to be satisfied (Ins. 5. m. Fighters play for money (Ins. dice adharma-. 3. n.).: eye.: bear . vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-. n. 8. m. 7. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. Bees wander around flowers of the trees. rcchati (I): to get. Birds are flying to the tree. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14. 2. to carry aksa-. 6. wamyati (IV): to be pacified.12. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-. to be finished wram-.) div-. There are many things in the houses. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. to grieve (Abl. to obtain. Tears are flowing on boy's face.) tus-. to share a+kram-.: bee awru-. anayati (I): to bring bhram-. acamati (I): to sip. to rinse tam-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-.: unrighteousness ali-. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. 4. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16.: tear rksa-. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18. Death conquers even unrighteousness. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. to take away. harati (I): to take. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.

: anger krodha-.: anger netra.: thing. m. many .: hero bahu-.: flower bhaga-. m.kopa-. m. m.: person mukha-.: numerous. n. m. n. wealth vira-. m. abundant. n. n.: face.: honey manusya-. mouth mrtyu-.: eye puspa-.: part madhu-.: death vasu-.n. adj.

Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. but: pid-. bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4. gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. grhalloka agacchanti | 15. -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud).instead of just -a. dharayati (to hold). Text (read and translate): 1. ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7. Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house).to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. bhi-. rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. pidayati (to torture). devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). bhayayati (to cause fear). wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. suto 'wvanpidayati | 8. janayati (to give birth. ksalayati (to wash). navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key . If the root ends in a vowel. corayati (to steal). The vowel -a. it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. class add -aya. Before palatals. Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). vid-. punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. to generate). -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud).between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world). jan-. vedayati (to make known). stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2.

3. kathayati (X): to tell. Merit protects from grief. pujayati (X): to honour.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-. as if mam: me (Acc. I want new clothes. 7.: old story.: charioteer stena-. Father tells son about fruits of sins. 6. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9. m.: thief. dandayati (X): to beat. 5. n. part.: as. m.: gold suta-. m.) wash their faces. n. to punish pid-. robber navina-. punishment punya-.) .: servant ramayana-. corayati (X): to steal tad-.: story wudra-. n." asks the servant the king. tolayati (X): to lift up. to weigh dand-. n. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. m. aharati (I): to bring danda-. n. like. "Why do you beat me. adj. Boys (Du.: holy man suvarna-. ganayati (X): to count cur-. to revere pr-. m. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword. 2.: merit purana-. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. to narrate ksal-. to worship.: coin vastra-.: epos Ramayana rupaka-.: stick.: clothing vrttanta-. m.: new iva. to hurt puj-. 8. n.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. pidayati (X): to torture. 4. n. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-.

fire. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. ksatriya rsi sevante | . vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. labhe Du. god Agni). vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. Before other vowels a final -e. labhate (to get. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. Text (read and translate): 1. besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12. labhase labhethe 3. "word for another"). adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. -e. phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. agni iksate balah | 11. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". Pl. -o at the end of the word and before a. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. o. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. to obtain) A: Sg. But in Sanskrit.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. But Dual endings -i. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3.is unchanged. But this initial a. 1. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. labh-.

perseverance kalyana-. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. m. to say mr-. Boys like fruit. kampate (I): to shake.: poverty udyoga-.) begin with a sacrifice. Gen.17. 4. rocate (I): to like (Dat.) anartha-.: tree dvijati-. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5. Children ask the father for food. to pay homage wiks-. m.) iks-. vandate (I): to praise. 2. member of a high caste dhairya-. labhate (I): to get. The father is looking at son's face. firmness pawu-. m. m. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18. cattle bhanu-. 8. m. bhasate (I): to speak. m.: sacrifice . yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.) ruc-. m. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear. 3. wiksate (I): to learn sah-. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-. to stare kamp-.: patience. mriyate (IV): to die yat-. Father likes sons' discipline.: "twice-born". to obtain vand-.: exertion.) labh-. sevate (I): to serve.: deliverance yajba-. Holy men (Du. iksate (I): to look at. to honour (Acc. 7.: sun moksa-. sahate (I): to bear.: sacrificial animal. courage. to endure sev-. n. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-..: benefit. goodness taru-. n. 6.) a+rabh-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. to tremble jan-.

: ocean.vayu-. m. m. m.: wave vinaya-.: wind vici-. m.: discipline wiwu-.: child samudra-. m. sea .

(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve. Nom.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra. to honour). hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | . Ins. senam senaya senayai Du. to follow) ava. Dat. Abl. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu.(after.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s. senayah senayoh Voc.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para.. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen.is changed into -n.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f.after a prefix containing -r. -n.(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud. following): anu+gacchati (to go after. sene sene Pl.(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. sena Acc. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam.(towards. satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4.is changed into -s. Text (read and translate): 1. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3. Loc.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry). army) Sg.

utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-. The student asks householder's wife for alms.: householder . bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9.: arrow kanya-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-. prapadyate (IV): to go to. 3. 6. 4. to take refuge in (Acc. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari.: the river Ganga grhastha-. f. 8. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15. The king conquers enemies in the battle. 5.) descend from black horses. m.) bhiks-. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. m.5. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11.: girl. 2. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. Many trees grow on the mountain. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 7. daughter gavga-. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. f. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. sajgacchate: to come together isu-. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. Here on the street kings (Du.

adj. f. wisdom vyadha-.: refuge svarga-.: heart krsna-. f.chaya-.: bad.: language bhiksa-. many sahasa.: street vidya-.: the river Yamuna ratna-. adv. black papa-. m. shade prayaga-. f.: hunter warana-. f. f. n.: knowledge.: alms yamuna-.: suddenly . m.: fear bharya-.: wife bhasa-.: heaven hrdaya-. f. n. f. n. f. sinful prabhuta-.: shadow.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-.: manifold.: gem rathya-. adj. n.

kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. Verbs of the X class drop -aya.but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. tiryate. vad-. dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. The consonant -v. sutenawvastadyate | 20. It is used with the instrumental case. rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. smaryate (to remember). The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. mubcati. awvena jalaj piyate | 17. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13. supyate (to sleep). pr-. svap-. naraih katah kriyante | 8. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12. coryate.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. vah-. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. vap-. corayati. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. Text (read and translate): 1. usyate (to dwell). stuyate (to praise). janairnagaraj gamyate | 6.Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. pass. pass.is changed into -u. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7. stu-. mucyate. upyate (to sow). jiyate. udyate (to say). uhyate (to carry). diyate (to give). sarpena dawyete narau | 19. he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. vas-. ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. pass.in these roots: vac-. pass. puryate (to fill). kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . ucyate (to say). Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-.

Jars are being filled with grain.: grain pawa-. mendicant. n. m. n.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 4. puryate: to fill badh-. 5.: child sarpa-. m.: wood gita-.: snare. ghee dhanya-. m. m. "In the shade is comfortably slept. load bhiksu-. m. diyate: to give pr-.: burden. pass. pass. It is played with dices. 3. Girls bind garlands (pass). The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. kriyate: to do ga-. pass.: clarified butter. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). n. serpent . to punish wru-. 7. Holy man always speaks truth (pass). wisyate: to rule.: song ghata-. 2.: snake. f. vapati (I): to sow was-. pass. f. pass. trap bhara-. n. m. gayati (IV): to sing daw-. dawati (I): to bite da-. wruyate: to hear ajba-. pass. n. Hari is again praised by Rama.: pot.: kingdom wiwu-. badhyate: to bind vap-. beggar mala-. Grain is sown in the fields.: Buddhist monk. jar ghrta-." is said by people. 6.: garland rajya-. 8.: order kastha-.

purena grhanyuhyante | . jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. paryanayat. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. If the verb is prefixed. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. Text (read and translate): 1. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. impf. a+vad+a+h 3. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. impf. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. It has special endings: Sg. 2. aicchat (he wanted). a+vad+a+t Du.

avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-. vartate (I): to be.: sun. 2. book (text) jaya-. m.: demon awa-. prosperity.: palace matsya-. He cut the branch with an axe.: sea grantha-. m. wealth asura-. m.: summit. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-. m. 6. Men sat down on mats. m. f. 8.: protection wakha-. the god of the Sun stotra-.: flood. assembly surya-. to exist ud+stha-. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood. 4. n. top sabha-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. f. m.: victory.: meaning. m. you asked the king for protection.: composition. to stand up artha-. The teacher hit the student out of the anger. a hymn of praise .: hope indra-. f. m.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m.: book (manuscript) pura-. uttisthati (I): to get up. m. 3.: congregation. 7. meeting. n.: fish raksana-. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water. n. Servants brought water in jars. glory pustaka-.) sang the praise of Rama.: ode.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. stream prasada-.: branch wikhara-. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. 5. When you were ("stood") in trouble. m. Brahmins (Du.

patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. nadyah nadyoh Voc. . nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. river) Sg.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. Ins. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. nadyau nadyau Pl. Loc. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. 3. nadi Acc. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. satyameva jayate | 12. nadim nadya nadyai Du. 4. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. We bring water from the pond. Dat. aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14.. Nom. 2. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. Abl. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. Children played in the garden and climbed trees.

Even the king came with the soldiers. f. whole sundara-.: city nadi-. f. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-. decoration indrani-.: female servant. m. adj. 6.: earth bhusana-. ucyate: is called vrt-.: garden janani-.: shore.: hail!.: queen yoga-. m. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother. f. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. adj. n.: pond. bank dasi-. adv. f.) . pass. f. m. adj. mrgayate (X): to search for. female slave devi-. Indra's wife udyana-. acarati (I): to do. to return a+car-. n. f. glory! (Dat. f.: yoga vapi-. n.: great king maharani-. f.: complete. 8. n.: tiger sainika-. to hunt for vac-.: soldier pavitra-. to go back.: ornament maharaja-. f.: beautiful namas-. m. f.: woman patni-.: Indrani. to practise mrg-. 7.: mother tira-.: robe. f. holy samagra-. pratigacchati (I): to come back.5.: clean. mistress nagari-.: river nandana-. n. pool vyaghra-. to perform.: wife putri-.: Indra's paradise nari-. f.: daughter prthivi-.: goddess. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea.

and -y.(abundant. guru-. cow): Sg. Nom. idea): Sg. mate dhenu. matim matya Du. f. Text (read and translate): 1. The dative.(broad).(f. dhenuh Acc. Dat. f. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4. bahu-. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. bahvi. many).. mati mati Pl. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen. Loc. heavy). gurvi. dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc.Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. f. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3. Ins. punyena muktij labhadhve | . mateh|matyah matyoh Voc.(serious. Abl. prthvi. dhenum dhenva Du. ablative. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-. Nom..with -v-). bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5. Loc. Ins. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems". dhenu dhenu Pl. Abl. mati. Dat. matih Acc.(f.

: end kalaha-. prabhavati (I): to arise. to appear vid-.: quarrel.: fame gopa-. m. f. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to acquire wubh-. caste dhrti-. f. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15. wobhate (I): to shine anta-. 7. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women.: birth. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7.: cowherd jati-. firmness parthiva-. to instruct. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12. 3. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9.6. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things." said a citizen to the king. fight kirti-. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8. to admonish pal-. 4. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. m. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage. upadiwati (VI): to teach. f. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. 2. palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. vindati (VI): to get. People of many castes lived in villages. 6. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10. 8.: ruler . The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. I worship Shiva for prosperity. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. m. m.: courage. 5.) upa+diw-. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14.

: low mukhya-.: sleep. silence wruti-.: ray vrana-. righteous .: wisdom bhakti-. n. adj. sore wanti-. foremost sadhu-.: main.: deliverance rawmi-. land.: holy. f.: Vedic scripture smrti-. prosperity bhumi-. ground maksika-. m. m. adj. f. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-. f. f.: fly mukti-. f. f. f.: tradition.: citizen buddhi-. adj. f.: well-being.: peace.: earth.: wound.paura-. f.: devotion bhuti-. f. dream nica-.

this can also happen in Gen. atikramati. on: adhi+stha-. dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. against. away: apa+ni-. completely overcome adhi-. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. Gen.. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata. alabhata Du.Pl. dhiyau dhiyau Pl. Dat... Dat. p-. 1.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. nyasidat. Nom. pratigacchati. back: prati+gam-. above.): dhi. us: nih+pad-. Abl. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen. In addition. kh-. Sg. completely. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. and Loc. pass. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems". Pl. to rule apa-. apart: vi+dr-. impf. it is changed into s. to carry away prati-. vidiryate. ph.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. Loc. thought): Sg. Abl. to go back. adhitisthati. alabhe 3. to govern.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. Ins. they were seen). to return vi-.(f. nispadyate (to arise). apaniyati. wholly: ati+kram-. .changed into -is. to lead away. dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. dhih Acc. nisidati.

padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. When was the king's son born? 8. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14.) girls home from the garden. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. elephants and bears were seen there. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. Where did you get white cows? 3. he returned to the city. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. to meditate nih+pad-. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. Many arrows were shot on the tiger. Many tigers. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. nispadyate (IV): to originate. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6. When the king talked with brahmins. to appear prati+bhas-. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. 2. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. to transgress pra+jan-. pratibhasate (I): to answer . dhyayati (IV): to think. 5. 7. 4. Rama's father was always remembered by people. 6. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11.Text (read and translate): 1. atikramati (I): to cross over. Mother called (pass.

f.: lotus purusa-. m. saint moha-. m.: lord. adj.: beautiful dhira-. m.: cause dhi-.rac-. m.: agreement iwvara-.: man muni-. beauty. reason nawa-. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-.: sage. f. m. to drive anujba-. f. desire karana-.: destruction.: white . f. annihilation padma-.: dwelling wri-. f. adj. to restrain ni+sev-.: chariot lobha-. to rule. m.: thought. n. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. n.: delusion ratha-.: whole caru-. adj. wealth srsti-. firm wveta-. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-. m. god kama-.: pleasure.: luck. m. adj.: wise. master. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: greed vasati-.: creation krtsna-.

atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6. daughter." asked the boy father. "Give me food. 4. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. Let the men dig a pond. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. 6. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. Pl. daddy. "Study the treatises and speak the truth. "Come today. Let charioteers do not torture horses. vadama 1. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). Let the children show the traveler the way. pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7. Text (read and translate): 1. annaj yaccha he janani | 13. 5.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. 2. vada Du. 7. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. 3. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. 2. . gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9." said the father. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11." orders students the tradition. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. ma gacchatu (let him not go).

f. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-. in proximity va: or .: image.: near. study praja-. by all means hrasvam. rotten para-. adv. f. studying adewa-. adv. m.: order asana-.: lie.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-. m. adj. m. different adhastat.: repeating.: long.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-. position kawi-.: highest. adj. statue vaiwya-. to learn a+diw-.: guest anrta-. people murti-. m. untruth abhyasa-. lower dirgha-.: for the long time sarvatah. audience pataliputra-.) ciram. meeting. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-.: seat. khanati (I): to dig atithi-.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-. under (Gen.: subject.: lesson. adj. n.: down.: bad. abhyasyati (IV): to study.: seeing. far dusta-.: daddy darwana-. thoroughly. form.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-. adv. adv. m.: different. close. m. f. adj.: everywhere. n. n. m. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-.

Dat.(f. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. Nom. Loc. Abl. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11. bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen. bhuh Acc. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc.. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. woman): Sg. earth): Sg. bhuva bhuve Du. vadhu bhu. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. Abl. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. bhuvau Pl. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10.(f.. Dat. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. Ins. Loc. vadhvau vadhvau Pl. vadhuh Acc. Ins.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. Nom.

pravartate (I): to become.: queen laksmi-. Let us live there. 6. Who protects the earth is called a ruler. earth. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri. "Take away nice clothes. The eyebrows of beauties are always black. m. m.: well bhupala-. m.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-. drwyate: to look (like).: woman. 4. n. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-." ordered the householder. wife wvawru-.: mother-in-law sundari-. f.: dwelling bhu-. f. apaharati (I): to take away.: quality acarya-. m. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15.: ruler vadhu-.: praise . vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-.: teacher juhu-. pas. f. f.: beauty stuti-. f. There is no water in the well.: sacrificial ladle durga-. to steal ksana-.) apa+har-. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-.: land. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3. 7.: the goddess Durga nivewana-. f. 2. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the student not argue with the teacher. f. People live on earth and gods in heaven. f. to arise wuc-. f. to seem vi+vad-.: eyebrow rajbi-. ground bhru-.13. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16. 8. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14. 5.: moment guna-. f.

adj. then. twisted yavat-tavat: when.: daughter-in-law vakra-.: which .... pron.: curved.snusa-. f. as far as ya-. rel..

This form is widely used especially in 3. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. 3. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. Pl. Let an ascetic not converse with women. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. Let it be thus! 5. Some verbs. labhai Du. . dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. 4. kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass).Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. otherwise active. Do not neglect illnesses. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. 1. Text (read and translate): 1. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). 2. often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). satyaj sadocyatam | 10. mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. 6.

rightly . bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-. sajbhasate (I): to converse.: bad man. to talk with (Ins. best idanim.: war roga-. m.: buffalo yati-. 8. homage prayawcitta-. drama niwcaya-.: illness vara-.7. to expect upa+iks-. adv.: worship.: sometimes samyak. m.: ascetic yuddha-. m.: time. pratiksate (I): to await. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung. place puja-. n. adv. to act bhan-.: expiation.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-. n. adv. death kalidasa-.) a+wri-. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-. n. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-. m.: temple nataka-.: scholar. awrayate (I): to depend on.: well. n. m.: step. m. to seek refuge in han-. ghatayati: to kill kala-. atonement bhojana-. Let women and children are not killed in the war. adj.: decision pandita-.: now kalena. caus. m. pasture durjana-.: food mahisa-. m. learned man pada-.: better. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-.: grass. m. abhinayati (I): to conduct. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-.: play. m. villain devalaya-. f.

. Dat. Ins. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen. matarau Pl. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen.Pl. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. Acc. kartuh Voc.Du. 2) nouns of relationship. maker): Sg. agent. Ins. Abl. Loc. karta Acc. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du.Du. father): Sg. kartarau Pl. Nom. Abl. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a.(f. kartar pitr.. matuh Voc. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen. matar .. Abl. Loc. sister and naptr-. mata Acc. They differ only in Acc.(m.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du. Loc. Nom.Sg.. kartr. and Nom. pitarau Pl. Nom. pita Acc. Dat. Dat. matra matre matuh matari Du. pitar matr. pituh Voc. Nom. mother): Sg.(m.. Ins.

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.

Du.

Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

nauh As you have probably noticed. nausu yuddhamabhavat | . nauh Acc. brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. nauh Voc. Loc. Ins. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4.(f. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". Abl. 1. bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2. navau Pl. labheta Du. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3. nava nave nauh navi Du. jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7. The declension of the word nau. labhemahi labheran 2. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. Text (read and translate): 1. gacchati "[he/she] goes". watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows". Nom.Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. boat): Sg. Dat. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. let it be done). labheya 3.. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen. labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta.

n.: how. even sajdigdha-. n.: way.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-. f. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive). n.: fear bhrtaka-.). as (relative) . Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. May the friends be always remembered! 2.: friend vanijya-. n.: business. 8. m. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12. to carry out. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. n. questionable yatha.: agriculture jivita-. balavudyane rameyatam | 11.) abhi+vad-. Let new poems be written! 6. m. viramate (I): to give up. m. to welcome (Acc. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living . direction sama-. f. 4. adv. adj. pass. equal. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. to perform apa+ni-.: life nidewa-. 5.: service pawupalya-. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-. mode. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. rule. to abandon (Abl. adj.: same. 3. Let women and children be taken away to the city.: doubtful.) udyana-.: death mitra-.: servant marana-.10. m.: garden krsi-. anutisthati (I): to follow. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-.this we read in the treatises. trade vidhi-. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy. 7.: order seva-. n.

that is using the augment -aya-: jan.(to be). When translating the causative. "to report" etc. wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8.translate as "to recite". The vowel -a. ga. jbapayati (to make known. nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10.(to sing).Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class.(to do). suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4. to fly). Text (read and translate): 1. we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. gamayati (to let go. karayati (to cause to be done). adhyapayati (to teach).(to know). atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key . kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13. patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. gam. to water). vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6.(to learn). gapayati (to let sing).(to go). it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu. But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context .between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. kr. janayati (to give birth. vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9. If the root ends in any other vowel. upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. to proclaim). "to sing". "to tell".(to fall. janayati (see above). to make somebody to go). suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11. to beget). dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3.between the root and -aya-: jba. And also adhi+i. bhavayati (to make something happen). deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p.(to be born). The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody).

marayti: to kill vid-. caus. Let (pl. caus. vedayati: to announce. vardhayati: to make bigger. 5.: woman madhye.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. caus.: between. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. 2. caus. Let the householder return home. m. They watered horses with water from the river. 6. Let them allow the guests to enter. patayati: to knock down mr-. to enlarge pa-. tax duta-. n. beauty stri-. caus. elephant's trunk. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. to make known vrdh-.: cowshed manoratha-. 8.: desire vrka-.: wolf rupa-. 4.: coming kara-.: messenger gostha-. 7. m. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. Show (sg. postp. amongst (with genitive) arthe. caus.: form. caus. adv. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-. 3. m. caus. caus.: hand. m. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics.: in vain. caus. m. f. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras. postp. caus. caus. ajbapayati: to order da-.: for the sake of vrtha. to no avail . darwayati: to show apa+ni-.) the cows come into the cowshed. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. palayati: to protect pra+stha-.) the father the books. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-. prasthapayati: to send agamana-.

(you) Nom.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. te. (I) Nom. Loc. nau. Ins. Dat. Loc. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. Abl. Gen. Acc. Dat. Ins. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse. tva. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. nah. Gen. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). Acc. . aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. Abl. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. me.

: the poet Amaru amrta-. prarthayate: to ask.Dat. to disseminate. I did not steal your gold (passive). to beg ksam-. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. 2. Elephants do not live in our country. 3. begged the boy mother. bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2. caus. to report wru-. caus.: nectar (the drink of immortality) . to spread ni+vid-. or Gen. n. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. I do not want your (Dual) money. 4. Our (Dual) parents died. to whom . dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. 8.) prath-. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. n. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. ksamate: to forgive (what . Mother gives food to both you and me. 5.. caus.Text (read and translate): 1. Tell me the story of Urvashi.Acc. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6. anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-. offence amaru-.: transgression. prathayati: to propagate. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14. nivedayati: to announce. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15. m. Let the gods protect your life! 6. bhadraj te | 9. 7. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. Let your father go with me.

m.: ornament.ardha-. m. m. life bhadra-. m.ca: both . f.: country naraka-.: the nymph Urvashi katha-.: story kapota-. prosperity mayura-. m. m.: speaker vanaprasta-.: tomorrow . n. f. recluse wobhana-.and cet.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-. postposition: if wvas. virtue wloka-. m. n.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-.: breath. m.: silence vaktr-. adv. happiness.: pigeon taksawila-.: hermitage urvawi-. m. contentedness ca . n.: hermit. m.: satisfaction. Pl.: treasure prana-.: half awrama-. n. m.: frog dewa-. n.: peacock mauna-.: bliss. f.: hell nidhana-.

this) Sg. bl. te te Pl. V oc. this) Sg. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. at. at. bl. N om. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. h cc.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. tau tau tabh yam Pl. G en. L oc. ns. ns. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . G en. N om. she (sa. cc.

(different) itarah m.and esa. (which one [of many]) katarah m. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du. except for nominative and accusative of neuter. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m./ ya f. (one) ubhayah m. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a./ ubhayam n. N om. bl./ sarvam n./ esa f. at. (other) The following words also follow this declension. L oc. en. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa. te te tabh yam Pl./ viwvam n./ itara f. Here they ./ ubhaya f. tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m./ anya f./ yad n.L oc./ eka f. (all) viwvah m. (which one [of two]) anyah m./ katarad n./ katara f. (relative pronoun which) katamah m./ etad n. V oc./ anyad n./ ekam n. ns. (this one) yah m./ sarva f./ katamad n.follow irregular sandhi pattern. it (tad. V oc./ katama f./ itarad n. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg. (all) ekah m./ viwva f. cc.

3./n. viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4." said the general. so 'vadat (he said). instruction .change to -o and the following -a is lost. to delight sidh-. 7. Other people than you won't accomplish this. Examples: sa purusah (this man). sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. prinayati: to please. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. m. In this forest I saw a lion. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7. 9. I don't want these books. In these rivers there are many fish. caus. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9. sa isuh (this arrow). yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3. caus. I don't like your behavior./m.: noble upadewa-. 10.: end arya-. Husbands of these women went to war. 6. Poor people live in the houses. Text (read and translate): 1. 5.: advice. yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10. m. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14. Adj. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. 2. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. 4.

m.: mark. much. m. Adj. Adj. m. Adj.: fat murkha-.: hero vrtta-. sign vira-.: bigger than (with Abl.khara-. Adj. army leader adhika-.: behavior dosa-. Adj.: thin.: fault. m. brilliance.: splendor.: learned prati: towards (with Acc. f.: lion senapati-. n. emaciated pusta-.: foolish wiksita-.: donkey gardabha-.: donkey laksana-. Adj. characteristic.) .: general. not one krwa-.: many. offense wobha-. m. n. m.) aneka-. beauty sijha-.

: end .: poverty aneka-. f.: food anrta-. adv.) a+ruh-. to practise a+diw-. Adj.: bee amaru-. to rinse a+car-.: repeating. m. m. to rule. n.: now adya.: robe. dice ali-. now agamana-.: fire ajba-.: eye. studying acarya-. decoration abhi+a+as-. arohati (I): to ascend.) adhi+i-. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-. to drive adhika-.: many. m. ahvayati (IV): to call here. m. not one anila-.: coming agni-. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. to call in a+jba-. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. much. acarati (I): to do. n. m. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-.: fire anartha-.) adhuna. caus. n. under (Gen./n. awrayate (I): to depend on. to perform. m. Adj.: bigger than (with Abl. adv. to mount a+wri-.) abhi+ni-. abhyasyati (IV): to study. m. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. m.: lie. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-. n. to welcome (Acc.: order adharma-. agamayati: to let come a+hr-. m. to learn abhi+nand-. n. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-. to seek refuge in abharana-.: order aksa-.: the poet Amaru amrta-.: wind anna-.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-. m.: unrighteousness adhastat. acamati (I): to sip.: down. to act abhi+vad-. adv. untruth anta-. adhitisthati (I): to govern. caus. abhinayati (I): to conduct.: teacher adewa-. m. n. caus.: today. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at.

: sun bhara-.: end anu+gam-. postp.: tear awva-. adj. prosperity. to transgress atithi-. happiness.: numerous. m.) artha-. wealth arthe. apanayayati: to lead away apara-. anutisthati (I): to follow.: wife bhas-. m. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-. pass. m.: power.: horse badh-. f. bhasate (I): to speak. asyati (IV): to throw asana-.: transgression. force.: "un-truth".: devotion bhan-. n. m.anta-. prosperity bhaga-.: noble as-.: half ari-. m. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. n.: enemy arth-.: different. f. m. to say .: agreement apa+har-.: seat. adj. even.: husband bharya-.: sword asura-. m. even though aranya-. child bala-. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. adv.: part bhakti-. part. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-. also.: demon ati+kram-. m. position asatya-.: hope awrama-. to perform anujba-. m. apaharati (I): to take away. abundant. n. m. m.: guest atra. m.: meaning.: for the sake of arya-.: boy. to carry out. m.: here ava+gam-. strength bhadra-. to steal apa+ni-. m. n.: burden.: bliss. f.: forest ardha-. many bahu-. n. avarohati: to descend awa-. f. n. load bhartr-. offence api-. m. badhyate: to bind bahu-. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-. caus. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-.: arm bala-. lower aparaddha-./m. atikramati (I): to cross over. Adj. n. lie asi-.: hermitage awru-.

m. ground bhupala-. adv.: servant bhrtya-.: brother bhrtaka-. caus. m.: fear bhaya-.: servant. to practise caru-. shade ciram.ca: both . m. n.and car-.bhasa-.: body deva. diyate: to give dah-. m. f. postposition: if chaya-. dahati (I): to burn dana.: servant bhru-.: seeing. m. carati (I): to walk.: ruler bhusana-. beggar bhojana-. f. punishment dardura-. m. m. n.: Buddha buddhi-. dapayati: to let give da-. to become bhu-.: giver daw-. adj.: frog daridra-. earth.: fear bhiks-. to roam. f. mendicant.: eyebrow bhu-. f. f. m. land.: food bhojana-. corayati (X): to steal da-. f.: ornament bhuti-. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-.: wisdom ca .: god. n. pass. ground bhumi-.: poor darwana-.: gift dand-. m.: stick.: drop brahmana-. f. dawati (I): to bite deha-. n. adj. f.: beautiful cet.: brahmin buddha-. meeting. female slave datr-. n.: well-being.: alms bhiksu-. n. m. bhavati (I): to be. m.: language bhaya-.: Buddhist monk. audience dasa-.: for the long time cur-.: land. mn.: female servant.: shadow.: food bhram-. m. to punish danda-. slave dasi-. m.: temple . m. dandayati (X): to beat. m. prosperity bindu-. lord devalaya-. f. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-.: earth.

only evam.: grain dharma-.: thought. ghee giri-. Buddhism dhav-. dhavati (I): to run dhi-. firm dhrti-.: fault.: long. gacchati (I): to go gan-. distressed durga-. f. m. courage. m.: messenger dvija-. to seem drw-. to point dosa-. pawyati (IV): to see. drwyate: to look (like). ganayati (X): to count gandha-. mistress dewa-. jar ghra-. adj.: wealth. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-.adj.: elephant gam-. m.: suffering duhkhita. m.: the goddess Durga durjana-.: cowherd gostha-. m.: scent. diwati (VI): to show.: courage.: cowshed grama.: "twice-born". m.: law. rotten duta-.: wise. adj. darwayati: to show drw-. m. f. n. m.: the river Ganga ghasa-.: village . member of a high caste eva. fragrance gardabha-. offense dru-. firmness dhana. to look duhitr-.: pot.: thus ga-. far div-. m. n. m. m. m.: "twice-born".: clarified butter.: unhappy. firmness dhya-. pas. caus.: goddess.: song gopa-. m. m. m.. n.devi-. n. jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-. pasture ghata-. money dhanya-.: grass.: just. n. to meditate dirgha-. righteousness. villain dusta-. f. adv.: daughter duhkha-.: patience. dhyayati (IV): to think. brahmin dvijati-.: bad.: donkey gavga-. m. n. Law. f. dravati (I): to run drw-. f.: country dhairya-. adj. f. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-. adv.: mountain gita-. reason dhira-.: bad man.

: victory. guru han-. m.: person janaka-.: householder guh-. to conceal guna-. m. f.: personal name hasta-. death kalaha-. m. m. m. n.: quarrel. hvayati (IV): to call huta-. master. god jala. m. m. m.: water jamatr-.: now iha.: benefit. n. caste jaya-.: pleasure. f.: sacrificial ladle kada. as if iwvara-. harati (I): to take. to conquer jiv-. jayate (IV): to be born jana-. m. to carry hrasvam. m.: arrow iti. fight kalena. glory ji-.: son-in-law jan-.: house grhastha-. n. like. desire kamp-.: sometimes kalidasa-.grantha-.: teacher. guhati (I): to hide.: time.: composition.: quality guru-. ghatayati: to kill hari-.: so iva. m. n. f. close. offering idanim. icchati (VI): to want. n.: life jivita-. m. f. adv. caus.: life juhu-. adv.: mother jati-. to stare indra-. m.: hand he. m. iksate (I): to look at. Indra's wife is-.: oblation. m.: Indrani.: heart hu-. to yearn for isu-. adv.: as. part.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-.: father janani-.: lord.: birth. goodness kama-. adv. here iks-.: when? kala-. part. m. adv. part.: near. to take away. n. kampate (I): to shake. book (text) grha-. n.: Hindu god Indra indrani-. jayati (I): to win. to tremble . jivati (I): to live jivana-.: oh! hr-. m. in proximity hrdaya-.

: anger krs-. n. black krt-.: mark.: field ksip-. m. f. pass. or Dat. m. f.: hand. m. m. emaciated ksal-.) ksana-. n. labhate (I): to get.: poetry kawi-. elephant's trunk.) kopa-. characteristic. n. fighter ksetra-. to obtain laksana-.: prince.: pigeon kara-. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. f. adj.: milk kumara-. why? kirti-. m. lance kup-. to narrate katha-.: where? kva.: whole krudh-. khanati (I): to dig khara-.: spear. m. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. f.kanya-. sign laksmi-.: thin.: fame klp-.) krwa-. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-. n. m.. f.: donkey kim. young man kunta-. m. to whom . krsati (I): to plow.: moment ksatriya-.: anger kr-. tax karana-.: kshatriya.: wood kata-. adv.: plough .: where? labh-.: mat kath-. adv.: well kutah.: what?.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-. kriyate: to do krodha-. or Gen. m. m. n.: agriculture krsna-.: cause kastha-.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-. n.Dat.: how? kavi-. daughter kapota-. kathayati (X): to tell.: story katham. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.) kupa-. adv.Acc. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-.: poet kavya-. ksamate: to forgive (what . to cultivate (field) krsi-. khadati (I): to eat khan-. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.: where from? why? kutra. n. m. adv. f. m. adv.: girl. or Dat. Adj.

mriyate (IV): to die mrg-.) mukha-.: way. n.: silence mayura-.: city . amongst (with genitive) maharaja-. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-. m. mubcati (VI): to free. m. f. precious stone manoratha-. n. m. m. m.: queen mahisa-. foremost mukti-. road masa-. n.: desire manusya-. m. caus.: peacock megha-. m.: honey madhye. n. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-.: world (in Pl.: main.: delusion moksa-.: deliverance mr-. saint murkha-. postp.) lup-. town nagari-. to rob mad-. f.: gem. to desire (with Dat. means also "people") lubh-. to discharge mud-. m. m.: buffalo maksika-. modate (I): to delight in (Ins. mrgayate (X): to search for. adj.: cloud mitra-. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-. m.: image. lumpati (VI): to steal. or Loc.likh-.: fly mala-.: deer mrtyu-. m.: garland mam: me (Acc. f.: death muc-.: great king maharani-. manyate (IV): to think. f. Adj. lubhyati (IV): to long for.: river nagara.: city.: greed loka-.: death marga.: friend moha-.: face.: deliverance muni-.: fish mauna-. m. marayti: to kill mr-.: sage. to suppose mani-. to hunt for mrga-. m.: month matsya-.: foolish murti-. f.: person marana-. f.) man-. m. form. m. m. likhati (VI): to write lip-.: between. statue nadi-. f. mouth mukhya-. m. n. n.

adj. palayati (X): to protect pandita-. drama navina-.: bad. m. n. adv. m. m. n.: hail!. different para+ji-. adj. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-. m.: decision nrpa-.: hand.: hell nari-. n.: dwelling niwcaya-.: scholar. to appear nija-. n. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-. nivedayati: to announce.: lotus pal-. to prostrate. palayati: to protect pa-.nam-. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-. m. adj.: man naraka-.: axe pari+dha-. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-. parinayati: to marry parthiva-.: Indra's paradise naptr-.) nandana-. nispadyate (IV): to originate. to worship namas-. own nivewana-.: treasure nih+gam-.: low nidewa-. m.: leader netra. m. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-.: destruction.: step.: play. glory! (Dat.: grandson nara-. m. f. caus. namati (I): to bow.: eye ni-. place padma-. m. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-. m.: ruler . ruler pa-.: foot. to report nica-.: woman nataka-.: sin para-. n. m. m. palm panini-.: new naw-. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-.: order nidhana-. learned man pani-. annihilation netr.n. m. adj. sinful papa-. footprint pada-. adj. to perish nawa-. king nrpati-. n.: ruler. pacati (I): to cook pada-.: king. m. caus..: highest.: one's.: the grammarian Panini papa-.m. n. pibati (I): to drink pac-. nawyati (IV): to be lost.

f. caus.ch-. pathati (I): to read.: grandfather pitr-.: subject. to appear pra+jan-. caus.: worship. f.: Lord. pravartate (I): to become.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-. to return prati+iks-. pujayati (X): to honour. to go back. m. m.: citizen pavitra-. life prasada-.: traveler pati-. m. Du. prathayati: to propagate.: leaf.: sacrificial animal.: snare. m. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-. Pl. f. study pathika-. parents. pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. to worship. letter paura-. atonement pri-. holy pawa-. to disseminate.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. n. prapadyate (IV): to go to. master.: the breeding of cattle pid-. n. to revere puja-. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-.: breath. to take refuge in (Acc. to expect prati+sidh-. m. prarthayate: to ask.: manifold. m.parvata-. patati (I): to fall. caus. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. m.: earth puj-. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-. m. parayati (X): to overcome pr-. pratigacchati (I): to come back. pass.: mountain. Pl. m. prabhavati (I): to arise. adj. to restrain prayaga-.: clean. pratiksate (I): to await. many praja-. caus. to beg pra+as-. otec.: palace prath-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent.: expiation. hill pat-. pidayati (X): to torture. n.) pra+stha-. n. m. patayati: to knock down pat-. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-. to delight prthivi-.: wife pattra-. homage . to recite patha-. to arise prabhuta-. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. m. cattle pawupalya-. f. trap pawu-. to hurt pitamaha-. people prana-. adj.: lesson.) prati+bhas-. ancestors pr-. prinayati: to please. husband patni-. puryate: to fill pr. to fly pataliputra-.

: kingdom raks-. rocate (I): to like (Dat. to obtain. f.: always sadhu-.: chariot rathya-.: jewel. m.: holy. adj. n.punar.: old story. precious stone rawi-.: daughter r-. Adj.: ray ripu-.: protection raksitr-. or postp. prep. assembly sad-. sidati (I): to sit. n. quantity rawmi-. m. m.: fat pustaka-. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-.: form.: gem ratna-.. m. n. n.: epos Ramayana rana-. m.: sea sah-. n. m.: congregation.: queen rajya-.: protector ram-. m. stream purana-.: merit pura-. rohati (I): to grow rupa-. rcchati (I): to get. raksati (I): to protect raksana-. m. meeting.: suddenly . adv. to share rac-. mn.: heap. beauty rupaka-. m.) sahasa.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-.: illness rsi-. n. mass.: street ratna-. n.: seer ruc-. righteous sadhu-.: coin sabha-. n. m. to sit down sada.: flood. m. Gen. adv. m.: flower pusta-. n.: battle ratha-.: son putri-.) rud-. f. f. adv. m.: enemy rksa-.: man puspa-. m. ramate (I): to play rama-.: again punya-. f.: with (with Inst. to endure saha. f. n.: book (manuscript) putra. sahate (I): to bear. rodati (I): to weep ruh-.: holy man sagara-.: bear roga-. f.: protection raksana-.

adj. n. thoroughly. n. srjati (VI): to create srsti-.: truth senapati-. rightly sarpa-. f. equal.: praise sukha-. f. adv.: sun.: woman stuti-. n.: everywhere. to honour (Acc.: heaven svasr-.: beauty surya-. m. contentedness sam+a+car-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. to discharge sidh-.: tradition.: satisfaction. m. f. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-. tadayati (X): to beat tada.: creation stena-.: doubtful. to talk with (Ins. at that time . questionable sajtosa-.: daughter-in-law sprw-. robber stha-.: servant sic-. m. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-. serpent sarvatah. the god of the Sun suta-. f. m.) snusa-. adv.: ocean. n.: creator srj-.: gold svapna-. sajgacchate: to come together sama-.: same. tisthati (I): to stand. whole samudra-.: thief. adv. army leader sev-.: soldier sajdigdha-. m.: service sevaka-.: happiness sukta-.) sam+gaj-.: then. sevate (I): to serve.: lion smr-. n.) seva-. m. m. m.sainika-. sajbhasate (I): to converse.: charioteer suvarna-.: complete.: well. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-. adj. f. sea samyak. a hymn of praise stri-.: everywhere satya-. f.: Vedic hymn sundara-. smarati (I): to remember smrti-.: general. f. or Loc. even samagra-. f. m. adj. dream svarga-.: sister tad-. to stay stotra-. n. m.: ode. m. by all means sarvatra.: snake. m.: beautiful sundari-. caus. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. adv.: sleep. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-. adj.

tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. m. to weigh tus-. m. recluse vand-.: tree tata-. perseverance upa+diw-.: thus. m.: clothing . f. upadiwati (VI): to teach. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-.: garden udyoga-. adv. f. n.) taru-. to say vadhu-. n. so tatra.: garden udyana-. m. tarati (I): to cross over tu. part.: dwelling vastra-.: forest vanaprasta-. instruction urvawi-. vapati (I): to sow vapi-. uttisthati (I): to get up. vadati (I): to speak.: exertion. tudati (VI): to strike. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-. ucyate: is called vad-.: advice. adj. m.: shore. adj. adj.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. adv. to admonish upa+iks-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-.: daddy tatha. m. to grieve (Abl. pass. to give up ucca-.: speaker vana-.: there tira-. pool vara-. twisted vaktr-.: woman. vahati (I): to carry. n. to stand up udadhi-. n.: business.: curved. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-. to instruct.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-.: pond. f. n.) tyaj-. bank tr-. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-. tyajati (I): to leave. best vari-. tolayati (X): to lift up.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. vandate (I): to praise. to pay homage vanijya-. m. to pierce tul-. wife vah-. m.: ocean udyana-. m. trade vap-.: water varuna-.: but tud-. to flow vaiwya-.: better. f.taksawila-. to blow. n. n.: hermit. to be satisfied (Ins.: high ud+pat-. f.

: hero vira-.: bird vinaya-. m. caus. m.: story vyadh-. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. sore vrdh-.: enemy wikhara-. n. m. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-. to shower vrt-.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-. m. mode. m.: discipline vipra-. f.: branch wam-.: thing.: wound. pass. vartate (I): to be.: knowledge. wajsati (I): to praise. wisyate: to rule. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-.: in vain.: brahmin vira-. to make known vid-. m. to be finished wanti-. vardhayati: to make bigger. to pour down. varsati (I): to rain. to abandon (Abl. n. Adj. rule. to enlarge vrka-. silence wara-.: wolf vrksa-. m. m. n. f. m.) vi+vad-.: ruler. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-. m.: poison vrana-. m. m.: tree vrs-. pupil . m.: summit. argument viw-.: disputation. direction vidya-.: tiger wajs-.: wave vid-. m. m. viramate (I): to give up. adv. m.: wind vi+ram-. law-book watru-.: refuge was-.: way. f. m. wealth vayu-. to extol wakha-.: arrow warana-. m. to exist vrt-.: behavior vrttanta-.: learned wisya-. to acquire vidhi-.: treatise. to no avail vrtta-. m.: bird vihaga-. n. wisdom vihaga-. vindati (VI): to get.: hero visnu-. "punisher" wastra-. vartate (I): to live on vrtha. n. m.vasu-. caus. n.: peace. top wiks-.: student. n. vedayati: to announce. vivadati (I): to argue vici-. to punish wastr-.: hunter vyaghra-.

f.: luck. oblation for them wram-.: which yada. as (relative) yati-.: when (relative) yaj-.: tomorrow wvawru-.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then….: war yudh-. beauty wobhana-. m.: ascetic yatra. m. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-. adv. m. brilliance. beauty.: Vedic scripture wubh-.: Shiva wiwu-. m. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-. adv. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-. adv. m. f. adv. virtue wraddha-. m. yudhyati (IV): to fight .: splendor. m. m. f.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives. pron. m. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas.: child wloka-.: the river Yamuna yat-. as far as yoga-. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: mother-in-law wvawura-.: father-in-law wveta-. n. f.: sacrifice yam-. rel.: how. pass. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-.: child wiwu-.: white ya-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-. adj. wealth wru-.: ornament. f. wruyate: to hear wruti-.: yoga yuddha-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. m.wiva-. m.) yatha.) wudra-. caus.

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