Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

sad.to -cch-: gacchati. bhojanam atra (the food [is] here). bhojanaj tu (but the food.to -i-: sidati.to -cch-: icchanti.(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi.(VI. just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits).. yacchati. So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going).(to give) change -m. stha. devah Acc. va (or). brahmanah sada yajanti devan | . phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad.. eva (particle of emphasis. "god") Nom. phalani Acc. In Sanskrit.(to sit) changes -a. Text (read and translate): 1...(to go) and yam. "fruit") Nom. the Buddha only). they are not saying). Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na. devan Voc. classes: gam. class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI. Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and). balah kataj diwati | 2. buddham eva (just the Buddha. and I. is (to want) changes -s.in front of the verb. ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits). phalani Voc. kutra katah | 3.). Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?). na vadanti (they do not say. devah phala (n. the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence.Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m. tu (but).

jalamicchanti gajah | 20. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. 11. margaj diwatha balah | 19. there the people do not live. nrpah kva sidati | 7. Where is the city. there stay the houses. tatha jivamah | 18. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. dhanamicchamah | 24. We praise the boys. you are pointing the way. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25.) going? 2. grhamatra tisthati | 6. Do you want milk? 10. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. 12. I want water. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17. The exercise key . kada danani yacchatha | 26. devannamanti | 22. Brahmins still sit there. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. Where the water does not flow. 6. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. danani yacchanti | 10. Where are you (pl. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. 8. nagarameva gacchami | 9. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. gramamadya viwamah | 14. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. Boys. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Where are the elephants? 5. narandevah srjati | 13. 3. 7. balah ksiramicchati | 23. 9.4. We are leaving the world today. 4.

namati (I): to bow. to give up diw-. to yearn for gam-. to worship yam-. so tada. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-.: water dana-.: just.: milk gaja-. diwati (VI): to show. tisthati (I): to stand. m.: village jala-. n. only kada. town putra-. to prostrate. wajsati (I): to praise.: gift deva-. n. yacchati (I): to give viw-.: when (relative) .: when? tatha. to point dhav-. icchati (VI): to want. srjati (VI): to create stha-.Vocabulary is-. n.: way. adv.: god. m.: mat ksira-.: city. m. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-. m. n.: then.: thus. to sit down srj-. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-.: where (relative) yada. dhavati (I): to run nam-. adv. road eva. m. tyajati (I): to leave. adv.: son marga-.: wealth. sidati (I): to sit. lord dhana-. adv. adv. n. at that time yatra. money nagara-. m. to stay sprw-. adv. to extol sad-.: elephant grama-.

bhavati (to be). class. normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. dravati (to run). jayati (to win. nayati (to lead). guhati (to hide. dru-. The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. ruh-. Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. devau phale Voc.Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. the first grade is called guna. vrs-. to conceal). to shower). vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. Acc. bhu-. But note some irregularities: guh-. vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. ji-. rohati (to grow). If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . ghra-. Nom. Accusative and Vocative cases: m. It has always the same form for Nominative. varsati (to rain. sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here). the second grade is vrddhi. jighrati (III. to conquer). class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. to smell). vad+a+tah They (two) say n. Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). pibati (to drink). pa-. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1.

gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. 8. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. . gandhamiha jighravah | 3. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. Here stand (two) trees. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. he nrpau jayathah | 11. dahasi he anala | 15. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. Home (emphasized) go both boys. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. 6.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. satyaj na vadathah | 18. To the forest run the (two) elephants. devavadya smaramah | 10. The ruler conquers both fighters. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. anilah sada na vahati | 16. 2. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. atraiva vasavah | 5. 10. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. Where do you hide money? 11. 5. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. Just today we both go to the city. balau phale khadatah | 20. 7. 12. Here we (two) do not live. Where are both horses? 3. Where are you (two) going now? 9. The Buddha speaks the truth. Just here are (two) horses. 4. They give money and gifts. devau smaramah | 9.

pibati (I): to drink bhu-. nayati (I): to lead pa-. adv.: cloud vana-. jayati (I): to win. vahati (I): to carry.: tree satya-. to shower smr-. dravati (I): to run ni-. m.: wind gandha-. m. jighrati (III): to smell ji-. n. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-. part. n. dahati (I): to burn dru-. bhavati (I): to be. to conceal ghra-. varsati (I): to rain. smarati (I): to remember awva-. to flow ruh-. to pour down.: oh! . to become vah-.: truth iha. m. fragrance megha-.13. Here sarvatra. m. guhati (I): to hide. khadati (I): to eat guh-.: scent. to conquer dah-. to blow. m.: fire anila-. adv.: horse anala-. rohati (I): to grow vrs-.: everywhere he.: forest vrksa-. m.

Loc. devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. "fruit") Sg. phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. devasya devayoh Voc. . "by means of ". Ins. telling (to the boy). Dative: the indirect object.Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. phalam Acc.. Ins. phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen.. circumstances (in the city). phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. Locative: the location. Nom. Dat. devah Acc. deva And for neuter: phala (n. devam Du. "because of". Accusative: the object (I see you). devau devau Pl. Loc. Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). giving. the agent in a passive construction. phalasya Voc. the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Nom. is also used to denote reason (from anger). Dat. Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). "by" (with the Buddha. Abl. by carriage). Abl. it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). "god") Sg. as English "through". Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with").

hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah .Vocative: the address (Who are you. This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. -i before any vowel (except for -i. jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. j and sibilants). dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. -u. If the following word beggins with a short a-. m for p.the fighter says that he lives here). this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). For example: muc-. b for c and j. duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. n for t. man?). rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). -i. -u before any vowel (except for -u. Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here). narah gacchanti (the men go). putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. mubcati (see Vocabulary).

but not suffering.: suffering dvija-.: power. mubcati (VI): to free. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15. 8. to practise muc-. 7. Trees do not grow on high mountains. to roam.: mountain.: "twice-born". m. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14. n. young man janaka-. m. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys.: traveler parvata-. m. 5.11./n. brahmin pathika-. to discharge aranya-. Men with boys go to the forest. People do not live in forests. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-. carati (I): to walk. 3. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12.: forest kumara-. n.: battle rama-. m. 4. 2. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17. Traveler walks on the way to the village. m. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16. m. m. krntati (VI): to cut car-. 6. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. n. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. to discharge yaj-.: brahmin .: prince. n. force. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. People want happiness. m. limpati (VI): to smear sic-.: plough vipra-.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-.: father duhkha-. strength mrga-. m. hill bala-.: deer rana-.

: what?. adv. part. m.: happiness hasta-. n.: hand huta-.: so kim. n.: where from?.: but The exercise key . m.viwa-. offering ucca-. part.: oblation. adj. why? tu. adv.: Shiva sukha-. why? kutah. n.: poison wiva-.: high iti.

Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. Abl. . fire) Sg. Ins. poet tells to the seer).. varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. Rama goes with the poets). sorrow. Loc.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an. noble. vari Acc. For example: sukha-. Dat. Du. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen.(if it begins with a vowel). Ins. happines. asukha. Abl.. the fire is here. agni Pl. agne vari. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati.(n. unhappiness. Dat. arya. But if the following word begins with -r. varinah varinoh Voc. fire burns). Nom.Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. water): Sg. Nom. "un-noble". vari varina varine Du. varini varini Pl. Loc. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati. agnih Acc. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati. anarya. agneh Voc.(m.

d. why don't you recite poetry?". daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. We live happily here in the mountains. From sin there is always suffering. n) or dental (t. -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. says the brahmin to the poet. satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. 7. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. balau kuto rodatah | 2. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. 3. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. 2. ch. nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15. nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. jalaj gireh patati | 10. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 9. th. Text (read and translate): 1. rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. asks the king. 8. weep the boys. nominative plural of vari is varini). Even today people remember Rama. "You don't speak the truth". harij ksirena yajatah | 18. jh. dh. Where people burn the forests. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. no elephants live. 4. poet. 6. "O. rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. "Enemies rob the houses here". Hari's horse is standing just here. th. 5. asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. dh. If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. d. . j. b). retroflex (t. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). n) between them (so. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. but from the Law [there is] happiness.

palm papa-. m. n. even.: poet kavya-. m.: poetry giri-. part.: Vedic hymn hari-.: person dasa-. n. n.: enemy asatya-.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-. m.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-. mn. m. lie asi-. rodati (I): to weep lup-.: "un-truth". tudati (VI): to strike. Law. slave deha-.: king. m.: Lord. m.: law. m. even though . ruler pati-. lumpati (VI): to steal. n.: mountain jana-.: food ari-.: personal name api-. n. m. m. righteousness.: seer kavi-.: body dharma-. n. also.: fire anna-.: water sukta-.: servant. m. husband pani-. Buddhism nrpati-. to rob agni-. master.: sin varuna-. pathati (I): to read. m. m.: sword rsi-. to pierce path-. m. m.: hand. to recite rud-.

Ins. For example a. to look). watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen. watruh Acc. watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here). -h after any vowel and before t-. Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-.is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). m. a vanat (only from the forest). Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes). Only passive is constructed from this root. Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). class are thematic verbs. ch. it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). Loc. -h after any vowel and before c-. Nom. pawyati (to see. anayati (to bring). . indicative uses different root (paw-). watru Pl.is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there).means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). Therefore: drw-. But if a is used separately as a preposition. kupyati (to be angry). Du. watroh Voc. Dat. The verb drw. (enemy) Sg. th. Abl. watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-.(to see) is irregular and defective.Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV.

By the power of [your] arms you win. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. 2. but father lives here.) . balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. 7. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. "What are you writing now. 4. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21.Text (read and translate): 1. The king with fighters comes to the city. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13. or Dat. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 8." says the boy to the traveler. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-. naro 'wvamarohati | 10." asks teacher the student. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. 6. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. "There stands father's house. We do not live here. oh king. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. 3. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. 5. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11.

m. m. guru pattra-.: teacher. to desire (with Dat.: enemy visnu-.: heap.: arm bindu-. m.: jewel. m. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-.: ocean guru-.: axe pada-. likhati (VI): to write lubh-. letter parawu-.) wus-. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen.: leaf. mass. or Dat.: drop mani-. arohati (I): to ascend. lubhyati (IV): to long for. law-book wisya-.) hu-. or postp. m. n.: treatise.: foot. or Loc. nawyati (IV): to be lost. pawyati (IV): to see. precious stone ratna-. precious stone rawi-. to perish drw-. to call in udadhi-. to mount likh-. or Loc.: enemy wastra-. m.) .: student. footprint bahu-. pupil saha. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.: with (with Inst. to look yudh-.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-. m. m. m.) a+gam-. n.krudh-. agacchati (I): to come tr-. quantity ripu-. m. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-. ahvayati (IV): to call here.: gem. n. m. m. m.: bird watru-. prep.

alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. kram-. Dat. madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). Text (read and translate): 1. rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. madhunah madhunoh Voc. mad-. rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3. viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). bhramyati (to wander). Ins. kramati (to walk). tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11.is changed into vidh-: vyadh-.Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). madhu madhuna madhune Du. madhu Acc. arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). Loc. narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7. nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. madhuni madhuni Pl. madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. madyati (to be intoxicated). Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). Abl. Nom. vidhyati (to pierce). the root vyadh.

m.: eye.: tear rksa-.: bear .) tus-. Fighters play for money (Ins. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. rcchati (I): to get. There are many things in the houses. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18.). bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. 5. m. 7. to be finished wram-. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13. Bees wander around flowers of the trees. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. n. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14. acamati (I): to sip.) div-. n. 3. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. Death conquers even unrighteousness. 6.: unrighteousness ali-. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16. 4. harati (I): to take. anayati (I): to bring bhram-. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. to grieve (Abl. to take away. 8. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. 2. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. to be satisfied (Ins. Tears are flowing on boy's face. to share a+kram-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-. to obtain. m. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-. to rinse tam-.: bee awru-. Birds are flying to the tree.12. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. dice adharma-. to carry aksa-.

: anger netra.: flower bhaga-.: hero bahu-. n.: numerous.: anger krodha-. m. m.: part madhu-. abundant. mouth mrtyu-. m. m. n.: person mukha-.: eye puspa-. n.: death vasu-. wealth vira-.: face.n.kopa-.: thing. many .: honey manusya-. m. m. adj. n.

Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). but: pid-. gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. class add -aya. suto 'wvanpidayati | 8. grhalloka agacchanti | 15. -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). corayati (to steal).to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. jan-. -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). janayati (to give birth. bhayayati (to cause fear).Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. ksalayati (to wash). it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-.between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. Before palatals. narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. dharayati (to hold). bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4.instead of just -a. to generate). wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7. bhi-. vid-. vedayati (to make known). pidayati (to torture). navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key . gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. The vowel -a. lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. If the root ends in a vowel. wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house). purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world). Text (read and translate): 1.

tolayati (X): to lift up. I want new clothes.: clothing vrttanta-.: old story. 8. ganayati (X): to count cur-. n. n.: coin vastra-. part. 3.: thief. 4.: epos Ramayana rupaka-.: new iva.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword. Merit protects from grief." asks the servant the king. m.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-.: servant ramayana-.: story wudra-. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-. to revere pr-. 2. n. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. robber navina-. n. "Why do you beat me. kathayati (X): to tell.: stick. m. m.) . Father tells son about fruits of sins. to worship. to hurt puj-. n. corayati (X): to steal tad-. to weigh dand-. punishment punya-. pujayati (X): to honour. adj. n. to punish pid-. m. 7. Boys (Du. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9.: charioteer stena-. dandayati (X): to beat.: holy man suvarna-. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. 5.: merit purana-. 6.) wash their faces.: as.: gold suta-. n. m. like. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. pidayati (X): to torture. as if mam: me (Acc. aharati (I): to bring danda-. to narrate ksal-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-.

wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7. But Dual endings -i. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. agni iksate balah | 11. besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. Pl. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2. god Agni). -o at the end of the word and before a. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). fire. labh-. labhate (to get. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. to obtain) A: Sg.is unchanged. But in Sanskrit. ksatriya rsi sevante | . asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. labhase labhethe 3. vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. o. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. Before other vowels a final -e. 1. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). "word for another"). But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. Text (read and translate): 1. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. -e. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. labhe Du. But this initial a.

m. goodness taru-. sahate (I): to bear.: sacrifice .: "twice-born". arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. to stare kamp-.) anartha-. m. n. labhate (I): to get. to obtain vand-.: sun moksa-.) iks-. 4. iksate (I): to look at.17. 2. courage.) begin with a sacrifice. 6. member of a high caste dhairya-. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. to tremble jan-. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear. 3. The father is looking at son's face.. to honour (Acc.: benefit. m. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. perseverance kalyana-. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-. cattle bhanu-. Gen. to say mr-.: poverty udyoga-. 8. wiksate (I): to learn sah-. m. firmness pawu-. Holy men (Du.) ruc-. Children ask the father for food.: tree dvijati-. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5. m. bhasate (I): to speak. 7. n. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc.: exertion. m. m. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18. to pay homage wiks-.: deliverance yajba-. Boys like fruit. m. rocate (I): to like (Dat. sevate (I): to serve.: sacrificial animal.) a+rabh-.) labh-.: patience. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. vandate (I): to praise. mriyate (IV): to die yat-. kampate (I): to shake. Father likes sons' discipline. to endure sev-.

vayu-.: discipline wiwu-. sea . m. m. m.: wind vici-.: child samudra-.: ocean. m. m.: wave vinaya-.

sena Acc. satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4.after a prefix containing -r.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s. Text (read and translate): 1. following): anu+gacchati (to go after. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa. Abl.(towards. Dat.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve. senayah senayoh Voc. senam senaya senayai Du. army) Sg. Nom. -n. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni.is changed into -n.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry). hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | .(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari.(after. to follow) ava. sene sene Pl.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2. to honour).(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud.is changed into -s. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu..(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f. Loc.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra. Ins.

annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9. Here on the street kings (Du. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13.: householder . parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. 3.: girl. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. 2. The student asks householder's wife for alms. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas.) bhiks-. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. m. to take refuge in (Acc. sajgacchate: to come together isu-.: the river Ganga grhastha-. 7. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. m. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. 4.: arrow kanya-. 6. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. The king conquers enemies in the battle. prapadyate (IV): to go to. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11. 8. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. 5. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari. f. Many trees grow on the mountain. daughter gavga-.5. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-.) descend from black horses. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. f. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15.

shade prayaga-.chaya-. adj.: street vidya-. adv. n. f. wisdom vyadha-.: gem rathya-. f. many sahasa. sinful prabhuta-.: wife bhasa-.: the river Yamuna ratna-.: refuge svarga-.: manifold.: heaven hrdaya-.: language bhiksa-. adj. f.: heart krsna-. black papa-. n.: hunter warana-.: bad.: shadow.: knowledge.: fear bharya-. f.: suddenly . n.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-. f. m. n. f.: alms yamuna-. m. f. f.

-i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. smaryate (to remember). isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13. svap-. The consonant -v.but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. vap-. vah-. stu-. vad-. pass. awvena jalaj piyate | 17. ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. jiyate. Text (read and translate): 1. dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12. usyate (to dwell). pass. rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. upyate (to sow). pr-. tiryate. diyate (to give). uhyate (to carry). sutenawvastadyate | 20. kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. udyate (to say). It is used with the instrumental case. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7. puryate (to fill). ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2.in these roots: vac-. vas-. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. corayati. kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. naraih katah kriyante | 8. coryate. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. ucyate (to say). pass. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. Verbs of the X class drop -aya. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-.is changed into -u. mubcati. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. mucyate. stuyate (to praise).Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. supyate (to sleep). dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. janairnagaraj gamyate | 6. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. pass.

pass. f. kriyate: to do ga-. n. m. beggar mala-.: Buddhist monk. pass. vapati (I): to sow was-. n. dawati (I): to bite da-. Hari is again praised by Rama. pass. ghee dhanya-. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. pass. mendicant.: wood gita-. Holy man always speaks truth (pass). 4. m. 7.: snake. pass. m. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). wruyate: to hear ajba-. Jars are being filled with grain." is said by people.: child sarpa-. 5.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. It is played with dices. serpent . Grain is sown in the fields. to punish wru-. n. n.: burden. wisyate: to rule.: song ghata-.: pot. "In the shade is comfortably slept. diyate: to give pr-. f. 3.: clarified butter.: grain pawa-. load bhiksu-. pass. trap bhara-.: snare. m. Girls bind garlands (pass).: garland rajya-. jar ghrta-. gayati (IV): to sing daw-. 2. badhyate: to bind vap-. 6.: kingdom wiwu-.: order kastha-. m. n. puryate: to fill badh-. 8.

paryanayat. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. Text (read and translate): 1. purena grhanyuhyante | . a+vad+a+h 3. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. impf. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. aicchat (he wanted). sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. It has special endings: Sg. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. impf. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. 2. jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). a+vad+a+t Du.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. If the verb is prefixed. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-.

avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-. m.: sea grantha-. The teacher hit the student out of the anger. n. the god of the Sun stotra-.: demon awa-. assembly surya-.: flood. m. Brahmins (Du.: Hindu god Indra sagara-.: protection wakha-. vartate (I): to be. uttisthati (I): to get up.: meaning.: book (manuscript) pura-. m.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to stand up artha-. 7. 8. f. He cut the branch with an axe. Servants brought water in jars.) sang the praise of Rama. m. to exist ud+stha-. 5.: palace matsya-. n. 4. prosperity. When you were ("stood") in trouble.: sun. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-.: hope indra-.: ode. m. m.: summit.: fish raksana-.: composition. 3. a hymn of praise . glory pustaka-. book (text) jaya-. f. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-. f. m.: branch wikhara-. meeting. wealth asura-.: congregation. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. 6. m. Men sat down on mats. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood. stream prasada-. m. you asked the king for protection. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. n.: victory. 2. top sabha-. m. m.

Ins. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7.. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. Nom. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. 2. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. Abl. We bring water from the pond. nadi Acc. nadim nadya nadyai Du. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. river) Sg. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. nadyah nadyoh Voc. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. satyameva jayate | 12. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. 3.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen. . nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Loc. 4. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. Dat. nadyau nadyau Pl.

n.: female servant. n. f. f. female slave devi-. 6.: beautiful namas-. acarati (I): to do. adj. f.: mother tira-. Even the king came with the soldiers.5. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler.: great king maharani-.) . bank dasi-. f. to practise mrg-. Indra's wife udyana-. n.: queen yoga-. adj. ucyate: is called vrt-. f. to return a+car-.: tiger sainika-.: hail!. adj. m.: woman patni-.: yoga vapi-. m.: ornament maharaja-. holy samagra-. whole sundara-. n.: city nadi-.: complete.: garden janani-. m. f. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-.: shore.: wife putri-. pool vyaghra-. f. f. 7. f. glory! (Dat. adv. n. mrgayate (X): to search for. f.: Indra's paradise nari-.: pond.: river nandana-.: clean. pass. m. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. 8. to go back.: soldier pavitra-. f. f.: daughter prthivi-. mistress nagari-. to perform.: robe.: Indrani. decoration indrani-.: goddess. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea. pratigacchati (I): to come back.: earth bhusana-. to hunt for vac-.

f.and -y. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3. bahvi. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems". dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc. bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5.Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u.(f. Text (read and translate): 1. ablative. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen.(f. Dat. Nom. cow): Sg. heavy). mate dhenu. mati mati Pl. many). matih Acc.with -v-). matim matya Du. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc. Loc. dhenuh Acc. f. Nom. guru-.(serious. f. punyena muktij labhadhve | . wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. Loc. Dat. prthvi. Abl. gurvi.. dhenum dhenva Du..(abundant. Ins. idea): Sg. mati. dhenu dhenu Pl. The dative. bahu-. Ins. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4.(broad). Abl.

wobhate (I): to shine anta-. caste dhrti-.6. 2.: courage. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15. m. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage.: quarrel. prabhavati (I): to arise. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat.: ruler . bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7. to appear vid-. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. m. f.: fame gopa-. to acquire wubh-. to instruct. palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. f. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. 8. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: cowherd jati-.: birth. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8. 5. fight kirti-. People of many castes lived in villages.) upa+diw-. m. to admonish pal-. 7. m. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12." said a citizen to the king. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. firmness parthiva-. 3. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. upadiwati (VI): to teach. vindati (VI): to get. f.: end kalaha-. 6. 4. I worship Shiva for prosperity.

land. m. f. f. n.: deliverance rawmi-.: peace.: sleep.: low mukhya-.paura-.: Vedic scripture smrti-.: ray vrana-.: fly mukti-.: well-being. righteous . sore wanti-.: earth. adj. dream nica-. f.: main. prosperity bhumi-. silence wruti-. f. ground maksika-. adj.: devotion bhuti-. f. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-. f.: holy. f.: wisdom bhakti-.: wound. f. foremost sadhu-. adj. f.: tradition. m.: citizen buddhi-. f.

apaniyati. Abl. to go back. completely. dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. atikramati.. alabhe 3. and Loc. nisidati. away: apa+ni-. above. apart: vi+dr-. Pl. against. it is changed into s. Loc. wholly: ati+kram-. to lead away. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen. kh-.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. dhiyau dhiyau Pl. Sg. dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. they were seen). Nom. In addition.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems". pratigacchati.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. Dat.Pl. 1.. p-. to govern. vidiryate. nispadyate (to arise). But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s. impf. Abl.(f.): dhi. completely overcome adhi-. . alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. thought): Sg. Ins. to carry away prati-. dhih Acc. ph. adhitisthati. back: prati+gam-. pass.changed into -is. alabhata Du. Dat.. this can also happen in Gen. to rule apa-. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. Gen. on: adhi+stha-. nyasidat. to return vi-. us: nih+pad-. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-.

harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. When was the king's son born? 8. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. he returned to the city. nispadyate (IV): to originate. 6. Many tigers. elephants and bears were seen there. 5. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6. Mother called (pass.Text (read and translate): 1. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. 4. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. 7.) girls home from the garden. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. pratibhasate (I): to answer . dhyayati (IV): to think. 2. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. to appear prati+bhas-. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. Rama's father was always remembered by people. Many arrows were shot on the tiger. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. Where did you get white cows? 3. to meditate nih+pad-. atikramati (I): to cross over. When the king talked with brahmins. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. to transgress pra+jan-.

: delusion ratha-.: destruction.: wise. m. f.: dwelling wri-.: beautiful dhira-. adj.: sage. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-.: lord. saint moha-. to drive anujba-. f. desire karana-.: thought. firm wveta-.: white .: whole caru-. adhitisthati (I): to govern. to rule. f. n. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. wealth srsti-. m.: man muni-. m. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-. reason nawa-.: greed vasati-. f.: agreement iwvara-. adj. n.: cause dhi-.rac-.: pleasure.: lotus purusa-. m.: creation krtsna-.: chariot lobha-. master. god kama-. to restrain ni+sev-. f.: luck. adj. annihilation padma-. beauty. m. m. adj. m. m.

daddy. 6. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12." orders students the tradition. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. 3. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. vadama 1. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). Let the children show the traveler the way. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. "Study the treatises and speak the truth. 5. 4. . Let charioteers do not torture horses. pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7. vada Du. ma gacchatu (let him not go). daughter. 2. Let the men dig a pond. 2. Text (read and translate): 1. annaj yaccha he janani | 13. devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. "Come today. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. 7. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11. Pl." said the father." asked the boy father. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. "Give me food.

rotten para-. study praja-. form. adj. adv.) ciram. adj. lower dirgha-. m. different adhastat.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-. statue vaiwya-. adv. untruth abhyasa-.: repeating.: down. m. f.: image. in proximity va: or .: order asana-. m. by all means hrasvam. meeting.: seeing. to learn a+diw-. adj.: everywhere. studying adewa-.: near. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-.: highest. under (Gen.: different. khanati (I): to dig atithi-. adj.: lie.: guest anrta-. position kawi-. n. abhyasyati (IV): to study. thoroughly.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-. adv.: daddy darwana-. audience pataliputra-. adv. close. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-.: long. f. f.: lesson. m.: subject. m. m. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-. n. far dusta-. people murti-.: seat. m.: bad.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-. n.: for the long time sarvatah.

bhuvau Pl. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. Dat. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. Nom. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. vadhvau vadhvau Pl. Abl. Nom. vadhuh Acc. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. earth): Sg.(f.. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. Ins. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen. vadhu bhu. bhuva bhuve Du. Ins. Loc.. Abl. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. woman): Sg. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. bhuh Acc.(f. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc. Loc. Dat.

2. "Take away nice clothes. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri. to steal ksana-.: well bhupala-. 8.: woman. f. to seem vi+vad-. m. f." ordered the householder. Let the student not argue with the teacher.: dwelling bhu-. m. ground bhru-. 5. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16. 4. pravartate (I): to become.: praise .) apa+har-.: teacher juhu-.: land. Let us live there. f.: quality acarya-. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. earth. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. to arise wuc-. n.: queen laksmi-. f. apaharati (I): to take away. pas. The eyebrows of beauties are always black. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14. m. f. There is no water in the well. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3. 6. People live on earth and gods in heaven. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-. f. f. 7. drwyate: to look (like). f.: the goddess Durga nivewana-. Who protects the earth is called a ruler.: eyebrow rajbi-.: moment guna-.: beauty stuti-. m. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15.13.: ruler vadhu-.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-.: mother-in-law sundari-. f. wife wvawru-. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-. f.: sacrificial ladle durga-.

. adj..snusa-.: which . then..: curved.: daughter-in-law vakra-. twisted yavat-tavat: when. as far as ya-. rel. f.. pron.

Text (read and translate): 1. mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. 2. This form is widely used especially in 3. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. 3. Pl. often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). labhai Du. Let it be thus! 5.Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. Let an ascetic not converse with women. satyaj sadocyatam | 10. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. . 6. person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Do not neglect illnesses. 4. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. 1. Some verbs. otherwise active.

abhinayati (I): to conduct.: better. atonement bhojana-. f. m. Let women and children are not killed in the war. villain devalaya-. sajbhasate (I): to converse. 8. homage prayawcitta-.: sometimes samyak. to seek refuge in han-.: now kalena.: buffalo yati-. adv. n.) a+wri-. m. adv.: illness vara-.: play. learned man pada-. ghatayati: to kill kala-. m. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-.: bad man. place puja-.: decision pandita-.: grass. m. pratiksate (I): to await. rightly . Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung. to expect upa+iks-.: scholar. n.: expiation. pasture durjana-. death kalidasa-.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-.: war roga-. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-.: time.7. n.: ascetic yuddha-. m. n. m. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-. adv. m.: well. m. to act bhan-. awrayate (I): to depend on. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-.: worship. caus. drama niwcaya-. to talk with (Ins. m.: food mahisa-. m.: temple nataka-. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-.: step. m. adj. best idanim.

Loc. mata Acc.. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen. Nom. Nom. Nom. Abl. pita Acc.Du. maker): Sg. pitarau Pl.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns. father): Sg. pituh Voc.. Ins..(m. 2) nouns of relationship. matar . Abl. karta Acc. kartuh Voc. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a.. matarau Pl. agent.Pl. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du. matra matre matuh matari Du. Nom. Dat. kartarau Pl. They differ only in Acc.(m. Loc. Loc. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. Dat. Dat. kartar pitr. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du..Du. sister and naptr-. matuh Voc. Ins. Acc. mother): Sg. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen.(f. kartr. Ins.Sg. and Nom. pitar matr. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. Abl.

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.


Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

nausu yuddhamabhavat | . nava nave nauh navi Du. jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7. let it be done). labhevahi labheyatam Pl. gacchati "[he/she] goes". brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen.Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows". Dat.(f. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2. labhemahi labheran 2. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. Nom. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. Abl. 1. nauh As you have probably noticed. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. Text (read and translate): 1. boat): Sg. labheya 3. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". Loc. nauh Acc.. Ins. The declension of the word nau. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3. labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. labheta Du. navau Pl. nauh Voc.

: the breeding of cattle bhaya-. m. n. f. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive). adj. to abandon (Abl.: same. as (relative) .: doubtful. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12. mode. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living . questionable yatha. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-. Let women and children be taken away to the city. direction sama-.10.: order seva-. equal.: friend vanijya-. rule.: life nidewa-. 7. pass.).this we read in the treatises. m. balavudyane rameyatam | 11. viramate (I): to give up.: service pawupalya-.: servant marana-. May the friends be always remembered! 2.: death mitra-.) abhi+vad-. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: fear bhrtaka-. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy. to carry out. to welcome (Acc. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. 4. f. n.: agriculture jivita-. n.: business. anutisthati (I): to follow. n. adv. trade vidhi-.: garden krsi-. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-. m. m.: how. to perform apa+ni-. 3. Let new poems be written! 6. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple.: way. 8. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. n. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-. n. 5.) udyana-. adj. even sajdigdha-. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt.

we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. adhyapayati (to teach). So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context . deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9. Text (read and translate): 1.translate as "to recite". The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody). bhavayati (to make something happen). jbapayati (to make known. "to sing". karayati (to cause to be done).(to go). wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8. to water). ga. And also adhi+i. gam. patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. to fly). "to report" etc. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. to make somebody to go).between the root and -aya-: jba. that is using the augment -aya-: jan. If the root ends in any other vowel. gamayati (to let go. gapayati (to let sing). to beget).Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4. it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu.(to fall.(to learn). The vowel -a. But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10. to proclaim).(to be born). kr. suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11. dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3. suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key .(to know). janayati (to give birth. kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13.(to sing). janayati (see above).between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6. "to tell". upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5.(to do). Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p.(to be). When translating the causative.

f. n. darwayati: to show apa+ni-. caus. m. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras. m.: form. 3. amongst (with genitive) arthe. m. adv. 6. to enlarge pa-. 2. patayati: to knock down mr-. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. caus. marayti: to kill vid-. m.) the cows come into the cowshed. 5. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. caus. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. They watered horses with water from the river.: hand. Let the householder return home. to make known vrdh-. tax duta-. vedayati: to announce.: between. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-. m. caus. caus. caus. caus. vardhayati: to make bigger.: woman madhye. Let (pl. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. ajbapayati: to order da-. caus.: wolf rupa-. Let them allow the guests to enter. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. postp.: cowshed manoratha-.: coming kara-.: in vain. 8.: for the sake of vrtha. caus. postp. caus.) the father the books. caus. 7. caus.: messenger gostha-.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 4. m. elephant's trunk. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-.: desire vrka-. to no avail . beauty stri-. Show (sg.

Acc. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. Abl. Gen. Loc. Ins. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. Loc. Ins. Gen. (I) Nom. nau. Acc. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). nah. Abl. tva. (you) Nom. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. . vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse. me. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. te. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. Dat.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. Dat.

yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8.: nectar (the drink of immortality) . caus. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. Tell me the story of Urvashi. or Gen. 2. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. begged the boy mother. bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2.: transgression. offence amaru-. nivedayati: to announce. 5. I did not steal your gold (passive).: the poet Amaru amrta-. 8. to disseminate. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. n. to whom . anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. Our (Dual) parents died. caus.Dat. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. prathayati: to propagate. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.Acc.Text (read and translate): 1. to spread ni+vid-. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13. kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. I do not want your (Dual) money. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. n. m. Mother gives food to both you and me. 3. 4. 7. ksamate: to forgive (what . Elephants do not live in our country. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. Let the gods protect your life! 6.. caus. Let your father go with me.) prath-. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. to report wru-. to beg ksam-. prarthayate: to ask. bhadraj te | 9.

n. prosperity mayura-. m. life bhadra-. n. adv.ca: both . Pl.: frog dewa-. m.: peacock mauna-.: speaker vanaprasta-.: half awrama-.: tomorrow . n. m. n. n. happiness. f. m.: ornament. f. postposition: if wvas. recluse wobhana-.: the nymph Urvashi katha-.: country naraka-.: hell nidhana-.: satisfaction.: silence vaktr-.: bliss. virtue wloka-.ardha-.: story kapota-.: pigeon taksawila-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-. m.: hermitage urvawi-. f.and cet. m. m. m. m.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-.: breath.: treasure prana-. m.: hermit. m. contentedness ca .

cc. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. h cc. te te Pl. at. V oc.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. bl. at. L oc. this) Sg. G en. G en. N om. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. ns. N om. bl. she (sa. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . this) Sg. ns. tau tau tabh yam Pl.

bl. (which one [of many]) katarah m. V oc./ itara f. N om. (all) ekah m. (which one [of two]) anyah m./ sarva f. it (tad./ ubhayam n. cc./ etad n./ ya f.follow irregular sandhi pattern. Here they ./ katara f./ anyad n. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a. except for nominative and accusative of neuter./ katarad n. ns./ anya f./ katamad n. (relative pronoun which) katamah m./ eka f. en. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du. (other) The following words also follow this declension./ viwvam n./ ekam n. tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m. L oc./ itarad n.and esa./ yad n. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m./ ubhaya f. (all) viwvah m. V oc.L oc. at./ viwva f./ esa f. te te tabh yam Pl./ sarvam n. (different) itarah m. (this one) yah m. (one) ubhayah m./ katama f.

Husbands of these women went to war. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. caus. Adj. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14./m. 9. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6." said the general. prinayati: to please. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. In this forest I saw a lion. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. Examples: sa purusah (this man). Only kings are born with these signs! 8. 5. 10. Other people than you won't accomplish this.: noble upadewa-. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. instruction . 4. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. 2. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3. Poor people live in the houses. m. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. m. anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2.: advice. 7.change to -o and the following -a is lost. sa isuh (this arrow). 3. to delight sidh-. I don't like your behavior. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7.: end arya-. yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9. yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10. viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. so 'vadat (he said). Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. In these rivers there are many fish. I don't want these books. caus. Text (read and translate): 1./n. 6.

Adj. f.: donkey gardabha-. characteristic.: donkey laksana-.) . Adj.: mark.: fault.: many.: learned prati: towards (with Acc. sign vira-. m.: thin.: foolish wiksita-. m. Adj. brilliance. army leader adhika-.: behavior dosa-. m. m.) aneka-. Adj.: hero vrtta-. n. emaciated pusta-.: bigger than (with Abl. beauty sijha-.: general. Adj. offense wobha-.: lion senapati-. m.khara-. much.: fat murkha-. not one krwa-. m. n.: splendor. Adj.

adhitisthati (I): to govern. Adj. to mount a+wri-. n. to practise a+diw-. studying acarya-. dice ali-.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-. to act abhi+vad-. n.: bee amaru-. agamayati: to let come a+hr-.: fire ajba-. m. m.: today.) adhuna. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-.: down. to welcome (Acc.: repeating. much. to call in a+jba-. to seek refuge in abharana-. n.) abhi+ni-.: poverty aneka-. not one anila-. m.: many. adv. m. caus.: food anrta-.: now adya. to rule. n. awrayate (I): to depend on. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. m.: order aksa-.: end .: the poet Amaru amrta-./n.: unrighteousness adhastat. caus. n.: fire anartha-. to drive adhika-.: eye. adv. m. caus. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-. n. m. arohati (I): to ascend.) adhi+i-. Adj.: teacher adewa-. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-. to rinse a+car-. untruth anta-. f.) a+ruh-.: wind anna-. m. adv. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. now agamana-. m. ahvayati (IV): to call here. abhinayati (I): to conduct. under (Gen. m. acamati (I): to sip.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. to learn abhi+nand-. m. decoration abhi+a+as-. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-. acarati (I): to do. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-.: lie.: bigger than (with Abl.: robe. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-.: order adharma-.: coming agni-. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-. abhyasyati (IV): to study. to perform.

position asatya-. m. m. m. happiness. m. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. n.: wife bhas-. m. n.: sun bhara-. load bhartr-. even. to transgress atithi-. m. asyati (IV): to throw asana-. n.: end anu+gam-. m.: agreement apa+har-. n. m.: bliss. lie asi-.: horse badh-. many bahu-. prosperity.: forest ardha-.: sword asura-.: burden. prosperity bhaga-. abundant. m. offence api-. part. bhasate (I): to speak. m. anutisthati (I): to follow. strength bhadra-.: part bhakti-.: hope awrama-. atikramati (I): to cross over. m.: different.: enemy arth-.: boy.: noble as-. to steal apa+ni-./m. f. apanayayati: to lead away apara-.: meaning. postp.) artha-. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-. m. m. also. f. lower aparaddha-. force. avarohati: to descend awa-. wealth arthe. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-.: husband bharya-.: tear awva-. adj. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. child bala-.: hermitage awru-. n. m. pass.: numerous.anta-. f. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-. caus. n.: seat. to say .: arm bala-. f. apaharati (I): to take away. even though aranya-. badhyate: to bind bahu-.: half ari-.: for the sake of arya-. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-.: devotion bhan-. n. to perform anujba-.: power. adj.: here ava+gam-. to carry out.: transgression. m.: "un-truth".: demon ati+kram-. adv. Adj.: guest atra.

land.: poor darwana-.: fear bhiks-.: beautiful cet.: alms bhiksu-. audience dasa-.: wisdom ca . m.: servant. mn.: seeing.: gift dand-. adj.bhasa-. bhavati (I): to be. beggar bhojana-. dapayati: to let give da-. prosperity bindu-. f. m. f.: temple . bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-.: ruler bhusana-.: god. m. m. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-. m. n. n. diyate: to give dah-. m. n.: drop brahmana-. postposition: if chaya-. dandayati (X): to beat. f. to practise caru-.: shadow. punishment dardura-. pass.: ornament bhuti-.: eyebrow bhu-. meeting. slave dasi-. to roam. lord devalaya-. m.and car-. mendicant. f.: brahmin buddha-.: servant bhru-. f. f. corayati (X): to steal da-. f. f.: language bhaya-. n.: food bhojana-.: Buddha buddhi-. m.: stick. dahati (I): to burn dana. dawati (I): to bite deha-. m.: food bhram-. ground bhumi-.: body deva. to become bhu-. ground bhupala-. m. m.ca: both .: frog daridra-. n. adj. f.: female servant. m. carati (I): to walk.: fear bhaya-. shade ciram.: land. n. earth. to punish danda-.: well-being.: brother bhrtaka-. caus. female slave datr-. m. m. m.: for the long time cur-. adv.: giver daw-.: servant bhrtya-.: Buddhist monk.: earth.

: goddess. gacchati (I): to go gan-.: courage. f. pas.: country dhairya-.: thought. n. caus.: elephant gam-.: "twice-born". ghee giri-.: cowshed grama.: the goddess Durga durjana-.: village . m.: thus ga-. to look duhitr-. to point dosa-.: song gopa-. adj. brahmin dvijati-. to seem drw-. n.: cowherd gostha-.: "twice-born". jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-.: bad. m.: donkey gavga-. reason dhira-.adj. ganayati (X): to count gandha-.: wealth. firmness dhana. firmness dhya-. righteousness. n. m. money dhanya-.devi-. rotten duta-. m. n. m. dhavati (I): to run dhi-. mistress dewa-. f.: wise.: grass. m.: fault.: grain dharma-. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-.: just.: patience. only evam. Buddhism dhav-. drwyate: to look (like).: bad man.: pot..: long. to meditate dirgha-. m. diwati (VI): to show. m. dhyayati (IV): to think. adv. member of a high caste eva.: scent. m. m. fragrance gardabha-. m.: messenger dvija-. f.: the river Ganga ghasa-. m. n. pasture ghata-. adj. pawyati (IV): to see.: law.: suffering duhkhita. firm dhrti-. jar ghra-. f. m. Law. adv.: clarified butter. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-. m. courage.: daughter duhkha-. n. adj. far div-. offense dru-. distressed durga-.: unhappy. dravati (I): to run drw-. f.: mountain gita-. m. villain dusta-. f. darwayati: to show drw-. m.

f. book (text) grha-.: sacrificial ladle kada. n. m.: time. to conceal guna-. m.: quality guru-. part.: Hindu god Indra indrani-.: householder guh-. adv. m. m. m. harati (I): to take. adv. close. jivati (I): to live jivana-. to conquer jiv-. desire kamp-.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-.: benefit. part.: now iha. death kalaha-. m. guhati (I): to hide. ghatayati: to kill hari-. in proximity hrdaya-. adv. m. to tremble . offering idanim. icchati (VI): to want.: Indrani. to take away. m.: pleasure. iksate (I): to look at.: when? kala-. like. n. jayate (IV): to be born jana-.: person janaka-.: water jamatr-. adv.: life jivita-. f.: lord.: father janani-. m. m. m.grantha-.: composition.: as. hvayati (IV): to call huta-. here iks-. glory ji-. guru han-.: mother jati-. caus.: son-in-law jan-.: so iva.: near. m. m. caste jaya-. fight kalena.: quarrel. Indra's wife is-. goodness kama-. f. n. m. n. m. adv. n. to carry hrasvam. to stare indra-.: victory. jayati (I): to win. to yearn for isu-. n.: birth.: oh! hr-.: personal name hasta-. master. f.: life juhu-. kampate (I): to shake. m. n.: heart hu-.: hand he.: arrow iti. m.: house grhastha-.: oblation.: teacher.: sometimes kalidasa-. as if iwvara-. god jala. part.

) ksana-.: fame klp-. m. adv.Acc. Adj. adv. n.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-. black krt-.: poetry kawi-. or Gen.: kshatriya.: well kutah.) kopa-. f.kanya-. n. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.) krwa-. sign laksmi-. adv.: cause kastha-.: girl. f.: hand.: how? kavi-.: poet kavya-. lance kup-. elephant's trunk. young man kunta-. characteristic. adv.) kupa-.: moment ksatriya-. to cultivate (field) krsi-. n.: wood kata-. khadati (I): to eat khan-. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat.: field ksip-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-.: plough . m.: mark. n. tax karana-. adj. f. adv.: anger kr-.Dat. m.: whole krudh-. to obtain laksana-. m. n. why? kirti-.: what?. m. f. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. daughter kapota-.: where from? why? kutra. n.: mat kath-.: story katham. m.: agriculture krsna-. to whom .. n.: spear. pass.: where? labh-. f.: thin. labhate (I): to get. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-.: pigeon kara-.: milk kumara-. kathayati (X): to tell.: prince. to narrate katha-. or Dat. emaciated ksal-. ksamate: to forgive (what . m. m. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. m. krsati (I): to plow.: donkey kim. f.: where? kva. khanati (I): to dig khara-. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-.: anger krs-. m. m. or Dat. kriyate: to do krodha-. fighter ksetra-. m.

m.: city.: between. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-.: deliverance mr-. mouth mukhya-.: buffalo maksika-. m. m. f. marayti: to kill mr-. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-.: silence mayura-. f.likh-.: deer mrtyu-. m. m. f. n. postp.: main. manyate (IV): to think. statue nadi-.: river nagara.: fish mauna-. to hunt for mrga-. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-.: fly mala-. adj. or Loc. n. f. m.: queen mahisa-. lubhyati (IV): to long for.: delusion moksa-. form. m.: foolish murti-.: way.: deliverance muni-. to rob mad-. m. precious stone manoratha-.) lup-.: image. m. foremost mukti-. m.) mukha-. f.: world (in Pl. m. m.: great king maharani-.: honey madhye.: peacock megha-.) man-. n. saint murkha-. road masa-. likhati (VI): to write lip-.: city . Adj. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-.: month matsya-.: friend moha-. lumpati (VI): to steal.: sage.: death marga. to suppose mani-.: cloud mitra-.: death muc-. m. n. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-. n. m. m. n. modate (I): to delight in (Ins. to desire (with Dat. m. to discharge mud-. f. means also "people") lubh-.: person marana-.: face. town nagari-.: greed loka-.: garland mam: me (Acc. caus. mubcati (VI): to free.: gem. f.: desire manusya-. mrgayate (X): to search for. m.

n. caus.: leader netra. king nrpati-. m.: eye ni-. adv. n. m. caus.: the grammarian Panini papa-.: scholar.: grandson nara-.: lotus pal-. adj. m.m. adj. annihilation netr..: low nidewa-. own nivewana-. drama navina-. adj.: king.: hail!. m. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-.: hell nari-.) nandana-. nawyati (IV): to be lost. different para+ji-. m.: axe pari+dha-. pibati (I): to drink pac-. m. sinful papa-. m.: foot.: hand. m.: bad. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-. to report nica-. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-.: woman nataka-. m.nam-. m.: step. parinayati: to marry parthiva-.: one's.: play.: dwelling niwcaya-. learned man pani-. nivedayati: to announce. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-. m.: man naraka-. to appear nija-. to prostrate. palm panini-. n. ruler pa-. palayati (X): to protect pandita-. n.n.: sin para-.: order nidhana-. pacati (I): to cook pada-. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-. palayati: to protect pa-. to worship namas-. place padma-. m. glory! (Dat. adj.: new naw-.: Indra's paradise naptr-. f. nispadyate (IV): to originate.: ruler. footprint pada-. n.: decision nrpa-. namati (I): to bow.: highest. n. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-.: ruler .: destruction. adj. m. to perish nawa-.: treasure nih+gam-. n. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-. m.

pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. to return prati+iks-. to expect prati+sidh-. pass. to arise prabhuta-. prarthayate: to ask. f.: breath. m. patayati: to knock down pat-. n. to hurt pitamaha-. otec. Du. to beg pra+as-. m. husband patni-. to revere puja-.: wife pattra-. to disseminate.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-. m.: Lord.: the breeding of cattle pid-. people prana-. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-.ch-. n. pathati (I): to read. cattle pawupalya-.: expiation. Pl. n.: subject. pratigacchati (I): to come back.: sacrificial animal. prathayati: to propagate. study pathika-. adj. pratiksate (I): to await. f. parents.: grandfather pitr-. caus. letter paura-. m.: mountain. master. f.parvata-.: clean.: lesson. m.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-. puryate: to fill pr. many praja-. adj. m. life prasada-. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. to recite patha-. trap pawu-.: worship. caus.: citizen pavitra-. to appear pra+jan-. n. m. pidayati (X): to torture.) prati+bhas-. hill pat-. atonement pri-. caus. patati (I): to fall. ancestors pr-. parayati (X): to overcome pr-.) pra+stha-. caus. m. prabhavati (I): to arise. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. pravartate (I): to become.: leaf. prapadyate (IV): to go to. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-.: earth puj-. to worship. Pl. holy pawa-. to restrain prayaga-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-. to delight prthivi-. m. m. to fly pataliputra-. pujayati (X): to honour. to go back. homage . m.: snare.: palace prath-. prinayati: to please.: manifold. f. to take refuge in (Acc.: traveler pati-.

assembly sad-. f.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-.: sea sah-. n.: chariot rathya-. n. m. n.: bear roga-. n.: holy man sagara-.: daughter r-. m. adv. n.: gem ratna-. n.: protection raksitr-. quantity rawmi-. rohati (I): to grow rupa-.: seer ruc-.: heap. or postp. f.: enemy rksa-.: again punya-. m. Gen. adv. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-.: book (manuscript) putra. mass.. m.) rud-. beauty rupaka-.: flood. n. m. f. m.: son putri-. m.: coin sabha-.: fat pustaka-. m.: suddenly . f. f. to obtain. ramate (I): to play rama-.: with (with Inst.: old story. m. mn. stream purana-. n. rodati (I): to weep ruh-.: epos Ramayana rana-.: man puspa-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-. prep.) sahasa. m.: holy.: form. Adj. m. precious stone rawi-. adj. to share rac-. sidati (I): to sit. to endure saha.: ray ripu-.: congregation.: protector ram-. f.: always sadhu-. n. n. meeting.: queen rajya-. sahate (I): to bear. m. rocate (I): to like (Dat.: street ratna-.punar. righteous sadhu-. to sit down sada.: protection raksana-. m.: kingdom raks-. raksati (I): to protect raksana-. m.: merit pura-.: illness rsi-.: flower pusta-.: jewel. rcchati (I): to get. adv.: battle ratha-.

adj. m. army leader sev-. f. tadayati (X): to beat tada. n. adj.: creator srj-. to talk with (Ins. sajbhasate (I): to converse. sajgacchate: to come together sama-. at that time .: then. m. questionable sajtosa-. or Loc.: doubtful.: happiness sukta-. even samagra-. m.: complete.: lion smr-.: servant sic-. n. m. f. m.: heaven svasr-. m. f. adj.sainika-. m.: everywhere satya-. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-.: Vedic hymn sundara-. f. adv. equal. contentedness sam+a+car-.: sun. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-. f.: sister tad-. f.) snusa-.: satisfaction.: truth senapati-. m.: well. robber stha-.: sleep.: ocean.) sam+gaj-. n. n.) seva-. f.: charioteer suvarna-.: beautiful sundari-. to discharge sidh-. smarati (I): to remember smrti-.: same. m. f.: ode.: tradition.: gold svapna-. m. serpent sarvatah. adj.: woman stuti-. m.: snake. to stay stotra-. adv. thoroughly. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-. sevate (I): to serve.: thief. srjati (VI): to create srsti-. by all means sarvatra. to honour (Acc. rightly sarpa-. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. n.: daughter-in-law sprw-. dream svarga-. a hymn of praise stri-.: everywhere.: praise sukha-. n. adv.: soldier sajdigdha-. the god of the Sun suta-. adv. tisthati (I): to stand.: service sevaka-. whole samudra-. sea samyak.: beauty surya-. m. caus.: creation stena-.: general.

tolayati (X): to lift up. tarati (I): to cross over tu. instruction urvawi-.: curved. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-.: forest vanaprasta-. pass. m. to be satisfied (Ins.: high ud+pat-. to stand up udadhi-.: garden udyoga-. to pay homage vanijya-. n.: there tira-. part.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-.: shore.taksawila-. m.: clothing . upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-. to grieve (Abl.: water varuna-. to instruct. vadati (I): to speak.: pond. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. adj. so tatra.) taru-. n. adj. n. twisted vaktr-. tudati (VI): to strike.: dwelling vastra-. f. adj.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-. n.: speaker vana-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-. vandate (I): to praise. adv. to weigh tus-. recluse vand-. m. ucyate: is called vad-.: daddy tatha. vahati (I): to carry. f. to say vadhu-. perseverance upa+diw-.) tyaj-. tyajati (I): to leave. upadiwati (VI): to teach. m.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. to flow vaiwya-. f. to pierce tul-.: tree tata-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. pool vara-. trade vap-.: woman. to give up ucca-. m.: exertion.: advice. to admonish upa+iks-. n.: ocean udyana-.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-. f. uttisthati (I): to get up.: better. adv.: but tud-. m. bank tr-.: garden udyana-. f. m. best vari-. m. to blow. n. wife vah-. m.: hermit.: business. vapati (I): to sow vapi-. n.: thus. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-.

: in vain. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-. argument viw-. to enlarge vrka-.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-.: enemy wikhara-. n.: wound. direction vidya-. f.: arrow warana-. m.: wind vi+ram-. top wiks-. to pour down. to exist vrt-.: tiger wajs-.) vi+vad-. pupil . m. wealth vayu-. adv. wisdom vihaga-.: summit. to shower vrt-. m. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-. n.: wave vid-.: learned wisya-. vedayati: to announce.vasu-. m.: refuge was-. m. vindati (VI): to get. to abandon (Abl. n. sore vrdh-. n. viramate (I): to give up.: behavior vrttanta-. m.: knowledge. n.: poison vrana-. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-.: disputation. m.: student. m. to no avail vrtta-. m. m. pass. wajsati (I): to praise. to make known vid-. to be finished wanti-.: tree vrs-.: ruler. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. f. law-book watru-. m.: bird vihaga-.: bird vinaya-. varsati (I): to rain. to extol wakha-. wisyate: to rule. m.: treatise.: hunter vyaghra-. vartate (I): to live on vrtha. to punish wastr-.: way.: hero vira-.: branch wam-.: discipline vipra-. m. n. m.: hero visnu-. caus.: story vyadh-. to acquire vidhi-. vardhayati: to make bigger.: peace. m. vivadati (I): to argue vici-. mode.: thing. silence wara-. m. vartate (I): to be. caus. m.: brahmin vira-. m. m. Adj. f. rule. m. "punisher" wastra-.: wolf vrksa-. n.

wealth wru-.: mother-in-law wvawura-. m. beauty. wruyate: to hear wruti-.: child wiwu-.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives. m. n. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-.: ornament. m. oblation for them wram-. m.: father-in-law wveta-. f. m. f. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. caus.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-.: Vedic scripture wubh-. adv. beauty wobhana-.: war yudh-.: Shiva wiwu-.: ascetic yatra.wiva-.: tomorrow wvawru-.) yatha. pass.: white ya-. m. rel. brilliance. as far as yoga-.: child wloka-. m. m.: the river Yamuna yat-. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: splendor.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then…. adv.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-.) wudra-. adv. adv. as (relative) yati-.: sacrifice yam-. m.: when (relative) yaj-. pron. f. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-. f.: yoga yuddha-.: how.: which yada. yudhyati (IV): to fight . yacchati (I): to give yamuna-. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-. virtue wraddha-. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl.: luck. adj. m. m. f.

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