Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

sad. In Sanskrit. Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?). "god") Nom. Text (read and translate): 1. devah phala (n. phalani Acc. bhojanaj tu (but the food. na vadanti (they do not say. devah Acc. yacchati. classes: gam. the Buddha only). brahmanah sada yajanti devan | . kutra katah | 3.to -i-: sidati. Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and). va (or). the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence. class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI. Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na. tu (but). phalani Voc. devan Voc.. and I. eva (particle of emphasis.).(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi.to -cch-: gacchati. balah kataj diwati | 2..(VI. ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits). bhojanam atra (the food [is] here). "fruit") Nom.. is (to want) changes -s.(to give) change -m. So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going). stha. buddham eva (just the Buddha..to -cch-: icchanti.in front of the verb. phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad.Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m.(to go) and yam. they are not saying).(to sit) changes -a. just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits).

Do you want milk? 10. Brahmins still sit there. We praise the boys. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25. 4. 11. The exercise key . The man steps on (viw-) the mat. 3. there the people do not live. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. Boys. Where are the elephants? 5. dhanamicchamah | 24. 6. 12. margaj diwatha balah | 19. there stay the houses.4. nagarameva gacchami | 9. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. 8. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. devannamanti | 22. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.) going? 2. grhamatra tisthati | 6. you are pointing the way. nrpah kva sidati | 7. narandevah srjati | 13. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17. 7. Where the water does not flow. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. tatha jivamah | 18. kada danani yacchatha | 26. 9. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. gramamadya viwamah | 14. balah ksiramicchati | 23. I want water. danani yacchanti | 10. Where is the city. Where are you (pl. We are leaving the world today.

: when (relative) . viwati (VI): to enter wajs-. adv. m. lord dhana-. town putra-. to give up diw-. n. adv.: wealth. yacchati (I): to give viw-. n. to yearn for gam-. icchati (VI): to want. road eva. m. tisthati (I): to stand.Vocabulary is-. to prostrate. tyajati (I): to leave. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-. dhavati (I): to run nam-.: son marga-. so tada.: then. diwati (VI): to show. n. m.: way. to point dhav-. adv.: when? tatha. to worship yam-.: just. only kada. srjati (VI): to create stha-.: village jala-.: mat ksira-. to stay sprw-.: god. at that time yatra.: city.: milk gaja-.: where (relative) yada. m. adv. n. adv.: gift deva-.: water dana-.: elephant grama-. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. sidati (I): to sit. wajsati (I): to praise. m. to extol sad-.: thus. money nagara-. n. namati (I): to bow. m. adv. to sit down srj-.

vad+a+tah They (two) say n. varsati (to rain. rohati (to grow). to conceal). dru-. Nom. Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. Accusative and Vocative cases: m. to shower). If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . to smell). pibati (to drink). sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here). bhu-. jighrati (III. ghra-. Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). It has always the same form for Nominative. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1.Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. class. devau phale Voc. But note some irregularities: guh-. vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. the first grade is called guna. Acc. vrs-. ji-. normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. dravati (to run). class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. ruh-. pa-. bhavati (to be). jayati (to win. nayati (to lead). the second grade is vrddhi. to conquer). The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. guhati (to hide. vad+a+thah You (two) say 3.

vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. 8. devau smaramah | 9. 4. Here stand (two) trees. 6. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. Where are both horses? 3. . atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Where are you (two) going now? 9. 12. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. he nrpau jayathah | 11. Here we (two) do not live. Home (emphasized) go both boys. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. 5. They give money and gifts. balau phale khadatah | 20. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. The ruler conquers both fighters. 2. To the forest run the (two) elephants. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. Where do you hide money? 11. Just today we both go to the city. anilah sada na vahati | 16. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. The Buddha speaks the truth. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. 7. atraiva vasavah | 5. 10.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. Just here are (two) horses. devavadya smaramah | 10. dahasi he anala | 15. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. satyaj na vadathah | 18.

: scent. Here sarvatra. m. adv. part. m. to pour down.13.: tree satya-.: everywhere he.: fire anila-. jighrati (III): to smell ji-. vahati (I): to carry. guhati (I): to hide. m. pibati (I): to drink bhu-. smarati (I): to remember awva-. nayati (I): to lead pa-. to become vah-. n. to conceal ghra-. adv.: truth iha. dravati (I): to run ni-. varsati (I): to rain. to flow ruh-.: horse anala-. n.: cloud vana-. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-.: wind gandha-. to blow. bhavati (I): to be. fragrance megha-. m.: oh! .: forest vrksa-. to conquer dah-. to shower smr-. jayati (I): to win. khadati (I): to eat guh-. m. rohati (I): to grow vrs-. dahati (I): to burn dru-. m.

"by means of ". Dat. phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). the goal of the motion (I go to the city). . Ins. Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. Loc. deva And for neuter: phala (n. Nom.. "fruit") Sg. Dative: the indirect object. is also used to denote reason (from anger). by carriage). circumstances (in the city).. as English "through". "by" (with the Buddha. devau devau Pl. "because of". devah Acc. devam Du. Nom. devasya devayoh Voc. Dat. the agent in a passive construction. Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). "god") Sg.Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. phalam Acc. phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen. Ins. Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". telling (to the boy). Accusative: the object (I see you). Locative: the location. Abl. devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. phalasya Voc. giving. Abl. phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). Loc.

The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah .the fighter says that he lives here).Vocative: the address (Who are you. ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. -u before any vowel (except for -u. -i. j and sibilants). ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. narah gacchanti (the men go). duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . m for p. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. man?). -i before any vowel (except for -i. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here). b for c and j. -u. n for t. jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. For example: muc-. see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). mubcati (see Vocabulary). this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). If the following word beggins with a short a-. Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1.

: traveler parvata-./n. carati (I): to walk.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-. People do not live in forests. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys.: mountain.: father duhkha-. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. to discharge yaj-. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15. 5. m. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16. to practise muc-. force. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14. m.: brahmin . krntati (VI): to cut car-. m. Men with boys go to the forest. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12. Trees do not grow on high mountains. People want happiness. n. strength mrga-. but not suffering. 6.: forest kumara-. n.: prince.: suffering dvija-.: power. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. 7. 8. n. m. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons.: battle rama-. n. 4. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-. m. young man janaka-. limpati (VI): to smear sic-.: deer rana-. mubcati (VI): to free. Traveler walks on the way to the village. to roam. to discharge aranya-. m.11. 3. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. m. m. hill bala-. brahmin pathika-. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. 2.: "twice-born". wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17.: plough vipra-.

: but The exercise key . why? kutah.: happiness hasta-.: where from?.: what?. part. adv.: high iti.viwa-. adv. n. n. part.: oblation. n. why? tu. offering ucca-. m.: so kim. adj.: hand huta-.: Shiva sukha-.: poison wiva-. m.

vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. . the fire is here. Ins.. anarya. Nom. varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. Du. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati. Loc. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati. agne vari. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati.(n. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen. But if the following word begins with -r. agnih Acc. poet tells to the seer). Dat. agni Pl. Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. Nom. noble. fire) Sg..(m.(if it begins with a vowel).(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an. arya. Abl. Loc. asukha. Dat. vari Acc. agneh Voc. Ins. varini varini Pl. unhappiness. varinah varinoh Voc. sorrow. "un-noble". For example: sukha-. fire burns). happines. Abl.Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. vari varina varine Du. water): Sg. Rama goes with the poets).

b). . no elephants live. dh. satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. asks the king. rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15. If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. poet. rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. Text (read and translate): 1. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. jh. d. 7. From sin there is always suffering. "Enemies rob the houses here". 2. suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. 4. -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. Hari's horse is standing just here. harij ksirena yajatah | 18. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. j. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). nominative plural of vari is varini). but from the Law [there is] happiness. Even today people remember Rama. asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. "You don't speak the truth". ch. Where people burn the forests. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). 9. 3. retroflex (t. We live happily here in the mountains. why don't you recite poetry?". jalaj gireh patati | 10. balau kuto rodatah | 2. dh. 5. d. 8. th. th. says the brahmin to the poet. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. "O. nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. weep the boys. n) between them (so.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. 6. n) or dental (t.

to rob agni-. even though . tudati (VI): to strike. mn. m. m. m.: king. righteousness. m. rodati (I): to weep lup-. m. palm papa-. also.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-. lie asi-.: "un-truth".: Lord. Law. lumpati (VI): to steal. part.: seer kavi-. m. m. n. pathati (I): to read.: mountain jana-. m.: servant.: sin varuna-.: fire anna-.: personal name api-.: body dharma-.: law. n. slave deha-. ruler pati-. m. to pierce path-. husband pani-.: Vedic hymn hari-. n. n. m. even. master. m.: water sukta-.: person dasa-. n. to recite rud-.: hand.: sword rsi-.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-. n. m.: food ari-.: enemy asatya-. Buddhism nrpati-. m.: poetry giri-.: poet kavya-. m.

is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). Abl. (enemy) Sg.Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV. Dat. m. class are thematic verbs. anayati (to bring). ch. -h after any vowel and before t-.means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). Du. watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen. watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. to look). -h after any vowel and before c-. Ins. Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-. . pawyati (to see. watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here).is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). a vanat (only from the forest).(to see) is irregular and defective. watruh Acc. watru Pl. Nom. kupyati (to be angry). But if a is used separately as a preposition. Therefore: drw-. Only passive is constructed from this root. agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). For example a. it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). The verb drw. watroh Voc. The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes). indicative uses different root (paw-). th. Loc. Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning.

kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21. 3. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. 6. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. By the power of [your] arms you win. "There stands father's house. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.Text (read and translate): 1. but father lives here. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-.) . oh king. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. or Dat. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. We do not live here. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. 7. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22." says the boy to the traveler. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. 8. 4. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8." asks teacher the student. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. "What are you writing now. 5. 2. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. The king with fighters comes to the city. naro 'wvamarohati | 10. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15.

: enemy visnu-.: axe pada-.krudh-.) . yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-. to mount likh-. or Loc. m. letter parawu-. precious stone ratna-.) hu-.: gem. or postp.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-.: treatise.: jewel. to look yudh-.: ocean guru-. pupil saha. pawyati (IV): to see. m.: foot. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-. lubhyati (IV): to long for. precious stone rawi-. to call in udadhi-.) wus-. nawyati (IV): to be lost. m. mass.: arm bindu-.: teacher. ahvayati (IV): to call here.: heap.: with (with Inst. to perish drw-. n. m.: student. footprint bahu-.: drop mani-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. n. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m. prep.: bird watru-. m. agacchati (I): to come tr-. guru pattra-. law-book wisya-. arohati (I): to ascend. or Dat. likhati (VI): to write lubh-. m. m.: leaf. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. to desire (with Dat. m. m. n. m. m. or Loc.: enemy wastra-.) a+gam-. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-. quantity ripu-. m.

Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). Ins. gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). bhramyati (to wander). nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7.Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). madhunah madhunoh Voc. vidhyati (to pierce). meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). madhu madhuna madhune Du. madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. Dat. madhuni madhuni Pl. Abl. rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3. madyati (to be intoxicated). nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. mad-.is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. kram-. arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . madhu Acc. viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. Text (read and translate): 1. kramati (to walk). narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). Loc. the root vyadh. Nom. madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village).

Birds are flying to the tree. m. to grieve (Abl. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-.) tus-. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16.12. 7. to be satisfied (Ins. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. 2. n. dice adharma-. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness.) div-. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. Death conquers even unrighteousness. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. to carry aksa-. Tears are flowing on boy's face. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-.: bear . Fighters play for money (Ins. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-. 5. 4. 3. 8. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-. to rinse tam-. harati (I): to take. to take away. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19.: bee awru-. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. There are many things in the houses.). anayati (I): to bring bhram-. m. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-. rcchati (I): to get.: tear rksa-. 6. to obtain. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. n. to share a+kram-.: unrighteousness ali-. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. to be finished wram-.: eye. acamati (I): to sip. Bees wander around flowers of the trees.

: hero bahu-.: part madhu-.: death vasu-.: flower bhaga-. many .: anger krodha-. abundant.: numerous. m. m. m. mouth mrtyu-. n. wealth vira-.: eye puspa-.: honey manusya-. m.: thing.: anger netra. adj. n.n.: person mukha-. n.kopa-.: face. m. n. m.

Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. jan-. it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7.instead of just -a. -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). grhalloka agacchanti | 15. Text (read and translate): 1. but: pid-. ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). pidayati (to torture). janayati (to give birth. vedayati (to make known). class add -aya. papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world). Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4. suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house). purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. If the root ends in a vowel.between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. to generate).to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. vid-. lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). bhi-. The vowel -a. bhayayati (to cause fear). suto 'wvanpidayati | 8. punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. corayati (to steal). dharayati (to hold). navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key . gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. Before palatals. ksalayati (to wash).

3. "Why do you beat me. adj. punishment punya-.) . n. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword. m.: as. m. 7." asks the servant the king. to worship. pujayati (X): to honour. I want new clothes. to narrate ksal-. to punish pid-. 4. n. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-. pidayati (X): to torture. n. n.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. n.: servant ramayana-. aharati (I): to bring danda-. to weigh dand-.: clothing vrttanta-. to hurt puj-.: story wudra-. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. robber navina-. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9.: stick. part.: merit purana-. 8. dandayati (X): to beat. corayati (X): to steal tad-.: new iva.: old story. m. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-. 5. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. n. m.) wash their faces. n. kathayati (X): to tell. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. as if mam: me (Acc. m.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-. tolayati (X): to lift up.: coin vastra-. Father tells son about fruits of sins.: charioteer stena-.: holy man suvarna-. to revere pr-. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-. 6. Boys (Du.: thief.: epos Ramayana rupaka-. 2. ganayati (X): to count cur-. like.: gold suta-. m. Merit protects from grief.

is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. Before other vowels a final -e. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. But in Sanskrit. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. labhase labhethe 3. -e. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. ksatriya rsi sevante | . adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5.is unchanged. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. labh-. god Agni). Pl. labhate (to get. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2. o. vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. fire. vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. 1. Text (read and translate): 1. But this initial a. "word for another").Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. -o at the end of the word and before a. But Dual endings -i. agni iksate balah | 11. to obtain) A: Sg. labhe Du. vanesviharksa vasanti | 16.

) iks-. m. The father is looking at son's face. member of a high caste dhairya-. m. Father likes sons' discipline. wiksate (I): to learn sah-. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-. m. 4.: "twice-born".17. 8. to stare kamp-. 3. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear. Holy men (Du. bhasate (I): to speak. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. m. courage. to tremble jan-.: sacrifice . Children ask the father for food.) labh-. sahate (I): to bear. goodness taru-.: sun moksa-. m. Boys like fruit. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.. kampate (I): to shake.: tree dvijati-. to say mr-. cattle bhanu-. firmness pawu-. 7.: deliverance yajba-.: benefit. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. rocate (I): to like (Dat. 2. n. m. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18.) begin with a sacrifice. m.: poverty udyoga-.: sacrificial animal. to honour (Acc. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. labhate (I): to get. to pay homage wiks-. perseverance kalyana-.) ruc-. to endure sev-. sevate (I): to serve. 6. to obtain vand-.) a+rabh-. m. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. mriyate (IV): to die yat-.: exertion. Gen. iksate (I): to look at.) anartha-.: patience. n. vandate (I): to praise.

m. m. m. m. sea .vayu-.: ocean.: wind vici-.: child samudra-. m.: wave vinaya-.: discipline wiwu-.

Loc.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2. hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | . -n. to follow) ava.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu. senam senaya senayai Du.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para.(towards. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3.after a prefix containing -r.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s. Dat. senayah senayoh Voc. army) Sg. satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen.(after. Text (read and translate): 1.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry). Nom. sene sene Pl.. sena Acc.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f.(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. Abl. Ins.(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud.is changed into -n. to honour).(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari. following): anu+gacchati (to go after.is changed into -s.

) descend from black horses. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-.: householder . mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. The student asks householder's wife for alms. 8. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. f. Here on the street kings (Du.: girl. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6. f. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11. 3. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. The king conquers enemies in the battle. Sinful people do not obtain heaven.: the river Ganga grhastha-. Many trees grow on the mountain. prapadyate (IV): to go to.: arrow kanya-. daughter gavga-.5. 7. 6. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. to take refuge in (Acc.) bhiks-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-. 4. 5. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9. sajgacchate: to come together isu-. m. m. 2. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-.

: gem rathya-.: manifold. shade prayaga-. f.: bad. adj. adj.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-. n. f.: language bhiksa-. sinful prabhuta-. n.chaya-. m.: alms yamuna-. f. f. f. f.: shadow. adv.: suddenly .: the river Yamuna ratna-. m.: knowledge. many sahasa. wisdom vyadha-.: street vidya-.: heaven hrdaya-. n.: heart krsna-.: wife bhasa-.: hunter warana-. n. black papa-.: refuge svarga-.: fear bharya-. f. f.

pass. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. vas-. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13.is changed into -u. stu-. naraih katah kriyante | 8. mucyate. smaryate (to remember). prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. upyate (to sow). ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2. vad-. udyate (to say). diyate (to give). rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. pass. vah-. supyate (to sleep). puryate (to fill). uhyate (to carry). dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. Verbs of the X class drop -aya. vap-.Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. mubcati. pass. The consonant -v. janairnagaraj gamyate | 6. coryate. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7. kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. sutenawvastadyate | 20. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. pr-. he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. svap-. tiryate. jiyate. ucyate (to say). It is used with the instrumental case. stuyate (to praise). kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. Text (read and translate): 1. awvena jalaj piyate | 17. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12.but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. pass. corayati. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . usyate (to dwell). kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-.in these roots: vac-.

4. m.: order kastha-. n.: burden. beggar mala-. pass. Holy man always speaks truth (pass).: snake. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). 6. jar ghrta-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. dawati (I): to bite da-. m. Hari is again praised by Rama. pass. n. ghee dhanya-.: grain pawa-. 2. "In the shade is comfortably slept. n. pass.: snare. serpent .: child sarpa-. m. load bhiksu-. wisyate: to rule. 3.: pot." is said by people. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. kriyate: to do ga-. Grain is sown in the fields. 8. vapati (I): to sow was-. pass. m. to punish wru-. It is played with dices. diyate: to give pr-. n. mendicant.: Buddhist monk. Jars are being filled with grain. 7.: clarified butter.: garland rajya-. trap bhara-. m. f. f.: song ghata-. Girls bind garlands (pass). pass. gayati (IV): to sing daw-. badhyate: to bind vap-.: wood gita-. wruyate: to hear ajba-. puryate: to fill badh-.: kingdom wiwu-. pass. n. 5. m.

paryanayat. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. impf. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. 2. aicchat (he wanted). yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. impf. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. purena grhanyuhyante | . vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. a+vad+a+h 3. jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. If the verb is prefixed. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. It has special endings: Sg. Text (read and translate): 1. gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. a+vad+a+t Du. Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1.

m. When you were ("stood") in trouble. the god of the Sun stotra-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. book (text) jaya-. m. you asked the king for protection.: sea grantha-.: demon awa-. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water.: hope indra-. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-. f.: meaning. Brahmins (Du. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-. uttisthati (I): to get up. 4. top sabha-. assembly surya-. Servants brought water in jars. n.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. m.: fish raksana-. m. 7.) sang the praise of Rama. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. f. stream prasada-. m. to stand up artha-.: congregation. He cut the branch with an axe.: book (manuscript) pura-. Men sat down on mats. m.: summit. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-. 3. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-.: branch wikhara-. m. 6. wealth asura-.: ode. m. glory pustaka-.: victory. vartate (I): to be. meeting. n. f.: protection wakha-. prosperity. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood.: flood. m. The teacher hit the student out of the anger.: sun.: palace matsya-. n. m. to exist ud+stha-. a hymn of praise . 5. 2.: composition. 8.

Abl. Nom. Loc. Ins. nadi Acc. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5.. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. nadim nadya nadyai Du. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. We bring water from the pond. nadyah nadyoh Voc. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. nadyau nadyau Pl. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. Dat. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. river) Sg. 2. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. . nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. 4. satyameva jayate | 12. 3.

: earth bhusana-.: city nadi-. whole sundara-. 7. m.: yoga vapi-.: robe.: Indra's paradise nari-. n. ucyate: is called vrt-. f. f.: garden janani-.: queen yoga-. m. holy samagra-.: soldier pavitra-. f. to hunt for vac-. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. to go back.: beautiful namas-. f. pass. mistress nagari-.: woman patni-. f.: mother tira-. f. glory! (Dat.5. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler. to perform. to return a+car-.: Indrani. 8. m.: clean.: pond. adj. mrgayate (X): to search for. f.: ornament maharaja-.: wife putri-. f. pratigacchati (I): to come back. f.: shore. decoration indrani-.: river nandana-. f. n. adj.: daughter prthivi-. to practise mrg-. n. m.: tiger sainika-. 6.: goddess. f. adv.: hail!. Indra's wife udyana-.) . n. female slave devi-. adj. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-.: female servant. acarati (I): to do. bank dasi-.: great king maharani-.: complete. pool vyaghra-. n. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea. Even the king came with the soldiers. f.

bahu-. ablative. mate dhenu. prthvi. mati. Loc. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen. Dat. Ins.(f. dhenuh Acc. dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc.(f. f. bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4.(broad).(abundant.Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u. Dat. f. Ins. Nom. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. matim matya Du.with -v-). Abl..(serious. The dative. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-. gurvi. f. heavy). Text (read and translate): 1. punyena muktij labhadhve | . idea): Sg. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems". guru-. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. mati mati Pl. cow): Sg. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3. matih Acc. Nom.. bahvi.and -y. many). dhenu dhenu Pl. Loc. Abl. dhenum dhenva Du.

kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. to instruct. f. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. 8. m. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. m." said a citizen to the king. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage. m.: quarrel. 2. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: ruler . palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. to admonish pal-. upadiwati (VI): to teach. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12. to acquire wubh-. firmness parthiva-. m. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10. fight kirti-. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. People of many castes lived in villages. 5.: end kalaha-. 3. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. 4. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. I worship Shiva for prosperity. 7. caste dhrti-. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14.) upa+diw-.: cowherd jati-.: courage. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. 6. vindati (VI): to get.: birth.: fame gopa-. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7. f. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. f. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15. prabhavati (I): to arise. wobhate (I): to shine anta-. to appear vid-.6.

: earth.: sleep. adj. ground maksika-.: citizen buddhi-. f. f. f. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-.: fly mukti-. prosperity bhumi-.: ray vrana-. land.: well-being. dream nica-. m. f.: low mukhya-.: Vedic scripture smrti-.: deliverance rawmi-. adj. n.: holy.: peace. f. sore wanti-. righteous .: main. adj.paura-. f. foremost sadhu-.: devotion bhuti-.: wound.: wisdom bhakti-. f.: tradition. m. f. silence wruti-. f. f.

Dat. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2. 1. on: adhi+stha-. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems". to go back. to govern. wholly: ati+kram-. completely. nispadyate (to arise). nyasidat. thought): Sg. nisidati.. Pl. it is changed into s.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. to return vi-. Ins. alabhata Du. away: apa+ni-. this can also happen in Gen. dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. adhitisthati. they were seen). apaniyati.Pl. against. atikramati. above.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. Abl. Abl. vidiryate. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. completely overcome adhi-. dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. ph.changed into -is. kh-. alabhe 3. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. Nom. p-. to carry away prati-.(f. .. Dat. dhih Acc. apart: vi+dr-. Gen. Sg. to lead away. In addition.. Loc. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen. us: nih+pad-. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. back: prati+gam-. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata. and Loc. pratigacchati. pass. impf.): dhi. dhiyau dhiyau Pl.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. to rule apa-.

padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6.) girls home from the garden. Many arrows were shot on the tiger. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. 7. he returned to the city. 5. dhyayati (IV): to think. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. Mother called (pass. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. Many tigers. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. 4. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. Where did you get white cows? 3. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. atikramati (I): to cross over. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. to appear prati+bhas-. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. When the king talked with brahmins. Rama's father was always remembered by people. 6.Text (read and translate): 1. pratibhasate (I): to answer . prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. 2. to transgress pra+jan-. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. elephants and bears were seen there. When was the king's son born? 8. nispadyate (IV): to originate. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. to meditate nih+pad-. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4.

saint moha-. god kama-. adj.: pleasure.: sage.: thought. beauty. wealth srsti-. m. f. to drive anujba-. to rule. f.: delusion ratha-. adj.: luck. m.: greed vasati-. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: white .: creation krtsna-.: whole caru-. n.: beautiful dhira-. master.: agreement iwvara-.: man muni-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. m.: chariot lobha-.: cause dhi-. reason nawa-. f. m.rac-.: wise. n. desire karana-.: dwelling wri-.: lord. to restrain ni+sev-. firm wveta-. annihilation padma-.: lotus purusa-. f. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-. m. adj. m. m.: destruction. adj. m. f. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-.

4. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. 3. annaj yaccha he janani | 13. Let the children show the traveler the way. devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9. Let charioteers do not torture horses." orders students the tradition. 5. vada Du. Let the men dig a pond. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. 7. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. daddy. 2. daughter." asked the boy father. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. ma gacchatu (let him not go). gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. "Come today. atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7." said the father. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. "Study the treatises and speak the truth. vadama 1. . "Give me food. 6. Text (read and translate): 1. Pl. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. 2.

thoroughly. meeting. people murti-. different adhastat.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-. abhyasyati (IV): to study. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-. far dusta-. study praja-. adj. by all means hrasvam. audience pataliputra-. f. rotten para-. n.: down.: lesson. m. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-. khanati (I): to dig atithi-. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-.: bad.) ciram.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-. adv. m.: repeating.: order asana-. m.: daddy darwana-. in proximity va: or . adv. untruth abhyasa-.: seat.: lie.: highest.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-.: seeing. studying adewa-. form. adv. adv. f.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-. close. position kawi-. statue vaiwya-. adj. under (Gen.: subject. f. lower dirgha-. n. adj.: near. to learn a+diw-. adj. m. n.: long.: everywhere. m.: different.: for the long time sarvatah. m.: image. m.: guest anrta-.

Abl. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. vadhuh Acc. vadhu bhu. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen. earth): Sg. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. Loc. Nom. Nom. sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. Ins. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11.. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. bhuh Acc. Dat. bhuva bhuve Du. bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . vadhvau vadhvau Pl. Loc. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8.(f. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. Abl. Dat. woman): Sg. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc.(f. Ins.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. bhuvau Pl..

: teacher juhu-.: dwelling bhu-. earth. to arise wuc-.: land. 6. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-.: well bhupala-.: mother-in-law sundari-. f.: moment guna-. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16. pravartate (I): to become. People live on earth and gods in heaven. f. pas. m.: queen laksmi-. to steal ksana-. apaharati (I): to take away." ordered the householder.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-.: beauty stuti-. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14. f. f. f. 5. 4. Let the student not argue with the teacher. f.: eyebrow rajbi-. n. m. The eyebrows of beauties are always black. to seem vi+vad-. Let us live there. drwyate: to look (like). f. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3.) apa+har-. Who protects the earth is called a ruler. wife wvawru-. m. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. f. ground bhru-. m.: sacrificial ladle durga-. f. There is no water in the well. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: the goddess Durga nivewana-. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15. f. 7. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-. "Take away nice clothes. 2. 8.: ruler vadhu-.: quality acarya-. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri.: woman.: praise . m.13.

.: curved. f. adj.. twisted yavat-tavat: when. then.snusa-. pron.: daughter-in-law vakra-. as far as ya-..: which . rel..

labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. 4. labhai Du. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. Let it be thus! 5. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). Text (read and translate): 1. Some verbs. Do not neglect illnesses. . idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). 1. Let an ascetic not converse with women. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. This form is widely used especially in 3. 6. 3. Pl. otherwise active. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. 2. mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. satyaj sadocyatam | 10.Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.

Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung. adv. m. death kalidasa-. to act bhan-. n.: buffalo yati-. m. best idanim.: scholar. atonement bhojana-.: food mahisa-.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-.: temple nataka-. m. pasture durjana-. adv. n. to talk with (Ins. m. adj.: now kalena. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-. m.: bad man. villain devalaya-. m.: grass. caus.) a+wri-. rightly .: sometimes samyak. to expect upa+iks-. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-.: expiation.7. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-.: step. to seek refuge in han-. Let women and children are not killed in the war.: better.: illness vara-.: war roga-. learned man pada-. drama niwcaya-.: well. m. homage prayawcitta-. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-.: time. adv. place puja-. m. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-.: decision pandita-. sajbhasate (I): to converse. pratiksate (I): to await. abhinayati (I): to conduct. f.: ascetic yuddha-.: worship. n. ghatayati: to kill kala-. m. n.: play. awrayate (I): to depend on. 8. m. m.

Abl. and Nom. They differ only in Acc.(f. pitarau Pl. kartr. Nom..Sg. kartar pitr. 2) nouns of relationship. matarau Pl. pituh Voc. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a.. Ins. Abl. mother): Sg. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen. Dat. Loc. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. Loc. sister and naptr-. agent. kartarau Pl. Acc.(m.Du. Abl. matuh Voc. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du.Du. Nom.(m. mata Acc. Nom. karta Acc. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen. kartuh Voc. pitar matr.. Nom. Ins.. Ins.Pl.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns. father): Sg. Dat. pita Acc. maker): Sg. Loc. matra matre matuh matari Du. Dat.. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. matar .

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.


Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. Nom. 1. nausu yuddhamabhavat | . yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. gacchati "[he/she] goes". let it be done). brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. Ins. nauh Acc. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen. jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7. The declension of the word nau. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows". nauh As you have probably noticed. boat): Sg..(f. navau Pl. Abl. bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. labhemahi labheran 2. Text (read and translate): 1.Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. labheya 3. labheta Du. Dat. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. nauh Voc. Loc. nava nave nauh navi Du.

Let new poems be written! 6. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy. n. m. May the friends be always remembered! 2. n. equal.: same. 4. 7. 8. viramate (I): to give up.: agriculture jivita-. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at.: friend vanijya-.this we read in the treatises. m.: life nidewa-. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. balavudyane rameyatam | 11. Let women and children be taken away to the city. direction sama-. to welcome (Acc. 3.: garden krsi-. n. to perform apa+ni-. adv. to carry out.: business.10. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12. anutisthati (I): to follow.: how. as (relative) . nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. f.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-.).: way. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt. to abandon (Abl.: death mitra-. f. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-. n. trade vidhi-. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. n. even sajdigdha-.) udyana-.) abhi+vad-. n. m. adj. mode. rule. adj. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-. pass. questionable yatha. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive). 5.: order seva-. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-.: service pawupalya-.: doubtful.: servant marana-. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living .: fear bhrtaka-.

But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. to beget). "to report" etc.(to sing). karayati (to cause to be done). to make somebody to go). janayati (see above). So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context . The vowel -a. vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key .(to do). "to tell". vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9. wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8. janayati (to give birth. The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody). ga. kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13. to proclaim). Text (read and translate): 1. gapayati (to let sing).(to be). If the root ends in any other vowel. adhyapayati (to teach).(to fall. jbapayati (to make known. upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5.between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14.(to go). that is using the augment -aya-: jan. dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3. gamayati (to let go. deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. When translating the causative. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4.(to be born). "to sing". gam.between the root and -aya-: jba. nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10.(to learn).Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. to water). to fly).translate as "to recite". it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu. Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p. kr. And also adhi+i. we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11. patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. bhavayati (to make something happen).(to know).

caus.) the cows come into the cowshed.: coming kara-. caus. postp. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. m. Let them allow the guests to enter. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras.: wolf rupa-. 6. 5.: hand. caus. caus. adv. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. elephant's trunk.) the father the books. marayti: to kill vid-. 4. m. to no avail . caus. m. caus. m. to make known vrdh-. darwayati: to show apa+ni-. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-. caus. m. They watered horses with water from the river.: desire vrka-. patayati: to knock down mr-. 2. Show (sg. 3. m. 8. postp. vardhayati: to make bigger. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. ajbapayati: to order da-. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. beauty stri-.: form. Let (pl. caus. caus. to enlarge pa-. caus.: between. 7.: in vain. Let the householder return home. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. caus. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. amongst (with genitive) arthe.: woman madhye.Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: for the sake of vrtha. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. n. f. vedayati: to announce.: messenger gostha-.: cowshed manoratha-. caus. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-. tax duta-.

Gen. Loc. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. Dat. (you) Nom. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. tva. te. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. Loc. (I) Nom. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. Abl. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. nah. Acc. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). Gen. nau. Abl. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse. me. Acc. Ins. . Ins. Dat.

) prath-. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. caus. Mother gives food to both you and me. to report wru-. caus.: the poet Amaru amrta-. nivedayati: to announce. kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. or Gen. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15. prarthayate: to ask. 4. caus. 8.: transgression. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. Let the gods protect your life! 6. bhadraj te | 9. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. to disseminate. 2. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. n. to spread ni+vid-. begged the boy mother. Elephants do not live in our country. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. Let your father go with me. Our (Dual) parents died. bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2. 7. m. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5.Acc. to whom .Text (read and translate): 1. n. I do not want your (Dual) money. I did not steal your gold (passive). prathayati: to propagate. anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. offence amaru-. to beg ksam-. 3. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-.: nectar (the drink of immortality) . Tell me the story of Urvashi.. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. ksamate: to forgive (what .Dat. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6. 5.

: tomorrow .and cet. n.: country naraka-. prosperity mayura-. Pl.: story kapota-. f. adv. life bhadra-.: ornament.: treasure prana-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-. m. n. m. n.: breath. f. contentedness ca . f. happiness. m.: bliss. virtue wloka-.: hell nidhana-.ardha-. n.: peacock mauna-. m.ca: both .: frog dewa-. m. recluse wobhana-. m.: pigeon taksawila-. n.: hermit.: satisfaction. postposition: if wvas. m.: hermitage urvawi-. m. m.: silence vaktr-. m.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-.: the nymph Urvashi katha-.: speaker vanaprasta-. m.: half awrama-.

ns. L oc. this) Sg. N om. G en. V oc. ns. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. te te Pl. bl. h cc.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. at. this) Sg. N om. bl. she (sa. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . at. cc. G en. tau tau tabh yam Pl.

/ sarvam n./ yad n./ ekam n. N om. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa.L oc. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a. (different) itarah m./ anyad n.and esa./ esa f. bl./ katarad n./ itara f. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du. (all) viwvah m./ viwvam n.follow irregular sandhi pattern./ katamad n. (other) The following words also follow this declension. en. it (tad. except for nominative and accusative of neuter./ ubhayam n. ns. tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m. cc. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg. te te tabh yam Pl. V oc./ anya f. (which one [of many]) katarah m./ eka f./ ya f./ katama f./ ubhaya f./ viwva f. V oc./ sarva f. (all) ekah m. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m. (one) ubhayah m. (this one) yah m. Here they . (relative pronoun which) katamah m. L oc. (which one [of two]) anyah m./ itarad n. at./ katara f./ etad n.

sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. 10. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. instruction . sa isuh (this arrow). yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. I don't like your behavior. I don't want these books.: advice. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3./m. Poor people live in the houses. 3. 2. Other people than you won't accomplish this. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14. viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. prinayati: to please./n. caus. Adj.change to -o and the following -a is lost. to delight sidh-. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. In these rivers there are many fish. Text (read and translate): 1. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. 9. 7. 6. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. 4.: noble upadewa-." said the general. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. so 'vadat (he said). yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10. anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5. m.: end arya-. caus. In this forest I saw a lion. 5. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. Examples: sa purusah (this man). awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. Husbands of these women went to war. m.

Adj.: bigger than (with Abl.) aneka-.khara-. n. m. m.: fat murkha-. Adj.: mark. emaciated pusta-. characteristic. much. m.: hero vrtta-. Adj.: learned prati: towards (with Acc. not one krwa-. army leader adhika-. brilliance. n.: fault.: thin. m.: donkey gardabha-.: general.: behavior dosa-. f.: donkey laksana-. m. m. sign vira-.) . Adj. offense wobha-.: lion senapati-. Adj. Adj.: splendor.: many. beauty sijha-.: foolish wiksita-.

studying acarya-.: repeating. m. Adj. m. to drive adhika-. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at./n.: teacher adewa-. awrayate (I): to depend on. acamati (I): to sip. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc.) a+ruh-.: robe.: coming agni-.: unrighteousness adhastat. m. caus.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. much.: down. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-. to perform. Adj.: wind anna-. not one anila-. to seek refuge in abharana-.: order aksa-. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-.: now adya. to welcome (Acc. n. caus.: poverty aneka-.: many.) adhi+i-.: bigger than (with Abl.: eye. dice ali-.: fire anartha-. n. m. now agamana-. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-. decoration abhi+a+as-. m. to rule. to learn abhi+nand-.: food anrta-. to practise a+diw-. adv. ahvayati (IV): to call here. agamayati: to let come a+hr-. adhitisthati (I): to govern.) adhuna. adv. n. to act abhi+vad-. adv. n. m. m. abhyasyati (IV): to study. to rinse a+car-.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-. m. untruth anta-. f. under (Gen. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-. to call in a+jba-. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-.: end .: the poet Amaru amrta-.) abhi+ni-. n.: bee amaru-. caus. arohati (I): to ascend. acarati (I): to do. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-. m.: fire ajba-.: today. abhinayati (I): to conduct.: lie. m. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-. to mount a+wri-.: order adharma-. m. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. n.

offence api-. n.: boy. asyati (IV): to throw asana-. f. m.: sword asura-.: husband bharya-.: half ari-. m. m.: seat. to transgress atithi-. lie asi-. n.: numerous. to say .: devotion bhan-. adj. lower aparaddha-.: different. pass. f.: meaning. n. to carry out. strength bhadra-. part. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-.: noble as-. anutisthati (I): to follow. m. m. n.: end anu+gam-. many bahu-.: demon ati+kram-.: "un-truth". to steal apa+ni-. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-. n. n. m.: burden. apanayayati: to lead away apara-. m.: arm bala-. f. m.: power. m. caus. position asatya-.: hope awrama-. to perform anujba-. postp. bhasate (I): to speak./m.: guest atra. n. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-. adv.: here ava+gam-. m.: transgression.: tear awva-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc.: for the sake of arya-. f. m.: bliss. m.anta-. child bala-.: horse badh-.: enemy arth-. prosperity bhaga-.: forest ardha-. m. also. m. wealth arthe.: part bhakti-.: agreement apa+har-. apaharati (I): to take away. avarohati: to descend awa-. atikramati (I): to cross over.: hermitage awru-. adj.: sun bhara-. load bhartr-. badhyate: to bind bahu-.: wife bhas-. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-.) artha-. even. m. force. abundant. prosperity. happiness. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-. even though aranya-. Adj.

m. slave dasi-. f. female slave datr-.: drop brahmana-.: female servant. to punish danda-. n.: servant. m.: brahmin buddha-. m. n.: beautiful cet.: seeing. adj. to roam. land. corayati (X): to steal da-.: food bhram-. ground bhumi-.: servant bhrtya-. m.: ornament bhuti-.: for the long time cur-.: alms bhiksu-.: earth. m. dawati (I): to bite deha-. n. f. punishment dardura-. m.: fear bhaya-.: brother bhrtaka-. lord devalaya-. m.: giver daw-.: shadow. m. m.: fear bhiks-. prosperity bindu-. audience dasa-. dahati (I): to burn dana. beggar bhojana-.: frog daridra-. f. caus.: Buddha buddhi-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-. m. n. mn. pass.: stick.: ruler bhusana-. diyate: to give dah-.: servant bhru-. bhavati (I): to be. earth.: land.: language bhaya-. m. ground bhupala-. mendicant. m. f. f. postposition: if chaya-. dapayati: to let give da-. carati (I): to walk. f. adv. m. m. shade ciram.: wisdom ca . adj.: eyebrow bhu-. f.: god.: Buddhist monk. f. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-. meeting.and car-. f. m.: food bhojana-.: body deva. dandayati (X): to beat.: temple . n. to become bhu-.: gift dand-. n.: well-being.bhasa-. to practise caru-.ca: both .: poor darwana-.

m. to point dosa-.: mountain gita-. m. adj.: the goddess Durga durjana-. dhyayati (IV): to think.: wise.. f.: clarified butter. m.: law.: just.: messenger dvija-. m. firm dhrti-.: patience. n.devi-.: suffering duhkhita. adj. m.: donkey gavga-. n. m. m. pawyati (IV): to see. m. to seem drw-. n. diwati (VI): to show. ghee giri-.: unhappy. n.: cowherd gostha-. m. to meditate dirgha-.: pot. adj. m.: "twice-born". jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-.: song gopa-. ganayati (X): to count gandha-.: village . Buddhism dhav-.: courage. dravati (I): to run drw-. f. firmness dhana. adv.: bad man.adj. reason dhira-. caus.: bad. to look duhitr-. offense dru-. m. n.: thus ga-. villain dusta-. member of a high caste eva. firmness dhya-.: grass.: the river Ganga ghasa-. rotten duta-.: wealth. distressed durga-.: goddess. m.: daughter duhkha-. f. pas. f. righteousness.: country dhairya-. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-. f. jar ghra-. drwyate: to look (like). m.: long. m. brahmin dvijati-. courage. m. f. dhavati (I): to run dhi-. m. mistress dewa-.: fault. darwayati: to show drw-.: scent. far div-.: elephant gam-. pasture ghata-. adv. gacchati (I): to go gan-. n. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-.: "twice-born". fragrance gardabha-.: thought. Law.: cowshed grama.: grain dharma-. only evam. money dhanya-.

: hand he. n.: personal name hasta-. death kalaha-. part. m. n. n. to carry hrasvam. as if iwvara-. in proximity hrdaya-. adv. m.: victory.: life jivita-. n. n. adv. to yearn for isu-.: near. m. glory ji-. n. m. god jala. desire kamp-.: life juhu-.: now iha. m.: teacher. fight kalena.: when? kala-.: person janaka-. like.: composition. m.: lord.: mother jati-.grantha-.: father janani-. m.: as. master. m. m.: house grhastha-. m.: arrow iti.: heart hu-. n. m. icchati (VI): to want.: oh! hr-. iksate (I): to look at.: son-in-law jan-.: householder guh-. jivati (I): to live jivana-. part.: sacrificial ladle kada. f.: Indrani. m. m. m. to tremble .: birth. here iks-. goodness kama-. caste jaya-. adv. Indra's wife is-. guru han-. hvayati (IV): to call huta-.: quarrel. close. to take away.: so iva. m.: Hindu god Indra indrani-.: pleasure. to conceal guna-.: sometimes kalidasa-. book (text) grha-. m. kampate (I): to shake. f.: oblation.: benefit.: time. jayate (IV): to be born jana-. offering idanim. guhati (I): to hide. ghatayati: to kill hari-. part. adv. to stare indra-. jayati (I): to win.: water jamatr-. caus.: quality guru-. to conquer jiv-. f. harati (I): to take. f.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-. adv. m.

: cause kastha-.: poetry kawi-.: hand. m.) kopa-.: pigeon kara-.: anger kr-.: field ksip-. to obtain laksana-. fighter ksetra-. tax karana-. or Dat. lance kup-.Dat.. m. or Gen.: how? kavi-. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-. sign laksmi-. m. krsati (I): to plow. f. m.: plough .: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-. f.: poet kavya-. characteristic.: mark.: spear. to cultivate (field) krsi-.: donkey kim.: where? kva. young man kunta-. m.: whole krudh-. m. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat.: wood kata-. n. adv.: anger krs-. m.kanya-. daughter kapota-.) ksana-.: where? labh-.) krwa-. n.: agriculture krsna-. emaciated ksal-. black krt-.: kshatriya. adv. adv. kathayati (X): to tell. or Dat. f. n. khadati (I): to eat khan-.: mat kath-. kriyate: to do krodha-. to whom . kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. to narrate katha-.: story katham. m.: thin.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-. n.: fame klp-. labhate (I): to get.: where from? why? kutra. adv. m. m. m. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-.: girl. why? kirti-. f. m. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-.Acc. khanati (I): to dig khara-. f. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.: moment ksatriya-. n.: what?.) kupa-. adv.: well kutah. n. pass. elephant's trunk. adj. f. ksamate: to forgive (what . Adj. n.: milk kumara-.: prince.

to desire (with Dat. marayti: to kill mr-. m. m. postp. m.: city.) mukha-.: queen mahisa-. m.: garland mam: me (Acc. n.: honey madhye. m. statue nadi-.: delusion moksa-. modate (I): to delight in (Ins. lumpati (VI): to steal. caus. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-. mouth mukhya-.: face. to discharge mud-. f. f.: foolish murti-. m. mubcati (VI): to free.: great king maharani-.: gem.: way. m. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-. f. n. mrgayate (X): to search for.) man-. m. f. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-.likh-.: desire manusya-.: deer mrtyu-.: river nagara. m. m. f. f.) lup-. to rob mad-. foremost mukti-.: city . manyate (IV): to think.: month matsya-. lubhyati (IV): to long for.: silence mayura-. adj. n.: death muc-. m. Adj. or Loc. m.: cloud mitra-. f. m. likhati (VI): to write lip-. n. form. n. n.: buffalo maksika-. road masa-. means also "people") lubh-.: person marana-.: friend moha-. m. town nagari-.: peacock megha-.: death marga.: greed loka-.: fish mauna-.: fly mala-. to hunt for mrga-. m. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-. precious stone manoratha-.: between.: world (in Pl. saint murkha-.: deliverance mr-.: sage.: deliverance muni-.: main.: image. m. m. to suppose mani-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-.

king nrpati-.: destruction.: leader netra. palm panini-. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-. m.m.: ruler. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-. to appear nija-.: ruler . palayati (X): to protect pandita-. footprint pada-.: treasure nih+gam-. adj.: low nidewa-. to report nica-.: order nidhana-. m.nam-. n. n. n. nawyati (IV): to be lost. annihilation netr. learned man pani-. caus.: hail!. pibati (I): to drink pac-. ruler pa-.: Indra's paradise naptr-. to worship namas-.: dwelling niwcaya-. n. f.: bad.: one's.: play.: woman nataka-.: foot.: lotus pal-. different para+ji-.n. m. namati (I): to bow. palayati: to protect pa-. to perish nawa-. adj. m.: eye ni-. m.: hell nari-.. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-. m. to prostrate. place padma-.: axe pari+dha-. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-.: king.: hand. m. m. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-. nivedayati: to announce. sinful papa-. m.: step.: scholar. n. drama navina-. m. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-. n. pacati (I): to cook pada-. own nivewana-.: decision nrpa-. adj. m. glory! (Dat. adj. nispadyate (IV): to originate. m.: the grammarian Panini papa-. adv.: new naw-.) nandana-. adj.: grandson nara-. caus. parinayati: to marry parthiva-. m. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-.: man naraka-.: sin para-. m. n.: highest.

: worship. m. Pl. caus. prarthayate: to ask.: Lord. to worship. n. people prana-. prathayati: to propagate. to beg pra+as-. m. many praja-. n.: clean. pratiksate (I): to await. to recite patha-. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-. m.: leaf. to expect prati+sidh-. Du.: lesson. adj. to fly pataliputra-. husband patni-. m.: sacrificial animal.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-. f. cattle pawupalya-. puryate: to fill pr.: palace prath-. m. n. m. f. parayati (X): to overcome pr-.: the breeding of cattle pid-.: mountain. m. parents. trap pawu-. pujayati (X): to honour. to appear pra+jan-.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-. m. pravartate (I): to become.: expiation.parvata-. otec. Pl. patayati: to knock down pat-.: breath. study pathika-. to disseminate. f. life prasada-. pidayati (X): to torture. to go back. pass. holy pawa-. adj.: grandfather pitr-.: manifold. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-. caus. pratigacchati (I): to come back. prinayati: to please. caus. m. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. to restrain prayaga-.: traveler pati-. to hurt pitamaha-. pathati (I): to read.) prati+bhas-.: earth puj-.: subject. m. master. letter paura-. prapadyate (IV): to go to. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-. pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-. to delight prthivi-. ancestors pr-. f.: wife pattra-. hill pat-. to return prati+iks-.ch-.: snare. caus.) pra+stha-. atonement pri-. prabhavati (I): to arise. homage . patati (I): to fall. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. to take refuge in (Acc. m. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. n. to arise prabhuta-.: citizen pavitra-. to revere puja-.

n. sidati (I): to sit. precious stone rawi-. m. meeting.: protection raksana-.: sea sah-. n. prep.: heap.: always sadhu-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-. m. f. f.) sahasa.: old story.: coin sabha-. stream purana-.: congregation.: again punya-.) rud-. f. m. n.: form.: holy. ramate (I): to play rama-. n. adj.: gem ratna-. m. Gen. n. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-.: kingdom raks-. adv. adv. mn. to share rac-.: chariot rathya-. m. m. n.: man puspa-.: son putri-. rocate (I): to like (Dat..: jewel.: flower pusta-. f. m.: holy man sagara-. f.: protector ram-.: protection raksitr-. adv. or postp. rcchati (I): to get.: battle ratha-.: fat pustaka-. righteous sadhu-. to obtain.: merit pura-. to sit down sada. to endure saha.: enemy rksa-. mass.: flood. m.: illness rsi-.: daughter r-.: book (manuscript) putra. m. n.: with (with Inst.punar.: seer ruc-. m. n. f. m. m.: suddenly . rohati (I): to grow rupa-. sahate (I): to bear. n. rodati (I): to weep ruh-. assembly sad-. quantity rawmi-.: ray ripu-. m.: epos Ramayana rana-.: street ratna-. beauty rupaka-. n.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-. m. raksati (I): to protect raksana-. Adj.: bear roga-.: queen rajya-.

tisthati (I): to stand.: general. sevate (I): to serve.: well. a hymn of praise stri-.: then. even samagra-.: ode. m.: satisfaction.: everywhere.: tradition.: snake.: same. f.: charioteer suvarna-.: doubtful.: heaven svasr-. m.: creation stena-. m. by all means sarvatra.: everywhere satya-. srjati (VI): to create srsti-. n. m. f. f.: creator srj-. n. adv. sea samyak. n. to talk with (Ins. n.) snusa-.: beauty surya-. caus. equal. f. smarati (I): to remember smrti-. army leader sev-.: ocean. sajgacchate: to come together sama-. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. m.: Vedic hymn sundara-.: praise sukha-. m. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. sajbhasate (I): to converse. thoroughly.: gold svapna-.: lion smr-. adj. m. adv. m. or Loc. whole samudra-. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-.) seva-. tadayati (X): to beat tada.: sleep. adv. rightly sarpa-. m. f. serpent sarvatah.: daughter-in-law sprw-. adj. m. n.: truth senapati-. m. to discharge sidh-. adj.: beautiful sundari-. f. adj. at that time .: sun. n. robber stha-. f. to stay stotra-.: woman stuti-.: thief. m. dream svarga-. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-.: complete.: soldier sajdigdha-. the god of the Sun suta-. contentedness sam+a+car-. questionable sajtosa-. adv.) sam+gaj-.: servant sic-. to honour (Acc.: sister tad-.sainika-.: happiness sukta-. f.: service sevaka-.

to flow vaiwya-. adv. instruction urvawi-. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-. to pierce tul-. to blow.: water varuna-.: forest vanaprasta-. pass. f.: shore.: hermit. adj.: speaker vana-. to admonish upa+iks-.: ocean udyana-. vapati (I): to sow vapi-.: better. n. best vari-. f. n. n. twisted vaktr-. adj. bank tr-. m. m.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. f.: daddy tatha.: business. n.: woman. n. m. perseverance upa+diw-. part. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. m. tyajati (I): to leave.: garden udyoga-. m. m. to give up ucca-. to instruct. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-. upadiwati (VI): to teach. adv. wife vah-. uttisthati (I): to get up. f.: pond. m. vadati (I): to speak. to pay homage vanijya-. to weigh tus-. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. tarati (I): to cross over tu. pool vara-. f.: dwelling vastra-. n. n. ucyate: is called vad-.: thus. m. trade vap-.: exertion. tolayati (X): to lift up. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-. to grieve (Abl.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-.: advice.: garden udyana-.: tree tata-.) tyaj-. to be satisfied (Ins.: but tud-.: high ud+pat-. adj. to say vadhu-.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-.: there tira-. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-. m. so tatra.taksawila-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-.) taru-. recluse vand-. vahati (I): to carry. tudati (VI): to strike. to stand up udadhi-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-.: clothing .: curved. vandate (I): to praise.

m.: poison vrana-.: disputation. "punisher" wastra-. f. m. wajsati (I): to praise. m.: peace.: bird vihaga-. to punish wastr-. m. f.: knowledge.: summit. vartate (I): to be. to abandon (Abl. to extol wakha-.: behavior vrttanta-. Adj. wisyate: to rule. vedayati: to announce.: in vain.: tiger wajs-. caus.: story vyadh-. top wiks-. wealth vayu-.: learned wisya-. mode. n. m. law-book watru-. f.: way. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. m. to shower vrt-. m. n.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-. vindati (VI): to get.: brahmin vira-. m. adv. to exist vrt-. varsati (I): to rain.: hero visnu-. m.: enemy wikhara-. m. m. n. to enlarge vrka-. m. m. m.: bird vinaya-.: treatise. n. to pour down. m. to be finished wanti-. n. silence wara-. to make known vid-. n.: hunter vyaghra-. vartate (I): to live on vrtha. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-. argument viw-. m.: branch wam-.: discipline vipra-.: hero vira-. to no avail vrtta-.) vi+vad-. n. viramate (I): to give up.: tree vrs-. sore vrdh-. m.: ruler.: wound. vardhayati: to make bigger. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-.: wind vi+ram-. rule. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-. m.: thing.vasu-.: wolf vrksa-. pass. m. to acquire vidhi-. vivadati (I): to argue vici-. direction vidya-.: student.: wave vid-.: arrow warana-.: refuge was-. caus. pupil . m. wisdom vihaga-.

wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-. m.: child wloka-. as (relative) yati-.: ornament.: splendor.: Vedic scripture wubh-. caus. beauty wobhana-.: when (relative) yaj-.) wudra-.: father-in-law wveta-.: yoga yuddha-. m. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas. oblation for them wram-. m. beauty. m. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: Shiva wiwu-.: how. wruyate: to hear wruti-. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-. m. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-. m.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then….: tomorrow wvawru-. f. f. rel. m.: sacrifice yam-. m. adv. pron. m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives. f. as far as yoga-.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. yudhyati (IV): to fight . yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.: the river Yamuna yat-.: which yada. brilliance. adj. virtue wraddha-. adv. f.: luck. pass.: mother-in-law wvawura-.: white ya-.: ascetic yatra. f. m. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-. n. m.wiva-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-. adv.: child wiwu-. wealth wru-. adv.) yatha. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-.: war yudh-.

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