Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

"god") Nom. bhojanaj tu (but the food. phalani Voc. na vadanti (they do not say. phalani Acc.to -cch-: icchanti. tu (but). phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad.(to sit) changes -a. brahmanah sada yajanti devan | . So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going). In Sanskrit. Text (read and translate): 1. they are not saying). Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?)..to -i-: sidati. the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence.in front of the verb. classes: gam. Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na. is (to want) changes -s. va (or)..(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi. Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and).. stha.Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m.(VI.). bhojanam atra (the food [is] here). just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits).(to give) change -m. class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI.to -cch-: gacchati. kutra katah | 3. devan Voc. sad. ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits). devah Acc. buddham eva (just the Buddha.. the Buddha only). yacchati. and I. balah kataj diwati | 2. "fruit") Nom. devah phala (n.(to go) and yam. eva (particle of emphasis.

I want water. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. there the people do not live. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. Brahmins still sit there. 4. 3. Where is the city.4. narandevah srjati | 13. 12. nagarameva gacchami | 9. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. nrpah kva sidati | 7. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Do you want milk? 10. kada danani yacchatha | 26. 9. you are pointing the way. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. Where are the elephants? 5. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. danani yacchanti | 10. gramamadya viwamah | 14. balah ksiramicchati | 23.) going? 2. We praise the boys. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17. margaj diwatha balah | 19. 7. 11. tatha jivamah | 18. We are leaving the world today. grhamatra tisthati | 6. 6. dhanamicchamah | 24. Where are you (pl. Where the water does not flow. Boys. devannamanti | 22. 8. there stay the houses. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. The exercise key .

: wealth. to sit down srj-. adv. n.: mat ksira-. adv.: elephant grama-. m.Vocabulary is-.: way.: milk gaja-. n.: when? tatha. tisthati (I): to stand. to worship yam-. adv. namati (I): to bow.: water dana-.: where (relative) yada. road eva. to yearn for gam-.: when (relative) . gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. town putra-.: thus. to extol sad-.: then. lord dhana-. tyajati (I): to leave. diwati (VI): to show. m. money nagara-. sidati (I): to sit. to prostrate. srjati (VI): to create stha-. so tada. m. adv. only kada. to point dhav-. n.: gift deva-.: son marga-.: god.: village jala-. icchati (VI): to want. at that time yatra. adv. to stay sprw-. wajsati (I): to praise. m. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-. to give up diw-. m. dhavati (I): to run nam-.: just. adv. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-. n. n. m. yacchati (I): to give viw-.: city.

Nom. dravati (to run). to conquer). ji-. the first grade is called guna. to smell). jighrati (III. nayati (to lead). vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. But note some irregularities: guh-. sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here). Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). bhu-. bhavati (to be). Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. to conceal). class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. class. the second grade is vrddhi. ghra-. If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . rohati (to grow). Acc. pa-. vad+a+tah They (two) say n. jayati (to win. devau phale Voc. normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. Accusative and Vocative cases: m. to shower). It has always the same form for Nominative. varsati (to rain.Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. ruh-. Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. vrs-. vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. pibati (to drink). guhati (to hide. dru-.

gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. Home (emphasized) go both boys. 8. satyaj na vadathah | 18. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. Just today we both go to the city. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. anilah sada na vahati | 16. 10. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. The ruler conquers both fighters. balau phale khadatah | 20. Just here are (two) horses. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. Where are both horses? 3. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. Where do you hide money? 11. 7. 4. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. 6. dahasi he anala | 15. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. They give money and gifts. devau smaramah | 9. To the forest run the (two) elephants. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. Here stand (two) trees. Here we (two) do not live. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. devavadya smaramah | 10. 5. The Buddha speaks the truth.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. Where are you (two) going now? 9. 2. 12. he nrpau jayathah | 11. . atraiva vasavah | 5.

: truth iha. bhavati (I): to be. m. fragrance megha-.13. to conceal ghra-.: horse anala-. nayati (I): to lead pa-. adv. part.: wind gandha-. to shower smr-.: cloud vana-. adv. guhati (I): to hide. to become vah-. to conquer dah-.: fire anila-. jighrati (III): to smell ji-. m. m. jayati (I): to win. khadati (I): to eat guh-. to blow. m.: oh! .: forest vrksa-.: everywhere he. dahati (I): to burn dru-. Here sarvatra. n. vahati (I): to carry. rohati (I): to grow vrs-. pibati (I): to drink bhu-.: tree satya-.: scent. m. varsati (I): to rain. m. smarati (I): to remember awva-. to pour down. dravati (I): to run ni-. n. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-. to flow ruh-.

the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Abl. "by means of ".. . circumstances (in the city). devam Du. the agent in a passive construction. Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". Ins. "because of". Nom.Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. giving. Dat. devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen. Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). telling (to the boy). "fruit") Sg. phalam Acc. phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du.. Accusative: the object (I see you). Dative: the indirect object. phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). Ins. Abl. devasya devayoh Voc. phalasya Voc. Dat. as English "through". deva And for neuter: phala (n. Locative: the location. by carriage). Loc. devau devau Pl. "god") Sg. Nom. devah Acc. "by" (with the Buddha. Loc. is also used to denote reason (from anger).

Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. man?). duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. -i before any vowel (except for -i. If the following word beggins with a short a-. dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. mubcati (see Vocabulary). rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). -u before any vowel (except for -u. this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). n for t. Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here).Vocative: the address (Who are you. For example: muc-. j and sibilants). narah gacchanti (the men go). This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. -u.the fighter says that he lives here). gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. -i. m for p. ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. b for c and j. jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit.

: plough vipra-. m. to practise muc-. 7.: forest kumara-. mubcati (VI): to free. 6. brahmin pathika-.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17.11. 4. People do not live in forests.: suffering dvija-. krntati (VI): to cut car-. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys. n.: power.: "twice-born". force. 2. Men with boys go to the forest. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. People want happiness. 3. m.: mountain. but not suffering. young man janaka-. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: traveler parvata-.: father duhkha-. m. Traveler walks on the way to the village. strength mrga-. m. limpati (VI): to smear sic-. 8./n. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14.: prince. n. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-. m. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. to discharge yaj-. to discharge aranya-. m. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. Trees do not grow on high mountains. m. carati (I): to walk. n.: brahmin . yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-. n.: deer rana-.: battle rama-. m. hill bala-. m. 5. to roam. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12.

viwa-.: poison wiva-. m. m. adv. adj.: high iti. part. part.: what?.: Shiva sukha-.: happiness hasta-.: hand huta-. offering ucca-.: but The exercise key . n. n. why? kutah. adv. n.: oblation.: where from?.: so kim. why? tu.

Loc. sorrow.. Ins. asukha. Du. For example: sukha-.(if it begins with a vowel). Dat. Loc. vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. Abl.(n. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati. But if the following word begins with -r. anarya. Abl. water): Sg. happines. fire burns). arya. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati. varini varini Pl.Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. Nom. vari varina varine Du. agnih Acc. Rama goes with the poets). agni Pl. vari Acc. fire) Sg. Ins. Dat. unhappiness. poet tells to the seer). . agneh Voc. the fire is here. "un-noble". But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati.(m. noble.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an. varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. agne vari. Nom.. Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. varinah varinoh Voc.

2. "Enemies rob the houses here". no elephants live. Even today people remember Rama. 6. th. 3. jh. 8. but from the Law [there is] happiness. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. n) or dental (t. Hari's horse is standing just here. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. . kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. d. Where people burn the forests. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. j. 4. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. "You don't speak the truth". suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. why don't you recite poetry?". nominative plural of vari is varini). asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. 7. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. b). rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. dh. rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. retroflex (t. Text (read and translate): 1. ch. harij ksirena yajatah | 18. says the brahmin to the poet. 5. We live happily here in the mountains. poet. n) between them (so. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. d. From sin there is always suffering. asks the king. weep the boys. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. th. balau kuto rodatah | 2. 9. jalaj gireh patati | 10. dh. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. "O.

m. m. ruler pati-. to recite rud-.: Vedic hymn hari-. m. even. n.: sin varuna-. m. m. n.: enemy asatya-. palm papa-. n.: seer kavi-. Buddhism nrpati-. lie asi-. m. Law. to pierce path-. rodati (I): to weep lup-.: poet kavya-. m. tudati (VI): to strike. m. n. m. m. also.: "un-truth".: servant. slave deha-.: Lord.: person dasa-. righteousness. pathati (I): to read. husband pani-.: fire anna-. m. to rob agni-. lumpati (VI): to steal. part. m.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-.: body dharma-.: personal name api-.: water sukta-.: poetry giri-. even though .: law. mn.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-. m. master.: food ari-.: mountain jana-.: king. n. n.: hand. m.: sword rsi-.

indicative uses different root (paw-). class are thematic verbs. Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes). watruh Acc.is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). The verb drw. For example a. But if a is used separately as a preposition. to look). -h after any vowel and before t-. watroh Voc. watru Pl. Nom. ch. th. agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). Only passive is constructed from this root. Ins. . Du. Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-. pawyati (to see. watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here). (enemy) Sg. Abl. The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-.is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god).(to see) is irregular and defective. Loc. kupyati (to be angry). Therefore: drw-. a vanat (only from the forest). watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen. it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). -h after any vowel and before c-.means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come).Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV. m. watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. Dat. anayati (to bring). Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning.

balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. 3. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. The king with fighters comes to the city. 6. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. but father lives here. We do not live here. "There stands father's house. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6." asks teacher the student. 8. or Dat. 2. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14.Text (read and translate): 1. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. 5." says the boy to the traveler. "What are you writing now. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. naro 'wvamarohati | 10. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8. oh king. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4. 7. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20.) . nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. 4. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. By the power of [your] arms you win.

m. or Loc. quantity ripu-. arohati (I): to ascend.: with (with Inst. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-.) a+gam-. n. to desire (with Dat.: drop mani-. to mount likh-.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-.: ocean guru-.: teacher. m. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m.: heap. to call in udadhi-. prep. m. to look yudh-.) hu-. m. footprint bahu-.) .) wus-. likhati (VI): to write lubh-. or postp. m. law-book wisya-. m. m.: treatise. ahvayati (IV): to call here.: arm bindu-. letter parawu-. nawyati (IV): to be lost.krudh-. lubhyati (IV): to long for. agacchati (I): to come tr-.: leaf. or Dat.: student. mass. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-. m.: axe pada-. precious stone rawi-. m. precious stone ratna-. or Loc. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-. to perish drw-.: jewel. pupil saha. n.: enemy visnu-. m. guru pattra-.: bird watru-. pawyati (IV): to see. n.: enemy wastra-.: foot.: gem. m. m.

vidhyati (to pierce). mad-. Loc. A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. Text (read and translate): 1. nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3. madhuni madhuni Pl. Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7. madhu madhuna madhune Du. arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | .Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10.is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. madhunah madhunoh Voc. viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. Dat. Abl. bhramyati (to wander). devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). the root vyadh. Ins. kram-. madhu Acc. kramati (to walk). Nom. madyati (to be intoxicated). madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus).

5. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-.). anayati (I): to bring bhram-. m. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. There are many things in the houses. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17.: bee awru-.) tus-. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-.) div-.: bear . 3. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. to share a+kram-. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-.12. Bees wander around flowers of the trees. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. n. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. 8. acamati (I): to sip. to grieve (Abl. Death conquers even unrighteousness. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-. 2. rcchati (I): to get. to be satisfied (Ins. to be finished wram-. m. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. 4. to carry aksa-. to take away. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13. Fighters play for money (Ins. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. to obtain. n. to rinse tam-. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16. dice adharma-.: unrighteousness ali-. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14. harati (I): to take. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. 6. 7. Tears are flowing on boy's face.: tear rksa-. Birds are flying to the tree. tusyati (IV): to rejoice.: eye. wamyati (IV): to be pacified.

: anger krodha-.: honey manusya-.: person mukha-.n. m.: death vasu-. n. abundant. n. adj. mouth mrtyu-.: flower bhaga-.: face. n.: eye puspa-. m.: part madhu-.: hero bahu-.: numerous.: anger netra. wealth vira-.: thing. m. n. m. m. m. many .kopa-.

to generate). narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. vid-. jan-. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house). Text (read and translate): 1.Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7. janayati (to give birth. Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. dharayati (to hold). gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key . ksalayati (to wash). The vowel -a. pidayati (to torture). stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. but: pid-. suto 'wvanpidayati | 8. wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. corayati (to steal). bhayayati (to cause fear). bhi-. grhalloka agacchanti | 15. devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). vedayati (to make known).to the root (usually strengthened): cur-.between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. Before palatals. -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. class add -aya.instead of just -a. suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4. If the root ends in a vowel. Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world).

: epos Ramayana rupaka-. 2. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. m. n. to worship. to punish pid-. punishment punya-.) .: thief. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. 7. Father tells son about fruits of sins. to weigh dand-. 6. like. m. as if mam: me (Acc. 8.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-. Merit protects from grief.: coin vastra-. m. dandayati (X): to beat.: charioteer stena-.: as. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-. 3. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-. pujayati (X): to honour. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword. to hurt puj-.: servant ramayana-. 4. n. adj." asks the servant the king.: stick. part. "Why do you beat me. n.: clothing vrttanta-.) wash their faces. ganayati (X): to count cur-. m. Boys (Du. n.: story wudra-. robber navina-. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-.: holy man suvarna-. 5. n. kathayati (X): to tell. n.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to narrate ksal-. I want new clothes. to revere pr-. corayati (X): to steal tad-.: new iva.: old story. aharati (I): to bring danda-.: merit purana-. pidayati (X): to torture. m. m.: gold suta-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-. n. tolayati (X): to lift up.

-o at the end of the word and before a.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. to obtain) A: Sg. Text (read and translate): 1. phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. ksatriya rsi sevante | . labhate (to get. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. But Dual endings -i. Before other vowels a final -e. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. o. But this initial a. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. god Agni). 1. agni iksate balah | 11. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. -e. labh-. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). But in Sanskrit. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible.is unchanged. labhe Du. "word for another"). -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). Pl. labhase labhethe 3. Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". fire.

arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5. 8. m.: deliverance yajba-. The father is looking at son's face.: sun moksa-. courage. m.: benefit. 3. perseverance kalyana-. m. n. goodness taru-. 4.) a+rabh-.: patience. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-.) ruc-. sahate (I): to bear. Holy men (Du. to honour (Acc. to say mr-. iksate (I): to look at. wiksate (I): to learn sah-. bhasate (I): to speak. to stare kamp-.: sacrifice . to endure sev-. sevate (I): to serve.: exertion. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. vandate (I): to praise. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear.) labh-. to tremble jan-. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. m. to pay homage wiks-.: poverty udyoga-. rocate (I): to like (Dat. Boys like fruit.) iks-. kampate (I): to shake. Gen. 2.: tree dvijati-. Children ask the father for food.17. n. member of a high caste dhairya-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.) anartha-. cattle bhanu-. Father likes sons' discipline. m.. firmness pawu-. m. 6. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18. mriyate (IV): to die yat-.: "twice-born". labhate (I): to get. to obtain vand-. 7. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. m.: sacrificial animal.) begin with a sacrifice.

: discipline wiwu-.: wave vinaya-.: wind vici-.: child samudra-.: ocean.vayu-. m. m. m. sea . m. m.

(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para.(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry).is changed into -n. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni.(towards. sena Acc. Ins. senam senaya senayai Du. army) Sg.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve.. to follow) ava. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2.after a prefix containing -r. satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra. Abl. Nom. to honour).(after.is changed into -s.(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud. Dat. Text (read and translate): 1. senayah senayoh Voc. -n. Loc. following): anu+gacchati (to go after. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa. hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | . sene sene Pl.(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3.

) bhiks-. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. 7. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-. f. sajgacchate: to come together isu-. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. m. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. 5.: the river Ganga grhastha-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7.: householder . f. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. 4. Many trees grow on the mountain. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-. m. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11. 6.) descend from black horses. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12.: arrow kanya-. The king conquers enemies in the battle.5. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-.: girl. Here on the street kings (Du. to take refuge in (Acc. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. 8. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15. prapadyate (IV): to go to. 3. The student asks householder's wife for alms. 2. daughter gavga-.

many sahasa. adj.: wife bhasa-. f.: suddenly . n.: bad. f.: gem rathya-. f.: manifold. f.: knowledge.chaya-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-. n. shade prayaga-. wisdom vyadha-. n. adv.: hunter warana-. f.: street vidya-.: the river Yamuna ratna-.: shadow.: fear bharya-. m.: language bhiksa-. f. m.: alms yamuna-. black papa-.: heaven hrdaya-.: refuge svarga-. n.: heart krsna-. f. sinful prabhuta-. f. adj.

dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. pass. pass.in these roots: vac-. Text (read and translate): 1. vas-. ucyate (to say). kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. corayati.but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. pass. he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. mucyate. udyate (to say). dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. vad-. ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | .is changed into -u. supyate (to sleep). stu-. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. mubcati. diyate (to give). It is used with the instrumental case. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. vah-. Verbs of the X class drop -aya. sutenawvastadyate | 20. naraih katah kriyante | 8. puryate (to fill). janairnagaraj gamyate | 6. vap-. kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-.Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. uhyate (to carry). Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. upyate (to sow). pass. awvena jalaj piyate | 17. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. usyate (to dwell). svap-. stuyate (to praise).to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12. jiyate. coryate. The consonant -v. smaryate (to remember). ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. tiryate. pr-. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit.

pass. 6.: snare." is said by people. pass. wisyate: to rule. 3. m. Hari is again praised by Rama. 2.: kingdom wiwu-. Holy man always speaks truth (pass).: child sarpa-.: grain pawa-. Grain is sown in the fields.: clarified butter. wruyate: to hear ajba-. pass.: wood gita-. f. n. load bhiksu-. "In the shade is comfortably slept. n. n. puryate: to fill badh-. m.: pot. It is played with dices. mendicant. serpent . m. m. 8. kriyate: to do ga-. ghee dhanya-.: burden. to punish wru-. f. gayati (IV): to sing daw-. n. dawati (I): to bite da-.: garland rajya-. diyate: to give pr-. badhyate: to bind vap-. Jars are being filled with grain. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). pass.: order kastha-. n. 7. jar ghrta-. Girls bind garlands (pass).: song ghata-. trap bhara-. vapati (I): to sow was-.: snake. m. 5.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 4.: Buddhist monk. pass. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. pass. beggar mala-. m.

rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. 2. impf. paryanayat. Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. It has special endings: Sg. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. a+vad+a+h 3. a+vad+a+t Du. jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. If the verb is prefixed. aicchat (he wanted). purena grhanyuhyante | . nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. Text (read and translate): 1. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. impf. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-.

nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. m.: composition. to stand up artha-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m.: summit. m. m. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood.: sun.) sang the praise of Rama. vartate (I): to be. m. uttisthati (I): to get up. m. 2. Men sat down on mats.: sea grantha-.: ode. f. When you were ("stood") in trouble. n. Servants brought water in jars. stream prasada-.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. He cut the branch with an axe. 7. top sabha-. m. f. m. 6. m. m. Brahmins (Du.: congregation. you asked the king for protection.: hope indra-. glory pustaka-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-. book (text) jaya-. The teacher hit the student out of the anger. the god of the Sun stotra-. 4. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. a hymn of praise . Deers came to the Ganga and drank water.: victory.: meaning. to exist ud+stha-. n. assembly surya-. 5.: demon awa-. meeting.: fish raksana-. f. 8. 3.: flood.: branch wikhara-. wealth asura-. prosperity. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-.: book (manuscript) pura-. n. m.: palace matsya-.: protection wakha-.

Loc. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. Ins. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. 4. Abl. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. nadyah nadyoh Voc. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. nadi Acc. 3. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10.. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5. . wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. We bring water from the pond. Dat. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. nadim nadya nadyai Du. river) Sg. nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. satyameva jayate | 12. nadyau nadyau Pl. Nom. 2.

bank dasi-. f. f. f.: soldier pavitra-. m. mrgayate (X): to search for. pratigacchati (I): to come back. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother.: robe.: ornament maharaja-. to practise mrg-. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea. adj. f. whole sundara-. 8. acarati (I): to do. m.: yoga vapi-.: city nadi-. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. Indra's wife udyana-. n. decoration indrani-. 6. to perform. n.: great king maharani-. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler. f. adj. f.: earth bhusana-. m.: Indrani. female slave devi-. mistress nagari-.: wife putri-. f.: pond.: woman patni-. Even the king came with the soldiers.: goddess.: hail!. m.: tiger sainika-. f.: daughter prthivi-. ucyate: is called vrt-.5.: female servant. n. f. f.) . f.: shore. f. pool vyaghra-. adv.: river nandana-.: clean. to go back.: queen yoga-. to hunt for vac-. pass. holy samagra-.: mother tira-.: garden janani-.: Indra's paradise nari-.: beautiful namas-. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-. 7. to return a+car-. glory! (Dat. n. n. adj.: complete.

dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen. dhenuh Acc. ablative. f. The dative. gurvi.and -y. dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc. f. bahu-. Ins. Abl. dhenum dhenva Du. idea): Sg. prthvi. dhenu dhenu Pl. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4.(f. Dat. matim matya Du. heavy). wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3. Ins.Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-. Nom. bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5.(abundant.(broad). guru-. Loc. Abl. mate dhenu. Nom. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc. f. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. cow): Sg. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems". many).. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. mati. bahvi. Text (read and translate): 1.. Dat.(f. mati mati Pl. matih Acc.(serious.with -v-). Loc. punyena muktij labhadhve | .

dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12. 3.: quarrel. f. 4. I worship Shiva for prosperity. to instruct. f.6.: end kalaha-.: ruler . m. firmness parthiva-. to acquire wubh-. 7. 8.: fame gopa-. 6.: cowherd jati-. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10.: courage. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. People of many castes lived in villages. caste dhrti-. 5. wobhate (I): to shine anta-. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13.) upa+diw-. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. m." said a citizen to the king. to appear vid-. to admonish pal-. palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14. fight kirti-. upadiwati (VI): to teach. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15.: birth. vindati (VI): to get. f. prabhavati (I): to arise. 2. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. m. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7. m.

: well-being. adj. righteous .: citizen buddhi-. m. f. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-. m. adj. f.: deliverance rawmi-.: main.: Vedic scripture smrti-. f.: tradition. n.: wound.paura-.: earth. f.: peace. adj.: low mukhya-. sore wanti-.: ray vrana-. f. silence wruti-. f. dream nica-. f.: devotion bhuti-.: wisdom bhakti-. ground maksika-. foremost sadhu-. land. f.: holy. f. f.: sleep. prosperity bhumi-.: fly mukti-.

adhitisthati. Gen. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. 1. dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. wholly: ati+kram-.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen. to lead away.(f. dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. kh-. dhiyau dhiyau Pl..Pl. it is changed into s. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. away: apa+ni-. to go back. Dat. apart: vi+dr-. Ins. .Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. apaniyati. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems". and Loc. they were seen). Sg. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s. us: nih+pad-. dhih Acc. to rule apa-. on: adhi+stha-. to carry away prati-. alabhata Du. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata. Pl. thought): Sg. pratigacchati. nisidati. impf. ph.. this can also happen in Gen. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. Dat.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. atikramati. back: prati+gam-.changed into -is. Abl. against. nispadyate (to arise). nyasidat. Abl. In addition. completely overcome adhi-. p-. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. Loc. to govern. Nom. pass. alabhe 3. vidiryate.. to return vi-. above. completely.): dhi.

Where did you get white cows? 3. 6. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. Mother called (pass. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. he returned to the city. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. dhyayati (IV): to think. atikramati (I): to cross over. nispadyate (IV): to originate. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6. When was the king's son born? 8. 2. to appear prati+bhas-. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. pratibhasate (I): to answer . ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. elephants and bears were seen there. 7. Rama's father was always remembered by people. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. to meditate nih+pad-. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. to transgress pra+jan-. Many tigers. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. 5.) girls home from the garden. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3.Text (read and translate): 1. When the king talked with brahmins. padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. Many arrows were shot on the tiger. 4. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean.

: creation krtsna-. f. adj.: sage. m. f. firm wveta-. adj. saint moha-.: destruction. n. reason nawa-. m. adhitisthati (I): to govern. f. beauty. f. to restrain ni+sev-. annihilation padma-.: luck. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-. m.: lotus purusa-. adj. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. adj. m. god kama-. m.: chariot lobha-. master.: greed vasati-.: man muni-.: dwelling wri-.: cause dhi-.: whole caru-. f.: thought. m.: agreement iwvara-.: lord. m.rac-.: wise.: delusion ratha-. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-.: white . to drive anujba-.: beautiful dhira-. to rule. wealth srsti-. desire karana-. n. m.: pleasure.

2. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. daughter. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. 7. "Give me food. Let charioteers do not torture horses. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. 3. annaj yaccha he janani | 13. 4. daddy. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. 5. 2. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. Pl. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. vada Du. 6. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7." said the father. . ma gacchatu (let him not go). atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6. "Study the treatises and speak the truth." asked the boy father. Let the children show the traveler the way. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11. devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9." orders students the tradition. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. Let the men dig a pond. Text (read and translate): 1. vadama 1. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. "Come today.

m. by all means hrasvam.: highest.: subject. study praja-. far dusta-. f.: image. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-. in proximity va: or . m.: seat. adj. adj. untruth abhyasa-. m. adv. close. n. m. thoroughly.: lesson.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-.: different. under (Gen. statue vaiwya-. adj. khanati (I): to dig atithi-. studying adewa-.) ciram.: down. form.: everywhere. n. f. m.: bad.: daddy darwana-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-. position kawi-. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-. n.: repeating. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-.: seeing. adv.: long.: lie. adv. adv. people murti-. m.: guest anrta-. meeting. f.: near. lower dirgha-.: for the long time sarvatah. abhyasyati (IV): to study. different adhastat. m. rotten para-. adj. audience pataliputra-. to learn a+diw-.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-.: order asana-.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-.

. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. bhuh Acc.. Ins. earth): Sg. Nom.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . bhuvau Pl. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4.(f. Dat. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. vadhuh Acc. Abl. woman): Sg. vadhu bhu. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. Nom. bhuva bhuve Du. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. Loc. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen. vadhvau vadhvau Pl.(f. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. Dat. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. Ins. Abl. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11. Loc. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen. sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2.

People live on earth and gods in heaven. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri.: ruler vadhu-. m. There is no water in the well.: eyebrow rajbi-.: mother-in-law sundari-. m.: well bhupala-. earth.: moment guna-. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15. f.: teacher juhu-. f.: sacrificial ladle durga-. to seem vi+vad-. f. 7. Let us live there. to arise wuc-. f.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-. m. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-. apaharati (I): to take away. Let the student not argue with the teacher. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-.: dwelling bhu-. wife wvawru-.: woman. The eyebrows of beauties are always black. f.: land. n.: beauty stuti-. 5. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14. "Take away nice clothes." ordered the householder. pas. m. f. to steal ksana-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16.: quality acarya-. 2.: queen laksmi-. f.13. m. ground bhru-. 8. 4. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-. 6.) apa+har-. drwyate: to look (like).: the goddess Durga nivewana-. f. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: praise . f. Who protects the earth is called a ruler. f. pravartate (I): to become.

: curved.. pron. f.: daughter-in-law vakra-. as far as ya-.snusa-.: which .. rel. adj.. then. twisted yavat-tavat: when..

person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). This form is widely used especially in 3. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act).Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. Let an ascetic not converse with women. 1. mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. Some verbs. Text (read and translate): 1. . satyaj sadocyatam | 10. 3. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. 2. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Pl. dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. labhai Du. otherwise active. Let it be thus! 5. often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). 6. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. 4. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. Do not neglect illnesses. labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3.

anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-. death kalidasa-. m. rightly . adv. best idanim. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung.: grass. f.: bad man. to seek refuge in han-. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-. homage prayawcitta-. adj. caus. villain devalaya-. to act bhan-.: better. sajbhasate (I): to converse. to talk with (Ins. m. to expect upa+iks-.: scholar.: ascetic yuddha-. n.: time.7.: decision pandita-. pasture durjana-.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-.) a+wri-.: now kalena. ghatayati: to kill kala-. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-.: illness vara-. n.: worship. adv.: food mahisa-. atonement bhojana-. m. place puja-. m. m. m. n.: sometimes samyak.: war roga-. n. 8.: expiation. m. Let women and children are not killed in the war.: buffalo yati-. m. abhinayati (I): to conduct. learned man pada-. pratiksate (I): to await. drama niwcaya-. awrayate (I): to depend on. m. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-.: play. adv.: well. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-. m.: step. m.: temple nataka-.

Ins. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. karta Acc. kartarau Pl. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a. father): Sg. matarau Pl.(m. matra matre matuh matari Du. agent. Abl.Du. maker): Sg.Sg. Loc.(m. kartuh Voc.. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen. mata Acc. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. 2) nouns of relationship. Loc. Acc. pituh Voc. pita Acc. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen. Dat. Loc.. pitar matr. Dat..(f. They differ only in Acc. kartr. Dat. Abl. kartar pitr. mother): Sg. Nom. and Nom. Nom. Ins.. Ins.. sister and naptr-.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns. matar . matuh Voc.Pl. Nom. Abl. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du. pitarau Pl. Nom.Du.

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.


Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". The declension of the word nau. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows". labheya 3. gacchati "[he/she] goes". let it be done). Ins.(f. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5.Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. Nom. nauh As you have probably noticed. labheta Du. 1.. brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. Dat. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen. nauh Voc. Text (read and translate): 1. nauh Acc. Abl. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. labhemahi labheran 2. nava nave nauh navi Du. navau Pl. bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2. labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. nausu yuddhamabhavat | . jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7. boat): Sg. Loc. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9.

n.10.: business.this we read in the treatises. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt.: how. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at.: life nidewa-. to abandon (Abl. m.: friend vanijya-. May the friends be always remembered! 2.) udyana-. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy. adj. equal.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-. m. m. mode. adj.: order seva-. rule. even sajdigdha-. 3. pass. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living . m. n. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-. 7.: same.: servant marana-. n. 8.) abhi+vad-. to carry out. balavudyane rameyatam | 11.: agriculture jivita-. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12. n. adv.: death mitra-. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-. questionable yatha.: way.: service pawupalya-.: fear bhrtaka-. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive). The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. Let new poems be written! 6. to perform apa+ni-.: garden krsi-. f. n. to welcome (Acc. as (relative) . Let women and children be taken away to the city. n. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-.: doubtful. trade vidhi-. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. anutisthati (I): to follow. direction sama-. 4.). viramate (I): to give up. f. 5.

wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8. upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. kr. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7.translate as "to recite". janayati (to give birth. karayati (to cause to be done). The vowel -a. adhyapayati (to teach). Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p. jbapayati (to make known. dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3.Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class.(to be). suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11. Text (read and translate): 1. gamayati (to let go.(to do). to proclaim). ga. that is using the augment -aya-: jan.between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. to fly).(to learn). "to report" etc.(to know). dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14. But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. When translating the causative. "to tell". If the root ends in any other vowel. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4. vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9.(to go). suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6. gapayati (to let sing). we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13. patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key . nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10.(to sing).(to be born). gam. bhavayati (to make something happen).(to fall. And also adhi+i. janayati (see above). The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody). So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context . it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu. to beget). "to sing". to make somebody to go). to water).between the root and -aya-: jba.

Let the householder return home.) the father the books. m. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. caus. n. They watered horses with water from the river. vardhayati: to make bigger. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-. 4.: cowshed manoratha-. m. 5. Show (sg. tax duta-. caus. 3. ajbapayati: to order da-. patayati: to knock down mr-. caus. to no avail . f. m.: for the sake of vrtha. darwayati: to show apa+ni-. caus. caus. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. to enlarge pa-. postp. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. caus. postp. Let (pl. caus. Let them allow the guests to enter.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras.: woman madhye. adv. caus.: between. to make known vrdh-.: form. caus.) the cows come into the cowshed. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. 6. m.: messenger gostha-. elephant's trunk. beauty stri-.: in vain. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-. vedayati: to announce.: hand. caus. caus. m. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. caus. m.: coming kara-. 2. marayti: to kill vid-.: wolf rupa-. amongst (with genitive) arthe.: desire vrka-. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. 7. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. 8.

All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. nah.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. tva. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. Dat. Loc. nau. Loc. (you) Nom. Abl. Ins. Abl. Gen. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse. (I) Nom. Acc. Acc. me. Gen. Ins. Dat. te. . (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg.

3. I did not steal your gold (passive). n. Let the gods protect your life! 6. to spread ni+vid-.: nectar (the drink of immortality) . or Gen. caus.Dat. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13.Text (read and translate): 1. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. 4. 5. to report wru-. Tell me the story of Urvashi. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14.: transgression. offence amaru-. caus. ksamate: to forgive (what . yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. to beg ksam-. n. Our (Dual) parents died. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. 2. m. to whom . I do not want your (Dual) money. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. bhadraj te | 9. kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. Mother gives food to both you and me. Elephants do not live in our country. prathayati: to propagate. prarthayate: to ask. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15.: the poet Amaru amrta-. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. nivedayati: to announce. 8. to disseminate. bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2.Acc. Let your father go with me. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17.) prath-. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. 7. begged the boy mother.. caus.

: half awrama-. m.ca: both .: speaker vanaprasta-. f.: pigeon taksawila-. m. happiness.: satisfaction. life bhadra-. n. virtue wloka-.: silence vaktr-. n.: peacock mauna-.: hermitage urvawi-.: ornament. contentedness ca . m.: hermit. m.ardha-.: treasure prana-. m. m. n. m. m. m.: breath. recluse wobhana-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-. f.: bliss. f. postposition: if wvas.: frog dewa-. n. adv.: tomorrow . Pl. prosperity mayura-. n.: country naraka-.: hell nidhana-.: story kapota-.and cet.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-. m.: the nymph Urvashi katha-. m.

at.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. h cc. G en. V oc. G en. ns. L oc. ns. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. te te Pl. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. bl. she (sa. N om. this) Sg. tau tau tabh yam Pl. bl. at. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . this) Sg. N om. cc.

tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m. (one) ubhayah m./ anya f./ katama f./ yad n./ etad n. (other) The following words also follow this declension. at. (which one [of two]) anyah m./ eka f. V oc./ esa f./ katara f.follow irregular sandhi pattern./ ya f. (all) ekah m.L oc.and esa./ ubhaya f./ viwvam n./ itarad n. N om. bl. (different) itarah m. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa./ sarvam n. (which one [of many]) katarah m. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg. ns. V oc. te te tabh yam Pl./ viwva f. L oc. cc./ katarad n. (all) viwvah m./ ubhayam n. except for nominative and accusative of neuter./ katamad n./ itara f. (relative pronoun which) katamah m. Here they ./ anyad n. it (tad./ sarva f./ ekam n. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a. en. (this one) yah m.

/n. yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. prinayati: to please. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-.: noble upadewa-. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. Examples: sa purusah (this man). I don't want these books. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. 5. Poor people live in the houses. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes.: advice. so 'vadat (he said). 9. Other people than you won't accomplish this. Husbands of these women went to war. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. 6. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14. caus. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. instruction . m. sa isuh (this arrow). 4. I don't like your behavior. Text (read and translate): 1.: end arya-. m. yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9./m. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 2. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. In this forest I saw a lion. 7. 3.change to -o and the following -a is lost." said the general. caus. to delight sidh-. anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5. In these rivers there are many fish. 10. Adj.

emaciated pusta-. m. offense wobha-. Adj. Adj. n.: general.: bigger than (with Abl. characteristic.: behavior dosa-. m.: splendor.: fat murkha-.: lion senapati-. Adj. Adj. army leader adhika-. m. not one krwa-.: hero vrtta-.: thin. beauty sijha-.: foolish wiksita-.: donkey laksana-. much. Adj.khara-.) aneka-.: fault. sign vira-. brilliance. Adj.) .: donkey gardabha-.: many.: mark.: learned prati: towards (with Acc. f. n. m. m. m.

: teacher adewa-.: down. to call in a+jba-. now agamana-. m.: lie.: order aksa-. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc.: bee amaru-. decoration abhi+a+as-. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-.: bigger than (with Abl. to rinse a+car-. to mount a+wri-. n.: unrighteousness adhastat.: now adya. f. adv.: eye. adv.: poverty aneka-. to welcome (Acc. studying acarya-. abhyasyati (IV): to study. caus.: food anrta-. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-. n. agamayati: to let come a+hr-. to perform. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-. untruth anta-. acamati (I): to sip.) abhi+ni-. caus.) adhi+i-. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-. m. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-.) a+ruh-. adv. n. ahvayati (IV): to call here. m. much. to learn abhi+nand-. caus. to rule. not one anila-.: today. m.: the poet Amaru amrta-.: fire ajba-. m.: repeating.: wind anna-. acarati (I): to do. n.: end .) adhuna. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+.: robe. to act abhi+vad-. m. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-. m.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. to drive adhika-. awrayate (I): to depend on.: coming agni-.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-. m. Adj. n.: many. m. n. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: fire anartha-. Adj. to practise a+diw-. m./n. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-. arohati (I): to ascend. abhinayati (I): to conduct. m. dice ali-.: order adharma-. under (Gen. to seek refuge in abharana-.

: tear awva-. adj. f.: sword asura-.: hermitage awru-.: for the sake of arya-. m. offence api-.: "un-truth".: numerous.: noble as-.: burden. adv. position asatya-. m.: bliss. also. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-.: seat. even though aranya-. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. adj. f.: devotion bhan-.: agreement apa+har-. m. prosperity bhaga-. load bhartr-. wealth arthe.: guest atra. m. prosperity. m. atikramati (I): to cross over.: part bhakti-. m.: meaning.: transgression. m. n. m. part. m. m. n. apaharati (I): to take away. to carry out.: wife bhas-./m. lower aparaddha-.: sun bhara-.) artha-. force. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-. m. n. bhasate (I): to speak.: arm bala-. n. strength bhadra-. pass. m. to say .: end anu+gam-. abundant.: husband bharya-. apanayayati: to lead away apara-. to transgress atithi-. n. m. to steal apa+ni-.: here ava+gam-.: half ari-. caus.: power. even.: boy. m. anutisthati (I): to follow. asyati (IV): to throw asana-. lie asi-. postp. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. n.: forest ardha-.: horse badh-. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-. child bala-.: enemy arth-. avarohati: to descend awa-. badhyate: to bind bahu-. f. many bahu-. to perform anujba-. m. f.anta-.: hope awrama-. n. happiness.: demon ati+kram-. Adj.: different.

to punish danda-. f. m. n.: brahmin buddha-. f. dandayati (X): to beat.: well-being. caus.: beautiful cet. to practise caru-. m. mendicant. m. ground bhumi-. m.: fear bhiks-. postposition: if chaya-. f.and car-.: language bhaya-. pass. carati (I): to walk. dawati (I): to bite deha-.: for the long time cur-. beggar bhojana-.: earth. audience dasa-.: seeing. ground bhupala-.: eyebrow bhu-. n.: land. slave dasi-. bhavati (I): to be. n.: gift dand-.: god. adj. land.: ornament bhuti-.ca: both . prosperity bindu-. n. m.: shadow. dahati (I): to burn dana. m.bhasa-. m. mn.: Buddha buddhi-.: wisdom ca . f. female slave datr-.: temple . dapayati: to let give da-. m. m. f. n. lord devalaya-. f. shade ciram. f.: servant bhru-. to become bhu-. m. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-.: frog daridra-. earth. m. adj.: fear bhaya-. m. meeting.: poor darwana-. f.: giver daw-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-.: servant. to roam.: stick. m. corayati (X): to steal da-. n.: female servant. punishment dardura-.: food bhojana-. m. m.: drop brahmana-.: ruler bhusana-.: brother bhrtaka-.: food bhram-. f.: body deva.: alms bhiksu-.: servant bhrtya-. adv. diyate: to give dah-.: Buddhist monk.

f.adj. m.: grass. m.: thus ga-. adv. ganayati (X): to count gandha-. f. pawyati (IV): to see. mistress dewa-. firmness dhana. offense dru-. reason dhira-.: the goddess Durga durjana-. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-.: pot. n. caus. firmness dhya-. only evam.: wise. dhyayati (IV): to think. n.: mountain gita-. member of a high caste eva. m. Buddhism dhav-. distressed durga-. dhavati (I): to run dhi-. jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-.devi-. to meditate dirgha-.: long.: suffering duhkhita.: goddess. m. rotten duta-.: fault. m. m.: patience. m. f. m.: cowherd gostha-.: donkey gavga-. m.: "twice-born". diwati (VI): to show.: law. righteousness. brahmin dvijati-.: bad. f.: bad man. f.: daughter duhkha-. n. m. m. firm dhrti-. m. m.: scent. n. f. pasture ghata-.: messenger dvija-. adv.: village .: grain dharma-. to seem drw-. m.: cowshed grama. money dhanya-. Law. to look duhitr-.: country dhairya-. n. drwyate: to look (like). m. darwayati: to show drw-.: thought. ghee giri-. pas.: just. dravati (I): to run drw-.: elephant gam-.: song gopa-. fragrance gardabha-. gacchati (I): to go gan-. n. villain dusta-.: "twice-born". jar ghra-. courage. adj.: clarified butter.: the river Ganga ghasa-.: courage.: wealth. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-. far div-. adj. m. to point dosa-. adj.: unhappy..

hvayati (IV): to call huta-. guru han-.: lord. n.: person janaka-. here iks-. f.: heart hu-. to carry hrasvam. iksate (I): to look at.: so iva. ghatayati: to kill hari-.: oh! hr-. adv. book (text) grha-.: water jamatr-. m. adv. m. n.: time. part.: oblation. caus. m. adv.: composition. Indra's wife is-. n.: when? kala-. kampate (I): to shake. part. to stare indra-.: now iha.: birth. to conquer jiv-.: personal name hasta-. offering idanim. god jala. to yearn for isu-.: life juhu-. like. m. n.: son-in-law jan-.: arrow iti.: quarrel. m. n.: sometimes kalidasa-.: teacher. f. m. harati (I): to take.: sacrificial ladle kada. m. m.: pleasure. death kalaha-. jayati (I): to win. jivati (I): to live jivana-. guhati (I): to hide.: householder guh-.: Indrani. in proximity hrdaya-. to conceal guna-.: house grhastha-.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-. m.: near. m.: victory.: hand he. n. adv.: benefit. m. close. goodness kama-. part.grantha-. desire kamp-. m. caste jaya-. f.: life jivita-. fight kalena. m. n. adv.: as.: mother jati-.: Hindu god Indra indrani-.: quality guru-. m. jayate (IV): to be born jana-. m. as if iwvara-. to tremble .: father janani-. master. f. m. to take away. m. glory ji-. icchati (VI): to want.

n. f.: story katham. adv. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. black krt-. to obtain laksana-.: girl.: hand.Dat. pass..Acc.: prince. elephant's trunk.: poet kavya-.: cause kastha-.: anger krs-.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-. adv. m. to narrate katha-. m.) ksana-. f. sign laksmi-. f. khanati (I): to dig khara-.: poetry kawi-. m. ksamate: to forgive (what . f. or Dat. lance kup-.: mat kath-. characteristic. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. m.: where? labh-. to cultivate (field) krsi-.: how? kavi-. m. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-. adj. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. n. or Dat. m. m.: where? kva. or Gen. adv.) kopa-. n. adv. f.: mark. emaciated ksal-. krsati (I): to plow.: whole krudh-. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-.: plough . why? kirti-.: kshatriya. labhate (I): to get.: milk kumara-.: field ksip-.: donkey kim. n. kathayati (X): to tell. m. Adj.) kupa-. m. m. adv.: agriculture krsna-.: well kutah.: thin.: wood kata-.: anger kr-. tax karana-.) krwa-. f.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-.: moment ksatriya-. m. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m. daughter kapota-. khadati (I): to eat khan-. kriyate: to do krodha-. young man kunta-.: what?.kanya-. fighter ksetra-.: fame klp-.: spear. n. n.: pigeon kara-.: where from? why? kutra. to whom . n.

to rob mad-. to discharge mud-.: death marga.) man-. m.) lup-.: gem. m. mubcati (VI): to free.: city.: honey madhye.) mukha-.: deliverance mr-. m. m. Adj. mrgayate (X): to search for.: month matsya-.: great king maharani-. road masa-.: main. m. m. m. precious stone manoratha-. saint murkha-.: sage.: world (in Pl. f.: desire manusya-. statue nadi-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-.: fly mala-. caus.: between.: foolish murti-. town nagari-. marayti: to kill mr-. likhati (VI): to write lip-. f. postp.: face.: peacock megha-.: cloud mitra-.: deliverance muni-. f. n.: buffalo maksika-.: delusion moksa-. adj. f. m. n. n.likh-.: way. m. or Loc. n.: queen mahisa-. m. modate (I): to delight in (Ins. m. n. f.: city . m. foremost mukti-.: fish mauna-. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-. to desire (with Dat. to suppose mani-. to hunt for mrga-.: river nagara. m. lubhyati (IV): to long for.: death muc-. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-.: person marana-. m.: greed loka-. lumpati (VI): to steal.: image. n.: deer mrtyu-.: garland mam: me (Acc. m. m. manyate (IV): to think. m. form. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-.: friend moha-. mouth mukhya-. means also "people") lubh-. f.: silence mayura-. f.

m. adj. pacati (I): to cook pada-. adj.: eye ni-. nispadyate (IV): to originate. m. different para+ji-. m.: new naw-. drama navina-. n.: woman nataka-. namati (I): to bow. to worship namas-. ruler pa-.: hand.) nandana-.: order nidhana-. own nivewana-. n.: foot. to appear nija-. n. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-. sinful papa-. m. m. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-. caus.: sin para-. m. palm panini-. place padma-. to report nica-.: play. m. m. adj.: grandson nara-.: leader netra.: hail!.: one's.: destruction.: step. adv. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-. m.: decision nrpa-.: bad. glory! (Dat. parinayati: to marry parthiva-. m. n.: hell nari-..m.nam-. learned man pani-. n. to perish nawa-. palayati: to protect pa-. pibati (I): to drink pac-.: treasure nih+gam-.n. king nrpati-. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-.: man naraka-.: king.: ruler .: lotus pal-. adj. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-. m. m. adj. annihilation netr. f.: ruler. m. n. footprint pada-. caus. palayati (X): to protect pandita-.: low nidewa-.: the grammarian Panini papa-. n.: dwelling niwcaya-. m. nivedayati: to announce.: scholar.: axe pari+dha-.: highest.: Indra's paradise naptr-. nawyati (IV): to be lost. to prostrate. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-.

pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. to fly pataliputra-.: citizen pavitra-. pass.: traveler pati-. study pathika-. caus.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-. prarthayate: to ask. prathayati: to propagate. caus.: grandfather pitr-. n. prabhavati (I): to arise. m. m. m. puryate: to fill pr. m. master. holy pawa-.: palace prath-. adj. m. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-. to hurt pitamaha-.) prati+bhas-. pujayati (X): to honour. m. patati (I): to fall. to take refuge in (Acc. to revere puja-.: subject. many praja-.: worship.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-. pratiksate (I): to await. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. m. atonement pri-.: breath. to return prati+iks-. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. to go back. n. parayati (X): to overcome pr-.: manifold. pathati (I): to read. m. cattle pawupalya-. Du. Pl.: snare.: leaf. hill pat-.parvata-.: lesson. prapadyate (IV): to go to. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. m. f. to recite patha-.: Lord.ch-. parents. life prasada-. to restrain prayaga-. n. n. to expect prati+sidh-. to beg pra+as-.: expiation. m. m.: sacrificial animal. to appear pra+jan-. homage . caus.: earth puj-. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. caus.: clean.: mountain. f. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-.: wife pattra-. husband patni-. people prana-. f. ancestors pr-. pravartate (I): to become. f. patayati: to knock down pat-. Pl. trap pawu-. pratigacchati (I): to come back. to disseminate. to worship. pidayati (X): to torture.: the breeding of cattle pid-. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-. to delight prthivi-.) pra+stha-. adj. prinayati: to please. otec. letter paura-. to arise prabhuta-.

beauty rupaka-. n. m. righteous sadhu-.: sea sah-. n. f.punar. sidati (I): to sit.) sahasa. n..: form. m. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-.: protection raksitr-.: congregation. m.: holy. precious stone rawi-. adv. n. mass.: bear roga-.: kingdom raks-.: again punya-. to obtain. n. assembly sad-.: coin sabha-. to share rac-.: holy man sagara-. f.: heap.: man puspa-. adj.: jewel. m. sahate (I): to bear. mn.: enemy rksa-. m.: protection raksana-. quantity rawmi-. f. adv. m. m. Gen.: ray ripu-.: book (manuscript) putra. m. m. n. n.: queen rajya-.: chariot rathya-.: with (with Inst. prep. f.: flood. m. stream purana-. to sit down sada. m. f.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-. n. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-.: battle ratha-.: merit pura-.: street ratna-. n. rcchati (I): to get. rodati (I): to weep ruh-. Adj. m.: fat pustaka-.: daughter r-.: protector ram-. rohati (I): to grow rupa-. rocate (I): to like (Dat.) rud-.: epos Ramayana rana-.: old story.: flower pusta-. or postp.: suddenly . m. m.: illness rsi-. to endure saha. ramate (I): to play rama-.: son putri-.: gem ratna-. meeting. adv. raksati (I): to protect raksana-. f. n.: always sadhu-.: seer ruc-.

n. tadayati (X): to beat tada.: snake. thoroughly. m.: creation stena-. dream svarga-.: gold svapna-.: doubtful. m. adj. adj.: general. srjati (VI): to create srsti-. m.: ocean. m. n.: everywhere satya-. to stay stotra-.: sleep. equal. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen.: servant sic-. at that time .sainika-. questionable sajtosa-.: satisfaction. f.: creator srj-.: heaven svasr-.: Vedic hymn sundara-.: then.: ode. m. or Loc. sajbhasate (I): to converse. m. army leader sev-.: lion smr-. contentedness sam+a+car-. to honour (Acc.: thief. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. by all means sarvatra.: beautiful sundari-.: daughter-in-law sprw-.: praise sukha-.: everywhere.: beauty surya-.: service sevaka-. adj. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-. sajgacchate: to come together sama-. adv. serpent sarvatah.) snusa-. adv. sea samyak. n. m.: complete. the god of the Sun suta-. n. to discharge sidh-. adj.: same. m.: truth senapati-.: soldier sajdigdha-. rightly sarpa-. n. m. f.: sun. f.: sister tad-. n. f. even samagra-. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-. to talk with (Ins. f.: woman stuti-.: tradition. tisthati (I): to stand. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-. m.: well. sevate (I): to serve.) seva-. whole samudra-. caus. m. f. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-. adv.: happiness sukta-. smarati (I): to remember smrti-. robber stha-. f. adv.) sam+gaj-. m. a hymn of praise stri-.: charioteer suvarna-. f.

utpatati: to take off ud+stha-. pool vara-. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-.: forest vanaprasta-.: pond.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-. n.: garden udyoga-. vadati (I): to speak.: curved. f.: water varuna-. tarati (I): to cross over tu.: shore.: ocean udyana-. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-. tyajati (I): to leave. upadiwati (VI): to teach. vahati (I): to carry.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. to blow. to pierce tul-. to be satisfied (Ins. m. f. to admonish upa+iks-. to give up ucca-. to flow vaiwya-. to pay homage vanijya-. adj.: but tud-.: thus.: better. n. to grieve (Abl. tolayati (X): to lift up. perseverance upa+diw-. instruction urvawi-. ucyate: is called vad-. f. uttisthati (I): to get up. wife vah-. vapati (I): to sow vapi-. n. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-.: dwelling vastra-.: woman. n. f. to stand up udadhi-.: hermit.) tyaj-.: high ud+pat-.: exertion.) taru-. adv. trade vap-. part. best vari-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-. m. tudati (VI): to strike.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-. m.: speaker vana-. to say vadhu-. m.: clothing . so tatra. vandate (I): to praise.: garden udyana-.: daddy tatha. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. recluse vand-. m. adj. bank tr-. adj.: there tira-. m. f.: business. m. to weigh tus-. to instruct. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. pass. n.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-. m. m. adv.: tree tata-.taksawila-. n.: advice. n. twisted vaktr-.

m. wisyate: to rule. argument viw-.vasu-. wajsati (I): to praise. vartate (I): to live on vrtha.: wolf vrksa-.: branch wam-. "punisher" wastra-.: tree vrs-. to no avail vrtta-. f.: hero visnu-. wamyati (IV): to be pacified.: learned wisya-. adv.: enemy wikhara-. m. m. m.: hero vira-.: story vyadh-.: knowledge.: wound. m. m.: wind vi+ram-. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-. m. silence wara-. law-book watru-.: in vain. pass. n. vardhayati: to make bigger. m.: bird vihaga-. n.: behavior vrttanta-. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-. vivadati (I): to argue vici-. m. to shower vrt-. pupil . mode.: bird vinaya-.: way.: student. vedayati: to announce. caus.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-. m. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-. rule. direction vidya-. to punish wastr-. f.: refuge was-. f. Adj.: treatise.: summit.: hunter vyaghra-. to acquire vidhi-. to abandon (Abl. m.: arrow warana-. varsati (I): to rain.: disputation.: ruler.: thing. n.: tiger wajs-. sore vrdh-. to pour down. m.: wave vid-.) vi+vad-.: brahmin vira-. to be finished wanti-. to make known vid-. m.: discipline vipra-. m. m. viramate (I): to give up. caus. to extol wakha-. wealth vayu-. wisdom vihaga-. top wiks-. vartate (I): to be. n. n. n. m. m.: poison vrana-.: peace. to enlarge vrka-. n. m. m. vindati (VI): to get. to exist vrt-. m.

as (relative) yati-. m.: yoga yuddha-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. m.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-.: Shiva wiwu-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-. yudhyati (IV): to fight .: when (relative) yaj-. adv.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas. m. caus.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then….: the river Yamuna yat-. oblation for them wram-. adj. m. brilliance.: ascetic yatra.: war yudh-. m. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-.: splendor. f. m. virtue wraddha-. f.: child wiwu-. adv. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. m.: ornament. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-. m.: mother-in-law wvawura-.: white ya-. beauty. as far as yoga-. m.) yatha. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-. pron. m. f. pass. wealth wru-. rel. beauty wobhana-. n.: child wloka-. f. adv.: sacrifice yam-. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-. wruyate: to hear wruti-.wiva-.: luck. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: tomorrow wvawru-. f.: how.) wudra-.: which yada.: Vedic scripture wubh-.: father-in-law wveta-. m. adv.

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