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9342355 Sanskrit Grammar

9342355 Sanskrit Grammar

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09/04/2014

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Sections

  • Lesson 1
  • Lesson 2
  • Lesson 3
  • Lesson 4
  • Lesson 5
  • Lesson 6
  • Lesson 7
  • Lesson 8
  • Lesson 9
  • Lesson 11
  • Lesson 12
  • Lesson 13
  • Lesson 14
  • Lesson 15
  • Lesson 16
  • Lesson 17
  • Lesson 18
  • Lesson 19
  • Lesson 20
  • Lesson 21
  • Lesson 22
  • Lesson 23
  • Lesson 24

Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits). Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na. phalani Acc.(to sit) changes -a. is (to want) changes -s.). the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence.(VI. tu (but). "god") Nom.(to give) change -m.. Text (read and translate): 1. va (or). brahmanah sada yajanti devan | .(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi. devah Acc. bhojanaj tu (but the food. So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going). buddham eva (just the Buddha. "fruit") Nom. sad. na vadanti (they do not say. and I.to -cch-: gacchati. Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and)..to -cch-: icchanti. the Buddha only). devah phala (n. classes: gam. bhojanam atra (the food [is] here). In Sanskrit.to -i-: sidati. they are not saying). kutra katah | 3. class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI.in front of the verb. yacchati. ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits).(to go) and yam. phalani Voc. balah kataj diwati | 2. Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?).Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m. phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad... devan Voc. stha. eva (particle of emphasis.

margaj diwatha balah | 19. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. nagarameva gacchami | 9. Where are you (pl. Do you want milk? 10. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25. devannamanti | 22. 12. The exercise key . grhamatra tisthati | 6. you are pointing the way. gramamadya viwamah | 14. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. Where are the elephants? 5. narandevah srjati | 13. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. Where is the city. We are leaving the world today. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 11. tatha jivamah | 18. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. 7. We praise the boys. I want water. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. Brahmins still sit there. dhanamicchamah | 24. 8. 6. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. nrpah kva sidati | 7. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. kada danani yacchatha | 26. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. 9. balah ksiramicchati | 23. danani yacchanti | 10. Boys. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. 3. 4. there the people do not live.4. there stay the houses. Where the water does not flow.) going? 2. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17.

m. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-. to stay sprw-. sidati (I): to sit.: when (relative) .: wealth. money nagara-.: way. icchati (VI): to want. adv. so tada.: thus. n.: son marga-.: city.: when? tatha.: god. wajsati (I): to praise. m. to yearn for gam-.: where (relative) yada. adv. n.: milk gaja-. dhavati (I): to run nam-.: just.: village jala-. adv. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. namati (I): to bow.: then. road eva. m. to extol sad-. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-. m. only kada. n. to give up diw-. adv. m. tisthati (I): to stand. m. adv. lord dhana-. diwati (VI): to show. yacchati (I): to give viw-. to sit down srj-. to point dhav-.Vocabulary is-.: elephant grama-. n.: water dana-. town putra-.: mat ksira-. srjati (VI): to create stha-. to worship yam-.: gift deva-. n. at that time yatra. tyajati (I): to leave. adv. to prostrate.

to conquer). bhu-. nayati (to lead). ruh-. devau phale Voc. The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. ghra-. pibati (to drink). Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). rohati (to grow). jayati (to win. the first grade is called guna. It has always the same form for Nominative. class. Acc. to smell). to conceal). sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here).Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. bhavati (to be). jighrati (III. to shower). normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. ji-. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. varsati (to rain. But note some irregularities: guh-. Accusative and Vocative cases: m. class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. Nom. If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . pa-. vrs-. dru-. the second grade is vrddhi. dravati (to run). vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. guhati (to hide. vad+a+tah They (two) say n. vad+a+thah You (two) say 3.

meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. he nrpau jayathah | 11. Here we (two) do not live. They give money and gifts. atraiva vasavah | 5. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. Home (emphasized) go both boys. balau phale khadatah | 20. 4. 2. satyaj na vadathah | 18. Here stand (two) trees. 5. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. Where are you (two) going now? 9. 8. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. Where do you hide money? 11. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. 6. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. Just today we both go to the city. dahasi he anala | 15. anilah sada na vahati | 16. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. Where are both horses? 3. The ruler conquers both fighters. 7. devau smaramah | 9. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. .a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. To the forest run the (two) elephants. devavadya smaramah | 10. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. 10. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. Just here are (two) horses. The Buddha speaks the truth. 12.

m. Here sarvatra.: everywhere he. to flow ruh-.: horse anala-. vahati (I): to carry. pibati (I): to drink bhu-.: fire anila-. m.: cloud vana-. smarati (I): to remember awva-. adv.13. jighrati (III): to smell ji-. khadati (I): to eat guh-. to pour down. to blow. m. to become vah-. part. rohati (I): to grow vrs-. m. m. to conquer dah-. to conceal ghra-.: forest vrksa-.: wind gandha-. n.: scent. guhati (I): to hide. nayati (I): to lead pa-. to shower smr-.: truth iha. n. dahati (I): to burn dru-. fragrance megha-. m. adv.: tree satya-. dravati (I): to run ni-. bhavati (I): to be. varsati (I): to rain. jayati (I): to win.: oh! . Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-.

"fruit") Sg. Ins. . giving. the goal of the motion (I go to the city). devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. is also used to denote reason (from anger). "because of".Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. the agent in a passive construction. Accusative: the object (I see you). Locative: the location. phalam Acc. it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. Nom. Loc. Dat. "by means of ". Abl. deva And for neuter: phala (n. Ins. circumstances (in the city). Nom. Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen. phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). by carriage). "by" (with the Buddha... devah Acc. Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). "god") Sg. as English "through". devam Du. devasya devayoh Voc. Abl. Dative: the indirect object. devau devau Pl. phalasya Voc. phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. Dat. Loc. telling (to the boy).

For example: muc-. dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2.Vocative: the address (Who are you. ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4.the fighter says that he lives here). putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. mubcati (see Vocabulary). hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here). see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. -u before any vowel (except for -u. The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . -i. b for c and j. jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. If the following word beggins with a short a-. man?). this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. j and sibilants). Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). -i before any vowel (except for -i. n for t. -u. narah gacchanti (the men go). m for p.

young man janaka-. People want happiness.11. 8. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-. mubcati (VI): to free.: prince. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-.: deer rana-. hill bala-. m./n. 5. krntati (VI): to cut car-. n. 6. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields.: plough vipra-. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. n. 2. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17. People do not live in forests. to practise muc-.: brahmin . force. Men with boys go to the forest. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15. to discharge yaj-. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys.: traveler parvata-. 7. m. m. brahmin pathika-. m.: suffering dvija-. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 3. m. carati (I): to walk. m.: battle rama-.: father duhkha-.: forest kumara-. to discharge aranya-. 4. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16. limpati (VI): to smear sic-. m. m.: "twice-born". kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14. but not suffering.: mountain. n. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12. Traveler walks on the way to the village. to roam. n.: power. m. Trees do not grow on high mountains.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-. strength mrga-.

n. part. n.: oblation. m.: so kim.: high iti.: Shiva sukha-. adj. why? tu. adv.: poison wiva-.: hand huta-. why? kutah.viwa-.: where from?. offering ucca-.: but The exercise key . part.: happiness hasta-.: what?. adv. m. n.

arya. Dat. Loc. "un-noble". Du.(if it begins with a vowel). Ins. Dat.. happines.. fire) Sg. asukha.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an. Nom. agni Pl. anarya. vari varina varine Du. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati.(m. But if the following word begins with -r. Nom. Loc. sorrow. unhappiness. agneh Voc. Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. water): Sg. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen. vari Acc. Abl. Rama goes with the poets). vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. . varini varini Pl. agne vari. the fire is here. varinah varinoh Voc. poet tells to the seer).(n. agnih Acc.Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. Ins. fire burns). For example: sukha-. Abl. varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati. noble. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati.

poet. Hari's horse is standing just here. From sin there is always suffering. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15. asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. 2. rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. says the brahmin to the poet. d. jh. balau kuto rodatah | 2. 9. 7. Even today people remember Rama. retroflex (t. j. n) or dental (t. "You don't speak the truth". nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. why don't you recite poetry?". suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. "O. harij ksirena yajatah | 18. th. dh. dh. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. no elephants live. but from the Law [there is] happiness. -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. nominative plural of vari is varini). 3. 4. n) between them (so. b). Where people burn the forests. weep the boys. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. ch. "Enemies rob the houses here". We live happily here in the mountains. 6. 8. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. jalaj gireh patati | 10. d. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). Text (read and translate): 1. . arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. asks the king. rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. 5. th.

m. Buddhism nrpati-.: hand. tudati (VI): to strike. mn.: enemy asatya-.: water sukta-. m. m. m. m. to recite rud-. slave deha-. rodati (I): to weep lup-. also. palm papa-.: fire anna-.: seer kavi-. even. m.: sword rsi-. Law. lumpati (VI): to steal. m. m. m.: Vedic hymn hari-. pathati (I): to read.: poetry giri-. n.: person dasa-.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-. master. m. righteousness.: "un-truth". n.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-. m. lie asi-. n. to pierce path-. n. to rob agni-. part.: servant. ruler pati-. m. even though .: food ari-.: mountain jana-. m.: king.: law. n.: sin varuna-. n.: poet kavya-.: body dharma-. husband pani-.: Lord. m.: personal name api-.

Only passive is constructed from this root. Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes). watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here). to look). The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. But if a is used separately as a preposition. Du. Therefore: drw-. Ins. -h after any vowel and before t-.is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). indicative uses different root (paw-).is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). class are thematic verbs. Abl. The verb drw. watru Pl. -h after any vowel and before c-. Dat.means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). Nom.Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV. anayati (to bring). watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen. Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-.(to see) is irregular and defective. ch. watroh Voc. watruh Acc. agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). (enemy) Sg. th. pawyati (to see. watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. m. For example a. a vanat (only from the forest). it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). Loc. . kupyati (to be angry). Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning.

By the power of [your] arms you win. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. naro 'wvamarohati | 10. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. "What are you writing now. 6. 3. "There stands father's house. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. 5. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. 4. We do not live here. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11.) . In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. but father lives here. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. The king with fighters comes to the city. 2." asks teacher the student. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18.Text (read and translate): 1. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-. oh king. 8. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9. or Dat. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree." says the boy to the traveler. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. 7.

: with (with Inst. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. n. to look yudh-. m. or Loc. lubhyati (IV): to long for. to call in udadhi-. m. nawyati (IV): to be lost. footprint bahu-. guru pattra-.: leaf. m.: enemy wastra-. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-.krudh-. quantity ripu-.: enemy visnu-. m. m. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-. precious stone rawi-. n. or Dat. to mount likh-. m.: drop mani-. or postp. m. precious stone ratna-. law-book wisya-. to desire (with Dat. pawyati (IV): to see. letter parawu-.: heap.: gem. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. likhati (VI): to write lubh-. yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-.: foot. m. pupil saha.: teacher. or Loc. prep.) . to perish drw-.: jewel. m. m. n.) hu-.: arm bindu-.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-. mass. ahvayati (IV): to call here.: student.: axe pada-. agacchati (I): to come tr-.: treatise. m.) a+gam-. arohati (I): to ascend.: ocean guru-. m.: bird watru-.) wus-.

madyati (to be intoxicated). mad-. alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. madhu madhuna madhune Du. Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). Abl. Text (read and translate): 1. rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. Dat. kramati (to walk). tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3. madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. madhunah madhunoh Voc. arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). kram-. The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. madhuni madhuni Pl. A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies).Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-.is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. the root vyadh. ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. bhramyati (to wander). Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. vidhyati (to pierce). madhu Acc. Ins. Loc. nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7. Nom. meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds).

dice adharma-.12. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. Tears are flowing on boy's face. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16. There are many things in the houses. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-.) div-.). 7. n. m. 8. to obtain. acamati (I): to sip. to rinse tam-. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-. 5. rcchati (I): to get. to grieve (Abl. to carry aksa-. tusyati (IV): to rejoice.: bear . Bees wander around flowers of the trees. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. 6. 2. harati (I): to take. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14.: unrighteousness ali-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-.: tear rksa-. to be finished wram-. anayati (I): to bring bhram-. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. to share a+kram-. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. m.: bee awru-. 4. 3. Fighters play for money (Ins. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.) tus-. to take away. Death conquers even unrighteousness. Birds are flying to the tree. to be satisfied (Ins. m. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. n.: eye.

: thing.: anger krodha-.: person mukha-. m.: hero bahu-. m. n.kopa-.: honey manusya-.: anger netra. wealth vira-.: part madhu-.: eye puspa-. n. m. n. n. m.: death vasu-.n. abundant.: numerous. mouth mrtyu-.: flower bhaga-. m.: face. adj. many . m.

janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house). suto 'wvanpidayati | 8. corayati (to steal). suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. pidayati (to torture). but: pid-. dharayati (to hold). ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key . Text (read and translate): 1. -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud).instead of just -a. -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7. The vowel -a. vedayati (to make known). bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4.Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. Before palatals. bhayayati (to cause fear). rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. grhalloka agacchanti | 15. jan-. gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. janayati (to give birth. to generate). purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). class add -aya.to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. ksalayati (to wash). wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world). vid-. bhi-.between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. If the root ends in a vowel. punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16.

n.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-.) wash their faces. 8. n. tolayati (X): to lift up. 6.: epos Ramayana rupaka-.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-. to revere pr-. "Why do you beat me.: coin vastra-. m. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit.: servant ramayana-. corayati (X): to steal tad-. 2.: as. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9. m." asks the servant the king.: charioteer stena-. like. n. punishment punya-. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-.: new iva. Father tells son about fruits of sins. 4. part. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword. to narrate ksal-. 3. to worship.: story wudra-.: merit purana-. n.: gold suta-. dandayati (X): to beat. 5. n.) . m. tadayati (X): to beat tul-.: holy man suvarna-. I want new clothes. m. 7. adj. n. m. n. m. Boys (Du. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-.: old story. ganayati (X): to count cur-.: stick. to hurt puj-. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. aharati (I): to bring danda-. as if mam: me (Acc. to punish pid-.: clothing vrttanta-. pujayati (X): to honour. robber navina-. pidayati (X): to torture. Merit protects from grief. kathayati (X): to tell.: thief. to weigh dand-.

wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. But Dual endings -i. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. agni iksate balah | 11. vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. "word for another"). labhase labhethe 3. besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. to obtain) A: Sg. But this initial a. But in Sanskrit. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o.is unchanged. labh-. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. -e. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). -o at the end of the word and before a. Pl. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). labhe Du. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7. fire. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). Before other vowels a final -e. labhate (to get. Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". 1. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. Text (read and translate): 1. o. god Agni). vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. ksatriya rsi sevante | . papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names.

member of a high caste dhairya-. goodness taru-. to say mr-. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18. vandate (I): to praise. m. bhasate (I): to speak.: poverty udyoga-.: tree dvijati-.: sacrifice . arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. sahate (I): to bear. to tremble jan-.: sacrificial animal. cattle bhanu-. n. m. n.: "twice-born". Boys like fruit.) anartha-. rocate (I): to like (Dat.) a+rabh-. sevate (I): to serve.17. kampate (I): to shake. m. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5.: exertion. 7. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-.) begin with a sacrifice. 8. wiksate (I): to learn sah-. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear. m.: deliverance yajba-. 6. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. courage. mriyate (IV): to die yat-.) ruc-.: patience. iksate (I): to look at. Children ask the father for food.) iks-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.: benefit. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-. labhate (I): to get. to obtain vand-. m.: sun moksa-. 3. to pay homage wiks-. firmness pawu-. Gen. 4. 2. m. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Holy men (Du.) labh-. to endure sev-. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. Father likes sons' discipline. The father is looking at son's face. to stare kamp-. m. to honour (Acc.. perseverance kalyana-. m.

m.: wave vinaya-. m.: wind vici-. m.: child samudra-.vayu-. sea . m. m.: ocean.: discipline wiwu-.

hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | . to follow) ava. satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4.is changed into -n. following): anu+gacchati (to go after.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve.(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu. Dat. Abl.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam.after a prefix containing -r. -n.(towards.(after. sena Acc. Text (read and translate): 1. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry). sene sene Pl. Loc. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa. to honour).is changed into -s.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra. army) Sg. senayah senayoh Voc. senam senaya senayai Du..(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. Nom.(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3. Ins.

3. The king conquers enemies in the battle. 5. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. 6.) descend from black horses.5. prapadyate (IV): to go to. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6.: arrow kanya-. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12.: the river Ganga grhastha-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-.) bhiks-. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. Here on the street kings (Du.: girl. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. m. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. to take refuge in (Acc. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. 2. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari. Many trees grow on the mountain. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. The student asks householder's wife for alms. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 8. m. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15. daughter gavga-. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. f. 7.: householder . 4. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. f. sajgacchate: to come together isu-. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11.

adj.: suddenly .: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-. f. wisdom vyadha-. adj.: street vidya-.: wife bhasa-. f. shade prayaga-. f.: bad.: shadow.: hunter warana-.: manifold. m.: the river Yamuna ratna-. n. black papa-. f. f. f. n. f. f.chaya-.: refuge svarga-.: heaven hrdaya-.: knowledge.: gem rathya-. n. many sahasa.: language bhiksa-.: heart krsna-.: alms yamuna-.: fear bharya-. m. adv. n. sinful prabhuta-.

corayati. pass. usyate (to dwell). kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. stuyate (to praise). svap-. naraih katah kriyante | 8. vah-. Text (read and translate): 1. sutenawvastadyate | 20. pass. udyate (to say). smaryate (to remember). dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | .but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. vad-. mucyate. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7. vas-. The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. coryate. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. tiryate. supyate (to sleep). Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. puryate (to fill).Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. pr-. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. awvena jalaj piyate | 17. uhyate (to carry). vap-. he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. upyate (to sow). ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2. mubcati. rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. janairnagaraj gamyate | 6. pass. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. jiyate. stu-. ucyate (to say). Verbs of the X class drop -aya. diyate (to give). The consonant -v. pass. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21.is changed into -u. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12.in these roots: vac-. It is used with the instrumental case.

" is said by people. m. pass. "In the shade is comfortably slept.: kingdom wiwu-. It is played with dices. gayati (IV): to sing daw-. pass. mendicant.: burden.: order kastha-. n. wruyate: to hear ajba-. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. pass. 6. pass. wisyate: to rule. m. m.: garland rajya-.: wood gita-.: song ghata-. Holy man always speaks truth (pass).: snake.: grain pawa-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: snare. n.: pot.: child sarpa-. 2. Girls bind garlands (pass). ghee dhanya-. Hari is again praised by Rama. kriyate: to do ga-. trap bhara-. 8. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). vapati (I): to sow was-. beggar mala-. puryate: to fill badh-. pass. load bhiksu-. f. 3. Jars are being filled with grain. pass. diyate: to give pr-. m. n. Grain is sown in the fields. f. n. n. to punish wru-.: clarified butter. badhyate: to bind vap-. dawati (I): to bite da-. 7. 5. serpent .: Buddhist monk. m. m. jar ghrta-. 4.

taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. aicchat (he wanted). Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). purena grhanyuhyante | . a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. paryanayat. It has special endings: Sg. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. 2. a+vad+a+t Du. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. impf. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. Text (read and translate): 1. impf. gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. a+vad+a+h 3. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. If the verb is prefixed.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root.

upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-. vartate (I): to be.: branch wikhara-. 8. m. stream prasada-. to stand up artha-.: ode.: palace matsya-. m.: flood. m.: composition.: hope indra-.: book (manuscript) pura-. meeting. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-. 6. 7.) sang the praise of Rama. m. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. you asked the king for protection. assembly surya-. the god of the Sun stotra-. glory pustaka-. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water. to exist ud+stha-. The teacher hit the student out of the anger. Servants brought water in jars. f. f. prosperity. m. 5. 2.: meaning.: summit. book (text) jaya-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. m. f.: protection wakha-. n. top sabha-. uttisthati (I): to get up. Brahmins (Du. 4.: demon awa-. n.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. Men sat down on mats. He cut the branch with an axe. m.: sun. m. wealth asura-. When you were ("stood") in trouble. m. 3.: victory. m.: sea grantha-. n. m.: fish raksana-.: congregation. a hymn of praise . nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-.

nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen. Loc. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. 3. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. Abl. . vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. Nom. nadyah nadyoh Voc. Ins. nadi Acc. aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. Dat. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. 4. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. nadyau nadyau Pl. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. We bring water from the pond. river) Sg. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9.. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. 2. nadim nadya nadyai Du. satyameva jayate | 12.

: robe. f. f. to go back. Indra's wife udyana-. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother. Even the king came with the soldiers. decoration indrani-. n. 7. pass.: daughter prthivi-. to hunt for vac-.: pond. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea.: hail!. whole sundara-. adj. f.: soldier pavitra-.: city nadi-.: clean. m.: woman patni-. m.: female servant. n. 6. to return a+car-. to perform. holy samagra-.5. f. bank dasi-. pool vyaghra-. n. ucyate: is called vrt-.: beautiful namas-. m.: river nandana-.: yoga vapi-.: mother tira-. f. adv.: great king maharani-. n. adj.: garden janani-. f. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-. n. f. to practise mrg-.: earth bhusana-.: goddess. f.: wife putri-.: ornament maharaja-. female slave devi-. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. mistress nagari-. pratigacchati (I): to come back.: Indra's paradise nari-. f. glory! (Dat.) .: Indrani.: tiger sainika-. f. mrgayate (X): to search for. acarati (I): to do. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler. f.: complete. m.: shore. adj. 8. f.: queen yoga-.

Nom. Ins. dhenu dhenu Pl. ablative. many). punyena muktij labhadhve | . genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems". idea): Sg. prthvi. Text (read and translate): 1... Loc. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-. cow): Sg. heavy). guru-. Dat. bahvi. f. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4. The dative. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3.(broad). f. Nom.with -v-). Abl. dhenum dhenva Du.and -y. dhenuh Acc. dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc. mate dhenu.(serious. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. Loc.(f. mati mati Pl. Ins. Dat. Abl. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. matih Acc. bahu-.Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen. f.(f. bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5.(abundant. mati. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc. gurvi. matim matya Du.

vindati (VI): to get. firmness parthiva-. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. m. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12. to instruct.: end kalaha-. 8. wobhate (I): to shine anta-. 2. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. 4. 7. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14. f. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat.6. m. prabhavati (I): to arise.: ruler . to admonish pal-. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. upadiwati (VI): to teach. to acquire wubh-.) upa+diw-. caste dhrti-. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-.: birth. I worship Shiva for prosperity. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage. fight kirti-. 3. f. 6. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to appear vid-. m. 5.: courage." said a citizen to the king. m.: quarrel.: cowherd jati-. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. f. People of many castes lived in villages. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10.: fame gopa-.

sore wanti-.: wisdom bhakti-. adj. f. m.: fly mukti-.: tradition.: well-being. f.: devotion bhuti-. land.: wound.: Vedic scripture smrti-.: deliverance rawmi-.: citizen buddhi-. f.: low mukhya-. f. f. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-.: main. foremost sadhu-. m. dream nica-. f.: ray vrana-. f. prosperity bhumi-. f.paura-. f.: holy.: earth. adj. righteous . silence wruti-. ground maksika-.: peace.: sleep. n. adj. f.

changed into -is. away: apa+ni-. it is changed into s. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2. impf. nyasidat. this can also happen in Gen. to rule apa-. Ins. Nom. pass. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems". and Loc.(f. to govern. Pl. Abl. Loc. p-. In addition. to go back. pratigacchati. kh-. above. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. dhih Acc.. dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. ph. thought): Sg. completely overcome adhi-.): dhi.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. Dat. Abl. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. nisidati. Dat. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata. 1. us: nih+pad-.. to return vi-. Gen. vidiryate. alabhe 3.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. wholly: ati+kram-. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. nispadyate (to arise). to carry away prati-. dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. .. apaniyati. apart: vi+dr-. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen. to lead away. alabhata Du. against.Pl. atikramati. completely. adhitisthati. back: prati+gam-. Sg. on: adhi+stha-. dhiyau dhiyau Pl. they were seen).

Text (read and translate): 1. Rama's father was always remembered by people. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. 6. Many tigers. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6. When was the king's son born? 8. to transgress pra+jan-. 5. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to appear prati+bhas-. elephants and bears were seen there. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. When the king talked with brahmins. padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. nispadyate (IV): to originate. 2. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. Mother called (pass. 7. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. pratibhasate (I): to answer . bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. he returned to the city. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. to meditate nih+pad-. dhyayati (IV): to think. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. Many arrows were shot on the tiger. Where did you get white cows? 3. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. 4. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10.) girls home from the garden. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. atikramati (I): to cross over.

: lord. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. god kama-. adj. annihilation padma-. n. m.: agreement iwvara-.: chariot lobha-. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-. m. m. to drive anujba-.: pleasure.: lotus purusa-. adj. reason nawa-. firm wveta-. beauty.: delusion ratha-. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: cause dhi-. wealth srsti-. m. saint moha-. n.: sage.: destruction.: creation krtsna-. desire karana-. to restrain ni+sev-.: greed vasati-.: beautiful dhira-. m. m.: thought. f.: wise. to rule.: dwelling wri-. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-. f.: luck. master. f. adj. m. m.: white . f.rac-. f.: whole caru-. adj.: man muni-.

Text (read and translate): 1. Pl. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. 3. 4. 5. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. 2." asked the boy father. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3." said the father. annaj yaccha he janani | 13. 6. daughter. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. "Study the treatises and speak the truth. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. daddy. 7. vadama 1. Let the children show the traveler the way." orders students the tradition. Let the men dig a pond. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. vada Du. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11. "Give me food. ma gacchatu (let him not go). 2. "Come today. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. Let charioteers do not torture horses. . atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6.

: subject.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-. abhyasyati (IV): to study. to learn a+diw-.: lie. m. adj.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-. thoroughly.: seat. adv.: bad. position kawi-. f. adv. khanati (I): to dig atithi-.: everywhere.: order asana-. m. lower dirgha-. form. m. m. f. adj. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-. meeting. m. adj.: different.: repeating.: highest.: lesson. by all means hrasvam. study praja-. different adhastat.) ciram.: image. adj.: near. studying adewa-. in proximity va: or . m. untruth abhyasa-. statue vaiwya-.: down.: guest anrta-. m. under (Gen. far dusta-. adv. f. people murti-.: seeing. audience pataliputra-. rotten para-. n.: long. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-.: daddy darwana-. n. adv. close.: for the long time sarvatah. n. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-.

vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. Loc. Nom. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen.(f.(f. vadhu bhu. Ins. vadhvau vadhvau Pl. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. bhuva bhuve Du. bhuvau Pl. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. vadhuh Acc. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. Ins. woman): Sg. bhuh Acc. Dat. Loc. earth): Sg. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. Nom. Dat.. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen. Abl.. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. Abl. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8.

giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14. 8. "Take away nice clothes.: ruler vadhu-. Who protects the earth is called a ruler. m. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15.: quality acarya-.: eyebrow rajbi-.: the goddess Durga nivewana-. There is no water in the well. f. The eyebrows of beauties are always black. earth. to steal ksana-. f. 6. wife wvawru-. apaharati (I): to take away.: dwelling bhu-. m. 2. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16. f. m. 7. ground bhru-. m.13. 4.: moment guna-. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-. n. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri. m. Let the student not argue with the teacher. drwyate: to look (like). to seem vi+vad-. f." ordered the householder. f. f. f.: land. pas. People live on earth and gods in heaven.: teacher juhu-.: well bhupala-. 5. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. pravartate (I): to become. Let us live there.: sacrificial ladle durga-.: beauty stuti-. f. f. f.) apa+har-.: praise . vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-.: mother-in-law sundari-.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3. to arise wuc-. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: queen laksmi-.: woman.

rel.. f. then...snusa-. twisted yavat-tavat: when. adj..: daughter-in-law vakra-. as far as ya-. pron.: curved.: which .

2. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. This form is widely used especially in 3. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. otherwise active. often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. satyaj sadocyatam | 10. Some verbs. Do not neglect illnesses. labhai Du. 4. Let an ascetic not converse with women. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). 1. . Pl. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). 3. kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. Text (read and translate): 1. 6. kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9.Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). Let it be thus! 5. labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2.

to talk with (Ins. m.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-. n. m.: step. pasture durjana-. ghatayati: to kill kala-. to expect upa+iks-.: illness vara-.: temple nataka-. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-. place puja-. sajbhasate (I): to converse. n.7. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-. adv.: bad man. m. caus. adv. to seek refuge in han-. awrayate (I): to depend on. drama niwcaya-. atonement bhojana-.: food mahisa-. rightly . homage prayawcitta-. n. m. Let women and children are not killed in the war.: scholar. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-.: expiation. learned man pada-.: sometimes samyak.: war roga-. m. abhinayati (I): to conduct. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-.: play.: well. m. pratiksate (I): to await. adj.: better. 8. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung.) a+wri-.: now kalena.: ascetic yuddha-. m. n. m. m. to act bhan-. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-.: grass.: time.: decision pandita-. best idanim. death kalidasa-. m. m. villain devalaya-.: worship.: buffalo yati-. f. adv.

kartar pitr.(m. Dat. maker): Sg. where agent nouns (and words svasr-.. and Nom. kartr. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen. Dat. Abl.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns. Loc. Ins. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. Loc. pita Acc.. pituh Voc.Du. Nom. karta Acc. kartuh Voc. Acc. They differ only in Acc.Du. Nom. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du. mother): Sg. father): Sg. agent. matar . Loc. Dat.. 2) nouns of relationship. matuh Voc.(m. Nom..(f. pitar matr.Sg. mata Acc. Ins. matarau Pl. sister and naptr-.Pl.. Ins. pitarau Pl. kartarau Pl. matra matre matuh matari Du. Abl. Abl. Nom.

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.

Du.

Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

Nom. labheya 3. let it be done). Abl. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. Dat.. labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. nauh As you have probably noticed. labhemahi labheran 2.Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. gacchati "[he/she] goes". ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows". nauh Voc. Ins. labheta Du. nauh Acc. bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2. boat): Sg. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. navau Pl. nausu yuddhamabhavat | . Loc. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3.(f. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. Text (read and translate): 1. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. The declension of the word nau. 1. nava nave nauh navi Du.

putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12.) abhi+vad-. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-. n.: service pawupalya-. f. mode.: servant marana-.: garden krsi-. m. adv. m. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-. to carry out. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy.: life nidewa-. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. n. even sajdigdha-. n. n. adj. questionable yatha.: fear bhrtaka-. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living . trade vidhi-. as (relative) . 5. to welcome (Acc.: business. rule. to perform apa+ni-.: doubtful. m. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at.: how.: agriculture jivita-. n. 3.this we read in the treatises. pass. 7. to abandon (Abl. May the friends be always remembered! 2. f. adj. 8.: same.) udyana-. Let women and children be taken away to the city. viramate (I): to give up. equal.: friend vanijya-.: order seva-. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive).10. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt. m. n. balavudyane rameyatam | 11.). 4.: death mitra-. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: way. direction sama-. anutisthati (I): to follow. Let new poems be written! 6.

it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu. kr.(to sing). wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8. "to tell".(to be).between the root and -aya-: jba. gam. The vowel -a.(to go). gapayati (to let sing). "to report" etc. to proclaim). dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14. gamayati (to let go.(to fall. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6. Text (read and translate): 1. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4.(to do).(to be born). kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13. janayati (see above).(to know). suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11. to water). nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10. suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. If the root ends in any other vowel. The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody). karayati (to cause to be done). to fly).Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key . to make somebody to go). jbapayati (to make known. we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. janayati (to give birth. dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3. upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. And also adhi+i. that is using the augment -aya-: jan. When translating the causative. But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. to beget). So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context . Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p.translate as "to recite". deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. ga. patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. "to sing". vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9. adhyapayati (to teach).(to learn).between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. bhavayati (to make something happen).

Let (pl. amongst (with genitive) arthe. 8. adv. caus. m.: hand. 2.) the cows come into the cowshed. Let the householder return home. darwayati: to show apa+ni-. postp. to enlarge pa-. f. caus. m. caus. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. caus. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection.: between. m.: coming kara-. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. beauty stri-. ajbapayati: to order da-. vedayati: to announce.: woman madhye. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. Show (sg.) the father the books. caus. m. 6. to no avail . Let them allow the guests to enter. They watered horses with water from the river. m. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. vardhayati: to make bigger. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-. to make known vrdh-. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. m.: wolf rupa-. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras. tax duta-. caus. n. caus.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. agamayati: to let come a+jba-.: cowshed manoratha-. elephant's trunk. 7. caus.: for the sake of vrtha. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-. caus. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. 3. caus. caus.: messenger gostha-.: desire vrka-. caus.: in vain. patayati: to knock down mr-.: form. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. postp. 4. marayti: to kill vid-. 5.

Acc. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. Loc. Dat. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). Abl. Acc. Ins. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. nau. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. Abl. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. Dat. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. (I) Nom. . (you) Nom. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. Gen. te. Loc. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. me. nah. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. Gen. tva. Ins.

mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-. prathayati: to propagate. caus. bhadraj te | 9. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6. 7. I do not want your (Dual) money. Our (Dual) parents died. to report wru-. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. n. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. caus. Mother gives food to both you and me. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14. kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. nivedayati: to announce.: the poet Amaru amrta-. to spread ni+vid-. Let the gods protect your life! 6. begged the boy mother.) prath-. to disseminate. 4. 5. Let your father go with me. Elephants do not live in our country. to whom . n. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. Tell me the story of Urvashi.Dat. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7.: nectar (the drink of immortality) . yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. to beg ksam-. anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. offence amaru-. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3.Text (read and translate): 1. I did not steal your gold (passive). bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2. ksamate: to forgive (what .Acc. m. prarthayate: to ask.. caus. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. 8. 2. or Gen.: transgression. 3.

m.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-. prosperity mayura-.: speaker vanaprasta-. adv.and cet. f. m. m.ardha-.: treasure prana-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-. n. n.: peacock mauna-.: story kapota-. n. m.: hermitage urvawi-.: breath.ca: both .: satisfaction. life bhadra-. happiness.: frog dewa-. m. m. recluse wobhana-. contentedness ca . n.: ornament. m. m. m.: silence vaktr-. postposition: if wvas. m. f. Pl. f. m.: tomorrow .: pigeon taksawila-.: hermit.: the nymph Urvashi katha-.: hell nidhana-.: half awrama-. n.: country naraka-.: bliss. virtue wloka-.

h cc. G en. this) Sg. te te Pl. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. G en. cc. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. this) Sg. bl. ns. tau tau tabh yam Pl. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . N om. she (sa. N om. ns. at.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. at. V oc. L oc. bl.

(which one [of many]) katarah m./ anya f./ itarad n. L oc./ ya f. cc. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a./ ubhaya f. (relative pronoun which) katamah m./ sarva f.L oc. Here they ./ eka f. ns./ esa f./ viwva f. (all) viwvah m./ katarad n. V oc.and esa.follow irregular sandhi pattern. (other) The following words also follow this declension. (this one) yah m./ yad n. (which one [of two]) anyah m. te te tabh yam Pl. (all) ekah m. V oc./ anyad n./ sarvam n. except for nominative and accusative of neuter./ katamad n. en. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m. it (tad. (one) ubhayah m. N om./ katara f. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du./ etad n./ katama f./ ekam n. tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg. at. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa. (different) itarah m./ ubhayam n. bl./ itara f./ viwvam n.

sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. I don't like your behavior. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. 9. to delight sidh-. In this forest I saw a lion. 3. 4. m. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14. 7. In these rivers there are many fish. so 'vadat (he said). 6. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. 5. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3. Husbands of these women went to war. caus. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-.: end arya-. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-.change to -o and the following -a is lost. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. 10. prinayati: to please. I don't want these books./n. Text (read and translate): 1. Poor people live in the houses." said the general. 2. m. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. Other people than you won't accomplish this. caus. instruction . viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4.: advice. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12.: noble upadewa-. Adj. yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10./m. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. Examples: sa purusah (this man). yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9. sa isuh (this arrow).

much.: splendor. m. Adj.: hero vrtta-.: foolish wiksita-.) aneka-.: many.: fault.: lion senapati-. m. m. offense wobha-.: donkey gardabha-.: thin. Adj. sign vira-. m. Adj. m. n. characteristic. n. brilliance.: fat murkha-.: behavior dosa-.: bigger than (with Abl. beauty sijha-.: learned prati: towards (with Acc. emaciated pusta-.khara-. Adj. f.) .: general. m. army leader adhika-.: mark. Adj. Adj. not one krwa-.: donkey laksana-.

to seek refuge in abharana-.: teacher adewa-. to learn abhi+nand-. m. arohati (I): to ascend. untruth anta-. studying acarya-. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-.) adhuna. m. to perform. acarati (I): to do.: lie. m. m. to call in a+jba-.: today. caus. adv. m.: many. under (Gen. adv. ahvayati (IV): to call here.: fire ajba-. n.: wind anna-. to welcome (Acc. to rule. to act abhi+vad-. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-.: the poet Amaru amrta-. m. f. agamayati: to let come a+hr-.: repeating. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-. m. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-.) abhi+ni-. dice ali-.) adhi+i-. much.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. to practise a+diw-. acamati (I): to sip. n. m.: order aksa-.: unrighteousness adhastat. n.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-. abhyasyati (IV): to study.: end .: eye. now agamana-.: bee amaru-. n.: down. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-. adv. to drive adhika-. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-. decoration abhi+a+as-. abhinayati (I): to conduct.) a+ruh-. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at./n. m. caus.: food anrta-. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: bigger than (with Abl.: poverty aneka-.: order adharma-.: robe. Adj.: coming agni-. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. m.: fire anartha-. n. Adj. to mount a+wri-. m. caus. awrayate (I): to depend on. not one anila-. to rinse a+car-. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. n.: now adya.

: demon ati+kram-. strength bhadra-. m. m. adv. avarohati: to descend awa-.: sword asura-. badhyate: to bind bahu-.: wife bhas-. m. happiness.) artha-.: hope awrama-.: horse badh-. force. n.: transgression. Adj. abundant.: meaning. postp. to steal apa+ni-. m. to say . avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-. n. f.: burden. pass. m. offence api-.: husband bharya-. n. lie asi-. child bala-. f. n. asyati (IV): to throw asana-.: here ava+gam-. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. apanayayati: to lead away apara-.: tear awva-. n./m. m. f. n.: agreement apa+har-. apaharati (I): to take away. m. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-.: boy.: part bhakti-. adj.: enemy arth-. anutisthati (I): to follow. position asatya-.: end anu+gam-. lower aparaddha-. prosperity. m.: hermitage awru-. atikramati (I): to cross over. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-. n.: numerous. to carry out. m. m. f. even. m.: noble as-.: arm bala-. adj. to perform anujba-. caus. prosperity bhaga-. bhasate (I): to speak. also. m. m. m. part. to transgress atithi-.: sun bhara-.: devotion bhan-. even though aranya-.: seat. wealth arthe. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. load bhartr-. many bahu-.: power.: "un-truth".: forest ardha-.: bliss.: guest atra.: for the sake of arya-.anta-.: half ari-. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-.: different. m.

m.: earth. n. f. mn.: well-being. to practise caru-.: frog daridra-. f. n. m.: shadow.: for the long time cur-.: wisdom ca .ca: both .: ruler bhusana-.: poor darwana-. beggar bhojana-. to punish danda-.: temple . m. dapayati: to let give da-. ground bhumi-. m.: drop brahmana-. audience dasa-.: gift dand-. lord devalaya-. f.: god.: servant. adj. carati (I): to walk. n. m.: body deva. m. f. m. pass. slave dasi-.: food bhojana-. caus. m. f.: Buddhist monk. bhavati (I): to be. earth. m. f.: fear bhaya-. prosperity bindu-. m. dandayati (X): to beat.: brahmin buddha-. f.: giver daw-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-. n.: seeing. land. adj.: eyebrow bhu-.: alms bhiksu-. m. postposition: if chaya-. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-. to roam. meeting. punishment dardura-.: land. f. diyate: to give dah-. n.: Buddha buddhi-. mendicant. m.: stick.: food bhram-. dawati (I): to bite deha-. m. m. corayati (X): to steal da-. n. m.: fear bhiks-.: female servant. shade ciram.: brother bhrtaka-.and car-. to become bhu-. ground bhupala-.: beautiful cet.bhasa-.: servant bhrtya-.: ornament bhuti-. adv.: servant bhru-. f.: language bhaya-. dahati (I): to burn dana. female slave datr-.

pasture ghata-.: the goddess Durga durjana-.adj.: courage. firmness dhya-. n.: country dhairya-. ghee giri-. f. far div-. mistress dewa-. m. firmness dhana. f. brahmin dvijati-.: scent.: wealth. rotten duta-. f. Buddhism dhav-.: the river Ganga ghasa-. m. caus. m.: messenger dvija-.: donkey gavga-. pawyati (IV): to see. dhyayati (IV): to think. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-.: bad. m. to point dosa-. n. firm dhrti-. offense dru-. m. n. f. to seem drw-. Law.: cowshed grama.: long. reason dhira-. drwyate: to look (like). only evam.. adv.: just. distressed durga-.: law. darwayati: to show drw-.: grass.: unhappy. m. m. m.: bad man.: cowherd gostha-. gacchati (I): to go gan-. pas. jar ghra-.: pot. dravati (I): to run drw-. fragrance gardabha-. m. to look duhitr-. righteousness.: "twice-born". courage. ganayati (X): to count gandha-. f. n.: elephant gam-. villain dusta-. m. adj.: village . m.: goddess. m.: "twice-born". adv.: clarified butter.devi-. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-.: daughter duhkha-. dhavati (I): to run dhi-.: thought.: wise.: patience. m. member of a high caste eva.: song gopa-. adj. money dhanya-. n. adj.: grain dharma-.: fault. jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-. diwati (VI): to show.: thus ga-. m. m. n. f.: mountain gita-. m. to meditate dirgha-.: suffering duhkhita.

: father janani-. harati (I): to take. as if iwvara-.: son-in-law jan-.: as. n. adv. adv.grantha-. m. god jala.: now iha. master. to conceal guna-. n. to yearn for isu-. f. close.: birth. m.: person janaka-. like. m.: quarrel. iksate (I): to look at. m.: so iva. kampate (I): to shake.: composition. n. to conquer jiv-. n.: sacrificial ladle kada. to stare indra-. here iks-. jivati (I): to live jivana-. icchati (VI): to want. m. n. to carry hrasvam.: teacher. caste jaya-. adv.: house grhastha-. hvayati (IV): to call huta-. jayate (IV): to be born jana-.: time.: personal name hasta-.: oblation. f. part.: water jamatr-.: when? kala-. to tremble .: near. caus.: Indrani. m. goodness kama-. to take away.: hand he. m. f. adv. offering idanim. m. glory ji-. m. m. guru han-. death kalaha-. m. desire kamp-. part. book (text) grha-. m.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-.: quality guru-.: heart hu-. adv. fight kalena.: benefit. in proximity hrdaya-.: sometimes kalidasa-. m.: arrow iti. m. ghatayati: to kill hari-. part. Indra's wife is-. m. m.: life jivita-.: lord.: life juhu-.: pleasure. n. guhati (I): to hide.: oh! hr-. m.: householder guh-.: Hindu god Indra indrani-. jayati (I): to win.: victory.: mother jati-. f. n.

: where from? why? kutra. m. krsati (I): to plow. n. f. characteristic.: how? kavi-. daughter kapota-. n. young man kunta-.: anger krs-. adv. to cultivate (field) krsi-.: donkey kim.: mark.: well kutah.: cause kastha-.: hand.: where? labh-. adv.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-. m.) kopa-. or Dat. fighter ksetra-.) kupa-. n. f. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. tax karana-.: milk kumara-. m. f.: anger kr-. m.) krwa-.. adv.: thin.: poet kavya-. m. emaciated ksal-. or Gen. to obtain laksana-. black krt-. n. m. labhate (I): to get.: field ksip-.Acc. or Dat. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. kriyate: to do krodha-.: where? kva. pass. m.: girl. ksamate: to forgive (what . f. m.: pigeon kara-. adj.: spear. khanati (I): to dig khara-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-.: what?.: wood kata-.: kshatriya.: mat kath-. m.) ksana-.Dat. sign laksmi-. Adj.: whole krudh-. khadati (I): to eat khan-. lance kup-. m. elephant's trunk.: moment ksatriya-. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-.: fame klp-.: plough . m. adv. to whom . adv. n. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-. f. m. f. kathayati (X): to tell.kanya-.: prince.: story katham.: poetry kawi-. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. why? kirti-. n. n.: agriculture krsna-. to narrate katha-.

manyate (IV): to think.: death marga. m. f. saint murkha-. m. postp. to discharge mud-. m. n.: queen mahisa-. f. lumpati (VI): to steal. mrgayate (X): to search for. f. likhati (VI): to write lip-. m. mubcati (VI): to free.: city .: month matsya-. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-. m. modate (I): to delight in (Ins.: way. means also "people") lubh-. or Loc. m. form.) mukha-. lubhyati (IV): to long for.) man-.: desire manusya-. n.: city. m. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-. to hunt for mrga-. m. mouth mukhya-. to suppose mani-. marayti: to kill mr-.: greed loka-. statue nadi-.: deliverance muni-. m. to rob mad-. m. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-. town nagari-.: silence mayura-. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-. m.: gem.: world (in Pl. m.: delusion moksa-.: buffalo maksika-.: friend moha-. f.) lup-.: deer mrtyu-.: between. f.: garland mam: me (Acc. caus. Adj.: peacock megha-. m.: fish mauna-. f. m. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-. road masa-. m. f.: main.: river nagara.: face.: cloud mitra-. m. adj.likh-. m.: sage.: person marana-.: death muc-.: image. foremost mukti-.: honey madhye.: foolish murti-.: fly mala-. n.: deliverance mr-. n. n. n. precious stone manoratha-. to desire (with Dat.: great king maharani-.

m. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-. different para+ji-. n.: order nidhana-. own nivewana-. to prostrate.: treasure nih+gam-. m. nispadyate (IV): to originate. nawyati (IV): to be lost. m. m. m.: play.: destruction.: grandson nara-.: hail!. footprint pada-.: highest. m. to report nica-.: scholar. m. adj.: step. n. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-.: Indra's paradise naptr-. palayati: to protect pa-. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-. pibati (I): to drink pac-. drama navina-.: woman nataka-.: ruler.: low nidewa-. caus.. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-. parinayati: to marry parthiva-.: king. pacati (I): to cook pada-. sinful papa-.: dwelling niwcaya-.m.: new naw-. m.: hand. m.nam-. adj. ruler pa-. to appear nija-. m.: axe pari+dha-.) nandana-. to perish nawa-. f. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-. palm panini-. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-.: decision nrpa-. namati (I): to bow.: eye ni-. adj. n.: sin para-. n. n. m. adj. adj.: one's.: foot.n. m. m. glory! (Dat. n. place padma-. annihilation netr.: hell nari-. to worship namas-. palayati (X): to protect pandita-.: bad. nivedayati: to announce.: lotus pal-. n. adv.: ruler . king nrpati-.: leader netra. learned man pani-. caus.: man naraka-. m.: the grammarian Panini papa-.

prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-.parvata-. pujayati (X): to honour.: breath. n. to restrain prayaga-. trap pawu-. patati (I): to fall. prabhavati (I): to arise. pathati (I): to read. to revere puja-. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. n. atonement pri-.: expiation.: grandfather pitr-. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-.: leaf. study pathika-.: lesson. adj. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-. to fly pataliputra-.: the breeding of cattle pid-. otec. ancestors pr-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. prinayati: to please. f. pratiksate (I): to await. holy pawa-.: worship. prathayati: to propagate. m. cattle pawupalya-.: Lord. to hurt pitamaha-. pratigacchati (I): to come back.: clean. many praja-.: traveler pati-. letter paura-. to appear pra+jan-. to go back. m. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. to arise prabhuta-.: mountain. life prasada-. parayati (X): to overcome pr-. people prana-.: citizen pavitra-. caus. to recite patha-. puryate: to fill pr. m. prapadyate (IV): to go to.: sacrificial animal. master. to delight prthivi-. m. pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. Du. caus. to worship. to take refuge in (Acc. Pl. pravartate (I): to become. m.: palace prath-. homage . n. f.: earth puj-. Pl. pidayati (X): to torture. to disseminate. prarthayate: to ask. caus. caus.: subject.: wife pattra-. hill pat-.) pra+stha-. n. m.ch-. adj.: snare. to return prati+iks-.) prati+bhas-. m. husband patni-. m. f. to expect prati+sidh-. f. to beg pra+as-. patayati: to knock down pat-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-. m. pass. parents. m. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-. m.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-.: manifold.

ramate (I): to play rama-.: bear roga-. m.: heap.: gem ratna-. to share rac-. rodati (I): to weep ruh-.) rud-. sahate (I): to bear. n. m. n. m.: daughter r-.: kingdom raks-.. f. rcchati (I): to get. rohati (I): to grow rupa-.: battle ratha-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-. or postp.: book (manuscript) putra. f.: protection raksitr-. adj. beauty rupaka-. raksati (I): to protect raksana-.) sahasa. m. m.: with (with Inst. righteous sadhu-. sidati (I): to sit. adv.: ray ripu-.: congregation. n. Adj. m. m.: protection raksana-.: epos Ramayana rana-. n.: chariot rathya-. m. to obtain. n. Gen.: old story.: again punya-.punar. to endure saha.: holy man sagara-. m. prep.: suddenly .: flood. adv. m. precious stone rawi-. f. to sit down sada.: jewel. mn. n.: always sadhu-.: man puspa-.: holy. m. assembly sad-. stream purana-.: seer ruc-. f.: coin sabha-. m. n. mass. quantity rawmi-.: street ratna-. n.: fat pustaka-. f.: flower pusta-.: form.: enemy rksa-. n.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-. meeting.: sea sah-.: queen rajya-.: merit pura-. rocate (I): to like (Dat. n. m. adv.: son putri-. f.: illness rsi-. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-.: protector ram-. m.

thoroughly. adv. m.: everywhere satya-.: happiness sukta-.: truth senapati-. questionable sajtosa-.: soldier sajdigdha-.: praise sukha-. army leader sev-. contentedness sam+a+car-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. even samagra-.: ode. to honour (Acc. m. sea samyak.: sun.: servant sic-.: thief. f. dream svarga-.: doubtful. a hymn of praise stri-.: gold svapna-.: sleep.: lion smr-.: same. tadayati (X): to beat tada. tisthati (I): to stand. to talk with (Ins. m. sajbhasate (I): to converse.: woman stuti-.: heaven svasr-. m. f. by all means sarvatra. n. robber stha-.: charioteer suvarna-. adj. n.: then. at that time . to discharge sidh-. m. m. adv. adj.: everywhere. n. n.: tradition. f. caus. n. rightly sarpa-. srjati (VI): to create srsti-. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-. adv.: ocean.: general. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. m.: Vedic hymn sundara-. f. f.: beautiful sundari-.) seva-. serpent sarvatah. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-.: creator srj-. f.) sam+gaj-. n. m. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-. m.: snake. f. the god of the Sun suta-. adj.: satisfaction. sajgacchate: to come together sama-. m.: well.: creation stena-.: beauty surya-. or Loc.: daughter-in-law sprw-. adv.: complete. m. sevate (I): to serve. whole samudra-. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-. adj.sainika-.) snusa-.: sister tad-. m.: service sevaka-. equal. f. smarati (I): to remember smrti-. to stay stotra-.

f. n.: dwelling vastra-. instruction urvawi-.: exertion. pass. n. adv. uttisthati (I): to get up. recluse vand-. tudati (VI): to strike.) tyaj-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-. to stand up udadhi-. m.: high ud+pat-.: garden udyana-. upadiwati (VI): to teach.: curved. adj. m. to pierce tul-. to weigh tus-.: clothing . tusyati (IV): to rejoice.: daddy tatha.) taru-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-. to say vadhu-.: hermit. tolayati (X): to lift up. n. to flow vaiwya-. wife vah-.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-. m. f. so tatra. to blow. bank tr-. adj. f. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-.: garden udyoga-. m.: speaker vana-.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. m. to admonish upa+iks-. vandate (I): to praise. m. n. f. vadati (I): to speak. n.: but tud-.: tree tata-. ucyate: is called vad-. tyajati (I): to leave. tarati (I): to cross over tu.: business. adj.: shore. m. to be satisfied (Ins. vapati (I): to sow vapi-. best vari-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. perseverance upa+diw-.: pond. n. part. to instruct. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-.taksawila-.: thus.: forest vanaprasta-. m. vahati (I): to carry. n. pool vara-.: there tira-.: better. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-.: ocean udyana-. adv.: water varuna-. to pay homage vanijya-. to grieve (Abl. trade vap-. twisted vaktr-.: woman.: advice. m. f. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-. to give up ucca-.

: hero visnu-. m.: tree vrs-.: learned wisya-. n.: tiger wajs-.: bird vihaga-.: treatise. m. to acquire vidhi-. wajsati (I): to praise. caus. vivadati (I): to argue vici-. vartate (I): to be. m. silence wara-. m.: poison vrana-.: wave vid-. m. m. m. direction vidya-.: knowledge. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-.: arrow warana-. viramate (I): to give up. m.: wind vi+ram-.: brahmin vira-. to be finished wanti-. vindati (VI): to get. vedayati: to announce.: bird vinaya-. to abandon (Abl.: student. sore vrdh-.vasu-. Adj. rule. law-book watru-. mode. f. m. n. wealth vayu-. n. caus. pass.: summit.: ruler.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-. wisdom vihaga-. n. to no avail vrtta-. m.: way. f. n. wisyate: to rule. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. m. f. m.: hero vira-.) vi+vad-. argument viw-. m.: enemy wikhara-. to enlarge vrka-.: behavior vrttanta-. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-.: hunter vyaghra-.: story vyadh-.: in vain. m. n.: peace. vartate (I): to live on vrtha.: wound. "punisher" wastra-. m.: thing.: wolf vrksa-. vardhayati: to make bigger. varsati (I): to rain. adv. pupil .: disputation.: branch wam-.: refuge was-. top wiks-. to make known vid-. to extol wakha-. to punish wastr-. n. to exist vrt-.: discipline vipra-. m. m. to pour down. m. m. to shower vrt-. m.

wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas.) yatha. f. oblation for them wram-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.: child wiwu-. rel.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-.: Vedic scripture wubh-.: yoga yuddha-. m.: luck. f.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives.: father-in-law wveta-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-. as far as yoga-. f. adv. pron. adv. beauty. pass.wiva-. m. wealth wru-. m.: how. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-. brilliance. m.: the river Yamuna yat-.: mother-in-law wvawura-.: war yudh-. wruyate: to hear wruti-. m. adv.: ornament. n. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-. virtue wraddha-. m. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-.: when (relative) yaj-. m. adv. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-. yudhyati (IV): to fight . f. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: ascetic yatra.: splendor. as (relative) yati-.: which yada.: white ya-.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then…. f. m. m.: tomorrow wvawru-. m. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-.: sacrifice yam-. m.: Shiva wiwu-. adj. beauty wobhana-.: child wloka-. caus.) wudra-.

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