Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

(to go) and yam. is (to want) changes -s. Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?). devah Acc. eva (particle of emphasis.. the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence.Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m. devah phala (n.. In Sanskrit. brahmanah sada yajanti devan | . Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na.(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi. So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going).. the Buddha only). bhojanaj tu (but the food.(to give) change -m.. phalani Voc. sad.to -i-: sidati. phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad. "fruit") Nom. na vadanti (they do not say. balah kataj diwati | 2. stha. va (or). classes: gam. kutra katah | 3. they are not saying). class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI. just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits). Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and).to -cch-: gacchati.(VI. "god") Nom. buddham eva (just the Buddha.(to sit) changes -a. ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits). devan Voc. bhojanam atra (the food [is] here).to -cch-: icchanti. yacchati. tu (but).). and I.in front of the verb. phalani Acc. Text (read and translate): 1.

Brahmins still sit there. you are pointing the way. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. We praise the boys. tatha jivamah | 18. there stay the houses. 12. Where are the elephants? 5. devannamanti | 22. 7. kada danani yacchatha | 26. narandevah srjati | 13. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. Where are you (pl. nrpah kva sidati | 7. Do you want milk? 10. balah ksiramicchati | 23. danani yacchanti | 10. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8.) going? 2. Where is the city. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. gramamadya viwamah | 14. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. 9. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. 4. dhanamicchamah | 24. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. Where the water does not flow. 3. margaj diwatha balah | 19. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25. I want water. there the people do not live. 6. The exercise key .4. We are leaving the world today. grhamatra tisthati | 6. nagarameva gacchami | 9. 11. 8. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. Boys. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17.

namati (I): to bow. to worship yam-. n. adv.Vocabulary is-. m. so tada. at that time yatra.: city. m. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. diwati (VI): to show. only kada. dhavati (I): to run nam-.: elephant grama-.: gift deva-. n. n.: just. money nagara-. to give up diw-.: son marga-. adv.: village jala-. road eva.: water dana-. town putra-. to point dhav-. sidati (I): to sit. m. tisthati (I): to stand. adv. yacchati (I): to give viw-. icchati (VI): to want. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-. n. wajsati (I): to praise.: wealth. to yearn for gam-.: way. lord dhana-. m. m.: then. to prostrate. tyajati (I): to leave.: thus. to sit down srj-. adv.: when (relative) . to stay sprw-.: where (relative) yada. n.: god. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-. adv.: mat ksira-. m.: when? tatha. srjati (VI): to create stha-. adv. to extol sad-.: milk gaja-.

ji-. ghra-. guhati (to hide. vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. devau phale Voc. jighrati (III. Acc. class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. dru-. to smell).Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. pibati (to drink). Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. nayati (to lead). vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. to conquer). varsati (to rain. normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . pa-. vrs-. class. the first grade is called guna. vad+a+tah They (two) say n. But note some irregularities: guh-. to conceal). jayati (to win. the second grade is vrddhi. to shower). rohati (to grow). bhu-. It has always the same form for Nominative. The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). Nom. ruh-. dravati (to run). bhavati (to be). Accusative and Vocative cases: m. sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here).

devau smaramah | 9. 2. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. satyaj na vadathah | 18. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. he nrpau jayathah | 11. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. The ruler conquers both fighters. 5. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. Where are you (two) going now? 9. Just today we both go to the city. 10. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. Home (emphasized) go both boys. Where do you hide money? 11. atraiva vasavah | 5. 4. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. 8. anilah sada na vahati | 16.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. Just here are (two) horses. Where are both horses? 3. The Buddha speaks the truth. 7. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. They give money and gifts. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. 6. To the forest run the (two) elephants. dahasi he anala | 15. . devavadya smaramah | 10. Here stand (two) trees. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. balau phale khadatah | 20. Here we (two) do not live. 12. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4.

fragrance megha-.: scent. m. jighrati (III): to smell ji-. to pour down. adv. to shower smr-. bhavati (I): to be. part. Here sarvatra.: wind gandha-. m. dahati (I): to burn dru-. smarati (I): to remember awva-.: forest vrksa-. varsati (I): to rain. nayati (I): to lead pa-. vahati (I): to carry. m. n. rohati (I): to grow vrs-. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-. to conquer dah-. dravati (I): to run ni-. n. m.: cloud vana-. guhati (I): to hide.: everywhere he.: oh! .13. pibati (I): to drink bhu-.: horse anala-.: fire anila-. to become vah-. khadati (I): to eat guh-. jayati (I): to win.: truth iha. to blow. m. to flow ruh-. to conceal ghra-. adv. m.: tree satya-.

phalam Acc. Locative: the location. "by means of ". devau devau Pl.Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. the goal of the motion (I go to the city). "fruit") Sg. devah Acc. Nom. phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen. . Dative: the indirect object. phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. Nom. "god") Sg. Ins. Accusative: the object (I see you). Loc. the agent in a passive construction. phalasya Voc. "because of". phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). devam Du. Ins. giving. Abl. Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). circumstances (in the city).. devasya devayoh Voc. Abl. is also used to denote reason (from anger). "by" (with the Buddha. telling (to the boy). it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). deva And for neuter: phala (n.. Dat. by carriage). Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. Loc. Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). as English "through". phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. Dat.

this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. b for c and j. man?). dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. -u.the fighter says that he lives here). m for p. n for t. -i before any vowel (except for -i. The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. -i. There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. -u before any vowel (except for -u. j and sibilants). Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. If the following word beggins with a short a-. jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra.Vocative: the address (Who are you. duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here). ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. mubcati (see Vocabulary). see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. For example: muc-. This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. narah gacchanti (the men go).

m. to discharge aranya-. brahmin pathika-. m. m. Traveler walks on the way to the village.: brahmin . n.: suffering dvija-. m. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17.: mountain.: power. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-.: father duhkha-. Trees do not grow on high mountains.: forest kumara-. strength mrga-. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. krntati (VI): to cut car-. n. carati (I): to walk. limpati (VI): to smear sic-. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14. m. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. People do not live in forests. 4. 5. m. m. to roam. young man janaka-. but not suffering. mubcati (VI): to free. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields.11. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. n.: "twice-born". m. 2. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-. 7. People want happiness. hill bala-. force.: traveler parvata-. m./n. to practise muc-.: battle rama-.: plough vipra-. Men with boys go to the forest. to discharge yaj-. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. 8. 6.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-.: deer rana-. n. 3.: prince.

: so kim.: but The exercise key .: oblation.viwa-.: high iti.: Shiva sukha-.: happiness hasta-. m.: poison wiva-. offering ucca-.: what?. part. adv.: where from?. n. why? kutah. part.: hand huta-. adv. n. m. why? tu. adj. n.

vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a.. happines. Abl.(m. sorrow. Loc.(n. Abl. asukha. water): Sg. varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. arya. agneh Voc. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen. agne vari. agnih Acc.(if it begins with a vowel).. Loc. Dat. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati. For example: sukha-. Dat. Nom. anarya.Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. the fire is here. fire) Sg. Nom. varinah varinoh Voc. varini varini Pl. noble. "un-noble". vari Acc. unhappiness. But if the following word begins with -r. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati. Ins. Rama goes with the poets). Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. Ins.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an. fire burns). Du. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati. . poet tells to the seer). agni Pl. vari varina varine Du.

but from the Law [there is] happiness. nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. dh. balau kuto rodatah | 2. From sin there is always suffering. 2. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). no elephants live. 5. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. d. n) between them (so. . rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. n) or dental (t. d. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. weep the boys. th. -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. says the brahmin to the poet. We live happily here in the mountains. "You don't speak the truth". jh. 9. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. th. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. 4. satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. poet. Text (read and translate): 1. 8. b). Hari's horse is standing just here. nominative plural of vari is varini). 3. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. jalaj gireh patati | 10. asks the king. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. ch. Even today people remember Rama. nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15. retroflex (t. "Enemies rob the houses here". rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. "O. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. 7. why don't you recite poetry?".-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. Where people burn the forests. 6. arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. dh. j. harij ksirena yajatah | 18.

: water sukta-. righteousness. mn. n. master. m. n. Buddhism nrpati-. m. Law.: personal name api-.: fire anna-.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-. lumpati (VI): to steal.: person dasa-. m. m. m. n. m.: Vedic hymn hari-. lie asi-. husband pani-. pathati (I): to read.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-. m.: king. also.: poet kavya-. m. ruler pati-.: enemy asatya-. m.: food ari-.: "un-truth". to recite rud-. n. to rob agni-.: Lord. m. palm papa-. m.: mountain jana-. even.: servant. tudati (VI): to strike. m. slave deha-. even though .: poetry giri-. part.: sword rsi-. m.: body dharma-.: law.: sin varuna-. rodati (I): to weep lup-.: hand. n.: seer kavi-. m. n. to pierce path-.

The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. ch. Dat. Loc.Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV. Therefore: drw-. The verb drw. Du.is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). Nom. -h after any vowel and before t-.means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). Only passive is constructed from this root. watruh Acc. watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen. th. it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest).is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-. Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. pawyati (to see. . watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. indicative uses different root (paw-). Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes). watru Pl. watroh Voc. a vanat (only from the forest). But if a is used separately as a preposition. watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here). (enemy) Sg. Abl. m. Ins. to look).(to see) is irregular and defective. kupyati (to be angry). -h after any vowel and before c-. anayati (to bring). class are thematic verbs. agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). For example a.

kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9." asks teacher the student. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21. 4. oh king. 2. 5. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3." says the boy to the traveler. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. "What are you writing now. 7. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. or Dat. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. naro 'wvamarohati | 10. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4.Text (read and translate): 1. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. but father lives here. 3. "There stands father's house. By the power of [your] arms you win. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. 6. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8.) . ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. 8. We do not live here. The king with fighters comes to the city.

m. m. or Loc.: student. m.: arm bindu-. agacchati (I): to come tr-. m. m. pupil saha. arohati (I): to ascend. to perish drw-. m.: ocean guru-. m.: teacher. footprint bahu-.: gem.krudh-.: treatise. or Loc. precious stone ratna-. lubhyati (IV): to long for.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-. n.) wus-.) hu-. n. law-book wisya-. n.: leaf.: enemy visnu-. guru pattra-. m. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-. mass.: heap.: bird watru-. nawyati (IV): to be lost. m. or Dat. ahvayati (IV): to call here. or postp. quantity ripu-. m. likhati (VI): to write lubh-. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-. tarati (I): to cross over naw-.: drop mani-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. letter parawu-. prep.: axe pada-. m. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.) . to mount likh-. m. to desire (with Dat. m.) a+gam-.: enemy wastra-.: foot. yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-.: with (with Inst. precious stone rawi-. to call in udadhi-. pawyati (IV): to see. to look yudh-.: jewel.

tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. bhramyati (to wander). Nom. A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). kram-. kramati (to walk). the root vyadh. madyati (to be intoxicated).Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). Dat. narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. vidhyati (to pierce). arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . madhu Acc. meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). Ins. rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. Abl. madhu madhuna madhune Du. madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. madhuni madhuni Pl. Loc. Text (read and translate): 1. rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3. Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds).is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7. madhunah madhunoh Voc. viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. mad-. alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8.

dice adharma-. rcchati (I): to get. to take away. to carry aksa-. m. to be finished wram-.: eye. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. Bees wander around flowers of the trees.) tus-. Fighters play for money (Ins. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. 3. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-. 6. harati (I): to take. n. 2. 7. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.) div-. to be satisfied (Ins. m. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13.: bee awru-. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16.12. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. Birds are flying to the tree. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. m. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14. Death conquers even unrighteousness. anayati (I): to bring bhram-. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-. Tears are flowing on boy's face.: unrighteousness ali-. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-. to share a+kram-. There are many things in the houses. to grieve (Abl. n. 8.: bear . to rinse tam-.: tear rksa-. 5. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-.). acamati (I): to sip. 4. to obtain. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18.

many . wealth vira-.: person mukha-. m. m.: honey manusya-.: part madhu-. n.: death vasu-.: eye puspa-. m. m.: thing. m.: flower bhaga-.n.kopa-. n. abundant.: face.: anger krodha-. n.: hero bahu-. mouth mrtyu-.: anger netra. n.: numerous. adj. m.

janayati (to give birth. suto 'wvanpidayati | 8. stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. The vowel -a. punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house). Text (read and translate): 1. gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. but: pid-.Lesson 8 Verbs of the X.to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. bhi-. bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4. vedayati (to make known). to generate). papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world). it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. vid-. -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7.instead of just -a. ksalayati (to wash). purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. corayati (to steal). bhayayati (to cause fear). If the root ends in a vowel. jan-. ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key .between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. pidayati (to torture). Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). Before palatals. dharayati (to hold). janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. class add -aya. gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. grhalloka agacchanti | 15. devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17.

corayati (X): to steal tad-.: as. part. to worship. m. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns. pidayati (X): to torture. adj. n. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword. "Why do you beat me.) wash their faces.: old story. to hurt puj-. 4." asks the servant the king.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Merit protects from grief.: holy man suvarna-.: stick. pujayati (X): to honour. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. n. 6. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-.: servant ramayana-. m. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. 7. n. m. aharati (I): to bring danda-. 2. I want new clothes. to weigh dand-.: story wudra-. n. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-. n. 8.: epos Ramayana rupaka-. to revere pr-. Boys (Du. to narrate ksal-. 5. 3.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-.: merit purana-. m. n. m.: charioteer stena-.: new iva. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-. to punish pid-. punishment punya-. Father tells son about fruits of sins. like. n.: coin vastra-.: thief. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-. m. kathayati (X): to tell. as if mam: me (Acc.: clothing vrttanta-.) . robber navina-.: gold suta-. ganayati (X): to count cur-. dandayati (X): to beat. tolayati (X): to lift up.

vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. Before other vowels a final -e. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. fire. besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. -o at the end of the word and before a. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. labhate (to get. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. Pl.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. "word for another"). vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12. ksatriya rsi sevante | . But in Sanskrit. vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. agni iksate balah | 11.is unchanged. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. god Agni). But Dual endings -i. labh-. to obtain) A: Sg. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. Text (read and translate): 1. 1. labhe Du. o. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. -e. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. But this initial a. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. labhase labhethe 3. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2.

: deliverance yajba-. sevate (I): to serve. 2. The father is looking at son's face. courage. m. 3. member of a high caste dhairya-. n.: exertion. Father likes sons' discipline. vandate (I): to praise. to say mr-. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18. m.: sacrifice .) begin with a sacrifice. cattle bhanu-. 6. 4.) a+rabh-.: "twice-born". goodness taru-. to obtain vand-.: poverty udyoga-. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5.) anartha-. Boys like fruit. Holy men (Du. m. to endure sev-.) ruc-.: sacrificial animal.. to pay homage wiks-. labhate (I): to get. sahate (I): to bear. rocate (I): to like (Dat. m. m. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. iksate (I): to look at. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. m. bhasate (I): to speak. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-. m. to stare kamp-. 7. 8. to honour (Acc. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. n. to tremble jan-. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear.) labh-. firmness pawu-.: sun moksa-. Children ask the father for food. mriyate (IV): to die yat-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.17. wiksate (I): to learn sah-. perseverance kalyana-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.: patience.: tree dvijati-. kampate (I): to shake. Gen.: benefit.) iks-. m.

: wave vinaya-. m. m.vayu-.: wind vici-. m.: ocean. m. m. sea .: discipline wiwu-.: child samudra-.

satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni. Loc. senayah senayoh Voc. Nom. sene sene Pl. -n. army) Sg.is changed into -n. Ins. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen. senam senaya senayai Du. Text (read and translate): 1. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve.is changed into -s.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry). to honour).(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s.. to follow) ava.(after.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa.(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari.(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud. hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | .after a prefix containing -r.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f. following): anu+gacchati (to go after. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu. Abl.(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. sena Acc. Dat.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam.(towards.

chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari. 6. daughter gavga-.5. prapadyate (IV): to go to. Many trees grow on the mountain. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-.: arrow kanya-. 4. sajgacchate: to come together isu-.) bhiks-.) descend from black horses. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. 8. m. 3. f. 2. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. 7.: girl. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. 5. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. The student asks householder's wife for alms. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-. f.: householder . mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: the river Ganga grhastha-. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-. Here on the street kings (Du. m. to take refuge in (Acc. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. The king conquers enemies in the battle.

n.: heart krsna-.: wife bhasa-. f.: heaven hrdaya-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-. adv.: refuge svarga-. f.: shadow. f.: street vidya-.: the river Yamuna ratna-. f. m.: manifold. m. wisdom vyadha-.: fear bharya-. adj.: gem rathya-. f.chaya-. shade prayaga-. n.: suddenly . adj. f.: knowledge. n. f. f. sinful prabhuta-.: alms yamuna-.: bad.: language bhiksa-.: hunter warana-. many sahasa. n. black papa-.

supyate (to sleep). jiyate. diyate (to give). stuyate (to praise). kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. pr-. Text (read and translate): 1. vap-. udyate (to say). vad-. It is used with the instrumental case. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. vas-. ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. usyate (to dwell). stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12. svap-. stu-. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. ucyate (to say). kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. corayati. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13. kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. vah-. sutenawvastadyate | 20. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7. The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-.is changed into -u. dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. puryate (to fill). pass.Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. smaryate (to remember). pass. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. mubcati. uhyate (to carry). vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. Verbs of the X class drop -aya. tiryate.but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. naraih katah kriyante | 8. mucyate. pass. rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3.in these roots: vac-. coryate. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. pass. janairnagaraj gamyate | 6. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2. awvena jalaj piyate | 17. The consonant -v. upyate (to sow).to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings.

n.: pot.: snake. pass. to punish wru-. kriyate: to do ga-. m.: burden. ghee dhanya-. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). m.: Buddhist monk. pass. Holy man always speaks truth (pass). wruyate: to hear ajba-. badhyate: to bind vap-. Grain is sown in the fields. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. 6." is said by people. trap bhara-. m. f. pass. jar ghrta-.: grain pawa-. wisyate: to rule.: clarified butter. gayati (IV): to sing daw-. "In the shade is comfortably slept. n. 7. 3. vapati (I): to sow was-. 5. mendicant.: garland rajya-. m. n. serpent . m. Girls bind garlands (pass). diyate: to give pr-.: snare. beggar mala-. load bhiksu-.: order kastha-. dawati (I): to bite da-. n.: wood gita-. pass. n. 2.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 4. m. f. puryate: to fill badh-. pass.: song ghata-.: kingdom wiwu-. Hari is again praised by Rama. Jars are being filled with grain. It is played with dices.: child sarpa-. 8. pass.

kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. Text (read and translate): 1. jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. aicchat (he wanted). gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). 2. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. paryanayat. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. impf. It has special endings: Sg. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. impf. purena grhanyuhyante | . a+vad+a+h 3. a+vad+a+t Du. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. If the verb is prefixed.

: composition. 3. n. meeting.: sun. m.: sea grantha-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. book (text) jaya-. 8. Servants brought water in jars. He cut the branch with an axe. prosperity. a hymn of praise .: congregation. m. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-. top sabha-. assembly surya-.: ode. m.: summit. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water.: protection wakha-. uttisthati (I): to get up. m. wealth asura-.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. Brahmins (Du. 5.: fish raksana-.: flood.) sang the praise of Rama. 7.: meaning.: branch wikhara-. n. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-. stream prasada-. 4.: victory. m. to stand up artha-. glory pustaka-. m. m. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-. n. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-.: demon awa-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. f. m. to exist ud+stha-. the god of the Sun stotra-. 6. m. you asked the king for protection. vartate (I): to be.: hope indra-.: palace matsya-. 2. When you were ("stood") in trouble. f. f. The teacher hit the student out of the anger. m. Men sat down on mats. m. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood.: book (manuscript) pura-.

wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. nadyau nadyau Pl. Dat. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. nadyah nadyoh Voc. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. river) Sg. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Abl. Loc. 3. We bring water from the pond. satyameva jayate | 12. 4. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5.. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. nadim nadya nadyai Du. Ins. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. nadi Acc. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. Nom. 2. . aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. Cities stand on the rivers' banks.

f.: queen yoga-. acarati (I): to do. Indra's wife udyana-.: hail!. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother.) . to practise mrg-. n. n. 8. whole sundara-.: robe. m.: woman patni-.: shore.: soldier pavitra-. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler. pratigacchati (I): to come back.: pond. mistress nagari-. f. f. adj. ucyate: is called vrt-.: great king maharani-. 6. m.: goddess. f. n. to return a+car-. holy samagra-. glory! (Dat. f.5. female slave devi-.: ornament maharaja-. 7.: earth bhusana-. adv. to hunt for vac-.: complete.: Indra's paradise nari-.: yoga vapi-.: female servant. bank dasi-. decoration indrani-.: river nandana-. m.: clean. f. to perform. n. f. Even the king came with the soldiers. f. pass.: mother tira-. f. n.: daughter prthivi-. m.: wife putri-. pool vyaghra-. to go back. mrgayate (X): to search for. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea. adj. f. adj.: garden janani-. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-. f.: city nadi-.: Indrani. f.: tiger sainika-.: beautiful namas-.

dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc. gurvi.Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u. cow): Sg. many). f. dhenum dhenva Du. matim matya Du. mati mati Pl. Abl. Ins. Nom. heavy). wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3. prthvi.(serious. dhenuh Acc. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-.(f. f. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen.(broad).with -v-). Dat. dhenu dhenu Pl. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4. bahu-. Text (read and translate): 1.. Loc. The dative. Abl. bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5.(f. Nom. Ins. bahvi. idea): Sg. f. ablative. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc. mate dhenu.and -y. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems".. mati.(abundant. Dat. guru-. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. matih Acc. punyena muktij labhadhve | . Loc. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen.

nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. to admonish pal-. People of many castes lived in villages.: fame gopa-.) upa+diw-. to acquire wubh-.: courage. palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage. m. to instruct.6. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15. wobhate (I): to shine anta-.: end kalaha-. to appear vid-. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. vindati (VI): to get. caste dhrti-. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things.: ruler . bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14. firmness parthiva-. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-.: birth. m. f.: cowherd jati-. upadiwati (VI): to teach. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. m.: quarrel. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. prabhavati (I): to arise. 3. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. 4. f. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12. I worship Shiva for prosperity. 6. m. f. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. 7. fight kirti-. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10. 5. 2. 8." said a citizen to the king.

adj. f.: deliverance rawmi-.: fly mukti-. foremost sadhu-.: earth. adj. dream nica-.: well-being.: main. m. f. ground maksika-. f. adj.: wisdom bhakti-.: devotion bhuti-. f.: low mukhya-. f.: citizen buddhi-. n.: Vedic scripture smrti-. f. sore wanti-. f.: tradition. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-. f.: sleep. silence wruti-.: ray vrana-. f.: peace.paura-.: holy.: wound. m. f. land. prosperity bhumi-. righteous .

atikramati. to return vi-. kh-. alabhe 3. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen. nispadyate (to arise). Dat.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. apaniyati. nisidati. apart: vi+dr-. us: nih+pad-.): dhi.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. to lead away. it is changed into s.changed into -is. p-. Abl. impf. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata. dhiyau dhiyau Pl. pratigacchati. against. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. dhih Acc.. to go back.(f. Pl. vidiryate. Gen. to carry away prati-. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2. nyasidat.. dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. away: apa+ni-.. dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. on: adhi+stha-. 1. Nom. In addition. Loc. to rule apa-. above.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. back: prati+gam-. Abl. to govern. adhitisthati. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems".Pl. and Loc. completely. Ins. completely overcome adhi-. this can also happen in Gen. Dat. they were seen). wholly: ati+kram-. thought): Sg. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. alabhata Du. Sg. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. . pass. ph. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s.

When was the king's son born? 8. padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15.) girls home from the garden. Rama's father was always remembered by people. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. he returned to the city. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. to meditate nih+pad-. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. atikramati (I): to cross over. Many tigers. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. 2. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. dhyayati (IV): to think. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. nispadyate (IV): to originate. Where did you get white cows? 3. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. 6. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. to appear prati+bhas-. 4. pratibhasate (I): to answer . to transgress pra+jan-. 5.Text (read and translate): 1. Many arrows were shot on the tiger. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6. elephants and bears were seen there. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. Mother called (pass. 7. When the king talked with brahmins.

to drive anujba-.: cause dhi-.: sage. adj. adj. f.: lord. master. m.: delusion ratha-. m. annihilation padma-. reason nawa-.: lotus purusa-. to rule. adj. saint moha-.: white .: creation krtsna-. f. desire karana-.: destruction. m.: beautiful dhira-.: thought.: man muni-. god kama-. f. n.: greed vasati-.: agreement iwvara-. beauty. m.: chariot lobha-. firm wveta-. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-.: wise. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-. f. adhitisthati (I): to govern. m. to restrain ni+sev-. adj. m. m. wealth srsti-.: luck. f. pratisedhate (I): to prevent.: dwelling wri-.: whole caru-. n. m.: pleasure.rac-.

atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6. 2. "Come today. Let the men dig a pond. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7. 7.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. Let charioteers do not torture horses. daughter. Let the children show the traveler the way. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. "Give me food. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11." asked the boy father. annaj yaccha he janani | 13." orders students the tradition. 3. "Study the treatises and speak the truth. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. . 4. vada Du. 2. Pl. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. 5. devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9. daddy. Text (read and translate): 1. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 6. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. vadama 1." said the father. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. ma gacchatu (let him not go).

f.: down.: lesson. to learn a+diw-. statue vaiwya-.: lie. people murti-.: image.: subject. close. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-. adj. adj. thoroughly.: repeating. f. m. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-. meeting. form. study praja-. m.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-. adj. studying adewa-. adv.: order asana-.: everywhere. untruth abhyasa-. under (Gen. n. f. audience pataliputra-.: near.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-.: for the long time sarvatah. position kawi-.: seeing.: highest.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-.) ciram. n. different adhastat. m. m.: bad. far dusta-. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-.: different. abhyasyati (IV): to study. m. m. n.: long. khanati (I): to dig atithi-.: seat.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-. adj. adv. in proximity va: or . adv. rotten para-. by all means hrasvam. lower dirgha-. adv. m.: daddy darwana-.: guest anrta-.

Loc. Dat. earth): Sg. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. vadhvau vadhvau Pl.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu.(f. Dat. Ins. bhuva bhuve Du. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du.. bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. Abl. woman): Sg. Loc. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc. Abl. bhuh Acc. Nom.(f. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. Nom.. vadhuh Acc. Ins. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11. vadhu bhu. bhuvau Pl. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6.

) apa+har-.: dwelling bhu-. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-. m. f. wife wvawru-. 8. m. m.: ruler vadhu-.13. f. to steal ksana-. 2. 7. Let us live there. Let the student not argue with the teacher. earth." ordered the householder. 6. f. 5.: quality acarya-. People live on earth and gods in heaven. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15.: eyebrow rajbi-.: woman. f. n. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3. to arise wuc-.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-. f.: mother-in-law sundari-. ground bhru-.: land.: beauty stuti-.: teacher juhu-.: moment guna-. 4. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-. m. f. "Take away nice clothes. drwyate: to look (like).: sacrificial ladle durga-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl.: praise . bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16. There is no water in the well. f. m. to seem vi+vad-. f. pas. apaharati (I): to take away. The eyebrows of beauties are always black. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-.: queen laksmi-. Who protects the earth is called a ruler. f. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: the goddess Durga nivewana-.: well bhupala-. f. pravartate (I): to become. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri.

: daughter-in-law vakra-. f. then.: curved..: which ... as far as ya-.snusa-. pron. twisted yavat-tavat: when. rel. adj..

4. mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). This form is widely used especially in 3. satyaj sadocyatam | 10. Some verbs.Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. Let it be thus! 5. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. Let an ascetic not converse with women. labhai Du. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. otherwise active. often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). Pl. labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. 1. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. 3. . aniyantam (let [them] be brought). Do not neglect illnesses. labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). 6. kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Text (read and translate): 1. 2.

m. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-. awrayate (I): to depend on. adj. adv. to seek refuge in han-.: worship. Let women and children are not killed in the war. adv.: ascetic yuddha-. place puja-.: war roga-. atonement bhojana-. n. ghatayati: to kill kala-. to act bhan-. m. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-. drama niwcaya-. m.: scholar. m. m. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-. abhinayati (I): to conduct. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung.: sometimes samyak.: step. learned man pada-. pasture durjana-.: better.: food mahisa-. m.) a+wri-. m.: bad man. death kalidasa-. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-. caus. f. n.: temple nataka-. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-. to talk with (Ins. adv.: play. best idanim.: illness vara-. m. to expect upa+iks-. n.: expiation. pratiksate (I): to await.: decision pandita-.: time. m. n.: now kalena.: buffalo yati-.: grass. homage prayawcitta-. rightly .: well.7. sajbhasate (I): to converse.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-. villain devalaya-. 8. m.

kartuh Voc. Dat. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a. Dat. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du. Abl. matuh Voc. Ins. pituh Voc. Acc. mother): Sg. Nom. kartarau Pl. pitarau Pl. karta Acc. father): Sg.. Nom. pita Acc. Nom. Dat. agent. matra matre matuh matari Du. matarau Pl. pitar matr. mata Acc. They differ only in Acc.Pl. 2) nouns of relationship.Sg. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen. Abl. sister and naptr-. Nom.Du. kartr..Du.(m. kartar pitr. where agent nouns (and words svasr-.(m. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. Loc. Abl.. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du. matar . Ins.(f. Loc.. and Nom.. Ins.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns. maker): Sg. Loc. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen.

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.


Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen. 1. Text (read and translate): 1. nausu yuddhamabhavat | . labheta Du. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun.. Ins. Loc. Dat. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. Abl. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". nauh Acc. jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7. labhemahi labheran 2. nauh As you have probably noticed. The declension of the word nau. let it be done). bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2. boat): Sg. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. gacchati "[he/she] goes". labheya 3. Nom. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. nauh Voc. nava nave nauh navi Du. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows".(f. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3.Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. navau Pl. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4.

balavudyane rameyatam | 11.: doubtful.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-. 7. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive). Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living . abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. Let new poems be written! 6.: servant marana-. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-. n. even sajdigdha-. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12. adj. n. m. n.: service pawupalya-.: garden krsi-. equal. 3.) abhi+vad-. to carry out. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. viramate (I): to give up.: same. 8. f. mode. n.) udyana-. 4. questionable yatha. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy.: order seva-. m. n.: fear bhrtaka-. as (relative) .: business.10. Let women and children be taken away to the city.). anutisthati (I): to follow. rule. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt. to perform apa+ni-. 5.: friend vanijya-.this we read in the treatises. adj.: agriculture jivita-.: how.: life nidewa-. n.: death mitra-. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-. m. to abandon (Abl. May the friends be always remembered! 2. trade vidhi-. pass. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: way. adv. m. to welcome (Acc. f. direction sama-. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-.

(to learn). to water). adhyapayati (to teach). "to report" etc.translate as "to recite". we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13.(to know). vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4.Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class.(to be born).between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key . janayati (see above). Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p. If the root ends in any other vowel.(to sing). vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6. nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10. The vowel -a. deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14. "to sing". patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. to fly). kr. When translating the causative.(to fall. "to tell". But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. gam. dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. And also adhi+i. suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. jbapayati (to make known. that is using the augment -aya-: jan. wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8. to make somebody to go).between the root and -aya-: jba. suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11.(to be). it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu. gamayati (to let go. Text (read and translate): 1. So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context . ga.(to go). bhavayati (to make something happen). karayati (to cause to be done). The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody). to proclaim). vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9.(to do). gapayati (to let sing). janayati (to give birth. to beget).

caus. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-.: form. caus. tax duta-. n. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. paridhapayati: to wear drw-.: cowshed manoratha-. caus. postp.: wolf rupa-. 7.: desire vrka-. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. m. Show (sg. m. beauty stri-.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. caus. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. ajbapayati: to order da-. caus. vardhayati: to make bigger. f. adv. darwayati: to show apa+ni-.: between. m.: hand. to enlarge pa-. vedayati: to announce. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. caus. marayti: to kill vid-. m. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. 8. They watered horses with water from the river. caus.: for the sake of vrtha. caus. 5. Let (pl. amongst (with genitive) arthe. Let them allow the guests to enter. caus.) the cows come into the cowshed. postp. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. m. patayati: to knock down mr-.: woman madhye. caus. to make known vrdh-.: messenger gostha-. m.) the father the books. caus. elephant's trunk. 3.: coming kara-. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. 6. 4. caus. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras. 2.: in vain. Let the householder return home. to no avail .

(I) Nom. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). Loc. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. . Abl. Loc. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. Acc. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. nah. (you) Nom.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. Gen. nau. Acc. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. Ins. Abl. Ins. Dat. me. Gen. te. tva. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. Dat.

8. to whom . 3.: the poet Amaru amrta-.) prath-. caus. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. I do not want your (Dual) money. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15. kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. Our (Dual) parents died. bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-. caus. I did not steal your gold (passive). 2. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6. Mother gives food to both you and me. caus. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.Text (read and translate): 1. begged the boy mother. Let the gods protect your life! 6. anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. n. offence amaru-.Acc. ksamate: to forgive (what . prarthayate: to ask. 4. 5. prathayati: to propagate. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16.: transgression.. n. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14.: nectar (the drink of immortality) . 7. nivedayati: to announce. bhadraj te | 9. or Gen. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13.Dat. Elephants do not live in our country. Tell me the story of Urvashi. Let your father go with me. m. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. to beg ksam-. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. to spread ni+vid-. to disseminate. to report wru-.

n.: tomorrow .: bliss.: frog dewa-. n.: satisfaction. recluse wobhana-. n.: half awrama-. m.: breath.and cet. prosperity mayura-. m.: country naraka-.: ornament. m. m.: peacock mauna-. happiness.: hermit. virtue wloka-. m.: treasure prana-.: speaker vanaprasta-. life bhadra-. adv. m. Pl. contentedness ca .: hermitage urvawi-. m. f. n. postposition: if wvas. m.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-.: pigeon taksawila-. m. m. m. n.ardha-.: hell nidhana-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-.: story kapota-. f.: the nymph Urvashi katha-. f.ca: both .: silence vaktr-.

this) Sg. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. G en. she (sa. at. te te Pl. this) Sg.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. G en. tau tau tabh yam Pl. N om. bl. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. ns. V oc. h cc. L oc. at. ns. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . bl. cc. N om.

/ viwvam n./ anya f./ etad n.follow irregular sandhi pattern./ ubhaya f./ ya f. except for nominative and accusative of neuter. (other) The following words also follow this declension. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa./ itara f. V oc. (different) itarah m. (all) ekah m. ns./ esa f. it (tad. cc. (this one) yah m./ eka f. N om. te te tabh yam Pl. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du. (which one [of two]) anyah m. (relative pronoun which) katamah m./ katara f./ viwva f. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a./ sarvam n. Here they . bl./ katarad n./ yad n. (all) viwvah m. en. (which one [of many]) katarah m. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg. tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m./ anyad n./ katama f. L oc./ ubhayam n. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m.and esa./ katamad n.L oc. V oc. at. (one) ubhayah m./ sarva f./ ekam n./ itarad n.

so 'vadat (he said). Husbands of these women went to war. anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5. In this forest I saw a lion. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. 9. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7. m. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. 5. sa isuh (this arrow). na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14. yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 4./m. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. 10. Other people than you won't accomplish this. I don't like your behavior. m. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10. 7. 3. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. instruction ./n.change to -o and the following -a is lost. Poor people live in the houses. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3. Text (read and translate): 1. 6. prinayati: to please. In these rivers there are many fish. Examples: sa purusah (this man).: noble upadewa-. to delight sidh-. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8.: advice. I don't want these books. 2." said the general. viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. caus. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13.: end arya-. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. Adj. caus.

Adj.) . m.: thin.: bigger than (with Abl. brilliance. m. Adj. Adj. m.: mark. Adj. n. m. beauty sijha-. sign vira-. not one krwa-. Adj. emaciated pusta-.: learned prati: towards (with Acc.: many.khara-. army leader adhika-.: foolish wiksita-. m.: fault.: fat murkha-.: hero vrtta-.: donkey gardabha-.: lion senapati-.: general. offense wobha-. characteristic. n.: behavior dosa-.: splendor. much. f. m.: donkey laksana-.) aneka-. Adj.

) a+ruh-. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-. caus.: today. m. m. to call in a+jba-. dice ali-. n. Adj. f. acamati (I): to sip.: food anrta-. to mount a+wri-. to rinse a+car-.: repeating.: many. to practise a+diw-.: teacher adewa-.: bigger than (with Abl. n. agamayati: to let come a+hr-. now agamana-. n. abhinayati (I): to conduct. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-. m. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. to seek refuge in abharana-.: order adharma-. studying acarya-. m. arohati (I): to ascend.: wind anna-. to welcome (Acc. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-./n. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-. awrayate (I): to depend on. to drive adhika-.: end .: order aksa-. under (Gen. adv. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. ahvayati (IV): to call here. Adj. m.) abhi+ni-. decoration abhi+a+as-. m. m. acarati (I): to do.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-.: now adya. adv. caus.: poverty aneka-.: coming agni-. to act abhi+vad-. caus. n.: eye. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-.: lie.: the poet Amaru amrta-.: fire anartha-.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. to learn abhi+nand-. n. untruth anta-. m.: down. to rule. much.: unrighteousness adhastat. to perform.: fire ajba-. adv.: robe.) adhi+i-. not one anila-.) adhuna. n. m. m. adhitisthati (I): to govern. m. abhyasyati (IV): to study. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-.: bee amaru-.

: for the sake of arya-. apaharati (I): to take away. anutisthati (I): to follow. Adj.: arm bala-. f.: bliss.: end anu+gam-. m.: part bhakti-.: hermitage awru-. load bhartr-. m.: power. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-. to carry out.: half ari-. atikramati (I): to cross over. m.: boy. even though aranya-. prosperity bhaga-.: wife bhas-. m. many bahu-. m. postp.: tear awva-. force. asyati (IV): to throw asana-.: numerous. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-. m. position asatya-.: sun bhara-. n.: husband bharya-. abundant. n. adj.: horse badh-.: enemy arth-. f. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-.anta-./m. f.: guest atra.: seat. caus.: meaning. m. to perform anujba-.: sword asura-. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-. avarohati: to descend awa-.: forest ardha-.: "un-truth".: transgression. f. pass.: burden.: demon ati+kram-. m. m. strength bhadra-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. prosperity.: here ava+gam-. m. part. adj.: devotion bhan-. to transgress atithi-. to steal apa+ni-. n. to say . lower aparaddha-. m.) artha-. m. happiness. n. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-.: different. bhasate (I): to speak. child bala-. n. n. m. even. also.: noble as-.: agreement apa+har-. m. offence api-. lie asi-. wealth arthe. badhyate: to bind bahu-. m. apanayayati: to lead away apara-. adv. n.: hope awrama-.

: stick. meeting.: female servant. land.: body deva. n.: giver daw-. female slave datr-. n. lord devalaya-. to punish danda-. m. prosperity bindu-.: Buddhist monk. m. carati (I): to walk. to become bhu-. dawati (I): to bite deha-.ca: both .and car-. postposition: if chaya-.: food bhram-. m. diyate: to give dah-.: poor darwana-. f. n. audience dasa-.: earth. f.: food bhojana-. pass. slave dasi-.: temple .: Buddha buddhi-. bhavati (I): to be. m. n. m. mn. m.: well-being. m. m. mendicant.: servant bhrtya-.bhasa-. adj. n.: fear bhaya-.: servant bhru-.: servant.: drop brahmana-. ground bhumi-. f.: frog daridra-. corayati (X): to steal da-.: alms bhiksu-. dandayati (X): to beat. m. shade ciram. to practise caru-. ground bhupala-. m. adj. caus. m. m.: shadow. f. m.: eyebrow bhu-.: god. f. m.: seeing. m.: brother bhrtaka-. earth.: language bhaya-.: beautiful cet. to roam.: brahmin buddha-.: wisdom ca . f. dapayati: to let give da-. dahati (I): to burn dana. punishment dardura-. beggar bhojana-.: gift dand-.: land.: ornament bhuti-. f. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-.: ruler bhusana-. adv. f. f.: for the long time cur-.: fear bhiks-. n. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-.

: clarified butter.: unhappy. villain dusta-. m. money dhanya-. f. gacchati (I): to go gan-. f. m. to point dosa-.: donkey gavga-. n. brahmin dvijati-. m.: the river Ganga ghasa-.: song gopa-.: scent. m.: fault. offense dru-. pawyati (IV): to see. firm dhrti-.: village . mistress dewa-. righteousness. pasture ghata-. member of a high caste eva. far div-. m. rotten duta-. adv. drwyate: to look (like). to look duhitr-. m. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-.: messenger dvija-.: wealth. to seem drw-.: long.: mountain gita-. m. jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-. ganayati (X): to count gandha-. m. distressed durga-. adv. m. f. n.: elephant gam-. m. dhavati (I): to run dhi-.: country dhairya-. reason dhira-.: "twice-born". m.: grass.: suffering duhkhita. pas.: patience.: "twice-born". adj.: grain dharma-. jar ghra-.: goddess.: the goddess Durga durjana-. fragrance gardabha-.: law. adj. n. n. f. Law. dhyayati (IV): to think.: pot. dravati (I): to run drw-. m. f. Buddhism dhav-. ghee giri-. n. n. m. caus.: just. only evam.: cowherd gostha-.: thought. firmness dhya-. m.adj. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-. darwayati: to show drw-.: thus ga-. m.: cowshed grama. f.: bad.: wise..: bad man.: courage. adj. to meditate dirgha-. courage. m. firmness dhana.devi-.: daughter duhkha-. diwati (VI): to show.

to carry hrasvam. jayati (I): to win. part. god jala. m.: quality guru-.: person janaka-.: teacher. f. iksate (I): to look at. n.: house grhastha-. n.: now iha. master.: pleasure. harati (I): to take.: oblation. m. book (text) grha-.: as. fight kalena. icchati (VI): to want.: life jivita-. m. m. to take away.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-.: when? kala-. m. m.: so iva. adv.: householder guh-. desire kamp-.: hand he.: victory. m. m. caus. m.: sacrificial ladle kada. guhati (I): to hide. to tremble . m.: arrow iti.: water jamatr-. guru han-.: oh! hr-. in proximity hrdaya-. goodness kama-. adv. glory ji-. n. close. as if iwvara-.: near.: son-in-law jan-. m.: Indrani.: life juhu-.grantha-. to conceal guna-. like.: mother jati-. m.: sometimes kalidasa-.: birth. offering idanim. caste jaya-.: heart hu-. adv. part.: benefit. f.: father janani-.: composition. m. ghatayati: to kill hari-. n.: quarrel. f. m. to yearn for isu-. n. hvayati (IV): to call huta-. m. n.: lord. to stare indra-. adv. jivati (I): to live jivana-. Indra's wife is-. jayate (IV): to be born jana-. to conquer jiv-. n. m. adv. m. part.: Hindu god Indra indrani-.: personal name hasta-. kampate (I): to shake. death kalaha-.: time. here iks-. f.

m.: story katham. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. m. pass. m. kriyate: to do krodha-.: moment ksatriya-. characteristic. m. f.: prince.) kupa-. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.) ksana-..) kopa-.: thin. to cultivate (field) krsi-. black krt-. elephant's trunk.: how? kavi-.: whole krudh-. sign laksmi-.: anger krs-. young man kunta-. f.: girl.: cause kastha-. f. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-. n.: agriculture krsna-.: fame klp-.: field ksip-. fighter ksetra-. n. or Gen.: mat kath-. f.: where? kva. adj.: hand. m. adv. kathayati (X): to tell. f. n. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-. lance kup-. tax karana-. to narrate katha-. adv. m.: pigeon kara-. to whom .: where? labh-.: poetry kawi-.: what?.: poet kavya-. or Dat. daughter kapota-.Acc.: where from? why? kutra. adv.: anger kr-. m. to obtain laksana-.) krwa-.kanya-. Adj. emaciated ksal-.: milk kumara-. n.: kshatriya.: plough . m. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.: donkey kim. f.: mark.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-. n. khadati (I): to eat khan-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-. or Dat. n. adv. khanati (I): to dig khara-. labhate (I): to get. m.: wood kata-. ksamate: to forgive (what . krsati (I): to plow.: well kutah.Dat. why? kirti-. m. n. m. m. adv.: spear.

: between. lumpati (VI): to steal. m. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-.: world (in Pl. road masa-.: way. m. m. mouth mukhya-. f.: city. n. m.: buffalo maksika-.: river nagara. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-.) mukha-. precious stone manoratha-. n. statue nadi-.: fish mauna-.: peacock megha-. postp. adj.: main.likh-.: deliverance mr-.: death muc-.: gem. m.: desire manusya-. to suppose mani-. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-.) man-.: garland mam: me (Acc.: silence mayura-. to discharge mud-. f. m. likhati (VI): to write lip-. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-. n. to hunt for mrga-.: cloud mitra-.: sage.: month matsya-. town nagari-. m. m. mubcati (VI): to free.: image.: fly mala-. means also "people") lubh-. n.: death marga. n.) lup-.: greed loka-. or Loc.: foolish murti-. Adj. saint murkha-. f. m. m. mrgayate (X): to search for.: delusion moksa-. foremost mukti-.: great king maharani-.: queen mahisa-. f. f.: deer mrtyu-. m.: friend moha-. f. m. m. m.: city . lubhyati (IV): to long for. to rob mad-. form. n. m. m.: face. manyate (IV): to think.: person marana-.: deliverance muni-. modate (I): to delight in (Ins. marayti: to kill mr-. f. m. caus. to desire (with Dat.: honey madhye.

: hell nari-. pibati (I): to drink pac-. to prostrate. place padma-.: highest. different para+ji-. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-.: hail!.: low nidewa-.: leader netra. m.: decision nrpa-. n.: ruler . king nrpati-.: the grammarian Panini papa-.: foot.: eye ni-. adj. m. drama navina-. n. ruler pa-. to worship namas-.: Indra's paradise naptr-.: step. m.: grandson nara-. namati (I): to bow. adv.: sin para-. sinful papa-. to perish nawa-. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-.m.: order nidhana-. palayati: to protect pa-. palayati (X): to protect pandita-.: destruction. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-.: new naw-. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-. m.: ruler.: play. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-. adj. adj. f. m. nivedayati: to announce. footprint pada-.nam-. m.: lotus pal-. caus. adj. to appear nija-.: king. caus. nispadyate (IV): to originate. learned man pani-.: axe pari+dha-. glory! (Dat. nawyati (IV): to be lost. n.: man naraka-.: dwelling niwcaya-. annihilation netr. m. adj. own nivewana-. n. n. parinayati: to marry parthiva-.: woman nataka-.: treasure nih+gam-. m. m. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-.: one's. n. palm panini-.n.: hand. m.: bad. to report nica-.. m.) nandana-. m. m. m. pacati (I): to cook pada-. n.: scholar.

: snare. pratigacchati (I): to come back. m. ancestors pr-.) prati+bhas-. m.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-.ch-. pass. people prana-. parayati (X): to overcome pr-.: breath. m.: subject. prinayati: to please. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-. study pathika-.: worship. pidayati (X): to torture. caus. m. f. master. pravartate (I): to become.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-.) pra+stha-. otec. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-. to delight prthivi-. to return prati+iks-. holy pawa-.: traveler pati-. to disseminate. m. m. Pl. prabhavati (I): to arise. to beg pra+as-. m. many praja-.: the breeding of cattle pid-. adj. n. prathayati: to propagate. homage . pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. hill pat-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. husband patni-. pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. f. puryate: to fill pr. m. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-. pathati (I): to read. n. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. cattle pawupalya-. f.: expiation. to expect prati+sidh-. to recite patha-. prarthayate: to ask.: mountain.: manifold.parvata-. Pl. to appear pra+jan-. to hurt pitamaha-. atonement pri-. f. caus. m. to arise prabhuta-.: citizen pavitra-. to take refuge in (Acc.: Lord.: leaf. caus. to restrain prayaga-. to go back.: palace prath-. adj.: sacrificial animal. trap pawu-. pujayati (X): to honour. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-. m. n.: lesson. prapadyate (IV): to go to.: wife pattra-. pratiksate (I): to await. to fly pataliputra-. to revere puja-. to worship. patayati: to knock down pat-. n.: grandfather pitr-. life prasada-. Du. patati (I): to fall. parents. m. letter paura-.: clean.: earth puj-. caus.

sahate (I): to bear. prep.: merit pura-. m.: fat pustaka-. m. m. n. n. righteous sadhu-. m.: enemy rksa-. m.: son putri-.: protector ram-.: coin sabha-. f.punar.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-. m. rodati (I): to weep ruh-.: kingdom raks-.: book (manuscript) putra.: protection raksana-. n. m. rohati (I): to grow rupa-. sidati (I): to sit.: again punya-.: flood. m. rcchati (I): to get. n. adv.: form. m. adj. n. mass. m.: gem ratna-.: heap.: epos Ramayana rana-. rocate (I): to like (Dat. or postp.: man puspa-.: suddenly . f.: holy man sagara-.: protection raksitr-. m. quantity rawmi-.: chariot rathya-.: with (with Inst. precious stone rawi-.. n.: bear roga-. adv. f. Adj. ramate (I): to play rama-.: sea sah-. f.: battle ratha-.: flower pusta-. n.: seer ruc-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-. f. f. m. n.: ray ripu-. to obtain. n. stream purana-. Gen. to endure saha. to sit down sada.: illness rsi-.) rud-. n.) sahasa. meeting. m.: old story. beauty rupaka-. mn. adv.: daughter r-. to share rac-.: jewel.: holy. raksati (I): to protect raksana-. assembly sad-.: congregation. m.: queen rajya-.: always sadhu-.: street ratna-.

army leader sev-. n. f. m. to honour (Acc.: sun. m. m.: sleep. to discharge sidh-. contentedness sam+a+car-. smarati (I): to remember smrti-. sea samyak. adv.: sister tad-. the god of the Sun suta-.: service sevaka-.: beauty surya-.: happiness sukta-.: thief. thoroughly. m. f. whole samudra-. n. f.: complete. m. f. srjati (VI): to create srsti-. even samagra-. f. m. adv. robber stha-.: soldier sajdigdha-.: satisfaction. m. by all means sarvatra. adv.: ocean.: everywhere.: well.) seva-. a hymn of praise stri-.: daughter-in-law sprw-.: heaven svasr-. at that time . Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-.: charioteer suvarna-.: ode. adj. dream svarga-.: creation stena-.: praise sukha-. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. sajbhasate (I): to converse.: same.: general. m.: beautiful sundari-.: truth senapati-.: tradition. serpent sarvatah. tadayati (X): to beat tada.: snake. m. m. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-. sevate (I): to serve. adj. m. adj.: doubtful. to stay stotra-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. f. questionable sajtosa-.: creator srj-. or Loc. equal. n. tisthati (I): to stand.) sam+gaj-.: everywhere satya-.: then. m. adv. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-.sainika-.: lion smr-. n. sajgacchate: to come together sama-. adj. f. f. caus. n.: Vedic hymn sundara-.) snusa-. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-. rightly sarpa-.: gold svapna-.: woman stuti-.: servant sic-. to talk with (Ins. n.

m. f. to instruct. tarati (I): to cross over tu. bank tr-.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. f. n.: daddy tatha. f. best vari-.: speaker vana-.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-. adv. to flow vaiwya-.: there tira-. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. m. n. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-. instruction urvawi-. pool vara-. tyajati (I): to leave.: curved. n.: ocean udyana-.: dwelling vastra-.: garden udyana-. to stand up udadhi-. ucyate: is called vad-. perseverance upa+diw-. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-.: pond. recluse vand-. to grieve (Abl.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-.: hermit.: garden udyoga-. upadiwati (VI): to teach. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-. adj.: thus. adj.) tyaj-. pass. n. to weigh tus-. vapati (I): to sow vapi-. f. to pierce tul-. vandate (I): to praise.: forest vanaprasta-.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-. f. part.: but tud-. tudati (VI): to strike. to pay homage vanijya-.: business. n. m. adj. tolayati (X): to lift up. adv.taksawila-.: woman.: better. to give up ucca-. m. wife vah-. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-.: clothing . to say vadhu-. m.: advice. m. twisted vaktr-. to admonish upa+iks-. m. to be satisfied (Ins.: shore. m. m.: tree tata-. vahati (I): to carry. so tatra. uttisthati (I): to get up.: exertion. trade vap-. to blow. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-.: high ud+pat-. n.) taru-. n. vadati (I): to speak.: water varuna-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed.

silence wara-.: refuge was-. "punisher" wastra-.: in vain. m. direction vidya-. m.: learned wisya-. viramate (I): to give up.: bird vinaya-.: enemy wikhara-. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-. varsati (I): to rain.: branch wam-.: knowledge.: behavior vrttanta-. m.: brahmin vira-. m.: arrow warana-.: poison vrana-. to make known vid-. mode. to acquire vidhi-. to extol wakha-. m. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-.: peace. wisdom vihaga-. m. n. f.: wolf vrksa-. m. m. Adj.: hunter vyaghra-. m. to shower vrt-.: summit. m. wajsati (I): to praise. m. vartate (I): to be. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-. to punish wastr-. m. argument viw-. n. wealth vayu-. wisyate: to rule. m.: thing. vindati (VI): to get. to exist vrt-. wamyati (IV): to be pacified.: hero vira-.: wave vid-.: treatise. m. m. pupil . sore vrdh-.: wound.: way.: ruler.: bird vihaga-. vardhayati: to make bigger.: disputation. m.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-.: tree vrs-.: discipline vipra-. vivadati (I): to argue vici-.: hero visnu-.: wind vi+ram-. n.: story vyadh-. n. to no avail vrtta-.: tiger wajs-. m.: student. caus. m. to be finished wanti-. caus. f. pass. vedayati: to announce. n. top wiks-.vasu-. to enlarge vrka-. f. rule. to abandon (Abl.) vi+vad-. n. law-book watru-. to pour down. n. m. adv. vartate (I): to live on vrtha. m.

wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas. rel. adv. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-.: war yudh-. m. adv. caus.: child wiwu-. wealth wru-.: splendor.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives. m. adv.: Shiva wiwu-. m.wiva-. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: ascetic yatra.) wudra-. wruyate: to hear wruti-. beauty wobhana-. brilliance.: tomorrow wvawru-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then…. m. yudhyati (IV): to fight . m.: ornament.: child wloka-. adv. as far as yoga-. oblation for them wram-. f.: how.: luck.: mother-in-law wvawura-. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-. f. pass. f.: father-in-law wveta-.: sacrifice yam-.: when (relative) yaj-. as (relative) yati-. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-.: white ya-. f. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-. virtue wraddha-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. n. m. adj. pron. m.) yatha.: Vedic scripture wubh-. m.: yoga yuddha-. m.: which yada.: the river Yamuna yat-. m. beauty. m.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. f.

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