Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

kutra katah | 3. bhojanaj tu (but the food. sad.(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi. devah phala (n. eva (particle of emphasis.. Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na. "god") Nom.). the Buddha only). the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence. In Sanskrit. buddham eva (just the Buddha.(to give) change -m.. tu (but). phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad..in front of the verb. phalani Voc. na vadanti (they do not say. just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits). devan Voc. stha. balah kataj diwati | 2. Text (read and translate): 1. "fruit") Nom.(to sit) changes -a. is (to want) changes -s. So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going). classes: gam. yacchati. va (or).(VI. phalani Acc. devah Acc.to -cch-: gacchati.Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m. ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits). Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and). and I. brahmanah sada yajanti devan | .. they are not saying).(to go) and yam. Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?). class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI.to -i-: sidati. bhojanam atra (the food [is] here).to -cch-: icchanti.

4. We praise the boys. danani yacchanti | 10. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25. 3. nagarameva gacchami | 9. margaj diwatha balah | 19. Where the water does not flow. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. nrpah kva sidati | 7.) going? 2. there stay the houses. Where are the elephants? 5. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. there the people do not live. 7. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. narandevah srjati | 13. The exercise key . 8. kada danani yacchatha | 26. Boys. We are leaving the world today. 6. 9.4. Brahmins still sit there. gramamadya viwamah | 14. Do you want milk? 10. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. 12. I want water. dhanamicchamah | 24. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. you are pointing the way. grhamatra tisthati | 6. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. Where are you (pl. balah ksiramicchati | 23. tatha jivamah | 18. devannamanti | 22. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. Where is the city. 11. The man steps on (viw-) the mat.

: then. adv. road eva. adv.: thus.: mat ksira-. to point dhav-.: milk gaja-. so tada. to prostrate. diwati (VI): to show. m. srjati (VI): to create stha-. only kada.: where (relative) yada. tisthati (I): to stand. n. town putra-. adv.: village jala-. adv. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-.: water dana-. n. sidati (I): to sit. m. m. n. to yearn for gam-. m.: gift deva-.: city.Vocabulary is-.: way. to stay sprw-. tyajati (I): to leave. m. to give up diw-. wajsati (I): to praise. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-.: wealth.: elephant grama-. m. at that time yatra. to extol sad-. to sit down srj-. icchati (VI): to want. n.: when (relative) . to worship yam-.: god.: son marga-.: just.: when? tatha. yacchati (I): to give viw-. namati (I): to bow. dhavati (I): to run nam-. adv. lord dhana-. money nagara-. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. adv. n.

vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. to shower). sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here). dru-. to conquer). pa-. Accusative and Vocative cases: m. vad+a+vah We (two) say 2.Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. ghra-. pibati (to drink). The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. the first grade is called guna. to conceal). Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. bhavati (to be). guhati (to hide. Nom. to smell). jayati (to win. Acc. the second grade is vrddhi. But note some irregularities: guh-. jighrati (III. bhu-. varsati (to rain. vad+a+tah They (two) say n. nayati (to lead). normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. It has always the same form for Nominative. dravati (to run). Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. devau phale Voc. class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. ji-. Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . ruh-. rohati (to grow). class. vrs-.

gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. devavadya smaramah | 10. 4. 8. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Where are you (two) going now? 9. balau phale khadatah | 20. Here stand (two) trees. anilah sada na vahati | 16. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. satyaj na vadathah | 18. 10. Home (emphasized) go both boys. atraiva vasavah | 5. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. . Where are both horses? 3. To the forest run the (two) elephants. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. Here we (two) do not live. devau smaramah | 9.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. 2. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. The ruler conquers both fighters. Where do you hide money? 11. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. 12. 7. 6. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. dahasi he anala | 15. Just here are (two) horses. 5. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. he nrpau jayathah | 11. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. They give money and gifts. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. The Buddha speaks the truth. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. Just today we both go to the city.

pibati (I): to drink bhu-. fragrance megha-. bhavati (I): to be. vahati (I): to carry. to blow. to pour down. adv. m. m. m.: cloud vana-.: scent. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-. n.: forest vrksa-.: horse anala-.: fire anila-. to flow ruh-. khadati (I): to eat guh-.: wind gandha-. part. Here sarvatra. jayati (I): to win. dahati (I): to burn dru-. to conquer dah-. to shower smr-. smarati (I): to remember awva-. guhati (I): to hide. dravati (I): to run ni-. jighrati (III): to smell ji-.: tree satya-. m.: oh! . m. varsati (I): to rain. n. to become vah-.: everywhere he. m.13.: truth iha. adv. nayati (I): to lead pa-. rohati (I): to grow vrs-. to conceal ghra-.

giving. "by" (with the Buddha. is also used to denote reason (from anger). devah Acc. devau devau Pl. "god") Sg. Nom. deva And for neuter: phala (n. the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). phalam Acc. telling (to the boy). devasya devayoh Voc. "fruit") Sg. Abl. phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). the agent in a passive construction... as English "through". phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen. Abl. Dative: the indirect object. Locative: the location. . Nom.Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. Accusative: the object (I see you). "by means of ". Dat. phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. Loc. Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). Dat. phalasya Voc. by carriage). devam Du. Ins. "because of". Loc. circumstances (in the city). Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). Ins.

Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. n for t. For example: muc-. ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. m for p. jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. If the following word beggins with a short a-. duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . b for c and j. mubcati (see Vocabulary). this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). -i. -u before any vowel (except for -u. putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . man?). rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3.Vocative: the address (Who are you. narah gacchanti (the men go). ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. j and sibilants).the fighter says that he lives here). -i before any vowel (except for -i. -u. see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here).

n. Trees do not grow on high mountains. Traveler walks on the way to the village. hill bala-. brahmin pathika-. m. to discharge yaj-. limpati (VI): to smear sic-. m.: mountain. strength mrga-. 6.: prince. People do not live in forests. m.: "twice-born". Men with boys go to the forest.: suffering dvija-. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14. force. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: traveler parvata-. m. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. n.: brahmin .11. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. young man janaka-. 2. m.: father duhkha-. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-. m.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-.: plough vipra-. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys. n. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12.: power.: deer rana-. but not suffering.: battle rama-. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15. m./n. n. carati (I): to walk. People want happiness. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17. to roam. to discharge aranya-. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. mubcati (VI): to free. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. krntati (VI): to cut car-.: forest kumara-. 4. to practise muc-. 5. m. 8. 3. 7. m.

: but The exercise key . m.: hand huta-.viwa-. why? kutah. part. n. n. adj.: Shiva sukha-.: high iti. part. n.: where from?. why? tu.: what?. adv. offering ucca-.: poison wiva-.: so kim. m.: oblation. adv.: happiness hasta-.

Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. Ins. arya. poet tells to the seer). unhappiness. agni Pl. Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. For example: sukha-.. . varinah varinoh Voc. agne vari. Rama goes with the poets). Abl. Du. asukha. Abl. anarya. But if the following word begins with -r. Loc. sorrow..(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an.(n. the fire is here. vari Acc. Nom. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati. "un-noble". fire burns). varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. water): Sg. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati. agnih Acc. vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen. vari varina varine Du. varini varini Pl. happines. Dat. Ins. Dat. Loc. Nom. fire) Sg.(if it begins with a vowel). noble. agneh Voc.(m. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati.

says the brahmin to the poet. satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. Even today people remember Rama. "You don't speak the truth". Where people burn the forests. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. asks the king. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. 9. 5. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. harij ksirena yajatah | 18. b). If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. 4. poet. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. n) between them (so. Text (read and translate): 1. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. d. suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. dh. n) or dental (t. From sin there is always suffering. . th. nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15. We live happily here in the mountains. "Enemies rob the houses here". 6. 3. rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. retroflex (t. 7. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. Hari's horse is standing just here. jalaj gireh patati | 10. rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). nominative plural of vari is varini). no elephants live. 8. j. 2. balau kuto rodatah | 2. ch. why don't you recite poetry?". jh. nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. but from the Law [there is] happiness. dh. d. "O. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). th. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. weep the boys.

n. palm papa-. ruler pati-. husband pani-. m. to pierce path-.: seer kavi-.: mountain jana-. m. Law. part.: sword rsi-. righteousness. n. rodati (I): to weep lup-.: king.: person dasa-. lumpati (VI): to steal.: water sukta-. even. n.: law. to rob agni-. m. m. m. n.: sin varuna-. n. mn. also. m. m.: fire anna-. n. m. even though . m.: hand. m. to recite rud-. Buddhism nrpati-.: personal name api-. m.: poetry giri-.: body dharma-.: "un-truth".: food ari-.: poet kavya-. m.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-.: Lord.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-.: servant. master.: enemy asatya-. m. lie asi-. slave deha-. pathati (I): to read. m.: Vedic hymn hari-. tudati (VI): to strike.

to look). ch. anayati (to bring). -h after any vowel and before t-. Dat. watroh Voc. watruh Acc. But if a is used separately as a preposition. Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. th. agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here). -h after any vowel and before c-. indicative uses different root (paw-). Loc. watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen. m. class are thematic verbs. For example a. pawyati (to see.(to see) is irregular and defective. Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes). kupyati (to be angry). Only passive is constructed from this root. Abl. The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension.is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). Ins. watru Pl. (enemy) Sg. Du. Nom. . Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-.is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). a vanat (only from the forest).means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come).Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV. Therefore: drw-. The verb drw.

guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. 3. "There stands father's house. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. naro 'wvamarohati | 10." asks teacher the student. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4. 5. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises.Text (read and translate): 1. 2. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. By the power of [your] arms you win. We do not live here. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. but father lives here.) . bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17." says the boy to the traveler. oh king. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. 7. or Dat. 6. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. The king with fighters comes to the city. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. 4. "What are you writing now. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. 8. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9.

yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-.: axe pada-. n.) hu-. nawyati (IV): to be lost. m. m. quantity ripu-.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-.: foot. to desire (with Dat. m.: with (with Inst. pupil saha.) a+gam-. or Loc. or Dat. m.krudh-. mass. m. to look yudh-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. m. to perish drw-. m. lubhyati (IV): to long for.: gem. n. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-.: drop mani-. arohati (I): to ascend. prep.: student. m. or Loc. to call in udadhi-.) .: leaf. agacchati (I): to come tr-. likhati (VI): to write lubh-.) wus-. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. pawyati (IV): to see. m. ahvayati (IV): to call here.: jewel. m. precious stone rawi-.: enemy visnu-. letter parawu-. precious stone ratna-. n. m.: enemy wastra-. m.: teacher. guru pattra-. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. footprint bahu-. m.: treatise.: bird watru-. or postp.: ocean guru-. law-book wisya-. to mount likh-.: arm bindu-. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-.: heap.

viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3. Text (read and translate): 1. Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. Nom. the root vyadh. Ins. Loc. devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). kram-. Dat. ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. mad-. gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. madhunah madhunoh Voc. tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). madhuni madhuni Pl.Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . vidhyati (to pierce). madhu Acc. meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). madhu madhuna madhune Du. rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7. alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8.is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. madyati (to be intoxicated). madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. kramati (to walk). bhramyati (to wander). Abl.

Death conquers even unrighteousness. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-. 2.: eye. There are many things in the houses.12. 8. 3. harati (I): to take. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. to carry aksa-. n. to rinse tam-. m. to be satisfied (Ins. acamati (I): to sip.: tear rksa-.) tus-. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. 4. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18. n. to take away.: bear . to obtain. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16. rcchati (I): to get. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. anayati (I): to bring bhram-. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-.). balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed.: bee awru-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. Tears are flowing on boy's face. Birds are flying to the tree. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-. to grieve (Abl. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. m. Bees wander around flowers of the trees. Fighters play for money (Ins. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-. m. 7. 6. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13. to be finished wram-. dice adharma-. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to share a+kram-.) div-. 5.: unrighteousness ali-. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-.

m. adj.: anger krodha-.: death vasu-.: flower bhaga-.: face. n.: thing.: numerous. m.kopa-. mouth mrtyu-.: part madhu-.n. wealth vira-. abundant. m.: person mukha-. n. many . m. n.: honey manusya-. m. n.: anger netra.: hero bahu-. m.: eye puspa-.

papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world). narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. bhi-. ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. ksalayati (to wash). dharayati (to hold). vedayati (to make known). If the root ends in a vowel. devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. pidayati (to torture). lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). to generate).to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. vid-. Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. The vowel -a. class add -aya. corayati (to steal). grhalloka agacchanti | 15. -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key . Text (read and translate): 1. Before palatals.instead of just -a. suto 'wvanpidayati | 8. Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4. gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10.Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. bhayayati (to cause fear). rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. but: pid-.between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house). jan-. wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). janayati (to give birth. gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7.

Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: coin vastra-. n. 5. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-. 6.: old story.: servant ramayana-.: merit purana-. to narrate ksal-. Father tells son about fruits of sins. like.) wash their faces. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword. n." asks the servant the king. m. m. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. 4.) . robber navina-. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. 7. Boys (Du. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. n.: new iva. Merit protects from grief.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-. ganayati (X): to count cur-.: holy man suvarna-.: clothing vrttanta-. 3. 2.: stick. kathayati (X): to tell. n. to weigh dand-. part. pujayati (X): to honour. to punish pid-. aharati (I): to bring danda-. corayati (X): to steal tad-. n.: gold suta-. adj. to revere pr-. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns. to hurt puj-.: as. m. n. as if mam: me (Acc. n.: thief. to worship. punishment punya-. "Why do you beat me. tolayati (X): to lift up. pidayati (X): to torture.: charioteer stena-. 8.: epos Ramayana rupaka-. m. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-. m. dandayati (X): to beat.: story wudra-. m. I want new clothes.

labhate (to get. labh-. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. "word for another"). adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. ksatriya rsi sevante | . o. agni iksate balah | 11. fire. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. god Agni). to obtain) A: Sg.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. Pl. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. But Dual endings -i. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. labhase labhethe 3. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6.is unchanged. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. 1. Before other vowels a final -e. -o at the end of the word and before a. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. labhe Du. -e. atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). Text (read and translate): 1. But in Sanskrit. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. vanesviharksa vasanti | 16.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). But this initial a. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12.

yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. m. m.: sacrifice . cattle bhanu-. m. member of a high caste dhairya-. Holy men (Du. to obtain vand-. to say mr-. to honour (Acc. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. kampate (I): to shake. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-.: sun moksa-. 3. to endure sev-. Children ask the father for food.) ruc-.: sacrificial animal. iksate (I): to look at. m. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: poverty udyoga-. to stare kamp-. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear.) begin with a sacrifice. 7. m. vandate (I): to praise. sahate (I): to bear. firmness pawu-. Boys like fruit.: exertion. to tremble jan-. Father likes sons' discipline.) iks-. 4. Gen..) labh-. perseverance kalyana-. rocate (I): to like (Dat. wiksate (I): to learn sah-.17. 8. mriyate (IV): to die yat-. bhasate (I): to speak. courage. m. The father is looking at son's face. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5. n. m.: tree dvijati-. to pay homage wiks-. n. 2.: patience. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18.) anartha-. sevate (I): to serve.) a+rabh-.: benefit. labhate (I): to get. 6. goodness taru-. m.: "twice-born".: deliverance yajba-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc.

vayu-. m. m. m.: ocean.: discipline wiwu-. sea .: child samudra-.: wind vici-.: wave vinaya-. m. m.

ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen. Loc.(towards.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para. Dat. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni. senam senaya senayai Du. Ins. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3.is changed into -n. -n.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve.(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari. Text (read and translate): 1. Nom. Abl.after a prefix containing -r.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f. to follow) ava.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry).(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. to honour).(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam.(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud. sena Acc. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu. following): anu+gacchati (to go after.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra.. senayah senayoh Voc.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s.is changed into -s. sene sene Pl. satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4. army) Sg. hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | .(after.

) descend from black horses. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-. 6. daughter gavga-. 8. prapadyate (IV): to go to. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna.: girl. f. 2. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6.: householder . We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. Many trees grow on the mountain. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15. f. m.: arrow kanya-.) bhiks-. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12. 5. 3. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-. Here on the street kings (Du. m.: the river Ganga grhastha-. The student asks householder's wife for alms. 7. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. 4. to take refuge in (Acc. sajgacchate: to come together isu-.5. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. The king conquers enemies in the battle. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9.

f. f.: language bhiksa-. m. sinful prabhuta-.: alms yamuna-.: heart krsna-. n. adj. n.: the river Yamuna ratna-. adj. n. shade prayaga-.: suddenly .: street vidya-.: knowledge. f.chaya-.: refuge svarga-. m.: bad.: fear bharya-. black papa-. f. adv. many sahasa.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-.: heaven hrdaya-. f.: manifold.: shadow.: gem rathya-. wisdom vyadha-.: hunter warana-. f. f. f. n.: wife bhasa-.

jiyate. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. corayati. stuyate (to praise). Verbs of the X class drop -aya. dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. mubcati.but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. vap-. rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. Text (read and translate): 1. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13. puryate (to fill). he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. tiryate. kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. diyate (to give).in these roots: vac-. upyate (to sow). vad-. usyate (to dwell). sutenawvastadyate | 20. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12. svap-. smaryate (to remember). vah-. udyate (to say). ucyate (to say). supyate (to sleep). The consonant -v. naraih katah kriyante | 8. uhyate (to carry). pass. pass.Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. pass. pr-. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. coryate. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7. It is used with the instrumental case. kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. awvena jalaj piyate | 17. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5.is changed into -u. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. mucyate. stu-. Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. vas-. pass. janairnagaraj gamyate | 6.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings.

n.: wood gita-. n. 5. m. pass. dawati (I): to bite da-. vapati (I): to sow was-. pass. 6. 8.: song ghata-. Holy man always speaks truth (pass). Jars are being filled with grain.: Buddhist monk.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 2. n. to punish wru-. serpent . Hari is again praised by Rama. 4. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. f. trap bhara-.: burden. m. 7.: snake." is said by people. ghee dhanya-. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). m. beggar mala-. Girls bind garlands (pass). wisyate: to rule. mendicant. It is played with dices.: child sarpa-. Grain is sown in the fields. pass. wruyate: to hear ajba-. pass. kriyate: to do ga-. jar ghrta-. pass. n.: grain pawa-. m. puryate: to fill badh-. m. diyate: to give pr-. pass. badhyate: to bind vap-.: kingdom wiwu-. "In the shade is comfortably slept.: order kastha-. gayati (IV): to sing daw-.: garland rajya-.: snare. m.: clarified butter. n. 3. load bhiksu-. f.: pot.

yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. It has special endings: Sg. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. Text (read and translate): 1. 2. Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). aicchat (he wanted). pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. If the verb is prefixed. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. impf. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. impf. sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. purena grhanyuhyante | .Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. a+vad+a+h 3. a+vad+a+t Du. paryanayat.

you asked the king for protection.: book (manuscript) pura-.: meaning.: congregation. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. vartate (I): to be. f.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-. to exist ud+stha-. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-. book (text) jaya-. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-. 3. stream prasada-. 7. a hymn of praise . When you were ("stood") in trouble. m.: ode. f.: summit. assembly surya-.: branch wikhara-.: fish raksana-.: flood. 4. f. m. Servants brought water in jars.: sun. Brahmins (Du. m. meeting.: demon awa-. 8. n. 2. n.: victory.: protection wakha-. m.: sea grantha-. top sabha-. wealth asura-. m. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood. m. uttisthati (I): to get up. He cut the branch with an axe.: hope indra-. n. to stand up artha-. The teacher hit the student out of the anger. Men sat down on mats. the god of the Sun stotra-. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water. 5. prosperity. m. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. 6.) sang the praise of Rama. m. m. glory pustaka-.: composition.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. m.: palace matsya-.

aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. nadim nadya nadyai Du. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. Ins. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. Dat. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13.. . river) Sg. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. satyameva jayate | 12. nadi Acc. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. 3. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. 2. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 4. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. Abl. Loc. We bring water from the pond. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. nadyau nadyau Pl. nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. nadyah nadyoh Voc. Nom. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11.

n. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. to hunt for vac-. m. adj. n. female slave devi-. f. Even the king came with the soldiers.: wife putri-. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother.: Indrani.: garden janani-. n. 7. f. to perform. n. f. f.: yoga vapi-. decoration indrani-. pratigacchati (I): to come back.: shore.: pond. f.: Indra's paradise nari-. adj. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea. f. adv.: river nandana-. f. bank dasi-.: hail!. f. ucyate: is called vrt-.: ornament maharaja-. f. Indra's wife udyana-.: clean. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler.: female servant.5. mistress nagari-. acarati (I): to do.: daughter prthivi-. to return a+car-. to practise mrg-. f. m.: robe. f. holy samagra-.: soldier pavitra-. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-. pool vyaghra-. n. m. 8.: earth bhusana-.: beautiful namas-. glory! (Dat. adj.: woman patni-.: city nadi-.: goddess. whole sundara-.) .: great king maharani-.: queen yoga-.: mother tira-. to go back.: tiger sainika-. f. pass. 6. m. mrgayate (X): to search for.: complete.

mateh|matyah matyoh Voc. mati. bahu-. idea): Sg. mate dhenu. f. Dat. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. ablative. dhenuh Acc.(f. Abl. The dative.Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u.with -v-). prthvi. Ins. bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4. cow): Sg. Dat. Text (read and translate): 1. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-. bahvi.. heavy). Abl. dhenu dhenu Pl. Loc. mati mati Pl. f. dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc.(broad). gurvi. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. Loc. guru-. dhenum dhenva Du.(abundant.. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems".(serious. matih Acc. Nom.(f.and -y. Nom. punyena muktij labhadhve | . dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3. Ins. many). f. matim matya Du.

palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. f. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15. m. upadiwati (VI): to teach. m. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12.6. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. to acquire wubh-. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7. People of many castes lived in villages. 5. vindati (VI): to get. f.: courage. f. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women.) upa+diw-. 2. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river.: birth. to instruct. 4. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-.: end kalaha-. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. fight kirti-. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14. 6. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. wobhate (I): to shine anta-.: fame gopa-. to admonish pal-. prabhavati (I): to arise. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. firmness parthiva-. 8." said a citizen to the king.: quarrel. to appear vid-. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. 7. m. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8. 3.: cowherd jati-. m. I worship Shiva for prosperity. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. caste dhrti-. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage.: ruler .

sore wanti-. righteous . f.: ray vrana-. f.: main. f. m. f. land. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-. f.: citizen buddhi-. adj.: wound.: low mukhya-.: wisdom bhakti-. f.paura-.: well-being.: tradition. n. adj.: peace. foremost sadhu-.: sleep. m. f.: devotion bhuti-. f.: Vedic scripture smrti-. f. ground maksika-.: earth. f. prosperity bhumi-. dream nica-.: fly mukti-.: deliverance rawmi-. silence wruti-. adj.: holy.

to rule apa-. p-. to lead away. and Loc. us: nih+pad-. dhih Acc. In addition. on: adhi+stha-. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. pass. to govern. alabhata Du. 1. alabhe 3.): dhi. Dat. against. completely overcome adhi-. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. Sg. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata.. back: prati+gam-. Abl... dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. away: apa+ni-. thought): Sg.Pl. vidiryate. to carry away prati-. Gen. it is changed into s.changed into -is. nyasidat. completely. above. apaniyati. Ins. ph. nisidati. . can take also the forms of standard "i-stems". Loc. kh-. atikramati. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. this can also happen in Gen. to go back. impf. Abl. nispadyate (to arise). dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. adhitisthati.(f. apart: vi+dr-. Pl.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. pratigacchati. Dat. Nom. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. wholly: ati+kram-. to return vi-. dhiyau dhiyau Pl. they were seen).

padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. 4. 5. to appear prati+bhas-. When was the king's son born? 8. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. 7. Many arrows were shot on the tiger. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. dhyayati (IV): to think. nispadyate (IV): to originate. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. to meditate nih+pad-.Text (read and translate): 1. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. to transgress pra+jan-. When the king talked with brahmins. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. Rama's father was always remembered by people. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6.) girls home from the garden. Where did you get white cows? 3. elephants and bears were seen there. he returned to the city. 2. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. 6. Mother called (pass. pratibhasate (I): to answer . [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. atikramati (I): to cross over. Many tigers. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12.

nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-.: luck. annihilation padma-.: white . master. n. adj. m. f.: sage. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: whole caru-. m. to rule. f. adj. desire karana-. m. m. god kama-. m. reason nawa-.: wise.rac-. m.: delusion ratha-.: creation krtsna-.: pleasure.: destruction. firm wveta-. to restrain ni+sev-.: lotus purusa-.: man muni-.: dwelling wri-. adj.: cause dhi-.: greed vasati-. f. saint moha-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. m. f. to drive anujba-. f. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-. wealth srsti-. n. m. adj.: thought.: beautiful dhira-.: lord.: agreement iwvara-. beauty.: chariot lobha-.

he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. Let the men dig a pond. pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7. devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9. annaj yaccha he janani | 13." orders students the tradition. 7. ma gacchatu (let him not go). 5. 3. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. Text (read and translate): 1. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. 6." asked the boy father. Let charioteers do not torture horses. daughter. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. "Come today. vada Du. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. "Give me food." said the father. Pl. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. . 4. Let the children show the traveler the way. daddy. atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6. 2. vadama 1. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. "Study the treatises and speak the truth.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. 2. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11.

: lesson. people murti-. adv. f. far dusta-. m. adj.: repeating.: highest. f. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-. adv. form.: for the long time sarvatah.: bad. rotten para-. m. adj. under (Gen.: seeing. m. different adhastat.: subject. n. m.: order asana-.: down.) ciram. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-. abhyasyati (IV): to study.: seat. to learn a+diw-. close.: guest anrta-.: long. by all means hrasvam. position kawi-. khanati (I): to dig atithi-.: daddy darwana-. f. study praja-. untruth abhyasa-. statue vaiwya-. adj. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-. m. in proximity va: or . adv. thoroughly.: different.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-. m.: near.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-. studying adewa-. n.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-. adv.: image.: lie. meeting. n. audience pataliputra-.: everywhere. m.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-. lower dirgha-. adj.

sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. woman): Sg. Loc.(f. Loc. bhuvau Pl. vadhuh Acc. Dat. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. vadhvau vadhvau Pl. Ins. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. Nom. bhuh Acc. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. Abl. Ins.. vadhu bhu. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen.(f.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. earth): Sg. bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. Dat. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. Abl. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11.. Nom. bhuva bhuve Du. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc.

: the goddess Durga nivewana-. m. f. "Take away nice clothes. People live on earth and gods in heaven. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri. f. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3. Let the student not argue with the teacher. to arise wuc-. f. Let us live there. n. pravartate (I): to become.: moment guna-.: woman.: queen laksmi-. wife wvawru-. 5. f.13. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-. f. 2.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-. f. apaharati (I): to take away.) apa+har-. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14.: land. 4. to seem vi+vad-. m.: quality acarya-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. There is no water in the well. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. drwyate: to look (like). to steal ksana-. f. f.: mother-in-law sundari-.: well bhupala-. 6. pas. Who protects the earth is called a ruler. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-.: beauty stuti-.: ruler vadhu-. f. 8. f. 7.: dwelling bhu-. m.: eyebrow rajbi-.: sacrificial ladle durga-. earth. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15. ground bhru-. m. m. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-." ordered the householder.: praise . bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16.: teacher juhu-. The eyebrows of beauties are always black.

.: curved. pron. rel.snusa-. then.: which ... as far as ya-. f.. adj. twisted yavat-tavat: when.: daughter-in-law vakra-.

Let it be thus! 5. person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. Some verbs. idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. otherwise active. Text (read and translate): 1. 3. . This form is widely used especially in 3. aniyantam (let [them] be brought).Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. 2. Pl. labhai Du. kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). satyaj sadocyatam | 10. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 1. 4. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. 6. Let an ascetic not converse with women. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. Do not neglect illnesses. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7.

: grass. caus. m.: war roga-. m. to expect upa+iks-. to seek refuge in han-. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-. m. pasture durjana-. adj. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-.: sometimes samyak.: scholar. awrayate (I): to depend on.: decision pandita-. n. m. 8. adv. f. abhinayati (I): to conduct.: temple nataka-. best idanim. m. sajbhasate (I): to converse. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-. pratiksate (I): to await.: better. ghatayati: to kill kala-. Let women and children are not killed in the war. adv. m.: bad man. m. n. place puja-. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-. n.: expiation.7. learned man pada-.: illness vara-.: now kalena. death kalidasa-. m.: worship. adv. homage prayawcitta-. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung.: buffalo yati-.: play.) a+wri-. to talk with (Ins. villain devalaya-. rightly .: step. atonement bhojana-. n. m.: food mahisa-. m. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-. to act bhan-.: ascetic yuddha-.: time.: well. m. drama niwcaya-.

Ins.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns.(f. father): Sg. Loc. sister and naptr-. kartuh Voc. mata Acc.(m. Ins. Abl. Loc.. kartar pitr. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen. matarau Pl. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. and Nom. pita Acc. matuh Voc. Nom. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a. pituh Voc. Dat. kartr. maker): Sg. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du.Pl. Abl. matra matre matuh matari Du. Nom. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du. agent. 2) nouns of relationship.. Abl. Acc. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. karta Acc.(m.Du.Sg. Dat. pitar matr. pitarau Pl. Nom. Ins. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen.. mother): Sg.. Nom.Du. kartarau Pl. They differ only in Acc. Loc. matar . Dat..

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.


Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

Abl. nava nave nauh navi Du. labhemahi labheran 2. gacchati "[he/she] goes". bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2. nausu yuddhamabhavat | . labheta Du. navau Pl. nauh Voc. Loc. brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". The declension of the word nau. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows". 1.. Text (read and translate): 1.Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7. boat): Sg. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. nauh Acc. let it be done). Dat. Ins. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. Nom. labheya 3. nauh As you have probably noticed. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3.(f.

: way. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive). Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt.: service pawupalya-. pass.: how. equal. trade vidhi-. to abandon (Abl.10.: servant marana-. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. m. m. mode. n.: business. adj. to perform apa+ni-. 3. m. to carry out. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at.: life nidewa-.: fear bhrtaka-. n. rule. even sajdigdha-. Let new poems be written! 6. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living . 7. f. direction sama-. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy. n. adv. m.: friend vanijya-.) abhi+vad-. viramate (I): to give up. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12.: garden krsi-.: same.: order seva-. to welcome (Acc. anutisthati (I): to follow. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-. balavudyane rameyatam | 11. as (relative) .: agriculture jivita-. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-. 5. n.: death mitra-. May the friends be always remembered! 2.this we read in the treatises. f. Let women and children be taken away to the city. questionable yatha. 8. adj. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-.). n. n. 4.) udyana-. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: doubtful.

Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p.(to be born). When translating the causative. vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9. bhavayati (to make something happen).between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat.(to know). dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3.(to go). it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu. vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6. "to report" etc. And also adhi+i. to fly). The vowel -a. But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. janayati (see above).(to be). dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14. upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. to proclaim).Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class. jbapayati (to make known. So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context . "to sing". ga. suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. gam.(to sing).(to learn). to make somebody to go). to beget). adhyapayati (to teach). wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8. deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12.(to do). gapayati (to let sing). we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. "to tell". kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13. nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10. Text (read and translate): 1. that is using the augment -aya-: jan. gamayati (to let go. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key .between the root and -aya-: jba. patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. to water). suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4. janayati (to give birth.translate as "to recite".(to fall. karayati (to cause to be done). kr. If the root ends in any other vowel. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody).

caus. adv. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-. m. Let (pl. caus. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. m. Let the householder return home. 2. 8. 4.: cowshed manoratha-. elephant's trunk. caus. 7. vardhayati: to make bigger. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. ajbapayati: to order da-. Show (sg.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. darwayati: to show apa+ni-. caus. caus. caus. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras. m. amongst (with genitive) arthe. to enlarge pa-. Let them allow the guests to enter.: messenger gostha-. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. tax duta-. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. 6.: desire vrka-. 5. m. to no avail . postp. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-. caus. beauty stri-. caus. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. postp.: form.) the cows come into the cowshed. n. m.) the father the books. marayti: to kill vid-. caus.: in vain. They watered horses with water from the river.: woman madhye. 3. to make known vrdh-.: coming kara-. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. caus. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. vedayati: to announce. patayati: to knock down mr-.: for the sake of vrtha.: hand.: between. caus. caus.: wolf rupa-. f.

Acc. Loc. Acc. tva. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). Dat. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. Loc. Gen. (you) Nom. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. Ins. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. . (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. nah. te. Abl. (I) Nom. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. Gen. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. Ins. me. nau. Dat. Abl. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse.

to report wru-.: nectar (the drink of immortality) . 7. bhadraj te | 9. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. 4. I did not steal your gold (passive). to beg ksam-. caus. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-. I do not want your (Dual) money. caus.) prath-. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. or Gen. to spread ni+vid-. m. 3. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13. ksamate: to forgive (what . ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5.. n. to disseminate. prarthayate: to ask. to whom . bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. 2. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. n. prathayati: to propagate.Dat.Text (read and translate): 1. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. Our (Dual) parents died. Mother gives food to both you and me. 5.: the poet Amaru amrta-. Tell me the story of Urvashi. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14. Let your father go with me. Let the gods protect your life! 6. caus.Acc. Elephants do not live in our country. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. offence amaru-. anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. 8. nivedayati: to announce.: transgression. begged the boy mother. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6.

m.: tomorrow . adv.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-. f.: country naraka-.: silence vaktr-. m.: bliss. Pl.: hell nidhana-. m.ca: both .and cet.: pigeon taksawila-.: speaker vanaprasta-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-. n. contentedness ca . n. life bhadra-.: frog dewa-. m.ardha-. m.: hermit. virtue wloka-. m. recluse wobhana-. m. f.: breath. postposition: if wvas.: satisfaction. m. n. m.: treasure prana-.: hermitage urvawi-. m.: half awrama-. f. n.: peacock mauna-.: ornament.: story kapota-.: the nymph Urvashi katha-. prosperity mayura-. happiness. m. n.

G en. bl. ns. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . N om. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. G en. this) Sg. te te Pl. L oc. V oc. bl. ns. h cc.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. she (sa. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. cc. this) Sg. N om. at. tau tau tabh yam Pl. at.

/ katama f. ns. (all) ekah m. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa. except for nominative and accusative of neuter./ katara f./ itara f./ katarad n./ etad n./ ekam n. bl. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du.L oc. V oc.follow irregular sandhi pattern. (which one [of two]) anyah m. L oc./ sarva f./ katamad n./ sarvam n./ eka f. cc. Here they . They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a. it (tad. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m. (relative pronoun which) katamah m. tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m. (other) The following words also follow this declension. te te tabh yam Pl. N om. V oc. (all) viwvah m. (this one) yah m. en. (which one [of many]) katarah m. at./ anya f./ yad n./ anyad n./ ubhaya f./ itarad n./ esa f. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg. (one) ubhayah m./ viwva f.and esa./ ubhayam n. (different) itarah m./ viwvam n./ ya f.

Examples: sa purusah (this man)./m. 2.: end arya-. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. In this forest I saw a lion. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7. 6. I don't like your behavior. to delight sidh-. 5. m.: advice. 4. In these rivers there are many fish. caus. 9. 7. yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9. Adj. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14.change to -o and the following -a is lost. m. caus. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. Husbands of these women went to war." said the general. instruction . anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5. Other people than you won't accomplish this. Poor people live in the houses. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. Text (read and translate): 1. 3. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. 10. so 'vadat (he said). viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. I don't want these books.: noble upadewa-. sa isuh (this arrow). prinayati: to please. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13./n.

: learned prati: towards (with Acc.: fat murkha-. m.: hero vrtta-.: behavior dosa-.: donkey laksana-. m. offense wobha-.: foolish wiksita-. m. army leader adhika-. much. brilliance. Adj.: splendor. not one krwa-.khara-. n. f. m. sign vira-. Adj.: mark. m.: donkey gardabha-.: thin.) . emaciated pusta-. Adj. Adj. characteristic. beauty sijha-. Adj. Adj. n.: bigger than (with Abl.: general.: many.) aneka-. m.: fault.: lion senapati-.

: down. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-. decoration abhi+a+as-. to call in a+jba-. agamayati: to let come a+hr-.: many. adv. caus. untruth anta-.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-. n.: fire ajba-. much.: robe.: the poet Amaru amrta-. acarati (I): to do.: bee amaru-.: repeating.: coming agni-.: now adya. n. to mount a+wri-. to perform.: unrighteousness adhastat.) adhuna.: wind anna-. to welcome (Acc. under (Gen. arohati (I): to ascend. n.) a+ruh-. Adj. m. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at.: lie. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. m. to rinse a+car-.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-.: today. n. adv. m.: fire anartha-. caus. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-. m. n. to practise a+diw-. to drive adhika-. Adj. to act abhi+vad-. caus. to seek refuge in abharana-. studying acarya-. m.: eye. m. to learn abhi+nand-. m. n.: end . m. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-.: bigger than (with Abl. f.: order adharma-. not one anila-. to rule. acamati (I): to sip. dice ali-. abhinayati (I): to conduct. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-. m. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-. adv.: teacher adewa-. adhitisthati (I): to govern. m.: order aksa-. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-. awrayate (I): to depend on. m.) adhi+i-.: food anrta-.) abhi+ni-. abhyasyati (IV): to study. now agamana-. ahvayati (IV): to call here. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-./n.: poverty aneka-.

offence api-. avarohati: to descend awa-. atikramati (I): to cross over. even. f. m. m. n. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. also. postp.: half ari-.: arm bala-.: guest atra. to steal apa+ni-. lower aparaddha-. n. m.: husband bharya-.: tear awva-. abundant. m.: boy. part. lie asi-. n. to transgress atithi-.: bliss./m. happiness. anutisthati (I): to follow.: numerous. apaharati (I): to take away. to carry out. m. to say . to perform anujba-. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-. m.: agreement apa+har-.: sword asura-. Adj.: demon ati+kram-. m. m.: enemy arth-. adj. adv.: burden.: "un-truth". m. n. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-.: seat.: noble as-. asyati (IV): to throw asana-.: devotion bhan-. bhasate (I): to speak. badhyate: to bind bahu-.: wife bhas-. pass. wealth arthe.: power. strength bhadra-.: different. caus. n.: here ava+gam-. n. n. m. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-. m.) artha-.anta-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc.: forest ardha-.: horse badh-.: hope awrama-.: end anu+gam-.: part bhakti-. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-. f.: meaning. adj.: sun bhara-. child bala-. m. apanayayati: to lead away apara-. f. f. prosperity bhaga-. m. m. load bhartr-. even though aranya-. many bahu-.: transgression. force. position asatya-. m.: for the sake of arya-.: hermitage awru-. prosperity.

n.: ruler bhusana-. adj.: female servant.: language bhaya-. n.: shadow. lord devalaya-. m. f. to become bhu-. f. mn. f.: temple . slave dasi-.: fear bhiks-.: god. postposition: if chaya-. beggar bhojana-.: drop brahmana-. m. shade ciram.: Buddha buddhi-. m.: fear bhaya-.: brahmin buddha-. f.: alms bhiksu-. punishment dardura-. audience dasa-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-.: land.: poor darwana-. caus.: frog daridra-. diyate: to give dah-. dahati (I): to burn dana. meeting. n. to practise caru-. m. m. dapayati: to let give da-. corayati (X): to steal da-. to punish danda-.: earth.: stick.: for the long time cur-. f. m. m. carati (I): to walk. m. dandayati (X): to beat. f. pass. earth.: gift dand-.: servant bhru-. f.: ornament bhuti-. mendicant.: beautiful cet. bhavati (I): to be. ground bhupala-. ground bhumi-.ca: both . prosperity bindu-. m. m.: servant bhrtya-.: body deva.bhasa-.: seeing. to roam. m. n.: wisdom ca . n. dawati (I): to bite deha-. adv.: giver daw-.: Buddhist monk.and car-.: servant. m.: eyebrow bhu-. m.: well-being.: brother bhrtaka-.: food bhojana-. f. m. n. land. m. female slave datr-.: food bhram-. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-. f. adj.

jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-.: fault. reason dhira-. f. ganayati (X): to count gandha-. dravati (I): to run drw-. fragrance gardabha-. m.: grain dharma-. pawyati (IV): to see. courage. money dhanya-. firmness dhana.: the river Ganga ghasa-.: patience. Law. member of a high caste eva.: messenger dvija-. m. n. firmness dhya-.: thought.: "twice-born". m.: clarified butter. drwyate: to look (like). m. m.: pot. caus. n.: thus ga-. f.: courage. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-. m.: bad. f. n. adv.: grass. m. distressed durga-. Buddhism dhav-. m. f. ghee giri-.: donkey gavga-. to look duhitr-. to meditate dirgha-.: mountain gita-. m.: law.: just. rotten duta-. to point dosa-. pas. n.: daughter duhkha-. m. mistress dewa-.: suffering duhkhita. adj. m. dhyayati (IV): to think. darwayati: to show drw-.: wealth.: village .: scent. firm dhrti-. n. pasture ghata-.: goddess.: unhappy. only evam. m.. gacchati (I): to go gan-. far div-. m. f. brahmin dvijati-. m.: country dhairya-. adj. n. adv.devi-.: wise.: long.: "twice-born". m. m. villain dusta-.: song gopa-.: elephant gam-.: cowshed grama. jar ghra-. offense dru-.: the goddess Durga durjana-. righteousness.: cowherd gostha-. f.: bad man. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-. to seem drw-. diwati (VI): to show.adj. dhavati (I): to run dhi-. adj.

Indra's wife is-. to yearn for isu-. like. m. jayati (I): to win. goodness kama-. adv.grantha-. m.: oblation. m.: father janani-. m. fight kalena. to conquer jiv-. book (text) grha-.: water jamatr-.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-. guhati (I): to hide. god jala.: Hindu god Indra indrani-. adv.: near. m.: mother jati-.: time. f. adv.: hand he. n. m. n. in proximity hrdaya-. hvayati (IV): to call huta-. n. m. to tremble . n.: householder guh-. m.: lord. n. offering idanim. m. f. icchati (VI): to want.: personal name hasta-.: composition. f.: as. m. adv. jayate (IV): to be born jana-.: quarrel.: victory. f.: sacrificial ladle kada. close.: Indrani. part.: so iva. m.: life juhu-. part. guru han-. to take away. desire kamp-. master. ghatayati: to kill hari-.: person janaka-.: life jivita-.: now iha.: benefit.: oh! hr-. glory ji-. to carry hrasvam. iksate (I): to look at. adv. m.: quality guru-. kampate (I): to shake. m. part. as if iwvara-. caus. m. harati (I): to take. death kalaha-. m. to stare indra-. n.: heart hu-. to conceal guna-.: house grhastha-.: when? kala-. m.: sometimes kalidasa-.: teacher. here iks-.: arrow iti. m. n. jivati (I): to live jivana-.: birth.: pleasure.: son-in-law jan-. caste jaya-.

) ksana-.: fame klp-.: pigeon kara-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-. or Gen. ksamate: to forgive (what .: poetry kawi-.: kshatriya. f. pass. m. f. n.: moment ksatriya-. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. black krt-.. m. f. m. f.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-.: where? kva.: plough . n. m. m. labhate (I): to get.: agriculture krsna-.: wood kata-. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. to narrate katha-. n. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.: field ksip-.: mat kath-.: thin.: where from? why? kutra. m. n. m. or Dat.Dat. f. m. krsati (I): to plow. f.: what?.) kopa-. adv. young man kunta-. kathayati (X): to tell. or Dat. adv. to whom . kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat.: hand. to cultivate (field) krsi-.: story katham.: how? kavi-. Adj.: cause kastha-. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-. khanati (I): to dig khara-.: anger krs-. tax karana-. n.: mark.: milk kumara-. characteristic.: spear.: donkey kim.: whole krudh-.Acc.: poet kavya-.: girl. elephant's trunk. emaciated ksal-.) krwa-.kanya-. daughter kapota-. m. adv. khadati (I): to eat khan-.: prince. m. n. m.: where? labh-. kriyate: to do krodha-. adj. sign laksmi-. lance kup-. why? kirti-. adv. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-. m. to obtain laksana-. fighter ksetra-. adv. n.) kupa-.: anger kr-.: well kutah.

: gem. f.: foolish murti-. m. n.: city .: desire manusya-.) mukha-.: between.: delusion moksa-. f. f. n. m.: peacock megha-.: river nagara. adj.: queen mahisa-.: deliverance mr-.: person marana-. f.) lup-. lubhyati (IV): to long for.: death marga. to hunt for mrga-. form. road masa-.: great king maharani-. m. m. n. to discharge mud-. m.: buffalo maksika-. foremost mukti-. to desire (with Dat. n. m. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-. means also "people") lubh-. mouth mukhya-.: image. town nagari-. m.: main. or Loc. f. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-. m. m. lumpati (VI): to steal. m. mubcati (VI): to free.: way. modate (I): to delight in (Ins.: death muc-. Adj. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-.: friend moha-. m.: fish mauna-. m. mrgayate (X): to search for.: deer mrtyu-.: fly mala-. m.: garland mam: me (Acc. statue nadi-.: honey madhye.: city.likh-.) man-. caus. precious stone manoratha-. likhati (VI): to write lip-. n.: cloud mitra-. f.: face. to rob mad-. f. saint murkha-.: sage.: greed loka-.: world (in Pl.: deliverance muni-. marayti: to kill mr-. m. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-. n. manyate (IV): to think. m. postp.: silence mayura-. to suppose mani-. m. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-.: month matsya-. m.

m.n.: eye ni-. m.. m. m.: king.: Indra's paradise naptr-. m.: grandson nara-. adv. m. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-. annihilation netr.: new naw-. nivedayati: to announce. n. m. n. king nrpati-. caus. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-.: highest.) nandana-. sinful papa-.: lotus pal-.nam-.: man naraka-.: axe pari+dha-. palayati: to protect pa-. to prostrate. m.: the grammarian Panini papa-. different para+ji-. to worship namas-. place padma-. m. drama navina-.: bad. caus. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-. n. adj.: play. m. pacati (I): to cook pada-.: leader netra.m.: ruler . parajayati: completely conquer parawu-. n. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-. adj.: destruction.: treasure nih+gam-.: dwelling niwcaya-.: step. m. n. parinayati: to marry parthiva-.: low nidewa-. m.: hail!.: order nidhana-.: foot. nispadyate (IV): to originate. glory! (Dat. n.: scholar.: sin para-. own nivewana-. learned man pani-. nawyati (IV): to be lost. to report nica-. palayati (X): to protect pandita-. f.: hell nari-. ruler pa-.: woman nataka-. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-. footprint pada-.: hand.: one's. m. adj. namati (I): to bow. adj. adj. pibati (I): to drink pac-. palm panini-. to appear nija-. n.: ruler.: decision nrpa-. m. to perish nawa-.

prarthayate: to ask.: worship. to arise prabhuta-. n. to delight prthivi-. letter paura-. to take refuge in (Acc. caus. people prana-. pidayati (X): to torture. Pl. m. life prasada-. to worship. f. m. master. caus.: lesson. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-.) pra+stha-. parents. m. m. trap pawu-. n. f. pratiksate (I): to await.: snare. to appear pra+jan-. parayati (X): to overcome pr-. pratigacchati (I): to come back. study pathika-.: the breeding of cattle pid-. to recite patha-. caus. patayati: to knock down pat-.: manifold. to go back. pass. hill pat-. to disseminate. m. m.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-. f. Du. patati (I): to fall.: mountain.parvata-. to return prati+iks-. f.: leaf. atonement pri-. homage . pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. to restrain prayaga-. prapadyate (IV): to go to. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-. adj. m. m.ch-. to revere puja-. many praja-. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. prinayati: to please. puryate: to fill pr.: earth puj-. cattle pawupalya-. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-. to hurt pitamaha-.) prati+bhas-. otec. pujayati (X): to honour. caus. m. n.: traveler pati-.: breath. ancestors pr-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. n. Pl. m.: Lord.: palace prath-. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-. holy pawa-. prathayati: to propagate. to fly pataliputra-. to expect prati+sidh-. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. husband patni-.: subject.: grandfather pitr-. m.: sacrificial animal. pathati (I): to read.: expiation. prabhavati (I): to arise. to beg pra+as-.: wife pattra-.: citizen pavitra-. adj.: clean. pravartate (I): to become.

n. m. mass. n. m. raksati (I): to protect raksana-.: heap. m.) sahasa.: flower pusta-. rcchati (I): to get. precious stone rawi-.: son putri-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-.: kingdom raks-. rocate (I): to like (Dat. m. f.: illness rsi-. Gen. m. m.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-.: holy man sagara-. rodati (I): to weep ruh-.: protection raksitr-.: ray ripu-.) rud-. to sit down sada.: protector ram-.: suddenly . Adj. f.: bear roga-. m.: old story.: again punya-. rohati (I): to grow rupa-. assembly sad-.: daughter r-.: with (with Inst. n. beauty rupaka-.punar.: battle ratha-. or postp. mn. sahate (I): to bear. m. m.: enemy rksa-.: man puspa-. meeting.: congregation. n.: form. f.: always sadhu-. adv. adv. quantity rawmi-.: merit pura-.: street ratna-. to obtain.: book (manuscript) putra. ramate (I): to play rama-.: epos Ramayana rana-. m. stream purana-. n.: protection raksana-.: flood. righteous sadhu-. n.: chariot rathya-. to endure saha. n.: gem ratna-.: queen rajya-.: jewel. f. n. f. n.: seer ruc-.: fat pustaka-.. sidati (I): to sit. prep.: sea sah-. m.: holy. f. m.: coin sabha-. m. m. adv. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-. adj. n. to share rac-.

sibcati (VI): to sprinkle.: doubtful. adj. f.: beauty surya-. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-. sea samyak. m.: ode. m. by all means sarvatra. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. to talk with (Ins. m.: sleep.: same. f. questionable sajtosa-. sajbhasate (I): to converse. m. m. n.: satisfaction. at that time . serpent sarvatah. f.: daughter-in-law sprw-. adv. rightly sarpa-.: servant sic-. army leader sev-.: praise sukha-. n.: sun.: truth senapati-. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-. srjati (VI): to create srsti-. n. f.: then.: heaven svasr-.: tradition.: beautiful sundari-.: charioteer suvarna-.: woman stuti-. a hymn of praise stri-. f. contentedness sam+a+car-.: everywhere satya-. m. m.: ocean. to discharge sidh-. tadayati (X): to beat tada.: sister tad-.) sam+gaj-. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-.: lion smr-. the god of the Sun suta-. whole samudra-.: complete. smarati (I): to remember smrti-.: creation stena-. n. thoroughly. adj. m. to stay stotra-.) snusa-.: gold svapna-.: everywhere. m. f. sajgacchate: to come together sama-. f. tisthati (I): to stand.: thief. robber stha-. adv. caus. adv. to honour (Acc. m. even samagra-. dream svarga-.: creator srj-.) seva-. m. adv. n. n. or Loc. sevate (I): to serve.: happiness sukta-.: snake. adj. adj.: general. f. m.: Vedic hymn sundara-. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-. equal.: service sevaka-.: soldier sajdigdha-.sainika-.: well.

: garden udyana-. vahati (I): to carry. m. tolayati (X): to lift up. f. vapati (I): to sow vapi-. adv. m. m.: daddy tatha.: business.: woman.: dwelling vastra-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. to say vadhu-.: better. m. m.taksawila-.: advice.: shore. pool vara-.) tyaj-. to grieve (Abl. m. trade vap-. best vari-. twisted vaktr-. to admonish upa+iks-. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-.: exertion.: tree tata-. m. recluse vand-. to weigh tus-.: garden udyoga-. vandate (I): to praise.: but tud-. bank tr-. to be satisfied (Ins.: high ud+pat-. tudati (VI): to strike.: curved. so tatra. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. pass. adv.: clothing . tarati (I): to cross over tu. adj.: water varuna-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. m. n. to pierce tul-. part. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-.: ocean udyana-. uttisthati (I): to get up. f.: there tira-. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-. to give up ucca-. wife vah-. f. perseverance upa+diw-.: hermit. vadati (I): to speak. to pay homage vanijya-. f. adj.: speaker vana-.: pond. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-. to flow vaiwya-. n. n. adj. to instruct. upadiwati (VI): to teach.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-. ucyate: is called vad-. m. n.) taru-. instruction urvawi-. tyajati (I): to leave. f. n. n. to blow.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-.: thus. to stand up udadhi-. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-.: forest vanaprasta-. n.

m.: hunter vyaghra-. n. m. m. vardhayati: to make bigger. argument viw-. f. mode.vasu-.: tiger wajs-. to punish wastr-. pass.: in vain. m. to extol wakha-. m. wealth vayu-.: hero visnu-. Adj. m.: behavior vrttanta-. n.: way.: brahmin vira-. m. m.: wolf vrksa-.: bird vinaya-. n. wisdom vihaga-. m.: discipline vipra-.: enemy wikhara-. n.: wave vid-. m.: treatise. m.) vi+vad-.: learned wisya-. sore vrdh-. pupil . vivadati (I): to argue vici-. law-book watru-. vartate (I): to be. caus. f.: student. n.: knowledge.: bird vihaga-. vedayati: to announce. m. viramate (I): to give up. to shower vrt-. m. adv.: refuge was-. to acquire vidhi-.: wind vi+ram-. varsati (I): to rain. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-. vindati (VI): to get.: tree vrs-. direction vidya-.: arrow warana-. to no avail vrtta-.: story vyadh-. to exist vrt-. m. to make known vid-. n. m.: poison vrana-. rule. silence wara-. m. wajsati (I): to praise.: summit. "punisher" wastra-. m. wisyate: to rule.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. vartate (I): to live on vrtha.: hero vira-. caus.: ruler. top wiks-.: disputation. m. to pour down. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-. n. to enlarge vrka-.: thing.: wound. m.: branch wam-. f. to abandon (Abl. to be finished wanti-. m.: peace. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-.

f.wiva-. m.: father-in-law wveta-.: white ya-.: Vedic scripture wubh-. pron.: tomorrow wvawru-. f.: mother-in-law wvawura-. m.: which yada. pass.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-.: luck. n. adv. m. as far as yoga-. m. caus. f.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then…. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-. adv.: ornament. beauty wobhana-. wruyate: to hear wruti-. m. f.: when (relative) yaj-.: war yudh-. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas.: Shiva wiwu-. adv. m. beauty. m. wocate (I): to regret (Abl.: yoga yuddha-.: splendor. oblation for them wram-. adj.: child wloka-. wealth wru-.: sacrifice yam-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-. m. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-.) wudra-.: child wiwu-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. rel.: ascetic yatra. m. m. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-. m. virtue wraddha-. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-. as (relative) yati-.) yatha.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives.: the river Yamuna yat-. yudhyati (IV): to fight . yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-. adv. brilliance. f.: how.

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