Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

the Buddha only).in front of the verb. phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad.to -cch-: icchanti. phalani Voc. devah Acc.. stha. ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits). they are not saying). brahmanah sada yajanti devan | . buddham eva (just the Buddha.(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi. just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits). yacchati. classes: gam. "god") Nom. Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and). bhojanam atra (the food [is] here). devah phala (n. va (or). Text (read and translate): 1.(VI. sad.. Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?). is (to want) changes -s. kutra katah | 3. balah kataj diwati | 2. In Sanskrit.to -cch-: gacchati.). tu (but). and I. Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na. bhojanaj tu (but the food.. "fruit") Nom. eva (particle of emphasis. So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going). class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI.(to go) and yam.Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m.(to give) change -m.(to sit) changes -a. na vadanti (they do not say. the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence.. phalani Acc.to -i-: sidati. devan Voc.

Where is the city. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. nagarameva gacchami | 9. We praise the boys. 4. We are leaving the world today. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. 11. 12. there stay the houses. kada danani yacchatha | 26. devannamanti | 22. The exercise key . 6. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. Where are you (pl. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17. grhamatra tisthati | 6. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. narandevah srjati | 13. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. Do you want milk? 10. gramamadya viwamah | 14. Where the water does not flow. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. tatha jivamah | 18. margaj diwatha balah | 19. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. balah ksiramicchati | 23. I want water. 9. 3. there the people do not live. dhanamicchamah | 24. Brahmins still sit there. Boys. 8.4.) going? 2. Where are the elephants? 5. you are pointing the way. danani yacchanti | 10. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. 7. nrpah kva sidati | 7.

: mat ksira-. n. m. sidati (I): to sit.: village jala-. m.: gift deva-. wajsati (I): to praise.Vocabulary is-. lord dhana-. to worship yam-. m. n.: when (relative) . to prostrate. m. m. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-.: where (relative) yada. to yearn for gam-. adv.: water dana-.: when? tatha. at that time yatra. only kada. namati (I): to bow. n. srjati (VI): to create stha-. to point dhav-. adv. so tada. n. adv. icchati (VI): to want. tisthati (I): to stand. money nagara-. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. yacchati (I): to give viw-. to stay sprw-. to extol sad-.: just. tyajati (I): to leave.: then. town putra-. dhavati (I): to run nam-. m. adv.: elephant grama-. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-.: god. road eva.: milk gaja-. adv.: son marga-.: way. to sit down srj-. adv.: wealth. to give up diw-. n.: thus. diwati (VI): to show.: city.

dru-. bhavati (to be). ghra-. If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. varsati (to rain. pibati (to drink). rohati (to grow). vad+a+tah They (two) say n. Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). The "normal grade" is the vowel itself.Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. ruh-. vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. pa-. Accusative and Vocative cases: m. bhu-. Acc. But note some irregularities: guh-. ji-. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. vrs-. vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. dravati (to run). class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. It has always the same form for Nominative. to shower). to conceal). Nom. jayati (to win. to smell). the first grade is called guna. nayati (to lead). to conquer). jighrati (III. guhati (to hide. class. Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. devau phale Voc. the second grade is vrddhi. sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here).

Where are both horses? 3. devavadya smaramah | 10. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. balau phale khadatah | 20. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. 2. 5. dahasi he anala | 15. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. he nrpau jayathah | 11. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. anilah sada na vahati | 16. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. Just here are (two) horses. Here stand (two) trees. Where are you (two) going now? 9. Where do you hide money? 11. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. 6. The ruler conquers both fighters. 12. . The Buddha speaks the truth. Here we (two) do not live. 7. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. 4. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. atraiva vasavah | 5. To the forest run the (two) elephants. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. Home (emphasized) go both boys. satyaj na vadathah | 18. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. They give money and gifts. Just today we both go to the city.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. 8. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. 10. devau smaramah | 9. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6.

Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-. adv.: scent.: forest vrksa-. m. dravati (I): to run ni-. vahati (I): to carry.: oh! .: fire anila-. pibati (I): to drink bhu-. n. dahati (I): to burn dru-. to blow. varsati (I): to rain. guhati (I): to hide.13. m. bhavati (I): to be. nayati (I): to lead pa-. khadati (I): to eat guh-.: cloud vana-. fragrance megha-.: wind gandha-. adv. part. jighrati (III): to smell ji-. Here sarvatra. to become vah-. to flow ruh-.: horse anala-. m. to conceal ghra-. rohati (I): to grow vrs-. jayati (I): to win.: tree satya-.: truth iha.: everywhere he. to shower smr-. to conquer dah-. smarati (I): to remember awva-. m. m. n. m. to pour down.

phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). the goal of the motion (I go to the city). "because of". as English "through". "god") Sg. phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. circumstances (in the city). Accusative: the object (I see you). it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). is also used to denote reason (from anger). phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen. Abl. Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). Ins. Dative: the indirect object.Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. "by" (with the Buddha. Dat. telling (to the boy). devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. phalasya Voc. the agent in a passive construction. devah Acc. Locative: the location. Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). "fruit") Sg. "by means of ". devasya devayoh Voc. . phalam Acc. Loc. Nom. Loc. Dat. phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. deva And for neuter: phala (n. Abl. devau devau Pl.. devam Du. Ins. giving.. Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". Nom. by carriage).

jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9.Vocative: the address (Who are you. dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. j and sibilants). -i before any vowel (except for -i. see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . narah gacchanti (the men go). m for p. If the following word beggins with a short a-. mubcati (see Vocabulary). There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root.the fighter says that he lives here). putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. For example: muc-. gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. b for c and j. n for t. hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. man?). see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. -u before any vowel (except for -u. this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). -i. -u. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here).

/n. m. m.: traveler parvata-. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. brahmin pathika-. krntati (VI): to cut car-. but not suffering. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. 4. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15.: power. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. People do not live in forests. mubcati (VI): to free. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14. to practise muc-. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: plough vipra-. n. m. limpati (VI): to smear sic-. n.: brahmin . Traveler walks on the way to the village. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-. m. carati (I): to walk. young man janaka-. 2. Men with boys go to the forest.11.: mountain. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. m. People want happiness. 7. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17. Trees do not grow on high mountains.: battle rama-.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-. 5. m. hill bala-.: "twice-born". 6. strength mrga-.: deer rana-.: forest kumara-.: father duhkha-. 3. n.: suffering dvija-. 8.: prince. m. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys. to discharge yaj-. to discharge aranya-. force. m. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16. n. to roam. m.

offering ucca-. why? tu. m. why? kutah. n. adv. adj.: happiness hasta-. m.: high iti.: hand huta-.: Shiva sukha-.viwa-.: but The exercise key . n. part.: where from?. adv.: so kim. part.: what?.: poison wiva-.: oblation. n.

Du. fire) Sg. Ins. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati. But if the following word begins with -r.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an. Dat. happines. Nom. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen. varini varini Pl. sorrow.(if it begins with a vowel). Dat. noble. asukha.(m. the fire is here. Abl.Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. anarya. agnih Acc. unhappiness. Rama goes with the poets). Abl. vari varina varine Du.(n. poet tells to the seer). agne vari. . varinah varinoh Voc. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati. Ins.. vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. agni Pl. Loc. Loc.. Nom. Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. agneh Voc. vari Acc. water): Sg. For example: sukha-. varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. "un-noble". fire burns). arya.

dh. b). th. 8. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. th. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. no elephants live. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. why don't you recite poetry?". Even today people remember Rama. "O. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. harij ksirena yajatah | 18. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. weep the boys. -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. asks the king. 5. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. nominative plural of vari is varini). rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. j. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). dh. says the brahmin to the poet. d. d. Text (read and translate): 1. 3.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. jalaj gireh patati | 10. "Enemies rob the houses here". poet. retroflex (t. ch. 9. . jh. n) between them (so. arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15. suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. but from the Law [there is] happiness. 6. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. balau kuto rodatah | 2. Where people burn the forests. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. 7. 4. "You don't speak the truth". rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. From sin there is always suffering. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. n) or dental (t. We live happily here in the mountains. 2. Hari's horse is standing just here.

n. also.: sin varuna-.: sword rsi-.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-. m. n. n.: Vedic hymn hari-.: hand.: servant. m. m. n. lumpati (VI): to steal. m. m.: poet kavya-. m.: law. Buddhism nrpati-.: "un-truth".: fire anna-. mn. part. even. ruler pati-.: enemy asatya-. righteousness.: water sukta-. m.: king. slave deha-.: seer kavi-. m.: poetry giri-. n. pathati (I): to read. Law.: person dasa-. to recite rud-. m. m.: mountain jana-.: body dharma-. master. m.: Lord. to rob agni-. n. m.: personal name api-. rodati (I): to weep lup-. husband pani-. lie asi-.: food ari-. m. m. even though . to pierce path-. palm papa-. tudati (VI): to strike.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-.

anayati (to bring). to look). Du.is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). Nom. watruh Acc. watru Pl. Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-. Dat. The verb drw. -h after any vowel and before t-. ch. Abl.(to see) is irregular and defective. Ins. watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here). Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes). For example a. (enemy) Sg. The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. . th. agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). kupyati (to be angry). a vanat (only from the forest). watroh Voc. it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). m. Loc. watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen.Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV. Only passive is constructed from this root. But if a is used separately as a preposition.means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. class are thematic verbs.is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). -h after any vowel and before c-. indicative uses different root (paw-). Therefore: drw-. pawyati (to see.

nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9.Text (read and translate): 1. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15.) . balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. 5. The king with fighters comes to the city. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-. but father lives here. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen." asks teacher the student. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. 8. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. 2. or Dat. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. 6. We do not live here. naro 'wvamarohati | 10. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4. 3. 4. 7. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19." says the boy to the traveler. oh king. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. By the power of [your] arms you win. "There stands father's house. "What are you writing now. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8.

: enemy wastra-.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-. m. to call in udadhi-. arohati (I): to ascend. m.: teacher.krudh-. n. or Dat. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. to look yudh-. m. m.: arm bindu-.: bird watru-. nawyati (IV): to be lost. m.: foot. law-book wisya-. or postp.: drop mani-. lubhyati (IV): to long for.) wus-.: axe pada-. yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-.: ocean guru-. n. m. mass. to perish drw-. pupil saha.: leaf. agacchati (I): to come tr-. m. m. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-.: enemy visnu-. pawyati (IV): to see. precious stone ratna-. m. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. likhati (VI): to write lubh-.: gem. quantity ripu-. prep. m. or Loc. m. to mount likh-. or Loc. m.: student.: with (with Inst. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-.: heap. footprint bahu-. guru pattra-. to desire (with Dat.) a+gam-.) .: treatise. m. n.) hu-. ahvayati (IV): to call here. precious stone rawi-. letter parawu-.: jewel.

gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. bhramyati (to wander). arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. vidhyati (to pierce). viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. Abl. Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). madhunah madhunoh Voc. nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7.Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. the root vyadh. madhu madhuna madhune Du. Nom. madyati (to be intoxicated). kram-. rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3. Loc. Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). Ins.is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). kramati (to walk). devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). madhu Acc. ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. Dat. nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. Text (read and translate): 1. mad-. madhuni madhuni Pl.

2. n. to grieve (Abl.12.: bee awru-. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-. Tears are flowing on boy's face. to rinse tam-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. anayati (I): to bring bhram-. Birds are flying to the tree. m. harati (I): to take.) tus-. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14.: bear . wamyati (IV): to be pacified. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18. to be satisfied (Ins. 6. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-. 7. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13. rcchati (I): to get. 5.: unrighteousness ali-. m. to be finished wram-. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. acamati (I): to sip. There are many things in the houses. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. m. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17.). dice adharma-. to obtain. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. 8. Fighters play for money (Ins.: tear rksa-. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. to share a+kram-. Bees wander around flowers of the trees. n. Death conquers even unrighteousness. 3. to take away. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-. 4.) div-. to carry aksa-. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19.: eye.

: anger netra.: face.kopa-. m. m.: eye puspa-. mouth mrtyu-.: part madhu-.n.: hero bahu-.: death vasu-. n.: thing. m.: flower bhaga-. adj.: honey manusya-. m. many .: anger krodha-. n. wealth vira-. abundant.: person mukha-. m. n.: numerous. m. n.

between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. Text (read and translate): 1. class add -aya. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house). devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. The vowel -a. pidayati (to torture). wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). vid-. Before palatals. punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. If the root ends in a vowel. dharayati (to hold). Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3.to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4. narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. bhayayati (to cause fear). navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key . grhalloka agacchanti | 15.Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. but: pid-. to generate). ksalayati (to wash). lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7. corayati (to steal). rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. vedayati (to make known).instead of just -a. -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. bhi-. it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. jan-. papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world). janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. janayati (to give birth. suto 'wvanpidayati | 8.

: old story.: new iva. m." asks the servant the king. as if mam: me (Acc. n. part.: story wudra-. adj. m. n. m. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-.: gold suta-.) . tolayati (X): to lift up. kathayati (X): to tell. pidayati (X): to torture. to punish pid-. ganayati (X): to count cur-. 5. dandayati (X): to beat. m. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9. n. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. to revere pr-.: clothing vrttanta-.: stick. pujayati (X): to honour. 6. 3.) wash their faces. robber navina-.: coin vastra-. I want new clothes. n. m. n.: as. to weigh dand-. 2.: merit purana-. n. to narrate ksal-. like. to worship. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword.: servant ramayana-. 7. "Why do you beat me. Boys (Du. n. 4. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns.Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: holy man suvarna-. aharati (I): to bring danda-.: epos Ramayana rupaka-. m.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-.: thief. Merit protects from grief. corayati (X): to steal tad-.: charioteer stena-. 8. to hurt puj-. Father tells son about fruits of sins. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. punishment punya-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-.

adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. -o at the end of the word and before a. But in Sanskrit. "word for another"). Before other vowels a final -e.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). o. Pl.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). But Dual endings -i. vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. 1. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. to obtain) A: Sg. labh-. atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. But this initial a. besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". agni iksate balah | 11. -e. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. ksatriya rsi sevante | . Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. labhe Du. But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12.is unchanged. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. labhate (to get. labhase labhethe 3. Text (read and translate): 1. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. god Agni). sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. fire. phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7.

bhasate (I): to speak. m.) iks-. to obtain vand-. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. mriyate (IV): to die yat-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. m. 8. 6. 7. 3. to honour (Acc.: tree dvijati-.) begin with a sacrifice. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. Gen. Father likes sons' discipline. cattle bhanu-. firmness pawu-. n. m. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5. m.: sacrifice . m.: deliverance yajba-.) anartha-. vandate (I): to praise. wiksate (I): to learn sah-. m. 4. sahate (I): to bear. courage.) ruc-. Children ask the father for food. member of a high caste dhairya-.) a+rabh-. rocate (I): to like (Dat. The father is looking at son's face.) labh-. goodness taru-.: exertion. iksate (I): to look at. n. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-. to tremble jan-. perseverance kalyana-.: benefit.17. m. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear.: patience. sevate (I): to serve..: sacrificial animal.: sun moksa-. Boys like fruit. 2. m. to pay homage wiks-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. labhate (I): to get. Holy men (Du. to say mr-.: "twice-born". to endure sev-. kampate (I): to shake.: poverty udyoga-. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18. to stare kamp-.

: child samudra-. m.vayu-. sea .: discipline wiwu-.: ocean. m.: wave vinaya-. m. m.: wind vici-. m.

to honour). senayah senayoh Voc.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f.is changed into -n.(towards. Abl.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam. army) Sg. Nom. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni..(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari.after a prefix containing -r. sena Acc.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa.(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. sene sene Pl.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para. -n. Loc. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen.is changed into -s.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3.(after. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s. Ins. hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | .after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve. senam senaya senayai Du. Text (read and translate): 1. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu. satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4. following): anu+gacchati (to go after.(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud. Dat.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry). to follow) ava.

m. prapadyate (IV): to go to. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. 4.) descend from black horses. Here on the street kings (Du.: arrow kanya-. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. The king conquers enemies in the battle. sajgacchate: to come together isu-. daughter gavga-. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna.: the river Ganga grhastha-. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. 5. 3. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. 6. 2. 8. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. m. f. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-.5. The student asks householder's wife for alms.) bhiks-. 7. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-.: girl. to take refuge in (Acc. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari.: householder . f. Many trees grow on the mountain. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-.

: heaven hrdaya-. n.: street vidya-.: wife bhasa-.: refuge svarga-. f. n. adv. f.: suddenly .: hunter warana-. n. black papa-.: knowledge. adj.: heart krsna-. f. f. m.: shadow.: language bhiksa-. many sahasa.: gem rathya-.: alms yamuna-. wisdom vyadha-. sinful prabhuta-.: the river Yamuna ratna-.: fear bharya-. n.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-.: bad.: manifold. shade prayaga-.chaya-. f. adj. m. f. f. f.

pass. stuyate (to praise). smaryate (to remember). kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. jiyate. ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2. vah-. naraih katah kriyante | 8. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. puryate (to fill).but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7. kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. mubcati. Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. vas-. usyate (to dwell). pass. The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. The consonant -v.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. janairnagaraj gamyate | 6. ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. pass. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. ucyate (to say). sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . Text (read and translate): 1. diyate (to give). corayati. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. sutenawvastadyate | 20. pass. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. It is used with the instrumental case. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12. tiryate. upyate (to sow). awvena jalaj piyate | 17.is changed into -u. vap-. vad-. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13. dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. svap-. coryate. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21.Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. mucyate. stu-. supyate (to sleep). pr-. udyate (to say). dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. uhyate (to carry). Verbs of the X class drop -aya.in these roots: vac-.

beggar mala-. wisyate: to rule. wruyate: to hear ajba-. n. f. Holy man always speaks truth (pass). Jars are being filled with grain.: grain pawa-.: pot. m. n. 7. m. pass. trap bhara-. 5. load bhiksu-. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). diyate: to give pr-.: snare. m. gayati (IV): to sing daw-. pass. n. dawati (I): to bite da-. pass. 4. m. m. badhyate: to bind vap-. f. ghee dhanya-.: burden. Grain is sown in the fields. pass.: kingdom wiwu-. "In the shade is comfortably slept. m. It is played with dices.: garland rajya-. pass.: wood gita-. vapati (I): to sow was-. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. Hari is again praised by Rama. n.: child sarpa-.: snake.: song ghata-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to punish wru-. mendicant. 6.: Buddhist monk. Girls bind garlands (pass). serpent . kriyate: to do ga-. puryate: to fill badh-. jar ghrta-. 3. 8.: order kastha-. pass. n. 2." is said by people.: clarified butter.

If the verb is prefixed.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. a+vad+a+h 3. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. purena grhanyuhyante | . Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. 2. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. It has special endings: Sg. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. Text (read and translate): 1. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. impf. impf. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. a+vad+a+t Du. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. paryanayat. aicchat (he wanted). jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8.

: composition. m. m.: demon awa-.: flood. Men sat down on mats. m. glory pustaka-. n. f. vartate (I): to be.: palace matsya-. m. m.: protection wakha-. meeting. to stand up artha-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-.: hope indra-.: victory.: sea grantha-. you asked the king for protection. m.: ode.: book (manuscript) pura-. book (text) jaya-. 3. m.: sun. stream prasada-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: fish raksana-. wealth asura-. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-. assembly surya-. Servants brought water in jars.) sang the praise of Rama. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. 8. 6.: summit. top sabha-.: branch wikhara-. uttisthati (I): to get up. the god of the Sun stotra-. m. prosperity. m. a hymn of praise .: meaning. n. f. 4. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. m. f. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water. 2. to exist ud+stha-. Brahmins (Du.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. When you were ("stood") in trouble. He cut the branch with an axe.: congregation. The teacher hit the student out of the anger. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-. 7. 5. m. n.

Nom. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. 4. nadim nadya nadyai Du. satyameva jayate | 12. river) Sg. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. 2. . Abl. nadi Acc. Loc. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. Dat. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. nadyau nadyau Pl. nadyah nadyoh Voc. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. We bring water from the pond. aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. Ins. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5..Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. 3. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen.

The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-. f. f. f.: earth bhusana-. holy samagra-. pratigacchati (I): to come back. 7. to practise mrg-. to go back. Indra's wife udyana-. f. to perform.: hail!.: garden janani-.: robe. whole sundara-.: goddess.: tiger sainika-. adv.: queen yoga-. f. decoration indrani-.: great king maharani-. n.: wife putri-. m.: mother tira-. 6. glory! (Dat. adj.: shore. f. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. acarati (I): to do. adj. to return a+car-.: daughter prthivi-. n.: woman patni-. f. f. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother. female slave devi-.: soldier pavitra-. f. f. m.: female servant.: yoga vapi-.: river nandana-. ucyate: is called vrt-. n. mrgayate (X): to search for.: complete. bank dasi-.) . n. adj.: ornament maharaja-. n.: clean. mistress nagari-. to hunt for vac-. m. f. Even the king came with the soldiers. f.: Indrani.: Indra's paradise nari-.: pond.: beautiful namas-. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea. pass. m.: city nadi-.5. pool vyaghra-. 8.

dhenuh Acc. matim matya Du.(f.(serious. Nom.Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u. The dative. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. Dat. dhenum dhenva Du. gurvi. bahu-. bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5. f. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-.with -v-). genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems". Ins. guru-. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4.. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3. matih Acc. dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc. mate dhenu. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen. punyena muktij labhadhve | . dhenu dhenu Pl. many)..and -y. f. Loc.(f. heavy). Ins. mati mati Pl. idea): Sg. Loc. Nom. prthvi. f.(broad). matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. Text (read and translate): 1.(abundant. cow): Sg. Abl. ablative. Abl. mati. Dat. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc. bahvi.

f. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage.6. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. fight kirti-. I worship Shiva for prosperity. m. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. f. People of many castes lived in villages. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. m. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10." said a citizen to the king. m. to acquire wubh-.: end kalaha-. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. upadiwati (VI): to teach.) upa+diw-. wobhate (I): to shine anta-. prabhavati (I): to arise. f. to admonish pal-.: courage. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15. 7.: ruler . caste dhrti-. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14. palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. 3. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. firmness parthiva-. 6. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8.: birth. to instruct. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. 5. to appear vid-. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7. m. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. vindati (VI): to get. 2.: fame gopa-.: cowherd jati-. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: quarrel. 8. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. 4.

: tradition.: Vedic scripture smrti-.: ray vrana-. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-. n.: fly mukti-.: wisdom bhakti-. f. f. adj.paura-. ground maksika-.: peace. foremost sadhu-. f. f. m.: deliverance rawmi-.: citizen buddhi-. silence wruti-. f. f. f. adj.: sleep. sore wanti-.: earth.: low mukhya-.: devotion bhuti-. adj. m. f. land. dream nica-. prosperity bhumi-. f.: main. f.: holy.: well-being.: wound. righteous .

completely overcome adhi-. to govern. nyasidat. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. on: adhi+stha-. this can also happen in Gen. above. and Loc. apaniyati.Pl. impf. against. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. dhiyau dhiyau Pl. to return vi-. dhih Acc. alabhata Du. nispadyate (to arise)..and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. . it is changed into s. p-. thought): Sg.changed into -is. to carry away prati-. away: apa+ni-. to lead away. apart: vi+dr-. to go back. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s.. atikramati. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen. Sg. ph. to rule apa-.. back: prati+gam-. Dat. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems".): dhi. Abl. pratigacchati. 1. Loc. In addition. Gen. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. us: nih+pad-. completely. nisidati. Dat.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. Ins. adhitisthati. Nom. alabhe 3.(f. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2. vidiryate. kh-. they were seen). wholly: ati+kram-. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. pass. Abl. Pl.

4. When was the king's son born? 8. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. Where did you get white cows? 3. Mother called (pass. 5. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16.Text (read and translate): 1.) girls home from the garden. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. Many tigers. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. 7. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. he returned to the city. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. to transgress pra+jan-. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. pratibhasate (I): to answer . wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. atikramati (I): to cross over. padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. nispadyate (IV): to originate. elephants and bears were seen there. Many arrows were shot on the tiger. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. 2. 6. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. to meditate nih+pad-. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. When the king talked with brahmins. to appear prati+bhas-. dhyayati (IV): to think. Rama's father was always remembered by people.

: dwelling wri-. adj.: destruction.: creation krtsna-. f. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-.: sage. m.: lotus purusa-. m.rac-. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-.: white . god kama-. f. desire karana-.: man muni-.: greed vasati-. m. adj. m. f.: thought. annihilation padma-. to rule.: beautiful dhira-. saint moha-. master. f.: whole caru-. adj. reason nawa-. to drive anujba-. adhitisthati (I): to govern. n.: cause dhi-.: chariot lobha-. m.: delusion ratha-.: pleasure. pratisedhate (I): to prevent.: wise. f. firm wveta-. m.: luck. n. m. to restrain ni+sev-. m. wealth srsti-. adj.: agreement iwvara-. beauty.: lord.

3. Pl. 5." said the father. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3." orders students the tradition. Text (read and translate): 1. vadama 1. "Give me food." asked the boy father.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11. pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7. . dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. daughter. Let the children show the traveler the way. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. "Study the treatises and speak the truth. Let the men dig a pond. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. 7. 6. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). vada Du. atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. annaj yaccha he janani | 13. 2. Let charioteers do not torture horses. 2. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. ma gacchatu (let him not go). he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. "Come today. 4. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. daddy.

: near. adv. adj. m. adj. different adhastat.: down. meeting. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-.: order asana-. m.: lesson.: lie. adv.) ciram. m. n. m.: for the long time sarvatah.: repeating. close. form. in proximity va: or . thoroughly. f.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-.: daddy darwana-. m. by all means hrasvam.: seeing. adj. m.: guest anrta-.: bad. f. studying adewa-. m. under (Gen. rotten para-. far dusta-. n.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-. untruth abhyasa-. study praja-. statue vaiwya-.: highest.: subject. khanati (I): to dig atithi-.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-. adj.: long.: image.: seat. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-. people murti-. adv.: different. audience pataliputra-. position kawi-. lower dirgha-. f.: everywhere.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-. n. to learn a+diw-. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-. adv. abhyasyati (IV): to study.

Ins. vadhuh Acc. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du.. bhuvau Pl. earth): Sg. Loc. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. Ins. sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9.(f. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. Nom. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. bhuva bhuve Du. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen.(f. Abl.. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. Abl. Nom. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. vadhu bhu. woman): Sg. vadhvau vadhvau Pl. bhuh Acc. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. Dat. Loc. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. Dat.

: teacher juhu-. m.) apa+har-. earth. Who protects the earth is called a ruler. People live on earth and gods in heaven. 2. 8. f. ground bhru-. Let the student not argue with the teacher.: praise .: quality acarya-. m. drwyate: to look (like). f.: dwelling bhu-. f.: sacrificial ladle durga-.: mother-in-law sundari-. 5. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-. The eyebrows of beauties are always black. There is no water in the well. m." ordered the householder. to steal ksana-. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-.: queen laksmi-. wife wvawru-. m.: beauty stuti-. n.: the goddess Durga nivewana-. 4.: woman. pas. 7.: land. m.: eyebrow rajbi-. to arise wuc-. f. "Take away nice clothes. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3. wocate (I): to regret (Abl.13. to seem vi+vad-.: well bhupala-. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 6.: moment guna-. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14. f. f. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15. apaharati (I): to take away.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-. Let us live there. f. pravartate (I): to become. f.: ruler vadhu-. f. f.

f. then.: daughter-in-law vakra-... as far as ya-.snusa-. adj. pron.: curved. rel.: which . twisted yavat-tavat: when...

Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. This form is widely used especially in 3. 2. Some verbs. . labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. labhai Du. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. 3. Let an ascetic not converse with women. Let it be thus! 5. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. otherwise active. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). Pl. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. Text (read and translate): 1. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). 1. kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. Do not neglect illnesses. mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). 6. 4. satyaj sadocyatam | 10.

place puja-. n. m. caus.: time. rightly .: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-.: better.: illness vara-. 8. m. atonement bhojana-.: play. villain devalaya-. m. n.: ascetic yuddha-.) a+wri-.: temple nataka-.: buffalo yati-.: well. Let women and children are not killed in the war. pratiksate (I): to await. abhinayati (I): to conduct. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-. m. adv. n. ghatayati: to kill kala-. m.: bad man.: step. drama niwcaya-. sajbhasate (I): to converse. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-. to seek refuge in han-. m. to talk with (Ins.: food mahisa-.: war roga-.: grass. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung.7. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-. learned man pada-.: now kalena. adj. adv. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-. m. to act bhan-. to expect upa+iks-.: decision pandita-. death kalidasa-.: expiation. f. m. awrayate (I): to depend on. n.: scholar. homage prayawcitta-. pasture durjana-. m. m. best idanim. m. adv.: sometimes samyak.: worship.

kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du.(m.Sg. mother): Sg. Loc. Nom. Nom. Dat. kartarau Pl. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen. Loc. pita Acc. Ins. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen. Abl.Du. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. 2) nouns of relationship.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns.. Nom. sister and naptr-.(m. matarau Pl. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a. Ins.. Ins. Acc.(f. Dat..Pl.. mata Acc.Du. kartr. and Nom. kartuh Voc. Nom. pitarau Pl.. They differ only in Acc. matra matre matuh matari Du. Abl. pitar matr. agent. father): Sg. Abl. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du. kartar pitr. matuh Voc. matar . maker): Sg. Dat. karta Acc. Loc. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. pituh Voc.

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.

Du.

Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

boat): Sg. nauh Acc. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen. nauh As you have probably noticed. Abl. brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows". labhemahi labheran 2. Dat. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3. The declension of the word nau. bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2. 1. nauh Voc.. gacchati "[he/she] goes".Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg.(f. nausu yuddhamabhavat | . Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. labheta Du. Nom. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. Text (read and translate): 1. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. let it be done). Loc. Ins. navau Pl. labheya 3. nava nave nauh navi Du. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7.

abhivadati (I): to salute ram-. n. anutisthati (I): to follow.: way.) udyana-. n. balavudyane rameyatam | 11. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt.: agriculture jivita-. to abandon (Abl.: service pawupalya-. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy.). to carry out. m. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-. equal. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living . Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive). m. trade vidhi-. even sajdigdha-.: order seva-. Let new poems be written! 6. 7. n. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple.: how.: life nidewa-. f. adj. viramate (I): to give up.: fear bhrtaka-. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12.: servant marana-.: business. pass.: same. rule. as (relative) . m. direction sama-. May the friends be always remembered! 2. f.) abhi+vad-.: friend vanijya-. 3. 5. n. to welcome (Acc. to perform apa+ni-. adv. 4. n. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. Let women and children be taken away to the city. mode.this we read in the treatises. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-. questionable yatha.10. n.: death mitra-.: garden krsi-. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. m.: doubtful. 8. adj.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-.

(to be born).(to learn). karayati (to cause to be done). janayati (see above). wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8. So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context .(to fall. to make somebody to go). suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11. kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13. gapayati (to let sing). "to sing". And also adhi+i. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4. to beget). to water). we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody). janayati (to give birth. that is using the augment -aya-: jan. Text (read and translate): 1. deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3. "to tell".(to know). upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. The vowel -a. it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu. "to report" etc.Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class. bhavayati (to make something happen). jbapayati (to make known. adhyapayati (to teach).(to do).between the root and -aya-: jba. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. When translating the causative.translate as "to recite". ga. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key . suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9. vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6.(to sing). dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14.(to go). to proclaim). nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10. Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p. If the root ends in any other vowel. gam. kr. gamayati (to let go. to fly).between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat.(to be). But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink.

: woman madhye.) the cows come into the cowshed. patayati: to knock down mr-. darwayati: to show apa+ni-. marayti: to kill vid-.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. 7. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. caus.) the father the books. caus. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras. Show (sg. m. postp. tax duta-. caus. beauty stri-. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. prasthapayati: to send agamana-.: in vain. caus. Let them allow the guests to enter. caus.: messenger gostha-.: hand. vardhayati: to make bigger. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. elephant's trunk. 4. to enlarge pa-. 8. 5. vedayati: to announce. n. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-.: coming kara-. caus. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-. caus.: for the sake of vrtha. caus. 3. m. caus.: form. 6.: desire vrka-. amongst (with genitive) arthe. to make known vrdh-.: between. postp. caus. They watered horses with water from the river. m. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. adv. 2. caus.: cowshed manoratha-. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. f. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-. to no avail . ajbapayati: to order da-.: wolf rupa-. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. Let the householder return home. m. caus. Let (pl. m.

Acc.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. Dat. . Gen. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. (you) Nom. me. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse. Loc. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. Abl. Ins. Dat. te. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. Loc. nau. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). Gen. nah. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. Ins. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. Acc. Abl. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. tva. (I) Nom.

: the poet Amaru amrta-. begged the boy mother.Acc. 5. Let the gods protect your life! 6. or Gen. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-.: transgression. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. Tell me the story of Urvashi. 7. Let your father go with me. bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. to beg ksam-. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. prathayati: to propagate. caus.. 4. Our (Dual) parents died. ksamate: to forgive (what . sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. m. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14. n. 2. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13.: nectar (the drink of immortality) . grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11.Dat. I do not want your (Dual) money. caus. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. nivedayati: to announce. bhadraj te | 9. prarthayate: to ask. Elephants do not live in our country. offence amaru-. I did not steal your gold (passive). to spread ni+vid-. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Mother gives food to both you and me. caus. anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. to disseminate.) prath-.Text (read and translate): 1. kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. to whom . 8. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. n. to report wru-. 3. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3.

recluse wobhana-.: breath.: bliss.: ornament. m.: hermitage urvawi-.: peacock mauna-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-.: hell nidhana-. m. m.and cet. f. contentedness ca . m.: treasure prana-. Pl. f. m. m.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-.: half awrama-. n.: speaker vanaprasta-. happiness.: the nymph Urvashi katha-. prosperity mayura-.ardha-.ca: both . m. virtue wloka-. n. f. m. n. m.: frog dewa-. postposition: if wvas. adv.: country naraka-.: tomorrow .: hermit.: silence vaktr-. life bhadra-. n.: pigeon taksawila-.: story kapota-. m. m. n.: satisfaction.

ns. N om. bl. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. at. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . this) Sg.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. this) Sg. L oc. N om. ns. she (sa. V oc. tau tau tabh yam Pl. bl. cc. at. te te Pl. G en. G en. h cc.

(other) The following words also follow this declension. (relative pronoun which) katamah m./ anya f./ sarvam n./ katama f. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg./ ya f./ ekam n.and esa. V oc./ yad n. at. (all) viwvah m. (one) ubhayah m. L oc. V oc. (which one [of two]) anyah m. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m. except for nominative and accusative of neuter./ esa f. it (tad./ eka f. ns. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa./ sarva f. en./ katarad n.L oc./ anyad n. te te tabh yam Pl. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a. N om.follow irregular sandhi pattern./ viwva f./ ubhaya f./ ubhayam n. (this one) yah m./ katara f. Here they . (all) ekah m. (which one [of many]) katarah m./ itarad n. cc. (different) itarah m. bl. tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m./ viwvam n. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du./ katamad n./ itara f./ etad n.

4. caus. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15.change to -o and the following -a is lost. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7.: noble upadewa-. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. I don't like your behavior./m. Text (read and translate): 1./n. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. to delight sidh-. m. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. 10. 6. prinayati: to please. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14. Other people than you won't accomplish this. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. Husbands of these women went to war. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. Adj. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. I don't want these books. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3. 5.: advice.: end arya-. instruction . 7. 2. sa isuh (this arrow). viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9. Poor people live in the houses. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. m. 9. 3. so 'vadat (he said). yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10. anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5. In this forest I saw a lion. caus." said the general. Examples: sa purusah (this man). In these rivers there are many fish.

: behavior dosa-. Adj.: bigger than (with Abl.: donkey gardabha-. m.: fault.: many. m. m. Adj. f.khara-.: thin.: hero vrtta-.: donkey laksana-.: splendor.: foolish wiksita-.: lion senapati-. offense wobha-. characteristic. emaciated pusta-.: fat murkha-.: mark. sign vira-.: learned prati: towards (with Acc. n. m. Adj. not one krwa-. Adj. Adj.) aneka-. brilliance. m. beauty sijha-. n. much. army leader adhika-. Adj. m.) .: general.

: many./n. not one anila-.: eye. m. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. caus. to drive adhika-. arohati (I): to ascend.: wind anna-. adv. dice ali-. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: now adya.: fire anartha-. to rinse a+car-. to mount a+wri-. acarati (I): to do. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. to rule.: robe. m. agamayati: to let come a+hr-. to practise a+diw-.: the poet Amaru amrta-. untruth anta-. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-. abhyasyati (IV): to study. m. adv. abhinayati (I): to conduct. much. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-. n.: bigger than (with Abl. under (Gen. caus. n.) adhuna.) abhi+ni-. studying acarya-. m.: repeating. to learn abhi+nand-. caus.: coming agni-. to call in a+jba-. ahvayati (IV): to call here. adv. m.: bee amaru-.: unrighteousness adhastat.: today. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-.: fire ajba-.: order adharma-.) adhi+i-. n.: lie.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-. n. to seek refuge in abharana-.: end . anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-. to perform. f.: food anrta-. now agamana-.: teacher adewa-. m. m. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. acamati (I): to sip. m.: order aksa-. awrayate (I): to depend on. to welcome (Acc. m.: down. to act abhi+vad-. Adj. m. n.: poverty aneka-. n.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-.) a+ruh-. m. Adj. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-. decoration abhi+a+as-.

/m. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-. prosperity. n.: here ava+gam-. f. many bahu-. offence api-. adj. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. lower aparaddha-.: numerous. even.: seat. m.: guest atra. m. m.: end anu+gam-. even though aranya-. to transgress atithi-. postp.: bliss. n.: sun bhara-. n.: boy. m.: hope awrama-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. force.: tear awva-. pass.) artha-. apanayayati: to lead away apara-.: sword asura-.: demon ati+kram-.: arm bala-. atikramati (I): to cross over. part. abundant. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-.: transgression. n. m. avarohati: to descend awa-. also.: enemy arth-. anutisthati (I): to follow. position asatya-. wealth arthe. n. to carry out. m. strength bhadra-. f. f. child bala-.: devotion bhan-. m.: hermitage awru-. m.: half ari-.: wife bhas-. to say . m. n.: power. lie asi-. f.: meaning.: agreement apa+har-. to perform anujba-. m. m.: part bhakti-. n. m. apaharati (I): to take away. asyati (IV): to throw asana-. bhasate (I): to speak. m.anta-.: husband bharya-. adj.: horse badh-.: different. to steal apa+ni-. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-. caus. prosperity bhaga-.: for the sake of arya-. adv.: forest ardha-.: "un-truth".: noble as-. load bhartr-. badhyate: to bind bahu-. m. Adj. happiness. m. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-.: burden.

ca: both . lord devalaya-.: eyebrow bhu-.: wisdom ca . n. to roam. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-.: ruler bhusana-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-.: body deva. n.: fear bhaya-. adv.: servant bhru-. diyate: to give dah-.: fear bhiks-.: servant bhrtya-. postposition: if chaya-. f.: frog daridra-.: land.: Buddhist monk. land. punishment dardura-. f. m. pass. m. f. f.: shadow. audience dasa-. n.: stick. slave dasi-. f. caus. m. mendicant. n.: drop brahmana-. m. m. f.: servant.: brahmin buddha-. ground bhumi-. ground bhupala-. beggar bhojana-.: female servant.: gift dand-. m. corayati (X): to steal da-. to practise caru-. dapayati: to let give da-. dawati (I): to bite deha-. dandayati (X): to beat. n. adj.: language bhaya-. f. m. to become bhu-. carati (I): to walk. meeting. f. earth. f.and car-.: beautiful cet. m.: brother bhrtaka-. female slave datr-.: alms bhiksu-. m. m. n. dahati (I): to burn dana.: giver daw-.: ornament bhuti-. m.: food bhojana-. shade ciram.bhasa-.: food bhram-.: earth. m.: well-being. m. adj. prosperity bindu-.: temple .: seeing.: poor darwana-. to punish danda-.: for the long time cur-.: god. m. bhavati (I): to be. m. mn.: Buddha buddhi-.

n.: the river Ganga ghasa-. drwyate: to look (like). m.: wealth.: clarified butter. jar ghra-. n.: cowherd gostha-. to seem drw-.: thought. gacchati (I): to go gan-. brahmin dvijati-. ganayati (X): to count gandha-. to meditate dirgha-.: grass.: "twice-born". firmness dhya-. n. pasture ghata-. money dhanya-. dhyayati (IV): to think.: long.: mountain gita-. m. ghee giri-. Buddhism dhav-. m. to point dosa-. f.: patience.devi-. courage.: thus ga-. adj. n. distressed durga-. m.: wise. pawyati (IV): to see.: daughter duhkha-. Law. m.: just.: country dhairya-.: pot.: song gopa-. adv. f. firm dhrti-.: goddess. m. n. adj.: the goddess Durga durjana-. m.: "twice-born". gayati (IV): to sing gaja-. m.: cowshed grama.: suffering duhkhita. rotten duta-. dravati (I): to run drw-. caus.: fault. dhavati (I): to run dhi-. reason dhira-. offense dru-. far div-.: grain dharma-. m. jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-.: donkey gavga-.: bad.: courage. m. f. m.. member of a high caste eva. firmness dhana. adv.adj. m. villain dusta-. f.: unhappy. m. n. mistress dewa-. f. only evam. f.: elephant gam-. righteousness. adj. m.: village . m.: scent.: bad man.: messenger dvija-. darwayati: to show drw-. pas. m.: law. diwati (VI): to show. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-. to look duhitr-. fragrance gardabha-.

: Indrani.: son-in-law jan-.: arrow iti. part. m.: now iha. to conceal guna-.: benefit. iksate (I): to look at. m.: house grhastha-.: oblation. m.: time. book (text) grha-.: Hindu god Indra indrani-. m.: sometimes kalidasa-.: near. m. m. to carry hrasvam. harati (I): to take. adv. f.: as. offering idanim. m. to take away. n. adv. to stare indra-. m. n. caus. jayate (IV): to be born jana-.: lord.: sacrificial ladle kada.: personal name hasta-.: heart hu-. n.: quality guru-.: mother jati-. jayati (I): to win. f.: birth. icchati (VI): to want.: oh! hr-.: water jamatr-. goodness kama-. m. adv. glory ji-.: hand he.grantha-. guhati (I): to hide. ghatayati: to kill hari-. n. part. adv. as if iwvara-.: life juhu-. kampate (I): to shake.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-. caste jaya-. n. jivati (I): to live jivana-.: quarrel. guru han-. to yearn for isu-.: victory. Indra's wife is-. m.: father janani-. m. m. death kalaha-.: person janaka-. to tremble . f. hvayati (IV): to call huta-.: householder guh-. god jala. m. to conquer jiv-.: life jivita-. m.: when? kala-. n.: composition. close.: pleasure. n. f. fight kalena. adv. desire kamp-. in proximity hrdaya-. master.: teacher. m. m. part. like.: so iva. here iks-. m.

n. why? kirti-.) ksana-. f. m.: thin. f. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat.: how? kavi-.: wood kata-. f.) krwa-. adv. to narrate katha-. labhate (I): to get.: where? kva. f.kanya-.: moment ksatriya-.: whole krudh-.: anger kr-. sign laksmi-.: hand.: girl.: mark. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-.: where? labh-.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-. characteristic.: where from? why? kutra.: well kutah.: milk kumara-..: pigeon kara-. pass. to whom . krsati (I): to plow.: poet kavya-. m. n. adv. n. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-. khanati (I): to dig khara-. black krt-.: anger krs-.: donkey kim.Acc. young man kunta-. adj. elephant's trunk. to cultivate (field) krsi-. n.: cause kastha-.: poetry kawi-.Dat. ksamate: to forgive (what . kriyate: to do krodha-. adv. tax karana-.: story katham. emaciated ksal-. m. adv.: prince.: plough . or Dat.: mat kath-.: spear. to obtain laksana-.) kupa-.: what?. m. Adj. f. adv. n. fighter ksetra-. khadati (I): to eat khan-. or Gen. m. n. lance kup-. n.: field ksip-. m. m.) kopa-. m. f. m. daughter kapota-. m.: kshatriya. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m.: agriculture krsna-. or Dat. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m.: fame klp-. kathayati (X): to tell.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-.

m. m. mouth mukhya-. m. foremost mukti-.: delusion moksa-. m. m. f.: desire manusya-. postp.: sage. n.: greed loka-. m.: buffalo maksika-.: honey madhye.: world (in Pl. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-. town nagari-. road masa-. caus.: between. m. manyate (IV): to think.: river nagara.: death marga. m. means also "people") lubh-. n. lubhyati (IV): to long for. adj.) mukha-. f.: foolish murti-.: deliverance mr-. m.: queen mahisa-. f.: city. m. f. to hunt for mrga-.: face. m. n. lumpati (VI): to steal.) man-. to rob mad-. marayti: to kill mr-. n. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-.: garland mam: me (Acc.: way. Adj.: friend moha-. modate (I): to delight in (Ins.likh-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-.: fish mauna-. likhati (VI): to write lip-. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-. m. f.: gem.: month matsya-. mubcati (VI): to free.: peacock megha-. or Loc.) lup-. m.: great king maharani-.: main. mrgayate (X): to search for. to desire (with Dat. m. m. f.: fly mala-.: image.: cloud mitra-. precious stone manoratha-. m.: death muc-. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-. statue nadi-. n.: silence mayura-. f. saint murkha-.: deliverance muni-.: person marana-. n. m.: city . form.: deer mrtyu-. to discharge mud-. to suppose mani-.

to report nica-. caus. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-. m.: leader netra. n.. m. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-. adj. glory! (Dat.n. learned man pani-. sinful papa-. m. adj. m. f. own nivewana-.: scholar. n. n.: new naw-. m. pacati (I): to cook pada-. m. footprint pada-.: eye ni-. to prostrate. caus. m. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-. to appear nija-.: step. king nrpati-.: decision nrpa-. palm panini-. m. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-. ruler pa-.: one's. m. palayati: to protect pa-. drama navina-.: order nidhana-.: foot.) nandana-. m. m. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-.: Indra's paradise naptr-. different para+ji-.: bad. palayati (X): to protect pandita-.: low nidewa-. adv.: dwelling niwcaya-. m. n. n. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-.: woman nataka-. m. to worship namas-. to perish nawa-.: treasure nih+gam-. parinayati: to marry parthiva-. n.: sin para-. place padma-.: man naraka-.: ruler . adj. namati (I): to bow.nam-. m. nispadyate (IV): to originate. pibati (I): to drink pac-.: axe pari+dha-.: hand.: hail!.: play.: grandson nara-.: lotus pal-.: the grammarian Panini papa-. n.: king.: destruction. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-. adj.m. annihilation netr. nivedayati: to announce. adj.: highest. nawyati (IV): to be lost.: ruler.: hell nari-.

n. holy pawa-. pratiksate (I): to await. prathayati: to propagate. to take refuge in (Acc. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-. Pl. people prana-.) prati+bhas-.: the breeding of cattle pid-. m.: wife pattra-. pujayati (X): to honour.: traveler pati-.: Lord.: citizen pavitra-.parvata-.: lesson. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-. caus. caus. many praja-. to revere puja-. patayati: to knock down pat-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. m. husband patni-. to return prati+iks-. master.ch-. m. to go back. to expect prati+sidh-.: worship. adj. m.: earth puj-. adj. pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-.) pra+stha-.: palace prath-.: clean.: manifold.: expiation. n. to hurt pitamaha-. Pl.: breath. m. prapadyate (IV): to go to.: leaf. pravartate (I): to become. caus.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-. prinayati: to please.: sacrificial animal. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. m. f. ancestors pr-. m. trap pawu-. pidayati (X): to torture. homage . otec. Du. to disseminate. f. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. n. m. n. parents. prarthayate: to ask. to beg pra+as-. to appear pra+jan-. study pathika-. to worship. cattle pawupalya-. letter paura-. to delight prthivi-. m. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-.: snare. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. hill pat-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-. pratigacchati (I): to come back. pass. f. to fly pataliputra-. patati (I): to fall. prabhavati (I): to arise.: subject.: mountain. pathati (I): to read. to recite patha-. m. to arise prabhuta-. life prasada-. m. f. to restrain prayaga-.: grandfather pitr-. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-. parayati (X): to overcome pr-. puryate: to fill pr. caus. atonement pri-.

racayati (X): to compose rajbi-. n. ramate (I): to play rama-. assembly sad-. rohati (I): to grow rupa-.: with (with Inst.: gem ratna-. m.: battle ratha-.: flood. sidati (I): to sit.: fat pustaka-.: protection raksitr-. f. beauty rupaka-. prep. rcchati (I): to get.: chariot rathya-.: holy. mn. quantity rawmi-. m.punar.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-. f.: holy man sagara-.: illness rsi-. m. raksati (I): to protect raksana-. precious stone rawi-.: protection raksana-. Adj. n. adv.: bear roga-.: flower pusta-.: street ratna-. f. m. m.: again punya-.: sea sah-.. adj. n. to share rac-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-. n.: ray ripu-.: form.: seer ruc-. or postp. stream purana-. righteous sadhu-. n. m.: merit pura-. m.: enemy rksa-. n.: epos Ramayana rana-.: always sadhu-. to endure saha.: son putri-. f. m. f. mass. to sit down sada.: congregation. rocate (I): to like (Dat. n. n.: heap.) rud-.: old story. meeting. m. m. Gen. n. adv. m. to obtain.: man puspa-. m.: queen rajya-.: protector ram-. n.: daughter r-.: jewel.: kingdom raks-.: coin sabha-.) sahasa. m. adv.: book (manuscript) putra. f. m. sahate (I): to bear.: suddenly . rodati (I): to weep ruh-.

f.: servant sic-.sainika-. army leader sev-. m. thoroughly.: happiness sukta-. adj.: sun.: complete. at that time .: soldier sajdigdha-. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-. adv. f. m.: woman stuti-. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-. m.: sleep.: ocean. f.: ode. tadayati (X): to beat tada.: everywhere. m. m. to discharge sidh-. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-.: gold svapna-. or Loc. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. to talk with (Ins. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-. by all means sarvatra. f.: general.: well. equal. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle.) sam+gaj-. tisthati (I): to stand. m. n.: daughter-in-law sprw-. adv. sajbhasate (I): to converse. sea samyak. rightly sarpa-. adj. m. sevate (I): to serve.: satisfaction. caus.: creation stena-. to stay stotra-. a hymn of praise stri-. m. m. smarati (I): to remember smrti-.: creator srj-.: service sevaka-.: truth senapati-.: snake.: everywhere satya-. n.: lion smr-.: Vedic hymn sundara-. srjati (VI): to create srsti-.: heaven svasr-. even samagra-. f.) snusa-. adj.: same. n. sajgacchate: to come together sama-. the god of the Sun suta-. adv. dream svarga-. m. to honour (Acc. m. adv.: thief.: charioteer suvarna-. questionable sajtosa-.) seva-. serpent sarvatah.: sister tad-. f. robber stha-. n.: beauty surya-. adj.: praise sukha-. contentedness sam+a+car-. n. f.: tradition.: beautiful sundari-. whole samudra-.: then. n.: doubtful. f. m.

to grieve (Abl. wife vah-. to be satisfied (Ins. f.: forest vanaprasta-.: better. upadiwati (VI): to teach. vandate (I): to praise. to weigh tus-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-.: garden udyana-. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. m. to admonish upa+iks-. perseverance upa+diw-.: dwelling vastra-. n. recluse vand-. f. vadati (I): to speak. adj.) taru-.: daddy tatha.: curved. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-. adj. m.: but tud-.: ocean udyana-. pool vara-.) tyaj-. tyajati (I): to leave. instruction urvawi-. trade vap-.: thus. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-. f. adv. m.: water varuna-. to pay homage vanijya-. n.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-. f.: business.: exertion. tudati (VI): to strike. so tatra. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. m. f. to flow vaiwya-.: shore. best vari-. adv.taksawila-. m. ucyate: is called vad-.: woman. vapati (I): to sow vapi-.: hermit. to instruct. n.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. vahati (I): to carry. to say vadhu-. n.: speaker vana-. n. pass. tarati (I): to cross over tu.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-. m. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-. adj. tolayati (X): to lift up. part. n. m. m. m. to pierce tul-. bank tr-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-. n.: clothing . twisted vaktr-.: pond.: tree tata-.: high ud+pat-. to give up ucca-. to blow. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-.: garden udyoga-.: there tira-. to stand up udadhi-. uttisthati (I): to get up.: advice.

: ruler.: hero visnu-. to be finished wanti-. pass.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-. vivadati (I): to argue vici-. "punisher" wastra-. law-book watru-.: wave vid-. m.: bird vihaga-. vardhayati: to make bigger. top wiks-.: in vain. n.: brahmin vira-. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. wealth vayu-.: thing. caus. to exist vrt-.: learned wisya-. m.: branch wam-. m. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-. f.: poison vrana-. m.: tiger wajs-. silence wara-. to abandon (Abl.: wound.: refuge was-. m. mode. m. m. adv. n.: peace. n. to no avail vrtta-. sore vrdh-. m.: hero vira-.: student. m. m.: arrow warana-.) vi+vad-. wajsati (I): to praise. pupil . wisdom vihaga-. m. vartate (I): to live on vrtha. m. to enlarge vrka-. vedayati: to announce. to extol wakha-. Adj. to pour down. f. viramate (I): to give up.: summit.: wolf vrksa-. varsati (I): to rain. vartate (I): to be. m. m.: treatise. n. m. n. m.: disputation. m. to acquire vidhi-. wisyate: to rule.: hunter vyaghra-.: knowledge. vindati (VI): to get. f. direction vidya-. to shower vrt-.: wind vi+ram-.: discipline vipra-.: way.: bird vinaya-. to make known vid-. argument viw-. caus. m.vasu-.: enemy wikhara-. m. to punish wastr-. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-.: tree vrs-.: behavior vrttanta-. n. rule. n.: story vyadh-. m.

: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then….: ornament.) yatha.: luck.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-. m. wealth wru-.: child wiwu-. m.: mother-in-law wvawura-. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: Shiva wiwu-.: when (relative) yaj-. f. f. yudhyati (IV): to fight . adv. adj.: white ya-. as far as yoga-. adv.: yoga yuddha-. adv. m. n. m.: sacrifice yam-.: Vedic scripture wubh-.: father-in-law wveta-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-. m. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-. rel. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. wruyate: to hear wruti-. pron. brilliance.wiva-. m.: how. m. m. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-. virtue wraddha-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. f. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-. f.: tomorrow wvawru-. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas.: which yada.: child wloka-. caus. as (relative) yati-.: the river Yamuna yat-.: ascetic yatra.: war yudh-. m. oblation for them wram-. f. m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives. adv. pass. m. beauty wobhana-.) wudra-. beauty.: splendor.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful