Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

phalani Voc. tu (but). devah Acc.(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi. brahmanah sada yajanti devan | . bhojanaj tu (but the food.. Text (read and translate): 1. "god") Nom.. the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence. Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?). phalani Acc. they are not saying). balah kataj diwati | 2. buddham eva (just the Buddha. and I..Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m. class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI.(to sit) changes -a. eva (particle of emphasis. va (or). phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad. kutra katah | 3. bhojanam atra (the food [is] here).to -i-: sidati. ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits).in front of the verb.(to give) change -m. the Buddha only). na vadanti (they do not say. devan Voc. classes: gam. So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going). Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na. stha.to -cch-: icchanti. Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and).). is (to want) changes -s.(to go) and yam. sad.. "fruit") Nom. In Sanskrit. devah phala (n. just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits). yacchati.(VI.to -cch-: gacchati.

jalamicchanti gajah | 20. danani yacchanti | 10. 12. grhamatra tisthati | 6. Brahmins still sit there. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17. 8. kada danani yacchatha | 26. nagarameva gacchami | 9. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Boys. tatha jivamah | 18. balah ksiramicchati | 23. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25. narandevah srjati | 13. dhanamicchamah | 24. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. there stay the houses. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. 6. 3. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. devannamanti | 22. Where are you (pl. 11. you are pointing the way. Where are the elephants? 5. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. gramamadya viwamah | 14. I want water. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. Where is the city. We are leaving the world today. Where the water does not flow. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. Do you want milk? 10. We praise the boys. 7. nrpah kva sidati | 7.) going? 2.4. 4. 9. The exercise key . margaj diwatha balah | 19. there the people do not live.

gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. to point dhav-. adv. only kada.: way. sidati (I): to sit. money nagara-. adv.: village jala-. m. n. adv. to worship yam-.: when? tatha. n.: thus. tisthati (I): to stand.: wealth. srjati (VI): to create stha-.: god. to stay sprw-. namati (I): to bow.: elephant grama-. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-. so tada. m.: mat ksira-. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-. adv. to extol sad-. lord dhana-. wajsati (I): to praise.: then. yacchati (I): to give viw-. road eva. to yearn for gam-.: gift deva-. icchati (VI): to want. m. tyajati (I): to leave.: city.: when (relative) .: where (relative) yada. adv. to prostrate.: milk gaja-. town putra-. n. to give up diw-. dhavati (I): to run nam-. diwati (VI): to show.Vocabulary is-.: water dana-. m. n.: just. adv. m. n.: son marga-. to sit down srj-. m. at that time yatra.

varsati (to rain. bhavati (to be). vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. But note some irregularities: guh-. ji-. rohati (to grow). The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. vad+a+tah They (two) say n. jighrati (III. to conquer). to conceal). It has always the same form for Nominative. guhati (to hide. dru-. class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. ghra-. nayati (to lead). Accusative and Vocative cases: m. Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here). devau phale Voc. dravati (to run). vrs-. jayati (to win. the second grade is vrddhi. Nom. to shower). If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) .Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. Acc. pa-. vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. pibati (to drink). the first grade is called guna. to smell). bhu-. ruh-. Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). class.

The Buddha speaks the truth. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. . atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. The ruler conquers both fighters. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. devavadya smaramah | 10. Just today we both go to the city. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. 12. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. 5. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. Where do you hide money? 11. 6. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. satyaj na vadathah | 18. Home (emphasized) go both boys. Just here are (two) horses. Here stand (two) trees. 2. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 4. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. he nrpau jayathah | 11.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. balau phale khadatah | 20. devau smaramah | 9. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. dahasi he anala | 15. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. 10. They give money and gifts. Here we (two) do not live. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. 7. Where are you (two) going now? 9. Where are both horses? 3. To the forest run the (two) elephants. atraiva vasavah | 5. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. anilah sada na vahati | 16. 8.

: wind gandha-.: forest vrksa-. to blow. jayati (I): to win. smarati (I): to remember awva-.: fire anila-. n. adv. dahati (I): to burn dru-. fragrance megha-. to become vah-. Here sarvatra. to conquer dah-. adv.: everywhere he. khadati (I): to eat guh-. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-. jighrati (III): to smell ji-. rohati (I): to grow vrs-. n. m. part. m. guhati (I): to hide. vahati (I): to carry. to shower smr-. bhavati (I): to be.: cloud vana-. pibati (I): to drink bhu-. m. to flow ruh-.: tree satya-.: oh! .: truth iha.: scent.13.: horse anala-. nayati (I): to lead pa-. varsati (I): to rain. to conceal ghra-. m. to pour down. dravati (I): to run ni-. m. m.

phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Abl. the agent in a passive construction. Abl. giving. as English "through". deva And for neuter: phala (n. Nom. Loc. is also used to denote reason (from anger). "god") Sg. "by means of ". phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du.. Dative: the indirect object. devah Acc. Dat. devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. phalasya Voc. "fruit") Sg. Accusative: the object (I see you).Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). telling (to the boy). Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). "by" (with the Buddha. phalam Acc. devam Du. Locative: the location. Nom. devasya devayoh Voc. Ins.. phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen. Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). Loc. Ins. circumstances (in the city). by carriage). . Dat. devau devau Pl. "because of".

megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. n for t. ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. If the following word beggins with a short a-. There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. narah gacchanti (the men go).the fighter says that he lives here). -i. Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. m for p.Vocative: the address (Who are you. mubcati (see Vocabulary). For example: muc-. dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. man?). see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. -u. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here). Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. -i before any vowel (except for -i. -u before any vowel (except for -u. b for c and j. j and sibilants). rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4.

sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. limpati (VI): to smear sic-. People want happiness.11. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14.: traveler parvata-. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. 7. 6. to roam. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-. force. brahmin pathika-. Traveler walks on the way to the village.: father duhkha-. krntati (VI): to cut car-. n. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15./n.: forest kumara-. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys. carati (I): to walk. People do not live in forests. 3. 2. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-. m.: plough vipra-. n. 8. Men with boys go to the forest.: brahmin . mubcati (VI): to free. to discharge yaj-. hill bala-. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 4. to practise muc-.: battle rama-.: power. but not suffering. m.: deer rana-.: "twice-born". m. m. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16.: prince. young man janaka-.: suffering dvija-. m. Trees do not grow on high mountains. n.: mountain. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12. m. 5. strength mrga-. n. m. m. to discharge aranya-.

: happiness hasta-.: what?.: hand huta-. part.: oblation.: so kim. adv. part. adj.viwa-. m. m. n. why? kutah. why? tu.: but The exercise key . adv.: poison wiva-.: high iti.: where from?. n.: Shiva sukha-. n. offering ucca-.

. But if the following word begins with -r. agnih Acc. varinah varinoh Voc. Dat. Du. water): Sg. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen.. the fire is here. noble. vari varina varine Du. agni Pl. Abl. Dat. varini varini Pl. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati. anarya. agneh Voc. poet tells to the seer). For example: sukha-. unhappiness. agne vari. arya. vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. Abl.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati. vari Acc. fire) Sg. Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. happines.Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni.. Rama goes with the poets). varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. Ins. fire burns). asukha.(m. sorrow. Loc. Loc. "un-noble".(n.(if it begins with a vowel). Nom. Ins. Nom. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati.

d. 5.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. 9. dh. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. Even today people remember Rama. th. retroflex (t. From sin there is always suffering. 2. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. asks the king. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15. nominative plural of vari is varini). no elephants live. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. jh. Where people burn the forests. "O. but from the Law [there is] happiness. why don't you recite poetry?". ch. th. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). weep the boys. j. 7. says the brahmin to the poet. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). 4. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. Hari's horse is standing just here. 8. "Enemies rob the houses here". 3. 6. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. poet. "You don't speak the truth". harij ksirena yajatah | 18. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. b). sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. dh. n) between them (so. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. d. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. We live happily here in the mountains. Text (read and translate): 1. jalaj gireh patati | 10. satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. n) or dental (t. balau kuto rodatah | 2. . asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12.

n.: mountain jana-. also.: sword rsi-. n.: body dharma-. lumpati (VI): to steal.: "un-truth".: king.: servant. m. mn. m. to recite rud-. m.: water sukta-. m. ruler pati-. m.: food ari-. n. m. m.: seer kavi-. master. part. Law.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-. m.: poet kavya-. lie asi-. n. even. righteousness. m. even though . slave deha-. tudati (VI): to strike. palm papa-. m.: Vedic hymn hari-. m.: hand.: enemy asatya-. Buddhism nrpati-. to rob agni-.: personal name api-. m.: person dasa-. rodati (I): to weep lup-.: Lord. m.: poetry giri-.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-. pathati (I): to read.: law.: fire anna-. m. n.: sin varuna-. husband pani-. to pierce path-. n.

ch. pawyati (to see. Dat. Ins. Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes). Nom. to look).means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. indicative uses different root (paw-). Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. For example a. The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. a vanat (only from the forest). watroh Voc. But if a is used separately as a preposition. -h after any vowel and before c-. Only passive is constructed from this root. .is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-.is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). (enemy) Sg. th. watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here). anayati (to bring). m. Du. kupyati (to be angry).(to see) is irregular and defective.Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV. Therefore: drw-. watru Pl. The verb drw. agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). -h after any vowel and before t-. watruh Acc. Abl. class are thematic verbs. watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen. Loc. it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest).

jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. By the power of [your] arms you win. 3. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21.) . kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. 7. "There stands father's house. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. 2. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. The king with fighters comes to the city. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. but father lives here." says the boy to the traveler. oh king. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. 6. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. We do not live here. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-.Text (read and translate): 1. 5. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. naro 'wvamarohati | 10. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. 8. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14." asks teacher the student. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9. 4. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13. "What are you writing now. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. or Dat. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6.

: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-. or Dat. pupil saha.: arm bindu-.: jewel. likhati (VI): to write lubh-. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. n. footprint bahu-.: teacher. m. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-.) wus-. yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m.: foot. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen.) a+gam-. n. precious stone rawi-.) . agacchati (I): to come tr-. or postp. mass. letter parawu-.: ocean guru-. ahvayati (IV): to call here. or Loc.krudh-. to mount likh-. nawyati (IV): to be lost. or Loc.: gem. m. arohati (I): to ascend. to call in udadhi-. m. n. m. to perish drw-. pawyati (IV): to see. m. precious stone ratna-. guru pattra-. to desire (with Dat. m. m. m.: student. m.: enemy wastra-. law-book wisya-.: enemy visnu-. m. quantity ripu-.: leaf. lubhyati (IV): to long for. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-. m.: with (with Inst.: drop mani-. to look yudh-. m.: bird watru-.: axe pada-. prep.) hu-.: heap.: treatise.

devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). madhu madhuna madhune Du. viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). madhu Acc. A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). bhramyati (to wander). meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . Dat. rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). Nom. Abl. nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). Ins. vidhyati (to pierce).is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. mad-. nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7. alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. Text (read and translate): 1. rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3.Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. madhunah madhunoh Voc. kramati (to walk). Loc. gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. the root vyadh. nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. madhuni madhuni Pl. madyati (to be intoxicated). tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. kram-.

n. 5. to be finished wram-. to take away. n. to be satisfied (Ins. m. anayati (I): to bring bhram-. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. 4. to obtain. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. dice adharma-. Birds are flying to the tree. 6. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 7. 3. to grieve (Abl. harati (I): to take.). rcchati (I): to get.) tus-. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-. m.: tear rksa-.: eye.: unrighteousness ali-.12.: bee awru-. Tears are flowing on boy's face. Death conquers even unrighteousness. There are many things in the houses. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14. to share a+kram-. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. acamati (I): to sip. 8. Bees wander around flowers of the trees. to rinse tam-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. 2. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. m.: bear . Fighters play for money (Ins.) div-. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-. to carry aksa-.

m. abundant. n.: person mukha-. mouth mrtyu-. wealth vira-. n.: honey manusya-. m. m. m.: flower bhaga-. n.: hero bahu-.: part madhu-.: numerous. n. m. adj.n.: anger krodha-. many .: eye puspa-. m.kopa-.: anger netra.: thing.: face.: death vasu-.

papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world).between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. vid-. wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7. grhalloka agacchanti | 15. to generate). -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. bhi-. janayati (to give birth. lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house). class add -aya. dharayati (to hold). The vowel -a. jan-.to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. If the root ends in a vowel. punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key .instead of just -a. pidayati (to torture). it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. vedayati (to make known). rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4. but: pid-. bhayayati (to cause fear). gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. ksalayati (to wash). Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). suto 'wvanpidayati | 8. Text (read and translate): 1. corayati (to steal). ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. Before palatals. devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. narau rupakani ganayatah | 11.Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5.

n.: holy man suvarna-. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. Boys (Du. Father tells son about fruits of sins. m.: stick.: clothing vrttanta-. 5. Merit protects from grief. to revere pr-. m. like. 3. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. adj. "Why do you beat me.: story wudra-. m. 8.: thief. m.: charioteer stena-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-. n. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns. n.) . I want new clothes. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-. tolayati (X): to lift up. kathayati (X): to tell. aharati (I): to bring danda-. n. 2.: gold suta-. to worship. pujayati (X): to honour. punishment punya-.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. part. 4. to narrate ksal-. as if mam: me (Acc. to hurt puj-. to weigh dand-. corayati (X): to steal tad-. pidayati (X): to torture. dandayati (X): to beat. n. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. n. m.: new iva. 6.: as.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-.: coin vastra-.: epos Ramayana rupaka-. to punish pid-.: merit purana-. 7. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9.: old story.: servant ramayana-. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword. robber navina-. ganayati (X): to count cur-. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-." asks the servant the king. n.) wash their faces.

atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. "word for another").is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2. besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. o. adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. But this initial a. vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12. labhase labhethe 3. phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). But Dual endings -i. ksatriya rsi sevante | . Before other vowels a final -e. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). -o at the end of the word and before a. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. -e.is unchanged. labh-. Pl. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. Text (read and translate): 1. But in Sanskrit. labhe Du. god Agni). 1. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. agni iksate balah | 11. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. fire. labhate (to get. to obtain) A: Sg.

to tremble jan-. to stare kamp-. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc.: poverty udyoga-.) labh-. sahate (I): to bear. to honour (Acc.) begin with a sacrifice. member of a high caste dhairya-. kampate (I): to shake. bhasate (I): to speak. 6. mriyate (IV): to die yat-. rocate (I): to like (Dat. vandate (I): to praise. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. Father likes sons' discipline.) a+rabh-. 4. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. 8. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5. goodness taru-.17. wiksate (I): to learn sah-.: tree dvijati-. Gen. m. m. Children ask the father for food. m. firmness pawu-. 7. Boys like fruit.) ruc-. Holy men (Du.. to obtain vand-.: patience. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear. sevate (I): to serve. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.: sun moksa-. to endure sev-. m. m. labhate (I): to get. n. iksate (I): to look at. cattle bhanu-.: exertion.) anartha-. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-.: sacrifice .: benefit. perseverance kalyana-.: deliverance yajba-. m. to say mr-. n. m.) iks-. The father is looking at son's face.: sacrificial animal. 3. courage.: "twice-born". 2. to pay homage wiks-.

m.: discipline wiwu-.: wind vici-. m.: ocean.vayu-.: wave vinaya-. m.: child samudra-. m. m. sea .

following): anu+gacchati (to go after. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3.(after. hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | . sena Acc. sene sene Pl. senayah senayoh Voc.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam. Nom. satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4.(towards. Abl. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa. Text (read and translate): 1.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para. senam senaya senayai Du.is changed into -s.after a prefix containing -r.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen. to follow) ava.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve.is changed into -n. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra.(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. Dat. -n. to honour).(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry).(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s. Ins. Loc. army) Sg. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu..

ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. Many trees grow on the mountain. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. 3. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. m. 7.) bhiks-. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. Here on the street kings (Du.: arrow kanya-. 4. to take refuge in (Acc. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. f. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-.) descend from black horses. 6. sajgacchate: to come together isu-. The student asks householder's wife for alms. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. 5. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. The king conquers enemies in the battle. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15.: the river Ganga grhastha-. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. 8. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. Sinful people do not obtain heaven.: girl. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9.: householder . We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-. f. prapadyate (IV): to go to. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12.5. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11. 2. m. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-. daughter gavga-.

sinful prabhuta-.: heart krsna-.: gem rathya-. n. f. f. shade prayaga-.: alms yamuna-. wisdom vyadha-. f. m.: wife bhasa-.chaya-.: language bhiksa-.: manifold.: the river Yamuna ratna-. f.: knowledge. adj. adj. m.: heaven hrdaya-.: refuge svarga-.: shadow. f. black papa-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-.: bad. n.: hunter warana-. f. f.: street vidya-.: fear bharya-. n. f. many sahasa.: suddenly . adv. n.

rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. corayati. smaryate (to remember). Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. udyate (to say). svap-. supyate (to sleep). prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. pass. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7. upyate (to sow). mubcati. Verbs of the X class drop -aya. he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. The consonant -v. coryate. uhyate (to carry). kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. vah-. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. vas-. mucyate. vap-. dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. diyate (to give). naraih katah kriyante | 8. janairnagaraj gamyate | 6. puryate (to fill). pr-. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13. ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. jiyate. It is used with the instrumental case. kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. stu-. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. sutenawvastadyate | 20.but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. tiryate. Text (read and translate): 1. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12.in these roots: vac-.Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2.is changed into -u. usyate (to dwell). pass. stuyate (to praise). pass. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. ucyate (to say). pass. The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. vad-.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. awvena jalaj piyate | 17.

: snake. pass. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). gayati (IV): to sing daw-. mendicant.: clarified butter.: burden. 7. m. Grain is sown in the fields. m. badhyate: to bind vap-.: child sarpa-. 4. jar ghrta-.: kingdom wiwu-. 8. diyate: to give pr-. It is played with dices. pass. trap bhara-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. m. beggar mala-. Jars are being filled with grain. m. 5. n. n. Hari is again praised by Rama. pass. pass. 2.: garland rajya-. n. puryate: to fill badh-. 6. m. 3. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. wisyate: to rule. n. pass. load bhiksu-.: pot. pass. kriyate: to do ga-. f.: snare.: song ghata-. ghee dhanya-.: Buddhist monk. n. Holy man always speaks truth (pass). serpent . f.: grain pawa-." is said by people. Girls bind garlands (pass). to punish wru-. dawati (I): to bite da-.: wood gita-. wruyate: to hear ajba-. vapati (I): to sow was-. "In the shade is comfortably slept.: order kastha-.

taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. If the verb is prefixed. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. a+vad+a+t Du. 2. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. impf. a+vad+a+h 3. gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. aicchat (he wanted). bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. jayasyawaj natyajam | 14.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). It has special endings: Sg. sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. impf. yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. purena grhanyuhyante | . paryanayat. Text (read and translate): 1.

The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. Men sat down on mats.: summit. n. m. m.: fish raksana-. f. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water.: demon awa-. f. assembly surya-. n. m. uttisthati (I): to get up. m.: congregation. to stand up artha-. wealth asura-. you asked the king for protection. 4. glory pustaka-. When you were ("stood") in trouble. stream prasada-.: protection wakha-.) sang the praise of Rama. m.: palace matsya-. Servants brought water in jars. 3. vartate (I): to be. m. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-. m. 6. m. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. meeting.: flood.: hope indra-. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-. the god of the Sun stotra-. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-. f.: victory. m. m.: Hindu god Indra sagara-.: composition. a hymn of praise . 8. The teacher hit the student out of the anger.: book (manuscript) pura-. n.: sun. 2. top sabha-. m. 7. He cut the branch with an axe.: ode. prosperity.: sea grantha-. Brahmins (Du.: branch wikhara-. 5.: meaning. book (text) jaya-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to exist ud+stha-.

Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. nadyau nadyau Pl. Abl. 2. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. nadi Acc.. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. . nadyah nadyoh Voc. satyameva jayate | 12. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. Ins. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. Loc. aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. 4. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. 3. river) Sg. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. Nom. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. We bring water from the pond. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. nadim nadya nadyai Du. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. Dat. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.

to perform. Indra's wife udyana-. whole sundara-. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea.) . ucyate: is called vrt-. f. pratigacchati (I): to come back. to return a+car-. 6. f. n. n. f.: Indrani.: ornament maharaja-.: Indra's paradise nari-. mrgayate (X): to search for. bank dasi-. adj. f.: pond. to hunt for vac-. to go back.: complete. n.: wife putri-.: tiger sainika-. adj. acarati (I): to do.: garden janani-. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-. f.: female servant. female slave devi-.: yoga vapi-.: goddess. m. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler.: clean. pool vyaghra-. n.: beautiful namas-. mistress nagari-.: earth bhusana-. pass. glory! (Dat.: great king maharani-. holy samagra-. f.: daughter prthivi-.: mother tira-.: robe. f. 8.: river nandana-. f.: queen yoga-. decoration indrani-. to practise mrg-. Even the king came with the soldiers. f. 7. f.: hail!. m.: city nadi-.: shore. adv. n.: soldier pavitra-. m. f. m. vartate (I): to live on abharana-.5.: woman patni-. adj. f.

dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc. matim matya Du.(serious. f. ablative. cow): Sg. The dative. dhenu dhenu Pl. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-.. Dat. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4. Ins. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. punyena muktij labhadhve | . bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5. Ins. dhenum dhenva Du. mati. matih Acc.. bahvi. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. guru-. Loc. bahu-. mati mati Pl. Abl. dhenuh Acc. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3.(f. mate dhenu.with -v-). Nom.Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u. Nom. heavy). Dat.(f. prthvi. many). Loc.(abundant. f.and -y. f. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems". idea): Sg.(broad). gurvi. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc. Abl. Text (read and translate): 1.

: ruler . dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12. f. 5. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. 2. vindati (VI): to get.: fame gopa-. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10. prabhavati (I): to arise. to acquire wubh-. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8. upadiwati (VI): to teach. 4. fight kirti-.: quarrel." said a citizen to the king. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. to instruct. to appear vid-. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15. m. People of many castes lived in villages. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. wobhate (I): to shine anta-.: cowherd jati-. 6. 7. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7. 8. palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. f. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. I worship Shiva for prosperity.: birth. caste dhrti-.: courage. f. m.) upa+diw-. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14.6.: end kalaha-. m. 3. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. to admonish pal-. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. m. firmness parthiva-.

f.: deliverance rawmi-. foremost sadhu-.: low mukhya-. prosperity bhumi-. silence wruti-. f. f. adj. sore wanti-.: peace. dream nica-.: earth. f. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-. f. f.: wisdom bhakti-. m.: wound. f.: fly mukti-. ground maksika-.: main.paura-. n. f.: citizen buddhi-. f. f.: ray vrana-.: holy.: tradition.: devotion bhuti-.: Vedic scripture smrti-. m. adj.: well-being. righteous .: sleep. adj. land.

apaniyati. away: apa+ni-. Dat. Dat.Pl. it is changed into s. alabhata Du. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata. to go back. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. to govern. on: adhi+stha-. nispadyate (to arise). to carry away prati-. alabhe 3. adhitisthati. Sg. atikramati. pass. to lead away.. this can also happen in Gen.changed into -is.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems". apart: vi+dr-. Abl. wholly: ati+kram-. to rule apa-.. Abl. dhih Acc. dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. back: prati+gam-. In addition. Nom. Ins.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. vidiryate.): dhi. 1. they were seen). . Loc. pratigacchati. dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. and Loc. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2. against. above. impf. Pl. completely overcome adhi-.. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. ph.(f. Gen. nyasidat. p-. to return vi-. dhiyau dhiyau Pl. kh-. nisidati. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. us: nih+pad-. completely. thought): Sg.

Where did you get white cows? 3. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. Many arrows were shot on the tiger.Text (read and translate): 1. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6. When was the king's son born? 8. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to transgress pra+jan-. elephants and bears were seen there. atikramati (I): to cross over. 6. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. nispadyate (IV): to originate. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. 5. 2. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. pratibhasate (I): to answer . dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. Many tigers. When the king talked with brahmins. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5.) girls home from the garden. padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. to appear prati+bhas-. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. dhyayati (IV): to think. 4. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. Mother called (pass. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. to meditate nih+pad-. he returned to the city. Rama's father was always remembered by people. 7.

: agreement iwvara-.: cause dhi-.rac-.: man muni-. reason nawa-.: white . to rule. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-. adj. firm wveta-. to drive anujba-.: creation krtsna-. adj.: thought.: destruction.: greed vasati-.: beautiful dhira-.: luck. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: lord. m. adj.: pleasure. m. n.: sage. f.: wise. beauty.: delusion ratha-. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-.: dwelling wri-. wealth srsti-. m. pratisedhate (I): to prevent.: whole caru-. m. desire karana-. f. n. m.: lotus purusa-. master. f. m. annihilation padma-. god kama-. adj. saint moha-.: chariot lobha-. to restrain ni+sev-. f. f. m. m.

vadama 1. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. Pl." said the father. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8." asked the boy father. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11. 6. 2. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. Let the men dig a pond. daughter. pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7. atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. "Come today. 3. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). daddy. Let the children show the traveler the way. 4. vada Du. . ma gacchatu (let him not go). "Study the treatises and speak the truth." orders students the tradition. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9. "Give me food. Let charioteers do not torture horses. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. 2. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. 5. Text (read and translate): 1. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. annaj yaccha he janani | 13. 7. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4.

by all means hrasvam. lower dirgha-.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-. f.: guest anrta-.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-. studying adewa-.: daddy darwana-.: down. under (Gen. in proximity va: or .: for the long time sarvatah. rotten para-. people murti-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-.: different. n. position kawi-. study praja-. thoroughly. meeting.: lie. khanati (I): to dig atithi-. m.: everywhere. m.: image. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-.: seeing.: order asana-.: seat. adv. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-. m.: highest.: near. adv. n. form. adj.) ciram. untruth abhyasa-. m. far dusta-. adj. m. abhyasyati (IV): to study. m. statue vaiwya-. audience pataliputra-. adv. n. f. m. close. adv.: long. f. different adhastat.: bad. to learn a+diw-.: repeating.: subject. adj. adj.: lesson.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-.

Nom. Loc. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. vadhu bhu.(f. Dat. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. Abl. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. earth): Sg. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. vadhuh Acc. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. Loc. bhuvau Pl. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. Abl. Ins. Ins. Nom. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . bhuh Acc. bhuva bhuve Du. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen.(f. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. vadhvau vadhvau Pl.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu.. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen. Dat. woman): Sg.. sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2.

: the goddess Durga nivewana-." ordered the householder.: quality acarya-.: mother-in-law sundari-. to steal ksana-.: beauty stuti-. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-. wife wvawru-.) apa+har-. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-. to arise wuc-. f. 2. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16. f. f.: land. n. f.: eyebrow rajbi-.13. m.: teacher juhu-. ground bhru-. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3.: queen laksmi-. m. People live on earth and gods in heaven. f. wocate (I): to regret (Abl.: ruler vadhu-.: dwelling bhu-.: praise . where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri.: sacrificial ladle durga-.: well bhupala-. Let the student not argue with the teacher.: moment guna-. 7. earth. apaharati (I): to take away. Let us live there. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15. m. f. f. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14. drwyate: to look (like). There is no water in the well. 4. f.: woman.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-. pas. m. 6. The eyebrows of beauties are always black. "Take away nice clothes. Who protects the earth is called a ruler. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. f. f. 5. 8. to seem vi+vad-. pravartate (I): to become.

f.: daughter-in-law vakra-.: which . twisted yavat-tavat: when..snusa-.: curved. pron. rel.. as far as ya-.. adj. then..

1. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. 2. Do not neglect illnesses. 3. person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). Pl. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. Let it be thus! 5. Let an ascetic not converse with women. dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. otherwise active. Some verbs. kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). This form is widely used especially in 3. satyaj sadocyatam | 10. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. 6.Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. 4. labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. labhai Du. . often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. Text (read and translate): 1.

m.: illness vara-. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-.7. pratiksate (I): to await. abhinayati (I): to conduct. m. adj. m. to act bhan-. m.: food mahisa-. pasture durjana-.: bad man.) a+wri-. to seek refuge in han-.: worship.: sometimes samyak. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-. f. n. adv.: now kalena.: grass. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-. learned man pada-. m.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-.: ascetic yuddha-. rightly .: time. homage prayawcitta-. awrayate (I): to depend on.: scholar. best idanim. m. villain devalaya-.: decision pandita-. death kalidasa-. m.: buffalo yati-. adv.: expiation. 8. to talk with (Ins.: better. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung. m. n.: temple nataka-. m.: step. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-. m. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-. caus. ghatayati: to kill kala-. atonement bhojana-. sajbhasate (I): to converse.: well. Let women and children are not killed in the war. n.: play.: war roga-. place puja-. drama niwcaya-. n. adv. to expect upa+iks-.

kartar pitr. Ins.. Ins. and Nom.Pl. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a. pituh Voc. Nom. kartarau Pl. Loc.(m. kartuh Voc. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du. karta Acc. pitarau Pl.(m.Sg. Nom. Loc. father): Sg. Loc.Du. Dat. Nom. mother): Sg.. pitar matr. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. matuh Voc. pita Acc. They differ only in Acc. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen. Abl..(f.Du. Abl. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. 2) nouns of relationship. Abl. kartr. agent. Dat.. Dat. Acc.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns. matra matre matuh matari Du. Nom. matar . sister and naptr-. Ins. maker): Sg.. matarau Pl. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen. mata Acc.

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.


Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. labheta Du. brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. Abl. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7.. let it be done). Nom. The declension of the word nau.Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. nauh Acc. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. 1. navau Pl. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. boat): Sg.(f. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. labheya 3. nava nave nauh navi Du. nausu yuddhamabhavat | . labhemahi labheran 2. nauh Voc. Loc. Dat. nauh As you have probably noticed. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows". Text (read and translate): 1. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. Ins. gacchati "[he/she] goes". labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen. bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2.

10. adj. n.: fear bhrtaka-. m. n.: way. as (relative) . abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. n. balavudyane rameyatam | 11. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. to welcome (Acc. equal. m. rule. pass. questionable yatha. May the friends be always remembered! 2. to abandon (Abl.: order seva-.: garden krsi-.) abhi+vad-. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-.: how. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive).: friend vanijya-.: death mitra-.this we read in the treatises.) udyana-.: same. n. m. 7.: business.: life nidewa-.: service pawupalya-. 5. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12. m. trade vidhi-. even sajdigdha-. 8. 3. anutisthati (I): to follow. 4. n. f. f.: servant marana-. mode. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living . n. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: agriculture jivita-. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-. viramate (I): to give up. adv. Let women and children be taken away to the city. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-. Let new poems be written! 6.: doubtful. to perform apa+ni-. adj.). to carry out. direction sama-.

wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8. janayati (to give birth. The vowel -a. it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu. But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink.(to know). If the root ends in any other vowel. The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody). to make somebody to go). kr.(to be). to water).(to fall. suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11. Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p. dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14. Text (read and translate): 1.between the root and -aya-: jba. karayati (to cause to be done). gam.(to be born). adhyapayati (to teach). "to report" etc. kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13. we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. jbapayati (to make known. to beget). patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. gamayati (to let go. "to tell". janayati (see above). ga. So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context . suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. And also adhi+i. vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7.Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class. deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12.between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. to fly). "to sing". When translating the causative.translate as "to recite".(to go). dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3. bhavayati (to make something happen). nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10. that is using the augment -aya-: jan. gapayati (to let sing). to proclaim).(to learn). vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key .(to do).(to sing).

m. m. Let (pl. They watered horses with water from the river. 4. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. postp. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. marayti: to kill vid-. 6. Show (sg.: wolf rupa-. tax duta-. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-.: cowshed manoratha-.: desire vrka-. to enlarge pa-. m.: in vain.) the cows come into the cowshed. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. 5. caus. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. caus. vardhayati: to make bigger. m. to no avail . beauty stri-.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. postp. amongst (with genitive) arthe.: hand.: messenger gostha-. caus. elephant's trunk.) the father the books. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. ajbapayati: to order da-. caus.: for the sake of vrtha. darwayati: to show apa+ni-. caus. f. caus. adv. patayati: to knock down mr-. m. caus.: woman madhye. 3. caus. n. caus. caus. m. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. 8. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-.: form. caus. 7. to make known vrdh-.: coming kara-.: between. Let the householder return home. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras. Let them allow the guests to enter. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. vedayati: to announce. caus. 2. agamayati: to let come a+jba-.

Ins. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). Abl. Ins. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. tva. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse. te. Dat. nah. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. Gen. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. nau. (you) Nom. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. Loc. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. (I) Nom. Gen. Dat. Loc. Abl. me. .Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. Acc. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. Acc.

kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. 7. Let the gods protect your life! 6. to disseminate. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13. anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. nivedayati: to announce. 8. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. caus. ksamate: to forgive (what . bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14. n. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. prarthayate: to ask. Tell me the story of Urvashi. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. Let your father go with me. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. prathayati: to propagate. I do not want your (Dual) money. Elephants do not live in our country. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. 3. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. Mother gives food to both you and me.Text (read and translate): 1. Our (Dual) parents died.Dat. to report wru-. offence amaru-. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15. 2. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. to beg ksam-. begged the boy mother. bhadraj te | 9. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6.: the poet Amaru amrta-. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. I did not steal your gold (passive).: transgression. 5.) prath-. n. or Gen.Acc.. caus. to spread ni+vid-. m. 4.: nectar (the drink of immortality) . caus. to whom .

: breath. n. m. Pl.and cet. n. prosperity mayura-.: speaker vanaprasta-. adv. m. m. n.: bliss. m. m.: ornament. m. postposition: if wvas.: treasure prana-.: tomorrow . m. m. f.: pigeon taksawila-.ca: both . happiness.: satisfaction.: hell nidhana-.: peacock mauna-. n. n. m.: half awrama-.: country naraka-.: story kapota-. f.: the nymph Urvashi katha-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-. recluse wobhana-.: hermitage urvawi-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-.: frog dewa-. f.ardha-.: silence vaktr-. m. life bhadra-.: hermit. virtue wloka-. m. contentedness ca .

this) Sg. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. G en. ns. tau tau tabh yam Pl. this) Sg. bl. te te Pl. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. bl. cc. she (sa. at. V oc. L oc. G en. h cc.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . ns. N om. at. N om.

tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m. V oc./ esa f. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg. cc. (all) viwvah m. te te tabh yam Pl.L oc. V oc./ viwvam n. en./ ya f. at./ eka f./ itara f./ katarad n./ itarad n./ yad n. L oc./ ubhaya f./ anyad n./ etad n./ katama f. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a.follow irregular sandhi pattern. (relative pronoun which) katamah m. (different) itarah m. except for nominative and accusative of neuter. (this one) yah m. (one) ubhayah m./ katamad n. Here they ./ sarva f. (which one [of many]) katarah m./ sarvam n.and esa./ anya f. (which one [of two]) anyah m. bl./ ekam n. ns. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa. N om. (other) The following words also follow this declension. it (tad./ viwva f./ ubhayam n. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du. (all) ekah m./ katara f. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m.

10." said the general. 6. Text (read and translate): 1. 4. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10. 5. 7. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. I don't want these books. instruction . awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.change to -o and the following -a is lost./n. Other people than you won't accomplish this. Examples: sa purusah (this man). Husbands of these women went to war. caus. yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7./m. to delight sidh-. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. 2.: advice. m. Poor people live in the houses. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3. sa isuh (this arrow). Only kings are born with these signs! 8. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. 3. In this forest I saw a lion. 9. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. I don't like your behavior. viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. prinayati: to please. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. Adj. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14. m. so 'vadat (he said). caus.: noble upadewa-. In these rivers there are many fish. anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5.: end arya-.

) aneka-. much.: fat murkha-. not one krwa-.: behavior dosa-. offense wobha-. f.: splendor.: fault.: bigger than (with Abl.: learned prati: towards (with Acc. m.: mark.: donkey gardabha-. n.: thin.: many. m.) . sign vira-. army leader adhika-. m. m. characteristic. Adj. brilliance. emaciated pusta-. Adj. Adj. beauty sijha-. m.khara-.: foolish wiksita-.: general. Adj.: hero vrtta-. Adj. m.: lion senapati-. Adj.: donkey laksana-. n.

: repeating. abhinayati (I): to conduct. n. awrayate (I): to depend on. to perform. abhyasyati (IV): to study.: fire anartha-. m.: now adya.: poverty aneka-. m. n. to practise a+diw-.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-. to learn abhi+nand-. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-. arohati (I): to ascend.) adhi+i-. agamayati: to let come a+hr-.) abhi+ni-. m.: the poet Amaru amrta-. acamati (I): to sip.: lie. to rule. to drive adhika-. caus. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-. n. to welcome (Acc.: bee amaru-.: coming agni-.: robe. m.: fire ajba-. m. m. to seek refuge in abharana-. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: many. caus. to rinse a+car-./n. now agamana-. to act abhi+vad-. adv. decoration abhi+a+as-. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-.: today. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. under (Gen. not one anila-. studying acarya-. untruth anta-.) adhuna. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-. acarati (I): to do.: unrighteousness adhastat. m. adv. n.: order adharma-. n.: end . m. Adj.: food anrta-. caus. m. adv. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-.: teacher adewa-. n. m. dice ali-.: eye. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. Adj.: wind anna-.: down. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-. f.) a+ruh-. ahvayati (IV): to call here.: order aksa-. m.: bigger than (with Abl. much. to call in a+jba-. to mount a+wri-.

m. m. child bala-. to steal apa+ni-.: here ava+gam-. f. pass. m. prosperity bhaga-. adj.: agreement apa+har-. adv. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-.: meaning. wealth arthe. to perform anujba-. anutisthati (I): to follow. m. m. f. happiness.: for the sake of arya-. m.: bliss. m. f. n. lower aparaddha-. even.: wife bhas-.: noble as-.: forest ardha-. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-. n. f. n.: transgression.: different. m.: boy. to carry out. postp. many bahu-. offence api-. m.: husband bharya-./m. badhyate: to bind bahu-. part. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc.: half ari-. strength bhadra-.: arm bala-. even though aranya-.: demon ati+kram-.: devotion bhan-.: part bhakti-.: seat.) artha-. Adj. caus.: horse badh-. force.: sun bhara-. n. load bhartr-. also. n. adj.: hermitage awru-. prosperity. atikramati (I): to cross over. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-. avarohati: to descend awa-. m.: "un-truth".: sword asura-. n. apaharati (I): to take away. lie asi-.: burden.: power.: tear awva-.: end anu+gam-. to transgress atithi-. position asatya-. m. bhasate (I): to speak. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. m. m. n. m. abundant.: enemy arth-.: numerous. m.: guest atra.: hope awrama-.anta-. asyati (IV): to throw asana-. apanayayati: to lead away apara-. to say .

carati (I): to walk.: servant. f.: ruler bhusana-.: beautiful cet. adj. diyate: to give dah-. m. n. f. m. n. f. meeting.: brahmin buddha-. corayati (X): to steal da-. dandayati (X): to beat. audience dasa-. m.: language bhaya-.: seeing.: frog daridra-. mendicant. f. m. slave dasi-. m. pass. adj.: well-being. f.: land. punishment dardura-. earth. m. dahati (I): to burn dana.: brother bhrtaka-. m.: temple . m. female slave datr-. shade ciram.and car-. n.: alms bhiksu-.: servant bhrtya-. f. land. n.: shadow.: Buddha buddhi-.: eyebrow bhu-. postposition: if chaya-.: female servant. to practise caru-. ground bhupala-.bhasa-.: food bhram-. dapayati: to let give da-. m.: giver daw-. m. to punish danda-.: fear bhaya-.: food bhojana-.ca: both .: poor darwana-.: Buddhist monk. dawati (I): to bite deha-.: god. to roam.: ornament bhuti-. m.: for the long time cur-. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-. adv. m.: drop brahmana-. m. prosperity bindu-. to become bhu-.: body deva. n. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-. lord devalaya-. mn. bhavati (I): to be. beggar bhojana-. ground bhumi-. m. caus.: gift dand-. f. f.: earth. f.: fear bhiks-.: stick. n.: wisdom ca .: servant bhru-. m.

dhyayati (IV): to think. to look duhitr-. m.: donkey gavga-. courage.: thought. fragrance gardabha-.: "twice-born". pasture ghata-.: thus ga-.: song gopa-. ghee giri-. Law.: wise.: courage. f.: scent. m. m. villain dusta-.: village . caus.: daughter duhkha-. m. m. rotten duta-. n. m. pas. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-.: messenger dvija-.: grass. m. m. gacchati (I): to go gan-. firm dhrti-. money dhanya-. m. adv.adj. Buddhism dhav-. diwati (VI): to show. n. dhavati (I): to run dhi-.: "twice-born". m.: the goddess Durga durjana-. m. far div-. f. dravati (I): to run drw-. jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-.: long. f. adj. n.: pot.: bad.: wealth. n. m. reason dhira-. firmness dhana. brahmin dvijati-. n.: fault. offense dru-.: cowherd gostha-.: patience. jar ghra-.: elephant gam-. f. member of a high caste eva. m. pawyati (IV): to see. to meditate dirgha-.: goddess. n.: suffering duhkhita.: grain dharma-.: clarified butter.: law. firmness dhya-. darwayati: to show drw-.: country dhairya-.: unhappy. f.: bad man. adj.: mountain gita-.devi-. m.: the river Ganga ghasa-. righteousness. f.: just. adj. only evam.. to seem drw-. distressed durga-. drwyate: to look (like).: cowshed grama. m. ganayati (X): to count gandha-. m. adv. mistress dewa-. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-. to point dosa-.

: teacher. here iks-.: heart hu-. master.: mother jati-.: so iva. to conquer jiv-. n. f. harati (I): to take. m. m. Indra's wife is-. iksate (I): to look at. n. part.: when? kala-.: householder guh-.: Indrani. ghatayati: to kill hari-. n. f. guru han-. m. offering idanim. n.: now iha. m. m. glory ji-.: time. icchati (VI): to want. hvayati (IV): to call huta-. m.: composition.: personal name hasta-. caus. m. part. m. m. part. adv. m.: life jivita-. m. m. adv. desire kamp-. m. as if iwvara-. m. f. kampate (I): to shake. close. book (text) grha-. god jala. guhati (I): to hide.: son-in-law jan-.: arrow iti. m.: lord. jayati (I): to win.: person janaka-.: Hindu god Indra indrani-. to conceal guna-.: oblation. adv. n.: sacrificial ladle kada. m. m.: quarrel. in proximity hrdaya-.: as.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-.: life juhu-. adv.: house grhastha-.: pleasure.: hand he. caste jaya-. goodness kama-.: victory.: quality guru-. jivati (I): to live jivana-.: water jamatr-.grantha-. to yearn for isu-. jayate (IV): to be born jana-. n.: sometimes kalidasa-. to take away. to stare indra-.: benefit. adv. like.: birth. n. fight kalena.: father janani-. to carry hrasvam.: near. to tremble . death kalaha-. f.: oh! hr-.

kanya-. m.: pigeon kara-. emaciated ksal-.: moment ksatriya-. m. n. adv. to whom . f.: mat kath-.) kopa-.: hand. adj. f.: agriculture krsna-. m. adv.. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-.: anger kr-. n.: donkey kim.) kupa-. daughter kapota-. m. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.: story katham. m.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-. to cultivate (field) krsi-. fighter ksetra-.: cause kastha-. n. or Dat. n. pass. tax karana-. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.: wood kata-. why? kirti-. n.: thin.: where? kva.: where? labh-. sign laksmi-.: well kutah.: girl.: what?. characteristic. n.: fame klp-.: how? kavi-. f. Adj.: milk kumara-. adv. labhate (I): to get. f. kathayati (X): to tell. adv. khanati (I): to dig khara-. adv. elephant's trunk. or Gen.: plough . young man kunta-. f. m. m.: kshatriya. ksamate: to forgive (what .: spear.: where from? why? kutra.) krwa-. m.: mark.: whole krudh-.: poet kavya-.: prince.: anger krs-. black krt-.) ksana-. m. n. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. m. m. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-. kriyate: to do krodha-. or Dat.Acc. to narrate katha-. lance kup-.: poetry kawi-. khadati (I): to eat khan-.Dat.: field ksip-. to obtain laksana-. f.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-. m. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. krsati (I): to plow.

: person marana-.: death muc-. n. m. mubcati (VI): to free.) lup-.: way. postp. f. manyate (IV): to think. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-. foremost mukti-. m.: face.: buffalo maksika-. road masa-.: death marga. lubhyati (IV): to long for. m. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-.: greed loka-.: queen mahisa-. mrgayate (X): to search for.: river nagara. m.: peacock megha-. to desire (with Dat.: sage.likh-.: foolish murti-.: world (in Pl. n. f. m. adj. f. form.: garland mam: me (Acc. f. n.: silence mayura-. or Loc.: fish mauna-.: month matsya-. m. m. m.: deliverance muni-. precious stone manoratha-. m. statue nadi-.: delusion moksa-.: friend moha-. Adj.: city . m.: great king maharani-. marayti: to kill mr-.: deer mrtyu-. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-. m. saint murkha-. to hunt for mrga-. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-. town nagari-. likhati (VI): to write lip-. n.: honey madhye. m. m. m. means also "people") lubh-. lumpati (VI): to steal. f.) mukha-. caus. n.: main. to discharge mud-.: cloud mitra-.) man-.: between.: city. to suppose mani-. n. f.: gem. modate (I): to delight in (Ins.: image. m. to rob mad-.: fly mala-. mouth mukhya-. f.: deliverance mr-. m.: desire manusya-. m.

n.: treasure nih+gam-.: ruler. adj.: woman nataka-.: lotus pal-.: king.: axe pari+dha-. m. ruler pa-. to prostrate. pibati (I): to drink pac-.: one's. f. adj. pacati (I): to cook pada-. palm panini-. n.: step. own nivewana-.: leader netra. m.: hail!. palayati: to protect pa-.: destruction. caus.: highest. m.. m. n.m. footprint pada-. place padma-. to report nica-.: eye ni-. m. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-. sinful papa-.: order nidhana-. adv. adj. palayati (X): to protect pandita-.: man naraka-. n. m.: new naw-. caus. king nrpati-. m.: play.: ruler .: scholar.: dwelling niwcaya-. glory! (Dat. m. nispadyate (IV): to originate. drama navina-. to perish nawa-. annihilation netr.: bad.nam-. m. adj. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-.: Indra's paradise naptr-. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-. nawyati (IV): to be lost.: sin para-. nivedayati: to announce. namati (I): to bow.: grandson nara-.: foot. m. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-. to worship namas-. to appear nija-.n. m.: hell nari-.) nandana-.: low nidewa-.: hand. n. m. m. parinayati: to marry parthiva-.: decision nrpa-.: the grammarian Panini papa-. m. n. different para+ji-. adj. n. learned man pani-.

prapadyate (IV): to go to. m.: traveler pati-. pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. to expect prati+sidh-. to hurt pitamaha-. hill pat-. trap pawu-.: clean. n. parayati (X): to overcome pr-. people prana-.: worship.: subject. prathayati: to propagate. m. pidayati (X): to torture. husband patni-. life prasada-.: breath. many praja-. f. n.: palace prath-. to return prati+iks-. m.) pra+stha-. to disseminate. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. to appear pra+jan-. adj. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. pratiksate (I): to await. study pathika-.) prati+bhas-. f.ch-. prabhavati (I): to arise. patati (I): to fall. to go back. to worship.: manifold. cattle pawupalya-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-.: citizen pavitra-. pass. caus.: snare. f. puryate: to fill pr. pujayati (X): to honour. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-.: grandfather pitr-. patayati: to knock down pat-. Pl. to recite patha-. prinayati: to please. m.: sacrificial animal. holy pawa-. parents.: mountain. m. m. to take refuge in (Acc. to restrain prayaga-.: leaf.: the breeding of cattle pid-. m.: wife pattra-. ancestors pr-. caus. Du. pathati (I): to read.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-. to beg pra+as-. homage . prarthayate: to ask. caus. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-. n. atonement pri-. pratigacchati (I): to come back. to fly pataliputra-. to delight prthivi-. m.: lesson. m. to arise prabhuta-. master. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-. otec. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-.: expiation.: earth puj-.parvata-. caus. adj. letter paura-.: Lord. Pl. f. to revere puja-. m. n. pravartate (I): to become. m.

to sit down sada.: battle ratha-. to endure saha. precious stone rawi-.: merit pura-.: flower pusta-.: man puspa-. rcchati (I): to get. raksati (I): to protect raksana-. m. m. m.: son putri-. m. m.: heap. Adj.: suddenly . mass. n. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-. adv. n.: always sadhu-. m. m. n. assembly sad-.: again punya-. f.) rud-..: illness rsi-.: bear roga-. adv. f. m. f. sahate (I): to bear.: holy. adj. m. f.: daughter r-. stream purana-. m.) sahasa.: book (manuscript) putra. beauty rupaka-. prep. meeting. or postp. n. rocate (I): to like (Dat.: flood. f. Gen. quantity rawmi-.: queen rajya-. n. f. to obtain. rohati (I): to grow rupa-.: ray ripu-.: with (with Inst.: protection raksana-. m.: protection raksitr-.: fat pustaka-.: congregation.: kingdom raks-.: coin sabha-.: enemy rksa-. adv.: old story.: seer ruc-.: holy man sagara-.: sea sah-. to share rac-. m. m. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-. n. n. n.: form.punar. n. rodati (I): to weep ruh-.: street ratna-. sidati (I): to sit. righteous sadhu-.: gem ratna-. mn.: epos Ramayana rana-.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-. ramate (I): to play rama-. n.: chariot rathya-.: jewel. m.: protector ram-.

: soldier sajdigdha-. or Loc.) sam+gaj-. m.: well.: happiness sukta-.: servant sic-. adj. m. adv. rightly sarpa-. caus. adv.: general. m. f. army leader sev-. the god of the Sun suta-. smarati (I): to remember smrti-.: snake. adj. f. contentedness sam+a+car-. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. to honour (Acc. adj. to talk with (Ins. sevate (I): to serve.: beautiful sundari-. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-.) snusa-. m. f.: then. n. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-. n. m. m.) seva-.: charioteer suvarna-.: heaven svasr-. questionable sajtosa-. n. f.: sister tad-.: lion smr-. m. tisthati (I): to stand. a hymn of praise stri-. f.: same.: service sevaka-.: gold svapna-. m.: tradition. equal.: ode. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. to stay stotra-. dream svarga-. adv. tadayati (X): to beat tada.: beauty surya-.sainika-. thoroughly. adj. even samagra-.: daughter-in-law sprw-.: woman stuti-. m.: ocean. srjati (VI): to create srsti-. m.: everywhere. to discharge sidh-. whole samudra-. m. by all means sarvatra. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-. n. n. serpent sarvatah. sajgacchate: to come together sama-.: everywhere satya-.: sun.: sleep.: satisfaction.: thief.: Vedic hymn sundara-.: creator srj-.: creation stena-.: complete.: truth senapati-. f. m. at that time . f. robber stha-.: doubtful.: praise sukha-. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-. sajbhasate (I): to converse. f. n. sea samyak. adv.

: there tira-. m.: thus. recluse vand-.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-.: ocean udyana-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-. tudati (VI): to strike. n.: hermit. to admonish upa+iks-. f.: exertion. n. uttisthati (I): to get up. m. instruction urvawi-. f. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-. to instruct. m. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-.: dwelling vastra-. so tatra. m. wife vah-. n. tusyati (IV): to rejoice.: but tud-. twisted vaktr-. m.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. pass.: forest vanaprasta-. trade vap-. vadati (I): to speak.: water varuna-. to stand up udadhi-.: garden udyoga-.: tree tata-. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-.: speaker vana-. f.taksawila-.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-. m. vapati (I): to sow vapi-. to flow vaiwya-. bank tr-. to be satisfied (Ins. f.: daddy tatha.: pond.) taru-. to say vadhu-. vandate (I): to praise. adj. to pierce tul-. tolayati (X): to lift up. part.: shore. to blow. to weigh tus-.: woman. f.: better. n. adj. to grieve (Abl. adv. m. m. vahati (I): to carry. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-. adv. pool vara-.: high ud+pat-. n. m. best vari-.) tyaj-. adj. n. tyajati (I): to leave. to give up ucca-. tarati (I): to cross over tu. perseverance upa+diw-. n. upadiwati (VI): to teach.: clothing .: business. ucyate: is called vad-. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-. to pay homage vanijya-.: advice.: curved.: garden udyana-.

: summit. vartate (I): to be. n. mode. pass. caus. wajsati (I): to praise. m.: wound. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-. viramate (I): to give up.: hero vira-. top wiks-. n.: bird vinaya-. f.: ruler. sore vrdh-.: tiger wajs-. rule. m.) vi+vad-.: hunter vyaghra-.: enemy wikhara-. wealth vayu-. vindati (VI): to get.: poison vrana-. to extol wakha-. m.: arrow warana-. m. to no avail vrtta-. m. to abandon (Abl. silence wara-. m. adv. n. pupil . Adj. m.vasu-. m. m.: story vyadh-.: peace.: bird vihaga-.: wind vi+ram-. m.: branch wam-.: in vain. n.: brahmin vira-. to exist vrt-. vivadati (I): to argue vici-. m. direction vidya-.: hero visnu-. to punish wastr-.: thing. law-book watru-.: student. f.: tree vrs-. m. m.: learned wisya-. m.: disputation.: discipline vipra-. n.: wolf vrksa-.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-. to be finished wanti-. to enlarge vrka-. vedayati: to announce.: knowledge.: wave vid-. n. argument viw-. f.: way. vartate (I): to live on vrtha. wisyate: to rule. caus. to pour down.: treatise. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-. "punisher" wastra-. m. wamyati (IV): to be pacified.: behavior vrttanta-. to acquire vidhi-. m. to make known vid-. m.: refuge was-. vardhayati: to make bigger. varsati (I): to rain. to shower vrt-. m. m. n. wisdom vihaga-. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-. m.

m.wiva-. m. oblation for them wram-.: ascetic yatra. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl.: sacrifice yam-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-.: war yudh-. beauty wobhana-.: how. adv.) yatha. yudhyati (IV): to fight .: tomorrow wvawru-.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then…. m. m. caus.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives. f. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas.: ornament. f. m. m. f. virtue wraddha-. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: when (relative) yaj-. m.: mother-in-law wvawura-.: yoga yuddha-. adj. adv. pron.: splendor. adv.: father-in-law wveta-. as (relative) yati-. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-. rel. wealth wru-.: child wiwu-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-. adv. pass. m.: white ya-.: luck.: which yada.: Vedic scripture wubh-. beauty.: child wloka-.) wudra-. m.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-. m. wruyate: to hear wruti-. brilliance.: the river Yamuna yat-. as far as yoga-. f. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-. n. m.: Shiva wiwu-. f.

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