Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going).to -i-: sidati. phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad. va (or). yacchati.in front of the verb. sad.. In Sanskrit.. Text (read and translate): 1. is (to want) changes -s.(to go) and yam.to -cch-: gacchati. the Buddha only).(to sit) changes -a.. Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and).to -cch-: icchanti. class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI. brahmanah sada yajanti devan | . devah phala (n. eva (particle of emphasis. Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na. and I. na vadanti (they do not say. they are not saying).). Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?). devah Acc. buddham eva (just the Buddha. kutra katah | 3.Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m. bhojanam atra (the food [is] here). just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits). ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits). stha. phalani Acc. phalani Voc.. tu (but). devan Voc.(VI.(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi. the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence. balah kataj diwati | 2. "fruit") Nom.(to give) change -m. "god") Nom. classes: gam. bhojanaj tu (but the food.

3. Where are you (pl. 12. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. there the people do not live. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. devannamanti | 22. 7. We are leaving the world today. 11. We praise the boys. I want water. The exercise key . kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. grhamatra tisthati | 6. 9. Brahmins still sit there. 4. Where are the elephants? 5. there stay the houses.4. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17. tatha jivamah | 18. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. narandevah srjati | 13. margaj diwatha balah | 19. dhanamicchamah | 24. gramamadya viwamah | 14. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. 6. 8. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25.) going? 2. Where is the city. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. nagarameva gacchami | 9. you are pointing the way. balah ksiramicchati | 23. nrpah kva sidati | 7. Boys. kada danani yacchatha | 26. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. danani yacchanti | 10. Do you want milk? 10. Where the water does not flow.

diwati (VI): to show. road eva. lord dhana-.: where (relative) yada. adv. namati (I): to bow. to sit down srj-. to yearn for gam-. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-. to extol sad-.: son marga-. to point dhav-. only kada. tyajati (I): to leave.: just. srjati (VI): to create stha-.: mat ksira-. n. dhavati (I): to run nam-. to prostrate. m.: elephant grama-. tisthati (I): to stand.: milk gaja-. m.: when? tatha. to give up diw-. wajsati (I): to praise.: god. m.Vocabulary is-. m.: city. n. n.: water dana-.: village jala-. adv. to stay sprw-. adv. to worship yam-. so tada.: gift deva-. yacchati (I): to give viw-.: then.: wealth.: when (relative) . n. icchati (VI): to want. adv. at that time yatra. adv. m.: way. n. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. m. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-. town putra-. money nagara-.: thus. adv. sidati (I): to sit.

to conquer). to conceal). vad+a+vah We (two) say 2.Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. the second grade is vrddhi. the first grade is called guna. jighrati (III. bhu-. ji-. jayati (to win. Acc. class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. ghra-. vrs-. bhavati (to be). devau phale Voc. to smell). dru-. Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. pa-. The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. to shower). Nom. dravati (to run). normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. varsati (to rain. rohati (to grow). pibati (to drink). Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here). vad+a+tah They (two) say n. It has always the same form for Nominative. Accusative and Vocative cases: m. ruh-. But note some irregularities: guh-. vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . guhati (to hide. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. class. nayati (to lead).

10. 6. To the forest run the (two) elephants. devavadya smaramah | 10. 2. devau smaramah | 9. dahasi he anala | 15. Just today we both go to the city. awvau kutra dravatah | 22.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. balau phale khadatah | 20. 4. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. Here stand (two) trees. 5. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. . Here we (two) do not live. Where are both horses? 3. 8. anilah sada na vahati | 16. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. Where are you (two) going now? 9. Just here are (two) horses. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. The Buddha speaks the truth. atraiva vasavah | 5. Where do you hide money? 11. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. Home (emphasized) go both boys. he nrpau jayathah | 11. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. satyaj na vadathah | 18. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. 7. 12. The ruler conquers both fighters. They give money and gifts.

guhati (I): to hide. varsati (I): to rain. adv. Here sarvatra.: cloud vana-. dravati (I): to run ni-. m. part.: tree satya-. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-.13. to conquer dah-. jayati (I): to win. n. m.: truth iha. khadati (I): to eat guh-. to become vah-. bhavati (I): to be.: scent. fragrance megha-.: wind gandha-.: oh! . m. to blow. to pour down. m. smarati (I): to remember awva-. to conceal ghra-. m.: horse anala-.: everywhere he. to shower smr-. dahati (I): to burn dru-. n. jighrati (III): to smell ji-. pibati (I): to drink bhu-. adv. rohati (I): to grow vrs-.: forest vrksa-. to flow ruh-. m.: fire anila-. nayati (I): to lead pa-. vahati (I): to carry.

Nom. . circumstances (in the city).. the agent in a passive construction.. devam Du. Loc. "by" (with the Buddha. phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. Nom. phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen. "by means of ". Dative: the indirect object. Locative: the location. "because of". Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). the goal of the motion (I go to the city). "god") Sg. phalasya Voc. as English "through". Accusative: the object (I see you). devasya devayoh Voc. Dat. telling (to the boy). phalam Acc. Ins. Loc. phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). is also used to denote reason (from anger). deva And for neuter: phala (n. devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. giving. devah Acc. "fruit") Sg. it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). devau devau Pl. Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). by carriage). Abl. Dat. Ins.Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. Abl. phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl.

Vocative: the address (Who are you. rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. For example: muc-. ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. man?). -u. n for t. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. b for c and j. duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. narah gacchanti (the men go). putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here). -i. If the following word beggins with a short a-. see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. m for p. The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. mubcati (see Vocabulary). -u before any vowel (except for -u. -i before any vowel (except for -i. j and sibilants). this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here).the fighter says that he lives here).

"I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys. krntati (VI): to cut car-. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-. Traveler walks on the way to the village. Trees do not grow on high mountains. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14. m.: father duhkha-. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17.: "twice-born". m. 2. strength mrga-. 7. m. People do not live in forests.: battle rama-. 4.11. 3. m. to roam. to discharge yaj-. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. n. force. m./n. 5. carati (I): to walk. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. mubcati (VI): to free. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-.: suffering dvija-. but not suffering. n. to practise muc-. m.: deer rana-.: prince.: brahmin . to discharge aranya-. limpati (VI): to smear sic-.: plough vipra-. hill bala-. 8.: mountain.: power. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15. m.: traveler parvata-. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-. n. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. Men with boys go to the forest. n.: forest kumara-. brahmin pathika-. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12. m. m. 6. People want happiness. young man janaka-.

: what?.: but The exercise key . part.: oblation.: so kim. adv. n.viwa-. offering ucca-. adv.: high iti.: where from?. n. m. why? tu.: hand huta-. adj. why? kutah.: Shiva sukha-.: poison wiva-.: happiness hasta-. part. n. m.

(n. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati.(m. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati. sorrow. poet tells to the seer). Rama goes with the poets). vari varina varine Du. varini varini Pl. Du.Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni.(if it begins with a vowel). For example: sukha-. anarya. . agnih Acc.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an. noble. the fire is here. Ins. agne vari. Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. Nom. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati. Loc. fire burns). vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. "un-noble". unhappiness.. agneh Voc. varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. fire) Sg. vari Acc. Dat. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen.. But if the following word begins with -r. happines. Nom. varinah varinoh Voc. Abl. arya. Loc. water): Sg. Ins. Abl. Dat. asukha. agni Pl.

"O. satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. n) between them (so. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. d. th. Where people burn the forests. . j. Even today people remember Rama. jh. jalaj gireh patati | 10. suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. no elephants live. nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. dh. We live happily here in the mountains. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. why don't you recite poetry?". agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. "You don't speak the truth". 7. says the brahmin to the poet. Hari's horse is standing just here. 4. poet. nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. "Enemies rob the houses here". harij ksirena yajatah | 18. rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. 3. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). ch. 9. 8. 6. If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. asks the king. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). d. th. -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. but from the Law [there is] happiness. 5. dh. balau kuto rodatah | 2. 2. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. n) or dental (t. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. nominative plural of vari is varini). Text (read and translate): 1. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. b). arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. From sin there is always suffering. weep the boys. retroflex (t.

n. part.: sin varuna-. husband pani-. m. Law.: poetry giri-. master.: food ari-. m.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-.: king. m.: mountain jana-. m.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-. m. n.: hand. m.: "un-truth". m. n.: seer kavi-. palm papa-. lumpati (VI): to steal. to pierce path-. tudati (VI): to strike.: Vedic hymn hari-. m. also. ruler pati-. pathati (I): to read. m.: servant.: fire anna-. slave deha-. rodati (I): to weep lup-. mn. m. m.: enemy asatya-.: poet kavya-. n. to rob agni-.: Lord. righteousness. n. lie asi-. Buddhism nrpati-. m. to recite rud-.: body dharma-. m. m. even though .: personal name api-.: person dasa-.: water sukta-. even.: law. n.: sword rsi-.

to look). watroh Voc. agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). Nom. Dat.means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). Ins. a vanat (only from the forest). Only passive is constructed from this root.is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-. Abl.Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV. it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). kupyati (to be angry). watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here). (enemy) Sg. Loc. Du. pawyati (to see. watru Pl.(to see) is irregular and defective. m. anayati (to bring). The verb drw. Therefore: drw-. -h after any vowel and before c-. indicative uses different root (paw-). But if a is used separately as a preposition. -h after any vowel and before t-. Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes). class are thematic verbs. The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. watruh Acc. . watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. th. watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen.is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. ch. For example a.

a girervrksa rohanti | 16. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. 6. We do not live here. "There stands father's house. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. oh king. By the power of [your] arms you win. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8.Text (read and translate): 1. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. or Dat. The king with fighters comes to the city. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. 7. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. naro 'wvamarohati | 10. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. "What are you writing now. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21." says the boy to the traveler. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4. 5. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-." asks teacher the student. 4. but father lives here. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree.) . 2. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. 3. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. 8. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9.

: drop mani-. or Loc.: leaf. m. or postp.) wus-. guru pattra-.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-.: enemy wastra-. to call in udadhi-. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. m.: axe pada-. m.: treatise. n. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-. pawyati (IV): to see. law-book wisya-. likhati (VI): to write lubh-.: foot. m.: arm bindu-. precious stone ratna-. agacchati (I): to come tr-. to mount likh-. letter parawu-.: gem.: enemy visnu-. arohati (I): to ascend.: jewel. pupil saha. to look yudh-. m.krudh-. footprint bahu-. m. ahvayati (IV): to call here.) . yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-.) hu-. or Dat. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. to desire (with Dat.: teacher. m. nawyati (IV): to be lost. n.: with (with Inst.) a+gam-. prep. m.: heap. lubhyati (IV): to long for. m.: student. m.: ocean guru-. m. n. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-. precious stone rawi-. to perish drw-. m. or Loc.: bird watru-. quantity ripu-. m. mass.

arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). kram-. Text (read and translate): 1. madhu madhuna madhune Du.is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. mad-. devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. Loc. nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7. Ins. The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. madyati (to be intoxicated). tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). Nom. madhunah madhunoh Voc. vidhyati (to pierce). the root vyadh.Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). madhu Acc. Abl. gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. madhuni madhuni Pl. Dat. narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. kramati (to walk). meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. bhramyati (to wander). rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3. A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10.

dice adharma-. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-.12. to be finished wram-.) tus-.: unrighteousness ali-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. rcchati (I): to get. Tears are flowing on boy's face. to carry aksa-.). m. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. 6. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16. There are many things in the houses. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. m. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-. to obtain. 4. Death conquers even unrighteousness. 7. n. 5. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-. m. 8. harati (I): to take. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to grieve (Abl. Bees wander around flowers of the trees. to be satisfied (Ins. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. Fighters play for money (Ins. Birds are flying to the tree. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. tusyati (IV): to rejoice.: eye. to rinse tam-. anayati (I): to bring bhram-. acamati (I): to sip.: tear rksa-. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-.: bear . to take away. 2.: bee awru-. 3. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. to share a+kram-. n. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14.) div-.

abundant. m. m.: honey manusya-. m.: anger netra.: anger krodha-. m. n. mouth mrtyu-. many .: part madhu-.: eye puspa-.: hero bahu-.kopa-. m. n.: numerous. adj. m.: person mukha-. wealth vira-.n.: face. n.: thing. n.: death vasu-.: flower bhaga-.

instead of just -a. janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. pidayati (to torture). punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world). suto 'wvanpidayati | 8. to generate). devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7. -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key . purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. but: pid-. gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. The vowel -a. ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12.to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. dharayati (to hold). jan-. Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). grhalloka agacchanti | 15. corayati (to steal). it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4.between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. janayati (to give birth. ksalayati (to wash). rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. vid-. Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. class add -aya. Before palatals. vedayati (to make known). -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. bhi-.Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. Text (read and translate): 1. If the root ends in a vowel. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house). bhayayati (to cause fear).

m. 7.: epos Ramayana rupaka-.: servant ramayana-. n. 4. like. aharati (I): to bring danda-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-.: story wudra-. punishment punya-. "Why do you beat me. n.: thief. 8. 2. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns. 3. as if mam: me (Acc.: gold suta-.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. Father tells son about fruits of sins. Boys (Du. n. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-. m. I want new clothes. to revere pr-. tolayati (X): to lift up. m. ganayati (X): to count cur-.: holy man suvarna-. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword.: old story. kathayati (X): to tell. Merit protects from grief. pujayati (X): to honour. to punish pid-. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-. m.: clothing vrttanta-. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. n.: as. adj. to worship. to hurt puj-.: coin vastra-. m. pidayati (X): to torture. 5. corayati (X): to steal tad-. part.: merit purana-. to weigh dand-.: stick. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. n. n. dandayati (X): to beat.) wash their faces. 6.: new iva. robber navina-.: charioteer stena-.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9. n.) . to narrate ksal-." asks the servant the king.

adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. labhe Du. But Dual endings -i. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). Pl. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. agni iksate balah | 11. -e. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. "word for another").is unchanged. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). to obtain) A: Sg. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12. ksatriya rsi sevante | . labhate (to get. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. -o at the end of the word and before a. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". But in Sanskrit. Before other vowels a final -e. vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. fire. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. But this initial a. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. labh-. 1.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. Text (read and translate): 1. vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. labhase labhethe 3. phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. o. god Agni).

to endure sev-. The father is looking at son's face. labhate (I): to get. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18. m. sahate (I): to bear. n. cattle bhanu-. Holy men (Du.) ruc-.) a+rabh-. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. 2. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear. 8. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc.: tree dvijati-.) begin with a sacrifice. to honour (Acc. mriyate (IV): to die yat-. 6. courage.) labh-. kampate (I): to shake.: benefit.) anartha-. m.: exertion. Father likes sons' discipline.: sacrificial animal. Children ask the father for food. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. iksate (I): to look at. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. m. vandate (I): to praise.: sacrifice . n. firmness pawu-. m. m.: poverty udyoga-. m. to pay homage wiks-. m. m.: sun moksa-. 7. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5. rocate (I): to like (Dat. 4.) iks-.: "twice-born". member of a high caste dhairya-. 3. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-. sevate (I): to serve. goodness taru-.: patience. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. Boys like fruit. to obtain vand-.17.. Gen.: deliverance yajba-. to stare kamp-. bhasate (I): to speak. to say mr-. wiksate (I): to learn sah-. to tremble jan-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. perseverance kalyana-.

: wave vinaya-.: child samudra-. m. m.vayu-.: discipline wiwu-.: wind vici-. sea . m. m.: ocean. m.

(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud.(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. Text (read and translate): 1. -n.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s. senayah senayoh Voc.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry).after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve.after a prefix containing -r.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para. army) Sg. following): anu+gacchati (to go after. hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | .. sena Acc. sene sene Pl. Ins. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni.is changed into -s. Dat. to honour). satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra. senam senaya senayai Du. Nom.(after. to follow) ava. Abl.(towards. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2.(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen.is changed into -n.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f. Loc.

: householder . vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 7. m. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6.: arrow kanya-. prapadyate (IV): to go to. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15.) bhiks-. f. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. The student asks householder's wife for alms. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. m. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. The king conquers enemies in the battle. Many trees grow on the mountain.: the river Ganga grhastha-. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. daughter gavga-. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. Here on the street kings (Du. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. 3. 4. f. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari. to take refuge in (Acc. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7.) descend from black horses. 6.: girl. 8. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11. 2. sajgacchate: to come together isu-.5. 5. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-.

m.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-.: knowledge.: refuge svarga-.: language bhiksa-. f.: heaven hrdaya-.: street vidya-.: heart krsna-. many sahasa.: wife bhasa-.: shadow. adv.: suddenly . wisdom vyadha-. f. f.: the river Yamuna ratna-.: manifold.: fear bharya-. f.: gem rathya-.: bad. n. f. f.chaya-. black papa-. n. adj. f. m. adj. f. shade prayaga-.: alms yamuna-. sinful prabhuta-.: hunter warana-. n. n.

kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9.in these roots: vac-. ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2. janairnagaraj gamyate | 6. Verbs of the X class drop -aya. jiyate. vad-. pass. supyate (to sleep). awvena jalaj piyate | 17. naraih katah kriyante | 8. puryate (to fill). he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. pass. coryate. udyate (to say). The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. The consonant -v. Text (read and translate): 1. corayati. pr-. smaryate (to remember). dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. mubcati. ucyate (to say). sutenawvastadyate | 20. It is used with the instrumental case. stu-. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13.but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. uhyate (to carry). vap-. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. svap-. kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. tiryate. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. vas-. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. mucyate. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12. usyate (to dwell). ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. diyate (to give). dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. pass. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. upyate (to sow). pass. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. vah-.Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5.is changed into -u. stuyate (to praise).

The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: pot. 6. 5. vapati (I): to sow was-. m. n. 2.: clarified butter. 8. mendicant. trap bhara-. pass. m. ghee dhanya-. m.: snare. badhyate: to bind vap-. It is played with dices. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass).: snake. f. jar ghrta-. pass. "In the shade is comfortably slept.: child sarpa-." is said by people. Hari is again praised by Rama. f.: Buddhist monk. Jars are being filled with grain.: burden. Holy man always speaks truth (pass). wisyate: to rule. Girls bind garlands (pass). Grain is sown in the fields. dawati (I): to bite da-. kriyate: to do ga-. m. gayati (IV): to sing daw-.: song ghata-. n. 3. to punish wru-. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. pass. n.: grain pawa-.: order kastha-. n. beggar mala-. wruyate: to hear ajba-.: kingdom wiwu-.: wood gita-. diyate: to give pr-. m. serpent . 7. pass.: garland rajya-. m. pass. puryate: to fill badh-. 4. pass. load bhiksu-. n.

It has special endings: Sg. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. impf. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. paryanayat. purena grhanyuhyante | . impf. If the verb is prefixed. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. aicchat (he wanted). 2. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. a+vad+a+h 3. Text (read and translate): 1. sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. a+vad+a+t Du. taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8.

: branch wikhara-.: fish raksana-. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood. 4.: sea grantha-. top sabha-.) sang the praise of Rama. m. to stand up artha-. m. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-. m.: congregation. meeting. m. wealth asura-. n. 5. 3. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. 2. assembly surya-.: sun. f. glory pustaka-.: book (manuscript) pura-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. n. The teacher hit the student out of the anger.: protection wakha-. f.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. stream prasada-. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-.: demon awa-.: composition. to exist ud+stha-.: summit.: victory. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. m. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-. 7. n. prosperity. Brahmins (Du. book (text) jaya-. m.: meaning.: flood. m. uttisthati (I): to get up. 6. Servants brought water in jars.: hope indra-. m. the god of the Sun stotra-. a hymn of praise .: palace matsya-. When you were ("stood") in trouble. vartate (I): to be. m. Men sat down on mats. m.: ode. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water. f. you asked the king for protection. He cut the branch with an axe. m. 8.

vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. river) Sg. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. nadim nadya nadyai Du. Dat. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. Loc. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. We bring water from the pond. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. satyameva jayate | 12. Nom. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. nadyah nadyoh Voc. nadyau nadyau Pl. Abl. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. 4. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. . nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5. 2. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6.. 3. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. nadi Acc. Ins.

Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother.: goddess. 8. f. to practise mrg-. pool vyaghra-. n. f. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler. 7.: tiger sainika-. glory! (Dat. to go back. to perform. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea.: mother tira-.: daughter prthivi-.: city nadi-.: female servant.: river nandana-. f. whole sundara-.: Indrani.: hail!. n. f. ucyate: is called vrt-. f. holy samagra-.: shore. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-. female slave devi-. n. decoration indrani-. adv.: great king maharani-. mrgayate (X): to search for. f.: robe. adj.: clean.: pond.: complete. m.: earth bhusana-. f. to return a+car-. f. n. f.: garden janani-. m. bank dasi-. adj. m.) .: soldier pavitra-.: beautiful namas-. m. f.: yoga vapi-. f.: ornament maharaja-.: woman patni-.: queen yoga-. pratigacchati (I): to come back. f. acarati (I): to do. pass. adj. to hunt for vac-.: Indra's paradise nari-.5.: wife putri-. 6. mistress nagari-. Even the king came with the soldiers. n. Indra's wife udyana-.

prthvi. matih Acc. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen. Ins.and -y. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5. Dat. guru-.(serious. mate dhenu. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. mati mati Pl. dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc. dhenu dhenu Pl. Dat. heavy). dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-..with -v-). f. bahvi. dhenum dhenva Du. idea): Sg. Abl. Loc. The dative.(abundant. Text (read and translate): 1. Nom.(f. punyena muktij labhadhve | . many).(f. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3. Nom.Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u.(broad). dhenuh Acc. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc.. gurvi. ablative. Ins. Abl. matim matya Du. Loc. f. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems". bahu-. mati. f. cow): Sg. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4.

m. 5. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. 6. f. to instruct. to acquire wubh-. f. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15.: courage. to admonish pal-. palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10. People of many castes lived in villages. m. 2. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. firmness parthiva-. upadiwati (VI): to teach. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage.: end kalaha-.: birth. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7.) upa+diw-. m. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12. 3. wobhate (I): to shine anta-. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. 4. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14. caste dhrti-. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. 7. f. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8.6. m. prabhavati (I): to arise. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. 8. fight kirti-. vindati (VI): to get. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. I worship Shiva for prosperity.: fame gopa-.: quarrel.: cowherd jati-.: ruler . to appear vid-." said a citizen to the king.

f. f. f. m.: wisdom bhakti-. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-. f. land. f.: citizen buddhi-.: deliverance rawmi-.: peace.: holy. f. dream nica-.: low mukhya-.paura-.: fly mukti-.: wound.: Vedic scripture smrti-. f. adj. adj.: tradition. prosperity bhumi-. ground maksika-. f.: devotion bhuti-. n.: sleep. righteous .: earth.: main. m. f. sore wanti-. silence wruti-. foremost sadhu-.: well-being. f. adj.: ray vrana-.

(f. to return vi-. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s. Sg. to lead away. dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. adhitisthati. wholly: ati+kram-. Ins.): dhi. pass. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems".. Nom. p-. to rule apa-. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. to carry away prati-. back: prati+gam-. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix.. and Loc.changed into -is. away: apa+ni-. impf. this can also happen in Gen. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. Loc. us: nih+pad-. completely overcome adhi-. alabhe 3. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. Dat. dhih Acc. nispadyate (to arise). completely.Pl. to go back. In addition. .Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. alabhata Du. dhiyau dhiyau Pl. thought): Sg. Abl. kh-. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata. nyasidat. atikramati. to govern. vidiryate. they were seen). on: adhi+stha-. Gen. apart: vi+dr-. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2. above. against. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. 1. dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du.. pratigacchati. apaniyati. ph. nisidati. Dat.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. Pl. it is changed into s. Abl.

Text (read and translate): 1. Mother called (pass.) girls home from the garden. atikramati (I): to cross over. When was the king's son born? 8. to meditate nih+pad-. pratibhasate (I): to answer . Many arrows were shot on the tiger. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. 7. padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. When the king talked with brahmins. Where did you get white cows? 3. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. to transgress pra+jan-. he returned to the city. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6. dhyayati (IV): to think. 2. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. 5. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. to appear prati+bhas-. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. Many tigers. 4. nispadyate (IV): to originate. elephants and bears were seen there. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. Rama's father was always remembered by people. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. 6.

master. f. m. f. pratisedhate (I): to prevent.: delusion ratha-.: thought. to rule.: creation krtsna-. m. adj.: dwelling wri-. adj. to restrain ni+sev-. f. m. m. god kama-. m.: lotus purusa-. n. m.: greed vasati-.rac-.: agreement iwvara-. reason nawa-. to drive anujba-.: lord. wealth srsti-. annihilation padma-.: destruction.: wise.: whole caru-. adj. desire karana-.: cause dhi-.: pleasure. firm wveta-. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-. f. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: sage. m. beauty.: beautiful dhira-. saint moha-. f. n. adj.: white .: chariot lobha-. m.: luck.: man muni-. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-.

moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). 6. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. "Come today. Text (read and translate): 1. annaj yaccha he janani | 13. Pl. 3. 5.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. 2. 2. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. daughter. ma gacchatu (let him not go). daddy. atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6." orders students the tradition. . pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7. "Study the treatises and speak the truth. Let the children show the traveler the way. 4. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the men dig a pond." said the father. vada Du. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. Let charioteers do not torture horses." asked the boy father. "Give me food. devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9. vadama 1. 7.

adj. abhyasyati (IV): to study. adv.: repeating. khanati (I): to dig atithi-. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-. adj.: highest. form.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-. m. studying adewa-.: lie.: near. statue vaiwya-. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-. untruth abhyasa-. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-. different adhastat. in proximity va: or . f. people murti-. thoroughly.: for the long time sarvatah. m. f.: bad.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-. adv. adj. n.: seat. m.: guest anrta-.: order asana-.: daddy darwana-. to learn a+diw-. meeting.: seeing. position kawi-.: long. n. n. far dusta-. audience pataliputra-. by all means hrasvam. m.: subject. f. adj.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-. adv. adv. lower dirgha-. m. m. close. rotten para-. m.: everywhere. study praja-. under (Gen.: lesson.: different.) ciram.: down.: image.

bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. Ins. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. earth): Sg. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. woman): Sg.. Nom. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc. Loc. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3.. vadhvau vadhvau Pl. Abl. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. Dat. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11.(f. vadhuh Acc.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. bhuva bhuve Du. sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. bhuvau Pl. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. bhuh Acc.(f. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. vadhu bhu. Dat. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. Abl. Loc. Ins. Nom. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | .

2. f.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-. 7. n. 4. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14. f. f. to arise wuc-. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3. There is no water in the well. The eyebrows of beauties are always black.: well bhupala-.: beauty stuti-.: eyebrow rajbi-.: ruler vadhu-. "Take away nice clothes.13. f. f. m.: the goddess Durga nivewana-. 5.: moment guna-. ground bhru-. pravartate (I): to become. m. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-. to steal ksana-. wife wvawru-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15.: dwelling bhu-. f. f. earth. to seem vi+vad-. People live on earth and gods in heaven. f.) apa+har-. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri.: woman.: quality acarya-. 6.: teacher juhu-. drwyate: to look (like).: praise . 8. Let the student not argue with the teacher. f. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-.: sacrificial ladle durga-. Who protects the earth is called a ruler." ordered the householder. apaharati (I): to take away. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. pas. m. Let us live there. m.: mother-in-law sundari-. f.: queen laksmi-.: land.

: which .: curved. pron. adj..snusa-..: daughter-in-law vakra-. as far as ya-.. twisted yavat-tavat: when. f. rel.. then.

Do not neglect illnesses. satyaj sadocyatam | 10. . 2. kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. 1. 3. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. Some verbs. kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). Pl. Let it be thus! 5. otherwise active. Let an ascetic not converse with women. labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). labhai Du. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. 4. This form is widely used especially in 3.Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. 6. Text (read and translate): 1. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3.

: worship. m.: war roga-. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-.: play. best idanim. n. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-. m. m. sajbhasate (I): to converse. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-. adv. adj.: time. to talk with (Ins. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung. to act bhan-. awrayate (I): to depend on. ghatayati: to kill kala-. m. Let women and children are not killed in the war.7.: now kalena. m. m.: well. homage prayawcitta-. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-. atonement bhojana-. adv. n. pratiksate (I): to await. drama niwcaya-.: temple nataka-.: food mahisa-. villain devalaya-.: illness vara-.: buffalo yati-.: scholar. to seek refuge in han-.: expiation. f. m. 8. death kalidasa-. adv. m. pasture durjana-.: better. m.: step. place puja-. to expect upa+iks-. n.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-. rightly .: bad man.: decision pandita-. caus.: sometimes samyak. m.: grass.) a+wri-. m. abhinayati (I): to conduct. learned man pada-. n.: ascetic yuddha-.

Abl. pitar matr. They differ only in Acc. Dat. pituh Voc. Abl. Acc.(m.. Ins.Pl. maker): Sg. Loc. Dat. Loc.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns. matra matre matuh matari Du. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen. mata Acc. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. agent.. and Nom. kartr. matar . matarau Pl.. sister and naptr-.Du.Du. matuh Voc. kartarau Pl. Ins.. kartuh Voc. Abl. Ins.(m. Loc. pita Acc. mother): Sg. Dat. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen. Nom.Sg. 2) nouns of relationship. kartar pitr. father): Sg.. karta Acc. Nom. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a. pitarau Pl. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du.(f. Nom. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du. Nom.

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.


Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

nauh Voc. nava nave nauh navi Du. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. Nom. let it be done). brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta.Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. Text (read and translate): 1. Abl.(f. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. nauh As you have probably noticed. labheya 3. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen. The declension of the word nau. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows". nausu yuddhamabhavat | . Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. Ins. navau Pl. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. nauh Acc. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. 1. Loc. Dat. bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2.. boat): Sg. labheta Du. labhemahi labheran 2. gacchati "[he/she] goes".

n.). m.: order seva-.: service pawupalya-. anutisthati (I): to follow.: friend vanijya-. 3. Let new poems be written! 6. adv. n.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-. n.: way.) abhi+vad-. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. equal.: same. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-.: agriculture jivita-. direction sama-. to welcome (Acc. m. m. 4. 7.: servant marana-. mode. questionable yatha. m.: business.: fear bhrtaka-. n. to perform apa+ni-.: garden krsi-. to carry out. f. viramate (I): to give up. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt. adj. pass.) udyana-.: life nidewa-.: how. to abandon (Abl.: doubtful. adj. 5. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-. n.: death mitra-. May the friends be always remembered! 2. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive). ramate (I): to play vi+ram-.this we read in the treatises. rule. even sajdigdha-. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. f. n. balavudyane rameyatam | 11. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at.10. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let women and children be taken away to the city. 8. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living . trade vidhi-. as (relative) .

(to be). to make somebody to go). to fly).(to go). karayati (to cause to be done).(to fall. If the root ends in any other vowel. "to sing". jbapayati (to make known. gamayati (to let go. gapayati (to let sing). "to tell". janayati (to give birth. And also adhi+i. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14. vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6. kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4. But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. to proclaim). "to report" etc. that is using the augment -aya-: jan.(to do). dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3. it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu.(to know).(to be born).(to learn). deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. kr. nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10. patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. Text (read and translate): 1. When translating the causative. Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p. wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8.(to sing). to beget). suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. adhyapayati (to teach). upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9. So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context . to water). bhavayati (to make something happen). The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody).translate as "to recite". atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key .between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. janayati (see above). suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11. The vowel -a.Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class. we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs.between the root and -aya-: jba. ga. gam.

pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-. m. Let (pl. n. patayati: to knock down mr-. caus.: messenger gostha-. caus.: wolf rupa-. vardhayati: to make bigger. 4. Let the householder return home. They watered horses with water from the river. to make known vrdh-. caus. caus.: in vain. m. Show (sg. caus.: desire vrka-. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. caus. Let them allow the guests to enter. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics.: for the sake of vrtha. caus. m. caus. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. f.Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: coming kara-. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. postp.: cowshed manoratha-. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras. 6. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. caus. amongst (with genitive) arthe. to no avail . beauty stri-. 5. caus. elephant's trunk. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-. tax duta-. adv. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. m.: woman madhye. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. caus. caus. marayti: to kill vid-. m. darwayati: to show apa+ni-.: hand.) the cows come into the cowshed. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. ajbapayati: to order da-. postp. to enlarge pa-. 8. m. 2. 3.: between.) the father the books. 7.: form. vedayati: to announce.

nau. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. te. tva. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. Dat. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. Dat. nah. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. . (you) Nom. Loc. Acc. Abl. Ins. Ins. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). Gen. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. (I) Nom. me. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. Acc. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. Abl. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse. Loc. Gen.

8. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6. ksamate: to forgive (what . n. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. to spread ni+vid-. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. nivedayati: to announce. n. prarthayate: to ask. bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2.) prath-. to disseminate. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. I do not want your (Dual) money. 2.: nectar (the drink of immortality) . caus.: the poet Amaru amrta-. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. offence amaru-. Let your father go with me.Text (read and translate): 1.: transgression. 5. prathayati: to propagate. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11.Acc. 4. or Gen. to whom . caus. Elephants do not live in our country. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. I did not steal your gold (passive). Let the gods protect your life! 6. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14. caus. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. Mother gives food to both you and me. 7.. begged the boy mother. 3. bhadraj te | 9. to report wru-.Dat. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. Tell me the story of Urvashi. m. Our (Dual) parents died. to beg ksam-.

: half awrama-. prosperity mayura-. f. postposition: if wvas. life bhadra-.ca: both .: breath. happiness.: frog dewa-. m.: country naraka-. m.: silence vaktr-. m.: peacock mauna-. m.: treasure prana-. adv. Pl.: story kapota-. contentedness ca . virtue wloka-.: hermitage urvawi-.: hell nidhana-. n.: hermit. m. m. recluse wobhana-.: ornament. m.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-. n. f. n. m.: pigeon taksawila-.: speaker vanaprasta-.: bliss. m. f. m.and cet.ardha-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-. m.: tomorrow . n. n.: satisfaction.: the nymph Urvashi katha-.

G en. cc. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . bl. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. G en. she (sa. bl. this) Sg. tau tau tabh yam Pl. h cc. V oc. ns. te te Pl. N om. this) Sg. at. L oc. N om.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. at. ns.

(relative pronoun which) katamah m. te te tabh yam Pl. (this one) yah m./ itarad n. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a./ sarvam n./ anyad n. at./ katamad n./ viwvam n./ viwva f./ ekam n.follow irregular sandhi pattern. L oc. (all) ekah m.L oc./ katarad n./ sarva f./ katama f. except for nominative and accusative of neuter./ itara f.and esa./ ubhayam n. (which one [of many]) katarah m. cc. V oc./ katara f./ anya f. (one) ubhayah m./ ya f. Here they . tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m. V oc./ ubhaya f./ yad n. (all) viwvah m. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m. en./ etad n. ns. (different) itarah m. N om. it (tad. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du. bl./ eka f. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg. (other) The following words also follow this declension. (which one [of two]) anyah m./ esa f.

: advice. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7. Other people than you won't accomplish this. so 'vadat (he said). Poor people live in the houses.: noble upadewa-. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. sa isuh (this arrow). instruction . 7. to delight sidh-. caus. yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9. 2. 5. Husbands of these women went to war. Examples: sa purusah (this man). 6. Adj. m. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3.change to -o and the following -a is lost. 4. yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10. prinayati: to please. In these rivers there are many fish. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. 3. 9. caus. I don't want these books.: end arya-. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. m./m." said the general. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. 10. viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. I don't like your behavior. Text (read and translate): 1. In this forest I saw a lion. anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14./n. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. Only kings are born with these signs! 8.

beauty sijha-.: donkey gardabha-.) . f. emaciated pusta-.: mark. Adj.: foolish wiksita-. Adj. Adj. m. Adj. army leader adhika-.: bigger than (with Abl.: splendor.: donkey laksana-.khara-. characteristic. much. m.: fat murkha-.: learned prati: towards (with Acc. brilliance.: many. not one krwa-. m. sign vira-. Adj.: fault. m.) aneka-. m. n.: behavior dosa-. offense wobha-.: lion senapati-.: general. Adj. n.: hero vrtta-. m.: thin.

to learn abhi+nand-. to mount a+wri-.: fire anartha-. adv. n.: end . arohati (I): to ascend.) a+ruh-. untruth anta-. n.: order aksa-. caus. to rule.) adhuna. to practise a+diw-. much. m.: repeating.: lie. m.: the poet Amaru amrta-.: bee amaru-. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-. m. to perform. adv. caus.) adhi+i-.: poverty aneka-. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: unrighteousness adhastat. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. adv. n. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at./n. to welcome (Acc.: fire ajba-. not one anila-. f. caus. n. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-.: food anrta-. dice ali-. n. m. m. to call in a+jba-. Adj. to seek refuge in abharana-. studying acarya-.: teacher adewa-.: many.) abhi+ni-. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-. agamayati: to let come a+hr-. n. m.: now adya. m. m. under (Gen. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-.: bigger than (with Abl.: down. abhinayati (I): to conduct. ahvayati (IV): to call here.: order adharma-. abhyasyati (IV): to study. m. Adj.: today. now agamana-. acamati (I): to sip. m. decoration abhi+a+as-. to act abhi+vad-. to rinse a+car-.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. acarati (I): to do.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-. m. to drive adhika-.: robe.: wind anna-.: eye. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-. awrayate (I): to depend on.: coming agni-.

m. bhasate (I): to speak. badhyate: to bind bahu-.: hermitage awru-.: different.: enemy arth-.: tear awva-.: transgression. to steal apa+ni-. m. postp.: sword asura-.: end anu+gam-.: bliss. abundant.: agreement apa+har-. force.: seat.: arm bala-. to perform anujba-. m. adj. strength bhadra-.: half ari-./m.: husband bharya-. n.: sun bhara-. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-. lower aparaddha-.: boy. m.: horse badh-.: numerous. f.: burden.anta-. adj.: here ava+gam-. to say . m. m. apanayayati: to lead away apara-. m. f. m. n.: demon ati+kram-. caus.: hope awrama-. prosperity bhaga-. to transgress atithi-.: guest atra. m. n. n.: power.: devotion bhan-. adv. Adj.: for the sake of arya-. load bhartr-. even though aranya-. also. child bala-. anutisthati (I): to follow. n. apaharati (I): to take away. f. m. prosperity. m. m. pass.: meaning. avarohati: to descend awa-. part. many bahu-. m. n.: noble as-. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-.: wife bhas-. m. position asatya-. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-.: forest ardha-. m. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-. asyati (IV): to throw asana-. wealth arthe.: part bhakti-. f. n. even. lie asi-. happiness. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. atikramati (I): to cross over.: "un-truth".) artha-. to carry out. offence api-.

dawati (I): to bite deha-. f. female slave datr-. m.: Buddhist monk. m. postposition: if chaya-. m. dandayati (X): to beat. carati (I): to walk. m.: land. earth. f.: Buddha buddhi-. adv. m.: fear bhaya-. meeting.: eyebrow bhu-.: temple .: earth. f. land.: wisdom ca .: frog daridra-. to roam. n.: brother bhrtaka-. n.: seeing.: body deva. ground bhupala-. f.: drop brahmana-.: food bhojana-. slave dasi-. m. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-. dahati (I): to burn dana.: stick. f.: gift dand-.: alms bhiksu-. punishment dardura-.and car-.: giver daw-. m. corayati (X): to steal da-. audience dasa-.: ruler bhusana-.: beautiful cet.: shadow. adj. f. m. diyate: to give dah-.: poor darwana-. m. beggar bhojana-. m.: language bhaya-.: fear bhiks-. lord devalaya-.: brahmin buddha-. mn.: female servant.: servant bhru-. mendicant.: servant. m. n. prosperity bindu-. f.: well-being. dapayati: to let give da-. m. m. n. f. m.bhasa-. to become bhu-. n. caus.ca: both .: servant bhrtya-. shade ciram.: for the long time cur-.: food bhram-. adj. pass. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-. bhavati (I): to be.: ornament bhuti-. ground bhumi-.: god. to punish danda-. n. to practise caru-. f. m.

money dhanya-. dhyayati (IV): to think. jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-. to seem drw-.: clarified butter. m. m. m. n. m. to look duhitr-. dravati (I): to run drw-. to point dosa-. caus. brahmin dvijati-.: patience.: the goddess Durga durjana-. m.: thought. darwayati: to show drw-. n. f. Buddhism dhav-. only evam. Law. gacchati (I): to go gan-.: elephant gam-. n. adv.: donkey gavga-. m. righteousness.: scent.: wealth.: pot.devi-.: "twice-born". f. ganayati (X): to count gandha-. firmness dhana. mistress dewa-. m.: song gopa-. fragrance gardabha-.adj.: mountain gita-. pasture ghata-. pas. f. f.: thus ga-. n. m. to meditate dirgha-.: daughter duhkha-.: bad man. m.: goddess.: fault. pawyati (IV): to see. drwyate: to look (like).: messenger dvija-. m. distressed durga-. adj. adj.: village .: country dhairya-.. m.: suffering duhkhita. far div-. n. dhavati (I): to run dhi-.: unhappy. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-.: cowherd gostha-.: wise. diwati (VI): to show. ghee giri-. m.: long. f.: bad.: cowshed grama. courage.: just. f. firm dhrti-. n. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-.: "twice-born". villain dusta-.: grain dharma-.: grass. jar ghra-. rotten duta-. m. reason dhira-. adj. m. adv. m. member of a high caste eva. m.: the river Ganga ghasa-. firmness dhya-. offense dru-.: law.: courage.

n. adv. f. to tremble . m. master. m. close. iksate (I): to look at. m. m. Indra's wife is-. to yearn for isu-. f.: oh! hr-. f. icchati (VI): to want.: quarrel.: now iha. to stare indra-. m. adv. part. to conquer jiv-. part. kampate (I): to shake. glory ji-.: Indrani. ghatayati: to kill hari-. like. to take away. m. f. guhati (I): to hide.: personal name hasta-.: life juhu-.: benefit. part.: water jamatr-. caus. to conceal guna-.: life jivita-. m. m.: sometimes kalidasa-. guru han-.: teacher. m.: as. fight kalena. m. hvayati (IV): to call huta-.: quality guru-. offering idanim.: father janani-.: house grhastha-. n.: mother jati-.: birth. adv.: Hindu god Indra indrani-. goodness kama-.: householder guh-. book (text) grha-. n. harati (I): to take. m. m.: near.: composition.: sacrificial ladle kada. caste jaya-. god jala. n.: pleasure.: oblation.: time. n. n.: arrow iti. m.: victory. adv. m.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-. jayati (I): to win.grantha-. death kalaha-. jayate (IV): to be born jana-. as if iwvara-. n.: so iva. desire kamp-. in proximity hrdaya-.: when? kala-. m. adv. jivati (I): to live jivana-.: lord. m.: person janaka-. to carry hrasvam.: son-in-law jan-. m.: hand he.: heart hu-. here iks-.

ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-.Acc. to cultivate (field) krsi-. m. adv. f. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. black krt-.) kupa-. m.: what?. adj. n. tax karana-.: where? kva. sign laksmi-.: anger kr-. pass.: kshatriya. characteristic.: moment ksatriya-.: agriculture krsna-. m.: whole krudh-. kathayati (X): to tell. fighter ksetra-. f.: milk kumara-. ksamate: to forgive (what . n. m.: poet kavya-.: well kutah.: field ksip-. krsati (I): to plow.: story katham. adv. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat.: plough . krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-. lance kup-. m. khadati (I): to eat khan-.: spear. daughter kapota-. to whom . kriyate: to do krodha-.: girl. n.: mat kath-.: cause kastha-.: where? labh-. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m. emaciated ksal-. adv. n. why? kirti-. young man kunta-. khanati (I): to dig khara-.Dat. m.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-.: how? kavi-. adv.) kopa-.: wood kata-.: thin. or Dat.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-.: mark. n. f.: donkey kim. Adj.) krwa-. m.. to obtain laksana-.: where from? why? kutra. m.: fame klp-. m. f.kanya-. f. adv.) ksana-. m.: prince.: hand. n. or Dat. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. n. elephant's trunk.: poetry kawi-. or Gen. f. to narrate katha-. m.: pigeon kara-. labhate (I): to get.: anger krs-.

postp. saint murkha-.) lup-. m.: gem. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-. m. lubhyati (IV): to long for. f.: honey madhye.: death muc-. m. f. m.: queen mahisa-. marayti: to kill mr-. statue nadi-.: face.: buffalo maksika-.: delusion moksa-.: foolish murti-.: cloud mitra-. m. f.: way. m.) mukha-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-.: greed loka-.: river nagara. precious stone manoratha-.: desire manusya-. m. mrgayate (X): to search for. f. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-.: city. or Loc.: deliverance muni-. m. n. n.: great king maharani-. m. n. n. means also "people") lubh-. form. lumpati (VI): to steal.: main. n. m.: garland mam: me (Acc. m.: fish mauna-.likh-. m.: deliverance mr-. m. to hunt for mrga-. f. road masa-.: between. foremost mukti-. modate (I): to delight in (Ins.: person marana-. likhati (VI): to write lip-. f. mubcati (VI): to free. mouth mukhya-. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-.: city .: friend moha-. f. town nagari-. m.: deer mrtyu-. m. to discharge mud-. adj.: peacock megha-. to desire (with Dat. manyate (IV): to think. m.: fly mala-.: silence mayura-. to rob mad-. n.: sage.: world (in Pl. to suppose mani-.: month matsya-.) man-.: death marga. m. caus. Adj.: image.

m. n. parinayati: to marry parthiva-. different para+ji-.: scholar.: woman nataka-. palm panini-.: hail!.: step. m. adj. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-.: ruler . footprint pada-. king nrpati-.: foot.: order nidhana-. glory! (Dat. n. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-.: leader netra.m. m. n.: axe pari+dha-. n. drama navina-. nawyati (IV): to be lost. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-. f. n.: hell nari-.: lotus pal-. adv.: one's. adj.: sin para-.: decision nrpa-.) nandana-. m. m.: the grammarian Panini papa-. palayati: to protect pa-. sinful papa-.: play.: new naw-. m. caus. adj.: destruction. m.nam-. n. m.: treasure nih+gam-. nivedayati: to announce.n. adj. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-.: low nidewa-. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-.: man naraka-. m. namati (I): to bow. pacati (I): to cook pada-. place padma-. caus. own nivewana-. to report nica-. adj. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-. pibati (I): to drink pac-.: king..: highest. m.: ruler. m. m. to perish nawa-.: dwelling niwcaya-. to worship namas-. n. palayati (X): to protect pandita-. ruler pa-. annihilation netr. nispadyate (IV): to originate.: hand. to appear nija-.: bad. learned man pani-.: Indra's paradise naptr-.: grandson nara-.: eye ni-. m. to prostrate. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-. m.

: wife pattra-. pidayati (X): to torture. Pl. parayati (X): to overcome pr-. caus.: worship. to expect prati+sidh-.) pra+stha-. f.: traveler pati-. Du. to restrain prayaga-.: clean. m. m.: subject. people prana-. puryate: to fill pr. parents. to fly pataliputra-. to go back. n. f. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. f.: sacrificial animal. many praja-. caus. prabhavati (I): to arise. to delight prthivi-. to arise prabhuta-. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-. patati (I): to fall. n. m. to revere puja-. to return prati+iks-. letter paura-.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-.: grandfather pitr-. cattle pawupalya-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-. hill pat-.: mountain.: leaf. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-. life prasada-. prinayati: to please. pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. m. homage . m. prathayati: to propagate. n. ancestors pr-.: manifold. atonement pri-. to beg pra+as-. prarthayate: to ask. otec. m.: palace prath-.: snare. to appear pra+jan-. m. Pl.: lesson. master. m. m. husband patni-.) prati+bhas-. caus. to take refuge in (Acc.: earth puj-. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-. study pathika-. to disseminate.: expiation.parvata-.: breath. caus. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-. pravartate (I): to become.: the breeding of cattle pid-.ch-. pathati (I): to read. adj. pratigacchati (I): to come back. to hurt pitamaha-. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. adj. trap pawu-. prapadyate (IV): to go to. pujayati (X): to honour.: citizen pavitra-. m. pratiksate (I): to await. patayati: to knock down pat-. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. holy pawa-. to recite patha-. to worship. m.: Lord. f. n. pass.

righteous sadhu-. m. rocate (I): to like (Dat.: merit pura-. rohati (I): to grow rupa-. n. raksati (I): to protect raksana-. m.: battle ratha-. f. m. sahate (I): to bear. m.: heap. Gen. n. adv.: daughter r-. n.: protector ram-.: with (with Inst. precious stone rawi-.: enemy rksa-. assembly sad-. stream purana-. m.: son putri-. f.: again punya-. rcchati (I): to get.: form.: illness rsi-.: chariot rathya-.: kingdom raks-.: protection raksana-..: suddenly . to obtain.: always sadhu-.: epos Ramayana rana-. f.: holy man sagara-. f. prep. m. n. to endure saha.: man puspa-. m.) rud-.: congregation. n. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-.: old story.: gem ratna-.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-. m.: flower pusta-. sidati (I): to sit. adv. m. rodati (I): to weep ruh-.: jewel.: fat pustaka-. f. m.punar. quantity rawmi-. Adj. m.: holy. to share rac-.: flood. ramate (I): to play rama-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-. m. n. n.: ray ripu-. f. meeting. m.: seer ruc-.: protection raksitr-. mn. adv. mass.: bear roga-. adj. or postp.: book (manuscript) putra.) sahasa. to sit down sada. beauty rupaka-. n. n.: queen rajya-. n.: coin sabha-. m.: sea sah-.: street ratna-.

the god of the Sun suta-. by all means sarvatra. or Loc. adv.: complete. even samagra-.: gold svapna-. army leader sev-. at that time . a hymn of praise stri-. n.: thief.: ocean.: doubtful. caus.: Vedic hymn sundara-.: tradition. serpent sarvatah. m. smarati (I): to remember smrti-. questionable sajtosa-.) snusa-. n.: creation stena-.) sam+gaj-. to stay stotra-. m. m. m. sevate (I): to serve.: beauty surya-. m.: creator srj-. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-. f. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. adj.: ode.: general. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. n.: charioteer suvarna-. f.: well. rightly sarpa-. f. adv. to honour (Acc. m. f.: servant sic-. m. sajbhasate (I): to converse. dream svarga-. n. f. adj.: sister tad-. m. m. to talk with (Ins.: daughter-in-law sprw-. f.: heaven svasr-.: sun. contentedness sam+a+car-. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-.) seva-.: truth senapati-. adv. srjati (VI): to create srsti-.: service sevaka-. adj. adv.: satisfaction. f. sea samyak. equal. tadayati (X): to beat tada. n. m. sajgacchate: to come together sama-. n.: soldier sajdigdha-.: woman stuti-. tisthati (I): to stand.: happiness sukta-.: lion smr-.: praise sukha-.: everywhere satya-.: beautiful sundari-. m. whole samudra-.: snake. robber stha-.: sleep.: then. thoroughly. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-.sainika-. f.: everywhere. adj.: same. to discharge sidh-. m.

to weigh tus-. best vari-. n. to flow vaiwya-. f.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-. m.: there tira-. bank tr-. part. recluse vand-. tudati (VI): to strike. so tatra. m.: water varuna-.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-. vadati (I): to speak. upadiwati (VI): to teach.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-. m.: thus. f.: advice. adj. trade vap-. adv.: high ud+pat-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. m. vapati (I): to sow vapi-. tyajati (I): to leave. to stand up udadhi-.: clothing . to admonish upa+iks-.: but tud-.: garden udyana-. adv. uttisthati (I): to get up. instruction urvawi-. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-. f.) taru-.: hermit. n. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-. n. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-. twisted vaktr-. adj. tusyati (IV): to rejoice.: tree tata-. adj. tarati (I): to cross over tu.: shore. m. to grieve (Abl. n. to instruct.: pond. tolayati (X): to lift up. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-. m.: exertion. vahati (I): to carry. perseverance upa+diw-.: daddy tatha.: forest vanaprasta-. m. pass. wife vah-. vandate (I): to praise. ucyate: is called vad-.taksawila-.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. to give up ucca-.: curved. m.: garden udyoga-. n. f.: better. to pay homage vanijya-.: speaker vana-. pool vara-.) tyaj-. to pierce tul-. n.: dwelling vastra-.: woman. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-. to blow. to say vadhu-.: business.: ocean udyana-. m. n. f. to be satisfied (Ins.

n.: arrow warana-. vindati (VI): to get.: ruler. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-.: treatise. f. "punisher" wastra-.: disputation. m. vedayati: to announce. law-book watru-. wisdom vihaga-. pass. to punish wastr-.: thing. m. m. to enlarge vrka-. m. m. n.: story vyadh-. argument viw-.: hero visnu-. to pour down.: refuge was-. to shower vrt-. wealth vayu-.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-. to abandon (Abl. caus.: student.: tree vrs-.: enemy wikhara-. n. m.: hero vira-. caus.: wound. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-. m. n. f.) vi+vad-.: summit. m.: bird vinaya-. to no avail vrtta-. m. m.: hunter vyaghra-. pupil . m. m.: poison vrana-. to exist vrt-. direction vidya-.: wind vi+ram-. n. wamyati (IV): to be pacified.: branch wam-. mode. silence wara-. rule.: tiger wajs-. vartate (I): to live on vrtha. n. top wiks-. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-.: wolf vrksa-.vasu-.: peace. adv. wisyate: to rule. viramate (I): to give up. Adj. vardhayati: to make bigger. m.: discipline vipra-.: wave vid-. n. m. to be finished wanti-. m. m. m.: in vain. sore vrdh-.: behavior vrttanta-. f.: learned wisya-. to acquire vidhi-.: knowledge.: brahmin vira-. vivadati (I): to argue vici-. varsati (I): to rain. m.: way. vartate (I): to be. wajsati (I): to praise.: bird vihaga-. m. m. to make known vid-. to extol wakha-.

adv. as (relative) yati-. m. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-. m. f.: mother-in-law wvawura-.: ascetic yatra.: Shiva wiwu-. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-. m. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-. f. m. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-.: yoga yuddha-.: the river Yamuna yat-. f. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: war yudh-. n.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-. brilliance. yudhyati (IV): to fight . pron. caus.: splendor. wocate (I): to regret (Abl.) yatha. oblation for them wram-. wruyate: to hear wruti-. wealth wru-.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-. m.: ornament. beauty. f. adj.: Vedic scripture wubh-.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then…. m.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-.: which yada.) wudra-.: how. as far as yoga-. beauty wobhana-.: tomorrow wvawru-.: sacrifice yam-.: white ya-. m. pass. adv. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. rel. virtue wraddha-. m. adv. m. f.: child wloka-.wiva-. m.: when (relative) yaj-.: father-in-law wveta-. adv. m.: luck. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas.: child wiwu-.

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