Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

brahmanah sada yajanti devan | .to -cch-: gacchati. stha. "god") Nom.(VI. na vadanti (they do not say.to -i-: sidati. yacchati.. bhojanaj tu (but the food. "fruit") Nom.(to give) change -m.. devan Voc. buddham eva (just the Buddha.. phalani Acc. just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits). In Sanskrit. tu (but). class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI. va (or). and I. ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits).(to go) and yam. Text (read and translate): 1. sad. is (to want) changes -s. devah Acc. the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence. devah phala (n. phalani Voc. classes: gam. the Buddha only). balah kataj diwati | 2. Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and). kutra katah | 3. they are not saying).. Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?).).(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi. eva (particle of emphasis. phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad.in front of the verb.to -cch-: icchanti.Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m. bhojanam atra (the food [is] here). Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na.(to sit) changes -a. So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going).

nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. Where are the elephants? 5. narandevah srjati | 13. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17. tatha jivamah | 18. 11. kada danani yacchatha | 26. there the people do not live. you are pointing the way. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. danani yacchanti | 10. Where are you (pl. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. Where the water does not flow. 3. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 7. nrpah kva sidati | 7. dhanamicchamah | 24. devannamanti | 22. gramamadya viwamah | 14. 4. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. Where is the city.) going? 2. there stay the houses. 8. 9. margaj diwatha balah | 19. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. Brahmins still sit there. Do you want milk? 10. We are leaving the world today. 6. nagarameva gacchami | 9.4. The exercise key . balah ksiramicchati | 23. 12. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. I want water. Boys. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. grhamatra tisthati | 6. We praise the boys.

sprwati (VI): to touch kata-.: elephant grama-. srjati (VI): to create stha-.: son marga-. road eva.: wealth. n. to yearn for gam-. m.: then.: water dana-. to stay sprw-.: just. to sit down srj-. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-.: where (relative) yada.Vocabulary is-. m. m. tyajati (I): to leave. m.: city.: when (relative) . to point dhav-. wajsati (I): to praise. adv.: mat ksira-. diwati (VI): to show.: way. so tada. adv. adv.: when? tatha. town putra-. only kada. namati (I): to bow.: thus.: village jala-. m. sidati (I): to sit. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. to prostrate. yacchati (I): to give viw-. at that time yatra. to give up diw-. money nagara-. adv. n. lord dhana-. to worship yam-. adv. n. tisthati (I): to stand. adv.: gift deva-. to extol sad-.: milk gaja-. m.: god. n. n. icchati (VI): to want. dhavati (I): to run nam-.

It has always the same form for Nominative. vrs-. Nom.Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. the second grade is vrddhi. normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. devau phale Voc. Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. ji-. bhavati (to be). vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. to conceal). class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. the first grade is called guna. nayati (to lead). Accusative and Vocative cases: m. jayati (to win. bhu-. dravati (to run). jighrati (III. guhati (to hide. pibati (to drink). ruh-. The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. class. to shower). rohati (to grow). But note some irregularities: guh-. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. ghra-. pa-. vad+a+tah They (two) say n. to smell). Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here). to conquer). If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . Acc. dru-. varsati (to rain.

Here stand (two) trees. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. The Buddha speaks the truth. anilah sada na vahati | 16. 6. The ruler conquers both fighters. devau smaramah | 9. 7. balau phale khadatah | 20. 12. 5. 4. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. devavadya smaramah | 10. 8. Just here are (two) horses. To the forest run the (two) elephants. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. he nrpau jayathah | 11. dahasi he anala | 15. They give money and gifts. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. Where are both horses? 3. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. .a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. 2. Where do you hide money? 11. atraiva vasavah | 5. Home (emphasized) go both boys. satyaj na vadathah | 18. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. Where are you (two) going now? 9. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. Just today we both go to the city. Here we (two) do not live. 10.

to become vah-.: scent.13.: tree satya-. m. m. m. to conceal ghra-. jighrati (III): to smell ji-. to flow ruh-. m. to shower smr-.: forest vrksa-.: wind gandha-. jayati (I): to win. fragrance megha-. to blow. dravati (I): to run ni-.: oh! . guhati (I): to hide. m.: everywhere he.: cloud vana-. dahati (I): to burn dru-.: fire anila-. n. Here sarvatra. vahati (I): to carry.: horse anala-. part. nayati (I): to lead pa-. to pour down. khadati (I): to eat guh-. m. varsati (I): to rain. smarati (I): to remember awva-. bhavati (I): to be. n. adv.: truth iha. to conquer dah-. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-. adv. pibati (I): to drink bhu-. rohati (I): to grow vrs-.

Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). the goal of the motion (I go to the city). phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. Loc. Nom. devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. is also used to denote reason (from anger).. Locative: the location. devah Acc. . Loc. the agent in a passive construction. deva And for neuter: phala (n. Ins. Accusative: the object (I see you). circumstances (in the city). phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen. devam Du.. Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). "god") Sg. telling (to the boy).Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. by carriage). Dat. "by means of ". phalasya Voc. Ins. phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). Dative: the indirect object. "fruit") Sg. as English "through". devau devau Pl. Dat. phalam Acc. Nom. "by" (with the Buddha. giving. "because of". phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. devasya devayoh Voc. Abl. Abl.

mubcati (see Vocabulary). hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. For example: muc-. This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. man?). jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. j and sibilants). putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root.the fighter says that he lives here). megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. -u before any vowel (except for -u. Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). If the following word beggins with a short a-. see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). narah gacchanti (the men go).Vocative: the address (Who are you. The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here). n for t. ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. b for c and j. dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. m for p. -i. There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. -i before any vowel (except for -i. -u. ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here).

: power. n. to practise muc-. People want happiness. n. Men with boys go to the forest. to roam. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-.: father duhkha-. to discharge aranya-.: plough vipra-. Trees do not grow on high mountains. m. n./n. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. brahmin pathika-. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-. m. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13.: brahmin . sibcati (VI): to sprinkle.: traveler parvata-. 2. krntati (VI): to cut car-.11.: battle rama-.: "twice-born". limpati (VI): to smear sic-. strength mrga-. 6. m. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17. force. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys. 7. 8. People do not live in forests.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-.: forest kumara-. 3. hill bala-. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. m.: deer rana-.: mountain. 4. Traveler walks on the way to the village. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16. m. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. but not suffering.: prince. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15. 5. m. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14. to discharge yaj-. n. m. young man janaka-. m. m. mubcati (VI): to free. carati (I): to walk. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12.: suffering dvija-.

: high iti. n. adj. n. part. why? kutah. why? tu.: but The exercise key .: hand huta-.: oblation. n.: where from?.: what?. m.: so kim. m.viwa-.: poison wiva-. adv. adv.: Shiva sukha-. part. offering ucca-.: happiness hasta-.

"un-noble".(n. Ins. Loc. noble. But if the following word begins with -r. arya. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati. vari Acc. Loc. unhappiness. asukha. Du. poet tells to the seer). fire) Sg. anarya.. Dat. agne vari. Dat.Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. Abl. vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. Nom. fire burns). agneh Voc. varini varini Pl. sorrow. Nom. varinah varinoh Voc. For example: sukha-. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an. Rama goes with the poets). Ins. happines. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati. water): Sg. agni Pl..(if it begins with a vowel). agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen. the fire is here. . Abl. Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. vari varina varine Du.(m. agnih Acc.

jalaj gireh patati | 10. dh. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. Where people burn the forests. From sin there is always suffering. balau kuto rodatah | 2. Hari's horse is standing just here. n) or dental (t. 5. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. no elephants live. n) between them (so. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. d. dh. says the brahmin to the poet. 9. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. 2. satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. 7. Text (read and translate): 1.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. "O. "You don't speak the truth". Even today people remember Rama. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. ch. j. retroflex (t. poet. nominative plural of vari is varini). 8. If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. th. nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). b). rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. th. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). asks the king. but from the Law [there is] happiness. 3. why don't you recite poetry?". . 6. rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. weep the boys. harij ksirena yajatah | 18. "Enemies rob the houses here". jh. 4. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. We live happily here in the mountains. d.

: sword rsi-. n.: body dharma-. righteousness. n. pathati (I): to read.: "un-truth". m.: water sukta-.: Lord.: enemy asatya-. to rob agni-. master. m.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-. m. m. m. rodati (I): to weep lup-. also.: servant.: poetry giri-. lumpati (VI): to steal. m.: personal name api-. m. n.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-. n. even though . ruler pati-.: hand. m. husband pani-. to pierce path-.: food ari-. slave deha-.: mountain jana-. m.: law.: sin varuna-.: Vedic hymn hari-. to recite rud-. tudati (VI): to strike.: poet kavya-.: king. palm papa-. m.: fire anna-.: person dasa-. m. lie asi-. m. m. n. part. m. mn. even. n. Buddhism nrpati-.: seer kavi-. Law.

Abl. Loc. Therefore: drw-. (enemy) Sg. Dat. kupyati (to be angry).(to see) is irregular and defective. Du. Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes). But if a is used separately as a preposition. . Ins. pawyati (to see.is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here). a vanat (only from the forest). watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. Only passive is constructed from this root. The verb drw. watruh Acc. indicative uses different root (paw-). Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-. th.Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV. anayati (to bring). watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen.means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). Nom.is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). m. it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). For example a. -h after any vowel and before c-. -h after any vowel and before t-. to look). agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). watru Pl. ch. class are thematic verbs. The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. watroh Voc.

wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. or Dat. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. "What are you writing now. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17.) . 2. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. but father lives here." asks teacher the student. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4.Text (read and translate): 1. 5. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. 6. By the power of [your] arms you win. 7. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. We do not live here. The king with fighters comes to the city. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. oh king. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. naro 'wvamarohati | 10. "There stands father's house. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21. 4. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. 3. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. asyati (IV): to throw kup-." says the boy to the traveler. 8. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13.

m.: leaf.krudh-. or Loc.) . footprint bahu-.: foot. law-book wisya-. m. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-. m. prep. or Dat. m.: gem. n. to mount likh-. pupil saha. n.: student.: enemy visnu-. mass.: arm bindu-.: axe pada-. quantity ripu-. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-.: jewel. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. lubhyati (IV): to long for. to call in udadhi-.: ocean guru-. likhati (VI): to write lubh-. m. m. to look yudh-. or Loc.: with (with Inst. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-. m.: teacher.: bird watru-. arohati (I): to ascend. m. precious stone rawi-. precious stone ratna-. or postp. n. agacchati (I): to come tr-.) hu-. m. m. letter parawu-.) wus-.: heap.: enemy wastra-. pawyati (IV): to see.) a+gam-. guru pattra-. to desire (with Dat. m.: treatise. m. to perish drw-. yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-. ahvayati (IV): to call here. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. m. nawyati (IV): to be lost.: drop mani-.

Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. madhunah madhunoh Voc. devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). madyati (to be intoxicated). madhu Acc. meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. mad-. gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. Abl. tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. madhu madhuna madhune Du. madhuni madhuni Pl. A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). vidhyati (to pierce). nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7. alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). Dat. kram-. kramati (to walk). rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. Nom. The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. bhramyati (to wander). Text (read and translate): 1.is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. Ins. Loc. the root vyadh. rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3.

tusyati (IV): to rejoice. Fighters play for money (Ins. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16.: tear rksa-. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. rcchati (I): to get. to share a+kram-. to be finished wram-. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-. acamati (I): to sip. to grieve (Abl. to rinse tam-. Birds are flying to the tree. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-. to carry aksa-. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-.12.). 8. harati (I): to take.) tus-. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13. anayati (I): to bring bhram-. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-. 5. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. to obtain.: unrighteousness ali-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. Bees wander around flowers of the trees. 7.: bear . There are many things in the houses. n. m. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. dice adharma-. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. jalenagnih wamyati | 15.: bee awru-. 3. Tears are flowing on boy's face. n. 6. to be satisfied (Ins. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. Death conquers even unrighteousness. m. m.: eye. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14. 2.) div-. to take away. 4.

m. m.: numerous.: honey manusya-. m.: person mukha-.: hero bahu-. n. abundant. adj. wealth vira-.: eye puspa-.: part madhu-.n.: anger krodha-. n.: death vasu-.kopa-. many . m. mouth mrtyu-.: flower bhaga-. n.: thing.: anger netra. m. m. n.: face.

suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house).between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. class add -aya. jan-. bhayayati (to cause fear). vid-. The vowel -a. Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). vedayati (to make known). to generate). pidayati (to torture). Text (read and translate): 1. but: pid-. gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. Before palatals. ksalayati (to wash). it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12.instead of just -a. janayati (to give birth. corayati (to steal). narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud).Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). suto 'wvanpidayati | 8. Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7. grhalloka agacchanti | 15. punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. dharayati (to hold). rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. If the root ends in a vowel. devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17.to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. bhi-. papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world). navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key .

m. to worship.: clothing vrttanta-.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-. aharati (I): to bring danda-. n. "Why do you beat me. to punish pid-. n. Merit protects from grief. Father tells son about fruits of sins. m.: story wudra-. adj. corayati (X): to steal tad-.: old story. m. n. tolayati (X): to lift up. to narrate ksal-.: as.: coin vastra-. 6. 3. 2.: epos Ramayana rupaka-. n. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns. dandayati (X): to beat.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. part. n.: merit purana-.: charioteer stena-.: holy man suvarna-. as if mam: me (Acc. like. 5. tadayati (X): to beat tul-.: new iva. punishment punya-. n. 7.: servant ramayana-.) wash their faces. ganayati (X): to count cur-. m. m. to hurt puj-. robber navina-. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. m. Boys (Du. pidayati (X): to torture. n. pujayati (X): to honour. kathayati (X): to tell.: gold suta-. I want new clothes.: thief." asks the servant the king. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. to weigh dand-. 8. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-.) . 4. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword.: stick. to revere pr-. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-.

labhe Du. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). labhate (to get. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. labh-. vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. o. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. Before other vowels a final -e. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. to obtain) A: Sg. labhase labhethe 3. fire. agni iksate balah | 11. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13.is unchanged. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2. But this initial a. adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. god Agni). vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. -e. But Dual endings -i. 1. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). Text (read and translate): 1. vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. Pl. ksatriya rsi sevante | . "word for another"). phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. But in Sanskrit. -o at the end of the word and before a.

arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. mriyate (IV): to die yat-. Children ask the father for food. sahate (I): to bear. Gen. sevate (I): to serve. goodness taru-. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear.: deliverance yajba-.: "twice-born". Holy men (Du. 4.: exertion. m. rocate (I): to like (Dat. cattle bhanu-. wiksate (I): to learn sah-.: sacrifice . 2.) a+rabh-.: sacrificial animal. vandate (I): to praise. 6. perseverance kalyana-. to say mr-. to stare kamp-. m. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5. 8.) labh-. firmness pawu-. Boys like fruit.) iks-. m.) begin with a sacrifice. to honour (Acc.) ruc-. courage. 3. to pay homage wiks-. member of a high caste dhairya-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. n..17. to tremble jan-. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. n. iksate (I): to look at.: patience. m. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-. m. m.: poverty udyoga-. labhate (I): to get.: tree dvijati-. to endure sev-. to obtain vand-. bhasate (I): to speak. m.) anartha-.: sun moksa-.: benefit. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18. The father is looking at son's face. m. 7. Father likes sons' discipline. kampate (I): to shake.

m. m.: discipline wiwu-. m.vayu-.: child samudra-.: ocean.: wave vinaya-. sea .: wind vici-. m. m.

sene sene Pl. satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni. to honour). senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen. Loc.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f. sena Acc. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2.(towards.is changed into -n. following): anu+gacchati (to go after.. Abl. senam senaya senayai Du. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s.is changed into -s. hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | .(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa. -n.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam.(after.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry).(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu. to follow) ava.(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. Text (read and translate): 1. Ins. Dat. army) Sg.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve.after a prefix containing -r. senayah senayoh Voc.(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari. Nom.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra.

utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 4. 6. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. m. Many trees grow on the mountain. Here on the street kings (Du. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11.: householder .) descend from black horses. The student asks householder's wife for alms. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. 3. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-. daughter gavga-. 8.: the river Ganga grhastha-. prapadyate (IV): to go to. The king conquers enemies in the battle. f.: girl. m. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. f. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. 5. to take refuge in (Acc. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. 2.: arrow kanya-. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9. 7. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari.5. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-. sajgacchate: to come together isu-. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-.) bhiks-. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13.

adj. shade prayaga-. wisdom vyadha-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-. n.: heaven hrdaya-.: suddenly . sinful prabhuta-.: language bhiksa-. n. m. f. black papa-. f.: manifold.: bad. f.: gem rathya-. f.: alms yamuna-.chaya-.: shadow. m.: refuge svarga-. adv. f.: heart krsna-.: fear bharya-.: the river Yamuna ratna-. many sahasa. n. n.: street vidya-.: wife bhasa-. f.: knowledge. f. f.: hunter warana-. adj.

kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . supyate (to sleep). diyate (to give). pass. pass. stuyate (to praise). It is used with the instrumental case. svap-. upyate (to sow). janairnagaraj gamyate | 6. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12. sutenawvastadyate | 20. coryate. Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. tiryate. vah-. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. sarpena dawyete narau | 19.is changed into -u. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7.Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. The consonant -v. stu-. The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. naraih katah kriyante | 8. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. puryate (to fill). he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. vap-. ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. pass. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. awvena jalaj piyate | 17. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10.in these roots: vac-. jiyate. ucyate (to say). corayati. ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2. kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. vas-.but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. Text (read and translate): 1. mubcati. vad-. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. smaryate (to remember). isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. usyate (to dwell). kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. pr-. dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. Verbs of the X class drop -aya. dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. udyate (to say). rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. pass. mucyate. uhyate (to carry).

load bhiksu-. kriyate: to do ga-. 7. mendicant. n. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. n. m. beggar mala-. puryate: to fill badh-.: pot. Holy man always speaks truth (pass). ghee dhanya-. Grain is sown in the fields. f. to punish wru-.: Buddhist monk. jar ghrta-. 2. pass. wruyate: to hear ajba-. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). 3. gayati (IV): to sing daw-. 5.: order kastha-. pass. 6. m. vapati (I): to sow was-. m. m. pass. 4. serpent .: garland rajya-.: snare. pass. n.: burden. Hari is again praised by Rama.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. pass.: wood gita-.: grain pawa-. "In the shade is comfortably slept. It is played with dices. f. n. Jars are being filled with grain. wisyate: to rule.: clarified butter.: snake.: child sarpa-. badhyate: to bind vap-. dawati (I): to bite da-. 8. n. Girls bind garlands (pass). m. m. diyate: to give pr-." is said by people.: kingdom wiwu-.: song ghata-. pass. trap bhara-.

Text (read and translate): 1. gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. If the verb is prefixed. yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. a+vad+a+t Du. purena grhanyuhyante | . taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. It has special endings: Sg. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. impf. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. aicchat (he wanted). pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). paryanayat. impf. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. a+vad+a+h 3. 2.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-.

In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood. He cut the branch with an axe.: meaning. assembly surya-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. m. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water. 5. top sabha-. uttisthati (I): to get up. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-.: hope indra-. n. meeting. wealth asura-. a hymn of praise . The teacher hit the student out of the anger.: congregation. 8.) sang the praise of Rama. f.: victory. stream prasada-. m.: sea grantha-. m. m. m. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-. book (text) jaya-. m.: fish raksana-.: protection wakha-. 4. to exist ud+stha-. vartate (I): to be. to stand up artha-. glory pustaka-.: book (manuscript) pura-. Brahmins (Du. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-. 7.: demon awa-.: flood.: palace matsya-. Servants brought water in jars. m. n. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. prosperity. m.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 6. m.: sun. m.: summit. the god of the Sun stotra-.: ode. m. 2. you asked the king for protection. f.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. n. When you were ("stood") in trouble.: composition. f.: branch wikhara-. 3. Men sat down on mats.

bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2.. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. . 3. aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. nadyau nadyau Pl. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. Abl. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. river) Sg. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. nadim nadya nadyai Du. satyameva jayate | 12. We bring water from the pond. nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. Nom. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. Ins. nadyah nadyoh Voc. nadi Acc. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. 4. 2. Dat. Loc.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f.

The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-. n. f.: tiger sainika-. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother. mrgayate (X): to search for. f.: robe.: garden janani-. n. n.5. holy samagra-.: pond. to return a+car-.) . f. f. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. 7. to practise mrg-. acarati (I): to do.: female servant. to go back.: queen yoga-. pass.: shore.: woman patni-.: goddess.: great king maharani-. glory! (Dat. pool vyaghra-. to perform. f.: wife putri-.: clean. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler. n.: earth bhusana-. female slave devi-. 8.: river nandana-.: beautiful namas-. adj. m. f. ucyate: is called vrt-.: city nadi-.: Indrani. 6.: hail!. m. m.: daughter prthivi-. f. decoration indrani-. Even the king came with the soldiers. adj. f. n.: Indra's paradise nari-.: yoga vapi-. adv.: soldier pavitra-. m. to hunt for vac-. pratigacchati (I): to come back. f. adj. mistress nagari-. whole sundara-. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea.: complete. f.: mother tira-. f. Indra's wife udyana-.: ornament maharaja-. f. bank dasi-.

bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5. cow): Sg.(serious. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen.and -y. dhenuh Acc. prthvi. f.. matih Acc. f. gurvi. The dative. bahu-. Dat. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. Nom. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2.. punyena muktij labhadhve | .Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u. mati mati Pl. idea): Sg. Nom. mate dhenu.(abundant. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc. Loc. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-. Ins. heavy). Abl. f. dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc. matim matya Du. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3. mati. dhenu dhenu Pl. Text (read and translate): 1. dhenum dhenva Du. guru-. ablative. Ins.(broad).(f.(f. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4. Dat. many). Abl.with -v-). bahvi. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems". Loc.

6. to appear vid-. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. fight kirti-. f. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. 7. m.: courage. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10. to instruct. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8. 3. to acquire wubh-. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. 5.: birth. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. f. People of many castes lived in villages. vindati (VI): to get. m. m.: fame gopa-. m.) upa+diw-. I worship Shiva for prosperity. 6. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15. 8. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14. upadiwati (VI): to teach." said a citizen to the king. palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. caste dhrti-. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. 4.: ruler . nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage.: cowherd jati-. to admonish pal-. wobhate (I): to shine anta-. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women.: end kalaha-. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. firmness parthiva-. f. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat.: quarrel. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7. 2. prabhavati (I): to arise.

: sleep.: deliverance rawmi-. f.paura-. m. silence wruti-. f. f.: wisdom bhakti-. land. adj. m.: fly mukti-.: holy. f. righteous . f. f.: tradition. n.: devotion bhuti-.: wound. adj. f.: ray vrana-. adj.: Vedic scripture smrti-. f. foremost sadhu-.: main. f.: citizen buddhi-.: well-being.: peace. prosperity bhumi-. sore wanti-. ground maksika-. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-. f.: low mukhya-. dream nica-.: earth.

dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. and Loc. nispadyate (to arise). ph. nisidati. us: nih+pad-. pratigacchati. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata.Pl. to lead away. Loc. p-. atikramati. Abl. In addition. wholly: ati+kram-. Dat. above.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. completely overcome adhi-. vidiryate. dhiyau dhiyau Pl. Ins. to carry away prati-. kh-. dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s. 1. alabhe 3. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. against. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. they were seen). pass. alabhata Du. dhih Acc. . apart: vi+dr-. this can also happen in Gen.(f. to rule apa-.. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. impf. adhitisthati. back: prati+gam-. Pl. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2. it is changed into s. to return vi-. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. away: apa+ni-. Sg. Gen. apaniyati. Abl. thought): Sg.changed into -is. completely.. on: adhi+stha-. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems". to govern. Dat..and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. to go back. nyasidat.): dhi. Nom.

ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. nispadyate (IV): to originate. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 2. 6. Mother called (pass. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. Many arrows were shot on the tiger. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. When was the king's son born? 8. to appear prati+bhas-. 4. When the king talked with brahmins.) girls home from the garden. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. elephants and bears were seen there. padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. to transgress pra+jan-. to meditate nih+pad-. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. pratibhasate (I): to answer . nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3.Text (read and translate): 1. 7. dhyayati (IV): to think. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6. 5. he returned to the city. Rama's father was always remembered by people. atikramati (I): to cross over. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. Many tigers. Where did you get white cows? 3.

annihilation padma-. wealth srsti-.: creation krtsna-.: lord. m. m.: delusion ratha-. to drive anujba-. desire karana-. reason nawa-.: destruction. beauty.: man muni-. m. f.: sage.: cause dhi-.: wise. m.: dwelling wri-. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-. master.: thought. adj. f.: luck. f. adj.: greed vasati-. m. m. pratisedhate (I): to prevent.: chariot lobha-.: pleasure. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-. n.: whole caru-. saint moha-. adj.: lotus purusa-. n.rac-. firm wveta-. f.: agreement iwvara-. to rule. m. f. to restrain ni+sev-.: beautiful dhira-.: white . god kama-. adhitisthati (I): to govern. m. adj.

4. annaj yaccha he janani | 13. daddy. 5." asked the boy father. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). 2. 3. . Pl. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11. 7." orders students the tradition. ma gacchatu (let him not go). devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. Let charioteers do not torture horses. "Study the treatises and speak the truth. pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. Let the men dig a pond. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3." said the father. vada Du. "Come today. "Give me food. Text (read and translate): 1. 2. daughter. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. Let the children show the traveler the way. 6. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. vadama 1. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6.

rotten para-. f. m. form.: guest anrta-.: lie. far dusta-. n.: highest. f.: repeating. f. khanati (I): to dig atithi-. by all means hrasvam. meeting. studying adewa-. n. adv. abhyasyati (IV): to study.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-.: order asana-. close. adj.: for the long time sarvatah. in proximity va: or . people murti-. adv.: subject. thoroughly. adv. statue vaiwya-.: seeing. to learn a+diw-. position kawi-.: everywhere. different adhastat.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-.: different. study praja-. under (Gen. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-. lower dirgha-.) ciram.: bad. n. adv. m.: image.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-. m. m. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-. audience pataliputra-.: daddy darwana-. adj.: lesson. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-. m. m. adj.: seat.: long. m. adj.: down. untruth abhyasa-.: near.

(f. Loc. vadhvau vadhvau Pl..(f. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. bhuh Acc. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. Nom. bhuva bhuve Du.. Ins. vadhu bhu. bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. woman): Sg. bhuvau Pl. Ins. Dat. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. Dat. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. Abl. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. Abl. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. Nom. vadhuh Acc. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. Loc. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . earth): Sg. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5.

parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 7. People live on earth and gods in heaven.: queen laksmi-." ordered the householder.: ruler vadhu-. f. m.: the goddess Durga nivewana-. 2. f. pas. There is no water in the well. 4. pravartate (I): to become. drwyate: to look (like). Let us live there. f.: mother-in-law sundari-. m.: quality acarya-. m. earth. f. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri. The eyebrows of beauties are always black. f. "Take away nice clothes.: beauty stuti-. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-. f. 5.: praise . to steal ksana-.: sacrificial ladle durga-.: teacher juhu-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl.: land. f. n.: dwelling bhu-. to arise wuc-. ground bhru-. f.: eyebrow rajbi-. f. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-.: woman. to seem vi+vad-.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-.: well bhupala-. m. wife wvawru-. apaharati (I): to take away. f. m. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-. 6. Let the student not argue with the teacher. 8.13. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16.: moment guna-.) apa+har-. Who protects the earth is called a ruler. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3.

pron.... as far as ya-.snusa-. f.: which . rel.: daughter-in-law vakra-.. twisted yavat-tavat: when.: curved. then. adj.

3. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). Some verbs. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. otherwise active. Do not neglect illnesses. satyaj sadocyatam | 10. 4. . Text (read and translate): 1. idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. Pl. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). This form is widely used especially in 3. 6. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. 1.Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. labhai Du. Let it be thus! 5. person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. Let an ascetic not converse with women. mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. 2. labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.

m. m. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung. m.: well. place puja-.: illness vara-.7. m. rightly . m.: expiation.: time. 8. learned man pada-.: war roga-.) a+wri-. sajbhasate (I): to converse.: ascetic yuddha-. m. atonement bhojana-. villain devalaya-. to expect upa+iks-.: play. to talk with (Ins.: bad man.: worship. m.: step. ghatayati: to kill kala-.: grass. to seek refuge in han-. f. adv.: decision pandita-.: better. adv. m. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-. m. adj. Let women and children are not killed in the war. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-. abhinayati (I): to conduct. to act bhan-.: buffalo yati-.: scholar. homage prayawcitta-.: now kalena. drama niwcaya-. n. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-. n. adv. pratiksate (I): to await. m.: temple nataka-.: food mahisa-.: sometimes samyak. pasture durjana-. n. n. awrayate (I): to depend on. best idanim. m. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-. death kalidasa-. caus.

Pl. Dat. Nom. sister and naptr-. Nom. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du. pitarau Pl. maker): Sg. mother): Sg. Ins. Loc. karta Acc. Abl. mata Acc.. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a..Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns. Ins. kartarau Pl. matarau Pl. pita Acc.(f.(m. pitar matr. kartr. Ins. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du. matuh Voc. Loc. Loc.(m. agent. matra matre matuh matari Du.Du. Dat. father): Sg. pituh Voc.Du. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen. Dat.Sg. and Nom. Nom. kartuh Voc. matar . They differ only in Acc. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen. Abl... kartar pitr. Nom.. Abl. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. Acc. 2) nouns of relationship.

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.


Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. nausu yuddhamabhavat | . yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3. Loc. labhemahi labheran 2. let it be done).(f. jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7. labheta Du. 1. labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. Abl. nauh As you have probably noticed. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. boat): Sg. Nom. labheya 3. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. nava nave nauh navi Du. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. Ins. nauh Acc.Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen.. navau Pl. nauh Voc. The declension of the word nau. Dat. gacchati "[he/she] goes". Text (read and translate): 1. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows".

3.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-. n. n. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive).).: agriculture jivita-.: how. 4. n. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. as (relative) . viramate (I): to give up.: way. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-. adv. even sajdigdha-. pass. n.) abhi+vad-. f. 7.: fear bhrtaka-. to welcome (Acc. adj. n. direction sama-. adj. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living .: life nidewa-. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. n.: servant marana-. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy.: friend vanijya-. equal. to perform apa+ni-.: death mitra-. m. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt. m. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-. m.: business. m.: service pawupalya-.: same. Let women and children be taken away to the city. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. trade vidhi-. mode. f. to carry out.: doubtful.) udyana-.10.: garden krsi-.this we read in the treatises. balavudyane rameyatam | 11. 8. 5. questionable yatha.: order seva-. anutisthati (I): to follow. to abandon (Abl. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12. Let new poems be written! 6. rule. May the friends be always remembered! 2.

nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10. kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13.(to sing). vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9. gamayati (to let go. So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context . And also adhi+i. upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. Text (read and translate): 1. bhavayati (to make something happen). jbapayati (to make known. suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. janayati (see above). to fly). janayati (to give birth. gapayati (to let sing). to make somebody to go). "to sing".(to be born). deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody). wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8.between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. If the root ends in any other vowel. Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p. patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu.translate as "to recite". that is using the augment -aya-: jan. to water). to proclaim). vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6.(to fall. karayati (to cause to be done). we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. The vowel -a.(to know). adhyapayati (to teach). to beget). atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key . gam. "to tell".between the root and -aya-: jba.(to go). When translating the causative. ga. kr.(to do). dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14. "to report" etc.(to learn). suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11. dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4.Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class.(to be).

elephant's trunk. 2. adv. m.: wolf rupa-. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras.: cowshed manoratha-. They watered horses with water from the river. vardhayati: to make bigger. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-.: between. 5. m. caus. 3. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. f. caus.: coming kara-. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. patayati: to knock down mr-. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. amongst (with genitive) arthe.: hand. ajbapayati: to order da-. Show (sg. 6.: form. 4. caus. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. m. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-.) the cows come into the cowshed. postp. Let the householder return home. caus. 7.) the father the books. caus. n. caus. m. 8. darwayati: to show apa+ni-. Let (pl. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. caus.: for the sake of vrtha. caus. beauty stri-. m.: woman madhye. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection.: in vain. caus. caus. tax duta-. to enlarge pa-. caus.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to make known vrdh-.: messenger gostha-. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. postp. vedayati: to announce. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. marayti: to kill vid-.: desire vrka-. caus. to no avail . Let them allow the guests to enter. m.

tva. Gen. Dat.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. Loc. Loc. (you) Nom. Abl. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. (I) Nom. me. Abl. Acc. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. nau. Ins. Acc. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. Dat. te. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. Gen. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. Ins. nah. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. . Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me").

The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-. prathayati: to propagate. offence amaru-.: transgression.Dat.: nectar (the drink of immortality) . begged the boy mother. bhadraj te | 9. bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2.Text (read and translate): 1. n. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. nivedayati: to announce. m.) prath-. kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4. Tell me the story of Urvashi. to beg ksam-. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. I did not steal your gold (passive). anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. Elephants do not live in our country. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. ksamate: to forgive (what . Let the gods protect your life! 6. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. 7. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. prarthayate: to ask. to disseminate. to spread ni+vid-. caus. caus. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13. 5. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. 8. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17.. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15.: the poet Amaru amrta-. to whom . Our (Dual) parents died. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. 2. to report wru-.Acc. n. 4. Let your father go with me. I do not want your (Dual) money. or Gen. 3. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Mother gives food to both you and me. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6. caus.

n. f. adv.: country naraka-. m. recluse wobhana-. postposition: if wvas.: hermitage urvawi-. contentedness ca . m.: peacock mauna-. f.: tomorrow .: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-.ca: both . m. m. life bhadra-. m.: hermit. m.: breath.: pigeon taksawila-. m.: treasure prana-. Pl. m.: the nymph Urvashi katha-.: ornament. m.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-.: silence vaktr-.: speaker vanaprasta-. f.and cet.: half awrama-. n. prosperity mayura-.: story kapota-. happiness.: hell nidhana-.: frog dewa-. m. m. n. virtue wloka-.: satisfaction. n. n.ardha-.: bliss.

N om. this) Sg. L oc. te te Pl. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . bl. N om. at. she (sa. G en. h cc. V oc. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. ns. cc. bl. at. G en. tau tau tabh yam Pl. this) Sg. ns.

en. (one) ubhayah m. (which one [of many]) katarah m. L oc./ sarvam n./ ya f. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m. (all) viwvah m. (relative pronoun which) katamah m. Here they ./ ubhayam n./ katara f./ esa f. (other) The following words also follow this declension. (all) ekah m. it (tad.L oc./ eka f./ katarad n./ etad n. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a. cc./ viwva f. V oc. except for nominative and accusative of neuter.and esa. te te tabh yam Pl./ ubhaya f. (which one [of two]) anyah m./ sarva f./ itarad n./ itara f./ viwvam n. tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m. (this one) yah m./ ekam n./ katamad n. V oc. at./ anya f. ns. (different) itarah m. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg.follow irregular sandhi pattern. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa./ yad n./ anyad n. bl./ katama f. N om.

In these rivers there are many fish. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9.change to -o and the following -a is lost. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1." said the general. caus. m. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. 4. to delight sidh-. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. Adj. caus./n. 6./m. Poor people live in the houses. so 'vadat (he said). Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. m. viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. prinayati: to please. 2. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. instruction . 10. 7. 3. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14. sa isuh (this arrow).: noble upadewa-. Husbands of these women went to war. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7. I don't want these books. 5. Other people than you won't accomplish this. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. 9. I don't like your behavior.: end arya-.: advice. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. In this forest I saw a lion. Examples: sa purusah (this man). yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10. anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3. Text (read and translate): 1.

Adj.: bigger than (with Abl. offense wobha-. characteristic. m. beauty sijha-.: thin.: mark. emaciated pusta-. m. Adj.: learned prati: towards (with Acc. Adj.: hero vrtta-.: splendor.khara-. m.: lion senapati-. n. n. m. sign vira-.: donkey laksana-. Adj.: fat murkha-.: fault.: behavior dosa-. m. Adj. m.) .: many.: foolish wiksita-. Adj.: donkey gardabha-. f. much.: general. not one krwa-.) aneka-. army leader adhika-. brilliance.

: now adya.: order adharma-. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-.: bigger than (with Abl.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. much. agamayati: to let come a+hr-. caus.) a+ruh-.: eye./n.) adhuna.: teacher adewa-. studying acarya-. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-. to perform.: today.: end . m.: lie.: many. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. to act abhi+vad-. now agamana-. n. to mount a+wri-. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-. to practise a+diw-. adv. under (Gen.: down. caus. not one anila-. ahvayati (IV): to call here.: the poet Amaru amrta-.: order aksa-. dice ali-. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-.) adhi+i-. to call in a+jba-. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-. abhinayati (I): to conduct. to rinse a+car-. m. m.: coming agni-.: food anrta-.: wind anna-. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. acamati (I): to sip.: fire ajba-. n. m. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-.: robe. m. arohati (I): to ascend. caus.: bee amaru-.: fire anartha-. to welcome (Acc.) abhi+ni-. untruth anta-. decoration abhi+a+as-. to rule.: poverty aneka-.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-. to drive adhika-. f. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-. m. to seek refuge in abharana-.: repeating. awrayate (I): to depend on. m. m. adv. adhitisthati (I): to govern. abhyasyati (IV): to study. acarati (I): to do. n. n. m. m. n. adv. to learn abhi+nand-. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. n. m. Adj.: unrighteousness adhastat. Adj.

: "un-truth". caus.: for the sake of arya-. to steal apa+ni-. anutisthati (I): to follow.: demon ati+kram-. lie asi-. adj. bhasate (I): to speak.anta-. apaharati (I): to take away.: power. happiness. n. m. even though aranya-. badhyate: to bind bahu-. m./m. Adj.: seat. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. offence api-. postp. n.: noble as-.: numerous. part. m. m.: forest ardha-. adj.: part bhakti-. strength bhadra-.) artha-.: wife bhas-. f. wealth arthe. position asatya-. m. prosperity.: end anu+gam-. also. m. m. many bahu-. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-.: sword asura-.: burden. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-. n.: boy.: half ari-. pass.: hermitage awru-.: enemy arth-. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-.: bliss. n. f.: arm bala-. m. n. asyati (IV): to throw asana-. atikramati (I): to cross over.: tear awva-. load bhartr-. m.: devotion bhan-. m. avarohati: to descend awa-. even. n.: different. to perform anujba-. force. to carry out. m. lower aparaddha-.: hope awrama-. m. m.: meaning.: agreement apa+har-. m. prosperity bhaga-. f.: transgression. m.: horse badh-. to say .: husband bharya-. child bala-. abundant.: here ava+gam-. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-.: guest atra. adv.: sun bhara-. to transgress atithi-. n. apanayayati: to lead away apara-. f.

: servant.: brother bhrtaka-. pass. prosperity bindu-. n. n.: food bhram-. f. postposition: if chaya-.: body deva.: alms bhiksu-.: well-being. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-.: beautiful cet. land. meeting.: food bhojana-.: gift dand-.: god. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-. m.: Buddhist monk. caus. audience dasa-.: Buddha buddhi-. to become bhu-. slave dasi-. m. ground bhupala-.: wisdom ca .: servant bhrtya-. bhavati (I): to be. lord devalaya-. carati (I): to walk. m. m.: drop brahmana-. m. m.: frog daridra-.: eyebrow bhu-.: shadow. f. mn. m.: brahmin buddha-. f. ground bhumi-. m. to punish danda-. f. m. punishment dardura-. m.bhasa-.: earth. f.: ornament bhuti-. shade ciram. f.: land. m. beggar bhojana-. adj.and car-. earth.: temple . n. m. n. dapayati: to let give da-.: stick.: servant bhru-. dawati (I): to bite deha-.: poor darwana-. n. to practise caru-. female slave datr-. corayati (X): to steal da-.: seeing.: ruler bhusana-. adv. f.: giver daw-.: fear bhaya-.: language bhaya-.: for the long time cur-. dandayati (X): to beat. diyate: to give dah-. f. adj. mendicant.ca: both . m. m. m. dahati (I): to burn dana.: fear bhiks-. to roam. n.: female servant. f.

m. rotten duta-. n. pasture ghata-.: daughter duhkha-. adj. dhavati (I): to run dhi-. m. m. n.: patience.: courage. to look duhitr-.: donkey gavga-.: scent.: grain dharma-.. to meditate dirgha-.: suffering duhkhita. diwati (VI): to show. dhyayati (IV): to think. villain dusta-. darwayati: to show drw-.: the river Ganga ghasa-. caus. offense dru-. righteousness. f.: grass. to seem drw-.: pot.: "twice-born". drwyate: to look (like).: cowherd gostha-. f. f.: thought. Law. brahmin dvijati-.: song gopa-. f. m.: fault. n.devi-. adv. ganayati (X): to count gandha-. distressed durga-.: law.: the goddess Durga durjana-. gacchati (I): to go gan-. far div-. jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-. m.: messenger dvija-. m.: wealth.: "twice-born".: bad man. pawyati (IV): to see.: goddess. jar ghra-. m. n. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-. mistress dewa-. m. n.: mountain gita-. f. ghee giri-. dravati (I): to run drw-.: long.: unhappy. f. firmness dhana.: cowshed grama.: elephant gam-.: thus ga-. firmness dhya-.: village . m.: clarified butter.: country dhairya-.adj. m. to point dosa-. adj. firm dhrti-. m. adj.: wise. m. Buddhism dhav-. n. adv. m. money dhanya-. m. m. reason dhira-. m.: just. member of a high caste eva. fragrance gardabha-. pas. only evam. courage.: bad.

part. m. in proximity hrdaya-. master.: sometimes kalidasa-. as if iwvara-.: house grhastha-.: arrow iti. n. m. offering idanim. m. m. m.: oblation.: sacrificial ladle kada.: personal name hasta-. guru han-.: Hindu god Indra indrani-. to conceal guna-. to tremble .grantha-.: pleasure.: teacher. to take away. m.: Indrani. book (text) grha-. m. hvayati (IV): to call huta-.: composition. f. to carry hrasvam. here iks-. f. caste jaya-. f.: benefit. icchati (VI): to want. m.: water jamatr-. m.: heart hu-. to stare indra-.: life jivita-. ghatayati: to kill hari-. m.: person janaka-.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-. m. m. adv. adv. caus.: near. adv. harati (I): to take.: as. part.: lord. to conquer jiv-.: hand he. goodness kama-. n. fight kalena.: oh! hr-. n. f. glory ji-.: householder guh-.: time. desire kamp-.: mother jati-. n. jayate (IV): to be born jana-. jivati (I): to live jivana-. m. god jala. kampate (I): to shake.: so iva.: life juhu-. Indra's wife is-.: quarrel. guhati (I): to hide. like. m.: son-in-law jan-. m. n. adv.: when? kala-. part. n. jayati (I): to win.: quality guru-.: now iha. m.: father janani-. adv.: birth. close. death kalaha-.: victory. n. m. iksate (I): to look at. to yearn for isu-.

krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.: moment ksatriya-. to whom . to obtain laksana-. kriyate: to do krodha-.: where? kva. daughter kapota-. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-.: donkey kim.: well kutah. young man kunta-. m.: whole krudh-. m. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-.: agriculture krsna-. f. to cultivate (field) krsi-. m.: kshatriya.: mark. n.: where from? why? kutra. m.: where? labh-.: girl.) ksana-. to narrate katha-. adv. adv. n. adj. pass.: thin. f.: prince. labhate (I): to get.) kopa-. adv. n.: field ksip-.: poet kavya-.: plough . why? kirti-. n. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. f.: pigeon kara-.. m.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-.: how? kavi-. f. m. m. f. krsati (I): to plow. khadati (I): to eat khan-.kanya-. m. n. emaciated ksal-. Adj. adv.: mat kath-. f.: hand. or Gen. m. n.: cause kastha-. adv. m. khanati (I): to dig khara-.Dat.: story katham. n.: anger kr-. fighter ksetra-. sign laksmi-. characteristic. lance kup-.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-.: spear. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. kathayati (X): to tell. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.Acc.: anger krs-.: poetry kawi-.) krwa-.: milk kumara-.: fame klp-. or Dat. black krt-. ksamate: to forgive (what . or Dat.: what?. m. elephant's trunk.: wood kata-. tax karana-.) kupa-. m.

: death muc-. to desire (with Dat. m. lumpati (VI): to steal.: greed loka-.: garland mam: me (Acc. postp.: queen mahisa-. m. statue nadi-. Adj.: deliverance muni-. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-.: main.: between. to rob mad-. f.likh-.: deer mrtyu-. m. means also "people") lubh-. mouth mukhya-. m.) mukha-. adj.: sage.: person marana-. m.: delusion moksa-. n. caus.: fly mala-.: friend moha-. mrgayate (X): to search for. m. town nagari-. m. f. m. n.: deliverance mr-. saint murkha-.: month matsya-.: city. to suppose mani-. f. road masa-.: river nagara.) man-. m. m. f. to discharge mud-. modate (I): to delight in (Ins. f. m.: image.: honey madhye. m. f. m. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-.: foolish murti-.: death marga. m.: gem. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-. or Loc.: city . form. n. foremost mukti-.: world (in Pl.: cloud mitra-. to hunt for mrga-. marayti: to kill mr-.: great king maharani-. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-.: silence mayura-. likhati (VI): to write lip-.: desire manusya-. n. manyate (IV): to think. f.) lup-.: face. lubhyati (IV): to long for.: fish mauna-.: peacock megha-. n.: way.: buffalo maksika-. n. precious stone manoratha-. mubcati (VI): to free. m. m. m.

paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-. sinful papa-. glory! (Dat.: leader netra.: one's.: the grammarian Panini papa-.: bad. palayati (X): to protect pandita-. n. adj. own nivewana-.) nandana-. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-. adj. m. ruler pa-. nispadyate (IV): to originate. n.: grandson nara-. adj. to worship namas-. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-.: man naraka-. to appear nija-. n. king nrpati-. to prostrate. n. m. m. adj.: treasure nih+gam-. drama navina-. place padma-.: step.: decision nrpa-. pibati (I): to drink pac-. m.: dwelling niwcaya-. m. caus. annihilation netr.: ruler. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-.: Indra's paradise naptr-. learned man pani-. m. parinayati: to marry parthiva-.: highest. namati (I): to bow. footprint pada-.: lotus pal-.: hand.: order nidhana-.: new naw-. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-. palayati: to protect pa-. caus. n.: ruler . different para+ji-. adv.: scholar. m. m.nam-. to perish nawa-.: low nidewa-.: eye ni-. m. n.: sin para-. m.: king.: foot.m. adj. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-. pacati (I): to cook pada-.: hell nari-.: play.: destruction. f.: axe pari+dha-.n.: hail!. m. m. n. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-. m.: woman nataka-.. nawyati (IV): to be lost. to report nica-. nivedayati: to announce. m. palm panini-.

pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. Pl. m. to take refuge in (Acc.: earth puj-. Pl. pratiksate (I): to await. patati (I): to fall.: the breeding of cattle pid-. m. to recite patha-.: clean.: lesson. pravartate (I): to become.) prati+bhas-. people prana-. to fly pataliputra-. pratigacchati (I): to come back. holy pawa-. caus.: expiation.: sacrificial animal. pujayati (X): to honour.: Lord. m. to worship.: worship. homage .: subject.parvata-. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-. adj. master. life prasada-. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-. study pathika-. to arise prabhuta-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-. pidayati (X): to torture. many praja-.: snare. trap pawu-. to go back.: traveler pati-. n. hill pat-. n. f. otec. m.ch-. prinayati: to please. f.: grandfather pitr-.: leaf.: wife pattra-.: breath. prarthayate: to ask. to disseminate. to restrain prayaga-. patayati: to knock down pat-. puryate: to fill pr.) pra+stha-. m. caus.: citizen pavitra-. m. to expect prati+sidh-. ancestors pr-. m. to appear pra+jan-. prapadyate (IV): to go to.: mountain. cattle pawupalya-. Du. n. parents.: palace prath-. n. letter paura-. to beg pra+as-.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-. to revere puja-. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-. m. f. f. to delight prthivi-. prathayati: to propagate.: manifold. prabhavati (I): to arise. m. pass. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. husband patni-. caus. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. m. to return prati+iks-. to hurt pitamaha-. caus. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-. parayati (X): to overcome pr-. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. m. pathati (I): to read. atonement pri-. adj.

n.: illness rsi-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-.: flower pusta-. righteous sadhu-.: holy.: gem ratna-. n. sahate (I): to bear. f. m. rocate (I): to like (Dat. prep.: congregation.: with (with Inst.: kingdom raks-. f.: coin sabha-. n.: protector ram-. Gen. n.: fat pustaka-. mn.: old story.: flood.: man puspa-. n.: protection raksana-. rohati (I): to grow rupa-.: again punya-.: book (manuscript) putra.) sahasa. m.: battle ratha-.: chariot rathya-. beauty rupaka-.: daughter r-. assembly sad-. to endure saha.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-.: sea sah-. to sit down sada.: epos Ramayana rana-.: suddenly .: street ratna-. Adj. m.: son putri-. n. sidati (I): to sit. m.: form. m. n. m. adv.: bear roga-. precious stone rawi-. ramate (I): to play rama-. rcchati (I): to get.: heap. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-. or postp. adv. m. adv. mass. n. to share rac-. m.: jewel. f. m.) rud-.: enemy rksa-. f.: holy man sagara-. n. n. f. adj. to obtain.: protection raksitr-.: seer ruc-.: queen rajya-. m.punar. m. raksati (I): to protect raksana-.: ray ripu-. m. quantity rawmi-. f.: always sadhu-. stream purana-. m.: merit pura-. meeting.. rodati (I): to weep ruh-. m.

thoroughly.: soldier sajdigdha-. adv. to discharge sidh-. m.: service sevaka-.: creator srj-. n.: truth senapati-. or Loc.: happiness sukta-.: general. adj.: beauty surya-.: servant sic-. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-.: creation stena-. tisthati (I): to stand. m.) snusa-. m. adv. questionable sajtosa-. sea samyak. m.: charioteer suvarna-. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-. robber stha-. n.: complete. adj. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-. the god of the Sun suta-. f. equal. sajgacchate: to come together sama-. adv. m. srjati (VI): to create srsti-.: everywhere. m. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. f. to honour (Acc. f.: ode. rightly sarpa-. serpent sarvatah. caus.: sun.: praise sukha-. whole samudra-. even samagra-. to stay stotra-. adv.) seva-.: woman stuti-.: satisfaction. f.: sister tad-.: gold svapna-. m.: daughter-in-law sprw-.: ocean. adj. n.: beautiful sundari-. tadayati (X): to beat tada. contentedness sam+a+car-.: snake. by all means sarvatra. sajbhasate (I): to converse. n. m.) sam+gaj-.: same. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-.: then. f.: Vedic hymn sundara-. m. army leader sev-. f.: tradition. m.: everywhere satya-. m. n.: heaven svasr-. f. adj. sevate (I): to serve.: lion smr-. a hymn of praise stri-.: doubtful. to talk with (Ins. f. smarati (I): to remember smrti-. n.: thief. dream svarga-.sainika-. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. m. at that time .: sleep.: well.

twisted vaktr-.: high ud+pat-. n. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-. to say vadhu-. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. to pay homage vanijya-. to admonish upa+iks-. recluse vand-.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-. to pierce tul-. m. f. to stand up udadhi-. to instruct.: business. n. f.: curved. f. adj. to be satisfied (Ins.: speaker vana-. tarati (I): to cross over tu. vahati (I): to carry. tolayati (X): to lift up. vadati (I): to speak. m. to blow. pass. tudati (VI): to strike. vapati (I): to sow vapi-. m.taksawila-. so tatra. to flow vaiwya-.: but tud-. to give up ucca-. m.) taru-. n.: advice. tyajati (I): to leave.: water varuna-. pool vara-. ucyate: is called vad-.: tree tata-. adj.) tyaj-. m. trade vap-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-.: pond.: clothing . upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-. m. adj. bank tr-. vandate (I): to praise. to grieve (Abl. adv. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-. upadiwati (VI): to teach. to weigh tus-.: forest vanaprasta-. adv. n. best vari-. n.: dwelling vastra-.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-.: shore.: exertion. m. part.: garden udyoga-.: better. f. n. perseverance upa+diw-. n. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-. m. instruction urvawi-.: hermit.: thus. wife vah-.: there tira-. m.: ocean udyana-.: woman. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed.: garden udyana-. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. f.: daddy tatha. uttisthati (I): to get up.

: story vyadh-. to shower vrt-. n. direction vidya-. law-book watru-. wisyate: to rule.: bird vinaya-.: peace. m. viramate (I): to give up.: behavior vrttanta-. f.: in vain. m.: tiger wajs-. top wiks-.: refuge was-.: brahmin vira-.: wind vi+ram-. to extol wakha-. argument viw-.: wound.: enemy wikhara-. m. m. rule. to exist vrt-. f. m.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-. n.: bird vihaga-.: arrow warana-. m. m. pass. vartate (I): to be. m. n. m. to abandon (Abl. to pour down. to punish wastr-.: hunter vyaghra-.: branch wam-.: discipline vipra-. wajsati (I): to praise. to enlarge vrka-. to no avail vrtta-. vivadati (I): to argue vici-. m. m. caus. mode. vartate (I): to live on vrtha. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-.: poison vrana-. vardhayati: to make bigger. caus. m. m. wisdom vihaga-.: wave vid-.: student.: summit. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. to make known vid-.: disputation.: tree vrs-.: hero vira-. sore vrdh-. f. n. to be finished wanti-. m. m. vedayati: to announce. varsati (I): to rain.: thing. silence wara-.vasu-. "punisher" wastra-. m. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-. m.: treatise.: ruler.: wolf vrksa-. n.) vi+vad-. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-. pupil . adv.: learned wisya-. wealth vayu-. m. m. Adj. n.: knowledge.: way. to acquire vidhi-.: hero visnu-. m. vindati (VI): to get. n.

m.) wudra-. beauty wobhana-. pron. m.: when (relative) yaj-.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then…. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-.: splendor. adv.: how. pass. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. as far as yoga-. m. caus. f. brilliance.: father-in-law wveta-.: luck. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-. m. m. m. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-. as (relative) yati-.: white ya-. wealth wru-. adv.: Shiva wiwu-. f. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-.: Vedic scripture wubh-. adv. f.wiva-.: ascetic yatra. f. yudhyati (IV): to fight . oblation for them wram-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-.) yatha.: child wloka-.: which yada. m.: tomorrow wvawru-. virtue wraddha-.: mother-in-law wvawura-. m. m. m. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-.: sacrifice yam-.: war yudh-. m. n. beauty.: ornament. adv. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-.: the river Yamuna yat-.: yoga yuddha-. wruyate: to hear wruti-. rel. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. f.: child wiwu-.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-. adj.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives.

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