Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

sad. phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad. the Buddha only). is (to want) changes -s. tu (but). na vadanti (they do not say. Text (read and translate): 1.(to go) and yam.. Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?).Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m. devah Acc. balah kataj diwati | 2. va (or).in front of the verb. class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI. stha. In Sanskrit. ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits). So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going).to -i-: sidati. Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na. devan Voc. and I. kutra katah | 3. bhojanaj tu (but the food. they are not saying).to -cch-: icchanti. Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and). "fruit") Nom. phalani Voc.(to give) change -m. the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence.. yacchati. "god") Nom.. devah phala (n. eva (particle of emphasis.(to sit) changes -a. just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits). bhojanam atra (the food [is] here). buddham eva (just the Buddha..(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi.to -cch-: gacchati.). phalani Acc. brahmanah sada yajanti devan | . classes: gam.(VI.

4. balah ksiramicchati | 23. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. grhamatra tisthati | 6. 11. 3. We are leaving the world today. nagarameva gacchami | 9.4. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. 6. 8. there the people do not live. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. there stay the houses. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17. 9. I want water. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. narandevah srjati | 13. dhanamicchamah | 24. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. nrpah kva sidati | 7.) going? 2. Brahmins still sit there. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. The exercise key . kada danani yacchatha | 26. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. danani yacchanti | 10. gramamadya viwamah | 14. 7. devannamanti | 22. you are pointing the way. Where are the elephants? 5. We praise the boys. 12. margaj diwatha balah | 19. Boys. Where is the city. Where are you (pl. Do you want milk? 10. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. tatha jivamah | 18. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. Where the water does not flow.

sidati (I): to sit. n. n. at that time yatra. namati (I): to bow. adv.: when (relative) .: where (relative) yada. tyajati (I): to leave. tisthati (I): to stand. n. adv.: water dana-. to prostrate. only kada. m.: son marga-.: wealth. town putra-. to point dhav-. to extol sad-. to worship yam-. diwati (VI): to show.: milk gaja-. lord dhana-. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. m. to yearn for gam-. adv. wajsati (I): to praise. n. m. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-.: mat ksira-. adv. n.: gift deva-.Vocabulary is-. yacchati (I): to give viw-. icchati (VI): to want. to sit down srj-. money nagara-. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-. adv.: city. adv.: god. m.: village jala-. m. srjati (VI): to create stha-. to give up diw-. m.: way. road eva.: just. so tada. to stay sprw-. dhavati (I): to run nam-.: then.: when? tatha.: elephant grama-.: thus.

ghra-. the first grade is called guna. pibati (to drink). vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. Accusative and Vocative cases: m. guhati (to hide. ji-. vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. devau phale Voc. Nom. class.Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here). dru-. dravati (to run). Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. Acc. But note some irregularities: guh-. the second grade is vrddhi. normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. to conceal). If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . to shower). bhu-. rohati (to grow). to smell). jighrati (III. jayati (to win. ruh-. The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. vrs-. pa-. class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. bhavati (to be). vad+a+tah They (two) say n. varsati (to rain. nayati (to lead). It has always the same form for Nominative. to conquer).

10. Just today we both go to the city. 8. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. Here we (two) do not live. 6. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. To the forest run the (two) elephants. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. 2. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. The Buddha speaks the truth. Here stand (two) trees. Where are you (two) going now? 9. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. Where are both horses? 3. They give money and gifts. Just here are (two) horses. anilah sada na vahati | 16. dahasi he anala | 15. devavadya smaramah | 10. 4. balau phale khadatah | 20. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. The ruler conquers both fighters. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. . atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. 12. satyaj na vadathah | 18. atraiva vasavah | 5. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. devau smaramah | 9. Where do you hide money? 11. 5. he nrpau jayathah | 11. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7. 7. Home (emphasized) go both boys. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1.

Here sarvatra. vahati (I): to carry. to flow ruh-.: cloud vana-. n.: horse anala-. to blow. khadati (I): to eat guh-. m.: fire anila-. m. to conceal ghra-. varsati (I): to rain. fragrance megha-. to pour down. nayati (I): to lead pa-. to shower smr-. m. pibati (I): to drink bhu-. rohati (I): to grow vrs-.: wind gandha-. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-. jighrati (III): to smell ji-. adv. part. dravati (I): to run ni-.: scent.: forest vrksa-. m. smarati (I): to remember awva-.: oh! .: tree satya-. m. to conquer dah-. bhavati (I): to be.13. to become vah-. dahati (I): to burn dru-.: truth iha.: everywhere he. adv. n. guhati (I): to hide. jayati (I): to win. m.

Dat. Accusative: the object (I see you). Nom. phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). Loc. Dat. telling (to the boy). "fruit") Sg. the agent in a passive construction. phalasya Voc. as English "through". Ins. devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. "by means of ". Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). Nom. Abl. devasya devayoh Voc. phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. Loc. . by carriage). Ins. the goal of the motion (I go to the city). circumstances (in the city). giving. Locative: the location. "by" (with the Buddha.. "because of". phalam Acc. deva And for neuter: phala (n. Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". "god") Sg.Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. Abl. Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). devam Du. devau devau Pl.. Dative: the indirect object. is also used to denote reason (from anger). devah Acc. phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen. phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go).

duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . b for c and j. gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10. hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. -i. -u before any vowel (except for -u. This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. man?). Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here). j and sibilants). The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . For example: muc-. rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here).Vocative: the address (Who are you. dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. mubcati (see Vocabulary). n for t. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. -i before any vowel (except for -i. jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8.the fighter says that he lives here). If the following word beggins with a short a-. There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). -u. narah gacchanti (the men go). see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here). megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. m for p. ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9.

mubcati (VI): to free. n. to practise muc-. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13.: "twice-born".: forest kumara-. m. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. to discharge aranya-.: battle rama-. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16. carati (I): to walk. janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12.: power. force. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17. 8. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle.: plough vipra-. m. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. hill bala-.: mountain. 6. krntati (VI): to cut car-. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-. Men with boys go to the forest.: prince. m. m. n. 3. to roam. 5. m. to discharge yaj-. Trees do not grow on high mountains.11. young man janaka-.: father duhkha-.: traveler parvata-. "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys. strength mrga-.: deer rana-. Traveler walks on the way to the village. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-. m. n. m.: brahmin . n./n. People do not live in forests.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-. m.: suffering dvija-. People want happiness. m. limpati (VI): to smear sic-. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. brahmin pathika-. 7. 2. but not suffering. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14. 4.

: Shiva sukha-.: what?.: oblation. n. adv. why? tu.: where from?. part.viwa-. part.: happiness hasta-. n.: but The exercise key .: high iti. m.: poison wiva-. adj.: so kim. why? kutah. n.: hand huta-. m. offering ucca-. adv.

Nom. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati. fire) Sg. anarya. happines. varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. noble. Loc. agne vari. fire burns). asukha.(m. Abl. Abl.(n. vari varina varine Du. arya.. sorrow. the fire is here. agneh Voc. unhappiness. Ins. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati. water): Sg.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an.Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati. vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. Du. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen. Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. Dat. agnih Acc. agni Pl. Loc. "un-noble". For example: sukha-. vari Acc.(if it begins with a vowel). Ins.. Rama goes with the poets). Nom. poet tells to the seer). But if the following word begins with -r. varinah varinoh Voc. varini varini Pl. . Dat.

rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. balau kuto rodatah | 2. Where people burn the forests. jh. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. . dh. says the brahmin to the poet. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). jalaj gireh patati | 10. poet. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. n) or dental (t. 3. why don't you recite poetry?". Even today people remember Rama. harij ksirena yajatah | 18. nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. 4. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. th. 7. 9. 5. arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. vrksa girau rohanti | 11. but from the Law [there is] happiness. kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. d. asks the king. "Enemies rob the houses here". -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. weep the boys. 8. From sin there is always suffering. suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15. Text (read and translate): 1. ch.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. retroflex (t. 6. "You don't speak the truth". If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. Hari's horse is standing just here. d. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. n) between them (so. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). dh. "O. no elephants live. We live happily here in the mountains. 2. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. nominative plural of vari is varini). rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. j. th. b). satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8.

tudati (VI): to strike. n.: personal name api-.: poet kavya-. lumpati (VI): to steal. even though .: water sukta-.: person dasa-.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-. m. m. n. n.: "un-truth". master. m. also. m.: Lord. n.: enemy asatya-.: fire anna-.: mountain jana-. Law.: servant. lie asi-.: law.: food ari-. to recite rud-. righteousness. pathati (I): to read. mn.: hand.: king. m.: poetry giri-. part. m. ruler pati-. slave deha-. m. n. m. even. m. m. m. husband pani-. m. m.: seer kavi-. Buddhism nrpati-. m. rodati (I): to weep lup-.: sin varuna-.: Vedic hymn hari-.: body dharma-. to rob agni-.: sword rsi-.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-. n. palm papa-. to pierce path-.

watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here).Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV.means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen. agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire). But if a is used separately as a preposition. (enemy) Sg. ch. kupyati (to be angry). Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-. th. anayati (to bring). The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. class are thematic verbs. . Loc. For example a.is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). watru Pl. Therefore: drw-. -h after any vowel and before t-. -h after any vowel and before c-. a vanat (only from the forest). Du. Only passive is constructed from this root. it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). Dat. Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes).is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). watruh Acc. The verb drw. m. watroh Voc. Nom. Abl.(to see) is irregular and defective. Ins. pawyati (to see. to look). indicative uses different root (paw-).

Text (read and translate): 1. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3. 2. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13." says the boy to the traveler. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. 7. 3. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. 6. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. or Dat. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21. We do not live here. "There stands father's house. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. but father lives here. By the power of [your] arms you win.) . 8. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9." asks teacher the student. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4. naro 'wvamarohati | 10. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. 5. The king with fighters comes to the city. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. "What are you writing now. oh king. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. 4. kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18.

pawyati (IV): to see.: leaf. m.: gem. m. lubhyati (IV): to long for.) . or Dat.: enemy wastra-. or postp. m.: bird watru-. to call in udadhi-. to mount likh-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. agacchati (I): to come tr-.: student.: ocean guru-. m. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.: treatise. m. ahvayati (IV): to call here. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-. m.: axe pada-. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. letter parawu-.) wus-. m. or Loc. n. quantity ripu-. to desire (with Dat. n.: jewel. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-. guru pattra-. n. footprint bahu-. likhati (VI): to write lubh-. arohati (I): to ascend.: enemy visnu-. yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-.: heap.: teacher. prep.: drop mani-. m. mass. m.) hu-. m. to perish drw-.: with (with Inst. m. m. precious stone ratna-. m.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-. law-book wisya-.: arm bindu-. precious stone rawi-.krudh-. or Loc. to look yudh-.: foot. pupil saha.) a+gam-. nawyati (IV): to be lost.

tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). madhu madhuna madhune Du. madhuni madhuni Pl. nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. Loc. meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village).is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. kram-. Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). madyati (to be intoxicated). arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | . kramati (to walk). Dat. bhramyati (to wander). Text (read and translate): 1. devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). madhunah madhunoh Voc. Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). Nom. alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. the root vyadh. The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. vidhyati (to pierce). madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. Ins. viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. madhu Acc. nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7. A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). Abl. rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3. mad-.Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-.

to be satisfied (Ins. to carry aksa-. Bees wander around flowers of the trees. divyati (IV): to play a+ni-. 3. jalenagnih wamyati | 15.: tear rksa-.: unrighteousness ali-. Tears are flowing on boy's face. acamati (I): to sip. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. to rinse tam-. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. tusyati (IV): to rejoice.). n.: bear . madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16. 4. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. dice adharma-.) tus-. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. to obtain. 7. Birds are flying to the tree. 2. Fighters play for money (Ins.12. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14. to grieve (Abl. gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. n. to share a+kram-. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13.: eye.: bee awru-. 8. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. 6. m. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-. 5. Death conquers even unrighteousness.) div-. m. anayati (I): to bring bhram-. rcchati (I): to get. to take away. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. to be finished wram-. There are many things in the houses. harati (I): to take. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-. m. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-.

m.: anger krodha-. n.: thing. mouth mrtyu-.kopa-.: person mukha-. m. n.: death vasu-. abundant.: hero bahu-.: numerous. m.: eye puspa-. many . n. adj.: honey manusya-.n.: flower bhaga-. m. m. wealth vira-.: anger netra. m. n.: face.: part madhu-.

gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10. suto 'wvanpidayati | 8. to generate). Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house). -l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. ksalayati (to wash). janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. dharayati (to hold). janayati (to give birth. lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. bhi-.to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. class add -aya. corayati (to steal). gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. but: pid-. purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. Text (read and translate): 1. jan-. wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7. bhayayati (to cause fear). suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13.instead of just -a. navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key . Before palatals.Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. If the root ends in a vowel. bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4. grhalloka agacchanti | 15. vedayati (to make known). pidayati (to torture). narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world). stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. vid-. wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6.between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. The vowel -a.

parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-.: coin vastra-. to revere pr-. "Why do you beat me. pidayati (X): to torture. robber navina-. m. to hurt puj-. n. 7. as if mam: me (Acc. n.) wash their faces. to weigh dand-. to worship. m. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-. Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. Father tells son about fruits of sins.: servant ramayana-.: gold suta-. n. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9. part. to punish pid-.: charioteer stena-. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword.: thief. ganayati (X): to count cur-. punishment punya-. 4. m. n. to narrate ksal-.: story wudra-. Merit protects from grief. m.: as. kathayati (X): to tell.: holy man suvarna-. 3.) . Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns.: merit purana-. I want new clothes.: new iva. m.: stick. n. aharati (I): to bring danda-. adj. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. 2. m. n.: epos Ramayana rupaka-. corayati (X): to steal tad-. dandayati (X): to beat. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-." asks the servant the king. 5. 8.: old story.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-. n. tolayati (X): to lift up.: clothing vrttanta-. like.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. pujayati (X): to honour. 6. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. Boys (Du.

ksatriya rsi sevante | . labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. But Dual endings -i. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. labhate (to get. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. fire. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. god Agni). But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. to obtain) A: Sg.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest). phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest). atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". -o at the end of the word and before a. But this initial a. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. Pl. Before other vowels a final -e. 1. But in Sanskrit.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7.is unchanged. "word for another"). sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. labhe Du. adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). o. -e. labhase labhethe 3. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12. besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. labh-. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes. Text (read and translate): 1. vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. agni iksate balah | 11. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o.

: sacrifice .: poverty udyoga-. Children ask the father for food. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves.) iks-. m.: deliverance yajba-.. Gen. m.17. m. courage. Boys like fruit. 4. iksate (I): to look at. to tremble jan-. to stare kamp-. to endure sev-. m. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. goodness taru-. to say mr-. vandate (I): to praise. 2. to pay homage wiks-.) begin with a sacrifice. cattle bhanu-.: "twice-born". perseverance kalyana-. m.: sacrificial animal.) a+rabh-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. to obtain vand-. sahate (I): to bear. mriyate (IV): to die yat-. sevate (I): to serve. n. 8. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. 7. m. The father is looking at son's face.: tree dvijati-.: sun moksa-. rocate (I): to like (Dat. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear. firmness pawu-. Father likes sons' discipline. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18. to honour (Acc. m. 3. bhasate (I): to speak. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. wiksate (I): to learn sah-.) ruc-.) anartha-.: patience. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-. Holy men (Du. member of a high caste dhairya-. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5. 6. n.: benefit. m. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. labhate (I): to get.) labh-.: exertion. kampate (I): to shake.

m.: ocean. m. m. m.: wave vinaya-. m.vayu-.: wind vici-.: child samudra-. sea .: discipline wiwu-.

Ins. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen.(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu. following): anu+gacchati (to go after.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f.after a prefix containing -r. Text (read and translate): 1. sena Acc. Nom. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni. senam senaya senayai Du.(after.is changed into -s.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s. sene sene Pl. army) Sg.(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa. to honour).(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud. to follow) ava. satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4. Dat. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3. Abl. hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | . senayah senayoh Voc.(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari.(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry).. -n.(towards. Loc.is changed into -n.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para.

daughter gavga-. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11.: the river Ganga grhastha-. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10. ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14.5. f. The student asks householder's wife for alms. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8.) descend from black horses. avarohati: to descend para+ji-.: arrow kanya-. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-. 5. m. Many trees grow on the mountain. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15. f. to take refuge in (Acc. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-. Here on the street kings (Du. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. 4. 6. m. 2. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-.: girl.: householder . 7. sajgacchate: to come together isu-. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. 3.) bhiks-. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9. The king conquers enemies in the battle. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. prapadyate (IV): to go to. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. 8. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari.

: fear bharya-. m.: heart krsna-.: knowledge.: bad.chaya-. f. f. many sahasa.: hunter warana-. f. f. adv. n.: language bhiksa-.: manifold. black papa-. f.: shadow.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-.: heaven hrdaya-.: suddenly .: alms yamuna-. n. sinful prabhuta-.: gem rathya-. shade prayaga-. wisdom vyadha-. adj. f. n.: street vidya-. m.: the river Yamuna ratna-. adj. n.: refuge svarga-. f.: wife bhasa-. f.

smaryate (to remember). puryate (to fill). corayati.but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. udyate (to say). he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. supyate (to sleep). usyate (to dwell). vap-. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2.is changed into -u. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. tiryate. sutenawvastadyate | 20. mubcati. The consonant -v. Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13. It is used with the instrumental case. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . upyate (to sow). coryate. vad-. vas-. dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. pass. awvena jalaj piyate | 17. kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9.in these roots: vac-. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. ucyate (to say). prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. pass. kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. Verbs of the X class drop -aya. The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. stuyate (to praise). jiyate. kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. naraih katah kriyante | 8.Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. Text (read and translate): 1. stu-. janairnagaraj gamyate | 6. diyate (to give). pass. svap-. uhyate (to carry). vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12. vah-. -i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-. pr-. pass. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. mucyate.

n. trap bhara-. pass. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). 8. ghee dhanya-.: kingdom wiwu-. serpent .: snake.: Buddhist monk.: snare. m. badhyate: to bind vap-. Hari is again praised by Rama. 7.: garland rajya-. f. n. n. 2.: burden.: song ghata-. jar ghrta-. 5. to punish wru-.: order kastha-.: pot. pass. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. gayati (IV): to sing daw-. mendicant.: child sarpa-. Girls bind garlands (pass). n. load bhiksu-." is said by people. kriyate: to do ga-. m. n. 3. pass. m. 6.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. diyate: to give pr-. beggar mala-. wisyate: to rule. Jars are being filled with grain. Holy man always speaks truth (pass). vapati (I): to sow was-. pass. wruyate: to hear ajba-. "In the shade is comfortably slept. Grain is sown in the fields. m. pass.: grain pawa-. pass. 4.: wood gita-. puryate: to fill badh-. dawati (I): to bite da-. f. m.: clarified butter. It is played with dices.

sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. If the verb is prefixed. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. aicchat (he wanted). a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. a+vad+a+t Du.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. a+vad+a+h 3. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. Text (read and translate): 1. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. paryanayat. 2. gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. purena grhanyuhyante | . a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. It has special endings: Sg. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. impf. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. impf. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9.

) sang the praise of Rama. He cut the branch with an axe.: victory. When you were ("stood") in trouble. f.: sun.: flood. glory pustaka-. m. m. uttisthati (I): to get up.: palace matsya-. 7.: hope indra-.: summit. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water. stream prasada-. m. to stand up artha-. book (text) jaya-.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. assembly surya-. a hymn of praise . m.: demon awa-. m. to exist ud+stha-.: protection wakha-. 4. n. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-. wealth asura-. the god of the Sun stotra-. you asked the king for protection. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-. 8. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-. m.: fish raksana-.: composition. 6.: branch wikhara-. m. m. meeting.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-. n.: congregation. The teacher hit the student out of the anger. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood. top sabha-. vartate (I): to be. m. Men sat down on mats. m. 3. n.: sea grantha-.: book (manuscript) pura-. 2.: ode. 5. f.: meaning. Brahmins (Du. Servants brought water in jars. f. prosperity. m.

nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. satyameva jayate | 12. Children played in the garden and climbed trees. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. Loc. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. 4. We bring water from the pond. nadi Acc. river) Sg.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. Nom. nadyah nadyoh Voc.. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. . Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. Ins. nadyau nadyau Pl. nadim nadya nadyai Du. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. Abl. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen. 2. Dat. 3.

: daughter prthivi-. 7.: clean. n.: pond.: great king maharani-. pratigacchati (I): to come back. mistress nagari-. m.: ornament maharaja-.5. pass.: complete. n. n. m. to practise mrg-.: soldier pavitra-.: hail!. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler.: Indra's paradise nari-.: goddess. adj.: city nadi-. Indra's wife udyana-. f. to go back. f. whole sundara-. f.: Indrani.: garden janani-. adj. ucyate: is called vrt-.: female servant. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea.: beautiful namas-. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother.: yoga vapi-. f. f. Even the king came with the soldiers.: wife putri-.) . n. f. f. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-. m. to hunt for vac-. mrgayate (X): to search for. glory! (Dat. female slave devi-. adj. to return a+car-. 6.: robe. holy samagra-. f. f. f. f. m. acarati (I): to do.: woman patni-.: tiger sainika-.: mother tira-.: earth bhusana-. n.: queen yoga-. adv. to perform. pool vyaghra-. decoration indrani-. bank dasi-. vartate (I): to live on abharana-.: shore.: river nandana-. 8. f.

Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u. dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc. mati. f. Loc. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen. many). bahu-. f. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems". guru-. Ins. Abl.. The dative. matim matya Du. bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5. gurvi. mati mati Pl. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4.(broad). f. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc. mate dhenu.(f.(serious. matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. Nom. idea): Sg. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. Dat. Abl. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3.(abundant. Ins. Nom. cow): Sg. dhenum dhenva Du.(f. heavy). dhenu dhenu Pl. Loc.and -y. punyena muktij labhadhve | . Dat. Text (read and translate): 1.with -v-). dhenuh Acc.. bahvi. ablative. matih Acc. prthvi.

4.: end kalaha-.: cowherd jati-. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. f. 5. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. vindati (VI): to get. 7. 2. caste dhrti-. to admonish pal-. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14. upadiwati (VI): to teach.: ruler . palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. 6. I worship Shiva for prosperity. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. to acquire wubh-.6. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat." said a citizen to the king. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. m. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. m. 3. m. to instruct. 8.: courage. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15. f. f. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. prabhavati (I): to arise. m.) upa+diw-. to appear vid-. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7.: quarrel. firmness parthiva-. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage. wobhate (I): to shine anta-. fight kirti-.: birth. People of many castes lived in villages.: fame gopa-.

: sleep. f. righteous . prosperity bhumi-.: low mukhya-. sore wanti-. dream nica-. silence wruti-.paura-. f. f.: earth. f. m. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-. f.: fly mukti-.: peace. f. f.: main.: citizen buddhi-.: ray vrana-. land. f.: tradition. n.: Vedic scripture smrti-. adj. ground maksika-.: holy. f. m. foremost sadhu-.: wound.: deliverance rawmi-.: well-being. adj. f.: devotion bhuti-. adj.: wisdom bhakti-.

dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc.(f.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. p-. to return vi-. nispadyate (to arise). Dat. it is changed into s. pass.Pl. back: prati+gam-. to go back. on: adhi+stha-. apaniyati. Sg. dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. vidiryate. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-.. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata. wholly: ati+kram-. this can also happen in Gen. us: nih+pad-.): dhi. alabhata Du. apart: vi+dr-. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. Ins. to rule apa-. away: apa+ni-.changed into -is. Dat. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s. ph. and Loc. In addition.. dhiyau dhiyau Pl. Gen. they were seen). dhih Acc.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. adhitisthati. Abl. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen. Pl.. Loc. alabhe 3. nisidati. completely overcome adhi-. atikramati. nyasidat. to lead away. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. Abl. 1. thought): Sg. Nom. above.following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. to carry away prati-. kh-. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. completely. against. impf. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems". pratigacchati. . to govern.

ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. he returned to the city. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. Many tigers. ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. to appear prati+bhas-. prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. 6. to transgress pra+jan-. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. atikramati (I): to cross over. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. 2. When was the king's son born? 8. 4. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4.Text (read and translate): 1. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Many arrows were shot on the tiger. dhyayati (IV): to think. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. elephants and bears were seen there. Rama's father was always remembered by people. nispadyate (IV): to originate. Where did you get white cows? 3. 5. Mother called (pass. to meditate nih+pad-. 7. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. When the king talked with brahmins. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean. pratibhasate (I): to answer .) girls home from the garden.

m. f. m.: chariot lobha-.: agreement iwvara-. annihilation padma-. master.: creation krtsna-. adj. m. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-. m.: sage. f. adj. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-.: dwelling wri-.: thought. m. m. adj.: whole caru-. m. adj. saint moha-. to drive anujba-.: lotus purusa-.: beautiful dhira-.: luck. f. to rule. f. to restrain ni+sev-.: pleasure. reason nawa-.: greed vasati-. m.: wise. god kama-.: white .: destruction. n.: man muni-. firm wveta-.: lord. f.: cause dhi-. wealth srsti-. n. beauty. desire karana-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. adhitisthati (I): to govern.rac-.: delusion ratha-.

. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. "Study the treatises and speak the truth. daughter. ma gacchatu (let him not go). 4. Let the men dig a pond. "Give me food. Pl." asked the boy father. 3. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11." said the father. vada Du. devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9." orders students the tradition. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. Let the children show the traveler the way. 5. "Come today. daddy. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. 6. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. 7. vadama 1. atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. 2. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say). Text (read and translate): 1. 2. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. annaj yaccha he janani | 13. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. Let charioteers do not torture horses.

adv. m. m. form.: seat. m. n. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-.: down.: near.) ciram. close. thoroughly. n.: different.: lesson. adj. under (Gen. m.: for the long time sarvatah. to learn a+diw-.: daddy darwana-. adj.: guest anrta-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-. m.: highest. position kawi-. adv. adv.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-. adj.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-.: bad. f. f.: repeating.: subject. m. m.: order asana-. khanati (I): to dig atithi-.: everywhere. rotten para-. statue vaiwya-.: image. study praja-. different adhastat. untruth abhyasa-.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-. people murti-. adj.: lie. far dusta-. studying adewa-. in proximity va: or .: long. audience pataliputra-.: seeing. abhyasyati (IV): to study. n. lower dirgha-. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-. adv. f. meeting. by all means hrasvam.

bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen.. bhuva bhuve Du. Dat. Loc. vadhu bhu. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. Loc. Nom. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. bhuvau Pl. earth): Sg. durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. Abl. bhuh Acc. Ins. Ins. Dat. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . Nom. vadhuh Acc. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. Abl. vadhvau vadhvau Pl. woman): Sg.(f.(f. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5..

: eyebrow rajbi-. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.) apa+har-.13.: mother-in-law sundari-. wife wvawru-.: well bhupala-. pravartate (I): to become. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-. m. Who protects the earth is called a ruler.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-.: the goddess Durga nivewana-. f.: quality acarya-. f. m. to arise wuc-. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16.: sacrificial ladle durga-. "Take away nice clothes. f. f.: land. pas. m. earth. n. m. 2. m. f.: beauty stuti-. drwyate: to look (like).: moment guna-. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3. Let the student not argue with the teacher. f. The eyebrows of beauties are always black. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri. apaharati (I): to take away.: dwelling bhu-.: praise . 5. 8. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14.: ruler vadhu-. People live on earth and gods in heaven. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15. There is no water in the well. f.: woman. f.: queen laksmi-. 7. 4. to steal ksana-. Let us live there. ground bhru-. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. f. f." ordered the householder. to seem vi+vad-. 6.: teacher juhu-.

: daughter-in-law vakra-. twisted yavat-tavat: when.: which . rel.. f. then. adj.: curved.snusa-. as far as ya-.. pron...

labhai Du. durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. Text (read and translate): 1. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. . person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. Pl. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. 2. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3. Let an ascetic not converse with women. 1. otherwise active. labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. 4. satyaj sadocyatam | 10. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. Do not neglect illnesses. Some verbs. often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). 3. This form is widely used especially in 3. idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. 6. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). Let it be thus! 5.Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg.

: step. 8. drama niwcaya-.: temple nataka-. learned man pada-. death kalidasa-.: worship. homage prayawcitta-. m. atonement bhojana-.: war roga-.: scholar. ghatayati: to kill kala-.: illness vara-. m.: ascetic yuddha-. adv. to act bhan-. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-. f. villain devalaya-. m. m. pasture durjana-. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-. abhinayati (I): to conduct.: play. caus. m. pratiksate (I): to await.: bad man. to talk with (Ins. m.: better.: expiation. adj.: food mahisa-.: sometimes samyak. n. m. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-.: now kalena. best idanim.: time. to expect upa+iks-. m. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-. adv. m. n. to seek refuge in han-.: grass.: well. n. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung.) a+wri-. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-. sajbhasate (I): to converse. adv.: decision pandita-. awrayate (I): to depend on. m. place puja-.: buffalo yati-. rightly . n. m.7. Let women and children are not killed in the war.

mother): Sg. agent. matarau Pl. sister and naptr-.(m. matuh Voc. 2) nouns of relationship.Du. kartarau Pl. mata Acc. father): Sg.(f. kartuh Voc. Nom. They differ only in Acc. Nom. pita Acc.. Dat.. Ins. Loc. Loc. Abl. Dat.. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns. karta Acc. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. pituh Voc. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen.. kartar pitr. kartr.. pitarau Pl.Pl.Du. Dat. matra matre matuh matari Du. Ins. Acc.(m. Loc. maker): Sg. Nom. Ins. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen.Sg. matar . pitar matr. and Nom. Abl. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. Abl. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du. Nom.

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.


Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

nava nave nauh navi Du. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2.. jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen. labheta Du. nauh Voc. labhemahi labheran 2. nausu yuddhamabhavat | .Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg. Loc. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows". Ins. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3. labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. Abl. nauh Acc. navau Pl.(f. Dat. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. labheya 3. brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. Nom. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. let it be done). boat): Sg. nauh As you have probably noticed. gacchati "[he/she] goes". vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. The declension of the word nau. Text (read and translate): 1. 1.

Let women and children be taken away to the city. mode.: business.) abhi+vad-. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-. n. even sajdigdha-. 4. 7.this we read in the treatises. abhivadati (I): to salute ram-. m. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12.: doubtful. adj. to perform apa+ni-. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy. rule. viramate (I): to give up. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-.10. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. f. m.: life nidewa-. questionable yatha. equal.: how.).: same. to welcome (Acc.: friend vanijya-. anutisthati (I): to follow. n.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-.: servant marana-. adj. m. balavudyane rameyatam | 11. n. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. to abandon (Abl. n. pass. to carry out. n.: death mitra-. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-. n. direction sama-.: fear bhrtaka-. Let new poems be written! 6. May the friends be always remembered! 2. 8.: way.: order seva-. adv.) udyana-. 5. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living .: agriculture jivita-. 3. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt. f. trade vidhi-. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive).: garden krsi-.: service pawupalya-. m. as (relative) .

(to fall.Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class.(to know). vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9. suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11. ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context . "to sing". "to tell". vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6. karayati (to cause to be done). to beget). to make somebody to go). dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3. But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. ga. gam. upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. Text (read and translate): 1. And also adhi+i. nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key . suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14.translate as "to recite". When translating the causative. to proclaim). it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu. The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody). kr. The vowel -a. janayati (to give birth. "to report" etc.between the root and -aya-: jba. kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13.(to be born).(to be). If the root ends in any other vowel.(to do). patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. janayati (see above). bhavayati (to make something happen). that is using the augment -aya-: jan. to fly). gamayati (to let go. to water). deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4. wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8.between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. jbapayati (to make known.(to sing).(to learn). Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p. adhyapayati (to teach). gapayati (to let sing).(to go).

adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-. 2.: messenger gostha-. caus.: woman madhye. palayati: to protect pra+stha-. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. 5. postp. 6. caus.: form. caus. 3. They watered horses with water from the river. caus. marayti: to kill vid-. caus. Let (pl. f.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. n. vedayati: to announce.) the father the books.: wolf rupa-. caus. to make known vrdh-. 7. 8.: in vain. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. 4. elephant's trunk. m. caus.) the cows come into the cowshed. m. Let them allow the guests to enter. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. adv. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras. vardhayati: to make bigger. Show (sg.: desire vrka-. caus. caus. darwayati: to show apa+ni-. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-.: coming kara-. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. caus. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics. to enlarge pa-. caus. to no avail . Let the householder return home. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. patayati: to knock down mr-. m.: hand. m. m.: between. amongst (with genitive) arthe. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. caus. postp.: for the sake of vrtha.: cowshed manoratha-. beauty stri-. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. ajbapayati: to order da-. tax duta-.

(I) Nom. nah. (you) Nom. Abl. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg. Gen. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. Abl. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. Acc. Acc. Ins. Dat. te. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. Dat. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse. Ins. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). Loc. All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. Loc. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. tva. me. . nau. Gen.

offence amaru-. to whom .: nectar (the drink of immortality) . bhadraj te | 9. bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2. or Gen. Let your father go with me. 2. Elephants do not live in our country. caus. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10.) prath-.: the poet Amaru amrta-. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6. n.Dat. Our (Dual) parents died. I did not steal your gold (passive).: transgression. prathayati: to propagate. m. Let the gods protect your life! 6. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13. 8. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-.Text (read and translate): 1. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. caus. I do not want your (Dual) money. 4. 3. to beg ksam-. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 5. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. prarthayate: to ask. caus. n. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. to disseminate. to spread ni+vid-. 7. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. begged the boy mother. nivedayati: to announce. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14.. Mother gives food to both you and me. Tell me the story of Urvashi.Acc. to report wru-. ksamate: to forgive (what . kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4.

n. m. m. f. m.: peacock mauna-.: the nymph Urvashi katha-.: tomorrow .: silence vaktr-. postposition: if wvas. m.: pigeon taksawila-.: bliss.: hermit. n.: breath. n. m.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-. m.: treasure prana-. Pl.: frog dewa-. m. m.ca: both .: speaker vanaprasta-. f.and cet. contentedness ca . f.: country naraka-.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-.: hell nidhana-. m. n. m.: hermitage urvawi-.ardha-. adv. m.: half awrama-.: satisfaction. recluse wobhana-. virtue wloka-. prosperity mayura-. n. happiness.: story kapota-.: ornament. life bhadra-.

tau tau tabh yam Pl. she (sa. te te Pl. bl. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa . bl. G en.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. ns. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. cc. G en. this) Sg. this) Sg. at. L oc. N om. at. N om. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. ns. V oc. h cc.

(which one [of many]) katarah m. L oc./ eka f. (one) ubhayah m. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a./ katarad n./ etad n./ anya f. at./ yad n./ katama f. Here they ./ ya f. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg.L oc. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m. V oc. (all) ekah m./ sarva f. (all) viwvah m.and esa. (this one) yah m./ ubhaya f. (different) itarah m. cc. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa./ anyad n. bl./ katamad n. (relative pronoun which) katamah m. N om. ns./ viwvam n./ itara f./ esa f. except for nominative and accusative of neuter./ ubhayam n./ viwva f. it (tad. (other) The following words also follow this declension. (which one [of two]) anyah m. en. V oc. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du. tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m./ itarad n. te te tabh yam Pl./ katara f./ ekam n.follow irregular sandhi pattern./ sarvam n.

sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. 2. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. Text (read and translate): 1. so 'vadat (he said). 4. caus. 3. to delight sidh-. Poor people live in the houses. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. 5. m. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. Husbands of these women went to war. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7. Other people than you won't accomplish this. yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10.change to -o and the following -a is lost. Adj.: end arya-. instruction . I don't like your behavior. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. Examples: sa purusah (this man). 6. 9. In this forest I saw a lion. m. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. In these rivers there are many fish. 10. prinayati: to please. I don't want these books. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3./n./m. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14." said the general. sa isuh (this arrow).: noble upadewa-. yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9.: advice. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. caus. 7. anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5.

brilliance. sign vira-. m.khara-. characteristic.: mark.: behavior dosa-.: lion senapati-. n. Adj.: fault. Adj. offense wobha-.: bigger than (with Abl. m.: hero vrtta-. army leader adhika-.) . not one krwa-. n. m.: donkey laksana-. Adj. emaciated pusta-.: splendor.: general. Adj. m. f.: foolish wiksita-. much. Adj. m.: thin.) aneka-.: fat murkha-.: donkey gardabha-. beauty sijha-.: many. m. Adj.: learned prati: towards (with Acc.

to act abhi+vad-. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-. to learn abhi+nand-. n.: bee amaru-. m.: eye. f. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at.) adhuna. acarati (I): to do. acamati (I): to sip. m. caus. to rule. adhitisthati (I): to govern.) abhi+ni-. n. to welcome (Acc. to call in a+jba-. under (Gen. m. adv.: poverty aneka-.: the poet Amaru amrta-.: end . to seek refuge in abharana-.: food anrta-. m. ahvayati (IV): to call here. n. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-.: down. adv. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. caus. m.: lie. n. decoration abhi+a+as-. agamayati: to let come a+hr-. Adj. m.: order aksa-./n. awrayate (I): to depend on. Adj. abhinayati (I): to conduct. arohati (I): to ascend.: robe.) adhi+i-.) a+ruh-.: bigger than (with Abl.: today. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-. m. adv. n. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-. m. m. studying acarya-. caus.: coming agni-.: teacher adewa-.: repeating. to drive adhika-. to mount a+wri-. m.: many. much. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-.: order adharma-. dice ali-. now agamana-. not one anila-. to rinse a+car-. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. m.: fire ajba-. untruth anta-. abhyasyati (IV): to study. aharati (I): to bring a+hu-.: wind anna-.: unrighteousness adhastat.: now adya. n. to practise a+diw-.: fire anartha-. to perform.

m. caus.: "un-truth".: hermitage awru-. m.: transgression. m. happiness. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-. many bahu-.: burden. prosperity. f. apanayayati: to lead away apara-.: for the sake of arya-.: half ari-.: sword asura-. lower aparaddha-. n. n.: sun bhara-. avarohati: to descend awa-. m. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-.: end anu+gam-.: meaning. to carry out.: devotion bhan-.: demon ati+kram-. m./m.: hope awrama-. abundant. adj. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. load bhartr-.: noble as-.: here ava+gam-.: seat. m. strength bhadra-. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-. n.: wife bhas-.: different. asyati (IV): to throw asana-. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-. f. pass.: arm bala-. m.: horse badh-. m. adj. f.) artha-.: tear awva-. position asatya-. to steal apa+ni-. n. badhyate: to bind bahu-. to perform anujba-. bhasate (I): to speak. anutisthati (I): to follow. apaharati (I): to take away. m. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. n.: power. offence api-. child bala-.: guest atra.: part bhakti-.: bliss.: agreement apa+har-. force. wealth arthe. n.: husband bharya-. m.anta-.: enemy arth-. n. even though aranya-. part. m. even.: forest ardha-.: boy. postp. m. to transgress atithi-. atikramati (I): to cross over. Adj. m. adv. f. lie asi-. m. prosperity bhaga-. m. also. to say .: numerous.

: servant bhru-.: fear bhiks-. f.: servant.: giver daw-. m.: ornament bhuti-.: food bhojana-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-. dandayati (X): to beat. prosperity bindu-. punishment dardura-.: well-being. n.: temple . postposition: if chaya-. m.: fear bhaya-. m. audience dasa-. shade ciram.ca: both .: for the long time cur-. land.: beautiful cet.: brother bhrtaka-. f. adv.: servant bhrtya-.: wisdom ca . n. diyate: to give dah-. ground bhumi-.: frog daridra-. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-.: female servant. m. caus. f. earth. to practise caru-.: body deva. m. m. m.: shadow. m. n. m. dawati (I): to bite deha-. mn.: land. m. to punish danda-. meeting.: food bhram-. lord devalaya-. m.: god. dahati (I): to burn dana.and car-.: Buddhist monk. f.: Buddha buddhi-. pass. slave dasi-.: seeing. m. to become bhu-.: poor darwana-. f.: ruler bhusana-. beggar bhojana-.: stick. m. adj. f. carati (I): to walk. f.: drop brahmana-.: eyebrow bhu-.: brahmin buddha-. ground bhupala-. f. corayati (X): to steal da-.: language bhaya-. female slave datr-.: earth. dapayati: to let give da-. adj. mendicant. to roam. bhavati (I): to be. n. n. m.: alms bhiksu-. m.: gift dand-.bhasa-. n. f.

: long. m.: daughter duhkha-.adj.: donkey gavga-. f. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-.: courage.: elephant gam-. m.: the river Ganga ghasa-. f. pawyati (IV): to see. m. f.: just.: village .: bad man. m. diwati (VI): to show. jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-.. m. n. far div-. adj.: thought. m.: fault. m. ganayati (X): to count gandha-. to look duhitr-.devi-. pasture ghata-.: "twice-born".: the goddess Durga durjana-. m. villain dusta-. f. adj.: unhappy. m. gacchati (I): to go gan-. m.: thus ga-. n. firmness dhana. to seem drw-. jar ghra-.: mountain gita-.: law.: grass.: pot. courage. n.: cowshed grama.: country dhairya-. distressed durga-. n. rotten duta-. m. Buddhism dhav-. mistress dewa-. firm dhrti-.: messenger dvija-. m.: bad. adv.: grain dharma-. n. member of a high caste eva. reason dhira-. firmness dhya-. pas. n. dravati (I): to run drw-. to point dosa-. only evam.: clarified butter. m. fragrance gardabha-. adj. m. m. f. dhyayati (IV): to think.: cowherd gostha-.: song gopa-. f.: patience. brahmin dvijati-. Law. dhavati (I): to run dhi-. money dhanya-.: goddess. gayati (IV): to sing gaja-. to meditate dirgha-. drwyate: to look (like). offense dru-.: suffering duhkhita.: wealth. ghee giri-.: wise.: scent.: "twice-born". darwayati: to show drw-. righteousness. caus. m. adv.

: pleasure.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-. m.: lord. adv. m.: Hindu god Indra indrani-. to tremble . god jala. n.: now iha. hvayati (IV): to call huta-.: personal name hasta-. guhati (I): to hide. n. jivati (I): to live jivana-. n.: son-in-law jan-.: sacrificial ladle kada. adv. f.: time. n.: sometimes kalidasa-.: person janaka-.: hand he.: as. adv.: water jamatr-.: teacher. f. jayati (I): to win.: arrow iti. fight kalena. m. m. desire kamp-. to carry hrasvam. m.: when? kala-. n. m.: composition.: heart hu-.: near. n.: householder guh-. icchati (VI): to want. goodness kama-. m. adv. m. caste jaya-. n. adv. to conquer jiv-.: birth.: benefit. to yearn for isu-.: father janani-. offering idanim. death kalaha-. m.: quality guru-. like. m. m. kampate (I): to shake. part. m. m.: mother jati-. m. to conceal guna-. guru han-. m. jayate (IV): to be born jana-. to take away. close. glory ji-. part. f. m.: life jivita-. in proximity hrdaya-.: so iva. master.: quarrel. here iks-.: victory.: Indrani. part. book (text) grha-. as if iwvara-. f.: life juhu-. m. to stare indra-. ghatayati: to kill hari-. iksate (I): to look at.: oblation.: house grhastha-. caus. Indra's wife is-. harati (I): to take.: oh! hr-.grantha-.

: milk kumara-. to cultivate (field) krsi-. n. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-. emaciated ksal-. or Gen. to obtain laksana-. f.: what?.: kshatriya.: agriculture krsna-.) krwa-.: mat kath-. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-. n. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-. or Dat. m. m. m. kathayati (X): to tell. adv.: moment ksatriya-. fighter ksetra-. daughter kapota-. tax karana-.: fame klp-.: hand. khanati (I): to dig khara-. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.) kopa-.: pigeon kara-. m. m. why? kirti-. to whom .: spear. Adj.: donkey kim.: anger krs-. adv. f.: well kutah. pass. n.: mark.: cause kastha-. m. adv. n. n. m. labhate (I): to get. khadati (I): to eat khan-. adv. m. young man kunta-. f. adj.) kupa-.Acc.: wood kata-. sign laksmi-. n.: thin.: where from? why? kutra.: where? labh-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-. elephant's trunk. lance kup-. kriyate: to do krodha-. or Dat.: where? kva.) ksana-. krsati (I): to plow.: whole krudh-. n. m. f.: how? kavi-.: prince. black krt-. m. to narrate katha-. characteristic. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen.Dat.. f.: poetry kawi-.kanya-.: girl.: anger kr-.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-.: story katham. m.: field ksip-. m. f.: plough . ksamate: to forgive (what . kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. adv.: poet kavya-.

: friend moha-. f.: image.: face. to rob mad-.: fish mauna-. means also "people") lubh-.: way. mrgayate (X): to search for. postp. statue nadi-. to hunt for mrga-. saint murkha-.: deliverance mr-.: peacock megha-. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-.: deliverance muni-.likh-. f. Adj. to suppose mani-.: great king maharani-.: desire manusya-. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-.: sage.: silence mayura-. m.: cloud mitra-.: month matsya-. m. m.: foolish murti-. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-. n. mouth mukhya-. caus.: world (in Pl. m. lubhyati (IV): to long for. n. foremost mukti-. m. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-. m. m.: death marga. m.: buffalo maksika-. f. adj. m.) mukha-. f. m. marayti: to kill mr-.: honey madhye.: city. f. form.: greed loka-.: main.: queen mahisa-.: gem. m. f. n. likhati (VI): to write lip-.: between. lumpati (VI): to steal. precious stone manoratha-.: delusion moksa-. modate (I): to delight in (Ins. to discharge mud-. f. n.: garland mam: me (Acc.: deer mrtyu-. m. road masa-. m. manyate (IV): to think.) man-.: city .) lup-. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-. town nagari-.: person marana-. mubcati (VI): to free.: river nagara.: fly mala-. or Loc. m. m. n.: death muc-. to desire (with Dat. m. m. n.

m. n. parinayati: to marry parthiva-. glory! (Dat.: treasure nih+gam-. pacati (I): to cook pada-.: sin para-. adj. adj. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-. to perish nawa-.: low nidewa-. n.: new naw-.: highest. m. m. own nivewana-.: king. m.) nandana-. m.: woman nataka-. annihilation netr. adj. caus. different para+ji-. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-. adj. footprint pada-. caus. sinful papa-.: step. n. namati (I): to bow. m.: ruler. n.: order nidhana-.: hail!.: dwelling niwcaya-.: one's. to prostrate. to worship namas-. ruler pa-. n.: Indra's paradise naptr-. palayati (X): to protect pandita-.: man naraka-. m. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-. m.: lotus pal-. palayati: to protect pa-. m. m.: hell nari-. adj. place padma-. king nrpati-. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-.. m. learned man pani-. nispadyate (IV): to originate. pibati (I): to drink pac-. m. m.: foot. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-. m. to report nica-.: destruction.: bad.nam-. nawyati (IV): to be lost.n.: play.: decision nrpa-. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-. to appear nija-. n.: grandson nara-. palm panini-. m.: leader netra.: the grammarian Panini papa-.: eye ni-.: hand. nivedayati: to announce.: ruler .: scholar.: axe pari+dha-. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-. adv. drama navina-. f. n.

many praja-. m. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. to beg pra+as-. f.: wife pattra-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-. atonement pri-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. m. homage . prapadyate (IV): to go to.: grandfather pitr-. pass.parvata-. caus. pidayati (X): to torture.) prati+bhas-. prathayati: to propagate. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. to arise prabhuta-. m. pratiksate (I): to await. n. m. husband patni-. Pl.: lesson. to recite patha-. prarthayate: to ask.: Lord. otec. to return prati+iks-. m.: the breeding of cattle pid-. caus. f. to restrain prayaga-.: sacrificial animal.: leaf. m. m. prabhavati (I): to arise. study pathika-. adj.: palace prath-. to worship. to disseminate.: citizen pavitra-.: earth puj-. m. pujayati (X): to honour. caus. adj.: snare.: expiation. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-. life prasada-. Pl. m. people prana-. parents. Du. to fly pataliputra-.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. parayati (X): to overcome pr-. pravartate (I): to become. m. trap pawu-. n.: mountain. ancestors pr-. to hurt pitamaha-. puryate: to fill pr.) pra+stha-. n.: manifold.: traveler pati-. to go back. to expect prati+sidh-. to revere puja-.: subject. m. patati (I): to fall.ch-. n. hill pat-. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-. to delight prthivi-. letter paura-. pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. f. pratigacchati (I): to come back. cattle pawupalya-. patayati: to knock down pat-.: clean. to take refuge in (Acc. pathati (I): to read. f.: breath.: worship. caus. holy pawa-. master. to appear pra+jan-. prinayati: to please. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-.

: battle ratha-.: suddenly .: old story.: seer ruc-.: street ratna-.: coin sabha-. to endure saha. rocate (I): to like (Dat.: flower pusta-.: fat pustaka-. sahate (I): to bear.: holy. f. m. m. adj. n. f. m. m. m.: protection raksitr-. stream purana-. beauty rupaka-. Adj.: sea sah-. f.: merit pura-. adv. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-. n. f. assembly sad-. ramate (I): to play rama-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-. n.: protection raksana-.) sahasa.: bear roga-. raksati (I): to protect raksana-. n. m. m.: flood.: daughter r-. righteous sadhu-.: always sadhu-. n. n. f. to share rac-.: gem ratna-. to obtain. n. adv. meeting.: man puspa-. Gen. quantity rawmi-.: illness rsi-.: kingdom raks-.: holy man sagara-.: with (with Inst. m. n.: ray ripu-.: chariot rathya-. m..: heap. precious stone rawi-.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-.: again punya-.punar. m.: son putri-.) rud-. mass.: form. sidati (I): to sit. m. rcchati (I): to get. n. f.: enemy rksa-.: book (manuscript) putra. m. or postp. m. adv. n. mn.: epos Ramayana rana-. rohati (I): to grow rupa-. prep.: queen rajya-.: protector ram-.: congregation. rodati (I): to weep ruh-. m.: jewel. to sit down sada.

) seva-.: everywhere satya-. n. smarati (I): to remember smrti-.: soldier sajdigdha-. m.: service sevaka-.: general.: lion smr-. contentedness sam+a+car-.: sister tad-. f. or Loc. serpent sarvatah. m. adv. equal.: sun. to stay stotra-.: then. questionable sajtosa-. adv. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-.: praise sukha-. n. m. f.: everywhere. to discharge sidh-.: happiness sukta-. m. f.: creation stena-. m.: heaven svasr-.) snusa-. adj. rightly sarpa-. m. thoroughly. adj. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-.: thief. sea samyak.: doubtful.: beauty surya-.sainika-. by all means sarvatra. a hymn of praise stri-.: servant sic-.: sleep. adj. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. tisthati (I): to stand. m.: gold svapna-. n. adj. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-.: same.: Vedic hymn sundara-. m. whole samudra-. adv.: tradition.: creator srj-. sevate (I): to serve.: truth senapati-. to talk with (Ins. m. even samagra-.) sam+gaj-. army leader sev-. f. n. sajbhasate (I): to converse. n. srjati (VI): to create srsti-.: charioteer suvarna-.: ode. f. n. m. m. f.: ocean. m. tadayati (X): to beat tada. the god of the Sun suta-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen.: well. caus. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-. dream svarga-. to honour (Acc. robber stha-.: snake.: woman stuti-. f. at that time . adv.: beautiful sundari-. sajgacchate: to come together sama-.: satisfaction.: daughter-in-law sprw-.: complete. f.

instruction urvawi-.: but tud-. to admonish upa+iks-.: thus. to stand up udadhi-.) tyaj-.: pond. so tatra.: water varuna-. n. to give up ucca-.: curved. n.: business. to say vadhu-.: exertion.: tree tata-.: ocean udyana-. vandate (I): to praise.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-. m. uttisthati (I): to get up.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-. n. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. m. m. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-. adj. tusyati (IV): to rejoice.taksawila-. tolayati (X): to lift up. n. n.: garden udyana-. vahati (I): to carry. to blow. adj. m.: there tira-. tarati (I): to cross over tu. wife vah-. to pierce tul-. pass. twisted vaktr-. to instruct.: garden udyoga-. to flow vaiwya-. adv.: forest vanaprasta-. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-. adv.: high ud+pat-. tyajati (I): to leave. to pay homage vanijya-.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. f. f.: better. to be satisfied (Ins. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-. vapati (I): to sow vapi-.) taru-. to weigh tus-. n. pool vara-.: woman. m. f. trade vap-. f. bank tr-. best vari-. perseverance upa+diw-. m.: speaker vana-.: hermit. f. recluse vand-.: dwelling vastra-. n. vadati (I): to speak.: daddy tatha. m. ucyate: is called vad-.: shore. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-. to grieve (Abl.: advice. m. tudati (VI): to strike. m. part. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-.: clothing . upadiwati (VI): to teach. adj.

caus. m. m. to punish wastr-.: wound. m. top wiks-. vindati (VI): to get. to acquire vidhi-. vartate (I): to live on vrtha. vartate (I): to be. vivadati (I): to argue vici-. n. m. to enlarge vrka-. m.: treatise. to no avail vrtta-. vardhayati: to make bigger. to be finished wanti-.: learned wisya-. n. to exist vrt-.: way. law-book watru-. to pour down. n.: hunter vyaghra-. wealth vayu-. n. rule.: story vyadh-.: tree vrs-.: discipline vipra-.: hero vira-. m. m. f.: brahmin vira-. "punisher" wastra-. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-. m.: bird vinaya-. to extol wakha-. m.: wind vi+ram-. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. n.: student.: in vain. f.: peace. wisdom vihaga-. adv. n. vedayati: to announce. viramate (I): to give up.: summit.: poison vrana-. wisyate: to rule. pupil . wajsati (I): to praise. caus. to abandon (Abl. silence wara-. n. m. m.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-.: hero visnu-. m.: behavior vrttanta-.: bird vihaga-.: ruler.vasu-.: refuge was-. m.: thing. varsati (I): to rain. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-. to shower vrt-.: wave vid-. m. f. Adj. direction vidya-. to make known vid-.) vi+vad-. m.: arrow warana-.: wolf vrksa-. pass.: branch wam-. m. m. mode. sore vrdh-.: tiger wajs-. m. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-. m.: disputation. m. argument viw-.: knowledge.: enemy wikhara-.

: yoga yuddha-. m.: splendor. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-. m. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.: how. yudhyati (IV): to fight .: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then….: sacrifice yam-. m. pass. m. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-.: Shiva wiwu-. rel.: tomorrow wvawru-. m.: luck. m. adv.: ascetic yatra. m.: the river Yamuna yat-. adv. beauty.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives.: white ya-.: father-in-law wveta-. f.: which yada. virtue wraddha-. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-.: when (relative) yaj-. adv.) wudra-. m. caus.: mother-in-law wvawura-. f.: child wloka-. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas. adj. beauty wobhana-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-. oblation for them wram-.: war yudh-. wruyate: to hear wruti-. wealth wru-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl. as (relative) yati-.) yatha. f.: Vedic scripture wubh-. as far as yoga-. adv. m. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-. brilliance. m. m. pron. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: ornament.wiva-.: child wiwu-. f. n.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-. f. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-.

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