Lesson 1

The verb The basic element of a Sanskrit verb is the root. To the root endings, prefixes and other sounds (augment, thema) can be added. In this process, the root can be substantially changed. In the dictionaries, the verb can be usually found in it's root form. The verbs are divided into ten classes. Classes I., IV., VI. and X. are also called thematic classes, because they add a thematic vowel (-a or -a) between the root and the ending. So, the root vad- (to speak) when conjugated in the VI. class has the following singular forms of the indicative present (root+thema+ending): 1st person singular: vad+a+mi (I speak), 2nd person singular: vad+a+si (you speak), 3rd person singular: vad+a+ti (he/she/it speaks).

The noun There are masculine (m.), feminine (f.) and neuter (n.) nouns in Sanskrit. These can take one of the eight cases in three numbers: singular (Sg.), dual (Du.) and plural (Pl.). There are many types of declination (usually according to the final sound of the stem). Most usual and easiest are so called "a-stems", or nouns ending with the vowel a-. The singular nominative (Nom.), accusative (Acc.) and vocative (Voc.) case of masculine and neuter a-stems are: deva (m., "god") Nom. devah Acc. devam Voc. deva phala (n., "fruit") Nom. phalam Acc. phalam Voc. phalam Nominative case expresses the subject (I go, man speaks) and accusative case represents the object (I see you, man speaks the truth) or the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Vocative is the case of address (Where are you going, boy?).

Sandhi rules In Sanskrit, there is an extensive set of rules for the changes of final sound and/or of initial sound of the following word. These rules exist also in other languages (for example: English indefinite particle "a" becomes "an" if the initial sound of the next word is a vowel; a cat, but an orange). But in no other

language have these rules been classified and systemised as well as in Sanskrit. We will deal with them gradually. -h as the word's final stays unchanged only at the end of the sentence or of the verse (atra vasati balah. Here dwells the boy.) and before consonants -k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s (atra balah krsati. Here plows the boy.). Before all other sounds it is changed. As these are probably the most difficult of sandhi rules, we will come back to them repeatedly. In some words (like in this lesson the word punar, again) this -h is in place of original -r sound. So, before these same consonants (-k, -kh, -p, -ph, -w, -s, -s) the final -h is kept (punah patati, it falls again), but before all the other sounds the -r is restored (punar vadasi, you speak again). -m at the end of the sentence or the verse is to be written (in Devanagari script) as a consonant with the virama. Before all the consonants it is replaced by the anusvara (-j). Before all the vowels the final -m is connected to the initial vowel (which is reflected only in the devanagari script). So we have balaj vadati (he says to the boy), but balamadya vadati (or balam adya vadati, he says to the boy now).

Text (read and translate): 1. atra jivami | 2. tatra jivasi | 3. kutra jivati | 4. kva vasasi | 5. vihagah patati | 6. kva vihagah patati | 7. narah ksetraj krsati | 8. ksetraj krsasi | 9. grhaj punah patati | 10. bhojanaj balah pacati | 11. bhojanamadya pacasi | 12. evaj vadati buddhah | 13. ksatriyah kuntaj ksipati | 14. narah prcchati balam | 15. punarvadasi | 16. nrpah sada raksati | 17. lokaj sada raksasi nrpa | 18. kutra vasasi ksatriya | 19. brahmanah sada yajati | 20. adhuna bhojanaj pacami | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (pay attention to the sandhi rules): 1. (He) always speaks. 2. You cook.

3. I live here. 4. There flies a bird. 5. How do you live? 6. You cultivate the field. 7. Where does the arrow fly? 8. The brahmin sacrifices there. 9. You always speak, boy. 10. He again asks the Buddha. The exercise key

Vocabulary: Note, in every lesson's vocabulary, first come the verbs in their root-form (preceded by a prefix, if any) and 3rd person singular indicative present plus respective verb class, then follow the nouns (substantives and adjectives) with their gender and at the end come the adverbs and particles. They all follow in Sanskrit alphabetical order. The English translations of Sanskrit words in every lesson are by no means exhaustive and usually cover only one (or few) possible meanings. krs-, krsati (I): to plow, to cultivate (field) ksip-, ksipati (VI): to throw jiv-, jivati (I): to live pac-, pacati (I): to cook pat-, patati (I): to fall, to fly prch-, prcchati (VI): to ask yaj-, yajati (I): to sacrifice raks-, raksati (I): to protect vad-, vadati (I): to speak, to say vas-, vasati (I): to dwell kunta-, m.: spear, lance ksatriya-, m.: kshatriya, fighter ksetra-, n.: field grha-, n.: house nara-, m.: man wara-, m.: arrow nrpa-, m.: ruler, king bala-, m.: boy, child brahmana-, m.: brahmin buddha-, m.: Buddha bhojana-, n.: food loka-, m.: world (in Pl. means also "people") vihaga-, m.: bird atra, adv.: here adya, adv.: today, now adhuna, adv.: now

evam, adv.: thus katham, adv.: how? kutra, adv.: where? kva, adv.: where? tatra, adv.: there punar, adv.: again sada, adv.: always

buddham eva (just the Buddha. "god") Nom..in front of the verb.to -cch-: icchanti. just): ksetraj phalani ca or ksetraj ca phalani ca (field and fruits). the verb "to be" can be ommited in the sentence.Lesson 2 Declination of the a-stems in the plural: deva (m.). ksetraj phalani va or ksetraj va phalani va (field or fruits). bhojanam atra (the food [is] here).(VI. va (or). the Buddha only). classes: gam. yacchati. na vadanti (they do not say. stha.. devah phala (n. Negative form of the verb is formed by adding a particle -na.(to give) change -m. phalani The plural indicative present forms of the verb vad.(to go) and yam. So: na gacchami (I do not go or I am not going). "fruit") Nom. bhojanaj tu (but the food. eva (particle of emphasis. balah kataj diwati | 2. brahmanah sada yajanti devan | . sad. class): 1st person plural: vad+a+mah 2nd person plural: vad+a+tha 3rd person plural: vad+a+nti Some irregularities of the verbs in the VI. phalani Voc. kutra katah | 3.to -i-: sidati.. tu (but). In Sanskrit. and I. they are not saying).(to stand) changes the whole root to tistha: tisthasi. Sanskrit uses enclitics which are added after the word they belong to: ca (and). is (to want) changes -s. devan Voc. Thus: narah kutra? (Where [is] the man?)..(to sit) changes -a.to -cch-: gacchati. devah Acc. phalani Acc. Text (read and translate): 1.

9. 3. Where are the elephants? 5. you are pointing the way. 6. The man steps on (viw-) the mat. balah ksiramicchati | 23. 7. nagarameva gacchami | 9. jalamicchanti gajah | 20. Where the water does not flow. there stay the houses. dhanamicchamah | 24. margaj diwatha balah | 19. Kshatriyas don't give gifts. kada danani yacchatha | 26. I want water. adya ksetrani na krsamah | 25. We are leaving the world today.) going? 2. danani yacchanti | 10. narandevah srjati | 13. jalaj na sprwamah | 21. nagaramadhuna gacchamah | 8. 4. devaj brahmanah wajsanti | 17. kada gramaj gacchanti putrah | 5. nrpah kva sidati | 7.4. 11. Do you want milk? 10. We praise the boys. 12. 8. Boys. grhaj na tyajati narah | 12. gramamadya viwamah | 14. grhamatra tisthati | 6. there the people do not live. yada dhavatha tada patatha | 15. tatha jivamah | 18. tatra dhavanti gajah | 11. The exercise key . Brahmins still sit there. Where is the city. devannamanti | 22. yatra grhani tatra narah | 16. kutra jalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Where are you (pl.

wajsati (I): to praise. namati (I): to bow. m. m. gacchati (I): to go tyaj-. lord dhana-. m. n.: way.: milk gaja-. viwati (VI): to enter wajs-. to sit down srj-. to point dhav-.: when (relative) .: elephant grama-. m.: just. to extol sad-. to prostrate.: wealth.: gift deva-. adv. n. at that time yatra. road eva.: thus.: city. srjati (VI): to create stha-.: mat ksira-. diwati (VI): to show. yacchati (I): to give viw-. adv.Vocabulary is-. dhavati (I): to run nam-. sprwati (VI): to touch kata-. n.: where (relative) yada.: village jala-. adv. only kada.: son marga-. sidati (I): to sit.: when? tatha. money nagara-. to yearn for gam-. town putra-. adv. tyajati (I): to leave. to stay sprw-. adv.: god.: water dana-. icchati (VI): to want. m. m. to worship yam-. to give up diw-. tisthati (I): to stand.: then. n. so tada. adv. n.

If these two vowels are different (regardless if they are short or long) change into these forms: a + i -> e: adya iha -> adyeha (now here) a + u -> o: tatha uktah -> tathoktah (so said) a + r -> ar: tatra rksah -> tatrarksah (there is a bear) a + e -> ai: adhuna eva -> adhunaiva (just now) . to smell). devau phale Voc. The "normal grade" is the vowel itself. guhati (to hide. dravati (to run). bhavati (to be). vad+a+vah We (two) say 2. sidami iha -> sidamiha (I sit here). vad+a+thah You (two) say 3. jayati (to win. rohati (to grow). vad+a+tah They (two) say n. pa-. Sandhi rules: If two identical vowels occur as word's final and word's initial (regardless if they are short or long) they combine into a long vowel: atra adya -> atradya (now here). ghra-. to shower). the first grade is called guna. Acc. jighrati (III. Vowel gradation: This is their gradual strengthening by adding the vowel -a in front of the vowel in question. nayati (to lead). It has always the same form for Nominative. ruh-. Also the verb has all three persons in dual: 1. Nom.Lesson 3 The Dual The dual number is used in case we are dealing with two persons or things. to conquer). bhu-. to conceal). But note some irregularities: guh-. varsati (to rain. Accusative and Vocative cases: m. class change the root vowel into the guna grade: ni-. the second grade is vrddhi. pibati (to drink). dru-. normal grade a a i i guna vrddhi a u u r l a a e/ay o/av ar al ai/ay au/av ar al Some verbs conjugated in the I. class. ji-. vrs-.

To the forest run the (two) elephants. devau smaramah | 9. 8. Just today we both go to the city. 7. gramaj gajau balau nayatah | 14. devavadya smaramah | 10. The Buddha speaks the truth. Home (emphasized) go both boys. atraiva vasavah | 5. . balau phale khadatah | 20. They give money and gifts. kutra dravatha he balah | 12. The ruler conquers both fighters. dahasi he anala | 15. gajah ksatriyaj kva vahati | 23. awvau kutra dravatah | 22. Here stand (two) trees. satyamadya na vadatha | 19. buddhah sadaivaj vadanti | 7.a + o -> atra owadhih -> atrausadhih (here is the medicine) Text (read and translate): 1. Where are both horses? 3. Just here are (two) horses. 12. Here we (two) do not live. ksatriyannrpah sarvatra nayati | 2. Where do you hide money? 11. 2. meghah sada jalaj varsati | 4. 6. 10. jalaj pibantihawvah | 6. iha phalani na bhavanti | 13. he nrpau jayathah | 11. satyaj na vadathah | 18. atradhuna na sidavah | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. ksiraj jalaj ca narah pibanti | 17. gandhamiha jighravah | 3. atraiva gajah pibanti | 21. vrksah sarvatra na rohanti | 8. anilah sada na vahati | 16. 4. 5. Where are you (two) going now? 9.

jighrati (III): to smell ji-. pibati (I): to drink bhu-. to pour down. n. Where are you leading (those two) people? The exercise key Vocabulary: khad-. to conceal ghra-. dahati (I): to burn dru-.: scent. rohati (I): to grow vrs-.: cloud vana-.: truth iha. to conquer dah-. dravati (I): to run ni-.: tree satya-. vahati (I): to carry. Here sarvatra.: horse anala-. varsati (I): to rain. guhati (I): to hide. bhavati (I): to be. jayati (I): to win. adv. m. m. to become vah-. nayati (I): to lead pa-.: everywhere he. m.: fire anila-. fragrance megha-. m. khadati (I): to eat guh-.: forest vrksa-. to blow. adv. part.13. to shower smr-. m.: wind gandha-. m. to flow ruh-. smarati (I): to remember awva-. n.: oh! .

devasya devayoh Voc. devau devau Pl. Loc. "fruit") Sg. phalam phalena phalaya phalat phale Du. giving. Abl. is also used to denote reason (from anger). Accusative: the object (I see you). Genitive: possesive sense (elephant's tusk). the goal of the motion (I go to the city). Ablative: expresses the relationship "from". it can also denote the goal of the motion (to the village). "by means of ". phalasya Voc. circumstances (in the city). the agent in a passive construction. Dat. phale phale phalabhyam phalabhyam phalabhyam phalayoh phalayoh phale Pl. devah Acc. telling (to the boy). Instrumental: instrumental and comitative sense (as the English "with"). Nom.Lesson 4 The full declension of the masculine and neuter "a-stems" is as follows: For masculine: deva (m. phalam Meaning of the cases: Nominative: the subject (I go). Loc. Ins. "god") Sg. "by" (with the Buddha. Ins.. deva And for neuter: phala (n. by carriage). devah devan devena devabhyam devaih devaya devabhyam devebhyah devat deve devabhyam devebhyah devanam devesu devah devayoh devau Gen. phalani phalani phalaih phalebhyah phalebhyah phalanam phalesu phalani Gen.. Nom. as English "through". "because of". phalam Acc. . Locative: the location. devam Du. Dative: the indirect object. Abl. Dat.

The particle "iti" is used to denote quotation and direct speech (iha vasami iti vadati ksatriyah . jalaj hastena kij sprwasi | 8. Some thematic verbs add a nasal consonant in front of the final consonant of the root. -u. -ah at the end of the word and before a voiced consonant and all the vowels becomes -a: narah atra -> nara atra (the men are here). dhanani grhesu guhanti | 2. m for p. -i before any vowel (except for -i. Sandhi rules: -ah at the and of the word and before a voiced consonant becomes -o: narah gacchati -> naro gacchati (the man goes). Main adverbs: close far where when how question relative all yatra yada yatah sarvatra sada sarvatah sarvatha atra tatra kutra adya tada kada iti why/where from atah tatah kutah tatha katham yatha Text (read and translate): 1. j and sibilants). putrah sukheneha janakasya grhe tisthanti | 5. gajah kutradhuna caranti | 10.Vocative: the address (Who are you. -u before any vowel (except for -u. There is no indirect speech in Classical Sanskrit. see Lesson 3) changes into -y: tisthami atra -> tisthamyatra. ksetrani lavgalaih krsanti | 9. narah gacchanti (the men go). mubcati (see Vocabulary). megha jalaj sibcanti | 6. ksiraj necchami jalaj tvicchamiti balo vadati | 4. For example: muc-. If the following word beggins with a short a-. hastabhyaj kuntansada ksipamah | 3. duhkhattatraivaj janako vadati | . rane ksatriyah waranmubcanti | 7. This additional consonant always belongs to the same group as the original one (ie. see Lesson 3) changes into -v: na tu iha -> na tviha (but not here). -i. n for t.the fighter says that he lives here). man?). b for c and j. this gets lost and is changed into the avagraha (in transliteration the apostrophe is used): putrah atra -> putro 'tra (the son is here).

6. to practise muc-. m. 7.: power. hill bala-.11. to discharge aranya-. wivaj dvija hutairyajanti | 17.: suffering dvija-. balena duhkhaj na jayasi | 16./n. m. Men with boys go to the forest. ksatriyah waranvisena limpanti | 13. krntati (VI): to cut car-. 8. young man janaka-. m.: mountain. n. aranyesu mrgah sarvatra caranti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 3.: traveler parvata-. Trees do not grow on high mountains. People want happiness.: "twice-born". "I give gifts only to the poor" tells now brahmin to the boys.: plough vipra-. carati (I): to walk. n. brahmin pathika-. n. From the city to the village goes the father with two sons. ksatriyasya hastau nrpah kutah krntati | 12.: forest kumara-. 4. kumaraya vipro danaj yacchati | 14. The exercise key Vocabulary: krt-.: Rama (personal name) lavgala-. m. 2. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle. limpati (VI): to smear sic-. mubcati (VI): to free. but not suffering. The water of clouds sprinkles the fields. m.: deer rana-. m.: battle rama-. yajati (I): to sacrifice lip-.: father duhkha-. m. to discharge yaj-. People do not live in forests. force.: prince. m. 5. n. to roam. m. strength mrga-.: brahmin . janakah putrena marge gacchati | 15. Traveler walks on the way to the village.

: what?. part.viwa-. adv.: Shiva sukha-.: high iti. adj. why? kutah. offering ucca-. m. m.: so kim. part. n.: hand huta-.: poison wiva-.: oblation.: but The exercise key . n. why? tu. adv.: happiness hasta-.: where from?. n.

asukha. Loc.Lesson 5 The declension of the masculine and neuter "i-stems": agni. fire) Sg. agnayah agnin agnim agni agnina agnibhyam agnibhih agnaye agnibhyam agnibhyah agneh agnau agnibhyam agnibhyah agnyoh agnyoh agni agninam agnisu agnayah Gen. Nom. agni Pl. For example: sukha-.. fire burns). agne vari. Dat. varini varini varibhyam varibhih varibhyam varibhyah varinam varisu varini varinah varibhyam varibhyah varini varinoh varini Gen. unhappiness. agnih dahati -> agnirdahati. the fire is here. Abl. Du. Ins. Dat. Loc. Ins. final -h disappears and the vowel that precedes it is lengthened (kavibhih ramah gacchati -> kavibhi ramo gacchati. varinah varinoh Voc.(n. agnih Acc.(in case the word begins with a consonant) or an.(if it begins with a vowel). But if the following word begins with -r. vari Negating prefix: We can negate some substantive and adjective nouns by adding a prefix a. Sandhi rules: -h at the end of the word and following any other vowel then -a or -a is before voiced consonants and all vowels changed into -r (agnih atra -> agniratra. Nom. "un-noble". . vari Acc. water): Sg. anarya. poet tells to the seer). sorrow. varini varini Pl. Rama goes with the poets). vari varina varine Du. arya.(m. Abl. agneh Voc. happines. noble.. But this rule does not apply to the vowel -r (kavih rsim vadati -> kavirrsij vadati.

kavayo harij wajsanti | 7. 7. no elephants live. agnirnarasya hastaj dahati | 20. nrpatih kavibhyo danani yacchati | 15. weep the boys. Text (read and translate): 1. Fighters burn the houses and enemies' sons weep. jh. d. 8. says the brahmin to the poet. -r preceded by a vowel is often changed into -r (iti rsih -> itirsih). -r or -r and if there is no palatal (c. nominative plural of vari is varini). dh. n) or dental (t. but from the Law [there is] happiness. We live happily here in the mountains. If the vowel is -i or -u it it can be changed into -y. kavayo 'dya kavyaniha pathanti | 13. "You don't speak the truth". Even today people remember Rama. 6. nrpo 'sinareh pani krntati | 6. From sin there is always suffering. rsibhi ramo vanesu vasati | 16. "O. "Enemies rob the houses here". vrksa girau rohanti | 11. agninarinaj grhani nrpa dahanti | 17. jalaj gireh patati | 10. nrpatirarimasina jayati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. asinaiva nrpatirarerdehaj tudati | 12. th. n) between them (so. sada deva jananmubcanti papat | 3. why don't you recite poetry?". dh. balau kuto rodatah | 2. 3. 5. harij ksirena yajatah | 18. retroflex (t. . 9. Where people burn the forests. asks the king. -v and -r can be retained (iti rsih -> ityrsih). suktesu varuna eva varinah patih | 4. b). 2. poet. ch.-n is changed into -n if it is preceded by -s. daso balebhyo 'nnaj yacchati | 19. j. rsyo putrau tatra marge tisthanti | 14. rsirduhkhatputraj raksati | 5. Hari's horse is standing just here. satyaj sada vadantirsayo na tvasatyam | 8. 4. th. arayo jananaj dhanaj lumpanti | 9. d.

: Vedic hymn hari-.: "un-truth".: Lord. m.: (Vedic god) Varuna vari-. m. n. m. even though . m. to rob agni-. n.: person dasa-. ruler pati-. n. husband pani-.: poet kavya-.: water sukta-.: hand. Buddhism nrpati-.: seer kavi-. pathati (I): to read.: servant.: body dharma-. n.: food ari-.: personal name api-.The exercise key Vocabulary: tud-.: sin varuna-. n.: law. n. m. palm papa-. slave deha-.: fire anna-. m. also. to pierce path-. tudati (VI): to strike. m. m. master.: mountain jana-. m. m. righteousness. even. m. mn.: enemy asatya-. m. rodati (I): to weep lup-. m.: king. lumpati (VI): to steal. m.: poetry giri-.: sword rsi-. Law. part. lie asi-. to recite rud-.

The verb drw. watro Masculine adjectives ending in -u use the same declension. indicative uses different root (paw-).is changed into -w: devah ca -> devawca (and the god). kupyati (to be angry). For example a. pawyati (to see. watroh Voc.Lesson 6 The verbs of the IV. it means "all the way to" or "only from": a vanam (all the way to the forest). Only passive is constructed from this root. The declension of the masculine "u-stems": watru-. watruh tisthati atra -> watrustisthatyatra (the enemy stands here). class are thematic verbs. Dat. watravah watrun watrum watru watruna watrubhyam watrubhih watrave watrubhyam watrubhyah watroh watrau watrubhyam watrubhyah watrvoh watrvoh watru watrunam watrusu watravah Gen. Abl. Loc. Prefixes: Sanskrit words often use prefixes to alter or completely change the meaning. Ins. (enemy) Sg. a vanat (only from the forest). m. th. But if a is used separately as a preposition.means roughly "from away to here": agacchati (to come). agnih ca -> agniwca (and the fire).(to see) is irregular and defective. Nom. Between the root (in normal grade) and thematic vowel they add -y-: kup-.is changed into -s: nrpatih tatra -> nrpatistatra (the king is there). Sandhi rules: -ah before any other vowel then -a is changed into -a: narah agacchati -> nara agacchati (a man comes). Du. anayati (to bring). to look). ch. -h after any vowel and before t-. -h after any vowel and before c-. watru Pl. Therefore: drw-. . watruh Acc.

kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. ksetresu jalaj wusyati | 11. a girervrksa rohanti | 16. By the power of [your] arms you win. We do not live here. kimanayasiti gururbalaj prcchati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 4. guruh wisyawca kutra sidatah | 21. 8." asks teacher the student. balo gurave pattraj likhati | 14. watrubhiradya ksatriya yudhyanti | 22. visnumrsiryajati nrpaya | 9. wisyaih saha guravastatrodadhij pawyanti | 7. bahubhyaj jalaj narastaranti | 17. vipro hutamagnavasyati | 8. guravah wisyanaj snihyanti | 12. 3. naro 'wvamarohati | 10. "What are you writing now. 5. parawuna vrksankrntatha | 5. The king with fighters comes to the city. "There stands father's house.Text (read and translate): 1. or Dat. 2. The exercise key Vocabulary: as-. janasya bindavo gireh patanti | 6. kavayo dhane lubhyanti | 2. nrpo nagaraj ksatriyanahvayati | 20. balau grhe hvayati narah | 18. but father lives here. nrpa aribhyah kupyanti | 4. guru wisyayoh krudhyatah | 3." says the boy to the traveler. 7. In teacher's house students sit on mats and read treatises.) . kaveh putra gramasya marge gajaj pawyanti | 19. jana maninaj rawinicchanti | 15. 6. The fighter mounts the horse and comes to the city. nrpanaj ripavo 'sina nawyanti | 13. asyati (IV): to throw kup-. oh king. Birds fly from the clouds and sit on the tree.

guru pattra-. pawyati (IV): to see. m.) . precious stone ratna-. n. m.: student. m. nawyati (IV): to be lost. letter parawu-. m. wusyati (IV): to dry out snih-. m. mass. n. to look yudh-.: with (with Inst.: teacher. m. ahvayati (IV): to call here. to mount likh-. quantity ripu-. n. precious stone rawi-. agacchati (I): to come tr-. yudhyati (IV): to fight a+ruh-.) a+gam-. or postp. or Loc. law-book wisya-. lubhyati (IV): to long for.: jewel. or Loc. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen.: bird watru-.) wus-.: ocean guru-. m. m. pupil saha.: heap. m. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m.: treatise. m. hvayati (IV): to call a+hu-.: arm bindu-.: enemy wastra-. m. arohati (I): to ascend.krudh-. to desire (with Dat. prep. to call in udadhi-.: foot.: enemy visnu-. footprint bahu-.: axe pada-.) hu-.: drop mani-.: leaf.: Hindu god Vishnu vihaga-. to perish drw-. or Dat. m. tarati (I): to cross over naw-. likhati (VI): to write lubh-.: gem.

viro rane bahubwatrunkuntena vidhyati | 5. kramati (to walk). nrpateh krodhah kij na wamyatyadhuna | 4. madhu Sandhi rules: An unvoiced consonant is before all voiced consonant and vowels changed into a voiced consonant: gramat adya -> gramadadya (now from the village). Ins. arayo jananaj grhebhyo vasuni haranti | .is changed into vidh-: vyadh-. nara visenasijllimpanti | 9. A final -n is before -j and -w changed into -b: watrun jayati -> watrubjayati (he conquers enemies). Nom. madhuni madhuni Pl. rksa madhune lubhyanti | 3. narah putrajstatranayanti | 2. ramah ksatriyanparawunakramati | 10. meghat vari -> meghadvari (water from the clouds). Before unvoiced -c and -t an appropriate vowel is inserted: tan ca -> tajwca (and those). Dat. devan wajsami -> buddhan wajsami (I praise buddhas). gurubwisyajwcatra pawyamah | 11. mad-. madhuni madhuni madhubhyam madhubhih madhubhyam madhubhyah madhunam madhusu madhuni madhunah madhubhyam madhubhyah madhuni madhunoh madhuni Gen. The declension of the neuter "u-stems": Sg. Before -l it is changed into jl: tan lokan -> tajllokan (those worlds). kram-. madhu madhuna madhune Du. alayah puspanaj madhuna madyanti | 8. Loc. madhu Acc. bhramyati (to wander). vidhyati (to pierce). Abl. rsiradhuna panina jalamacamati | 6. Text (read and translate): 1. madhunah madhunoh Voc. tan tatha -> tajstatha (them thus). nrpa aksaistatra divyanti | 7.Lesson 7 Some verbs with roots ending in -am lengthen the vowel in the root: bhram-. madyati (to be intoxicated). the root vyadh.

gaja nagare bhramyanti | 17. to be finished wram-. 6. to share a+kram-. guruh wisyasya papattamyati | 16. wramyati (IV): to become tired hr-. to grieve (Abl. 8.: bee awru-. m. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated vyadh-. madhuna ksirena ca balastusyanti | 18. guroh padau wisyah sprwanti | 19. akramati (I): to attack a+cam-. n. tusyati (IV): to rejoice. to obtain. wamyati (IV): to be pacified. harati (I): to take. jalenagnih wamyati | 15. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. There are many things in the houses. to take away.: unrighteousness ali-. to rinse tam-. atra vane kuto bhramyasi | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: eye. rcchati (I): to get. Fighters play for money (Ins. acamati (I): to sip.12. Bees wander around flowers of the trees.) tus-. vidhyati (IV): to pierce wam-. balasya netrabhyamawruni patanti | 14. 4. 2. m. m.: tear rksa-. When teacher's anger is pacified students rejoice. 5. manusya mrtyumrcchanti na tu devah | 13.: bear . divyati (IV): to play a+ni-. to be satisfied (Ins. A king always shares a part of unrighteousness. The exercise key Vocabulary: r-.). 3. Death conquers even unrighteousness. Birds are flying to the tree.) div-. 7. to carry aksa-. bhramyati (IV): to wander about mad-. anayati (I): to bring bhram-. dice adharma-. n. Tears are flowing on boy's face.

: person mukha-. abundant. wealth vira-. many .: death vasu-.: flower bhaga-. adj. n. m. m.: honey manusya-.: anger krodha-.: part madhu-.kopa-.n. m.: anger netra.: eye puspa-. n.: face.: thing. n.: hero bahu-. n. m. mouth mrtyu-. m.: numerous. m.

-l and -n this final -t becomes assimilated: meghat ca -> meghacca (and from the cloud). stenah suvarnaj nrpasya grhaccorayati | 2. -w and -l) and vowels: meghat atra -> meghadatra (here from the cloud). Sandhi rules: -t at as a word's final is changed into -d before voiced consonants (except for palatals. corayati (to steal). grhalloka agacchanti | 15. bhayayati (to cause fear). punyena sadhurduhkhani parayati | 16. If the root ends in a vowel. gururdandena wisyajstadayati | 3. purane devanaj vrttantani pathamah | 5. ramasya putrau ramayanaj kathayatah | 12. to generate). janakah putrankopaddandayati | 14. pidayati (to torture).between consonants is sometimes lengthened and sometimes not: ksal-. dharayati (to hold). janayati (to give birth. papat lokah -> papallokah (from the sin the world). but: pid-. ksalayati (to wash). bhi-. bhrtya nrpaya navinani vastranyaharanti | 4.to the root (usually strengthened): cur-. navinaj vrttantaj kuto na kathayasiti janah prcchanti | The exercise key . narau rupakani ganayatah | 11. Text (read and translate): 1. Before palatals. class add -aya. Before -w it is changed into -ch: nrpat watruh -> nrpaccahtruh (from the king an enemy). vid-. wastre manusyasya dharmah | 7. jan-. grhat narah -> grhannarah (a man from the house).Lesson 8 Verbs of the X. lokat janah -> lokajjanah (from the world people). suto 'wvanpidayati | 8.instead of just -a. The vowel -a. suvarnaj panibhyaj tolayamah | 13. it is strengthened into vrddhi grade: dhr-. devaniva nrpatijllokah pujayati | 17. rsirjalena pani ksalayati | 9. wudrasya grhaj brahmano na visati | 6. vedayati (to make known). gramajjanannagaramanayanti | 10.

Old stories are like trees with a lot of fruit. n. dandayati (X): to beat.: gold suta-.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. I want new clothes. punishment punya-. n. 2. Boys (Du. tolayati (X): to lift up. Why does the charioteer torture the horse? 9. m.: Shudra (low-caste) sadhu-. to narrate ksal-. to weigh dand-. m." asks the servant the king. n. pujayati (X): to honour.) wash their faces. ganayati (X): to count cur-. pidayati (X): to torture. n.: new iva. n.: as. aharati (I): to bring danda-. to worship. m. m. like. to hurt puj-.) . Father tells son about fruits of sins. King counts fighters and shows [them] the way with a sword. n.: epos Ramayana rupaka-. as if mam: me (Acc. kathayati (X): to tell.: holy man suvarna-. m. 4. to revere pr-.: coin vastra-. to punish pid-. 3. robber navina-.: stick.: old story. The exercise key Vocabulary: kath-. corayati (X): to steal tad-.: clothing vrttanta-.: thief.: charioteer stena-. "Why do you beat me. adj. Merit protects from grief. m.: servant ramayana-.: merit purana-. 7. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) bhrtya-. 6. 5. ksalayati (X): to wash gan-. Shudras are not (stha-) among twice-borns.: story wudra-. part. n. parayati (X): to overcome a+hr-. tadayati (X): to beat tul-. 8.

besides active and passive voices there exists a third set of forms. vanesviharksa vasanti | 16. Some verbs can use both forms (without a change in meaning) whereas in case of some verbs only one of them is possible. The distinction between parasmaipada and atmanepada is roughly described by their Sanskrit names. But this distinction between "for somebody" X "for oneself" was gradually lost and is preserved only in case of the above mentioned example. But Dual endings -i. Also the particles of address "he" and "re" are not changed: he agne (o. wastre adhuna wiksamaha iti pattre harirlikhati | 5. god Agni). Pl. dhanena pawujllabhadhve yajbaya | 12. But in Sanskrit. atrarsirbhanuj vandate | 10. labhase labhethe 3. labhate (to get. Sometimes it is called the middle or medium voice. vasunaj rawinnrpatinkavayo 'rthayante | 4. ksatriya rsi sevante | . labh-. -e. -u are never submitted to the Sandhi changes.is lost and changed into apostrophe: vane atra -> vane 'tra (here in the forest).is unchanged. adharmaya na dharmaya yatethe | 8. sada guroh padau balah sevante | 13. Thus yajati means: "he sacrifices for the sake of somebody else" and yajate "he sacrifices for himself". visnoh sukte rsi labhete | 9. o. vayorbalena taravah kampante | 2. labhate labhete Sandhi rules: -e. to obtain) A: Sg. labhe Du. wisyanaj vinaya udyogawca gurubhyo rocete | 7. "word for another"). fire. phale atra manusyasya panyostisthatah | 14. so called atmanepada ("word for oneself"). Text (read and translate): 1. -o at the end of the word and before a. sahete anarthaj sadhu | 15. But this initial a. agni iksate balah | 11. asinadyarayo mriyanta ityatra nrpo bhasate | 3. 1. Before other vowels a final -e. labhadhve labhante labhavahe labhamahe 2.Lesson 9 The verb forms we have so far learned are those of the active voice (parasmaipada. papadduhkhaj jayate | 6. -o is changed into -a: vane iha -> vana iha (here in the forest).

. to honour (Acc. to tremble jan-. m. kampate (I): to shake. cattle bhanu-. kimiksase | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. iksate (I): to look at. to pay homage wiks-. jayate (IV): to be born bhas-. to say mr-. The father is looking at son's face. Gen.: sacrificial animal. bhasate (I): to speak. 4. sahate (I): to bear. 3.: sacrifice . m. courage. Holy men (Du. member of a high caste dhairya-. goodness taru-. to endure sev-.: patience. m. rocate (I): to like (Dat. 7. to stare kamp-.: poverty udyoga-. 8. wiksate (I): to learn sah-. Why the king does not strive after people's benefit? 5. m.: benefit. vandate (I): to praise. m.: tree dvijati-. The exercise key Vocabulary: arth-. 2. sevate (I): to serve. m. Children ask the father for food.) labh-. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc.) ruc-. In the forest there fight an elephant and a bear.) a+rabh-. firmness pawu-. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat. 6. n. to obtain vand-. labhate (I): to get. yada sadhavo mriyante tada moksaj labhante | 18.: "twice-born". Father likes sons' discipline. n.17. Boys like fruit.: exertion. mriyate (IV): to die yat-. m. perseverance kalyana-.) iks-.) begin with a sacrifice.: deliverance yajba-. m. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc.: sun moksa-. The house is shaking thanks to the power of ocean's waves.) anartha-.

: wind vici-. sea .vayu-. m.: child samudra-.: wave vinaya-. m. m. m. m.: ocean.: discipline wiwu-.

senayah senayoh Voc. Loc.(down): ni+sidati (to sit down) nih. hareh kanyaj ramah parinayati | .(strengthening): pra+viwati (to enter) sam. Nom. sene Some often used Sanskrit verbal prefixes: anu. senam senaya senayai Du.(completely): para+kramati (to overcome) pari. following): anu+gacchati (to go after.. Text (read and translate): 1. Abl. down): upa+viwati (to sit down) ni. senah senah senabhyam senabhih senabhyam senabhyah senanam senasu senah senayah senabhyam senabhyah senayam senayoh sene Gen. army) Sg.after a prefix ending in -i or -u: ni+sevate -> nisevate (to serve.(up): ut+patati (to take off) upa.(out): nir+gacchati (to go out) para. Ins.Lesosn 10 The declension of the feminine "a-stems": sena (f. -n.(towards.(together): saj+gacchate (to come together) Sandhi rules: -s.is changed into -s. sena Acc. satyaj hrdayesu mrgayanta rsayah | 4. to follow) ava.is changed into -n. Dat.(down): ava+tarati (to descend) ud.(after. yada vihaga vyadhaj pawyanti tada sahasotpatanti | 3. ratnaj ratnena sajgacchate | 2.only if the meaning of the word is thus changed: parinayati (to lead around) but parinayati (to lead around the sacrificial fire -> to marry).after a prefix containing -r. to honour).(around): pari+nayati (to marry) pra. sene sene Pl.

Many trees grow on the mountain. 4. sajgacchate: to come together isu-. bhiksate (I): to beg mrg-.: arrow kanya-. annaj kanyayai yacchatirserbharya | 9. 5. parinayati: to marry ud+pat-. f.: householder . ksatriyasya balavrsirupanayati | 14. vana rksesvisunmubcanti vyadhah krsnau ca mriyete | 10.: girl. m. he wisya nagarasya rathyasu sadhunaj bharyabhyo 'dya bhiksaj labhadhve | 12. The king conquers enemies in the battle. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+gam-. 8. to take refuge in (Acc. utpatati: to take off ava+ruh-.) descend from black horses. In Prayaga come together Ganga and Yamuna. 2. Student sits down by teacher's feet and studies Vedas.: the river Ganga grhastha-. Sinful people do not obtain heaven. chayayamatra prabhuta vihagastisthanti | 13. m. visnorharewca bharye kanyabhih sahagacchatah | 6. avarohati: to descend para+ji-. The student asks householder's wife for alms. ramo visnuwca devabwaranaj prapadyete | 7. 7. yada jana gavgayaj mriyante tada svargaj labhante | 8. dvijatinaj bhasaj wudra navagacchanti | 11. f. nrpatih senaya saha nagarannirgacchati | 15. avagacchati: to understand upa+ni-. vihagah ksetre 'tra sajpatanti | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. parajayati: completely conquer pra+pad-. mrgayate (X): to search for sam+gaj-. 3. Here on the street kings (Du.) bhiks-. prapadyate (IV): to go to.5. upanayati: to initiate pari+ni-. 6. daughter gavga-. We sacrifice to gods [for ourselves] but we do not sacrifice for Hari.

: wife bhasa-. f. wisdom vyadha-. f.: gem rathya-.: language bhiksa-. f.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) bhaya-. m.: street vidya-. f. many sahasa. f. n.: the river Yamuna ratna-.: manifold. sinful prabhuta-.: alms yamuna-. n.: fear bharya-. n. adj. f.: hunter warana-. f.: heart krsna-. f.: heaven hrdaya-.: refuge svarga-. black papa-.chaya-.: knowledge. shade prayaga-.: shadow. m. adj. adv.: bad.: suddenly . n.

-i and -u in the root is usually lenghtened: ji-.to the root (usually in the weak grade) and using the Atmanepada endings. isubhi rane 'rayo nrpatina jiyante | 13. coryate. naraih katah kriyante | 8. he devau sadhubhih sada smaryethe | 14. prabhuta bhiksa grhasthasya bharyaya bhiksubhyo diyate | 10. Text (read and translate): 1. vap-. pass.in these roots: vac-. diyate (to give).but the stem usually retains the form it had in the active: cur-. Final -a is usually changed into -i: da-. ramena putravadyopaniyete iti wruyate | 2. jiyate. stenairlokanaj vasu coryate | 12. he wisya gurunahuyadhve | 7. sometimes even into -ir or -ur: tr-. guruna moksasya margo diwyate | 21. It is used with the instrumental case. vad-. kanyabhyaj gitaj giyate | 11. mubcati. awvena jalaj piyate | 17. pass. vah-. sarpena dawyete narau | 19. mucyate. stu-. sutenawvastadyate | 20. smaryate (to remember). usyate (to dwell). pr-. ucyate (to say). The passive is used very often in classical Sanskrit. ghatau ghrtena puryete | 4. vas-. pass. corayati. Verbs of the X class drop -aya. The nasal added to the root is dropped: muc-. uhyate (to carry). dharmena rajyaj wisyate nrpena | 18. vihagah pawairbadhyante | 5. sadhubhih sada satyamucyate | . kriyate (to do) but after two vowels is changed into -ar: smr-. tiryate. janairnagaraj gamyate | 6. svap-. stuyate (to praise). pass.is changed into -u. prabhutah kasthanaj bharo narenohyate | 16. rsirnrpena dharmaj prcchyate | 3. upyate (to sow). supyate (to sleep). Final -r is usually changed into -ri: kr-. dandena wiwavah wisyante | 15. udyate (to say).Lesson 11 The Passive The passive is created by adding -y. kavibhirnrpah sada stuyante | 9. puryate (to fill). The consonant -v.

dawati (I): to bite da-. It is played with dices.: burden.: Buddhist monk. beggar mala-. vapati (I): to sow was-. pass. 6. m. n. m.: garland rajya-. m. pass. kriyate: to do ga-. m. n. 5. Hari is again praised by Rama. load bhiksu-." is said by people.: kingdom wiwu-. gayati (IV): to sing daw-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: clarified butter.: child sarpa-. Holy man always speaks truth (pass).: wood gita-. n. n. Vishnu drinks water from his hand (pass). to punish wru-. pass. "In the shade is comfortably slept. pass. diyate: to give pr-.: snare.: song ghata-. wisyate: to rule. 8. f. trap bhara-. f. serpent .: order kastha-. pass.: pot. wruyate: to hear ajba-. The exercise key Vocabulary: kr-. 4. puryate: to fill badh-. m.: snake. Girls bind garlands (pass). n. Grain is sown in the fields. jar ghrta-. badhyate: to bind vap-. mendicant. pass. Jars are being filled with grain.: grain pawa-. 2. ghee dhanya-. 7. m. 3.

a+vad+a+h 3. impf. wisya gurorgrhaj praviwannupaviwajwca katayoh | 11. gramasya rathyasvawvavabhramyatam | 7. sagare matsyanapawyama | 5. rsirudatisthatprasadanniragacchacca | 13. the augment makes it to change into vrddhi grade: icch-. parvatasya wikhare sadhavah suryasya stotramagayan | 12. aicchat (he wanted). Sandhi rules: -n at the end of the word is before a vowel and following a short vowel always doubled: agacchan atra -> agacchannatra (they came here). taroh prabhuta vihaga udapatan | 8. It has special endings: Sg. If the verb is prefixed. 2. pustakaj putrayayacchajjanakah | 6. bharyabhirnara nagaramagacchan | 9.Lesson 12 Imperfect The active (Parasmaipada) imperfect (meaning of this form is simple past) adds an augment (always a vowel -a) in front of the root. kavayah sabhayaj kavyanyapathan | 3. jayasyawaj natyajam | 14. a+vad+a+t Du. a+vad+a+ma a+vad+a+ta a+vad+an 1. yada wivo visnuwca granthamapathataj tadarthaj navaggachama | 10. indro devanaj senayasuranparakramat | 16. a+vad+a+m a+vad+a+va If the root begins in a vowel. Text (read and translate): 1. the augment is inserted just before a verb (according to usual sandhi rules): pari+ni-. impf. paryanayat. nrpatirnagaraj senayajayat | 2. purena grhanyuhyante | . sadhorbharyaya bhiksave rupakani diyante | 4. a+vad+a+tam a+vad+a+tam Pl. vrksacchakhaj narah parawunavakrntat | 15.

m.: composition. Deers came to the Ganga and drank water.: flood. m. 4. assembly surya-. avakrntati (VI): to cut off nih+gam-.: victory.: Hindu god Indra sagara-. nirgacchati (I): to go out upa+viw-.: demon awa-. m.: sun. upaviwati (VI): to sit down pra+viw-. n. stream prasada-. m.: protection wakha-.The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. 6. to exist ud+stha-. 5. The exercise key Vocabulary: ava+krt-. to stand up artha-. m. 2. you asked the king for protection.: palace matsya-. m.: ode. Men sat down on mats.: meaning. He cut the branch with an axe. wealth asura-. 3. The teacher hit the student out of the anger. Servants brought water in jars.: congregation. a hymn of praise . n. Brahmins (Du.: book (manuscript) pura-.: hope indra-. 7. f. top sabha-. m. f. m. n.) sang the praise of Rama.: summit. glory pustaka-.: sea grantha-. vartate (I): to be. f. When you were ("stood") in trouble.: fish raksana-. In the Ganga there is (vrt-) flood. m. meeting. book (text) jaya-. the god of the Sun stotra-. 8. uttisthati (I): to get up. m. prosperity.: branch wikhara-. m. pravisati (VI): to enter vrt-.

3. vapisu pavitraj jalaj na vartate | 11. 2. nadinaj jalaj samudraj prati dravati manusyasya jivanaj tu mrtyuj prati | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. nagarya rathyasu bahavo janah samagacchan | 6. river) Sg. indranya patnya sahendro nandane vasati | 9. nadyah nadih nadibhyam nadibhih nadibhyam nadibhyah nadinam nadisu nadyah nadyah nadibhyam nadibhyah nadyam nadyoh nadyau Gen. bhusanani putryai jananyayacchat | 8. maharajasya patnyeva maharanyucyate | 15. wivaya samagrayah prthivyah pataye namah | 7. nadi Text (read and translate): 1. satyameva jayate | 12. . devirdevajwca harirapujayat | 3. nadim nadya nadyai Du. nadi Acc. nadyastire sadhavo yogamacaran | 5. sabhayaj narinaj sundaranyabharananyapawyama | 10.Lesson 13 The declension of the feminine "i-stems": nadi (f. Cities stand on the rivers' banks. patnya sahagacchanmaharajah | 4. Dat. aksaistatrodyane ksatriya adivyan | 14. Queen's female servants brought ornaments and gems. Ins. dasyo 'nnamanayan | 2. Abl. sainikaih saha kumaro vanesu vyaghranmrgayate | 13. We bring water from the pond. Nom. 4.. nadyau nadyau Pl. nadyah nadyoh Voc. Loc. Children played in the garden and climbed trees.

5. m. whole sundara-.: female servant. Indra's wife udyana-. pool vyaghra-. f. acarati (I): to do.: soldier pavitra-. adv. f. n.: Indrani. n.: robe. n.: mother tira-.: yoga vapi-.: garden janani-.: hail!.: shore. f. adj.: Indra's paradise nari-. pass. f. pratigacchati (I): to come back. ucyate: is called vrt-. f. holy samagra-. n. to go back. female slave devi-. m.: daughter prthivi-. Rivers come together with rivers or with the sea. Even the king came with the soldiers. The fighter married great king's daughter and became a ruler. f.: complete. to practise mrg-.: river nandana-.: clean. vartate (I): to live on abharana-. f. f. f. to perform.) . adj.: earth bhusana-. to hunt for vac-. glory! (Dat. mrgayate (X): to search for. Daughter is always loved by the father and the mother.: woman patni-. bank dasi-.: tiger sainika-.: city nadi-.: pond. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+gam-.: beautiful namas-. n. f.: goddess.: ornament maharaja-. m.: great king maharani-. 8. 7. adj. to return a+car-.: wife putri-. decoration indrani-.: queen yoga-. f. mistress nagari-. f. m. 6.

Nom. dhenuh Acc. f.(broad). punyena muktij labhadhve | . matayah matih matibhyam matibhih matibhyah matinam matisu matayah mataye|matyai matibhyam matibhyah mateh|matyah matibhyaj matau|matyam matyoh mati Gen. ratryaj svapnaj na labhamahe | 4. matih Acc. matim matya Du. f. dhenu dhenu Pl. Ins. dheno Feminine forms of masculine adjectives ending in -u are created by adding a suffix -vi: prthu-. idea): Sg. mati mati Pl. Text (read and translate): 1. mati. heavy).(f. mateh|matyah matyoh Voc. many). dhenoh|dhenvah dhenvoh Voc. Nom. Abl. cow): Sg. guru-. dhenum dhenva Du. wrutau bahvisu smrtisu ca dharma upadiwyate | 3. bahvi.(abundant. Loc. Dat.Lesson 14 Declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems: The declension of the feminine i-stems and u-stems is identical (only -ialternating with -u. mate dhenu.with -v-).. prthvi. gurvi.(serious.(f. bahvij kirtij dhrtyavindannrpatih | 5. Loc..and -y. dhenavah dhenavah dhenubhyam dhenubhih dhenave|dhenvai dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenoh|dhenvah dhenubhyam dhenubhyah dhenunam dhenusu dhenavah dhenau|dhenvam dhenvoh dhenu Gen. Ins. wantyarsaya iha wobhante | 2. The dative. bahu-. ablative. Abl. f. genitive and locative cases can sometimes take the forms of "i-stems". Dat.

: birth. dharmo bhutyai kalpate | 12.: cowherd jati-. 6. to instruct.6. maksika vranamicchanti dhanamicchanti parthivah | nicah kalahamicchanti wantamicchanti sadhavah || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. fight kirti-. upadiwati (VI): to teach. It is said ("heard") that wealth of the country is in the people not in the things. 5. Rama shines amongst boys by wisdom and courage. 4.) upa+diw-. m. caste dhrti-. At the end of the forest was ("flowed") a broad river. The exercise key Vocabulary: klp-. m.: end kalaha-. "By the power of wisdom you overcome enemies. f. 3. dvijatinaj jatisu brahmana mukhyah | 11. vindati (VI): to get. People of many castes lived in villages. pauranaj kalaho 'dya prabhavat | 8.: ruler . 8. 2. wudranaj jatayo nica ganyante | 10." said a citizen to the king. f. bahunisunrane 'risvaksipannrpatih | 7. jatya ksatriyau vartethe | 13. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. to acquire wubh-. Cowherds protected cows in the forest. palayati (X): to protect pra+bhu-. Vishnu is satisfied with devotion of holy women. nrpaterbuddhya ksatriyanaj kalaho 'wamyat | 9. 7. m.: courage. prabhavati (I): to arise.: quarrel. m.: fame gopa-. bhumerbhagaj brahmanayayacchatparthivah | 14. to appear vid-. firmness parthiva-. awva awramyanbhumavapatajwca | 15. ratrau steno niragacchaddhanamacorayacca | 16. wobhate (I): to shine anta-. I worship Shiva for prosperity. to admonish pal-. f.

f.: ray vrana-. silence wruti-.paura-.: well-being. sore wanti-. f.: wound.: tradition.: Vedic scripture smrti-. f. f. prosperity bhumi-. m. Hindu non-vedic scripture svapna-.: deliverance rawmi-. foremost sadhu-. m.: fly mukti-. f.: main. dream nica-. f. n. land.: sleep. adj.: holy. f.: low mukhya-.: peace. adj. adj.: earth.: devotion bhuti-.: citizen buddhi-. f. f. ground maksika-. righteous .: wisdom bhakti-. f.

dhiyah|dhiyah dhiyoh Voc.changed into -is. back: prati+gam-. to rule apa-. vidiryate. on: adhi+stha-. above. Pl. dhiyam dhiya dhiye|dhiyai Du. Gen. Nom. thought): Sg. pratigacchati. this can also happen in Gen. Abl. dhiyah dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhih dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyam|dhinam dhisu dhiyah dhiyah|dhiyah dhibhyam dhibhyah dhiyi|dhiyam dhiyoh dhiyau Gen. p-. apaniyati. to split apart If the first sound of a verbal root is a consonant s.Lesson 15 Declension of monosyllabic feminine i-stems: The declension of monosyllabic feminine "i-stems" (again. completely. ph. nisidati. to carry away prati-. away: apa+ni-. completely overcome adhi-.. they were seen).): dhi.. to go back.Pl.(f. to lead away. apart: vi+dr-. Abl. alabhe 3. nispadyate (to arise). Loc. wholly: ati+kram-. pass. alabhathah alabhetham alabhadhvam The passive imperfect is created in the same way (adrwyanta. If the prefix ends in -ih or -uh it is before k-. can take also the forms of standard "i-stems".following a vowel -i or -u of a verbal prefix. kh-. dhih Imperfect of Atmanepada: Sg. and Loc. In addition. alabhata Du. Dat. Sg. alabhavahi alabhamahi alabhetam alabhanta 2. impf. to return vi-. adhitisthati.. it is changed into s. Some more verbal prefixes: ati-. 1. us: nih+pad-. against. Ins. atikramati. But it is not retained in the imperfect: nirapadyata. . dhiyau dhiyau Pl.and retains this form even in the imperfect: ni+sad-. Dat. dhih Acc. nyasidat. to govern.

prajayate (IV): to be born dhya-. dhyayati (IV): to think. nispadyate (IV): to originate. padmaj wriya vasatih | 7. harerbharyayaj caravah putra ajayanta | 4. ksetresu dhanyaj nispadyate | 15. wiwu ahuyethaj jananya | 11. Mother called (pass. to transgress pra+jan-. 2. to appear prati+bhas-. The exercise key Vocabulary: ati+kram-. 6. dhiyo balena purusa duhkhani parayanti | 8. dhiraj purusaj wriyah sada nisevante | 5. bharyaya saha wrirgrhamaniyateti narenaucyata | 17.Text (read and translate): 1. elephants and bears were seen there. parthivasyajbaj watru atyakrametam | 6. Many tigers. guroranujbaya kate wisyavupaviwetam | 13. Where did you get white cows? 3. krtsnaj prthivij raksasiti parthivaj munih pratyabhasata | 2. to meditate nih+pad-. 7. 4. atikramati (I): to cross over. 5. bhanumaiksatarsih | 12. lobhatkrodhah prabhavati lobhatkamah prajayate | lobhanmohawca nawawca lobhah papasya karanam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. he returned to the city. [The goddes] Shri was born from the ocean.) girls home from the garden. muniriwvarasya srstij dhyayati | 14. Many arrows were shot on the tiger. nrpatirrsina papatpratyasidhyata | 3. Rama's father was always remembered by people. guravo granthanracayanti wisyawca pustakani likhanti | 16. kavergrhaj wriyawobhata | 10. pratibhasate (I): to answer . ratho 'dhyasthiyata ramena | 9. When the king talked with brahmins. When was the king's son born? 8.

pratisedhate (I): to prevent. m.: lord.rac-.: chariot lobha-.: whole caru-.: cause dhi-. f. wealth srsti-. m. m.: dwelling wri-.: wise.: delusion ratha-. desire karana-. f. adj.: pleasure. racayati (X): to compose prati+sidh-. to restrain ni+sev-. m. saint moha-. master. firm wveta-.: agreement iwvara-.: creation krtsna-. annihilation padma-.: luck. f. to rule. nisevate (I): to serve adhi+stha-. n. adj. beauty. reason nawa-. adj.: lotus purusa-.: beautiful dhira-. m. f. m.: greed vasati-.: destruction. adhitisthati (I): to govern.: thought. m. god kama-.: sage. to drive anujba-. f. m.: white .: man muni-. adj. n.

pathasyabhyasaya wisyavagacchatamiti guroradewah | 7.Lesson 16 Active (parasmaipada) imperativ of thematic verbs: Sg. jayatu maharajawciraj ca praja raksatu | 2. moksasya margaj balaya gururdiwatu | 8. gurava asanesu nisidantu wisyastu bhumau | 4. vadama 1. vada Du. "Come today. gurave wisya anrtaj ma vadantu | 12. 5. vadani vadava vadatam vadata 3. Let charioteers do not torture horses." asked the boy father. daddy. 4. 6. atithij prcchatu kutra ratrau nyavasa iti | 6. kawij pataliputraj va gacchataj sukhena ca tatra nivasatam | 3. 2. 7. . Let the men dig a pond. Let women ascend to the summit and women stay downstairs. Let the children show the traveler the way." said the father. 3. 2. daughter. he vaiwya vipransarvatah pujayata | 10. dharmaj carata madharmaj satyaj vadata manrtam | dirghaj pawyata ma hrasvaj paraj pawyata maparam || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. "Study the treatises and speak the truth. he ksatriyah kuntanksipatewunmubcata dustabwatrundandayateti krodhannrpatiradiwet | 5. Pl. Text (read and translate): 1. vadatu vadatam vadantu Negative imperative never uses the particle "na" but substitutes it with a special particle "ma": ma vada (do not say)." orders students the tradition. "Give me food. ma gacchatu (let him not go). devasya murterdarwanaya gramebhyo bahavo jana agacchan | 9. pawya kathaj tatra rane bahavo jana mriyante | 11. annaj yaccha he janani | 13.

m. m. adj. audience pataliputra-. thoroughly.: lesson. rotten para-. far dusta-.: seeing. adj.The exercise key Vocabulary: abhi+a+as-. untruth abhyasa-. people murti-. different adhastat.: long. m.: a member of Vaishya caste apara-.: for the long time sarvatah. khanati (I): to dig atithi-. abhyasyati (IV): to study.: daddy darwana-. m. adv. f. statue vaiwya-.: down. adiwati (VI): to order ni+vas-. lower dirgha-. position kawi-. f.: guest anrta-. by all means hrasvam. adv. m. to learn a+diw-.: near.: repeating. n.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) tata-.: everywhere.: order asana-.: highest.: image. adv. adj. m. n.) ciram. under (Gen.: lie. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+sad-. form. adj. n. adv.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) patha-.: bad.: subject. study praja-. in proximity va: or . studying adewa-.: seat. meeting. close.: different. nisidati (I): to sit down khan-. m. f.

durgayah stutirnaryo 'gayan | 10. Ins. bhruvoradhastannetre vartete | 8. juhvagnau ghrtaj prasyama | 6. vadhvah snihyatu patih | 5. bhuvah bhuvoh Voc. acaryasya nivewanamagacchatu wisyah | . vadhu bhu. Abl.Lesson 17 The declension of standard and monosyllabic feminine "u-stems": vadhu. vadhuh Acc.. vadhvah vadhuh vadhubhyam vadhubhih vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhunam vadhusu vadhvah vadhvah vadhubhyam vadhubhyah vadhvam vadhvoh vadhvau Gen. gunaireva jananaj hrdayani vindata na tu dhanaih | 11. Loc. bhuvau Pl. vadhum vadhva vadhvai Du. Abl.(f. wvawrvah kopacchocati snusa | 4. snusabhih saha wvawrunaj kalahah pravartata | 3. vadhvau vadhvau Pl. Nom. bhuh Acc. Nom. bhuvah bhuvah bhuvam bhuvau bhubhyam bhubhih bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvam|bhunam bhusu bhuvah bhuvah bhubhyam bhubhyah bhuvi bhuvoh bhuvau Gen. vadhvah vadhvoh Voc.(f. woman): Sg.. Loc. Ins. bhuvi ma sidateti janani wiwunadiwat | 9. Dat. bhuh Text (read and translate): 1. sundarya bhruvau vakre drwyete | 2. earth): Sg. Dat. bhuva bhuve Du. ratnanyanayeti dasi rajbyadiwyata | 12. he vadhu kupajjalamanaya | 7.

: quality acarya-. f. 4. People live on earth and gods in heaven. apaharati (I): to take away. Who protects the earth is called a ruler. f.: moment guna-. m. where [is] the dwelling of [the goddess] Shri. f.) apa+har-. pas. parthivanaj gunah kavibhih stuyante | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+as-. m.: dwelling bhu-.: the goddess Lakshmi kupa-. m. to arise wuc-. prasyati (IV): to throw drw-. earth." ordered the householder. Let the student not argue with the teacher. f. m. The eyebrows of beauties are always black.: sacrificial ladle durga-. wocate (I): to regret (Abl.: ruler vadhu-.: queen laksmi-. ground bhru-.: praise . wife wvawru-. nara nagaramagacchantviti nrpatinadiwyata | 15. "Take away nice clothes. 6.13.: woman. pravartate (I): to become.: land. 5. f. giravagnayo 'drwyanta | 14. Do not look at daughter-in-law! 3. bhuvo bhago brahmanayadiyata | 16. f. 7. 8.: the goddess Durga nivewana-.: well bhupala-. f. Let us live there. vivadati (I): to argue pra+vrt-.: beauty stuti-. drwyate: to look (like). f. to steal ksana-. f. f.: eyebrow rajbi-. 2. m. n. to seem vi+vad-.: mother-in-law sundari-. There is no water in the well.: teacher juhu-.

rel. as far as ya-.. then. adj.: curved.. pron.: daughter-in-law vakra-. twisted yavat-tavat: when.: which ..snusa-. f..

labhasva labhetham labhadhvam 3. Let a twice-born marry a twice-born's daughter (act). satyaj sadocyatam | 10. . labhatam labhetam Imperative of the passive is created in the same way. kalidasasya natakamadyaivabhiniyatam | 7. acaryaj labhasva prayawcittaj samacareti papaj dvijataya adiwanti | 3.Lesson 18 Imperative of the Atmanepada: Sg. kavyani racayama kirtij vindama nrpatinawrayamahai wriyaj labhamaha iti kavinaj niwcayah | 4. Text (read and translate): 1. person: kriyatam (let [it] be done). idanij devalaye pujacaryatam | 8. Some verbs. Let a king never neglects the protection of subjects. 1. This form is widely used especially in 3. dharmaya devanyajavaha arthaya kirtaye ca sabhasu panditaih saha vivadavaha iti brahmanasya putrau bhanatah | 5. Let brahmins not cross the sea (pass). durjanasya ca sarpasya varaj sarpo na durjanah | sarpo dawati kalena durjanastu pade pade || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Do not neglect illnesses. often take Atmanepada terminations: vadasva replaces vada (say!). Pl. labhavahai labhamahai labhantam 2. Let an ascetic not converse with women. bhojanasya kalaj pratiksasva | 6. viprasya kanya viprenaiva pariniyatam | 11. guravah wisyaih sarvatranugamyantaj samyaksevyantaj ca | 9. mahisaya ghaso diyatam | 2. aniyantam (let [them] be brought). Let it be thus! 5. 6. labhai Du. otherwise active. 2. 3. 4.

atonement bhojana-. homage prayawcitta-. 8.) a+wri-.: worship. upeksate (I): to neglect anu+gam-.: buffalo yati-. m. adv.: now kalena. villain devalaya-. to expect upa+iks-. drama niwcaya-.: the poet Kalidasa ghasa-. m. place puja-.: better. m. adv. sajbhasate (I): to converse. n.: temple nataka-.: war roga-. m. adj. to act bhan-.: scholar.: grass. best idanim. The exercise key Vocabulary: prati+iks-. m. learned man pada-. m. m.7. f. m.: step. ghatayati: to kill kala-. awrayate (I): to depend on. Let hymns of praise to Shiva be sung. adv. m.: ascetic yuddha-. pasture durjana-.: well. n. pratiksate (I): to await.: play.: time.: decision pandita-.: sometimes samyak. n.: food mahisa-. bhanati (I): to say sam+bhas-.: expiation. to talk with (Ins.: bad man. death kalidasa-. rightly . caus.: illness vara-. Let women and children are not killed in the war. samacarati (I): to perform abhi+ni-. to seek refuge in han-. abhinayati (I): to conduct. m. anugacchati (I): to follow sam+a+car-. m. n.

Pl. pitarau Pl. kartar pitr. mother): Sg. Ins. Dat. Nom. Nom. Dat. matuh Voc. Ins.(m. matar . Loc. They differ only in Acc. karta Acc. father): Sg. pituh Voc. pitarah pitfn pitaram pitarau pitrbhyam pitrbhih pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitrbhyam pitrbhyah pitroh pitroh pitarau pitfnam pitrsu pitarah Gen. kartarah kartfn kartaram kartarau kartrbhyam kartrbhih kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartrbhyam kartrbhyah kartroh kartroh kartarau kartfnam kartrsu kartarah Gen. kartarau Pl. agent. Loc. pita Acc. mata Acc.. Dat. and Nom.(f. Abl. Acc. Nom. Abl. kartr. Nom. where agent nouns (and words svasr-. matarah matfh mataram matarau matrbhyam matrbhih matrbhyam matrbhyah matrbhyam matrbhyah matroh matroh matarau matfnam matrsu matarah Gen.Sg. Ins. Abl.Lesson 19 Declension of "r-stems": The declension of "r-stems" is of two types: 1) agent nouns.(m. maker): Sg.. kartuh Voc. matarau Pl. sister and naptr-. 2) nouns of relationship. grandson) have -a but the nouns of relationship (with the above two exceptions) have -a..Du. pitar matr. kartra kartre kartuh kartari Du..Du. matra matre matuh matari Du. Loc. pitra pitre pituh pitari Du..

Note that feminine stems differ from masculine ones in Acc.Pl.

Text (read and translate): 1. svasurgrhe kanye nyavasatam | 2. muktaya iwvarah srsteh karta manusyairbhaktya sevyatam | 3. nrpatayah prajanaj raksitaro durjananaj ca wastaro vartanta-m | 4. wastrasya kartre paninaye namah | 5. jivanasya dataraj wivaj namamah | 6. bhartaraj bhartuwca pitaraj mataraj ca patni devaniva pujayatu | 7. pitrbhyo mase mase wraddhaj yacchanti | 8. duhiturbharta jamatocyate | 9. bhratfnadyahvayateti pitadiwat | 10. daridranaj duhkhitanaj ca raksanena punyaj bhavati | 11. pitrorgrhe sukhena vasamah | 12. pitaraj tateti putro vadati | 13. bhratarah svasarawca vivadaj macarantu | 14. pita mata ca pitaraviti | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit: 1. Let the boy meet the sister by the river. 2. The world was created by a creator. 3. Let servants always serve [their] masters. 4. Grandfather delighted in looking at his many grandsons' faces. 5. Indra is the leader of the gods in the war. 6. Let the son-in-law think about the father-in-law as [his] own father. 7. Givers of gifts and protectors of the unhappy are always praised. 8. Brothers' houses were burned down. The exercise key

Vocabulary: man-, manyate (IV): to think, to suppose mud-, modate (I): to delight in (Ins.) jamatr-, m.: son-in-law jivana-, n.: life datr-, m.: giver duhitr-, f.: daughter naptr-, m.: grandson

netr- ,m.: leader panini-, m.: the grammarian Panini pitr-, otec; Du. parents, Pl. ancestors pitamaha-, m.: grandfather bhartr-, m.: husband vivada-, m.: disputation, argument bhratr-, m.: brother masa-, m.: month raksana-, n.: protection raksitr-, m.: protector wastr-, m.: ruler, "punisher" wraddha-, m.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives, oblation for them wvawura-, m.: father-in-law sevaka-, m.: servant srastr-, m.: creator svasr-, f.: sister daridra-, adj.: poor duhkhita- ,adj.: unhappy, distressed nija-, adj.: one's, own

Lesson 20
The optative Parasmaipada: Sg. 2. vadeh 3. vadet Du. Pl. vadema

1. vadeyam vadeva

vadetam vadeta vadetam vadeyuh

The meaning of optative is usually potential, what may happen in the future. Sometimes it also expresses wish. It can be also used in place of future and imperative. For negation it always uses the particle -na-.

The declension of the word go- (m., f., bull, cow):

Sg. Acc. Ins. Dat. Abl. Loc.

Du.

Pl. gavah gah

Nom. gauh gavau gam gavau

gava gobhyam gobhih gave gobhyam gobhyah goh gobhyam gobhyah gavoh gavam gosu gavah

Gen. goh

gavi gavoh

Voc. gauh gavau

Text (read and translate): 1. ga raksedgavaj raksanena punyaj labhyata iti dvijatayo manyante | 2. yada prayaga agaccheva tada pitre pattraj likheva | 3. gramamadya gacchetamiti matarau putravabhasetam | 4. goh ksirena wiwavo modantam | 5. duhitaraj pitarau raksetaj svasaraj bhratarau matfh putrawca rakweyuh | 6. yadi wastramabhyasyeyaj tada guravastusyeyuh | 7. bahubhyaj nadij na taret | 8. wivo visnuwca parthivaj raksetamiti nrpaj naryavadat | 9. narah ksetrani krseyuh | 10. papaj netaraj nanugaccheh | 11. kavirnavinaj kavyaj racayediti patinadiwyata | 12. adhunaiva gramaj gacchema |

13. sadhurdhanaya na lubhyet | 14. nara naryawca devalaye wivasya patnij nameyuh | The exercise key

Translate to Sanskrit (use optative when possible): 1. Let the ruler give gifts and protect the land. 2. Give mother's ornaments to the sister. 3. Let the charioteer bring grass to cows and horses. 4. May you live happily! 5. Let cows do not roam in the forest. 6. When I write the poem, I will read it in the assembly. 7. Let the servants bring water to the house. 8. Let the girls live in the house of parents and women [in the house of] husbands. The exercise key

Vocabulary: No new words in this lesson.

nava nave nauh navi Du. Nom. 1. bhratari stenah waranamubcan | 2. Ins. ga rakset means "let [one] protect cows".. gacchati "[he/she] goes". nauh As you have probably noticed. yadi gavgaya varini mriyedhvaj tada svargaj labhedhvam | | 6. Loc. The declension of the word nau. nauh Voc. Sanskrit sentences do not necessarily contain a verb or a noun. labhemahi labheran 2. labheta Du. vaiwyah krsya vanijyena pawupalyena va varteran | 4. boat): Sg. nauh Acc. labheya 3. labhevahi labheyatam Pl. nausu yuddhamabhavat | . jamatarah wvawuransnusah wvawrurduhitarawca putrawca pitarau severan 7. yadi narah wruteh smrtewca vidhinanutistheyustada sadhubhih wasyeran | 3. labhethah labheyatham labhedhvam The optative of the passive is conjugated in the same way (kriyeta. Thus: awvah wighrah means "the horse [is] swift". Abl. watrubhirna parajiyetha iti nrpaj praja vadanti | 9. let it be done). Dat.(f. sajdigdhaj navaj narohet | 5. navau Pl. brahmanairnavodadhirna tiryeta | 8. navah navah navam navau naubhyam naubhih naubhyam naubhyah naubhyam naubhyah navoh navoh navau navam nausu navah Gen. Text (read and translate): 1.Lesson 21 Optative of the Atmanepada: Sg.

abhivadati (I): to salute ram-. The exercise key Vocabulary: anu+stha-.10. to perform apa+ni-. n. putrasya gurave navinah katah kriyeta | 12. rule. as (relative) .: doubtful. nabhinandeta maranaj nabhinandeta jivitam | kalameva pratikseta nidewaj bhrtako yatha || The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. apanayati (I): to take away abhi+nand-.: servant marana-.: how.this we read in the treatises. pass. 4. 3. adv.: friend vanijya-.). n. anutisthati (I): to follow.: same. Let women and children be taken away to the city. direction sama-.: order seva-.: life nidewa-. 7.: service pawupalya-. n. n. mode. viramate (I): to give up. equal. f. m. balavudyane rameyatam | 11. adj. Let students greet teachers with devotion (passive). even sajdigdha-.: death mitra-. Let the sacrifice be even today performed in the temple. Let the brahmin not plough and serve for a living . to abandon (Abl.: business. adj. 5.) abhi+vad-. n. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. Let new poems be written! 6. trade vidhi-. to welcome (Acc. n. ramate (I): to play vi+ram-.: garden krsi-.: the breeding of cattle bhaya-. m. Even out of fear do not say lie ("un-truth") (opt.: way. to carry out. f.: agriculture jivita-. 8. May the friends be always remembered! 2.) udyana-. m. questionable yatha. Let men abandon fear and fight with the enemy.: fear bhrtaka-.

suta | adhuna sthapaya ratham | yathajbapayati devah || 2. it is usually changed into vrddhi grade: bhu. kr. to proclaim). The causative is used with two accusatives (to cause somebody to do something) or an accusative of the subject and a instrumental of the object (to make something to be done by somebody). dvijo dvijasya putrij parinayetputraj ca janayet | 14.(to sing). So wravayati (literally "to cause to be heard") we can according to the context . ksatriya yuddhe 'rinmarayanti | 7. that is using the augment -aya-: jan. janayati (to give birth.(to be born). Text (read and translate): 1.(to do).between the root and -aya-: jba. gapayati (to let sing).(to learn).(to know).(to go). jbapayati (to make known. atithij grhaj pravewayedgrhasthah | The exercise key . But the causative of pa(to drink) is payayati (to make drink. "to sing". we often have to use fantasy and use appropriate verbs. kumaro vrksanakartayannavinaj grhamasthapayacca | 13. And also adhi+i. karayati (to cause to be done). to make somebody to go). vayorbalena taravo 'patyanta | 6. vaiwyankarandapayennrpah | 4.between consonants in the root is sometimes lengthened but sometimes not: pat. If the root ends in any other vowel. Majority of the verbs ending in -a add -p. deva lokanpalayeyurnrpasya rajyaj vardhayeyuwceti vipro 'vadat | 12. suto 'wvannadyamapayayat | 11. "to tell". bhavayati (to make something happen). vrkaj vane pita putrayadarwayat | 9. to fly). to water).translate as "to recite". to beget). dawarathawcarunputranajanayat | 3. nrpasya kanya strinaj madhye rupenawobhata | 10. ga.Lesson 22 Causative Is created from the basic verb by its conjugation in the 10th class. adhyapayati (to teach). The vowel -a. upanayane balannavinani vastrani paridhapayeyuh | 5. When translating the causative. gam.(to fall. janayati (see above). patayati (to make to fall or to fly) but jan-. wantyarthe dutaj prasthapayetparthivah | 8. "to report" etc.(to be). gamayati (to let go.

adv. caus. Let them allow the guests to enter. 6. caus. adhyapayati: to teach a+gam-. caus. 7.: wolf rupa-.: hand. postp. 4. m.) the cows come into the cowshed. m. to no avail . palayati: to protect pra+stha-. apanayayati: to lead away pat-. prasthapayati: to send agamana-. vardhayati: to make bigger. caus. postp. caus. pratisthati: to go away pra+stha-. m. m. m. 3.: in vain. caus. darwayati: to show apa+ni-. caus. A servant reported to the king the coming of both ascetics.: messenger gostha-. 8. Show (sg. to make known vrdh-. 5. Let the Brahmins teach the shastras.: coming kara-. marayti: to kill vid-. patayati: to knock down mr-.: between. beauty stri-. caus. 2. caus. They let the children go to the city because of (their) protection. Let (pl. vedayati: to announce. agamayati: to let come a+jba-. caus. caus.: desire vrka-.: form. amongst (with genitive) arthe.: woman madhye. to enlarge pa-.: for the sake of vrtha. Let the householder return home. elephant's trunk.) the father the books.: cowshed manoratha-. They watered horses with water from the river. dapayati: to let give pari+dha-. The exercise key Vocabulary: adhi+i-. f.Translate to Sanskrit: 1. m. n. paridhapayati: to wear drw-. tax duta-. caus. ajbapayati: to order da-.

All pronouns as well as some adjectives are declined according to this pattern. (you) Nom. (you [two]) yuvam yuvam/vam yuvabhyam yuvabhyam/v yuvabhyam yuvayoh/vam h yuvayoh yusmasu Pl. Abl. tvam tvam/tva tvaya tubhyam/te tvat tava/te tvayi am Du. tva. nah. me. (you) yuyam yusman/vah yusmabhih yusmabhyam/ vah yusmat yusmakam/va The abridged forms (ma. Gen. Abl. Dat. Loc. aham mam/ma maya mahyam/me au mat mama/me mayi avabhyam avayoh/nau h avayoh asmasu Du. (I) Nom. Acc. Loc. nau. (we [two]) avam avam/nau avabhyam avabhyam/n Pl. Ins. . Dat. Ins. Gen. Typical for this declension is a variability of stems in personal pronouns (as in English: "I" but "me"). Acc. Personal pronoun of the first person: aham (I): Sg. vam and vah) can not be used at the beginning of the sentence or a verse.Lesson 23 Pronominal declension Pronominal declension is fairly different from the nominal one. te. (we) vayam asman/nah asmabhih asmabhyam/ nah asmat asmakam/na Personal pronoun of the second person: tvam (you): Sg.

n. mamawramaj viweti vanaprastho vyadhamavadat | 11. 7. 8. I do not want your (Dual) money. dardura yatra vaktarastatra maunaj wobhanam | 17. I did not steal your gold (passive). begged the boy mother. The exercise key Vocabulary: pra+arth-.Text (read and translate): 1. kavayo 'smakaj gunanprathayeyuh kirtij ca vardhayeyuriti parthivairisyate | 4.: nectar (the drink of immortality) .Acc. yatha vrksastatha phalam | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1.: transgression. yusmanaparaddhasya no nrpatirna ksameta | 13. 5. caus. Our (Dual) parents died. bhadraj te | 9. prathayati: to propagate. bhrataro 'smannagaraj prasthapayan | 2. offence amaru-.Dat. grantho 'smabhi racyate pustakaj ramena lekhayamah | 6.) prath-. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") aparaddha-. ahaj prayage nivasami tvaj tu taksawilayam | 5. yusmakaj wlokanamrtamiva pibamo he kavayah | 8. Elephants do not live in our country. prarthayate: to ask. sajtosa eva purusasya paraj nidhanam | 16. nivedayati: to announce. mayi tvayi ca pitarau snihyatah | 12. ardhaj bharya manusyasya | 15. caus. 2. to spread ni+vid-.. Tell me the story of Urvashi. or Gen. to beg ksam-. to whom . varamadya kapotah wvo mayurat | 14. n. 4.: the poet Amaru amrta-. ksamate: to forgive (what . anrtaj vadeccennarake vaset | 10. amaroh kavyani nah wravayeh | 7. to report wru-. 3. m. caus. svasara agacchantiti mahyaj nyavedayata | 3. Let your father go with me. Mother gives food to both you and me. Let the gods protect your life! 6. to disseminate.

m.: story kapota-. m.: speaker vanaprasta-.: frog dewa-.: pigeon taksawila-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) sajtosa-. m.: bliss. n.: hermit.: tomorrow . recluse wobhana-.: hell nidhana-. m.: breath. postposition: if wvas.: peacock mauna-. f. n. prosperity mayura-. contentedness ca .: country naraka-. n.: the nymph Urvashi katha-.and cet.: half awrama-.: silence vaktr-.ardha-. life bhadra-. m. happiness.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) dardura-.: hermitage urvawi-. adv. f. m.ca: both .: treasure prana-. n.: satisfaction. m. n.: ornament. f. m. m. m. Pl. virtue wloka-. m.

bl. A I D A m a yai sa ta tay tas Du. te te Pl. she (sa. G en. this) Sg. at.Lesson 24 Personal pronoun of the third person and demonstrative pronoun tad he (sah. ns. tah tah h ya A I D A m a sa ta ten Du. L oc. at. ns. V oc. N om. G en. bl. N om. this) Sg. h cc. cc. tau tau tabh yam Pl. te te taih tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h sa tayo m tesu te tesa tau tabh tabh yam ih tabh tabh yam yah tas tabh tabh yah yam yah tas yah h tayo m tasa .

(all) viwvah m./ itara f./ ekam n. (which one [of two]) anyah m. (relative pronoun which) katamah m./ etad n./ ubhaya f./ katara f.L oc./ esa f./ ubhayam n./ sarva f./ ya f./ yad n. (which one [of many]) katarah m./ anya f. te te tabh yam Pl. tani tani taih a tas tabh tebh mai yam yah tas tabh tebh mat yam yah tas h tayo tas min h tad tayo m tesu tani tesa te The following pronouns also follow the same declension pattern: esah m. (both) Sandhi: The pronouns sa. N om. en. at./ katama f./ itarad n./ katamad n. They loose the final -h before all consonants and before all vowels except a. Here they . (this one) yah m. (different) itarah m. L oc. except for nominative and accusative of neuter. this) tas yam h sa tayo tasu tah te Sg. bl. where they use the ending -m: sarvah m. ns. V oc.follow irregular sandhi pattern. A I D A G ya tad tad ten Du./ katarad n. V oc./ sarvam n. it (tad.and esa. cc. (all) ekah m./ anyad n. (other) The following words also follow this declension./ viwva f. (one) ubhayah m./ viwvam n./ eka f.

anyesaj kavyairesa kavih kirtimasadhayat | 5. Husbands of these women went to war. na gardabho gayati wiksito 'pi | 15. 7. caus. 6. Only kings are born with these signs! 8. m. 9.: end arya-. Adj. 4. sarva nadyah samudraj prati dhavanti | 8. sukhasyantaj sada duhkhaj duhkhasyantaj sada sukham | 11. so 'vadat (he said). Examples: sa purusah (this man). Poor people live in the houses. 2.: noble upadewa-. sadhavah punyaih saha svargaj labhante na tvitare janah | 2. Other people than you won't accomplish this. awvah krwo 'pi wobhayai pusto 'pi na punah kharah | 12. In this forest I saw a lion. prinayati: to please./n. 5. yuyaj pitfbwraddhaih prinayatha vayaj jalena | 3.change to -o and the following -a is lost." said the general.: advice. yatra dharmastatra jayah | 10. caus. I don't like your behavior. na lobhadadhiko doso na danadadhiko gunah | 14. I don't want these books. 3. "May I conquer [my] enemy with these heroes. sadhayati: to accomplish anta-. Not everybody speaks truth (note: translate 'not all speak truth') The exercise key Vocabulary: pri-. m. etatsarvaj tavaiveti bharta bharyamavadat | 6. 10. sa isuh (this arrow). instruction . In these rivers there are many fish. tasminkavye 'nekani dosani drwyante | 7. viwve devas tvaj palayeyuh | 4. to delight sidh-. yuvamubhayau kimekasmingrhe vasathah | 9. upadewo murkhanaj kopaya na wantaye | The exercise key Translate to Sanskrit: 1./m. vrttena bhavatyaryo na dhanena na vidyaya | 13. Text (read and translate): 1.

much. Adj. army leader adhika-. characteristic. beauty sijha-.) aneka-. n. Adj. not one krwa-.: lion senapati-. Adj.: hero vrtta-.: foolish wiksita-.) . brilliance.: fault. m. n.khara-.: mark. sign vira-. m.: general. m.: behavior dosa-.: learned prati: towards (with Acc.: splendor.: thin. Adj. Adj.: donkey laksana-. emaciated pusta-. m.: fat murkha-. offense wobha-.: bigger than (with Abl.: many.: donkey gardabha-. Adj. m. m. f.

: eye. n. decoration abhi+a+as-. ahvayati (IV): to call here. dice ali-.: wind anna-. to seek refuge in abharana-. to call in a+jba-.: order adharma-. Adj.: bigger than (with Abl. m. arabhate (I): to begin with (Acc. untruth anta-. to rule.: today. m. adv. n. f.) a+ruh-.: bee amaru-. to perform. abhivadati (I): to salute abhyasa-.Sanskrit-English Dictionary a+cam-.: fire anartha-.) adhuna. agamayati: to let come a+hr-. adhyapayati: to teach adhi+stha-. to mount a+wri-. m. adhitisthati (I): to govern. arohati (I): to ascend. to act abhi+vad-. caus.: food anrta-.: the poet Amaru amrta-.: repeating. akramati (I): to attack a+ni+. to learn abhi+nand-.: end . aharati (I): to bring a+hu-. m. m. under (Gen. abhinayati (I): to conduct. m. much. abhyasyati (IV): to study.: order aksa-.: many. to rinse a+car-. anayati (I): to bring a+rabh-. acarati (I): to do. acamati (I): to sip. abhinandate (I): to rejoice at. agacchati (I): to come a+gam-. m. adv. caus. m. ajbapayati: to order a+kram-. to practise a+diw-. to drive adhika-. n. m. now agamana-. m. n. m.: robe.: coming agni-.: unrighteousness adhastat. n. not one anila-.) adhi+i-.: now adya. Adj. awrayate (I): to depend on./n.: down.: lie.: nectar (the drink of immortality) anala-. n. studying acarya-.: fire ajba-. adiwati (VI): to order a+gam-.) abhi+ni-. caus.: teacher adewa-. adv.: poverty aneka-. to welcome (Acc.

m.: arm bala-. m. pass. f. to perform anujba-. anutisthati (I): to follow./m. position asatya-. child bala-. n. n. adj. n. strength bhadra-. n. caus.: numerous.: husband bharya-.: noble as-. n. prosperity bhaga-.: burden. even.anta-. m.: bliss. f.: agreement apa+har-. atikramati (I): to cross over. apanayati (I): to take away apa+ni-. many bahu-.: hermitage awru-.: demon ati+kram-. m. f. anugacchati (I): to follow anu+stha-.: for the sake of arya-. to carry out.: here ava+gam-. m. adv. Adj. arthayate (X): to ask for (Acc. load bhartr-.: boy. n. avagacchati: to understand ava+krt-.: wife bhas-. adj. m. m.: end anu+gam-. avakrntati (VI): to cut off ava+ruh-. m.: sword asura-. m.: guest atra. abundant. badhyate: to bind bahu-. even though aranya-.: tear awva-. lie asi-. prosperity.: meaning.: hope awrama-.: different. bhanati (I): to say bhanu-. to say . also. force.: devotion bhan-. offence api-. m. m. to steal apa+ni-.: transgression.: enemy arth-. m.: half ari-.: part bhakti-. avarohati: to descend awa-. n. m. postp. to transgress atithi-.) artha-. m. m. wealth arthe. asyati (IV): to throw asana-. apanayayati: to lead away apara-. happiness. bhasate (I): to speak.: seat.: power. lower aparaddha-. f.: horse badh-.: sun bhara-.: "un-truth".: forest ardha-. part. apaharati (I): to take away.

m. caus. beggar bhojana-.and car-. f.: wisdom ca . f.: fear bhaya-. m.: earth. adj.: servant. m. corayati (X): to steal da-. n.: temple .: ornament bhuti-. carati (I): to walk. dapayati: to let give da-. m.: god.: poor darwana-. f.: body deva. m. m.: gift dand-. slave dasi-.: stick.ca: both . diyate: to give dah-.: frog daridra-.: food bhojana-. m.: brahmin buddha-.: seeing.: servant bhrtya-. audience dasa-. adj. n.: alms bhiksu-.: servant bhru-. land. mn.: beautiful cet. meeting. m. lord devalaya-. punishment dardura-. n. to become bhu-. m. n. dawati (I): to bite deha-.: drop brahmana-. f.: food bhram-. m. prosperity bindu-. f. bhiksate (I): to beg bhiksa-. ground bhupala-. mendicant. m.: fear bhiks-.bhasa-. earth. pass.: Buddha buddhi-. to practise caru-. n. adv. f.: well-being. f.: for the long time cur-. m.: land.: ruler bhusana-. shade ciram.: shadow. bhavati (I): to be. to roam.: brother bhrtaka-. m. bhramyati (IV): to wander about bhratr-. f. dandayati (X): to beat. m.: language bhaya-. f.: female servant.: Buddhist monk. n. postposition: if chaya-. to punish danda-.: giver daw-. ground bhumi-. dahati (I): to burn dana. m.: eyebrow bhu-. female slave datr-.

f. dravati (I): to run drw-.: "twice-born". gayati (IV): to sing gaja-.: courage.: the river Ganga ghasa-.: scent. courage.: patience.: wealth.: bad. m. m. m. f.: bad man. far div-. n. dhavati (I): to run dhi-. m. fragrance gardabha-. caus. f. n. jar ghra-.: wise.: village .: long.: country dhairya-. f. pasture ghata-.: cowshed grama. dhyayati (IV): to think. righteousness. to meditate dirgha-. jighrati (III): to smell ghrta-.: cowherd gostha-. mistress dewa-. m. gacchati (I): to go gan-. member of a high caste eva. pas.: thought.: daughter duhkha-.: messenger dvija-. pawyati (IV): to see.: song gopa-. adj. rotten duta-. to look duhitr-. n.: grass. m. m. f.: clarified butter.: law. to point dosa-. only evam. m. drwyate: to look (like).adj.: elephant gam-.: thus ga-.: pot.. adj.: goddess. adv.: fault. to seem drw-. m.: the goddess Durga durjana-. m.: just. firmness dhana. d-vyati (IV): to play diw-. darwayati: to show drw-. brahmin dvijati-. offense dru-. m. m. diwati (VI): to show.: suffering duhkhita. adv. Law. n. Buddhism dhav-.: mountain gita-. ganayati (X): to count gandha-. reason dhira-. adj. m. firm dhrti-. f. ghee giri-.: grain dharma-. n. m. m. distressed durga-. m. money dhanya-.: donkey gavga-.: "twice-born". firmness dhya-. villain dusta-.devi-. n.: unhappy.

m.: hand he. n.: sometimes kalidasa-. m.: son-in-law jan-. harati (I): to take.grantha-. close.: personal name hasta-. glory ji-. death kalaha-.: house grhastha-. f. caste jaya-.: as. n. n.: now iha. desire kamp-. iksate (I): to look at.: time. f. god jala. n. n. part.: arrow iti.: near. fight kalena.: birth. adv. f.: mother jati-.: father janani-. jivati (I): to live jivana-. m. like. caus. part. icchati (VI): to want. m. here iks-. Indra's wife is-. in proximity hrdaya-. to yearn for isu-. to take away. to stare indra-.: life juhu-. m. adv. book (text) grha-. m.: oblation. adv. guru han-.: oh! hr-. m. m.: quality guru-. to carry hrasvam. adv. m. adv.: when? kala-. to tremble . kampate (I): to shake. m.: so iva. as if iwvara-. m.: Hindu god Indra indrani-. jayati (I): to win. master. goodness kama-. jayate (IV): to be born jana-.: victory. ghatayati: to kill hari-. offering idanim. hvayati (IV): to call huta-. n. m. m.: benefit. m.: the poet Kalidasa kalyana-.: water jamatr-.: teacher.: life jivita-. m. m. n.: composition. to conquer jiv-.: heart hu-.: pleasure.: Indrani.: lord. f.: householder guh-. part.: sacrificial ladle kada. m.: person janaka-. to conceal guna-.: quarrel. guhati (I): to hide.

fighter ksetra-. n.: plough . f. to whom .) krwa-.: the goddess Lakshmi lavgala-. why? kirti-. adv.: how? kavi-. m. f. kathayati (X): to tell.: agriculture krsna-. kalpate (I): lead towards (Dat. n. adv.: where? labh-.: milk kumara-.) kopa-. to narrate katha-. labhate (I): to get. sign laksmi-.: spear.: prince.: anger krs-. m. m.: field ksip-. adv. black krt-.Dat. to cultivate (field) krsi-. n.: girl.: where from? why? kutra.: moment ksatriya-. ksamate: to forgive (what . m.kanya-.: mark. adv.: poetry kawi-. adj.Acc. or Dat. kriyate: to do krodha-. or Gen.) kupa-.: mat kath-. m.) ksana-. krsati (I): to plow.: story katham. m.: whole krudh-.: the city of Kashi (Varanasi) khad-.: poet kavya-. m. n. ksalayati (X): to wash ksam-. f.: pigeon kara-.: hand. pass.: kshatriya. n. m. f. daughter kapota-. khanati (I): to dig khara-. krntati (VI): to cut krtsna-. m. krudhyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. m. young man kunta-. adv. elephant's trunk. lance kup-. to obtain laksana-. m.: thin.: anger kr-. f.: fame klp-. or Dat..: where? kva. characteristic.: donkey kim.: what?. n. kupyati (IV): to be angry (with Gen. n.: cause kastha-. khadati (I): to eat khan-. tax karana-. emaciated ksal-. m.: well kutah. Adj.: wood kata-. f. ksipati (VI): to throw ksira-.

: great king maharani-.: peacock megha-. form. f. f.: sage. likhati (VI): to write lip-. m.: death muc-. m.: deliverance muni-. m.: cloud mitra-. mubcati (VI): to free. caus.) man-. f. to hunt for mrga-.) mukha-. m.: garland mam: me (Acc.likh-.: main. n.: fish mauna-. marayti: to kill mr-. mrgayate (X): to search for. modate (I): to delight in (Ins. foremost mukti-.: way. n. lumpati (VI): to steal. m.: between. town nagari-. n. or Loc.: desire manusya-. mouth mukhya-.: queen mahisa-.: buffalo maksika-. manyate (IV): to think.: image. m. m. postp.: delusion moksa-. m. to suppose mani-. Adj.: honey madhye. m. to discharge mud-. saint murkha-. mriyate (IV): to die mrg-. m. mrgayate (X): to search for mrg-.: month matsya-.: deliverance mr-. means also "people") lubh-.: death marga. precious stone manoratha-. m. f.: city .: fly mala-. m. madyati (IV): to be intoxicated madhu-.: person marana-.: face. m. to rob mad-. to desire (with Dat.: friend moha-. f. lubhyati (IV): to long for.: world (in Pl.: river nagara. m.: foolish murti-. statue nadi-. n.) lup-. f. road masa-. n. adj. n. f.: silence mayura-. m.: deer mrtyu-. amongst (with genitive) maharaja-.: greed loka-. limpati (VI): to smear lobha-. m.: city. m.: gem.

m. f.: eye ni-. sinful papa-. nivasati (I):to dwell ni+vid-. m. nisidati (I): to sit down ni+sev-.n. n. to perish nawa-. ruler pa-. to appear nija-. m. palm panini-. m. nawyati (IV): to be lost.: ruler .: treasure nih+gam-.: highest. footprint pada-.: axe pari+dha-.: scholar.: step. to report nica-. caus.: play.m. namati (I): to bow.. parajayati: completely conquer parawu-.: bad. annihilation netr.: king. adj.: hail!. nisevate (I): to serve ni+vas-. m. palayati (X): to protect pandita-. m. king nrpati-. n. place padma-. adj.: man naraka-. n. to prostrate. pacati (I): to cook pada-. nirgacchati (I): to go out nih+pad-.) nandana-.: woman nataka-.: foot. m. m. m. nispadyate (IV): to originate. adv.: grandson nara-.: low nidewa-. n. drama navina-. n.nam-.: hand.: hell nari-. learned man pani-. m. different para+ji-. adj. m.: ruler.: new naw-. n. adj. glory! (Dat. m. pibati (I): to drink pac-.: leader netra. nayati (I): to lead ni+sad-. adj. parinayati: to marry parthiva-. paridhapayati: to wear pari+ni-.: one's.: the grammarian Panini papa-.: order nidhana-. caus. n. to worship namas-. palayati: to protect pa-.: decision nrpa-.: lotus pal-. nivedayati: to announce. own nivewana-.: dwelling niwcaya-.: Indra's paradise naptr-.: destruction.: sin para-. m. m.

: manifold. prathayati: to propagate. prajayate (IV): to be born pra+pad-. caus. to hurt pitamaha-. pratiksate (I): to await. f. many praja-. Pl. Du. m. to appear pra+jan-. pujayati (X): to honour.: subject. master.: breath.: lesson.: mountain. otec. pass. f. cattle pawupalya-. trap pawu-. prapadyate (IV): to go to. letter paura-. prabhavati (I): to arise. prinayati: to please.: expiation. ancestors pr-. adj. holy pawa-. parayati (X): to overcome pr-.: grandfather pitr-. to restrain prayaga-. adj.) pra+stha-. parents. m. n.: Lord. m. to beg pra+as-.parvata-. m. patati (I): to fall. life prasada-. to go back. f.: traveler pati-. caus. to revere puja-.: palace prath-. to fly pataliputra-.: worship.: the city of Pataliputra (Patna) path-. pidayati (X): to torture. n. caus.: earth puj-. to take refuge in (Acc.: citizen pavitra-. m.ch-. pratisthati: to go away pra+viw-. hill pat-. m. caus. to expect prati+sidh-.: sacrificial animal. atonement pri-. pravisati (VI): to enter pra+vrt-. prasthapayati: to send pra+stha-. m. prarthayate: to ask. prcchati (VI): to ask pra+arth-. n. m. pathati (I): to read.: clean. to arise prabhuta-. pratibhasate (I): to answer prati+gam-. pratisedhate (I): to prevent. people prana-. study pathika-. pravartate (I): to become. to spread prati: towards (with Acc. to delight prthivi-.: the city of Prayaga (modern Ilahabad) prayawcitta-. homage . puryate: to fill pr. m. m.: snare. to recite patha-.: the breeding of cattle pid-. f. husband patni-. to disseminate.: leaf. prasyati (IV): to throw pra+bhu-.) prati+bhas-. pratigacchati (I): to come back. n. Pl. m. patayati: to knock down pat-.: wife pattra-. to worship. to return prati+iks-.

n. rocate (I): to like (Dat.: enemy rksa-.: again punya-. n.: kingdom raks-.: suddenly . mass.: protection raksitr-. m. n. m. racayati (X): to compose rajbi-. n.: flood. m. adj. beauty rupaka-.: protection raksana-.) rud-. Adj.: form. adv. n. ramate (I): to play rama-. f.: always sadhu-.: fat pustaka-. sidati (I): to sit. meeting. Gen. m.: illness rsi-.: book (manuscript) putra. f. m. f. adv. m. m.: coin sabha-. f.: epos Ramayana rana-.: holy. assembly sad-.: son putri-. rodati (I): to weep ruh-. mn. to endure saha. quantity rawmi-. raksati (I): to protect raksana-. m.) sahasa.: queen rajya-. m.: holy man sagara-.: street ratna-.: jewel.: protector ram-.: old story.: flower pusta-.: with (with Inst..: battle ratha-. n. m. rohati (I): to grow rupa-.: sea sah-.: man puspa-. rcchati (I): to get. m. righteous sadhu-. to sit down sada.: ray ripu-. sahate (I): to bear. adv.: merit pura-. m. or postp. n.: gem ratna-. f.: Rama (personal name) ramayana-.: congregation. prep. n. n. n. to share rac-.punar. to obtain. m. f. precious stone rawi-.: chariot rathya-.: seer ruc-. Purana (kind of Hindu scripture) purusa-.: daughter r-.: heap. stream purana-. m.: bear roga-.

srjati (VI): to create srsti-. adv. caus. whole samudra-. n. f.: thief. Hindu non-vedic scripture snih-.: snake.: sleep. m.: ode. n. to stay stotra-. adj. contentedness sam+a+car-.) snusa-.: happiness sukta-. dream svarga-. f.: ocean. adv.: satisfaction. m. questionable sajtosa-.: beauty surya-. robber stha-. f. rightly sarpa-. f.: general. m.: creator srj-.: soldier sajdigdha-. m.: same. n.: sister tad-.) sam+gaj-.: charioteer suvarna-. sajgacchate: to come together sama-.: praise sukha-.: doubtful. by all means sarvatra. adj. smarati (I): to remember smrti-. m. to talk with (Ins.: everywhere satya-.: sun. sea samyak.: servant sic-. thoroughly. n. tadayati (X): to beat tada.: gold svapna-. a hymn of praise stri-. n. serpent sarvatah. equal. n. f. at that time . f.: well. tisthati (I): to stand. m. adj. m. army leader sev-. m. or Loc.: daughter-in-law sprw-. f. even samagra-.: woman stuti-. m.sainika-. snihyati (IV): to like (with Gen. m. m.: heaven svasr-.: then. to honour (Acc. samacarati (I): to perform sam+bhas-. adv. sadhayati: to accomplish sijha-. to discharge sidh-.: complete.: truth senapati-.) seva-. sprwati (VI): to touch srastr-. adv. m.: tradition. f.: creation stena-. the god of the Sun suta-. sibcati (VI): to sprinkle.: Vedic hymn sundara-.: service sevaka-.: lion smr-. sevate (I): to serve. adj. sajbhasate (I): to converse.: beautiful sundari-.: everywhere.

uttisthati (I): to get up. f. upeksate (I): to neglect upa+ni-. f. recluse vand-.: pond. to weigh tus-. to blow. n. bank tr-. f. tyajati (I): to leave. adv. tolayati (X): to lift up.: the city Takshashila (Taxila) tam-.: shore. vasati (I): to dwell vasati-. m. upaviwati (VI): to sit down upadewa-.: garden udyoga-. to instruct. part. tusyati (IV): to rejoice.: woman.: there tira-. pass.: thus. to admonish upa+iks-.) taru-. vandate (I): to praise.: water varuna-.: ocean udyana-. n. n.: advice.: high ud+pat-. n.: better.: dwelling vastra-. n. to grieve (Abl. instruction urvawi-. upadiwati (VI): to teach. f. m. tamyati (IV): to be disturbed. adj. m.: (Vedic god) Varuna vas-. to stand up udadhi-. m.: curved.: speaker vana-. m. pool vara-.: the nymph Urvashi va: or vac-. utpatati: to take off ud+stha-. perseverance upa+diw-. n. to give up ucca-. to pierce tul-. tudati (VI): to strike.: tree tata-. best vari-. adj. m. vadati (I): to speak. f.taksawila-. vapati (I): to sow vapi-.: but tud-. to pay homage vanijya-. m. adj. to flow vaiwya-. upanayati: to initiate upa+viw-.: a member of Vaishya caste vakra-. vahati (I): to carry. so tatra. m. tarati (I): to cross over tu. wife vah-.: garden udyana-. adv. ucyate: is called vad-. m. trade vap-. twisted vaktr-.: business. to be satisfied (Ins.: hermit.) tyaj-. n. to say vadhu-.: forest vanaprasta-.: clothing .: exertion.: daddy tatha.

m. m. vivadati (I): to argue vici-. wiksate (I): to learn wiksita-. "punisher" wastra-. pass. viwati (VI): to enter viwa-.: refuge was-. wealth vayu-. top wiks-.: bird vihaga-. to extol wakha-. vartate (I): to live on vrtha.: disputation.: thing. m. m. f. wisdom vihaga-. to be finished wanti-. m. n.: Hindu god Vishnu vivada-. n. m. m. m.: behavior vrttanta-. rule.: story vyadh-. sore vrdh-.: way. m.: knowledge. f. to punish wastr-. m. to shower vrt-.: wolf vrksa-.: enemy wikhara-. argument viw-. vindati (VI): to get.: learned wisya-. m. direction vidya-. m. to pour down. m. mode. wamyati (IV): to be pacified.: wave vid-. n. to no avail vrtta-.: hunter vyaghra-.: wound. m. to make known vid-. caus. to acquire vidhi-.: hero visnu-.: tree vrs-. viramate (I): to give up. pupil .: ruler. adv. m.: summit.: brahmin vira-. caus. to exist vrt-. to abandon (Abl.: bird vinaya-.: student. n.: treatise.vasu-.: arrow warana-. to enlarge vrka-. vartate (I): to be.: hero vira-. f. m. law-book watru-.: peace. silence wara-. n.: branch wam-.: discipline vipra-. vardhayati: to make bigger.: wind vi+ram-. n. m. n.: tiger wajs-. varsati (I): to rain. wisyate: to rule. Adj. wajsati (I): to praise. vidhyati (IV): to pierce vyadha-. m.) vi+vad-. m.: in vain. m.: poison vrana-. vedayati: to announce.

wocate (I): to regret (Abl.: father-in-law wveta-.) yatha. f. oblation for them wram-.: ornament. f. pron.: the river Yamuna yat-.: where (relative) yavat-tavat: when… then…. adj. n. yudhyati (IV): to fight . m. yajati (I): to sacrifice yajba-. f.) wudra-. m. wramyati (IV): to become tired wri-.: tomorrow wvawru-. adv. m. wobhate (I): to shine wuc-.: verse (of two lines in the metre Anustubh) wobha-.: Vedic scripture wubh-.: child wiwu-. wusyati (IV): to dry out wvas. adv. m.: when (relative) yaj-. as far as yoga-. wravayati: to tell ("to make hear") wru-.: Shudra (low-caste) wus-. caus. yacchati (I): to give yamuna-.wiva-. m. f. m.: ascetic yatra.: war yudh-. m.: sacrifice yam-. as (relative) yati-.: child wloka-.: how. beauty. m. m.: splendor. f. brilliance. adv. yatate (I): to strive for (Dat.: yoga yuddha-.: mother-in-law wvawura-. rel. m. adv.: white ya-. yajati (I): to sacrifice yaj-. beauty wobhana-.: luck.: ceremony for the sake of dead relatives. wruyate: to hear wruti-.: Shiva wiwu-. virtue wraddha-.: which yada. m. wealth wru-. pass.

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