This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

IMAGE SEGMENTATION

Xiaoheng Yang Nakajima Lab, Titech October 29, 2004

CONTENTS

Problem Preview

Segmentation subdivides an image into it’ constitute s regions or objects. The level to which the subdivision is carried depends on the problem being solved. That is, segmentation should stop when the objects of interests in an application have been isolated. Image segmentation algorithms generally are based on one of two basic properties of intensity values: discontinuity and similarity.

**Preview 1 Detection of Discontinuities
**

1.1 Point Detection 1.2 Line Detection 1.3 Edge Detection

2

**Edge Linking and Boundary Detection
**

2.1 Local Processing 2.2 Global Processing via Hough Transform 2.3 Global Processing via Graph-Theoretic Techniques

1

Detection of Discontinuities

3

Thresholding

3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Foundation The Role of Illumination Basic Global Thresholding Basic Adaptive Threshloding Optimal Global and Adaptive Thresholding Use of Boundary Characteristics for Histogram Improvement and Local Thresholding 3.7 Thresholds Based on Several Variables

The most common way to look for discontinuities is to run a mask through the image.

R = ∑ wi zi

i

n

4

**Region-Based Segmentation
**

4.1 Basic Formulation 4.2 Region Growing 4.3 Region Splitting and Merging

5

**Segmentation by Morphological Watersheds
**

5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Basic Concepts Dam Construction Watershed Segmentation Algorithm The Use of Markers

Figure.1 1.1 Point Detection 1.2 Line Detection

| R |≥ T

6

**The Use of Motion In Segmentaion
**

6.1 Spatial Techniques 6.2 Frequency Domain Techniques

Summary References and Further Reading

Figure.2

other image acquisition imperfections yield edges that are blurred. The “thickness” of edge is determined by the length of the ramp. 2. 2. Second-order derivative is defined as digital approximations to the Laplacian of a 2-D function. A set of such points that are connected according to a predefined criterion of connectedness is by definition an edge.3 . breaks caused by noise. Conclusion: The first derivative can be used to detect the presence of an edge at a point in an image.3 Global Processing via Graph-Theoretic Techniques This representation provides a rugged approach that performs well in the presence of noise. The slope of the ramp is inversely proportional to the degree of blurring in the edge. d. Specify subdivisions in the ρθ − plane c. Some terms used here Graph G = ( N . Compute the gradient of an image and threshold it to obtain a binary image. Examine the relationship between pixels in a chosen cell. 2 Edge Linking and Boundary Detection Edge detection algorithms typically are followed by linking procedures to assemble edge pixels into meaningful edges. U ) arc for each pair ( ni . b. Problem: Derivatives are sensitive to noise. Similarly. n j ) successor / parent level cost Figure. First-order derivatives of a digital image are based on various approximations of the 2-D gradient.2 Global Processing via Hough Transform Computational attractiveness Approach based on the Hough transform is as follow: a.4 Figure.) 2. optics. Examine the counts of the accumulator cells for high pixel concentrations. sampling. In practice. (for example. the sign of the second derivative can be used to determine whether an edge pixel lies on the dark or light side of an edge (zero -crossing).IP seminar for Fall semester in 2004 1.3 Edge Detection A point is being an edge point if its two--dimensional first-order derivative is greater than a specified threshold.1 Local Processing Criteria: the strength of the response of the gradient operator / the direction of the gradient vector A point in the predefined neighborhood is linked to the pixel if both magnitude and direction criteria are satisfied.

y.1 Foundation T = T [ x. narrow.2 The Role of Illumination The image resulting from poor illumination could be quite difficult to segment. 3. dynamic or adaptive 3. Heuristic approach based on visual inspection of the histogram.6.3 Basic Global Thresholding The success of this method depends entirely on how well the histogram can be partitioned.6 Use of Boundary Characteristics for Histogram Improvement and Local Thresholding The chances of selecting a good threshold are enhanced considerably if the histogram peaks are tall. global.4 Basic Adaptive Threshloding Issues: how to subdivide the image and how to estimate the threshold for each resulting subimage Figure. y)] Classification for threshold: local. symmetric. f ( x.7 . 3. y ). and separated by deep valleys. One approach for improving the shape of histogram is to consider only those pixels that lie on or near the edges between objects and the background.IP seminar for Fall semester in 2004 Figure. 3. p( x. 3 Thresholding 3.5 A method for estimating thresholds that produce the minimum average segmentation error PDF ( probability density function ) 3.5 Optimal Global and Adaptive Thresholding Figure.

segmentation problems requiring multiple thresholds are best solved using region growing methods.1 Basic Concepts The concept of watersheds is based on visualizing an image in three dimensions: two spatial coordinates versus gray levels. including continuous segmentation boundaries.IP seminar for Fall semester in 2004 3.3 Region Splitting and Merging Figure. 5.2 Region Growing Region growing is a procedure that groups pixels or subregions into larger regions based on predefined criteria. 4. (In general. . often produces more stable segmentation results.7 Thresholds Based on Several Variables Multispectral thresholding The concept of thresholding now becomes one of finding clusters of points in multi-dimension space. Segmentation by watersheds embodies many of the concepts of the other three approaches and.1 Basic Formulation 4.9 5. ) 4 Region-Based Segmentation The objective of segmentation is to partition an image into regions. as such. Seed region 4.2 Dam Construction The simplest way to construct dams separating sets of binary points is to use morphological dilation.8 5 Segmentation by Morphological Watersheds Figure.

Figure. Rafael C.10 6 5. second edition 2002.13 Figure.2 Frequency Domain Techniques Reference: Digital Image Processing. Gonzalez & Richard E.IP seminar for Fall semester in 2004 A marker is a connected component belonging to an image.3 Watershed Segmentation Algorithm The Use of Motion In Segmentaion 6. Woods.14 6.4 The Use of Markers Problem: oversegmentation .11 5.12 Figure.1 Spatial Techniques Figure. Prentice Hall Figure.

- Segmentation Tutorial
- Image Segmentation
- Image Segmentation
- ImageProcessing10-Segmentation(Thresholding)
- oriya writer identification
- Chapter 10
- Digital Image Processing
- IIJCS-2014-11-13-22
- EI2011!12!16 Segmentation Double(1)
- [01][Rai Et Al]_Underwater Image Segmentation Using CLAHE Enhancement and Thresholding
- Assign Ivp
- Off-Line Handwritten OCR
- 7IMAGE SEGMENTATION
- CurvedSegmentation_kannada1
- edge detection
- Chapter10 Segmentation
- SPE96T
- 01308101
- Off-Line Handwritten OCR
- Segment Good
- Region Based Segment at i On
- Type of Vehicle
- “GrabCut” — Interactive Foreground Extraction Using Iterated Graph Cuts
- licensePlateSegment
- Vehicle License Plate Segmentation
- Palm Print Recognition Using Local Binary Patt
- Lecture 12
- Digital Image Processing Unit-7
- Segmenting Broadcast News Streams using Lexical Chains
- Digital Image Processing Unit-7

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd