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( I S O 9001-2000 CERTIFIED )


1. Requirements of Point Machine 03
2. Classifications 03
3. Sequence of operations 04
4. Point mechanism 05
5. Ground connections 06
6. Installations 07
7. Precautions while working on points 08
8. Maintenance 11
9. Measuring voltage and current 12
10. Testing of:
a) Friction clutch 13
b) Obstruction test 13
11. Do’s and Don’ts 14
12. Essential requirements before interlocking 15
13. Siemens point 16
14. Crank handle 17
15. Trouble shooting 19

Electric Point Machine is an electrically driven machine used for the

operation of points in Railway yards and comprises of an electric motor,
point mechanism and circuit control device.
a. The switch operating mechanism must be of substantial design,
securely fixed and protected from unauthorized interference.
b. The mechanism must be provided with means for emergency operation
in the event of failure.
c. The use of the crank or other apparatus for emergency operation,
should disconnect the power supply to the motor.
d. With the exception of motor commutators, a surface leakage of not less
than 6mm should be provided between any exposed metallic part
carrying current and any other metallic part of the mechanism.
e.The mechanism should be so constructed that it can not give a “normal “
or “reverse” indication, unless the closed switch be within 5mm of the
stock rail and in the case of facing point, the switch are properly locked.
f.The mechanism should be so constructed that it can be stopped,
reversed or obstructed at any point of its movement without damage.
g.In order to prevent the movement of points while train is passing over
them, facing points should be provided with a lock bar, or alternatively
with track circuit locking to the point lock lever or ground track lock.
h.Where the movements of trains over the points are not within easy
visibility of the cabin man, occupation of the section between the stop
signals reading over the points and the fouling point ahead of such
points should be electrically indicated in the cabin.
a. Single field type machine (GRS 5A – Nippon)
b. Split field type machine (GRS 5E, IRS Type (Podanur) M-63,

a. High voltage type (110 VDC) working current at 3 Amps.
b. Low voltage type (24v, 36v) working current (6A/4.5A)
iii. SPEED
a. High speed machine – 3 seconds.
b. Low speed machine – 5 seconds.
a. In and Out type (FPL Type) – GRS 5A, 5E & Nippon
b. Straight through type (SLM Type) – M – 63
c. Rotary type (Siemens)
This type enables a pair of points to be operated, while retaining
the point equipment to mechanically operated points. These two sets of
drives, one for switch and other for lock operating are independently
brought out. As the machine is not provided with point lock, separate point
locking arrangement is to be provided. It also requires a separate
This type is so called because the machine is complete with point
lock and detector. Point machines other than Podanur type are combined
The type of motor used in point machine is a D.C. series motor;
since its initial starting torque is high.
1. Opening of the detection contacts.
2. Unlocking of point
3. Operation of point from ‘N’ to ‘R’ or ‘R’ to ‘N’
4. Locking of the point
5. Closing of detection contact.

This consists of a friction clutch, reduction gears. Cams and bars used for
converting the rotary movement to linear movement. For the operation of
switch and lock the main gear wheel in the mechanism revolves less than
one revolution.
The point motor and the driving gear assembly are not rigidly connected
together but through a friction clutch. Whenever the load on the motor
shaft increases beyond a limit, the friction clutch declutches the motor
from the gear assembly and prevents them from damage.
The friction clutch declutches the motor from the mechanism.
1. After the point has been completely set and locked and point supply
has been cut off when the motor rotates due to momentum
2. Whenever there is an obstruction in point.
3. During mid stroke reversal, in which case the motor changes its
direction suddenly before the gear.
The friction clutch is an adjustable one. It should be adjusted in such a
way that it trips when the motor current reaches the 160% the normal
working current. It is adjusted by trail and error method.
The clutch should be tested at regular intervals of 2 to 3 months.
The snubbing arrangements so provided in addition to the friction
clutch are to minimize the shock of mechanism while stopping at the end
of operation. After the point is set and locked, the control contacts
(NC/RC) cuts off the supply to the motor. But the momentum of the motor
will keep it rotating.
Due to residual magnetism in field because of rotation of motor, a
voltage is induced. This voltage & thus the current are in opposite
direction of early rotation and thus bring the motor to a smooth stop.
The presence of friction clutch between the point motor and
mechanism ensures that undue strain on motor does not take place.

In addition to this, to provide a smooth stopping, an electrical circuit

known as “snubbing circuit” is provided, the kinetic energy of the motor is
dissipated (i.e.) when the armature rotates due to momentum after the
supply cut off, an EMF is induced in it due to residual magnetism in field
magnet. This emf is dissipated through the field armature and the circuit
employed for the purpose, which develops an opposite torque on the
armature and brings the motor to a smooth stop.
Snubbing circuits are provided through:
(1) Snubbing relays
(2) Directional contacts and
(3) Rectifiers.
Snubbing is achieved mechanically in siemens machine by the friction clutch
NC/RC CONTACTS: These contacts
1. Cut off the feed to the motor when the motor is set & locked.
2. Keeps the motor circuits ready for next operation.
3. Facilitates mid stroke reversal.
1. Pt. set & lock in “Normal” Break Make MAKE BREAK
2. Pt. set & Lock in Make Break BREAK MAKE
3. Pt. un locked Make Make BREAK BREAK

The point fittings (ground connections) comprises of following.
1. Switch extension bracket on ‘D’ plate 2Nos.
2. Lug 1 No.
3. Throw rod along with adjustable sleeve and nuts 1 No.
4. Lock rod (short and long) 2 Nos. (one each)
5. Detector rod (small and big) 2 Nos. (one each)

Suitable lugs are also required for connecting the point fitting with the drive
rod, lock rods and the detector rods of the machine along with insulator.
1. Install the machine as per standard layout distance between machine
centre and inner gauge face shall not be less than 950mm. In case of
raised point machines the distance shall not be less than 1050mm.
2. Hand crank the machine to centre position.
3. Keep the switch rails in mid position.
4. Connect the throw rod between the gear rack and the lug of the driving
5. Hand crank the machine to & fro and adjust the switch rails for proper
setting with stock rails on both sides.
6. Check the spring on the points in both position it should be equal on either
7. Connect the detector slides and adjust them such that the roller falls inside
the groove only when point is fully set and the control disc completes its
rotation (i.e. point is fully locked). Test that the groove does not receive
the rollers when a 3.25mm obstruction is placed at 150mm from the toe of
the switch. Tighten the nuts and check nuts after adjustment.
8. Connect the split lock stretcher bars to the lock rod. And adjust them
through their serrated faces and bolt screws such that the locking segment
can enter the notches only when the point is correctly set. Ensure that the
notches are not available to receive the locking segment when 3.25mm
obstruction is placed at 150mm from the toe of the switch.
9. Operate the machine several times to see that the locking notches of the
stretcher bar and gear rack.
10. Make the electrical connection for point control and detection circuits.
Operate the machine several times and ensure that detection contacts
make only at the end of locking operation and the control contacts make
with the beginning of unlocking stroke.

11. Operate the machine by power note the working current by connecting an
ammeter in series with CW terminal (2.5Amp. to 3Amp.)
12. Check the correspondence between the points and point controlling
13. Carry out contact break test in operation and detection circuits.
14. Check the correct functioning of friction clutch. The friction clutch must trip
when motor current reaches 160% of normal working current but not more
than 200%.
15. Carryout obstruction test with 5mm, 3.25mm and1.6mm test piece.
16. Centre of 1st sleeper to centre of second sleeper should be 685mm.
17. Inner edge rail to centre of machine
Machine on sleeper 950mm
Machine raises 1050mm.
Main parts of IRS rotary type point machine.
1. Motor with reduction gearbox.
2. Transmission assembly
3. Switching unit / control unit
4. Throw bar or driving slide
5. Independent lock slide
6. Detector slide
7. Crank handle contact
8. Cover lock.
Whenever point is failed or when the maintenance work is to be carried
out under disconnection point should be clamped.
Procedure of working of trains during failure of electrically operated points
of cross over.
1. On receipt of information about the failure of the point S&T staff will try
to ascertain the nature of fault and put right the failure.

2. If the S&T staff anticipate that the rectification of the failure is likely to
take a long time they will inform the operating staff in writing on a
disconnection memo to initiate action as under.
3. On receipt of such a written information from the S&T staff on a
disconnection memo, the ASM/CASM will ensure the correct setting on
the affected point to the Normal position and will the clamp and
padlock both ends of cross over in normal position. ASM/CASM will
under no circumstances remove the clamp in the normal setting,
unless and until he receives the memo from the S&T staff that
temporary modification have been removed and the condition in para
12 are complied with.
4. After so clamping and padlocking the point the ASM/CASM will advise
the S&T staff in writing stating that
“single” ended point / both ends of cross over point No. have been
clamped and padlocked in the normal position and the necessary
temporary modification to the installation may please be made ”S&T
staff will then carry out the temporary modification as given in para 5
5. S&T staff of not below the rank of a sectional engineer, on receipt of
such a written advise from ASM/CASM as per para 4 above will carry
out temporary modification the installation so that point steady
“NORMAL” indication is available on the panel, by making NORMAL
detection available and restricting the clearance of signal reading over
the said point (unchanging overlap) to yellow aspect only.
6. After carrying out the temporary modification the S&T staff shall advise
ASM/CASM in writing that temporary modification with respect to point
No. have been carried out and clearance of_______ signal Nos.
_______and _______ have been restricted to yellow aspect only.
7. On receipt of the advise as per para 6 above, ASM/CASM will arrange
for issue of caution order to the train for observing 15km on the route

of concerned signal. This may require advising the ASM/CASM of the

adjacent stations.
8. ASM/CASM shall arrange for posting suitable operating staff not below
the rank of a guard near the affected point for the purpose of
monitoring the condition of clamps and the point after every movement.
The staff deputed to monitor the point should be equipped with
telephone communication with CASM, HS lamps and flags (red and
green), fuses, detonators and shall arrange for protection of train in
case the condition of affected point or clamps on it warrants the same.
In such a condition he shall also advise the ASM/CASM on phone to
restore the concerned signal to ‘ON’ position and retain from taking
them to “OFF” for any subsequent move till the condition of the point
and clamps is set right.
9. After ensuring that caution orders are being issued ASM/CASM shall
allow the first train on the affected line and over the affected point to
pass “ON” ‘A’ marker in the semi automatic territory and on the calling
on signal or relevant authority in non-automatic section.
10. ASM/CASM shall pass the subsequent train by taking “OFF” signals
after setting route in the normal manner, however, due to temporary
modification made by the S&T staff, the concerned signal will work as
free signals and will clear to yellow aspect only.
11.a. After the defect is rectified, the Sectional Engineer in consultation
with CASM will remove the temporary modification done as per para 5 and
will give a memo to CASM stating work with respect to point no. cross
over No. has been completed and temporary modification have been
removed and the point is ready for testing.
b. Before acknowledging a memo ASM/CASM will ensue none of the
route section once the affected point is set and the signals controlling the
movement over it are at ON position and the track are clear. This is for
ensuring that no train passes over the affected point during the testing.

12. After the point is fully tested the sectional engineers will give re
connection memo indicating in a written declaration that till the temporary
modification to the installation have been deleted and the installation is
made fully normal with respect to point no. ______
13. ASM/CASM on receipt of re-connection memo can resume normal
working over the affected point under advise to SCOR
Lubricate thoroughly all-internal and external parts.
Lubricating oil specification
(a) For internal: SAE 30 or shell 100
(b) For external: IS 1628
Grease specification: all templ grease IS 507/508

1. After 10,000 operations or 6 months which ever is earlier apply:
a.20grease gun stokes through each nipple of transmission clutch
(2 nipples)
b.4 grease gun stokes through each nipple of contact assembly
( 2 nipples)
c. 4 grease gun strokes through each nipple of bearings of
throw bar, locking bar and detection slides (4 nipples)
d. 400 cc of SAF 30 or shell 100 oil through the oil hole of reduction gear
2.During regular maintenance
a. Pour 100cc of SAE 30 or shell100 oil per pill filler opening on
lubricating pads over the throw bar and locking bar.
b. Apply, 10 drops of spindle oil (3 in one) over the helical spring, which
actuates the contacts.
c. Apply lubricating oil IS 1628 over external moving parts.

During maintenance round check the following:

1. All nuts and bolts are tight.
2. All pins are tight.
3. All split pins are opened correctly.
4. All the wires inside the machine are bunched (No loose wire) and
electrical connections are tight
5. Commutator is clean and bright.
6. Carbon brushes of the motor have sufficient pressure
7. All parts are clean and moving parts are well lubricated.
8. Ensure that gear transmission works smoothly without any crackling
sound when machine is operated by power
9. Brass strip between the detection slides is intact
10. The rollers moving over the frication clutch are not worn out and
moving freely.
11. Locking segment moves freely inside the notches on throw bar and
locking bar with an obstruction of 1/16” (1.6mm) and gets obstructed
with an obstruction of 1/8”(3.25”) placed at 150mm from toe of switch
between stock and switch rails.
12. Check that spring contact close with fixed contacts with sufficient
contact pressure. The springs are not loose and shaky.
1. Voltage is taken on motor terminal
2. Voltage is taken on terminal no. 0 and1 and terminal no.0 and 2, one
for normal another for reverse.
3. Obstruction voltage by putting 5mm test piece between stock and
tongue rail is also taken and recorded as above.
4. Current is taken in series by inserting and turning CH key and
measuring current in between CH1 and CH2 and recorded as:
a. INITIAL CURRENT or peak current.
b. Normal working current
c. Obstruction current.

These parameters are taken every 3 months and record maintained in

respective register.
1. Place an obstruction test piece between closed switch and stock rail.
2. Connect an ammeter in series with the motor feed.
3. Shunt operating winding of the over load relay if provided.
4. Operate the point against the obstruction.
5. Read the motor current as the clutch slips.
6. Remove the shunt of the over load relay after the test.
7. Remove the armature from the motor feed.
8. Adjust the clutch at a desire current 1.5 to 2.0 times of the normal
operation current).
Friction clutch adjustment: If adjustment is required at site,
transmission assembly should be disconnected and motor and contract
unit dismantled. After dismantling transmission assembly tighten the
hexagonal bolt. Friction clutch becomes stronger and obstruction current
increases. Loosen the hexagonal bolt, friction clutch becomes weaker and
obstruction current decreases. Now re-assemble friction clutch, contact
unit and motor and test.
a. Hand crank the machine to the centre point.
b. Keep the switch rails in the centre position.
c. Hand crank the machine to and fro and adjust the driving rod for
proper setting of switch rail with stock rail on both sides.
d. Check the spring of points in both positions. It should be equal
on either side or make it equal by adjusting nuts near the sleeve
tighten the nut to ward lug increase the spring loosing the nut
from lug decrease the spring.
e. Connect the detector slide and adjust them in such a way that
the roller falls inside the notch only when the point is set and

locked. Test that the notch does not receive the roller when
3.25mm obstruction is placed 150mm from the toe of switch.
f. Connect the lock slide to lock rod and adjust them by loosening/
tightening of nuts of slides such that the locking pawl can enter
the notch only when the point is correctly set. Ensure that the
notches are not available to recover the locking pawl when
3.25mm obstruction is placed at 150mm from the toe of switch.
g. Operate the machine several times to see that the locking pawl
goes. Smoothly inside the locking notches of the lock slides and
driving slide.
1.Disconnect the point machine before carrying out obstructions.
2.Keep out you tools in proper working place
3.Watch always for unusual noise while machine is under operation.
4.Always use proper lubricant wipe out any excess in oil and grease.
5.Ensure schedule of maintenance
6.Test the working of friction clutch
7.Check effectiveness of CH contact.
8.Ensure tack-locking correspondence of point with lever/group
9.Use proper rating of fuse
1. Forget to exercise safety checks during and after disconnection
2. Forget to carry necessary tools while attending failure.
3. Leave any discrepancies noticed in the point machine.
4. Use too much lubricant.
5. Allow grease/oil to drop or collect over electrical conductor contact.
6. Leave the transmission assembly to continue if obstruction and operating
current are equal.
7. Allow concerned CH to remain in CH box while working on point
8. Forget to check proper working of lever lock if provided
9. Loose connection of fuse.


Before the interlocking work at point is put in hand, it must be ensured that the
permanent way inspector has
1. Brought track to correct level and alignment.
2. Rail Joints are closed to fix lock bar and are associated with lock bar.
3. Fully ballasted and packed all points which are to be interlocked and taken
adequate measures to prevent lateral and longitudinal movement of
4. Provided creep and level pillars.
5. Arranged the sleepers on adjacent tracks in alignment where rods and
wires have to cross.
6. Seen that the gauge is correct.
7. Provided and fixed special timbers as required.
8. Provided means to prevent creep in the vicinity of points.
9. Fitted gauge tie plates correctly.
10. Made the stretchers to115mm at the toe of B.G. and 100mm at the toe of
M.G. and N.G. points.
11. Adjusted loose heel switches so that:
a. They can be thrown both ways with ease and can be housed against
the stock rail by hand and remain there when the pressure is removed.
b. The planed surface of the switch rail fully houses against the stock rail
for a sufficient length.
12. Adjusted fixed heel switches so that:
a. They normally lie in the mid-position and flex equally in the normal
and reverse position
b. The planned surface of the switch rails fully housed against the stock
13. Fitted flexible stretches so that they flex equally in the normal and
reverse position.
14. Provided a stop for the open position of single switch layout.


This machine consist of a cast iron housing with lockable sheet steel cover which
1. A 110v DC split field series wound motor with normal operating current is
2.5 to 3 amps.
2. Reduction gear assembly, reduction gear up to 2nd stage is housed along
with motor in one sealed unit.
3. Rack and pinion arrangement for converting rotary motion into linear
motion. The stroke for the toothed rack (Throw bar) is 143mm.
4. A locking rod (split lock stretcher) with locking curves (notches). The main
and auxiliary stretcher blades are provided with serrations for adjustment.
5. Rotary type locking is effected when the locking segment engages in the
locking curves of the operating and locking rods.
6. 2 numbers of point detector slides.
7. Switch detection units, which consist of control and detection contacts. It
is a spring-loaded unit with two rollers and crank.
The position of contacts at different position of the point is as follows:
Position of point NC RC ND RD
1.Set and locked in ‘N’ Break Make Make Break
2.Set and locked in ‘R’ Make Break Break Make
3.Unlocked Make Make Break Break
8. Friction clutch, to protect the motor in case of any obstruction in the point
and also it take care of stopping the machine smoothly at the end of
9. Crank handle key box with cut-off contacts. The crank handle cut-off
contact gets disconnected as soon as the key is inserted and tuned and
simultaneously gives access to the crank handle to engage with the motor
shaft for operation. The disconnected contact prevents motor from
electrical operations during crank handling and safety is assured.
10. Cable termination block.

1. Locking is rotary type.
2. The detection and controlling contacts are of self-wiping type.
3. Crank handle cut off contact is achieved by key and not by crank handle.
4. Crank handle has to be inserted to the motor shaft.
5. Felt pad is provided on the throw bar and detection slide for self clearing
and lubricating.
6. Rubber liners are provided outside the hole provided for detection slides,
throw bar and stretcher bar to make the machine dust proof.
7. The main and auxiliary stretcher blades are provided with serrations for
8. The detector slides are provided with a brass liner in between to avoid
sticky movement of slide during breakage of detector rod.
9. Less maintenance since parts are easily accessible, replacement is easy.


During the failure of motor, point etc. due to power supply or for maintenance
work, facility must be provided for locally operating the points manually. For
this purpose crank handles are provided. The crank handle is inserted in the
point machine and by rotating the handle drive is imparted to the point. For
ensuring safety to the persons using the crank handle against a sudden
operation by electric power, the crank handle whenever inserted isolates the
power supply to the point machine through a contact known as crank handle
The crank handle and the key for uncovering the flap (which is required to be
uncovered for inserting the crank handle) are kept under the custody of SM in
a box which is kept and pad locked by SM and sealed by S&T staff.



Normally the key used for uncovering the flap for inserting the crank
handle in the point machine is common (i.e. Master Key). In this, there is a
possibility of crank handling a wrong point. To avoid this, an interlocking is
provided as explained below:

The points in the yard are divided into groups and each group is provided
with an independent key. The wards of keys of each group are different. The
keys are kept locked in separate key locked relays housed in a glass fronted
wooden box in the panel room/location box. The key locked relay box is kept
pad locked by operating staff and sealed by S&T staff.
The crank handle key can be extracted from the relay only after getting the
slot from panel, and once the control on crank handle key has been released
from the panel, the corresponding routes and signals cannot be initiated.
The crank handle key obtained can be used only for uncovering the flap of the
point machine pertaining to the relevant group of point and thus crank
handling of wrong point is avoided. After the completion of work, the key is
put back into the key interlocked relay and control is resumed back to the
panel. Once the control is returned to the panel, the signals and routes can
be initiated.


Failure: Point starts flashing

automatically in normal /
reverse SI/ESM is available in
the cabin.

Go to relay room and

observe the point group.

Remove B60 fuse of that point Is WKR2 picked up

group and reinsert

Has WKR2 dropped and

WKR1 picked up 1. Replace B60 fuse by a
new one if not ok.
2. Observe WKR1

Test the cable Has Investigate the

Investigate the cause of and Isolate the WKR1 cause of blowing
picking up of WKR2 fault picked up of B60 fuse

Disconnect K-Rack links and check continuity on

the field side between N110-Rw andNw-N60 with
point normal and between N110-Nw and Rw-N60
with point reverse

Check the following and rectify if

faulty. Is continuity between N110-
1. Crank handle switch and Rw or N110 Nw ok?
2. Motor terminal wiring. Is continuity Check the following
3. NC/RC contacts. between N60- rectify if faulty.
4. Carbon brushes. Nw or N60-Rw
5. Disconnecting links in JB/LB. ok? 1. Check detection
2. Disconnecting
Replace the links in JB/LB
point group by a
spare one and
operate the point

Investigate the fault in

the point group Has indication
become ok?

1. Check wiring on base

plate bus bar
2. Check for dry solder on

Point operated from ‘N’ to ‘R’ or ‘R’ to ‘N’ But fails to

respond in either position SI/ESM available in the cabin

Direct ESM/Khalasi to check physically the point machine

and switches for any obstruction and remove if any

Check whether 110v DC supply Is power supply monitoring panel available

is available or not

Is supply available Is the ammeter available on the panel

Check Operate Operate the point & see

1. Output of 110v DC another the deflection
rectifier if not ok change unimportant
over to stand by point if
possible Does the meter show

Does that point also

Has start flashing in both Keep the point group in
WKR1 picked position correspondence with the
up point position. Remove
B60 fuse & insert

Investigate Check Does WKR1

the cause of 1. Output of 110v DC Pick up
failure rectifier. If not ok change
over to standby Investigate the
2. 110v bus bar fuse in L.T. cause of failures of
panel or blowing of fuse
3. B110 fuse of both the
affected points
Investigate the
Operate the point cause of failures

Does indicator become


1. Megger main & tail cable
2. Check detector & control contacts
3. Wiring & motor termination
Go to relay room 4. Crank handle contacts
and replace the 5. Carbon brushes.
point group & test 6. Intermediate location lines.
the point


Failure: A point starts flashing automatically in normal (reverse) SI/ESM

available in the field.

Check 60v D.C. voltage between N110-NW at the 1st end motor if point
is normal or between terminal in N110-RW at the second end motor if
point is reverse.

Check voltage Is the voltage available Check for any

between disconnection in
N110&N60 intermediate location by
measuring the voltage
on the m/c side

Is voltage Check detection

available contacts & wiring of Is voltage available
machine (s)

Isolate the tail cable fault

Indicates that detection
contacts are O.K.

Go to relay room & observe

Check voltage point group
between NW-RW

Is voltage Go to page No.1 of point failure at

available (A) for further action.

This indicates
that no fault on Check & rectify faulty
the field a. Crank handle
switch and wiring
b. NC/RC contacts
c. Motor terminal
wiring carbon brushes