jrefrmpm wuúodkvf

a&;om;jyKpkol
OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

tvif;a&mifpmaywkduf
trSwf 188-29-vrf;?
&efuek Nf rdKU

E-book is created by shanyoma

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

E-book is created by shanyoma

xkwaf 0ol
OD;wifat;(NrJ-0446)
tvif;a&mifpmay?
trSwf-103? jrefrmh*kPf&nfvrf;?
uefawmfuav;? &efukefNrdKU/

ykEH ydS o
f l
OD;qef;xGef;(0215)
e,l;ykHESdyfwkduf
trSwf-124? AkdvfcsKyfvrf;?
&efuek Nf rdKU/

jzefcY sdol
MunfMunfvidI pf may?
trSwf 82-27-vrf;? &efukefNrdKU/
zkH;-12452/

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

rmwdum
pmrsufESm

rdwq
f ufpm

1

jrefrmpum;ajyESifhoHcdyfa&;enf;

3

jrefrmo'´gavhusifhenf;

7

tbd"mefokH;pGJavhvmenf;

10

jrefrmpum;ajyESifhpmpDpmukH;a&;enf;

16

bmomjyefjcif;

23

jrefrmpmta&;tom;

26

jrefrmpum;ajyavhvmenf;

28

okawoepmwrf;a&;enf;

31

E-book is created by shanyoma

taMumif;t&m

1

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

jrefrmpmayavhvm&mü taxmuftuljzpfap&ef &nf&,
G v
f suf ]]jrefrmpm-wuú
okv
d }f }pmtkyu
f kd xkwaf 0vku
d yf gonf/ wuúov
kd af usmif;om;rsm;wGif pHepfopfynma&;jzifh
oifMum;vsuf&Sd&m þodkYenf;ay;vrf;jy pmrsm; vkdvm;vdrfhrnf[k ,lqí wuúokdvfü pm
ayydkYcscJhaom A[kokwrsm;rS xkwfEIwfum pmwtkyf jyKpk&ayonf/
þpmtkyfü jrefrmpum;ajy a&;om;&mwGif avhusifhay;&ef vkdtyfaom1/ jrefrmpm oHcdyfa&;enf;?
2/ jrefrmo'´gavhvmenf;?
3/ jrefrmtbd"mef okH;pGJavhvmenf;?
4/ pmpDpmukH;a&;enf;?
5/ okawoepmwrf; a&;enf;?
rsm;udk t"duxm;í az:jyxm;ayonf/
,if;uJo
h Ydk az:jyxm;&mü wwfprG ;f orQ tusOf;omaz:jyxm;ayonf/ avhusifh
enf; ocFPf;pmrsm; erlemykHpHpmrsm;jzifh pkHpkHvifvif rjy&ao;acs/ erlemykHpHpmrsm;rjy
ao;jcif;rSm pmtkyfudk tjrefqkH;xkwfa0&ef pDpOf&aomaMumifh jzpfonf/
waMumif;rSmvnf; txufyg pmaya&;enf;rsm;onf wuúodkvfü avhvmaom
ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;twGuf xl;uJcufcJaom taMumif;rsm;r[kwf[k ,lqrday
onf/ rdrdbmomtavsmuf a&;wwfap&ef enf;rsm;udk pkHvifEkdiforQ pkHvifpGm jyxm;o
jzifh erlemykHpHrsm;vnf; rsm;pGmrvkd[k ,lqrdayonf/
xkdYjyifvnf; erlemykHpHonf ausmif;om;rsm;tm; ynmay;&mü udk,fpGrf;udk,fpç
udk,fh[efudk wkd;wufapjcif; r&SdEkdif[k ,lqrdayonf/ odkYaomf tcsdeftcgtavsmuf pm
tkyfudk wkd;csJUa&;om;&ef vkdtyfaomtcgwGif pkHvifEkdifatmif BudK;pm;&ef MuH&G,fxm;yg
onf/
txufü qkdcJhaom jrefrmpmoHcdyfa&;enf;rSm a&S;ursm;pGm avhvmcJhaom t
aMumif;w&yfr[kwfacs/ t*Fvdyfpmaya&;enf;rS a&;xkH;w&yfjzpfonf/ jrefrmrsm;wGif
oHcdyfoabmum;&Sdyg\/ odkYaomf pnf;pHepfOya'rsm; jyKxm;onfum; pkHvifatmif r&Sd
ao;yg/ odkYjzpfí t*Fvdyfpmayusrf;rsm;udk rSD;jiif;jyKí az:jy&ygonf/
jrefrmo'´gavhvmenf;ESifhywfoufí taxGaxGoabmrQom a&;om;xm;ay
onf/ xkw
Yd pl mG yif bmomjyefjcif;taMumif;udv
k nf; taxGaxG oabmrQ jyxm;ayonf/
þudpö&yfrsm;wGif (Theorising) pnf;rsOf;Oya'oabmxuf vufawGYusifhokH;avhvm
jcif;u ydkrkdatmifjrifayrnf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

rdwfqufpm

E-book is created by shanyoma

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

2

jrefrmtbd"mef okH;pGJavhvmenf;udkum; pkHvifpGm az:jyxm;ygonf/
pmpDpmukH;a&;enf;udkrlum; trsm;em;vnfNyD;udpöw&yfyif jzpfjim;aomfvnf;
txl;wvnf odtyfaomtcsufrsm;udk pkaqmif;um wifjyxm;ayonf/
,ckacwf wuúokdvfynma&;avmutwGuf ta&;tBuD;qkH; vkyfief;w&yfrSm
okawoepmwrf;a&;enf;yif jzpfygonf/ þynm&yfudkvnf; aemifjznfhpGufíjy&efrsm;
pGmvkdygao;onf/ odkYaomf ,cktcg pmayavhvmolrsm;twGuf þrQjzifhvnf; oifhawmf
avmufNyD[kvnf; ,lqEkdifygonf/ odkYjzpfí pmayavhvmvkdufpm;olrsm; tusKd;jzpfxGef;
aprnfh]]jrefrmpmwuúodkvf}}pmtkyfudk xkwfa0vkdufygonf/

OD;armifarmifwif
(r[m0dZÆm)
rEÅav;NrdKU

3

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

jrefrmpum;ajy oifMum;rIpeH pfwiG ]f ]oHcyd af &;enf;}}[lí xnfo
h iG ;f xm;ayonf/
]]oHcdyfa&;enf;}}rSm ygVda0g[m& ]]oacFy-e,}}csKH;aomenf;[lí t"dyÜg,f&&Sd
ayonf/ ]]oacFy-e,}}pum;\rlv&if;jrpfrSm (oH+cdyf+P)tusOf;+csOf;jcif;+tvTm
[laomteufrsm;ay;onf/ ygVdbmompmayü ]]oacFye,=csKH;aomenf;}}[lí pma&;
om;enf;&Sdonf/ jrefrmpmayavmuüvnf; ]]csKH;aomenf;}}[lí &Sdaomfjim;vnf; pmpD
pmuk;H a&;om;rIü oifMum;rI tavhtvmenf;cJah vonf/ bmomjcm;pmayjzpfaom t*F
vdypf müum; (Summary Writing)[lí ]]tusOf;csKH;aom}}a&;om;enf;ukd avhvmMu&
ayonf/
]]tusOf;csKH;}}a&;om;jcif;rsm;udk (Precis) t*Fvdyfvkda&;Muonf/ (Summary) ac:]]tusOf;csKH;enf;}}rSm wkdwkdwkwfwkwfESifht"dutcsuftvufrsm; ygatmif
]]csKH;a&;jcif;}}jzpfonf/
(Summary) qkad ompum;rSm oabmw&m;rdí wu,ft
h "dutcsufrsm; yg0if
atmif csKH;a&;jcif;jzpfonf/ wcgw&Hü (Substance) [lívnf; a&;Muí t"dyÜg,fudk
ay:vGifapaoma&;enf;yif jzpfonf/
t*Fvyd pf maya&;om;enf;t& (Precis) ac:]]oHcyd af &;enf;rSm}}rl&if;pmukd pm
vkH;enf;EkdiforQ enf;enf;jzifh oabmw&m;rysufapbJ t"dutcsufrsm; ygatmif a&;
enf;yifjzpfonf/ rlvpmudk a&;om;aompma&;q&m\pm[efudk vkdufívnf; oHcdyfa&;
&mü uGJjym;jcm;em;EkdifaMumif;udkvnf; owd&Sd&ayrnf/ pma&;q&monf wkdwkdwkwfwkwf
vk&d if;udk pum;vk;H enf;enf;ESifh a&;wwfov
l nf;&S\
d / pum;wefqmqifí oG,o
f ,
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kd f
0dkuf zGJYzGJYEGYJEGJY a&;wwfolvnf; &Sdayonf/ xkdYaMumifh oHcdyfa&;om;enf;oabmt&Snftwkd
twdtus uefo
Y wfíum; rjzpfEidk af cs/ odaYk omf oHcyd \
f oabmyk[
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okH;ykHwykHrQ jzpf&ef csKHYí a&;om;&ayrnf/ tcsKdUpmrsm;wGifum; xkdyrmPxuf csKHUía&;
vQif &Ekdifavonf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

2/ jrefrmpum;ajyESifhoHcdyfa&;enf;

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

4

E-book is created by shanyoma

oHcdyfa&;&mü owdxm;&rnfh
tcsufrsm;onfum;
1/ rl&if;pmudk wkdwkdowd&Sd&Sd aocsmpGmzwfyg? tu,fí vkdtyfygu tBudrfrsm;pGm zwfyg/
qkdvkd&if; oabmw&m;ESifht"dutcsufrsm;udkikHrdatmif od&Sdvmonfwkdifatmif zwfyg/
2/ ay;xm;aom rl&if;pmyk'd \
f t"dygÜ ,fjcKHrad paom acgif;pnf;wkw
d w
dk w
k w
f w
k f ay;&ef a&G;
cs,fyg/
3/ ay;xm;aompmyk'frS pmvkH;ta&twGufudk ppfaq;,lNyD; okH;ykHwykH csJUEkdif&eftwGuf
pum;vk;H rsm;udk pOf;pm;yg/ tu,fí pum;vk;H 300-&Syd gu pum;vk;H 100-xuf rausmf
owdjyKyg/\
4/ oHcyd af &;&mü oabmw&m;rdrnft
h "dutcsufom yg0if&rnf/ xkaYd Mumifh pmzwfaom
tcgü wu,ft
h a&;BuD;aomtcsufukd rSwyf g? tus,fcsJx
Y iG af &;om;csuf? ykOH ya'o xkwf
aqmifcsufESifhta&;rBuD;aom ao;zGJYonfhtcsufrsm;udk ausmfvTm;ypfyg/
5/ oHcdyfa&;om;&mwGif rl&if;pmudk,fpmykd'fykH[ef tawG;tac:twkdif; twdtus vkduf
em&efr[kw?f tu,fí pmyk'd yf gtaMumif;udk t"dygÜ ,fyí
kd xif&mS ;ap&ef xdrad p&ef pmud,
k f
rl&if;rS taMumif;t&m vTJajymif;a&;oifhu a&;Ekdifonf/
6/ oHcdyfa&;&mü pmykd'fyg taMumif;t&mrsm;udk wwfEkdiforQ rdrdpum;jzifh ydkrkdem;vnf
vG,fatmif &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; okH;ykHwykHcsJUí a&;om;Ekdifonf/
7/ yxroHcdyfa&;om;rIwGif tBudrfBudrf BudK;pm;jyKjyifa&;om;&ayrnf/ pum;vkH;tydk
tvkd&Sdrnf? jyefvnfzwf&INyD; ydkaompum;vkH;? ydkaom0gusudk xkwfypf&rnf? vkdtyfaom
tcsufrsm; yg0ifapí rvkdaomtcsufrsm; xkwfEIwfypf&rnf/
8/ oHcdyfa&;om;NyD;aomtcg trSm;rsm; jyifyg? pmvkH;aygif;? o'´g0guszGJYxkH;usrf;ESifhpmpD
yk'fjzwfrsm;udkyg pDppfjyifqifyg/
þum; t*Fvyd pf may]]oHcyd }f }a&;enf;rsm;rS jrefrmoHcyd af &;&mwGif vku
d ef moifh
onfhtcsufrsm;udk az:xkwfjyoayonf/
oHcyd af &;om;enf;udk avhusif&h jcif;onf rsm;aomtm;jzifh pmzwf&mü *&krpku
d ?f
owdrxm;bJ zwfavh&o
dS nf/ xdaYk Mumifh zwfNyD;orQ todw&m;a&;a&;rQom usef&pfav
onf/ pmzwf&I&mü tcPf;wu@NyD;ygvQif pmtkyfydwfNyD; rdrdzwfNyD;aom taMumif;t
&mrsm;udk ta&;BuD;aomt"dyÜg,frsm;ygatmif a&;Munfhyg/
xkdtcgrS arharhavsmhavsmh jzpfcg ayghayghqq zwfcJhykHudk owd&Sdvmavonf/
owdarhwwfaomtavhaMumifu
h m; r[kw?f pmzwf&mwGif tm&kpH ;l pl;pku
d pf u
dk rf &Sd

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

aomaMumifhom jzpfonf/ xdkYaMumifh oHcdyfa&;enf;udk avhusifhygu pmudk *&kwpkdufzwf
vmrnfomjzpf\/ pmzwf&mü rsufaphEiS o
hf mMunfzh wfonfr[kw?f pdwt
f odjzifv
h nf; zwf
&rnfomjzpfonf/
vlYabmifavmuü oHcdyfa&;enf;onf rsm;pGm tokH;0ifvS\/ rdrdzwfaompmukd
rSwÓ
f Pfü wdwu
d susvsifvsifjrefjref vG,v
f ,
G u
f u
l l a&mufapí jyefvnfaz:xkw&f mwGif
&Si;f &Si;f vif;vif; wkw
d w
dk w
k w
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k f vk&d if;csKyfíjyEkid jf cif;onf oHcyd \
f tusKd;w&m;yifjzpf
onf/ EkdifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;? pD;yGm;a&;wGif þoHcdyfa&;enf;onf wu,ftaxmuftuljyK
ayonf/
tpd;k &&k;H rsm;ü ay;pm;rsm;? rSww
f rf;rsm;udk &k;H pma&;rsm;u (Precis) oHcyd af &;
NyD; txuft&mBuD;i,fxH wifjy&ayonf/ vkyfief;NyD;vG,fatmif pma&;? pmcsD? rif;rI
xrf;wdkYonf ay;pmrsm; rSwfwrf;pm&Gufrsm;ü oHcdyfoabma&;NyD; trdefYudk cH,l&onf/
txuft&m&Sdonfvnf; oHcdyfudkzwfNyD; rl&if;ay;pmrsm;ESifh,SOfum Munfh&Ippfaq;NyD;
a0befykdif;jcm;um trdefYudk a&;&onf/
jrefrmpum;ajyoifMum;rIü ]]pmpDpmukH;}}a&;om;rIudkom ta&;xm;cJhMuav
onf/ ,ckynma&;pepfopfü ]]oHcyd }f }a&;om;rIukd od&v
dS mayNyD/ ausmif;olausmif;om;
rsm;onf rdrdwdkYjrefrmpmayü oHcdyfavhusifhrIr&Sdao;rD pepfuserI r&SdEkdifao;acs/ xkdY
aMumifh oHcdyfa&;enf;edó&nf;udk tusOf;rQ a&;jy&ayawmhonf/
Summary.
(1) Brief; giving brief points only.
(2) Prompt; without delay or ceremony, as summary justice (Punishment)* n. A brief
account giving the chief points of a matter.
Gist,
(n) The real ground; the main point (s) of a matter; the essence.

Precis

A summary of a letter, document, speech, etc.

Epitome

(ipitami) - A short account or summary of the contents of a book or
speech; a thing or person that shows, on a small scale, the chief characteristics of another, much larger thing.

oHcdyfa&;enf; avhusifh&ef
1/ ]]wuúodkvf jrefrmpum;ajy aumufEkwfcsuf}} 1965-ck? &efukefNrdKUyg qkdif&mjy|mef;
csufrsm;rS aumif;Ekd;&m&mpmykd'frsm; a&G;cs,fNyD; oHcdyfa&;enf; avhusifhay;yg/
2/ aMu;rkH Z0eaqmif;yg;? vkyfom;jynfolYaeYpOfrS omu'kd;aqmif;yg;? vlxkowif;pm
acgif;BuD;ydik ;f ? bdw
k axmifrS OD;ode;f azjrifah qmif;yg;rsm;udk zwfNyD; tusOf;csKH; oHcyd af &;

E-book is created by shanyoma

5

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

6

E-book is created by shanyoma

avhusifhay;yg/
3/ aeYpOf oifwef;rS q&mrsm;ydkYcsaom uxmrSwfpkrsm;udk a&;om;&mwGif oHcdyfoabm
tNrJokH;pGJum a&;om;avhusifhyg/

7

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

OD;wk;d \&mr&uefü ]]u0dvu©Pm aocsmaphpyf? t&yf&yfyif? o'wfrwm pwfr
wmbl;}}[lí ynm&SdyDo&ef o'´gwwf&rnfhtaMumif; csJYxGifíqkdxm;avonf/
u0dvu©Pmynm&Sd yDo&eftwGuf1/ o'´gusrf;wwf&rnf/
2/ qef;usrf;wwf&rnf? toH\wk&d n
S ef rd jhf rif?h wufo?H oufo?H toH\rMwmudk od&rnf/
3/ tvuFmusrf;wwf&rnf? tvuFmwefqmqifaomusrf; wwf&rnf/
4/ tbd"mefusrf; wwf&rnf/ pum;vkH;rsm;\avmuowfrSwfaom usrf;wwf&rnf/
5/ yd#uwfusrf;*efrsm;wwf&rnf/ þodkYaom yk*¾KdvfrsKd;udk pG,fpkHol[lívnf;aumif;?
tm0ifig;yg;q&mrsm;[lívnf;aumif; qkdMuavonf/
OD;wkd;jyqkdxm;aom o'´genf;rsm;rSm ygVdo'´genf;rQomjzpfonf/ a&S;acwft
cgu jrefrmvlrsKd;wkdYonf ygVdo'´gudk jrefrmo'´gtjzpf wpwp jyKjyifajymif;vJokH;pGJvm
onfudk awGY&ayonf/
a[mfvHjynfajrmufydkif; trfpwm'rfNrdKUrS xkwfa0aom (Lingua) ]]vif*Gg}}pm
apmiftwGJ 15? 1965-yg? vef'efwuúokdvf jrefrmpmuxdu *Reftkdu,f(udkvSodef;)\
]]edosjrefrmpmwrf;}}ü yk*Hacwf taemf&xmrif; oxkHjynfrS yd#uwfokH;ykH? tpkH 30-ukd
,laqmifvmonfrpS í ygVdjrefrm bmomjyefvyk if ef;wGif 15-&mpkü ]]edos jrefrmpm}}rsm;
udk a&S;OD;pGm avhvm&í þrSmyif bmompum;ESifhqkdif&m jrefrmo'´gtaMumif;? ,cifu
ravhvmcJhao;aom tcsufudk *Reftkd0ifu avhvmjyxm;avonf/
jrefrmo'´gudk taemufwidk ;f om;rsm;u txl;tavhtvmjyKcJMh uonf/ 1888hJ nf/
ckEpS u
f &efuek w
f iG f ykEH ydS af om (Grammar of Burmese Language) pmtkyf xkwcf o
1899-ckü? at'AvsLavmif(pf)a';vf\&efuek w
f iG f ykEH ydS af om (Burmese-Grammar)
[líxkwcf o
hJ nf/ 1955-ckü? a*satpwl;0yf\vef'efyEHk ydS af om (Manual of Coloquial
Burmese) udkxkwfcJhonf/
1944-ckü 'AvsLtufpaf umeif\ (Outline of Burmese Grammar) pmtkyf
xGufvmonf/ 1962-ckESifh1964-ckESpfrsm;ü csufwkdif;jynfü a&mufaeaom OD;rif;vwf
\ (Report on studies of Burmese Grammar) pmtkyfrsm; xGufvsuf&Sdonf/ þ
um; jrefrmpmayoifaom EkdifiHjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf txl;vdktyfaom pmwrf;
rsm;jzpfonf/ jrefrmjynf&Sd ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;tbdkYum; jy|mef;xm;aom q&m
BuD;OD;azarmifwif\jrefrmo'´gESijhf refrm0guszGx
YJ ;Hk usrf;wko
Yd nf &S\
d / ud,
k jhf refrmpmayukd

E-book is created by shanyoma

3/ jrefrmo'´gavhusifhenf;

E-book is created by shanyoma

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

8

jyefvnfo;Hk oyfppD pf&mrS ud,
k phf mayü o'´gpmtkyaf umif;aumif; r&Sad o;aMumif;? avhvm
qnf;yl;rIvnf; r&Sad Mumif; awG&Y MSd uojzifh ,ckwzef pHepfopf jyifqifNyD;? o'´gukd oifMum;
ydkYcsaejcif; jzpfonf/
*Reftkdu,f\edosjrefrmbmompmwrf;ü jrefrmpmudk avhvmjcif;jzifh1/ jrefrmo'´g
2/ jrefrm0guszGJYxkH;
3/ jrefrma0g[m&rsm;tbd"mefwkdYudk avhvmEkdifaMumif; qkdxm;onf/ edosjrefrmpmonf
o'´genf;t& avhvmMunfhygvQif t"dyÜg,fudk zGifhay;xm;&kHrQr[kwfrlbJ 0guszGJYrIrsm;udk
txl;vkHYvjyK zefwD;xm;aMumif; awGY&onf/
EkdifiHjcm;om;rsm;onf jrefrmo'´gudk tavhtvmjyKvsuf&SdMuonf/ jrefrmEkdifiH
&Sd ausmif;rsm;ESifhwuúodkvfrsm;ü jrefrmo'´gudk jyefvnfaz:xkwfoifMum;MuonfrSm r
MumvSao;acs/ awmfvSefa&;tpkd;&onf jrefrmpmaywkd;wufa&;twGuf tzGJYtoD;oD;
zGJYpnf;ay;um jrefrmo'´g? jrefrmtbd"mef? jrefrmowfykHrsm;udk topfjyKpkaponf/
jrefrmpum;ajy ta&;tom;opf[í
l a<u;aMumfMuaom þacwftcgü jrefrm
o'´gonfvnf; ta&;BuD;aom u@w&yfüygaMumif;? odtyfayonf/ xkjYd yif OD;rif;vwf
]]jrefrmo'´gusrf;}}onfyif? ]]owfyu
Hk srf;}}ESiq
hf idk &f m towfrsm;udk (Phoentic) zked ufwpf
toHxGufESifh (Romanization) a&mrtu©&mzvS,faom toHxGufrsm;ESifhcGJum jyxm;
avonf/
OD;rif;vwfonf acwfopfjrefrmpm ta&;tom;ESiphf yfvsOf;í a&S;*E¦0ifjrefrm
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a[mif;pmayudk wu@cGJjcm;í xm;oifhayonf/
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ausmf 100-eD;yg;zwfí NyD;avonf/

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

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]]o'´gusrf;}}ygtcsufudk ESpfoufrdayonf/
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a&;om;onfudk cGifhvTwf&ef awmif;yeftyfayonf/

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jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

10

E-book is created by shanyoma

4/ tbd"mefokH;pGJavhvmenf;
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jim;aomfvnf; tbd"mefukd vufuikd x
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jrefrmpmwGifom r[kwfao;? t*FvdyfpmaywGifvnf;a&S;tcgu (Fellow) qkad ompum;onf vl*P
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pmayvnf; t"dyÜg,fajymif;? pma&;q&mwkdYvnf; ta&;tom;ajymif;? acwf
vnf; ajymif;vmMuonfrmS ocFg&avmuBuD;\"r®wmayuk;d ...[kom xifjrif,q
l rdyg
awmhwnf;...[lí 1938-ckESpfu a'gufwmvSaz\ta&;tom;udk awGY&ayonf/

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

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jzpfí csD;usL;xkdufaMumif; qkdMuavonf/
jrefrmtbd"meforkdif;tcsKyfudk jrefrmEkdifiHokawoetoif;? *sme,ftwGJ 47?
tydkif;-1? 1964-ck? ZGefvwGif OD;wifvSu pkHvifpGm a&;om;xm;onfudk qufvufavh
vmoifhayonf/ OD;wifvSu ]]tbd"mefqkdonfrSm ygVdpum;tbd"mefrS qif;oufvmí
trnfwkdYudk a[maomusrf;}}[k t"dyÜg,f&onf[k qkdavonf/
xkrd w
S yg; ]]tbd"mefukd a,bk,soabm? þuJo
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usrf;qko
d nfrmS bmompum;wckwiG &f adS om pum;vk;H wku
Yd kd tu©&m0vdpOfum rlvbmom
pum;jzifhjzpfap? tjcm;bmompum;wrsKd;rsKd;jzifhjzpfap teufzGifhqkdxm;aomusrf;rsKd;
jzpfonf}}[lí wrsKd;jyxm;jyefavonf/
tbd"mefudk okH;pGJavhvm&mwGif tbd"mefü atmufygtcsufrsm;udk txl;*&kjyK
avhvm&ayrnf/
1/ pum;vkH;\pmvkH;aygif;?
2/ pum;vkH;\AsLyÜwådt"dyÜg,f? pum;vkH;\teuft"dyÜg,fzGifhqkdcsuf?
3/ pum;vkH;\t"dyÜg,fwlpum;rsm;?
4/ pum;vkH;\toHxGufykH xGufenf;?
5/ pum;vkH;\rlvç &if;jrpf jzpfay:ykH?
6/ pum;vkH;\qif;oufay:aygufvmykHrsm;yif jzpfonf/
t"dygÜ ,fziG q
hf &dk mwGif ykMH urf;ç "mwfyçHk &kyyf rHk sm;ESi&hf iS ;f vif;xm;onfrsm;udv
k nf;
awG&Y w
Sd wfayonf/ xkrd w
S yg; o'´gpnf;rsOf;rsm;? pum;vk;H ? a&G;cs,fo;Hk rIrsm;? pum;ajym
[efESifhpma&;[efjcm;em;rIrsm;? bef;pum;ESifh&yfpum;ç &Gmpum;ç "avhpum; uGJjym;ykH
rsm;udkvnf; avhvmawGY&Sd&ayrnf/
OD;wifv\
S tbd"meft*Fg&yfrsm; az:jy&mwGif az:jyaom atmufygtcsufonf
vnf; rSwfom;xkdufvSayonf/
]]tbd"mefvyk if ef;\ta&;tBuD;qk;H vkyif ef;rSm tbd"mefwiG f xnfo
h iG ;f az:jy&
rnfph um;vk;H udk a&G;cs,fonfv
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d o
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jynfhpkHaompum;vkH;rSeforQudk pDppfa&G;cs,f teufaz:&onf/ ,if;uJhodkYaom pDppfa&G;
cs,f&mü &kid ;f pdik ;f aompum;vk;H ? ,Ofaus;awmf0ifaom pum;vk;H ? a&S;usvGe;f aompum;
vkH; opfvGifqef;Mu,faom aemufrSay:onfha&TMumyifpum;vkH;? tokH;rsm;onfhpum;
vkH;? tokH;yg;onfhpum;vkH;? t&Sif-uRefponfuJhodkY acwfESifhravsmfaom pum;vkH;wkdYudk
zufrvkduf r,drf;-r,dkif? twåaem rwd rygyJ a&G;cs,f&onf}}[lí qkdxm;avonf/

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jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

12

tbd"mefrsm;udk avhvmaomtcgü jrefrmpmayavmuwGif atmufygtbd"mef
rsKd;rsm;udk cGJjcm;odxm;&monf/
1/ ygVdouúwqkdif&mtbd"mef?
2/ ayg&mPtbd"mef?
3/ t*Fvdyf-jrefrmESifhjrefrm-t*Fvdyftbd"mef?
4/ jrefrm-jrefrmtbd"mefrsm; jzpfayonf/
jrefrm-jrefrmtbd"mefrsm;wGif zsmykHNrdKU toQifMobmbd0HojyKpkaom jrefrmt
bd"mefonf tapmqkH;jzpfonf/
q&m,k'oeftbd"mefESifhOD;xGef;Nidrf;tbd"mefwkdYonf jrefrmpmayavmuü t
xl;xif&Sm;aomusrf;rsm;jzpfonf/
ouú&mZf 1841-ckESpfu tdE´d,jynf umvuwåm;NrdKUü ykHESdyfaom rpöwmcsm;vf
vde;f \t*Fvyd -f jrefrmtbd"mefonfum; ru©&mrif;om;BuD;\ulnrD rI sm;pGmygaomtbd
"mefusrf;jzpfonf/ &efukefNrdKU jrefrmEkdifiHawmf pmMunfhwkdufüom awGYEkdifavonf/
,ckausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; vufvrS ;f rSrD DS avhvmEkid af om tbd"mefusrf;rsm;
rSm wuúodkvftbd"mefrsm;yif jzpfonf/ (u) rS (q) txdom NyD;ao;í ,cktcg &yfqkdif;
xm;onf/
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hf nD jyKpkxm;
aom tbd"mefpmtkyjf zpfí wwkid ;f wjynfv;Hk tnDpu
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,if;uJhodkY az:jyrxm;jcif;rSm þtbd"mefonf jrefrmEkdifiHwGif jrefrmrsm; tokH;jyKrnfh
tbd"mefjzpfí toHxGufaz:jy&efrvkd[k ,lqojzifh az:jyrxm;jcif;jzpfonf/ tu,f
í toHxGufukdyg az:jy&efvkdonfqkdtHh? urÇmokH;toHxGufvu©Pmrsm;jzifh az:jy&rnf
vm;? odkYwnf;r[kwf rnfonfhtoHxGufvu©PmrsKd;jzifh az:jy&rnfenf;/ þonfrSm jy
óemopfw&yfom jzpfonf}}[lí a&;om;xm;avonf/
vef'efwuúodkvfüvnf; jrefrm-t*Fvdyftbd"mefwapmifjyKvsuf&Sdonf/ (t)
o&yif rNyD;ao;? 4-wGrJ QxGuaf vNyD/ xkt
d bd"mefrmS ESp&f n
S v
f rsm; MumOD;rnf[k od&onf/
acwfrsm;ajymif;vJvsuf&&dS m tcsKdUpum;rsm;onf acwfaemufususefrnfyif pd;k &dr&f av

13

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

rnfodkYyif qkdapumrl (Tongues like government have a natural tendency to degeneration) [líbmompum;onf jynfydkiftpkd;&uJhodkY "r®wmtavsmuf
ysufpD;&mbufodkY a&S;&IoGm;MupNrJwnf;}}[lí t*Fvdyfpum;onf&Sd\/ þtaMumif;udk
ayg&mPrsm;ESiahf &;xm;aom r[moDv0Ho\]]ayg&m,e0w¬K? &mZ0ifausmf}}pmtkyrf sm;
u oufaocHvsuf&Sdavonf/ xdkYaMumifh bmompum;tcsKdUonf aysmufysufvsuf&SdNyD;
bmompum;topftopfrsm;vnf; wk;d yGg;vsuf&adS vonf/ ,ckacwftcgü awmfveS af &;
tpk;d &\tm;ay;ulnrD jI zifh bmom&yftoD;oD;rS pmtkyrf sm;udk bmomjyefqv
dk suf&MdS u&m
bmompum;topfwnfxGifrIrsm; ykdírsm;vmavonf/
xkdrSwyg; jrefrmhqkd&S,fvpfvrf;pOfudk csrSwfum jrefrmrsm; c&D;qufoGm;aeMu
ojzifh awmfveS af &;tpd;k &acwf jrefrma0g[m&topfrsm; wk;d yGg;vsuf&o
dS nf/ þodaYk om
a0g[m&rsm;udk woD;woefY ppfwrf;xkwfum okawoe jyKxm;oifhvSayonf/

avhvm&ef tbd"mefqkdif&mpmayrsm;
1/ wuúokdvf jrefrmtbd"mef(OD;0ef-OD;wifvS)
2/ ygVd-jrefrmtbd"mef(OD;[kwfpdef)
3/ owfykHtbd"mef rdwfvifpkH(OD;tkef;a&T)
4/ ,k'oeftbd"mef
5/ jrefrmt*Fvyd t
f bd"mef(a*s-at-pwl;0yf? pD'AvsL-'ef;? OD;cifarmifvwf a'gufwm
vSaz? tdwf(csf)tuf(z)pm;vf)
6/ wuúokdvf t*Fvdyf-jrefrmtbd"mef(a'gufwmb[ef)
7/ t*Fvdyf-jrefrmtbd"mef(OD;xGef;Nidrf;)
8/ ayg&mPtbd"mef (OD;zkd;usm;)
9/ a0g[m&w¬yumoeDusrf;
10/ tbd"meyÜ'dydumedó,(awmifaygufq&mawmfOD;puúygv)
11/ jrefrmEkdifiHokawoe*sme,f? (1964- ZGef twGJ-1)
12/ ¤if;...1962- ZGef twGJ-1/ Some of the Problem of a Lexicographer by Dr.Ba
Han.

13/ 1958-arv? twGJ-2(u) Some Ean; by Reformecy to the Fit of Burmese English
Dictionary of 1826-E.P.Quingcy.

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onf/

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

14

E-book is created by shanyoma

tbd"mefokH;pGJavhvmenf; oifcef;pm
wuúodkvfjrefrmtbd"mef (u-rS-q)txd tokH;jyK&efjzpfonf/
(u) pum;vkH; pmvkH;aygif;rsm; þt&mü jrefrmpma&;xkH;ESifhowfykHusrf;rsm;
vnf; nd§EIdif;avhvmMu&ayrnf/ odkYaomf EkdifiHawmftpdk;&\pH-owfykHcsKyfxGufNyD;ygu
xdkpHowfykHt&omvQif vufcH&rnfomjzpfonf/
ykHpHqkd&aomf ]]u}}tbd"mef pmrsufESm 84-ü
usufoa&
eH=r*Fvm? r*Fvm&Sjd cif;? wifw
h ,fjrihjf rwfjcif;/ (a0gvD 230&I)
Muufoa&-&I? yk*Hausmuf? rGef? *smf*sD
jrefrmusufoa&/
þü tyifht&pf 2-rsKd;&SdaMumif;jyum tbd"mefq&mu twåaemrwdjyKí wck
omrjyacs? zufrvkdufvJ/ t&pfMuufoa&rSmvnf;]]u}}tbd"mefpmrsufESm-121/
Muufoa&
eH 1/ aumif;jrwfxl;jcm;aom*kPfwkdYESifhjynfhpkHjcif;? wifhw,f
jcif;? r*Fvm&Sdjcif;/
2/ bkef;wefckd;tpkd;&aomtjzpf/ ajrjyiftvkH;ü? bkef;Muuf
oa&awmfudk ESYHapvwånf;(&mausmf 82?)
3/ *kPf,lbG,f *kPfwufbG,f tcsufwkdYESifhjynfhpkHaom ouf&Sd
owå0goufrJht&m/ awm&aumifnGefY? pdkabmifuGefYom;?
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4/ bkef;ynm]]yknm ynm? ESpfjzmcGJa0? Muufoa&xGef;nd§? t
euf&Sdom;? oD&dwwef}}(yOömed*Hk;-7)usufoa&&I-í[lvnf;
qkdxm;onf/
þü (u) pum;vkH;\pmvkH;aygif;/
(c) pum;vkH;\AsLyÜwådt"dyÜg,f?
pum;vkH;\teuft"dyÜg,fzGifhqkdcsuf?
(*) pum;vkH;\t"dyÜg,fwlpum;rsm;?
(C) pum;vkH;\rlv&if;jrpf jzpfay:vmykH?
(i) pum;vkH;\qif;oufaygufyGm;vmykHrsm;udkjyxm;avonf/

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

,kwådwefonfhusufoa&\rlv&if;jrpfESifhpum;vkH;qif;oufay:aygufvmykH
rsm;ukdom t>rufrQ az:jyavonf/
xkdrSqufí &Gm"avh &yf"avh tokH;tEIef;jzpfaom Muufoa&cef;? Muufoa&
wku
d u
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d [
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&onf/
jrefrmo'´genf;t& eH=emrf/ Bud=Bud,m? Budypönf;=Bud,mypönf;? Bud0d=Bud,m
0daooe/ eHpm;=emrfpm;ponf &Sif;vif;csufrsm;udkvnf; awGY&rnf/
ayg&mPpum;ESifhywfoufí tbd"mefpmrsufESm-60 üukef;apm=eH(ayg)nDnGwfjcif;? puf&kH? oif;csyfwD;(ayg=189)[lí awGY&ayrnf/
pmrsufESm-16 üumwpf=eH(umvokH;pum;&kdif;)rdef;rwkdY\wifyg;qkH(rEÅav;qkHwHqdyfaq;qkdif\trnf)
'DqlZmaq;wkduf\trnfvnf; jzpfonf? umwpfwkduf[k ,ckwkdifac:Muonf/
u pmrsufESm 6uepkd;=eH(bef;)Zmwfrif;om;?
pmrsufESm 25
umeD(eD) aum-Bud? (bef;) vifr,m;tjzpfaygif;oif;onf/
]]wumav;ES,?f acsmvku
d af v? umeDaumvku
d &f ? ta[m0w aMomfaumif;av
pG aumif;avpG?}} ([H 2-648)
]]pdwfomvufajz? aygifwkdabESifhumeDauma&my}}(y'k 15)
þbef;pum;rSm a&S;acwfokH;bef;pum; jzpfonf/ ,cktcg jrefrmbef;pum;
pmtkyfrsm; xGufaeayonf/ vSordef\jrefrmbmomjzifhjyKpkaom pmtkyfrsm;&Sdonf/
jrefrmtbd"mefavhvm&mü &ckdif? [dE´L? yg&Sif? w&kyf? *syef? rGef? ,kd;',m;rS &&Sd
aom pum;rsm;udk awGY&SdMu&ayrnf/

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jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

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jrefrmpum;ajyESifhpmpDpmukH;a&;enf;
(0g)
a&TpmrnfodkY rIef;rnfenf;

E-book is created by shanyoma

tprf;pm
jrefrmpmayavmuwGif uAsmvuFm? pum;ajyESiv
hf uFmpum;ajyESpaf xGa&m&m
[lí okH;rsKd;cGJjcm;xm;&mwGif jrefrmpum;ajya&;&mü Ak'¨0if? r[m0if? &mZ0if? orkdif;?
0w¬K? "r®owf? avQmufxkH;w&m;pm? armfuGef;pm? aqmif;yg;pm? rSwfwrf;? trdefYawmfjyef
wrf;? tw¬KyÜwådpmwrf;ponfjzifh awGY&Sd&aomfvnf; ]]pmpDpmukH;}}[lí od&SdMuaom ]]t
prf;pm}}rsm;onfum; aemufacwfraS y:aygufvmaom jrefrmpum;ajywrsKd;jzpfayonf/
þpmpDpmuk;H onf t*Fvyd b
f momjzifh ]]tufaq;}}[kac:ojzifh q&mwufw;dk u
jrefrmpmaywGifr&Sdaom pmwrsKd;jzpfjcif;aMumifh wkduf&kdufbmomjyefqkdum]]tufaq;}}
[kac:&ef ESpfNcdKufonf/
rEÅav;NrdKU? vSciftifqef;ydik &f iS f q&mBuD;OD;yef;&nfurlum; tprf;pm[lí rSnhf
ac:xm;avonf/ ,cktcg tcsKdUu ]]pmuGefY}}[k ac:Mujyefonf/
rnfokdYyif trnfay;Muapumrl jrefrmpmayavmuwcGif ausmif;rsm;ESifhwuú
okdvfrsm;wGif ]]pmpDpmukH;}}[líomvQif ac:a0:a&;om;vsuf&Sdavonf/
odkYaMumifh a0g[m&tm;jzifh tufaq;tprf;pm pmpDpmukH;[lí trsKd;rsKd;&Sdjim;
aomfvnf; a&;ykHa&;enf;pm[efrsm;onfum; jrefrmpmayavmuü opfqef;vsuf a&;
enf;wrsKd;jzpfaMumif; ,cktcg trsm;em;vnf od&SdMuNyD;jzpfayonf/

ausmif;wGif;ocFPf;pm
]]tufaq;}}ac: pmpDpmuk;H onf wenf;tm;jzifq
h adk omf ]]tEkpmay}}ü ouf0if
avonf/ tb,fhaMumifhqkdaomf *&dwfynm&Sif tJ&pf(p)awmw,f (Aristotle) \rdefYqkd
onfhpum;w&yfwGif ]]tEkynm\vkyfief;wckonf p-v,f-qkH; okH;yg;vkH;ESifhnDnTwf&
rnf}}[lí awG&Y &dS onfEiS t
hf nD ]]qufaq;}}ac: pmpDpmuk;H aumif;aumif; a&;vkyfd gu ]]pv,f-qkH; okH;yg;vkH;jzifh nDnTwfpGma&;om;&rnfhtaMumif; atoifwuúodkvf t*Fvdyfpm
ayygarmu© bm;e'fboufpwkef;u pmpDpmukH;a&;enf; pmtkyfwtkyfwGif a&;om;xm;
avonf/
þ]]tufaq;}}ac: a0g[m&\t*Fvyd b
f momt& t"dygÜ ,ftzGirhf mS ]]pum;ajy
jzifh taMumif;t&mwpkHwckudk rus,fvGef;bJ cyfusOf;usOf; EIef;zGJYpDukH;aompmay}}[lí

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

jzpfonf/ ,if;odkYa&;om;aompmaywGif a&;om;aomtaMumif;t&mü rdrd\udk,fydkif
tawG;tac: ,lqcsufrsm;udk az:xkwfa&;om;Ekdifayonf/ xkdrSwyg; taMumif;t&m
ESifhqkdif&m tajctaeoabmw&m;rsm; tao;pdwfzGJYEGJYpDukH;&efrsm;ESifho&kyfaz:zGJYEGJYaom
pmrsm;onf þpmpDpmukH;ü tusKH;0ifavonf/
]]tufaq;}}[laom a0g[m&udk Bud,mtjzpf (To essay) ok;H aomtcgwGif (To
attempt, to try) vkHYvjyKonf? BudK;pm;tm;xkwfonf[lí t"dyÜg,f&avonf/ ausmif;
rsm;wGif a&;aom ]]tufaq;}}onf vkHYvjyKrI? BudK;pm;rIjyKí rdrd\tawG;tac:udkjy
aom ocFP;f pmrsm;jzpfavonf/ xkaYd Mumifh ausmif;wGif (Trial) tprf;a&;aom]]tprf;
pm}}[líqkdaomf qkdEkdifayonf/

o&kyfcGJaomf
jrefrmpmpDpmukH;onf t*FvdyfpmpDpmukH;udkrSDum ay:aygufvmonfhtwkdif; pm
pDpmukH;trsKd;trnfrsm;udk ydkif;jcm;&mü1/ taMumif;t&maz:jyonfhpmpDpmukH; (Narrative Essays)
2/ o&kyfaz:pmpDpmukH; (Descriptive Essays)
3/ csJUxGifaz:xkwfjyonfhpmpDpmukH; (Expository Essays)
4/ tawG;tac:wifjyonfhpmpDpmukH; (Reflective Essays)
5/ pdwful;,OfpmpDpmukH; (Imaginative Essays) [lí cGJjcm;awGY&Sd&ayrnf/

rsufvSnfhq&m\zefrD;tdrf
pmpDpmukH;a&;enf; (Essay Writing) rSwyg; pmyef;csDzGJYenf; (0g) o&kyfaz:pm
pDpmukH;enf; (Descriptive Writing) [lívnf; u@cGJjcm;&Sdavonf/ pmyef;csD\o
abmrSm ÓPfrsufprd aemü &kyyf u
Hk m; xifvmap&ef pDu;Hk EIe;f zGjYJ cif;rsKd;jzpfonf/ xkpd w
d u
f ;l
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"mwfjzifhMunfh&aom ypönf;rQjzpfonf/ rsufvSnfhq&m\zefrD;tdrfaMumifh jrifawGY&aom
&Icif;rsm;uJhodkYyif &Sdonf? pmyef;csDum;udk aeYcif;tvif;a&mifwGif &IMunfh&onfxuf t
arSmifcef;wcktwGi;f &IMunf&h jcif;onf ydí
k xif&mS ;aponf/ xkaYd Mumifh pmyef;csDzq
YJG &dk mwGif
tao;pdwfjrifwwf&rnf? omrefjrifwwf&kHrQjzifh pmyef;csDorm; rjzpfEkdifacs/ Munfhwwf
jrifwwfatmifvnf; avhusifh&ayrnf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

17

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

18

E-book is created by shanyoma

pmyef;csDonf "mwfykHr[kwf
,if;odYk Munfw
h wfjrifwwfí awGaY wGo
Y rQ tm;vk;H udv
k nf; pmzG&YJ rnfrqkv
d adk cs/
xkdodkYawGYorQtm;vkH; ykHcsa&;ygu &Snfvsm;NiD;aiGYbG,f jzpfwwfonf/ xkdYaMumifh tao;
pdwf awGYorQwkdYrS a&G;cs,fí wzefpDppf&ayrnf/ pDppfa&G;cs,f&mwGifvnf; rdrdjc,frIef;
rnfph myef;csD\taMumif;t&mESin
hf n
D w
T &f ayrnf/ rdrad &;jc,faompmyef;csDonf b0\
o&kyfvu©PmwkdYESifhjynfhpkH&ayrnf/ rvkdonfrsm;udk y,fxkwfí vkd&if;ESifhta&;BuD;aom
taMumif;rsm;udk az:xkwf&rnf/
wzeftEkynmonf "mwfykHynmESifhjcm;em;aMumif; owdxm;&rnf/ tEkynm
oabmjzifh pmzGJY&mü "mwfykHwGif tao;pdwfyg&SdouJhodkY awGYjrifEkdifrnfr[kwfacs/ pmyef;
csDq&monf rvkdaomtao;pdwftzGJYudk csefvSyfí pmyef;csDq&mjrifouJhodkY pmzwfoljrif
awGaY p&ef pmyef;csDq&mawGx
Y cd pH m;&ouJo
h Ykd pmzwfoal wGx
Y cd pH m;apEkid &f ef a&;om;&ay
rnf/ b0o&kyfaz:rIpmyef;csDa&;&mwGif pma&;&mwGif pma&;ol\a&G;cs,faom t
aMumif;&yfonf t"duta&;BuD;avonf/

pmyef;csD ta&;BuD;onf
pmyef;csDzGJYqkd&mwGif pum;a&G;cs,frIonf txl;ta&;BuD;avonf/ xkdYaMumifh
t*Fvdyfpmayü pmyef;csDudk (Word Picture) [ka&;avonf/ yef;csDorm;onf pkwfwH
jzifh aq;a&mifpkHjc,fa&;onfhenf;wl pmayorm;onfvnf; pum;vkH;a&G;cs,frIü txl;
ta&;BuD;ayonf/
]]o'´gvuFm&}}ESijhf ynfph aHk ompum; ]]tw¬mvuFm&}}ESijhf ynfph aHk ompum;rsm;jzpf
ap&rnf/ jrefrmpmaywGif uAsmjzifh pmyef;csDzGJYqkdMuaom &wkq&mrsm;jzpfonfh e0a';
BuD;? ewfoQifaemif rif;aZ,s&EÅrdwf? &SifoHckd? vuf0JokE´&paom olwkdY\&wkrsm;udk avh
usufygu pmyef;csDoabmudk tvG,fwul odvmayrnf/
Oyrm - OypmwkdYjzifh vIdifvIdifBuD;wifpm;zGJYqkdwwf&ayrnf/ r&Sif;-r&Sif; rjywf
rom; auGYvnfacsmifywf rjzpfap&/ þtcsufudk txl;owd&oifhvSonf/ pmyef;csDzGJY
a&;om;rIrsm;udk ,cktcg wuúodkvfrsm; txl;avhvmapvsuf&Sdonf/ xkdYaMumifh pmpDpm
ukH;a&;enf;\t*Fgw&yfjzpfaom pmyef;csDzGJYenf;udk nTefjy&jcif;jzpfayonf/ ]]yef;vuf
aqmiftprf;pm}}rsm;wGif pmyef;csD\oabm pDukH;xm;aompmrsm; yg&Sdayonf/
xkdYaMumifh pmyef;csDzGJY&mwGif tcsKyfoabmrSm1/ tao;pdwfavhvm&IMunfhyg/
2/ xkdYaemuf ta&;BuD;qkH;tcsufrsm; pDppfa&G;cs,fyg/

19

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

3/ ,if;odkYpDppfa&G;cs,fNyD;aemuf wifjya&;om;rnfhtcsufrsm;udk tpDtpOfjyKvkyfyg/
4/ wdusaompum;rsm; a&G;cs,fum Oyrm-OypmwkjYd zifh EIid ;f ckid ;f NyD; &Si;f &Si;f oefo
Y efMY unf
vifxif&Sm;aom pmyef;csDo&kyfaz:um;tjzpf a&;om;yg/

tjcm;aom pmpDpmukH;a&;om;&mwGifvnf; pmyef;csDzGJYykHzGJYenf;rsm;twkdif;yif
a&;om;&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; vkdtyfaom tcsufrsm;udk xyfavmif;í nTefjy&ayrnf/
pmpDpmuk;H a&;&mwGif txl;ta&;BuD;qk;H taMumif;w&yfrmS pDu;Hk rnft
h aMumif;
t&ma&G;cs,fjcif;yif jzpfonf/ tb,fah Mumifq
h adk omf pDu;Hk a&;om;rnfah usmif;om;onf
udk,fodxm;aom taMumif;t&mrsm; jynfhpkHjcif;r&SdaomaMumifhomjzpfonf/ ausmif;
om;rsm;tbkYd tawGt
Y MuKHA[kow
k tMum;tjrifEiS phf mzwfrrI sm; enf;yg;ojzifh a&;om;
&ef taMumif;t&m&Sm;yg;jcif;jzpfonf/ xkdYaMumifh yxrOD;qkH;vkdufem&rnfhtcsufonf
pmrsm;rsm;zwf&rnf/ &Iwwfjrifwwfatmif avhusif&h rnf/ pmzwf&mwGiv
f nf; 0w¬Krsm;
udk taysmfoufoufzwf&kHrQjzifh rNyD;acs/ &mZ0ifpmay c&D;oGm;rSwfwrf; tw¬KyÜwåd pm
wrf;ESifhavmu"mwftaMumif;pmrsm;udkyg avhvm&rnf/ &IjrifwwfrIrSmvnf; ywf0ef;
usifavmuBuD;rS todÓPfrsm;ukd ,l&rnf/ oGm;&mvm&m em;ç rsufpdzGifhxm;NyD;aemuf
ud,
k rf odaom t&mrsm;ukd ar;jref;yg? ar;jref;í &orQudrk w
S o
f m;í avhvmvsuf&adS om
taMumif;w&yftay:wGif taz:taygif;rsm;ESifh aqG;aEG;yg/ þum; pmpDpmukH;a&;
om;&ef yxrjyifqifrIw&yfyif jzpfayonf/

vlvJav avmuDom;ayrkdY
'kwd,jyifqifrIonfum; pmpDpmukH;a&;&ef ay;xm;aom taMumif;t&mrsm;
teuf udk,fESpfouf&mudk a&G;cs,frIyifjzpfonf/ pmpDpmukH;a&G;cs,frIESifhpyfvsOf;í rdrd
tESpfNcdKufqkH;taMumif;t&mudk vufOD;qkH;a&G;cs,f&rnf/ odkYaomf pmpDpmukH;ppfrnfhpm
ppfol NiD;aiGYavmufaprnfhtcsufrsm;ukdvnf; owdxm;oifhvSonf/ xkdYaMumifh"O poor Examiner! O foolish candidates! who has be withched
you? will no one tell you that examiners are human, made of flesh and
blood like yourself that they can get tired, bored irritable and unfair?"

]]tk-d oem;bG,af umif;aom pmppfrsm;? tkd em;rvnf&mS aom pmajzolrsm;? oif
wkt
Yd m; b,fou
l jyKpm;xm;avbd? oifwt
Ydk m; pmppfow
l o
Ydk nf vlom;pifppfjzpfaMumif;?
oifwkdYuJhodkY aoG;ESifhudk,f om;ESifhudk,f jzpfaMumif;? wOD;wa,mufrQ rajymwkHavm/ pm

E-book is created by shanyoma

taMumif;t&m b,fvkd&Smrnf

E-book is created by shanyoma

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

20

ppfow
l o
Ydk nf armyef;wwf\/ NiD;aiGw
Y wf\/ pdwq
f ;dk wwf\/ xkaYd Mumifh rQwrIr&Sjd zpfwwf
avonf/}}ponfjzifh pmpDpmukH;a&;enf;usrf;wapmifü awGY&Sd&avonf/
þtcsufukd axmufxm;NyD; yltu
dk af om aEG&moDOwkü ajzqkMd u&aom ausmif;
om;rsm;\pm ppfMu&onfhyk*¾Kdvfrsm;\ta&;udk awG;qNyD;vQif a&;om;rnfhtaMumif;
t&m a&G;cs,f&mü txl;*&kpu
dk &f ayrnf/ pmtkyw
f tkyw
f iG f ]]rsKd;cspfpw
d }f }taMumif; pmpD
pmukH;zwf&I&mrS aemufwtkyfwGif ]]qdyfurf;om}}taMumif;a&;onf/ pmpDpmukH; ul;
ajymif;zwf&I&vQif pmppfolraemü MunfEl;wwfavonf/ trSwfay;pHepfwGifvnf; xl;
jcm;ykrd &dk wwfavonf/ tu,fwnfh a&;om;ykH pm[efç owfyHk vGepf mG raumif;aomfvnf;
tjcm;pmrsm;zwfí NiD;aiGaY e&mrSm wrsKd;wzkH ajymif;vJawG&Y aomtcg t&omwrsKd;awGY
&aom pmppfolonf tm&kHwrsKd; ajymif;NyD; trSwfykdí&wwfaMumif;? a&;om;xm;av
onf/ þonftcsufrSm pmppfolwkdif; r[kwfygacs/ jrefrmjynfü usif;yaom pmar;yGJ
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om odtyfapayonf/ xkdYaMumifh ]]vlwum ololç igig a&;rnfhtaMumif;udk a&Smifyg}}[l
í owday;xm;avonf/
odkYaomf ukd,fydkifEkdifaomtaMumif;w&yfudkum; a&SmifvGJra&;om;&ef EId;aqmf
tyfayonf/

pmpDpmukH; aumif;atmif
pmpDpmuk;H a&;aom;aomtcg vku
d ef m&rnfph nf;urf;rsm; &Sad vonf/ a&S;OD;pGm
a&G;cs,fxm;aom taMumif;w&yfudk &Sif;vif;az:jy&rnf/ tpçed'gef;yif jzpfonf/ ]]t
paumif;rS taESmif;aocsmonf}}qkdouJhodkY ed'gef;a&;&mü owdxm;&rnf/ tvGefvG,f
ulaom ]]cvkwfxdrS trdw}}qkdaompum;udk tus,fcsJUí ed'gef;wGif &Sif;vif;jy&ef rvkd
acs/ ]]uRefawmf\&nf&,
G cf suf}}qdyk gu a0hvnf a0hvnfEiS rhf a&;&? tjrefv&dk if;odaYk &muf
atmif az:jy&rnf/
rdrad &;om;rnft
h aMumif;udk awG;ac:NyD;aemuf a&;om;rnft
h csuftvufrsm;
udk &SmazG&rnf/ csufcsif;aumufí ra&;om;ygESifhOD;? yXr pOf;pOf;pm;pm; jyKNyD;rSom p
ía&;yg/ rdrb
d mudk qufía&;&rnfudk rodbJ a&;rdvQif trSm;awGí
Y tcsdeu
f ek w
f wfonf/
xkdYaMumifh a&;om;rnfhtcsufESifhqkdif&mtaMumif;rsm; pkaqmif;&SmazGpOf;pm;jcif;? pDppf
a&G;cs,fjcif;? pHepfwus pDpOfjcif;? jyKNyD;aemuf ykHMurf;xkwf&ayrnf/ ykHMurf;qGJNyD;vQif
vkdaomtcsufrsm;&Smí jznfhpGuf&rnf/ tcsuftvufjynfhpkHaomtcg pmpDpmukH;udk a&;

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

ygav/ odkYrSomvQif ]]p-v,f-qkH;}}okH;yg;vkH; nDnTwfpGm pmpDpmukH; jzpfvmayrnf/
pmpDpmukH;a&;om;aomtcg ta&;BuD;aom pnf;rsOf;rsm;&Sdao;onf/ yxr
tcsufrSm pma&;aomtcg pmykd'frsm;cGJí a&;om;&rnf/ wavQmufBuD; qufí ra&;&
a&;ygu &Iyaf xG;NyD; NiD;aiGb
Y ,
G f jzpfonf/ pmyk'd zf &YJG mrSmvnf; aphpyfaocsm&rnf/ qDavsmf
aom taMumif;rsm;udk u@jcm;NyD; pmydk'fzGYJ&rnf/ ykHMurf;a&;xm;onfhtwkdif; pmydk'fwck
ESifhwck tquftpyf &Sdap&rnf/
wkdaompmydk'frsm;jzifh aygif;pnf;a&;om;aom pmpDpmukH;wGif ed'gef;? ukd,fwGif;
jznfh pmpDpmukH;ESifhed*kH; p-v,f-qkH;okH;yg; jynfhpkH&rnf/ pmpDpmukH;\ed'gef;taMumif;udk
txufüvnf; jyqkdcJhayNyD/ ed'gef;wGif pmpDpmukH;taMumif;t&m\t"dyÜg,fudk &Sif;vif;
az:jy&rnf/ ykHjyif0w¬KtusOf;? om"uaqmifyk'f? rdrdxifjrifcsuf ponfwkdYudk a&;om;&
rnfhtaMumif;ESifhqDqkdif&mrsm;udk a&;om;&rnf/
udk,fwGif;jznfh pmpDpmukH;rSm ed'gef;? tdrfa&SUwHcg;BuD;rS 0ifa&mufvmaomtdrfr
BuD;yif jzpfonf/ ed*kH;onfum; tdrfaemufrS wHcg;aygufobG,f jzpfayonf/ pmpDpmukH;
&mü tydkpum;rsm;udk a&Smif&rnf/ pum;rsm; rxyfap&ef owdxm;&rnf? vkd&if;xdrdap
&rnf/
ed*kH;onf ed'gef;uJhodkYyif pdwf0ifpm;bG,f jzpfap&rnf/ raphpyf ra&&m tm;enf;
enf;csdeJYeJYa&;om;aom ed*kH;onf pmpDpmukH;aumif; rjzpfEkdifacs/

udk,fydkifpmwrf;
pmpDpmuk;H a&;om;&mwGif pm[efvnf; vkt
d yfaomtcsufw&yfjzpf\/ &k;d &k;d oefY
oefY xdxdrdrd wdusaom pm[efonf avhusifhí,lMu&rnf/ obm0tavsmuf þodkYpm
[efrsKd;&&ef cJ,Of;bdonf/
&Sif;&Sif;a&;wwf&efrSm &Sif;&Sif;awG;ac:wwf&rnf/ rdrdajymvkdaomtaMumif;
t&mudk &Sif;&Sif;odjrifu wdusjywfom;&Sif;vif;pGm a&;Ekdifonf/ yxra&S;OD;pGm *&kjyK&
rnft
h csufonfum; pkwcf sufrEkid af o;rDumv aumufaMumif;&k;d &k;d yef;csDvuf&mudk vku
d f
&rnf/ uEkwyf ef;? jcL;yef;jcL;EG,rf sm;udk avhvmí roifah o;acs/ tqifwefqmESiphf um;
oG,f0,frIrsm;udk a&Smif&rnf/ udk,fydkifpm[ef&Sdygap? wyg;ola&;NyD; pm[efudk rwkygESifh?
wyg;ol\pm[efonf rnfrQtxufwef;usapumrl twlwkí rjyKygESifh/ rdrdyifudk,fo
abmudkom xkwfaz:Ekdifygap/ odkYrSomvQif pmpDpmukH; aumif;rGefayrnf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

21

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

22

E-book is created by shanyoma

tcsKyfoabm
pmpDpmukH;a&;enf;tcsKyfoabmrSm1/ a&;om;rnfhtaMumif;t&mudk a&S;OD;pGm &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; MuHpnfpdwful;Munfhyg/
2/ wzef MuHpnfawG;awmí pdwful;ÓPfü tcsuftvufrsm;udk jynfhpkHatmif jyKyg/
3/ awG;qxm;aom tcsufrsm;udk &kH;pnf;NyD; qkdif&mtcsufrsm;udk pkaygif;í u@cGJjcm;
yg/ rvkdaom tcsufrsm;udk a&G;EIwfypfyg/
4/ pDppfa&G;cs,fNyD; pDpOftcsufrsm;udk ykHMurf;a&;yg/
5/ ykHMurf;a&;qGJNyD; jznfhwefonfrsm;udk jznfhpGufyg/
6/ pmykd'frsm; toD;oD;cGJjcm;NyD; pmpDpmukH;pwifa&;yg/
7/ pmpDpmukH;wGif ed'gef;ç pmudk,fç ed*kH;pkHvifatmif a&;om;yg/
(u) ed'gef;udk pdwf0ifpm;bG,fjzpfatmif a&;yg/
(c) pmpDpmukH; 0rf;wGif;jznfhpmukd,fudk rusOf;rus,f a&;yg/
(*) ed*kH;udk xdrdwdusatmif a&;yg/
8/ a&;om;NyD;aomtcg wdw
k w
kd w
k w
f w
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k phf m[efEiS u
hf ,
kd f a&;om;
yg/
tcsuftvufrsm;udk rSwo
f m;í pmpDpmuk;H tEIe;f tzGYJ ÓPfxufoefatmif avh
usifo
h ifMh uayonf/
pmpDpmukH;a&;&mwGif rdrdwkdY\tawG;tMuH txiftjrif tawGYtMuKH zG,fzG,f
&m&mESifhpDumywfukH; jzpfatmif? a&;wwfbkdYvkdayonf/ þodkYaom tprf;pmrsm;ESifhxyf
wlxyfrQ waoGrwdrf; a&;&efrvkday/
udk&if*srf; odkYr[kwf tjcm;pmpDpmukH;a&;olwOD;OD;\tawG;tMuH txiftjrif
onf rdrw
d EYdk iS rhf nfonft
h cgrS wlEidk rf nfr[kwo
f nfukd owdr&l ayrnf/ vlwOD;ESiw
hf OD;onf
tjrifcsif; tawGYtMuKHcsif; rnfonfhtcgrS ykHpHwlrusEkdifonfudk txl;*&kjyK&ayrnf/
okdYjzpf&m tprf;pmrsm; a&;om;&mü rdrdrnfodkYawG;onf? rnfokdYjrifonfrsm;udk
pDukH;EIef;&rnf jzpfaMumif; owdjyKMu&rnf/

23

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

wuúokdvfynma&;avmuü ]]bmomjyef}}vkyfief;udk tm;ay;tm;ajr§mufvkyfcJh
onfrSm umvMumayNyD/ ,cktcg bmom&yfwkdif; jrefrmbmomjzifh oifMum;ydkYcsvsuf&Sd
&m ]]bmomjyefvkyfief;}}onf txl;yifta&;BuD;vmavonf/ bmomjyefXme oD;jcm;
xm;&Sdaomfvnf; Xmewkdif; Xmewkdif; rdrdwkdYqkdif&m pmayrsm;udk bmomjyefqkdvsuf vuf
awGYvkyfief;rsm;udk xrf;aqmifvsuf &SdMuonf/
jy|mef;pmtkyrf w
S yg; qufpyfaom A[kow
k jzpfz,
G pf mtkyrf sm;udk zwf&mü tcsKdU
bmomjcm;pmrsm;jzifo
h m zwfrw
S Mf u&avonf/ xkaYd Mumifh pmar;yGaJ jzqkad omtcg jrefrm
bmomjzifh ajzqk&d mü A[kow
k tjzpf zwfrw
S x
f m;aompmrsm;udk wifjyajzqkMd u&ayonf/
xkaYd Mumifh bmomjyefvyk if ef;udk (Theorising) ]]oDt&dk }D }pmawGo
Y abmrsKd; a[majymoif
Mum;onfxuf vufawGo
Y ifcef;pmrsm;jzifv
h nf; avhusifah y;oifah yonf/ okrYd v
S nf; usif
vnfvmrnftrSefyif jzpfonf/
pmayAdrmefxw
k f ]]bmomjyef}}taMumif; a[majymcsufrsm;rSm txl;aumif;rGef
yg\/ ocifbaomif; ygarmu©O;D azarmifwif ygarmu©O;D {armifEiS q
hf &mOD;0efw\
Ydk a[m
ajymcsufrsm;rS pkaygif;NyD; vkdtyfaom tcsufrsm;pGm &Sdonf/ xkda[majymcsufrsm;rS pk
aygif;NyD; vkdtyfaomtcsufrsm; jznfhpGufum az:jytyfygonf/ tusOf;csKyf þodkYavh
vmEkdifayonf/

bmomjyefvkyfief;wGif
1/ bmomjyefrnfholonf rdrdbmomudk Ekdifeif;ouJhodkY bmom&if;pum;udkvnf; Ekdifeif;
wwfuRrf;&rnf/ t*FvdyfpmrS bmomjyefygu bmom&if;t*Fvdyfpmudk aumif;aumif;
wwf&rnf/ rdrdjyefqkdaom jrefrmpmudkvnf; aumif;aumif;wwf&rnf/
2/ (u) vkH;aphyXfaph bmomjyefjcif; wdwdusus bmomjyefqkdjcif;? wkduf&kdufjyefqkdjcif;/
(c) qDavsmfatmif bmomjyefjcif;? þqDavsmfatmif bmomjyefqkdjcif;qkd&mwGif
csefoifhonfcsefí t"dyÜg,fudk ikHrdapí jcKHrdatmif bmomjyefjcif;rsKd;jzpfonf/
qDavsmfatmif bmomjyef&mü tydkjznfhjcif;rsm; rjyKtyfacs/
(*) rSD;um bmomjyefjcif; þü rSDckdjirf;jyK&kHrQomjzpfonf/ t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh (Trans
-lation, adoption, Adaption) [líawGY&rnf/ þenf;rsm;udk bmomjyef&mü
rdrdjyKpkaomusrf;pmtkyfESifhtnD a&G;cs,fbmomjyefoifhonf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

bmomjyefjcif;

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

24

3/ bmomjyef&mü rl&if;t*Fvdyfpmukd em;vnfvG,fatmif jyefa&;NyD;rS tcsKdUbmomjyef
Muonf/ þenf;rSm txl;aumif;rGeo
f nf/ tu,fí aumif;aumif;em;vnfv,
G Nf yD;qkyd g
u xkdenf;udk vkduf&ef rvkdacs/

E-book is created by shanyoma

4/ bmomjyef&mwGif rdrdEkdifeif;aom bmom&yftaMumif;udkom jyefqkdoifhonf/ rdrdr
wwfuRrf;aombmom&yfynmü oGm;a&mufjyefqydk gu oufqidk &f m tok;H tEIe;f a0g[m&
rsm; &SmazG&ef rvG,fulacs/
5/ ta&;tom;ESifhywfoufí bmomjyef&mwGif vkd&if;ay:vGifatmif wkdwkdwkwfwkwf
&Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; a&;wwf&rnf/ 0guswkdwkdwkwfwkwf a&;u ydkaumif;onf/
6/ jrefrma0g[m&rsm;ESiyhf wfoufí bmom&yftvku
d f t*Fvyd jf refrma0g[m&bPfpmtkyf
2-wG?J pmayAdrmefrS xkwaf 0NyD;jzpfonf/ bmomjyef&mwGif jrefrmtoHjrefrmenf;ESiu
hf u
kd f
nDaomtoHvS,fpepft& tcsKdUtcsKdUaom bmomjcm;? a0g[m&rsm;udk vufcH,l&efjzpf
onf/ a&S;ygVdouúwbmomrsm;rS jrefrmbmomjyef,lpOfuyif jrefrmha0g[m&xkxnf;ü
ygVdç ouúwrsm;a&mufaeavonf/ xkaYd Mumifh tdE,
d´ ? t*Fvyd ?f jyifopf? rav;? ,d;k ',m;
paomwkdif;jcm;pum;tcsKdUudkvnf; jrefrma0g[m&jzpfaeonfudk awGY&rnf/
7/ "avho;Hk pum;rsm;ESiphf um;ykrH sm;udk bmomjyefq&dk mü tcuftcJawG&Y wwfavonf/
t"dyÜg,frysufap&ef jyefqkd&ef ta&;BuD;aMumif; owd&Sd&rnf/
8/ tMurf;bmomjyefNyD;aemuf xyfum xyfum jyKjyifa&;om;tacsmudkifí taumif;
qkH;jzpfatmif BudK;pm;&rnf/
9/ pum;vkH; a&G;cs,f&mü xdrdaom t"dyÜg,fay:vGifaomqufpyfonfhtokH;tEIef;udk
a&G;cs,f&ef ta&;BuD;onf/
10/ tbd"mefudk tNrJrjywf avhvmMunfh&Iyg/
11/ bmomjyefqkdaomtcg txl;ta&;BuD;qkH;rSm rl&if;pmudk ydkifydkifzwfNyD;rS bmomjyef
jcif;onf taumif;qkH;jzpfonf/

25

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

E-book is created by shanyoma

12/ ,cktcg (Forward) a&SUodEYk iS hf (Working People Daily, Guardian) rsm;udzk wf
&Ijcif;jzifh bmomjyefyHk jyefenf;ESifhtokH;tEIef;a0g[m&twGuf taxmuftul &&Sdygvdrfh
rnf/

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

26

E-book is created by shanyoma

jrefrmpmta&;tom;
OD;wkd;\&mr&uefrSmyif pum;wckudk ajymygu 0gust*Fg&yf tpdwftykdif;ig;ck
&aMumif;? ]]enf;y#dnmOf,OS &f efw&JG ef}}ponfjzifh zGx
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pdEÅmo'´gi,fusrf;ü ygVd0gustpdwftydkif;ig;rsKd; jyavonf/ þrSmvnf; OD;wkd;onf jref
rmpma&;om;rItwGuf ygVdo'´gudk jrefrmrI jyKay;xm;onf/
1/ y#dnmOf=rlwnfpum;
2/ Oyrm=EIdif;,SOfcsuf
3/ a[wk=taMumif;jycsuf
4/ O'g[&kPf=ykHaqmifcsuf
5/ ed*kH;=tqkH;owf[líjzpfonf/
pum;ajya&;&m pum;ajym&mwGif pum;zef pum;tdrfuav;rsm; yg&rnf/ O
yrmxnfhíajym&rnf/ ajymaomtcg ckdifvkHaom taMumif;jycsufay;&rnf/ oabmr
aygufao;ygu vlwkdif;rjiif;qkdEkdifonfudk ,ljyouJhokdY wifaqmifjy&rnf/ rlvZ&mwnf
aomtaMumif;udk acgif;pOfESifhtnD a&;&rnfhtwGif; 0rf;pmxnfhay;&rnf/ xkdtcg ckdif
rmatmif ykpH x
H nfí
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þum; ed*;Hk jzpfí acgif;pOfEiS jhf yefpyf[yfMunfv
h Qif rlwnfajymaompum;tcsufEiS t
hf nD
yif jzpf&rnf/
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rmpma&;om;&mwGif enf;,l&ef nTefqkdjyefonf/
1/ orÁE¨=tquftpyf&Sd&rnf/
2/ y'pdEÅm=yk'fudk MuHpnf&rnf/
3/ y'w¬=yk'fteufudk az:xkwf&rnf/
4/ y'0d*¾[=yk'fudk 0dN*dK[fjyKjcif;? teufenf;ESifhMuHpnf&rnf/
5/ apm'em=ar;jref;&rnf/
6/ y&d[m&=tajzoabm&Sd&rnf/
þonfwkdYudk axmuf&Iygu okawoevkyfief;ESifhokawoepmwrf; a&;om;Mu
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jrefrmpma&;enf;ESit
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pum;ckdif;EIdif;csuf? taMumif;jycsuf? ykHaqmifcsuf? ed*kH;ponfjzifh tydwftzkH;pkHpGm a&;

27

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

E-book is created by shanyoma

onfudk avhvmEkdifayonf/ þenf;rsm;onf jrefrmusrf;jyKq&mrsm; okH;pGJvmaomenf;
a[mif;yifjzpfí tvGeaf umif;rGeaf om ykpH aH [mif;w&yftjzpf vku
d ef musifo
h ;Hk tyfayonf/

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

28

E-book is created by shanyoma

8/ jrefrmpum;ajy avhvmenf;
]]&mZukrm&fausmufpm}}
jrefrmpum;ajytwGuf 1965-ckESpfrSpí wuúodkvfrsm;wGif oifMum;rIpHepfopf
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&efjzpfonf/ pum;ajyrsm;udk a&G;cs,f&mü ]]a&S;acwfpum;ajytjzpf? yk*Hacwfa&;xkd;
aom &mZukrm&fausmufpm}}udk avhvmMu&ayrnf/
þausmufpmudk a&S;OD;pGm jrapwDausmufpm[k todrsm;cJah vonf/ ausmufpm
\trnfudk ay;Mu&mwGif1/ ausmufpmawGY&mae&m?
2/ ay;vSLolukodkvf&Sif?
3/ tvSLcH,lol?
4/ tvSLypönf;?
5/ ausmufpma&;xkd;ol um,uH&Sif[lí awGYMu&ayonf/
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\ajrmufbufü ouú&mZf 1248-ckESpftwGif;u awGY&Sdojzifh ]]jrapwDausmufpm}}[lí
trnfay;Muavonf/
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f iG f *lajymufBuD;bk&m;Oypmü ausmufpmwkid t
f usKd;
tyJhrsm; awGY&Sdavonf/ a&;xkd;cJholrSm &mZukrm&fjzpfí usefppfom;rif;\om;awmfjzpf
onf/ ausmufwkdif 2-ckvkH;wGif rsufESmav;bufpD&Sdí ysL-jrefrm rGef-ygVdbmomrsm; w
nDwoefYpD awGYEkdifonf/ yxrawGYaom ausmufwkdifudk yk*HNrdKUjywkdufwGif xm;í 'kwd,
awGY&Sdaom ausmufwkdifudk jrif;uyg&Gm jrapwDbk&m;yk&0kPftwGif; pdkufxm;onf/
tcsKdUuvnf; &mZukrm&fwnfxm;aom ]]*lajymufBuD;bk&m;}}udk tpGJjyKí ]]*l
ajymufBuD;}}ausmufpm[lí trnfajymif;ac:Muavonf/ odkYaomf a&;xkd;olukokdvf&Sif
]]&mZukrm&f}}ukd xif&mS ;ap&eftwGuf ]]jrapwD}}[laomtrnfuakd jymif;í ]]&mZukrm&f}}
[laomtrnfudk wyfxm;jcif;jzpfonf/
jrefrmpum;ajyESifhpyfvsOf;í avhvm&mwGif q&maZmf*sD\]]pmayavmu}}ü]]jrapwDausmufpmyg pum;ajytm; a&S;tusqk;H jzpfaom jrefrmpum;ajyw&yf
[kqadk omf qko
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rwljzpfavonf/ odkY&mwGif ,ckumv tokH;tEIef;onf trsm;tm;jzifh a&S;a&;tokH;t
EIef;rS qif;oufvm&onfudkrl owdrl&monf}}[líqkdxm;avonf/

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

jrefrmpmESiyhf wfoufí jrefrmEkid if üH ay:xGe;f vmaompma&;enf;rSm tdE,
d´ wGif
jrpfzsm;cHaMumif;? jrefrmEkdifiHodkY pma&;enf;a&mufonfrSm yk&mavcynmt& av;&mpk
[k cefYrSef;í ajrmufydkif;tdE´d,tu©&ma&;enf;tygt0if *krÇESifhem*&Dta&;tom;rsm;
udk &ckid af usmufpmESiahf jrykb
H &k m;rsm;üawG&Y NdS yD; av;&mpkawmifyidk ;f tdE,
d´ \u'HrESiyhf v’0
a&;enf;rsm;udk tjcm;ausmufpmrsm;ü awGY&SdaMumif;? a'gufwmoef;xGef;\]]jrefrm&m
Z0ifpmwrf;trSwf 1? pma&;enf;ynmtcef;}}ü qkdxm;avonf/
jrefrmpmayoifMum;&mü rdr\
d pmjzpfay:vmyk?H tu©&myk?H pmvk;H aygif;a0g[m&
ESizhf EYJG aYJG &;om;enf;wkYd acwftqifq
h ifah jymif;vJvmyku
H kd odtyfonf/ þ&mZukrm&fausmuf
pmudk avhvmaomtcgü jrefrmpmayta&;tom; pcgpyif&Sdao;í pmvkH;aygif;0gust
xm;tokd tokH;tEIef;vG,fulí o'´genf;tm;jzifh 0dygwfu&ur&Sdoavmuf awGY&rnf/
uwåm;ç 0gpuç uHç nDnTwfaomfvnf; rpkHvSao;ojzifh o'´genf;rusao;aMumif; awGY&
ayrnf/
q&mBuD;OD;xGe;f az\]]jrefrmpmed'gef;}}ü jrefrmjzpfay:vmykt
H aMumif;? ppfaq;
Munfhaomtcg awGY&onfhtcsufrsm;udk þodkYwifjyxm;ayonf/
(u) jrefrmtu©&mrsm; a&GUvsm;vmjcif;/
(c) toHrsm;yg a&GUavsmvmjcif;/
(*) tjcm;bmompum;rsm;udk wkduf&kduf,lí okH;pGJjcif;/
(C) tjcm;bmompum;rsm;udk zsufí wkid ;f &if;om; bmomqifw&l ;kd rSm; jzpfay:vmjcif;/
(i) tjcm;bmompum;rsm;ESifhwkdif;&if;om;bmomt"dyÜg,fwl pum;rsm; qufpyfa&m
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avhvm&mü a&SU&IoifhvSayonf/
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&mZukrm&f\zcifrmS usefppfom;rif;jzpfí trdrmS aMumif;jzL&yf rxD;wlrç orÇL
vjzpfonf/ aemifaomf orÇLvonf usefppfom;rif;\rdbk&m; ]]okH;avmuOD;aqmuf
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qufoaom rPdpE´mtrnf&adS omrif;orD;ESio
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wGif;y#doaE¨ &&Sdavonf/
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E-book is created by shanyoma

29

E-book is created by shanyoma

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

30

rif;xHodkY 0ifa&mufcpm;avonf/
apmvl;rif;vGefav&m usefppfom;rif;onf ouú&mZf 446-ckESpfü ]]oD&dBwdb0
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rdbk&m;ajr§mufNyD; om;awmf]]&mZukrm&f}}tm; ta&mufaESmif;í ]]aZ,sacwå&m}}bGJYjzifh
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tavmif;pnfoltm; rif;tjzpf uwday;NyD;í jzpf\/
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jcm;csufrSm ygVd-rGef-ysL-jrefrm bmomav;rsKd;jzifh bmoma&;tqifhtwef; wajy;
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ausmufpmrsm;udk jrefrmpmay[lí ,lqoifh r,lqoifhudk wifjyaqG;aEG;xm;ayonf/
yk*Hacwfpmayudk avhvmrnfqkdygu eH&Ha&;rifpmrsm;udkvnf; avhvm&ayrnf/ xkdacwf
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pmudk jrefrmpmaytjzpf wifjyEkdifaom pmrsm;udk pmayavmurS q&maZmf*sD\jrapwD
ausmufpmtaMumif;udk zwf&o
I ifah yonf/ &mZukrm&fonf rdzudk cspfjrwfE;dk yk?H teEÅaus;
Zl;*kPfodwwfykH? usefppfom;rif;BuD; twkdif;rod0rf;ajrmufyDwdjzpfí auseyfESpfoufpGm
om"ktEkarm'em ac:ykHrsm;udk awGY&SdEkdifayonf/
þodkYvQif jrefrmpmayü xif&Sm;aom ]]&mZukrm&fausmufpm}}tajccHavhvmrI

31

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

udk az:jytyfayownf;/
wuúov
kd f ynma&;wGif okawoevkyif ef;onf t"duvkyif ef;w&yftjzpf yg0if
onf/ bmom&yftoD;oD;twGuf vlwkdif;vlwkdif;tbdkY okawoetaMumif;t&mtcsuf
tvufrsm; &SmazG&ef vkt
d yfvsuf&o
dS nf/ xkaYd Mumifh ,ckacwfvw
l \
Ydk vkyaf qmifrw
I idk ;f wGif
pmtkypf mwrf;rsm; &SmazGavhvmrIrygvQif rNyD;acs/ wuúov
kd rf sm;ü]]okawoepmwrf;}}
tokH;0if ta&;BuD;vmaMumif; pHepfopfynma&;u az:jyvsuf&Sdonf/
okawoevkyfief;onf pHepfopfynma&;ü tusKd;rsm;pGmjzpfaponf/ yxrt
csufrSm ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;tm; oifq&mwOD;\tmabmfESifhjy|mef;aompmw
tkyfrQavmufom oiftHonfhtusifhavmif;&dyfatmufrS vGwfajrmufapjcif;jzpfonf/
'kwd,tcsufrSm udk,fydkif? udk,fenf;? udk,fh[efjzifh avmu"mwfenf;ususawG;
ac:aprI&apjcif; jzpf\/
wwd,tcsufrSm tusKd;taMumif; qifjcifawG;ac:rItusifh zGHYNzdK;wkd;wufí
pHepfwuszGJYpnf; vkyfudkifwwfapjcif;jzpfonf/
okawoevkyfief;ESpfrsKd;ESpfpm; cGJjcm;Ekdifayonf/ avmu"mwfynmESifhpmay
ynm[lí ykid ;f jcm;Ekid o
f nf/ avmu"mwfenf;okawoerSm prf;oyfwx
D iG f pDppf&aomvkyf
ief;jzpfí rvG,fulvSacs/ pmayqkdif&m okawoevkyfief;onfomvQif wuúokdvfynm
oifrsm;twGuf vG,fvG,fulul xrf;aqmifEkdifayrnf/
pmayynmokawoevkyif ef;rSmvnf; wDxiG rf yI g&onfyif? xdaYk Mumifh pmwrf;a&;
om;&mü tcsuftvuftenf;i,ftay: wkd;csJU&SmazGwifjy&kHrQom rjzpfap&ef owd&Sd&
rnf/ ysif;&dNiD;aiGYaompmwrf;rsKd; rjzpf&ef? a&Smif&Sm;&rnf/ tcsKdUa&S;qefolrsm;um; pm
wrf;qko
d nfEiS t
hf nD ysif;p&mjzpf&rnf[k ,lqaumif; ,lqrnf/ pmwrf;a&; uRrf;usifyg
vQif pdwf0ifpm;bG,f jzpfatmif a&;wwf&rnf/ pum;okH;&kd;om; vG,fulap&rnf/ Oypm
Oyrmpum;rsm;jzifh jyEkdif&rnf/ ykHMurf;yef;csDqGJjyoifhu jy&rnf/ taumiftxnfzrf;í
r&aom pum;tokH;tEIef;rsm; pdwful;&wkdif; ra&;&ef owd&Sd&rnf/ &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;
wwfEkdiforQ BudK;pm;a&;&rnf/
okawoepmwrf;onf rdru
d ,
kd yf ikd rf [
l efukd ay:vGiaf p&rnf/ þuk,
d yf ikd [
f efay:
vGifaprnfhtaMumif;onf taMumif;t&m (Topic) acgif;pOfa&G;cs,frIay:ü wnfav
onf/ taMumif;t&mta[mif;yif jzpfjim;aomfvnf; MuHpnfzefw;D rIay:ü trSjD yKNyD; opf
qef;vmEkdifonf/ udk,fydkifrl[efudk taMumif;t&m a&G;&mwGifomr[kwf? tcsuftvuf
pkaqmif;í aygif;pnf;a&;om;ed*kH;csKyf&mrSmvnf; ta&;BuD;aMumif; owd&Sd&rnf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

9/ okawoepmwrf;a&;enf;

E-book is created by shanyoma

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

32

]]okawoepmwrf;}}rsm;onf ynmydkif;qkdif&m jyóem&yfwckudk tajytvnf
ajz&Sif;EkdifpGrf;&Sd&rnf/ jyóemw&yfudk ajyvnf&kHomr[kwfao;bJ ynma&;avmut
wGuf ausmif;om;q&m avhvmoltm;vkH;tusKd;udk jyKap&rnf/
xkdYaMumifh okawoepmwrf;a&;&mrSm tcsdef,la&;&rnf/ ajz;ajz;ESifh'ku©cHNyD;
&SmazGpak qmif;&rnf/ wdusrSeu
f efap&rnf/ jyKpka&;om;rnfph mwrf;udk rnfrQMum&Snpf mG
&SmazG&rnfudk tcsdwkdif;wm a0befydkif;jcm;wwf&rnf/ rdrda&;om;rnfhtaMumif; jynfhpkH
vkHavmufaomtcsdefudk Mumanmif;apNyD; tcsdefwkdwkdESifh pdwf0ifpm;rIay;EkdifpGrf;&rnf/
rdrdjyKpkrnfhpmwrf; tcsdefrnfrQMumrnfudk tMurf;oabm cefYrSef;wGuf,l&rnf/ (em&D
aygif; rdepfaygif; rnfrQ[k twdtusajym&rnfhudpör[kwfyg/) tcsKdUusrf;jyKyk8¾Kdvfrsm;
onf tm;vyfaomtcsdefydkif;rSmyif tokH;csum pmtkyfaumif;rsm; a&;oGm;Muonf/
tcsdefuefYowf&mwGif taMumif;t&m? tcsuftvuf pkaqmif;&eftwGuf 3ykH 2-ykHxm;í usef 1-ykHrSm pmwrf;a&;om;csdeftjzpf xm;oifhonf/

yxrykdif;tcsuftvuf pkaqmif;jcif;vkyfief;
(u) pmwrf;acgif;pOf taMumif;t&ma&G;cs,fjcif;/
(c) a&G;cs,faomtaMumif;t&mESifhywfoufonfhqkdif&mpmwrf;rsm; zwfjcif;/
(*) pmtkyfpmwrf; pm&if;tif;jyKjcif;/
(C) a&;om;rnfhtaMumif;t&m? rmwdumykHMurf;avmif; jyKpkjcif;/
(i) pmtkyfrsm; zwfí rSwfpkxkwfjcif;/
(p) rSwfpkrsm; aygif;pkzGJYpnf;jcif;/

'kwd,pmwrf;a&;om;vkyfief;
(u) a&;om;rnfhtaMumif;t&mudk pDppfNyD; oabmw&m; rdrdjzpfap&ef pDpOfjcif;/
(c) a&;om;rnfhtaMumif;t&m? rmwdumudk twdtus aemufqkH;jyifqifjcif;/
(*) pmrlMurf;a&;om;jcif;/
(C) jyifqifa&;om; tacsmudkifjcif;/
(i) udk;um;aomusrf;pmtkyfrsm; pm&if;tif;twdtus aemufqkH;jyifjcif;/
(p) pmrlMurf;udk aemufqkH;jyifqifjcif;/
ponfjzifh tao;pdwfvkyfief;rsm;udk od&Sdxm;&rnf/
taMumif;t&m a&G;cs,fjcif;ESifhywfoufí pdwfat;at;xm;um a&G;cs,f&ef
ta&;BuD;\/ rdrdpdwf? rdrd0goemtvkduf nDnTwfatmif a&G;cs,fwwf&rnf/

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

(þum; bGJYxl;? *kPfxl;twGuf pmwrf;rsm; a&G;cs,faomudpöjzpfonf/) wjcm;
olwyg;a&;oGm;NyD; taMumif;t&mrsKd; rxyfrdap&ef *&kpkduf&rnf/ *kPfxl;bGJYxl;twGuf
r[kwb
f J wuúov
kd o
f cFP;f pmtjzpf ,cifpma&;bl;aomtaMumif;t&mpmwrf;rsm; a&;
om;apjcif;onf okawoetavhtusifh&ap&efom jzpfonf/
txl;aumif;rGefonfrSm q&mu taMumif;t&m 4-5rsKd;ay;í udk,fhpdwfBudKuf
a&G;cs,fa&;om;&aom pmwrf;jzpfonf/ rdrBd udKuf&mpmwrf;ESiahf &G;cs,fciG &hf aomtcgü
a&;om;&rnfhtcsdeftuefYtowf? pmwrf;t&SnftwkdESifhtnD pkHvifaom pmwrf;jzpf
atmif BudK;pm;&rnf/
a&;om;&rnfhpmwrf;twGuf taMumif;t&mrsm; tajccH&&Sdap&ef pmtkyfrsm;
zwf&rnf/ xkt
d cg pmMunfw
h u
dk rf sm;onf txl;vkv
d mavonf/ &efuek rf mS qkyd gu NrdKUawmf
cef;r&Sd Ekid if aH wmfpmMunfw
h u
dk ?f A[kw
d uúov
dk rf sm;yd#uwfwu
dk ?f urÇm{Ak'w
¨ uúov
dk yf #d uwf
wku
d f ponfjzifh rsm;pGmawGEY idk o
f nf/ rEÅav;NrdKUawmfwiG u
f m; Ekid if aH wmfpmMunfw
h u
dk ?f wuú
okdvfrsm;pmMunfhwkdufESifhacwfpmaytwGuf jynfolYpmMunfhwkduf[lí awGY&avonf/ rdrd
a&;om;rnfhtaMumif;t&m e,fy,ftwGif;&Sd pmrsm;ESHYESHYpyfpyf Mum;bl;? jrifbl;? rSwfbl;
&ayrnf/ tusOf;csKyfoabmodxm;&rnf/ rdrad &;om;rnf&h nf&,
G cf sufvnf; taMumif;
t&mESit
hf NrJnn
D w
T af e&rnf/ xdak emuf pmtkyrf sm;pm&if;Z,m;jyK&rnf/ rdru
d ,
kd yf ikd (f u'f?
u'fwavmuf)rsm; xm;oifhonf/
tu©&m0vdtpOftwkid ;f xm;&ef 3"_5" uyfjym;rsm;tqifo
h ifh &Sx
d m;&rnf/ pm
a&;q&m? uyf? acgif;pOfuyf? taMumif;t&muyf[lí okH;rsKd;cGJxm;xkdufonf/ pma&;ol
trnf? ykHESdyfxkwfa0ol? ykHESdyfwkduf? rlydkif? ykHESdyfouú&mZf? aeYpGJ xkdYaemufrS pmtkyfyg t
aMumif;t&mtusOf;rSwf&rnf/ ,if;odkY pmtkyfpm&if;t& zwf&I&aom pmrsm;udk rSwfpk
xkw&f jyefonf/ xkt
d cg 4"_6" jzpfap? 5"_8" jzpfap rSwpf pk m&Gurf sm;xm;í tu©&m0vd
pOfxm;NyD; rSwfpkrsm; a&;rSwf&rnf/

okawoepmwrf;jyK&mwGif vkdufem&rnfh
pnf;urf;rsm;
(1) a&;om;rnfhpmwrf; taMumif;t&mESifhqkdifaom usrf;*efA[kokwus,fus,fjyefYjyefY
A[kow
k jynfph &Hk rnf/
(2) a&;om;aompmwrf;ü taMumif;t&mtcsuftvufrsm; jcKHrdikHrdatmif xnfhoGif;
Ekdif&ef rmwdumjzifhtnD a&;pGrf;&rnf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

33

jrefrmpmwuúokdvf

34

(3) a&;om;&mü acwfESifhtnDtnTwf&Sd&rnf/ acwfaemufjyefaom pmwrf;rjzpfap&/
(4) tjiif;yGm;p&m ryg&SdapbJ tjypftemuif;í a0befrIcHEkdifpGrf;&nf&Sd&rnf/ tjcm;u
rSDjirf;jyKavmufap&rnf/

E-book is created by shanyoma

(5) ygoifah omtcsuftvufrsm; jynfjh ynfph pHk Hk yg0if&rnf/ <uif;usefraeap&? tcsuft
vufpkHí qDavsmfaumif;rGefap&rnf/
(6) rdrdusrf;onf wcsufvGwfrSefuefonf[k twåpGJrsKd; rjzpfap&? ynmrmefr0ifh&? orm
orwf&Sd&rnf/ wyg;olpmudk txifao;jcif; rjyK&? cGJjcm;a0befí a&;wwf&rnf/
(7) rdrad &;om;&rnft
h aMumif;t&mrSveG í
f e,fruRHap&ef owdxm;&rnf/ acwfyikd ;f ESihf
a&;vQif olYacwftaMumif; pkHyg&rnf/
(8) rdrda&;aompmonf pHepfwus &Sdap&rnf/ olYu@ESifhol a&;í a&maxG;&IyfayGrjzpf
ap&ef owdxm;&rnf/
(9) rdrdukd;um;aom usrf;rsm;udk az:xkwfjy&mü rlvpmykHyef; [efrysufap&? rl&if;pmukd
rjyKjyif&? twdtus&Sdwkdif; jy&rnf/
(10) vkdtyfygu rdrdusrf;ü ykHMurf;"mwfykHrsm; ajrykHrsm; xnfhoGif;jyyg/ ykHtrnfrsm;ESifh
pm&if;Z,m;yg xnfhoGif;az:jyyg/
(11) ud;k um;aomusrf;rsm; pm&if;az:jy&mü usrf;trnf? pma&;olxw
k af 0olyEHk ydS w
f u
dk ?f
xkwfa0aomckESpfouú&mZfrsm;yg jy&rnf/
(12) tMurf;a&;om;jyKpkNyD;wkid ;f roifo
h nfrsm;udk y,fí usef&pfonfrsm;udk jznf&h rnf/
tcef;wkid ;f tcef;wkid ;f jyefvnfzwfNyD; jyifoifo
h nfukd jyif&rnf/ usrf;pmwrf;\atmuf
ajcrSwfcsuf (Foot note) rsm; xnfhoGif;oifhonfhae&mü xnfhoGif;az:jy&rnf/
(13) okawoepmwrf;usrf;\txltyg;onf t"dur[kw?f pmwrf;\rSeu
f efrI qGaJ qmif
Ekdifaom a&;om;rIonfom okawoepmwrf;\wefbkd;udk tuJjzwfayonf/

35

OD;armifarmifwif(r[m0dZÆm)

(1) tjiif;yGm;aprnfhtcsufrsm;udk a&Smifyg/
(2) ruRrf;usifaom taMumif;t&mrsm; rygygapESifh/
(3) rdrdpmwrf;onf bmomjyefpmwrf; rjzpfygapESifh/
(4) pmzwfow
l u
Ydk kd iku
d rf sOf;xkid ;f rIid ;f apaomusrf; rjzpfygapESi/hf pmzwfopl w
d &f iT v
f ef;ap
í &oajrmufaom pmjzpf&ef BudK;pm;yg/
(5) rdrjd yKpka&G;cs,faom taMumif;t&monf &SmazG&ef cufcaJ om udprö jzpfygapESi/hf vG,f
vG,fulul &SmazG&Ekdifaom pmjzpfNyD; udk,fwkdifvnf; ydkifydkifEkdifEkdif uRrf;usif&rnf/ acwf
ESifhvnf; vufcHEkdifp&m jzpf&rnf/
(6) us,fjyefYvGef;aom taMumif;t&mudk ra&G;ygESifh/ odyfodyfonf;onf; ydyd&d&d a&;Ekdif
rnft
h aMumif;t&mudk a&G;cs,fyg/ us,fjyefaY omtaMumif;t&mjzpfygrl acwfuckd NJG yD; ykid ;f
jcm;a&;yg/
(7) awGa0xkdif;rIdif;aompmrsKd;udk a&Smifyg/ NiD;aiGYaompmrsKd; rjzpfap&ef owd&Sdyg/

okawoepmwrf;a&;&mwGif txl;ta&;BuD;qkH;tcsufrSm
udk,fhrlydkifa&;om;rI? &SmazGrIrsm; jzpf&rnf/ c&D;vnf; rMumrMum xGuf&rnf/
ar;oifhaom yk*¾Kdvfrsm;xHvnf; rMumrMum oGm;a&mufqnf;uyf&rnf/ owif;pm? *sm
e,fr*¾Zif;rsm;wGif ygNyD;om;taMumif;rsm;udk zwful;pkaygif;a&;om;wifjyaom okaw
oersKd;um; wefbdk;r&SdvSacs/ udk,fhtqkH;tjzwf ay;Ekdifaom tcsufryg&SdvQif vkH;0yif
wefb;kd r&Sad cs/ xkaYd Mumifh ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;ESix
hf u
dk w
f efoifah vsmf&rHk Qom þwGif
az:jytyfayonf/

OD;armifarmifwif
(r[m0dZÆm)

E-book is created by shanyoma

okawoejyK&mü a&SmifMuOf&rnfhtcsufrsm;

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