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in order to allow environmentally compatible buildings with high user comfort combined with low investment and operating costs and high functionality. This objective is supported by a variety of simulation tools. such as natural light. Munich. Building climatology represents the link between the various design disciplines. intelligent climatisation concepts. solar heating and geothermal heat. . Wisiol & Altenberend. Here the primary emphasis is on providing maximum protection against external factors by means of passive measures concerning the building construction. and it pursues an integral design approach that focuses on the complex interactions among the facade.Building Climatology Objectives and benefits Modern transparent architecture demands simple. the building`s structure and the technical plants of the building. storage masses and so on. Mauder. Another essential aspect is the utilisation of natural resources. Exemplar for an atrium with a glazed roof and adjacent natural ventilated offices. Building climatology consulting yields an optimal overall solution that is adjusted to the particular building project and its specific requirements. Architects: Denk. thereby supporting the realisation of ecological building concepts. Cover picture: Administration building of MEAG GmbH. It allows to achieve a high degree of design reliability. Building climatology supports the architect in achieving a comfortable building climate together with an energy-saving structural design. such as glazed facades. natural ventilation. Munich.
Climatisation concepts The desire for environmentally compatible. the structure of the building and the technical plants of the building interact with each other. ambient air summer time (MEST) Interior temperature during a period of nice weather according to VDI 2078 (July. This is done by regarding the building as a total system that interacts with its environment. in order to develop an optimal solution which fulfills the requirements of investor and user. For example the facade. the building structure and the technical plants of the building optimally to each other. Here the primary emphasis is on optimisation of the facade´s energetic properties. the objective is to exploit available natural resources and to match the facade. Climatisation concept for an atrium with adjacent offices temperature [°C] Within the context of the building climatology approach. In line with the motto „less often is more“. It enables to predict the influence of the complex interactions between the building and it´s environment. Region 8 for Augsburg) . Building simulation is an important tool for the development of innovative climatisation concepts. 14 warm. compared and analysed in terms of their cost effectiveness. Various potential solutions can be evaluated. energysaving buildings where users feel comfortable requires new approaches to climatisation concepts. the objective pursued is to achieve more functionality using less technology. sunny summer days) frequencies in a year while operation time [h/a] without heat discharge during night night ventilation by open windows heat discharge by component cooling during night temperatures averaged year (Test Reference Year. Furthermore innovative solutions and the utilisation of regenerative sources of energy can be investigated with regard to their functionality and cost effectiveness under the prevailing general conditions and constraints. activation of the building´s storage masses and maximum use of natural lighting and natural ventilation of the building´s rooms.
percent [%] wavelength [mm] ultraviolet radiation visible light infrared radiation Typical spectral distributions of transmission. reflection and absorption for a coated pane of glass . Although an initial. With regard to climatic conditions present during the summer months. Significantly better results can be obtained by computational calculations.e. The amount of solar heat gain via a transparent façade exposed to intense solar radiation depends on the choice of glazing materials and the shading system. The demands imposed on the facade thus arise from a variety of technical functions. in order to determine whether a shading system is necessary. it plays a decisive role with regard to energy flows and other interactions between the interior and exterior of the building. In particular. These calculations can also provide information about the temperature profile within the glass façade under conditions of intensive solar radiation. limiting solar thermal heat gain via the transparent areas of the façade is a key consideration. Furthermore. glass panes and/or shading system) and which deliver reliable values for the specific facade´s properties of the particular project. such an rough estimate cannot take system-specific properties into account. the façade is highly significant for the design of the building. rough value for this coefficient can be approximate- outer sheet (6-mm float glass with solar protective coating) SOLAR RA DIATION Inner sheet (16-mm fire-resistant sheet with embedded gel) darkening fabric (externally specular) temperature 80°C 60°C 50°C Temperature distribution inside a glazed skylight structure ventilation of roof gap Shadows projections by a roof wing ly estimated using the solar heat gain coefficient of the glazing and the attenuation factor of the sha- absorption reflection transmission ding system. Here it is recommended to analyse the shading situation as the first step. such as high levels of reflection from specular elements of the shading system. which base on the physics of energy radiation and the spectral distributions of transmission. reflection and absorption for each of the façade´s individual layers (i. Such an analysis may also be relevant with regard to planning permission and building regulations. the interactions among these technical functions are very important and compel an integral perspective.Facade As the link between the building and its external environment. The shading quality of a façade is expressed in terms of its solar heat gain coefficient (shading factor).
Well day lighted rooms with pleasant natural-light atmospheres significantly enhance the sense of personal well-being. Visualisation of lighting conditions and shadowing in a long atrium on a sunny day.Day light Day light is becoming an increasingly important factor in the process of developing buildings that are energy-efficient and user-friendly. changes in the natural light level during the day. During subsequent conceptual and detailed design stages. The objective is to develop solutions. Besides. However. which are compatible with the use of the building while taking local conditions and structural factors into account. can be percieved at the workplace. a strategy that strives to exploit day light to the maximum possible extent must also consider adequately the aspects of solar shading and glare protection. since the availability of natural light is characterized by strong seasonal variations at our latitudes. . various day light systems or strategies for rational natural lighting can be investigated and evaluated in terms of their functionality and efficiency. A ingenious day light planning begins in the early conceptual design stage. natural light represents an essential design factor. this intensified day lighting generally yields a decreased use of artificial light. as well as variations in light due to weather conditions and the seasons. This maintains the connection to the external world. in order to allow the design freedom to be fully exploited. With good day lighting. In architecture.
to allow daily and seasonal climatic variations to be experienced) and allowing people to adjust room climates to suit their personal favorites.de Müller-BBM GmbH Lessingstraße 10 D-01465 Dresden-Langebrück Telefon 03 52 01-725-0 Telefax 03 52 01-725-20 We would like to inform you that Müller-BBM has a quality management system which includes our headquarters in Planegg (near Munich) and all branch offices. it is generally recognised that the sense of personal well-being and the quality of the workplace can be significantly enhanced by providing an increased influence of ambient air (for instance. natural ventilation is increasingly tasked with discharging heat loads out of the building in addition to air hygiene aspects. artificial interior climate produced by full air conditioning was regarded as ideal. it is now hardly imaginable to build working rooms that do not allow at least occasional natural ventilation.MuellerBBM. This management system is based on the international standard ISO 9001 and was certified by the DQS Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Zertifizierung von Managementsystemen mbH. no wind forces). Only a few years ago. temperature difference Müller-BBM GmbH Robert-Koch-Straße 11 D-82152 Planegg (near Munich) Telefon 089-8 56 02-0 Telefax 089-8 56 02-111 www. [m2/h] AAero = 15 m2 Above: Ventilating offices and facade gap via subterranean channels. Our range of services includes formulating requirements for air hygiene.Natural ventilation airflowrate Natural ventilation of buildings is a key factor in climatisation concepts that aim to achieve low energy consumption and a high level of environmental compatibility. As part of the current trend towards transparent architecture. dimensioning ventilation openings and developing concepts for control and regulation.de info@MuellerBBM. Even in office buildings and administrative buildings. showing the influence of the cross-sectional area of the openings. The certificate registration number is 5398. fresh air supply and heat discharge. a uniform. Now. In the conceptual and detailed planning of natural ventilation solutions. Müller-BBM GmbH Nollendorfplatz 3–4 D-10777 Berlin Telefon 030-21 79 75-0 Telefax 030-21 79 75-35 Müller-BBM GmbH Am Bugapark 1 D-45899 Gelsenkirchen Telefon 02 09-9 83 08-0 Telefax 02 09-9 83 08-11 . AAero = 10 m2 AAero = 5 m2 necessary airflowrate with 30 % smokers necessary airflowrate without smokers Left: Intensity of facade ventilation driven by thermal buoyancy (calming. appropriate consideration must be given to wind forces as well as thermal induced buoyancy forces. determining ventilation rates and air speeds. by contrast.