IN MINUTES

News and events — visually

In July 1936, a right-wing nationalist revolt by the army against the left-wing Republican government led to civil war. The conflict became an ideological battleground for individuals and governments beyond Spain, and introduced a new and brutal form of warfare that would come to define the 20th century.

Spanish civil war 1936-1939
German Junker 52/3

Republicans
Foreign aid

Government, led by Socialist premiers Largo Caballero and Juan Negrin, and liberal president Manuel Azana. Supported by urban workers, majority of educated middle class, and militant communists and anarchists. Due to arms embargo by France and Britain, government could receive aid and purchase arms only from Soviet Union. Aid included planes, trained pilots, tanks and crew.

Nationalists
Foreign aid

Led by rebel army and supported by conservative clergy and landowners as well as fascist Falange. Both Fascist Italy under Benito Mussolini and Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler (shown) sent troops, tanks, and planes, using Spain as testing ground for new methods of warfare.

La Coruna

Gijon Oviedo Santander

Soviet T-26 Tank

Canada’s role

Vigo

During the war, a beleaguered Spanish Government put out a call for help from international volunteers. 40,000 volunteers from 53 countries came forward to form International Brigades. 1,200 volunteers came from Canada. They formed the Mackenzie-Papineau Battalion (the Mac-Paps). Oct., 1937: Fuentes de Ebro; 60 killed, 200 wounded. Dec., 1937: Teruel July, 1938: Ebro By the end of the Spanish Civil War almost half of the Canadian volunteers had been killed. In April 1937 the Canadian government had passed the Foreign Enlistment Act, outlawing participation by Canadians in foreign wars. The Mac-Paps were considered an o cial embarrassment, and were left in obscurity until the ’70s when a number of books, films and plays documented their history.

Valladolid

Pamplona

GA L

Battles

FRANCE CATALONIA
Barcelona

Salamanca

PO

RT U

Zaragoza Madrid

10,000

Badajoz

400 600 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,200 1,200 1,500 1,700 2,500 2,500 3,500 4,000 5,000

SPAIN
Sevilla Cordoba Albacete Murcia Granada Malaga Tetuan Almeria Cartagena

Toledo

Castellon Valencia

Mediterranean Sea

International Brigades
Number of volunteers sent, by country

Alicante

A BALE

LAN RIC IS
July 1936

DS

Switzerland Holland Scandinavia Hungary Latin America Yugoslavia Canada Czechoslovakia Belgium Britain U.S. Italy Poland Germany France

SPANISH MOROCCO (1912-1956)

Main battles Main Nationalist o ensives Main bombings of civilians

Aug. 1936-Oct. 1937 1938 Jan.-Feb. 1939

1931

1936

1937

1938

1939

1931: Second Spanish Republic proclaimed. Alfonso XIII abdicates

Feb., 1936: Left-wing party coalition regains power from right in elections

July 17-18: Army uprising — rebels gain control over about one third of Spain

July 28: Italian and German planes airlift Franco’s army from Spanish Morocco to mainland in first significant military airlift in history

Nov.: Republican forces withstand major Nationalist o ensive on Madrid following arrival of aid from Soviet Union and International Brigades

Apr.: Jan. to Guernica Mar., 1937: Despite support destroyed from Italian May: Infighting troops, Franco among fails to capture Republican Madrid in two groups in separate Barcelona o ensives weakens city

June: Bilbao falls to Nationalists July: Nationalists repulse Republican countero ensive at Brunete Oct.: Gijon falls – war in North ends

Feb.to Apr., 1938: After battle for Teruel, Nationalists reach Mediterranean, cutting Republican zone in two

July to Nov.: Battle of Ebro –Republican forces launch all-out, but unsuccessful, campaign to reconnect territory

Jan. to Feb., 1939: Nationalists conquer Catalonia in whirlwind campaign Mar. 27: Madrid falls to Nationalists Apr. 1: Nationalist victory proclaimed

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