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Company Commander Handbook

1 APR 2010


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK PREFACE This Handbook is a generic guide written for commanders or prospective commanders of company-level organizations. We designed it as a handy reference which presents guidelines, advice, and time-tested lessons derived from years of experience in leading and commanding Marines. We did not design it to replace the need for an officer to study his profession or to supersede Marine Corps orders, directives, and manuals. An officer using this Handbook should consult current orders and directives for in-depth guidance on any subject covered in this Handbook. Command is an experience that is both challenging and deeply rewarding. If you have prepared yourself properly, your company command experience can be the best tour you will ever have. Enjoy it! But, dont ever forget that your job is to prepare your company to go to war tonight and to win! Best of luck in this important and exciting endeavor.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The last version of this Handbook was printed by the Marine Corps Institute on 31 March, 1989. In many cases, the information detailed within this Handbook is timeless. This version provides updates to applicable automated systems and applications, as well as updates to references such as Marine Corps, Army, Department of Defense orders and publications. Updates to this version have been compiled from 2006 to 2010 by various personnel from the operating forces and supporting establishments.

CHANGE GUIDANCE Users of this Handbook are encouraged to submit suggestions and changes that will improve the product for future Company Commanders. Recommendations may be sent to Chief Academic Instructor, Expeditionary Warfare School, Marine Corps University, 2077 Geiger Road, Quantico, Virginia 221345038 or by fax to (703)784-2582. Recommendations should include the following information: -Location of change Current page number Paragraph number (if applicable) Line number Figure or table number (if applicable) -Nature of change Add, delete Proposed new text -Justification and/or source of change Publication/reference (if applicable)
















COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 1 ASSUMING COMMAND 1001. PREPARING FOR COMMAND 1. Many officers say, I would do anything to command a company. If you are one of these officers, do you really mean it? Are you suited for command? Have you really considered all that commanding a company entails? Try honestly to answer the following questions: a. Do you really want to command? Are you sure your motivation is more than simply having command experience entered on your record? b. Are you willing to dedicate yourself solely to your unit? c. Is your family willing to assume a role in helping you to create a happy Marine Corps community? d. Is your family willing, if necessary, to be secondary to the unit? e. Do you like to be with young people? Can you live with their energy, their points of view, and the problems they create? f. Are you willing to take the hard knocks that come from assuming responsibility for the failures of your subordinates? g. Are you able to do many things at one time? Can you manage a complex job? h. Are you and your family willing to live in a goldfish bowl, open to observation and criticism by both subordinates and superiors? i. Are you willing to leave a comfortable office to check or to supervise training, maintenance, and other activities of your unit? j. Are you confident that you can produce a superior unit from average men? Can you inspire men to achieve outstanding results? k. Are you flexible when dealing with changing situations? Are you willing to risk new ideas? l. Are you willing to take reasonable risks to allow your subordinates to grow and to become more productive? m. Are you willing to let your subordinates be creative? n. Are you accessible to your troops? Does your manner invite communication? o. Do you really listen? Can you withhold judgment until all the facts are in? 2. If you are honest with yourself, you will probably answer no to some of these questions. Only if you are completely honest in answering the questions will you gain real insight into what lies ahead.


Even with an insight into your responsibilities, you cannot expect to become a good commander unless you make some practical preparation for the day when you will assume command. Such preparation will enable you to make a favorable first impression on your unit. 3. You have worked long and hard for this chance to command, and you want to take full advantage of the opportunities offered you in your new position. 1002. BEFORE ASSUMING COMMAND 1. Determine what your companys missions are, and analyze them. Update your last will and testament, power of attorney, etc. Ensure that all your personal affairs are in order. Review the U.S. Navy Regulations, as they pertain to officers and command responsibility. 2. Study your companys Table of Organization (T/O) and Table of Equipment (T/E). 3. Study the FMFMs, FMs, and operational Handbooks (OHs) that pertain to how your company is supposed to operate. 4. Obtain copies of your units SOPs. Be familiar with them. 5. Get in good physical condition. You cannot do your best unless you are in excellent mental and physical health. 6. Brush up on the MOS and leadership skills that you will need to do your job. Your new Marines will see you as being out of touch if you cannot converse with them at their level of knowledge. You must maintain the capability to lead by example. 7. Get a feel for the environment by visiting the higher headquarters staff officers who help to support your company. Listen to their problems, and find out how you can assist them. Ask for their support, and invite them to visit your unit. 8. Look through the past years status reports; and review any current inspection reports like those of the Inspector General; Commanding General, Field supply Maintenance Analysis Office (FSMAO); and the Marine Corps Command Readiness Evaluation System (MCCRES). 9. Establish a good relationship with your fellow commanders. Find out how they operate, and gain from their experience. A friendly environment in which commanders willingly share ideas and support each other is invaluable. 10. Ask for ideas from the Battalion Sergeant Major. 11. When discussing the status of your unit, be positive and maintain an open mind. What others say may or may not be correct. 12. Get to know the managers of the various base facilities, and find out what services are available for your Marines and their families. 13. Reconnoiter training areas. 14. Observe your junior officers, noncommissioned officers, and Marines every chance you get. 15. Take the time to sit down and to write out your philosophy of command. Include those things you plan to do to establish the type of climate you want in your unit. 1-2

16. Begin to formulate your goals and milestones, recognizing, however, that you may have to alter them as your appreciation of the situation increases. 17. Determine what you will say when you first meet with your Platoon Commanders, Executive Officer, First Sergeant, Staff Noncommissioned Officers and NCOs. 1003. PHILOSOPHY OF COMMAND 1. Successful commanders are those with a well-developed philosophy of command and a clear vision of what they want their companies to be. As a result, they focus their energies and the energy of the company to make things happen. This may sound easy but consider what happens when a new commander fails to communicate his philosophy of command, to establish a future vision, or to think through a system to measure progress toward that vision: a. Indecision by subordinates as they feel out the new commander; b. Constant initiation or revision of policy as the commanders intent is discovered; c. Reduction of energy and focus as subordinates try to follow the commanders changing directions of march; d. Inappropriate use of people and resources as priorities change; and e. Delays in building subordinates trust and confidence. 2. In short, time and energy that could be spent molding a better unit are wasted in guessing what the company commander wants. All this can be avoided. Before you assume command, develop your command philosophy so that it can be communicated to your Marines. Some key ingredients should be: a. These are my values. b. This how I plan to exercise command. c. These are my goals and objectives that are important to me. d. This is how I evaluate. e. This is how I will reward and punish. 3. Then ask yourself these questions as you take command: a. How do I want this company to look 2 years from now? b. How do I make that happen? c. How do I measure progress toward that vision? d. How will I know that my subordinates understand my vision and my methods of getting there? e. What are my priorities for the short term? The long term? f. What is important to me on a daily basis? 1-3

4. Guidance from your Battalion Commander and your philosophy of command will help you to answer these questions. As you spend time in command, you will refine your answers and may change some things. Nevertheless, answer these questions before you take the colors to ease yourself on to the next step. 1004. MEETING WITH YOUR PREDECESSOR 1. If you are relieving a commander who is simply moving on to a new job, it is a good idea for you to have a conference with him to get his views on the strength and weaknesses of the organization and its key people. 2. If you are relieving someone who is being removed because of poor performance, a conference with your future boss is in order. Discuss specific problems that have arisen. Attempt to find out how much time you will have to resolve these problems, as this will determine the kind of leadership you should use and the need for making changes at the outset. 3. Throughout your meetings, be confident in your ability, but understand that you have much to learn. Study, listen, evaluate, and look forward to growing into your command. 4. Attempt to learn the long range goals and objectives of your predecessor. It is often difficult to alter the momentum or direction set by the commander. And, you may not want to. 5. Informal meetings before the change of command can be beneficial in assessing the best approach to potential problems. 6. After the meeting, analyze what you discussed, and make a tentative inventory of what you will have to do. Set goals before you start rather than letting events shape your approach to command. 7. The attitude of a transition period is not a healthy one. The unit cannot slow down or change its schedule to accommodate a new commander. Get yourself up to the speed of the unit, and take command. 1005. TAKING COMMAND 1. When you receive the units colors, you will assume responsibility for the company. Immediately following the change of command, much of your effort will be devoted to actually taking command. Although there will be many demands on your time, you must devote the lions share to learning about your most precious resource your Marines. Reviewing your training and readiness posture will take time too. 2. You must also take a good look at the facilities within the unit which support your Marines and impact heavily on their morale. Additionally, you should examine other critical areas which deserve your early and continued attention because they are at the core of producing a highly motivated and effective unit. 3. Finally, you must think about relationships with higher and adjacent units to gain maximum support for the development of your programs and to provide support for those programs important to your boss. 1006. THE CHANGE OF COMMAND 1. A tremendous amount of effort has gone into making this a great day; dont take it lightly. 2. Take the opportunity to make comments, but be brief. Remember, its primarily the outgoing COs day. 1-4

3. Commend the Marines for their part in the ceremony, and thank those who have helped you and your family to get on board. 4. Let everyone know how proud you are to be part of the unit. 5. Avoid referring to your past; specifically your credentials which you feel qualify you for command. 1007. IMPORTANT EARLY IMPRESSIONS 1. The way you come across to Marines initially will provide long-lasting impressions. Some tips are: a. Set the example in personal appearance and behavior. b. Be honest; be yourself. c. Avoid the my unit syndrome. You have been given stewardship not ownership and an opportunity to serve those above and below you better. d. Take time to talk informally to the Company Executive Officer, the First Sergeant, and the Platoon Commanders about their impressions of the unit and the people in it. e. Meet with the Platoon Commanders on their turf let them do the talking. f. Take the time to talk to the Marines. If they sense that you have a genuine interest in their well being, you will find out whats on their minds. Talk with your Marines, not down to them. 2. Remember to exercise your listening skills more than your speaking skills; your Marines want to tell you of their concerns, problems, and accomplishments. This will be hard if you constantly dominate the conversation. Their one-on-one opportunities with the commander are rare. Learn to listen. 3. Remember that you are not the only one in the unit who wants it to succeed. 4. Remember that a good sense of humor and consistency will make it easier for people to approach you. 1008. GETTING TO KNOW YOUR MARINES 1. Get out of your office whenever possible let the Executive Officer (XO) run the day-to-day routine. COs lead and command. You cannot lead from behind your desk. If you are spending most of the day in your office, who is commanding your unit? By remaining in the office doing the daily routine business, are you doing the XOs job? 2. Marines are not in the unit; they are the unit. They want to get to know you as much as you want to get to know them, and they will appreciate your efforts in breaking the ice. 3. Look Marines straight in the eye during informal and formal face-to-face visits, and make the effort to put them at ease. 4. Seek their opinions, and listen to what they have to say. Be careful not to talk down to them. 5. Remember to tell them how much they are helping you to learn about your new job, and let them tell you about their piece of the action.


6. Get out to observe and to participate in athletic events, particularly those scheduled after duty hours, and talk to Marines and their families. 7. Visit Marines or family members who are in the hospital. 8. Make unannounced visits to the BEQ, and talk to Marines in the area as well as those performing offhour duties. Spend some time talking with the sometimes forgotten few the cooks, the corpsmen, and the mechanics let them know how important they are to you and the unit. (When you ask for their opinion, listen, and then let them know that you heard what they said.) 1009. ADDRESSING YOUR MARINES 1. Marines want to hear as well as to see their commander. Take the first step in establishing good communication, both up and down the chain. 2. Talk to the troops as soon as possible after the change of command, and share with them your standards, goals, and philosophy of command. 3. Talk to the entire unit at one time if you can, and then address the officers and NCOs separately. If the mission precludes this, then do it by platoons. 4. Beware of the heavy-handed my policies tone. Instead, provide some meaningful elements of your command philosophy in terms that Marines understand. 5. Dont criticize your predecessor or his policies. 6. Beware of making promises that you cannot deliver. 7. Take some action on the feedback you get, solicited or volunteered. Not to do so will injure your credibility. Dont let your Marines think that you want to hear what they have to say but never do anything about it. 1010. RELATING TO KEY MEMBERS OF THE TEAM 1. Your Executive Officer, First Sergeant, Platoon Commanders, and Company Gunnery Sergeant are essential to you. How you use and relate to them will have a significant impact on your overall effectiveness. 2. You must clearly tell them what you expect, and then let them do their job. 1011. THE EXECUTIVE OFFICER 1. You and your Executive Officer need to reflect the same vision and focus in the eyes of the company. Having compatible leadership styles is a plus; work together to this end. 2. Tell him how he will operate, and define the extent of his authority within the company. 3. Delegate routine correspondence and other requirements to him and allow him time to speak for you in these matters. 4. Let him represent you at meetings that dont require your presence.


5. Ensure that he knows everything that is going on, but do not allow him to be a barrier to communications up or down the chain of command. 6. Train him; coach him, and keep him well informed so that he can fill your shoes at a moments notice. You cannot make a crash effort to get him up to speed just before you have to leave. 1012. THE FIRST SERGEANT 1. Open a channel of communication, and ask for his advice as your senior enlisted advisor on all matters which support accomplishment of the company mission. Ensure he knows what you expect. Keep him informed because you need his support as well as his advice. You and he are a team that is critically important to the smooth operation of your company. Particularly, seek his advice on matters concerning enlisted Marines; which include: a. Personnel assignments b. Transfers b. Promotions c. Leave and liberty d. Morale and welfare of the Marines and their families e. Awards and punishments f. Reenlistments

g. SNCO and NCO development training h. School quotas 2. Use his thoughts in your decision-making process. Make use of his knowledge and experience. 3. Have the First Sergeant supervise the execution of company policies and SOPs. He must take corrective action when necessary to enforce your policies. 4. Let him assist you in planning, coordinating, and supervising all activities which support the companys mission. 5. Involve him in accomplishing unit training. He should be your primary instructor for SNCO and NCO professional development training in the company. 6. Have him form the company for formations and ceremonies, and have him assist you in inspections of the company activities you prescribe. 7. Maintain a relationship of professional rapport and respect. However, never forget that you are the commander. Do not let camaraderie cloud your judgment.


1013. THE COMPANY GUNNERY SERGEANT 1. Clearly establish his duties and his position within the chain of command. The Company Gunny should have a close working relationship with the Executive Officer, coordinating together on the day-today taskings in support of the Companys mission. 2. Make him responsible for all external supply support, and training/exercise support 3. Make him responsible for your Barracks and/or BEQ. 4. Consult him in your decision-making process. Make use of his knowledge and experience. 1014. PLATOON COMMANDERS 1. Develop a special relationship. Get to know them and learn their strengths and weaknesses. 2. Develop a close-knit, command team by establishing close working relationships based on mutual trust and confidence. 3. Ensure that they adapt very quickly. Ensure that they swim and dont sink. 4. Remember that you have the responsibility to teach them and to pass on experiences for their future benefit. 5. Tell them what to do, not how to do it. 6. Developing your platoon commanders is critically important. You cannot delegate this to anyone. Your companys performance, morale, and command climate will depend on your platoon commanders performance. 7. Do not stifle their initiative. Allow them to make mistakes that will not damage their careers. Ensure that they dont make the same mistakes twice. 8. Become the buffer between them and higher headquarters. Keep the heat off of them, and let them do their jobs. 9. Ensure that they know exactly what is expected of them. 10. Consistently let them know how they are doing. Your feedback is critical to their performance and long term development. 11. Give them a straight shot to you to talk about things important to them both good and bad. 12. Dont over react to their bad news. Killing messengers will keep them from telling you bad news in the future. 13. Include them in the decision-making process whenever possible; involvement means commitment. 14. Avoid wasting their time with long-winded meetings which dont help them get their jobs done. However, there is a great value in periodic Commanders Call sessions when commanders sit down with their commander. They appreciate the exclusiveness and personal attention associated with this type of meeting.


15. Beware of fostering competition between them at the expense of destroying cooperation and teamwork. 16. See each of your commanders at least daily on their turf, not yours. 17. Train and teach them to be better commanders. Dont be concerned with which one is the best. Make each one the best that he can be. 18. Clearly spell out expectations and direction concerning their relationship with the Executive Officer, First Sergeant, Company Gunnery Sergeant, as well as the Marines in the Company office. 19. Emphasize the direct commander to commander combat relationship, and how the Platoon Commanders are the extension of the Company Commander in combat operations. 1015. THE SERGEANT MAJOR 1. Get to know him. He has years of experience and is a strong and successful SNCO. 2. Seek his advice and counseling. Do not hesitate to discuss your company with him. Ask for his impressions. 3. Invite him to visit your company. Get his views and perceptions on the status of your company and the strengths and weaknesses of your SNCOs and NCOs. 4. Develop a good relationship with the Sergeant Major. He could be one of your strongest assets. 1016. THE BATTALION COMMANDER 1. Keep him informed. You have a strong bond as commander to commander. 2. Ensure that you know exactly what he expects from you. 3. Be clear on his standards and policies. 4. Plan on at least one formal visit a week to update the boss on what is going on in the company. Ensure that you relate good things as well as the problems. 5. Invite him to all significant events within the company. 6. Speak frankly to him about problems and issues that are bothering you. 7. Dont hold back bad news. It does not get better with age. 8. Ask his policy on a matter if you dont know. It may keep you out of hot water in the future. 9. Be accessible and communicate. The Battalion Commander should be informed of all field training activities; where and what you are doing in case he wants to observe your Companys training. 1017. CHECKING FACILITIES 1. There is no substitute for getting out from behind your desk to inspect the facilities that support your Marines. Facilities can be critical to morale and readiness, and you must quickly determine the impact they have on these two key areas. 1-9

2. Set up a rigid inspection system for all areas, especially for the BEQ, and walk through areas at least once during the first week. Marines expect to see their commander frequently. a. THE BARRACKS. Schedule a walk-through immediately and an inspection in the near future. Get a first hand look at how your Marines are living. (1) Do a face to face with your units Camp Services Officer at the Battalion or Regimental level, and communicate any concerns. Stay abreast of maintenance and camp improvement activities. b. THE MESS HALL. Eat in the mess hall as often as you can, and encourage your officers and staff NCOs to do the same. React quickly to any problems you see which affect service. Quality of the food and the service greatly affect morale in your company. c. THE MOTOR POOL. Conduct a walk-through of the facility and an inspection of your vehicles as soon as possible. Find out how well your drivers are doing on the road as well as their PM checks. Talk to the SNCOs in the Motor Pool, and emphasize the importance of their support, and the impact of their Marines on your companys training. d. WAREHOUSES OR STORAGE AREAS. Tour them early. See what is in them and insist on having the individual responsible for the area present to answer your questions. If you have problems in your company they have been hidden here. (1) Determine whether physical security and property accountability are adequate. Look for obvious excesses and ask about shortages. You should not be storing anything except essential equipment. (2) Determine whether procedures for maintenance of the equipment stored are adequate. Nothing should be adrift. There must be a designated place for everything, and it must be properly marked. (3) Permit only authorized personnel in your warehouses. A signed and dated access list should be posted. Working parties, when necessary, must be supervised. e. THE ARMORY. Refresh your technical information in this area to have a meaningful understanding of what is being shown. Do not be too proud to ask what may seem like elementary questions. Observe, in particular, the aspects of security and organization in this area during your initial visit. (1) Speak with your Companys armory custodians and listen to their concerns. f. AID STATION/DISPENSARY. For those units fortunate to have an aid station or its equivalent, there are special considerations for medical spaces and personnel. (1) Is the aid station conveniently located to the bulk of the unit? Is there adequate space? Are air conditioning, heat, and plumbing satisfactory? (2) Do medical personnel feel that they are part of the unit? Are they included in everything? (3) What is the frequency of staff visits and inspections from the Surgeons Office? (4) Does your medical officer normally confer with you or leave this to his Chief?


(5) What is the general state of police and grounds? Is extraneous material (medical storage boxes, etc.) stored in the aid station rather than in an approved storage area? (6) Development a solid working relationship with the Medical Officer, and consistently check up on the Companys health and medical readiness. (a) Promote importance and involvement of Company Corpsman during unit physical fitness events and all field training exercises. (b) Convey any concerns about Marines that seek light duty right before conditioning hikes and physical fitness tests. 1018. SUMMARY. Commanding a company is both a tremendous challenge and an extremely rewarding tour of duty. You owe the Corps and particularly your Marines the absolute best leadership and professional competence you can demonstrate. There are many experiences in your background that will contribute to making you a successful commander. However, for most officers it also takes a great deal of preparation and professional study. The remainder of this handbook is designed to be a handy reference to some of the challenges you will face. Press on! Best of luck!








COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 2 LEADING THE COMPANY 2001. INTRODUCTION. Leadership is an essential skill for an effective company commander. Our 29th Commandant, General A. M. Gray, defines leadership as the art of getting things done through people. This section of your handbook provides a detailed reference to the basics of leadership to assist you in command, and in developing your current leaders as well as your future leaders in the Company. Leadership is a skill that can be learned through study, observation, and practical experience. It is the most essential element of combat power on the battlefield, and therefore, your most important concern in peacetime. Your goal is to demonstrate competent and confident leadership, and to develop that same leadership in your subordinates. In the words of General Gray, Its going to take bold, innovative, and aggressive leadership to overcome the complexities of the modern battlefield. Only this kind of leadership, exercised by both the commander and his staff, will provide purpose, direction, and motivation in combat. At all levels of command, leaders must be men of character. They must know and understand their people and the physical tools of battle. They must act with courage and conviction. Their primary function is to inspire and motivate their people to do difficult things in trying circumstances.


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 2 LEADING THE COMPANY SECTION I: LEADERSHIP 2101. MARINE CORPS PHILOSOPHY OF LEADERSHIP. Paragraph 1100 of the Marine Corps Manual (MCM) and the current edition of MCWP 6-11, Leading Marines, contain the basic concepts of Marine Corps leadership. Paragraph 1100 explains leadership qualities and relationships, while the current edition of MCWP 6-11 establishes specific leadership training goals and responsibilities. Additionally, NAVMC 2767, Users Guide to Marine Corps Leadership; and FM22-100, Military Leadership, provide Marines with essential beliefs, concepts and principles of leadership. Collectively, these publications contain a definite philosophy of leadership, characterized by the belief that these qualities can be developed within the individual Marine, and that Marine leaders and particularly commanders, have the responsibility for developing those qualities. 1. The Marine Officers Guide defines leadership as follows: Leadership is a heritage which has passed from Marine to Marine since the founding of the Corps. It has been defined as the art of influencing and directing men so as to obtain their obedience, respect, confidence, and loyal cooperation. Leadership is mainly acquired by observation, experience, and emulation. Although some individuals possess greater instinctive gifts of leadership than others, anyone can sharpen his leadership faculties if he tries. 2. Paragraph 1100.1, MCM, defines the primary goal of Marine Corps Leadership as follows: The objective of Marine Corps Leadership is to develop the leadership qualities of Marines to enable them to assume progressively greater responsibilities to the Marine Corps and society. In North China in 1937, Captain Samuel B. Griffith said, Wars and battles are not lost by private soldiers. They win them, but dont lose them. They are lost by commanders, staffs, and troop leaders, and they are often lost long before they start. 2102. PERSONAL PHILOSOPHY OF LEADERSHIP 1. Building on the Marine Corps philosophy of leadership, each Marine leader should develop his own personal philosophy. As a commander, your philosophy should be developed and explained to your officers and SNCOs. It is important to remember that articulating your leadership philosophy will have little or no impact unless you demonstrate it. It is not only what you say that counts; it is also what you do! 2. The following is a suggested outline for developing your philosophy of leadership. PHILOSOPHY OF LEADERSHIP Purpose To set expectations on how you plan to lead your Marines. Nature of the challenge as you see it Mission and environment Elimination of myths


Your views on Role of the commander Human nature Rewards and punishments Values and ethics Corps, unit, personal Standards Not just striving for the standard, but also for growth beyond the standard Role of each Officer, SNCO, and Marine How you will evaluate your Marines 2103. RESPONSIBILITIES OF LEADERS 1. SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THE ASSIGNED MISSION. The fundamental responsibility of leaders is to successfully complete the mission. The mission of your unit is the only reason for the existence of the unit and its commanders. All other obligations are secondary; however, all leaders must be positive as to how the mission is accomplished. Marines and/or their careers must not be needlessly sacrificed for the sake of accomplishing the mission. 2. RESONSIBILITY TO HIGHER HEADQUARTERS. While responsibility to accomplish the mission is paramount, inherent in the unit mission is a leaders responsibility to higher headquarters. There are two parts to this responsibility: a. Strict compliance and vigorous execution of all legal orders, directives, policies, regulations, and decisions received from higher headquarters; b. Inspiring confidence in higher headquarters. If a subordinate leader openly criticizes his superiors, he can expect the same from his Marines. Subordinate leaders should discuss those things that they disagree with in orders from higher headquarters with their superiors. However, if the decision still stands after discussion, the subordinate must provide his complete support. 3. TRAINING, ADMINISTRATION, MAINTENANCE, AND COMBAT READINESS OF UNITS. These responsibilities include producing sound plans and orders; making effective use of personnel and resources; providing adequate training and leadership; executing orders; ensuring technical and tactical proficiency of unit members; providing physical training; developing subordinates; and fostering high morale, cohesion, discipline, and esprit de corps. 3. WELFARE OF MARINES. Leaders earn trust, confidence, and cooperation by looking after the needs of their Marines. Those needs include satisfying the security, physical and social needs of the individual. Primarily, the leader is responsible for ensuring that the Marine is trained satisfactorily and performs the job assigned competently. Marines also have personal problems of both a military and a family nature. The leader must recognize these. He must make himself and the chain of command available to counsel Marines when they have these problems; then, he must ensure that unit leaders work with their Marines toward solving those problems. 5. BALANCE. Of all the leaders responsibilities, the responsibility to his Marines is by far the most satisfying. As the leader works with and trains his Marines, a strong sense of loyalty can develop. This loyalty can conflict with the leaders responsibility to the mission. The commander cannot be overly protective of his Marines when directed to order them into combat or to make them work beyond their endurance. It is difficult for a good leader to suppress the feeling for his men at times when he must plan for their possible death. 2-3

2104. FOUNDATIONS OF LEADERSHIP 1. AUTHORITY. Authority is the legitimate power of a leader to direct those subordinate to him to act within the scope of his position. The commander delegates this power, or a part of it, in his name by extending it to his leaders, regardless of their rank. They have the responsibility of exercising this authority in accomplishing the mission. Equally important, however, is the fact that these Marine leaders must also be given the degree of authority necessary to carry it out. 2. RESPONSIBILITY. Responsibility is the obligation to act or to do that which one must answer to for his seniors or juniors. It may include, but is not limited to, assigned tasks, equipment, personnel, money, morale, and leadership. Responsibility is at all levels of command for what Marines do or fail to do as well as for the physical assets under the commanders control. Ultimately, all Marines are morally and legally responsible for their individual actions. Paragraph 1100 of the MCM states that individual responsibilities of leadership are not dependant on authority and all Marines are expected to exert proper influence upon their comrades by setting examples of obedience, courage, zeal, sobriety, neatness, and attention to duty. 3. ACCOUNTABILITY. Accountability is the reckoning wherein the leader answers for his actions and accepts the consequences, good or bad. Accountability is the very cornerstone of leadership. If individuals in leadership positions are not accountable, the structure on which the Corps is founded would weaken and eventually disintegrate. Accountability establishes reasons, motives, and importance for actions in the eyes of seniors and subordinates alike. Accountability is the final act in establishing ones credibility. Plainly speaking, the accountable leader is saying, The buck stops here! Remember: Accountability results in rewards for good performance as well as punishment for poor performance. 4. VALUES. Values are the benchmark for leadership. They are guides to our thinking and behavior, and that our subordinates. If a Marine is left without any guidance or supervision, his personal values will determine what he will or will not do. Leaders must provide guidance and supervision to inspire (reinforce organization values) and to control (affect behavior) their Marines. As a leader, you have the power to influence the beliefs and values of your Marines by setting the example, by rewarding behavior that supports military values and attitudes, and by planning and conducting tough individual and collective training. 5. PERSONAL VALUES. You can identify your own values by examining your own behavior. Think through the following questions: a. What is important to me personally? b. What do I stand for? c. What activities do I spend my time on? d. What values do I admire in others? e. To what or to whom do I attribute those values? f. How do I impart values or beliefs to others?

6. UNIT VALUES. Unit values play a major role in improve unit performance and assist in defining individual values of Marines. For your company, think through the following questions: a. What is important for my unit?


b. For what should the unit strive? c. Does this unit have conflicting values? d. What is the affect of personal values that conflict with unit values? e. How do I impart Corps and unit values to my Marines? f. Ask your Battalion Commander, Sergeant Major, and your Company First Sergeant to indicate what they perceive your values and the unit values to be so that you may check on your point of view. g. The following values are critical to the development of effective Marine units: (1) Integrity (2) Trust (3) Loyalty (4) Justice (5) Selfless Service (6) Courage 2105. LEADERSHIP TRAITS. In trying to learn and to develop your leadership abilities and those of your Marines, spend some time studying the traits of great Marine leaders. Those provide a summary of what followers of all grades believe a great leader should be. Remember, the way you see yourself may not be the way that your Marines actually see you. As you study this self-evaluation checklist, be honest with yourself. Step back and see yourself as your Marines see you. How do you measure up as a leader? 1. BEARING a. Setting the maintaining high standards in appearance and in personal conduct, b. Avoiding excessive use of profanity, c. Controlling your temper, and d. Keeping your word. 2. COURAGE a. Taking risks in combat and in peace; b. Acting calmly and firmly in stressful situations; c. Standing up for what is right, regardless of what others think; d. Accepting personal responsibility for your orders and for your mistakes; 2-5

e. Making on-the-spot corrections of Marines who need correcting; and f. Allowing your subordinates to do their jobs and to make decisions.

3. DECISIVENESS a. Studying your alternatives and taking the best possible course of action, b. Picking alternatives and making decisions quickly when there is no time for careful study, c. Knowing when not to step in and make a decision. 4. DEPENDABILITY a. Being places on time or when you say you will be there and b. Meeting deadlines for tasks that youve been ordered or told to do completing them in a timely manner. 5. ENDURANCE a. Maintaining mental and physical stamina and c. Having the ability to perform your duties under stress and for prolonged periods of time. 6. ENTHUSIASM a. Consistently communicating a positive attitude to your Marines, b. Never complaining in front of your Marines about they or the system, c. Praising your Marines successes, d. Explaining to your Marines why they must perform tasks expected of them in terms they can understand and accept, e. Encouraging your Marines to take the initiative to overcome obstacles to performance. 7. INITIATIVE a. Taking action in situations when something must be done, even in absence of orders from a superior; b. Being a self-starter; d. Planning ahead; e. Always looking to improve the ways you do things. 8. INTEGRITY a. Telling the truth to both your superior and your Marines;


b. Using your authority as a commander to work toward mission accomplishment, not personal gain or glory; and c. Encouraging honest and open communication in your company. 9. JUDGMENT a. Having the ability to closely weigh facts and possible solutions before you act and b. Taking all sides of an issue into consideration before making a decision that affects your Marines. 10. KNOWLEDGE a. Making sound tactical decisions, b. Doing all duties well technical and administrative, c. Showing your Marines how they should perform their duties, and d. Recognizing and correcting inadequate performances of your Marines. 11. TACT a. Talking with your Marines, not at them, and b. Speaking to your Marines with the same respect that you would expect. 12. UNSELFISHNESS a. Providing for your Marines needs before your own; b. Sharing hardship, danger, and discomfort with your Marines; c. Taking every action to provide for the welfare of your Marines. 13. LOYALTY a. Displaying faithfulness to your country, to the Corps, to your unit, to your seniors, to your subordinates, to your peers; b. Displaying enthusiasm in carrying out an order although you may privately disagree with it; c. Defending your Marines against unfair treatment from outside or above. 2106. LEADERSHIP PRINCIPLES. Our time-honored Principles of Leadership clearly express the uniqueness of Marine Corps leadership. These principles should be the foundation for your leadership efforts within your command and in the development of your subordinate leaders. 1. KNOW YOURSELF AND SEEK SELF-IMPROVEMENT.


a. Evaluate yourself by using the leadership traits, and determine your strengths and weaknesses. Work to improve your weaknesses, and use your strengths. With knowledge of yourself, your experience, and of group behavior, you can determine the best way to deal with any given situation. b. Achieve self-improvement by reading and observing. Ask your friends and seniors for an honest evaluation of your leadership. This will help you to know your weaknesses and strengths. c. Develop the techniques of this principle as follows: (1) Make an honest evaluation of yourself to determine your strong and weak personal qualities. Strive to overcome the weak ones and to strengthen those in which you are strong. (2) Seek and act on the honest opinions of your friends and of superiors to show you how to improve your leadership ability. (3) Learn by studying the causes for the success or the failure of other leaders. (4) Develop a genuine interest in people, and acquire an understanding of human nature. (5) Master the art of effective writing, speaking, and listening. (6) Have definite goals for self-improvement and a definite plan to attain them. 2. BE TECHNICALLY AND TACTICALLY PROFICIENT a. Know your job; have the ability to do the job before you attempt to lead. As a commander, you must demonstrate your ability to accomplish the mission, and to do this, you must be capable of answering questions and of demonstrating competence in your MOS. b. Learn tactical and technical competence from books and by on-the-job training. c. Develop this leadership principle as follows: (1) Seek a well-rounded military education by doing daily independent reading; by taking correspondence courses from MCI, or other services correspondence schools; and by offduty education. (2) Find and associate with capable leaders. Observe and study their actions. (3) Broaden your knowledge through association with Marines from other occupational specialties. (4) Seek opportunities to apply knowledge through the exercise of command. Good leadership is acquired only through practice. (5) Prepare yourself for the job of leader/commander at the next higher grade. 3. KNOW YOUR MARINES, AND LOOK OUT FOR THEIR WELFARE. a. This is one of the most important principles. You should know your Marines and how they react to different situations. A Marine who is nervous and lacks self-confidence should never be put in a situation where an important, instant decision must be made. Knowledge of your Marines 2-8

personalities will enable you, as the leader, to decide how to best handle each Marine and to determine when to closely supervise each. b. Practice this principle as follows: (1) Put your Marines welfare before your own; correct grievances, and remove discontent. (2) See the members of your unit, and let every Marine see you so that each may know you and feel that you know him or her. Be visible. Be approachable. (3) Get to know and to understand the Marines under your command. (4) Let them see that you are determined that they will be fully trained for combat. (5) Concern yourself with the living conditions of the members of your unit. (6) Help your Marines to get needed support from available personal services. (7) Determine what your Marines mental attitudes are; keep in touch with their thoughts. (8) Ensure fair and equal distribution of rewards. (9) Encourage individual development. (10) Share the hardships of your Marines so that you can better understand their reactions. 4. KEEP YOUR MARINES INFORMED a. Marines by nature are inquisitive. To promote efficiency and morale as a leader, you should inform the Marines in your unit of all happenings and give reasons why things are to be done. This, of course, is done when time and security permit. Informing your Marines of the situation makes them feel that they are part of the team and not just a cog in a wheel. Informed Marines perform better and, if knowledgeable of the situation, they can carry on without your personal supervision. The key to giving out information is to be sure that the Marines have enough information to do their jobs intelligently and to inspire their initiative, enthusiasm, loyalty, and convictions. b. Techniques in applying this principle are as follows: (1) Whenever possible, explain why tasks must be done and how you intend to do them. (2) Assure yourself, by frequent inspections, that immediate subordinates are passing on necessary information. (3) Detect the spread of rumors, and stop them by replacing them with the truth. (4) Build morale and esprit de corps by publicizing information concerning successes of your unit. (5) Keep your unit informed about current legislation and regulations affecting their pay, promotion, privileges, and other benefits. 2-9

5. SET THE EXAMPLE a. As a Marine leader, your duty is to set the standards for your Marines by personal example. Your appearance, attitude, physical fitness, and personal example are all watched by the Marines in your unit. If your personal standards are high, then you can rightfully demand the same of your Marines. If your personal standards are not high you are setting a double standard for your Marines, and you will rapidly lose their respect and confidence. Remember your Marines reflect your image! Leadership is taught by example. b. Techniques for setting the example are as follows: (1) Show your Marines that you are willing to do the same things you ask them to do; (2) Be physically fit, well groomed, and correctly dressed; (3) Maintain an optimistic outlook, and develop the will to win by capitalizing on your units abilities; (The more difficult the situation is, the better your chance is to display an attitude of calmness and confidence.) (4) Do not expose your personal habits to criticism; (5) Exercise initiative, to promote the spirit of initiative in your Marines; (6) Avoid showing favoritism to any subordinate; (7) Share danger and hardship with your Marines to demonstrate your willingness to assume your share of the difficulties; (8) By your performance, develop the thought within your Marines that you are the best Marine for the position you hold; and (9) Delegate authority, and avoid over supervision in order to develop leadership among subordinates. 6. ENSURE THAT THE TASK IS UNDERSTOOD, SUPERVISED, AND ACCOMPLISHED. a. This principle is necessary to exercise command. Before you can expect your Marines to perform, they must know first what is expected of them. You must communicate your instructions in a clear, concise manner. Talk at a level that your Marines are sure to understand but not so low that it would insult their intelligence. Before your Marines start a task, allow them a chance to ask questions or to seek advice. Supervision is essential. Without supervision, you cannot know whether the assigned task is being properly accomplished. Over supervision is viewed by subordinates as harassment and effectively stops their initiative . Allow subordinates to use their own techniques, and then periodically check their progress. b. The most important part of this principle is to accomplish the mission. Otherwise all the leadership, supervision, and guidance in the world are wasted. To develop this principle, you should accomplish the following: (1) Ensure that the need for an order exists before issuing the order; (2) Use the established chain of command;


(3) Through study and practice, issue clear, concise, and positive orders; avoid misunderstanding; (4) Encourage subordinates to ask questions concerning any point in orders or directives they do not understand; (5) Question your Marines to determine whether there is any doubt or misunderstanding regarding the task to be accomplished; have your subordinates back brief you to ensure that they understand your orders; (6) Supervise the execution of your orders; (7) Exercise care and thought in supervision. (Over supervision hurts initiative and creates resentment; under supervision will not get the job done.) 7. TRAIN YOUR MARINES AS A TEAM a. Every waking hour, Marines should be trained and schooled, challenged and tested, corrected, and encouraged with teamwork and perfection as goals. There is no excuse for commanders failing to train their Marines to the highest state of physical condition and to instruct them to be the very best. Train with a purpose, and emphasize teamwork. b. Sharing hardships, dangers, and hard work strengthens a unit and reduces problems; it develops teamwork, improves morale and esprit de corps, and molds a feeling of unbounded loyalty. This is the basis for making men fight in combat. Marines dont complain of tough training they seek it and brag about it. c. Teamwork is the key to successful operations. Teamwork is essential from the smallest to the largest element of the entire Marine Corps. As a Company Commander, you must insist on teamwork from your Marines. Train, play, and operate as a team. Be sure that each Marine knows his position and responsibilities within the team framework. d. When team spirit is in evidence, the most difficult tasks become much easier to accomplish. Teamwork is a two-way street. Individual Marines give their best, and in return, the team provides the Marine with security, recognition, and a sense of accomplishment. e. Develop the techniques of this principle by accomplishing the following: (1) Strive to maintain individual stability and unit integrity; (Needless transfers disrupt teamwork.) (2) Emphasize use of the buddy system; (3) Encourage unit participation in recreational and military events; (4) Reward and discipline the team; never publicly blame an individual for the teams failure nor praise one individual for the teams success; (5) Provide the best available facilities for unit training, and make maximum use of teamwork;


(6) Ensure that all training is meaningful and that its purpose is clear to all members of the command; (7) Acquaint each Marine of your unit with the capabilities and limitations of all other units, thereby developing mutual trust and understanding; and (8) Insist that every Marine understand the functions of the other members of the team and how the team functions as a part of the unit. 8. MAKE SOUND AND TIMELY DECISIONS. a. The commander must be able to estimate a situation rapidly and to make a sound decision. Hesitation or reluctance causes subordinates to lose confidence in your abilities as a leader. Loss of confidence in turn creates confusion and hesitation within the unit. b. When you discover that you made the wrong decision, dont hesitate to revise it. Marines respect the leader who corrects mistakes immediately instead of trying to bluff it. c. Techniques to develop this principle include the following: (1) Developing a logical and orderly thought process by practicing estimates of the situation; (2) Considering the advice and suggestions of your subordinates whenever possible before making decisions; (3) Announcing decisions in time to allow subordinates the opportunity to make necessary plans (use the 1/3, 2/3 rule); (4) Ensuring that your Marines are familiar with your policies and plans, and (5) Considering the influence that your decisions have on all members of your unit.

9. DEVELOP A SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY AMONG YOUR SUBORDINATES. a. Another way to show your Marines that you are interested in their welfare is to give them the opportunity for professional development. Assigning tasks and delegating the authority to accomplish tasks promotes mutual confidence and respect between the leader and subordinates. It also encourages the subordinates to exercise initiative and to give wholehearted cooperation in accomplishing unit tasks. When you properly delegate authority, you demonstrate faith in your Marines and increase their desire for greater responsibilities. If you fail to delegate authority, you indicate a lack of leadership, and your subordinates may believe it is a lack of trust in their abilities. b. To develop this principle you should include the following: (1) Operate through the chain of command; (2) Provide clear, well-thought-directions; tell your subordinates what to do, not how to do it; hold them responsible for results, although overall responsibility remains yours; delegate enough authority to enable them to accomplish the task;


(3) Give your Marines frequent opportunities to perform duties usually performed by the next higher ranks; (4) Recognize your subordinates accomplishments quickly when they demonstrate initiative and resourcefulness; (5) Correct errors in judgment and initiative in a way which will encourage the Marine to try harder; avoid public criticism or condemnation; (6) Give advice and assistance freely when it is requested by your subordinates; (7) Let your Marines know that you will accept honest errors without punishment in return; teach from these mistakes by using critical and constructive guidance; (8) Resist the urge to micro-manage; dont give restrictive guidance which destroys initiative, drive, innovativeness, enthusiasm, and creates boredom; (9) Assign your Marines to positions according to demonstrated or potential ability; (10) Be prompt and fair in backing subordinates; until convinced otherwise, have faith in each subordinate; and (11) Accept responsibility willingly, and insist that your subordinates live by the same standard. 10. EMPLOY YOUR COMMAND ACCORDING TO ITS CAPABILITIES. a. Successfully completing a task depends upon how well you know your units capabilities. Assigning a task that your unit has not been trained to do will result in failure. Failures lower your units morale, self-esteem, and confidence. Seek out challenging tasks for your unit, but be sure that your unit is prepared for and has the ability to successfully complete the mission. b. Techniques to develop this principle are as follows: (1) Do not volunteer your unit for impossible tasks. (Not only will the unit fail, but your Marines will think you are seeking personal glory.) (2) Keep yourself informed as to the operational effectiveness of your command. (3) Ensure that tasks assigned to subordinates are reasonable; do not hesitate to demand their utmost in an emergency. (4) Analyze all assigned tasks. If the means at your disposal are inadequate, inform your immediate supervisor, and request the necessary support. 11. SEEK RESPONSIBILITY AND TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR YOUR ACTIONS. a. For professional development, command is one of the most challenging and rewarding assignments you will have. Command requires initiative and sound judgment and has many responsibilities. You are responsible for all that your unit does or fails to do. You are responsible for the decision and its application regardless of your subordinates actions. You must issue all orders in your name. Stick by your convictions, and do what you think is right, but accept justified and


constructive criticism. Never remove or demote a subordinate for a failure resulting from your own mistake. b. Techniques to develop this principle are as follows: (1) Learn the duties of your immediate senior; be prepared to accept the responsibilities for these duties; (2) Take every opportunity that offers increased responsibility; (3) Perform every act, large or small, to the best of your ability; (Your reward will be an increased opportunity to perform bigger and more important tasks.) (4) Stand up for what you believe is right; have the courage of your convictions; (5) Carefully evaluate a subordinates failure before taking action; ensure that the apparent shortcomings are not due to an error on your part, and consider the Marines that are available; salvage one if possible, and replace one when necessary; and (6) In the absence of orders, take the initiative to perform the actions that you believe your senior would direct you to perform if he were present. 12. SUMMARY. These leadership principles are proven guidelines which, if followed, will substantially enhance your ability to lead Marines. Remember, by implementing these principles, you will earn the respect of your fellow Marines, juniors and seniors, and you will become an effective commander. Make these principles work for you. 2107. DETERMINING THE RIGHT THING TO DO 1. As a commander, you have many things that require your time and effort. To determine the right priorities for your time, it is essential that you use the Marine Corps three leadership procedures. These procedures are basic, time proven, and battle tested. They can be used both in the field and in garrison to Determine the right thing to do; and when to do it. They provide you an orderly thought process so that your thinking is complete and that you leave nothing out. The first process is the Troop Leading Steps, commonly referred to as BAMCIS. a. Begin Planning. Conduct an Estimate of the Situation. Issue a Warning Order. Initiate Necessary Movement. b. Arrange for Coordination and Support. c. Make Reconnaissance. d. Complete the Plan. (In five paragraph order format as discussed below.) e. Issue the Order. f. Supervise. 2-14

2. Troop leading steps make up the basic leadership process that should be used in any situation and at any level of command to decide what to do and when to do it. A closer look at the steps within the process reveals procedures that force you to plan and then provide specific how-tos for determining the right thing to do. The procedure, Estimate of Situation, is used to collect and to analyze relevant information for developing the most effective solution to a problem or course of action to accomplish an assigned mission. a. Analyze the Mission What must you accomplish? b. Analyze the Situation What is happening around you? c. Determine Possible Courses of Action What are the possible ways to accomplish the mission? d. Analyze Courses of Action Which course is the best? e. Make your decision. f. Describe a Concept of Operations How will you execute the chosen course of action?

3. Again, The Estimate of the Situation process can be used in the field or in garrison. The Estimate walks you through a proven analysis process. When the Estimate has been used to the point that it becomes instinctive, then it will only take you a few minutes to perform. A basic procedure called the Five-Paragraph Order, or SMEAC, is designed to help you to issue that order. a. Situation What is happening around you? b. Mission What must you accomplish? c. Execution How do you plan to accomplish it? d. Administration/Logistics What resources, such as supply, transportation, ammunition, etc. are supporting you? e. Command and Signal What are command, control, and communication (C3) arrangements? 4. This format provides the essential and accurate information that your subordinates need to start their troop leading steps. 5. Each of these procedures specifically supports the others. These procedures enable you to get the right thing done under the toughest possible conditions, in peace or combat. Using them daily, in all situations, will help you to cut down on the chances of wasting the effort, energy, and time of your subordinates. 6. GUIDELINES FOR ISSUING ORDERS. When you have completed your estimate and plan and are about to issue orders, remember the following points: a. Give orders in a manner which indicates you expect compliance. b. Do not issue orders you cannot enforce. c. Give clear, complete, correct orders; and follow them up.


d. Achieve perfection in giving orders by long and careful training. Ambiguity, vagueness, and incompleteness of orders, cause the most disobedience and noncompliance. e. Indicate what is to be done by the words of an order; the manner in which you deliver an order generates the spirit in which it will be carried out. f. Have verbal orders repeated. Failure to do so can result in grave misunderstandings.

g. Maintain a complete picture of the situation, and take appropriate action in absence of orders. h. Be as good as your word. Do not make promises you cannot keep, or make decisions you cannot support. i. Tell your subordinates what to do but never how to do it.


COMPANY COMMANERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 2 LEADING THE COMPANY SECTION II: THE CHAIN OF COMMAND 1. The chain of command is the most basic and important organizational leadership technique used in the Corps. It is essential for getting any task done in an organized manner when the efforts of more than one person are required. It is the succession of commander, superior to subordinate, through which you can exercise command. It begins with the president, your commander-in-chief, down through the various grades to the Marine leading the smallest element. Staff officers are not in the chain of command. 2. A simple and direct chain of command helps to send orders from the highest to the lowest levels in a minimum of time with the least chance of misinterpretation. The chain of command must be open the other way as well, so that the commander can receive official communications and informal feedback from subordinates. 3. You must ensure that each Marine in your company chain of command has the authority as well as the responsibility to accomplish assigned tasks. Then each superior in the chain must hold his subordinate commanders accountable for everything his command does or fails to do. 2201. BASIC TECHNIQUES FOR FORGING THE CHAIN 1. A ground combat force fights in small units and depends on the initiative of junior leaders, the toughness of individual Marines, and the chain of command the bottom links of the chain in particular. 2. Forging a strong, reliable chain in a peacetime Marine Corps with a high rate of personnel turbulence remains a challenge. These guidelines may be useful: a. Spend a lot of time explaining standards and clarifying goals, priorities, and policies. (The chain of command cant grow strong amid confusion. By the time the arguments are finished regarding what should be done first and by whom, there is no energy left to get the job done!) b. Specify who works for whom. (We still have Marines who arent sure who their immediate leader is.) c. Explain that there is only one chain of command, and it is responsible for everything. d. Involve junior members of the chain in all important actions affecting their subordinates, including promotion board preparation, pay problems, duty roster conflicts, field ration problems, and recommendations for disciplinary or administrative actions. e. Use the chain to pass out new information on unit SOPs, policies, priorities, future events, and good and bad news. f. Hold leaders accountable for the performance (good and bad) of their subordinates.

g. Demand that leaders give orders in their own names. h. Practice fall out one in garrison and in field, and let subordinates move up temporarily and know the feel of greater responsibility. 2-17

i. j.

Correct and train leaders in private; reward them in public. Give awards for small group (section, team, crew, squad, platoon) successes, and publicize both the groups and their leaders.

k. Give junior leaders some time of their own to train their Marines. l. Keep small groups and their leaders together in every possible situation.

m. Dont do anything routinely that your subordinates can handle almost as well. 2202. THE SNCO/NCO SUPPORT CHANNEL 1. The SNCO/NCO support channel begins with the senior commanders Sergeant Major and extends to unit First Sergeants, to Platoon Sergeants, and then to the NCOs. The support channel supplements the chain of command and is responsible for accomplishing many things within a command. The important thing to remember is that officers, SNCOs and NCOs do different things and have different responsibilities. If this difference is not understood and applied, there is no way that your company can accomplish all the tasks necessary in the day-to-day business of winning in combat. 2. As you work to figure out what to do and how best to do it, there are some basic differences between what officers do and what NCOs do in accomplishing the multitude of tasks required to get your company ready to fight. The six specific points listed below show this very special officer/NCO relationship. If both the officers and NCOs understand this relationship and make it work, the company will be much stronger. OFFICERS Command, establish policy, plan and program the work of the company. STAFF NCOS AND NCOS Conduct the daily business of the company, within the established orders, directives, and policies. Concentrate on individual training which develops the capability to accomplish the companys mission. Involve themselves primarily with training individual Marines and teams. Concentrate on each subordinate NCO and Marine and the small teams of the company to ensure that each of them is well trained, highly motivated, ready, and functioning. Concentrate on the standards of performance, training, and professional development of SNCOs, NCOs, and young Marines. Get the job done.

Concentrate on collective training which will enable the unit to accomplish the mission.

Involved primarily with unit operations, training, and related activities. Concentrate on unit-effectiveness and readiness.

Concentrate on the standards of performance, training, and professional development of officers. Create an environment making time and other resources available so that the SNCOs can do their jobs.


2203. DEVELOPING INDIVIDUAL MARINES 1. The foundation for your companys performance is the performance of your individual Marines. Your objective is to develop individual Marines who are confident that they can fight and win in combat. When properly developed your Marines should have: a. Confidence in their own ability; b. Confidence in the ability of the other Marines in the fireteam, crew, squad, etc; c. Confidence in their weapons and equipment; and d. Confidence in their leadership. 2. Confidence in the companys leadership, particularly in you as their commander, will depend upon how well you meet their expectations. Your Marines, expect the following from their leader: a. That he knows his job; b. That he knows a great deal about the jobs of his Marines; c. That he keeps them informed about what is going on, and what is going to happen in the future; d. That he is well organized and keeps the efforts of the company organized; e. That he knows his Marines and takes care of their needs; f. That he shares all the risks and hardship with his Marines; and

g. That he rewards his excellent Marines and takes action to discipline or eliminate his problem Marines. 3. The leader who meets these expectations develops confidence in his Marines by building their skills, will, and teamwork. A sound formula for the success of an individual Marine is as follows: - The Marines skill in performing tasks expected of his MOS and grade, his will to learn, and desire to put that skill to work = the performance of the individual Marine. 4. You build the skills of your Marines through training. You are responsible for identifying the many individual and collective tasks that they must perform in combat and for developing a plan to train them and to evaluate them for a minimum standard. There are hundreds of tasks that pertain to the many different military occupational specialties found in your company. The Estimate of the Situation, Troop Leading Steps, and the Five-Paragraph Order are procedures that can help you to analyze the problems of individual and collective training, and to design training plans and priorities. 5. Individual skill training should be done by NCOs. Officers put the individual skills that the NCOs have developed together to accomplish collective tasks and/or missions. They then ensure that training meets unit standards such as MCCRES. Training to individual skills is the most important of the two types of training. Individual skills are the fundamental building blocks underlying the performance of the unit. Collective skills are dependent on the foundation of individual skills. Remember, that as a company commander you should be training, building skills, and developing Marines all the time. The school


system only teaches part of the individual skills needed by a young Marine to perform his duties. The rest of those individual skills are developed within your unit by your SNCOs and NCOs. 6. Will is the confidence, commitment, and motivation to accomplish a specific task or activity. To build will, you must build skill. The more your company and your Marines train, the problems will disappear, and the stronger their confidence, commitment, and motivation will be. Your Marines want to train, and they want to perform their duties well. Why? Because it is what they joined the Marine Corps to do. They want to train so that they feel ready to fight and to win if called to do so! They want to be ready because that is what the American people expect from Marines! So, good, hard, realistic training develops skill and builds will. 7. Your standard in developing individual Marines is to produce a Marine who is both able and willing. Some of your Marines are able and willing all the time. They will have both skill and will in every task they are assigned. Some will have will but not the skill. They may try hard but are not capable of performing the assigned task. Others will have the ability to perform the task but not the will. You will have to closely supervise them and maybe even make them perform a task. This means that if you want to develop your Marines as individuals, then you must start with an assessment of each Marine in terms of How Able Is He?, and How Willing Is He? 8. Knowing how to judge a Marine in terms of ability and willingness is the first step in development. In the lists that follow are some general traits and characteristics of each of four different categories of able and willing. Very few Marines will fit clearly and completely in any one category. But, one of these four categories will fit each individual Marine better than the other. If you know your Marines as the first principle of leadership requires, then youll get your Marines in the right category most of the time. 9. The four general categories of Marines are as follows: a. ABLE AND WILLING (1) Has performed the task to standard before. (2) Does many other tasks without being told. (3) Is not satisfied until an assignment is done right. (4) Accepts the need to put in the hours necessary to get the job done right. (5) Looks for and works out ways to get the job done better. (6) Recent performance has been satisfactory at a minimum. b. UNABLE AND WILLING (1) Has never performed task to standard before. (2) Has had recent enthusiastic performance, particularly on tasks similar to those you want him to do now. (3) Pays close attention to your instructions. (4) Watches others doing some tasks; asks questions. (5) Spends some of his own time learning and practicing. 2-20

c. ABLE BUT UNWILLING (1) Has had recent hot and cold performance sometimes at standard, sometimes below standard. (2) Has done the task to standard before, but keeps asking for guidance and assistance. (3) Doesnt appear to be concentrating work is sporadic and poorly planned. (4) Takes every opportunity to be absent from training. (5) Lacks confidence in himself and his duties. d. UNABLE AND UNWILLING (1) Has never performed the task to standard before. (2) Has recently had sub-standard performance, even when he has received a lot of assistance and instruction. (3) Works only when closely supervised. (4) Seems satisfied with below standard results. (5) Pays little attention to instructions. 10. The descriptions of each of the four categories above are only rough indicators. Any Marine may shift from category to category depending upon the task, the level of training, the time of day, the level of leadership, and many other factors. The key thing to remember is that each Marine is different. The ability to assess each Marine on how well he measures up on the able and willing scale is another one of the basics that you as the company commander and each of your leaders must practice, think about, and learn. Each Marine is different than the other. A large part of your job in developing Marines is to know those differences. 11. A Marine who is Able and Willing is a great example for developing Marines. He does the right thing and does not need close supervision. This is the kind of Marine you want to groom for higher leadership responsibilities. 12. The Willing and Unable Marine is the one who usually joins you from his entry-level schooling. He is the new Marine there may be much he does not know. New Marines need patient instruction and lots of feedback. 13. The Able but Unwilling Marine is your biggest challenge. His unwillingness may be due to a lack of confidence, or he may have a real or perceived personal problem. Possibly, the able but unwilling Marine may be trying to get over on you. In either case, if the Marine has a problem or is the shirker, you must insist that he complete the task and do it to standard. The Marine with a problem will have done something worthwhile, and the shirker will realize that you will not allow him to shirk. 14. The Unable and Unwilling Marine probably should not be in your company. While he remains in your company, he must be very closely supervised. Make him complete all tasks to standard. He may get a sense of satisfaction from his accomplishment and eventually be salvaged. If, however, the time and effort you spend becomes more than the possible return of your investment to your company and the


Corps, or if he is a disciplinary problem, he should be separated from the Corps as soon as possible. Dont pass this Marine to another company or let him get by. There is no place for him in combat. 15. Since there are four different general categories of Marines, there are also different best practices to develop Marines from each of the four categories. We have generally discussed above what each of these leadership strategies should be. The tactics that go with each of these strategies are listed below. Ask and observe the strong leaders around you for ideas on refining your leadership skills and making each strategy and tactic work better. a. ABLE AND WILLING (1) Tell him what you want done. Dont waste time telling him how. He already knows. (2) Tell him when to get started and when to be finished. (3) Supervise easy. Let him work. Give him your trust. (4) Always tell this kind of Marine how well he met your standards. (5) Challenge him with a little more responsibility each time. b. UNABLE BUT WILLING (1) Tell him what you want done. Tell him why. Tell and show him how and where, with what, when to start, and when to finish. (2) Encourage him to ask questions. (3) Show him the standard. Demonstrate it. Let him see what things look like when the job is done right. (4) Supervise him closely. Check him frequently. Help him correct mistakes. (5) Give him time. (6) Reward heavy; discipline easy. c. ABLE BUT UNWILLING (1) Determine why the Marine is unwilling, probably one of two reasons: lack of confidence, or a personal problem. (a) Develop confidence by 1 Getting him to tell you how he would do the task, 2 Encouraging him and getting him started, 3 Handling him as able and willing. (b) Determine whether he has personal problems. 1 Arrange for him to talk about it with you later. 2-22

2 Give him a specific time. 3 Help him to solve his problem. (2) Tell him what you want done, when to start, and when to finish. (3) Spell out clearly what the standards are. (4) Spell out clearly what the reward or punishment will be. (5) Supervise him closely. (6) Check task completion against standard. (7) Always follow through with the kind of reward or punishment that you promised. d. UNABLE AND UNWILLING (1) Explain carefully what you want him to do and how you want him to do it. (2) Questions him to ensure that he knows exactly what to do. (3) Spell out the standards clearly. (4) Spell out the reward or punishment clearly. (5) Supervise him heavily; this Marine will need frequent correction and will often quit working if he thinks he is not being watched. (6) Check task completion against standards. Follow through with promised reward or punishment. (7) If repeated efforts to help this Marine to become able or willing have failed, initiate action for unsuitability discharge. Marines in this category require detailed instructions and constant supervision, absorb enormous amounts of leadership time and effort, and are of little benefit to your company preparing for combat. 2204. THE FIRST 10 DAYS UNIT SPONSORSHIP PROGRAM 1. When a new Marine reports to your company, he is searching for answers to many basic questions. What will it be like to be a member of this company? What are my leaders like? What kind of company is this? What do my leaders expect from me? What must I do to be the best in this company? How much effort am I going to have to put in to accomplish my daily duties? Where am I going to live? What is liberty like on this base? Each Marine adjusts to this new experience differently. Some come on strong immediately, while others adjust by withdrawing and by watching quietly until they begin to trust others in the unit. As trust develops, they begin to participate more actively. 2. What you do with, to, and for the new Marine in the first 10 days will have a lasting impact on how well your new Marine performs for as long as you are commanding your company. 3. As company commander, you can assist your new Marines entry into your company by realizing that he is searching for answers to these basic questions. By understanding the new Marines concerns, you 2-23

can develop a sponsorship and orientation program that eases your new Marines transition into the team. It is not enough to simply give each new Marine a quick in-brief and to assign him to a sponsor and a job. You must take the time and effort necessary to coordinate the orientation of the new individual into your unit. 4. A well-planned orientation is an important first step in creating a cohesive team. Your orientation program should address the needs of all Marines. Although it is true that the presence of a family adds to the complexity of getting settled, the single Marine who lives in the barracks has questions, problems, and concerns that are equally as important to the married Marine. No matter what happens, your Marines must feel that they can depend on their leader for assistance for themselves and for their families as soon as they arrive at the company. 5. Assign sponsors to assist new Marines with personal administrative problems associated with moving into a new unit. See that they are handled promptly and successfully. Recognize that sponsors do more than ensure that the personal needs of Marines are met. Sponsors are models for new Marines; they represent what you expect of members of your team. Select and brief your sponsors in such a manner that they realize the importance of their assignment. Tell the sponsor exactly what is to be done and what being chosen as a sponsor means. He represents what members of the company should look and act like. 6. A sponsor should ensure that the Marines pay is accurately processed in a timely manner, that his service record book, medical record, and other records are in their proper places; that he has all of his individual equipment; that he has an adequate place to live; that he knows where key places such as the dining facility, hospital, chapel, and recreation facilities are located; and that he is shown the kind of caring essential for developing his loyalty to the company. 7. Early in his time in the company, after accomplishing most of the administrative and family details, the Marine goes through a thorough orientation process. During this orientation, he receives information that is common knowledge among the Marines already in the unit. This is a time for the commander or sponsor to tell the Marine about life in the unit and explain the rules. 8. This orientation may be done in a group or individually. If you use the group method, it is important that you also spend time in a face-to-face conversation with each Marine. Getting to know each Marine begins to build the trust necessary for company cohesion. Also, information communicated by the leadership team is reinforced by company members as the new Marine begins to fit into the unit. Some important areas to cover in the orientation include: a. Company values and standards, b. Mission and goals, c. Standard operating procedures (SOPs), d. Company history, and e. Upcoming training, inspection, and deployment schedules. 9. You should begin to communicate your standards during this orientation process and to reinforce them often during the Marines stay in the company. 10. The Marines contribution to mission accomplishment is learning, practicing, and becoming proficient in his job. When he joins the company, the Marine wants to know his assignment. He wants to know exactly what is expected of him and by what standards he can measure his accomplishment. These questions are best answered during orientation in a personal conversation with his immediate leader. In 2-24

discussing job expectations, the leader can highlight aspects of the job that will help the Marine to meet his own professional military goals. In every case, duty expectations should be related to team accomplishments. This allows the Marine to begin thinking as a team member and reinforces the leaders commitment to team development. 11. Another area to explain during orientation is the units SOP the way the unit operates. Your company should have a written SOP that each Marine reads when he first joins the company. It describes how the unit conducts day-to-day business. These are communicated directly by the platoon commander and the squad leader. This process is important because it shortens the time needed to become a working member of the team. If the leader communicates clearly in the beginning, fewer problems will arise later. The more routine knowledge the Marine has in the beginning, the quicker he feels comfortable in accomplishing the tasks at hand of preparing for combat. 12. The first events in a new Marines life in the company make critical and lasting impressions. Good, first impressions created by effective sponsorship and orientation programs begin to build that Marines trust and confidence in his new unit and his new leaders. 2205. DEVELOPING LEADERS 1. Developing leaders, whether we are talking about a new leader or maturing the ones who have already had some experience, means training leaders. The best strategy for developing leaders is the same one that we discussed for developing individual Marines. Assess each leaders leadership skills. See how he stands on the able and willing scale. Just because he has stripes or rockers doesnt automatically mean that he has the skills or is motivated. 2. Just as with individual skills, the development of individual leadership skills goes on all the time. Often, it wont appear on the training schedule. As a company commander, you must have a plan for developing your Lieutenants, and your First Sergeant must have a plan for developing his SNCOs and NCOs. The purpose of this section is to outline a program which develops initiative, confidence, and leadership in your NCOs. 3. During peacetime, permit freedom of action. Allow your subordinate leaders to gain experience in making decisions by permitting them freedom of action. To accomplish this objective, the NCO should be given authority to do a job on his own without supervision by his superiors. However, performance standards need not be lowered. Honest errors must be expected and corrected. In the process, subordinate leaders gain valuable experience and confidence which will minimize costly errors in combat. 4. Develop your NCOs to ensure that each is thoroughly aware of the importance and the responsibilities of his grade and the position within the leadership structure of your company. Emphasize the qualities of integrity, loyalty, efficiency, dependability, and fairness in developing and training your NCOs. Do not tolerate indifference to or abuse of authority. Take these actions to develop your NCOs and have them perform to the best of their abilities. a. Give NCOs every opportunity to exercise leadership. (1) Make assignments appropriate to their rank. (2) Give them authority to get the job done. The choice of personnel and methods should be left to the NCO, as long as he remains within reasonable bounds. If the NCO is hesitant, counsel and assist him. If he is repeatedly inefficient and ineffective, reduce him and replace him with a man who has proven capable. Remember, however, that the reduction of an NCO is a serious matter for the overall morale of your company.


(3) Give the NCO the resources (including time) to accomplish his responsibilities. He cannot be expected to care for his Marines and to keep their appearance high unless he is allotted time each day to inspect and to talk with them. b. Issue mission type orders rather than detailed orders. Tell the NCO what to do, and let him decide how best to accomplish the task. (1) Support the NCO in his decisions. If a decision is based upon poor judgment or false information and you are able to give him the guidance before any action is taken, do so. But, once he starts out to do something with a group of men, do not halt the operation unless serious or injurious results appear imminent. (2) Counsel the NCO privately concerning his mistakes after the job is finished. (3) Compliment or praise the NCO who does an assignment well. The officer must correct errors; but, fundamentally, he must be builder-upper. Make sharp distinction, however, between backing up a subordinate leader and granting him undue liberties. Primarily, this support is to increase operating efficiency. Never permit abuse of authority or disregard for directives. c. Adhere to the chain of command through use of your NCOs. (1) Do not officially deal with individual Marines as a regular practice. Talk to them and listen to them, but hold the NCO responsible for his Marines, and issue your instructions through him. (2) Assign the NCO responsibility for the state of discipline within his squad, section, or platoon. d. Let the NCO take charge whenever appropriate. Reduce the requirements for officer supervision or presence. (1) Employ NCOs as instructors to the maximum degree practicable. (a) Permit the squad leader to train his squad and the section chief to train his section; use the platoon sergeant to train the platoon. (b) Provide the necessary time and materials for the NCO to prepare himself properly for the job. (c) Task senior NCOs to train junior NCOs. (2) Exempt NCOs from attending repeated training in which they have demonstrated proficiency except as they are needed in a supervisory role. (3) Use NCOs in planning, in preparing, and in executing athletic, recreational, and social programs. (4) Charge NCOs with responsibility of preparing for inspections and the conduct of inspections whenever feasible. 5. Your NCOs comprise the first echelon of the chain of command that echelon having direct contact with your Marines. Because the NCOs exercise control over the detailed performance and conduct of the 2-26

Marines in your company, they are in the best position to maintain the standards that you set. The NCOs are the vital link in the chain of command when they are given command support, responsibility, and the authority and are allowed proper freedom of action. 6. Develop the following guides for NCO stature in your company: a. Do not promote undeserving men to NCO grade just to fill a promotion quota. Keep the NCO corps elite. b. Grant NCOs a greater voice in matters relative to Marine welfare in terms of assignment, reassignment, promotion, reduction, privileges, discipline, training, and supply. (1) Let the men know that the NCOs advice and counsel is used by the commander in arriving at decisions. (2) Obtain recommendations from NCOs concerning enlisted Marines within their units to be considered for promotion. (3) Give visibility to your support of NCOs. Do this by permitting them to accompany their men to your office when they are praised or disciplined for example. Solicit their recommendations and suggestions. Support them. They are under the greatest pressure from their men. Your NCOs may find it difficult to resist this pressure without your support. c. Demand NCO commitment to raise their own professional competence. Technical ability and leadership qualities can be improved through participation in professional military education programs. d. Keep NCOs informed of plans affecting the company. Train them to keep confidential information inviolate. e. Correct and discipline NCOs to protect them from degrading embarrassment in the presence of subordinates. f. Demand that all personnel, officers and enlisted, address others by their titles. Addressing NCOs by their last name, without reference to grade, is disrespectful. g. Encourage initiative, and do not worry about the NCO exceeding his authority before it actually happens. h. Show approval of jobs undertaken without suggestion. i. Quickly compliment the NCO on a job well done. Do not cheapen praise by extending it when it is not deserved, but do not withhold it from the man who has earned it. j. Give awards to recognize exceptional performance.

k. Place a high value on dependability. It is a vital quality in an NCO. Demand completion of every job started. Let it be known that what counts is mission accomplishment. l. Actively sell the NCOs to the men by holding them in obvious high regard.

m. Use senior NCOs to the maximum in the following capacities:


(1) Pit officers on KD ranges, (2) Safety personnel on ranges (under control of an officer-in-charge) (3) As members of the following boards/councils: (a) Awards and decorations (in cases involving enlisted men), (b) Enlisted promotion boards, (c) Marines of the Month/Quarter Awards, (d) Enlisted Club Advisory Council, and (e) NCO Club Advisory Council. 2206. BUILDING TEAMWORK 1. What wins in combat is the skill and will of individual Marines molded into a cohesive, spirited team. With combat and weapons systems becoming more and more complex, teamwork has become the deciding factor on the battlefield. This is why you, the company commander, should build skill, will, and teamwork in your company. This is also why your sixth principle of leadership holds you responsible to train your Marines as a team. In this section, we will discuss the sixth principle in detail. 2. Teamwork is essentially the business of putting things together. This putting things together is the responsibility of the leaders in your company. Fire team leaders put together the individual skills of the Marines and build a team. Squad leaders put together three fire teams and build a larger team called a squad. Platoon Commanders put together three squads and build and even larger team called a platoon. You, the company commander, put platoons and sections together to form a much larger team called the company. 3. The kind of teamwork needed to win in combat is complex. Every Marine depends on every other Marine. As the leader of this team, your challenge is to coordinate and to control the actions of your platoon so that all the actions of your company fit together. 4. You coordinate and control what your platoons do through your chain of command your platoon commanders. However, the best way to develop the kind of teamwork necessary for success in combat is to build control into individual Marines and the teams themselves. Do this through continuous training and critiquing. You drill over and over again until Marines learn where, when, and how they are dependent on one another; they practice until working together teamwork becomes instinct. 5. How do you build a team? First, lets look at an overall team-building strategy and then at several techniques for doing what your sixth principle of leadership indicates training your Marines as a team. a. You must have an overall leadership strategy for building a team. It must demonstrate your way of operating, and it should have at least two requirements. First, you must, on a daily basis, do things and say things that will convince each team member that the other team members and the team as a whole depend on him to get their work done. b. Second, you must do and say things daily to convince individual Marines that their wants, needs, hopes, and goals are tied to the teams performance and success. In building teams, your leaders must convince each Marine that he is an essential part of your team and convince each team member that the other team members and the team as a whole depend on him to get the work done. 2-28

6. Building the complex team that successful combat requires is tough. It takes time to plan ahead and to know your Marines. Beyond this general leadership strategy, there is no step-by-step procedure for a company commander to use. A few good team-building techniques from experience and research follow. a. TRAINING. As already stated, the best way to develop teamwork is through training. Always critique drills. We must discuss team performance and how each team member contributed, or failed to contribute, to the teams performance. We should also specify places where the coordination of individuals and teams worked and didnt work. b. WORKING BY TEAMS. Do assigned tasks by teams, rather than by details. You and your First Sergeant can do a lot about this. Next time you put a working part together, send a fire team or squad with its own team leader instead of a detail made up of Marines from throughout the company. Marines working as a team, with their own leader, can do twice as much work as a detail. In short, wherever you or your leader must form your Marines, brief them. Move your Marines; critique them; feed them; billet them, and do it the same way you would have your Marines fight in combat, as a team. Performance as a team in training drills and in combat will be much better with Marines living and working as a team in day-to-day activities. c. PERSONNEL STABILITY. The most important level of control for developing teamwork through stabilization is the Company Commander First Sergeant team. These two Marines should develop their manning and training plans with the constant thought of keeping as many teams as stable as possible. Up in your company office somewhere is a manning board. It is probably nothing more than a chart covered by acetate, but it is a key tool for building and maintaining teamwork. (1) The First Sergeant and your platoon commanders will be making recommendations about who goes where, but you will be making the decisions. Never move a name around without first thinking about the effect on teamwork and the team. When you move names around in an attempt to even out strength figures, you may be doing the same thing the Lieutenant does when he evens up his platoon formation. The board may look better, but the unit may work less effectively because youve unintentionally destroyed some of its teamwork. Each time you move a name, youre really moving a man, and youre moving him out of his family. Keep personnel moves to an absolute minimum, and always first consider the effect on that team of which the Marine is a part. (2) To minimize turbulence due to promotion of Marines to fill vacant team leader slots, each unit should maintain an order of merit list for all team leader designees. This list should be based on an analysis by you and your chain of command based on that Marines leadership, knowledge, and overall demonstrated performance. Each new team leader should be chosen from that list. d. STRESS. High stress and heavy pressures applied to the team as a whole during training will build teamwork. The key is to do it right. Events, exercises, and activities that are extreme challenges and that demand an all-out effort by the team and each team member will build teamwork. e. REWARD OR PUNISH THE TEAM. Whenever you supervise a task or mission that requires a high degree of teamwork, you should try to gear your supervision, critique, reward, and punishment to what the team does more than what the individual Marines do. Do it in a way so that each Marine can see clearly that what he wants most depends more on what the team does than what he does. f. TALK TEAM LANGUAGE. This is a simple, effective way for you to build teamwork. Start by using WE, US, and OUR instead of I, ME, and MY. When you start setting the example with your language, your other leaders will follow. 2-28

g. BUILD TEAM REPUTATION. Any Marine worth a damn will work hard to live up to his reputation. So will a team. Whenever a team does something that is both unusual and good and when the members do it as a team, all the leadership of the unit should know about it. When this happens three or four times, the word will get back to the team. At that point, theyll find out that they do have a reputation to live up to. 7. SUMMARY. Now, youve got a simple strategy and some simple how-tos for building a team. All of them are easy, common-sense things to do. Will they work? Find an athletic team that nearly always wins. Read up on it a little, how it works inside, and what the coach does. What youll find is this strategy and most of these same how-tos. 2207. MORALE 1. You will be asked many times by your Battalion Commander and by other visitors: How is morale in your company? The question leads to a discussion of many things and usually ends in an agreement that morale is Excellent. But in fact, morale is more excellent in some units than in others. 2. What is morale? Morale is a state of mind. It is that intangible force that will move a Marine to give his last ounce of effort to achieve something, without regard to the cost to himself. It is the quality which makes Marines endure and be courageous in times of fatigue and danger. 3. Although morale is a complex and intangible quality, it must have a solid basis in leadership, discipline, and comradeship. a. Morale is based on leadership. Good morale is impossible without good leaders. They provide Marines a feeling of confidence, trust, well-being, and accomplishment. b. Good discipline conquers fear and unites Marines into a cohesive unit. This discipline creates a body strong enough to carry its members through dangers and difficulties which they would be unable to face alone. In this way, good discipline promotes comradeship which is the next factor of good morale. c. Comradeship is vital to high morale because it surrounds a Marine with a feeling of confidence and strength at the very moments when he is feeling uncertain and weak. Comradeship is based on affection and trust which produce a great antidote to fear. Comradeship gives a Marine friends who will provide strength in combat from their presence; he will not be anxious to let them down. 4. The contributing factors listed below influence your companys morale. Alone, they do not produce good morale. Most of the things that impact on morale are expected by Marines as a matter of course. Therefore, the presence of them does not necessarily add to morale, but everyone quickly notices the absence of any of them; it adversely affects morale. a. EFFICIENT OPERATIONS. We all want to be part of a company where things run smoothly, where things are planned, and where Marines do not have to hurry up and wait. The basis for efficiency is prior planning, thorough organization, and continuing supervision. b. GOOD COMMUNICATION. Marines want to be informed ahead of time as to things that will or might affect them. It is far better for you to keep your Marines informed rather than to have them seek information. Marines will enter into any activity, including combat, with determination and enthusiasm if they know their purpose. c. REALISTIC TRAINING. If a company is not trained well, the Marines know it. This 2-30

adversely affects their confidence, especially if they anticipate using that training in a combat situation. Every Marine wants to feel that he is a part of a winning team. He knows the company cant win if it isnt trained well. d. OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROMOTION. Getting promoted raises the morale of all Marines. Knowing that there is an opportunity for advancement and that only excellence in leadership and performance leads to promotion in your company helps to build morale. e. GOOD PHYSICAL CONDITION. Good physical condition goes hand-in-hand with good mental condition. These two elements are basic to achieving good morale. f. GOOD ADMINISTRATION. Men like to know that the administration in their unit is good, that their pay accounts and individual records are correct, that the date they are due for promotion will not be overlooked, and that their allotments are going through on schedule. These matters are very personal to a man and affect his confidence in his company. g. CONFIDENCE IN THEIR WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT. We are the best equipped warriors in the world. There is always better equipment under development than there is in the hands of troops. There would be no progress unless that were true. The down-talking of our equipment as being obsolete or statements that we do not have the latest and best are detrimental to morale. h. CONFIDENCE IN LEADERS. Men expect their leaders to know their jobs, to share the hardships with them, and to take a personal interest in their problems. The men like to see their leaders where things are going on, when the weather is bad, or when the night is dark and wet. i. COMFORTABLE QUARTERS. With a little encouragement, men will fix up comfortable quarters under almost any condition. They should always be made as comfortable as the circumstances permit. j. GOOD CHOW. There is no excuse in the Corps for other than good mess. Where messes are not good, command attention is lacking. k. GOOD MAIL SERVICE. The importance of this should be apparent to all. A Marine counts on his mail and looks forward with anticipation on every mail call. l. GOOD MEDICAL ATTENTION. Confidence in our corpsman is of tremendous importance to any unit, especially to a combat unit. m. POST EXCHANGE (PX) FACILITIES. The PX gives the Marine a source of necessities and little luxuries so that he can vary the routine of issue items and have some things he desires. The PX should stock items that Marines need. If not, talk to the manager, and get corrective action. n. LEAVE AND LIBERTY. A constant and well-implemented policy in such matters provides breaks in routine which are most beneficial. The leave program should be planned so that each Marine knows approximately when he is going on leave. He can then plan for it. o. RELIGIOUS SERVICES. It is important in all environments and conditions that Marines be provided facilities for religious services. p. AWARDS. Recognition of good work is a most important part of good morale. A good commander is always alert to search out and to recognize good work.


q. HIGH STANDARDS. Marines like to be in a sharp unit. They appreciate the achievement of high standards in discipline, personal appearance, police, maintenance, training, and athletics. The lift in morale that comes from impressive military ceremonies is also an important factor. 5. INDICATORS OF MORALE a. Saluting b. Appearance c. Good housekeeping, police d. Pride e. Personal conduct, incidents f. Care of equipment

g. Unauthorized absences h. Reenlistment rates i. j. Sick call rate NJP, courts-martial rates

k. Requests to transfer 6. SUMMARY. The morale of a Marine company is influenced by many factors. It may well be summed up in one word, confidence. Marines must have confidence in their training, equipment, leadership, in themselves as a company, and in the support from home. You must ensure that your Marines do an important job well and receive recognition for it. So long as this is accomplished, there is a general feeling of confidence, well-being, and progress in your company; and your report that morale is excellent will be sound. 2208. DISCIPLINE 1. ATTITUDE. Discipline is the individual or group attitude that ensures prompt obedience to orders and initiation of appropriate action in the absence of orders. It is an attitude that keeps your Marines doing what they are supposed to do when they are supposed to do it through strong inner conviction. Good discipline is constant and functions whether or not outside pressure or supervision is present. It is the result of good training and intelligent leadership. 2. INDICATORS OF DISCIPLINE a. Attention to detail b. Good relations between company members c. Devotion to duty d. Proper senior-subordinate relationships 2-32

e. Proper conduct on and off duty f. Adherence to standards of cleanliness, dress, and military courtesy

g. Promptness in responding to orders h. Adherence to the chain of command i. Ability and willingness to perform effectively with little or no supervision

3. WAYS TO IMPROVE DISCIPLINE a. Set the example be self-disciplined and consistent. b. Strive for competent, confident leadership throughout your company. c. Ensure that principles of leadership are practiced by all leaders. d. Institute a fair and an impartial system of rewards and punishments. e. Resort to punitive measures only when necessary to protect the rights of individuals, the government, and the standards of the Marine Corps. f. Develop mutual trust and confidence through tough, stressful training. Challenge subordinates according to their capabilities. g. Encourage and foster the development of self-discipline. h. Be aware of conditions conducive to breaches of discipline and eliminate them where possible. i. Eliminate or reduce meaningless tasks and assignments. j. Rotate personnel assigned to menial tasks.

k. Provide guidance and assistance, but dont over supervise. l. Set high performance standards.

m. Encourage innovation, and support your subordinates. 2209. ESPRIT DE CORPS 1. CONTRIBUTING FACTORS. One of the factors which contributes to high morale is the loyalty to, pride in, and enthusiasm for the company shown by its members. Whereas morale refers to the Marines attitude, esprit de corps is the unit spirit. It is the common spirit reflected by all members of a unit and provides group solidarity. It implies devotion, loyalty to the unit and all for which it stands, and a deep regard for the units history, traditions, and honor. Esprit de corps is the units personality and expresses the units will to fight and to win in spite of seemingly insurmountable odds. Esprit de corps depends on the satisfaction the members get from belonging to a unit, their attitudes toward other members of the unit, and confidence in their leaders. 2. INDICATORS OF ESPRIT DE CORPS 2-33

a. Expressions from the Marines that show enthusiasm for and pride in the company. b. A good reputation among other companies c. A strong competitive spirit d. Willing participation by the members in company activities e. Pride in the history and traditions of the company 3. WAYS TO IMPROVE ESPRIT DE CORPS a. Be the symbol of the fighting spirit you want to develop. b. Start new people off right by ensuring their welcome into and reception by the unit. Include an explanation of the units history, traditions, and its present mission and activity. c. Train your Marines as a team. d. Develop the feeling that the company as a team must succeed.

e. Instruct them in history and traditions. f. Develop your Marines to the very finest physical condition, and train them to perfection in military skills. g. Recognize and publish the achievements of the company and members. Reinforce all successes. h. Use appropriate and proper ceremonies, slogans, and symbols. i. j. Use competition wisely to develop a team concept; try to win in every competition. Employ your company according to its capabilities

k. Use decorations and awards properly. l. Make your Marines feel that they are invincible, that no power can defeat them, and that the success of the Corps and country depends on them and the victory of their unit. 2210. COHESION 1. Cohesion is the product of bonding that Marines have with each other, with their leaders, and with their company. Combat studies and research have demonstrated that members of cohesive units are more resistant to psychological breakdown due to battlefield stress. Marines, who develop cohesive bones with one another, feel supported and collectively stronger and are protected against feelings of isolation on the battlefield. Bonding with leaders and the unit confers identity, security, purpose, feelings of personal significance, and sense of strength and competency. Cohesion is one of the foundations of combat power and is a prerequisite for developing a capability for independent small unit operations. 2. Psychological readiness for combat is comprised of five dimensions: horizontal cohesion, vertical cohesion, individual morale, confidence in company combat capability and confidence in leaders. Horizontal cohesion is a bonding within the company that develops from shared experiences and 2-34

interdependence in achieving commonly valued goals. Vertical cohesion is a product of interactions between subordinates and their leaders. Vertical cohesion develops to the extent that leaders convince their Marines that they are competent to lead them through danger, that they respect their subordinates and will take care of them, and that they share their subordinates dedication to the mission. 3. WAYS TO BUILD COHESION a. POSITIVE, COMPETENT LEADERSHIP. Marines desire leaders who are confident, who know their business, and who care about their Marines. b. STABILITY. It begins with successful integration of the Marine into his new unit and continues from there. It requires time in the fireteam and squad without transfer. This time and demanding training allows affection, trust, confidence, and respect to grow among the Marines. c. FOCUS ON THE MISSION. Marines want to believe that their hard work and sacrifice are designed to develop a solid combat capability. Leaders who share this deliberately narrow focus, who work to strengthen their own and their Marines combat readiness, and who are able to shield their Marines from non-mission related duties, strengthen bonding within their unit. d. RESPECT. Leaders who lead cohesive units fundamentally respect their Marines. Leaders in cohesive companies are particularly careful in keeping their Marines informed not only about plans, schedules, and decisions but also of the reasons behind them. They give their subordinates responsibility for missions as soon as they were capable of taking them on, and they treat Marines as valuable members of the team. 2211. LEADERSHIP SKILLS 1. PLANNING. Your company, like all Marine Corps units, has a finite amount of energy, time, money, and other resources. You can get the most from all of your resources, and do all assigned tasks efficiently with an absolute minimum of stress and crisis management with good, thorough planning. The Estimate of the Situation is the best tool for analyzing the situation and helping you to get the right things done efficiently. The following are some guidelines for proper planning: a. If time permits, involve others in your planning. Who has the necessary skills and expertise to help you? b. Identify the alternatives that you think might help you to accomplish the mission. c. Identify the essential steps contained in each alternative. d. Put those essential steps in order of priority. e. Determine when each step must be complete to accomplish the mission on time. f. Closely consider any of the steps that could go wrong.

g. For each alternative, develop a plan to cover the things that could go wrong. Expect them to go wrong. h. Implement your plan. Remember: Winners make things happen, losers let things happen!


2. TIME MANAGEMENT. Time is a critical resource to a company commander; it can never be replaced. Therefore, plan and manage time carefully. Some of the most important decisions you will make as a company commander will be on the use of your time and that of your subordinates. a. One myth about time management is that the harder you work the more you get done. Unfortunately, there is not necessarily a direct relationship between hard work and positive accomplishments. Therefore, it is much better to work smarter than harder. b. Another myth is that the person who is apparently very active or works long hours accomplishes a lot. However, as company commander, you are judged by results achieved not by time spent or energy expended. Therefore, to have successful results, manage your time and people effectively. c. The following are some guidelines for proper time management: (1) Obtain, from the supply system, a month-in-sight calendar and a calendar that allows you to record scheduled events on a daily basis. (2) Keep your calendar up-to-date at all times. Record new events as soon as possible on the calendar. (3) Carry a things-to-do notebook in your pocket. Identify the task and write it in your book. After you complete a task, cross it out, and record the date and time when you accomplish it. (4) Early every day, review your monthly calendar and your things-to-do notebook. When you have a lot to do in a day, write out a list of things-to-do today, and list them by priority. Try to do them in that order. (5) Set aside a specific time each day to spend with your Marines, regardless of your other commitments. (6) Set aside time during the day to do paperwork. Always do your paperwork during this period except when an emergency prevents it. Try not to spend more than 4 hours per day in your office. (7) Establish time limits for your meetings. Dont let them run over this limit. (8) When there is a time conflict, establish your priorities based on your missions. High priority activities must come first. (9) Remember, time wasted is time lost. Plan to use every minute of every day to the fullest. There are just too many things that you must do to prepare your Marines to fight and to win. You must take control and effectively plan to use all of your time to maximum advantage. 3. CONDUCTING A MEETING. A well-planned and well-conducted meeting can greatly improve the effectiveness of your company. It enables you to clarify more effectively the mission of your company, to determine goals, to motivate your Marines, to obtain resources, to make assignments, and to deal with change.


a. Meetings are time-consuming and sometimes do not accomplish the purpose for which they are held. After determining the necessity for a meeting, follow these simple rules to make it as productive as possible. (1) Schedule the meeting, and establish an agenda which will allow input from those in attendance. (2) Determine the purpose of the meeting, e.g., disseminate, clarify information, etc. (3) Start meetings on time and set a time limit. Make the meeting short, early in the day, and without chairs. (4) Follow the agenda. (5) Ensure that participants are fully prepared for input when required. (6) Summarize the meeting at the end, including matters covered and any assignments resulting from it. (7) Record the results to inform those who could not attend. b. Call company meetings only when they are ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY. 4. COMMUNICATIONS. Control of your company depends on effective communications. Faulty communications contribute to most unit problems. A leaders communication skills either help or hinder him in all his other skills. a. Communication is the exchange or flow of information and ideas from one person or group to another person or group. The process of communication involves a sender transmitting an idea to a receiver. Effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the exact information or idea that the sender intended to transmit. b. The communication process enables you to coordinate, supervise, evaluate, teach, coach, and to counsel. First an idea or information exists in the mind of the sender. He encodes the idea or information into words or other symbols and transmits them to the receiver. The receiver then decodes the words or symbols into a concept of information. If this concept or information is the same as the idea or information in the mind of the sender, communication has been effective. c. If the unit is to function effectively, the information must flow quickly, must be accurate, and must get to all parts of the unit. If the flow up, down, and laterally is not continuous, accurate, and timely, the company cannot be coordinated. It will lurch along awkwardly. Union of the various parts of a unit results only through a union of information and action. d. A persons beliefs, values, character, needs, experience, education, and goals combine to form a frame of reference. This frame of reference acts as a filter through which he sees and hears. Since we all have unique combinations of these factors, our filters cause us to see and to hear the same situation differently. With this awareness of each persons unique frame of reference, let us discuss several factors that may cause a breakdown in or distortion of communications. (1) Differences in grade or level in the chain of command can block effective communications between people.


(2) To ensure that differences in rank and echelon are not barriers to communication, leaders have an obligation to communicate their frames of reference to subordinates clearly. A persons frame of reference governs the way he thinks, plans, and acts. Subordinates need to know the values, goals, and ways the leader thinks so that they can plan accordingly and use their initiative when out of contact with the leader. This knowledge also helps subordinates to determine what information the leader wants and needs. Likewise, leaders must also learn the frames of reference of their subordinates. (3) Communication problems also arise when people do not listen to one another. They may be so concerned about their own ideas, emotions, and what they want to say that they do not listen. f. Commanders seem to take it almost for granted that the impulse to send a message or to impart useful information is so automatic in the average Marine that it requires almost no special cultivation. Nothing could be further from the fact! It is a common tendency to smother information in combat and peace. Recognize it. Train to overcome it. Teach your people the importance of communication and how to communicate when under stress. g. The following guidelines will assist you in avoiding or overcoming barriers to communication: (1) Sense what seniors, subordinates, and peers need to know to do their jobs. Leaders at all levels must put themselves in the shoes and situation of other Marines. They need to see the battle or the training from the eyes of their seniors, their subordinates, peers on their flanks, and support personnel. A company commander who has this ability will immediately sense the information that his battalion commander must have to direct all parts of the battalion. He will also be sensitive to the information squad leaders and platoon leaders must have to achieve platoon and company missions. You must have accurate information on each platoons situation to assist and to coordinate the actions of all the platoons. However, you should not divert a leaders attention from mission accomplishment by nagging him for information. On the other hand, subordinate unit leaders must provide timely, accurate information so that you can coordinate the overall unit activities. Information flow must be planned for and encouraged through the ranks. Communication ensures that decisions will be made from the knowledge of the situation rather than from the void. (2) Understand how stress affects communication. You need to understand clearly the human tendencies under stress that create communication problems. Be aware that different people do not see the same reality when they look at a situation or read a message. What each of us sees at a given moment is influenced by our psychological frames of reference our beliefs, values, character, knowledge, past experience, goals, and fears. (a) People do not always see reality. They see what they perceive to be reality. Unfortunately, peoples perceptions, especially under stress, are often far from reality. Under stress, people tend to see the situation as worse than it is. (b) In battle, Marines tend to use words like heavy shelling, intense fire, or strong resistance. But these terms mean different things to different people. Marines at all levels need to be clear and concise in their communication. Prepare your Marines to deal with stress and its effect on communication through tough, realistic training.


(3) Teach and demand accurate reporting. You have to be aware of the human tendencies that distort reality. You must cut through them and get correct information which corresponds with reality. If something is not known as a fact, do not report it as such. Report it as whatever it is a perception, belief, opinion, or assumption. Teach your Marines to report matters exactly as they know them based on what they see and hear. (4) Aim at your target before you shoot your message. You want the target of your communication to receive and to understand your message. Put yourself in place of the target with the same frame of reference and situation. Then you can form the content and tone of the message better so that it hits the target. People tend to make the mistake of communicating from their own situations and frameworks, rather than to the framework of the target person. (5) Use several channels of communication to relay information, since it can easily be filtered or blocked. Repeat important communications to ensure that they get to all parts of the unit. The following are channels of communication: (a) Announcements at formations are easy and quick; they reach a large group at once. However, they are not always reliable and should not be the sole channel for communications. Some Marines will be present; some might not listen, and some may not understand. Also, feedback on whether or not the message is understood is limited when Marines are in formation. Announcements are best for short and easy-to-understand messages, or reinforcing messages already sent through the chain of command. (b) Your chain of command must form a cohesive and harmonious team to communicate clear messages. Strong bonds of trust, confidence, respect, and understanding among all leaders in the company lead to an effective command communications channel. (c) The leadership team must prevent change in the meaning, content, and importance of messages on the way up or down the chain or laterally. The leadership team of a unit is made up of people. No matter how good each person on the team is, each has his own unique framework for seeing and hearing. Therefore, the potential for blocking and distorting communications is always present. You must know this and continually check to ensure that accurate information is flowing through the leadership team to the Marines. (d) Informal groups shape morale and influence values. People in informal groups are linked by the bonds of friendship. Their communication net operates quickly and directly. If informal groups support the chain of command, they can promote effective communication and control the ill effects of rumors. (e) Informal conversations or feedback sessions. Informal conversations are good ways of communicating to your subordinates and of receiving feedback from them on conditions affecting cohesion, discipline, morale, and unit effectiveness. (f) Electronic forms of communication. An advantage to using email is that you can disseminate information quickly with extensive background, however, the receiver of an email may take the tone and/or emphasis in an email differently than what was intended by the sender. A common obstacle to using email communication is the accessibility to computer workstations for all of your Marines and access limitations. (6) Ensure that accurate information flows laterally as well as vertically. You expect higher headquarters to keep you informed about your flanks; but in the heat of battle, you must actively seek flanking units using your own initiative and share information on strength and intentions. 2-38

5. COUNSELING. Developing Marines to their highest potential is a basic responsibility of every commander. It is accomplished by counseling. Counseling involves a two-way communication between a senior Marine and a subordinate to help the subordinate to achieve and to maintain the highest level of performance. a. MCO 1610.12 provides the policy for the Marine Corps Counseling Program. It establishes five objectives for the program: (1) Maintain counseling as an integral and continuous part of traditional Marine leadership. (2) Develop counseling skills through a continuing education program that teaches the importance of daily coaching and that provides the tools to conduct effective counseling. (3) Increase individual performance and productivity through counseling, and thereby increase unit readiness and effectiveness. (4) Enhance the leaders ability to improve the juniors performance. (5) Create the ethics of effective counseling in a climate of solid leadership, and provide a system to enhance that ethic. b. The order provides the following direction: (1) Every Marine will receive counseling; however, the format and frequency will vary. (2) Counseling will begin whenever a new senior-to-junior relationship is established. (3) Counseling for lance corporals and below will occur every 30 days. (4) Counseling for corporals and above will begin with an initial counseling session approximately 30 days after the start of the senior-to-junior relationship. A follow-on session will then occur approximately 90 days after the initial counseling session, and subsequent sessions will occur every 6 months at a minimum and more frequently, if necessary. c. While performance evaluations focus on past performance, counseling focuses on improving and maintaining future performance. As such, counseling should be a regular and continuing process. Counseling may be conducted formally or informally. It can be planned and scheduled, or it may occur spontaneously. To be effective, however, it must be viewed as an integral part of day-to-day leadership. Thus, counseling is separated from performance evaluation, although the two processes are complementary. d. It is also important to distinguish performance counseling from personal counseling. While personal counseling is also part of the leaders responsibility, it focuses on helping a Marine to solve personal problems. Personal problems may be addressed during the performance counseling process or handled separately in a personal counseling session. 6. PERFORMANCE COUNSELING. NAVMC 2795, Users Guide to Counseling, presents an effective performance counseling program. In addition to the guidelines mentioned above, it also covers the steps used to conduct a counseling session and in-depth review of performance counseling practices.


a. Performance counseling is a necessary leadership activity; it clarifies unit goals, enhances subordinate motivation, is essential to the development of individual potential, and increases unit effectiveness. Performance counseling provides Marines with information about their current job performance and assistance to improve their future job performance. Performance counseling is based on the following good leadership practices which demand that: (1) Subordinates be informed of their responsibilities and the standards of performance expected of them at the time they are assigned to their duties; (2) Subordinates be provided feedback on how they are measuring up to their responsibilities and standards on an as required basis; (3) Subordinates performance be reviewed with them formally every 6 months or less; (4) The subordinates knowledge and skills be developed; and (5) Subordinates know how their jobs and work contributes to the overall objectives of their unit and the Marine Corps. b. At a minimum, leaders should provide performance guidance to their Marines on the following occasions: (1) On initial assignment to new responsibilities (The units goals and methods of operation should be formally discussed as well as the Marines job responsibilities and performance standards to be achieved if the individual is to be an effective team member.) and, (2) As necessary, in formal or informal discussions concerning the Marines work progress, explanations/demonstrations of proper or improved work methods/procedures, and other assistance to help him attain a high level of job knowledge, skill and performance. 7. PERSONAL COUNSELING. If a Marine has a personal problem, leaders must become involved in helping to find solutions. Failure by a leader to be concerned with his subordinates welfare can result in the reduction of unit morale and effectiveness, and thus jeopardize the mission. Leaders have the responsibility to ensure that subordinates perform duties effectively. Help them find solutions to individual problems which impair their performance. a. As a company commander, you must be aware of personal assistance funds, service welfare provisions and agencies, and the many orders and regulations which affect a Marines personal life. Your subordinates in many cases will require help in gaining access to the necessary information and in interpreting that information to meet their situation. Your role as a leader is as follows: (1) Be available, and ensure that your subordinates know you are available to help with any problems. (2) Develop the ability to listen. (3) Resist any tendencies to sit in judgment. (4) Ensure that your subordinates know that raising a problem will not affect his or her career except when specified by orders and regulations. (5) Maintain strict confidentiality, except where orders and regulations, or the best interests of the individual or the service specify otherwise. 2-40

b. Whether the leader initiates corrective action or is asked for assistance, the approach to the problem must be the same. The leader must give assistance to help subordinates discover the best possible solution. c. Personal counseling is a process of listening and of communicating advice, instruction, or judgment with the intent of influencing a persons attitude or behavior. The goal of counseling is to assist the Marine in adjusting to various circumstances which affect his psychological well-being. To achieve this goal the leader must relate to the Marine and help him in some way. 8. GENERAL COUNSELING TECHNIQUES. Counseling is an important leadership tool which requires considerable knowledge, skill, and practice. a. Skillful counseling is an art that requires training and experience and, most of all, practice. Develop a style that is most comfortable for you and fits your personality; but avoid using the same techniques for all people and for all purposes because no one will ever be the same. b. Establishing rapport is essential. The overall quality of the relationship is important. Each visit with your Marines is a building block for further relations. Any time the leader sees one of his Marines, or a group of Marines, it is a counseling situation to the extent that an opportunity exists. c. Counseling can occur in many forms it can range from comments during inspections, to a chewing out, or to a commendation. It can come as a good job scribbled on a piece of paper or as notes indicating rewrite, a formal one-to-one private session; a casual comment made in the dining facility, or a bit of humor implying a subtle message at a meeting. Some leaders are very clear and precise; some deal only in abstracts. Marines can easily misinterpret the various signals coming from their leader. The burden rests on the leader to clarify communications. d. One of the first steps in good counseling is to create the impression that you are available to your Marines, are receptive to their needs, and are concerned for their welfare. Create the atmosphere that will enable the Marine to feel that he can voluntarily go to his leader and discuss the problem. The quality of the relationship is of utmost importance. e. Encourage the Marine to talk. Counseling is a form of communications which is most effective when it is two-way. It is not enough for you to understand your Marine; you must also give him the feeling that you are sincerely trying to help him. The best way to find out what the other person wants to say is to listen, and the best counseling session is usually the one in which the leader talks the least. Listening is more than just not talking it requires an active effort to convey that you understand and are interested in what the person is saying. A friendly expression and an attentive but relaxed attitude are important. Make use of phrases such as, Can you give me an example? or Could you tell me more? (1) Encourage a Marine to talk by summarizing the feelings that he has expressed. (a) For example: Marine: I dont like my job. I dont think Im fit for it. Im always making mistakes. Im disgusted. You reply as the leader: You feel you arent making progress? (b) Such a summary shows the Marine that you are giving his ideas careful consideration and that you understand him. It gives the Marine a chance to restate, to elaborate, or to clarify his attitudes. It serves to highlight what the Marine has really been saying. 2-41

(2) Silence can be used to help a Marine to talk by merely waiting through his pause. You indicate that you have nothing to say at the moment and that you want him to continue talking. Another way to encourage a Marine to continue talking after he has come to a temporary halt is to repeat his last phrase; your response will encourage him to continue his thoughts and does not commit you in any sense. (3) One way to make a counseling session more productive is to build on what a Marine has already said. By repeating certain words selected from what he has said, you can indicate that you would like him to talk more about this particular area. For example, a probe could be: Could you tell me more about? or I am interested in what you said about f. The leader must be careful not to place himself in the position of appearing to be the allknowing judge and end up treating the Marine like a child. (1) Avoid responses like the following: You really blew that one, or That sure was stupid why did you do a stupid thing like that? (2) The Marine already knows that he has a problem or he wouldnt be there talking to you in the first place. Empathy is more than just a word. He needs encouragement not censure, a vote of confidence not destruction. As a general rule, much more can be gained by praise than by criticism. During a counseling session, avoid giving any indication that what the Marine says either pleases or displeases you. Refrain from passing judgment because criticizing or moralizing puts the Marine on the defensive, and he will begin to edit what he says to win your approval. He may concentrate on proving hes right rather than giving an honest evaluation. g. Most leaders tend to correct a subordinate when he says something that is obviously wrong to set the Marine straight on what he may say. If you yield to this temptation, he may just clam up and not discuss the problem. If you continue to listen, however, he may move into genuine problems and difficulties that he finds more troublesome to discuss. At the conclusion of the counseling session, you can take the opportunity to correct any obviously wrong statements the Marine has made. He will then be more receptive and understand where he has been wrong. h. A Marine comes to see you and is very upset. Depending upon the circumstances and location, can you let him blow off steam so that you can eventually get to the heart of the problem? Or do you get angry and tell him to shut up? The result no help and increased frustration; instead of releasing tension, it becomes bottled up and compounded. You end up chewing him out, and he leaves apparently somewhat timid; but whats going on inside (anger and resentment), and how does it affect him and his family? Perhaps this is one of the causes of phones being ripped off, trash all over the area, assaults the person displaces his anger on something or someone else, perhaps even his wife and kids. A chain reaction can easily result. Anger is a very powerful emotion and usually breeds more anger resulting in destructiveness. It is a simple thing to allow the Marine to let off steam, to discover hes made a fool of himself, to apologize, and to thank you for listening rather than to have him leave your office with his problems compounded. i. Frequently, a Marine will present a minor problem to test you because he may not be certain that he can trust you with the major problem. This isnt necessarily because hes suspicious, but it could be very embarrassing for him to discuss the problem, particularly if it is a deeply involved personal one. The manner in which you respond to the initial problem can discourage him or pave the way for discussion of the major problem. If you criticize or make him feel stupid or ashamed, he may stop and never reveal the main concern.


j. In some counseling situations, it is enough to find out how the Marine feels about a certain problem and what the essential facts are as he sees them. In other cases, however, you may wish to help him devise a solution to a problem he may have. One way to do this without seeming to impose your own ideas on him is to encourage him to list all alternative courses of action without judging which is better. You could then go over each alternative one by one, asking, What would happen if you did this? Your objective is to encourage the Marine to make a systematic and open-minded examination of each alternative. You may succeed in helping him to come to a conclusion that is his, not yours. If it is his, he will be much more likely to act on it. He must remain responsible for his problems. k. There are times when you must face reality, and let the person know the facts. (1) If the Marine doesnt have the capability, his techniques are bad, or hes not measuring up to standards, he must be told; do so firmly, fairly, and as gentlemanly as the occasion permits. It is difficult to critique a person on his shortcomings and simultaneously give him confidence. Not all Marines respond to the same method. The leader who knows his Marines will generally be able to select the best approach. KNOW YOUR MARINES. - I noticed there was some difficulty on drilling the squad today. What do you think we need to do in this area? (2) Emphasizing we so that he will feel youre with him and not against him takes away some of the sting of the constructive comments. This approach allows him to talk, gives him the opportunity to admit his problem areas, opens the conversation up for revealing problem areas, and enables you to provide necessary expertise for setting him in the right direction. l. One of the most frequent errors made by inexperienced counselors is transforming the counseling session into a game of 20 questions. The problem is usually more complex than it seems at first glance, and direct questions tend to narrow it down too quickly. Direct questions often imply the kind of answer the leader wants and may give the subordinate an easy way out. Did you have trouble starting your car? provides a ready excuse for a Marine reporting late for duty. If possible, avoid questions that can be answered with a simple yes or no. The leader rarely knows the right questions to ask; if he did, he would probably know the answers as well. To complicate matters, many subordinates try to say what they think will please their superiors. If you want to find out what the Marine really has on his mind, you must leave the situation as free as possible. Direct questions, unless necessary for seeking information as frequently used in interview techniques, can also tend to pin a person down, make him uncomfortable, and even result in his not fully revealing the root of the problem. Consequently, only partial assistance can be given, and the basic problem often remains unresolved neither the Marine nor the counselor confronts the real problem. A more subtle approach is needed with gentle probing indirectly applied by such questions as follows: - Would you care to clarify that for me? - You said your wife hates you? m. A leader might ask: How can I solve somebody elses problems when I cant even solve my own? He cant. The purpose of counseling is not to solve a persons problems but to help him to solve his own problems. Too often, the concerned leader unknowingly causes harm by telling the follower what to do instead of helping him work out the problem for himself and reach his own decisions. DEVELOP A SENSE OF RESPONSIBILITY AMONG YOUR SUBORDINATES. Be careful not to become overly involved in the helping process. Your subordinates must learn to stand on their own two feet and take responsibility for their own personal problems. Sympathetic listening and straight-forward, problem solving is the best approach. 2-43

n. Dont always expect to know what to do in every situation. Dont feel embarrassed if you dont know how to handle the case. Dont be too proud to ask someone else. Make referrals. The most important thing is to help the Marine. KNOW YOUR LIMITATIONS. If the decision is made to seek expert help, you should become involved in the referral to the extent that you ensure contact between your subordinate and the helping expert or agency. This may mean that you contact the expert on behalf of your subordinate to arrange a referral or that you leave your subordinate free to make his own arrangements. Before this is done through, ensure that the subordinate agrees to the referral. Whether you make the arrangement or leave it to the individual, the important point is to ensure that your subordinate actually sought and received the help. o. The counseling session does not end when the Marine leaves your presence. A more important responsibility remains for you TO FOLLOW UP. Inform him of the results of your efforts. If you fail to do this, he may believe you just dont care about his problems, and he will be reluctant to seek help. The problem is passed on to someone else and forgotten. What impression of you and the company is drawn from this, not only by the Marine, but the other members of the unit also? How will this affect him in doing his job? He may say: To heck with it. Morale and esprit do not grow from such examples they breed further problems requiring more leader time with the Marines often being blamed for creating them, when they may have been caused by an ineffective display of leadership. SHOW THAT YOU CARE.





COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 3 ORGANIZATIONAL LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES 3001. THE FAMILY 1. Former Commandant of the Marine Corps General Alfred Gray, Jr., clearly outlined the role of Marine Leaders in caring for families when he emphasized that, More than 70 percent of our officers and 40 percent of our enlisted Marines are married Only by taking care of our Marine families can we ensure that our Marines are truly a force in readiness. With frequent field exercises and unit deployments, our young Marines are away from home for extended periods of time. Individual Marines are ultimately responsible for their families, but we, as leaders, have a responsibility to help them meet the demands of our military lifestyle by keeping the families well informed and ready to respond as ops tempo dictates. Education and genuine concern for the families welfare will bring peace of mind to the individual Marine and help to maintain the warrior focus. Your challenge is clear. You must educate and genuinely care for the families of your Marines. There are a number of resources available to help you in this challenge. This section will provide some guidance to help you meet this challenge with a company program. 2. Caring for families is not only a pre-deployment concern, but it is a continuous concern. Once a Marine marries, his spouse becomes part of the Marine family. The fact that the spouse is married to a Marine affects almost every aspect of her life. The spouse shops in the PX and commissary, socializes at military affairs, sends the children to military day-care centers and schools, sees a military doctor, and above all, moves every 3 to 4 years at the discretion of the Corps. 3. Close to 50 percent of enlisted spouses are in the civilian work force. Most work because they need money to help pay basic family expenses. But, many spouses also work because they too, have always wanted to have a career. This has greatly altered the image and role of the Marine spouse. The image of the wife staying home, except for monthly white-glove social gatherings, is falling by the wayside. Todays spouses are enjoying and maintaining a sense of individuality and independence. Because more Marine spouses are working today, finding adequate child care is a major concern. Over 50 percent of the Corps enlisted families have a young child who is under 6 years of age. Child care can become an even more serious problem during an extended deployment or a no-notice contingency deployment. 4. Medical care for the family is also a concern. Almost every Marine spouse has their own story to tell about trying to get an appointment at the hospital or clinic and the quality of care received. The notion of all families in the Corps living on base is also no longer valid. Many families buy or rent housing in the civilian economy. In addition to the expensive financial worries of living in civilian housing, this decentralization of the military community has caused many problems for the young Marine spouse. Isolated, the Marine spouse is unaware of or unable to get to many of the military sponsored programs and services designed to assist the Marine family. 5. Another concern for commanders is that there is a clear relationship between the service-member retention rate, and the happiness of military family members. The familys contentment or lack of it can also have a direct impact on a Marines productivity. Most often this lack of contentment is traced to a lack of information or a command that fails to care for its families.


6. Caring for your companys families must begin even before a Marine and his family come aboard the base for duty. a. Assign a sponsor to your Marine and his family. Ensure that they are contacted 30-60 days before checking into the company. The sponsor should provide assistance to the Marine and to his family in getting moved and settled into the community. b. Insist that a married Marine get his family moved and settled before he starts to work. This will allow the Marine peace of mind, knowing that his family is settled and that he can devote his full time and energy to his duties. c. Insist that your Marines and their families attend the next Battalion monthly welcome-aboard briefing for new Marines and their families. Give the Marine ample time to pick up his family and to take them home after the briefing. This small investment in time early in the tour could save much time devoted to problem solving later in the tour. The briefing should provide babysitting services and refreshments free. Speakers on the program should include at a minimum: The Battalion Commander, the Chaplain, representatives from the hospital, dental clinic, child care facilities, housing office, legal services, family services, the spouse network (or Key Volunteer Network), and Navy Relief. Give each family a copy of Whats Next?: A Guide to Family Readiness For the U.S. Marine Corps, which was put together by the Marine Corps Family Programs Branch, and is free. The briefing should be convenient, friendly, and informative. Remember, the goal is to make a lasting first impression on your families, and to prevent future family problems. d. Start a monthly newsletter at your company level if your Battalion does not have one. Orient the newsletter toward keeping your Marines and their families up-to-date on what the battalion will be doing in the future and about activities on the base. The newsletter should be mailed to the house and not given to your Marines. By mailing it, you will reach a much higher percentage of the spouses. Keeping them informed is important to their morale and to their support of your Marines. e. Plan to allow each spouse to visit his/her military spouse for at least one half a day on the job annually. Allow the spouse to tour the area where his/her military spouse works and to meet all the key people in the work environment. This will allow the spouse to put the work topics into better perspective. f. Conduct a company organization day/Jane Wayne Day to help bring your company closer together. Invite the families; have a picnic, and put on some type of event. It could be a field meet, a series of demonstrations, static displays, etc. Get the families, and, in particular, get the kids involved in the event. Make the day fun, convenient, and inexpensive to the family. If you can, provide free child care. Again, the goals are to inform the families and to make them part of the team. It gives them a sense of belonging and pride in your company. g. If not already established at the battalion, establish a company spouse communication and support network. Often the battalion will have a Key Volunteer Network (KVN). In your experience, you may have seen this established just before a deployment. Start this now and get it firmly established so that it benefits you both at home station and while your company is deployed. This network will serve many important purposes for you and should not be voluntary. Communication and information between your company and the families of your Marines are too important to be left to an informal voluntary process alone. Normally, your spouse or the First Sergeants spouse will be one of the senior coordinators, or Key Volunteers, for the network. How the chain is structured is not as important as the fact that it exists, and it is working. Success is person specific, not specific by the rank of the military spouse. The network can distribute information on progress of training or the deployment, the well-being of the military spouse and anticipated return date, stop rumors, and provide information on support resources and the families themselves. It can 3-2

be an outreach program to encourage participation by shy and/or depressed spouses. Give the responsibility in the network to the most enthusiastic volunteers available, regardless of the rank of the military spouse. You must reinforce the efforts of your spouses network by ensuring access to the resources needed to sustain family support functions. Refer to MCO 1754.6A and NAVMC 1754.6A for the most updated information regarding Marine Corps Family Team Building, to include the relationship of the KVN to the Family Readiness Officer (FRO). h. Have a mandatory, pre-deployment family briefing 30 days before deployment. This briefing, which should include as much information as security will allow regarding the deployment, will contribute greatly to building positive feelings in the spouses toward their military spouses contribution to our nation and the Corps through their participation in the deployment. Teaching the spouses the official route for asking questions and obtaining information during the deployment, other than depending on other spouses, is particularly valuable. Since this meeting is mandatory, it will also give some spouses an opportunity to meet other spouses before your units departure. Follow up after the pre-deployment briefing to ensure that all personnel and administrative requirements are completed before the deployment. Remember, time spent caring for your Marines and their families from the day you receive notification that they are joining your command will save you a great deal of time and effort in the future. Spouses who feel that they matter to unit leaders, who are confident that they will look after them, and who believe that the company values their Marines, are happier and more confident. They then support the Marines morale rather than become a source of anxiety. Families satisfied in this way are a combat multiplier. 3002. SUICIDE PREVENTION 1. PURPOSE. The goal of this section is to increase your awareness and knowledge on the subject of suicide. The USMC Suicide Update of Aug 2009, focusing on suicide prevention reminds leaders of their responsibilities to eliminate the tragedy of Marines taking their own lives. This update shows Marine Corps suicide statistics which reveal that: a. 42 Marines committed suicide in CY2008, b. there were at least 146 suicide attempts c. 22 Marines had previously been deployed, and 7 others were in-theater suicides, d. about 69 percent of Marine suicides were committed with a firearm, usually a personally-owned handgun. 2. RESPONSIBILITY. Marines experiencing personal crises need to know that someone cares and will respond. Caring begins with you and must filter down to leaders at all levels so that they are aware of the possibility of suicide attempts among their fellow Marines. 3. DETERMINING CAUSE. There is no simple answer as to why people choose to kill themselves. Usually, the emotional upset is so great that the person just wants to stop the pain. He, or she, feels helpless and worthless. Often, he believes that no one would miss him. Suicidal persons feel that they cannot cope with their problems and that suicide is the only possible way to escape unbearable pain. a. In trying to understand why people kill themselves, it is tempting to look at the source of stress in their lives. An analysis of lifes stresses is not, however, the answer. Stress is a normal part of life, and people are usually able to cope. Actually, most people think about suicide at sometime during their lives. Usually, they find that these thoughts are temporary and that things do get better. Generally, it is a combination of events that lead a person to believe that suicide is the only way out. One common threat is that a person feels hopeless about life. Feelings of hopelessness and low self-esteem have many causes: 3-3

(1) loss of a close relationship, (2) death of a loved one, (3) worry about job performance and failure, (4) loss of a support system or emotional safety which comes from moving to a new environment, (5) loss of social or financial status, and (6) the compounding and disorienting effect of drugs or alcohol. b. Depression is often associated with suicide. Past Marine Corps studies have shown that in 75 to 80 percent of all suicides, depression is a contributing factor. Sadness and an occasional case of the blues are normal emotions common to everyone. However, depression, an abnormal emotional state, is a profound sadness which is present nearly every day for at least 2 weeks. Depression is characterized by: (1) poor appetite, significant weight loss, increased appetite or significant weight gain; (2) change in sleeping habits, either excessive sleep or inability to sleep; (3) behavioral agitation or a slowing of movement; (4) loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities or decrease in sexual drive; (5) loss of energy, easily fatigued; (6) complaints or evidence of diminished ability to think or to concentrate; (7) feelings of worthlessness, self-reproach, or excessive guilt; (8) withdrawal from family and friends; (9) drastic mood swings; (10) sudden change in behavior; (11) worry about money, illness (real or imaginary); (12) fear of losing control, going crazy, harming self or others; (13) feeling helpless, nobody cares, everyone would be better off without me; (14) no hope for the future, it will never get better, I will always feel this way; (15) drug or alcohol abuse; (16) loss of religious faith; (17) nightmares; and/or


(18) agitation, hyperactivity, or restlessness. 4. SIGNS OF SUICIDE. Historical factors have been identified which, when present, should cause us to increase our vigilance. Any person is at greater risk of suicide if they have: a. made a previous suicide attempt, b. a family history of suicide, c. lost a friend through suicide, d. been involved with drugs or alcohol, or have e. alcoholics in the family. 5. IMMEDIATE DANGER SIGNALS. When one or more of the following are observed (especially in someone who is or has experienced some of lifes stressful events associated with suicide, who appears to be depressed, and has a history known to cause increased risk of suicide), a person is demonstrating suicidal behavior: a. Talking about or hinting to suicide; b. Giving away possessions; making a will; c. Having an obsession with death, sad music, and sad poetry or themes of death in letters or art work; d. Making specific plans to commit suicide; and/or e. Buying a gun or having access to some other lethal means. 6. WHAT TO DO. If you believe that someone may be suicidal, it is important to remember to: a. TAKE THREATS SERIOUSLY. Trust your suspicions. It is easy to predict suicidal behavior when a person shows most of the factors given above. However, the warning signs from many people are very subtle. Something like telling loved ones good night may be the only clue. Its amazing the number of people who do not take threats seriously! b. ANSWER CRIES FOR HELP. Once you are aware of the clues that may constitute a cry for help, you can help in several ways. The most important thing is not to ignore the issue. It is better to offer help early than to regret not doing so later. The first step is to offer support, understanding, and compassion, no matter what the problems may be. The suicidal person is truly hurting. c. CONFRONT THE PROBLEM. If you suspect that a person is suicidal, begin by asking questions. Be direct. Dont be afraid to discuss suicide with the person. Getting him to talk about it is a positive step. Be a good listener. Dont make moral judgments, act shocked, or make light of the situation. Offering advice such as, youre so much better off than most, may only deepen the sense of guilt that the person probably already feels. Discussing it may help to keep the person from actually doing it by giving him the feeling that someone cares.


d. TELL THEM THAT YOU CARE. Persons who attempt suicide most often feel alone, worthless, and unloved. You can help by letting them know that they are not alone, that you are always there for them to talk to. By assuring the person that some help is available, you are literally throwing him a life line. Remember, although a person may think he wants to die, he has an innate will to live and is more than likely hoping to be rescued. e. GET PROFESSIONAL HELP. The most useful thing that you can do is to encourage the person who is considering suicide to get professional help. If necessary, offer to go with them or to take them to help. The Navy community offers many sources of help. Consider the Navy Regional Medical Centers and Clinics first in looking for help. After normal working hours, the emergency room would be the best source. The battalion Chaplain and the Family Services center may also offer compassionate counseling resources. 7. ALERTING OTHERS TO RECOGNIZE THE SIGNS. Remember, Marines experiencing personal crises need to know that someone, preferably you and your leaders, care and will provide help. Every Marine should be trained to recognize the warning signs of the potential suicide victim and consider it a leadership responsibility to be concerned and involved. 8. WHAT NOT TO DO. Leadership responsibility includes what not to do. a. Dont leave anyone alone if you believe he is about to attempt suicide. b. Dont assume the person isnt the suicidal type. c. Dont act shocked at what the person tells you. d. Dont debate the morality of self-destruction or talk about how it may hurt others; this may induce more guilt. e. Dont keep a deadly secret; tell someone what you suspect. 3003. SUBSTANCE ABUSE 1. POLICY. Marine Corps policy regarding substance abuse is contained in MCO P5300.12, the Marine Corps Substance Abuse Program. NAVMC 2750, Marines War on Drugs, contains additional information. The Marine Corps has a zero tolerance policy regarding the use of illegal drugs. 2. THE DEFINITION OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE. MCO P5300.12 defines substance abuse as: - Misuse or wrong use, particularly excessive use of anything; substances taken or administered under circumstances and at doses that significantly increase their hazardous potential whether or not they are use in therapy, legally or as prescribed by a physician. 3. ACTIONS BY LEADERS. Dealing with substance abuse requires immediate, firm, and direct action by Marine leaders at all levels. Key elements of this effort are as follows: a. Prevention (education/deglamorization), b. Timely identification of abusers, c. Precise documentation of abusers,


d. Appropriate disciplinary action (when required), and e. Restoration to full duty or separation, as appropriate. 4. THE URINALYSIS PROGRAM. A significant component of the fight against drug abuse is the urinalysis program. The purpose of the Marine Corps Urinalysis Program is described in MCO P5300.12 as the early identification of illegal drug users who require education, treatment, or discharge. 5. PREVENTION. Mission accomplishment is based on teamwork. The better the teamwork, the better the mission will be performed. Illegal drug users and alcohol abusers are poor team members; in fact, they are liabilities, accidents, and mistakes waiting to happen. The possible consequences of Marines performing duty under the influence of alcohol or drugs create situations that no leader can accept; infantrymen who are too debilitated to reach the objective; artillerymen who miscount powder increments; warehousemen who misplace inventory; mechanics who fail to torque settings correctly; avionic technicians who do not worry about finite calibrations; and fire and security watches who nod off on duty. Such situations and incidents not only degrade mission readiness; they adversely affect the safety and well-being of Marines and their units. It is incumbent upon leaders to prevent substance abuse as well as to deal with abusers. Some key factors of substance abuse prevention programs are: a. TOTAL LEADER INVOLVEMENT. Commanders and all subordinate leaders must be committed to knowing and to enforcing current policies on substance abuse. They must actively create a proper and wholesome environment and aggressively identify abusers. b. KNOWLEDGEABLE LEADERS. Leaders must become thoroughly knowledgeable about substance abuse and be alert to the indicators of substance abuse: (a) physical symptoms, (b) behavioral changes, (c) deterioration of work performance, and (d) changes in attitude. c. TROOP EDUCATION. You have to create peer pressure against substance abuse by teaching your Marines how to counsel, to educate each other, and to take pride in their unit. Any Marines conduct that disgraces the unit should be interpreted as a mark against the unit. d. SUPERVISION. Leaders must provide individual attention to prevent substance abuse and follow-up action in every instance of substance abuse. The leader must know his Marines and look out for their welfare. 3004. EQUAL OPPORTUNITY 1. DEFINITION. Simply stated, equal opportunity means that every Marine will be treated fairly and will have equal opportunity regardless of race, ethnic group, age, sex, or religion. The Marine Corps Equal Opportunity policy is based upon paragraph 1100, MCM, and the Department of Defense Human Goals Charter. 2. RESPONSIBILITY. Leaders must translate the goals found in the Equal Opportunity policy into positive actions. One means of accomplishing this is through conducting leadership training that promotes harmonious interactions among Marines across barriers of race, ethnic group, grade, age, and sex, and provides for fair treatment of all Marines. 3. ACTIONS BY LEADERS. Equal Opportunity (EO) is not a separate function in the Marine Corps. Our philosophy of leadership incorporates and emphasizes good relations and equal opportunity.


a. This is basic to good leadership: know your Marines, and look out for their welfare. Concern yourself with the human needs (food, clothing, housing, recreation, education, and a chance for advancement) of your Marines. Encourage individual development and self-improvement. Most importantly, ensure that channels of communication remain open. b. Several areas where leaders can acknowledge their obligations and commitment to equal opportunity is: (1) THE USE OF THE CHAIN OF COMMAND. Ensure that your subordinates know of your commitment to EO and that the chain of command should be used to seek guidance and assistance. (2) INFORMATION PROGRAM. The Troup Information Program (TIP), MCO 1510.25, identifies EO as one of the topics on which information and instruction will be given. The commanders internal information program (part of the public affairs program) is an excellent means of informing and demonstrating to your Marines and to their families your commitment to EO. c. BILLET ASSIGNMENTS. Discrimination, either real or perceived, in the assignment of primary duties and work details, erodes morale, prevents the best use of available human resources, and detracts from unit efficiency and combat readiness. 3005. FRATERNIZATION 1. POLICY. Paragraph 1100.4, MCM, points out the necessity for establishing effective and proper professional and social relationships between officers and enlisted Marines. Duty relationships and social and business contacts among Marines of different grades will be consistent with traditional standards of good order and discipline and the mutual respect that has always existed between Marines of senior grade and those of lesser grade. 2. RESPONSIBILITY. This mutual understanding and respect establishes the brotherhood of Marines. Fraternization adversely affects our brotherhood and disrupts good order and discipline, undermines unit morale, and destroys working relationships among Marines. Leaders have the responsibility to enforce policies governing proper senior-subordinate relations. 3. BEHAVIOR. The expected standard of behavior is established by the customs and traditions of the Naval service. Behavior detracting from traditional standards and customs, such as undue familiarity or informality among different grades clearly constitutes improper conduct. Accordingly, Marines are expected to avoid situations that invite or give the appearance of fraternization. 3006. SEXUAL HARASSMENT 1. POLICY. Sexual harassment is a sensitive topic that should be clearly understood by all Marines. The Department of the Navy (SECNAVINST 5300.26) defines sexual harassment as: Influencing, offering to influence, or threatening the career, pay, or job of another person in exchange for sexual favors; or deliberate or repeated offensive comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature in a work or work-related environment. 2. RESPONSIBILITY. Marine Corps policy concerning sexual harassment is found in MCO 5300.10 and states that sexual harassment is unacceptable professional behavior for military or civilian personnel. Leaders and supervisors have a responsibility to create an environment of mutual respect, in which civilian and military men and women can function, and to conduct appropriate training to promote understanding and prevention of sexual harassment. 3-8


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COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 4 TAKING CARE OF YOUR MARINES 4001. COMPANY COMMANDERS ADMINISTRATIVE RESPONSIBILITIES 1. Consolidated administration has caused a reduction in the Company Commanders administrative responsibilities, but it cannot be over emphasized that they are not completely eliminated. The Company Commander is responsible for ensuring that personnel information and supporting documents for reporting; e.g., morning reports, deployment rosters, etc., are forwarded promptly and properly to the S-1 office. For the integrated personnel administration center (IPAC)/consolidated personnel administration center (CPAC) to function efficiently, there must be a free and open exchange of information between the Company and the administrative offices. To maintain this free exchange, there should be an atmosphere of mutual trust and cooperation. If our Marines are to be paid, promoted, and awarded efficiently and timely, there must be a team effort. A good working relationship between the Company Executive Officer/S-1 Officer and the Company First Sergeant/S-1 Chief will help to achieve this. 2. The Company Commander still retains responsibility for the following administrative actions: a. Submitting morning reports; b. Conducting Request Mast; c. Conducting non-judicial punishment; d. Maintaining minimal directives and publications; e. Distributing personal mail; f. Providing accurate and timely training information for unit diary input;

g. Submitting conduct and proficiency marks for service record and unit diary input; h. Recommending personnel for promotion; i. j. Recommending personnel for awards; Approving leave and liberty requests;

k. Controlling regular liberty; l. Clearing personnel to go to IPAC/CPAC, if desired;

m. Counseling and signing the Administrative Remarks page entries, as required; n. Preparing, when required, background information on recommendations for administrative discharge; o. Reviewing the payroll for discrepancies notifying IPAC/CPAC of problems and following up to ensure that the problem is resolved;


p. Reporting promptly to the personnel office, those occurrences or changes of status regarding unit personnel (including unauthorized absence (UA), hospitalization, marriage, birth of children, divorces, etc.); and q. Acquiring a basic knowledge of general administrative procedures. 4002. MORNING REPORTS 1. Company input in connection with successful unit diary reporting is essential. Without complete and timely input from the Company, the unit diary reporting effort of the Battalion will not meet the standards established by CMC. One of the most important documents prepared by company personnel to support the unit diary is the daily morning report. Morning reports should be complete and submitted on time to the S-1 office each morning. 2. Morning reports should reflect the companys personnel status as of that day. It is imperative that you, as the Company Commander, ensure proper reporting of all events pertaining to your personnel. The morning report should be certified each day by either you or your First Sergeant. 4003. ENLISTED PROMOTION SYSTEM 1. To be promoted; a Marine must meet three requirements. a. BE ELIGIBLE b. BE QUALIFIED c. BE RECOMMENDED 2. PROMOTION ELIGIBILITY. Each rank has minimum time in grade (TIG) and time in service (TIS) requirements for regular Marine Corps promotions. In addition to regular promotions, there are meritorious promotions which have no TIG requirements. The TIG and the TIS requirements for the ranks of Private First Class through Sergeant are shown below:

RANK Private First Class Lance Corporal Corporal Sergeant

TIG 6 months 8 months 8 months 1 year

TIS 6 months 9 months 1 year 2 years


3. PROMOTION QUALIFICATION. To qualify for promotion, a Marine must demonstrate that he is capable of performing the duties and/or assuming the responsibility of the next higher grade. Promotion qualifications include but are not limited to the following: a. Leadership b. Experience c. Personal Integrity d. Physical Fitness j. Personal Growth e. Motivation k. Professional Knowledge f. Technical Knowledge g. Personal Appearance h. Quality of Work Performed i. Readiness to Accept Greater Responsibilities

4. PROMOTION RESTRICTIONS. The following restrictions are included in the enlisted promotion system: a. Prohibits promotion of more than one grade at a time unless specifically directed by the CMC. b. Prohibits antedated or backdated promotion for the purpose of increasing pay and allowances. c. Denies promotion (1) On the date of acceptance of appointment to Warrant Officers; (2) If convicted by a general court-martial with 12 months of the date promotion is to be effected; (3) If convicted by a special court-martial within 6 months of the date promotion is to be effected; (4) If convicted of a summary court-martial within 3 months of the date promotion is to be effected; (5) If within 6 months of the date confirmed use or possession of illegal drugs took place (This 6-month period will begin on the date positive confirmation is received from the DoD certified drug testing laboratory or from the date the illegal drug incident or other means of identification resulting in a conviction); (6) If in a probationary status as the result of sentence by court-martial; (7) If in a probationary status as the result of non-judicial punishment (NJP) under the authority of the UCMJ, Article 15, where the suspended NJP includes a reduction in grade; (8) If convicted by civil authorities within 12 months (foreign or domestic) or action taken which equals a finding of guilty of an offense with confinement in excess of 1 year as the maximum penalty under the UCMJ or which involves moral turpitude (Individual convicted by civil authorities will be processed for separation and not promoted before such separation); (9) While serving under a suspended administrative discharge; 4-3

(10) While awaiting or during trial by court-martial or by civil authorities (foreign or domestic) for an offense for which the maximum penalty under the UCMJ is confinement of 1 year or which involves moral turpitude; and/or (11) While awaiting results of an administrative board which might result in administrative separation (excluding non-culpable physical disability) or reduction. d. You may waive, in part or in whole, the promotion restrictions imposed by 3.) b through k above in the cases of exceptionally well-qualified Marines in the grades of Private and Private First Class who are otherwise eligible. General court-martial convening authorities may grant waivers to Lance Corporals and Corporals. Submit requests for waivers for Sergeants to CMC (Manpower). e. The Commandant of the Marine Corps reserves the right to make the final determination for promoting SNCOs whose use or possession of illegal drugs is confirmed in their current grade. Commanders of those selected for promotion will return undelivered certificates of appointment to the CMC (Manpower), per the instructions contained in the current edition of MCO P1400.32, with a detailed recommendation concerning their fitness for promotion. 5. PROMOTION RECOMMENDATION. Although a Marine is both eligible and qualified for promotion, you must recommend him for promotion before he can be considered. If you have a Marine who is eligible, but not recommended for promotion, there is a requirement for a mandatory service record book (SRB) page (11) entry. For Corporals and Sergeants, there is an additional requirement to make a unit diary entry. Below is the format for the SRB entry. Date. I understand I am eligible but not recommended for promotion to (grade) for the (____ Quarter) (month of month) because of (state reason). I (do) (do not) desire to make a statement. I further understand if I make a written statement, it will be filed on the document side of my service record. ______________________ ____________________________ (Signature of Marine) (Signature of commanding officer) 6. COMPOSITE SCORES. The CMC controls the number of Marines promoted to the ranks of corporal and sergeant by the use of composite scores. a. You are responsible for determining which eligible Marines will be promoted, subject to the composite score stipulation. b. Ensure that a unit diary and page 11 entry are made reflecting this fact. Promotions to Corporal and Sergeant are effected monthly for those Marines who meet the required TIG, TIS, and composite score for their occupational field. Ensure that composite score data elements are reported and posted into the unit diary system by the cutoff dates listed below: GRADE CUTOFF DATE FOR MMS INPUT FOR PROM IN Jan, Feb, Mar Apr, May, Jun Jul, Aug, Sep Oct, Nov, Dec

Sgt/Cpl 20 November Sgt/Cpl 20 February Sgt/Cpl 20 May Sgt/Cpl 20 August


c. Use the following formula to manually compute composite scores. LINE NUMBER 1. Rifle Marksmanship Score ____ = _____ Score Class _____ = _____ Score Class _____ = _____ RATING _____ SCORE _____

2. PFT



3. CFT


_____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

4. GMP Score (add line 1 thru 3s rating scores, divided by 3) 5. GMP Score (from line 4) _____ x 100 6. Average duty proficiency _____ x 100 7. Average conduct _____ x 100 8. Time in Grade (months) _____ x 5 9. Time in Service (months) _____ x 2 (use AFADBD) 10. DI/Recruiter/MSG/Combat Instructor/MCSF Bonus _____ x 1.0 11. Self-education Bonus (maximum of 100 points) b. MCI/Extension School _____ x 10 b. College/CLEP/Vocational _____ x 10 12. Command Recruiting Bonus _____x 20 (max of 100 points) 16. Composite Score (sum of lines 5-12) _____ _____ _____


d. The current edition of the Enlisted Promotion Manual MCO P1400.32 provides additional information explaining computation of the composite score. 7. REMEDIAL CONSIDERATION. Marines should not be penalized if they are not promoted on time due to administrative error. They should be remedially considered. If recommended, they are assigned the date of rank (DOR) and effective date along with their contemporaries; if due, they receive all back pay and allowances. a. If a Marine who possesses all the requisites for promotion is not promoted on time, the authority to effect the promotion should be requested from CMC. After receiving the authority, the Marine should then petition the Naval Board of Corrections for authority to antedate the DOR for pay purposes.


b. The current edition of MCO P1400.32 provides additional information concerning the enlisted promotion system. 4004. SERVICE RECORD BOOK (SRB) 1. The SRB provides a chronological record of the enlistment period and a collection of historical documents that are of interest to a Marines current and future commanders. The standard pages are on the right side of the SRB in the sequence listed below, including a brief description of the most critical information entered or required on that particular page. a. Enlistment Contract (page 2) provides the Pay Entry Base Date (PEBD), Active Duty Base Date, and Home of Record Information. b. Chronological Record (page 3) provides a summary of where Marine has been stationed; the types of duties he has performed, effective dates of reenlistment, extensions of enlistment, and discharge. It also reflects periods of confinement, unauthorized absence (UA) in excess of 24 hours, desertion, and in hands of civil and or foreign authorities (IHCA/IHFA). c. Record of Service (ROS) is a computer-generated record of conduct and proficiency marks awarded to Corporals and below. It provides averages for markings in grade, enlistment, and service. The ROS is automatically produced after each marking period. Page 23 is still used for recording the conduct and proficiency marks for reservists. (1) Semiannually, conduct and proficiency markings are assigned for all Marines below the grade of Sergeant on 31 January and 31 July. Special occasions also require the assignment of conduct and proficiency markings listed in the current edition of the Marine Corps Individual Records Administration Manual (IRAM-MCO P1070.12k). (2) The standards in Figures 4-1 and 4-2 are used as a guide in assigning conduct marks and proficiency marks; however, full discretion is left to you to assign marks below these standards for good and sufficient reasons. A conduct mark below 4.0, unsupported by documentation of a court-martial or non-judicial punishment, should be documented on page 11 of the SRB.




Habitual offender; Conviction by general, special, or more than one summary courtmartial; A mark of 0 shall be given upon declaration of desertion; Ordered to confinement pursuant to sentence of court-martial. Two or more punitive reductions in grade. No special court-martial; Not more than one summary court-martial. Not more than two nonjudicial punishments. Punitive reduction in grade. No court martial. Not more than one Non-judicial punishment. No unfavorable impressions of the qualities listed in para 4007.6a of MCO P1070.12K. Conduct such as not to impair appreciably ones usefulness or the efficiency of the command but conduct not sufficient to merit an honorable discharge. No offenses. No unfavorable impressions as to attitude, interests, cooperation, obedience after-effects of intemperance, courtesy and consideration, and observance of regulations. No offenses. Positive favorable impressions of the qualities listed in para 4007.6a of MCO P1070.12K. Demonstrated reliability, good influence, sobriety, obedience, and industry. No offenses. Exhibits to an outstanding degree the qualities listed in para 4007.6a of MCO P1070.12D. Observes spirit as well as letter of orders and regulations. Demonstrates positive effect on others by example and persuasion. Figure 4-1














Does unacceptable work in most of duties, generally undependable, needs considerable assistance and close supervision on even the simplest assignment. Does acceptable work in some duties, but cannot be depended upon. Needs assistance and close supervision on all but the simplest assignments. Handles routine matters acceptably but needs close supervision performing duties not of a routine nature. Can be depended upon to discharge regular duties thoroughly and competently but usually needs assistance in dealing with problems not of a routine nature. Does excellent work in all regular duties, but need assistance in dealing with extremely difficult or unusual assignments. Does superior work in all duties. Even extremely difficult or unusual assignments can be given with full confidence that they will be handled in a thoroughly competent manner. Figure 4-2











d. Time lost, promotion and reduction, additional information as to promotion status or transfer (Page 5) includes the following: (1) Time lost refers to certain periods of absence from duty not included in determining cumulative years of enlisted service and in excess of 24 hours due to unauthorized absence (UA) or confinement by military authority. (2) The middle section is for information on promotion and reduction, e.g., dates of rank, (regular promotion date from the first of the month and meritorious promotions from the second of the month) effective dates, and promotion or reduction authorities. This requirement no longer exists for SNCOs. (3) The bottom section should contain an entry on the Marines continued merit for promotion when the Marine is transferred before receiving the authority to be promoted.


(4) It can also contain an entry indicating whether or not to excuse a period of UA in excess of 24 hours as unavoidable when a Marine is returned to military control. You, as the commanding officer, should examine all the circumstances before rendering a decision as to whether the absence is time lost. e. Weapons firing record, competitive marksmanship record (page 6) should contain the most current information from the companys training record on annual rifle and pistol qualifications, as appropriate. f. Military and civilian occupational specialties, education courses, technical training, and tests completed (page 8a) includes the following: (1) Primary and additional MOSs (2) Types of civilian education completed (3) Service schools (formal and informal) (4) Correspondence course information (5) Academic education courses (6) GED tests (7) Special qualifications g. Combat history and expeditions; awards record (page 9) is in two parts. The top half cites the specific names of operations/expeditions in which the Marine participated with inclusive dates. The bottom half contains information on awards received and dates issued ranging from letters of appreciation and meritorious masts to personal and unit awards. h. Administrative Remarks (page 11) includes information which will be useful to a Marines future commanders. It also contains required data which actually form a permanent part of the Marines history but for which there is no allocated space elsewhere in the SRB. It is neither a catch-all nor an informal punishment page. Required entries are covered in the IRAM, but discretion is left to commanders for recording remarks for good and sufficient reason. i. Offenses and Punishment record (page 12) includes UA periods and the results of non judicial punishment proceedings including date held, specific offense against the UCMJ, punishment awarded, appeal information, and the unit diary number upon which it was reported. Also, the Good Conduct Medal commencement period appears at the bottom of the page. j. Record of Conviction by Court-Martial (page 13) Supplementary Record of Conviction by Court-Martial includes histories of courts-martial resulting in conviction. k. Record of Emergency Data (RED), a computer-generated document, indicates the Marines desire as to persons and beneficiary(ies) to receive notification and/or benefits in case of a Marines death. This document should be reviewed annually, when a Marine gains or loses a dependent, or upon transfer.


2. The left side of the service record is known as the document side. The document side is provided for keeping official letters, certificates, and other papers that should become a permanent part of the official record. The following documents should be filed on the documents side of the service record. a. DD Form 2057, Contributory Education Assistance Program Statement of Understanding b. DD Form 1966, Application for Enlistment Armed Forces of the United States. (This form provides a host of information concerning the Marines background.) c. DD Form 4, Enlistment/Reenlistment Document Armed Forces of the United States (the old contract upon immediate reenlistment) d. DD Form 398, Personal History Statement (Retain most recent copy as long as military status is maintained to expedite future update.) e. DD Form 1172, Application for Uniformed Services Identification and Privilege Card f. DD Form 2058, State of Legal Residence Certificate

g. Basic Individual Record (BIR)/Basic Training Record (BTR) 3. AUDITS a. Review a Marines SRB when he first reports to your company. One of the primary things you want to ensure is that the Marine is receiving all his entitlements, e.g., commuted rations, BAQ, etc. b. Ensure that a thorough join-audit is conducted on your Marines SRBs. Conduct this audit with the Marine present. Prevent problems later by early identification and correction of errors. h. Ask your S-1 officer how the join-audits are accomplished. Does the admin clerk show the Marine these documents and ask him whether they are correct? The administrator should cover items on the LES and the BTR/BIR with the Marine and ask him specific questions to determine whether the information is correct. 4005. MILITARY PAY 1.MILITARY PAY a. The paying and promoting of Marines is vital to their morale and the ultimate mission accomplishment. As leaders, we are responsible for the morale of our Marines. As a Company Commander, you are primarily responsible for the timely and accurate submission of reportable items to the S-1 for the unit diary. There are several documents that are created or edited as a result of unit diary entries; some of these documents are the BIR/BTR, Leave and Earnings Statement (LES), and the Record of Emergency Data (RED). (1) Basic Individual Record (BIR)/Basic Training Record (BTR). The BIR/BTR is printed when a Marine joins, attaches, or returns from the fleet assistance program or temporary additional duty. An audit of the BIR/BTR should be performed within 5 days of receipt by the Personnel and Administration Center (PAC). The BIR contains information such as date of birth, dependents information, marital status, active duty base date, EAS/ECC, home of record, etc. The BTR contains information such as PFT score, rifle score, education, etc.


(2) Leave and Earnings Statement (LES). The LES is a historical document which shows what a Marine was paid last month and forecasts what the Marine will be paid this month. The easiest way to determine a Marines pay each pay day is to take the entitlement minus deductions and divide by two. Another important item shown on the LES is the leave balance. Marines normally earn leave at a rate of 2.5 days a month, except when a Marine reenlists, extends a contract, or goes UA. Two things that you should always be aware of in conjunction with leave are excess and lost leave. b. Excess leave is the result of a Marine taking more leave than he can earn before the end of his current contract. When a Marine has an excess leave balance, the days in excess are subtracted from the pay. Lost leave occurs when a Marine has a balance of more than 60 days of leave at the end of the fiscal year. The fiscal year ends 30 September. However, the current edition of the Regulation for Leave, Liberty, and Administrative Absence (MCO P1050.3J) provides special exceptions to this provision if being deployed. c. When looking at the LES, check the following: leave balance, excess leave, and leave used blocks. Also, check the appropriate information in the entitlement/deduction section for Marines who are promoted, reduced, awarded forfeiture, credited commuted rations, etc. d. CARRIED FORWARD is the amount due shown in section F. Question your administrative officer on a negative (overpaid) amount to find out the reason for the overpayment. e. Record of Emergency Data (RED). The RED provides the most current information concerning the primary and secondary next of kin and their locations for casualty reporting. The RED must be updated to reflect each time the location of next of kin changes. The RED should be audited during the joining process and within 30 days before departure or return from a deployment. 2. EMPLOYEE MEMBER SELF SERVICE (MyPay). MyPay is a service which allows civilian employees, active and reserve military members, military retirees and annuitants to take greater control over their own pay account information with just a click of the mouse. a. Using MyPay you can update or change your Federal tax information, allotments, net pay/direct deposit EFT information and correspondence, or home address changes. b. Other options for all DoD customers include: Accessing your leave and earnings statement (LES) electronically, bond changes and copies of W-2s to name a few. Likewise, DFAS will continue to look at actions that can be automated to give you more control over your pay information. c. MyPay is easy to use and can be accessed nearly 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. All you need is a Personal Identification Number or PIN. d. For Security, MyPay continues to upgrade encryption through secure socket layer technology. This means your pay information is highly secure and the unique combination of your Social Security Number (SSN) and PIN means only you can access and make changes to your pay data. e. You can access MyPay using either of the following Internet address:


4006. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SYSTEM 1. PURPOSE. The Performance Evaluation System (PES) provides the primary means for evaluating a Marines performance. This supports the Commandants effort to select the best qualified personnel for promotion, augmentation, resident schooling, command, and duty assignments; based on the periodic reporting and recording analysis of the performance, potential, and professional character of Marines in the grades of Sergeant and above. The completion of fitness reports is a critical responsibility. Inherent in this duty is the commitment of our commanders and all reporting officials to ensure the integrity of system by giving close attention to accurate marking and timely reporting. Every commander and reporting official must ensure the scrupulous maintenance of the evaluation system. Inaccurate marking only serves to dilute the actual value of each report. It is a report to the Commandant of the Marine Corps; it is NOT a communication to, nor a counseling document for the Marine. Marines should be counseled on a regular schedule concerning their performance and should know where they stand before the submission of the report. a. The primary purpose of the PES is to support the centralized selection, promotion, and retention of the best qualified Marines. b. Secondarily, the PES aids in the assignment of personnel. Your report must convey a brief, accurate, and comprehensive word picture of the Marine. 2. ACTION. Review your battalions order on fitness reports for local guidelines. 3. RESPONSIBILITIES. a. Reporting Senior (RS) (1) Makes in-depth observation of the Marine Reported On (MRO). (2) Determines when reports are required. (3) Prepares the report. (4) Accurately completes sections A P to include the RSs certification. (5) Submits report to the Reviewing Officer. (6) Counsels the MRO at appropriate time for occasions of fitness reports per current edition of the PES Manual MCO P1610.7f w/ CH1. b. Reviewing Officer (RO) (1) Ensures accurate and timely submission of reports. (2) Educates subordinates on fitness report responsibilities, proper evaluation methods, and policy. (3) Completes section K, and the RO certification. (4) Provides comments when marks in section C are not consistent with Sections D-I remarks. (5) Authorizes an RS to submit a fitness report on an officer of equal grade, if appropriate. 4-12

(6) Resolves factual differences between the RS and MRO on adverse reports. (7) Forwards adverse reports to General/senior officer for third officer review. (8) Forwards completed report to arrive at HQMC within 30 days of the end of the reporting period. (9) Assumes RS authority upon death, incapacitation, or relief for cause.

4. FITNESS REPORT OCCASIONS. Marines in the grades of Sergeant through Colonel require fitness reports for any of the following 13 occasions: Occasion Grade Change CMC Directed Change of Reporting Senior Transfer Change of Duty To Temporary Duty From Temporary Duty End of Service Change in Status Annual (Active component)
Annual (Reserve component) Semiannual (lieutenants only) Reserve Training




6. Relative value. a. Relative value is an additional element of information to be used in interpreting the fitness report. Relative value is established once a RS has written 3 observed reports (not including academic, end of service or extended) on Marines of the same rank. It may take a long time for some RSs to establish a relative value and some will never establish a relative value for some or all ranks. b. Relative value is computed with a simple algebraic formula. The 14 attributes on the report are assigned point values from 1 to 7 for marks A to G (H is zero). The points for all the observed areas are added up and divided by the number of observed attributes and this results in a number that is used to compute relative value against other reports written by the same RS. The 14 attributes are not weighted so relative value should be considered in the context of the individual marks in the various attributes. Relative value does not take into account the amount of time covered by the report. c. A relative value of 80 to 89.99 means that the report is below the RS's average. A relative value of 90.0 means that the report is at the RS's average. A relative value of 90.01 to 100 means that the report is above the RS's average. The less reports that are used to compute the relative value the more dramatic the size of the numbers below or above the RS average can be. As the numbers of report increases the data becomes more meaningful in terms of how far below or above the MRO is from the RS's average. d. There are two relative values on the MBS. One is established at the time the report is processed and will never change. The other is cumulative and can stay the same, go up, or go down as a result of subsequent reports the RS writes. Cumulative relative value will also change if the RS changes his/her marking habits. 7. Available through MARINEONLINE, most FITREPs are now processed through the Automated Performance Evaluation System (A-PES) using global online access for the Marine Reported On (MRO), RS, RO, and any other individuals required to review a report.
4007. SEPARATIONS/DISCHARGES 1. PURPOSE. The Marine Corps promotes readiness by maintaining high standards of conduct and performance. To do this, you may find it sometimes necessary to provide a variety of circumstances for the orderly and expeditious exit of some Marines. 2. TYPES OF SEPARATION. There are two types of separation or discharge: involuntary and voluntary. a. As a Company Commander, you may recommend the involuntary separation of a Marine before the expiration of his obligated service per the instructions in chapter 6 of the Marine Corps Separation and Retirement Manual (MCO P1900.16). The reasons for an involuntary separation are: (1) Change in Service Obligation (2) Convenience of the Government; examples may include parenthood, physical condition not a disability, refusal of medical treatment, or personality disorder (3) Defective Enlistment and Induction 4-14

(4) Entry Level Performance and Conduct (5) Unsatisfactory Performance (6) Homosexuality (of note, regulations are under review) (7) Alcohol Abuse and Rehabilitation Failure (8) Misconduct (9) New Entrant Drug and Alcohol Testing (10) Security (11) Unsatisfactory Participation in the Ready Reserve (12) Separation in The Best Interest of The Service (13) Weight Control Failure b. The reasons for voluntary separations are: (1) Defective Enlistment/Reenlistment Agreements (2) Early Release to Accept Public Office (3) Changes in Service Obligation for Active Duty Marines (4) Early Release to Further Education (5) Dependency or Hardship (6) Pregnancy (7) Conscientious Objection (8) Sole-Surviving Family Member; see DoD Directive 1315.15 for Survivorship (9) Non-Selection for Promotion to Staff Sergeant (10) Reduction from SNCO to Sergeant or Below (11) Transfer to the Navy Hospital Corps (12) Marines Married to Other Service Members (13) Transfer to the Navy as a Religious Program Specialist (14) Separation in Lieu of Trail by Court-Martial (15) Early Release from Overseas Units (16) Separation in Best Interest of the Service 4-15

3. COUNSELING. Before processing a Marine for separation or discharge, make an extensive effort to make the Marine a productive part of your command. Marine Corps policy is that reasonable attempts at rehabilitation should be made prior to starting separation proceedings. Separation processing cannot begin, in some cases, until the Marine has been counseled concerning his deficiencies and has been afforded a reasonable opportunity to overcome those deficiencies (e.g., frequent involvement with military authorities). Paragraph 6105 of MCO P1900.16 contains further information. a. All rehabilitation efforts must include the following and must be documented in the Marines SRB: (1) Written notification concerning deficiencies or impairments (2) Specific recommendations for corrective action, indicating any assistance available; (3) Comprehensive explanation of the consequences of failure to undertake successfully the recommended corrective action; and (4) Reasonable opportunity for the Marine to undertake the recommended corrective action. b. The following entry will be made on page 11 of the SRB upon completion of counseling: (Date) . Counseled this date concerning deficiencies (list deficiencies; provide specific recommendations for corrective action; assistance available). (If the Commander plans to process the Marine for judicial or separation proceedings as a result of the deficiencies, include that information in the entry. If the Commander does not plan to process the marine for separation due to deficiencies, include the following statement: I am advised that failure to take corrective action may result in administrative separation or limitations of further service.) I was advised that within 5 working days after acknowledgment of this entry a written rebuttal could be submitted and that such a rebuttal will be filed on the document side of my service record. I chose (to) (not to) make such a statement. (Signature of Marine) b. Signature of the Marine is not a concurrence with the statement. It is only an acknowledgement of the counseling. c. There is no requirement for subsequent imposition of non-judicial punishment or other administrative or judicial actions to begin separation proceeding. There must be evidence in the administrative separation proceedings; however, indicating the Marine has not overcome the noted deficiencies. 4. PROCESSING TIME GOALS. Once separation action has begun, the best interests of all concerned are served by the prompt forwarding, reviewing, and deciding in each case. Proceedings are considered to be initiated on the date a command receives a written request for separation from a Marine or the date a command delivers a notice of separation proceedings to a Marine. a. The following lengths of time are the accepted time goals for administrative discharges. (1) Separation without a Board Action. When board action is not required, or is waived, separation action should be completed within 15 working days. When the initiating command and the separation authority are not located in the same geographical region, the authorized period is 30 working days. (2) Separations with Board Action. Separations that require an administrative board should be completed within 50 working days.


(a) When action is required by the Secretary of the Navy, final action should be competed with 55 working days. (b) Figure 4-3 indicates the different types of separation and the requirements for each.
Figure 4-3. Specific Reason for Separation Parenthood Physical Condition Not a Disability Personality Disorder Involuntary Disenroll from Officer Candidate Program Fail/Disenroll Lat School All other COG Minority Erroneous Enlistment/ Reenlistment Fraudulent Enlistment Entry Level Performance or Conduct Unsanitary Habits Unsatisfactory Performance of Duty Guide For The Review Of Separation Packages 1 2 3 4 NOTES 5 6 7 8 9 10 Separation Authority

Specific Authority


Par. 6203.2 Par. 6203.3











CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority

Par. 6203.5 Par. 6203.6 As Specified Par. 6204.1 Par. 6204.2 Par. 6204.3











GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority







X #

X #



ENTRY LEVEL Par. 6205 Par. 6206.5a Par 6206.5b Y Y Y Y Y Y Y CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority



Specific Reason for Separation Homosexual Conduct

Specific Authority

NOTES 5 6 7


Separation Authority


ALCOHOL ABUSE Alcohol Rehab Failure Par. 6209 Y Y Y Y Y X X Y Y CMC or GCM Authority

MISCONDUCT Minor Discp Infractions Pattern of Misconduct Drug Abuse Commission of Serious Off. Civilian Conviction Sexual Harassment New Entrant Drug and Alcohol Testing Unsat Participation in Ready Res Par. 6210.2 Par. 6210.3 Par. 6210.5 Par. 6210.6 Par. 6210.7 Par. 6210.8 Par. 6211 Y Y Y Y Y X X Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y # # # # # Y # # # # # Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority



SECRETARIAL PLENARY AUTHORITY Secretarial Plenary Authority Par. 6214 SecNav Y Y Y Y Y Y Y

WEIGHT CONTROL FAILURE Weight Control Failure Unsat Perform of Duties Par. 6215 Par. 6206.5b Y Y Y Y Y Y X X Y Y CMC or GCM Authority CMC or GCM Authority


LEGEND Y - Yes. X - Only if Marine has 6 or more years of active and inactive service. # - Only if Marine has 6 or more years of active and inactive service or the Marine is notified that an other than honorable discharge is the least favorable characterization that can be received. NOTES: 1. Marine must be notified of the proposed discharge action, the general and specific basis, factual circumstances, and the type of discharge certificate that may be issued. (MARCORSEPMAN, par. 6303) 2. Marine must be given the opportunity either to submit a statement in rebuttal to the proposed discharge action or decline to make a statement. (MARCORSEPMAN, par. 6303) 3. Marine must be notified of and explained to their understanding the purpose and scope of the Naval Discharge Review Board and the Board for Correction of Naval Records. (MARCORSEPMAN, par. 6104) 4. Marine must be afforded a reasonable opportunity to overcome their deficiencies after being notified and counseled. SRB, page 11 entry must summarize counseling conducted. (MARCORSEPMAN, par. 6105) 5. Marine must be given the opportunity to consult with a judge advocate waiving any of the Marines rights. (MARCORSEPMAN, par. 6303 or 6304) 6. Marine must be advised that it is in their best interest to consult with a judge advocate prior to waiving any of their rights. (MARCORSEPMAN, par. 6303 or 6304) 7. Marine must be afforded the right to present their case before an administrative separation board with the advice and assistance of counsel. (MARCORSEPMAN, par. 6303 or 6304) 8. Marine must be afforded and explained the rights of the respondent concerning administrative separation board proceedings. (MARCORSEPMAN, par. 6303 or 6304) 9. Commander must refer Marines case, together with their recommendations and all evidence, to the separation authority. 10. Separation package must be reviewed per paragraph 6308.1c when an administrative board has recommended separation under other than honorable conditions, and when an administrative board has been held and the respondent identifies specific legal issues for consideration by the separation authority. For Marines with 18 or more years of service, subparagraph 6307.1c applies.

5. REFERENCES. The Marine Corps Separation and Retirement Manual (MCO P1900.16) contains additional information concerning discharges and separation. 4008. LEAVE AND LIBERTY 1. RESPONSIBILITY. As a Company Commander, you are responsible for administering your commands leave and liberty policies. 2. DEFINITIONS a. EMERGENCY LEAVE. Leave granted for a personal or family emergency requiring a Marines presence. It is chargeable to the Marines leave account. b. LIBERTY. Any authorized absence granted for short periods not chargeable to a Marines leave account.


c. LIBERTY LIMITS. Limits to which a Marine can travel while in a liberty status. (See the current edition of the Regulations for Leave, Liberty, and Administrative Absence, MCO P1050.3.) d. THREE-DAY LIBERTY (72). A special liberty period commencing at an hour designated by the commander and expiring three days later. It is designed to give the Marine three full days absence from work or duty, usually beginning at the end of normal working hours on a given day and expiring with the start of normal working hours on the fourth day (e.g., from Monday evening until Friday morning). When a three-day liberty embraces only regular liberty time, such as a Saturday, Sunday, or a Monday or Friday national holiday (when scheduled working hours are not included), the time off is treated as regular liberty. e. FOUR-DAY LIBERTY (96). A special liberty period commencing at an hour designated by the commander and expiring four days later. It is designed to give the Marine four full days absence from work or duty, usually beginning at the end of normal working hours on a given day and expiring with the start of normal working hours on the fifth day and includes at least two consecutive nonwork days (e.g., from Wednesday afternoon until Monday morning). f. LEAVE PAPERS. Written leave authorization containing pertinent information about the Marine on leave and his leave address. 3. EXPLANATIONS. A Marines day of departure equals a day of duty regardless of the departure time (leave normally commences at the end of the working day). a. If the day of departure is on a weekend or holiday, chargeable leave commences at 0800 the following day. b. The day of return is not charged as a day of leave if the Marine returns before 0900. If the time of return is after 0900, that day will be charged as a day of leave. 4. WEAPON AND MEAL CARDS. At the company level, ensure that the Marines weapon and meal card are retrieved before the Marine departs for leave. 5. REFERENCE. Leave, liberty, and administrative absence information is contained in MCO P1050.3H. 4009. OFFICER PROMOTIONS 1. BASIS. The overarching factor in the officer promotion process is that it is based in law, not policy. These regulations place very strict and very specific requirements on how the Armed Services conduct officer promotion boards. Chapter 36, Title 10, United States Code, contains the law for promotion, separation, and involuntary retirement of officers on the active duty list. a. Be aware of the promotion eligibility and requirements for your Lieutenants, as well as yourself. 2. BOARD PROCESS. The selection board process is divided into three stages: pre-board, during board, and post-board. a. PRE-BOARD (1) Promotion plan. The Five-Year Officer Promotion Plan (updated annually) for each competitive category by grade is prepared by Manpower Plans & Policies (MPP) and approved by the Secretary of the Navy at least 30 days prior to the convening date of a selection board. This document serves as the planning tool for the development of each selection board. It contains 4-20

selection opportunities, zone sizes, number authorized to select, and any skill guidance for each grade and competitive category. (2) Precept. The precept is the legal document that orders a selection board to convene. It is in the form of a letter from the Secretary of the Navy to the president of the board. The precept provides instructions governing the proceedings of the board and appoints the president, members, and recorders to the selection board. (3) Convening message. No later than 30 days prior to the convening date of the selection board, MMPR-1 will release a standard naval message (MARADMIN), and at a minimum it will include the convening date of the board and the names and dates of rank of the senior officer and junior officer in the in-zone population as of the date of the notice. (4) Communicating with the board. The board only has access to each officers Official Military Record. If pertinent information is not contained in the Official Military Personnel File or Master Brief Sheet, the board will not be aware of it; therefore, the officer may submit written communication to the board. This information can call attention to any matter that the officer considers important to their case. All information, to include third party letters, certificates, etc. must be under cover letter requesting submission to the selection board and endorsed by the eligible officer. Any material received without the officers endorsement will be returned. Personnel Management Division (MMPR-1) must be in physical receipt of this information before the board convenes. b. DURING BOARD (1) Case preparation. The first step of the process is a thorough preparation of each eligible officers record. Board members first review their in-zone cases. This provides the board member a solid sense of the competitiveness of the in-zone population. Board members then review above and below-zone cases to determine competitiveness with the in-zone population. (2) In/out briefing. Once all cases are prepared, the selection board enters executive session (briefing and voting) for all above-zone cases. All above-zone cases must be briefed and voted upon by lineal precedence. In this In-Out session, board members determine if an eligible officers record is competitive or comparable to merit being briefed and voted on with the in-zone officers cases. Below-zone cases are reviewed in the same manner as the above-zone population. (3) Full briefing and vote. Each officers case receives a full brief from the member assigned his/her case. Each board member will be provided an opportunity to comment as necessary. When all cases have been briefed, each member determines which officers they desire to vote yes on or to select. (4) The goal. The underlying selection standard for the board is the selection of the best and fully qualified officers. Not only does an officer have to be able to assume the responsibilities of the next higher grade, he/she must also be among the best of the eligible population. c. POST-BOARD (1) Board results forwarded for review. Once the board has adjourned, various USMC and DOD agencies must review the results to ensure compliance with law and policy. Recently, the Secretary of the Navy and the Secretary of Defense have implemented policy that dictates that all results will be released within 100 days of the boards adjournment.


(2) Results approved by releasing authority. Once the board has been approved, the results are prepared for release. For all field grade (and higher) boards, a Personal for (P-4) message is sent to all general officers, announcing the selects and nonselects. This allows general officers to personally notify each officer of their selection or nonselection. Approximately 48 hours after the P-4 message has been sent, an ALNAV message is released by the Office of the Secretary of the Navy, formally announcing the results. (3) Promotions. Once the results are approved and confirmed, the Marine Corps can start promotions. Promotions are based on needs of the Marine Corps and grade strength limitations established in law. The promotions each month are announced via MARADMIN, typically released around the 20th of the month prior. 3. YOUR ROLE IN THE PROMOTION PROCESS a. The first thing you should do is to familiarize yourself with the current board schedule. Although the approximate dates of the boards are usually constant from year-to-year, changes do occur. b. Ensure your OMPF and MBS are accurate and complete. c. Be sure to check the MARADMIN announcing the convening of the board to check the official eligible population, and for any specific guidance for that board. d. Submit any update material you feel is important to your package, including photograph, documentation of PME completion, and copies of corrections to your OMPF. e. Finally ensure that MMPR-1 has received updated material. 4. REFERENCES. Title 10, USC; MCO P1400.31B. 4010. COMMISSIONING PROGRAMS 1. MARINE ENLISTED COMMISSIONING EDUCATION PROGRAM (MECEP). This program is for enlisted Marines who possess significant leadership skills and demonstrate the potential to serve as an unrestricted reserve officer. Selected Marines will receive their baccalaureate degree while attending the college of their choice. Marines selected who already have at least 24 hours of college credit and/or a 1200 or better on the SAT will be ordered to report directly to their college in time for the fall semester. All other selectees will be ordered to report to the MECEP Preparatory School in Newport, RI during early June for approximately 10 weeks of instruction in mathematics, English, physics, chemistry or physical science, as appropriate to their areas of interest. An annual Marine Corps Bulletin, published as a MARADMIN, in the 1560 series will announce details for application. 2. BROADENED OPPORTUNITY FOR OFFICER SELECTION AND TRAINING (BOOST). The BOOST Program provides an opportunity for selected personnel of all ethnic groups from educationally deprived or culturally differentiated backgrounds to compete more equitably for selection to the Marine Corps Enlisted Commissioning Education Program (MECEP), the Naval Academy or Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC). BOOST provides an educational program for selected Marines to prepare them to compete for selection into these programs. An annual Marine Corps Bulletin, published as a MARADMIN, in the 1560 series will announce details for application.


3. MERITORIOUS COMMISSIONING PROGRAM (MCP). This program is for enlisted Marines who possess significant leadership skills and demonstrate the potential to serve as an unrestricted reserve officer. The Marine must have an associate level degree or must have completed 75 semester hours or more of unduplicated college work at a regionally accredited college or university. As the name implies, Marines must be nominated for this program, they may not submit a package on their own behalf. Selection boards convene a maximum of three times per year. An annual selection board schedule will be released by MARADMIN announcing the application deadlines, board convening dates, and training periods. 4. ENLISTED COMMISSIONING PROGRAM (ECP). This program is for enlisted Marines who possess significant leadership skills and demonstrate the potential to serve as an unrestricted reserve officer. The Marine must have satisfactorily earned a baccalaureate level degree from a regionally accredited college or university prior to applying for the program. Selection boards convene a maximum of three times per year. An annual selection board schedule will be released by MARADMIN announcing the application deadlines, board convening dates, and training periods. 5. LIMITED DUTY OFFICER (LDO) AND WARRANT OFFICER (WO) PROGRAM. Selection boards convene annually at Headquarters Marine Corps to select qualified Warrant Officers for appointment to LDO, and Regular and Reserve enlisted Marines for appointment to the grade of Warrant Officer. Selections for these programs will be accomplished annually based on quotas by MOS. Marine Corps bulletins in the 1040 series will be published annually as MARADMINs to solicit applications for the subject programs. 6. REFERENCES. MECEP MCO 1560.15L, BOOST MCO 1560.24D, MCP/ECP MCO 1040.43A, LDO/WO MCO 1040.42A. 4011. LEGAL NON-JUDICIAL PUNISHMENT (NJP) 1. JURISDICTION. Article 15, Uniformed Code of Military Justice, grants commanding officers and officers in charge of units the authority to impose non-judicial punishment upon members of their commands. The power to impose non-judicial punishment is inherent in the office not in the individual. Thus the power may be exercised by a person acting as the CO when the CO is on leave and the XO succeeds to command. Article 15 gives a commanding officer or OIC power to punish individuals for minor offenses. The term minor offense means conduct normally not more serious than that usually handled at a summary court-martial (where the maximum punishment is 30-days confinement). The final decision as to whether an offense should be punished by NJP or court-martial rests with you, the commander. 2. MAXIMUM PUNISHMENTS. a. Commanding officers in the grade of Captain and below and Officers-In-Charge (including Warrant Officers exercising command) in addition to admonition or reprimand may impose one or more of the following punishments on enlisted persons: (1) Correctional custody for not more than 7 consecutive days. (2) Reduction to the next lower pay grade provided the officer imposing the punishment has the authority to promote to the grade from which reduced. (3) Extra duty for not more than 14 consecutive days. (4) Restriction to specified limits for not more than 14 consecutive days.


(5) Forfeiture of not more than 7 days pay. (6) Confinement on bread and water or diminished rations for 3 days (only aboard ship when the accused is a LCpl or below). b. Commanding officers in the grades of Major or above may impose one or more of the following punishments in addition to admonition or reprimand on enlisted personnel. (1) Correctional custody for not more than 30 consecutive days. (2) Reduction to the next lower pay grade provided the officer imposing the punishment has the authority to promote to the grade from which reduced. (3) Extra duty for not more than 45 consecutive days. (4) Restriction to specified limits, with or without suspension from duty, for not more than 60 days. (5) Forfeiture of not more than one-half of 1 months pay per month for 2 months. (6) Confinement on bread and water or diminished rations for 3 days (aboard ship only when the accused is a LCpl or below). 3. NATURE OF PUNISHMENTS a. ADMONITION/REPRIMAND. The Manual for Courts-Martial contains detailed procedures. b. RESTRICTION. If restriction limits are drawn too tightly, there is a real danger that they may amount to pretrial arrests or arrests in quarters, which, in the latter case, cannot be imposed as punishment for enlisted personnel. Restriction and arrest are normally imposed by a written order detailing the limits thereof and usually require the accused to log in at certain specified times. c. DETENTION OF PAY. Effective 1 August 1984, detention of pay is no longer an authorized punishment. d. EXTRA DUTIES. Extra duties are any type of duties assigned in addition to routine duties as punishment. Such duties may include watches but not guard duty. A Sunday counts as a day of duty, but extra duty may not be performed on a Sunday. Extra duty should not be performed for more than 2 hours per day. When imposed upon a noncommissioned officer, the duties cannot be demeaning to their rank. Regardless of who imposed the punishment, the immediate CO of the defendant will normally designate the amount and character of extra duty. e. REDUCTION IN GRADE. The grade from which reduced must be within the promotional authority of the CO imposing the reduction. If a reduction is to be imposed along with forfeitures, you should consider the impact of both punishments before imposing them. f. CORRECTIONAL CUSTODY. A physical restraint during either duty or non-duty hours or both and may include hard labor or extra duty. Prisoners may perform military duty but not watches and cannot bear arms or exercise authority over subordinates. (See Manual for Courts-Martial, Part V, Paragraph 5 c. (4)) Similarly, correctional custody is not an authorized court-martial punishment.


g. CONFINEMENT ON BREAD/WATER OR DIMINISHED RATIONS. Can be used only if the accused is attached to or embarked on a ship (even if ship is tied up to the dock). The punishment involves physical confinement because contact is allowed only with authorized personnel. A medical officer must first certify in writing that the accused will suffer no serious injury and that the place of confinement will not be injurious to the accused. This punishment cannot be imposed upon corporals and above, and it may not be combined with any other form of restraint. h. COMBINATION AND APPORTIONMENT. When two similar types of punishment are imposed (i.e. restriction and extra duty two forms of deprivation of liberty), they may run concurrently or consecutively. 4. RIGHT TO DEMAND TRIAL. When an accused is attached to or embarked on a ship, he may not refuse non-judicial punishment under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, Article 15. He does, however, have the right to refuse trial by a summary court martial. a. When the accused is not attached to or embarked on a ship, he may refuse non-judicial punishment under the Uniform Code of Military Justice, Article 15. The accused may exercise this right at any time before the punishment is imposed (announced) and does not have the right to refuse to perform the punishment after becoming aware of the punishment imposed or announced. b. The accused also has the right to refuse trial by summary court-martial even though he or she may previously have refused non-judicial punishment. 5. PROCEDURE. With certain exceptions, non-judicial punishment on a Marine may not be imposed unless an impartial hearing is conducted by the officer imposing the punishment. a. Before conducting the hearing, the alleged offender will be advised: (1) Of the offense(s) of which he or she is suspected; (2) That the Commanding Officer is contemplating a hearing regarding disposition of the offense(s); and (3) Unless attached to or embarked on a ship, that he or she has the right to demand trial by court-martial in lieu of NJP. (4) During the hearing, he or she will be granted the following rights: (a) To be present before the officer conducting the hearing; (b) To be advised of the offense(s) of which he or she is suspected; (c) To have his or her rights under Article 31(b), UCMJ, explained to him or her; (d) To be present during the presentation of all information against him or her, either by testimony of a witness in person or by receipt of written statement(s), and that copies of the latter be furnished to him or her; (e) To have available for his or her inspection all items of physical or documentary evidence considered by the officer conducting the hearing;


(f) To have full opportunity to present any matter in defense, mitigation, or extenuation of the offense(s) of which he or she is suspected; (g) To be accompanied at the hearing by a personal representative to speak on his or her behalf, provided by the accused, who may, but need not be, a lawyer; (h) If non-judicial punishment is imposed, he or she will have the right to appeal that punishment to higher authority; (i) If non-judicial punishment is offered by the commanding officer, and the accused refused such punishment, the charges may be referred to trial by courtmartial; and (j) That the charges may be referred to a court-martial for trial despite his or her desire to accept non-judicial punishment. b. An alleged offender has the right to be accompanied at the impartial hearing by a personal representative to advise him and or to make a statement in his behalf. Such representative must be provided by the accused. The accused should be permitted a reasonable time to obtain a representative and arrange for his or her appearance. The Commanding Officer contemplating the hearing must decide what constitutes reasonable. The representative may, but need not be, a lawyer and may be another member of the armed forces or a civilian. c. The hearing shall be open to the public when the accused so requests, subject to space limitations. This will occur unless, in the opinion of the officer conducting the hearing, security interests indicate otherwise. d. Advise the accused of his or her rights before initiation of office hours. Record the advisement given (check with the legal officer for the local form used). e. The accused must be given due notice of the time and date of the hearing. He or she should be given the opportunity to request that witnesses in his or her behalf be obtained or to obtain a personal representative. f. The accuseds service record book, the preliminary inquiry with supporting documents, the original and duplicate Unit Punishment Book (UPB) with items 1 through 5 completed, and a record of advisement given shall be delivered to you, the Commanding Officer. All persons expected to be called as witnesses, the accused, and his personal representative, if any, must be present or available. g. If non-judicial punishment is imposed during the hearing, the following must be completed: (1) The punishment imposed and the date thereof must be entered in item 11 of the UPB. (2) The officer imposing the punishment must sign item 11 of the UPB. (3) Any suspension of the punishment imposed and the date of suspension must be entered in item 9 of the UPB. (4) The name, rank, and title of the officer imposing the punishment must be entered in item 10 of the UPB. (5) The officer imposing the punishment will advise the accused of his right to appeal and will sign and date item 13 of the UPB. 4-26

(6) The accused will sign and date item 14 of the UPB indicating that he understands his or her appeal. (7) The date the accused was advised of the punishment will be entered in item 12 of the UPB. (8) If you refer the charges to a higher authority for disposition, enter your specific recommendation (e.g. Fwd to Bn CO recommending (NJP in the form of ) (trial by (SCM), (SPCM), etc.) in item 19 of the UPB, and enter your initials in item 18a of the UPB. The entire package, consisting of the original and duplicate unit punishment books, service record book, preliminary inquiry report, and a copy of the advisement to the accused during the impartial hearing will be forwarded to the Commanding Officer. h. If the charges are dismissed or non-punitive measures are taken, the original and duplicate original of the UPB are destroyed. 6. CLEMENCY AND CORRECTIVE ACTIONS. SUSPENSIONS, MITIGATION, REMISSION, AND SETTING ASIDE a. Commanding officers, officers-in-charge, or their successors in command, and officers acting on appeals from NJP, at any time, may suspend, remit, or mitigate any part of amount or an unexecuted portion of the punishment imposed. They may also set aside, in whole or in part, the punishment, whether executed or unexecuted, and restore all rights, property, and privileges affected. b. Suspension of punishment may not be longer than 6 months from the date the punishment was imposed. c. Executed reduction or forfeiture may be suspended only within a period of 4 months after the date of its imposition. d. Suspensions may be vacated by any commanding officer or officer-in-charge who has the authority to impose the kind and amount of punishment involved in the vacation. e. Before a suspended punishment can be vacated, the probationer must be given the opportunity to appear before the officer authorized to vacate the suspension to rebut adverse information upon which the proposed vacation is based. f. A reduction in grade, whether executed or unexecuted, may be mitigated to a forfeiture of pay provided one has not already been imposed. In such a case, the forfeited amount may not be greater than the amount that could have been imposed by the officer who initially imposed the reduction. g. Part V of the Manual for Courts-Martial provides detailed instructions concerning the mitigation of charges. 7. APPEALS FROM NON-JUDICIAL PUNISHMENT a. A Marine found guilty at non-judicial punishment may appeal it to the officer next superior in the chain of command, who imposed it. b. The appeal must be submitted within 5 working days, which is considered a reasonable period. If unusual circumstances exist, the accused should immediately advise the officer imposing the punishment and request an extension of time to submit the appeal. In the absence of a request for an extension of time, an appeal submitted after the 5-day period, will normally be considered as not having been made within a reasonable time and may therefore be denied. 4-27

c. The appeal period commences to run on the date that the punishment is imposed, whether or not suspended. d. Appeals must be submitted in writing and can only be submitted on the grounds that the punishment is UNJUST or DISPROPORTIONATE. (1) The Marines Platoon Commander should assist in writing the appeal. (2) The forwarding endorsement must comment on any items of fact contained in the letter of appeal which you as the officer who imposed the punishment consider to be inaccurate or erroneous. (3) The forwarding endorsement MUST contain a recitation of any facts concerning the offenses which are not otherwise included in the appeal papers (e.g., information given verbally). (4) A summary of the evidence addressed and information received during the hearing will be attached as an enclosure to the appeal. A copy of the completed UPB and the service record book should also be forwarded with the appeal package. (5) Appeals must be expeditiously processed. It is suggested that when an accused indicates an intent to appeal, he should be immediately provided administrative assistance to prepare the appeal. It is further suggested that the appeal be hand-delivered to the officer to act on the appeal. 8. SUBSTITUTES FOR NON-JUDICIAL PUNISHMENT a. AUTHORIZED CORRECTIVE MEASURES (1) Administrative forms of censure, SRB page 11 entries (2) Non-Punitive Letter of Reprimand (3) Administrative withholding of privileges not extending to deprivation of normal liberty (e.g., denial of club privileges) (4) Administrative limitations imposed in the interest of training, discipline or medical quarantine (5) Assignment of supervised military duties as corrective measures to cure deficiencies in performance (Extra Military Instruction) b. LIMITATIONS (1) Any corrective assignment of military duties must have a valid, instructional purpose as opposed to a single purpose to punish. (2) Although it may be required to perform these duties after normal working hours, the time for such performance cannot be selected with a view to punishing the Marine by restricting his or her normal liberty. (3) Corrective measures may not have as their sole purpose deterring future offenses. (4) Voluntary compliance cannot be used as subterfuge for abuse of authority, nor can it be used as a substitute for legitimate disciplinary procedures. 4-28

(5) The Manual for Courts-Martial contains additional information on the subject. 9. NON-JUDICIAL PUNISHMENT HEARING GUIDE. NJP is not a formal judiciary proceeding. The following is a suggested guide for conducting NJP hearings. Mandatory requirements are underscore and must be provided during the office hours. NOTE: Before conducting the hearing, all evidence, the UPB, and the notification form should be presented to the Commanding Officer. The accused then reports to you. CO: You are advised that you are suspected of having committed the following offense(s), in violation of Article(s)____ of the Uniform Code of Military Justice: (Read the offense(s) listed on the UPB or the notification form.) Do you understand the charges against you? ACCUSED: ____________ (Answer) CO: (Examine the Notification Form) I see that you understand your rights. Do you have any questions concerning your rights? ACCUSED: ____________ (Answer) CO: (Article 31b, UCMJ warning) You are advised that you do not have to make any statement regarding the offense(s) of which you are suspected; that any statement you make may be used as evidence against you in a trial by court-martial. In other words, you have the right to remain silent and say nothing at all concerning the offenses of which you are suspected. Do you understand this right? ACCUSED: ____________ (Answer) NOTE: At this time, you will consider the evidence, to include testimony of any eyewitness against the
accused, statements, and physical evidence. You should allow the accused or his personal representative to examine all available evidence including the questioning of adverse witnesses who appear at office hours. You then should provide the accused with the opportunity to present any evidence in defense, mitigation, or extenuation relating to the offenses. The accused can elect to testify or to submit a statement, to call witnesses, to submit their statements, and to present other evidence.

CO: Based on all of the available evidence, I find you (innocent or guilty) of the charges and impose the following punishment (announce the punishment imposed) for having committed the following offense(s): (describe the offense(s)). (After imposing punishment) You are advised that you have the right to appeal the imposition of this punishment to (name the next superior authority in the chain of command). This appeal must be in writing and based on the grounds that you consider the punishment unjust and/or disproportionate to the offense(s). The appeal must be made within 5 days. If your appeal is not submitted after 5 days, unless unusual circumstances are present, the (name the superior authority) may reject your appeal as not having been timely made. You will be required to begin serving your punishment immediately, even if you appeal. (Execution of punishment involving restraint or extra duty will be stayed only if you request in your appeal that such punishment be stayed and if a decision on your appeal by (the next superior officers in the chain of command) is not within 5 days after the appeal is submitted.) You are advised that your appeal is considered submitted at the time you present it, or, if mailed, it is delivered to myself or to the legal officer. Do you understand your right to appeal?


ACCUSED: ____________ (Answer) CO: (The Commanding Officer may then dismiss the accused) 10. SEARCH AND SIEZURE a. SEARCH. Generally, a search is an examination by a government agent of an area, where a person expects reasonable privacy for the purpose of discovering evidence to be used in the prosecution of a criminal action. b. SEIZURE. Seizure is the taking possession of an item by a government agent from an area where a person expects reasonable privacy. (1) There can be seizure without a search and a search without a seizure. If there are both, then they must be legally done for the items seized to be admissible in court. (2) The following may be seized: (a) Contraband, (b) Fruits or instrumentalities of a crime, and/or (c) Other evidence of a crime. c. TYPES OF SEARCHES. Only reasonable searches are legal. Reasonableness depends on the facts and circumstances surrounding the search (e.g., one would normally not expect to search a Marines toilet kit when searching for a missing Kevlar helmet). The following are among those generally considered reasonable, hence legal. (1) CONSENT SEARCHES. Require consent freely given by the owner of the property to be searched. (a) The accused must give free, voluntary, and intelligent consent. (b) Acquiescence in the face of authority is not consent. (c) Consent may be obtained only from a party who has control or ownership of the area to be searched (e.g., a roommate may consent to a search of all common areas of a room and his/her own exclusively controlled areas such as his/her own wall locker). A roommate cannot consent to a search of areas where exclusive control rests with another occupant. (d) Consent must be shown by clear and positive evidence. (2) Consent gained by deception is not consent. NOTE: No probable cause is required. d. INCIDENT TO LEGAL APPREHENSION (1) Search must be incident to the apprehension. (2) Scope extends to the person and to the area within his immediate control from within which the person might gain possession of a weapon or destroy evidence. 4-30

(3) An apprehension must be legal to make the search legal (i.e., it must itself be based on probable cause that the apprehended person committed some offense under the UCMJ). (4) Stop and Frisk A pat down of the outer clothing of the suspect. (5) Officer must reasonably conclude in light of his experience that: (a) Criminal activity is afoot and (b) The person with whom he is dealing may be armed and dangerous to himself or others. e. COMMANDING OFFICERS ORDER. (Military equivalent of the civilian magistrates warrant.) This means the Battalion Commander only. (1) Must be based on probable cause except where it pertains to the search of government property in which the accused has no possessing interest. (a) You, as a Company Commander, must provide reliable facts and information to the Battalion Commander. He, concluding that an offense has been committed and that the person or place to be searched, will yield incriminating evidence relating to the offense. (b) Reliable information can be personally obtained from or related by reliable informants. The Battalion Commander must make an independent judgment as to the reliability of the informant and the credibility of the information. He may not accept conclusions of others. i. Certain sources are, by their nature, reliable (e.g., you, police officers, victim witnesses, good citizens, confessors). ii. Others are not so reliable, and their reliability must be established by personal appearance before your CO, relation of the sources track record for reliability, or by corroboration of the facts presented. Your Commanding Officer must be provided with facts upon which he can conclude that the informant was reliable in the past. (2) Person or property must be within the jurisdiction of the Battalion Commanding Officer. (a) ON BASE i. ii. iii. iv. Any military personnel assigned to his command; All billeting and working areas under the control of the Battalion Commander; All property located within these areas, regardless of who owns it; and Civilians located within these areas.

(b) OFF BASE i. May search military personnel under Battalion Commanders command, off-base, in U.S. and foreign countries. ii. May search property and military personnel under Battalion Commanders command in foreign countries.


(3) Property of military personnel off-base in the U.S., its possessions, or territories, is not included. (4) Delegation of Authority to order searches. In the absence of the Battalion Commander, the XO may authorize a search only if he is officially designated as the acting commanding officer of the unit. f. NECESSITY SEARCHES. One conducted under circumstances demanding immediate action to prevent the removal or disposal of property relieved, on reasonable grounds, to be criminal goods. (1) Still requires probable cause but removes the requirement of obtaining Battalion Commanding Officers authority. (2) Any member (officer or enlisted) may conduct a necessity search. (3) An example of a necessity search is the search of occupants and the room in which marijuana is being smoked. 4012. TRAVEL PERMANENT CHANGE OF STATION a. DISLOCATION ALLOWANCE (DLA). DLA is used to offset the cost of setting up a new household in connection with a PCS move. This allowance is specifically for rent, deposits, activation of utilities, and closing costs. A member who is authorized transportation of dependents and who relocates dependents incident to a PCS is entitled to DLA at the with dependent rate. Members without dependents assigned to Government quarters at the new PDS are not entitled to DLA. (1) DLA is paid on a flat rate according to rankcurrent rate is 2 times the members BAH. (2) DLA is paid to a member one time per fiscal year b. ADVANCE PAY. The purpose of Advance Pay is to provide Marines with funds to meet the extraordinary expenses of a Government-ordered relocation. It is intended to assist with out-ofpocket expenses that exceed or precede reimbursement incurred during a PCS move which are not typical of day-to-day military living. (1) Normal parameters for advance pay are: (a) (b) (c) (d) Marine must be a corporal or above; 1 months basic pay less deductions; a 12 month repayment schedule; and receipt of advance pay 30 days before departure to 60 days after arrival

(2) Maximum parameters for advance pay include: (a) (b) (c) (d) Marine of any rank; 3 months basic pay less deductions; a 24 month repayment schedule; and receipt of advance pay 90 days before departure to 180 days after arrival

(3) Requests for advance pay outside the normal parameters will require written authorization from the Commanding Officer. 4-32

(4) Note: An individual can select a specific dollar amount. One months basic pay is the maximum within normal parameters; however, an individual can select a lesser amount. Selecting a lesser amount may give the individual the necessary amount of money needed to complete a PCS without creating a burden during the repayment period. (5) Reference. MCO 7220.21E c. TEMPORARY LODGING EXPENSE (TLE). TLE is intended to help offset the expense incurred by members and/or their dependents when it is necessary to occupy temporary lodging incident to a PCS. Temporary lodging refers to lodging obtained by private or commercial sources in the vicinity of a members old or new PDS or designated place within CONUS. (1) TLE is authorized for up to 10 days in the vicinity of the old or new PDS on the dates when per diem is not payable (i.e., during proceed and travel). (2) The authorized 10 days may be used all at once (10 days prior to detaching old PDS or 1 day after reporting to new PDS) or it may be split between the old PDS and the new PDS (i.e., 5 days at the old PDS and 5 days at the new PDS). (3) TLE is payable for a maximum of 5 days when the new PDS is overseas. (4) Maximum TLE cannot exceed $110.00 per day (5) Advance payment of TLE is NOT authorized (6) Reimbursement of TLE is made in your travel claim at the completion of a PCS travel (with the exception of first and last PCS moves where there is no entitlement to TLE). (7) A statement of non-availability of Government quarters from the local command and receipts for lodging is required for reimbursement of TLE 2. TEMPORARY ADDITIONAL DUTY. A per diem allowance is designed to offset the cost of lodging, meals, and incidental expenses incurred by a member while performing travel, and/or temporary additional duty (TAD) away from the members PDS. A per diem allowance is payable for whole days, except for the day of departure from and for the day of return to the PDS, in which case a per diem is computed on a fractional basis. REFERENCES. a. Joint Federal Travel Regulation (JFTR).

4013. HUMANITARIAN TRANSFERS AND DISCHARGES 1. GENERAL. Humanitarian transfer to another duty station or the cancellation of PCS orders to permit retention on station is initiated at the request of the individual. The transfer action is for the personal convenience of the Marine and is designed to solve short-term situations. Travel and transportation allowances will be allowed from the member/dependents location to the new permanent duty station upon receipt of the authorization for the humanitarian transfer. Short-term is defined as 36 months or less (normal CONUS tour length), or date of released from active duty/discharge, whichever comes first. Approvals for retention on station are normally approved for 12 months.


2. SPECIAL CASES. Marines may request attachment to an I-I Staff or Recruiting Station while in an authorized leave status. In such cases, the I-I Staff or recruiting station will forward the request directly to CMC for consideration, and the parent command will be an information addressee only. 3. REFERENCE. Specific administrative procedures for requesting humanitarian transfer may be found in MCO P1000.6G. 4014. EXCEPTIONAL FAMILY MEMBER PROGRAM (EFMP) 1. PURPOSE. Identifying families with special needs and maximizing the provision of quality services needed to enhance the quality of life provided to the Marine Corps family while meeting the mission of the Marine Corps. 2. PARTICIPATION. Enrollment in the EFMP is mandatory for Marines who have a family member requiring special medical and/or special education services. Mandatory enrollment ensures consideration is given to assigning Marines to locations, which accommodate their family needs. a. Who qualifies? (1) A Marine Corps family member enrolled in DEERS, (2) Who has one or more conditions or needs reoccurring medical, special education or medically-related services that is characterized into at least one of the following categories: (a) (b) (c) (d) Physical Intellectual Emotional Psychological

b. Enrollment is ultimately determined by HQMC EFMP Manager. 3. CONFIDENTIALITY. SecNav Instruction 1754.5 directs EFMP sponsors identity remain confidential. Information regarding EFMP enrollment will appear only in EFM health records, local/regional FSC EFMP files, the CMC (MHF) EFMP registry and the EFMP management files at HQMC assignment branches. It is NOT an element of MCTFS, individual record books, or the parent command records of the sponsor. 4. MISCONCEPTIONS. The program does not give the Marine preferential treatment for billet assignment nor does it necessarily restrict them from certain billet assignments. Marines enrolled in the EFMP are still eligible for overseas assignment and unit deployment. 5. REFERENCE. MCO P1754.4A 4015. FAMILY ADVOCACY PROGRAM (FAP) 1. PURPOSE. To prevent spouse abuse, child abuse and child neglect; however, when abuse occurs FAP will intervene and provide safety for victims and assist commanders in holding offenders accountable through treatment, rehabilitative services and/or administrative action.


2. GOALS/OBJECTIVES. a. To ensure Coordinated Community Response (CCR) is established Marine Corps-wide so that cooperation and active participation among all military and civilian agencies, individuals, and disciplines involved in the prevention, investigation, prosecution, assessment, treatment, and management of family advocacy cases is provided. b. To advise the commander in family advocacy matters and to implement the commanders decisions, to the maximum extent possible, by providing behavioral counseling or some other appropriate intervention/treatment. c. To provide support and treatment for victims of and witnesses to maltreatment. d. To encourage commanders to hold offenders accountable for their actions through appropriate counseling, administrative action, or disciplinary action so that the mission of FAP will be met. e. To establish a Marine Corps standard which defines spouse and child abuse as unacceptable behavior. f. To prevent spouse and child abuse; to protect those who are victims of abuse; to treat families affected by abuse; to correct abusive behavior; and to ensure that professionally trained personnel are available to intervene in abuse cases. g. To identify cases of family maltreatment promptly and to provide early intervention in order to break the continuing cycle of abuse and neglect. Physical and behavioral indicators of abuse are provided at appendix B of this Manual. h. To ensure that all victims of child and spouse maltreatment who are military family members, regardless of the offenders status as either intra- or extra-familial, receive services to: (1) Protect them from a recurrence of abuse. (2) Rehabilitate any physical or psychological damage resulting from the abuse, where feasible. (3) Return the family to a functional state. i. To ensure that the victims of abuse and neglect are not needlessly revictimized and are informed of their rights under the current editions of DoDDir 1030.1 and SECNAVINST 5800.15. j. To encourage voluntary self-referral through education and awareness programs.

k. To ensure confidentiality on a strict need to know basis and appropriate sensitivity when handling case information is followed per the current edition of MCO P5211.2. 3. CONFIDENTIALITY. Access to records regarding allegations of abuse, neglect, or sexual assault is on a strict need to know basis. Allegations of this sort can place professional standing, social acceptance, and career progression in jeopardy. Therefore, information concerning persons in FAP treatment or being considered for FAP treatment, including allegations of offenses committed or the nature and extent of treatment, short of judicial conviction or administrative action incident to separation from military service, must be treated with the highest degree of sensitivity. (Appendix Q of MCO P1752.3B provides guidance concerning the maintenance of FAP case records.)


4. The following services or similar services are offered at most FAP offices: a. Intervention (1) (2) (3) (4) 14hr crisis intervention Command consultation Information and referrals Victim advocacy

b. Treatment (1) (2) (3) (4) Clinical assessments Individual counseling Family counseling Domestic violence group for men

c. Prevention/Education/Training/Briefing (1) Womens group (2) Building effective relationships group (3) Couples communication workshop (4) Anger management workshop (5) Stress management workshop (6) Assertiveness workshop (7) Learn to relax workshop (8) Good parenting workshop (9) Conflict management workshop (10) Teen dating violence intervention (11) Suicide awareness (12) Family advocacy overview briefings (13) Family childcare provider training (14) Day care provider training (15) Staff Non-commissioned officer training (16) Military police training 5. REFERENCES. MCO P1752.3B 4016. HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (HIV) 1. Personnel who test HIV antibody positive during routine screening will be directed to an appropriate medical facility for an evaluation and determination of fitness for duty. a. If found unfit for continued service, they will be processed for medical separation via the physical disability system. b. If found fit for full duty, they will be returned to a duty assignment with the following considerations: (1) billet is in a non-deploying, non-FMF unit (2) billet is within the United States including Alaska and Hawaii


(3) billet is located within 300 miles of a Naval medical treatment facility designated by the Surgeon General (4) billet is not part of a ships detachment (5) billet does not include deployments overseas, or extended deployments afloat. This does not prevent HIV antibody positive personnel from embarking on ships for a short duration training exercise or from participating in training deployments within the United States or US territories (i.e., Combined Arms Exercise). c. Specific assignments will be made on a case-by-case taking into consideration medical advice on treatment/evaluation, confidentially, and humanitarian concerns. 2. Marines with HIV are treated with extreme confidentiality. It is possible to have a Marine with HIV working in your section without your knowledge of the illness. 3. REFERENCE. MCO P1300.8R 4017. SUBSTANCE ABUSE PROGRAM 1. POLICY. Substance abuse is contrary to the effective performance of Marines and to the Marine Corps mission, and will not be tolerated in the United States Marine Corps. 2. PURPOSE. This chapter sets forth the Marine Corps substance abuse program operating policy and procedures and treatment administration and management of alcohol abuse/alcohol dependency and illicit drug use. 3. REFERENCE. Any questions about the CSACC program should be referred to the current edition of MCO P5300.12 (Marine Corps Order Substance Abuse Program). 4. GENERAL a. In accordance with Title 10 U.S.C. Section 1090 and Public Law 92-129, Section 501, the Marine Corps is required to, implement procedures...and provide the necessary facilities to identify, treat, and rehabilitate Marines determined by an appropriate medical authority to be drug and/or alcohol dependent, and to, refuse entrance into the Marine Corps any individual determined to be physically and/or psychologically dependent on a drug and/or alcohol. b. Commanding Generals, Commanding Officers, and Officers-In-Charge are tasked with implementation of this policy. Key elements of this policy are prevention, timely identification with intervention, effective treatment and rehabilitation, appropriate discipline, or other administrative actions, followed by restoration to full duty or separation as appropriate. Under no circumstances will a substance abuse program established under the auspices of this Manual be degrading or punitive in nature. All programs will be conducted in such a manner that Marines involved will be treated as proud individuals attempting to overcome a serious illness or problem and returned to the ranks as productive Marines. Reluctance on the part of any commander to confront a Marine with a substance abuse problem is not only detrimental to the objectives of this Manual, but constitutes a disservice to the individual, the Marines family, and the Marine Corps. c. Commanders will use every available and legal means to prevent use of illegal drugs by Marines under their command, to include educational programs designed to demonstrate the negative physical and mental impact of illegal drug use. These education programs should strive to develop group peer pressure against drug abuse. 4-37

d. The Marine Corps Substance Abuse Program is divided into two major phases: the Proactive Phase and the Reactive Phase: (1) The Proactive phase consists of measures taken by a commander to preclude substance abuse. It addresses preventive education and the deterrent measures. (2) The Reactive phase occurs after an event or incident of substance abuse. Inclusive in this phase are: identification, early intervention, discipline, if appropriate, treatment/rehabilitation, and return to full duty or separation. e. CSACC is a CMC mandated program that exists to ADVISE and ASSIST Commanding Officers in taking care of their Marines substance abuse problems. f. Any time there is a substance abuse incident (e.g. DUI/DWI, drunken Marine, underage Marine consuming alcohol, etc) a 5150 form must be filled out by that Marines Commanding Officer and that Marine must be evaluated by CSACC. g. CSACC makes RECOMMENDATIONS to Commanding Officers as to the disposition and treatment (as applicable) of subject Marines. Commanding Officers make the determination as to what (if any) treatment plans are to be followed. This responsibility rests solely with the Commanding Officer. 5. SUBSTANCE ABUSE-RELATED EVENTS a. Substance Abuse. Marines with a substance abuse-related problem can be brought to the commands attention through situations that are called events, such as: (1) A recurrent event resulting in failure to fulfill a role such as: obligations at work, school, or home (e.g., absence, neglect/abuse of children/spouse, poor performance), (2) Recurrent involvement in situations that create a physical hazard to themselves and others (e.g., operating machinery or motor vehicle unsafely), (3) Recurrent legal problems, such as indebtedness, (4) Persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems, and/or, (5) A recurrent problem of excessive drinking on off-duty hours. b. Substance Abuse related events should result in referral of the Marine to the local SACC. The outcome of the SACC evaluation of the event will be used for counseling and assistance of the Marine to resolve the reasons causing the event. 6. SUBSTANCE ABUSE-RELATED INCIDENTS a. A substance abuse-related event that results in a violation of the UCMJ, will be considered a substance abuse-related incident. Substance abuse-related incidents are separated into alcohol and drug use incidents. b. An Alcohol-related incident occurs when, in the commander's judgment, the ingestion of alcohol was a contributing factor to an event that resulted in a violation of the UCMJ.


c. A drug-related incident of drug use or wrongful use of a substance occurs when, in the commanders judgment, the preponderance of the evidence establishes that the Marine used, abused, possessed, manufactured, or trafficked a controlled substance, substance (e.g., fungi), chemicals (e.g., chemicals wrongfully used as inhalants), and/or a prescribed or over-the-counter drug or pharmaceutical compound. 7. SUBSTANCE ABUSE DISCIPLINARY MEASURES. Commanders may utilize the full range of disciplinary and administrative corrective measures to address substance abuse related misconduct. See Rules for Court-Martial 306, Manual for Courts-Martial, 1984 (1998 edition) and JAGINST 5800.7 (JAGMAN). 8. ALCOHOL-RELATED INCIDENT ADMINISTRATIVE MEASURES a. Any alcohol-related misconduct or unsatisfactory performance will be subject to prompt and appropriate administrative or legal action. b. Entries in the OQR/SRB after the formal counseling session are required for a first alcoholrelated incident or subsequent incidents. MCO P1070.12H paragraph 4012.3.z provides an example of an alcohol abuse entry. CMC-directed (DC) fitness reports (paragraph 1207) for alcohol-related incidents are required. Commanders will include the reported BAC level at the time of the incident, if available, in both entries and DC fitness reports. Figure 1-2 has examples of OQR/SRB entries. 9. FITNESS REPORTS. Periods of hospitalization for the treatment of alcohol dependence will be reported in item 3d of the fitness report per MCO P1610.7D. Mandatory comments in section C of the fitness report will be included when alcohol abuse has affected performance. Comments about entering the Alcohol Rehabilitation Program when the situation had not affected the individuals performance are not acceptable. Failure to successfully complete a formal alcohol treatment program will also be recorded in Section C of the fitness report. While not encouraged, any return to the irresponsible use of alcohol following treatment for alcohol abuse/dependence does not, in and of itself, indicate treatment failure; therefore, it should not be the subject of fitness report comments, unless accompanied by a corresponding performance deterioration. 10. RETENTION, PROMOTIONS, REENLISTMENT a. Drug-related Incidents. All incidents of confirmed illegal drug use require mandatory administrative separation processing in accordance with MCO P1900.16E. b. Alcohol-Related Treatment. Those Marines who have voluntarily sought assistance and have no prior performance or conduct problems, that are diagnosed as alcohol dependent and complete treatment, may request reenlistment without restriction or limitation per reference (g). Marines assigned to a Level II or III treatment program during the past 12 months, who have had prior performance or conduct problems, may request an extension for up to 12 months to allow them to complete continuing care/aftercare treatment program, and to allow the command to observe the Marines performance and conduct. c. Certificates of Appointment. If otherwise determined qualified by their commanding officer, Marines diagnosed and successfully treated for alcohol abuse or alcohol dependency will be promoted. Certificates of appointment will not be withheld solely because of current participation in an alcohol treatment program.


11. SECURITY CLEARANCES. Evidence of alcohol abuse or alcohol dependency will not be cause for automatic revocation of a security clearance. If in the commanders judgment the abuse of alcohol resulted in a behavior which indicated the individual is a security risk, security clearances or access to classified material should be revoked/suspended per the current edition of MCO 5521.3. 4018. EQUAL OPPORTUNITY (EO) 1. NOTE: Equal Opportunity is Marine Corps Leadership program. It is not to be confused with Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO), which is a Civilian Federal employment program. 2. COMMANDERS RESPONSIBILITIES. All commanders will establish policies and procedures to ensure the periodic assessment and update of their Equal Opportunity Plan (EOP). EOP requirements will vary with the level of command. (Refer to reference.) Subordinate commanders will direct their equal opportunity efforts to activities, programs, and facilities over which they have cognizance. a. All commanders are responsible for publicizing, implementing, and enforcing the Marine Corps policy on equal opportunity and sexual harassment. To accomplish this, commanders must establish quality assurance procedures, conduct training, and make discrimination and sexual harassment issues (complaint procedures, corrective action(s), and education/training) a special interest item in the commands inspection program. b. All commanders will ensure that EO complaints are properly received by the chain of command, promptly investigated in a fair, impartial manner, and appropriately resolved without fear of reprisal or retaliation. c. Commanders down to the battalion/squadron level will designate, in writing, an EO representative (EOR). The EOR may be an officer and/or SNCO, with high moral quality, motivation, and experience. A volunteer would be the ideal candidate, however, in the absence of a volunteer, the commander must ensure the EOR is, fully capable of dealing with issues that may be sensitive in nature. Upon designation, the EOR(S) must be assigned for a minimum of one year, and attend indoctrination training by an EOA. EORS will attend quarterly EOR training provided by a local EO advisor. 3. The CMC will publish an Equal Opportunity Statement and all commanders will ensure its widest dissemination, to include prominent display on unit bulletin boards. NAVMC 2791 and PCN 10001348100 have been assigned to the CMC statement, which may be ordered from the Commanding General (Code 875), Marine Corps Logistics Base, Albany, GA 31704-5001. Quantities in excess of ten must be requested via the CMC (AREA) per MCO P5600.31. New statements are published and must be reordered subsequent to a change of Commandant. 4. EO complaints may include, but are not limited to, the following categories: a. b. c. d. RACIAL INCIDENTS* DISCRIMINATION* SEXUAL HARASSMENT* * Refer to reference for definition.

5. Informal Resolution System (IRS) a. The IRS was developed to informally resolve complaints of sexual harassment and other conflicts at the lowest possible level between individuals. It emphasizes individual responsibility to set the example for appropriate behavior and to confront any form of discrimination, harassment, or other forms of inappropriate behaviors. 4-40

b. IRS training is an annual requirement. Ideally, it should be conducted with annual sexual harassment training; however, it can be done as a separate package. c. The commander will determine how he/she wants to accomplish the training requirement as long as it meets the intent of the package and the annual requirement. The IRS guidance does allow for modification of the lesson plans to meet the needs of the audience as long as the key points and concepts are not changed. d. Commanders should seek the assistance of the Equal Opportunity Advisor (EOA) for their organization or contact the Equal Opportunity Branch, Headquarters Marine Corps to answer any questions concerning the IRS package. 6. EQUAL OPPORTUNITY (EO) COMPLAINTS a. Definition. An EO complaint is a report of conduct that is known or suspected to be discriminatory in nature, based on race, color, religion, gender (to include sexual harassment), age, or national origin. b. Compliance with the chain of command and sound leadership principles are crucial in resolving these sensitive, volatile matters. Expeditious command action lends credibility to the commanders stated policy of equality of treatment for all personnel. c. Commanders and supervisors must ensure that complaints of discrimination, to include sexual harassment, can be made in a command climate that does not tolerate acts of reprisal, intimidation, or further acts of harassment. d. Commanding officers are required to thoroughly investigate all complaints of discrimination to include sexual harassment, and to take corrective actions if warranted. e. Commanders will inform the individual who filed the complaint of the command action. f. The procedures for filing discrimination or sexual harassment complaints will be widely disseminated throughout the command. Individuals who believe that they have been sexually harassed or subjected to other forms of discrimination will be afforded multiple avenues to seek resolution and redress. g. Commanders are responsible for military EO within their units, and will immediately act to eliminate any discriminatory behavior when they become aware of it. h. Who May Initiate an EO Complaint (1) Any person may report suspected cases of discrimination, including sexual harassment, to supervisors in the chain of command. In such cases, a thorough inquiry/investigation into the complaint is required. An EO complaint may be made orally, in writing, or both. Regardless of who initially receives the complaint, it must be forwarded to the proper authority (normally the immediate commanding officer of the offending person). (2) Initiating a complaint is not the same as preferring charges. Preferring charges is the separate function of signing and swearing to charges in preparation for courts-martial or NJP. i. Who Investigates/Takes Action. In most cases, the responsibility to investigate, take action, and report on a Discrimination and Sexual Harassment (DASH) case rests with the command with whom the complaint is filed. However, several circumstances involving personnel from various commands 4-41

and geographic locations may require close coordination between commands to resolve these situations. Regardless of the situation, it is the responsibility of the commander with whom the complaint is filed to ensure that the appropriate measures are taken. If the commander is unable due to circumstances to resolve the case, he or she may forward the case to a higher command to solve the case. j. Formal complaint to command. Any complaint or allegation of discrimination on the basis of race, color, ethnic background, religion, gender, age, national origin or any other form of discrimination, to include sexual harassment, received as a result of request mast, charge sheet, Congressional inquiry, DON or IGMC Hotline, Article 138 of UCMJ, Article 1150 of the Navy Regulations, or initiation of administrative or criminal investigation will be promptly investigated by appropriate authority and reported to CMC (MPE) in accordance with the established timelines. k. Methods to File Formal Complaints (1) Request mast. This is the preferred method for an individual to file a complaint of discrimination with any CO in the chain of command up to the individuals immediate commanding general. The request mast will be conducted at the earliest reasonable time, normally within 24 hours, but no later than 3 working days after the initial submission, whenever practical. MCO 1700.23, Request Mast, provides specific guidance for the request mast program. A copy of the request mast form is provided in Appendix M. (2) Article 138, UCMJ Complaint. A Marine or Sailor who alleges wrong(s) committed by the CO may file a complaint under Article 138, UCMJ. Commanders should consult with the staff judge advocate (SJA) when processing a complaint under Article 138. (3) Redress of Wrong(s) Committed by a Superior. A Marine or Sailor may also file a complaint against any other superior, in rank or command, who the service member believes committed a wrongdoing (USNAVREGS, Art 1150). Commanders should consult with the SJA when processing a complaint under Article 1150, USNAVREGS. (4) Communications with Inspectors General. As an alternative to the normal chain of command, DoN military and civilian personnel may lodge complaints and provide facts to the local Command Inspector or to representatives of the Deputy Naval Inspector or to representatives of the Deputy Naval Inspector General for Marine Corps Matters/Inspector General of the Marine Corps (DNIGMC), DSN 224-1348/49 or commercial (703) 614-1348/49, without fear of reprisals, concerning violations of laws, rules, and regulations; fraud, waste, or inefficiency; abuse of authority; or other misconduct. (5) Individual Communications with Congress. Marines and sailors may write an individual letter to members of Congress at anytime concerning EO issues. 7. EQUAL OPPORTUNITY COMPLAINT TIMELINES. The following timelines will be adhered to when conducting investigations into allegations of discrimination or sexual harassment: a. All formal complaints, as defined in paragraph 4000(11) of this Manual, should be filed (registered) within 60 days of the alleged incident occurring by the person making the allegation. b. Within 3 working days of a commander receiving a formal complaint or notification of formal complaint, the command must initiate an investigation into the allegation(s). If the formal complaint is against ones commander, the complaint must be referred to the next higher command for resolution.

4-42 c. Within 30 calendar days of commencing the investigation, the complaint must be resolved. Resolution includes completion of the investigation, determination of validity of the charges, holding NJP, preferring charges if a court-martial is contemplated, and notification to the complainant and offender of command decisions. Throughout the investigation, updates (feedback) will be provided to the complainant every 14 days. d. Only one extension (maximum of 30 days) is allowed and must be approved by the units immediate commanding general. This authority will not be abdicated. If an extension is granted, an initial DASH report must be submitted by the major command to the CMC (MPE) per the reporting procedures outlined in paragraph 4002 of the reference. e. Upon resolution of the complaint, a complete DASH report must be submitted to the CMC (MPE) using the procedures outlined in paragraph 4002. f. For the purpose of a final DASH report; a complaint is considered final when the investigation is complete and the commander makes the determination on the validity (substantiated/unsubstantiated) of the complaint. If the case is referred to non-judicial punishment, courts-martial and/or administrative separation proceedings, the final outcome of those actions will be updated to CMC (MPE) via DASH when they occur. 8. DISCRIMINATION AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT (DASH) REPORTS a. DASH Reporting Procedures (1) The CMC (MPE) has implemented the DASH complaint tracking system. The DASH report is required when a formal complaint is filed and a Marine is involved as either the complainant or offender, or both. The purpose of the DASH system is to track all formal complaints of discrimination or sexual harassment and to track all parties involved in an investigation until final action(s) is taken. It is a tool to help ensure that all EO complaints are appropriately addressed. It is not a report card for units, commanders, or installations. The information will be used to maintain statistical data and to help identify trends (both positive and negative) in the EO climate of the Marine Corps. The information gathered requires a number of personal entries; therefore, appropriate measures must be taken to ensure the security of all information entered into the database. Access to information will be restricted to a need to know basis. (2) Whether found to be substantiated or unsubstantiated, as determined by proper investigation of the incident, immediate commanders are required to submit a DASH report, Appendix D, within 30 days of receiving a formal complaint of discrimination including sexual harassment, as defined in paragraph 4000(11) of the reference, on the basis of race, color, ethnic background, religion, gender, age, or national origin. (a) The major command will notify the CMC (MPE) via DASH of the status of the complaint using the format contained in Appendix D and per the resolution timelines established in paragraph 4001 of the reference. (i.e., - Initial, Continuation, or Final Report.) (b) Multiple allegations of inappropriate behavior or wrongdoing may be presented to the commander. Therefore, when preparing the DASH report, commanders will provide only the information and action taken that is relevant to alleged behavior that is discriminatory as defined by this Manual.


(c) All DASH reports and subsequent follow up reports will be submitted by the major command to the local EOA for input into DASH. Commands not located at or near an installation with an EOA may mail to the CMC (MPE), 2 Navy Annex, Washington, DC 20380-1775. DASH reports should not be reported via message traffic due to the sensitive nature of the information and to protect the privacy of the people involved. (d) Final DASH reports will be appended to the closed incident case files and maintained by the command that originated the DASH report. b. Local Reports. The DASH reporting format is not intended to be used to inform the chain of command of allegations of discrimination, to include sexual harassment. Restriction on the use of personal information at the local level will help to ensure the confidentiality and security of the reporting process. c. When a DASH Report is not Required. Formal allegations of discrimination presented to Marine Corps commanders require the involvement of the immediate commander and their staff to resolve the complaint. Yet, the Marine Corps DASH reporting requirements are not applicable when incidents: (1) Involve only Civilian Personnel. EEO cases are reported through the appropriate civilian EEO procedures. (2) Involve other than Marine Corps military members who are assigned to Marine Corps installations, (i.e. Naval hospital staff, dental corps). (3) Are determined to be racial/ethnic incidents as defined in paragraph 3005 and these incidents are not acts of discrimination as defined by this Manual. 9. COMMANDERS RESPONSIBILITIES TO EO COMPLAINTS a. Upon receipt of a EO complaint, commanders will: (1) Ensure complaints are handled expeditiously (comply with timelines established in paragraph 4001 of the reference) with confidentiality and sensitivity to the individuals involved. (2) Provide for a prompt investigation conducted by an individual not directly involved in the complaint. All complaints should be routed through the commands EO representative prior to commencing an investigation. If the allegation of discrimination or sexual harassment is directed against a commander, the command inspector should conduct the investigation. If commands do not have an inspector, an individual from outside the command from which the complaint originated should conduct the investigation. (3) All complaints must be validated (substantiated/unsubstantiated) by the commander who initiated the inquiry/investigation. Sexual harassment complaints will be viewed objectively by focusing on the impact of the behavior on the complainant rather than the intent of the harasser. Each allegation of sexual harassment should be measured by the reasonable person standard against the definition in paragraph 3007 of the reference. (4) Ensure that complaints are recorded and filed together with records of subsequent action taken.


(5) Ensure that all formal complaint investigations are reviewed by the Staff Judge Advocate for legal sufficiency. Provide for an equal opportunity review of the investigation at the command level by the command equal opportunity advisor. (6) Conduct Inquiries and Investigations (a) Preliminary considerations. Upon receiving an EO complaint, the CO must determine the appropriate course of action and then initiate action. Actions must be based upon an inquiry/investigation sufficient to result in an informed decision. While it is permissible to dismiss a complaint as unfounded after an appropriate inquiry, it is not permissible to dismiss a complaint without an appropriate inquiry/investigation. At a minimum, COs must direct or conduct an appropriate preliminary inquiry upon receipt of a complaint. (b) Requirement for Investigation. SECNAVINST 5300.26 and the EO Manual require that all reported incidents of discrimination, to include sexual harassment, be investigated by appropriately appointed personnel and resolved at the lowest possible level. The type of investigation necessary will depend upon the particular circumstances surrounding the alleged incident so that the investigation is sufficient to discover the facts of the case. All incidents will be resolved promptly and with sensitivity. Confidentiality will be maintained to the maximum extent possible. Feedback will be provided to all affected individuals consistent with the requirements of the Privacy Act of 1974 and other pertinent laws, regulations, and negotiated agreements. (c) IRS. Depending on the severity of the behavior, the CO should recommend that the individuals involved attempt to use the IRS to resolve their conflict. Unless the conduct is clearly criminal in nature, it is within the commanders purview to forego taking further formal action when a complaint has been resolved under the IRS. In this case, the CO should continue to provide support and resource materials as may be appropriate, such as granting a request to provide training through the TIR library. It is crucial for the CO to monitor the individuals involved to ensure the conflict has been permanently resolved and to provide constructive feedback to all involved. Commanding officer will then report incident per paragraph 4000.11 of this Manual. (d) Major Criminal Offense. The following summarizes considerations in dealing with major criminal offenses. i. Referral to the Criminal Investigative Division/Naval Criminal Investigative Service (CID/NCIS). Once a case is referred to the CID/NCIS, the command should stop all other action on that case. However, if it is impossible to immediately refer the matter to the CID/NCIS, steps should be taken to preserve evidence and ensure the safety of personnel involved, taking care not to compromise or impede any subsequent investigation. When coordinating with CID/NCIS or attempting to preserve potential evidence of a crime, commanders should consult with the SJA for guidance. ii. SECNAVINST 5520.3 requires the major criminal offenses be immediately referred to the CID/NCIS. As defined in SECNAVINST 5520.3, a major criminal offense is punishable under the UCMJ by confinement for a term of more than 1 year or similarly framed federal statutes, state, local, or foreign laws or regulations.


(e) Preliminary Inquiry. Normally, purely military offenses and minor misconduct are investigated by a person assigned to the local command. See Rule for Courts-martial (RCM) 303, Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM) 1984, for further guidance regarding preliminary inquiries and consult with command SJA. b. Any time there is a claim of sexual discrimination/harassment or racial discrimination/harassment, the Commanding Officer is responsible to ensure that a Discrimination and Sexual Harassment (DASH) Report is submitted to CMC (through the chain of command). The time requirement is within 72 hours of complaint. It is critical to note that the DASH report is required WHETHER OR NOT the charge can be substantiated. An investigation may not be completed before the DASH report must be submitted. The DASH report is kept by CMC (Equal Opportunity Branch) for statistical purposes only. Subsequent DASH reports will be submitted until the complaint is resolved. Resolution of the complaint (substantiation/unsubstantiation) will result in a FINAL DASH Report being submitted to CMC. 10. REFERENCE. Any questions regarding EO issues or the Marine Corps EO program should be directed to the current version of MCO P5354.1 (Equal Opportunity Manual). 4019. CONGRESSIONAL INTEREST CORRESPONDENCE (CONGRINT) 1. GENERAL. Periodically, members of Congress will inquire about the status of a Marine on behalf of the Marine or on behalf of a third party interested in a Marines situation (family members are most common). These inquiries normally require a rapid response in order to meet HQMC-established deadlines. Each CONGRINT will have a cover page from the Marine Corps Office of Legislative Affairs (OLA) with specific questions that should be addressed. Ensure all questions are answered thoroughly so higher headquarters dont have to make repeated phone calls to answer gaps in the response. 2. PRIVACY ACT OF 1974. The Privacy Act of 1974 requires that the Marine who is the subject of the CONGRINT must authorize in writing the release of information to the Congressman who initiated the inquiry. 4020. CASUALTY PROCEDURES 1. GENERAL POLICY. It is Marine Corps policy that casualty notification will be affected to the primary and secondary next of kin (NOK) of active duty Marines in a timely, professional, dignified, and understanding manner. When a reportable casualty occurs, it is the responsibility of the Marines unit to notify those involved in the casualty notification and assistance process. It is essential that information provided is timely, accurate, and as complete as the circumstances allow. Casualty assistance is one of the Marine Corps most critical duties. 2. PERSONNEL CASUALTY REPORT (PCR) a. Definition. The PCR is the primary source of casualty information. It is used to inform the NOK of a casualtys status. The report is administrative rather than operational. It should be sent immediately to the CMC (MRC) directly from the reporting unit; not via the chain of command. The report must be accurate and contain only verified information. b. Classification. The PCR will be unclassified. If specific items require classification, indicate in your original PCR (remarks section) that a classified report will follow, and send the classified information separately referencing the original PCR. c. Preparation and Submission. When a person becomes a casualty, a PCR must be transmitted by message immediately upon knowledge of the incident. If all the information is not known, submit what is known and indicate that a supplemental report will follow. 4-46

3. WHO SUBMITS THE PCR a. Each casualtys reporting unit is primarily responsible for submitting the PCR and must be able to release a PCR 24-hours a day. The PCR should be immediately sent from the reporting unit to the CMC (MRC). Do not send via the chain of command. (Normally processed through the unit adjutant) b. If the casualty occurs outside of the reporting units geographical area, the Marine Corps activity first learning of the casualty will immediately notify the casualtys reporting unit that will then notify the CMC (MRC) and submit the PCR. 4. CATEGORIES OF REPORTABLE PERSONS. Marines on Active Duty. This category includes all casualty types for active duty regular Marines as well as reservists in an active duty status or en route to or from a prescribed period of active duty training. 5. Refer any questions on casualty matters to the CMC (MRC). Call commercial (703) 696-2070 or DSN 426-2070 or call the HQMC Command Center at commercial (703) 695-7366 or DSN 225-7366, and ask for the Casualty Duty Officer. 4021. CAREER PLANNING 1. PURPOSE. The primary purpose of career planning is to retain highly qualified Marines. Retention of highly qualified Marines will ensure the maintenance of a career force which is composed of Marines who are capable of making significant contributions to the overall effectiveness of the Marine Corps. The responsibility for a successful career planning program rests with you, the commander. 2. REFERENCE. A successful program is one which complies with the guidelines in MCO P1040.31, while attaining the Marine Corps retention goals. 3. RESPONSIBILITY. The unit career planner is responsible to the commander for administering the unit career planning program and is the commander's adviser on enlisted retention matters. 4. RETENTION CATEGORIES a. First-Term Marine Any Marine serving on an initial enlistment contract. b. Career Marines. Marines serving on their second or subsequent contract in the Regular Marine Corps. This definition applies to TFRS reenlistment code (REENL CODE) "C". 5. GENERAL a. Reenlistment involves the execution of a new contract by an enlisted Marine. This contract establishes a legal relationship between the United States Government and that Marine. A reenlistment contract replaces either a current enlistment/reenlistment contract, or one which has been terminated separation. b. A Marine must reenlist prior to midnight of the last day of his/her current enlistment/extension. The reenlistment will be effective on the date following the date of separation.


c. Upon receipt of appropriate authority to reenlist a Marine, the unit commander is authorized to separate that Marine per MCO P1900.16, Marine Corps Separation and Retirement Manual (MARCORSEPMAN), for the express purpose of reenlistment. In the case of Marines who were paid an enlistment bonus for their present contract, refer to MCO 1130.57, Enlistment Bonus Program (EBP). d. There are three types of reenlistments for active duty Marines: immediate, standard and early. (1) Immediate. A Marine reenlists with less than 90 days remaining on his/her current enlistment/extension. The date of expiration of enlistment is excluded in computing the 90 day period. (2) Standard. A Marine reenlists with more than three months, but less than twelve months remaining on his/her contract. (3) Early. A Marine reenlists more than 12 months prior to the end of his/her current enlistment/extension. This is normally authorized only when the assignment requires obligated service. Marines in receipt of permanent change of station (PCS) orders requiring additional obligated service may request this exception. This includes orders to Drill Instructor, Recruiter, and Marine Security Guard schools. It is not granted for the sole purpose of maximizing SRBP awards or for boatspace availability. e. In accordance with Department of Defense Financial Management Regulation (DOD FMR) Volume 7A, table 5-3, and Senate Bill Section 604, effective on or after 5 Oct 99, enlisted service members are eligible to sell back accrued leave in conjunction with a discharge or reenlistment not to exceed 60 days sold back in a career. f. There are two types of reenlistments for prior service applicants: continuous and broken. (1) Continuous. A former active duty Marine who reenlists in the Regular Marine Corps while having been separated from the Regular Marine Corps for not more than ninety (90) days. The ninety (90) day period begins on the date following the date of separation and ends at midnight on the corresponding date of the month ninety (90) days later. Continuous reenlistment requests must be submitted by an Active Duty Career Planner from the separating command via TFRS or Naval Message. (2) Broken. A former Marine who reenlists in the Regular Marine Corps while having been separated from the Regular Marine Corps for more than ninety (90) days. Broken Reenlistment requests must be submitted by an Active Duty Recruiter under the Prior Service Enlistment Program (PSEP). All SNCO's requesting to retain their present grade must submit under the Enlistment/Reenlistment of Reserve SNCO and Officers/Former Officers in the Regular USMC (Long Name Board) MCO 1130.63. g. Reenlistment Lengths (1) 48-month or 36-month authority - the standard reenlistment lengths. (2) 24-month authority - results from service limitation, to allow for additional observation or at the Marine's request. (3) 60/72-month authority - used for special programs only (e.g., courtroom stenographer, Marine Corps Enlisted Commissioning Education Program (MECEP), Advanced Degree Completion, Program); not used to maximize Selective Reenlistment Bonus Program (SRBP). 4-48

6. REENLISTMENT AUTHORITY a. The CMC (MMEA-6) must review all reenlistments. Reenlistment authority remains effective until the Marine's expiration of enlistment, or until the date specified in the approval. Extensions executed after receipt of reenlistment authority void the reenlistment authority. b. If a first term or career Marine desires additional service but is not recommended for reenlistment, the request must still be referred to the CMC (MMEA-6) for further service determination. c. Even if reenlistment authority has been granted by the CMC (MMEA-6), reenlistment will not be effected when, the Marine no longer meets all reenlistment prerequisites or in the opinion of the commander, the Marine authorized to reenlist has failed to maintain the high standards of professional and personal performance which led to the authority for reenlistment being granted. In such cases, the command must immediately inform the CMC (MMEA-6), who will then reconsider the Marine's request. Commanding Officers will review all reenlistment packages prior to executing reenlistment. d. Per section 1176, title 10, U.S. Code, Marines with 18 years of active service will be retained to achieve retirement eligibility unless separated in accordance with the MARCORSEPMAN. 7. COMMANDING OFFICER'S RECOMMENDATION. The Commanding Officer's recommendation plays a crucial role in the reenlistment decision. The recommendation should take into consideration the Marine's performance and conduct as it relates to rank, age, experience, and maturity level. The primary role of the CO's recommendation is to provide the key initiation of dialogue between the command and the CMC (MMEA-6), contributing to the reenlistment decision as it relates to the Marine's current performance and potential. The CMC (MMEA-6) is responsible for rounding out the recommendation by considering the Marine's entire record. Although a "not recommended" does not, in itself, disqualify a Marine for reenlistment, the importance of the recommendation cannot be overemphasized. Commanding Officer's are required to address any adverse material or substandard performance a Marine may have on current contract. The Commanding Officer's recommendation will indicate one of the following categories: Recommendation w/ Enthusiasm w/ Confidence w/ Reservation Criteria Top 25 % of Marines in that grade known to the certifying officer Top 50% of Marines in that grade known to the certifying officer COs discretion. Marine meets basic retention requirements; however, the CO has reservations concerning the Marines career potential COs discretion. CO must indicate the reason for not recommending to ensure assignment of appropriate reenlistment eligibility code

Not Recommended

8. REENLISTMENT PREREQUISITES a. Basic Reenlistment Prerequisites. The following basic reenlistment prerequisites pertain to all Marines applying for reenlistment:


(1) Have demonstrated the high standards of leadership, professional competence, and personal behavior required to maintain the prestige and quality standards of the Marine Corps. (2) A Marine who is guilty of Driving Under the Influence (DUI) or Driving While Intoxicated (DWI), on or off base, has not met the personal behavior requirement. (3) Have demonstrated the core values of honor, courage and commitment. (4) Be worldwide deployable and fit for rigorous combat duty at sea and on foreign shore. (HIV positive Marines are excluded from this prerequisite. CO's certification remains "yes" to protect Marine's privacy). (5) Meet medical/dental standards as prescribed in the Manual of the Medical Department (MANMED). Provided the Marine is otherwise qualified for reenlistment, an extension may be requested for sufficient time to obtain treatment to meet prescribed dental standards. An HIV positive status shall not be used to deny reenlistment to members on continuous active duty. Marines on light or limited duty will not be granted reenlistment while in that status. Medical/dental screening is to be conducted prior to submission of the reenlistment/extension/lateral move request. (6) Pass a full and current Physical Fitness Test, and Combat Physical Fitness test per MCO 6100.3, Physical Fitness, and meet military appearance and height/weight/ body fat standards prescribed by MCO 6100.10, Weight Control and Military Appearance. (7) Incident involving confirmed illegal use, possession, sale, or distribution of a controlled substance since 1 September 1992 per MCO P5300.12, Marine Corps Substance Abuse Program. Any confirmed incident prior to 31 August 1992 will be adjudicated on a case-by-case basis by the CMC (MMEA). (8) Classification as a conscientious objector or have received clemency under the President's Clemency Program (Executive Order No. 11803 of 16 September 1974). (9) Status as a sole surviving son/daughter. However, a Marine may waive this status per MCO P1300.8, Marine Corps Personnel Assignment Policy. (10) No known dependency or hardship that is not temporary in nature and that causes the Marine to be non-deployable or not available for worldwide assignment at any time. (11) CMC imposed reenlistment restriction. (12) No convictions by a court-martial. This restriction is only subject to the current enlistment contract, and extensions to that contract. (13) No known convictions by civil authorities (foreign or domestic), or action taken which is tantamount to a finding of guilty of an offense for which the maximum penalty under the UCMJ is confinement for six months or more or a fine of $500 or more. If the offense is not listed in the Manual for Courts Martial (Table of Maximum Punishments), or is not closely related to an offense listed there, apply the maximum punishment authorized by the U.S. Code, or the District of Columbia Code, whichever is lesser. This restriction is only subject to the current enlistment contract, and extensions to that contract. (14) No more than two nonjudicial punishments (NJP). This restriction is only subject to the current enlistment contract, and extensions to that contract. 4-50

(15) Minimum proficiency and conduct mark average of 4.0/4.0 during the current enlistment contract, and extensions to that contract. (16) No fitness report date gaps in excess of 45 days (old style reports) or 30 days (new style reports) within the last five years or on the current contract, whichever period is greater. CMC (MMEA-6) may grant short term extensions to allow time to recover missing fitness reports. (17) No assignments to an Outpatient Services (OP), Intensive Outpatient Services (IOP) or Inpatient Services alcohol treatment program(s), per MCO P1700.24, Marine Corps Personal Service Manual, during the past 12 months. In these cases, Marines may request an extension for up to 12 months to allow them to complete their after care treatment program and to allow the command to observe their performance and conduct. The observation period begins on the date the Marine completes LEVEL II or III alcohol treatment. Career planners must confirm the completion date. This restriction does not apply to Marines who volunteer for treatment and have no performance or conduct problems. (18) Marines who are single parents and have custody of their children or dual military couples \ with dependents are required to comply with the instructions contained in MCO 1740.13, Family Care Plans, which provide specific requirements for maintaining current family care plans in the event of deployment/TAD. b. First-Term Marines. In addition to the basic reenlistment prerequisites, first-term Marines must meet the following prerequisites: (1) Be a high school graduate or alternate credential holder. (2) Have a general technical (GT) composite score of 80 or higher. (3) Competitively achieve a First Term Alignment Plan (FTAP) boat space within the fiscal year that his/her contract expires. c. Career Marines. The following are considered disqualifying factors for reenlistment for career Marines: (1) Marine has previously refused to extend/reenlist to obtain the obligated service necessary to execute PCS/or deployment orders. On a case by case basis, if the Marine accepts similar orders, this may be waived by the CMC (MMEA). (2) Marine has submitted for transfer to FMCR. (3) Marine has requested separation by an early separation program. 9. COMMANDING OFFICER'S CERTIFICATION. The CO's certification in the reenlistment request verifies to the CMC (MMEA-6) that the Marine meets all reenlistment prerequisites. If the Marine does not meet a prerequisite, and a waiver is being requested, the certification should be "No", with an explanation in the CO's comments. 10. EXCEPTION TO REENLISTMENT PREREQUISITES. A female Marine who was otherwise qualified for retention prior to becoming pregnant warrants an exception to the following reenlistment prerequisites: height/weight/body fat standards, passing a current PFT and worldwide deployability. This is a blanket exception to reenlistment prerequisites and does not require a waiver.


11. WAIVER OF REENLISTMENT PREREQUISITES a. The CMC is authorized to grant waivers of certain reenlistment prerequisites. Requests for reenlistment from Marines who require a waiver of a reenlistment prerequisite must be endorsed by the Commanding General prior to being sent to the CMC (MMEA-6). The following may be waived: (1) Court-martial conviction. (2) Conviction by civil authorities. (3) More than two nonjudicial punishments. (4) Less than a high school graduate or alternative credential holder. (5) Guilty of DUI/DWI. (6) General technical (GT) composite score of 79 or lower if requesting Primary MOS only. b. The following will not be waived: (1) Confirmed illegal use, possession, sale, or distribution of a controlled substance. (2) Conscientious objector. (3) Minimum proficiency and conduct mark average of 3.9/3.9. (4) General technical (GT) composite score of 79 or lower if requesting a Lateral Move. (5) Marine has submitted to FMCR. (6) Marine has requested separation pay by an early separation program. c. Waiver Request Format. Forward recommendations for waivers of reenlistment prerequisites to the CMC (MMEA-6) through the chain of command using a NAVMC 10842 and submit via TFRS. Include the following: (1) A recommendation from the Commanding General (CG or Acting CG only). (2) Copies of SRB pages 3, 9, 11, 12, and 13. (3) Copy of Record-of-Service for Sergeants with less than two years time-in-grade at the time of request. (4) Any additional material which the commander considers pertinent to the request. Do not include recent fitness reports. Submit fitness reports to the CMC (MMSB) according to MCO P1610.7, Performance Evaluation System. d. A request for waiver of medical/dental requirements for immediate reenlistment must be based on the fact that a medical officer of the Department of Defense is not available and there is no evidence in the member's health record of recent illness or injury. If a waiver of medical/dental requirements is granted, have medical personnel holding the Marine's records make an appropriate entry. The Marine must meet medical/dental requirements at the earliest opportunity per the MANMED.


e. Submit requests for waiver of disqualifying physical defects to the CMC (MMEA-6) per the MANMED. Submit copies of the current Report of Medical Examination (SF 88) and Report of Medical History (SF 93) with these requests. Physicians are not authorized to waive such defects. 12. SERVICE LIMITATIONS a. The service limits for each grade are established by the CMC (MPP) as part of Enlisted Career Force Controls (ECFC). b. The grade held determines the total active service authorized. The following depicts active service limits by grade at the time of reenlistment, to include the period of reenlistment/extension: Grade Cpl Sgt SSgt GySgt 1stSgt/MSgt SgtMaj/MGySgt Active Service Limitations 8 years active Marine Corps service 13 years active Marine Corps service 20 years active service 22 years active service 27 years active service 30 years active service

c. The following service limits apply to Marines who have twice failed selection to the next higher grade: Twice Passed for Promotion Grade Sgt SSgt GySgt 1stSgt/MSgt Active Service Limitations Current EAS. (May request early separation and retain eligibility for involuntary separation pay per MARCORSEPMAN) 20 years 20 years or current EAS if over 20 years Required to transfer to the FMCR at their EAS once they have completed at least 22 years

d. Service limits ensure that Marines who have reached a certain year of service in their current grade without being selected for promotion are either separated or transferred to the FMCR. Enforcement of service limits improves promotion opportunity for Marines in junior grades. e. Marines with over 18 years of active service who are approaching their service limit should request transfer to the FMCR from the CMC (MMSR-2) 4-14 months from the mandatory FMCR transfer date. The CMC (MMSR-2) may grant extensions up to 4 months to allow Marines to complete 20 years of service, or to reach their service limit. (1) FMCR approval does not, in itself, prevent a Marine from being worldwide deployable. (2) Marines eligible for promotion who have submitted for transfer to the FMCR may request, in writing, to the CMC (MMSR) to be considered by the upcoming selection board, if they have been twice passed, or are approaching service limits, and their EAS is after the estimated adjournment date of the board. (3) Marines with over 20 years of active service who are not approaching their service limit will be limited to 36 month reenlistments.


13. VOLUNTARY EXTENSIONS OF ENLISTMENT a. General. Voluntary extensions of enlistment are executed in monthly increments and are not approved for more than 23 months for each extension. Marines cannot exceed 48 months of extensions on each enlistment contract per section 509, title 10 U.S. Code. b. Purpose (1) Extensions are intended to provide sufficient obligated active service to allow a Marine to serve a tour of specified length. They are not to be used in lieu of reenlistments. The CMC (MMEA-6) may authorize extensions for the following reasons: (a) To participate in specific exercises, operations, or unit deployments. (b) To gain sufficient obligated service to qualify for a specific assignment or for valid humanitarian circumstances. (c) To qualify for reenlistment/transition. (d) To qualify for transfer to the Fleet Marine Corps Reserve or for retirement. Within 14 months of their desired transfer to the FMCR/retirement date, Marines should submit their request to the CMC (MMSR), per the MARCORSEPMAN. (e) A Marine whose wife is pregnant or a pregnant Marine may request extension of enlistment to receive medical benefits, provided his/her service has been satisfactory and their services can be effectively used. If the Marine's services cannot be used locally, the CO shall forward the request to the CMC (MMEA-6) with appropriate recommendations. To qualify for this extension, the Marine's wife or pregnant Marine must be scheduled to deliver after the Marine's EAS. (f) A Marine who has been assigned and successfully completed OP, IOP or Inpatient services of the Substance Abuse Treatment Services may request an extension to allow up to a 12 month observation period for performance and conduct. The observation period begins on the date when the Marine completes treatment. (2) Local Command Authority. Provided the authorized term of extension does not result in total active service beyond the service limit (paragraph 4107.2 and 4107.3) or result in more than 48 months of extensions on each contract (paragraph 4200.1), commanders may approve the following short-term extensions of enlistment: (a) One month on a one-time basis per contract to allow the Marine who has decided to submit a reenlistment request to await a response on that request. This authority may not be used if the extension carries a first-term Marine into a new fiscal year. (b) Up to three months following a fit for full duty determination. (c) Up to six months to meet minimum obligated service requirements of MCO 1300.8 when permanent change-of-station orders (PCSO) are issued by the CMC, to include: TADO/PCSO to Drill Instructor, Recruiter, Marine Security Guard Schools only. i. The Marine is still subject to the service limits listed above.


ii. Obligated service must be required under current directives to use this authority. Before approving an extension of enlistment, commanders must review MCO P1000.6, Assignment, Classification and Travel Systems Manual (ACTS Manual), paragraph 3404, to ensure that the Marine's performance supports PCSO and additional service. (3) Commanders may request telephonic extensions, from the CMC (MMEA-6) when awaiting a response to a previous submission if they have already used their one month authority as described above. 14. CANCELLATION OF VOLUNTARY EXTENSION AGREEMENT a. Cancellation of voluntary extensions of enlistment is not authorized on or after the effective date of the extension period. Separation of Marines in these cases may be accomplished only by a discharge or a transfer to the FMCR. Requests for separation of Marines because of an erroneous extension of enlistment which is in effect must be submitted to the CMC (MMSR) per MCO P1900.16, MARCORSEPMAN. b. Commanders are authorized to cancel an extension of enlistment before its effective date upon approval from CMC under the following circumstances: (1) The Marine's performance of duty so warrants. In this instance, assignment of reenlistment eligibility code RE-4 is required. (2) The Marine's physical condition so warrants. This includes assignment to weight control or limited duty. (3) The Marine is declared a deserter. (4) The Marine extends to attend a service school and is dropped from the course because of a failure to maintain satisfactory progress or because of misconduct. (5) The Marine by his/her own volition becomes unqualified for any incentive granted in conjunction with the extension. c. When canceling the agreement to extend enlistment before the effective date, write the word "canceled" and state the reason for canceling the extension on the NAVMC 321A. Place the canceled extension agreement on the document side of the SRB. Report the cancellation on the unit diary per MCO P1080.40, Marine Corps Total Force System Personnel Reporting Instructions Manual (MCTFSPRIM). d. Cancellation of an extension agreement does not bar executing another extension agreement, provided the individual is eligible. e. Submit to the CMC (MMEA-6) for final determination all requests to cancel extensions of enlistment, prior to the effective date. 15. REQUIRED INTERVIEWS. Conduct regularly scheduled career planning interviews with all Marines. Record the summary of these interviews on the Career Planning Contact Record (1133) (NAVMC 10213) as indicated in paragraph 6006 below.


a. First-Term Interviews (1) Career Planner's Initial Interview (a) Conduct this interview between 26 and 24 months before the Marine's EAS. (b) Use this interview to determine if the Marine meets all prerequisites for reenlistment/lateral move, to ensure that corrective action is initiated if necessary (for example, retaking the Armed Forces Classification Test), and to ensure the Marine is fully appraised of the benefits and incentives related to reenlistment. The Marine should also be familiarized with the FTAP process. (2) Career Planner's FTAP Interview (a) Conduct this interview between 1 June and 1 September, prior to the fiscal year in which the Marine is eligible to reenlist and in which the Marine's EAS occurs. (b) The Career Planner normally conducts this interview to ensure the Marine understands all the benefits of a Marine Corps career. (c) The Career Planner should remind the Marine of the need for a complete and competitive performance record. (d) The Career Planner should initiate the reenlistment process on all Marines desiring retention. (3) Commanding Officer's FTAP Interview (a) The purpose of this interview is to determine the commander's recommendation for reenlistment. Conduct this interview between 1 June and 1 September, prior to the fiscal year in which the Marine is eligible to reenlist. CO's should interview 100% of the First-Term population. (b) If the Marine is not initially recommended for reenlistment and the commander's recommendation changes, conduct a subsequent interview prior to the Marine's EAS to reevaluate the recommendation. (4) EAS Interview (a) Conduct this interview between four and six months of EAS or prior to transfer to a command designated to process the Marine for separation. (b) The primary purpose of this interview is to ensure the Marine is appraised of the benefits of joining the SMCR and Transition Assistance Management Programs (TAMP). Also advise the Marine of the requirement to attend a mandatory pre-separation brief. Both the CO and the Career Planner will conduct EAS interviews. Make the appropriate page 11 entry (if not already done) in the Marine's SRB. The CO should assign the appropriate reenlistment eligibility code during the EAS interview for those Marines who will not reenlist.


b. Career Marine Interviews (1) EAS Interview. If the Marine has not submitted a reenlistment request, conduct an EAS interview between four and six months of EAS or prior to transfer to a command designated to process the Marine for separation in order to determine if further service is desired. (2) The primary purpose of this interview is to ensure the Marine is advised regarding affiliation with the SMCR and TAMP. Also advise the Marine of the requirement to attend a mandatory preseparation brief. Both the CO and the Career Planner will conduct EAS interviews. Make the appropriate page 11 entry (if not already done) in the Marine's SRB. The CO should assign the appropriate reenlistment code during the EAS interview for those Marines who will separate at EAS. (3) Advise FMCR eligible Marines that they must submit for reenlistment or submit a request for transfer to the FMCR. Failure to request transfer to the FMCR at least four months prior to EAS will jeopardize timely processing of the request. This could impact on PTAD, leave, and other transition benefits. Failure to request transfer to the FMCR will result in separation at EAS without benefits. 16. BROKEN AND CONTINUOUS REENLISTMENTS a. Counsel Marines who do not reenlist immediately regarding their opportunity to reenlist at a later date. However, they should understand such a reenlistment is based primarily on the needs of the Marine Corps and is not guaranteed. Benefits which accrue from such a reenlistment (grade to which reappointed and date of rank) decrease as time following release from active duty increases. As an example, sergeants and above are normally assigned a date-of-rank as the new date of reenlistment. Also, Marines reenlisted 1-year after discharge will normally be reduced one grade. Additionally, SRBP eligibility may be forfeited after being separated for more than 90 days and may be lost if the MOS's eligibility for SRB changes. A Marine should allow at least 30-days to process a reenlistment request. Broken Service Selective Reenlistment Bonus (BSSRB) program is in effect as of February 2000. This program is established to provide a reenlistment bonus incentive to those eligible Marines separated for more than 91 days but less than 365 and are requesting reenlistment in a bonus eligible PMOS. b. Also counsel these Marines on the benefits of joining the SMCR to preserve grade reappointment and date-of-rank benefits as much as possible should they later decide to reenlist or augment in the active Marine Corps. c. Marine Corps recruiting stations will process broken reenlistments per MCO 1130.58, MCO P1100.72, and this Manual. The CMC (MMEA-6) approves all broken reenlistments. d. Active Duty Career Planners will process continuous reenlistments per this Manual. The CMC (MMEA-6) approves all continuous reenlistments. e. The following paragraphs contain information relating to the assignment of the appropriate grade and date-of-rank of various categories of broken and continuous reenlistments. (1) Staff noncommissioned officers serving in the SMCR or on extended active duty (EAD) will submit a written request to the CG (MCRC) for accession into the Regular Marine Corps. These requests will be referred to the Reserve SNCO and Officer and Former Officer Enlistment/Reenlistment Evaluation Board for consideration and determination of grade and dateof-rank. MCO 1130.63 applies.


(2) Sergeants and below serving in the SMCR and all other former Marines will be guided by MCO 1100.77 and MCO 1130.58. 4022. AWARDS 1. TYPES. Superior performance of duty should always be recognized and rewarded. All recommendations for awards should contain, at a minimum, who deserves the award, what the Marine did to deserve the award, and when he did it. Listed below are the common forms of awards and a short description of each: a. COMMENDATORY CORRESPONDENCE. This is correspondence about a Marines performance that is transmitted via the chain of command. If you are involved in an exercise and use personnel from another unit, use this to call attention to their efforts that may deserve more than a phone call to their officer-in-charge. b. LETTER OF APPRECIATION. Any Marine officer senior to the Marine whose performance is considered noteworthy or commendable, and beyond the usual requirements of duty, may issue a Letter of Appreciation. c. MERITORIOUS MAST. Battalion and squadron commanders are authorized to award meritorious masts. Submit the justification and a proposed citation in the form of a naval letter through the chain of command to the battalion commander via the adjutant. d. CERTIFICATE OF COMMENDATION. Battalion and squadron commanders may issue this certificate in recognition of exemplary performance. Submit the justification and a proposed citation in the form of a naval letter through the chain of command to the battalion commander via the adjutant. e. NAVY AND MARINE CORPS ACHIEVEMENT MEDAL. Battalion and squadron commanders have the authority to issue this award for specific achievement, end of tour, and retirement. Submit the recommendation for the award online as outlined below. f. NAVY AND MARINE CORPS COMMENDATION MEDAL. Commanding generals have the authority to issue this award for specific achievement, end of tour, and retirement. Submit recommendations for the award online as outlined below. g. MERITORIOUS SERVICE MEDAL. Marine Expeditionary Force commanding generals have the authority to issue this award for specific achievement, end of tour, and retirement. Submit recommendations for the award online as outlined below. 2. RESPONSIBILITY. As the commanding officer, you will need to provide the justification and proposed citations for recommended awards. 3. ONLINE SUBMISSION OF AWARD RECOMMENDATIONS. Submit all personal awards (NMCAM and higher), utilizing the HQMC Awards Processing System (HQMC APS). Originators will logon to the HQMC APS website at, register on-line, and submit their Personal Award Recommendation (HQMC APS 1650(EF)) with a Summary of Action and proposed citation via their chain of command to the appropriate awarding authority. Complete instructions for utilizing the HQMC APS are included as an enclosure to MCO 1650.19J.


4. VERIFICATION OF AWARDS. Every effort must be made at the command and unit level to verify awards to which the individual Marine is entitled and to ensure that such entitlements are accurately recorded in the MCTFS database via the Unit Diary system. Eligibility can be determined through the field service record, personal interview with the Marine, or use of SECNAVINST 1650.1F, along with other Navy and Marine Corps directives. When an award entitlement cannot be determined, the command should request verification from the CMC (MMMA), indicating that all efforts were exhausted to verify the information at the unit level, and specify what information is lacking to update the service record of the Marine. 5. REFERENCE. Specific information on personal awards is contained in MCO P1650.19J. 4023. PREDEPLOYMENT ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS 1. READINESS. As you know deployment of your unit is something that can occur with very little notice, therefore, it is necessary that you maintain a constant state of deployment readiness. 2. ACTION. Before deployment, ensure that you accomplish the following administrative actions for all of your Marines: a. Have up-to-date wills and powers of attorney; b. Have up-to-date records of emergency data and SGLI forms; c. Have up-to-date shot records; d. Have dental records classified Class III or above; e. Have current identification cards and dog tags; f. Have the required amount of obligated service remaining to complete the deployment; and

g. Have been allowed to file allotments, to establish direct-deposit requests, and to designated deployed pay amounts. 4024. SUMMARY After examining the information in this chapter, it is evident that administration is not only the responsibility of the administrator but additionally that of the Company Commander. If your Marines administrative needs are to be taken care of properly, there must be a team effort between the Company and the S-1. In summation, if your Marines are paid promptly, promoted, and awarded, they will perform more efficiently. After all is said and done, TAKING CARE OF YOUR MARINES should be one of your chief responsibilities and goals.



COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 4 APPENDIX A The following appendix provides a listing of administrative publications. This listing is not all inclusive, and you should use only the current editions of the publications. REFERENCES - UPDATED: 22 JUN 2009 MCO 1001.39K SUBJECT: Counseling of Enlisted Personnel being Separated from Active Duty in the Regular Marine Corps Concerning Participation in the Marine Corps Reserve. PURPOSE: Provides counseling guidance and administrative instructions relative to qualified Marines who are being separated from active duty concerning participation in the Marine Corps Reserve. SUBJECT: Marine Corps Uniform Regulations PURPOSE: Provides current policies regarding the wearing of Marine Corps clothing. SUBJECT: Enlisted Retention and Career Development Manual PURPOSE: Provides policies and procedures to be used in the conduct of the Marine Corps Career Planning Program. SUBJECT: Regulations for Leave, Liberty, and Administrative Absence PURPOSE: Provides regulations and policies on leave, liberty, and administrative absence. SUBJECT: Marine Corps Individual Records Administration Manual (IRAM) PURPOSE: Provides policies, procedures, and technical instructions for the administration of personnel records. SUBJECT: Selection, Screening, and Preparation of Enlisted Marines for Assignment to Drill Instructor, Recruiter, and Independent Duty PURPOSE: Publishes instructions relative to the selection and screening of enlisted Marines for drill instructor, recruiter, and independent duty assignments. SUBJECT: Marine Corps Promotion Manual, Volume 2, Enlisted Promotions (MARCORPROMAN, VOL 2, ENLPROM) PURPOSE: Provides the basic information relative to the administration of enlisted promotions in the Marine Corps.

MCO P1020.34 G

MCO P1040.31 J

MCO 1050.3J

MCO 1070.12K W/ CH 1

MCO P1326.6D W/CH1

MCO P1400.32D W/CH1


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 4 APPENDIX REFERENCE MCO P1610.7F W/CH1 SUBJECT: Performance Evaluation System (PES) PURPOSE: Provides guidance for administering and operating the performance evaluation system for Marine Corps officers and noncommissioned officers and for Navy personnel assigned to Marine Corps commands. SUBJECT: Dependency Determination and Basic Allowance for Housing (BAH) Manual PURPOSE: Provides instructions for administering applications for BAQ for eligible Marines with dependants. SUBJECT: Marine Corps Separation and Retirement Manual (MARCORSEPMAN) PURPOSE: Establishes and provides instructions, regulations, and policies on separations and retirements. SUBJECT: Marine Corps Manual for Legal Administration (LEGADMINMAN) PURPOSE: Provides policies, procedures, guidance, and instructions for the administration of discipline, law, and legal matters in the Marine Corps and the Marine Corps Reserve. SUBJECT: Individual Clothing Regulations (ICR) PURPOSE: Provides current instructions and guidance for administering individual uniform clothing.

MCO P1751.3F

MCO P1900.16F W/CH1-2

MCO P5800.16A W/CH1-5

MCO P10120.28G









5-22 5-23 5-24 5A-1 5B-1 5C-1

5408 5406


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 5 TRAINING SECTION I: MARINE CORPS TRAINING SYSTEM/UNIT READINESS PLANNING 5101. GENERAL 1. THERE IS NO MORE IMPORTANT RESPONSIBILITY FOR A COMPANY COMMANDER THAN TO PREPARE HIS COMPAY TO WIN IN COMBAT. The Marine Corps training system is designed to assist you in that preparation. By understanding the system and manipulating it for your own benefit, you as a commander will fulfill that responsibility. 2. As a commander, you receive officer and enlisted marines who have completed their initial skill training at some institution. Your unit level training program must build on those initial skills and train to individual and collective standards. MCO 1553.1, SYSTEMS APPROACH TO TRAINING, describes the system that is used to plan, to develop, to implement, and to evaluate all training. The basis of the Marine Corps training system is the concept that all Marines plan, instruct, train, and evaluate training to specific standards. These standards define proficiency, serve as a means of diagnosing training deficiencies, and establish the tasks that units and individual Marines are expected to be capable of performing. Individual training standards and collective unit standards associated with the Marine Corps Combat Readiness Evaluation Systems (MCCRES) Volume for your unit, have been replaced by Training and Readiness (T&R) manuals. These manuals are arranged by MOS, as well as specific skillsets, and training institutions in order to describe task, condition, and standard for individuals and units. The most updated versions of each T&R manual is managed by Marine Corps Training and Education Command (TECOM). Aviation T&R manuals are managed by the Aviation Training Branch, while all ground T&R manuals are managed by the Ground Training Branch. 5102. PHILOSOPHY OF TRAINING 1. MCO 1553.3A, UNIT TRAINING MANAGEMENT, outlines the Marine Corps training philosophy. The following paragraphs provide a synthesis of the guidance. 2. The United States Marine Corps was created and is maintained to keep the peace and, should war occur, to defeat the enemy. The key to success in both these areas is training. Successful combat units train as they intend to fight, and fight as they have trained. The Marine Corps mandate for training is simple and compelling. Combat-ready units are manned with motivated, disciplined, and proficient Marines and are led by tactically competent officers and noncommissioned officers. Quality training in the Marine Corps must be a way of life. Training encompasses the full range of duties, responsibilities, and missions of Marines in the total Marine Corps. It must be embedded in all that we do, all of the time. Employing weapons, operating equipment, communicating, maintaining, rearming, and resupplying are all critical skills mastered only through training. From training comes the ability to follow procedures, to execute techniques, to apply tactics, and to integrate the capabilities of arms and services. 3. The battlefield makes rigorous physical, psychological, and moral demands. It demands both the ability to fight and the willingness to fight. It requires stamina, strength, agility, and dexterity combined with skills, knowledge, creativity, and imagination. Todays national economic, social, and cultural norms no longer accustom people to hardship and frugality; yet, todays battlefield is harsher than ever. Training must make Marines and leaders physically and mentally tough enough to survive and to win under conditions of sever physical hardship, searing emotional conflict, and extreme danger. Only quality 5-1

training will prepare our Marines to exploit initiatives and to act quickly and boldly, with innovation. The result will be a well-disciplined unit working and fighting together to achieve the greater mission of the unit and the Marine Corps. 5103. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING 1. TRAIN AS YOU FIGHT. All peacetime training must conform to battlefield requirements. You are the trainers and coaches, but you must also participate in training. You must ensure that the Marines in your company are trained realistically to cope with the complex, stressful, and lethal situations that they will encounter in war. Training as you fight is the fundamental principle upon which all training has to be based. 2. MAKE ALL SUBORDINATE LEADERS PRIMARY TRAINERS. As a Company Commander, you need to do more than merely manage training. Your personal presence and involvement will demonstrate to all that training is the first priority in your company. Moreover, you must personally train your immediate subordinates. Within this principle, you must understand that commissioned officers are mainly responsible for training in collective tasks related to the units proficiency. Also, you must understand that Non-Commissioned Officers and staff Non-Commissioned Officers are responsible for training in individual tasks related to the individual Marines task proficiency. 3. TRAIN USING APPROPRIATE DOCTRINE. Common procedures and uniform methods permit you, as a unit commander, to adjust rapidly to changes in the tactical situation. Additionally, common procedures eliminate the need for retraining when units are cross-attached, and during the time of war, reduce some of the need for complex orders and instructions, and provide for ease of assimilation of replacements. Moreover, standardized doctrine makes maximum use of valuable training time and builds confidence in your Marines and company as a whole. 4. USE PERFORMANCE-ORIENTED TRAINING. All training should be performance-oriented. You should train your company and the individuals in it to do rather than to know. To obtain maximum proficiency, increase and broaden the conditions under which the tasks will be performed; however, avoid changing the standards to which the tasks will be performed when conditions become adverse. Your Marines individual training must occur on a continual basis, and you must ensure that it is fully integrated into collective training. Train the tasks to meet standards not merely to occupy time programmed on the training schedule. 5. USE MISSION-ORIENTED TRAINING. To properly design a training program, you must first identify your companys mission by conducting a thorough mission analysis. This mission analysis will provide specific and implied tasks. Additionally, it will provide a basis by which you can prioritize your training towards those missions required of your company. In other words, companies should not train for MCCRES tasks that are not dictated by their war-time missions. All of your efforts in training, both individually and collectively, must be evaluated based on doctrinal standards and mission requirements. 6. TRAIN TO FIGHT AND TO SUPPORT AS PART OF A COMBINED ARMS MARINE AIRGROUND TASK FORCE (MAGTF) TEAM. Combined arms proficiency develops only when teams are habitually associated in training exercises. Combined arms operations provide the focus for specific training requirements of combat support, combat service support, and air-ground coordination. You must take advantage of every opportunity to participate in these training operations. Additionally, you must request and insist on working directly with those types of units which your company is most likely to support, serve, or to be supported by or served by. 7. TRAIN TO SUSTAIN PROFICIENCY. To sustain proficiency, you must continually evaluate performance and design training not only to correct weaknesses but also to reinforce strengths. Individual and collective unit tasks, conditions, and standards are available in applicable T&R manuals. 5-2

8. TRAIN TO CHALLENGE. Challenging training will foster motivation, initiative, enthusiasm, and eagerness to learn. To be challenging, training first must be progressive. Training must progress from tasks that are easily mastered but continually become more difficult, both collectively and individually. Accomplishing the easier tasks will build the individual Marines confidence in himself and in his unit while the progression will allow him to continually be challenged without being overcome by the complexity of the most difficult tasks. This progression will normally be facilitated by increased degrees of combat-related stress and varying environmental conditions. Training, which no longer challenges units and individuals, breeds complacency and fails to sustain standards. 5104. TRAINING MANAGEMENT PROCESS 1. The training management process is a continuous program to ensure your training is preparing your unit to accomplish the mission. The process consists of four phases (Planning, Resources, Training, and Evaluation) which is continuous and requires constant feedback and adjustment. 2. During the planning phase, you must conduct your mission analysis, evaluate higher headquarters guidance, make an analysis of your units current level of readiness, and make a plan. In the resource phase, you determine what support will be necessary to implement your unit training plan. The execution of your plan is the training phase. The evaluation phase is a continuous process that ensures the satisfactory execution of your plan to the specific individual and collective tasks. Through proper evaluation, you will be able to adapt and to modify your plan to ensure the accomplishment of your training goals. 5105. TRAINING RESOURCES 1. BASIC RESOURCES. There are four basic resources available to you as a commander: time, materials, personnel, and money. How much of any one of these meets your needs can only be determined after you have completed your overall training plan. Your management of and, in some cases, the ability to procure these assets will directly reflect your success as a training and as a commander. 2. TIME. While you can influence the availability of all other resources, you cannot change the amount of time available to you and to your unit. While changes in priorities and in the training schedule occur, the total time available remains constant and non-flexible. You will probably find that, even before you map out your plan, others have begun for you. Battalion training bulletins, regimental training requirements, and other, short fused, commitments will all influence your plan. As you mark these on your schedule, you may even begin to wonder if there will be time left for those activities you deem important. Your job, then, is to take the remaining time available and give your personnel the training they require. LtGen Arthur S. Collins, Jr., USA, wrote in his book, Common Sense Training, that Lack of time is not a valid excuse for poor training. It is, however, a common excuse of weak commanders. Each moment must be critically evaluated for potential training time, and your priorities must reflect a respect for this asset. 3. PERSONNEL. When evaluating resources, your personnel become not simply the target of your training plan but the source of a great deal of training information. When an individual is absent, that one Marine no longer serves as a resource. Other commitments (dental, light duty, FAP, leave, etc.) will not allow you to have all of your people on hand at all times, but maximum participation will result in maximum impact. The keys are to ensure that no one individual lacks the skills required to be a functional part of the team and that unit training is not defeated due to continued absences.


4. MATERIALS. You must use the proper setting, method, and media to maximize the effectiveness of your training. There are a number of resources available to you, and some of these are listed below: Facilities Land Fuel Ammunition Equipment External Support Training and Audio Visual Support Center Unit Training Locker Publications Mobile Training Teams Vehicles/Aircraft

No matter what assets are at your disposal, a lack of training aids or support should not hamper your training goals. Let your imagination fill the gaps created by a lack of materials. 5. MONEY. Financial Management is an inherent part of command. To maximize training, you must effectively use your money. Once a long term plan is established, the budget to accomplish the plan closely follows. Now, budgets are the responsibility of staffs not company commanders. It is also true that some companies have such a minuscule amount of funding needs that providing input (other than the submission of the training plan) is unnecessary. However, a commander, who has spent significant time developing a plan to enhance the effectiveness of his unit and has needs particular to his company, would be remiss if he does not submit his request for assets to accomplish those goals. This is not to suggest that by doing this you are trying to do someones job for them or that you are sticking your nose where it does not belong. If you have the need to submit budget input, then, do it, and remember to show: How the funds relate to your training Alternate means of accomplishing the goals (by prioritizing) Consistency and coherence

You may on the other hand simply take what the command gives you. By doing this you place yourself in a position where others determine your needs without your input. If you make a request and then dont get what you asked for, you can make another request for additional funds during the mid-year review. With an understanding of fiscal procedure basics, your training should not suffer due to the lack of funds.


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 5 TRAINING SECTION II: COMPANY COMMANDERS RESPONSIBILITIES 5201. ESTABLISHING PRIORITIES AND GUIDANCE As recommended in paragraph 1002, BEFORE ASSUMING COMMAND, it is important to study higher headquarters orders/SOPs, pertinent FMFMs, FMs,[MCOs, MCDPs, MCWPs, and MCRPs] and operational handbooks and to visit with Battalion staff officers and the Battalion Commander. From these orders and officers, draw your units mission, required training, and your seniors training guidance. This wealth of information will be the starting point for developing your plans for training. The norm is that you will not have the time to accomplish everything that higher headquarters dictates, let alone what you believe needs to be done. As LtGen Arthur S. Collins, Jr., clearly states Simple addition and ordinary human experience make clear that the day has too few hours and the year too few days in which to accomplish the long list of training tasks prescribed by higher headquarters. To focus every member of your company on the most essential elements, you will need to establish and to publish training priorities and/or guidance. Mission oriented training is normally given the greatest priority in training. But within that broad category, define that specific training which needs to be emphasized. An example might be night tactical training. After you have established your list of priorities, then take time to establish guidance for training. An example of training guidance might be to make the company training physically challenging. In determining your priorities and guidance, ask for input from your key advisors, Company Executive Officer, First Sergeant, Platoon Commanders, and your Company Gunnery Sergeant. This will use their valuable experience and get them behind the plan early. An example of a commanders guidance letter has been included at the end of the chapter for your review. After you have set your priorities, it will be time to actually plan your training. 5202. PLANNING 1. In planning your training, remember that you should use your subordinates to achieve the maximum success. Have your Executive Officer submit a plan to you that he works out with the Platoon Commanders and the Company Gunnery Sergeant. This may not be the perfect plan at first, but it will give you some ideas and teach subordinates about training and training management. Your subordinates will also benefit by having some ownership in the plan, and this will keep their interest in its proper execution. 2. There are two types of planning for training, long- and short-range. Your battalion should have conducted long-range planning and published an 18-month plan or an annual training plan. From either of these plans, develop a company long-range plan. Understandably, this will change with higher headquarters changes, but the thought process is essential. By conducting a mission analysis, developing training priorities and training guidance, you will have conducted much of your long-range planning. You must also add a strategy to accomplish the training and to indicate what resources are available for implementing the plan. As stated at the beginning of this chapter, the philosophy of the Marine Corps is to train to standards. After determining your mission requirements, look at where the company is now. This can be done by reviewing current training, inspection results, rifle range and MCCS results, and your daily observations. This should give you a direction for your long-range planning. To execute training, the most common strategy used is centralized planning and decentralized training. This means that you and your key subordinates develop your long-range plans with the idea that they will be executed at the lowest possible echelon in the company. Publish your long-range planning as an annual training plan or more simply a yearly calendar with a cover sheet. 5-5

3. The short-range plan will be a detailed, implementation plan for the next 3 months. Develop it by taking your long-range plan and incorporating additional directions from the Battalion staff or Battalion plan. This detail is essential because your support requests and instructor-preparation guidance must come from this plan. The plan might look like an expanded calendar or a series of weekly schedules. You and your Executive Officer or training officers must constantly work 3 months in advance. As the company key planners in training, it is imperative that you work this far in advance to ensure that your subordinates have the required lead time for requesting outside support and have sufficient lead time to prepare the training. 4. The last element of planning your training is the development of the weekly training schedule. Prepare the weekly schedule at least 10 days in advance for your signature with as much detail as possible. Have some flexibility to handle inclement weather or other unexpected occurrences. Make your schedule aggressive; it is better to carry uncompleted training to the next week rather than to have the Marines unoccupied (wasting the most important resource TIME). Publish the weekly schedule, and distribute it so that all hands have access to it. That piece of paper will dictate much of what is going to happen in your company. 5. A common approach is to have weekly training meetings. These meetings typically include the Company Executive or Training Officer, Platoon Commanders, First Sergeant, Company Gunnery Sergeant, and possibly your Training NCO. Emphasize training, and provide for proper coordination and understanding by your key subordinates. An agenda might start with what is planned 3 to 4 weeks ahead, status of submitted supporting requests for that training, a general review of what is 2 weeks ahead, and finally a detailed discussion of the next weeks schedule. 5203. EXECUTION Your best efforts will be for nothing if you cant get the next step right: execution an essential element of training. How well your company executes your training plan is an indicator of how good your company is. Poor execution of training leads to poor performance in combat. The keys to execution are to retain your integrity and to use sound leadership techniques. Integrity is important because there can be constant pressure to cancel or to delay training (weather, conflicts, etc.). Constant changes to the published schedule negatively affect unit morale; your Marines will lose confidence in the chain of command. Training may be the hardest for your company to accomplish, but it is the foundation of your success as a commander. 5204. EVALUATION The basis for Marine Corps training is evaluating Marines in the execution of individual and collective tasks. Results oriented training will ensure that your Marines are ready for combat. Each Marine must understand that he is responsible for demonstrating that particular task to standard. Your subordinate units must work together to demonstrate their collective tasks. It is this hammer that will keep every Marines attention on training. The second benefit from evaluation is to provide an accurate measure of how well your training has been accomplished. What might have been well-planned and well-executed still may not have hit the target. With an honest evaluation system, you can continually adjust your training to ensure that you hit the target.


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 5 TRAINING SECTION III: SELECTED TECHNIQUES FOR CONDUCTING TRAINING 5301. GENERAL 1. Nearly every day, we hear of some innovative technique that some other company has used to achieve great results. There are no limitations, except for range and safety regulations, that you should place to restrict your training. If a company trained exactly the same way all the time, life in the Corps would become very boring for the members of that company. As the Company Commander, you have the responsibility of avoiding this boredom to make your men more adaptable to changing battlefield conditions and to inspire innovative leadership at all levels. Some of the easiest ways of doing this are by encouraging and implementing input for junior leaders, varying training techniques, and by being personally enthusiastic about the training. 2. Your senior Staff NCOs are good sources of information and ideas about training. They have valuable experience and have participated in a lot of different training. Another good source is your own intuition. First, try to imagine exactly how your company is going to accomplish a given task in a direct combat role. Next, try to envision how you can achieve the highest level of simulation in peacetime. Finally, develop a training technique that satisfies the conditions and standards of the task and is efficient in time and resources. The following paragraphs describe some of the many selected training techniques. Remember, use your imagination. 5302. TACTICAL EXERCISE WITHOUT TROOPS (TEWT) 1. TEWTs are primarily used to train leaders. They are well suited for this because they allow you greater time to observe and to critique individual leaders than is normally possible during other tactical exercises. A TEWT can be a very good training device for all levels of leadership, from Fire-Team Leaders to Regimental Commanders, in both defensive and offensive exercises. The basic objective of a TEWT is to have the leaders being trained analyze the mission, estimate the situation, prepare a plan of action, and finally explain their proposed plans and actions to you. 2. Normally, you will follow a sequence similar to the following: a. DETAILED PLANNING. Your planning should include an analysis of leadership tasks to be performed, selection of compatible terrain, request for support equipment, draft of an operations order that will require the prerequisite leadership functions, and schedule of time. b. EXERCISE BRIEFING. This should be a detailed brief of the nature of the exercise, control measures, and objectives of the exercise. This phase, like the planning phase, may be done in advance of the actual exercise day. c. DISPLACEMENT. Treat this movement as a training opportunity as well. d. ISSUE THE ORDER. During this phase, pay attention to your commanders intent and overall company mission. e. AFTER ACTION REPORT. While observing and questioning leaders being trained as they conduct their analysis of the area and development of their estimates, you should avoid 5-7

being overly critical. If you would like to encourage confidence and intuitive behavior in your leaders, avoid the zero defect syndrome and give them a chance to explain themselves and to learn from their mistakes without fear of failure. Open and free discussion is the key to reaping the maximum benefit from this phase. f. DEBRIEFING PHASE. Now, you have the leaders explain their proposed plans and actions. You have two options: first, you can debrief in a group setting, or you can have individual debriefs. If it is to be accomplished in a group setting, it is best that each leader debrief while you ask questions and take notes. This will avoid the possibility of subsequent leaders borrowing too much from previous briefs. g. DISCUSSION AND CRITIQUE PHASE. This is the most important phase. It is here that you interpret doctrine and develop mission clarity and a companys cohesiveness of thought. You should have an open and constructive discussion. Ensure that everyone participates and that no one is brutalized. Critique each leaders plan and methodology personally, and then hold an open discussion with the other members. Highlight good and bad points to each leaders plan. 5303. TERRAIN WALK (TW) 1. As with TEWTs, TWs are primarily used to train leaders. However, any small group can participate in a TW. A TW allows you more time to observe and to critique individual leaders than are normally possible during other tactical exercises. A TW is a very good training device for all levels of leadership in both defensive and offensive exercises. The basic objective of a TW is to have those leaders analyze the mission, develop an estimate of the situation, prepare a plan of action, and finally explain their proposed plans and actions to you. A TW differs from a TEWT in the nature of how it is conducted. Normally, you will not allow the member of the group to separate and to develop their estimates individually. Instead, you keep them together and literally walk through the exercise as a group. As you cover the ground, you should encourage and critique discussion as the plan develops. 2. You will follow a sequence similar to the following: a. DETAILED PLANNING. Your planning should include an analysis of leadership tasks to be performed, selection of compatible terrain, requests for support equipment, draft of an operations order that will require the prerequisite leadership functions, and scheduling time. b. EXERCISE BRIEFING. This should be a detailed brief of the nature of the exercise, control measures, and objectives of the exercise. This phase may be done before the actual exercise day. c. DISPLACEMENT. Treat all movement as training, as well, and not just administrative movement. d. ISSUE THE ORDER. During this phase, you should pay particular attention to your commanders intent and overall company mission to avoid confusion. e. THE ACTUAL WALK. While covering the ground of choice, you can discuss important tactical considerations and learning objectives of the exercise, open and freely for maximum benefit. Again, you may have the tendency to over-critique. This may defeat the purpose of the walk as your juniors may become hesitant to speak. f. DISCUSSION AND CRITIQUE. This is the most important phase of all. You have the potential here to develop mission clarity, interpretation of doctrine and the companys cohesiveness of thought. Use this time wisely and constructively.


5304. SIMULATION EXERCISES 1. The main values of this type of training are flexibility and economy. The exercises can vary in scope and size. The required resources used can be modest or very elaborate. The degree of complexity and breadth is the option of the individual coordinating the exercise. There are also some commercial models which have been designed after historical battles and utilizing mock systems that are very similar to those equipment sets used in a tactical environment by your personnel. There are combat simulators that can be set up on computer networks to develop individual and team combat tactics. Additionally there are a growing number of combat simulators aboard Marine Corps installations to practice convoy operations, tactical communications, and utilization of advanced technology systems. Utilization of these base maintained simulators may require coordination similar to range requests. There are also means to simulate operations without these technology driven simulators. Like most other training devices, your only limiting factor is imagination. 5305. LIVE-FIRE EXERCISES 1. SAFETY. In all live-fire exercises, safety must be the prime consideration. Once must strictly adhere to all range and weapons safety regulations. However, safety considerations should not unduly dilute the total effectiveness of the exercise. These exercises can be realistic as well as safe. Many company commanders do not value live-fire exercises because they perceive them as unrealistic and oppressively restrictive. Also, they feel that there are too few live-fire ranges and that repetitive training on them soon becomes boring to their Marines. Unfortunately many company commanders do not realize the vast amount of flexibility that can be employed in these exercises. In the following paragraphs, we will explore a few examples of how live-fire can become very realistic when directed at actual combat targets. 2. COMBAT TARGET ENGAGEMENT WITH THE SERVICE RIFLE. This type of live-fire exercise is also known as transition firing. According to the principles of this type of shooting, training progresses in three distinct stages: preparatory training, known distance qualification, and field firing. The Marine Corps is traditionally very good in the first two stages. Not so, unfortunately, for the last. The transition between the second and third stage of training contains live-fire exercises. You can find canned exercises, but these are frequently criticized for their lack of realism. The following are some of the ways that you can add realism to these exercises. No matter what the live-fire opportunity is, you, as commander, should ensure that all live-fire exercises are conducted with full field gear. 3. MOVE AND SHOOT EXERCISES. In these exercises, the objective is to have your riflemen move and shoot. The premise is that, during actual combat operations, this is how your Marines will operate while engaging the enemy. The amount of movement can be very small for the training to be effective. Normally fire exercises progress in increments requiring little movement at first and then become more complex using a variety of firing positions. A simple example is as follows: In the first stage, your marines will stand ready on the firing line and wait for the target to appear. When the target appears, they fire one round from the off-hand position and then take one or two steps forward and assume some other position, preferably a rested position. Next, the riflemen start at the ready, fire one round off-hand, take a couple steps, assume a kneeling position, fire another round, and finally move another step or two and assume a prone position. At each stage, the firing gets more complex and the variety of positions increases in magnitude. The culmination is to have the riflemen start behind the firing line and assault forward using a variety of firing positions. A frequent complaint during this type of training is that shooters cant tell if they are hitting the target. You can overcome this by placing inflated balloons or drop down targets in the target area. 4. MOVING TARGET ENGAGEMENT. In the past, this type of firing has been very limited in application but has been universally accepted as the most likely form of firing that a Marine will have to perform in combat. The premise is that few enemy soldiers will cooperate and will stand still while we 5-9

take aim at them. Many ranges now have incorporated moving targets. Some of these are manually moved, while others are mechanically moved forward and backward, side to side, diagonally, at varying speeds, and in and out of view of the shooter. Similar to the move and shoot exercises, this type of firing exercise should be incremental, including firing from the most stable positions first and then providing more of a challenge to the riflemen with varying positions, distances to the target, and even shooter movement. This form of range training is the most advanced and can be utilized as the culmination range exercise incorporating static and moving shooters and targets. 5306. SITUATIONAL TRAINING EXERCISES (STX) 1. Situational training exercises are exercises with limited objectives. They relate to mission accomplishment but will not in themselves accomplish any company mission. They are a segment of a mission; for instance, simply moving from an assembly area to a line of departure or reducing covered wire obstacles. These sound simple, but they are tasks that are often completed only after mass confusion and unending delays. 2. When you or your platoon commanders and squad leaders design and plan a STX, you must be as thorough as you would be in planning any training. It cannot be an instantaneous decision. A STX should be the result of careful mission analysis and unit evaluation; the planning must include a long look at training support requirements. You must designate the appropriate amount of time to complete all steps listed below. a. Arrange for all material and training support requirements well in advance. Nothing is more frustrating than low levels of simulation with make-believe equipment. b. Identify the individual tasks required to achieve the goals of the STX, and then train the unit to a high level of proficiency in them before attempting the STX. c. Brief all members of the unit on the objectives and standards of performance for the STX. Present the big picture to ensure that everyone understands how this exercise fits into the overall battle plan. d. Conduct a walk-through of the exercise before making the first full-speed run. This gives your individual Marines and their unit leaders an opportunity to iron out all the misunderstandings and faults that may exist. e. Conduct your first full-speed run-through. As with all subsequent attempts, follow each runthrough with a full detailed critique. f. Finally, take advantage of environmental factors, like limited visibility, to continue a progression of challenges that result in total mastery of the collective and individual tasks involved. 5307. FIELD TRAINING EXERCISES (FTX) 1. Field training exercises are the culmination of your training efforts. It is during these exercises that you and your subordinate leaders see the fruits or errors of your training. During FTXs, your company will move towards the accomplishment of an actual mission. If your company is training alone, it will be a mission, or missions, which you have selected and planned to accomplish in combat. If you are training as part of a battalion exercise, it may be a mission that you have been assigned by the battalion headquarters. Regardless of how you come by the mission, it should be selected based on a good mission analysis and unit proficiency evaluation.


2. A FTX can be considered the acid test for your previous training. It cannot be simply thought of as connecting several STXs together to form a collective mission. This is because STXs are designed for you to stop and start over after errors. During an FTX, if you blow it, you and your men will be embarrassed. If you blow it in actual combat operations, many of you may die. Nothing can be left to chance; not weapons maintenance, not personnel accountability, not even such mundane things as casualty reports and procedures. Additionally, a FTX allows you and your subordinate leaders a chance to react to unexpected situations and environmental factors, simultaneously coping with physical and mental fatigue. You will probably never be able to simulate the actual stresses of combat, but many FTXs come very close to duplicating some of the fatigue, physical hardships, confusions, and challenges that are in combat operations. It all comes together in a FTX. 5308. RESOURCES 1. PURPOSE. Training Command, Education Command, Marine Corps Institute, Marine Corps University, and the College for Continuing Education are all tremendous resources for professional and military specialty training. Many times, these resources are overlooked as sources of training that are readily available to you as a commander. Courses provided include occupational specialty courses (the basic MCI courses that most Marines are familiar with), Professional Military Education (PME) Courses, and reference materials. Great lengths have been made to capitalize on increased access to technology to put more of these courses at the finger tips of individuals and leaders in a global environment. 2. OCCUPATIONAL SPECIALTY COURSES. There are several hundred specialized skill training courses in which your Marines may enroll to increase MOS proficiency, leadership, and general knowledge. These courses are meant to fill gaps in instruction received in formal schools and at the unit level. As a Company Commander, you can request your own library of courses pertinent to your units needs. For example, a battery commander may want one copy of each artillery course plus one each of Land Navigation, Terrorism Awareness for Marines, and Math for Marines. This provides a ready reference for his Marines and allows them also to continue their studies if they happen to lose their original materials. Growing unit and base libraries exist to assist in immediate availability of MCI course materials. 3. PROFESSIONAL MILITARY EDUCATION (PME). The Marine Corps provides multiple resources to provide PME to the appropriate ranked personnel. These courses include: NCO Courses SNCO Career Course SNCO Advanced Course Expeditionary Warfare School Command and Staff College 4. REFERENCE MATERIALS. There are a number of reference materials available, one of which is this handbook. FMF refresher handbooks, Family Team Building material, Platoon Commander Handbook, Marine Battle Skills Training (MBST), and Marine Corps Common Skills (MCCS) Handbook are also popular examples of these references. There are others and it would serve your unit well if you researched this list and requested references and the quantity desired to support your units mission. Many of these are available online, although by contacting MCI you can also have these sent to your command for free.


5. COLLEGE OF CONTINUING EDUCATION. Training and Education Commands College of Continuing Education designs, develops, and delivers both of the Marine Corps' officer distance education programs (DEP) - the Expeditionary Warfare School (EWSDEP), and the Command & Staff College (CSCDEP). CCE, through its satellite campus network and regional coordinators, also provides seminar versions of both courses. 6. MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE. The Marine Corps Institute has historically been responsible for the content, registration, distribution, testing, and completion certificates for both the enlisted and officer distance education programs (known as the 'box of books'). Currently, CCE develops the curricula for the officer DEPs, and the Enlisted PME Curriculum Branch (EPME website) is assuming that role for the enlisted DEPs. Current course materials are available in paper book version with a continuously increasing availability in CD versions and through the online web. 7. MARINENET. MarineNet is an online learning network which provides Marines with access to both military and civilian education programs. It contains libraries of online courses accessible from any PC on base or through a high-speed Internet connection. MarineNet offers commanders and unit training officers the ability to manage enrollments, proctor online exams, and create custom unit/command reports. Additionally, as PME courses are updated to take advantage of technology, MarineNet will become a central part of the Marine Corps' PME program. 8. UNIT VERIFICATION REPORT (UVR). Command Unit Verification Reports provide commanders, unit training officers, and training NCOs with the ability to view the status of their units MCI program, enroll Marines, administer digital exams, and generate custom reports. Command UVR is accessed through the Command UVR link on the MCI Online homepage or 9. MOS ROADMAPS. The MOS structure of the Marine Corps is the very bedrock supporting our organization for combat. It is crucial that every Marine is an expert in their MOS. Toward that end, MOS Roadmaps emphasize what every Marine must do to achieve that high level of MOS expertise, and provides numerous recommendations for enhancement training that will add to those skills. These MOS Roadmaps are available online for each enlisted MOS by rank, and provide an individualistic training outline for Marines and their leaders to acknowledge and steer toward.


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 5 TRAINING SECTION IV: PHYSICAL CONDITIONING TRAINING 5401. GENERAL 1. In the Marine Corps, physical fitness training has one purpose: To prepare Marines to physically withstand the rigors of combat. All other goals of physical fitness training are subordinate to and must support the attainment of this goal. The idea that only infantry or reconnaissance units and their attachments normally face physically demanding combat is wrong. A sound and effective unit program, requiring limited time and material, offers a greater benefit in combat than any expensive and timeconsuming training program. 2. As a commander, develop your companys physical conditioning program and use it to carry out one of your most serious responsibilities: Ensuring that your Marines are physically ready for combat. Every war has uncovered new challenges in physical conditioning during mobilization of personnel for deployment. Physical training programs were geared to the physical need of each war. Success depended upon the time available during training to prepare Marines physically for battle conditions. Marines were trained to withstand the rigors of combat over rugged terrain and under unfavorable climatic conditions. Costly lessons have been learned from our military experiences, over the years and through several wars, that has led to an increasing interest in the physical conditioning of the individual Marine. You cannot afford to emphasize physical fitness only during wartime. 3. Major General John A. Lejeune, in the 1921 edition of the Marine Corps Manual, expressed our philosophy of leadership. Among other things, he stated that it will be necessary for officers to endeavor to enlist the interests of their men in building up and maintaining their bodies in the finest physical condition. We have never varied as a Corps from this belief. 5402. OBJECTIVES OF PHYSICAL CONDITIONING 1. The first objective is to achieve physical readiness. The acceptable level of physical readiness should be such that your Marines can perform in any environment regardless of adverse conditions. To be in lesser condition may lead to unnecessary casualties simply because some or all of your Marines were not properly prepared for the tasks. To achieve this objective: a. Your Marines must have the physical strength and stamina to defeat both the enemy and the environment whether in the jungle, desert, or mountains, in cold weather as well as hot weather. b. Your Marines must have the muscle tone required to endure minor falls without injuries, walk over rough terrain without spraining ankles and knees, and live a rough, Spartan lifestyle for extended periods of time without undermining their abilities to perform their required tasks and collective missions. c. Your Marines must master the skills, agility, and coordination required to remove themselves from harms way and to maneuver into the most advantageous tactical positions. If your Marines have mastered these, they will enjoy a high survival rate and tactical advantage. d. Your program must include the following types of activities:


(1) Marching under load (2) Running (both for distance and sprints) (3) Jumping (4) Dodging (5) Climbing and Traversing (6) Crawling (both high and low crawling with emphasis on both speed and stealth) (7) Throwing (particularly objects similar to grenades) (8) Vaulting over wire, fences, or other obstacles (9) Carrying (using obstacles of similar weight, size, and shape, as those encountered in the performance of the companys mission in addition to two-man carries) (10) Balancing (with emphasis on narrow walkways, rope bridges, and other pathways at heights) (11) Falling (from all possible positions such as standing, running, and jumping) (12) Surviving in water 2. The second objective is the development of mental toughness. To achieve this objective, exercise activities must emphasize the development of the following character traits: a. Confidence both in themselves and their fellow Marines b. Aggressiveness with a deep desire to achieve, persevere, and prevail c. Instinctive controlled reaction under pressure and stress d. A sense of esprit de corps in that they desire to accomplish goals as members of a team and value the strength and abilities of a unified effort. 5403. PHYSICAL DEMANDS OF COMBAT 1. There are three primary elements of effective physical fitness for combat: lower-body strength and stamina; upper-body strength and stamina; and competitive, combative spirit. Cardio-vascular functioning is not treated separately since it is an element of each of the three. a. LOWER-BODY STRENGTH AND STAMINA. There are a number of demands placed on lower body strength by combat: marching long distances under heavy load and functioning effectively at the destination, moving quickly and evasively under fire, and carrying wounded Marines to safety. b. UPPER-BODY STRENGTH AND STAMINA. Demands placed on the upper body in combat occur when rapidly emplacing crew-served weapons; handling large-caliber ammunition for extended periods; climbing walls, cliffs, and other high obstacles; and performing field maintenance on aircraft or heavy machinery. 5-14

c. COMPETITIVE, COMBATIVE SPIRIT. While part of this critical aspect of combat readiness is mental and emotional, robust physical conditioning and a training program which promotes physical aggressiveness greatly enhances a competitive and combative spirit. Activities that force Marines to overcome natural fear, which directly leads to fatigue, are particularly valuable. 2. It has been proven that the added uncertainty and stress of combat have a major physical effect on Marines, as well as the acknowledged psychological effect. In combat, fear equals fatigue. In training, we cannot easily reproduce the stress which reduces the effectiveness of individuals and units. However, we can produce fatigue and psychological doubt in training situations by developing a challenging, physical training program which puts stress on the participants. Activities such as long foot marches under load, and difficult, obstacle-negotiating courses, train Marines to overcome their own fear and fatigue. Rugged competitive activities such as wrestling, boxing, and pugil-stick fighting prepare Marines psychologically to overcome opponents as well as their own fear and fatigue. This sort of physical training builds self-confidence and unit morale. Although pushing Marines to their limits is necessary, commanders must set a satisfactory starting-point. This starting-point should be physically and psychologically demanding for no less than three fourths of the unit. The program should progress quickly, augmented by remedial training for those unable to meet the unit standards, until the training is challenging for all but the most exceptional Marines in the command. Commanders must never forget that Marines expect to be challenged and thrive on being pushed to their limits. 5404. FUNDAMENTALS OF PHYSICAL CONDITIONING 1. Physical fitness for a Marine is the capacity for skillful and sustained performance, the ability to recover from exertion rapidly, the desire to complete the assigned task, and the confidence to face any eventuality. 2. These fundamentals can be expressed in several components. a. STRENGTH. Your Marines need enough strength to perform the heaviest task encountered in routine and emergency activities. The primary areas where muscle strength is required are in the arms and shoulders, the abdomen, the back, and the legs. Muscles increase in size, strength, and firmness with regular and strenuous exercise; without it, they grow flabby and weak. b. ENDURANCE. Your Marines need sustaining power to produce maximum results without undue fatigue. There are two types of endurance: (1) MUSCULAR ENDURANCE that strength required to fight the enemy under the most tiring combat conditions. You and your Marines must be able to perform work continuously for long periods. (2) CARDIO-VASCULAR RESPIRATORY ENDURANCE this is necessary for maintaining physical endurance. The goal is to achieve efficient operation of the blood vessels, lungs, heart and their capacity to absorb oxygen and expel carbon dioxide. The average Marines cardiovascular respiratory abilities can be greatly enhanced through exercise. c. AGILITY. Your Marines must be able to change direction quickly and faultlessly. The ability to react instantly and to maintain orientation during rapid changes of body position is important to your Marines survival. d. COORDINATION. Your Marines must be able to move all parts of their body in a smooth, efficient, and concerted manner. They should not make useless movements but should move with a precision that saves energy. Coordination is best developed by practicing diversified muscular activities and skills affecting all body parts. 5-15

5405. PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICAL CONDITIONING 1. To obtain the maximum benefit from your physical fitness program without sacrificing your Marines welfare, develop a careful program of conditioning which increases unit physical fitness. Keep the following principles in mind: a. INCREASE THE LOAD. As strength and endurance improve, increase the physical load until the desired level of fitness is reached. b. PROGRESSION. Apply load increases gradually from a low or current state of physical readiness, based on a systematic process. The program should be progressive in both the amount of work required as well as the amount of diversity used. c. BALANCE. To be effective, include in your program the various types of activities and the provision for the concurrent development of strength, endurance, and coordination as well as basic physical skills. d. VARIETY. Do not allow your program to fail because of a boring routine. The most successful programs include conditioning activities, competitive events, and military physical skill development. e. REGULARITY. Maintain a daily exercise program, which may include occasional individual efforts. There is no easy or occasional way to develop physical fitness. 5406. PHYSICAL CONDITIONING 1. There are three stages of physical conditioning. a. TOUGHENING STAGE. This stage is approximately two weeks long and usually results in muscular stiffness and soreness. b. SLOW IMPROVEMENT STAGE. This stage is approximately 6-10 weeks long and results in a slow, steady improvement of physical conditioning principles until the Marine reaches the desired level of fitness. c. SUSTAINING STAGE. This stage goes on indefinitely to maintain the level of conditioning achieved by following the previous stages, at the desired level of fitness. 2. Marines pass through these stages to attain the desired state of physical conditioning.

5407. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CONDUCTING PHYSICAL TRAINING 1. CLIMATIC CONSIDERATIONS. Maintain proper body temperature through warm-up exercises, proper dress in hot/cold weather, and appropriate hydration. For effective performance and health, pay special attention to the following climatic factors: a. HIGH TEMPERATURES AND HIGH HUMIDITY. Your Marines can endure strenuous physical activity in extremely hot temperatures if you allow them to become acclimated and if they consume enough salt and water. It is essential to continue physical training programs in hot climates because your Marines will be able to withstand high temperatures better if they remain wellconditioned. When you conduct training under these conditions, ensure that someone is monitoring your Marines for excessive weight loss. And ensure that all of your subordinate leaders are fully aware of the need for constant body fluid replacement and know the procedures for heat casualty treatment. 5-16

b. HIGH ALTITUDES. During physical training at high altitudes, the Marines heart undergoes greater stress. It is particularly important that one exercises lightly, initially, at such altitudes, allowing the body gradually to adjust to high altitudes within a few weeks. Then, one can progressively increase the exercises. c. ARCTIC REGIONS. Military duty in the arctic is so arduous that a high level physical conditioning is essential. Ensure that your Marines are conditioned to the highest level possible before they arrive. When exercising in cold weather, have your Marines remove excess clothing to prevent dampness from remaining on their bodies. 2. WARMING UP AND COOLING DOWN. It is a fundamental physiological principle that Marines should warm up gradually before engaging in strenuous exercises. Warm ups increase the circulation and prepares the body for an overload. They also help to prevent injury to muscles and joints after exercising. Additionally, your Marines should never be allowed to cool off too rapidly; in cool or cold weather, they should put on additional clothing during the cooling-off period. 3. AGE INCREASES. There is no physiological reason to cease exercise due to aging. Increased age usually brings increased responsibility which, in many instances, leads to sedentary routine. The keys to fitness with increased age are to continue exercising at a reasonable level and to include exercise of a vigorous type in the daily routine. Such individuals usually required a longer period of time to recover from physical effort than younger Marines. It is both the individuals and your responsibility to ensure that all of your Marines continue a daily sustaining exercises program regardless of their age or rank. 5408. LEADERSHIP AND SUPERVISORY FUNCTIONS 1. PROMOTE AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE VALUE OF PHYSICAL READINESS. Create within each of your Marines a desire to be physically ready. When Marines realize their efforts are an investment in their own personal welfare, they will cooperate. Your Marines should also understand the relationship of physical readiness to their survival in combat. 2. MAINTAIN A POSITIVE APPROACH. Create an atmosphere where all desire to participate fully. Only in unusual cases should fear of punishment be the motivating factor behind good performance. For those few who cannot keep up or who attempt to malinger, an effective remedial program is essential. 3. SEEK COOPERATION AND DEVELOP MORALE. Enhance favorable reactions from your unit by properly planning and organizing, incorporating challenging requirements, using competition, and applying a progressive program that are all directed toward physical fitness. 4. DEVELOP YOUR TECHNIQUE. Use the following list of techniques to assist you in performing your physical conditioning program. By no means is this list all inclusive. a. Lead by personal example, demonstrating that you are serious about physical conditioning and are directly concerned with your Marines physical readiness and welfare. b. Instill command interest, and indicate to your Marines the importance of this training to the welfare of the organization. c. Allot sufficient time for achieving objectives. Do not substitute other training or routine duties for scheduled physical conditioning activities; it is unsound and unwise. d. Assign and properly use qualified personnel to supervise and to conduct physical readiness training.


e. Regularly measure the physical fitness of your Marines to evaluate progress and to determine whether the program is successful. A Physical Fitness Test (PFT) or Combat Physical Fitness Test (CFT) can be used as a measure of your units physical readiness. (NOTE: This is the first mention of the PFT or CFT, which emphasizes the focus of physical conditioning is on your Marines readiness to perform in combat, not just on their ability to run and do pull-ups and crunches.) f. Ensure that all physical fitness activities are properly supervised. (1) Have every available Marine on the PT field. In some instances, special efforts are necessary to overcome obstacles to regular and frequent training. Special effort is also necessary to ensure remedial conditioning, as necessary. (2) Do not allow instructors to be unprepared. Not only is this unprofessional, but it is also a waste of everyones time. Ensure that equipment is adequate, and avoid lengthy rest periods. (3) Avoid over-training. Over-exertion of muscles and excessive heart rate may be dangerous. Build up gradually to your desired fitness level. (4) Maintain focus on the overall objectives, and pursue them intelligently yet still aggressively. 5409. SMALL-UNIT LEADERS AND INSTRUCTORS 1. LEADERS TRAINING. Whether leaders come to your company either fully or only partially trained, encourage them to learn by attending training courses, enrolling in self-study programs, practicing, and by discussing situations with more experienced leaders. 2. LEADERS OBJECTIVES. Ensure that your subordinate leaders objectives are the same as yours, including motivating Marines toward physical readiness and by developing a high degree of fitness throughout the entire company. 3. LEADERS PHYSICAL FITNESS. Set the example along with your subordinate leaders in strength, endurance, posture, and skill. This does not mean that you and your other leaders must be #1 at everything that the company does. Your Marines do not expect championship performance. However, they do expect and deserve a creditable and competitive showing by their leaders. 4. LEADERS KNOWLEDGE. Have a good working knowledge of the following: a. Your Marines current strengths and weaknesses. b. Body functioning and physical readiness development. c. Marine Corps physical fitness regulations. d. A variety of exercise activities and the function of each in the development of physical fitness.



(HEADING) (DATE) From: Commanding Officer To: Platoon Commanders, Section Leaders Subj: COMMANDERS TRAINING GUIDANCE Ref: (a) Appropriate Battalion/Squadron Directives

1. PURPOSE. To provide training guidance for the first half of year ____. Each of you hold a position of extreme importance. In preparing Marine for future combat, it is your efforts during each training period that will decide the outcome of the battles we may wage. Marines that will go in harms way must receive every opportunity to excel. Apply a sense of urgency and an understanding to your training planning that future combat is inevitable. 2. GUIDANCE. To properly develop each individual Marine, you must set goals. From these, you should then define your specific objectives for each training period. You should also review the current Training and Readiness (T&R) manuals and orders. Submit these objectives to me 30 days before the week the training will be conducted. From your objectives, you can write your training schedule with ease. To ensure that you have your Marines complete dedication to the completion of your objectives, publish to all hands exactly what they can expect to see in regards to their training. At the start of each training period, field or garrison, every Marine must know these objectives. 3. TRAINING GOALS a. During the first three months, dedicate yourselves to the following events: FORMAL SCHOOLS GUNNER QUALIFICATION BN FEX AAV AND HELO FAMILIARIZATION b. Prepare yourselves for completing the following in the second three months: ACF READY EX ACF TEWT PHYSICAL CONDITIONING FOR MOUNTAIN WARFARE TRAINING 4. IMAGINATIVE DRILL. The key to any successful team is the ability to work together under all circumstances. Repetitive drill is essential for developing that teamwork and the instinctive completion 5A-1

of individual tasks. Unfortunately, repetitive drill becomes boring and can become counter-productive. To off-set this, take an imaginative approach to each drill. Use training aids, change the pace, set up a competition, or do whatever keeps your unit motivation throughout the drills. Finally, never forget the basics. We must have the basics to build our unit. 5. PHYSICALLY DEMANDING. In combat, each of us will be challenged to our maximum ability. Physically, we must be superior to our enemy. In future wars, we may be out-numbered and out-gunned. The key to our success will depend on our physical toughness. Train your units to be physically hard and mentally alert. The PFT and CFT is a good starting point, but they are only a limited measuring tool. Make field training physically demanding. Use conditioning hikes, cross-terrain movements, and swimming in your physical training. It is well worth the time. Your unit must not only be able to run 3 miles, but be able to walk day and night to get to the enemy, and then fight that enemy like the fiercest of warriors. 6. DEVELOP SUBORDINATES. Develop your subordinates during training. Not only should they be proficient at their primary duties, but they should be able to perform two levels higher than their present billet. 7. MAINTENANCE. You are a manager as well as a leader. As such, each of you is tasked with maintaining your unit weapons, assigned equipment, and garrison property. Hard training requires a hard maintenance schedule. Do not settle for any equipment that fails to function properly. If it is a weapon or other tactical equipment, get it evacuated for repair. If it is garrison equipment, dont rest until it is correct. You alone have the responsibility for ensuring that proper maintenance is conducted. 8. EVALUATIONS. There is only one way to keep your training honest: you must evaluate your Marines to understand their capabilities, your units abilities, and the effectiveness of your training. Evaluations are the most difficult part of training. Then, you can determine where your shortfalls are. Make them a regular part of your training, and use defined guidelines. A good place to start is the gunners qualifications, and T&R manuals. Once you have your evaluation completed, record the results for later use. 9. SAFETY. Our first priority is to ensure that our Marines are ever ready for combat. There is no training objective too great to risk the loss of life in peacetime. Furthermore, an injured Marine is definitely not ready for combat. Train hard, but train safely. 10. TIME MANAGEMENT. As leaders of Marines, we are entrusted with one finite resource - that is time. Once lost, we can never get it back. Be sure that your training and garrison time are fully used. You must plan your schedules carefully, complete all schedules in detail, supervise, and be prepared for the unexpected. With the start of each week, every Marine should actually be targeting the unit objectives for that week. Use concurrent schedules for holes that develop, and make sure that you plan for foul weather. Train hard, and train smart.



COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 5 TRAINING APPENDIX B SAMPLE TRAINING EVALUATION REPORT TRAINING EVALUATION REPORT Unit ____________________________ Subject __________________________ Time training began ________________ Time training ended ________________ Location _________________________ YES 1. Did the trainer have specific training objectives to accomplish (were objectives stated, trained, and performed to a standard of acceptable performance)? Comments: 2. As a result of the training, did the Marines perform successfully by meeting or exceeding the established standards? Comments: 3. Were the resources adequate to accomplish the training (Time, Equipment, Training Area, Ammunition, Training Aids/Devices, Trainer primary & assistants)? Comments: 4. Did the training progress in a logical sequence toward meeting the commanders training goal(s)? Comments: 5. Did the Marines undergoing training appear to be motivated? Comments: NO N/A NOT OBSERVED Date ____________________________ Principal Instructor _________________ # of Students ______________________ Evaluator _________________________


6. Did the trainer: a. Inform the Marines of the training objectives to be accomplished and give the reasons for the training? b. Arrange training area so that all could see and hear well? c. Communicate effectively (proper, understandable words)? d. Demonstrate how to perform the objective(s)? e. Give all necessary information to accomplish the objective(s)? f. Encourage questions?

g. Exhibit adequate knowledge of the subject? h. Show interest in helping the Marines to learn? i. j. Make acceptable use of training aids? Test Marines ability to perform the commanders training objective?

Comments: 7. Do you consider this training to be adequate? Specific recommendations:



























COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 6 SUSTAINING THE COMPANY 6001. LOGISTICS 1. Logistics, declared Jomini, comprises the means and arrangements which work out the plans of strategy and tactics. He said that logistics is a major function of command, and that a good Commanding General requires a skillful and efficient logistical staff and an even more competent logistician to head it. 2. Although Jomini stressed the importance of logistics to the Commanding General, it is equally important to the Company Commander. You are not given the luxury of a logistical staff, but you do have officers, SNCOs, and NCOs who can help to implement your logistical plan. 6002. CONTENTS 1. This chapter will help you to establish that plan. The following topics are addressed: Maintenance Management Supply Motor Transport Armory Food Service Embarkation Tactical Logistics

2. The sections are divided into a logical sequence. Rich with information for the new commander, the maintenance management and supply chapters should be read immediately. The maintenance management chapter encompasses the maintenance procedures for all of your commodities. The armory, motor transport, and food service sections contain vital information peculiar to those commodities. 3. The section on embarkation will help you to manage your program be sure to review your local deployment SOP for the exact procedures. The final section on tactical logistics was prepared to assist you in obtaining, maintaining, and distributing supplies and equipment in the field, and is a hands-on guide to logistics in the field. 6003. SUMMARY. Read each of these sections upon taking command. Review the list of recommended references, and be familiar with their contents which will help to build a solid foundation. Each section will help you to establish and to maintain that particular commodity. Review this chapter often; it should eventually look as worn as your mechanics technical manuals.


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 6 SUSTAINING THE COMPANY SECTION I: MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT 6101. PURPOSE. To familiarize the Company Commander with the techniques that can be used to manage unit maintenance. 6102. MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT. Organizational mobility, firepower, and communication rest not only on the technical competence of your Marines but also on the serviceability of the equipment. Maintaining equipment is a requirement not only in combat, but also in training and garrison. As a Company Commander, you will need to ensure that your maintenance is being performed properly. 6103. ESTABLISHING YOUR MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM. During your first two weeks of command, you should appraise your units maintenance program. The following will assist you: 1. Receive a brief from your Maintenance Management Officer (MMO). Immediately express your concern for the necessity of the maintenance program and its efficient implementation. Expect the following information in the brief: a. The amount of equipment deadlined in the company. Your biggest concern should be with deadlined reportable equipment (category code M) that will be registered on the Battalions LM2 report. NOTE(S): Reportable equipment is listed in the current issue of MCBul 3000. Reporting the status of this vital equipment will give an accurate appraisal of the equipment readiness of the unit. b. How often the Company MMO visits the Battalion MMO. You do not want to be surprised by the Battalion CO on questions dealing with maintenance. The Battalion MMO should be briefing your MMO daily. c. How often the Company MMO receives and reviews the Daily Process Report (DPR) and other maintenance related reports. Although the company will not receive its own DPR, the Battalion MMO should provide a copy at least weekly. Be prepared to ask questions of the MMO on the particulars of this vital report. (Methods of analyzing and a description of the DPR are in Appendix 6A of this chapter.) Keep your MMO alert! You will be amazed by the look on his face when you start asking detailed questions. This is one way to show that you care about your maintenance program and that you will not tolerate inefficiency. NOTE(S): Your attention to maintenance will motivate your young officers to want to be MMOs. Have the fight and compete for the billet, and watch your maintenance posture improve! 2. Review the current issue of MCO P4790.2. This is the bible for maintenance management; it will help in understanding the big picture of a sometimes complicated field.


3. Visit the Battalion MMO, the watchdog for the Battalion CO. It is vital to have a good working relationship with the MMO. Ask for the status of your companys maintenance management program and for advice on how to improve it. Ensure that he understands that youll be visiting often, at least once a week. Keep your door open to him. 6104. MAINTAINING YOUR MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM. The following hints will help you to maintain your program: 1. Talk with your equipment operators and maintenance personnel to ensure that they understand their roles in the unit maintenance program. 2. Ensure that maintenance personnel are attending the necessary training, including, but not limited to: a. Supervisor Training given by the Battalion MMO; at least your Company MMO should attend. Yet, it will help all of your commodity officers to attend. b. Operator Training the respective battalion commodity section conducts training for equipment operators. Remember, operator preventive maintenance is the cornerstone of the entire maintenance system. Have your commodity officer(s) ensure that the operators are attending their respective training. c. Mechanics Training although often consolidated at the battalion level in garrison, it is still your responsibility. Ensure that your mechanics (if you have any assigned to you) receive their necessary training. 3. Receive weekly maintenance updates from your MMO. During these updates, review the LM2 report and the DPR. Ask for maintenance supply stoppages that should be coordinated at the Company Commander level or even brought to the attention of the Battalion CO. NOTE(S): Encourage your MMO to keep an equipment deadline board in the company office. It should include at least all equipment on the LM2 report and any other category of maintenance you desire, e.g., all reportable equipment in a degraded status (Category Code X). This board provides a great deal of information at a glance. 4. Ensure that your unit can and does conduct maintenance in the field. 5. Have an effective awards program for good maintenance. This shows the interest you have for proper maintenance. 6. Set the maintenance standards. Your interest and presence during maintenance sends a positive message to your Marines. 7. Challenge the status of equipment. Never assume the maintenance reports tell the truth. Remember, you are responsible for the equipment, not the MMO. It would not hurt for you to take your vehicles on a short trip around the block on a monthly basis. Now, how many are deadlined? Demand accurate maintenance reporting. 6105. MAINTENANCE MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONAL AREAS. While you cannot be expected to possess the expertise of technicians or mechanics, you must demonstrate genuine interest in and enthusiasm for the units maintenance effort. This interest is the most essential factor of a successful ground equipment maintenance program. Although there are 11 functional areas of maintenance management, this handbook only covers those that deserve your special interest. The following areas are covered: 6-3

Preventive Maintenance Corrective Maintenance Publication Control MIMMS AIS Maintenance Related Programs Records and Reports Maintenance Administration Support and Test Equipment

1. PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (PM). Emphasize prevention of early failure or breakdown of equipment. Preventive maintenance can be likened to preventive medicine, where emphasis is placed on the prevention of disease and injury to personnel. It is the heart and soul of the maintenance system. Equipment failures have been traced to the lack of or inadequate application of preventive measures. The result is an increase in the workload within the maintenance pipeline and a decrease of equipment ready for combat. Section 8 of this chapter provides detailed information concerning PM indicators. a. ROLE OF THE COMMANDER. PM is the job of every Marine. The overall responsibility for the equipment, like other responsibilities within your company, rests squarely on your shoulders. It cannot be delegated. In regards to PM, you are responsible for: (1) Complying with instructions and procedures pertaining to PM operations (Battalion MMSOP), (2) Initiating a sound and workable PM program, (3) Training subordinates in the PM of equipment, (4) Allocating sufficient time for the performance of PM, (5) Preventing the abuse of equipment and material, and (6) Inspecting equipment using PM indicators. b. PLANNING AND CONDUCTING A PM PROGRAM. Some tips to follow are as follows: (1) Provide sufficient time for the performance of PMs. Maintain a proper balance between PM, individual training, and all other requirements essential to unit readiness. Consider materiel readiness equal to other mission requirements. (2) Emphasize equipment maintenance in the training standards. (3) Integrate PM training into other unit activities. Ensure that maintenance is always performed during all types of field training and combat.


(4) Monitor scheduled PMs. Although usually conducted at the battalion level, be aware of the due dates, and ensure that your equipment is ready when needed, if operationally possible. Have your MMO closely monitor the scheduled services for your company. (5) Conduct PM inspections. Your time is a precious element; inspect quickly (use the PM indicators in Section 8) and frequently. Have a regularly schedule Commanding Officers PM inspection rotated among several maintenance sections. This has a twofold effect. It brings you into contact with operators and their equipment and conveys your interest and emphasis on PMs. During your inspection, ensure that TMs are present and that the operators know how to use them. (6) Understand that it is not realistic to expect every item of equipment to be available for use 100 percent of the time. Consider equipment availability in the light of necessary down-time allowing for scheduled and non-scheduled maintenance. 2. CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE (CM). Have broken equipment restored to its original condition. Your most crucial concern with CM is to ensure that PMs are properly conducted to identify any possible defects. Encourage good quality control have your Marines inspect their equipment when it returns from the maintenance shop. 3. PUBLICATION CONTROL. Have enough publications on hand to perform your mission. There should be a system that establishes internal distribution, which ensures that publications are maintained and up-to-date, and which ensures that prompt actions are taken to increase or to decrease allowances as requirements change. The following actions are recommended: a. Appoint the MMO in charge of publications. Go to him for any question on publications. The best reference for managing the publications system is the current edition of MCO P4790.2, Appendix B. Both of you should be familiar with these specific regulations. Ensure that the MMO has an established system for publications control. b. Include the review of publications in your inspections. Here are some inspection pointers: (1) Are rescinded and superseded publications removed? Pull a few publications off the shelf, and compare them to MCBul 5215 for Marine Corps and Navy Directives and the SL-3 for publications stocked by the Marine Corps. (2) Do the publications look used? (3) Are missing publications on order? Ask to see the General Purpose Coding Sheet (or whatever your unit uses to order publications) to see if the publications are being ordered promptly. (Check your MMSOP for your battalion requisitioning process.) Are there delays in the requisition process? Ask your MMO to investigate the problem, if one exists. (4) Are the publication clerks attending the monthly reconciliations with the Battalion Publications Clerk (often located within Supply or the S-1). NOTE(S): If you want to learn more about publications, review the current edition of the following manuals: MCO P4790.2, MIMMS Field Procedures Manual, Appendix B MCO P5600.31, Marine Corps Publications and Printing Regulations


4. MIMMS AIS. The complexity of the maintenance effort has demanded that a program be developed to assist in its implementation. This program is called the Marine Corps Integrated Maintenance Management System, Automated Information System (MIMMS AIS). Although a horrid thought to most Marines, MIMMS (as this handbook will continue to refer to it) assists by allowing you to monitor the maintenance program through the use of reports. Although MIMMS does not relieve you from going out and checking maintenance, it does give you a broad picture of your maintenance posture at a glance. 5. RECORDS AND REPORTS. There are several records and reports that you will need to be aware of (each will be covered below in detail). a. EQUIPMENT REPAIR ORDER (ERO) (1) PURPOSE. To request equipment maintenance to include modification, calibration, and Limited Technical Inspections (LTIs) on all tactical ground equipment within a units organic maintenance capability. It is also used to transmit work to higher echelons of maintenance support and for recording and reporting the services performed. Your company may also use the ERO in conjunction with the ERO Shopping List (EROSL) to order SL-3 components. (2) ERO COMPOSITION. An ERO consists of sheets of self-carbonizing paper of four different colors: white, pink, green, and yellow. (a) White is the original. (b) Yellow, after it is signed by an authorized individual of the maintenance activity, is the units receipt for the equipment while it is in the maintenance activity. (c) Pink is the administrative copy. (d) Green is the shop (working) copy. (3) PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS. EROs are prepared according to the current issue of TM 4700-15/1. Before conducting any maintenance inspections, you should read the applicable portions of this manual. b. EQUIPMENT REPAIR ORDER SHOPPING LIST (EROSL) (1) PURPOSE. The EROSL is a dual purpose form. It serves as the parts shopping list and as the MIMMS data input form. Your company will use the EROSL with the ERO to requisition, receipt for, cancel, and record partial issues and credits of repair parts and SL-3 items. (2) CONFIGURATION. The EROSL consists of a pad of 100 self-carbonating sheets. The front and back covers of the pad are printed with instructions and may be used as templates for completing the actual EROSL. (3) PREPARATION INSTRUCTIONS. Although the templates can be used to prepare the EROSL, the best source is the current issue of UM 4790-5. c. EQUIPMENT RECORDS. These records are maintained for specific items of equipment. A vital part of your equipment inspections is reviewing the equipment records, specifically, on all ground equipment. The current issue of TM 4700-15/1, Equipment Record Procedures, contains the detailed instructions concerning the purpose, use, and completion of equipment records. Have plenty of copies of this manual on-hand; have your own copy that you can annotate to meet your particular needs. 6-6

d. REPORTS. The Daily Process Report (DPR) is the MIMMS report which is most important to you. Appendix 6A describes the report and gives techniques for analyzing it. 6. MAINTENANCE RELATED PROGRAMS. The following are certain maintenance related programs which will affect your company: a. OPERATIONAL READINESS FLOAT (ORF). The ORF is a pool of mission-essential, maintenance-significant items maintained by an element of the Marine Logistics Group (MLG). It provides your unit a source of serviceable replacement items when your equipment can not be repaired by the intermediate maintenance activity in time to perform your mission. b. SECONDARY REPARABLE (SECREP) PROGRAM. Whereas the ORF program provides replacements of major end items, the SECREP program provides a pool of serviceable assemblies, sub-assemblies, and component parts for use as exchanges for unserviceable like-items. This program is used when you hear one of your mechanics say that he floated a starter, for example. c. REPLACEMENT AND EVACUATION (R&E) PROGRAM. The ORF and SECREP programs are two types of floats employed by the Marine Corps. The R&E program is also a float, maintained at either MCLB Barstow or MCLB Albany, used to replace and to repair worn out major end items. It assures a requisite readiness level throughout the Corps by rebuilding items before they become unserviceable. If your MMO tells you that some of your equipment has been nominated for the R&E program, he should also provide you the necessary, equipment-preparation instructions. You will receive a replacement item for the one that you provided. d. REPAIR AND RETURN (R&R) PROGRAM. The R&R program is an extension of the R&E program designed to enhance the readiness of the FMF. The R&R program will eventually replace the R&E program. Your main concern with the R&R program is that if your equipment is chosen for the program, you should not plan to see it back for several months. Where the R&E program is a one-for-one exchange, the R&R program repairs and returns the identical item that you inducted. 7. MAINTENANCE ADMINISTRATION. One of your main concerns in maintenance administration will be with desktop procedures and turnover folders: a. DESKTOP PROCEDURES. Due to the frequent changes in personnel, desktop procedures have been developed (hopefully). They assist in the continuity of the day-to-day operations. Each commodity should have a desktop procedure for each billet involving administrative functions, such as MIMMS clerks, supply clerks, and publication clerks. These procedures should simply list significant notes pertinent to everyday operations within a particular billet. When inspecting your commoditys desktop procedures, look for the following: (1) Current references (2) Procedures for carrying out required duties (3) Points of contact (4) Required reports NOTE: MCO P4790.2 contains a detailed listing of the information required for desktop procedures. b. TURNOVER FOLDERS. They have the same purpose as the desktop procedures, except that they are prepared for management billets (MMO, Supply Officer). Turnover folders include 6-7

information on policy, personnel, status of pending projects, references, management controls, functioning of the section, and ways and means of accomplishing routine as well as infrequent tasks. They should include any other information that would help a Marine who is newly assigned to the billet. 8. SUPPORT AND TEST EQUIPMENT a. CALIBRATION. In most units, either the Battalion MMO or respective commodity officers controls the calibration program, but there are still a few points that you should know: (1) Read your MMSOP to determine the method of control in your unit (cards or charts) and also the calibration control point (MMO or commodity area). (2) Ensure that your calibration equipment is not scheduled for maintenance at the same time, which will remove your companys required test capabilities. (3) Ensure that the calibration labels on the calibrated equipment are current (the due date will be on the label). (4) Determine whether the proper label is being used for each calibrated item (Calibrated, Special Calibration, Inactive, Calibration Not Required). The current edition of TM 4700-15/1 will help in determining which label is appropriate. NOTES: Review the current editions of the following sources if you want to find out more about calibration: - MCO P4790.2, MIMMS Field Procedures Manual, Appendix D - TM 4700-15/1, Equipment Record Procedures, Chapter 2 - MCO 4733.1, Marine Corps Calibration Program b. TOOL CONTROL. Tool maintenance and accountability have become critical in todays world of spiraling tool costs. The following will help you to control your tools: (1) Assign to each Marine a chest, set, and kit. At times, there will be more kits than Marines. The tool room NCO is responsible for the excess kits along with any common tools. (2) Read the MMSOP to determine the battalion commanders guidance as it applies to tools. Most units require that the Marine responsible for the loss or reckless handling of the tools replace them. (3) Ensure that the applicable SL-3s are used to inventory the tool sets, chests, and kits. (4) Ensure that any missing or damaged tools are either on order or are being replaced according to your MMSOP. (5) Inspect tool control when you visit your commodities; its quick and easy. NOTE: Look at the current edition of MCO P4790.2, MIMMS Field Procedures Manual, Appendix D, for more information on tool control. Also, dont forget to read your MMSOP; this contains all of the unique methods your battalion uses to control its tools.


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 6 SUSTAINING THE COMPANY SECTION II: SUPPLY Without supplies, no army is brave. - Frederick, the Great 6201. PURPOSE. To give you an understanding of supply so that youll be able to better manage the unit supply account. Although this handbook should be a ready reference when dealing with supply, its not intended to substitute for your units sources in supply. Your Battalion Supply Officer and the supply standing operating procedures (SOP) are the vital sources of information. 6202. THE MARINE CORPS SUPPLY SYSTEM. Supply is dedicated to the single purpose of providing the necessary support to Marines in combat and is structured to be responsive to the needs of the operating and supporting forces, wherever they are located. 6203. UPON TAKING COMMAND. Youve just taken over the reins of the Company, and youll soon find out that one of your first duties is to sign for all that gear you now own. Theres no way that your Battalion Supply Officer can personally control and account for every piece of equipment within your unit; he has to sub-custody items of equipment and supplies to unit Responsible Officers (ROs). You are now an RO, as is the motor transport officer and the communications officer. 1. APPOINTMENT AS RO a. The Battalion Supply Officer will give you an appointment letter from the Battalion Commander assigning you as the RO. Once appointed, you will conduct a complete inventory of all items on the Consolidated Memorandum Receipt (CMR). NOTE: Before conducting your inventory, look at the current issue of UM 4400-124 regarding the ROs responsibilities. Also, the current issue of MCO P4400.150 is a quick-and-dirty explanation of some of the issues which youll be faced with when conducting your inventory. b. Conduct the inventory, ideally, with the old RO, but it is not necessary. Some helpful hints are as follows: (1) Review a copy of the T/E, and ensure that you have everything you rate. (Get with your Battalion Supply Officer.) (2) Sign only for what you can see or for what you are positive exists. In addition, use the SL-3 that goes with the major end items to ensure that the components are also on hand. If SL-3 components are missing, ensure that the missing items are on order with current supply status. (3) Physically check all serial numbers. The MIMMS DPR (described in Appendix 6A) will indicate a NO in its far right-hand column when there is a serial number discrepancy. You can prevent a lot of headaches in the maintenance cycle if your serial numbers are properly recorded on the CMR.


(4) Verify the signatures of the Marines who have gear temporarily loaned from your company. Ensure that the Marine is still in the command and that he is still responsible for the gear. It is strongly suggested that gear be brought in so that you can personally verify its presence. (5) Request a new CMR from the Battalion Supply Officer when the number of annotations on your CMR becomes excessive. c. When you are satisfied that the property reflected on the CMR (with your annotations) is physically on hand or properly accounted for, sign the original cover sheet, which acknowledges receipt of the equipment and supplies. If you are not satisfied with the condition of the material, immediately report the problem(s) to the Battalion Supply Officer. He will consult with the Battalion CO to determine the proper course of action. The old RO will maintain responsibility for the material until you sign the copy of the CMR or 10 days after you are assigned as RO. 2. RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE RO. The following are some additional responsibilities of which you should be aware: a. Maintain assigned equipment in a ready-for-use and serviceable condition. Your philosophy on maintaining serviceable gear can be emphasized during your command inspections. b. Account for equipment issued or sub-custodied, and maintain a record of custody for such equipment. c. Report account record changes to the Battalion Supply Officer within 15 days. This is vital! d. Request necessary investigative action or adjustment in writing for abused or lost equipment. e. Conduct periodic inventories at least quarterly for all equipment assigned to your account. 6204. FISCAL PROCEDURES. Although you will not be directly responsible for the money spent in your unit, you should have a good understanding of some of the fiscal terms. 1. TYPES OF FINANCIAL ALLOCATIONS. There are two types of monies allocated to most units. a. REQUISITIONING AUTHORITY (RA). Often called soft dollars because it is more a line of credit than actual cash, it is used by the Battalion Supply Officer to requisition items from the SASSY Management Unit (SMU), e.g., repair parts, SL-3 gear. b. PLANNING ESTIMATE (PE). Often called hard dollars, this type of allocation is much like a checking account. Money spent is taken directly from the U.S. Treasury. Most importantly, if this account becomes overdrawn, the Commanding General of your major command becomes legally responsible. Hard dollars are used to buy: (1) Fuel (2) Temporary Assigned Duty (TAD) (3) Self Service Items NOTE: You will only be given a limited amount of hard dollars every quarter, and although it is important to spend all that is given, it is vital not to over-obligate or to maintain any kind of a reserve.


6205. INVESTIGATIONS. You must initiate an investigation any time there is a loss, destruction, or theft of Government property. The investigation should determine the cause or the individual responsible, or it can relieve that individual of this responsibility. 1. REQUESTS FOR INVESTIGATIONS. If you wish to request an investigation, submit a written request to the Battalion CO, via the Supply Officer (check your supply SOP for format). The mere fact that an investigation is requested does not mean that investigative actions will be taken; the Battalion CO must ensure that needless administrative action is minimized. 2. INVESTIGATIONS NOT REQUIRED. Although it is the Battalion COs decision as to whether an investigation is necessary, its good to be aware of the selection criteria. Investigations are not required under the following circumstances: a. In the Battalion COs opinion, there is no negligence indicated in the loss, damage, or destruction of the Government property. b. The Battalion CO has special knowledge of the circumstances surrounding the loss, damage, or destruction of Government property. This knowledge leads him to conclude that no negligence or responsibility could be determined and that an investigation under those conditions would constitute an unnecessary administrative burden. c. An individual accepts responsibility for the loss, damage, and destruction of Government property and voluntarily offers to reimburse the Government. An investigation is not normally required in this case; your Battalion Supply Officer and Battalion CO should be consulted if there is still a question. d. If there is a motor vehicle accident, an Investigative Report of Motor Vehicle Accident (SF-91A) can be used for an informal JAG Manual investigation under the following conditions: (1) There is no death or injury; (2) The total property damage does not exceed $600, and (3) There is no possible claim against the government. NOTE: If you want more information on investigations, read the current edition of MCO P4400.150 and JAGINST 5800.7. 6206. PERSONAL EFFECTS. You are charged with the responsibility of collecting, inventorying, safekeeping, and the appropriate disposition of the personal effects of all Marines who cannot care for their own property. The Battalion Supply Officer usually takes care of the latter two, but its your responsibility. 1. WHEN ARE PERSONAL EFFECTS COLLECTED? Collect personal effects if the following exists for a Marine: a. Dead, b. Missing, c. d. Hospitalized, Absence without leave (Unauthorized Absence, or UA), 6-11

e. Incarcerated (in jail), f. g. On extended TAD, Participating in the Unit Deployment Program (UDP), or

h. When lost, abandoned, or unclaimed personal property is recovered. 2. GUIDELINES FOR UA MARINES a. You have only 24 hours to inventory and to pack up all personal effects and Government property left behind. Inventories will be conducted by an officer or SNCO, using the following guidance: (1) Conduct an inventory (two copies) of Government property, less individual uniform clothing. (Place the original in the Marines SRB, and keep one copy in the company office.) Recovered Government property will be returned to the Battalion Supply Officer and credit given for the item returned. (2) Conduct an inventory (four copies) of individual uniform clothing. (Place the original in the Marines SRB, and keep one copy in the company office. Keep the other two copies on file.) If there are no articles of individual clothing left behind, or if the location of the clothing is unknown, place a certificate to that effect in the SRB. Have all individual clothing boxed up, secured, and turned into battalion supply. (3) Conduct an inventory (six copies) of all personal effects. Turn the personal effects into battalion supply, according to your supply SOP. (Just like the above-mentioned inventories, place one copy in the SRB, and keep one copy in the company office.) (4) Turn in money in excess of $3.00 (recovered from personal effects) to the disbursing officer, who will cut a check to be drawn in favor of the Marines CO. Record a lesser amount in the inventory of personal effects as cash, and turn it over to the supply officer. Retain the checks obtained from disbursing for a period of 90 days. If the individual returns to duty before the 90 days, endorse the exchange-for-cash check, and give it to the Marine. (5) Disposition. Turn in all items to the Battalion Supply Officer. 3. GUIDELINES FOR DECEASED MARINES. Have all Government property, articles of individual clothing, and personal effects recovered from the possessions of deceased personnel collected, inventoried, recorded, and turned over to the Battalion Supply Officer for disposition. Remove any classified material or material which might be embarrassing to the next of kin. 4. GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR PERSONAL EFFECTS. The following are some additional common sense items: a. Do not inventory if the member is in quarters jointly occupied by the next of kin.

b. Appoint an inventory board either orally or in writing, composed of one or more officers or SNCOs. c. Designated a sergeant to inventory the personal effects of Marines who are the rank of Sergeant or below.


d. If the member is an officer or warrant officer, have the inventory conducted by a commissioned officer of equal grade or higher. e. Although battalion supply is responsible for the storage and shipment of personal effects, be aware of the status of the personal effects until they are collected. NOTE: Review the current edition of MCO P4050.38, the order for personal effects; its easy to understand and is very detailed. 6207. RELIEF OF RESPONSIBLE OFFICERS 1. Although the appointment of ROs was discussed earlier in this handbook, review the procedures of the relief. UM 4400-124, contains detailed guidance on the responsibilities of the RO. 2. Some additional common-sense guidance is as follows: a. Report all overages and shortages to the supply officer before transferring responsibility to your successor. b. Make an effort to conduct a joint inventory with your successor. This could alleviate any possible misunderstandings. c. Remember that you will retain the responsibility for the items on charge until the original of the CMR is signed by the new RO and the discrepancies have been resolved.


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 6 SUSTAINING THE COMPANY SECTION III: MOTOR TRANSPORT 6301. UPON TAKING COMMAND. You have just taken off your helmet from your change of command and have put as your first priority to take your company to the field. Lt Hanson, your gung ho Motor Transport Officer, introduces himself by saying that you can not go to the field until you get your five HMMWVs and three MTVRs off of deadline. Your predecessor did not give a damn about motor transport, and now you are paying the price. Heres what you can do to prevent it from happening to you: 1. RECEIVE A BRIEF FROM YOU COMPANY MOTOR TRANSPORT OFFICER (MTO). You should discuss the following in the brief: a. What equipment is on hand? b. What equipment do you rate? c. How many Marines are on-hand? (mechanics, operators, supervisors) d. How many of the above-mentioned Marines do you rate? e. What is the maintenance posture of your motor transport pool of equipment? (This should include a breakdown by MIMMS category code and should come off the most recent DPR and LM2 reports.) f. Are all necessary Technical Manuals and other required publications on-hand?

g. Are there sufficient tools and test equipment on-hand for the maintenance personnel to perform their mission? h. What is the status of the on-vehicle equipment (OVE) room? 2. READ THE BATTALION MOTOR TRANSPORT SOP. A quick reading of this SOP will acquaint you with the unique techniques used by your Battalion Motor Transport section. 3. VISIT THE BATTALION MOTOR TRANSPORT OFFICER. The main reason for the visit is to make it clear to the MTO that you are going to keep a close eye on motor transport and that it is has command attention in your company. Some specific points to discuss are: a. Ask the MTO for the motor transport status of your company and for advice on how to improve that status. When was the last time he inspected your company, and what were the results? b. Get a tour of the motor transport maintenance shop. c. Discuss problems that your company MTO brought to your attention.

4. INSPECT THE COMPANY MOTOR POOL. Get out and take a look at your equipment. Section 8 of this chapter is a checklist of PM indicators that will come in handy. Stress serviceability, not cleanliness. Talk to some mechanics who can verify the status of vehicles in the maintenance cycle, 6-14

compare what they say to what is reflected on the MIMMS output reports. Do not hesitate to tell all of your operators to hop in and to take their vehicles around the block. Did the vehicles perform as expected? Ask the questions. 5. INSPECT YOUR ON-VEHICLE EQUIPMENT (OVE) ROOM. Heres where you could get your first headache as company commander. The OVE room stores all of the equipment (SL-3) that is placed on the vehicles. Demand that the room stay clean and organized; this room is a reflection of the command. Make sure that all SL-3 gear is on-hand or on order, and if it is on order, ask to see a copy of the EROSL that was used to place the order with supply. When was the last time they reconciled with the battalion or company supply representatives? Finally, the OVE room has a tendency to accumulate spare parts; get rid of them. Spare parts reflect either an ignorance or avoidance of the proper requisitioning procedures. NOTE: Not all companies will have OVE rooms. 6302. SUSTAINING YOUR MOTOR TRANSPORT POSTURE. To ensure operational readiness from your motor transport program, follow this advice: 1. Continually check the adequacy of your companys preventive maintenance program. Who is supervising the program? Ask to see the PM sheets from the most recent PM day. Have they been done? Is appropriate follow-up action being taken? 2. Set a schedule for your inspection of vehicles. Be as visible during maintenance efforts as you would during field training. 3. Talk to your mechanics (probably working in the battalion motor pool) to determine how much of their time is spent on operator level maintenance. This will indicate the quality of first echelon maintenance in your company. 4. Check driver training and licensing procedures. Compare this to the guidance in the motor transport SOP. 5. Look at the training records of the battalion commodities and MMO to ensure that your Marines are attending. 6. Set the safety, operations, and maintenance standards. Get out and inspect your motor transport equipment and records in garrison and in the field. Give no slack until your standards are met. 7. Have your MTO brief you on your motor transport status weekly. Are there any maintenance holdups that rate the attention of the Battalion CO? 8. Emphasize tactical vehicle use, e.g., camouflage, lowering profile (dropping canvas and windshields), blackout driving, fording, etc. Many units are weak in these areas.


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 6 SUSTAINING THE COMPANY SECTION IV: ARMORY 6401. GENERAL. You are always told of the importance of each element of your company and how those elements fit into overall mission accomplishment and unit welfare. In the case of the armory, no one needs to tell you. How well your armory responds to your units needs will have everything to do with the success of generally everything your company does. This is a critical lesson for the new commander. 6402. MAINTAINING YOUR COMPANY ARMORY. When you take over your company, there will most likely be an established armory; it is your responsibility to ensure that it is being properly managed to support your Marines. Here are some pointers: 1. Immediately after assuming command, sign the following letters of appointment for: a. Company Ordnance Officer b. Custodians/Armorers c. Witnessing Officer for NAVMC 10576s (as per TI 8005-15/3) d. Individuals authorized to sign NAVMC 10520s (either yourself or a designated officer, not the Ordnance Officer) e. Special duties to include: (1) Accompanied access (2) Unaccompanied access (3) Key pick-up (4) Monthly inventories 2. Ensure that the following inventories are conducted: a. DAILY. This is only a count of the weapons, not a serialized inventory. It is conducted by custodians/armorers. b. MONTHLY. This is a serialized inventory. It is conducted by an officer or SNCO within your Company or as directed by the Battalion CO. c. QUARTERLY. The RO responsible for the entire armory, or selected weapons and systems maintained in the armory will conduct this serialized inventory. In addition, the RO will look at the SL-3 gear for quantity and condition. NOTE: The change of RO inventory can satisfy the above requirements if performed within the appropriate timeframe. 6-16

3. Read the ordnance SOP for your battalion. Your company probably does not have its own SOP, so read the battalions to find out what is expected of the company. If your company has unique procedures that make its work more efficient, they will be contained in the desktop procedures/turnover folders. Ask to see your armory officers turnover folder and read it! 4. Ask the battalion armory/ordnance officer for a courtesy inspection soon after you take command. This gives you a point of reference and comparison with other armories. 5. Permit nothing to go adrift; no extraneous equipment, excess parts, personal items (except those authorized by appropriate regulations), and never any excess personnel. 6. Keep the access list up to date. If it is out of date by one day, you have a problem. 7. Regularly meet with your armory officer; he is key to the smooth functioning of the armory. 8. Visit the armory regularly. These visits should coincide with weapons issue, weapons cleaning, and other functions of the armory. Also, dont hesitate to conduct your own informal inspection in conjunction with the visits. Remember to read the battalion SOP before inspecting so that you will know what to look for. 9. Do not hesitate to ask for Limited Technical Inspection (LTI) assistance this gives you an accurate appraisal of your weapons. Arrange this with your battalion armory/ordnance officer. 10. Ensure that every weapon is given a Pre-Fire Inspection (PFI) before being fired. 11. Ensure that weapons are cleaned on a regular basis. This includes all officers and SNCOs cleaning their own weapons. A good habit is to check the status of the companys weapons while at the armory cleaning your own weapon on a monthly basis.


ORDNANCE CHECKLIST FOR COMPANY COMMANDERS PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE 1. Are individual weapons cleaned and maintained, by the individual to which assigned, on a scheduled basis? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

2. Are crew served weapons assigned teams? Are the teams cleaning and maintaining the weapons on a scheduled basis? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

3. Are stock weapons (non-assigned weapons) being cleaned and maintained on a scheduled basis? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

4. Are platoon commanders and platoon sergeants conducting cleanliness inspections on a regular basis? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

5. Does the company training schedule allot time for the cleaning of weapons? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

6. Are only approved lubricants, preservatives, and cleaning agents used? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE 7. Are pre-fire inspections being performed on individual weapons before they are fired? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

8. Are periodic LTIs being performed by armorers on all weapons? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

9. Once items are tagged with an Ordnance Repair Tag (NAVMC 1018), is corrective action being taken? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

10. Is an ERO open for all equipment requiring repair? (MCO P4790.2_, Appendix C) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

11. Have T/E and SL-3 deficiencies been placed on order? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____ 6-18

12. Are there any excess parts in the armory? (MCO P4790.2_, Appendix C) YES ____ SECURITY 13. Are the custodians conducting a daily sight count inventory? (OPNAVINST 5530.13, pg VI-4, par b) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____ NO ____ N/A ____

14. Is a monthly serialized inventory being conducted by someone other than armory personnel? (OPNAVINST 5530.13, pg VI, par c) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

15. Are the custodians working behind locked doors and conducting business through the window for the issue and recovery of weapons? (OPNAVINST 5530.13, PAR 2-201F) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

16. Are identification procedures for entrance into the armory being followed? (OPNAVINST 5510.45B, pg 5-4, par 0551) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

17. Is an access log being maintained by armory personnel? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

18. Are armory keys being controlled during non-working hours in a locked container by duty personnel? (OPNAVINST 5530.13, pg VIII-8, par a) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

19. Is a duplicate set of keys maintained in a sealed container and kept in a safe designated by you? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

20. Are procedures for the storage of personal firearms in effect and being followed? YES ____ TRAINING 21. Are classes conducted on deadly force for armed custodians and entries made in their SRBs? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____ NO ____ N/A ____

22. Are custodians qualified/requalified or familiarization-fired if armed within the armory? (MCO P5500.6D) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____


23. Does the armory make effective use of MCI courses to execute either individual or section training? (MCO P4790.2_) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

ADMINISTRATION 24. Have you established an updated: a. Unaccompanied access list YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

b. Accompanied access list YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

c. Access list for receipt of keys YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

d. Ordnance Officer appointment letter YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

e. Witnessing Officer appointment letter YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

f. Custodian appointment letter YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

g. Personnel authorized to sign NAVMC 10520s YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

25. Is an allowance letter established for the security ammunition utilized by custodians? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

26. Are yellow copy EROs (receipt copy) afforded the same security as weapons? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

27. Is a weapons summary chart being maintained and updated as changes occur? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____


28. Do the custodians have a turnover file established that contains at least the eleven required items? (MCO P4790.2_, par 1005.2) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____ 29. Is a desktop procedures file established with the required information and in-line with higher-echelon SOPs? (MCO P4790.2_, par 1005.1) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

30. DO the custodians have publications that direct them in their operations? Are they maintained and updated? (MCO P4790.2_, Appendix B) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

31. Are the ECR Cards (NAVMC 10572) being properly maintained? (UM 4400-15_) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

32. Are individual memorandum receipts (NAVMC 10576) and ordnance custody receipts (NAVMC 10520) being maintained and used properly for issue of all weapons? (UM 4400.124, pg 3-2-11 & 3-212) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

33. Are ordnance serialized items/rounds fired data cards (NAVAMC 11003) being maintained properly on all serialized items by type and filled by rack number sequence? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

34. Are weapons record books (Part II, NAVMC 10558A) being maintained properly on all weapons 20mm and larger and sniper rifles, except the M203 grenade launcher? (UM 4700-15/1E, pg 6-2) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

35. Are Dragon and TOW record logbooks established and maintained on each component, excluding the M5 pedestal? (UM 4700-15/1E, Chap 8) YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

36. Are you inventorying all ordnance equipment and collateral material on an annual basis? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____

37. Are you conducting unannounced visits/inspections of the armory? YES ____ NO ____ N/A ____


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 6 SUSTAINING THE COMPANY SECTION V: FOOD SERVICE When one army is full and another starving, lead and steel are hardly needed to decide the victory. - Sir John Fortescue 6501. GENERAL. The proper feeding of your Marines is vital to operational efficiency. It is your responsibility to ensure that your Marines are properly fed, whether it be in garrison or in the field. This section will assist you in the feeding of your Marines; garrison and field operations will be discussed, with emphasis on the field. Your responsibilities during garrison operations are limited, but they are still worthy of discussion. 6502. FIELD FOOD SERVICE OPERATIONS. You do not want to be worrying about how your Marines are going to be fed, so delegate this to your Company Gunny or Mess Chief. You should have a good understanding of the options available in both the method of preparing the chow and the different types of chow available. This section also discusses your specific responsibilities in the field. 1. THE FIELD MESSHALL. The primary differences between the field messhall and garrison are the types of equipment available for use, the condition of the equipment which must be operated, and the manner in which the personnel are fed. In the field messhall, buildings are rarely available and equipment is limited; meals must be prepared and served under varying conditions. Very often your company will not be lucky enough to have a messhall in the field and will have to resort to other methods of feeding. These alternatives will be discussed in this section. 2. MESSHALL SITE SELECTION. You will designate the messhall site in the field. The site will be based on the tactical commitments of the unit and should incorporate as many of the following features as possible. a. Good natural cover in a wooded section. The site should be well-shielded from enemy observation. b. Sufficient access to roads to provide free movement of subsistence vehicles. c. Located on high, dry ground, near a slope that provides good drainage.

d. Located as near to the Marines to be fed as conditions will permit. e. Located near a natural water supply such as a lake, stream, or spring. 3. TRAINING. Field messhalls should be operated as they would be under actual combat conditions. Emphasis must be placed on an effective training program applicable to existing conditions during field exercises. Get your Marines used to the field food service equipment. Although Marines are comfortable with the garrison equipment, the equipment in the field is vastly different. A few hours a month should be set aside to have some of your Marines trained on field food service equipment. Arrange this training with your Battalion Messhall Officer.


4. FIELD RATIONS. You have a variety of chow available to you in the field, allowing for tactical flexibility and personal taste and convenience. These rations are classified into two general types: operational rations and packaged operational rations. a. Operational Rations (B rations). This is the field ration used for mass feeding where messing facilities, except for refrigeration, are available. It consists of approximately 100 so-called nonperishable items mainly canned and dehydrated and as supplied in bulk. Hot meals, furnishing a minimum of 3,200 calories per day for men, and 2,200 calories per day for women, are prepared. Below are listed some of the advantages and disadvantages of the B rations: Advantages - Easy to transport - Easy to acquire - Very high in nutritional value - No refrigeration needed - LONG shelf life - Used for semi-permanent mess site (6 months or less) NOTE: To determine how many B rations youll need for an operation, you should first talk to the Mess Chief, (usually located in the messhall in garrison). The current edition of MCO P10110.25, Standard B Ration for the Armed Forces, will also assist you in ordering B rations. b. Packaged Operational Rations (PORs). PORs are semi-perishable rations, either canned or dehydrated, and are packaged to withstand field training, emergencies, and the rigors of combat. They are designed for individual or small group feeding, when the tactical situation is so unstable that cooking facilities cannot be used. Controlling and accounting for each POR is accomplished according to the current edition of MCO P4400.15. CAUTION: PORs are not to be eaten for more than 10 days. They may cause irregularities due to insufficient roughage/bulk. (1) MEAL, READY-TO-EAT (MRE). The MRE provides tasty individual meals that are readyto-eat. The following is some planning information: (a) Meals per case: 12 (b) Cases per pallet: 48 (c) Weight per case: 16 lbs (d) Calories per meal: 1,215 average You are responsible for procuring your units MREs from Battalion S-4. Any unused MREs must be returned back to the issue point. Disadvantages - Very expensive - Low variety - Low in fiber content - Requires additional equipment - Additional cooks needed


(2) FOOD PACKET, ASSAULT. This packet is compact and lightweight, yet has a high nutrient density for individuals in non-resupply situations. It is designed for use for up to 10 days at the rate of one-packet per Marine PER DAY. Because it is almost entirely freeze-dried, it can provide the same nutritional quality as the MRE without the weight. Some information you should know: (a) Packets per case: 36 (b) Weight per case: 39 lbs (c) Calories per packet: 1,550 average c. Tray Packs (T rations). These rations provide a variety of entre, vegetable, dessert, starch, bread, and salad items that have been cooked in rectangular, metal cans. The T rations provide high quality, nutritionally adequate hot meals to Marines in the field. It significantly reduces the manpower, fuel, and water requirements of the present hot meal system. The pack is ready to heat and is served in a container that can be used for heating and serving. The HMMWV is configured with a Tray Ration Heating System (TRHS) so that it can heat several T rations at once, providing Marines with hot chow in the field. Using two cooks, the TRHS can be ready to serve hot food in 10 minutes for a capacity of 500 Marines. 5. FEEDING MARINES IN VARIOUS CLIMATES. Different climates require different amounts of food and water. Some of the climates you could encounter and unique subsistence considerations are as follows: a. ARCTIC AND SUBARCTIC. An additional MRE (four per day) is recommended to maintain the necessary caloric intake of 4500 calories in arctic conditions. Also available are cold weather specific MREs that have a higher caloric content per meal. Hot beverages should be used for every meal, if possible, especially hot cocoa, which is tasty and nutritional. When cooking mass food rations, allow for a longer heating time to prepare meals. b. DESERT. Take precautions with equipment. Desert conditions require additional spare parts, especially for food service equipment. Ensure that you increase your procurement of ice from 5 to 8 pounds per day per Marine. Increase each Marines consumption of liquids between 5 to 13 quarts per day. Decrease the use of coffee by adding non-carbonated beverages and iced tea. c. NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL (NBC). Food must be protected from contamination; its consumption may cause serious illness, injury, or death. Food packaged in cans or sealed in airtight containers should be protected from NBC contamination. 6503. GARRISON OPERATIONS. Most messhalls are operated either at the Regimental or Battalion level, relieving you from the concern of the internal procedures of the messhall. We will briefly discuss garrison operations and will zero-in on what you will need to know. 1. You are responsible for ensuring that your Marines are provided well-prepared food of good quality, quantity, and nutritional value. Regularly eat in your messhall. 2. Most garrison messhalls are currently under the civilianization program, established by CMC (LFS4). You have NO control of the civilian contractors. Any special requests such as adjustments of chow hours, party requests, etc., must be written to the Contracting Officer Representative (COR), via the S-4. Remember, the contractor adheres strictly to the contract and will not deviate from it.


3. Here is some general advice on picnic and box lunch support: a. Submit a picnic request to the S-4 at least five working days before the event. To have a picnic request done by the messhall, 51 percent of the Marines must be on meal cards. Check your local installation SOP for more specific request guidelines. b. Submit a box lunch request to the S-4 at least five working days before the event, with information pertaining to the number of box lunches needed, for what meal, and the names of the individuals who will be consuming the box lunches. 4. Use appropriated funds for subsistence support of official command functions; for example, retirement ceremonies or change of command ceremonies. Reference MCO P10110.14, paragraph 3060.4, contains additional information.


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 6 SUSTAINING THE COMPANY SECTION VI: EMBARKATION 6601. GENERAL. The success or failure of any military operation, whether movement is by land, air, or sea, is dependant upon proper embarkation planning and execution. This section will help you to manage your embarkation program within your company. 6602. UPON TAKING COMMAND. Although embarkation will not be one of your immediate concerns, you should follow these guidelines: 1. Appoint an Embarkation Officer and an NCO, if they have not already been appointed. 2. Receive a brief from your Embarkation Officer. Discuss the following topics: a. Is the company ready to embark? The Embarkation Officer should know the different modes of transportation available and how much of each type will be required to deploy your unit. NOTE: There is a difference between deploying to the field for an exercise and deploying aboard ship or aircraft. Although your Embarkation Officer may feel confident that he can pack up and go to the field, he needs to know the companys embarkation requirements for both the field and amphibious and air operations. b. When was the last time the company received an inspection from the company and the battalion for embarkation? What were the results of those inspections, and what corrective action has been taken? 3. Read the embarkation SOP for your battalion. Usually short and concise, the SOP will inform you of the unique embarkation procedures of the battalion. 4. Request a courtesy embarkation inspection from the Battalion Embarkation Officer. This will indicate that you are concerned about embarkation and will give you a guide as to how to attack your embarkation program. 5. Conduct a walk-through inspection; bring along the Company Embarkation Officer. 6603. MAINTAINING YOUR PROGRAM. Some company commanders habitually forget about embarkation until it comes time to actually deploy. Dont forget about the S in BAMCIS! The following are some suggestions to maintain your embarkation program: 1. Conduct a quarterly inspection along with your Embarkation Officer. 2. Ensure your company is receiving embarkation training. Get as many of your Marines as possible to embarkation schools because when it comes time to deploy, youll need as many trained personnel as possible. Schools include: embarkation officers school, embarkation NCO school, aircraft load planners school, and hazardous cargo school.


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 6 SUSTAINING THE COMPANY SECTION VII: PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE INDICATORS 6701. FUNDAMENTALS. PM indicators permit a reasonable assessment of PM performance, reduce the need for reference to technical manuals, and minimize assistance from technicians or specialists. THEY SAVE THE COMMANDER TIME! 1. The best PM indicator of any piece of equipment is, Will it do what it was designed to do, not only the end item itself, but all of the components on that equipment? 2. General appearance will usually be the first indicator of the condition of a piece of equipment. Obvious things such as corrosion, rust, or missing parts will be easily identifiable. When inspecting equipment, be careful not to be fooled by camouflage or cosmetic preventive maintenance. 6702. COMMUNICATION 1. ANTENNAS. No matter what kind of radio set you have, it will have some type of antenna. Remember the following few points: a. Protective tip Each antenna should have some type of protective tip. b. Paint Only lead free paint should be used on common equipment. c. Connections Antenna connections should be clean and free of corrosion. Also ensure that they have not been cleaned with an abrasive substance. Most of the connections are made of soft metals and can be damaged easily. Lastly, ensure that the connections are appropriately tightened. 2. MOUNTING BRACKETS a. Cables and pins (straight) Ensure that all cable pins are straight and not bent. b. Ground straps Check for a ground strap that connects the antenna to the bracket. It should be secure. c. Safety wire Check for a safety wire securely installed between the bottom of the elements and the base. d. Drain plug Check the drain plug in the matching unit. Unscrew the plug at the base. See if any moisture comes out. e. Softening plastic Check for softening of the matching unit caused from paint or solvents. f. O Ring Check for the O Ring at the base of the antenna connection it should be present and serviceable. 3. RADIO MOUNTS. Most radio mounts are found in HMMWVs and other tactical vehicles and are pieces of equipment that are sometimes neglected.


a. Receptacle cover and chain Check the receptacle cover and ensure that it is present along with its holding chain. If the radio is mounted, ensure that it is not caught between the guide pin and receptacle. b. Mounting pin (straight) Check both mounting pins and ensure that they are not bent; otherwise the radio cannot be securely attached. c. Receptacle covers Look underneath the top plate. All receptacles should have a cover when not in use. d. Grounding straps Check the grounding straps. There are two of them, and they connect the top strap to the mounting base. e. Vent port Ensure that the vent port area is free of obstructions. This area circulates air to the radio keeping it from overheating. 4. HANDSETS. Most handsets basically work the same and can be checked using similar techniques. a. Connectors Check the connectors. Handsets will have one or two connectors which will be either the type with binding posts or a plug. Both should be clean and free of corrosion. The binding posts are spring loaded. Check to see if the spring is still good. The plug type will have an O ring in the plug itself. Ensure that it is there and serviceable. This O ring should be lubricated with silicon for ease of connecting. Sometimes Marines will spit inside the plug, not only lubricating the O ring but also getting moisture all over the receptacle plugs. Then they wonder why they get static in the radio. In other words, the spit is not good. Use the right lubricant to do the job. b. Cord Check the cord as you would any other rubber product. Pay particular attention to the cord where it attaches to the connector and to the phone itself. There is usually a rubber boot here, and the cord will normally begin to break at the end of the rubber boot. c. Rubber boots Look at the rubber boots around the press-to-talk switch or generator switch (depending on the type), and ensure that it is not damaged or torn. If it is, replace it. 6703. ORDNANCE. As a commander, you will have weapons to inspect in your organization. Therefore, it is important that you be able to inspect this equipment to determine whether it is being used and maintained properly. Since there are too many weapons to cover them all we will look at the most common weapon you will come in contact with to give you an idea of the detail that you should use in inspecting the weapons in your armory. 1. M16 RIFLE. Like all other weapons, the first area you will be concerned with is general appearance. The weapon should be clean and have a serviceable finish. a. Flash suppressor (loose, new modification) Ensure that it is not loose or cracked. b. Front sight post (bent, detent spring) Ensure that it is not bent or loose. Check the detent spring in the sight to ensure that it is not frozen. c. Bore (cleanliness, excess oil) Check the bore for rust, carbon build-up, and chipped lands/grooves. There should not be an excess of lubrication in the bore. A large amount in a small diameter bore could cause damaged when fired.


d. Handguards (cracks, broken tabs) Check handguards. Technical manuals state that they should be replaced if there are cracks over of an inch or more than two tabs are broken off from either handguard. However, use your best judgment. e. Slip ring (tension) Check the slip ring to ensure that it is holding the handguards securely. A rule of thumb to use: If the slip ring can be pulled back far enough with one hand and the handguards fall off, it is too loose and should be evacuated to your support maintenance activity. f. Receiver (rust, corrosion) Check the receiver for rust (especially around the dust cover) and corrosion. Also look for the beginning of exfoliation, which is caused from the acids in perspiration eating away at the metal. The result is a hole eaten all the way through the metal. Check the selector switch. Put the weapon on safe, and attempt to pull the trigger. Hit the forward assist, and ensure that it is not frozen. g. Rear sights Check the rear sights for lubrication and ease of movement. Look for obvious damage where a Marine has attempted to adjust the rear sight with an unauthorized tool such as an entrenching tool. h. Lower receiver assembly Check the assembly for dirt or rust. Keep in mind that because of all the springs and metal parts in the lower receiver group about the only way it can be cleaned spotlessly is to take all the parts out (which is not authorized). i. Bolt carrier group Look for cracks or fractures on the bolt, especially around the cam pin hole. Look at the face of the bolt for carbon build-up. Check the cleanliness of the gas tube and look for any obvious damage from dropping. This could cause gas to escape from the tube during firing causing the weapon to malfunction. The last one-sixteenth of this tube is the most neglected part of most M16s; it is very seldom cleaned. Check the carrier key screws these should not be loose. They must be torqued and staked. j. Magazine holding action Test the magazine adjustment on the weapon. Place a magazine into the well. It should slide easily into the slot and lock with a definite click. k. Butt plate screw Ensure that the drain hole of the top screw of the butt plate is clear to drain moisture out of the stock. l. Buffer group Ensure that it is free of corrosion, dirt, and rust, and that it has a light coat of CLP.

2. The same level of detail as listed here for the M16 should be used when inspecting every type of weapon, tripod, and optics system within your armory. Ensure cleanliness and operability. If you are not comfortable enough with a weapon to conduct a thorough inspection, then ask your Marines to assist. You may be showing that you do not know a particular weapon system completely, but you also can use this opportunity to learn the system and test your subordinates in their abilities. Furthermore, your curiosity will pick up their morale because you are showing that you care. 6704. MOTOR TRANSPORT 1. TRAILERS. One type of equipment that is sometimes neglected is the trailer. a. Brakes All trailers will have some type of braking system either manual, straight air, or air over hydraulics. The straight air and air over hydraulics will have two air lines that will attach to the truck a service line and an emergency line. Check the connection at the end of the rubber hoses for the presence and serviceability of the rubber gaskets.


b. Electrical Harness All trailers will have an electrical harness. Inspect them like any other electrical connection. c. Spring hangers and shackles (welds, broken/loose) Look at the suspension system on the trailer. Pay particular attention to broken welds, shackle bolts that may be broken/loose, and bushing/spring clips that may be loose. d. King pins and landing pads The king pins and landing pads on larger trailers, such as the lowboys, have a tendency to be smashed when being hooked up. Look for any evidence that the king pins or the landing pads have been damaged. 2. UNDERCARRIAGE. No one likes to climb under a truck and get all dirty and greasy inspecting the undercarriage. So this may be a good place for you to look while you are inspecting the vehicle. a. Suspension systems (1) Shock absorbers all trucks 10 tons and below will have shock absorbers. These can be checked like the shocks on your car. Ensure that they are not broken and the case is not bent. Look for any evidence of the shock leaking or that it has been leaking. Check the mounting brackets; they should be tight. (2) Tie rods Grab the tie rod; it should pivot a little from side to side, but there should not be any up and down movement. If so, this could indicate that the tie rod end is worn out. The tie rod itself should not be bent. (3) Torque rods Ensure that they are not loose or bent, and that the rubber bushing in the end is serviceable. This is found in the rear suspension of tandem wheel trucks. They act as dampeners for the wheel and let each one operate independently in an up and down motion. (4) Front end Look at the arm assembly to ensure that it is not loose and that no bolts are missing. Ensure that there are no bent/cracked parts. (5) Spring Seat Bearing All 2 - ton trucks and above that have the tandem dual wheel will have what is known as a spring seat bearing located on the suspension system between the back tandem wheels. This bearing allows the rear duals to move independently. When the truck is moving in a relatively straight line, ensure that the inner dual wheel lines up with the front wheel. If the spring seat bearing is broken or loose, then it causes the tandem wheel to move freely from side to side causing excessive tire wear. (6) Springs and shackles Inspect the springs and shackles the same way as the trailers. b. CV Boots All 2 - and 5-ton trucks have CV boots on the front wheel. This seal is found on the inner side of the wheel and it is used to keep water out and grease in. Also check to see that a Marine has not pumped too much grease in the seal causing it to bulge. c. Universal joints To check universal joint, grab it and attempt to move it. There should be no play in the universal joints. If you can move them, they need to be replaced. They should all be well greased. d. Transmission transfer case Transfer cases deliver power to the drive shaft to turn the wheels. Ensure that this case does not leak. There are two plugs as with differentials and transmissions a drain plug and a level plug. Both should be tight. The level plug is used to check the gear oil the drain plug and a level plug. Both should be tight. The level plug is used to 6-30

check the gear oil the same way as the transmissions and differentials. Take out the plug, and stick your finger in the hole you should feel the lubricant. e. Flywheel clutch cover Check for fluid leak. The cover is found immediately to the rear of the engine. There should be a hole in this cover, it is for drainage. During fording, however, there is a plug that fits into the hole; ask the operator for it. See if he knows what and where it is. Also there should be no lubricants dripping from the hole. If there is oil leaking from the hole, it could be an indication that the rear main seal of the engine is leaking. f. Parking brakes Check the parking brake by having the operator engage the brake and then slowly attempt to move the vehicle. This is one area that must be free of the grease and oil. 3. BATTERIES. Batteries are found in all types of equipment throughout the Marine Corps. The indicators described below will cover everything from flashlight batteries to batteries found in the TOW. a. Cracked casing Check for cracked casing/battery container. It can cause severe damage to the equipment. Leaking electrolyte can damage anything that it may come in contact with. b. Electrolyte level Check the electrolyte level; it should at least cover the top of the plates. If you need a light source, use a flashlight. Remember batteries give off hydrogen gas and a match could pose problems. If the battery is continually low on electrolyte, check it. The system may be overcharging causing the water to boil out, or there may be a hairline crack in the case. c. Corroded terminals and clamps Check for corrosion on battery terminals and connections. It will eat any metal it comes in contact with just as electrolyte will. Connections and clamps should be kept cleaned with a light coat of GAA (grease). d. Dirty batteries Check for dirty batteries. Dirt holds moisture and will let the energy in the battery leak from one post to the other, thus discharging the battery. e. Loose clamp Check for loose clamps. A loose clamp wont let the battery deliver full power and is a common cause for the engine failing to start. Also check the tightening nut to ensure it is on the opposite side of the cable connection. This will keep the nut from becoming loose due to handling or vibrations of the cable during operation. f. Ground wire/starter relay Check for loose ground/starter relay connections. Either one will prevent the equipment from starting or completing a circuit to put the item into operation. It is hard to explain after $600.00 worth of parts have been replaced that it was just a loose cable. g. Battery hold-down Ensure that batteries are secure. Theyll shift and bounce around causing connections to become loose and crack the battery case. h. Generator/ammeter gauge Almost all equipment with batteries will either have a generator indicator or an ammeter. The battery generator/ammeter will indicate whether the batteries are charging or discharging. Have the operator start the equipment, wait a few minutes and check the gauges. The needle on an ammeter should hold just a little to the right of the center line. If the needle stays to the far right, your batteries are being overcharged. Overcharging causes heat and heat will damage the battery. If the needle hangs anywhere left of the center during engine operation, your batteries are being discharged and will eventually go dead.


i. Battery generator gauge The battery-generator gauge is color coded for easier reading. The next time you see this type of gauge, look at the notch in the green portion that is the 28.5 volt mark. This is ideal charging mark for your battery. If the needle is to the right of that mark, your battery is overcharging. If the needle is well below the volt mark, your battery, of course, is undercharging (even though it may still be in the green). j. Battery cap Check the vent holes in the battery cap to ensure that they are clear. These vent holes prevent pressure from building up in the battery. If these vents are stopped up, the pressure would pop the cap off or crack the core, and acid could then spill out. Also check for a serviceable gasket. k. Date stamping battery Check the date stamp if you have more than one battery in the equipment. All batteries should be of the same approximate age. A new battery will put out more than its share of voltage if teamed up with weaker batteries. Within a couple months, the new battery will have the same power outage as the older batteries. l. Battery terminals Check for abuse. Our Marines have a habit of prying the battery clamps off the terminals with screw drivers and then placing them back on with a hammer. Not only will this damage the terminal, but it could crack the battery case or break the seal around the base of the terminal. m. Battery container Check battery box containers for the presence of moisture , dirt, corrosion, or rust. Excessive corrosion or rust could indicate a cracked battery or the neglect of PM. 4. INSTRUMENTS/GAUGES. Check the gauges for their presence and serviceability. Refer to the TM Manuel and also question the operator about normal operating ranges. Also check the gauges for cracked lenses, paint, discoloration, and moisture. Check all switches and knobs. If they are not present, then the Marine will start using a pair of pliers to turn that knob or switch. If left uncorrected, he may damage the apparatus that connects the knobs or switch causing additional expense. 5. PAINTING. What happens when you tell PFC J.S. RAGMAN to get his equipment ready for inspection? He goes down to his buddy in supply and gets 5,231 cans of green spray paint. Then what does he do? He sprays it over dirt, grease, oil, and corrosion. It might look good for a while, but it doesnt last long. He will also paint over rubber and plastic parts (which will cause them to deteriorate) and over adjusting nuts and bolts, chains/lubrication points (which will prevent lubrication), inspection/data, plates, and radio antennas. 6. ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS. Most of the equipment in the Marine Corps will have some type of electrical system. When inspecting electrical systems, trace the wiring from the power source (which usually is a batter) to the components it operates, such as starters, lights, instruments, etc. a. Wiring Electrical wiring should be checked for cuts from its power source to the components it is connected to by running the hand down the wire or cable. Cuts in the insulation could cause a short in the circuit or start a fire. Check for cleanliness cables and wires should be free of grease, paint or oil; all of which will deteriorate the insulation. Also bend the cable, and check for cracks that indicate dry rotting. b. Service lights To check the lights on your equipment, have the operator turn them on. If it is a tactical vehicle, have the operator turn just the blackout lights on. Check for paint on the lenses, cracked lenses, and the presence of moisture. Moisture may indicate a faulty seal, but more than likely, the seal was improperly mounted when light bulbs were replaced. To check infrared lights, have the Marine turn them on using low beams. Then place your hand in front of the light you should feel heat. Then have him turn the IR lights on high beam you should feel an increase in heat. 6-32

Never look directly into an IR light because eye damage could result. This test could be used with any type of IR device. c. Slave cables All tracked vehicles, most tactical vehicles, and engineer equipment have some type of slave cable system. Check the slave grease. Also check the cable connection for cleanliness and the presence of a dust cover. The Marine will cut the dust cover off so that it will be easier for him to use. With the dust cover removed, it will only take one hand to place the cable into the receptacle. Since the cable is not round, when it is dropped, the connection will usually land on the same side will which eventually bend it. When this happens, the connection will no longer fit into the receptacle, and Marines will sometimes take an axe and cut off the connector. With two bare wires crossed it will reverse polarity into the system. Not only is this dangerous to the Marine, but it could cause a short which might destroy a generator or starter, or cause a battery to explode. d. Wires hanging loose Also check for wiring that doesnt go anywhere, no matter what type of equipment you are inspecting. The Marine Corps does not have enough money to buy extra wires that do not do anything. Every wire has a purpose. 7. TIRES. All tires can be inspected using the same PM indicators. a. Tire pressure The first area you will check is tire pressure. The only way you can check correct tire pressure is by using a gauge. Local policy usually requires that the tire pressure be stenciled around the tire. Also, check valve stems for covers. Valve covers will keep particles from hitting the stem and allowing air to escape. They also serve as a second air-tight lock if the stem should fail, and it protects the threads on the stem. (1) Over-inflation Check tire for excessive wear on the inner tread surfaces. If the outer tread surface is still good, this will indicate over-inflation. (2) Under-inflation Just the opposite will be true for under-inflated tires. (3) Alignment Check for excessive wear on either side of a tire which indicates that the tire is out of alignment. You dont need to know such terms as toe-in, toe-out, or castor; all you need to know is that something is wrong, and that something has to be done to correct it. b. General appearance Look for obvious cuts or cracking from dry rotting. A good rule of thumb to remember is, if the white cord is noticeable as a result of the cut or dry rotting, it is unserviceable. Also look for bruises or bulges in the tire. This will indicate that the inside wall of the tire is broken and that it may become a hole in the tube. The Marine may replace or inflate a tube two or three times before he realizes that the inside of the tire is puncturing the tube. c. Tire mounting Mount tires by tire tread height. All tires mounted directly opposite each other should have approximately the same tread height; otherwise the new tire will wear faster; the vehicle will become unaligned which causes the vehicle to pull to one side. d. Tire rims Check for tire rims that are bent since this could cause the tire to wobble. If you have any doubt, watch the vehicle as it is being operated. Also check for loose/missing lug nuts. Loose lug nuts are easily identified in dusty or muddy areas because the vibration of the nuts will keep the dust or mud from building up on it like the others. e. Tire tread If the tread looks like it might be worn out, ask the operator for a tire tread gauge, and have him check it using the TM as a reference.


8. COOLING SYSTEMS. No matter what type of engine we have, it must be cooled. It will have either one of two types of cooling, air or liquid. a. Air cooled Air cooled engines are relatively easy to inspect for our purposes. Two indicators to check on this engine are the fins around the cylinder walls which should be free of dirt/oil. The fins are designed to circulate air around the cylinder wall and dissipate heat. Also check to ensure that any shrouding used to funnel air to the fins are in place. These shrouds are usually made of a light tin-like material that will cut the mechanics hand or make it difficult for him to reach different parts of the engine. So what does the Marine do? He will take it off or bend it out of shape. b. Liquid cooled The most common cooling system is the liquid type. How many times have you seen a jeep with the organization name, COs name, and the drivers name covering the front of a radiator? This is an easy indicator to check and to correct. There should be no obstruction that will block the flow of air. (1) Radiator Check the radiator for obvious leaks. (2) Cooling fins Check for damage to the radiator core from having been hit by some object. Question the operator about how the damage was caused. (3) Shroud Check the shroud in back of the radiator. It is used to channel air over the engine, but ensure that it is mounted securely and that it does not have dents which may hit the fan blades during operation. (4) Coolant level Check the level of coolant; it must be above the top of the cooling coils. Ask the operator how often the antifreeze was replaced and how he knows when it needs to be replaced. c. Radiator cap Examine the radiator cap. Radiator caps usually have two gaskets, two valves, and two springs. Check the gaskets as you would any rubber product. The valves and springs must be checked for serviceability. d. Rubber hoses Rubber products on the cooling system should be checked as you would any rubber product. Check the clamps on the hoses. If it is too tight, it will cause the end to flare out. It is probably too large and during operations the clamp will cut into the rubber. Also ensure that the hoses are not too large, otherwise they will leak when the system is pressurized. When one of the hoses in the cooling system has deteriorated to the point that it is no longer serviceable, change all the hoses since rubber products tend to fail at the same rate. e. Fan belts Check for proper tension of fan belts according to the TM manual; however, as a general indicator using your thumb and moderate amount of pressure halfway between the longest portion of the belt, try to depress one of the belts in a set. If you can depress one of the belts next to it, this may indicate that it is too loose. Ask the operator or maintenance personnel about the correct adjustment. 9. OIL COOLERS. Many engines (such as those found in wreakers, tanks, firefighting equipment, or construction equipment) have a lot of idling time and will probably have some type of oil coolers in conjunction with the air/liquid cooling system. The oil coolers will be either one of two types you will find some oil coolers bolted to the engine. They use the engine coolant to additionally cool the oil. Just check these types for oil or water leaks. Other oil coolers look similar to and function like a regular radiator. These must be free of dirt to allow for greater heat dissipation.


10. AIR INDUCTION SYSTEMS. No matter what type of engine we have, it must have air to function properly and that air must be clean. When inspecting the air induction system, we will trace the flow of air through the entire system from the time it enters until it is exhausted. a. Oil bath (oil level) Check the oil level. An important point to remember when inspecting an oil bath type filter is that if you find dirt in the bottom of the oil it does not indicate that you have a dirty filter all it indicates is that the filter is doing its job. Not until sufficient dirt has accumulated to raise the level of oil above the full mark does the air cleaner need to be cleaned. Remember that the oil is not lubricating anything all it is doing is filtering out the dirt from the air. b. Paper elements Check the air cleaner. The most common type of air cleaner you will find is the dry type. There are two classifications of dry type air cleaners; paper elements and cloth. c. Cloth elements Inspect the filter elements for any cuts, tears, or any external damage. Many air filters are ruined by Marines who tries to beat the dirt out with a hammer. Check the cleanliness of the filter by gently tapping it with the palm of your hand. d. Air indicators Some filters on different pieces of equipment, will have a filter indicator. If you dont have time to check the air filter system, have the operator start his engine and watch the air filter indicator. The indicator acts on the vacuum principle and as a vacuum develops, caused by the restriction of air through a dirty filter element, a red line will appear. If this happens, ask the operator when he last cleaned his filter. e. Air ducts After the air leaves the filter, it will go through some type of air duct. These ducts are different sizes and shapes depending on the type equipment, however, they all should be clean inside. If any dirt is in the duct, it indicates that there is a fault in the air filtration system. Check to ensure that there are no cuts or tear sin the duct and that it has serviceable clamps and seals. f. Blower/Turbocharger Check for dirt and dust. Air from the ducts will usually travel to some type of blower or turbocharger before entering the engine. It is important that no dirt or dusts makes it to these components. Also check the blower or turbocharger for oil leaks around their mounting seals. This should be easy to detect especially when the engine is in operation. 11. OIL FILTERS. Check the oil filter; however, like the fuel filters there are many different types that may be located anywhere on the engine. All these filters are located on the lubrication order, and instructions are provided as to when they should be cleaned or replaced. Ask the operator. See if he knows the correct servicing criteria, then compare what he has said against the lube order. 12. TRANSMISSIONS, FINAL DRIVES/DIFFERENTIALS. Check the presence of gear oil sine we cannot disassemble a transmission, final drive, or a differential for an inspection. All final drives/differentials and transmissions will have some type of inspection plug in which to inspect the lubrication level. The level should be such that the lubricant slowly drips out, or stick your finger in the hole, and you should be able to feel the lubricant. 13. HYDRAULICS SYSTEMS. Check for any leaks or air in the system. These systems are used to push, pull, lift, or stop something. They are closed systems and will not operate properly if there are any leaks. To check the hydraulic system, start with the reservoir and ensure that the correct fluid level is present by referring to the appropriate TM. Trace all the lines and look for obvious leaks. Inspect piston rods (actuators) for burns/scores and the presence of a light coat of lubrication. 14. FUEL SYSTEMS. Like electrical systems, check fuel systems systematically, starting at the fuel tank and working your way to the carburetor or injector.


a. Fuel tanks Inspect the fuel tanks in the same way. No matter whether they are for diesel/gasoline engines or refueling tanks on trucks. First, you should look at the general appearance of the tank. It should not be leaking, of course, and should not have any large dents or rust. (1) Filler cap (gasket) Check the filler cap for the presence of a gasket; it should be either a cork or rubber type. Missing/cracked rubber cork gaskets will probably allow fuel to slosh out and contaminants such as water to get in. (2) Fuel screen Check the screen for holes and the presence of particles. Each fuel tank should have a wire screen at the fuel neck opening. (3) Contaminants Have the operator drain some of the fuel into a glass jar and examine the contents. Every fuel tank will have some kind of drain at the lowest part of the tank. If water, rust, or other contaminants are found, ask how often the tank is examined. This may indicate that the tank is not sampled often enough, the fuel that is being placed in the tank is contaminated, or the fuel level in the tank is not maintained at least three-quarters full (allowing for more condensation). (4) Fuel level Check the fuel. Contaminants in gasoline tanks should be of prime concern due to the fact that there is normally only one filter between the tank and carburetor. The less fuel in the tank, the more condensation will be formed. This is especially important in diesel fuel engines. If one drop of water makes it from the fuel tank to the injector it will probably blow the tip off. c. Fuel filters Check filters. Another area of prime concern when inspecting fuel systems is the filters and the operators knowledge of these filters. Fuel filters are located in different places on different engines. However, the location of these filters will be described on the lubrication order and in the TM. If the filters are not easily identifiable on the engine, ask the operator to show you the location of these filters. (1) Gasoline engines Check when possible. Gasoline engines usually one have one filter which is normally located on the fuel line just before it enters the carburetor. These are normally replaced during scheduled maintenance and are difficult to check. (2) Diesel engines To check fuel filters, have the operator take a clean glass and drain cup of fuel from the primary fuel filter through the petcock. Most diesel engines have both a primary and secondary set of filters. Hold it up to the light, if there are no contaminants present, then you will not have to check the secondary filters; however, if there are contaminants in the primary filters then the first stage of the secondary filters must also be checked using the same procedure. If contaminants are found, then the vehicle should be placed in a non-operational status and the filters replaced. 15. LUBRICATION POINTS. Use the lube order to check the equipment and also quiz the operator at the same time. Most major pieces of equipment will have a lubrication order. There is no way that you will be able to memorize all the lubrication points on a large piece of equipment neither can the operator for that matter. As a quick check, first look at the lubrication points which are difficult to reach. If these have been lubricated properly, then the other ones probably have also been lubricated. 16. ENGINE MOUNTS (BROKEN, LOOSE). Check the mounts to ensure that the brackets are tight and no bolts are missing. All engines must be mounted to a frame in some manner. Extreme vibration while the engine is operating is an easy indicator of broken engine mounts.


COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 6 SUSTAINING THE COMPANY SECTION VIII: TACTICAL LOGISTICS The objective of logistics is maximum sustained combat effectiveness. RADM Henry E. Eccles, U.S. Navy, Ret. 6801. GENERAL. Modern war will continue to be fluid, flexible, and will consist of many battles fought by small units. The tactical logistics problems will be great requiring even greater innovation and imagination from the Marines in your company. 1. To this point in the chapter, we have discussed individual functions of the logistical equation (maintenance management, supply, etc). Although tactical situations have been considered, they have only been presented piecemeal. Youre probably asking yourself, How do I actually support myself in the field or in combat? Thats the purpose of this chapter 2. An important point to remember about tactical logistics: we often forget about the tactical scenario when it comes to resupplying our Marines. Well play the game when firing our rounds down range, or positioning our troops in tactical formation, but seldom do we consider the tactical mistakes that are often committed during resupply operations. Whats the sense of placing camouflage nets over equipment when you have your supply vehicles running in and out of your position creating a bigger signature then you probably ever intended. If we train that way, were going to get our Marines killed in combat. Treat tactical logistics as exactly that TACTICAL. There are many alternatives when resupplying your Marines use your imagination. A good practice to get into is resupplying your Marines only at night, thus reducing the chance of detection. Other alternatives will be discussed in this chapter, but dont forget you set the tone. Dont settle for tactical laziness, especially when it comes to logistics. 3. This section will be broken down into the following subjects: a. Company Logistics b. Logistical Planning c. Determination of Requirements d. Supply Distribution e. Tactical Sustainment f. Logistics Support in Different Climates

6802. COMPANY LOGISTICS. When in the field or in combat, youll delegate your logistical headache to your XO and your Company Gunny. Its not that logistics isnt important enough to justify your time; just the opposite is true. Logistics can be so complex and time consuming that it should be the prime duty for an officer and a SNCO. 6803. LOGISTICAL PLANNING. Logistics must be addressed in each of the following elements and in each phase and stage of planning:


1. MISSION. The mission of the company must be clearly understood by your logistical planners (XO, Co Gunny). 2. CONCEPT OF OPERATIONS. Your XO must have complete and intimate knowledge of the concept of operations. This is vital if hes going to anticipate the requirements of the company. Anticipation is the key ingredient in satisfying the principles of responsiveness and flexibility. 3. AREA CHARACTERISTICS. These characteristics include the distance between the objective and source(s) of supply. As in all operations, the environmental conditions, facilities, road nets, and terrain have a significant impact. All can be potential constraints on tactical and logistical operations. 4. INTENSITY OF OPERATIONS. The expected intensity of operations influence planning and preparation that dictate how long your company needs to sustain itself. 5. TIMING AND DURATION. The anticipated timing and duration of operations influence planning and preparation that dictate how long your company needs to sustain itself. 6804. DETERMINATION OF REQUIREMENTS. 1. How do you get the supplies that you need? You first need to know the different classes of supplies (Figure 6-1).

I Subsistence X Non-Military IX Repair Parts CLASSES OF SUPPLY VIII Medical VII End Items V Ammo IV Construction II Clothing III POL

VI Personal Demand

Figure 6-1. Classes of Supply

2. SOURCES OF PLANNING FACTORS. The following information will help in determining requirements for each class of supply. Obviously, none of this information replaces the experience and expertise of the logisticians in your unit, i.e., S-4, MMO, MTO, etc. The two best resources for planning are: MAGTF PLANNERS REFERENCE GUIDE (MSTP Pam 5-0.3). This publication provides updated planning factors for all classes of supply, as well as transportation, engineer, fires, and other planning factors. 6-38

TABLE OF ORGANIZATION AND EQUIPMENT (TO&E). The TO&E provides the quantity and type of personnel and equipment if the unit is at full strength. Historic, current, and planned TO&Es are available through the Total Force Structure Management System (TFSMS). a. CLASS 1. The Food Service section of this Handbook details the chow that is available to your Marines in the field. The current editions of the following sources will help you to plan Class I requirements: (1) TABLE OF AUTHORIZED MATERIAL (TAM). If you dont have at least one TAM in the company office, get your publication man hot on it; this publication is vital when making logistical computations. The Class I section contains computation data. b. CLASS II. Determining what organizational supplies and equipment will be needed can be accomplished by using the T/O, the Table of Equipment (T/E), and the TAM. The combat active replacement figure (CARF) in the TAM is used to compute replacement rates for T/E items. c. CLASS III. Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricants (POL) requirements are expressed in terms of packaged and bulk products. (1) The T/E provides the amount of equipment which requires POL. (2) The TAM provides the planning factors for oils and greases; it also gives a listing of all POLs. PLUS, the TAM gives planning data for all fuel consuming vehicles and equipment in the Marine Corps inventory. d. CLASS IV (1) The TAM provides data on individual engineering construction materials, e.g., barbed wire, concertina wire, sandbags, and lumber. (2) The MSTP Pam 5-01.3 and FM 101-10-1, along with some engineer know-how, is required to compute total requirements. e. CLASS V (1) MCO 8010.10, Class V(W) Available Supply Rates for FMF Combat Operations, provides ground ammunition planning data by type of munitions for combat operations. (2) MCO 8011.4, Marine Corps Table of Allowance for Class V(W) Material in Peacetime, provides the same as MCO 8010.10, but for peacetime/training. f. CLASS VI. Because exchanges are not usually brought into a combat zone early in an operation, the sundries pack will provide Marines with exchange type items until an exchange is established. g. CLASS VII (1) (2) The TO&E provides allowances for end items. The TAM provides CARFs. The CARF will reflect the anticipated combat attrition of equipment on a monthly basis.

h. CLASS VIII. The Authorized Medical Allowance List (AWAL) and Authorized Dental Allowance List (ADAL) will assist in determining the initial issue of necessary medical and dental supplies. 6-39


CLASS IX (1) Determine repair parts usage by using maintenance management/supply data (Loaded Unit Allowance File (LUAF)). (2) The Deployment Support Generator Package obtained from the SASSY Management Unit provides a list of repair parts based on a given density list of major end items.

j. CLASS X. This class is usually not a requirement for Marine units. If used, higher headquarters will assign the required levels. 6805. SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION. Once youve gathered your supplies, or have at least identified a source of supply, there has to be a way to distribute those supplies to your unit. There are three basic methods of resupply available. The first two, point and unit distribution, are established and have proven their worth. The third, jiffymart, has broken down many of the barriers of the first two methods, especially with the artillery. Each of the three methods will be covered in detail, leaving the choice of method to you. The advantages and disadvantages of each are presented as they apply to the supported and supporting unit (you both could be at the company level), so that you can actually take the best of each and apply it to any given situation. 1. POINT DISTRIBUTION. The unit obtains its supplies at a supply point and moves the supplies to its own area using organic transportation, if possible. a. ADVANTAGE: Provides maximum control over combat service support sections (ammunition, supply, maintenance, etc.); allowing you to retain flexibility. b. DISADVANTAGE: Reduces unit survivability. Requires that an increased number of support vehicles be located with the company; this translates into larger unit positions and larger convoys, resulting in an increased signature as an enemy target. 2. UNIT DISTRIBUTION. This method requires the supporting unit to deliver supplies directly to the supported units. It consolidates the combat service support elements of the companies into a Battalion logistical combat train under the direction of the S-4. This train stays at the Battalion level until the companies request resupply. a. ADVANTAGE: Reduces the size of the company, giving it a reduced signature and allowing it to move more rapidly. b. DISADVANTAGE: Requires a large number of support vehicles in the company position during the resupply operation increasing the possibility of enemy detection. 3. JIFFYMART. Requires the supporting unit to issue requested supplies to a displacing unit at a coordinated point along its route of march. (1) ADVANTAGES (a) Quick. Because the supporting unit can stage the supplies, the supported unit only needs to drive through the position and pick up only the required supplies. (b) Pushes support forward, causing minimal disruption to the units being supported, allowing them to concentrate on their primary mission. (2) DISADVANTAGES 6-40

(a) Requires the massing of vehicles in a relatively small area, increasing the chance of detection if resupply cannot be completed quickly. (b) Requires detailed planning and reconnaissance. (c) May be impractical; ammunition requirements during combat may exceed the vehicle capacity of your unit. 6806. TACTICAL SUSTAINMENT. Flexibility and innovation characterize tactical sustainment. The execution of tactical sustainment should enhance, not slow, your momentum; its aim is to alleviate disruptions in your concept of operations. The purpose of this section is to help you to sustain yourself on the battlefield. The effects of supply and maintenance, as they apply to the offensive and defensive engagement, will be presented. 1. OFFENSE. Consider your logistical capabilities before engaging the enemy, IF POSSIBLE. Keep your XO/Co Gunny informed of your intent so that they can anticipate your needs. The objective of tactical logistics in the offensive is to maintain the momentum with support as far forward as possible. a. SUPPLY (1) Ensure that all support equipment is ready and that supplies are located for support. (2) Ensure that sufficient transportation is available to support tactical and logistics plans. (3) Anticipate high fuel consumption; build up quantities in forward locations, without disclosing your intentions to the enemy. (4) Provide rapid support of ammunition; although less ammunition is used in the offense than in a heavy defense. Consider the following: (a) Place ammunition close to the user. (b) Be ready to displace ammunition supply points (ASPs) immediately. (c) Stockpile artillery ammunition at designated firing positions. (d) Ensure that weapon systems are fully armed before the attack. (5) Consider all classes of supply, although classes III and V are the most crucial in the offense. (6) Determine whether weapon system replacement requirements should be higher since they are subjected to fire during offensive operations. (7) MOST IMPORTANT. Have supplies available when you need them. Ensure that your XO knows that flexibility is the key. Resupply is more difficult in the offense than in the defense because of the ever-changing locations of units and their support areas. b. MAINTENANCE (1) Maintain momentum by repairing at the point of malfunction or damage; momentum is enhanced when the maximum number of weapon systems are kept operable and mobile. (2) Have unit mechanics accompany or follow the most forward attacking elements. 6-41

(3) Make plans to recover systems and components which cannot be quickly repaired on the spot and to evacuate them for repair. (4) Place emphasis on battle damage assessment and repair to rapidly return disabled equipment to the commander by expeditiously fixing, bypassing, or jury-rigging components. (5) Count heavily on maintenance contact teams (mechanics, repair parts, components) who can make the following decisions on the spot: (a) What can be repaired, (b) What should be evacuated, (c) What should be cannibalized, and (d) What should be abandoned after it is made useless to the enemy if operational necessity and damage require it. (6) Tell your XO the urgency of the mission so that he can brief the maintenance teams. 2. DEFENSE a. SUPPLY (1) Locate ASPs to provide the most rapid and responsive support. (2) Stockpile Class V supplies in excess of basic loads. Also, place ammunition on successive defensive positions for easy access, and to lessen transportation problems during the withdrawal. (3) Prepare for the use of Class IV and V, especially mines and barrier materials. They are heavily used during the preparation for defense. (4) Make all attempts to employ your service-oriented Marines to assist in the resupply. Try not to take your combat troops off their positions. b. MAINTENANCE (1) Have as many weapon systems ready before the battle, as possible. (2) Repair the maximum number of damaged systems, and return them to battle in the least time. Cannibalization may be necessary. 6807. LOGISTIC SUPPORT IN DIFFERENT CLIMATES. Its difficult to predict the type of climate youll be fighting in, but you could easily find yourself training in Bridgeport, Camp Lejeune, or 29 Palms. Each climate presents a different challenge, and you should be aware of the effects. 1. JUNGLE OPERATIONS a. Understand that jungles slow resupply; they often lack an all-weather transportation network. Also, ambushes and infiltration typify jungle combat operations. Infiltrators threaten both installations and lines of communications.


b. Carefully prioritize cargo, ensuring that only the most essential supplies and equipment are taken. c. Remember that troops require more water, placing a greater burden on water purification equipment and on your transportation. d. Insist that your Marines PM their weapons regularly. Weapons rust fast! Use plenty of lubricants. e. Be aware that canvas rots and rubber deteriorates faster. f. Remember that battery life is shorter than normal.

g. Carry only what is essential, and ensure that your that your XO and Co Gunny have a good handle on what is needed. Also, unit distribution is usually the norm and is often done by air (because of poor trafficability). h. Take extra repair parts to fix equipment on the spot. Evacuation is often difficult. 2. DESERT OPERATIONS. The desert provides nothing to support your unit, which makes it a tacticians dream but a logisticians nightmare. a. Troops require more water (as in jungle operations). b. Dust and sand damage the mechanisms of all weapon systems and equipment (requiring your emphasis on PM during down times). c. Unit distribution is the norm for the infantry, often being supported by a service support detachment (e.g., a detachment from the LCE). d. Evacuation is difficult, so repair parts should be available to fix equipment immediately. e. Wheeled vehicles will go through tires quickly. You should emphasize to your MTO the importance of proper tire inflation. 3. MOUNTAIN OPERATIONS. Rugged terrain, steep gradients, poor roads, and limited-capacity bridges complicate movement in mountains. Most roads often cannot handle heavy vehicles, requiring your Marines to hand-carry supplies. The weather is also an important factor in the mountains; it can range from extreme heat to extreme cold, with drastic changes occurring over short periods. a. Prioritize cargo, carrying only what is essential. b. Higher altitudes affect not only humans but also machines. Ensure that your mechanics are aware that there is less air to support engine combustion and cooling, requiring them to keep the engines properly adjusted. Remember that there is a loss of power, capacity, maximum speed, and acceleration with your vehicles. c. Remember that Marines are very often carrying the supplies. Unit distribution is again the norm, and supplies should be delivered as far forward as possible. d. Remember that evacuation is difficult and time consuming, requiring additional repair parts with the forward units.



COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 6 APPENDIX A DAILY PROCESS REPORT 1. PURPOSE. The DPR provides information on all of your equipment in the maintenance cycle. Although maintenance personnel will be receiving this report daily, you only need to look at it once a week. Your MMO should be getting his weekly copy and forwarding it to you with his annotations already made. The purpose of this appendix is to explain how to read the DPR, and more importantly, to assist you in analyzing the report so that you can skip any superfluous information and ask the right questions of your MMO. 2. HOW TO READ THE DPR. The first two lines of each ERO on the DPR present basic identification data and current maintenance status. The third line is a listing of repair parts requirements and the supply action to date on these requirements. Using the sample DPR (on page 6A-6) for a reference, lets take a look at what the legend of the DPR tells us: a. First Line (1) ERO the equipment repair order number (2) TAM - the table of authorized materiel control number of the equipment undergoing maintenance (3) ID the identification number of the equipment undergoing maintenance (4) SERIAL # - the USMC/manufacturers serial number of the equipment undergoing maintenance (5) JON the account number to which the cost of maintenance is to be charged (6) CAT a code which identifies the category of the equipment undergoing maintenance. (This code is used in the production of equipment readiness transactions. UM 4790-5 contains category codes.) (7) RDD the required delivery date. (A date entered in this field indicates the equipments criticality to the unit and will specify the date on which the unit requires the equipment. It this date cannot be met, an ORF exchange may be required or requested.) (8) PRI the priority of need of the equipment having maintenance performed (9) NSN-IN-MAINT the national stock number (NSN) of the equipment having maintenance performed (10) NOMEN the noun name of the equipment having maintenance performed (11) DCD the deadline control date on which the equipment was actually deadlined (12) DRIS the date received in the ship (The date on which the equipment was received in shop performing the maintenance.) 6A-1

(13) JOB ID the job identification code which best describes the maintenance action being performed. (14) ORF the operational readiness float indicator. (A code of Y in this field indicates that an ORF replacement item is desired by the unit. If an ORF exchange is require, the RDD must also have been entered. A code of N indicates an ORF replacement item is not desired.) (15) EOT the equipment operation time code extracted from the ID standards file, which identifies the primary operations mode for item of equipment such as miles, hours, days, or rounds. (16) CLOS the close flag (A code of NO indicates that the ID number/serial number of the record did not match an NSN/serial number on the SASSY reporting unit allowance file (RUAF). The record cannot be closed until this flag is removed by corrective action. Blank indicates either a match or not edit. (The best way you can prevent a NO is to ensure that the serial number on your CMR are correct.) b. Second Line (1) AWTG-STAT the status of the equipment before being inducted into the maintenance cycle or after maintenance has been completed. (2) DEST-AAC the destination AAC to which the equipment is being evacuated for repairs. (3) JOB-STATUS the actions which have occurred on the equipment and the date each action was initiated. (UM 4790-5 contains the job status codes which initiate these entries.) (4) PARTS CHARGE the accumulated parts charges for those parts which have been obtained (Non-system parts charges are input via the 9 transaction. SASSY parts charges are computed during system processing.) (5) ECH the echelon of maintenance. (These codes indicate the echelon performing the required maintenance such as 1 or 2 (organic), 3 or 4 (intermediate). (6) QTY quantity of equipment undergoing maintenance (7) X-EROS two inter-shop/inter-echelon EROs for an item of equipment. (These ERO numbers reference EROs of different maintenance activities.) (8) MARES/DATE the MARES logistics readiness indicator, a machine-generated code, which identifies the type of LM2 readiness transaction that has been prepared for an ERO and the date of the transaction. (If the ERO has a LMARES/DATE, it means that this ERO will be in the Battalions LM2 report.) (9) DEFECT the interpretation of the defect code used in the input transaction (UM 4790-5 contains defect codes). (10) DDL days deadlined, the total number of days that the equipment has been deadlined. (This is the sum of the current processing date minus the DCD of the accumulated category M days deadlined.)


(11) DIS the total number of days that the equipment has been in the maintenance shop. (This is the sum of the current processing date minus the DRIS.) (12) OWNER the activity address code of the unit which owns the equipment. c. Third Line (1) RCVD two purposes First, when an item has been received and the receipt processed, the date of receipt will be posted. Second, when a cancellation request has been inducted for an item, the letters CANC will be posted. If the column is blank, it indicates the parts record is open. (2) DOCUMENT # - the unit document number used for repair parts requisitioned or the applicable modification instruction number. (When a secondary repairable is issued over the counter to the customer by the maintenance float, the document number of the maintenance float.) When a secondary repairable is back ordered to the customer by the maintenance float, the document number of the using unit.) (3) U/I the unit of issue of the item requisitioned (4) QTY the quantity of material requisitioned (5) PRI the priority of the requisitioned. The priority of the requisition may not exceed priority of the ERO; however, parts may be requisitioned on a lower priority. In other words, if the priority of the ERO is 06 part on requisition, this does not preclude the requisitioning of lower priority parts on a priority 06 ERO. (6) PART-NSN the national stock number (NSN) or local stock number (LSN) or the part requisitioned. (7) PART-NAME the nomenclature of the item requisitioned (8) STAT the current status on the requisition at the supply source. The status code is a two-digit code of the requisition. When shipping status has been provided to the unit, the mode of shipment code will be reflected. The mode of shipment code is a one-digit code that identifies the means by which the item is being shipped to the unit. UM 4400-124 contains supply status and mode of shipment codes. (9) DIC/EXC the type of status being provided using a document identifier code (DIC) DICs in the AE series identify the status as automatic supply status. DICs in the AS series identify the status as automatic shipment status. Codes in the B series will also appear. These are SASSY exception codes. DICs and exception codes contain UM 4400-124. (10) NMCS the not-mission capable supply indicator which indicates that the material requisitioned is for a mission-essential item is deadlined in the near future if the material requiring is not received. (An N indicates NMCS; E indicates anticipated NMCS; and 9 indicates items requiring expedited handling.) (11) LKH the last known holder of the transaction. (The current edition of UM 4400-71 contains the routing identifier codes for last known holders. When the LKH is identified as FLT, it indicates that the maintenance float is the supply source for the item.)


(12) ADV the advice code. (MIMMS advice codes identify information relative to the processing of the requisition and are not input to the supply system. The legend for the four (parts) transaction in chapter 6 contains the MIMMS advice codes. UM 4400-124 contains SASSY advice codes.) 3. ANALYZING THE DPR. Now that you know how to read the DPR, you need to know how to use it to your advantage. The Battalion MMO will be analyzing the DPR on a daily basis, ensuring that it reflects the true status of the equipment and that the maintenance being performed on the equipment is being performed as efficiently as possible. The following guidance is for your review of the DPR: a. Have your MMO show you which EROs correspond to your equipment. The Battalion MMO may dedicate a sub-shop section to each company or may designate special ERO #s for each company. Determine which technique is being used. b. The DPR is broken down into six shop sections. SHOP SECTION 1 2 3 4 5 6 SHOP NAME Calibration Engineer General Supply Communications Motor Transport Ordnance

c. After you have determined what shop you want to review, use the following steps for analyzation: STEP 1. LOOK AT ALL CATEGORY CODE M AND X EROS. As mentioned earlier in the appendix, the category codes M AND X reflect critical maintenance being performed on vital equipment. All equipment with category code M is also listed on the Battalion LM2 report which the Battalion Commander is briefed on weekly. Most of your analysis should be with theses category codes. STEP 2. CHECK THE PRIORITY OF THE ERO. Most of you in the FMF will be using priorities 03, 06, and 13. (As your MMO which priorities apply to your unit.) The important thing to remember is that the equipment in maintenance must have the appropriate priority and that it matches the category code. For example, a deadlined howitzer (category code M) will have a priority of either 03 or 06. If you feel the lack of this howitzer prevents your battery from accomplishing its mission, tell your MMO to request an update to 03 (only the Battalion Commander is given the proper attention from maintenance and supply sources; just as long as the system isnt abused, it works. STEP 3. CHECK THE DEFECT CODE. This tells you what the major defect is with the equipment. Is it correct? Dont hesitate to take the DPR with you when you visit your commodities ensure that the DPR is giving you the correct information. Although you shouldnt be spending too much of your time with this step, ensure that your MMO is keeping the defect code current so that its giving you the correct information. STEP 4. CHECK THE DAYS DEADLINED (DDL). All M EROs (and selected P EROs) will have a Deadline Control Date, which is used to compute the DDL. This tells you how long your equipment has been deadlined. If you think the time is excessive, ask your MMO what action is being taken to get the equipment off of deadline. You may want to consider upgrading the priority of the ERO, which in turn will upgrade the priority of those parts that are deadlining the equipment. (Battalion supply will need to upgrade the parts on order.) Another option available is to use the 6A-4

Operational Readiness Float (ORF) which will let you swap your equipment with that available in the ORF. Again, talk to your MMO for available options. STEP 5. CHECK JOB STATUS. The most recent job status will be listed on top of the previous job statuses (each job status will also be dated). The following guidelines have been established for minimum acceptable time frames: JOB STATUS Awaiting inspection Final inspection Inspection in progress Inspection complete Repairs in progress Short parts TIME FRAME 10 days (3 days for Cat Code M) Same as above Same as above Same as above 10 days for M and X; 30 otherwise 1 day

Remember that these are the minimum acceptable time frames. If you want faster action, dont hesitate to visit the commodity that is working the equipment, and let them know your concern. (The MMO can use this same technique, but it is effective for you to periodically show your concern.) 4. The DPR is the best maintenance report to understand the current status of your equipment undergoing maintenance. This appendix has provided the most important information that youll need to know to ensure that you are using the report effectively.







1. Your goal is to prepare your Marines to fight and to win the next battle. If you take your unit into combat it will be obvious how successful your unit is. You will be able to tell by your companys ability to fight, mission accomplishment, and by the amount of casualties sustained. However, when preparing to fight, how can you tell whether you have a successful command? There is no report or snapshot that will show whether your company has the ability to fight and to win. 2. Cursory evaluations cannot discriminate between units that just look good and those that are truly excellent. So, what are the characteristics that distinguish excellent companies from the rest? There have been studies of excellence conducted in the Marine Corps, Army, and Navy, and there has been much discussion of this subject in our professional journals over the past few years. From the experiences of the authors of this handbook and a survey of the above mentioned literature, the following pillars of excellence have been selected. They are not a panacea. However, they are the characteristics usually found in units that are successful in peace and war. Furthermore, they provide clear objectives for your company during times of peace that will contribute directly to your companys success in combat. 7002. PILLARS OF EXCELLENCE. These pillars of excellence are not new secrets of success. Successful commanders have practiced most of them for decades. 1. STRONG COMMANDERS. The commander is the key. Superior companies have superior Company Commanders. What are some of the characteristics of those excellent Company Commanders? a. LEAD BY EXAMPLE. They never ask the Company to do something they cant or wont do themselves. They are out sharing hardships with their Marines. b. INVOLVED. These Company Commanders make it their business to have their fingers on the pulse. They are not the types who spend a lot of time in their offices. Instead, they get out, walk around, and check things out. They are good listeners and have the ability to put their Marines at ease. c. DELEGATE. They understand that they must operate today just as they will be forced to operate on the modern battlefield. They cannot make every decision themselves; they develop initiative and good judgment in their subordinates. d. BOLD, RISK TAKER. These commanders lead the way in innovative training, and are constantly looking for ways to improve their companys ability to execute the mission. They occasionally make mistakes, but that doesnt deter them from taking a risk and being on the leading edge. e. COMPETENT. They are technically, tactically, and administratively competent. Additionally, they are always studying to improve their knowledge and skills. f. TEACHER. The commander is a teacher of his officers and his Marines. His ability to convey his knowledge, experience, and professionalism to them is essential.


2. BALANCED EXCELLENCE. An excellent company does well in every area. A company with balanced excellence has no weak points. It may not be the best in the battalion in everything, but it can hold its own in all areas. That company could be sent anywhere to do anything and would obtain great results. Tactical, logistical, and administrative soundness is all there. Excellent companies continually work to improve those areas where they may not be at their best. These units do not peak for one event; instead, they maintain high levels of performance in all areas. 3. FOCUS ON THE MISSION. These companies have an overriding sense of mission. They generate a sense of realism and excitement about their mission. All that these companies do in garrison contributes to improved performance in the field and in combat. These companies do everything well, but missionrelated tasks have a higher priority. Training to fight and to win in combat has the highest priority. 4. STRONG UNIT IDENTIFY. Excellent companies develop strong comradeship a feeling that they are one. Be it in intramurals, a field exercise, or combat, these units dont just come to fight; they come to win. In these companies, the Marines say they are the best, and they believe it. They have a tremendous amount of pride in themselves, their leaders, and their company. The commander develops a winning spirit in his Marines. Once that togetherness is developed, there is a great deal of positive peer-pressure to meet the high unit standards. The more they are challenged, the better they like it. 5. DISCIPLINE. Discipline is tied closely to high standards in excellent companies. The commanders policies are fair with clear expectations. Both rewards and punishments are fair, consistent, and swift. The standards are strictly enforced! Without exception, they apply to all members of the unit. Officers are responsible for establishing the standards, while the NCOs are charged with enforcing the standards. 6. HIGH STANDARDS. Excellent companies do things to standards, or they dont do them at all. They dont take shortcuts, and they dont do things half-baked. Excellent units dont peak for one event at the expense of all others. They remain at a high level in all areas. Although the standards are high, they arent out of reach. The commanders know where to put the standards so that their Marines are challenged but not frustrated. Marines do not have to compromise their integrity to reach a standard. 7. TEAMWORK. Teamwork is a way of life in excellent units. Excellent units posses the ability to work together effectively. The platoons work together for the benefit of the company, and the organization has a spirit of inner support and cooperation. Platoons in excellent companies compete against established standards not against each other. The goal is to work together to make the company the best it can be. Individuals do not win battles, teams do! There are strong social, family support, and sports programs in excellent companies. Teams are recognized for their superb performance, cooperation, and achievement. 8. EMPOWERING LEADERS. In excellent units, there is a sharing of responsibility, with authority placed at the appropriate decision-making level. Each level of leadership believes that he has the authority to do the job and is also confident that the chain of command supports him in that authority. Subordinates are allowed the latitude to lead. Excellent commanders give their subordinates the opportunity to grow. They allow Marines to make mistakes without fear of punishment. Subordinate involvement in providing input to decisions exists within these units. This makes each leader feel as if he has a part in the success of the unit. Evolving out of this is a trust by the chain of command that the subordinates can perform the job, and a confidence within the subordinates that their chain of command knew they could do the jobs and would support them, taking the risks to allow them to do the jobs. 9. OPEN COMMUNICATIONS. Communications channels are clear and open. Communications have a big impact on morale the Marines know what is going on , what is expected of them, and how their requirements relate to the companys mission. Communications do not flow just down the chain of command; they flow up and are heard. Every Marine is made to feel that he is an important part of the


unit. Young Marines want to know and need to know what their company is doing. In excellent companies, you find company goals and objectives, and short range and long range schedules are known at the junior Marines level. 10. CARING. There is an environment of genuine concern for the Marine, regardless of grade, and he clearly senses it. This concern extends also to the Marines family, and occurs both on and off duty. Good training, a healthy environment, accurate administration, sponsorship programs, and concern for the personal and professional growth of the Marines are clearly observable. 7003. SUMMARY. The Pillars of Excellence provide a picture of how the best companies are organized and operate today. They provide the characteristics of a successful company so that you have a clear idea of what standards you should be working to achieve. Best of luck! Remember, your Marines deserve the best leadership, training, and environment you can give them.






COMPANY COMMANDERS HANDBOOK CHAPTER 8 CONTINUOUS STUDY 8001. PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT. Your development as a Marine Officer and as a commander is a continuous, career-long process. Because of the limited and intermittent opportunities available for you to attend formal schools and to serve in the FMF, the majority of your professional development must come from reading and self-study. 8002. COMMANDERS RESPONSIBILITIES. As a commander, you have the responsibility and the obligation to develop yourself and your officers. You should have a program in your company to ensure that your officers are reading, studying, and discussing their profession. Take advantage of every opportunity for improving the knowledge, experience, and awareness of your officers. Guest speakers, films, professional reading, and independent study through military correspondence courses are all inexpensive ways to study your profession. All it requires is some planning and creativity. 8003. SELF STUDY 1. As a Marine officer, you should read extensively. A professional reading program encourages creative thought, initiative, and innovation. Developing systematic mental habits and developing the ability to read critically, to think analytically, and to communicate effectively are essential for commanders. 2. Numerous publications and manuals have been mentioned throughout this Handbook. The following is a list of books, documents, and articles provided as a listing of resources for your continued study of the art of command. This listing is not by any means all encompassing, but it includes many exceptional works about command and successful commanders. I am certain that there is a work on this list that you will enjoy reading, and that will benefit you in your current command or preparing for the next one. Start today! BOOKS: Allen, Nate, and Tony Burgess. Taking The Guidon. Delaware: Center for Company-Level Leadership, 2001 Ardant du Picq, Charles Jean Jacques Joseph. Battle Studies: Ancient and Modern. Trans. Colonel John W. Greely and Major Robert C. Cotton. Harrisburg, PA: Military Service Publishing Co., 1947 Armstrong, Best, Domenici. Courage After Fire. Berkley, CA: Ulysses Press, 2006 Bennis, Warren, and Burt Nanus. Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge. New York; Harper and Row, 1985 Blanchard, Kenneth H., Patricia Zigarmi, and Drea Zigarmi, Leadership and the One Minute Manager. New York: Morrow, 1985 Blumenson, Martin, and James L. Stokesbury. Masters of the Art of Command. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Col, 1975 Bradley, Omar N. A Soldiers Story. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1951 Bradley, Omar N., and Clay Blair. A Generals Life. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1983 8-1

Boot, Max. Savage Wars of Peace. New York: Basic Books, 2002 Camp, Dick. Operation Phantom Fury. St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press, 2009 Catton, Bruce. Grant Takes Command. New York: Little, Brown, & Co., 1968 Clarke, Bruce C. Guidelines for the Leader and the Commander. Harrisburg, PA: Stackpole, 1973 Clausewitz, Carl von. On War. Ed. And trans. Michael Howard and Peter Paret. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1976 Collins, Arthur S., Jr. Common Sense Training. San Rafael, CA: Presidio Press, 1978 Cubin, Andrew. Charlie Battery. Central Point, OR: Hellgate Press, 2004 Davis, Burke. Marine! The Life of Lieutenant General Lewis B. (Chesty) Puller. Boston: Little, Brown Co, 1962 Drury, Bob and Tom Clavin. The Last Stand of Fox Company. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2009 Dupuy, Trevor N. A Genius for War: The German Army and General Staff 1807-1945. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977 Dixon, Norman. On the Psychology of Military Incompetence. New York: Basic Books, 1976 Eisenhower, Dwight D. Crusade in Europe. New York: Doubleday and Co., 1948 Folsom, Maj Seth W.B. USMC. The Highway War: A Marine Company Commander in Iraq. Dulles, VA: Potomac Press, 2006 Fehrenback, R. R. This Kind of War: A Study in Unpreparedness. New York: Macmillan Co., 1963 Freeman, Douglas Southall. Lees Lieutenants: A Study in Command. 3 Vols. New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1942-1944 Freeman, Douglas Southall. R.E. Lee: A Biography. New York: Charles Scribners sons, 1934-1935 Freytag-Loringhoven, Hugo F. P. J. von. The Power of Personality in War. In Art of War Colloquium text. Carlisle Barracks, PA: U.S. Army War College, September 1983 Grant, Ulysses S. Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant. 2 Vols. New York: Charles L. Webster and Co., 1885 Greenfield, Kent Roberts, ed. U.S. Department of the Army. Office of Military History. Command Decisions. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1960 Grossman, Lt.Col Dave. On Combat. PPCT Research Publications, 2007 Halberstam, David. The Coldest Winter. New York: Hyperion, 2007 Haynes, MG Fred, USMC (Ret). The Lions of Iwo Jima. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2009 8-2

Hersey, Paul, and Kenneth H. Blanchard. Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977 Henderson, George F. R. Stonewall Jackson and The American Civil War. New York: Line Mans, Green, 1936 Henderson, W. M. Darryl. Cohesion: The Human element in combat. Washington: National Defense University 1985 Hunt, James G., and John D. Blair, eds. Leadership on the Future Battlefield. New York: PergamonBrasseys, 1985 Janowitz, Morris. The Professional Soldier: A Social and Political Portrait. New York: Free Press, 1971 Kaltman, Al. Cigars, Whiskey, & Winning: Leadership Lessons from General Ulysses S. Grant. New York: Prentice Hall, 1998 Kasal, Brad. My Men Are My Heros. Des Moines: Meredith, 2007 Keegan, John. The Face of Battle: A Study of Agincourt, Waterloo and the Somme. New York: Viking Press, 1976 Keegan, John. The Mask of Command: Styles of Leadership. New York: Penguin Group, 1987 Kellett, Anthony. Combat Motivation: The Behavior of Soldiers in Battle. Boston: Kluwer-Nijhoff Publishing, 1982 Kolenda, Maj Christopher D. Leadership: The Warriors Art. Carlisle, PA: Army War College, 2001 Koopman, John. McCoys Marines: Darkside to Bagdad. St. Paul, MN: Zenith Press, 2004 Krulak, Victor H. First to Fight: An inside view of the Marine Corps. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1984 Larson, Luke S. Senators Son. Phoenix: K.E. Inc, 2008 Laver, Harry S. & Jeffery J. Mathews. Art of Command. Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, 2008 Lewis, Lloyd. Sherman, Fighting Prophet. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co., 1932 Livingston, Gary. An Nasiriyah: Fight For The Bridges, 2nd Ed. Topsail Beach, NC: Caisson Press, 2003 Livingston, Gary. Fallujah With Honor, 2nd Ed. Topsail Beach, NC: Caisson Press, 2007 Malone, Col. Dandridge M. Small Unit Leadership: A Commonsense Approach. Novato, CA: Presidio, Press, 1983 Manstein, Erich von. Lost Victories. Ed. and trans. Anthony G. Powell. Chicago: Henry Regnery Col, 1958. Reprint. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1982


Marshall, S.L.A. Men Against Fire. Glouster, MA: Peter Smith, 1978 Marshall, S.L.A. The Soldiers Load and The Mobility of a Nation. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps Association, 1965 Mansoor, Peter R. Baghdad At Sunrise. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008 McCoy, Lt.Col. Bryan P. The Passion of Command. Quantico, VA: Marine Corps Association, 2006 McDonald, Charles B. Company Commander. New York: Bantam Books, 1978 McDonough, James R. Platoon Leader. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1985 Meyer, John G. Jr. Company Command The Bottom Line. Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, 1990 Millen, Lt.Col Raymond A. Command Legacy. Dulles, VA: Brassys Inc., 2002 Musashi, Miyamoto. A Book of Five Rings. Woodstock, NY: The Overlook Press, 1982 Myrer, Anton. Once An Eagle. New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1970 Naylor, Sean. Not A Good Day To Die. New York: Berkley, CA: Berkley Caliber, 2005 Newman, Aubrey S. Follow Me: The Human Element in Leadership. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1981 Nye, Roger H. The Challenge of Command: Reading for Military Excellence. Garden City, NY: Avery Publishing Co., 1986 ODonnell, Patrick. We Were One. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press, 2006 Patton, George S., Jr. War As I Knew It. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1947 Popaditch, Nick. Once A Marine. New York: Savas Beatie, LLC, 2008 Pritchard, Tim. Ambush Alley. New York: Presido Press, 2005 Pugue, Forrest D. George C. Marshall: Ordeal and Hope: 1939-1942. New York: Viking Press, 1966 Peters, Thomas J., and Nancy Austin. A Passion for Excellence, the Leadership Difference. New York: Random House, 1985 Puryear, Edgar F., Jr. Nineteen Stars. Novato, CA: Presidio press, 1971 Ridgway, Matthew B. As told to Harold H. Martin. Soldier: The Memoirs of Matthew B. Ridgway. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1956 Rommel, Erwin. Attacks. Vienna, VA: Athena Press, 1979 Rommel, Erwin. The Rommel Papers. Trans. Paul Findlay and ed. B.H. Liddell Hart. New York: Harcourt, Brace, and Co., 1953


Sajer, Guy. The Forgotten Soldier. New York: Harper and Row, 1971 Schell, Adoph von. Battle Leadership. Reprinted by The Marine Corps Association, Quantico, Va, 1982 Shaara, Michael. The Killer Angels. New York: Ballantine Books, 1975 Sherman, William T. Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, Reprinted Westport, CN: Greenwood Press, 1972 Shively, John C. The Last Lieutenant. New York: NAL Caliber, 2006. Slim, William. Defeat Into Victory. London: Cassell and Co., 1956. New York: David McKay Co., 1961 Smith, Perry M. Taking Charge: A Practical Guide for Leaders. Washington, D.C. National Defense Univ, Press., 1986 Sun Tzu. The Art of War. Trans. Samuel B. Griffith. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971 Taylor, Robert L. Military Leadership, 6th Edition. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2009 Truscott, L.K., Jr. Command Missions. New York: E. P. Dutton and Co., 1954 United States Office of Armed Forces Information and Education. Armed Forces Officer. Washington, D. C. 1960. U. S. Infantry School, Fort Benning, GA. Infantry in Battle. Washington, DC: The Infantry Journal, 1939 Van Creveld, Martin L. Command in War. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1985 Van Creveld, Martin L. Fighting Power: German and U.S. Army Performance. Westport, CT: Greenwoood Press, 1982 Van Creveld, Martin L. Supplying War: Logistics From Wallenstein to Patton. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1977. Yellin, Keith. Battle Exhortation. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2009 Waterman, Robert H., and Thomas J. Peters. In Search of Excellence. New York: Harper and Row, 1982 Wavell, Sir Archibald P. Soldiers and Soldiering. New York: Avery Publishing Group, 1986 Webb, James H. Fields of Fire. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1978 Weigley, Russell F. Eisenhowers Lieutenants: The Campaign of France and Germany, 1944-1945. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Press, 1981 Wood, William J. Leaders and Battles: The Art of Military Leadership. Novato, CA.: Presidio Press 1984


ARTICLES AND UNPUBLISHED PAPERS Admire, LtCol John H. Leadership and Fraternization Marine Corps Gazette March 1984 Atkinson, LtCol John L. A Squadron COs Perspective: The Family Readiness Program Marine Corps Gazette May 1984 Bach, Capt. Brian J. Soldierly Ethics Marine Corps Gazette September 1984 Bach, Major C.A. Know your Men.. Know Your Business.. Know Yourself U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings April 1974 Bradley, Gen Omar N. On Leadership Parameter Vol XI, No 3 Brown, Col. Bruce G. Lessons Learned in Leadership Marine Corps Gazette June 1984 p63-69 Buell, Commander Harold L. The Death of a Captain U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings February 1986 Burke, Adm. Arleigh A. Integrity U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings September 1982 Byron, Commander John L. The Captain U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings September 1982 Caulfield, BGen. Matthew P. So You Want A Battalion? Marine Corps Gazette June 1975 p20-27 Caulfield, BGen. M. P. Extraordinary Delusions Part 1 Marine Corps Gazette Dec 1977 p22-29 Caulfield, BGen. M.P. Extraordinary Delusions Part 2 Marine Corps Gazette January 1978 p47-56 Davis, Capt. Danny W. A Plan For Command Infantry Sept-Oct 1988 p 25-34. Fox, Col. Wesley L. Herringbones, Boondockers, and Leggings: A Personal View of Leadership Marine Corps Gazette July 1984 p113-119 Gardner, Col P.E. Welcome Aboard, Lieutenant Marine Corps Gazette June 1986: p62-65 Garnett, Pamela C. Unissued Baggage Marine Corps Gazette February 1986 Garnett, Pamela C. Dilemmas Within The Family Marine Corps Gazette April 1986 Gray, Gen. A.M. The Art of Command Marine Corps Gazette Oct 1987; p18 Hart, MGen T.S. Determination in Battle Armor May-Jun 1980 Helle, Capt. Ronald B. Moral Courage and Leadership Marine Corps Gazette November 1980 Hunter, Dr. Edna J.D. The Marine Corps Family: Looking Backwards, Looking Forward Marine Corps Gazette March 1986 Hooker, Capt. Richard D. Jr. On Company Command Infantry Sept-Oct 1988 p18-24 Lawrence, VAdm William P. Common Qualities of Good Leaders Marine Corps Gazette April 1981 8-6

Malone, Col. Dandridge M. The Subordinates Army Dec. 1985: p16-25 McClung, LtCol. J.W. Leadership, Followership, and Dissent Marine Corps Gazette August 1986 Morrision, Matt R and Tibbitts, Keith A. Jr. To Be The Best: A Study in Excellence in U.S. Marine Corps Infantry Battalions Thesis Naval Postgraduate School, 1985 Myers, Col. Donald J. Pay Me Now or Pay Me Later Marine Corps Gazette October 1986, p34 Nette, Maj Kenneth A. CD, PPCLI. A Philosophy of Command Marine Corps Gazette December 1983 Schulze, MGen Richard C. Obedience, the Unpopular Military Virtue Marine Corps Gazette June 1980 Simonsen, Jerry A. Frandsen, Herbert, L. and David A. Hoppengardner. Excellence in the Combat Arms Thesis. Naval Postgraduate School, 1984 Watkins, Adm. James D. The Concept of Accountability Marine Corps Gazette December 1983 p20-21