Art of Shooting

Art of Shooting
An introduction to target shooting with rifle, pistol, shotgun and airgun

Prof. Philip Treleaven
Preface
This handbook is a ‘primer’ for the new target shooter: introducing the firearms, shooting disciplines
and firearm technology, and drawing on the expertise of Bisley, the home of British and
Commonwealth target shooting.

For someone interested in taking up target shooting, it is surprisingly difficult to find out what are the
different shooting disciplines (or to give them their ISSF name Events), and perhaps more importantly
what’s available in their area. Naturally you won’t find Shooting for Dummies in the local bookshop,
but there are some excellent books and web sites, especially in the United States. Most cater for the
experienced competitor in a specific discipline, like Smallbore or Benchrest, rather than the new
shooter.

I am fortunate in that I live 40 minutes drive from the world famous Bisley Camp, the home of British
and Commonwealth shooting (cf. Camp Perry in America). The great thing about shooting at Bisley is
the wealth of knowledge and experience available covering all aspects of the sport. People who have
shot in the Olympics and Commonwealth Games, national champions for every shooting discipline,
experts in ballistics and hand loading, gunsmiths and armourers … and national coaches. Truly a
university of shooting – akin to Cambridge or Harvard! However, even at Bisley it is a daunting
challenge to find out what shooting disciplines are available, and who to ask for advice. It’s like
everyone else in the shooting world knows everything about shooting, marksmanship, ballistics and
hand loading, and you the novice know nothing. Even simple things like how to properly clean a
precision target rifle or target air pistol. I shudder to think how close I’ve come to ruining my £3,000 F-
Class rifle and more recently my target air pistol though using inappropriate cleaning solvents.

People at Bisley (and Camp Perry) are passionate about shooting, but often you have to hunt for
information. Therefore we (I and my friends in the NRA, NSRA and CPSA) decided to compile this
handbook for the new shooter; a sort of crash course in target shooting.

The book is organised into nine sections and over 50 deliberately short chapters. First the basics:
‰ Target Shooting Basics – introduces the different shooting disciplines available.
‰ Firearms and Shooting Equipment – covers the different rifles, handguns, shotguns, black
powder and airguns used by target shooters.

Then we look at the major shooting disciplines which I have grouped into:
‰ Target Rifle Disciplines – provides a short overview of each of the main target rifle disciplines,
such as Fullbore, Smallbore, High Power, Benchrest and Air Rifle.
‰ Target Pistol and Gallery Disciplines – covers target pistol shooting on so-called Gallery
ranges.
‰ Historic Arms Disciplines – introduces shooting with black powder and muzzleloader firearms.
‰ Military and Practical Disciplines – provides an introduction to disciplines involving service
weapons and military-style competitions.
‰ Field Sports Disciplines – as the name suggests, target disciplines based around field sports,
such as Clay Pigeon and Field Target (Air Rifle).

And finally we cover:
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Art of Shooting
‰ Shooting Techniques – introduces marksmanship with rifles, handguns, shotguns and airguns.
‰ Specialist Skills – a group of chapters introducing skills and knowledge, such as the correct
cleaning of firearms, handloading ammunition, and the selection and fitting of sights.

We have tried to keep each ‘chapter’ as short as possible, and provide references to further
information (especially on the Web). More importantly we provide contact details for each of the target
shooting disciplines. We hope you enjoy this handbook, and it helps you get the most from target
shooting.
Bisley Camp
Set in 3000 acres of Surrey heathland some 30 miles from Central London, Bisley has the unique
combination of one of the best, most modern, and largest arrangement of shooting facilities in the
world combined with colonial-style clubhouses. Bisley, apart from being able to offer a great variety of
shooting, has other advantages. It is the largest multi-discipline range complex in the world near a
major centre of population and has few restrictions such as those that now inhibit new ranges being
built in populated areas.

It is in large part a Victorian and Edwardian time warp. Nearly all the original buildings survive and a
recent massive restoration programme has put most of them in good order and to good use.
Relatively little has been built since 1914 to spoil the charm of the Camp; and such as may be built
hereafter must be in keeping with the older buildings now that the bulk of the Camp is formally
designated a Conservation Area.

The ranges laid out in 1890/91 are substantially similar to those of today. Stickledown (the long-
distance range) was extended from 24 to 40 targets in 1903 (later 50), and the greatest distance was
increased from 1100 to 1200 yards in 1910. Century was so named in 1903 when the Great Butt was
widened from 90 to 100 targets (now 108). These two very large ranges and the associated danger
areas provide a framework for the siting of smaller, specialist ranges, and have proved adaptable for
many new types of shooting disciplines which have evolved in the 100 years since they were
designed. Brand new formal Clay facilities were constructed and the Lord Roberts Centre was built
to house a Smallbore rifle range. On the 300m range it is now possible to shoot using the latest
electronic targetry.
Further Information
[1]. The National Shooting Centre (www.nsc-bisley.org.uk), National Rifle Association NRA-UK
(www.nra.org.uk) and National Smallbore Rifle Association NSRA (www.nsra.co.uk) web sites are
good places to find information on target shooting in the United Kingdom.
[2]. National Small Bore Rifle Association (NSRA), www.nsra.co.uk, the NSRA is the national
governing body for all Small-bore Rifle & Pistol Target Shooting in the United Kingdom,
including Airgun and Crossbow Shooting. A list of Smallbore clubs can be found at
www.nsra.co.uk/nsra/nsra_frame.htm
[3]. Clay Pigeon Shooting Association (CPSA), http://www.cpsa.co.uk/epromos.cfm, provides a list of
Clay Pigeon Associations throughout the UK, Europe, the Commonwealth and USA.
[4]. Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Britain (MLAGB), www.mlagb.com, the governing body for
muzzle loading shooting in the UK.
[5]. The UK Practical Shooting Association, www.ukpsa.co.uk, the UK region of the International
Practical Shooting Confederation.
[6]. The National Rifle Association of America NRA-USA (www.nra.org/programs.aspx) and the NRA
Headquarters (www.nrahq.org/compete/index.asp) web sites provide a wealth of information on
target shooting.
[7]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/, contains a number of excellent
articles on shooting disciplines, marksmanship and firearms technology.
Acknowledgements
I would like to take this opportunity to thank the NRA, NSRA, CPSA, MLAGB, UKPSA and the other
shooting organisations for there support in producing this Handbook. In particularly I am most grateful
to the many experts at Bisley who contributed their knowledge and advice to this book: Glynn Alger,
Jenny Andrews, Vince Bottomley, Carl Boswell, Alex Cargill Thompson, Mike Cherry, Mike Cripps,
Martin Crix, Roger Dorrington, Vanessa Duffy, Martin Farnan, Dave Froggett, Ken Garside, Ed Hall,
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Art of Shooting
Robb Harrison, Fred James, David Jennings, Geoffrey Kolbe, John Kynoch, Iain MacGregor,
Donald McIntosh, Graham McLellan; Bob Maddison, Lou Martin, Chris McVerry, David Minshall,
Paul Monaghan, John Morgan-Hosey, Charles Murton, Phil Northam, Terry Ord, Keith Paris, David Parish,
John Perry, Bill Richards, Iain Robertson, Karen Robertson, Ian Shirra-Gibb, Derek Simpson, Pete
Sparkes, David Spittles, Nick Steadman, Chris Stevenson, Clive Taylor, Frank Thibault, David
Thomas, Alan Vickers, Stephen Way, Alan Westlake, Graham Wilkes, Rae Wills, Brian Woodall.
Please contact me if I have missed anyone (p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk).
Screenshots, images and clip art
I would also like to thank the organisations and individuals acknowledged in the illustrations for
permission to reproduce screen shots, and images. Again, please contact me if I have missed anyone
(p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk).
Disclaimer
I have taken great care and effort to check all the information and advice in this handbook for
accuracy. However, given the comprehensive nature of the material, mistakes are inevitable. I regret
therefore, that I cannot be held responsible for any loss that you may suffer as a result of any
omissions or errors.

All profits from the Handbook will be donated to supporting British Shooting (NRA, NSRA, CPSA etc.).
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Art of Shooting
Contents
Part A – Target Shooting Basics
1
1. Target Shooting 2
2. Shooting Disciplines 6
3. Safety, Range Discipline and the Law 13
Part B – Firearms and Shooting Equipment
19
4. Rifles 21
5. Pistols 26
6. Shotguns 30
7. Cartridges and Bullets 35
8. Black Powder and Muzzleloaders 40
9. Airguns – pellets, BBs, Airsoft 46
10. Iron and Optical Sights 50
11. Clothing, Equipment and Accessories 56
Part C – Target Rifle Disciplines
60
12. Fullbore Target Rifle 62
13. High Power Rifle 65
14. Smallbore Target Rifle –Standard, 3 Position, Match 68
15. International 300m Rifle 70
16. F-Class Rifle 72
17. Benchrest Rifle 74
18. Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest 77
19. Match Rifle 80
20. Air Rifle – 10m and 3-Position 82
Part D – Target Pistol and Gallery Disciplines
84
21. Target Pistols – Free, Rapidfire, Standard, Centrefire 85
22. Bullseye Pistol or Conventional (3-gun) Pistol 89
23. Target Air Pistols – Single, Multi-shot 91
24. Gallery Rifle and Pistol 93
25. Long Range Pistol 95
Part E - Historic Arms Disciplines
97
26. Classic and Historic Arms 98
27. Muzzle Loading Rifles, Pistols, Shotguns 100
28. Black Powder Cartridge Rifles and Pistols 103
29. Cowboy Action Shooting 105
Part F – Military and Practical Disciplines
107
30. Practical Shooting – rifle, pistol, shotgun 109
31. Practical Rifle 111
32. Civilian Service Rifle 113
33. Fifty-Calibre (Long Range) Rifle 115
34. Practical Pistol and Air Pistol 117
35. Service Pistol 119
36. Iron Plate Action Shooting 121
37. Target and Practical Shotgun 123
38. Airsoft Rifles and Pistols 126
Part G – Field Sports Disciplines
128
39. Silhouette Rifle, Pistol and Shotgun 129
40. Sporting Rifle 132
41. Clay Pigeon Shooting 135
42. Field Target (Air Rifle) 138
43. Hunter Field Target (Air Rifle) 140
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Part H – Shooting Techniques
142
44. Rifle Marksmanship 144
45. Pistol Marksmanship 148
46. Shotgun Technique 152
47. Using Slings and Rests 155
48. Reading the Weather 158
49. Notebooks and Scorebooks 165
50. Physical and Mental Training 171
51. Shooter Fault Analysis 174
Part I – Specialist Skills
180
52. Firearm Stocks and Grips 182
53. Actions and Triggers 187
54. Firearm Barrels 192
55. Target Sights - selection and fitting 197
56. Zeroing a Rifle 203
57. Cleaning Rifles, Pistols, Shotguns and Airguns 206
58. Hand Loading Ammunition 213
59. Firearm Maintenance and Gunsmithing 218

Glossary 223

Target Shooting Associations and Organisations 233

Index 236


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Art of Shooting
Part A – Target Shooting
Basics
Summary
Every week thousands of people in the UK and millions worldwide ‘go’ target shooting. For the novice
big questions are how to get started and finding the shooting discipline that’s just right for you?

So this book is written for everyone who would like to take up the sport, it provides a crash course on
what shooting disciplines are available, appropriate firearm and equipment, how they work, how to get
started and most importantly how its both fun and safe.

Part A provides an overview of the different target shooting disciplines. It also covers the important
elements of safety and the Laws governing ownership and use of firearms.
Chapter 1 -Target Shooting
In chapter 1 we look at ‘getting started’ in target shooting, the types of firearms (rifle, handgun,
shotgun, black powder firearms, airguns), the shooting positions (prone, sitting, kneeling, standing,
moving and a mixture of stances), types of ranges (indoor, outdoor, covered, series of stages), and
types of target (static bull’s eye, silhouettes of animals, or moving targets).
Chapter 2 - Shooting Disciplines
This chapter look at each of the Shooting Disciplines you can pursue in the United Kingdom, and
some additional disciplines that are popular in America, such as High Power Rifle and semi-automatic
Pistol Shooting. Since many of the Shooting Disciplines use similar rifles, shooting positions and
ranges, I have made an attempt to group them by style of shooting discipline.
Chapter 3 - Safety, Range Discipline and the Law
Shooting has an enviable safety record. Next we look at basic shooting safety rules, Club
membership, Range safety and the UK and USA firearms laws.



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 1
Target Shooting
Every week thousands of people in the UK and millions worldwide ‘go’ shooting. As an indication of
the popularity, the International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) claims to represent more than 75
million shooters worldwide.

And many thousands more would love to join them but don’t know where to start. From Fullbore and
High Power rifle shooting at 600 yards to air pistol at 10 metres; from muzzleloaders using black
powder to clay pigeon shooting. What’s available, how do you find the shooting discipline that’s right
for you, what’s the right firearm and equipment, how do you legally purchase a firearm, how do you
expertly clean it and so on? For a novice, finding the information can be a real challenge. So I and my
friends in British shooting have put together this handbook as ‘primer’ for the new shooter.

When choosing a target shooting discipline, a good starting point is to ask yourself what firearms you
will enjoy shooting? Below (left) is a target rifle. If Smallbore then it fires a .22LR round, and if Fullbore
it fires a 7.62x51mm (NATO) round, highly accurate to over 1000 yards (900m). Figure 1.1b shows a
WWII service rifle, also effective out to 1,000 yards. Next is a top of the range 12-bore (gauge) over &
under shotgun for clay pigeon shooting. Finally we have a high-tech compressed air .177 calibre
single shot air pistol capable of shooting 1 inch (2.5cm) groups at 10m.

Which is your shooting passion?



a) Target Rifle b) Service Rifle c) Over & Under Shotgun d) Target Air Pistol
Figure 1.1: Passion for Target Shooting
1.1 Getting Started
So what do you do if you have never handled a firearm, but are eager to have a go at target shooting?
Obviously it helps if you have a good idea of what you want to do: target rifle, historic arms, military
rifles, Gallery shooting with a rifle or pistol, field sports disciplines, black powder or airgun.
1.2 What’s Right for You?
Simplistically, shooting disciplines can be grouped: a) by type of firearm, b) by shooting position, c) by
type of range and d) by type of target:
‰ Type of Firearm – rifle, pistol, shotgun, black powder firearm, or airgun.
‰ Shooting Position – shooting prone, sitting, kneeling, standing (or offhand), moving, and a
mixture of stances.
‰ Type of Range – indoor range, outdoor range, covered firing point, or a series of stages (or
courses of fire).
‰ Type of Target – static bullseye targets, silhouettes of animals, or moving targets.

We will look at each of these in turn.
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Art of Shooting
Type of Firearm
What firearms do you want to shoot? Target rifles with iron or telescopic sights; historic or modern
semi-automatic military riles; single shot pistols, revolvers and semi-automatic pistols; over-and-
under, side-by-side or semi-automatic shotguns; muzzleloaders and black powder rifles, pistols and
shotguns, air rifles or pistols, or so-called Airsoft replicas of modern firearms. The great thing about
target shooting is the galaxy of firearms available.
Shooting Position or Stance
The next choice is shooting position or stance: prone, sitting, kneeling, moving around a course of fire
or series of stages, and disciplines that involve shooting in a variety of stances. For example, Fullbore
and Smallbore target shooting is typically shot prone, Gallery Rifle and Clay Pigeon is shot standing,
and Field Target (Air Rifle) is shot in a variety of stances, moving around a course of fire.

a) Prone b) Sitting c) Kneeling d) Standing e) Moving
Figure 1.2: Shooting Positions
Type of Range
Ranges come in a variety of configuration, the most common being indoor ranges from 10m to 25m
from the firing point to the target; outdoor ranges with covered firing points from 25 yards to 100 yards
(25m-100m); outdoor ranges from 300 to over 1200 yards (270m-1100m); and courses of fire that
simulate military or hunting situations, which can be outdoors or indoors.





Figure 1.3 shows a typical outdoor range layout,
comprising the raised firing point, mantlet, target and
butt to stop the bullet after it has passed through the
target. In Fullbore shooting where the targets are
pulled down, scored by a human marker, then run
up again for the next shot, the mantlet also provides
protection for the marker.
a) Indoor b) Covered Firing Point c) Outdoor d) Course of Fire
Figure 1.4: Types of Ranges

Figure 1.3: Range Layout
Type of Target
Finally we come to the types of target. They range from the traditional static ‘bullseye’ target; to static
silhouettes of animals and humans; to ‘knock-down’ targets in the shape of animals; to moving targets
in the shape of animals that move across the range on a trolley; and lastly the well-known clay pigeon
propelled into the air by a throwing device.
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a) Bullseye b) Disruptive c) Knock-down d) Running Target e) Clay Pigeon
Figure 1.5: Types of Target
1.3 Joining a Shooting Club
Having decided to take up shooting and chosen your shooting discipline, the next challenge is finding
out what clubs are available in your area. At a national level a good starting point is one of the
national shooting organisations, such the UK National Rifle Association (www.nra.org.uk), the UK
National Smallbore Rifle Association (www.nsra.co.uk), the British International Clay Target Shooting
Federation (www.bictsf.com), the Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Briton (www.mlagb.com), or the
equivalent national associations in other countries, such as National Rifle Associations of America
(www.nra.org) or Australia (www.nraa.org). All national associations provide courses and can put you in
touch with a local club. In addition, many of the larger shooting centres, such as Bisley [4], hold open
days when you can try a range of different shooting disciplines, and see which is right for you.

The web is obviously a good place to find details of both national associations and local clubs. Below
I’ve listed the contact details for the main shooting bodies in the UK, and further contact details can be
found in the chapters on specific shooting disciplines.
1.4 Further Information
[1]. Shooting Wiki, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/shooting and www.shootingwiki.org, two extensive web sites
cover all aspects of shooting.
[2]. Target Shooting Canada, www.targetshooting.ca, comprehensive Canadian web site on all
aspects of target shooting.
[3]. Target Shooting Magazine, UK magazine dedicated to Target Shooting.
[4]. National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom (NRA-UK), www.nra.org.uk, the NRA-UK is the
national governing body for Fullbore rifle shooting in the United Kingdom. The tab ‘Clubs’
gives an extensive list of UK shooting clubs.
[5]. National Small Bore Rifle Association (NSRA), www.nsra.co.uk, the NSRA is the national
governing body for all Small-bore Rifle & Pistol Target Shooting in the United Kingdom,
including Airgun and Crossbow Shooting. A list of Smallbore clubs can be found at
www.nsra.co.uk/nsra/nsra_frame.htm
[6]. Clay Pigeon Shooting Association (CPSA), http://www.cpsa.co.uk/epromos.cfm, provides a list of
Clay Pigeon Associations throughout the UK, Europe, the Commonwealth and USA.
[7]. National Rifle Association of America (NRA-USA), www.nra.org, Official National Rifle
Association of America.
[8]. International Shooting Sport Federation, www.issf-shooting.org, governing body of international
shooting sports.
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1.5 Contacts
The three principal associations in the UK are the National Rifle Association (NRA-UK), the National
Smallbore Rifle Association (NSRA) and the British International Clay Target Shooting Association. In
Ireland a principal association is the National Target Association of Ireland. A comprehensive list of
target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation British Shooting Limited
Telephone +44-1483-486948
Address Edmonton House, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email admin@britishshooting.org.uk
Web site www.britishshooting.org.uk
Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK
Telephone 01483 797777
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0PB
Email info@nra.org.uk
Web site www.nra.org.uk
Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association
Telephone 01483 485505
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email info@nsra.co.uk
Web site www.nsra.co.uk
Organisation British International Clay Target Shooting Federation
Telephone 01483 485400
Address BICTSF, PO Box 1500, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey. GU24 0NP
Email secretary@bictsf.com
Web site www.bictsf.com

Organisation Muzzle Loaders Association of GB (MLAGB)
Telephone 01926 458198
Address MLAGB, 7 Olympus Court, Tachbrook Park, Warwick CV34 6RZ
Email membership@mlagb.com
Web site www.mlagb.com
Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association
Telephone 07010 703845
Address PO Box 7057, Preston, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 4EN
Email alan@mediainc.co.uk
Web site www.ukpsa.co.uk
Organisation British Field Target Association
Address BFTA, P.O Box 2242, Reading, Berks RG7 5YY
Email Secretary@BFTA.net
Web site www.bfta.net
Organisation The British Sporting Rifle Club (BSRC)
Address c/o NRA, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey. GU24 0PB
Email secretary@bsrc.co.uk
Web site www.bsrc.co.uk

Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland
Telephone00 866 504 9073
Address PO Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland
Web site www.targetshootingireland.org
Organisation Shooting Sports Association of Ireland
Telephone087 900 7501
Address PO Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland
Email SSAI@eircom.net
Web site www.shootingsportsireland.com
Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland
Address NRA of Ireland, Leabeg, Blueball, Tullamore, Co Offaly, Ireland
Email info@nrai.ie
Web site www.nrai.ie
Organisation Irish Clay Pigeon Shooting Association
Telephone 00 353 (0)87 2988030
Address Suite 20A, The Mall, Beacon Court, Sandyford, Dublin 18, Ireland
Email icpsa@eircom.net
Web site www.icpsa.ie
Organisation Irish Practical Shooting Association
Address I.P.S.A. c/o Fitzgerald Kitchens, Bective Street, Kells, Co. Meath.
Email pro@ipscireland.org
Web site www.ipscireland.org
Organisation The National Silhouette Association Ireland
Address NSA, P.O. Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland.
Email silhouetteireland@eircom.net
Web site http://homepage.eircom.net/~ntsai/nsai.html

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Art of Shooting
Chapter 2
Shooting Disciplines
This chapter looks at the popular Shooting Disciplines (or to give them their ISSF name, Events) that
you can pursue in the United Kingdom, such as Fullbore and Smallbore, and America, such as
Highpower Rifle and Practical Pistol shooting. Since many of the Shooting Disciplines use similar
rifles, shooting positions and ranges, I have made an attempt to group them by style of shooting
discipline.

As introduced in Chapter 1, shooting disciplines are differentiated by:
‰ Type of Firearm – rifle, pistol, shotgun, black powder firearm, or airgun.
‰ Shooting Position – shooting prone, sitting, kneeling, standing, moving and a mixture of stances.
‰ Type of Range – indoor range, outdoor range, covered firing point, or series of stages (or
courses of fire).
‰ Type of Target – static bullseye targets, silhouettes of animals, or moving targets.
2.1 Target Rifle Disciplines
Target rifle disciplines are shot with specialist bolt-action target rifles lying down in the prone position.
As illustrated by Figure 2.1, rifles are either single-shot or bolt action magazine rifles, with iron sights
or telescopic sights, and supported by a sling, a rest or a bipod. Rifles are Fullbore (e.g. firing
centrefire cartridges 7.62, 5.56 and 6mm calibre etc.), Smallbore (e.g. .22LR) or Target Air Rifle (e.g.
.177 calibre).

Ranges can be outdoors from
300-1200 yards (270-1100m), or
indoors for Smallbore and Air
Rifle. This also encompasses
shooting disciplines such as F-
Class and Benchrest that use telescopic sights and rests, because they share the same ranges and
similar rifles.


a) Single-shot, iron sights b) Magazine, telescopic sights
Figure 2.1: Target Rifle (RPA)
Fullbore Target Rifle
Fullbore Target Rifle (TR) involves prone single-shot precision
shooting using iron (aperture) sights at round bullseye targets at
distances from 300 to 1200 yards (270-1100m), with each shot
carefully scored and analysed. The usual calibre is 7.62mm.
High Power Rifle
High Power shooting comprises: a) Match rifles - custom-made
bolt action, magazine rifles; and b) Service rifles - generally
unmodified M1, M14, M16 or AR15. Shooting is done with iron
(aperture), or iron peep sights. A typical competition comprises
3-4 courses of fire each of twenty shots at distances of 200, 300, and 600 yards, shot standing,
seated and prone, respectively.

Figure 2.2: Prone Target shooting
Smallbore Target Rifle
Smallbore Rifle shooting is carried out using precision .22 rimfire rifles specially designed for target
shooting. They are single-shot and use iron (aperture) sights, shooting at distances of 15, 20, 25, 50
and 100 yards. The International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) recognises two international
competitions: a) Prone – competitions comprise 60 shots prone at 50m, and b) 3 Position –
competitions comprise 3 x 40 shots (Men), 3 x 20 shots (Women) shot prone, standing and kneeling
at 50m.
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International 300m Rifle
The International 300m Rifle discipline is fired at only one distance (i.e. 300 metres), but the rifle may
be 'Standard' or 'Free' and in any calibre up to 8mm. Matches may be prone only, or prone, standing
and kneeling (PSK), and are shot from a covered firing point.
F-Class Rifle
F ('Farquarson') Class, or F-Class is shot prone with any Fullbore target rifle, but shooters can use a
variety of aids, such as telescopic sights, bipods, front-rests and sandbags, and any calibre of
ammunition up to 8mm.
Benchrest Rifle
Benchrest shooting is a sport in which very accurate rifles are shot at targets from a bench with rests,
and from a position seated on a stool. Shooters typically use single shot custom rifles with heavy
stainless steel barrels, and handmade stocks of graphite, fibreglass, or carbon fibre. Popular
ammunition is the 6mm PPC and the Remington BR line of cartridges.
Match Rifle
Match Rifle it is usually fired with the 7.62mm cartridge, at long distances from 1000 to 1200 yards
(914-1100m), and is popular with UK and Commonwealth shooters. Telescopic sights and hand
loaded ammunition are used, and the specification for rifles and the firing positions allowed are more
open than Target Rifle. Whilst the majority of shooters shoot prone, a few still adopt the 'supine'
position, reclining on their backs, feet pointing towards the target.
Target Air Rifle
Match Air Rifle is a highly popular discipline worldwide, being governed by the International Shooting
Sports Federation and included in the Olympics. The Air Rifle competition is shot at 10m from the
standing unsupported position and consists of 60 shots in 1 hr 45 mins for men, possible score - 600,
and 40 shots in 1 hr 15 min for women, possible score - 400.
2.2 Target Pistol and Gallery Disciplines
Gallery shooting disciplines are shot on indoor or
covered ranges using pistols and rifles firing ‘pistol’
calibre cartridges (e.g. .22LR or .357 calibre). The
targets are usually static bullseye targets at 25m and
50m.
Pistols – Free, Rapidfire, Standard, Centrefire
The International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF)
recognises four pistol disciplines, referred to as: a) Free
– competitions comprise 60 shots fired with .22LR single
shot pistols in the standing position at a target 50 metres
away.; b) Rapidfire - competition are fired with .22 five
shot pistols, and consist of a series of five shots fired at
five targets at 25 metres; c) Standard – competitions use semi-automatic .22 pistols and comprise a
60-shot match into 5-shot strings with different timings, shots at 25 metres; and d) Centrefire –
competitors typically use semi-automatic .32 calibre pistols with competitions comprising two rounds
each of 30 shots and shot at 25 metres.

Figure 2.3: Target Pistol and Gallery
Air Pistols – Single, Multi-shot
For Air Pistols, the ISSF recognises four competitions: 10m Air Pistol Men (60 shots), 10m Air Pistol
Women (40 shots), 10m Standard Air Pistol and 10m Rapid Fire Air Pistol. All are shot in the standing
position and single handed, with 4.5mm (.177”) calibre pistols propelled by gas (usually compressed
air or CO2).
Bullseye Pistol
Bullseye, three-gun or conventional pistol shooting, hugely popular in the United States, comprises a
“3-gun aggregate”, fired with a .22 rimfire, a centrefire, and a .45 calibre at paper targets at fixed
distances and within time limits. However, most competitors use their .45 pistol both for the ‘open’
centrefire and .45 stages.
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Gallery Rifle and Pistol
Gallery rifles are usually lever action or bolt-action carbines firing pistol ammunition, such as .22LR,
.357, .38, 9mm, or .45 calibres. Rimfire carbines are often autoloaders with a rotary 10-shot
magazine. Lever action rifles typically incorporate a 10-shot tubular magazine underneath the barrel.
Although pistols are largely banned in the UK, it is possible to own and shoot gallery or long barrel
pistols, as well as historic (called Section 7) pistols.
2.3 Historic Arms Disciplines
Historic arms disciplines – as the name suggests – shoot ‘old’ or replica firearms; especially
muzzleloaders and black powder cartridge firearms. Rifles are shot on outdoor ranges, pistols on
indoor ranges and shotguns on outdoor ranges.
Classic and Historic Arms
The Classic and Historic Arms group is dedicated to those with
an interest in historic rifles with particular reference to British,
Commonwealth and other significant Military Miniature Calibre
Training and Target Rifles, such as those manufactured by
Lee-Enfield and BSA.
Muzzle Loading Rifle and Pistol
Muzzleloading, black powder firearms (muskets, rifles, pistols
and shotguns) cover any firearm into which the bullet is loaded
from the muzzle of the gun. Shooting competitions range from 25 yards for pistols to over 1000 yards
(23-915m) for rifles.

Figure 2.4: Historic Arms Disciplines
Black Powder Cartridge Rifles and Pistols
Shooting is conducted with a) original period rifles, b) replicas and c) modern purpose-designed rifles
and pistols at distances up to 600 yards (550m). With rifling, specialist rifles in .451" calibre shoot well
out to 1000 yards (915m).
Cowboy Action Shooting
Cowboy Action Shooting (CAS) uses four firearms: two revolvers, a lever action rifle and a double
barrel shotgun. CAS requires competitors to use firearms typical of the mid- to late 19th century
including single action revolvers, lever action rifles (chambered in pistol calibres) and side-by-side
double barrel shotguns (e.g. with external hammers).
2.4 Military and Practical Disciplines
The Military Rifle disciplines shoot civilian equivalents of modern service rifles such as the M16 (firing
5.56mm calibre cartridge) or various sniper-type rifles (firing the 7.62x51mm calibre), and
competitions as you might expect are military or law enforcement inspired. Practical, defensive and
service pistol competitions are broadly the same, but regulated by different national bodies.
Practical 3-Gun Shooting – rifle, pistol, shotgun
Practical 3-gun shooting is highly popular in the United States, and involves shooting a rifle, pistol and
pump-action shotgun on a simulated military or law enforcement
course of fire (called stages).

Figure 2.5: Military Rifle Disciplines
Practical Rifle
Practical rifle shooters use civilian versions of modern service
rifles, such as a 5.56 calibre AR15, with competitions involving a
course of fire. To compete competitively a telescopic sight and
large capacity magazines are a requirement (20 rounds is the
norm although 10 rounds will suffice at a pinch).
Civilian Service Rifle
Civilian Service Rifle is a shooting discipline that involves the use of rifles that are used by military
forces and law-enforcement agencies, both past and present use. These include ex-military rifles,
sniper rifles (both past and present) and civilian versions of current use service rifles.
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Practical Pistol and Air Pistol
Practical Pistol involves cartridge pistols, air pistols and Airsoft, with competitors shooting a simulated
military or law-enforcement course of fire. Competitors use a magazine fed pistol or revolver capable
of firing multiple shots before reloading. Due to the pistol ban in the UK (except Northern Ireland), the
majority of pistols used for PP are CO2 powered, or air cartridge revolvers. The standard calibre is
.177 but .22 is allowed.
Service Pistol
A service pistol is any pistol (revolver, or semi-automatic) issued to military personnel, or in some
contexts, law enforcement officers. Service Pistol typically involves competitions between serving
military personnel, recent personal and (where the Law allows) civilian enthusiasts. Shooting is often
done on Military ranges.
Target and Practical Shotgun
Target and Practical Shotgun involves competitors shooting self-loading or pump action shotguns with
magazines containing 7-14 rounds at steel plates, ‘shoot/no-shoot’ targets, ‘pepper poppers’ and
paper targets.
Airsoft Rifle and Pistol
Airsoft is a shooting discipline in which players participate in simulated military or law enforcement-
style combat using replicas (in appearance only) of real firearms firing small pellets. Airsoft guns (also
known as Soft Air guns) are spring, electric, or gas powered air guns that fire small spherical plastic
pellets of either 6 mm or 8 mm diameter (0.24 or 0.32 inches).
2.5 Field Sports Disciplines
Field Sports disciplines simulate static and moving targets found in traditional field sports, such as fox,
buck or boar. Moving target disciplines include Running Boar and Running Deer shot with Smallbore
and Fullbore rifles, respectively; and the enormously popular Clay Pigeon shooting. Shooting static
‘game’ targets includes Silhouette, popular in the United States, and Field Target shot with Air Rifles.
Silhouette Rifle, Pistol and Shotgun
Silhouette shooting comprises shooting at heavy metal targets of chickens, pigs, turkeys and rams,
with the aim of knocking them over, using either rifles, pistols or shotguns.
Sporting Rifle
Popular with field sports shooters, the rifles used must be in the style of a ‘sporting rifle’ rather than
that of a target, match or military rifle. It encompasses: a) static targets (e.g. fox, buck) that are shot
prone, sitting, kneeling, standing and from the bench, and b) moving mechanical targets (e.g. deer,
boar) that are shot standing.
Clay Pigeon Shooting
Clay pigeon shooting is the art of shooting flying targets (i.e.
clays) with a shotgun. Formal Clay shooting consists of a
number of disciplines, such as Trap and Skeet. Trap shooting
has targets fired away from the participant at different angles as
well as different heights. Skeet involves shooting at targets fired
horizontally from a low and high house both as singles and pairs.
Each round consists of 25 targets.
Field Target (Air Rifle)
Field target shooting – shot with highly accurate air rifles –
combines the outdoor field conditions of rough shooting, with the
precision of target shooting. A typical course is laid out, outdoors
with a route to walk and at set intervals are shooting points with
a knockdown target (cf. Silhouette Shooting) at any distance from 7.5 metres to 55 metres.

Figure 2.6: Field Sports Disciplines


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2.6 International Shooting Disciplines
The International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) recognizes several shooting events (see Figure
2.7), some of which have Olympic status.
Examples of the ISSF and Olympic competitions are shown below.
ISSF Olympic
Event Competition Men Women Men Women
Rifle
10m Air Rifle 60 shots (M), 40 shots (W) standing 9 9 9 9
50m Rifle prone 60 shots prone 9 9 9
50m Rifle 3 position (free rifle) 3 x 40 shots (M) and 3 x 20 shots (W) prone,
standing, kneeling
9 9 9 9
300m Rifle 3 position (free rifle) 3 x 40 shots (M), 3 x 20 shots (W) prone,
standing, kneeling
9 9
300m Rifle prone 60 shots prone 9 9
300m Rifle standard 3 x 20 shots prone, standing, kneeling 9
300m Army Rifle 9
Running Targets
10m Running Target 30 slow, 30 fast (M), 20 slow, 20 fast (W) 9 9
10m Running Target Mixed 40 shots mixed 9 9
50m Running Target 30 shots slow, 30 shots fast 9
50m Running Target Mixed 40 shots mixed 9
Pistol
10m Air Pistol 60 shots (M), 40 shots (W) 9 9 9 9
10m Standard Air Pistol 40 shots (M), 30 shots (W) 5 taken in 10 secs 9 9 9 9
10m Rapid Fire Air Pistol 60 shots fired in two so-called half courses 9 9 9 9
25m Pistol (sporting pistol) 30 + 30 shots 9 9
25m Centre-Fire Pistol 30 + 30 shots 9
25m Standard Pistol 3 x 20 shots 9
25m Rapid Fire Pistol 60 shots 9 9
50m Pistol (free pistol) 60 shots 9 9
Shotgun
Trap 125 targets (M), 75 targets (W) 9 9 9 9
Skeet 125 targets (M), 75 targets (W) 9 9 9 9
Double Trap 150 targets (M), 120 targets (W) 9 9 9
Automatics Trap 125 targets (M), 75 targets (W) 9 9
Figure 2.7: International Shooting Sports Federation Disciplines
Rifle
In the rifle events competitors shoot at 10-ring targets.
‰ 10m Air Rifle – shots are fired in the standing position at a target 10 meters away with a .177 air
rifle.
‰ 50m Rifle 3-Position - The shooter fires three rounds of 40 shots (.22LR) each in the prone,
kneeling and standing positions at a target 50 meters away.
‰ 50m Rifle Prone (men only) - Sixty shots (.22LR) are fired in the prone position at a target 50
meters away.
Running Target
The running target event involves a ‘slow run’ and a ‘fast run’.
‰ 10m Running Target (men only) – two rounds of 30 shots are fired in the standing position,
unsupported, at a target 10 meters away with a .177 air rifle.
Pistol
In the pistol events, competitors fire at a 10-ring target, holding and firing the pistol with one hand.
Examples include:
‰ 10m Air Pistol – the four competitions (Air Pistol Men & Women, Standard and Rapid Fire) are
shot single-handed, in the standing position at a distance of 10 meters. For example, with Air
Pistol the men’s competition comprises 60 shots in 105 minutes and women’s 40 shots in 75
minutes.
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‰ 25m Sports Pistol (women only) – A competition consists of 30 precision shots and 30 rapid fire
shots. At a distance of 25 meters, a centre of 50 mm must be hit in the so-called precision semi-
round. The pistols are 5-shot semi-automatics in .22 Short calibre.
‰ 25m Centre Fire Pistol (men only) – A competition consists of two rounds of 30 shots each. The
pistols are 5-shot semi-automatics in .32 S&W Long calibre.
‰ 50m Free Pistol (men only) - Sixty shots (.22LR) are fired in the standing position at a target 50
meters away.
Shotgun
Clay pigeon shooting competitions comprise:
‰ Trap – competitors move through five adjacent shooting stations, each comprising three traps set
at different heights and angles, with the shooter not knowing which of the traps will release. As
each target is released the shooter is allowed two shots.
‰ Skeet – In the skeet event, two targets are released from separate trap houses at either end of a
semicircle. The course of fire consists of either ‘singles’ - a single target is thrown from either
house; or ‘doubles’ - consisting of two targets thrown simultaneously, one from each house.
Competitors move through a semi-circular range featuring eight adjacent shooting stations.
‰ Double Trap - In the double trap, two targets are released simultaneously at different heights and
angles from the centre bank of traps. The targets come off any of the three traps, ranging in
height from 3 to 3 1 metres, and the shooter fires one shot at each target.

For a more complete description of Olympic shooting see (www.targetshooting.ca/olympic.htm). Other
Olympic events involving shooting are the Biathlon, Pentathlon and Paralympics shooting.
Modern Pentathlon
The Modern Pentathlon involves 10m air pistol shooting, together with fencing, horseback riding,
running and swimming competitions.
Disabled (Paralympics) Shooting
Shooting is a Paralympics sport for persons with locomotor disabilities. Competitions are open to all
athletes with a physical disability [3]. Athletes use .22 calibre rifles and air guns (pneumatic, CO2 gas
or spring). Athletes compete in rifle and pistol events from distances of 10, 25 and 50 metres, in
men's, women's and mixed competitions. There are only two primary classifications in shooting sports
(SH1 and SH2). The SH1 levels are for shooters who do not require a rifle support stand. The SH2
classification levels are for shooters who do require a rifle support stand.
2.7 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shooting_sports, introduction to shooting
sports.
[2]. Shooting Wiki, www.shootingwiki.org, the web site cover all ISSF / Olympic Shooting Disciplines
[3]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paralympic_shooting, introduction to
Paralympics shooting sports.
[4]. National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom (NRA-UK), www.nra.org.uk, the NRA-UK is the
national governing body for Fullbore rifle shooting in the United Kingdom. The tab ‘Clubs’
gives an extensive list of UK shooting clubs.
[5]. National Small Bore Rifle Association (NSRA), www.nsra.co.uk, the NSRA is the national
governing body for all Small-bore Rifle & Pistol Target Shooting in the United Kingdom,
including Airgun and Crossbow Shooting. A list of Smallbore clubs can be found at
www.nsra.co.uk/nsra/nsra_frame.htm
[6]. Clay Pigeon Shooting Association (CPSA), http://www.cpsa.co.uk/epromos.cfm, provides a list of
Clay Pigeon Associations throughout the UK, Europe, the Commonwealth and USA.
[7]. National Rifle Association of America (NRA-USA), www.nra.org, official National Rifle
Association of America.
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[8]. International Shooting Sport Federation, www.issf-shooting.org, the governing body of
international shooting sports.
2.8 Contacts
The three principal associations in the UK are the National Rifle Association (NRA-UK), the National
Smallbore Rifle Association (NSRA) and the British International Clay Target Shooting Association. In
Ireland the principal association is the National Target Association of Ireland. A comprehensive list of
target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation British Shooting Limited
Telephone +44-1483-486948
Address Edmonton House, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, , Surrey GU24 0NP
Email admin@britishshooting.org.uk
Web site www.britishshooting.org.uk
Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK
Telephone 01483 797777
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0PB
Email info@nra.org.uk
Web site www.nra.org.uk
Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association
Telephone 01483 485505
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email info@nsra.co.uk
Web site www.nsra.co.uk
Organisation British International Clay Target Shooting Federation
Telephone 01483 485400
Address BICTSF, PO Box 1500, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey. GU24 0NP
Email secretary@bictsf.com
Web site www.bictsf.com
Organisation Muzzle Loaders Association of GB (MLAGB)
Telephone 01926 458198
Address MLAGB, 7 Olympus Court, Tachbrook Park, Warwick CV34 6RZ
Email membership@mlagb.com
Web site www.mlagb.com
Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association
Telephone 07010 703845
Address UKPSA, PO Box 7057, Preston, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 4EN
Email alan@mediainc.co.uk
Web site www.ukpsa.co.uk
Organisation British Field Target Association
Address BFTA, P.O Box 2242, Reading, Berks RG7 5YY
Email Secretary@BFTA.net
Web site www.bfta.net
Organisation The British Sporting Rifle Club (BSRC)
Address c/o NRA, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey. GU24 0PB
Email secretary@bsrc.co.uk
Web site www.bsrc.co.uk

Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland
Telephone 00 866 504 9073
Address PO Box 9, Blackrock, Co.Dublin, Ireland
Web site www.targetshootingireland.org
Organisation Shooting Sports Association of Ireland
Telephone 087 900 7501
Address PO Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland
Email SSAI@eircom.net
Web site www.shootingsportsireland.com
Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland
Address NRA of Ireland, Leabeg, Blueball, Tullamore, Co Offaly, Ireland
Email info@nrai.ie
Web site www.nrai.ie
Organisation Irish Clay Pigeon Shooting Association
Telephone 00 353 (0)87 2988030
Address Suite 20A, The Mall, Beacon Court, Sandyford, Dublin 18, Ireland
Email icpsa@eircom.net
Web site www.icpsa.ie
Organisation Irish Practical Shooting Association
Address I.P.S.A. c/o Fitzgerald Kitchens, Bective Street, Kells, Co. Meath.
Email pro@ipscireland.org
Web site www.ipscireland.org
Organisation The National Silhouette Association Ireland
Address NSA, P.O.Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland.
Email silhouetteireland@eircom.net
Web site http://homepage.eircom.net/~ntsai/nsai.html

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Chapter 3
Safety, Range Discipline and The Law
Shooting has an enviable safety record and everyone works hard to maintain that record.
3.1 Basic Safety Rules
There are a number of standard safety rules, mostly fairly obvious, which must be adhered to whether
using a rifle, pistol, shotgun or airgun. These include always assuming the firearm is loaded, never
pointing it at anyone, and ensuring the firearm is held horizontally, pointing down range, when loading
a round. To summarise:
‰ Handling a firearm - always assume every firearm is loaded until you have proved otherwise,
and prove that a firearm is unloaded before passing it to someone, or when receiving it.
‰ Unloaded – firearms should be unloaded when not in use, and should have a breech flag
inserted (where possible) or in the case of bolt action rifles have the bolt removed (or both).
‰ Barrel – before firing check the barrel is free of obstructions, preferably by looking up the barrel
from the breech end.
‰ Calibre – always check that the calibre of the firearm and the calibre of the ammunition match
exactly. Clearly 7.62x51 (NATO) is different from 7.62x39 (Russian). Although 7.62 NATO and
.308 Win firearms are considered equivalent, 7.62 firearms are engineered for higher powder
pressures.
‰ Firing Point – you should enter a range from directly behind the firing point, and never cross a
range unless you have confirmed with Range Control that it is safe to do so. You should alert
other shooters (by shouting “Stop, Stop, Stop”) if any person or animal enters the danger area.
‰ Muzzle control – always keep the firearm pointing down range in a safe direction, and you must
never point a firearm at any other person or at your self.
‰ Loading – when loading a round into the chamber, ensure the muzzle is pointing down range and
the barrel is horizontal. This is so that if there is a negligent discharge, the bullet will be contained
by the stop butt or within the Range Danger Area. (Obviously Black Powder firearms are loaded in
a vertical position.)
‰ Trigger finger – always keep your finger off the trigger until ready to fire. Putting your finger in
the trigger guard is a dangerous practice since your finger may accidentally touch the trigger
causing a negligent discharge.
‰ Target – make sure you positively identify your target, and equally important what lies in front and
behind it, before firing.
‰ Misfires – if the round fails to fire when you operate the trigger this may be due to a ‘hang fire’
where the powder in the case has not ignited immediately. It is essential that the firearm
continues to point down range for at least 30 seconds. You must then inform the Range
Conducting Officer (RCO) and carry out the ‘Misfire Unload Drill’ under his supervision. If in any
doubt ask for assistance in removing the round.

If you break any of these rules you may expect, at the very least, to be reprimanded by the RCO or
other more experienced shooters. In serious cases you may be asked to leave the range and
disciplinary action may be taken.
3.2 Club Membership
To take up target shooting, you normally need to join an officially approved club; in the UK a Home
Office Approved Club. If you have already decided on what shooting discipline is of interest to you the
appropriate National Governing Body will be able to advise you on your nearest shooting club for that
discipline.

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In most countries, including the UK, clubs must follow a formal probationary membership procedure to
ensure you are properly trained and more importantly safe to use a firearm.
‰ Probationary Club Membership - you start as a Probationary Member and follow a Probationary
Course that covers range and safety procedures, firing a firearm, and club rules. This is to ensure
you are both properly trained in range safety and are also safe and responsible in the handling of
firearms. In the UK, this probationary period will last for a minimum period of three months
(though many clubs have longer probationary periods of up to a year). When you apply to join the
club your name and address will be forwarded to your local (UK) police who will check if there are
any reasons why you should not be entrusted with firearms. Once full club membership has been
granted you may apply for a Firearms or Shotgun Certificate.
‰ Club’s Firearms & Ammunition – whilst a Probationary Member you will be able to use the
Club’s firearms and ammunition under supervision, but it goes without saying that you can’t
remove them from the range. Once you become a full Member, you can continue to use the
Club’s firearms and ammunition, or those belonging to other members of the Club, until you have
obtained the necessary certificate to purchase your own firearm.
‰ Applying for a Firearm or Shotgun Certificate – to possess a rifle, shotgun, muzzle loading or
front loading revolver or certain types of cartridge revolvers in the UK requires a certificate from
the local police, one requirement being that you are an active full member of a designated
shooting club (or you have permission to shoot on suitable land). However, airguns up to a
designated muzzle energy (12 ft-lb for rifles, 6 ft-lb for pistols) can be purchased without a
certificate so they are a good starting point, if you have never shot before.
‰ Keeping up Membership – once you have obtained a firearm or shotgun certificate, the (UK)
police will check that you are an active member of the club. Clubs are therefore required by law to
keep records of every time you shoot. Some police forces stipulate a minimum number of times
they expect you to shoot each year to continue to have ‘good reason’ for the possession of the
firearm(s) concerned.
‰ Club Visitors – if you (or a friend) are a full member of a Home Office Approved shooting club or
have a firearm certificate, then you can (with permission) shoot at another club’s range. If a friend
or relative does not have club membership or the required certificate, then for:
ƒ Rifles – for centrefire rifles, before shooting the Club Secretary needs to apply to the local
police for permission for the named individual to shoot at a designated time and then under
supervision of a qualified RCO. This will then be considered a ‘one-man Guest Day’ and will
count as one of the 12 Guest Days each Club are entitled to hold each year.
ƒ Pistols - similar arrangements cannot be made for long barrelled revolvers or long range
revolvers since these may only be used by the person whose name is on the FAC. The only
type of pistol which may therefore be used on such a Guest Day would be muzzle loading or
Front Loading pistol.
ƒ Shotguns – for standard shotguns, friends and relations can shoot under supervision of a
qualified person without application to the police.
ƒ Airguns – since a license is not required to shoot an airgun under the designated muzzle
energy, you can let friends and relations shoot, but as a courtesy you should discuss this with
the Club officials before shooting.
3.3 Range Safety
In the interest of safety all (rifle and pistol) shooting ranges are formally designated for the permissible
muzzle velocities and muzzle energies that may be used, and when in use a trained officer – the
Range Conducting Officer (RCO) – must conduct all firing practices to ensure safety procedures are
being followed. The following is a summary:
‰ Muzzle Velocities and Muzzle Energies - each range of each type (Indoor, Outdoor, Smallbore,
and Fullbore) has a set of designated MV and ME that are safe to use. This covers limits on the
muzzle velocities and muzzle energies of the ammunition (due to the danger of ricochets). For
Gallery ranges this might be a muzzle velocity of 2150 ft/sec (655m/s) and muzzle energy of 1496
ft-lb’s (2030 Joules). Hence the .17 HMR is normally banned from .22LR ranges even though a
smaller calibre, due to its 2550 ft/s (775 m/s) muzzle velocity.
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‰ RCO – a Range Conducting Officer is responsible for the safe running of all live firing on the
range and must be present during all firing. The only MoD-recognised RCO Courses are those
run by the NRA (for Fullbore and Smallbore) and the NSRA (for Smallbore only). Any club which
wishes to use MoD ranges of any sort must have at least one qualified RCO present while firing is
taking place. All persons present on a range, including spectators and visitors, come under the
control of the RCO whose orders must be obeyed at all times.

In addition to the basic rules of safe firearm handling, there are a number of safety rules that are
expected of shooter. These rules include: a) ear and possibly eye protection are required of all
shooters and spectators on the firing point, b) when anyone wishes to go down range, they must first
request permission of the RCO, c) no handling of firearms is permitted when anyone is beyond the
firing line, and d) if anyone observes an unsafe situation they are to immediately shout ‘Stop, Stop,
Stop’, etc.
3.4 UK Firearms Laws
A ‘firearm’ within the definition of the UK Firearms Acts means any lethal barrelled weapon. The
Metropolitan Police web site (www.met.police.uk/firearms-enquiries) is a good source of information on UK
firearms laws, and procedures for getting a Firearm or Shot Gun Certificate.
Application for a Certificate
Before you can purchase a firearm or ammunition you require a certificate. Rifles and pistols are
covered by a Firearm Certificate; shotguns by a Shotgun Certificate. The following are the broad
requirements generally needed to obtain a certificate:
‰ Good Reason – before you can obtain a Firearm or Shotgun certificate you need to show ‘good
reason’, such as being an active member of a Home Office Approved shooting club and that the
firearm you request is appropriate for the shooting discipline.
‰ Firearm Certificate - a Firearm Certificate designates each rifle and pistol (by type and calibre)
that you may purchase and possess together with the amount of ammunition you may purchase
at a time and the total amount you may possess.
‰ Shotgun Certificate – a Shotgun Certificate allows you to purchase a number of shotguns.
However, the police may question the need if a significant number are purchased.
‰ Air Rifles and Air Pistols – the majority of airguns - for air rifles below 12 ft lbs and air pistols
below 6 ft lbs muzzle energy - do not require a certificate.
‰ Age Limits – restrictions are placed on young people under 17 years using, owning and
purchasing a firearm or shotgun (see www.met.police.uk/firearms-enquiries).
‰ Variation – if you wish to apply for permission to purchase an additional firearm, or you have an
unused slot on your Firearm Certificate that you wish to change to a different calibre, you will
need to apply to the UK Police for what is called a Variation.
Purchasing or Transferring a Firearm
Naturally there are also strict rules to follow when purchasing or selling a firearm depending on
whether it is a rifle, pistol or shotgun:
‰ Rifles – to purchase a rifle, your certificate must have an unallocated slot for the precise type and
calibre of the firearm. The seller will enter the details of the transfer, including the firearm number,
on the certificate, and both seller and purchaser need to inform the Police.
‰ Pistol – although pistols are banned in the UK, it is still possible to purchase certain ‘long
barrelled’ pistols and black powder pistols. Permission to purchase is covered by a Firearm
Certificate and the procedure is the same as for rifles.
‰ Shotguns – as discussed, a Shotgun Certificate covers the purchase of a number of smoothbore
shotguns of any bore size or calibre. The seller will enter the details of the transfer, including the
firearm number, on the certificate, and both seller and purchaser subsequently need to inform the
Police.
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‰ Airguns – when purchasing or transferring an airgun below the designated muzzle energy (rifles
< 12 ft/lbs, pistols < 6ft/lbs), it is not necessary to inform the Police. (Muzzle energy is a
projectile’s energy at the time it leaves the muzzle of a gun.)
‰ Ammunition – the amounts of ammunition that can be purchased and possessed depends on
the type of firearm.
ƒ Rifle and Pistol Ammunition – a Firearms Certificate specifies for each allowed calibre of
ammunition both the maximum amount that can be purchased at a time, and the total amount
that can be held.
ƒ Shotgun Cartridges – a Shot Gun Certificate allows the owner to purchase any quantity and
calibre of shotgun cartridges.
ƒ Black powder – you need to have been granted an Explosives Licence, and have approval
from the Police, before you can purchase and keep black powder at home. However, black
powder substitutes are treated in the same way as nitro powder.
ƒ Airgun Pellets – any quantity of pellets can be purchased without a certificate.
Storage of a Firearm
The UK Firearms Acts are not specific regarding security except to state that a firearm and
ammunition must be kept safe and secure at all times so as to prevent unauthorized access, as far as
is reasonably possible.
‰ Club Armoury – many clubs have a secure armoury at the range where you can permanently or
temporarily store your firearm. This avoids the necessity of installing an approved steel cabinet for
home storage and having your security arrangement checked by the local Police Firearms
Enquiry Team.
‰ Firing Range – at the range a firearm must be supervised at all times and if left temporarily in a
vehicle, it must be out of sight and the vehicle secured.
‰ Home Storage – at home firearms are required to be stored in a Police-approved steel cabinet,
securely attached to a brick wall. When applying for the grant of a Firearm or Shotgun certificate it
may be best to do nothing in relation to security, until a Firearms Enquiry Officer has paid a visit
and advised on security measures.
‰ In Transit – when in transit, a firearm and ammunition should be stored in a suitable case, and
must be kept out of sight. It is advisable not to leave a firearm in an unattended but locked
vehicle, unless for short periods at the firing range. You should also carry your Firearm and
Shotgun certificate to show that you have the right to possess the firearm.

Figure 3.1 attempts to summarise the UK registration and storage requirements for firearms and
ammunition.
Police Registration Storage (approved)
Firearm
Certificate
Shotgun
Certificate
No Certificate
Required
Restrictions
Club
Armoury
Home
Cabinet
No Restrictions
Rifles
Lists all Rifles
and amounts of
Ammunition
NA NA
Permission required
before each purchase
yes yes NA
Shotguns NA
Lists all
Shotguns
NA
Notification required
after each purchase
yes yes NA
Pistols
Lists all Pistols
and amounts of
Ammunition
NA NA
Permission required
before each
purchase. Only long-
barrelled allowed
yes yes NA
Black Powder
Lists of all BP
firearms and
approval to store
BP at home
NA NA
Permission required
to purchase BP
firearm and to store
BP
yes yes NA
Airguns
Rifles (>12ft-lbs)
Pistols (> 6ft-lbs)
NA See restrictions
Rifles (>12ft/lbs),
Pistols (> 6ft/lbs)
NA NA yes
Figure 3.1: UK Firearms Laws covering Purchase and Storage
Black Powder
Given the increasing popularity of black powder, it is worth summarising black powder firearms
regulations. The regulations governing black powder firearms are essentially the same as for
conventional (nitro) rifles and pistols. Before you can purchase a BP firearm you need to get a ‘slot’ on
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your firearm certificate for the calibre. The main difference is that before you can store black powder,
you need to hold an Explosives Licence. (However as discussed above, the rules governing the
storage of black powder substitutes are the same as for nitro powders.) When storing black powder at
home it needs to be kept in a secure wooden container of a very specific design, to reduce the risk of
explosion.

Finally, for interest, I’ve also included an overview of international regulations.
3.5 International Rules and Regulations
The rules and regulations for the ownership and use of firearms obviously vary with each country, and
also whether you are going as part of a target shooting team or as an individual. You will need to seek
advice both from your local Firearms Enquiry Team and also from the equivalent firearms officials in
the country you will be visiting.
Visitors from Abroad
Visitors from outside the UK can apply for a Visitor’s Permit for (a) one person or (b) up to 20 people
from outside the UK to shoot in Britain. These visitors must be sponsored by a person or organisation
for the duration of the visit and for the shooting activities in which they will be taking part. Applications
can be made for a Visitor’s Firearm Permit or a Visitor’s Shotgun Permit from your local Firearms
Enquiry Team but will also need to be completed by the sponsor(s) in the UK.
European Firearms Passport
If you intend to take firearms or shotguns to another European Union State you require a European
Firearms Pass [4]. Both your firearms and shotguns are listed on the same EFP, and it is obtained
from your Firearms Licensing Authority. In general, if you are going to another EU State as a:
‰ Team Member – as part of a Target Shooting Team or an organised hunt, you will not need to get
permission, only keep your EFP with you at all times.
‰ Individual – as an individual shooter you must contact the authorities of the EU State, and their
permission entered on your EFP.
Shooting and Purchasing a Firearm Abroad
When you plan to shoot abroad, your host or sponsor typically needs to apply for a Visitor’s
Certificate, and you will need to present this to the Immigration service at the point of disembarkation.

When purchasing a firearm, the rules and regulations for the use and purchase of firearms by
foreigners obviously vary with each country. Probably a starting point is the appropriate National
Shooting Association:
‰ EU State – you will need a slot on your UK Firearm or Shotgun Certificate, a European Firearms
Pass (EFP) and an (export) licence from the EU State. The EFP alone does not entitle you to
purchase a firearm or ammunition in another EU State.
‰ United States – you can only buy a firearm if you've been resident for 90 days, can prove it, have
State ID, and have a hunting license. You also have to complete the general purchasing
requirements that apply to all US citizens.
3.6 Further Information
[1]. P F Hicks, “UK NRA Target Rifle Coaching Course Notes”, National Rifle Association (2003).
[2]. Metropolitan Police Firearms web site, www.met.police.uk/firearms-enquiries/firearms.htm,
comprehensive web site explaining UK firearms laws.
[3]. NRA-ILA, “A Citizen’s Guide to Federal Firearms Laws”, www.nraila.org/GunLaws, summary of the
United States Gun Laws both Federal and State, and the transportation of firearms.
[4]. Shooting in Europe, www.shooters.co.uk, overview of shooting laws in Continental Europe.


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Art of Shooting
3.7 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation Home Office Police
Telephone 0207 035 4848
Address Direct Communications, 2 Marsham Street, London SW1P 4DF
Email public.enquiries@homeoffice.gsi.gov.uk
Web site http://police.homeoffice.gov.uk/operational-policing/firearms.html
Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK
Telephone 01483 797777
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0PB
Email info@nra.org.uk
Web site www.nra.org.uk



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Art of Shooting
Part B – Firearms and Shooting
Equipment
Summary
Your choice of shooting discipline often rests on the firearms you would like to own and what you will
enjoy shooting.

So in this section we look at the different firearms available for target shooting, how they work and
information about cartridges and bullets. Once you are hooked on shooting, pretty soon you will want
to fine-tune your ammunition, either by trying different factory loaded ammunition or by hand loading
your own ammunition. This section also includes chapters on firearm sights, and on clothing and
equipment.

The best advice for any novice taking up a new shooting discipline is that before rushing out and
spending a small fortune on an expensive firearm, equipment and accessories get as much advice as
possible and see what the old-hands are using.
Chapter 4 – Rifles
We start by looking at the galaxy of rifles available for target shooting. What you enjoy shooting will go
a long way in determining your choice of shooting discipline. This section gives you a cursory review
of what’s available for the rifle-shooting enthusiast. One way of grouping target rifles is by their action:
bolt action (single, magazine), lever action, pump action, semi-automatic action and break (hinge)
action.
Chapter 5 – Pistols
Pistols cover: a) single-shot pistols used for target competition, b) semi-automatic pistols, and c)
revolvers. This chapter looks at what’s available, how they work and details of the firing mechanisms.
Chapter 6 – Shotguns
Shotguns refer to a firearm with any number of barrels with smooth bores; without rifling. Shotguns
most commonly use breech or break actions, with double barrel, over-and-under shotguns being used
for clay pigeon target shooting, and side-by-side shotguns for field sports.
Chapter 7 - Cartridges and Bullets
This chapter covers rifle/pistol cartridges and shotgun cartridges/shotshells. A rifle or pistol cartridge
comprises the bullet, propellant powder and the primer in a metallic case. The primer is a small
charge of impact-sensitive chemical material, located either in the centre of case head (centerfire
ammunition) or in the rim (rimfire ammunition).
Chapter 8 - Black Powder and Muzzleloaders
Black powder is the original gunpowder and the standard propellant and explosive used until the
middle of the 19th century. In recent years, Black Powder rifle, pistol and shotgun shooting have
become highly popular worldwide. Broadly, black powder firearms divide into: muzzleloaders,
percussion (or cap ’n’ ball) muzzle loading pistols, and black powder cartridge firearms.
Chapter 9 - Airguns – pellets, BBs, airsoft
An airgun is a pneumatic firearm which fires projectiles using compressed air, CO2, spring-loaded
piston or other high pressure gas as a propellant. This chapter looks at airgun ‘ammunition’: pellets,
BBs and airsoft.
Chapter 10 - Iron and Optical Sights
This chapter looks at open, aperture and optical sights. The term ‘sight’ refers to any system used to
assist the aiming of a firearm. Although we talk about iron and telescopic sights, there are a number of
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different categories: a) open sights as on pistols and shotguns, b) aperture sights found on target
rifles, c) shotgun beads, d) telescopic rifle sights, e) red dot on pistols and gallery rifles, and f) laser
sights on military rifles.
Chapter 11 - Clothing, Equipment and Accessories
Each shooting discipline has its own set of equipment and dress code from the tight fitting jacket and
trousers of the prone target rifle shooter, to the loose shooting vest of the clay pigeon shooter. This
chapter reviews the equipment and clothing used in the various different shooting disciplines.


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Art of Shooting
Chapter 4
Rifles
As you can imagine there is a galaxy of rifles available for target shooting, and what you enjoy
shooting, will go a long way in determining your choice of shooting discipline. So this section gives
you a cursory review of what’s available for the rifle-shooting enthusiast. One way of grouping target
rifles is by their action: bolt action (single-shot, magazine), lever action, pump action, semi-automatic
action and break (hinge) action.
4.1 Rifle Basics
We start with the basics, a rifle’s operation and at the various common mechanisms, such as actions,
triggers etc.
Terminology
Rifles (as illustrated by Figure 4.1) comprise a stock (butt, cheekpiece and grip); an action (bolt,
chamber and trigger), barrel and
sights (either an iron rear-sight and
foresight, or a scope). Target rifles
may have a number of specialist
features. For example, stocks may
incorporate adjustable butt plates,
combs and cheek-pieces, to give a
perfect fit when they are shouldered,
together with a thumbhole at the grip.
Figure 4.1: Rifle Terminology

Target rifles are typically bolt-action, and may be single-shot or fed from a magazine holding 5-10
cartridges. The magazine itself may be built-in or removable.

The barrel of a target rifle is typically heavy. It may also be:
‰ Floating - meaning the barrel does not touch the fore-end or fore-stock.
‰ Fluted - having parallel grooves cut into it to reduce weight and assist cooling, and for rigidity.

It may have front and rear sights or a rail to mount a telescopic sight. The iron rear sight is mounted
on the receiver or action.

Information on barrels, including manufacture, rifling and twist rates, is given in the Chapter on
Firearm Barrels.
Firing Mechanism
When the rifle is loaded and the trigger is pulled, as
illustrated by Figure 4.2, the firing pin is driven
forward by a spring and strikes the primer, igniting
the propellant [1], which creates the pressure to
propel the bullet down the barrel and out of the
muzzle. The action is then opened to extract the
fired cartridge and the firing pin is pushed back and
held back under spring tension and load the next
cartridge. This is either manually or (in semi-
automatic firearms) the discharge forces back the
bolt. The case is then ejected and the next round loaded into the chamber. The action is closed, to be
released again by the trigger.
Figure 4.2: Firing Mechanisms (www.world.guns.ru)
4.2 Rifle Types
At a simple level rifles can be grouped into: a) custom target rifles either single-shot or with a
magazine, b) military or service rifle, c) sporting rifles, d) black powder muzzleloaders and cartridge
rifles, and e) carbines, with barrel length up to 22in/56cm, such as lever-action rifles.
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Art of Shooting
Target Rifles (Centerfire, Rimfire)
Target rifles are typically custom-made bolt-action rifles with a heavy barrel, and a stock often with an
adjustable butt-plate and comb/check-piece. The majority are single-shot; however, many disciplines
require bolt-actions with a magazine holding 5 or 10 cartridges.
Military Rifles (Modern, Historic)
Military/Service rifles cover historic bolt-action rifles used by the military (e.g. Lee Enfield) and modern
civilian versions of semi-automatic military rifles (e.g. AR15) that may be restricted to manual
operation.



a) Target b) Military/Service c) Sporting Rifle d) Black Powder
Figure 4.3: Rifles Types
Sporting Rifles
Sporting rifles are designed for field sports such as deer stalking, and are used for shooting at static
and running targets simulating game. These rifles often have highly-figured walnut stocks, but when
adapted for target shooting are frequently equipped with synthetic stocks and heavy or fluted barrels.
Black Powder
Black powder firearms cover smoothbore muskets, old and modern muzzleloaders, and any rifle firing
black powder cartridges.
Carbines/Gallery Rifles
A carbine is a short, lightweight rifle with a barrel length of typically up to 22in (56cm). The term is
often used for lever-action rifles that fire pistol-calibre ammunition.
4.3 Actions
Next we look at actions. In firearms terminology, the ‘action’ is the type of system that the firearm
employs to load consecutive rounds. The name of an action is usually derived from how it gets its
motive force (i.e. how it is operated), and how it locks the breech.

Modern firearms can be classified as: single-shot, manual repeating, and self-loading repeating. This
classification can in fact be used for rifles, pistols and shotguns.
Single-shot Action
Single-shot firearms hold only a single round of
ammunition, and must be reloaded after each shot.
Single-shot designs are less complex than
magazine-fed firearms, and are the principal type for
target rifle disciplines.
‰ Bolt-action - raising and pulling back the bolt
opens the breech. The fired case is then either
ejected, or is manually removed by the shooter
(often preferred by target shooters who hand-
load their own ammunition).
‰ Lever-action - pushing forward the lever, opens
the breech, and causes the fired case to be
ejected. A new cartridge is then manually
loaded.
‰ Break/Hinge action - most (expensive) double
rifles have a hinged action with the cartridges being loaded manually into the breech.

Figure 4.4: Firearm Actions
Manual Repeating Action
With manual-repeating firearms, operating the loading mechanism (bolt, lever, pump etc.) ejects a
cartridge from the chamber and then loads a new cartridge from the magazine.
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‰ Bolt-action – raising and pulling back the bolt opens the breech, causes the fired case to be
ejected by a small pin, a new cartridge is loaded from the magazine, and the firing pin spring
cocked.
‰ Lever-action – pushing forward the lever opens the breech causes the fired case to be ejected,
and pulling back the lever loads a new cartridge from the magazine and cocks the firing pin.
‰ Pump-action – pulling back the sliding fore-end, opens the breech, causes the fired case to be
ejected, and pushing the fore-end forward causes a new cartridge to be loaded from the
magazine, and the firing pin cocked.
‰ Revolving-action – less common is the revolving action; pulling the trigger causes the cylinder to
rotate, positioning a new cartridge in the breech, and cocking the hammer.
Self-loading (semi-automatic, automatic) Action
Self-loading firearms – semi-automatic and fully automatic - contain a magazine. When the trigger is
pulled, the cartridge in the chamber is discharged; the bolt recoils under pressure, and ejects the
spent cartridge. Next the closing of the action strips a a new cartridge from the magazine and feeds
into the chamber.
‰ Semi-automatic – with each squeeze of the trigger one cartridge is fired, the spent case ejected,
and then a new cartridge loaded from the magazine into the chamber.
‰ Automatic - with a single squeeze of the trigger the firearm keeps shooting until the trigger is
released or the magazine runs out of ammunition.

Various recoil and blowback mechanisms are employed in (semi-) automatic weapons, including
recoil operation, blowback/forward, delayed blowback, locked breech blowback, and gas-actuated [3].
4.4 Locking Mechanisms
Most rifles use a ‘bolt’ to seal or block the rear of the chamber forcing all the expanding gas forward. A
bolt typically is a metal tube containing the firing pin
and spring (see Figure 4.5).
Lugs
When the bolt is closed ‘lugs’ (knobs) at the front
lock the bolt in place. This operation can be done via
a rotating bolt, a lever, roller lock, tilt lock, or radial
lock [3]. The number of lugs varies according to the
type, calibre and manufacturer. Small to medium
calibres generally use a two-lug system, frequently based on the Mauser bolt. Larger calibers may
use more lugs [2].


a) Bolt Lugs & Extractor b) Disassembled Bolt
Figure 4.5: Rifle Bolt
Extractor
An integral part of the bolt is the extractor (see Figure 4.5); a ‘claw’ that grips the rim of the cartridge
and pulls the cartridge from the chamber once it has been fired.
Ejector
The final action mechanism is the ejector that pushes the cartridge case out of the action.
4.5 Trigger
Rifles have different trigger mechanisms depending on their intended use [3]. Common trigger
mechanisms are:
‰ Immediate or Single-action Trigger – the trigger is ‘single-stage’ with little or no takeup. When the
trigger is pulled the shot fires (cf. shotgun).
‰ Pressure point or Two-stage Trigger – a two-stage trigger is designed to have a distinct takeup,
with the trigger working against a significant amount of spring pressure. At the end of the takeup
there is a small but noticeable increase in pull as the sear begins to disengage. This is typical of
some target rifles.
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‰ Pre-set Trigger – this mechanism allows the trigger pressure to be reduced by pushing forward
either the trigger or a small catch next to the trigger.
‰ Match Trigger - this mechanism provides an extensive range of trigger adjustments, controlling
the trigger pressure, position, pressure point and follow-through after firing.
‰ Double-Set Trigger – not to be confused with a two-stage trigger, this is often found on expensive
hunting rifles, this mechanism uses two triggers, the rear being used to activate the front trigger to
work at a lower trigger pressure.
4.6 Magazines
The magazine is an ammunition storage and feeding device within
or attached to a firearm, either integral to the firearm (fixed or
internal) or removable (detachable). The most common type is the
‘box’ magazine.
‰ Box - the box magazine stores cartridges in a parallel column,
or stack, one above the other. An internal box magazine is
built into the firearm, while a detachable box magazine is a
self-contained magazine, capable of being loaded or unloaded
while detached from the firearm.
‰ Tubular - a tubular magazine stored cartridges point to base
inside of a spring-loaded tube fixed to and running parallel to
the barrel. This type of internal magazine is typical of lever-
action, repeating rifles.
‰ Cylindrical – various types of cylindrical or rotary magazines
(e.g. drum, pan, helical) are used in firearms. Cartridges are
stored parallel to the axis of rotation, and a moving partition pushed by a spring within the
magazine forces loose rounds into an exit slot.

a) single stack b) multi stack
Figure 4.6: Box Magazines
4.7 Ammunition
Rifle and carbine cartridges are available in a vast range of calibres, powder loads and bullet types
and weights. Certain calibres, such as the ubiquitous .22LR (Long Rifle), can be used in rifles,
carbines and pistols. The most popular cartridge has to be the .22LR that has been produced in
higher quantities and in a variety of versions, more than any other cartridge. Other widely used
calibres include the .223 Remington (5.56x45mm NATO) popular in military-style weapons, .303
British (used in historic firearms), .308 Winchester (7.62x51mm) the mainstay of Fullbore target
shooting, together with 6mm cartridges, such as 6mm PPC (Palmisano & Pindel Cartridge) and the
6.5-284, popular with Benchrest and F-Class shooters.
4.8 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Firearm_action, overview of rifle actions,
in particular automatic and semi-automatic firearms.
[2]. A. E. Hartink, “The Complete Encyclopedia of Rifles & Carbines,” Rebo Publishers (2005),
ISBN-13: 9789036615129.
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Art of Shooting
4.9 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK
Telephone 01483 797777
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0PB
Email info@nra.org.uk
Web site www.nra.org.uk
Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association
Telephone 01483 485505
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email info@nsra.co.uk
Web site www.nsra.co.uk
Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland
Address NRA of Ireland, Leabeg, Blueball, Tullamore, Co Offaly, Ireland
Email info@nrai.ie
Web site www.nrai.ie


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Art of Shooting
Chapter 5
Pistols
Pistols cover: a) single-shot target pistols, b) semi-automatic pistols, and c) revolvers.
5.1 Pistol Basics
Arguably, to shoot a Pistol effectively you need to appreciate how it works. This is true of all firearms.
Terminology
A simple division of Pistols is into: single shot
pistols, semi-automatic pistols and revolvers.
The majority of semi-automatic pistols have
straight ‘factory’ grips, a detachable magazine
located in the grip, a slide covering the
mechanism, plus front and rear iron sights.
However, specialist target pistols will have
anatomical grips (see Figure 5.1) with the
possibility of a magazine forward of the trigger.

Revolvers have simple grips, a revolving
cylinder containing (typically) 6 rounds plus an
external hammer, and a barrel with a fixed
foresight.
Firing Mechanism
The slide of a semi-automatic pistol (see Figure 5.2) has broadly the same action as the bolt of a rifle.

To initially load a semi-automatic, you fit a
loaded magazine into the pistol, then pull back
on the slide and release. This causes the first
round to be loaded into the chamber and the
hammer cocked. When the pistol is loaded
and the trigger is pulled, the firing pin is driven
forward by the hammer, and strikes the primer
of the cartridge, igniting the propellant inside
the cartridge case [1]. This creates the
pressure to propel the bullet down the barrel
and out of the muzzle. The discharge forces
back the slide with the cartridge case gripped
by the extractor, the action is then opened, the
case ejected. The next round is then lifted into
position from the magazine. The recoil spring
then closes the action forcing the round into
the chamber of the barrel. The hammer having
been pushed back by the rearward movement of the slide is held back under spring tension, to be
released again by the trigger when the pistol is next fired.

Figure 5.1: Pistol Terminology

Figure 5.2: Firing Mechanism of Semi-Automatic Pistol
(Boberg Eng. http://world.guns.ru)
5.2 Pistol Types
There are broadly four types of Pistol a) single-shot pistols used for target competition, b) semi-
automatic target pistols, c) semi-automatic military-style pistols, and d) revolvers.
Single-shot
Precision single-shot target pistols usually have anatomical grips (see Figure 5.3) moulded to the
shooter’s hand, a simple action, and a precision barrel with rear iron sights adjustable for elevation
and windage and a fixed front sight.
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a) Single-shot b) Semi-Auto (Target-style) c) Semi-Auto (Military-style) d) Revolver
Figure 5.3: Pistol Terminology
Semi-Automatic Pistols
Semi-automatic target pistols (usually .22LR or .32 calibres) typically have anatomical grips, a
magazine forward of the trigger guard, and a fixed blade front sight and an adjustable rear iron sight.
Semi-automatic pistols designed for self-defence have straight ‘factory’ grips; a detachable magazine
located in the grip, and fixed front and rear iron sights. Hammers may be internal or external.
Revolvers
Revolvers have simple grips, a revolving cylinder contain (typically) 6 rounds plus an external
hammer, and a barrel with a fixed foresight.
Black Power
Besides the above ‘nitro’ cartridge Pistols, there is a wide range of firearms using black powder
propellants. These include muzzleloaders, so-called Cap and Ball revolvers where each chamber is
loaded by hand, and black powder cartridge revolvers.
Air Pistols
Target air pistols and Airsoft pistols may be single-shot or have a simple magazine containing
(usually) five pellets. A precision target air pistol is powered by compressed air or a CO2 capsule, with
a fixed front site and a rear site adjustable for windage and elevation.
5.3 Actions
The action of a Pistol defines how the hammer is cocked. The terms single-action and double-action,
are used both to describe the action and also, as discussed below, the trigger mechanism.
Single-shot
Often over looked in Pistol books, the single-shot design is arguably the mainstay of competitive
target pistol shooting. A single-shot pistol is loaded by manually opening the breech (usually which
also cocks the pistol), extracting the spent cartridge case, inserting a new cartridge in the chamber
and closing the breech.
Self-Loading Pistol
Semi-automatic or self-loading pistols use the recoil or gas energy of each round to cycle the action,
extract the spent case, and load the next cartridge. Target pistols are generally single action, while
most modern defensive and military Pistols may be double action, single action or a combination of
both.
‰ Single-action – the pistol is cocked prior to firing by pulling back the slide to load the first round
from the magazine into the chamber, and is re-cocked at each shot by the slide as it flies back to
eject the spent case and feed the next round into the chamber.
‰ Double-action – pulling the trigger manually cocks the hammer, so when the bolt moves forward
to feed the round into the chamber the hammer is not held back in the cocked position,. Some
pistols with external hammers can also be cocked manually as in the single-action mode.
Revolver
Revolvers can be divided into:
‰ Single-action – normally found on Muzzle loading revolvers and older cartridge revolvers, the
hammer must be cocked manually prior to firing. Usually with a single-action revolver, the cylinder
is fixed in the frame, and cartridges have to be unloaded and loaded through a loading port at the
back of the cylinder.
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‰ Double-action – pulling the trigger manually cocks the hammer, and rotates the cylinder to bring
the next round into line with the firing pin and barrel. In addition, the hammer can be cocked
manually to fire the revolver in single-action mode. Most double-action revolvers have a hinged
cylinder for loading.
5.4 Locking Mechanisms
Whereas single-shot pistols and revolvers are based on relatively few locking mechanisms, in contrast
semi-automatic pistols because of their mechanical complexity use a wide range of locking
mechanisms.
Semi-Automatic Pistol
Some of the common locking mechanisms are listed below.
‰ Blowback system – used in pistols up to 7.65mm and occasionally 9mm, the ‘locking’ function is
supplied merely by the weight of the slide and the recoil spring holding the breech in the closed
position.
‰ Browning (or short recoil) system – with this system the barrel has 1-3 lugs which correspond
to 1-3 corresponding grooves on the inner side of the slide, these lock together when closed. After
firing the barrel will, by means of a simple cam, drop slightly, to disengage the slide, allowing it to
move backwards.
‰ Rotating breech system – with this system the breech or the bolt has a number of bolt-locking
lugs. When the breech is closed these lugs engage in grooves at the rear of the barrel, locking the
breech. When fired, the gas pressure causes the breech to rotate, the lugs to disengage and the
slide to move backwards.

Other locking systems are described in reference [2].
Revolver
The locking system in a revolver ensures that during firing: firstly the cylinder does not rotate
unintentionally and secondly does not swing out of the frame during use.
‰ Cylinder stop system – at the base of the revolver frame is a lug (or cam) operated by the
trigger. As the next chamber rotates into the firing position, this lug engages with the
corresponding external groove in the cylinder to hold the cylinder in place for firing.
‰ Cylinder axis system – the cylinder rotates around a central axis pin that holds it in place during
firing. To swing out the cylinder for reloading this pin must be disengaged by pressing on a
release catch; the cylinder can then be swung out on its crane.
5.5 Trigger
There are various types of Pistol trigger mechanisms, although they broadly subdivide into single-
action (SA) or double-action (DA):
‰ Single-action (SA) – performs the single action of releasing the hammer or striker. In addition, a
single-action may be equipped with so-called Set Trigger whereby the trigger can be manually
‘set’ to fire with a reduced trigger pull weight.
‰ Double-action (DA) – performs the dual functions of firstly cocking and then releasing the
hammer or striker. Traditional double-action Pistols also operate in single-action mode, but can be
double-action only (DAO).

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Single Action Double Action (DA/SA) Double Action Only
Single shot
Manually opening the breech cocks
the pistol.

Semi-Automatic
The hammer will be cocked by the
slide when the first round is loaded
into the chamber. The hammer will
be re-cocked automatically during
the loading of the next round.
If the pistol is not already cocked,
during the trigger pull the
mechanism cocks the hammer
before firing. After firing, in an DA
semi-automatic, the hammer will be
re-cocked during the loading of the
next round.
The trigger pull cocks the hammer
for each and every round. These
pistols may have internal or external
hammers.
Revolver
The hammer must be manually
cocked. Pulling the trigger will not
cock the hammer.
If the revolver is not already cocked,
during the trigger pull the
mechanism cocks the hammer and
turns the cylinder, before firing. The
revolver can also be manually
cocked as with SA.
During the trigger pull the
mechanism cocks the hammer and
turns the cylinder, before firing.
These are usually "hammerless"
revolvers, where the hammer is an
internal mechanism or does not have
a thumb spur.
Figure 5.4: Pistol Trigger Actions
Art of Shooting
5.6 Ammunition
Cartridges for Pistols come in many calibres and with a variety of bullet types. The most common is
the .22 family of rimfire cartridges, notably the .22LR. Other popular calibres are the .32 (e.g. Smith &
Wesson Long) used in Centrefire target pistols, 9mm (e.g. 9x19mm Parabellum) used by military and
police forces, plus the .38 Special and the many variants of the .45 calibre.

For a comprehensive description of the actions, locking, and safety mechanisms found in pistols and
revolvers see reference [2].
5.7 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pistol, overview of pistol actions, in
particular revolvers and semi-automatic firearms.
[2]. A. E. Hartink, “The Complete Encyclopedia of Pistols and Revolvers,” Rebo Publishers
(1997), ISBN-13: 9780785815198.
5.8 Contacts
Given the different firearm laws governing the ownership of pistols in the United Kingdon and Ireland,
please consult the list of target shooting organisations found in the appendix.

Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association
Telephone 01483 485505
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email info@nsra.co.uk
Web site www.nsra.co.uk
Organisation British Pistol Club
Telephone 01483 486293
Address B.C.M 5114 London WC1N 3XX
Email britishpistolclub@ntlworld.com
Web site www.britishpistolclub.org
Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland
Telephone 00 866 504 9073
Address PO Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland
Web site www.targetshootingireland.org
Organisation The National Silhouette Association Ireland
Address NSA, P.O.Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland.
Email silhouetteireland@eircom.net
Web site http://homepage.eircom.net/~ntsai/nsai.html


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Art of Shooting
Chapter 6
Shotguns
Shotguns refer to a firearm with any number of barrels with smooth bores, without rifling. Shotguns
most commonly use break or hinge actions, with double barrel, over-and-under shotguns being used
for clay pigeon target shooting, and side-by-side shotguns for field sports.
6.1 Shotgun Basics
Shotguns use many of the same
actions as rifles, so besides the
ubiquitous breech-loading double
barrel shotgun, you will also find semi-
automatic, pump action and bolt
action shotguns in use across the
panoply of shooting disciplines. The
calibre of shotguns is measured in
terms of its bore (UK term) or gauge
(US term). The bore/gauge is determined by the number of solid spheres of a diameter equal to the
inside diameter of the barrel that could be made from a pound of lead. The most common gauges are
12-bore (0.729in, 18.5mm) and 20-bore (0.614in, 15.6mm).
Figure 6.1: Shotgun Terminology
Terminology
As with the rifle, a shotgun comprises the stock, action and barrel as illustrated in Figure 6.1.
Likewise, it is increasingly common to see clay pigeon shotguns equipped with stocks with adjustable
butt plates and combs. A feature unique to shotguns is the so-called choke, a constriction at the
muzzle end of each barrel that controls the shot as it leaves the barrel. Chokes may either be formed
as part of the barrel at the time of manufacture (known as fixed-choke), or by threading the inside of
the muzzle and screwing in an interchangeable choke tube.
Firing Mechanism
The firing mechanism of a breech-loading shotgun is
illustrated in Figure 6.2.

When the shotgun is loaded and the trigger is pulled
(see Figure 6.2) the firing pin is driven forward by the
hammer spring and strikes the primer, igniting the
propellant [1], which creates the pressure to propel the
shot down the barrel and out of the muzzle. The action is
then opened manually by pushing the top lever to the
right. As the action hinges open, the ejector mechanism
extracts the spent cartridge(s), and also cocks the
hammer. A new cartridge is then inserted, and the action is closed. The safety catch can be either
automatically or manually re-set.
Figure 6.2: Shotgun Firing Mechanism
6.2 Shotgun Types
As illustrated by Figure 6.3, the common types of shotgun are: over-and-under, side-by-side, semi-
automatic and pump action.





a) Over-and-Under b) Side-by-Side c) Semi-Automatic d) Pump Action
Figure 6.3: Shotguns
Shotguns can be subdivided by the barrels into: single-barrelled, double-barrelled and combination
guns; or by actions into: breech loading, pump action, semi-automatic, lever action or bolt action.
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Single-barrelled shotguns
‰ Single shot breech loading – these are single-shot, single-barrel, breechloaders with the barrel
hinged at the action.
‰ Semi-automatic repeaters – semi-automatic shotguns have a single barrel and a tube
magazine, holding 2-5 shotgun shells, underneath. These can either use gas from the fired
cartridge or a recoil mechanism, to reload the action.
‰ Pump-action repeaters – In pump-action shotguns, a sliding fore-end (or fore stock) - the pump -
works the action, extracting the spent shell and inserting a new one as the pump is worked.
‰ Bolt-action repeaters – the shotgun is equipped with a manually operated bolt just like a rifle.
Double-barrelled shotguns
Side-by-side and over-and-under shotgun is well known:
‰ Side-by-Side – with side-by-side shotguns the barrels are arranged horizontally, and the guns
are typically equipped with double triggers. Side-by-side shotguns are either hammerless (i.e. with
internal hammers) or hammered.
‰ Over-and-under - the over-and-under designation comes (obviously) from the vertical
arrangement of the barrels. Frequently they have a single trigger that fires the bottom then the top
barrel. Specialist over-and-under shotguns are available for skeet, trap and sporting clay pigeon
shooting.
Combination Guns
For completeness we should also include combination firearms found in Continental Europe that
combine shotgun and rifle barrels. Examples (using German terms) include: a) Drillings - a
combination gun that has three barrels, and b) Vierlings - a firearm with four barrels.
6.3 Shotgun Actions
Although there are many shotgun action types (e.g. breech loading, pump or semi-automatic), most
clay pigeon and sporting shotguns are double-barrelled, breech-loaders. The common action
mechanisms: Anson & Deeley Boxlock, Holland & Holland Sidelock.

With the Anson & Deeley Boxlock system, when the breech is opened by ‘breaking’ the shotgun, the
cocking levers pivot like a see-saw with the rear part of the levers pushing the hammers backwards
against the firing springs. The hammers or firing mechanism then engages with notches (sears) in the
trigger mechanism and are ready to fire (see Figure 6.2). In contrast, with the Holland & Holland
Sidelock system the firing mechanism is located on side plates screwed to the action and use a flat
spring.
6.4 Shotgun Locking Mechanisms
This section provides a summary of different types of locking mechanism used in shotguns [2]:
‰ Barrel-block – most shotgun use barrel-block or barrel-catch locking, where lugs on the
underside of the barrel block have grooves machined into them on the front edge. A locking lever
causes a horizontal slider to engage with the grooves and ‘lock’ the barrels to the breech.
‰ Greener – with Greener locking a vertical plate with a hole extends from the rib and fits into the
breech. The locking lever then pushes a transverse bolt through the hole, locking the barrels to
the breech.
‰ Kersten bolt – two locking plates similar to the Greener, lock the barrels to the breech when
closed.
‰ Pin locking – with an over-and-under, two grooves are machined on either side of the barrel, and
two corresponding pins are located in the breech. When the shotgun is closed the pins engage
with the grooves on the barrel block.
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Art of Shooting
‰ Pump action – the manually operated pump action employ a similar locking mechanism to the
falling block, where the breech block moves vertically, or nearly so, inside of the receiver walls to
load a round.
6.5 Ammunition and Bore
There is an enormous range of shotgun cartridges or
shotshells, by their composition subdivided into Felt wad and
Plastic wad.

Figure 6.4: Shotgun Cartridges
Shotgun Cartridges
A shotgun cartridge or shotshell (see Figure 6.4) comprises: a)
the brass head (or base), b) the primer or cap containing a
small charge of impact-sensitive chemical material, c) the case
of plastic or paper, d) the powder charge, e) the wad of felt or
plastic, f) the shot, and g) the crimp or closure.

As with rifle and pistol cartridges, when the trigger is pulled, the
firing pin is driven into the primer, which in turn ignites the
powder. Burning gases from the powder expands the case to
form a seal against the chamber wall. The shot is then
propelled down the barrel. After it has left, the cartridge case is
gripped by the extractor and pulled out of the chamber.
Bore/Gauge and Chamber Length
Shotgun cartridges are designated by bore (UK) or
gauge (USA), and by cartridge length. The most
common is the 12 bore with a cartridge length of 23”
(70mm). Shotgun cartridges are available in .410, 28
bore, 16 bore, 20 bore, 12 bore, 10 bore and even larger
8 and 5 bores (for duck).

The bore size is derived from the number of spheres of
pure lead to a pound (1lb/453.59g) that will precisely fit
the bore. For the 12 bore this is 12 spheres with the
actual bore being .729in (18.52mm).

The length of the shotgun chamber is defined in inches
or millimetres. The popular 12 bore chamber length is 23” (70mm). The chamber length is important.
Although shooting a shorter cartridge (say a 21in in a 23in chamber) is not dangerous, placing too
long a cartridge (say a 3in in a 23in chamber) can lead to excess gas pressure due to insufficient
space for the cartridge to open.
Figure 6.5: Shotgun Bore Sizes
Shotgun Pellets
Shotgun pellets can be made of bismuth, lead, Molyshot, steel, tin or zinc. The choice and size of shot
depends on a number of factors: a) gauge of the gun, b) the type of target (or game) shooting, c)
desired shot pattern, d) the range, and e) the sensitivity of the shooter to recoil. For a given shotgun
gauge, the size of shot may be given in millimetres or can also be a number.

For clay pigeon shooting, the ISSF place restrictions on the pellets used in competitions. These
include: case length after firing must not exceed 70mm, shot charge must not exceed 24.5g, pellets
must be made of lead or lead alloy, and pellets must not exceed 2.6 mm in diameter.




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Figure 6.6: Shotgun Pellets
Choke
Finally we look at barrel choke. The choke controls how much shot will hit in a certain area at different
ranges.
‰ Cylinder choke - is an un-constricted barrel. The shot pattern spreads quickly.
‰ Improved Cylinder choke - has a slight constriction. It allows the shot pattern to spread fairly
quickly.
‰ Quarter choke - has a minor constriction. It allows the shot pattern to spread fairly quickly.
‰ Half or Modified choke - has moderate constriction, allowing the shot to stay together longer,
making the pattern denser and more useful at longer ranges.
‰ Three-quarter choke - has tighter constriction, with the shot holding together even longer.
‰ Full choke - has tight constriction, with the shot holding together even longer, for even denser
patterns at long range.
6.6 Shotgun Selection
Although it is clearly possible to shoot clays and game with the same shotgun, over the years
shotguns (especially over-and-under) have been developed for the individual disciplines, such as
Trap, Skeet and Sporting clays, and Game shooting:
‰ Trap guns – trap targets fly away from the shooter, therefore for sighting trap guns have a stock
with a higher comb (like a Monte Carlo) set parallel to the rib, with fixed chokes and the guns are
usually heavier than other types.
‰ Skeet guns – skeet targets are fast, rising and then descending, and shot at close range. This
favours a lighter gun, quick to swing and short barrels (e.g. 28” or less), with Cylinder or Skeet
chokes.
‰ Sporting (clays) guns – clay targets literally fly in all directions, so a multi-purpose gun
combining elements of the other types of shotgun and with interchangeable chokes.
‰ Game guns – these are usually carried long distances and therefore lightweight side-by-sides or
lighter over-and-unders are favoured.
6.7 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shotguns, overview of shotgun actions.
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[2]. A. E. Hartink, “The Complete Encyclopedia of Hunting Rifles,” Rebo Publishers (2004), ISBN-
10: 0785818901, don’t be put off by the title its really an encyclopedia of shotguns.
[3]. Peter Blakeley, “Successful Shotgunning”, Stackpole (2003), ISBN-10: 0811700429
6.8 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation British International Clay Target Shooting Federation
Telephone 01483 485400
Address BICTSF, PO Box 1500, Brookwood, Surrey. GU24 0NP
Email secretary@bictsf.com
Web site www.bictsf.com
Organisation Clay Pigeon Shooting Association
Telephone 01483 485400
Address CPSA, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey. GU24 0NP
Email info@cpsa.co.uk
Web site www.cpsa.co.uk
Organisation Scottish Clay Target Association
Telephone 01738 710041
Address SCTA Ltd., PO Box 7588, Perth PH1 4WD
Email janice.clerk@scta.co.uk
Web site www.scta.co.uk
Organisation Welsh Clay Target Shooting Association
Telephone 07751 353020 (Phone after 6PM only please)
Address Glanyrhafon, Caersws, Powys SY17 5SA
Email wctsa.membership@hotmail.com
Web site www.wctsa.co.uk
Organisation Ulster Clay Pigeon Shooting Association
Telephone 028 25898 075
Address UCPSA, 60 Shankbridge Road, Ballymena, Co Antrim, BT42 3DL
Email ucpsasec@hotmail.com
Web site www.ucpsa.com
Organisation Irish Clay Pigeon Shooting Association
Telephone 00 353 (0)87 2988030
Address PO Box 33, Athlone, Co. Westmeath, Ireland
Email icpsa@eircom.net
Web site www.icpsa.ie


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Art of Shooting
Chapter 7
Cartridges and Bullets
As your shooting improves you will naturally start to experiment with different cartridges to match your
firearm and the distance you at which you shoot, to get optimum performance. It is great fun but also
addictive, and eventually leads you into
loading your own ammunition and using
ballistic calculator software. In this chapter
we look principally at rifle and pistol
ammunition.
7.1 Ammunition Basics
Figure 7.1 shows both a rifle/pistol cartridge
and for completeness a shotgun
cartridge/shotshell. A rifle or pistol cartridge
comprises the bullet, propellant powder and
the primer in a metallic case. The primer is a
small charge of impact-sensitive chemical
material, located either in a cap in the centre
of case head (centrefire ammunition) or in
the rim (rimfire ammunition).

When the trigger is pulled, the firing pin is
driven into the primer, which in turn ignites the powder. Burning gases from the powder expand the
case to form a seal against the chamber wall. The bullet or shot is then propelled down the barrel.
When the breech is opened the cartridge case is gripped by the extractor and pulled out of the
chamber.
7.2 Cartridges
Cartridges are specified in terms of calibre (e.g. .22LR, .308” or 7.62mm), overall length, bullet weight
in grains, muzzle velocity, muzzle energy, the type of bullet (e.g. BTHP – boat tail, hollow point), and
whether centrefire or rimfire. For example, the standard Fullbore Target Rifle (TR) cartridge, 7.62 x
51mm, the 7.62mm refers to the diameter of the lands in the barrel (the raised helical grooves in rifled
gun barrels) and a case length of 51mm, a bullet weight of 155 grains, a muzzle velocity of around
2900 feet per second (884 metres per second), and a muzzle energy of around 3900-4000 Joules.
Cases
Cartridge cases are typically designated by the
style of the head. Figure 7.2 shows the common
types, which include: a) rimmed (ex. .22LR,
7.62x39mm Russian), b) semi-rimed (ex. .25
ACP, .38 Super), c) belted with a bulge where the
head joins the body (e.g. .300 Winchester), d)
rimless where the head is the same diameter as
the case (e.g. 7.62 NATO, 9mm Para) and e)
rebated (e.g. .284 Winchester) where the case head is below case diameter.

Figure 7.2: Cartridge Case Types
Primers
Primers (as illustrated by Figure 7.3) subdivide
into: Rimfire and Centerfire, with centerfire being
further subdivided into Boxer and Berdan type
primers. Boxer, the most widely used centrefire
primer, employs what is called a self-contained
anvil with the primer having a single flash hole in
the centre that uses the explosion of the primer to

Figure 7.3: Cartridge Case Primers

a) Rifle (centrefire) b) Shotgun (shotshell)
Figure 7.1: Cartridges
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ignite the main powder charge.
All US and most European
commercial cartridges use
Boxer primers, and Boxer
primers are normally used for
hand loading.

Berdan primers (still used in the
UK and Europe) have an
integral anvil in the in the primer
pocket in the case head with two
flash holes (one on either side of
the anvil). Their disadvantage is
that conventional US reloading
dies cannot decap cases.
Calibres and Headstamp
A cartridge’s calibre is identified
by its Headstamp.

A cartridge case needs to fit
perfectly into the chamber of the
firearm, and seal the firing chamber in all directions except down the bore. Firing the wrong size
cartridge in a firearm is incredibly dangerous, and can cause the firearm to explode. So it’s important
to match exactly the cartridge and firearm calibre. For example, while the 5.56x45 mm and .223
cartridges are considered the same by most shooters, they are not identical. Military cases are made
from thicker brass than commercial cases, which reduces the powder capacity (an important
consideration for hand loaders), and the military specification allows a higher chamber pressure.
Figure 7.4: Rifle and Pistol Bullet Types

There are basically three cartridge designation systems:
‰ American – this comprises the bullet diameter (in hundredth of an inch), followed by the number
of grains of powder, plus the originating company. For example, .44/40 Winchester.
‰ British – this system designates the case diameter and case length. For example, .577/3”.
‰ European (Metric) – this system (the most widespread) uses two or more fields defining the bore
diameter in millimetres and case length, plus additional designations. For example, 5.56x45mm
NATO.

Cartridges are identified by their Headstamp, the markings on the base of the cartridge case.
Cartridges intended for sporting or civilian use typically have
two elements: one identified the calibre and the other the
manufacturer who originally developed the calibre. Military
cartridges may have anywhere from one to five elements
including the calibre, date and place of manufacture, plus other
identifying markings. Worldwide there are over 400
commercial headstamps and over 800 military headstamps
that have existed at various times.
7.3 Bullets
Next we look at bullet design. Bullets can be optimised for a
range of ballistic properties: maximum range, minimum
crosswind sensitivity, minimum drop, and maximum retained
kinetic energy, or minimum dispersion and maximum
penetration. However, a bullet optimised for one parameter is
often a poor solution for another parameter. The principal
terms for describing a bullet are shown in Figure 7.5.

Figure 7.5: Bullet Terminology

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Art of Shooting
In terms of ballistics the important features are the Ogive shape, the Tip/Meplat shape and the
Heel/Base shape:
‰ Tip shape – the main tip styles are the so-called full metal jacket, soft point and hollow point.
‰ Ogive shape – this defines the curvature of the bullet, with the main types being the Spitzer used
in centerfire bullets, the round nose and wadcutter used with pistol calibre ammunition.
‰ Heel shape – the heel or base shape subdivides into flat base and so-called Boat tail.

For supersonic velocities, the Spitzer (German for ‘pointed’), Hollow Point, Boat Tail bullets have a
better aerodynamic shape than a Round-nosed or Flat-nosed bullet. The latter are considered to be
good close-range designs.
7.4 Barrels
Modern firearm barrels are typically made of ordinance steel (e.g. Chrome Moly or Stainless Steel),
which is made to withstand the pressures created by the rapidly expanding gases of the cartridge as
well as resist corrosion. A rifle gets its name – obviously - from the presence of spiral grooves in the
bore called ‘rifling’, that spin the bullet, thereby increasing the rifle's range and accuracy [1].

Figure 7.6 shows the important
barrel terms:
‰ Thread – attaches the barrel to
the action; common types are
Mauser and Remington 700.
‰ Chamber – holds the cartridge.
‰ Leade/Throat/Forcing cone –
is where the bullet is located prior to firing.
Figure 7.6: Rifled Barrel Terms


b) Rifling a) Barrel Terms
‰ Bore – is the inside of the barrel.
‰ Rifling – are the grooves and lands that spin the bullet.
‰ Twist - the rate of twist of the rifling, expressed as one turn in so many inches (i.e. 1 in 12”), is
designed to stabilise the range of bullets normally used in a particular calibre.
‰ Crown – is the end of the muzzle.
7.5 Powders
Smokeless ‘nitro’ propellant consists of nitrocellulose (single-base powders), frequently combined with
up to 50 percent nitro-glycerine (double-base powders), and sometimes nitro-glycerine and nitro
guanidine (triple-base). The two main types of nitro powder used in rifle cartridges are:
‰ Extruded – used in most high quality or competition ammunition. The powder looks like little rods
or tubes. Burning rate is controlled by composition, grain diameter and length, web thickness, and
deterrent coating.
‰ Ball – used in most military ammunition, since it is inexpensive to make and easy to machine
load. The power looks like tiny ball bearings. All ball powder is double base and burning rate is
determined by chemical composition, grain size, and deterrent coating.
7.6 Ballistics
Next we include a brief discussion of ballistics. There are three types of ballistics: a) Internal – what
happens inside the firearm barrel and is of concern to the hand loader; b) External – what happens
during flight and is of concern to all shooters; and c) Terminal – what happens inside the target,
interesting to hunters. We will limit ourselves to External ballistics.

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New shooters are often surprised at the amount of land behind the firing range; called the range
danger area. Although you may be firing a 7.62mm bullet at a target 1,000 yards away, if the bullet
passes over the butts it may continue on for a further 21 miles (4km). Even the little .22LR can travel
2 miles (3km).

Understanding external ballistics, simply involves being familiar with a few fundamental concepts.
These include (see Figure 7.7):
‰ Line of Sight (LOS) – a straight line
from the shooter (or the sights) to
the target.
‰ Line of Departure (LOD) – the line
through the centre of the bore, at
which the bullet is launched.
‰ Bullet Path – the arc of trajectory of
the bullet relative to the LOS, during flight.
Figure 7.7: Ballistic Trajectory
‰ Drop – the actual drop of the bullet relative to the LOD.
‰ Elevation – the vertical setting of the sights above the horizontal plane that sets the LOD. Gravity
imparts a downward acceleration on the projectile, causing it to drop from the line of sight, and the
air resistance decelerates the projectile with a force proportional to the square of the velocity.
‰ Windage – the horizontal deflection of the bullet to the right or left cause by the wind.
‰ Ballistic Coefficient (BC) – once a bullet is fired, its trajectory is determined by its velocity,
shape and weight. The so-called ballistic coefficient is a measure of a bullet’s ability to overcome
air resistance in flight. A bullet with a high BC will travel farther than one with a low BC.
7.7 Ballistic Software
As you become increasingly serious (some would say addicted) about improving your shooting, you
will probably want to know more about the ballistic properties of the available ammunition, especially if
you are hand loading. Here ballistic software can be invaluable, and fortunately there are a number of
computer programs available, some of which are free for downloading from the Web [5, 6]. The
popular 6mmbr.com has an article (www.6mmbr.com/ballistics.html) on free software. Ammunition
manufacturers such as Remington, Federal and Winchester provide free ballistics software for their
ammunition, and many of the specialist handloading companies such as Sierra and Barnes, offer
sophisticated software products.
7.8 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/, contains a number of articles on
cartridges, rifling and ballistics.
[2]. FirearmsID.com, “Introduction to Forensic Firearm Identification,”
www.firearmsid.com/A_bulletIDrifling.htm, source of information on ballistics
[3]. Steven Boelter, “Rifleman's Guide to Rimfire Ammunition”, Zediker Publishing (2007), ISBN-
10: B000NJKFM6.
[4]. Geoffrey Kolbe, “The making of a Rifle Barrel,” www.border-barrels.com/articles/bmart.htm, excellent
article by Border Barrels
[5]. 6mmbr.com, “Ballistics – a review of ballistic software”, www.6mmbr.com/ballistics.html
[6]. Sniper country web site, (www.snipercountry.com/ballistics/index.html), list of available ballistic
software.
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7.9 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation Eley Ltd
Telephone +44 (0)121 313 4567
Address Minworth Industrial Estate, Minworth, Sutton Coldfield, B76 1BA
Email http://www.eley.co.uk/about-eley/contact-us.aspx
Web site www.eley.co.uk
Organisation HPS TR Ltd.
Telephone +44 (0)1452 729888
Address PO Box 308, Gloucester South, England, GL2 2YF
Email info@hps-tr.com
Web site www.hps-tr.com
Organisation ROF Radway Green
Web site http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ROF_Radway_Green



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 8
Black Powder Firearms:
Muzzle Loaders and Breech Loaders

Black powder is the name commonly applied to gunpowder, the standard propellant and explosive
used until the latter part of the 19th century. In recent years, black powder musket, rifle, pistol and
shotgun shooting has become highly popular worldwide. Broadly, black powder firearms divide into:
‰ Muzzleloaders – those muskets, rifles, pistols and shotguns loaded with loose powder and bullet
or shot from the muzzle.
‰ Percussion Revolvers - pistols with revolving chambers that are loaded with loose powder, ball
and cap.
‰ Black Powder Cartridge Firearms – breech loading firearms that are loaded with cartridges
containing black powder.
8.1 Black Powder Basics
In terms of propellants, shooters can choose between traditional black powder and various black
powder substitutes, such as Pyrodex.
Black Powder
Black powder is formed from a blend of natural ingredients: sulphur, potassium nitrate and charcoal.
Good quality black powder will produce consistent and accurate results with firearms intended for its
use. Examples of common black powder brands include Goex (USA), WANO (Germany) and Swiss
Black Powder (Switzerland).
Black Powder Substitutes
Pyrodex is the most common black powder substitute. BP substitutes evolved because of a desire
primarily from the US hunting market to have a propellant suitable for muzzle loading firearms that
could move more easily from manufacturer to wholesaler to dealer to customer without having to go
through the same shipping regulations required of commercial explosives.
New Replacement Powders
These propellants are carbon-burning (sugar based) propellants, rather than being based on sulphur
and charcoal, and in fact are more modern than nitrocellulose-based powders. Examples include
Triple Seven and Goex Clear Shot. (Note in most competitions black powder substitute/replacement
powders are not permitted, only factory made black powder being allowed.)

Black powder is available in various granule sizes, with the finer powder burning at faster rates than
the coarser grades. The finest grades rapidly generate high pressures and are generally only suitable
for use as priming powder in flintlocks.

The widely available Swiss black powder is graded from 1 to 5, with number 1 being the finest and
number 5 being the coarsest grade. An alternative system typically used with US manufactured
powders has an ‘F’ grading: Fg (coarse grain), FFg (medium grain), FFFg (fine grain), FFFFg (extra
fine grain). It should also be noted that similarly graded powder from different manufacturers can
exhibit different characteristics.


a) BP Musket (historic) b) BP Rifle (modern)
Figure 8.1: Black Powder Muzzleloader Firearms

Choice of powder will depend on the
firearm to be used. For the novice,
guidance should be provided during the
probationary period of club membership
and further advice may be sought from
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experienced shooters.

Black powder requires careful handling and has specific storage requirements. Requirements for
storage are published by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in their Approved Code of Practice
(ACOP), “Manufacture and Storage of Explosives Regulations 2005.” During the probationary period
of a shooting club membership, such matters as the safe handling and storage of shooters powders
are explained.
8.2 Black Powder Firearms
At a basic level, black powder firearms can be differentiated by the type of:
‰ Firearms – muskets, rifles, pistols and shotguns. Pistols are a generic term and cover all types of
hand gun from matchlocks to revolvers.
‰ Barrels - smoothbore muskets, pistols and shotguns, and rifled rifles and pistols.
‰ Loading – muzzleloaders with separate powder and bullet or shot inserted in the barrel through
the muzzle, and breechloaders that use black powder filled cartridges.
8.3 Muzzle Loaders
Shooting with muzzle loaders is conducted with a) original period firearms, b) reproductions of original
firearms and c) modern purpose-designed muzzleloaders. The modern design muzzle loaders are
seldom seen in the UK, largely being developed for the US hunting market where there are special
hunting seasons for muzzle loading firearms. There are very few target shooting competitions held in
the UK in which such firearms are eligible for use.


a) Flintlock b) Muzzleloader Rifle
Figure 8.2: Muzzleloader Firearms
Firearms
The use of muzzle loading muskets, rifles, pistols and shotguns spanned several centuries and
included both military and sporting use. As such there is great choice available to suit today’s
shooter’s interest and budget.
‰ Muskets and Rifles – Smooth-bore military muskets, such as the flintlock 'Brown Bess', and
more exotic items such as the Japanese matchlock are generally fired at 50 metres; sporting
British and European rifles and the American long rifle firing a patched round ball are used at 50
and 100 metres; while military rifles are used at distances out to 600 yards and specially
developed percussion target rifles of the 1860 -1880 period are shot out to 1,200 yards.
‰ Pistols – muzzle-loading pistols are popular due to a prolific selection of well-made reproduction
firearms including matchlock, flintlock and percussion target pistols and percussion revolvers.
These are fired at 25 metres and, on occasion, at longer distances.
‰ Shotguns – muzzle-loading shotguns comprise both flintlock and percussion single and double
barrel, as well as wildfowling pieces. These guns are used in competition in down-the-line and
sporting clay pigeon events; the sporting events also often cater for breech loading black powder
shotguns.
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Loading Equipment
A variety of accessories are necessary for the loading and servicing of the muzzle loading firearm.
These include:
‰ Powder Flask or Horn – container with integral measure for dispensing a powder charge for a
musket, rifle, pistol or shotgun. As a safety precaution and for consistent results many shooters
prefer to load their powder from containers or measures holding only a single charge.
‰ Flintlock Priming Tool – a low volume flask for dispensing a small quantity of priming powder
e.g. FFFFg) into the pan of the flintlock.
‰ Ramrod – the rod used to drive home the bullet (or shot) onto the powder charge. Ramrods may
also be used for cleaning the bore after shooting and some have a threaded end for attaching
cleaning accessories. More typically separate cleaning rods are used.
‰ Cleaning accessories – muzzleloaders require a range of jags and bore brushes for cleaning,
although the task is not onerous. In addition specialist screws and worms are necessary in the
eventuality that stuck balls or patches may need extracting.
‰ Supplies – the black powder, the round or conical bullets or shot, patches, match cord, flints and
percussion caps.
Loading Steps
Muzzle loading, in general, follows the sequence of:
‰ Step 1 Safety – check that the barrel is unloaded using a ramrod with an ‘empty’ mark; especially
important for double barrel shotguns.
‰ Step 2 Powder – a measured amount of black powder or BP substitute is inserted in the muzzle
as loose powder.
‰ Step 3 Wadding – wadding is made from felt, cloth or card. In rifles and single shot pistols firing
round ball, a lubricated patch of fabric is wrapped around the base of the ball to grip the rifling and
to make a seal between the ball and the barrel. When shooting flat based cylindrical bullets a card
wad is loaded between powder and bullet. Hollow based conical bullets do not require any form of
wadding. In shotguns, wadding is placed in before and after the shot or ball.
‰ Step 4 Projectile – the projectile is next placed in the muzzle end of the barrel. Traditional
projectiles are made from lead and typically comprise a solid ball, a flat based cylindrical bullet or
a hollow based conical bullet (a Minie bullet), or loose shot. The modern design muzzle loader
may also fire a jacketed bullet in a plastic sabot.
‰ Step 5 Ramrod - a ramrod is next used to push the wadding and projectile down to ensure they
are firmly seated onto the propellant charge leaving no air gap between powder and projectile.
Patched round balls are typically tight fitting and the ram rod should be suitably robust.
‰ Step 6 Vent Hole – clear vent hole with pick, if necessary.
‰ Step 7 Prime – for a percussion lock muzzleloader, place a cap on the nipple; for flintlocks, pour
powder into pan and close frizzen.

To improve accuracy muzzleloaders’ bores are often cleaned (called ‘swabbing’ or ‘wiping out’) before
reloading so there is no residue left in the barrel. Note that some competition rules do not permit
cleaning between shots. If in doubt consult the event organiser.
8.4 Percussion Black Powder (or Cap ’n’ Ball) Revolver
By far the most widely used percussion black powder revolvers are those of mid 19th century
American pattern. Although there are a wide variety of British revolvers of the period, modern
reproductions are almost exclusively of American arms.
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Art of Shooting
Firearms
Shown on the right is a typical replica black powder
revolver.
Loading Equipment
‰ Powder Flask or Horn – a container with integral
measure for dispensing the required powder charge
for each chamber of the revolver. As a safety
precaution and for consistent accuracy today many shooters prefer to load their powder from
containers or measures holding only a single charge.

Figure 8.3: Black Powder Revolver.
‰ Supplies – the black powder, the round or conical bullets, filler or wads and percussion caps.
Loading Steps
Basic loading steps are:
‰ Step 1 Initial Cleaning – before firing the revolver it is important to remove all oil from the vent of
the nipple by inserting a percussion cap on each nipple and firing it to ensure a free passage. The
chambers can also be wiped out to remove any oil.
‰ Step 2 Powder Charge – place a correctly measured powder charge in each chamber.
‰ Step 3 Filler/Wadding – To ensure that there is no air gap between powder and ball, insert an
inert filler such as Semolina or ground corn or a lubricated wad between the powder and ball.
‰ Step 4 Bullet – insert a round or conical bullet in the mouth of one chamber at a time, and push
home using the revolver’s built-in loading rod.
‰ Step 5 Lubricant – placing a dab of lubricant over the bullet after it is seated in the chamber will
help continuous shooting by softening the fouling and also reduces the chance of ‘chain fire’.
‰ Step 6 Capping – place a percussion cap over each nipple. A capping tool can make this task
easier than pushing the cap on to the nipple using your fingers.
8.5 Black Powder Cartridge Firearms
Black powder cartridge firearms are becoming increasingly popular due to Silhouette target shooting
and Cowboy Action shooting.
Although many participants handload their own black powder cartridges, there are a significant
number of commercial cartridges available. Popular calibres are .32 calibre, .38 calibre, .44 calibre,
.45 calibre.
Firearms
Black powder cartridges cover all types of firearms: rifles, pistols and shotguns.
‰ Rifles – in general there are two types of black powder cartridge rifle commonly available, the
single-shot breechloader and the lever-action repeater. Reproductions of British black powder
breech loading rifles are not commonly available, although original arms such as the Snider and
Martini-Henry can still be fairly readily found. By far the most shooting is undertaken with
reproductions of American breechloaders such as the Remington rolling block and the Sharps
and Ballard falling block rifles.
‰ Pistols – many ‘old-time’ black powder revolvers are offered as replicas. Examples include the
Colt Peace Maker and the 45 Colt.
‰ Shotguns – there are still a large number of original black powder shotguns around. Subject to
suitable safety checks these original guns can give great pleasure in the field or on the clay
pigeon ground. They are also used in Cowboy Action Shooting.
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Art of Shooting
Loading Equipment
Here we briefly list the materials used to hand load black powder cartridges.
‰ The Case – plenty of new black powder cases are available which should be used in preference
to attempting to re-use original cases,
‰ Load Density – it is important not to have any air space in a black powder cartridge and any gap
between powder and bullet must be occupied with an inert filler.
‰ Primers – use an appropriate black powder primer.
‰ Bullets – pure lead or lead/tin alloy bullets are usually used for black powder cartridge firearms.
‰ Lubricating Discs – a lubricating disc may be inserted between the powder and bullet both to
provide lubrication for the bore and eliminate air space.
Loading Steps
An introduction to Handloading modern nitro powder cartridge is given in Chapter 55. Here we briefly
explain black powder handloading:
‰ Step 1 Deprime – knock out the spent primer from the case.
‰ Step 2 Resizing – next resize the case in a correct size die.
‰ Step 3 Trim Case – trim the case to the required length if necessary.
‰ Step 4 Chamfer Case – the mouth of the case is ‘bedevilled’, using a de burring tool to cut away a
little metal.
‰ Step 5 Belling – next a die is used to slightly open the case mouth to accept the bullet.
‰ Step 6 Re prime – a new primer is then installed.
‰ Step 7 Powder Charge – next the correct volumetric powder load is inserted in the primed case.
‰ Step 8 Lubricating Disc – a single lubricating disc may be inserted on top of the powder.
‰ Step 9 Seat Bullet – a bullet is inserted in the case mouth, and the case is run up into the pre-set
bullet seating die.

Further details of Black Powder hand loading can be found in the references.
8.6 Further Information
[1]. Sam Fadala, “Lyman Black Powder Handbook & Loading Manual”, Lyman Publications (2001),
UPC #011516971005.
[2]. Andrew Courtney, “The Modern Muzzle Loader”, The Muzzle Loaders Association of Great
Britain (1997) ISBN 0-9530541-0-1.
[3]. Russ Castain, “How to Load a Cap & Ball Black Powder Revolver”, About.com,
http://hunting.about.com/od/blackpowder/l/aa_loadcbrev_a.htm
[4]. Derek Fuller, “The Definitive Guide to Shooting Muzzle Pistols”, The Crowood Press (2002),
ISBN 1861264828.
[5]. Long Range Muzzle Loader, www.lrml.org, UK based forum and resource for this challenging
discipline.
[6]. Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Britain (MLAGB), www.mlagb.com, The Governing Body for
muzzle loading within the UK.
[7]. The Muzzle-Loading Associations International Committee (MLAIC), www.mlaic.org, World
Governing Body for muzzle loading shooting.
[8]. Historical Breechloading Smallarms Association (HBSA), www.hbsa-uk.org.
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Art of Shooting
8.7 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation Muzzle Loaders Association of GB (MLAGB)
Telephone 01926 458198
Address 7 Olympus Court, Tachbrook Park, Warwick CV34 6RZ
Email membership@mlagb.com
Web site www.mlagb.com
Organisation Historical Breechloading Smallarms Association (HBSA)
Address BCM HBSA, LONDON WC1N 3XX
Email secretary@hbsa-uk.org
Web site www.hbsa-uk.org


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Art of Shooting
Chapter 9
Airguns - pellets, BBs and Airsoft
An airgun is a pneumatic gun which fires projectiles using compressed air, CO2, spring-loaded piston
or other high pressure gas as a propellant.
9.1 Airgun Basics
Airgun power sources or propulsion broadly divides into three groups: Pneumatic, CO2 and Spring-
piston.


a) Pre-Charged Pneumatic b) Single-Stroke Pneumatic c) CO2 d) Spring-piston
Figure 9.1: Airgun (target air pistol) Propulsion
‰ Pneumatic (compressed air) – these are powered by compressed air from a cylinder attached to
the airgun. The type of pneumatic is determined by the way you get the compressed air into the
airgun:
ƒ Pre-charged Pneumatic – with PCP, the airgun’s cylinder (or reservoir) is charged with
compressed air from an external compressed air source (e.g. a Scuba tank), or by an electric
compressor or by using a hand-pump. This is the most common form of airgun population.
ƒ Single-stroke Pneumatic – as the name implies, a single-stroke of the cocking level charges a
built-in compressed air cylinder. This type of population was popular with high-end target
airguns; the low power gives reduced recoil and hence improved accuracy.
ƒ Multi-stroke Pneumatic – the multi-stroke requires between 2-10 strokes of the cocking level
to obtain the required pressure.
‰ CO2 – as the name implies, Carbon Dioxide airguns are powered either by charging the airgun’s
built-in reservoir from an external tank, or using a disposable cartridge inserted into the airgun.
CO2 propulsion is used both to power mass-produced ‘cheap’ airguns as well as precision target
airguns.
ƒ External CO2 Tank – as described above, the airgun’s reservoir is filled or charged by
decanted CO2 from a ‘bulk’ tank.
ƒ 12 gram Cartridge – disposable CO2 cartridges (sparklets) are a popular form of propulsion
for air pistols with the cylinder being inserted into the pistol grip.
CO2 powered airguns, although generally easy to cock and with low recoil, are highly accurate at
room temperature. However they are susceptible to temperature variations that can affect the
point of impact, and may need to stabilise before using in a competition.
‰ Spring-piston – these airguns operate by means of a spring-loaded piston. Charging or
‘breaking’ the airgun involves moving the piston backwards within the receiver at the same time it
compresses a powerful spring behind the piston. The trigger mechanism clicks into a notch in the
piston, holding it under tension until released. (Dry-firing a spring-piston airgun without a pellet in
the breech should be avoided as the piston head smashes into the receiver.)
Spring-piston airguns subdivide into:
ƒ Barrel-Break – here the barrel is swung down to cock the piston, a pellet is placed into the
breech and the barrel is swung back into position. When the trigger mechanism releases the
piston, a column of air is forced into the base of the pellet driving it down the barrel.
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Art of Shooting
ƒ Lever Cocking – alternative methods of charging the spring-piston, include cocking an under-
lever, side-lever or top-lever. However, inside the airguns operate in basically the same as the
barrel-break mechanism.
Firing Mechanism
Figure 9.2 illustrates the basic firing mechanism for a pneumatic (pre-charged) airgun.

When the gun is cocked the hammer is
pulled back and the trigger sear engages.
When the trigger is pulled the hammer is
released and travels forward striking the
Firing valve and allowing air to flow past
through the Transfer port and into the barrel.
The air then drives the pellet forward, after
which a spring closes the valve.

Spring-piston airguns operate by means of a
coiled spring-loaded piston contained in a
pressure chamber. Cocking the airgun
causes the piston to be compressed until it
engages a sear. When the trigger is pulled the sear is released, causing the piston to be driven
forward by the spring, and the expanding column of air propels the pellet down the barrel.
Figure 9.2: Airgun Firing Mechanism (pneumatic)
9.2 Air Rifles and Pistols
Broadly airguns used in competitions divide into: a) target air rifles and air pistols shot at static
‘bullseye’ targets over fixed distances, b) so-called Practical air pistols (often accurate replicas of
centrefire pistols) used on simulated police or military courses of fire, and c) Field Target Air Rifles
used on outdoor simulated ‘field sports’ courses of fire.


a)Target Air Rifles (match) b) Target Air Pistols c) Field Target Air Rifle
Figure 9.3: Air Rifles and Pistols
Target Air Rifles
Target air rifles are .177” (4.5mm) calibre, usually pre-charged pneumatics, with aperture sights, and
are fired at static targets designated by the ISSF. In particular, target air rifles are used in so-called
three position competitions, requiring the stock to be adjustable for prone, kneeling and standing
stances.
Target Air Pistols
Target air pistols are .177” (4.5mm) calibre and typically pre-charged pneumatics with iron sights, shot
standing at 10m static targets.
Field Target (FT) Air Rifles
Field target air rifles of .177” (4.5mm) and .22 (5.5mm and 5.6mm) calibres are equipped with
precision telescopic sights and competitions involve courses of fire that simulate field-hunting
conditions. Although there is no restriction to .22 (5.5mm and 5.6mm) calibres, the more accurate and
efficient .177” calibre is almost solely used.
Practical Air Pistols
Practical pistols are replicas of centrefire pistols that fire pellets and are usually powered by small 12-
gram CO2 disposable cartridges. Competitions typically simulate a military or law enforcement
scenario with competitors following a course of fire.
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Art of Shooting
Airsoft Rifles and Pistols
Airsoft rifles and pistols are also highly realistic replicas of military and law enforcement firearms (e.g.
M16, Glock), but fire plastic balls.
9.3 Airgun Ammunition
There are three types of airgun ammunition: lead pellets, BBs and Airsoft plastic balls
Pellets BBs Airsoft



a) Dome b) Hollow Point c) Flat d) Pointed e) BB f) Airsoft
Figure 9.4: Airgun Ammunition
Pellets
There are four basic types of lead ‘diabolo’ pellet used in rifled airguns. They are: dome, hollow point,
flat and pointed. The traditional dome is popular in field target, and the flat is used extensively in static
target shooting, as it punches nice clean holes in targets.
BBs
BB guns are a type of airgun designed to fire spherical projectiles, called BBs, after the Birdshot pellet
of approximately the same size. BB guns usually have a smoothbore barrel, with a bore diameter and
calibre of 0.177” (4.5 mm). BBs are usually steel, plated either with zinc or copper to resist corrosion,
and measure 0.171 to 0.173 inches (4.34 mm to 4.39 mm) in diameter.
Airsoft
Airsoft guns - often referred to as BB guns or pellet guns - shoot spherical projectiles with a
smoothbore barrel. However, Airsoft BBs are 5.98mm to 6 mm in diameter (0.24”), are made of plastic
or other non-metallic materials, and are designed specifically to be non-lethal.
9.4 Pellet Calibre and Selection
Pellet airguns are most commonly found in two calibres [1]:
‰ .177” (4.5mm) – the most common calibre for target shooting with a flat trajectory.
‰ .22” (5.5mm or 5.6mm) – a popular calibre for hunting small game.

In the UK, conventional airguns do not require a firearm certificate if their muzzle energy is at or below
a designated limit. For an air pistol this is 6 ft/lbs, and for an air rifle it is 12 ft/lbs.
9.5 Airgun Accuracy
Finally, a few words on airgun ballistics and accuracy. Pellet airguns have rifling just like rifles and
Pistols, and like them each airgun will exhibit differences for a range of pellets. This can depend on
the twist rate, the choke of the barrel, the crown, the pellet to barrel fit, pellet stability, etc. Each airgun
varies in the way it handles different pellet types. So get advice from the experts and then off to the
range with a selection of pellets and see which ones your airgun likes.
9.6 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_gun, overview of Air rifle and
pistols.
[2]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airsoft_Pellets, overview of Airsoft
pellets.
[3]. American Airguns – airgun, calibre and selection, www.airguns.net/general_regulators.php, good
description of the operation of an airgun.
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Art of Shooting
[4]. Q. Cobham, “Air Rifle and Air Pistol Maintenance and Repair”, Mini-Maxi publications (2006)
ISBN: 9780955313103.
9.7 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association
Telephone 01483 485505
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email info@nsra.co.uk
Web site www.nsra.co.uk
Organisation The British Field Target Association
Address BFTA, P.O Box 2242, Reading, Berks RG7 5YY
Email Secretary@BFTA.net
Web site www.bfta.net
Organisation United Kingdom Association for Hunter Field Target
Email info@ukahft.co.uk
Web site www.ukahft.co.uk






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Art of Shooting
Chapter 10
Iron and Optical Sights
The term ‘sight’ refers to any system used to assist the aiming of a firearm. Although we talk about
iron and telescopic sights, there are a number of different categories: a) open iron sights as on pistols
and shotguns, b) aperture iron sights found on target rifles, c) shotgun beads, d) telescopic rifle sights,
e) red dot on pistols and gallery rifles, and f) laser sights on military and law enforcement firearms.

Broadly aiming systems subdivide into iron sights and optical sights, and these in turn divide into:
‰ Iron sights - any open, unmagnified aiming system, consisting of some form of notch or aperture
in the rear sights and a post, bead or ring in the front sight [1].
ƒ Open sights – comprising a post or bead on a post for a front sight and a notch or U for the
rear sight.
ƒ Aperture sights – a rear sight of a firearm consisting of an adjustable eyepiece with a small
opening through which the front sight and the target are aligned.
ƒ Beads – a ‘bead’ is a metal or fibre optic stud on the muzzle-end of a shotgun or pistol.
‰ Optical Sights – comprises lens and a reticle that appears to place a sight image on the target.
ƒ Telescopic sights – commonly referred to as a ‘scope’, is an optical magnification sighting
system that gives an accurate point of aim using the cross-hairs, called the reticle.
ƒ Dot sights – non-magnifying (1-power) optical sights that uses refractive or reflective optics to
generate an image such as a red dot or cross that appears to be projected onto the target.
ƒ Laser sights – project a light point onto the target; common red-lasers are primarily for short-
range, low-light-level (i.e. nearly dark) situations.
10.1 Iron Sights
As introduced, the term iron sights refer to an open, unmagnified aiming system, consisting of some
form of notch or aperture as the rear sights and a post, bead or ring as the front sight (see Figure
10.1). Iron sights provide a horizontal and vertical reference point for the shooter to align with the
target. Once the sights are correctly aligned with each other, and the elevation adjusted for the
distance to the target, they should place the firearm at a precise angle to the line of sight of the target.

Iron sights used for target shooting are designed to be adjustable to match the ballistics of the
cartridge, the distance to the target (elevation) and the strength and direction of the wind (windage).


a) Open Sight b) Shotgun Bead
Figure 10.1: Open Sights
Open Sights
Open sights [1] generally comprise a square post or
bead-on-a-post for a front sight and a notch or U for
the rear sight. When aiming, the post and bead is
positioned in the rear sight notch, with the target
centred above the bead.
Aperture Sights
Modern Smallbore and Fullbore target rifles use precision target aperture sights, as shown in Figure
10.2. The Rearsight is attached to the action and has vernier scale adjustments for elevation and
windage. The Foresight in Figure 10.2b fits on the muzzle. The example shown is adjustable so the
Sight can be moved up and down in the mounting bracket. Using an adjustable Foresight helps
maintain the head-eye position.

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a) Rearsight b) Front/Foresight
Figure 10.2: Aperture Sights (RPA)
Art of Shooting
Aperture sights range from target aperture sights that use a disk with an adjustable pinhole-size
aperture, to so-called ghost ring sights, whose thin ring blurs to near invisible [1]. Many rifles from the
late 1800s use historic aperture sights, called a tang sight or also referred to as a ‘ladder’ sight.
Shotgun Beads
Beads, such as shotgun beads, are used for peripheral vision for open moving targets, with the front
sight formed by the bead and the rear sight by the shooter’s eye. Fibre optic sights are becoming
increasingly popular for shotguns and also certain pistols, because they greatly increase the
brightness of the bead by collecting more light.
10.2 Optical Sights
As illustrated in Figure 10.3, besides
telescopic sights there is a range of
high-tech optical sighting devices,
including red-dot, Bushnell’s
holosight, and laser sights that can
be fitted to rifles and pistols.
Telescopic Sights or Scopes
Telescopic sights magnify the target image and are classified in terms of the magnification, tube size
and the size of the objective lens. In general the
larger the objective lens, the more light is captured
and the larger the field of view.

As shown in Figure 10.4, the principal parts are:
the eye or ocular lens, the elevation and windage
turret adjustments, and the objective lens and bell.

Scopes either have a fixed magnification or a
variable magnification. Fixed power scopes are
expressed in terms of magnification x objective lens (e.g. 9x40mm) and variable power scopes in
terms of minimum magnification – maximum magnification x objective lens (e.g. 3-9x40mm). Besides
the elevation and windage adjustments, scopes may also have an adjustable objective (AO) or a side
focus adjustment on the saddle. Further details on scopes are given below.
Dot Sights and Holosights
Red-dot sights and holosights are 1-power optical sights
(offering no magnification) that appear to project a red
dot or cross onto the target. The red-dot sight system is
quite simple, comprising a concave lens with a thin
metallic coating that reflects red light but transmits other
colours, and a diode that projects light on to the lens.
The red dot appears to be projected out to a point at
infinity, which makes the image of the reticle appear to the user to be projected onto the target [3, 5].
Laser Sights
A laser sight is a small, usually visible-light, laser placed on a rifle or pistol, aligned to emit a beam
parallel to the barrel and appears as a small spot on the target. The actual usable distance of a
civilian laser sight is typically 100-150 yards (and then often in semi-dark conditions) because beyond
this distance the dot size becomes so large that the error variance is no longer practical.

The two basic types are: a) Red lasers that can only be used at short distances in diminished lighting,
and b) Green lasers that use green diode pumped solid state lasers that can be seen in daylight.
Most laser sights use a red laser diode, with the military and law enforcement using green lasers.
Others use an infrared diode to produce a dot invisible to the naked human eye but detectable with
night vision devices.
Figure 10.4: Telescopic Sight


a) Telescopic Sight b) Dot Sight b) Laser sight
Figure 10.3: Optical Sights
Figure 10.5: Red-dot Sight Principles
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10.3 Sight Adjustment
Moving the sights, obviously, changes the point of impact of the bullet. However, the ammunition
(bullet weight and powder) you use in your rifle or pistol can also have a dramatic affect on the point
of impact. So when you get a new firearm take it to the range, set the firearm up on a rest or sand bag
(to minimise movement) then ‘zero’ the sights to a fixed target at the required distance; for example,
25 yards (pistols), 50 yards (.22lr rifles) and 100 yards (centrefire rifles). It’s a good idea to fire 5-10
shots at a time to get an average point of impact, then adjust the elevation or windage, and fire
another 5-10 shots.

Once your have zeroed the sights it is then interesting (and fun) to fire batches of ammunition from
different manufacturers to see the affect on the diameter of your groups. With one particular .223
centrefire rifle with a 1:8 twist, I was able to go from 6-inch (15cm) diameter groups at 100 yards
(91m) with 55-grain bullets to 1-inch (13mm) groups with 77grain bullets.
Minutes of Angles (MOA)
Perhaps the most important concept in sight adjustment is the ‘minute of angle’ (MOA). Each ‘click’ of
the adjustment moves the sights through a fixed angular displacement. However for the novice it is
probably easier to think in distance rather angle, with 1MOA moving the point of impact of the bullet
approximately one inch at 100 yards. Thus a novice shooter can re-adjust his or her firearm sights by
estimating the distance in inches the bullet hole is from the desired impact point and adjusting the
sights that many MOA in the same direction. Most target sights designed for long distances are
adjustable in quarter (1) or eighth (⅛) MOA "clicks". Thus one eighth MOA is equal to approximately
an eighth of an inch at 100 yards or one inch at 800 yards.

Related to MOA in shooting is the concept of a ‘Group’; the pattern/area on a target caused by a
series of shots at a given distance. A group is the measure of the intrinsic accuracy of the rifle,
ammunition and shooter in combination. For example, the group accuracy may be expressed as 1
MOA; one inch at 100 yards.
Adjustable sights
Rifles and pistols for target shooting have adjustable sights providing separate turrets or screws to
adjust the horizontal or windage, and the vertical or elevation. These adjustments are independent, so
the elevation can be adjusted without affecting the windage, and vice versa.





a) Non-adjustable b) Screws (iron) c) Knob (aperture) b) Dials (scope) e) Target Turrets (scope)
Figure 10.6: Sight Adjustments
‰ Screws – tightening or loosening the elevation and windage screws adjusts iron sights.
‰ Dials – sights with screw dials are similar to target turrets, but provide a slot adjusted for a
screwdriver or small coin. This form of sight adjustment is often found on hunting scopes and red
dot sights.
‰ Turrets/Knobs – sights for target rifles are usually fitted with finger-adjustable turrets with dials
marked ‘up’ for elevation and ‘right’ for windage. Each audible ‘click’ of the turret moves the
corresponding elevation or windage 1 (or ⅛) minute of angle (i.e. 1 inch at 100 yards).
‰ Non-adjustable sights - even non-adjustable sights can often be ‘adjusted’. For example,
dovetailed sights can be adjusted for windage by tapping the sight to the left or right in the
dovetail using a brass or plastic headed hammer; likewise bead sights can be adjusted for
elevation by replacing the bead with an equivalent higher or lower bead.
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10.4 Target Aperture Sights
Most Smallbore and Fullbore target rifles use aperture (iron)
sights.
Basic Terms
The rear aperture target sight consists of a large disk with a
small, adjustable hole in the centre and the front sight
typically being a ring. The rear sight comprises an
adjustable eyepiece, an elevation knob and corresponding
vernier scale, and a windage knob and vernier scale. The
elevation and windage knobs are capable of finely
graduated adjustments, moving the sights vertically and horizontally in quarter (1) or eighth (⅛) MOA
with each click of the knob.

As mentioned, the foresight is usually a ring (or tube) on an adjustable post.
Aperture Sight Types
The aperture sight picture comprises the
large outer ring formed by the rear sight,
the inner ring of the foresight, and the
target at the centre [1].

The most common foresight is the ring
(shown in Figure 10.7a), with the choice
of size of the foresight ring being
determined by the shooter’s eyes. To
assist sight alignment, some shooters
believe that the amount of light around
the (inner) foresight ring should be reasonably narrow, while others believe it should be wide.
Sight Adjustments
Aperture target sights work with vernier scales for elevation and windage on the rear sight. Each
vernier scale consists of a moving and fixed scale (see Figure 10.8), each click of the knob will move
the scale one quarter (1) or eighth (⅛) MOA, depending on the design.

Each scale comprises two parts:
‰ Main scale (fixed) – this scale has a 0 (zero) line and four divisions each corresponding to 5
minutes of angle (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 …).
‰ Vernier scale (moving) – the corresponding vernier scale has a 0 (zero) and five divisions (1, 2,
3, 4, 5).


Figure 10.6: Rear Aperture Sight


a) ring with
horizontal bar
b) ring with
vertical post
c) simple
post
d) transparent
disk
Figure 10.7: Aperture Sight Picture

a) Elevation b) Windage
Figure 10.8: Elevation and Windage Vernier Scales (NRA UK)
If each click of the aperture sight knob moves the vernier scale 1 (one-quarter) MOA, then four ‘clicks’
clearly are needed to move from (0) zero to 1 (one).
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Elevation
Reading the Elevation scale is relatively straightforward. To learn simply click the elevation up and
note the correspondence of the Vernier and Main scales. As illustrated by Figure 10.8a, when the 1
on the Vernier is level with the 5 on the Main scale, the elevation has been raised 1 MOA. To read the
MOA: look at the position of the 0 on the Vernier and note the corresponding value on the Main scale.
Then look for correspondence between the Vernier and Main scale (see Figure 10.8a).
Windage
The Windage scale is slightly harder to read, because it can move right or left of the zero. The golden
rule is to only read the side of the scale from which the wind is blowing. Figure 10.8b illustrates a wind
blowing from the right.
10.5 Telescopic Sights
Telescopic sights or scopes come in a variety of configurations, and with a variety of crosshairs (or
reticles). In this section we discuss the basic scope terms and then look at some of the available
scopes [3]. Two pieces of advice: firstly expect to pay almost as much for your scope as your firearm
(it’s a false economy to put a £100 scope on a £1,000 rifle), and secondly seek the views of
experienced club members on the best scope and reticle for your chosen shooting discipline.
Basic Terms
When you look at scopes you will be amazed at the number of models available and the vast range of
prices. Some of the key variables affecting your choice are:
‰ Power – power expresses magnification as a factor compared to the human eye. As we have
seen scopes can be fixed power, such as 32x50 with the object in view being magnified 32 times,
or variable power, such as 8-32x50 where the shooter can vary the magnification from 8 times to
32 times.
‰ Objective Lens – the second number listed for scopes (e.g. x50) is the diameter of the objective
lens in millimetres. A 50 designation means the lens is 50 millimetres in diameter.
‰ Reticle – commonly known as the ‘crosshairs’ - because of the standard two thin wires that cross
– the reticle is the aiming point within the scope. Typical scope reticles are shown in Figure 10.9,
and range from traditional duplex
‘crosshairs’, to illuminated (ill) duplex,
to military-style reticles such as Mil-
Dot.
‰ Field of View (FOV) – FOV defines
how wide an area (say in feet) can be
seen through the scope at 100 yards.
The greater the magnification the smaller the FOV. For example a variable power scope
(expressed as 6.5-20x50) might have a FOV at 100 yards of 14.3 feet (at 6.5x magnification) and
5.5 feet (at 20x magnification).


a) Cross Hairs b) Target Dot c) Mil-Dot d) German
Figure 10.9: Scope Sight Picture
‰ Exit Pupil - the exit pupil is the size of the beam of light that leaves the scope. The larger the exit
pupil, the brighter the image that will be entering your eye. The exit pupil diameter can be
calculated (in millimetres) by dividing the diameter of the objective lens by the power (ex. a 5x50
has an exit pupil of 10mm).
‰ Eye Relief – eye relief is the optimum distance between your shooting eye and the eyepiece of
the scope that allows you to clearly see the target image. Outside of this distance the image will
blur and disappear. Eye relief will usually be stated as a range, since on a variable power scope
the eye relief will vary with the range setting.
Scope Types
A scope’s intended usage and the distance to the target determine types. Scopes are typically sold as
one of four types: a) target or varmint rifle scopes, b) hunting rifle scopes, c) pistol scopes or d)
shotgun scopes.
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It goes without saying that the choice of shooting discipline(s) you pursue will clearly determine the
choice of scope. If shooting a single discipline at a fixed distance, than a fixed power scope may be
ideal. In contrast, if shooting multiple disciplines, at multiple distances and especially if the shots are
affected by wind, then you will undoubtedly need a variable power scope with target turrets.
Sight Adjustment
Scopes are also adjustable in Minutes of Angle (MOA), and are calibrated in one quarter (1) or eighth
(⅛) MOA per click.
10.6 Zeroing the Sights
Before using your rifle, for safety, it is essential
that you correctly zero the firearm for the new
distance and wind conditions. (This is covered in
detail in Chapter 53.)

For the popular 7.62x51mm target rifle calibre
there are Elevation and Windage tables, as
illustrated in Figure 10.10, which give estimates for
Elevation and Windage, to at least get you –as
they say – on the paper.

a) Elevation table b) Windage table
Figure 10.10: Elevation and Windage Tables
10.7 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia the Free Encyclopaedia, www.wikipedia.org/wiki/iron_sights, contains reviews of iron, and
aperture sights.
[2]. Wikipedia the Free Encyclopaedia, www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telescopic_sight, contains reviews of
telescopic and red dot sights.
[3]. UK National Rifle Association, “Target Rifle Coaching Course Notes”, NRA (1997).
[4]. Clair Rees, “Optics Digest”, Safari Press (2005), ISBN-13: 9781571573179.
[5]. 6mmbr, www.6mmbr.com/optics.html, good review of long-range scopes.
[6]. John Dreyer, “Facts and Figures about Dot Sights”, www.bullseyepistol.com.dotsight.htm
10.8 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association Shop
Telephone 01483 485509
Address Lord Roberts Centre, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email sales@nsra.co.uk
Web site www.nsra.co.uk/Shop2/contact.htm
Organisation HPS TR Ltd.
Telephone +44 (0)1452 729888
Address PO Box 308, Gloucester South, England, GL2 2YF
Email info@hps-tr.com
Web site www.hps-tr.com



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 11
Clothing, Equipment and Accessories
In your rush of enthusiasm to ‘get started’ you can easily spend a small fortune on your firearm and
shooting equipment, only to find it is totally inappropriate or that in fact you really prefer another
shooting discipline that requires different equipment.

And certainly don’t turn up at your shooting Club dressed like Rambo or a member of the Special
Forces. At the very least you will be the subject of much caustic humour, or more than likely
considered a potential danger, and asked to leave. Every club has a dress, equipment and behaviour
code, especially when you are shooting in competitions.
11.1 Appropriate Firearm and Sights
The best advice you will be given when taking up a new shooting discipline is to use the Club’s
equipment for the first 6-9 months, see what firearms and equipment other members are using, take
lots of advice, and probably start with inexpensive second hand equipment if you can. For example, a
second hand rifle with a good barrel might cost a few hundred pounds, while a new rifle might cost a
few thousand and be an expensive mistake.
11.2 Clothing
Many shooting discipline specify the
types of clothing that may be used in
competitions; from the tight fitting
jacket and trousers of the Smallbore
target rifle shooter, to the loose
shooting vest of the clay pigeon
shooter.

The target rifle jacket used in
Smallbore and Fullbore TR locks your
torso. To test ‘fit’, raise and bend your arms, then try and bring your elbows together. The jacket
should be tight enough to keep your elbows 10 inches (35cm) apart. The idea is that when you move
your arms, the whole upper torso should rotate.


a) Target Rifle b) High Power b) Shooting Vest
Figure 11.1: Jackets & Vests

As an illustration of ‘acceptable’ clothing:
‰ Hat – a hat should afford adequate shade and shelter to eyes and Rearsight.
‰ Jacket – a purpose made jacket made of Cordura/leather that gives support across the back, with
padding for the butt, upper arm under the sling, and elbows. Specialist jackets are made for:
prone, standing and 3-position target shooting (e.g. AHG Anschutz, Kurt Thune, Sauer), High
Power (e.g. Creedmoor Sports) and for Clay Pigeon shooting.
‰ Glove – when using a sling a purpose made Cordura/leather glove may be worn to protect the
forward hand from the sling and forward slide swivel or handstop.
‰ Wet Weather Clothing – for wet weather on outdoor ranges a waterproof cape or mackintosh,
trousers and boots are required.
11.3 Ear Defenders and Shooting Glasses
All shooting disciplines require you to wear ear defenders or adequate earplugs. Competition shooters
also invest in specialist shooting glasses.


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Ear Defenders
Hearing protectors come in all shapes and prices,
subdividing into Ear Defenders and earplugs. Ear
defenders range from cheap models that suppress all
sound, to increasingly expensive electronic models, that
filter out high-pitch discharges but allow you to hear
people speaking.

Likewise, earplugs range from cheap disposable or soft
rubber inserts, to expensive custom-made devices that
distinguish between firearm discharges and low-level background noise.
Shooting Glasses
Eyeglasses for shooting either improve optics or
provide eye protection. Target rifle shooters,
especially Smallbore, often use specially made
eyeglasses, with adjustable lens, nosepiece and an
opaque shield for the non-dominant eye.

In contrast, Black powder and Clay pigeon shooters
wear eyeglasses that provide better visibility (cf.
sunglasses) and also protection from dust and
discharge.
11.4 Slings, Rests and Bipods
Depending on your shooting discipline, there are a massive range of slings, rests, sand bags, mono-
pods and bi-pods.

As a taster, Figure 11.4 shows a typical target rifle sling, an adjustable front rest used by F-Class and
Benchrest shooters, a so-called Harris-type bipod mounted on the fore-end of the rifle, and shooting
sticks used in field sports.
Slings
The sling is an essential piece of equipment in most rifle shooting disciplines: Fullbore, Smallbore,
High Power, Practical and Service rifle. Its purpose is to support the rifle with minimal muscular effort,
giving the shooter a solid shooting platform. Slings come in a variety of styles and materials; such as
Cordura, leather or cotton webbing. Slings loop around the upper arm and attach to the forend with a
hook or bolt. Target slings need to be tight and so usually have a wide cuff where the loop goes
around the upper arm, to reduce pinching and circulation loss [1].
Rests and Sandbags
Rests and sandbags are popular for long-distance prone shooting, Benchrest shooting, and also for
zeroing a rifle. The front rest (illustrated in Figure 11.4b) is engineered to allow the height to be
precisely adjusted, and a variety of rest ‘tops’ are available for the different shooting disciplines.

In contrast, the ‘sandbag’ or rear rest is a leather, suede or Cordura bag filled with sand. During
shooting the height of the rear rest is varied by squeezing the bag with the non-trigger hand.


a) Target Rifle b) Clay Pigeon
Figure 11.3: Eyeglasses


a) Ear Defenders b) Earplugs
Figure 11.2: Hearing Protectors



a) Rifle Sling b) Front Rest c) ‘Harris’ Bipod d) Shooting Sticks
Figure 11.4: Slings and Rests
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Bipods and Shooting Sticks
Bipods are two-legged devices that attach to the rifle forend and function as a portable rest. There are
two basic types (see Figure 11.4): the Harris-type bipods that are attached to the front stud, and
Shooting sticks for sporting rifle that can be monopods, bipods, or tripods.

Good bipods are adjustable for height and canting. Bipods must always be attached to the rifle stock,
never the actual barrel, since it would affect the barrel’s vibration and cause a shift in the point of
impact of the bullets. With shooting sticks, it is good practice to rest the rifle forend in the palm of the
hand, and the hand on the top of the shooting stick.
11.5 Mats, Spotting Scopes & Scorebook
Other pieces of equipment you will need for
many target rifle disciplines are: a) a
waterproof shooting mat, with a non-slip
surface at the front for your elbows, b) a
high-powered spotting scope, with a 60-
80mm lens if you shoot out to 1,000 yards,
and lastly c) a scorebook. Because the
scorebook is so important for target
shooting, Chapter 17 is devoted to its use.


a) Shooting Mat b) Spotting Scope
Figure 11.5: Mats and Spotting Scopes
11.6 Gun cases, Sleeves &
Range Bags
To protect your firearms and other
shooting equipment in transit you will
need hard or soft gun cases, and also
a range bag to carry your ammunition,
scorebook and any tools.

As a word of warning, airlines are
notorious in the shooting community for damaging rifles and shotguns in transit. So if you are planning
to shoot abroad in competitions, you will need super-strong aluminium cases. For taking weapons to
the range a hard plastic or soft gun case is suitable.



a) Gun case b) Gun Sleeves c) Range Bag
Figure 11.6: Cases and Bags

Lastly, you should get a range bag to carry all your accessories. The two basic types are: firstly the
so-called Bisley design (see Figure 11.6c) that doubles as a shelter for your scorebook during
shooting, and secondly a standard hold-all (ideally with internal dividers).
11.7 Cleaning Equipment
Finally, you will need a set of rods, brushes and jags, plus solvents, oils and greases for cleaning your
firearm. Every shooter has their favourite set of cleaning procedures and equipment. So Chapter 54
covers cleaning of rifles, pistols and shotguns in detail.
11.8 Further Information
[1]. Glen D. Zediker, “Slings and Things”, Zediker Publishing (2007).
[2]. National Rifle Association (UK), “The NRA Rules of Shooting and Programme of the Imperial
Meeting Bisley”, (2007).
[3]. National Rifle Association (USA), “Competition Rules”, www.nrahq.org/compete/
[4]. International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF), “Rules”, www.issf-shooting.org/rules/english/rules.asp
[5]. Sinclair International, www.sinclairintl.com, US catalogue specialising in rifle target shooting
supplies and equipment.
[6]. MidwayUSA/UK, www.midwayuk.com, comprehensive US and UK catalogue of shooting supplies
and equipment.
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Art of Shooting
[7]. Edinkillie Sporting Services, Online Catalogue, www.edinkillie.co.uk, UK catalogue specialising in
target shooting equipment.
[8]. Neal Johnson Gunsmithing Inc., Online Catalog, www.nealjguns.com, US catalogue specialising
in target shooting equipment.
11.9 Contacts
Clothing, equipment and accessories are highly specialised. Therefore it is recommended to ask
fellow club members for advice on where they purchase their equipment.

Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association Shop
Telephone 01483 485509
Address Lord Roberts Centre, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email sales@nsra.co.uk
Web site www.nsra.co.uk/Shop2/contact.htm
Organisation Sinclair International
Telephone +1 260-493-1858
Address 2330 Wayne Haven St., Fort Wayne, IN 46803
Email support@sinclairintl.com
Web site www.sinclairintl.com
Organisation Midway UK
Telephone 0845 22 66 055
Address P.O.Box 4300, Warwick CV34 9BR
Email sales@midwayuk.com
Web site www.midwayuk.com
Organisation HPS TR Ltd.
Telephone +44 (0)1452 729888
Address PO Box 308, Gloucester South, England, GL2 2YF
Email info@hps-tr.com
Web site www.hps-tr.com
Organisation Edinkillie Sport Services Ltd.
Telephone 01324 711747
Address PO Box 21615, FALKIRK FK1 2YW, Scotland, UK
Email info@edinkillie.co.uk
Web site www.edinkillie.co.uk
Organisation Intershoot Ltd.
Address PO Box 86, Omagh, BT78 9AQ
Email http://www.intershoot.co.uk/cgi-bin/mf000003.pl?ACTION=SHOWFORM
Web site www.intershoot.co.uk




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Art of Shooting
Part C – Target Rifle Disciplines
Summary
Target rifle disciplines are typically shot with precision bolt-action target rifles at bullseye targets,
using either single-shot rifles with aperture sights and supported by a sling; or magazine rifles with
telescopic sights and supported by rests. Ranges can be outdoors from 100 yards to1000 yards, or
indoors for Smallbore and Air Rifle.
Chapter 12 - Fullbore Target Rifle
Fullbore Target Rifle (TR) involves prone single shot precision shooting using aperture iron sights at
'round bull' targets at distances from 300 to 1200 yards, with each shot carefully scored and analysed.
The standard calibre is 7.62mm x 51, with a 155-grain bullet.
Chapter 13 – High Power Rifle
High Power shooting comprises: a) Match rifles - custom-made bolt action, magazine rifles; and b)
Service rifles - generally unmodified M1, M14, M16 or AR15. All shooting is done with metallic
aperture, or peep, iron sights. A typical competition comprises 3-4 courses each of twenty shots at
distances of 200, 300, and 600 yards, shot standing, seated and prone, respectively.
Chapter 14 - Smallbore Target Rifle – Standard (prone), 3 Position (Match)
Smallbore Rifle shooting is carried out using .22LR single shot rifles specially designed for target
shooting with aperture 'iron' sights. Smallbore is practiced indoors at 25 yards and occasionally at 15,
or 20 yards, and outdoors at 50 yards, 50 metres or 100 yards. The International Shooting Sports
Federation (ISSF) recognises two international competitions: a) Prone – competitions comprise 60
shots prone at 50m; and b) 3 Position – competitions comprise 3 x 40 shots (Men), and 3 x 20 shots
(Women) shot, respectively, prone, standing, kneeling at 50m.
Chapter 15 - International 300m Rifle
The International 300m Rifle discipline is fired at only one distance (i.e. 300 metres), but the rifle may
be 'Standard' or 'Free' and in any calibre up to 8mm. Matches may be prone only, or prone, standing
and kneeling (PSK), and are shot from a covered firing point.
Chapter 16 - F-Class Rifle
F ('Farquarson') Class, or F-Class is shot prone with any Fullbore target rifle, but shooters can use a
variety of aids, such as telescopic sights, bipods, front-rests and sandbags, and any calibre of
ammunition up to 8mm.
Chapter 17 - Benchrest Rifle
Benchrest shooting is a sport in which very accurate rifles are shot at targets from a bench with rests,
and from a sitting position. Shooters typically use single shot custom rifles with heavy stainless steel
barrels, and handmade stocks of graphite, fibreglass, or carbon fibre. Popular ammunition is the 6mm
PPC and the Remington BR line of cartridges.
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Chapter 18 – Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest
Rimfire and air rifle Benchrest as the name suggests is shooting from a bench using both front and
rear rests using highly accurate .22LR Rimfire rifles or Air rifles of .177, .20 or .22 calibre. Rimfire
Benchrest is shot at 50 meters (or 50 yards in the US) and 25 yards in the UK, with as many sighting
shots taken as required during the 30 minute match. Air rifle Benchrest is shot at 25 yards.
Chapter 19 - Match Rifle
Match Rifle is usually fired with the 7.62mm cartridge, at long distances from 1000 to 1200 yards, and
is popular with UK and Commonwealth shooters. Telescopic sights and hand loaded ammunition are
used, and the specification for rifles and the firing positions allowed are more open. Whilst the majority
of shooters shoot prone, a few still adopt the 'supine' position, reclining on their backs feet pointing
towards the target.
Chapter 20 – Target Air Rifle – 10m and 3-Position
Target Air Rifle is highly popular worldwide, and comprises the ISSF 10m Air Rifle and the US 3
Position Air Rifle. 10m Air Rifle is governed by the ISSF and included in the Olympics, and is shot
over a distance of 10 metres from a standing position, unsupported. 3-Position Air Rifle is very
popular in the US, South Africa and Germany. The current events available in the UK are Sporter
(Standing and 3P) and Precision (3P) Air Rifle disciplines.
Other Disciplines
In the target rifle category, an entry-level discipline, popular in the United States, is the Light Rifle
competition.
‰ Light Rifle – the US NRA Light Rifle competition rules allow any ‘light’ .22LR hunting rifle
weighing less than 81 lbs (3.9kg) using iron or telescopic sights and with any action type (e.g.
bolt-action, slide-action, lever-action or self-loading). Light rifle matches may be fired indoors or
outdoors, at any distance, and any stance (i.e. standing, prone or 3 position).



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 12
Fullbore Target Rifle
Fullbore Target Rifle (TR) evolved as a British and Commonwealth shooting discipline from Service
rifle (SR) shooting in the 1960s, and is governed in the UK by the rules of the National Rifle
Association of Great Britain. A few non-Commonwealth countries, most notably Germany and USA,
also participate. Most countries have their own governing bodies that set national rules. The
International Confederation of Fullbore Rifle Associations (ICFRA) produces a standardised rule set
that has been adopted by some countries.

TR involves prone shooting using a sling for support,
at 'round bull' targets at distances from 300 to 1000
yards and very occasionally longer distances, with
each shot being carefully scored and analysed. The
rifles used are single shot, typically 7.62x51mm
NATO calibre, with aperture 'iron' sights fully
adjustable for elevation and windage.

Fullbore TR events are staged at the
Commonwealth Games, but not at the Olympics..

Figure 12.1: Fullbore Target Rifle (Alan Keating)
12.1 Rifles and Ammunition
The NRA-UK [1] states that any conventional bolt-
action rifle conforming to the following can be used
for TR:
‰ Rifle - the rifle and its components must be commercially available.
‰ Weight - it must have a maximum weight of 6.5kg (14.32 lbs).
‰ Calibre – it must fire either standard 7.62x51mm NATO, .308 Winchester commercial cartridges,
.303 MK 7 military cartridges, 5.56x45mm military cartridges, or .223 Winchester commercial
cartridges.
‰ Ammunition - during the UK Imperial Meeting at Bisley in July, only 7.62 x 51mm or .308”
Winchester ammunition may be used, with ammunition being supplied by the NRA. In most other
competitions, competitors supply their own ammunition.
‰ Trigger Pull – a rifle must have a minimum trigger pressure of 1.5kg (3.307 lbs).
‰ Stock and Butt – most configurations of butt stocks
are allowed, with a restriction on the depth of
curvature of the butt plate.
‰ Sights – most makes of aperture rear sight,
adjustable for windage and elevation, and foresight are permitted. There are strict rules limiting
the use of magnifying lenses, and many competitors use no magnification at all.

Figure 12.2: Fullbore Rifle (RPA)

Rifles are usually custom-made using actions such as the Barnard, Musgrave, Swing, RPA and Shilen
– all specialist designs specifically for target shooting.
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Art of Shooting
12.2 Ranges and Targets
As stated above, TR is shot prone at static bull’s eye targets on outdoor ranges at distances of 300 to
1000 yards. Some ranges are measured in metres. The targets at distances up to 600 metres are
sized roughly in proportion to the distance – the 600 yard target is about 21 times the size of the 300
yard target. At 800 yards and greater the same target is used at all distances; a board 10 ft x 6 ft, with
the ‘bull’ being 2 ft across and the black aiming mark 4 ft across.


Figure 12.3: Fullbore Target Marking
On all targets there are six scoring areas, from the 'bull'
scoring 5 to the 'hit' scoring 1. Inside the 'bull' is a smaller ring
(the V-bull) that acts as a tie-break when scores are level for
all positions. The strength and direction of the wind plays a big
part in TR. Even a gentle breeze will blow the shot out of the
'bull'. Wind flags are positioned at regular intervals down the
range to assist the shooter in gauging the wind, and hence the
correct setting of the windage on the rear sight.

After each shot competitors use a telescope to check the
position and value of their shot. The target is pulled down into
a pit, where the operator places a score ‘panel’ along the
bottom of the target to show the value. The position of the shot
on the target is shown by inserting an orange 'spotting disk'
into the shot hole using a pin. The target is pushed up into
view for the shooters to note the score and fire the next shot.

In the UK, two or three shooters use a single target in turn, and keep each others’ score. In some
countries, notably Australia, competitors fire singly and the shooter who has just finished keeps score
for the next to fire.
12.3 Equipment
Fullbore rifles are precision single shot, bolt-action rifles with aperture ‘iron’ sights, with suppliers
being small companies or one-man businesses who will effectively hand-build your rifle.

The next essential piece of equipment is a sling to steady the rifle. The sling is a leather, cloth or
plastic strap placed around one upper arm and attached near the front of the rifle stock. The sling
must not exceed 50mm (2”) in width or 6mm (1”) in thickness. Other equipment includes a good
spotting scope with stand, a shooting glove, specialist shooting jacket, plus a hat to shield the eyes, a
mat and ear defenders. The shooting jacket is equipped with elbow, shoulder and sling pads that
contribute to the shooter's comfort. Since there are several styles of shooting jackets of varying cost,
the shooter is advised to try out several before making an investment. In addition, you will need a
scorebook and a pencil/pen to record and analyse your scores.
12.4 Competitions
There are a wide range of TR competitions, from Club level, through County and Home Country, to
International and World Championships.
Individual Competitions
A typical TR competition comprises multiple distances, with two sighting shots and ten or fifteen shots
to count at each distance. There will be prizes for each separate shoot, but the main prizes will be for
the Grand Aggregate (the total score in all the shoots that everyone entering completes).

The most prestigious individual competition is undoubtedly Her Majesty the Queen’s Prize, shot in
three stages at Bisley during the annual Imperial Meeting of the NRA. The winner is carried shoulder
high from the range to the prize-giving, and then carried around the entire Camp, a distance of over a
mile, involving visits to fourteen clubhouses, on a celebratory tour.
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Art of Shooting
Team Competitions
Team competitions vary from club and county matches to International matches. Team sizes vary
from 4 to 30, and wind coaches are normally allowed in addition to the shooters.

Touring teams typically have up to 20 members, to support teams of 12 firers, and will include
dedicated coaches to direct the shooters on sight settings for wind during the matches.
Commonwealth Games
The firing distances for Commonwealth Games events are 300, 500, 600, 900 and 1,000 yards. On
the first day, seven shots are fired at each of 300, 500 and 600 yards. On the second day, the same
distances are used but with 10 shots at each. The final day’s competition is 15 shots at each of 900
and 1000 yards. At the Commonwealth Games, shooters compete in both singles and pairs
competitions. In the Pairs Match the other member of the pair acts as coach providing information on
wind direction and speed, then roles are reversed to complete the shoot.
World Championships
Every 4 years (in the year after the Commonwealth Games), the World Long-Range Target Rifle
Championships are held. Although there is an individual event for the title of World Long-Range
Champion, the primary event is the World Long-Range Team Championship for the Palma Trophy.
The modern competition is for a team of 16 firers, 2 reserves, 4 target coaches, a central coach, a
Captain, Adjutant and Armourer – a total of 26. The competition lasts two days, with each competitor
firing fifteen shots to count at 800, 900 and 1000 yards on each day. The target has a 20” diameter
bull, scoring 10, and the larger rings are closely spaced, making this a most difficult event.
USA Palma Match
In the USA, TR is most commonly shot at 800-1000 yards. These competitions are also known as
Palma competitions [2] but are not connected with the TR World Championship match for the Palma
Trophy. The Palma Match course of fire is 15 shots at 800 yards, 15 shots at 900 yards, and 15 shots
at 1000 yards. Unlimited sighters precede the 800-yard stage, and two sighters preceding each of the
900 and 1000-yard stages, with each stage shot in 20 minutes.
12.5 Help & Advice
[1]. National Rifle Association of the UK, “Bisley Bible - Rules of Shooting and Programme for the
Imperial Meeting Bisley” (published each year).
[2]. Palma Promotions, www.palma.org, the Official US Palma organisation.
[3]. P F Hicks, “UK NRA Target Rifle Coaching Course Notes”, National Rifle Association of the
UK (2003).
[4]. Major E G B Reynolds and Robin Fulton, “Target Rifle Shooting”, Barie & Jenkins (1976)
ISBN 0 214 20172 4, a classic.
[5]. Clive R E Halnan, “Shooting Sport Technique and Practice”, Canberra Publishing & Printing,
wonderful book but difficult to find.
[6]. Harry Thompson, “A Guide to Target Rifle Shooting”, (available from Fultons and Norman
Clarke etc.), good introduction to Fullbore.
[7]. Desmond Burke, “Canadian Bisley Shooting: An Art and Science”, Oakville (1970).
12.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK
Telephone 01483 797777
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0PB
Email info@nra.org.uk
Web site www.nra.org.uk
Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland
Address NRA of Ireland, Leabeg, Blueball, Tullamore, Co Offaly, Ireland
Email info@nrai.ie
Web site www.nrai.ie



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 13
High Power Rifle
High Power (or Highpower) is the major Fullbore shooting
discipline in the United States, and is increasing in popularity
in the United Kingdom and Europe. High Power shooting
mainly comprises Match Rifle and Service Rifle.
Figure 13.1: High Power
‰ Match rifles - are fully customisable bolt action, magazine
or stripper clip fed rifles often built on a Winchester or
Remington bolt-action repeater. Also available are more
specialist rifles such as the Tubb 2000 designed from the
outset for High Power rifle competition. Calibres are
restricted to .30 or less with many shooters using .308
Winchester or a variety of 6mm calibres.
‰ Service rifles - are generally limited to standard issue military rifles, either the unmodified M1,
M14, M16, or their commercial equivalents such as an AR15 or M1A. In order to comply with
current legislation in the United Kingdom AR15 or M1A style rifles are restricted to manually
operated or “Straight Pull” configuration with no gas operated parts and are thus not semi-
automatic. Calibres in common use are .223 Remington or .308 Winchester with some
competitors choosing to shoot classic bolt action European Service Rifles in .303 British or 7.92
Mauser.

The majority of shooting is done with metallic aperture, or peep, iron sights although a class does
exist for rifles fitted with telescopic sights.

There are 4 strings of fire that are the basic building blocks of any NRA-USA high power rifle across
the course (XTC) competitions. These are: a) Slow Fire (standing) - 10 rounds standing at 200 yards
in 10 minutes; b) Rapid Fire (sitting) - 10 rounds sitting or kneeling at 200 yards in 60 seconds; c)
Rapid Fire (prone) - 10 rounds prone at 300 yards in 70 seconds; and d) Slow Fire (prone) - 10
rounds prone at 500 or 600 yards in 10 minutes.
13.1 Rifles and Ammunition
As discussed, the NRA-USA recognises
two categories: fully customisable Match
Rife and standard issue Service Rifle. In
the UK the High Power Rifle Association
in order to encourage more participation in
the sport recognises five categories:
Classic Rifle, Veteran Rifle, Service Rifle,
Match Rifle and Scoped Rifle. The most
commonly competed classes in the United Kingdom are Service Rifle and Match Rifle.


a) Match Rifle - Tubb b) Service Rifle – M16
Figure 13.2: High Power Rifle
Service Rifle
Service rifles such as M1, M16 and their derivatives, fire 7.62x51mm (cf. .308) and 5.56 (i.e. .223)
ammunition, typically hand loaded for competition. United Kingdom legislation requires that M1 and
M16 style rifles are built from new not to be semi automatic; basically this means that the gas
operating parts are either not fitted or permanently blanked and the rifle is manually reloaded between
shots. The most commonly used rifle in the United Kingdom is a “Straight Pull” AR15 with a manual
cocking handle fitted to the right hand side of the bolt carrier, as shown above.
Match Rifle
Match rifles are so-to-speak designed from the ground up, such as the Tubb 2000 [1] shown in Figure
13.2a, considered the Rolls Royce of High Power rifles but can also be derivatives of the AR15 as
shown below. A variety of high-spec ammunition is used in High Power Match rifle such as .308
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Art of Shooting
Winchester, .260 Remington, .243 Winchester, .223 Remington and also the 6mmXC; and typically
hand loaded.

In addition, some High Power competitions allow Match Rifle (Open) - any commercial, custom or
service rifle of any calibre, fitted with any optical sights, including scopes.
13.2 Ranges and Targets
High Power rifle (similar to Fullbore Target Rifle) is shot on 200, 300 and 600 outdoor ranges, with
targets elevated from the Butts or Pits. In:
‰ Slow-Fire Events – one round is loaded into the rifle at a time, and after firing, the target is pulled
down, scored and run back up.
‰ Rapid-fire Events – the target is run up halfway, and at the command of the Range Conducting
Officer, the target is fully elevated for a fixed time. The shooter starting standing adopts the firing
position either sitting or prone makes ready and fires, and after the time expires the target is
pulled down, scored and run back up.

A large variety of NRA-USA designated targets are used for High Power allowing matches to be at
shorter distances if required.
13.3 Equipment
For High Power competitions you ideally need a shooting jacket, sling, glove, hat to shade the eyes,
eye and ear protection, a mat and spotting scope. Service rifle shooters are required to use the
appropriate ‘military’ pattern sights and slings but like Match rifle shooters are allowed to use specially
designed shooting jackets.
13.4 Competitions
High Power competitions subdivide into: a) Across the Course (XTC) – slow and rapid fire shot at
200, 300 and 600 yards; and b) Mid Range – slow fire at 300, 500 and 600 yards from the prone
position; c) Long Range – slow fire mainly at 1000 yards from the prone position
Across the Course (XTC)
XTC comprises four stages:
‰ First Stage – 2 sighters in 2 minutes, then 20 rounds slow-fire in 20 minutes from the standing
position at 200 yards.
‰ Second Stage – 20 rounds rapid-fire from the sitting position at 200 yards. The shooter begins
standing, and when the target appears has 60 seconds to get in the sitting position, fire 5 rounds,
reload with either a magazine or from a stripper clip and fire another 5 rounds. AR15 Service rifle
shooters are required to fire 2 rounds then reload with 8 rounds.
‰ Third Stage – 20 rounds rapid-fire at 300 yards. Again, the shooter begins standing, and when the
target appears has 70 seconds to get in the sitting position, fire 5 rounds, reload and fire another
5 rounds. AR15 Service rifle shooters are required to fire 2 rounds the reload with 8 rounds.
‰ Fourth Stage – 2 sighters in 2 minutes, then 20 rounds slow-fire in 20 minutes from the prone
position at 600 yards.
Mid Range
A Mid Range Match can consist of shots fired at 3 distances typically 300, 500 and 600 yards or 3
strings of shots fired at a fixed distance again either 300, 500 or 600 yards. The targets used for Mid
Range matches are scaled to simulate shooting at 600 yards from whatever distance the firing line is
set, all matches are slow fire prone are usually limited to 60 rounds to count with 2 sighting shots at
each distance or before each string.
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Long Range
A Long Range match is fired at 1,000 yards and fired from the prone position. They usually comprise
80 shot matches consisting of 4 strings of 20 shots for record in 30 minutes. These matches generally
allow unlimited sighters.
13.5 Classification System
In High Power Rifle, shooters receive a classification based on their average score: a) Marksman – up
to 84%, b) Sharpshooter – up to 89%, c) Expert - up to 94%, d) Master – up to 97%, and d) High
Master – 97% and above. This is to encourage participation and allow competitors to set personal
goals, therefore Marksmen are competing against fellow Marksmen and not against more
experienced and proficient shots holding a Master classification.
13.6 Further Information
[1]. David Tubb, “the Rifle Shooter”, Zediker (2003) ISBN-13: 9780962692529.
[2]. Clint Greenwood, “Getting Started in High Power”, www.shootersjournal.com/Features/ClintHP.htm
[3]. Randolph Constantine, “Modern Highpower Competition”, Precision Shooting Inc. (1998)
ISBN-10: 1931220050.
[4]. US NRA, “Getting Started in High Power Rifle Competitions,” www.nrahq.org/compete/High
Power.asp
13.7 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.


Organisation High Power Rifle Association of the UK
Address PO Box 5977, Elsenham, Hertfordshire CM22 6GH
Web site www.highpowerrifle.co.uk



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 14
Smallbore Target Rifle – Prone and 3
Position Shooting
Smallbore Rifle shooting is carried out using .22LR single shot rifles specially designed for target
shooting with aperture 'iron' sights. Smallbore is practiced indoors at 25 yards and occasionally at 15,
or 20 yards, and outdoors at 50 yards, 50 metres or 100 yards.

The International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF)
recognises two international competitions: a) Prone –
competitions comprise 60 shots prone at 50m; and b) 3
Position – competitions comprise 3 x 40 shots (Men), and 3
x 20 shots (Women) shot, respectively, prone, standing,
kneeling at 50m.

Prone shooting has the largest following in the UK and is
usually the position in which the beginner starts the
discipline, unless they have started with 10m Air Rifle, which
is shot standing.
14.1 Rifles and Ammunition
Smallbore rifles are specially designed bolt-action, single-
shot .22LR rifles with aperture sights adjustable for elevation
and windage. Smallbore rifles typically have a stock with an
adjustable butt plate and cheek piece, and a fore-end with
an adjustable handstop to which is attached the sling. Smallbore rifles can have either a single-stage
or two-stage trigger.

Figure 14.1: Smallbore Target Rifle

For 3 Position shooting, the target rifles have fully adjustable stocks, allowing the shooter to reposition
the drop of the butt plate, height of the comb, and even angle of the cheekpiece.

The Smallbore rifles have a maximum overall weight of 8kg for men and 6.5kg for women.
14.2 Ranges and Targets
As discussed, Smallbore is shoot indoors at 15, 20 and 25 yards, and outdoors at 50 yards, 50 metres
and 100 yards.

In the rifle events competitors shot at 10-ring targets. Scores range from one point for hitting the
outside zone, to 10 for a hit in the 10 ring. If a shot hits the line between two zones, the higher score is
awarded. In the international events at 50m there is a qualifying round and then, in the final, the 10
rings on the target are sub-divided into 10 score zones, with the highest score for a shot 10.9. The
final round and qualifying scores are added together to determine the winner.
14.3 Equipment
Besides the Smallbore rifle, you will need a ‘single-point’ target sling that goes around your upper arm
and attaches to the fore-end of the rifle.

You will need a simple spotting scope with stand, glove and shooting coat, a mat and most important,
eye and ear protection. In addition, you will need a timer, scorecards and a pencil/pen to record your
scores. However, most clubs have club equipment which you can borrow to get started.
14.4 Competitions
At the club level, competitions vary from country-to-country and club-to-club, and whether shooting on
an indoor or outdoor range.
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International (ISSF) competitions
ISSF competitions are shot at 50m and comprise:
‰ 50m Rifle Prone (men only) - Sixty shots (.22LR) are fired in the prone position at a target 50
meters away, all fired within a time limit of 1 hour 15 minutes including unlimited sighting shots.
‰ 50m Rifle 3-Position (Men “3 x 40”) - The shooter fires three rounds of 40 shots (.22LR) each in
the prone, standing and kneeling positions at a target 50 meters away. Unlimited sighting shots
may be taken before starting in each position. Each of the three stages is timed and must be
completed within its own time frame including the sighting shots – prone within 1 hour, standing in
1 hour 30 minutes and finally kneeling in 1 hour 15 minutes.
‰ 50m Rifle 3-Position (Women “3 x 20”) - The shooter fires three rounds of 20 shots (.22LR) each
in the prone, standing and kneeling positions at a target 50 meters away. The three stages must
be completed with 2 hours 15 minutes overall including unlimited sighting shots.
UK Outdoor Matches
Example outdoor competitions in the UK comprise:
‰ English Match – a match comprises a total of 60 shots at 50 metres.
‰ Scottish Match – a match comprises a total of 60 shots at 100 yards.
‰ Dewar Match – a match comprises a total of 40 counting shots; 20 shot at 50 metres and 20 shot
at 100 yards.
14.5 Further Information
[1]. Bill Pullum and Frank Hanankrat, “New Position Rifle Shooting”, Target Sports Education
Center (1997), ISBN 10: 0965578003.
[2]. Chris Fordham, “Prone to Win: The Art and Science of Smallbore Target Rifle Shooting”,
Brookwood Publishing Ltd. (2000) ISBN-10: 0953909107.
[3]. Gaby Buhlmann, Heinz Reinkemeier, Maik Eckhardt, “Ways of the Rifle”, MEC, ISBN 3-00-
009478-4
14.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association
Telephone 01483 485505
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email info@nsra.co.uk
Web site www.nsra.co.uk
Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland
Telephone 00 866 504 9073
Address PO Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland
Web site www.targetshootingireland.org
Organisation English Smallbore Shooting Union
Address The ESSU, 125 Turnpike Link, Croydon, Surrey CRO 5NU
Email secretary@essu.org.uk
Web site www.essu.org.uk
Organisation Scottish Smallbore Rifle Association
Email executive@ssra.co.uk
Web site www.ssra.co.uk
Organisation Welsh Smallbore Rifle Association
Web site http://www.wtsf.org.uk/
Organisation Northern Ireland Smallbore Shooting Union
Telephone 028 9446 4514
Email des.clyde@ukonline.co.uk



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 15
International 300m Rifle
The International Sport Shooting Federation (ISSF)
governs the International 300m Rifle discipline. It is fired at
only one distance (i.e. 300 metres), but the rifle may be
'Standard' or 'Free' and in any calibre up to 8mm.

Figure 15.1: 300m Rifle Shooting

Matches may be prone only, or prone, standing and
kneeling (PSK). Firing is from a covered firing point, and a
metric target with smaller scoring rings than Target Rifle
(TR) discipline is used. Many more shots are fired than in
most other disciplines, usually 60 shots prone or 3 x 40
PSK (40 shots from each position). Unlike TR and MR,
ladies fire fewer shots, only firing 3 x 20 in the PSK event.
15.1 Rifles and Ammunition
There are three classes of 300m rifles, Standard and Free for men and the new Ladies Sport Rifle:
‰ Standard rifle – with a maximum weight of 5.5kg and a trigger weight of 1500 grms.
‰ Free rifle – with a maximum weight of 8kg and no trigger weight limitations.
‰ Ladies Sport Rifle - with a maximum weight of 6.5kg and no trigger weight limitations.

Although you can use any calibre of rifle up to 8mm with iron aperture sights, to progress in
competitions you really need a dedicated 300m rifle chambered for the popular 6mm calibre,of which
there several different versions, BR being the most popular. However 6.5 x 55 is still used by Nordic
countries as well as .308”. Most popular rifles in use are Grunig, Keppeler, and Blieker shown in
Figure 15.2.

On some of the 300m systems the stock is designed to
interchange with rimfire actions, so it is possible to have
one stock and two actions. This permits 300m
competitors to train effectively year-round on 50m indoor
rimfire ranges. The only difference is felt recoil and the
size of the groups [1].

The dominant calibre in international 300m rifle
competition is the 6mm BR [1]. It offers low recoil, exceptional accuracy, and the availability of very
high-quality commercially-loaded ammo from Lapua and Norma. Norma are also doing a lot of testing
with national teams with their new 6mm XC round.

Figure 15.2: International 300m Rifle
15.2 Ranges and Targets
As described, firing is from a covered firing point with most 300m ranges using electronic scoring. The
bullet’s impact on the target is displayed on a screen positioned next to the shooter, and also on a
screen in the match control centre where computers plot and calculate scores instantaneously.
15.3 Equipment
300m rifle shooters use the standard equipment of target rifle shooters: shooting jacket, sling, glove,
and ear protectors. Due to the electronic scoring a scorebook is unnecessary, spotting scopes are an
option mainly to look at mirage.
15.4 Competitions
There are three classifications of rifle - Free and Standard for men and the new Ladies Sport Rifle:
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Art of Shooting
‰ 3 Position Free Rifle – rifles have a maximum weight of 8kgrm and no trigger weight limitation
other than being safe. 3 position (free rifle) competitions comprises 3 x 40 shots (Men), and 3 x 20
shots (Women), shot respectively prone, standing and kneeling.
‰ Prone Rifle – rifles have a maximum weight of 8kg as in the free rifle, no trigger weight
limitations. Competitions for men and women comprise 60 shots prone.
‰ Standard Rifle - rifles have a maximum weight of 5.5kg and a trigger weight of 1500 grms.
Competitions for men comprise 3 x 20 shots in prone, standing and kneeling.
‰ Ladies Sport Rifle – Rifles maximum weight 6.5 kg and are used in both prone and 3 x 20
competitions
15.5 Further Information
[1]. 6mmbr.com, “300m Competition”, www.6mmbr.com/300m.html, interesting article on 300m
shooting.
[2]. USA Shooting, the governing body for 300m in the United States,
www.usashooting.com/usaShooting.cfm
15.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation Great Britain 300m Club
Telephone 01483 485505
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email info@GB300m.com
Web site www.gb300m.com
Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland
Telephone 00 866 504 9073
Address PO Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland
Web site www.targetshootingireland.org




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Art of Shooting
Chapter 16
F-Class Rifle
F-Class ('Farquarson') Class was introduced in Canada
in 1997 and was originally intended to allow TR shooters
with eyesight or other physical problems to carry on in
the sport by allowing greater freedom in optical sights,
rifle rests etc. This class has now, however, developed
into a highly popular new discipline in its own right, and
is one of the fastest growing forms of rifle competition.

In addition to a class which retains the spirit of the
original concept (with calibre restrictions and bipod only
as a front rest) known as F/TR or similar, ‘Open F-Class’
competition rules allow rifles up to 10 Kg, any calibre of
cartridge up 8mm which is within range safety limits,
commercial or hand loaded ammunition, plus any
magnifying or telescopic sight. In addition, the rules
allow front rests or bipods with a rear sandbag for the
rifle butt.
16.1 Rifles and Ammunition
The beauty about F-Class is that it scales to suit your
pocket. Most F-Class shooters start with a standard bolt-
action 7.62mm target rifle on a bi-pod shooting factory
made ammunition with a telescope sight with turret adjustments. Competition in this category is
rapidly improving, but the ‘accuracy bug’ may prompt a move to more sophisticated equipment in
Open F-class competitions which allow custom rifles and front rests with scopes in excess of 40x
magnification.

Figure 16.1: F-Class Shooting

Open F-class rifles are similar in many respects to 1000-yard Benchrest guns. Popular with
competition shooters is hand loaded ammunition shot in a 6.5-284 calibre rifle, although recent trends
show a move towards the 7mm calibres, with a high-powered telescope sight up to 50x magnification,
from manufacturers such as Leupold or Nightforce.
‰ Open F-Class Rifle (F-O) - a rifle restricted to a bore diameter no larger than 8mm calibre
(excluding Benchrest “Rail guns”). Any sighting system is permitted, but it must be including in the
rifle’s overall weight, which must not exceed 10 kilograms (approximately 22 pounds). The width
of the rifle’s forend must not exceed 76mm (approximately 3 inches). Front rests or bipods are
allowed along with a rear sandbag.
‰ F-Class Target (F-T/R or similar category) - a rifle with the calibre restricted to unmodified .308
Winchester/7.62mm or unmodified .223 Remington/5/56mm chambering. The rifle is fired off a
bipod, attached to the rifle’s forend, and/or a sling. Any sighting system is permitted, but it must
be included in the rifle’s overall weight, which must not exceed 8.25 kilograms (approximately
18.15 pounds). Individual countries have subtle modifications of these basic rules.
16.2 Ranges and Targets
Like Fullbore Target Rifle, F-Class is shot on outdoor ranges from 300 yards to over 1,000 yards, in
the prone position.
16.3 Equipment
The standard equipment for Open F-Class is a target rifle with high-powered scope, an adjustable
front-rest (often of Bench-Rest derivation or bipod, a rear sandbag, an optional spotting scope (e.g.
20-60x80mm) and score book. The front rest must not grip or be attached in any way to the rifle fore-
end. No specialist clothing such as a shooting coat or jacket is required.

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A bipod and/or sling are the only allowed front supports for the F-T/R rifle. The rear bag, as for all F
class classes must be solely a rear support which provides no positive mechanical method for
returning it to its precise point of aim for the prior shot.

In all F class shooting, no portion of the rifle’s butt or forend is allowed to rest directly on the ground or
any hard surface. A rear rabbit-eared bag, small sandbag or a gloved hand may be used to support
the rifle’s butt. Any rear support employed cannot be attached, clamped or held to the rifle in any
manner. The rear support may not be fixed to or protrude into the firing point. Mechanically adjustable
rear supports are not allowed.
16.4 Competitions
Being so new, F-class rules are still evolving.

Style of shooting will vary depending on the country. In GB, F-class shooters usually compete in
squads of two or three. After each shot, you must wait for the target to be pulled and marked. In other
countries ‘string’ shooting is preferred where each shooter fires all his shots individually. With
increasing accuracy rifles, new F-Class targets are being introduced with 1 MOA V-bulls (X-rings).

The international target for F class competition is now the US Palma target with a 5 inch X-ring (V-
bull). At shorter ranges an number of targets are used, which may be derived from TR targets but all
with smaller V-bull (X-rings).
16.5 Further Information
[1]. 6mmbr.com, www.6mmbr.com/fclass.html, the F-Class page on the excellent 6mmbr.com site.
[2]. F-Class shooting, http://f-classinfo.com/index.html, An American site covering F-Class shooting
[3]. Website for F-Class shooting in Great Britain, http://www.f-class.org.uk.
[4]. Website for F-Class shooting in the United States, www.usfclass.com.
16.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation GB F Class Association
Email mrmister@tinyonline.co.uk
Web site www.f-class.org.uk
Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland
Address NRA of Ireland, Leabeg, Blueball, Tullamore, Co Offaly, Ireland
Email info@nrai.ie
Web site www.nrai.ie


© Philip Treleaven 2008 73 feedback to p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk
Art of Shooting
Chapter 17
Benchrest Rifle
Benchrest shooting is all about accuracy rather than marksmanship and competitors shoot for ‘group’
rather than attempting to hit the bullseye. As the name suggests, targets are shot with the competitor
seated at a bench, with the rifle supported on a front ‘machine’ rest and rear sand-bag. The standard
of accuracy is high, so most benchrest rifles are custom-made and serious shooters will hand-load
their ammunition and tune it to their rifle.
17.1 Rifles and Ammunition
Rifles subdivide into two categories - for custom rifles
and out-of-the-box factory rifles.
‰ Custom Rifles – These will be single-shot bolt-
action rifles with very heavy barrels. Stocks are of
graphite, fibreglass, carbon-fibre or wood. Triggers
are usually set to a pull of 2 oz or less. The popular
cartridge for 100/200 yards is the 6mm PPC but for
600 yards, the 6BR or 6.5x47 cartridges are popular.
At 1000 yards, the bigger cartridges like the
7mmWSM, 6.5-284 rule the roost.

Figure 17.1: Benchrest Shooting
‰ Factory Sporter - These rifles must be un-modified
out-of-the-box factory-produced rifles and the class is intended to provide an entry-level route into
the sport without spending several thousand pounds. At shorter ranges, the .223 cartridge is
popular with the 308 and the big magnums the preferred choice for longer ranges.
Rifles
A competitive benchrest rifle is not a mass-produced
product. Rifles are custom-built with extreme accuracy in
mind. The starting-point will be a custom-action like the
American Stolle or BAT and heavy ‘match’ barrels must
be chambered to the highest possible standards. Strict
rules govern the design of the stock and the finished rifle
must comply with the weight-limit for the class. Scopes
will have a magnification of at least 36 power and
triggers are usually set to a pull of only a few ounces.
Classes include:
‰ Light Varmint – An LV rifle has a weight limit of
10.5 lbs. including scope. The barrel must be cut from a 28 inch blank that tapers from 1.25
inches at the breech to 0.9 in. at the muzzle. Restrictions are also placed on the shape of the
stock. Muzzle-brakes are not permitted.

Figure 17.2: Benchrest rifle
‰ Heavy Varmint – As above but with a weight limit of 131 pounds overall – which usually means a
heavier barrel can be used.
‰ Light Gun – At 600 to 1000 yards, the rifles may be heavier – up to 17lbs. - so stocks can be
wood-laminate and barrels even longer. Muzzle-brakes are allowed. Any rifle weighing over 17lbs
will be classed as Heavy Gun – there is no upper weight limit for this class.
‰ Factory Sporter – As the name implies, these rifles must be shot ‘out-of-the-box’ and
modifications such as re-barrelling or re-stocking are not allowed. Non-standard parts are not
allowed but there is no restriction on scope-power.

In the United States there are also so-called Rail Guns:
‰ Unlimited (including Rail Gun) – rail guns are ‘unlimited’ in that they can have barrels greater
than 18”, electronic triggers and unrestricted rests. Unrestricted rests may be of one-piece
construction for front and rear, and may incorporate guiding means (see Figure 17.2).
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Art of Shooting
Ammunition
Only the most consistent and efficient cartridges can provide the necessary accuracy for benchrest
shooting. Popular cartridges are:
‰ 6PPC – most short-range benchrest shooters use the 6PPC cartridge. It completely dominates
100 and 200 yard group shooting. The 22PPC is a variant used by a small number of competitors.
‰ 6BR – the 6BR Remington (or 6mm BR Norma) is superbly accurate, very efficient and very
versatile, especially in the 300 to 600 yard range. The 6BR cartridge has set world records at 600
yards and even 1000 yards. The recently introduced 6.5x47 Lapua is also an effective 600 yard
cartridge.
‰ 6.5-284 – This is an effective round at 600 to 1000 yards and it is also popular in 6mm and 7mm
forms. In addition, there are a host of ‘wildcat’ cartridges such as the 7mmBooBoo and
7mmWSM.
The UK Benchrest website www.ukbra.co.uk lists the popular benchrest cartridges currently in use.
17.2 Ranges and Targets
Benchrest is typically shot from a covered firing-point on an outdoor range. Benches should ideally be
built from concrete to eliminate vibration. Range distances are from 100 yards out to 1,000 yards. In
the UK, there are 100 yard ranges at Bisley, Minsterley and Diggle. The only 600 – 1000 yard ranges
currently in operation are at Diggle Ranges in the North West.
17.3 Equipment
Benchrest is all about precision and demands the
highest specification equipment. The initial dilemma of
most people who become interested in benchrest is
what equipment to purchase. Whether it’s 100 or 1000
yards, the ancillary equipment is the same.
‰ Front rest – This will normally consist of a heavy
tripod with adjustable feet and an adjustable central
column. Rules state that the rifle must rest on a sand-bag so this will be affixed to the rest-top.
Sand-bags can be made of leather or synthetic material. The rest-top will also incorporate
windage adjustment.


a) Front Rest b) Rear Sandbag
Figure 17.3: Rests and Sandbags
‰ Rear bag - Again rules state that this must be filled with sand and most bags are of leather or a
synthetic material like Cordura. The rear-bag cannot incorporate any metal or adjustment.
‰ Wind-flags – Although wind-flags will be the last thing a new benchrest shooter purchases, they
are as important as any other piece of equipment. Without wind-flags, you cannot shoot small
groups. Ideally, each competitor should have a set of five wind-flags.

Examples of adjustable front-rests and rear sand-bags are shown in Figure 17.3.
17.4 Competitions
In Benchrest shooting there are two major types of competition:
‰ Group shooting – where the object is to place five shots on a target as close as possible to each
other – in other words, a group. A very good group shot at 100 yard will have 5 bullets hitting
within .100" of each other, centre to centre; such a group is known as a ‘screamer’. At 1000 yards,
any group below four inches is classed as a screamer.
‰ Score shooting – Although this has a following in America, we do not shoot for score in the UK.
The World Benchrest Championships, which are held every two years, are group shooting
competitions.
17.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benchrest_shooting, contains an
introduction to Benchrest shooting.
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Art of Shooting
[2]. 6mmbr.com, www.6mmbr.com, web community dedicated to precision shooting and accurate
rifles, with excellent articles.
[3]. Benchrest Central, www.benchrest.com, site covering all American Benchrest information.
[4]. Dave Brennan, “Benchrest Shooting Primer”, Precision Shooting Inc. (2000) ISBN
1931220034.
[5]. Mike Ratigan, “Extreme Rifle Accuracy”, Zediker Publishing, ISBN 0-9792528-0-8.
[6]. Precision Shooting Magazine, www.precisionshooting.com, US magazine for Benchrest shooters.
[7]. UK Benchrest Association, www.ukbra.co.uk contains information on rifles, ammunition and
competitions.
[8]. International Benchrest Shooters, www.international-benchrest.com, the United States Benchrest
Shooters association.
[9]. World Benchrest Shooters Federation (WBSF), www.world-benchrest.com, includes a list of
member federations.
17.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation UK Benchrest Association
Email jeanette.whitney@oldham.gov.uk
Web site www.ukbra.co.uk
Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland
Address NRA of Ireland, Leabeg, Blueball, Tullamore, Co Offaly, Ireland
Email info@nrai.ie
Web site www.nrai.ie


© Philip Treleaven 2008 76 feedback to p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk
Art of Shooting
Chapter 18
Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest
Rimfire and air rifle Benchrest as the name suggests is
shooting from a bench using both front and rear rests
using highly accurate .22 Rimfire rifles or Air rifles of .177,
.20 or .22 calibre.

Rimfire Benchrest is shot at 50 meters (or 50 yards in the
US) and 25 yards in the UK, with as many sighting shots
taken as required during the 30 minute match. Air rifle
Benchrest is shot at 25 yards.

It is not a new sport as it originated in the Europe and the
United States some years ago. The sport is also popular in
some African states and Australia. The nice thing about
this sport is people can start off with what they have in
their rifle cabinet.
18.1 Rifles and Ammunition
The rifles used range from factory Anschutz and CZ’s, to an increasing number of custom rifles now
being seen on the Rimfire and Air rifle Benchrest circuit. Scopes vary from 6.5X or 12X magnification
in the Sporter Classes to 36X or 40X high-powered scopes in the Unlimited Classes. Rimfire
ammunition must be commercially available but can be in .22 Rimfire short, long, or long rifle calibres.
Rimfire
Rimfire Benchrest rifles are grouped by class.
‰ Sporter .22 Rimfire Rifle - is any Sporter model weighing not more than 7.5 pounds (3.402 Kg)
inclusive of sight. The action must be a repeater action and hold minimum of two rounds. Any
scope may be used with max magnification of 12X scopes.
‰ International Sporter - is any Sporter having a maximum weight not more than 8.5 pounds
(3.855 Kg) inclusive of scope. The action must be a repeater action and hold minimum of two
rounds. Any scope may be used with max magnification of 6.5X.
‰ 10½ lb Light Varmint .22 Rimfire Rifle - is any rifle weighing not more than 10.5 pounds (4.762
kg) inclusive of sight. Any modification may be made to the rifle and any scope may be used.
‰ Unlimited Weight .22 Rimfire Rifle - is any rifle without weight limit. Any modification may be
made to the rifle and any scope magnification
may be used.
Figure 18.1: Rimfire & Air Rifle Benchrest

Air Rifle
Benchrest Air rifles are similarly grouped by class.
‰ Sporter Air Rifle Class - is any unmodified
factory model weighing not more than 10.5
pounds (4.762 kg) inclusive of sight, and at least
1,000 of these rifles must already have been
produced. Power to be restricted to 16.27 Joules
or 12 ft lbs maximum. Any scope may be used
with maximum magnification of 12X.
Figure 18.2: Benchrest rifle
‰ International Sporter Air Rifle Class - is any
unmodified factory model weighing not more than 10.5 pounds (4.762 kg) inclusive of sight, and
(again) at least 1,000 of these rifles must already have been produced. Power to be restricted to
8.13 Joules or 6 ft lbs maximum. Any scope may be used with max magnification of 6.5X.
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Art of Shooting
‰ Hunter Air Rifle Class - is any unmodified factory model, weighing not more than 10.5 pounds
(4.762 kg) inclusive of sight, and at least 1,000 of these rifles must already have been produced.
Power to be restricted to 16.27 Joules or 12 ft lbs maximum. Any magnification scope may be
used.
‰ Unlimited Air Rifle Class A - is any rifle without weight limit. Barrel Tuners are permitted. There
is no restriction on cylinder size or capacity as long as 8.13 Joules or 6 ft lbs maximum power is
retained.
‰ Unlimited Air Rifle Class B - is any rifle without weight limit. Any modification may be made to
the rifle and any magnification scope may be used. ‘There is no restriction on cylinder size or
capacity as long as 16.27 Joules or 12 ft lbs maximum power is retained.
18.2 Ranges and Targets
Rimfire Benchrest is shot over two distances, 50 meters and 25 yards, and is mostly shot on outdoor
ranges. Air rifle Benchrest is shot at 25 yards. There are 25 scoring targets per target for both 25 yard
and 50 meter. Each of the 25 scoring target has a scoring zone from 10 to 5, the overall size being
39mm. The maximum score possible is 250 with 25 10X's.
18.3 Equipment
The main equipment for both Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest is obviously the best rifle that can be
afforded, with correctly powered scope for its class. Other equipment is outlined below:
‰ Front rest - this is normally an adjustable precision ‘benchrest’ front rest incorporating windage
adjustment. A spirit level is a must on the front rest, and possibly the scope, to ensure the rifle is
level in the rests.
‰ Rear bag - these must be
filled with sand and most
bags are of leather or a
synthetic material like
Cordura.
‰ Wind-flags – an
important addition are
wind-flags; without them
you cannot shoot
accurately as you will not
be able to judge how the wind will affect the bullet. Each competitor should have a set of three to
five wind-flags.
Figure 18.3: Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest Equipment



a) Rests c) Barrel Tuner b) Wind Flag
‰ Barrel Tuners – these are devices fitted to the muzzle of the barrel or on the length of the barrel.
They are in fact sophisticated weights that alter the harmonics of the barrel, and give more
accuracy to the rifle once the barrel has been ‘tuned’ to the specific ammunition and the way the
action has been set in the rifle stock.
18.4 Competitions
Even though Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest have been going on for some time, the rules are still
evolving in line with other countries. Head-to-head matches take place for major championships, but
most of the matches are ‘postal’, allowing shooters to compete with shooters from all over the world.
The sport has really developed in the United Kingdom and Europe over the last four years following
the first head-to-head UK national championship in 2006, the first European Championship in 2007
and the first World Championship in 2008.
18.5 Further Information
[1]. 6mmbr.com, www.6mmbr.com/fclass.html, information on shooting ‘accuracy’
[2]. Target Sports Magazine, UK magazine for shooting with Benchrest Columns, reviews, etc.
[3]. Precision Shooting Magazine, www.precisionshooting.com, US magazine for Benchrest shooters.
[4]. Benchrest Central, www.benchrest.com, site covering all American Benchrest information.
[5]. Rimfire Benchrest, http://rimfirebenchrest.com/, site covering Rimfire Benchrest.
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Art of Shooting
[6]. Website for Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest shooting in Great Britain, http://www.benchrest22.org/
[7]. Website for Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest shooting in the Europe, http://www.erabsf.org/
[8]. World Rimfire Benchrest Federation, http://worldrimfire.com/.
18.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.


Organisation United Kingdom Association of Rimfire Benchrest Shooting
Email ukbr22web@fsmail.net or br22scores@btinternet.com
Web site http://www.benchrest22.org/


© Philip Treleaven 2008 79 feedback to p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk
Art of Shooting
Chapter 19
Match Rifle
The term Match Rifle in the UK and Commonwealth refers to long-range (1000-1200 yards) prone
shooting; whereas in
the United States in
Highpower it refers to
custom-made magazine
rifles. This chapter
discusses the former.
Match Rifle has long
been regarded as a
premier shooting
discipline, and the
Elcho (the annual
match between the
home nations), first shot
in 1862, is one of the oldest international team matches in any sport. Like Target Rifle it is usually
fired with the 7.62mm cartridge, but at longer distances from 1000 to 1200 yards [1]. Experimentation
and innovation have always played an important part in the discipline. Telescopic sights and hand
loaded ammunition are used, and the specification for rifles and the firing positions allowed are more
open. Whilst the majority of shooters shoot prone, a proportion still adopt the more traditional 'supine'
or back position, reclining, with their feet pointing towards the target! For those with disabilities that
would otherwise prevent them from shooting match rifle, a sitting position has recently been
introduced.


a) Prone b) Supine
Figure 19.1: Match Rifle Shooting (David Pollard)

Within Match Rifle, the term Any Rifle refers to a variation on Match Rifle in which greater freedom
over rifle specifications is allowed (calibre, barrel weight, etc), allowing even more opportunity for
experimentation. In terms of rifles permitted, it has similarities with F-Class, but otherwise Match Rifle
rules apply. In practice there are few serious events in which Any Rifles are allowed, so Any Rifle is
very much a minority discipline.
19.1 Rifles and Ammunition
The NRA-UK rules [2] state that for Match Rifle, any rifle suitable for firing 7.62 x 51 mm (NATO) or
.308 Winchester cartridges of standard dimensions may be used; there is no limit to the overall weight
of the rifle, but the barrel weight must not exceed 2.5 kg (5.5 lbs). The trigger pull must be a minimum
of 1.5 kg (3.307 lbs), and most shooters use telescopic sights, though iron (aperture) or magnifying
(Galilean) sights are also permitted. Muzzle brakes are prohibited. Ammunition may be commercial or
hand loaded, and almost all shooters either handload their own ammunition or purchase ammunition
from specialist manufacturers. To maximise long range performance, heavier bullets are favoured
(typically 190 or 200 grain) than those typically used for Target Rifle (TR). The NRA Rules give clear
guidance on the safety of ammunition, and the NRA also offers training courses in basic handloading.

Whilst many people who start shooting Match Rifle simply mount a telescopic sight on a Target Rifle,
most competitive Match Rifle shooters choose to use longer barrels than are conventionally used for
Target Rifle. Faster rifling twists (typically one rotation in 10”) are better suited to stabilising the
heavier bullets used in Match Rifle.

Lastly, Match Rifles and Ammunition in 5.56 x 45 mm (NATO) or .223 Remington calibres are
permitted on an identical basis to that specified for the 7.62 x 51 mm (NATO), though in practice this
option is rarely if ever exercised.
19.2 Ranges and Targets
For Match Rifle, outdoor ranges at 1,000 and 1,200 yards are the same as those used for the Fullbore
and F-Class shooting disciplines. The targets used are the NRA’s Bisley Long Range Target Rifle
Targets, designed for TR shooting up to 1000 yards. Note that for Match Rifle there is no increase in
the size of the aiming mark or the scoring rings, despite shooting taking place at longer distances.
Few ranges in the UK are long enough to accommodate Match Rifle. Most Match Rifle shooting in the
UK takes place on Bisley’s Stickledown range. A small MOD range at Barton Road, Cambridge offers
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Art of Shooting
very limited civilian access. Blair Atholl (near Pitlochry, in Scotland), is particularly picturesque, but
equally renowned for its challenging wind, being located on undulating terrain on a hill-side.

19.3 Equipment
As shown in Figure 19.1, Match Rifle may be shot prone or supine. Unlike Target Rifle where artificial
support is limited to the use of a sling, Match Rifle rules are less restrictive: The rifle must only be
directly supported by parts of the firer’s body, though they in turn may be supported artificially. For
example, a (right handed) prone shooter may use a rest to support the (left) hand with which he/she
supports the fore-end of the rifle; this contrasts with F-Class, where the rifle may be directly supported
using rest(s). The other ‘standard’ Fullbore equipment comprises shooting jacket to increase the
steadiness of the firer’s position, hearing protectors, mat, scorebook and spotting scope.
19.4 Competitions
Whilst most shooting is conducted on an individual basis, there are a few team events, most notably
the Elcho, and the Woomera Trophy Match (held between GB and Australian Teams every 2 – 3
years during a GB Match Rifle Team [3] tour to Australia [4] or vice-versa).

A Match Rifle competition typically involves shooting 2 (usually convertible) sighters followed by 15 or
20 shots at each of three distances: 1000 yards, 1100 yards and 1200 yards over the course of a day.
The focus of the UK match rifle calendar is the Hopton Aggregate, four days of individual entry
competitions held at the start of the NRA Meeting in July. Other principal events include the English
Eight Club Spring and autumn meetings (held at Bisley) and the National Rifle Club of Scotland’s
Open Meeting at Blair Atholl.
19.5 Further Information
[1]. The NRA-UK, “Bisley Bible,” The NRA Rules of Shooting and the Programme of the Imperial
Meeting Bisley (available from the NRA).
[2]. The NRA-UK Match Rifle web site, www.nra.org.uk/common/asp/disciplines/mr.asp
[3]. Great Britain Match Rifle Team (GBMRT), www.gbmrt.org.uk
[4]. National Rifle Association of Australia (NRAA), www.nraa.com.au, web site of the Australian NRA
19.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.


Organisation Great Britain Match Rifle Team (GBMRT)
Telephone Jim McAllister (01 483 200 900)
Email jmcallister@rutland.co.uk
Web site www.gbmrt.org.uk


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Art of Shooting
Chapter 20
Target Air Rifle – 10m and 3-Position
Target Air Rifle is highly popular worldwide, and comprises the ISSF 10m Air Rifle and the US 3
Position Air Rifle:
‰ 10m Air Rifle - governed by the International Shooting
Sports Federation and included in the Olympics, 10m Air
Rifle is shot over a distance of 10 metres from a standing
position, unsupported, with a 4.5 mm (.177 in) calibre air
rifle with a maximum weight of 5.5 kg. Competitions
consist of 60 shots in 105 mins for men, possible score -
600, and 40 shots in 75 min for women, possible score -
400.
‰ 3-Position Air Rifle – this is the most recent addition to the
air rifle shooting scene in the UK originally being very
popular in the US, South Africa and Germany. The current
events available in the UK are Sporter (Standing and 3P) and Precision (3P) Air Rifle disciplines.
Precision (3P) is very similar to the ISSF disciplines, in that jackets, trousers and boots can be
used, with fully-adjustable high-tech air rifles. Sporter Air Rifle has limits on the weight and range
of adjustments on rifles.

Figure 20.1: Air Rifle - Match

Target Air Rifle has the advantage of being conducted in indoor facilities often with electric target
changing equipment. This allows people to shoot the match, within the specified time limits, at their
own pace. In addition, once the initial equipment purchases are made, the cost of engaging in this
particular sport is minimal.
20.1 Rifles and Ammunition
The International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) specify that that only air rifles and carbon dioxide
rifles with a calibre of 4.5 mm (.177 cal.) and a maximum weight of 5.5 kilograms are permitted. In
practice, almost all competitors use specialist compressed air rifles loaded from cylinders, and built by
manufacturers such as Anschutz, Feinwerkbau, Hämmerli, Steyr and Walther. The Precision 3-P
discipline uses similar rifles but for Sporter, dimensions and permitted adjustments are close to the old
“ISU Standard Rifle” specification.
20.2 Ranges and Targets
As discussed, Air Rifle ranges are indoors, and comprise of 10m electronic targets. Air Rifle target
dimensions range from the: 10 Ring 0.5 mm (±0.1 mm), to the 1 Ring 45.5 mm (±0.1 mm).
20.3 Equipment
For ISSF events, besides the Air rifle, you will need a shooting jacket, flat shoes and a shooting glove.
More specialist shooting boots, trousers, hats and shooting spectacles are often used. Eye protection
is recommended. For 3-P Precision an additional sling, kneeling roll and mat will be required. For
Sporter events a much simpler rifle is required and other equipment is restricted to glove, sling,
kneeling roll and mat. However most clubs offer basic equipment that can be borrowed to get you
started.
20.4 Competitions
As discussed there are broadly two types of Target Air Rifle shooting: ISSF 10m and 3-Position
Sporter and Precision.
ISSF 10m
In the main competition, only the entire rings are counted. The men complete 60 shots in 105 minutes
with any number of sighting shots before the first competition shot is fired. The women complete 40
shots within a maximum of 75 minutes, including the sighting shots. The shots are fired in the
standing position at a very small centre of exactly 0.5 mm at a distance of 10 meters.
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In the following final, each of the eight finalists only has 75 seconds to fire each of his 10 final shots.
The points achieved are subdivided into decimal tenths. A shot that hits directly in the centre of the
ten counts as a 10.9, whereas a shot just barely touching the centre counts as 10.0. The results from
the normal programme and the final are added together.
3-Position
Two different 3-Position Air Rifle events are available:
‰ Precision Air Rifle - is modelled on ISSF 10m shooting and allows the use of specialized target
rifles and equipment.
‰ Sporter Air Rifle - is designed for new competitors or those who desire to compete with a
minimum of equipment and expense using more standard air rifles. There are limits on the weight
and range of adjustments on rifles. Dimensions and permitted adjustments are close to the old
“ISU Standard Rifle” specification. Ancillary equipment is restricted to glove, sling, kneeling roll
and mat.

In both types of 3-P shooting, competitors fire at targets at a distance of 10 meters in three different
positions, prone, standing and kneeling.
The sporter events offer to under-21 juniors both standing-only and 3x20 shooting in a very simple
and accessible format, and using the minimum of ancillary equipment.
20.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10_m_Air _Rifle, introduction to ISSF
10m Air Rifle shooting.
[2]. UK Sporter web site, dedicated to the promotion of Sporter Air Rifle, www.sporter.org.uk
[3]. Civilian Marksmanship Program 3 P Air Rifle, www.odcmp.com/3P.htm, The CMP actively
promotes Three-Position Air Rifle shooting as a premier youth marksmanship competition.
[4]. Gaby Bulmann, Heinz Reinkemeier and Maik Eckhardt, “Ways of the Rifle – .22, Three-
Position Air Rifle”, MEC, 2002.
20.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association
Telephone 01483 485505
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email info@nsra.co.uk
Web site www.nsra.co.uk
Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland
Telephone 00 866 504 9073
Address PO Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland
Web site www.targetshootingireland.org
Organisation Welsh Airgun Association
Email iharris@btinternet.com
Web site http://www.welsh-airgun.org.uk



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Art of Shooting
Part D – Target Pistol & Gallery
Disciplines
Summary
Gallery shooting disciplines are shot on covered or indoor ranges using pistols and rifles firing ‘pistol’
cartridges (e.g. .22LR or .357 calibres). The targets are usually static bullseye targets at 10m, 25m
and 50m. Gallery rifle became especially popular in the UK following the handgun ban in 1997.
Chapter 21 - Pistols – Free, Rapidfire, Standard, Centrefire
The International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) recognises four pistol disciplines, referred to as:
a) Free – competitions comprise 60 shots fired with .22LR single shot pistols in the standing position
at a target 50 meters away; b) Rapidfire - competitions are fired with .32 five shot pistols, and consist
of a series of five shots is fired at five targets.; c) Standard – competitions comprise three rounds of
20 shots at 25 metres; and d) Centrefire – completions comprise two rounds each of 30 shots.
Chapter 22 - Bullseye or Conventional (3-gun) Pistol
So-called Bullseye, three-gun or conventional pistol shooting is hugely popular in the United States. It
comprises a “3-gun aggregate”, fired with a .22 rimfire, a centerfire, and a .45 calibre at paper targets
at fixed distances and within time limits. However, most competitors use their .45 pistol, both for the
‘open’ centerfire and .45 stages.
Chapter 23 - Air Pistols – Single, Multi-shot
For Air Pistols, the ISSF recognises four competitions: a) 10m Air Pistol Men - 60 shots in a total time
of 1 hour 45 minutes, including sighting shots, b) 10m Air Pistol Women - 40 shots in a total time of 1
hour 15 minutes, including sighting shots, c) 10m Standard Air Pistol – 40 shots for men and 30 shots
for women, divided into events of 5 shots taken in 10 seconds, and d) 10m Rapid Fire Air Pistol – 60
shots fired in two so-called half courses.
Chapter 24 - Gallery Rifle and Pistol
Gallery rifles are usually lever action or bolt-action carbines firing pistol ammunition, such as .22LR,
.38, 9mm, and .45 calibres. Lever action rifles typically incorporate a 10-shot tubular magazine
underneath the barrel. Rimfire carbines are often autoloaders with a circular 10-shot magazine.
Chapter 25 – Long Range Pistol
Long-Range Pistol events are shot at distances of 100, 200 and up to 1200 yards. The various
classes cater for pistols of differing types and calibres, ranging from black powder muzzle loaders
through modern service and other pistols, to specially built rifle-calibre firearms firing (for example)
7.62x51. NRA-USA Long Range Pistol silhouette has two basic pistol definitions and forms of
competition: a) Conventional, which permits minor modifications, and b) Unlimited, which allows
almost anything that can be done to a pistol within the limits of a 15 inch barrel and 4 1/2 pound
weight limit.

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Art of Shooting
Chapter 21
Target Pistols – free, rapidfire,
standard, centrefire
There are a vast number of international and national pistol
shooting disciplines spanning centrefire pistols, .22LR Rimfire
and air pistols [1]. They include the International Shooting
Sports Federation (ISSF) six pistol events shot at distances of
10, 25, and 50 metres; the International Military Sports
Council’s rapid fire match shot at 25m; the International
Practical Shooting Confederation (IPSC) disciplines where the
shooter often moves during shooting, and hit scores and
shooting time are equally important; the Muzzle loading,
Cowboy Action Shooting and Metallic silhouette shooting; plus
a number of nationally recognized sports, including the US
NRA Conventional Pistol or Bullseye shooting, shot with up to
three different pistols, popular in the United States and Canada and other countries.

Figure 21.1: Target Pistol

In this chapter we focus on the four ISSF pistol disciplines: 50m free pistol, 25m rapidfire, 25m
standard pistol, and 25m centrefire.
21.1 Pistols and Ammunition
Competitions are shot with .22LR pistols and centrefire pistols; single shot and semi-automatic.


a) Free (.22LR x 1 shot) b) Rapidfire (.22LR x 5) c) Standard (.22LR x 5 shot) d) Centrefire (.32 SWL x 5)
Figure 21.2: Target Pistol
50m (Free) Pistol
50m Pistol (also called Free Pistol) is arguably the purest precision shooting discipline among the
pistol events, dating back to the 19th century. The pistol, loaded with one round at a time, is .22
calibre and shot single-handed. These are precision pistols with long barrels, grips fitted to the
shooter's hand, very light trigger pull, etc. The course of fire is 60 shots within a maximum time of two
hours.

Most shooters excelling in 50m Pistol also compete at the same level in 10m Air Pistol, a similar
precision event.
Rapidfire Pistol
The Rapidfire Pistol (RFP) match is shot with a semi-automatic pistol in .22LR calibre at 25 metres.
This is a self-loading pistol with maximum dimensions for barrel length, weight and sight radius
specifications. Since 2005, Rapidfire pistols conform to 25m standard pistol specifications, with the
new rules precluded use of the .22 Short cartridge as well as wrap-around grips and light trigger pulls.
Standard Pistol
The Standard Pistol match is shot with a semi-automatic pistol in .22LR calibre. This is self-loading
pistol with 5.56mm calibre with maximum dimensions for barrel length, weight and sight radius
specifications. 60-shot match is divided into 5-shot strings with different timings: 4 strings within 150
seconds each; 4 strings within 20 seconds each; and 4 strings within 10 seconds each.
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Centrefire Pistol
The rules for centrefire pistols specify that matches are to be shot with a pistol of any calibre between
7.62 mm (.30) and 9.65 mm (.38), but the most popular cartridge is the .32 S&W Long, because it has
good performance characteristics. However, many countries such as the UK have laws restricting
civilian ownership of centrefire pistols.

It subdivides into: a) 25m Centrefire Pistol - normally a men-only event, and b) 25m Pistol (formerly
called Sport Pistol) - essentially the women's equivalent of this event. The only difference being the
smaller rimfire calibre pistols used (often the same models only chambered for the smaller calibre).

Regarding ammunition - not much can be said about ammunition - match grade ammunition is
available commercially and is manufactured to higher standards than ‘regular’ ammunition, while the
cheapest ammunition is probably is best avoided as the ‘wax’ build will quickly clog the firing
mechanism. For centrefire you also have the option of handloading.
21.2 Ranges and Targets
Ranges and targets for the four ISSF pistol disciplines are presented below. Targets are divided into
concentric score zones with 10 being the most central part, giving a total maximum score of 600.
50m (Free) Pistol
50m (Free) pistol is shot – as the name implies - at 50m with the targets being either paper or
electronic.
Rapidfire Pistol
RFP competitions shot at 25m use either paper targets that are able to turn 90 degrees to appear to
the shooter and then turn back to disappear when the shooting time is up or electronic targets which
use red and green lights to indicate the beginning and the end of the shooting time, and which
automatically handle late shots.
Standard Pistol
Standard pistol is shot at 25m with the targets being either paper or electronically scored.
Centrefire Pistol
Centrefire pistol consists of: a 5-shot precision stage where the target is the same as the 50m Free
pistol with a 10-zone of 5 cm diameter; and a rapid-fire stage where, for each shot, the shooter has to
raise his arm from a 45 degree angle and fire at a target the same as in 25 m Rapid Fire Pistol, with a
10-zone of 10 cm diameter.
21.3 Equipment
The rules of the pistol shooting discipline you choose will determine the specification of the pistol
chosen: .22LR single shot, .22LR semi-automatic or .32 centrefire. In general, a target pistol is held in
one hand at arm’s length and shot without any supporting aids.

All target pistols come with an adjustable rear sight, and most international competitions restrict
pistols to only open iron sights. (However, as discussed elsewhere, NRA-US Bullseye or Practical
shooting allows optical and electronic sights, but not laser sights that project a beam onto the target.)

For competition shooting, pistols are fitted with anatomical grips that can be adjusted to fit the hand of
the shooter (see Figure 21.1), rather than the ‘standard’ straight factory grips. Eye and ear protectors
are also mandatory. Finally a spotting scope is usually allowed and necessary to spot the fall of shot
on the target.
21.4 Competitions
All ISSF pistol competitions are shot standing and this section summarises the ISSF pistol competition
rules [1].
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50m (Free) Pistol
The course of fire is 60 shots within a maximum time of two hours. In 50m pistol, competitors have
120 minutes to shoot 60 times at a target 50 metres away. The centre of the target is 50mm, and the
gun must be fired, single-handed, in the standing position.
Rapidfire Pistol
A Rapidfire pistol competition involving the shooter raising his arm from a 45 degree angle and firing
fire shots, one at each of five targets next to each other at 25m, within a time limit.
‰ Series – a series (or string) comprises five shots, one at each of five adjacent targets (i.e. 5
shots).
‰ Stage - a stage consists of two series each of 8 seconds, 6 seconds, and 4 seconds (i.e. 2x3x5 or
30 shots).
‰ Course of Fire – a competition comprises two stages (i.e. 2x30 or 60 shots).
Standard Pistol
A Standard Pistol competition comprises a 60-shot match divided into 5-shot strings with different
timings: a) 4 strings within 150 seconds each, b) 4 strings within 20 seconds each, and c) 4 strings
within 10 seconds each. The event is shot at 25 metres in three timed sequences of four series.
Centrefire Pistol
Centrefire pistol competitions comprise 25m Centrefire (men) and 25m Pistol (women) formally called
Sport pistol.
‰ 25m Centrefire - a Centrefire match consists of two parts of 30 shots each: a) a precision stage
where 6 series of 5 shots are to be fired, each series during a 5 minute period; and b) a rapid-fire
stage where, for each shot, the shooter has 3 seconds to raise his arm from a 45 degree angle
and fire.
‰ 25m Pistol - a 25m pistol match consists also of two parts of 30 shots each: a) a precision stage
where 6 series of 5 shots are to be fired, each series during a 5 minute period; and b) a rapid-fire
stage where, for each shot, the shooter has 3 seconds to raise his arm from a 45 degree angle
and fire. (In the women’s competition the six series of five shots each must be completed, with
three seconds allowed for each shot with a break of seven seconds in between.)
21.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shooting_sports#Handgun_shooting_sports,
good introduction to pistol shooting sports.
[2]. Target Shooting Canada, www.targetshooting.ca, A Training Resource for Novice to Intermediate
Pistol Target Shooters.
[3]. NSRA Basic Shooting Techniques Course, Pistol, www.nsra.co.uk, available from the UK
National Smallbore Rifle Association.
[4]. New Zealand Pistol Association, “Introduction to Pistol Shooting,”
www.targetshooting.ca/docs/Intro2PS.pdf.
[5]. US Army Marksmanship Unit's Pistol Training Guide, www.bullseye.com.
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Art of Shooting
21.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association
Telephone 01483 485505
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email info@nsra.co.uk
Web site www.nsra.co.uk
Organisation British Pistol Club
Telephone 01483 486293
Address B.C.M 5114 London WC1N 3XX
Email britishpistolclub@ntlworld.com
Web site www.britishpistolclub.org
Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland
Telephone 00 866 504 9073
Address PO Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland
Web site www.targetshootingireland.org
Organisation English Pistol Association
Email englishpistolassociation@blueyonder.co.uk
Organisation Scottish Pistol Association
Email scottishpistolhq@aol.com
Web site www.scottishpistolassociation.co.uk
Organisation Welsh Airgun Association
Email iharris@btinternet.com
Web site http://www.welsh-airgun.org.uk

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Art of Shooting
Chapter 22
Bullseye or Conventional (3-gun)
Pistol Shooting
In the United States, so-called Bullseye, three-gun or
conventional pistol [1], is the most popular pistol shooting
discipline. Participants shoot pistols (semi-automatics and
revolvers) at paper targets at fixed distances and within time
limits.

Figure 22.1: Bullseye Pistol (CMP)
22.1 Pistols and Ammunition
Although the NRA-USA Bullseye rules allow autoloaders and
revolvers (from .22 to .45 calibre), automatics are used almost
exclusively.

The standard course of fire, called a “3-gun aggregate”, is fired
with a .22 rimfire, a centerfire, and a .45 calibre. However,
most competitors use their .45 pistol both for the ‘open’
centerfire and .45 stages.

While there are dozens of different choices of commercial .22
calibre pistols used for Bullseye, the .45 calibre requires an
accurized or a custom-built model. A popular choice is a stock
Model 1911A1 pistol, especially accurized by a pistolsmith.
22.2 Ranges and Targets

Figure 22.2: Bullseye Pistol
Both outdoor and indoor ranges are used for Bullseye, with
NRA-USA rules covering firing slow, timed and rapid stages.
All courses of fire at an indoor competition are typically fired
at 50 feet and outdoor competitions are typically fired at both
50 yards (slow fire) and 25 yards (timed and rapid fire). The
50 yard slow and the 25 yard timed/rapid targets have the
same ring size.

The sustained fire stages are timed, with the targets turning
to face the shooters at the start, and then turning back to
their starting positions when the time finishes.
22.3 Equipment
Given the accuracy requirement of Bullseye shooting, special autoloader pistols are used with either
adjustable rear-sights or optical or electronic sights. (Laser sights that project an image on the target
are not allowed.) Custom anatomical pistol grips are also recommended. Finally a quality spotting
scope with a high resolution that will allow you to see your shots on the target is also necessary.
22.4 Competitions
As discussed, Bullseye pistol competitions
typically involve 3-4 courses of fire:
Outdoor Competitions Indoor Competitions
Slow Fire Slow Fire 50 yd/
25 yd Timed & Rapid
20 yd
Timed & Rapid
Slow (short course) Slow Fire
25 yd
Timed & Rapid
50 ft
Timed & Rapid
Slow Fire

25 ft
Timed & Rapid
Figure 22.3: NRA (USA) Bullseye Completions
‰ Slow Fire - in which ten rounds are fired in
ten minutes.
‰ Timed Fire - consisting of two five-round
strings with twenty seconds for each string.
‰ Rapid Fire - has a ten second limit for each of the two five-round strings.
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‰ National Match Course - comprising 10 shots Slow Fire at 50 yards, 10 at Timed and 10 at
Rapid at 25 yards.

In a ‘2700’ match - the classic outdoor match - shooters fire 270 shots with a maximum value of 10
points each (hence the name), divided into three 90-shot events, fired with a .22, centerfire and .45
calibre pistol.

In a shorter ‘900’ match - depending on the match format – shooters fire 90 shots in four stages: Slow,
Timed and Rapid (20-shots each), and the National Match Course (30 shots), shot with a single pistol.
Hence, a one-gun competition is often referred to as a "900" whereas a three-gun competition is a
"2700".

The NRA-USA competitions groups shooters by ability (e.g. Marksman to top-level Master), and
category (e.g. juniors, women, police, service).
22.5 Further Information
[1]. Bullseye Pistol, “The Encyclopedia of Bullseye Pistol,“ www.bullseyepistol.com, provides extensive
information on the shooting discipline.
22.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation National Rifle Association
Telephone 1-800-672-3888
Address NRA, 11250 Waples Mill Road, Fairfax, VA 22030
Web site www.nra.org


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Art of Shooting
Chapter 23
Target Air Pistols – single and multi-
shot

Figure 23.1: Target Air Pistol (John Bloomfield)
There are a vast number of international and national
pistol shooting disciplines spanning centrefire pistols,
.22LR rimfire, and air pistols [1].

In this chapter we will focus on the ISSF 10m Air Pistol
discipline. The ISSF Air Pistol competitions comprise:
‰ 10m Air Pistol Men - 60 shots in a total time of 1
hour 45 minutes, including sighting shots.
‰ 10m Air Pistol Women - 40 shots in a total time of
1 hour 15 minutes, including sighting shots.
‰ 10m Standard Air Pistol – 40 shots for men and 30
shots for women, divided into events of 5 shots
taken in 10 seconds
‰ 10m Rapid Fire Air Pistol – 60 shots fired in two
so-called half courses.
23.1 Pistols and Ammunition
For 10m Air Pistol, competitors may use any calibre 4.5mm (.177) compressed air or CO2 pistol that
complies with the ISSF general rules. The following standards applies: a) the pistol must be loaded
with one pellet only (apart from rapid fire), b) sights must be ‘open’ metallic only, c) the weight of the
trigger pull must be at least 500 grams, d) the weight of the pistol with all accessories must not
exceed 1500 grams, e) the grip may not support the hand beyond the wrist and may not encircle the
hand, and f) it must fit into a box measuring
420 x 150 x 50 mm.

The ammunition must be 4.5mm lead
projectiles (pellets).
23.2 Ranges and Targets
Air pistols are shot on indoor ranges at 10m using either paper targets or electronic targets.

a) Single b) Multi-shot
Figure 23.2: Target Air Pistols
23.3 Equipment
For competition shooting, pistols are fitted with anatomical grips that can be adjusted to fit the hand of
the shooter (see Figure 23.1). Eye protectors are also mandatory.
23.4 Competitions
Competitions are shot in the standing position at a target centre of 11.5mm at a distance of 10 metres.
The final of the best eight consists of 10 shots within 75 seconds per shot, and the score is evaluated
in tenths with a central 10 being scored 10.9.

As discussed, there are three ISSF competitions:
‰ 10m Air ‘5 Target’ Pistol (Falling Targets) – men fire 60 shots in a total time of 105 minutes and
women fire 40 shots in a total time of 75 minutes, including sighting shots. Events are divided into
series of 5 shots each taken in 10 seconds. In each series, five shots are fired, one on each of 5
falling targets in a set.
‰ 10m Standard Air Pistol (Single Target) – men fire 40 shots and women 30 shots, divided into
events of 5 shots taken in 10 seconds. In each series, five shots are fired at one target.
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‰ 10m Rapid Fire Air Pistol – 60 shots fired in two so-called half courses as follows: 1 sighting
series in 8 seconds, 2 series in 8 seconds, 2 series in 6 seconds, and 2 series in 4 seconds.
23.5 Further Information
[1]. Shooting Wiki, http://www.shootingwiki.org/index.php?title=Air_Pistol_Shooting, introduction to ISSF 10m
Air Pistol.
[2]. Target Shooting Canada, www.targetshooting.ca, A Training Resource for Novice to Intermediate
Pistol Target Shooters.
23.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association
Telephone 01483 485505
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email info@nsra.co.uk
Web site www.nsra.co.uk
Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland
Telephone 00 866 504 9073
Address PO Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland
Web site www.targetshootingireland.org
Organisation British Pistol Club
Telephone 01483 486293
Address B.C.M 5114 London WC1N 3XX
Email britishpistolclub@ntlworld.com
Web site www.britishpistolclub.org
Organisation Welsh Airgun Association
Email iharris@btinternet.com
Web site www.welsh-airgun.org.uk


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Art of Shooting
Chapter 24
Gallery Rifle and Pistol
The changes in the Firearms laws in 1996 stopped
most competitive pistol shooting in England, Scotland
and Wales (except for air and muzzle-loading pistols,
both of which are covered elsewhere in this
handbook). Many former pistol shooters turned
instead to Gallery Rifle. Since then, gunsmiths have
been working to develop pistols that comply with the
Firearms Acts; a variety of long barrelled pistols and
revolvers are now being used competitively.
24.1 Firearms and Ammunition
Gallery Rifle and Pistol (GR&P) covers four types of
firearm:
‰ Gallery Rifle Centre Fire (GRCF) – any centrefire
pistol calibre rifle, typically lever-action.
‰ Gallery Rifle Small Bore (GRSB) – any .22
rimfire rifle, typically a self-loading rifle with a
detachable magazine; air rifles are also allowed in
some, though not all, GRSB events.
‰ Long Barrelled Pistol (LBP) – in the UK this
covers all .22” rimfire ‘Long Barrelled Pistols’, including revolvers, self-loading pistols and single-
shot-pistols.

‰ Long Barrelled Revolver (LBR) – in the UK this covers any ‘Long Barrelled Revolver’ in a
centrefire pistol calibre.

The term ‘pistol calibre’ refers to
cartridges which were originally
designed for use in pistols and thus
have relatively low muzzle energy
compared to the “full-bore” rifles used
in Target Rifle and similar shooting.
Popular centrefire pistol calibres include .357, .38 and .44.
Figure 24.1: GR&P Shooters Standing Ready
(Iain Robertson)


a) GRCF - under-lever Rifle b) LBR - long barrelled revolver
Figure 24.2: Gallery Firearms

Although these four types of firearm can be shot using traditional
“iron” sights, telescopic and red-dot sights are used in most
competitions.

Figure 24.3: Disruptive-Pattern Target
24.2 Ranges and Targets
GR&P can be shot on suitable outdoor and indoor ranges.
Targets are typically mounted on fixed frames, turning frames
(programmed to provided timed “exposures” during which the
target faces the shooter, then turns through 90 degrees) or
advancing target trolleys (which move towards the firer at a fixed
speed). The targets themselves vary between classic round-
bulls for precision shooting to disruptive-pattern designs for
speed events. Steel, rubber and paper plates are sometimes
used and a few ranges have target frames which move rapidly
from one side of the range to the other.
24.3 Equipment
In addition to a suitable rifle or pistol, a GR&P shooter needs hearing protection and, for some
competitions, suitable belt pouches to carry spare ammunition. Spotting scopes are used in a few
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events. Holsters are used for some of the LBP and LBR events. Eye protection is recommended and
is likely to be compulsory in some competitions. Shooters wear normal clothing – anything which
provides artificial support (e.g. stiff jackets, slings or shooting gloves) is not allowed.
24.4 Competitions
Much GR&P shooting is carried out in the standing position, but some events also require the shooter
to kneel, sit and/or to use his/her weak shoulder/arm. Competition events include a wide range of
targets, exposure timings, distances (usually anywhere from 10m to 50m, though some GR&P
competitions involve shooting as far as 300yd) and/or the use of barricades for support in order to
provide varied challenges to the skills of the shooters. Although GR was developed in the UK, it is
now also popular in Ireland and Germany; international matches between the three nations take place
every year. Shooters of LBPs and LBRs are also increasingly able to take part in international events,
competing alongside shooters using more traditional pistol designs.

Further information on Gallery Rifle and Pistol shooting can be found on the NRA-UK web site [1].
24.5 Further Information
[1]. The Gallery Rifle and Pistol Handbook of the National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom:
www.nra.org.uk/common/files/GR/GRPHandbook.pdf
[2]. National Rifle Association of the UK (NRA-UK), www.nra.org.uk. The tab ‘Clubs’ gives an extensive
list of UK shooting clubs.
[3]. Galleryrifle.com, www.galleryrifle.com, web site dedicated to Gallery Rifle shooting in the UK.
24.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK
Telephone 01483 797777
Address Charles Murton, Gallery Rifle & Pistol Discipline Rep,
NRA, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0PB
Email gallery@nra.org.uk
Web site www.nra.org.uk


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Art of Shooting
Chapter 25
Long Range Pistol
The wonderful picture in Figure 25.1 shows long range pistol shooters shooting from their "flying
machines".

Long Range Pistol events are shot at distances of
100, 200 and up to 1200 yards. The various classes
cater for pistols of differing types and calibres,
ranging from black powder, through modern service
and other pistols, to specially built rifle-calibre
pistols. In the United States, NRA-USA Long Range
Pistol silhouette has two basic pistol definitions and
forms of competition: a) Conventional, which
permits minor modifications, and b) Unlimited,
which allows almost anything that can be done to a
pistol within the limits of a 15 inch barrel and 4 1/2
pound weight limit.

In the UK Long Range Pistol Shooting was started
over 40 years ago by Mr. G.R. (Gillie) Howe, an armourer with the Royal Marines, with the goal of
improving the accuracy of long range pistol shooting. Officers came to Gillie complaining that they
could not hit “a door” from 20 paces with their 9mm Browning Semi-Automatic Pistols (standard Army
issue). Gillie hand tuned their guns with filed down foresights; produced hand made ammunition and
showed them how to hit a dinner plate from 200 yards.

Figure 25.1: Long Range Pistol Shooting

Prior to the banning of pistols in the UK, Long Range Pistol Shooting was divided into a number of
classes:
‰ Black Powder – shot with BP pistols at 100 yards.
‰ Pocket Pistol – shot with pistols with 2” barrels at distances of 100 - 200 yards.
‰ Browning Automatics – shot with 9mm Browning semi-automatic pistols at 100 - 200 yards.
‰ ACP Automatics – shot with .45 ACP semi-automatic pistols at 100 - 200 yards.
‰ Revolvers – shot with revolvers with 9” barrels at 100 - 200 yards

Today, long range pistols are created from cut-down rifles; defined as a gun with a barrel of at least
30cm (12”) and an overall length of at least 60cm (24”). These “Long Range Pistols” are now shot at
Bisley on a monthly basis from 100 yards to 1200 yards.
19.1 Pistols and Ammunition
Long range pistols are typically defined as cartridge pistols
chambered for rounds more usually associated with rifles (e.g.
7.62) and typically shot at ranges beyond 100 yards and up to
1200 yards.

Although a majority of shooters do re-load their own
ammunition and use the latest wild-cat cartridges, there is no
reason why you can not start off with a Production gun like the
Competitor or Thompson Contender in .308 or 30-06 and use NRA ammunition. Most pistols are
scoped. There are also classes for black powder, .22 rimfire and separate class for pistol calibres i.e.
parallel sided cartridges like .357 Magnum or .44 Magnum.

Figure 25.2: Long Range Pistol
19.2 Ranges and Targets
The pistols are used at ranges from 100 to 1200 yards. At 100/200 yards the Wessex target is used.
At all other distances the standard NRA target is used. At short range 100/600 yards the course of fire
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Art of Shooting
is 2 sighters and 10 to count where as at longer distances 800/1200 yards the course of fire is 2
sighters and 15 to count.
19.3 Equipment
Figure 25.1 shows Long Range Pistol Shooters shooting from their “flying machines”. Their shooting
equipment is essentially a pistol gripped, short barrelled rifle, shot from a rested position. There is no
need to have your own machine to start with as there is always someone to lend you one.
19.4 Competitions
Long Range Pistol Shooting competitions fall into several classes:-
‰ Black Powder - shot with BP pistols at 100 yards.
‰ .22 Rimfire - shot with .22 pistols at 100 yards and 200 yards.
‰ Production Pistol – specialist pistols, namely the Competitor or Thompson Contender.
‰ Free Pistol - custom made pistols, typically based on the Swing or RPA action; modified
production pistols can also be used in this class.

The ILRPSA holds monthly competitions all the year round. Then in the Spring is the Phoenix Meeting
at Bisley. The British Long Gun Assoc (BLGA), a Sister club to the ILRPSA, also meet monthly all
year round and only shoot over 900/1200 yards.
19.5 Further Information
[1]. The NRA-UK, “Bisley Bible,” The NRA Rules of Shooting and the Programme of the Imperial
Meeting Bisley. (available from the NRA).
19.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation International Long Range Pistol Shooters Association
Telephone 01276 858 799
Address Mike Lunnon, 35A Delta Road, Chobham, Surrey GU24 8PZ
Organisation British Long Gun Association
Telephone 01276 858 799
Address Mike Lunnon, 35A Delta Road, Chobham, Surrey GU24 8PZ


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Art of Shooting
Part E – Historic Arms
Disciplines
Summary
Historic arms disciplines – as the name suggests – shoot ‘old’ or replica firearms; especially
muzzleloaders and black powder cartridge firearms. Rifles are shot on outdoor ranges, pistols on
indoor ranges, and shotguns on outdoor ranges.
Chapter 26 - Classic and Historic Arms
The Classic and Historic Arms group is dedicated to those with an interest in historic rifles with
particular reference to British, Commonwealth and other significant Military Miniature Calibre Training
and Target Rifles, such as those manufactured by Lee-Enfield and BSA.
Chapter 27 - Muzzle Loading Rifles, Pistols and Shotguns
Muzzleloader, black powder firearms (muskets, rifles, pistols and shotguns) cover any firearm into
which the bullet is loaded from the muzzle of the gun. Shooting competitions range from 25 yards for
pistols to over 1000 yards for rifles.
Chapter 28 - Black Powder Cartridge Rifles and Pistols
Shooting is conducted with: a) original period rifles, b) replicas and c) modern purpose-designed rifles
and pistols at distanced up to 600 yards, and with rifling, specialist rifles in .451" calibre shoot well out
to 1000 yards.
Chapter 29 - Cowboy Action Shooting
Cowboy Action Shooting (CAS) typically uses four firearms: two revolvers, lever action rifle and
double barrel shotgun. CAS requires competitors to use firearms typical of the mid- to late 19th
century including single action revolvers, lever action rifles (chambered in pistol calibres) and side-by-
side double barrel shotguns (e.g. with external hammers).


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Chapter 26
Classic and Historic Arms
Classic and Historic Arms groups are dedicated to those with an interest in historic rifles with
particular reference to British, Commonwealth and other significant Military Miniature Calibre Training
and Target Rifles, such as firearms manufactured by Lee-
Enfield [4] and BSA.

Classic and Historic shooting has had an amazing growth in
popularity in the last few years. The firearms used are
'datelined' to ensure that competitors are always competing
against other competitors using a similar class of firearm. The
dateline periods are: a) Muzzle Loading - before 1874, b)
Vintage - before 1891, c) Classic - before 1919, d) Veteran -
between 1919 and 1946 incl., e) Open - before 1946, and f)
Post Historic - after 1946.

In the UK, two main Historic Arms Meetings are held at Bisley
each year, at the beginning of the Imperial Meeting in July and the Trafalgar Meeting in October.

Figure 26.1: Classic and Historic
26.1 Rifles and Ammunition
The NRA-UK Historic Arms Resource Centre (http://rifleman.org.uk) provides a wealth of information on
the classic and historic firearms, including an animation of available information.
‰ Muzzle loading – this covers rifles before 1874.
Figure 26.2: Lee-Enfield Rifle
‰ Vintage – this covers rifles before 1891.
‰ Classic - this covers rifles before 1919.
‰ Veteran - this covers rifles between 1919 and 1946.
‰ Open - this covers rifles before 1946.
‰ Post Historic - this covers rifles after 1946.
26.2 Ranges and Targets
Classic and Historic arms are shot at static targets on both covered and outdoor ranges at a variety of
distances. For covered ranges this is 15, 20 and 25 yards; and for outdoor ranges 300 to 600 yards
are popular.
26.3 Equipment
All that is required is a classic and historic firearm, falling within one of the six categories above:
muzzle loading, vintage, classic, veteran, open or post historic.

Competitors also use historic slings and sandbags, and many use 50s-style cloth shooting jackets.
26.4 Competitions
The NRA-UK run a number of competitions for Classic and Historic arms. These include Miniature
Rifle Winter Leagues at 15, 20 and 25 yard ranges for prone rifle in four classes: a) Service Rifle for
pre-1946 military trainers; b) Classic Rifle for pre-1919 target rifles; c) Veteran Rifle for pre-1946
target rifle; d) Post-Veteran Rifle for later target rifles up to 1960; and e) Standing Leagues for rifles of
pre- 1946 design at 20 & 25 yard ranges in three classes (i.e. ‘Deliberate’ using iron sights, ‘Rapid
Repeater’ such as pump action, with any sights, and ‘Semi-Auto’ with any sights).
26.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_enfield, good review of the UK Lee-
Enfield rifles popular with Classic and Historic Arms enthusiasts.
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[2]. The UK NRA, “Bisley Bible,” The NRA Rules of Shooting and the Programme of the Imperial
Meeting Bisley. (available from the NRA).
[3]. UK Historic Arms Resource Centre, http://rifleman.org.uk, an extensive UK web site covering
Historical arms.
26.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation Historical Breechloading Smallarms Association
Address BCM HBSA, LONDON WC1N 3XX
Email general.secretary@hbsa-uk.org
Web site www.hbsa.fsnet.co.uk
Organisation UK Historic Arms Resource Centre
Web site http://rifleman.org.uk


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Art of Shooting
Chapter 27
Muzzle Loading Rifles, Pistols,
Shotguns
Muzzle loading firearms (muskets, rifles, pistols and shotguns)
are hugely popular worldwide. Muzzleloaders are any firearm
loaded from the muzzle or in the case of revolvers from the
front of the cylinder.

One of the great attractions of muzzle loading is the diversity
of firearms available for the enthusiastic target shooter to
compete with. Shooting may be conducted with original period
firearms or with modern made reproductions.

The Governing Body for muzzle loading within the UK is the
Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Britain (MLAGB). The
MLAGB has developed a comprehensive program of events
that cater for a huge variety of firearms. In addition the National Rifle Association (NRA) caters for
muzzle loaders in its historic arms matches. At a regional and local club level there are many that
include muzzle loading shooting in their club activities.

Figure 27.1: Muzzle Loading Firearms

The MLAGB also selects teams to represent Great Britain in international competition. At an
international level the Muzzle Loaders Associations International Committee (MLAIC) is the World
Governing Body. The MLAIC holds World and European Championships which are well attended and
medals keenly contested.
27.1 Firearms
Nowadays with our developed appreciation of the past it is not difficult to understand the fascination
that muzzle loading arms hold. Be it a sporting, military or specialised target arm that catches one’s
interest there are courses of fire open for most who wish to use them on the target range.

There are three basic ignition systems employed: matchlock, flintlock and percussion. When
compared to later breech loading firearms the lock time (in simple terms, the time taken between
pulling trigger and firing of the shot), while still measured in fractions of a second, is slow. This means
that to get the best from the firearm draws on all one’s basic shooting skills, especially sighting and
follow-through. Sight systems will vary greatly depending on arm, from the flintlock musket with solely
a foresight for reference to the sophisticated vernier adjustable sights of the long range match rifle.
At the basest level muzzle loaders are great fun to shoot and a most enjoyable time can be had in a
morning spent in informal target practice. Learning to get the best accuracy from them though
requires skill, practice and patience. Overlooked or perhaps misunderstood by many, muzzle loading
offers a sport with all the challenges of modern target disciplines and capacity for accuracy to suit the
most fastidious.

Classification and characteristics of muzzle loading firearms, basic equipment and loading techniques
are covered in Chapter 8.
27.2 Ranges and Targets
Muzzleloaders are shot on standard rifle, pistol and clay pigeon ranges:
‰ Muskets and Rifles – muzzle loading muskets and rifles are shot on outdoor ranges alongside
traditional (nitro) cartridge target and service rifles. They are shot prone, supine, kneeling and
standing.
‰ Pistols – muzzle loading pistols are usually shot standing on a covered (open or enclosed) range,
at distances of 25 metres, 25 yards, 50 metres and 50 yards.
‰ Shotguns – both flintlock and percussion shotguns will be seen on the ranges and are used in
down-the-line, skeet and sporting clay pigeon events.
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Targets used for the 25m pistol, and 50m and 100m rifle events are the standard ISSF 50m free pistol
target, also known as PL7. This is designated MLAIC C50 within the MLAIC rules. The target has a
50mm diameter 10 ring, with remaining scoring rings (down to 1) at a 25mm spacing. The aiming
mark is 200mm diameter and includes the 7-ring. Smooth bore musket events are usually fired at 50m
on the French Military 200 metre target (MLAIC C200). The 10 ring measures 80 mm diameter, with
the black aiming mark out to the 6 ring measuring 400 mm diameter. For mid (200-600 yard) and long
range (distances out to 1200 yards) rifle competitions the standard NRA rifle targets are used.
Some events will use other targets for competition but the foregoing are those most commonly in use.
27.3 Equipment
Basic equipment needs for the loading and management of the muzzle loader are covered in Chapter
8. For the target shooter some consideration of additional items will be necessary. It should be noted
that all are not necessary at the outset and equipment can be built up over a period of time.
‰ Shooting Box or Case – firearms should be transported in cases and a suitable box or case will
also be required to transport the black powder, and shooting accessories.
‰ Competition Equipment – depending on the rules of the competition and the type of firearm to
be used, this might include a shooting mat, shooting jacket, shooting glove, a suitable sling etc.
‰ Spotting Scope and Stand – a suitable spotting scope and stand for checking the target at a
distance is also required.
27.4 Competitions
The standard course of fire for pistol, musket and rifle fired at short range (up to 100m) is thirteen
shots in thirty minutes, with the best ten shots to count for score. No sighting shots are permitted,
although a fouling shot can be fired into the backstop during the thirty minute detail if desired. The
fouling shot should be announced to the range officer or scorer before firing so that it does not get
mistaken for a match shot. All loading must take place during the allotted time period. Down-the-line
shotgun competition is a total of 50 clay targets shot in two separate rounds of 25 clay targets.

Pistol shooting events are fired one handed, unsupported, at 25m. Musket and rifle events are for the
most part fired either offhand or prone. Rifle slings, where permitted, must be original or a
reproduction of a contemporary type. Modern adjustable target type slings, including single-point
slings, are not permitted. In MLAGB and MLAIC events International Shooting Sports Federation
(ISSF) style shooting jackets, gloves and boots are permitted, however the specialised shooting
trousers are banned. Such specialised equipment may not be permitted in some NRA organised
events.
Muskets and Rifles
Matchlock muskets are fired in competition at 50m from the standing and kneeling positions. The
European style matchlock with its full length stock will not be unfamiliar, however the more exotic
Japanese style matchlock with its short stock that is held against the cheek has its own unique
characteristics. Flintlock military muskets are also fired offhand at 50m, and popular models include
the British 'Brown Bess,’ the French Charleville and the American Springfield muskets.

Flintlock and percussion sporting rifles firing a patched round ball are fired offhand at 50m and prone
at 100m. British and European sporting rifles will be seen competing with the American long rifle; the
latter it should be noted is more suited to 50m offhand shooting due to the shape of its stock.

The Enfield percussion rifle of The British Army is well known. It is prominent on the rifle scene at 100
metres and shot at longer ranges up to 600 yards. The specially developed percussion target rifles of
the 1860 -1880 period extend competitive shooting out to 1,200 yards.

Pistols
Pistols are split into four categories: a) Matchlock, b) Flintlock, c) Single Shot percussion and d)
Revolver. All competitions are shot in the standing position with a single handhold, except Historic
revolver where a two hand hold is permitted. In some matches Original pistols are shot alongside
reproduction models but in general they are shot in separate classes. For competitive shooting with
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flintlock and single shot percussion pistols the duelling versions such a Le Page and Kuchenreuter are
most popular due to their accuracy. For competitive shooting with revolvers the solid frame models
such as Remington and Rogers and Spencer are preferred to the open frame Colt type. When
shooting the Historic Revolver match the Old Army Rugers with adjustable sights are preferred.
Shotguns
A variety of muzzle loading clay pigeon shooting competitions are held at both club and national level
in the disciplines of sporting, down-the-line and skeet. These competitions usually have classes for
percussion single barrel, double barrel, small bore (18 bore and smaller), big bore (10 bore and
larger) and flintlock guns. At international level the competitions are 50 birds down-the-line from a
fixed, below ground, trap for both percussion and flintlock guns. Original and reproduction guns
compete in separate classes so as not to disadvantage the older arms.
27.5 Further Information
[1]. Andrew Courtney, “The Modern Muzzle Loader”, The Muzzle Loaders Association of Great
Britain (1997) ISBN 0 9530541 0 1.
[2]. Sam Fadala, “Lyman Black Powder Handbook & Loading Manual”, Lyman Publications
(2001), UPC #011516971005
[3]. Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Britain (MLAGB), www.mlagb.com, The Governing Body
for muzzle loading within the UK.
[4]. Charcoal Burner, “Muzzle Loading Pistol Shooting – an Introductory Guide”, www.charcoal-
burner.com
[5]. Derek Fuller, “The Definitive Guide to Shooting Muzzle Pistols”, The Crowood Press (2002),
ISBN 1861264828.
[6]. Muzzle Loaders Association International Committee, www.mlaic.org, World Governing Body
for muzzle loading shooting.
[7]. Long Range Muzzle Loader, www.lrml.org, UK based forum and resource for this challenging
discipline.
27.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.


Organisation Muzzle Loaders Association of GB (MLAGB)
Telephone 01926 458198
Address 7 Olympus Court, Tachbrook Park, Warwick CV34 6RZ
Email membership@mlagb.com
Web site www.mlagb.com

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Art of Shooting
Chapter 28
Black Powder Cartridge Rifles and
Pistols
Black powder cartridge rifle and pistol
shooting encompasses both hand loaded and
commercial cartridges. In the UK, the Single
Shot Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Club of
Great Britain shoot prone on outdoor ranges
at distances of 200 to 1000 yards. In the
United States, black powder cartridges are
governed by the NRA-USA and closely
associated with Cowboy Action shooting and
Silhouette shooting. In America this typically
comprises 3-gun shooting competitions of BP
C pistol, rifle and shotgun.

Figure 28.1: Black Powder Cartridge

In this chapter we focus on UK BPCR shooting, with Cowboy Action Shooting and Silhouette shooting
covered by separate chapters.
28.1 Rifles and Ammunition
BPCR subdivide into historic firearms,
replicas of historic firearms and modern
designs. Typical calibres are .45 calibre,
and also .35 calibre, .40 calibre, and .50
calibre.

Examples of the rifles include the
Pedersoli Quigley .45-3.25" (.45-120),
Pedersoli Rolling Block (Custer Mod.)
.45-2.1" (.45-70), Shiloh (Hartford) .45-
2.1" (.45-70), Shiloh (Long Range Express) .45-2.1" (.45-70).


a) BP Cartridge Rifle b) BP Cartridge Pistol
Figure 28.2: Black Powder Cartridge Firearms

Sights must be period correct of original design, click adjustable sights are expressly excluded. Period
correct telescopic sights are permitted but shoot within their own class.

An Introduction to Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Loading By Chuck Raithel can be found on the web or
on the SSBPCRC site [3].
28.2 Ranges and Targets
Black powder cartridge rifles are shot prone on standard Target Rifle (TR) or specially designed
targets on High Power outdoor ranges at distances of 200 to 1000 yards.
28.3 Equipment
The equipment required is an authentic black powder cartridge rife; and the only artificial supports
allowed are Crossed-sticks and/or Wrist Supports that meet Club rules are allowed as rests for this
match.
28.4 Competitions
The Single Shot Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Club of Great Britain (SSBPCRC) [3] has five major
competitions:
‰ Buffalo – the course of fire comprises 20 consecutive rounds to score at both 200 yards and at
600 yards, each with 30 minutes. The target is an outline of a buffalo with anatomically correct
scoring zones.
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‰ Creedsmoor – the course of fire comprises 20 consecutive rounds to score at both 900 yards
and at 1000 yards, each with 30 minutes. The target is a standard NRA target for 1000 yards.
‰ Silhouette – this involves shooting at animal ‘silhouette’ targets. The course of fire comprises 10
consecutive rounds each at chickens and at pigs at 300 yards. Then 10 rounds at turkeys and 10
rounds at rams at 500 yards. Each of the four courses of fire being completed in 15 minutes.
‰ Quigley – the course of fire comprises 20 consecutive rounds to score at both 300 yards and 600
yards, each with 30 minutes. The targets are so-called Bucket and Wagon Man Targets.
‰ Precision - the course of fire comprises 20 consecutive rounds to score at both 300 yards and at
600 yards, each with 30 minutes. The targets are the standard NRA targets for these distances.
28.5 Further Information
[1]. Sam Fadala, “Lyman Black Powder Handbook & Loading Manual”, Lyman Publications
(2001), UPC #011516971005
[2]. Chuck Raithel, “Introduction to Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Loading”,
www.wahsatchdesperadoes.com/Intro_to_BPCR_Loading.pdf
[3]. Single Shot Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Club of Great Britain, www.ssbpcrc.co.uk/index.htm.
[4]. Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Site, www.bpcr.net, American BPCR site.
28.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation Single Shot Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Club of Great Britain
Email secretary@ssbpcrc.co.uk
Web site www.ssbpcrc.co.uk/index.htm
Organisation Muzzle Loaders Association of GB (MLAGB)
Telephone 01926 458198
Address MLAGB, 7 Olympus Court, Tachbrook Park, Warwick CV34 6RZ
Email membership@mlagb.com
Web site www.mlagb.com



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 29
Cowboy Action Shooting
Cowboy Action Shooting (CAS) [1], also known
as Western Action Shooting or Single Action
Shooting, is a competitive shooting sport that
originated in California, in the early 1980s.
Matches are held throughout the United States,
as well as Australia, England, Finland, Holland,
New Zealand, and Spain. The informality of CAS
means that courses of fire can include shooting
from facsimile barber’s chairs, wagon or train
seats, and even huge rocking horses!
29.1 Rifles and Ammunition
A CAS shooter typically uses four authentic
firearms: two revolvers, lever action rifle and
double barrel shotgun. CAS requires
competitors to use firearms typical of the mid- to late 19th century including single action revolvers,
lever action rifles (chambered in pistol calibres) and side-by-side double barrel shotguns (e.g. with
external hammers). All CAS guns must be
‘single action’, the hammer must be
manually cocked before each shot can be
fired, but firearms can be either original or
reproduction guns.

Figure 29.1: Cowboy Action Shooting (courtesy SASS)
29.2 Ranges and Targets
In CAS, the ‘ranges’ or courses of fire are
typically mock-ups of Old West towns and the targets are typically steel plates that ring/clang/ding
when hit. Each competition follows a scenario or ‘stage’, like in a film. It might involve ‘jumping out of
bed, shooting through the window with their pistol, grab the money bag, go outside and get their
shotgun and shoot 4 shells from behind a rock or building, then get their rifle from a saddle scabbard
and so on.’ The scenarios and stages are different for each competition, with the competitor being
scored for time and accuracy.



a) Revolver b) Rifle c) Shotgun
Figure 29.2: Cowboy Action Shooting
29.3 Equipment
Competitors are required to wear an authentic Western costume of some sort. Depending on the rules
of the sanctioning organization, clothing may be historically accurate for the late 1800s or may just be
suggestive of the Old West.
29.4 Competitions
As introduced, CAS competitions involve a number of separate shooting scenarios known as ‘stages’
[1]. Stages are always different, each typically requiring ten pistol rounds (using two single action
revolvers), nine or ten rifle rounds, and two to eight shotgun rounds.

Shooters compete one at a time, against the clock, with some matches being scored simply by ‘total
time’ plus penalties and bonuses, and other matches being scored by Rank Points. Each shooter's
‘raw’ time for the stage is increased by 5 seconds for each missed target and 10 seconds for any
procedural penalty incurred. After these adjustments are made; the fastest time wins. In ‘Rank Point’
scoring the winner of a match is determined by adding up each shooter's ranking for each stage, with
the lowest score winning.

CAS competitions are often designated by different Classes depending on the firearms used:
‰ Traditional - Shooters use pistols with fixed sights.
‰ Modern - shooters use pistols with adjustable sights.
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‰ Frontier Cartridge - shooters use black powder rather than smokeless powder in all their guns.
‰ Frontiersman - Shooter uses cap and ball revolvers and side by side double barrel or lever
action shotguns.

and style of shooting [1]:
‰ Duellist - Shooter uses only one hand to fire pistols
‰ Gunfighter - Shooter uses two pistols at once when the stage allows otherwise shoots his right
side pistol with his right hand only and his left side pistol with his left hand only.
29.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia free encyclopedia, “Cowboy Action Shooting”,
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cowboy_action_shooting
[2]. Ronald Harris, “All About Cowboy Action Shooting,” Stoeger (2001), ISBN-10: 0883172321.
[3]. Hunter Scott Anderson, “The Top Shooter's Guide to Cowboy Action Shooting,” (2001), ISBN-
13: 9780873418713.
[4]. Single Action Shooting Society (SASS), www.sassnet.com, the official sanctioning body for
cowboy action shooting competitions.
29.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation Single Action Shooting Society
Telephone +1 (714) 694-1800
Address SASS, 23255 La Palma Avenue, Yorba Linda, California 92887
Email www.sassnet.com/Contact-Us-001A.php
Web site www.sassnet.com
Organisation British Western Shooting Society
Telephone 016-422-53-3333
Address BWSS, 21 Shardeloes Road, SKEGNESS, Lincs PE25 3AA
Email mail@bwss.org.uk
Web site www.bwss.org.uk


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Art of Shooting
Part F – Military and Practical
Disciplines
Summary
The Military and Practical disciplines shoot civilian equivalents of modern service rifles such as the
M16 (firing 5.56 calibre cartridge), semi-automatic pistols and pump-action shotguns. Competitions as
you might expect are military or law enforcement inspired, and often the course of fire comprise a
series of stages.
Chapter 30 - Practical 3-Gun Shooting – rifle, handgun, shotgun
Practical 3-gun shooting is popular in the United States, and involves shooting a rifle, pistol and
shotgun on a simulated military or law enforcement course of fire (called stages).
Chapter 31 - Practical Rifle
Practical rifle shooters use a civilian version of a modern service rifle, such as a 5.56 calibre AR15,
with competitions involving a series of stages. To compete competitively a telescopic sight and large
capacity magazines are a requirement (20 rounds is the norm although 10 rounds will suffice at a
pinch).
Chapter 32 – Civilian Service Rifle
Civilian Service Rifle is a shooting discipline that involves the use of rifles that are used by military
forces and law-enforcement agencies, both past and present use. These include ex-military rifles,
sniper rifles (both past and present) and civilian versions of current use service rifles.
Chapter 33 - Fifty-Caliber (Long Range) Rifle
The Fifty Caliber Shooting Association (FCSA) as the name suggests focus on firing .50 calibre (and
.338 calibre) rifles at bullseye targets at ranges of 1,000 yards and greater. FCSA has over 4000
members and is growing steadily. FCSA has members in twenty-two countries including England,
Switzerland, Finland, South Africa, Australia and Canada.
Chapter 34 - Practical Pistol and Air Pistol
Practical Pistol involves cartridge pistols, air pistols and Airsoft, with competitors shooting a simulated
military or law-enforcement course of fire. Competitors use a magazine fed pistol or revolver capable
of firing multiple shots before reloading. The majority of pistols used in the UK for PP are CO2
powered, or air cartridge revolvers. The standard calibre is .177 but .22 is allowed.
Chapter 35 - Service Pistol
A service pistol is any handgun (revolver, or semi-automatic) issued to military personnel, or in some
contexts law enforcement officers. Service Pistol typically involves competitions between serving
military personnel, recent personnel and (where the Law allows) civilian enthusiasts. Shooting is often
done on Military ranges.
Chapter 36 – Iron Plate Action Shooting
Iron plate action shooting or I.P.A.S, is the action shooting discipline, designed specifically for the
multi shot CO
2
and Air cartridge pistols and is a form of “speed shooting”.
Chapter 37 – Target and Practical Shotgun
Target and Practical Shotgun involves competitors shooting self-loading or pump action shotguns with
magazines containing 7-14 rounds at steel plates, ‘shoot/no-shoot’ targets, ‘pepper poppers’ and
paper targets.
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Art of Shooting
Chapter 38 - Airsoft Rifles and Pistols
Airsoft is a shooting discipline in which players participate in simulated military or law enforcement-
style combat using replicas (in appearance only) of real firearms firing small round pellets. Airsoft
guns (also known as Soft Air guns) are spring, electric, or gas powered air guns that fire small
spherical plastic pellets of either 6 mm or 8 mm diameter (0.24 or 0.32 inches).
Other Disciplines
‰ The ‘McQueen’ (Sniper Rifle) - The so-called McQueen is a sniper competition rather than a
shooting discipline such as Fullbore or Smallbore target shooting. Specifically it is a series of six
Sniping competitions A to F [1], called: Sniper, Target, Classic Sniper Rifle, Sporting, Open Sniper
Rifle, and Any Rifle – shot at 300 yards.
‰ (Sub) Machine Gun - Although submachine gun matches have been happening in the United
States since the early 1980's, it is one of the least-known shooting disciplines, and banned in
most other countries. Submachine gun and belt-fed Machine gun shooting competitions use
Heckler & Koch MP5, Uzi and Mini Uzi, M16 in 9mm, Sterling, Sten, Thompson, Carl Gustav M/45
/ Swedish K and the MP40 (competitions must cost a small fortune!).


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Chapter 30
Practical 3-Gun Shooting
Practical 3 gun shooting is a sport that challenges an individual's ability to shoot rapidly and
accurately with a full power rifle, pistol, and shotgun. In practical shooting competitors move around a
course of fire or a series of ‘stages’ shooting at a variety of targets [1-3], as with military or law
enforcement training. The goal for the competitor is to try
and blend accuracy, power, and speed, into a winning
combination. Targets are typically 75 centimetres by 45
centimetres with a 15-centimetre center representing the
"A zone" or bullseye. Most shooting takes place at close
range; below 45 metres.

Historically, practical shooting has been a pistol sport,
and is primarily still so at an international level [3].
However, in recent years in the United States 3-gun
(rifle, pistol, and shotgun) has been growing in
popularity. The sport is governed by the International
Practical Shooting Confederation (IPSC) [1];
incorporating the United States Practical Shooting
Association (USPSA) [2] and UK Practical Shooting Association (UKPSA) [3]. In 1996, a breakaway
group formed the International Defensive Pistol Association (IDPA) with the aim of returning to the
defensive pistol roots of practical shooting.

Figure 30.1: Practical 3-Gun (courtesy USPSA)

This chapter covers IPSA and USA 3-gun shooting. The next chapter covers IDPA Defensive Pistol.
In the following two chapters we look at Practical Rifle and Practical Pistol shooting, mainly from a UK
perspective.
30.1 Firearms and Ammunition
The US Practical Shooting Association [1] subdivides firearms into the following classes:
‰ Pistols – semi-automatic pistols and revolvers divide by class into: Limited, Limited 10, Open,
Production, and Revolver.
‰ Rifles – semi-automatic and manual rifles are dived into: Open, Standard, Tactical, and Manually
Operated.
‰ Shotguns – shotguns of all types are subdivided into: Open and Standard.



a) Pistol b) Rifle c) Shotgun
Figure 30.2: Practical Shooting
For details of these classes refer to the USPSA web site [3].
30.2 Ranges and Targets
Ranges simulate military or law enforcement training with a course of fire (called stages). In general,
the course designer can include multiple targets, moving targets, targets that react when hit, penalty
carrying targets mixed-in, or even partially covering shoot targets, obstacles, movement, competitive
tactics, and in any combination.
30.3 Equipment
To compete in 3-gun practical shooting competitions you need a suitable pistol, rifle and shotgun.
Within the UK practical 3 gun competitions are held using other firearms to overcome the ban on
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pistols and to cater for those ranges where full bore rifles cannot be used. Many competitions use a
combination of Shotguns, Gallery Rifles, Lightweight sporting Rifles (LWSR) and Long Barrelled
Revolvers (LBR) or Gas Powered Pistols (GPP) guns.

Dressing in combat fatigues is discouraged. With the exception of serving military or police personnel
who may wear their normal service clothing, any clothing, or combination of clothing, which has a
paramilitary style is considered inappropriate at practical 3-gun competitions. Camouflage clothing of
any irregular pattern is specifically banned by the UKPSA and many other associations.
30.4 Competitions
The rules of the IPSC state that the course of fire (i.e. stages) should be practical and diverse, to keep
the sport from becoming too formalized or standardized. Targets are 75 centimetres by 45
centimetres with a 15-centimetre center representing the "A zone" or Bullseye. Most pistol shooting
takes place at close range, with rare shots out to 45 metres.

All shooting is against the clock, with an electronic ‘beep’ starting the stage and at the end of the
stage the competitor shoots a metal ‘stop’ plate to stop the timer. Scoring is a combination of points
(target hits) and time.

The USPSA has a classification scheme for practical shooters so they can compete against shooters
of a similar score and skill level: Grand Master (95%-100%), Master (85%-94.9%), A (75%-84.9%), B
(60%-74.9%), C (40%-59.9%), and D (2%-40%). UKPSA sanctioned matches are only open to those
members who have successfully completed a two day basic safety course and obtained a competition
licence. This is to ensure that competitors are of a sufficient standard to cope with the difficult
demands of practical shooting under competition conditions.
30.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Practical_shooting, introduction to
practical shooting
[2]. The UK Practical Shooting Association, www.ukpsa.co.uk, the UK region of the International
Practical Shooting Confederation.
[3]. The United States Practical Shooting Association, www.uspsa.org, as the name suggests, the
governing body of practical shooting in America.
[4]. International Practical Shooting Confederation, www.ipsc.org, the International governing body
of practical shooting
30.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association
Telephone 07010 703845
Address UKPSA, PO Box 7057, Preston, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 4EN
Email alan@mediainc.co.uk
Web site www.ukpsa.co.uk
Organisation Irish Practical Shooting Association
Address PO Box 856, Naas, Co. Kildare
Web site www.ipsc-ireland.org/
Organisation United States Practical Shooting Association
Telephone +1 (360) 855-2245
Address P.O. Box 811, Sedro-Woolley, WA 98284
Email office@uspsa.org
Web site www.uspsa.org



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 31
Practical Rifle
In general, ‘Practical’ shooting covers rifles, pistols and air pistols, and also shotguns. Competitors
move around a course or a series of ‘stages’ shooting at a
variety of targets [1-3], as with military or law enforcement
training. The goal for the competitor is to try and blend
accuracy, power, and speed, into a winning combination.

Practical Rifle evolved as a discipline to replace the old
Service Rifle when the Armed Forces adopted the self-
loading rifle in the late '60s. Courses of fire are devised by
the individual match organiser, and usually involve a
physical element (e.g. a 500 to 100 yard run down the
range firing two shots every 100 yards). Matches may
involve deliberate, timed and snapshooting, and may
involve rapid reloading or changing of magazines.
Competitions are usually fired on disruptive pattern
targets. A rifle with a telescopic sight and a magazine
capacity of at least 10 shots is advisable.

Figure 31.1: Practical Rifle (Iain Robertson)

In the USA targets are 75 centimetres by 45 centimetres
with a 15 centimetre centre representing the "A zone" or
bullseye.
31.1 Rifles and Ammunition
You don't need any special equipment to take part
except of course a rifle; typically a civilian version of a
modern service rifle, such as a 5.56 calibre AR15.
Having said that, it will soon become apparent that to
compete competitively a telescopic sight and large
capacity magazines are a requirement (20 rounds is the
norm although 10 rounds will suffice at a pinch).

Figure 31.2: Practical Rifle
31.2 Ranges and Targets
Practical rifle is shot on outdoor ranges at static targets, with targets usually adopted from the ‘local’
NRA.
31.3 Equipment
As discussed, the basic equipment is a civilian equivalent of a modern, self-loading service rifle with a
10 or 20 round magazine, a telescopic sight with a 10-20 magnification, plus hearing protectors and
casual clothing.
31.4 Competitions
As discussed above, the individual match organisers largely specify competitions, but courses of fire
usually include a ‘physical’ and ‘disruptive’ element, such as running down the range and rapid
loading of ammunition. Practical shooters also take part in UK Service Rifle [2] and High Power
competitions [3].
31.5 Further Information
[1]. Practical Rifle, www.practicalrifle.co.uk, The web site for practical rifle shooters in the UK.
[2]. The UK Practical Shooting Association, www.ukpsa.co.uk, the UK region of the International
Practical Shooting Confederation.
[3]. The United States Practical Shooting Association, www.uspsa.org, as the name suggests, the
governing body of practical shooting in America.
[4]. International Practical Shooting Confederation, www.ipsc.org, the International governing body
of practical shooting
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31.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association
Telephone 07010 703845
Address UKPSA, PO Box 7057, Preston, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 4EN
Email alan@mediainc.co.uk
Web site www.ukpsa.co.uk
Organisation Irish Practical Shooting Association
Address PO Box 856, Naas, Co. Kildare
Web site www.ipsc-ireland.org/



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 32
Civilian Service Rifle
Service Rifle is a shooting discipline that involves the use of rifles that are used or were used by
military forces and law-enforcement agencies. These include current military rifles (e.g. M16, SA80),
ex-military rifles, sniper rifles (both past and present) and civilian versions of current use service rifles
(AR15).

In the United States the Civilian Marksmanship
Program (CMP) governs civilian Service Rifle
matches. Competitors must use an approved US
military service rifle, or the civilian equivalent. This is
generally either an M16 or AR15. In the UK, civilian
Service Rifle courses of fire are based on those fired
by the Armed Forces, and as with Practical Rifle
usually involves a physical element (e.g. a 500 to 100
yard run down firing two shots every 100 yards).
Matches may involve deliberate, rapid fire and snap
shooting, and will usually involve firing from a variety
of positions including prone, sitting, kneeling, and
standing, and from a fire trench.

Figure 32.1: Service Rifle

For Military personnel the matches are fired with the current military issue rifle (the SA80 for British
Forces) or, for overseas competitors (German H&K G36, USA M16), that of their own country.
32.1 Rifles and Ammunition
Service Rifle covers any rifle that has been in general issue with an armed force at some stage, or a
civilian rifle based on a military rifle (H&K SL4/8, AR15 etc). However, many countries prohibit
civilians from owning fully automatic rifles.

Sights are usually restricted to the type issued with the rifle; not aftermarket target sights, modified
military sights or optical sights (except for sniper class).

Likewise, ammunition must be of a calibre that has been used with a military force at some stage and
consistent with the rifle to which it is being used. However, the ammunition does not have to be
military surplus (milsurp); any commercial or reloaded ammunition is acceptable if consistent with the
original cartridge as to load and bullet weight.

Service Rifle also includes ‘Sniper Class’, which covers military issued sniper rifles or faithfully
reproduced sniper rifles. They should have an original optical sight, or a broadly similar civilian pattern
telescopic sight, not greater than 4x32 power.
32.2 Ranges and Targets
Service Rifle is shot on civilian and military ranges from 100 to 600, or even 1000 yards at silhouette
(head-torso) figure targets. Some competitions are shot on electronic targets that ‘fall’ when hit.
32.3 Competitions
As discussed, competitions are based on courses of fire fired by the Armed Forces and usually
involve a physical element such as running down the range; deliberate, rapid fire and snap shooting;
and firing from a variety of positions including prone, sitting, kneeling and standing.

In the US, a CMP-designated Service Rifle match course of fire is: a) Standing - 10 shots standing,
slow fire, 200 yards; b) Sitting - 10 shots sitting, rapid fire, 200 yards; c) Prone (rapid) - 10 shots
prone, rapid fire, 300 yards; and d) Prone (slow) - 20 shots prone, slow fire, 600 yards.

In the UK, a NRA-designated Service Rifle match course of fire is: a) Sitting - 10 shots sitting, 25
seconds, 200 yards; a) Standing - 10 shots standing, 100 yards; followed by kneeling or squatting,
and c) Prone - 10 shots prone, rapid fire, 300 yards.
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32.4 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service_Rifle, list of historical and
modern service rifles.
[2]. Shootingwiki, www.shootingwiki.org/index.php?title=Service_Rifle, introduction to US Service Rifle.
[3]. The Lee Enfield Rifle Association, www.leeenfieldrifleassociation.org.uk , Contact info@…
32.5 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK
Telephone 01483 797777
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0PB
Email info@nra.org.uk
Web site www.nra.org.uk



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 33
Fifty-Caliber (Long Range) Rifle
The Fifty Calibre Shooting Association (FCSA)
is a discipline shot in the USA, UK and a
number of other countries, such as Switzerland,
Finland, Italy, Malta, South Africa, Australia and
Canada.. As the name implies it focuses on
firing .50 calibre and other large calibres such as
.338 calibre rifles at bullseye targets (and
others) at ranges of 1,000 yards and greater.

Given the cost of shooting .50BMG, the FCSA
allows members to use a variety of other
calibre’s such as .338 right down to .22LR.
33.1 Rifles and Ammunition
The FCSA specialise in the 50BMG 12.7x99mm
Browning cartridge - '50cal' being the common
name, rather than the Russian counterpart
12.7x108mm or the short .50cal 'Spotter' as
used on recoilless artillery, as 50BMG reloading
components are the most readily available in the
UK, Europe and the US. Compared to other
12.7mm calibres the '50BMG' has the largest
number of civilian users across the world.
Details such as forthcoming 50BMG rifle
competitions, 50BMG reloading data and retail
information on rifles available to the UK shooter
can be found on the FCSA (UK) website. Many
members also compete at distances beyond
1000 yards with other large calibre rifles, such
as .338 Lapua and now the .408 CheyTec.

Figure 33.2: Accuracy International AW50 Rifle

Figure 33.1: Fifty Calibre Shooting

Popular 50BMG rifles in the UK include RPA Rangemaster .50BMG, Accuracy International AW50,
the Steyr HS50 50BMG and AMSD Nemesis 50 BMG from Switzerland.

All of the rifles (see Figure 33.1 and 33.2) are fitted with muzzle breaks or recoil compensators. These
are fitted to the muzzle of a firearm and redirect propellant gases with the benefit of countering both
recoil and rising of the barrel during firing.

All ammunition used in FCSA sanctioned 50cal shooting competitions is the “fixed” 50BMG design
(12.7mm x 99mm).
33.2 Ranges and Targets
To those not familiar with the .50BMG calibre, the muzzle energy can be in excess of 10,000 ft/lbs
depending on the loading, with a muzzle velocity usually just under 3000 ft/sec. As such the majority
of UK ranges are not suitable.

That said, there are a growing number of UK ranges that the FCSA (UK) have managed to gain
access to (Mainly MOD Multi Purpose / Field Firing Ranges) that have been approved for 50BMG and
usually even larger calibres, allowing shooting to around 3000m (see www.fcsa.co.uk).
33.3 Equipment
FCSA approved equipment comprises:
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‰ Rifle Rests - a rifle rest is allowed to support the forend of the rifle. A rifle rest is also allowed to
support the rear of the rifle. Rifle rests are restricted to the sand bag type made from soft pliable
leather or a soft pliable material, filled only with sand.
‰ Bipods - bipods are acceptable in any class of FCSA sanctioned shooting competition.
‰ Targets - only the NRA-UK MR-1 600 yard target is approved for FCSA sanctioned 1000 yard
shooting competitions. (These can vary, depending on the competition.)
‰ Wind Flags - it is recommended that wind flags be used at all FCSA sanctioned shooting
competitions. This does not preclude competitors from using and placing their own wind
flags/wind measuring devices on the range during a shooting competition.
‰ Benches – benches are only allowed in ‘unlimited’ class fifty calibre; see below.
33.4 Competitions
The FCSA (UK) has 4 classes of competition:
‰ Light Class Fifty Calibre - restricted to a rifle that shoots a .50 cal. BMG cartridge and restricted
to a total overall weight of thirty two pounds and eight ounces (32 lbs 8.00 oz.).
‰ Heavy Class Fifty Calibre - any rifle that shoots a bullet with a diameter of .510/.511 inches and
has a maximum overall weight of fifty (50 lbs.) Pounds.
‰ Unlimited Class Fifty Calibre -: any rifle that fires a bullet with a diameter of .510/.511 inches.
‰ Hunter Class Fifty Calibre - Competitors will shoot and compete from a prone shooting position
with rifle equipped with bipods or other authorised supports.
The competitions usually consist of the smallest size, 5 shot group.
33.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/.50_BMG, article on the .50 Browning
Machine Gun cartridge.
[2]. Fifty Caliber Institute, www.fiftycal.org, US organisation dedicated to the legal aspects of 50cal
ownership in the USA.
33.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation Fifty Calibre Shooters Association UK
Address Please make initial contact by email
Email editor@fcsa.co.uk
Web site www.fcsa.co.uk
Organisation Fifty Caliber Shooting Association
Telephone 00 1 435 527 9245
Address P.O.BOX111, MONROE, UTAH 84754-0111
Email fcsa@scinternet.net
Web site www.fcsa.org



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 34
Practical Pistol and Air Pistol
In Practical Pistol (unlike traditional target pistol shot over a fixed distance at a bullseye target) every
competition is different, with the competitor moving around and shooting at a variety of targets
positioned at varying distances. The so-called stages (a dozen or so in a typical match) themselves
are set up as shooting problems to be overcome by the competitor. In addition, competitors carry a
number of magazines, which they will need to change
during the different stages.

In most countries, Practical Pistol involves magazine
fed semi-automatics or revolvers capable of firing
multiple shots before reloading, equipped with open
‘iron’ sights or red-dot sights.

In mainland UK, following the Pistol ban, Practical
Pistol now involves multi-shot Air pistols and Airsoft.
The vast majority of pistols are CO2 or Gas powered.
There are also a number of competitions using Long
Barrelled Revolvers (LBR). However, Practical Pistol is
still shot in Northern Ireland where a number of UKPSA Graded and Championship competitions take
place. UK competitors still compete in overseas competitions using semi-automatics.
34.1 Pistols and Ammunition
Practical Pistols are divided into divisions:
IPSC Practical Pistols
The IPSC separate pistols by
Divisions. In general, the minimum
cartridge case dimension for pistols to
be used in IPSC matches is 9 X 19
mm. The minimum bullet diameter is 9
mm (.354 inches). Types of sights
allowed by IPSC are: a) "Open sights"
are aiming devices fitted to a firearm which do not use electronic circuitry and/or lenses; and b)
"Optical/electronic sights" are aiming devices (including flashlights) fitted to a firearm which use
electronic circuitry and/or lenses.

Figure 34.1: Practical Pistol



a) Semi-Automatic b) CO2 Air Pistol c) Airsoft Pistol
Figure 34.2: Handguns used for Practical Pistol
Air and Airsoft Pistol
In the UK, Air Pistols and Airsoft Pistols classify by group:
‰ Standard - Magazine capacity 10 rounds or less. Open sights (No red dots etc.). (But NOT air
cartridge revolvers [Brocock] - see revolver Division).
‰ Modified - Magazine capacity 10 rounds or less. Optical sights (red dots etc.). (INCLUDES air
cartridge revolvers [Brocock] with red dots etc.).
‰ Open - Magazine capacity over 10 rounds. “Free” sights - red dots etc. allowed. (This Division is
primarily for Anics users).
‰ Revolver - Air cartridge revolvers (e.g.: Brocock). Open sights (No red dots etc.).
34.2 Ranges and Targets
As discussed in previous chapters on Practical Shooting, ranges simulate military or law enforcement
training with a course of fire (called stages). In general, the course designer can include multiple
targets, moving targets, targets that react when hit, penalty carrying targets mixed-in, or even partially
covering shoot targets, obstacles, movement, competitive tactics, and in any combination.
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34.3 Equipment
The principal piece of equipment is a legal semi-automatic pistol or air pistol.
Practical Pistol (USA)
You can get started with very little equipment: a safe gun and holster, two ammo carriers, a belt, and
several hundred rounds of ammunition. Examples of pistols used include: .45ACP semi-automatics,
9mm semi-automatic service pistols; and .38 calibre service revolvers.
Practical Air and Airsoft Pistol (UK)
In the UK equipment comprises: a) an Air Pistol, b) extra magazines, c) holster and belt, d) magazine
pouch or clips, e) safety glasses, f) airgun pellets, and g) CO2 capsules [1]. For competitions at least
5 magazines, each holding 8 rounds or 40 shots is required.

Safety glasses are are mandatory.
34.4 Competitions
In practical shooting, the competitor must try to blend accuracy, power, and speed, into a winning
combination. Targets are 75 centimetres by 45 centimetres with a 15 centimetre center representing
the "A zone" or Bullseye. Most shooting takes place at close range, with rare shots out to 45 meters.
Hitting a 15 centimetre A zone at 45 meters or less might seem easy to an experienced pistol shooter,
but in IPSC only full power pistols are allowed (9mm or larger). This power minimum reflects the
heritage of this modern sport, and mastering a full power pistol is considerably more difficult than
shooting a light recoiling target pistol especially when the competitor is trying to go as fast as possible.
Time also plays a major factor.

UKPSA sanctioned matches are only open to those members who have successfully completed a two
day basic safety course and obtained a competition licence. This is to ensure that competitors are of
a sufficient standard to cope with the difficult demands of practical shooting under competition
conditions.
34.5 Further Information
[1]. UK Practical Pistol, www.btinternet.com/~triplep/public_html, introduction to Practical Pistol shooting
in the UK.
[2]. The UK Practical Shooting Association, www.ukpsa.co.uk, the UK region of the International
Practical Shooting Confederation.
[3]. The United States Practical Shooting Association, www.uspsa.org, as the name suggests, the
governing body of practical shooting in America.
[4]. International Practical Shooting Confederation, www.ipsc.org, the International governing body
of practical shooting
34.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association
Telephone 07010 703845
Address UKPSA, PO Box 7057, Preston, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 4EN
Email alan@mediainc.co.uk
Web site www.ukpsa.co.uk
Organisation Irish Practical Shooting Association
Address PO Box 856, Naas, Co. Kildare
Web site www.ipsc-ireland.org/



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 35
Service Pistol
A service pistol is defined as any pistol (revolver, or semi-automatic) issued to military personnel, or in
some contexts, law enforcement officers, such as those shown in Figure 33.2. Service Pistol typically
involves competitions between serving military personnel.
Figure 35.1: Service Pistol

In the United States, Service Pistol matches are governed by
the Civilian Marksmanship Program (www.odcmp.com), with
input from the US military services and the National Rifle
Association of America (NRA-USA). The course of fire is
identical to the National Match Course described in the
Bullseye section, but the distances are fixed at 50 yards and
25 yards and are not authorized to be reduced. Further, the
firearms are restricted to two military styles, with open sights
required, modifications extremely limited and only specific
ammunition is allowed. Turning targets for the 25 yard
portion are a requirement, as well.

In the UK Service Pistol is governed by the Joint Services Shooting Committee, with input from the
individual service shooting committees and the National Rifle Association of the UK and is restricted
to military personal who shoot on military ranges. Courses of fire and targets are defined in the
National Rifle Association Rules of Shooting, available to the general public. Service Pistol, as to be
expected, is typically shot with current 9mm services pistols such as the HK P8 (Germany), Sig Sauer
P226 (Japan), and Beretta M9 (USA) or Browning Hi-Power.
35.1 Ranges and Targets
Shooting is largely confined to military ranges. The targets used are the 50 and 25-yard full sized
American Bullseye Pistol targets which include an X-ring that is counted for hits. The total possible
score is 300-30x.
35.2 Competitions
Service Pistol completions (The National US Match Course of fire) are:
‰ 1 string of 10 shots fired in 10 minutes at 50 yards
‰ 2 strings of 5 shots fired in 20 seconds at 25 yards
‰ 2 strings of 5 shots fired in 10 seconds at 25 yards

International matches are held between the armed forces’ teams of the USA, UK, Commonwealth,
European and many other countries worldwide.

Further details on Service Pistol can be found on Wikipedia and Shooting Wiki.
35.3 Further Information
[1]. Shooting Wiki, http://www.shootingwiki.org/index.pp?title=Service_Pistol, introduction to service pistol
shooting.






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35.4 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK
Telephone 01483 797777
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0PB
Email info@nra.org.uk
Web site www.nra.org.uk



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Art of Shooting
Chapter 36
Iron Plate Action Shooting
Iron plate action shooting or I.P.A.S, is the action shooting
discipline, designed specifically for the multi shot Co2 and
Air cartridge pistols and is a different form of “speed
shooting”.

IPAS is good for clubs wanting to shoot rapid fire pistol within
limited space and with range equipment that’s easy to
construct, set up and clear away/store, it also is appealing to
the phyiscaly disabled as there is no movement required
other than to draw the pistol.

IPAS was started in 2000 to foster ‘Steel Challenge’
competitions. Competitions involve the shooting of several
stages where five steel plates either 10”x10”, 12"x12” or 12”x18” and set out at varying ranges and
different but challenging layouts need to be hit and each sequence is timed. Each stage is shot 5
times and the slowest of the times is discarded, the remaining four being your score. It's fast, it's
furious and most of all, it's fun.
Figure 36.1: Iron Plate Action Shooting

The discipline relies on two basic principles: accuracy and speed.
36.1 Pistols and Ammunition
For IPAS competitions the following pistols are allowed:
‰ CO
2
– these are replicas of centrefire
pistols that are powered by a CO2
cartridge. CO2 guns use a disposable
cylinder, a ‘powerlet’, that is
purchased pre-filled with 12 grams of
liquefied carbon dioxide.
‰ Tandem Air Cartridge (TAC) - these
are multi-shot air guns based on the
Air Cartridge System, which uses a
pre-charged, single shot air cartridge
(similar in size to a .38 Special cartridge).


TAC
a) CO
2

Figure 36.2: IPAS Pistols

The following pistols are not allowed: Target pistols, Single shot air pistols, Airsoft pistols and BB firing
pistols.

The ammunition allowed is standard lead-based air pellets; no steel based pellets or BB’s are
permitted. This is to ensure that the pellet is destroyed on impact with the steel plate.
36.2 Ranges and Targets
Stages comprise various distances and layouts. There are currently 70+ official IPAS stages that can
be used.

The targets comprise metal plates the following sizes are used for IPAS:
a) 10” x 10” Squares,
b) 12” x 12” Squares, and
c) 12” x 18” Rectangles.

Each plate is mounted on a 2-inch square long post, held upright in a suitable base, the posts being of
various heights: from 18” to 66” in 6” increments allowing for a vast number of stages.

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All plates are painted white apart from the ‘Stop’ plate which is blue or red and mounted on its
respective post via a metal threaded stud affixed to the rear surface of the plate, alternately a bolt
through the centre of the plate (offset on the rectangular plates)
36.3 Equipment
The main equipment is holsters. All holsters must be mounted in the vicinity of the strong side hip, at
waist level. All holsters must retain the pistol. Triggers may not be fully exposed with any holster.

No camouflage or paramilitary style clothing or clothing with offensive slogans to be worn.
36.4 Competitions
Each course of fire will consist of between two and five plates (one of which will be a "stop plate").

Competitors are started by a shot timer’s “beep” and it will record the last shot fired by the competitor.

The plate distances will vary between a minimum of 5m and a maximum of 25m from the designated
shooting box. Plate angles will also vary depending on the course of fire and range space limitations.

Unless specified in the course briefing all primary plates may be engaged in any order (the stop plate
is always engaged last). The competitor may fire as many rounds as they deem necessary to
complete the course of fire.
36.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steel_Challenge overview of the Steel
Challenge Airsoft rifle and pistols.
[2]. Iron Plate Action Shooting is organised by Sleeping Tigers, who maintain the IPAS web site,
www.ipas.org.uk
[3]. Steel Challenge Shooting Association (SCSA), http://steelchallenge.com/, the governing body of
the Steel Challenge the world speed shooting championship with the annual match is held in
Piru, California.
36.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.


Organisation Iron Plate Action Shooting
Email admin@ipas.org.uk
Web site www.ipas.org.uk


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Chapter 37
Target and Practical Shotgun
Target and Practical Shotgun involves competitors using
self-loading or pump action shotguns with magazines
containing 6-14 rounds. These are Section 1 shotguns which
must be held on a Firearms certificate.

Practical shotgunners like to say ‘In Clay pigeon shooting the
shooter stays still and the targets move around; in Practical
Shotgun the targets are stationary and the shooter moves
around’.

We distinguish between:
‰ Practical shotgun – as covered by the International
Practical Shooting Confederation (IPSC) is a dynamic form of shooting which can involve
movement and shooting from different positions at multiple targets, including steel plates, IPSC
classic paper targets and frangible targets such as clays. The course of fire is made up of a
variety of stages, these will be different from one match to the next. In practical shotgun the
shooter competes against the timer and must either knock down the steel targets or when
shooting on paper have the scoring zones scored.

Figure 37.1: Target & Practical Shotgun
‰ Target shotgun – as covered by the UKPSA was introduced by the NRA at Bisley and involves
competitors shooting set courses of fire (stages) from a static position at paper targets. Any
shotgun may be used along with any sights. There are no gun divisions except for the Embassy
Cup which is divided into semi-auto and pump action.

To compete in a UKPSA licensed practical (target) shotgun match, a competitor must have completed
a two day basic course and gained a competition qualification as well as being a member of the
UKPSA. Practical Shotgun has four classes or divisions of guns which may be used.
‰ Standard Auto - any semi auto shotgun with fixed sights and holding a maximum of 9 rounds. No
optical or electronic sights.
‰ Standard Manual - any pump action shotgun with fixed sights and holding a maximum of 9
rounds. No optical or electronic sights.
‰ Modified – any shotgun with fixed sights and a maximum overall length of 1320 mm. No optical
or electronic sights.
‰ Open - any shotgun. Optical or electronic sights are allowed along with detachable magazines,
compensators and ported barrels.
37.1 Shotguns and Ammunition
In Target shotgun, competitors use self-loading (with
fixed and removable box-fed magazines), pump-action
and occasionally lever-action shotguns. The shotguns
are typically 12-bore/gauge, with magazines holding
between six and fourteen rounds. (These are referred to
as Section 1 shotguns in the UK.) Popular makes are the
Remington 1100 and 11-87, the Browning Hunter Gold, Benelli and Baikal self-loading shotguns.

Figure 37.2: Practical Shotgun

Practical shotgun uses a variety of ammunition. Rifled Slug is used on paper targets; 9 ball Buck shot
also known as SG is used on metal and paper targets; and birdshot, No 5 or No 6 is used on metal
targets and frangible clay targets. In Target shotgun the ammunition used is Rifled slug.
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37.2 Ranges and Targets
Practical shotgun is shot at variety of targets including steel plates, IPSC classic paper targets and
frangible targets such as clays.

Target shotgun is shot at ranges of 15 to 30 metres for short competitions and at 100 and 200 yards
for long range. Targets include: paper targets – DP1, DP2 and IPSC Classic targets.
37.3 Equipment
Apart from a self-loading or pump action shotgun and the appropriate ammunition, most types of
casual clothing can be worn. However, as with other forms of target shooting, paramilitary style
clothing is considered inappropriate. The UKPSA do not allow DPM clothing at any of their
competitions.

Both shooting disciplines require a cartridge belt for the carrying of ammunition.
37.4 Competitions
Target shotgun competitions have their roots in the old pistol courses of fire:
‰ Timed and Precision (the ‘Sydney Street’) – this is shot in the standing stance, with the ready
position comprising the shotgun being held waist height and parallel to the ground. The
competition comprises three courses of fire: a) Practice 1 – 25 metres, 12 shots in 2 minutes at
fixed paper targets; b) Practice 2 – 15 metres, 12 in two strings of 6 at shoot/no-shoot ‘turning’
targets; and c) Practice 3 – 10 metres, 6 shots on shoot/no-shoot targets.
‰ Multi-Target (the ‘Trenchard’) - this is shot in the standing stance, with the ready position
comprising the shotgun being held waist height and parallel to the ground. The competition
comprises four courses of fire: a) Practice 1 – 25 metres, 6 shots in 30 seconds on the left hand
(of a pair) paper target; b) Practice 2 – 20 metres, 6 shots in 20 seconds, 3 shots on each of a
pair of targets; c) Practice 3 – 15 metres, 6 shots in 3x4 seconds exposure, 2 shots per exposure
on right hand shoot/no-shoot target, and d) Practice 4 – 10 metres, 6 shots in 15 seconds, 3 shots
one each of a pair of fixed targets.
‰ Embassy Cup (Bund der Militär – und Polizeischűtzen) – this is shot in a variety of positions:
standing, prone, sitting and kneeling with the standard ready position. Each course of fire
comprises 8 shots in 20 seconds at a pair of fixed papers targets The competition comprises: a)
Practice 1 – 25 metres, 2 shots on each target standing, reload with at least 4 rounds, then 2
shots on each target prone; b) Practice 2 – 20 metres, 2 shots on each target standing, reload
with at least 4 rounds, 2 shots on each target sitting; and c) Practice 3 – 15 metres, with 2 shots
on each target standing, reload with at least 4 rounds, and then 2 shots on each target kneeling.
‰ NRA Shotgun Slug Match – this is shot standing and sitting/kneeling at 100 and 200 yards using
shotgun ‘slug’ ammunition. The competition comprises: a) Practice 1 – 100 yards, 2 sighters,
followed by 2 strings of 5 shots each in 30 seconds, and b) 200 yards, 2 sighters, followed by 10
shots in 12 minutes sitting or kneeling.
‰ TBT - this is shot without movement and comprises a number of stages shooting slug, buckshot
and birdshot. The stages are different for every competition and usually includes shotgun bowling
pins. ‘Shotgun bowling’ is shot in the standing position with the target being 10 bowling pins. It
comprises a single practice – 25 metres, in unlimited time, scored as per ten pin bowling.
37.5 Further Information
[1]. The UK Practical Shooting Association, www.ukpsa.co.uk, the UK region of the International
Practical Shooting Confederation.
[2]. The United States Practical Shooting Association, www.uspsa.org, as the name suggests, the
governing body of practical shooting in America.
[3]. International Practical Shooting Confederation, www.ipsc.org, the International governing body
of practical shooting
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Art of Shooting
37.6 Contacts
Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association
Telephone 07010 703845
Address UKPSA, PO Box 7057, Preston, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 4EN
Email alan@mediainc.co.uk
Web site www.ukpsa.co.uk


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Art of Shooting
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Chapter 38
Airsoft Rifle and Pistol
Airsoft is a shooting discipline in which players participate in simulated military or law enforcement-
style combat using replicas (in appearance only) of real firearms firing small pellets. Airsoft guns (also
known as Soft Air and Strike Ball) are gas powered, electric, or spring guns that fire small spherical
plastic pellets of either 6 mm or 8 mm diameter (0.24 or 0.32 inches).

Airsoft shooting as a sport originated in the late-1980s in
Japan, China, Taiwan, South Korea and other East Asia
countries, where conventional firearms were often
banned, or difficult to obtain due to local laws [1].

Airsoft events subdivide into:
‰ Practical Pistol – that involves the competitor
moving around a course of fire and shooting at
targets.
‰ Gaming – which involves (like paintball but more
realistic) simulated military style combat and
typically involve hitting an adversary with one of
more pellets, hits declared on an honour system.
38.1 Rifles and Ammunition
The guns used in Airsoft can be divided into three groups based on their power source: gas-powered,
electric or spring. The choice of Airsoft guns is determined by either the performance (e.g. battery life,
power, range, pellet magazine capacity). The better versions have a hop up unit at the start of the
barrel (an adjustable piece of rubber) which imparts back spin on the bb leaving the chamber
increasing its stability and allowing adjustment of its flight through the air.
‰ Gas-powered Airsoft guns - use pressurized gas to propel the pellets, and are capable of
automatic or semi-automatic operation. 134A gas is the most common recommended propellant,
consisting of a mixture of propane and polysiloxane lubricant. Gas power guns can be very
powerful and are often used for top end sniper rifles, but gas power is greatly affected by ambient
temperature and in cold condition may not work effectively.
‰ Electric-powered Airsoft guns - use a rechargeable battery to drive an electric motor that in turn
drives an air piston assembly that fires the pellet. These guns operate in automatic or semi-
automatic mode. There are two basic types of electric Airsoft guns: a) Automatic Electric Guns
(known as AEGs) and the child's version Mini-Autos. With an AEG, a gearbox (see Figure 38.1)
houses the motor, gears, spring, and piston which drives the pellet by air pressure through the
chamber and out of the gun. Battery power is provided by a variety of sources, either by common
AA batteries or 8.4 volt NiMh battery which are the most common for standard AEG's.
‰ Spring Airsoft guns - also known as ‘springs’ or ‘springers’, must be cocked each time they are
fired. Springers are common in cheap Airsoft guns, but many of the expensive ‘sniper’ rifles also
use this system.

In summary, the most popular Airsoft guns are AEGs because of their high rate of fire and the
convenience of automatic fire without the cost or unreliability of gas.

As introduced, most Airsoft pellets are plastic and are 6mm or 8mm in diameter, and range in weight
from 0.12-0.90 grams; with the most popular being 6mm between 0.12-0.33 grams in weight [3].
There are several types of pellets, ranging from Teflon coated special sniper rounds, standard white,
cheap yellow plastic, and Biodegradable, which are more expensive. The light weight 0.12 gram
pellets are used in the cheaper types of gun, normally, electric or springer. However, most better
quality Airsoft guns require heavier pellets, most commonly used are 0.20 gram (5.95 mm) and up to
approx 350 fps, and 0.25 gram that are over 350 fps. Higher weight improve accuracy with less wind
drift but reduces range therefore higher power requirement to counteract this.

Figure 38.1: Typical AEG Gear box cut away
Art of Shooting
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38.2 Ranges and Targets
Ranges and targets broadly divide into:
‰ Close Quarter Battle (CQB) – intense close range battle often involving room clearance, hostage
rescue, and often use made of pyrotechnics to simulate flash bangs, grenades, and smoke. In
CQB maximum power restrictions may be imposed on guns used of 1 joule, or under and a
‘verbal bang’ rule may be operated. Pop up targets or real opposing players may be involved.
‰ Outdoor ranges – ordinary target shooting with all types of gun.
‰ Airsoft Gaming – gaming may include CQB but generally is conducted in more open terrain and
woodland with ranges of approx 75-200 feet, simulating military engagements.
38.3 Equipment
Airsoft equipment comprises Airsoft gun, essential ‘eye’ (a legal requirement in some countries) and
face protection, tactical clothing, equipment harness etc. It is fairly common for Airsoft players to wear
battle dress uniform (BDU), tactical or military surplus clothing, consisting of separate trousers/pants,
shirt and jacket. Use is also made of pyrotechnics in the form of grenades, flash bangs and smokes.
38.4 Competitions
Airsoft guns and gaming are legal in many countries but not all, with some countries placing
restrictions on the visual appearance of the firearms and others restrictions on the maximum muzzle
energy. Further details are given in the references [1, 2].
38.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airsoft_guns overview of Airsoft rifle and
pistols.
[2]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airsoft_Pellets, overview of Airsoft pellets.
[3]. Official UK Airsoft organisations http://www.ukara.or.uk the United Kingdom Airsoft Retailers
Association or United Kingdom Airsoft Sites Governing Body www.ukasgb.org.uk
[4]. US Airsoft Practical Shooting Association, www.usapsa.org, the United States Association for Airsoft
38.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation United Kingdom Airsoft Retailers Association
Email admin@ukara.org.uk
Web site http://www.ukara.org.uk
Organisation Irish Airsoft Association
Email info@irishairsoft.ie
Web site http://irishairsoft.ie/
Organisation International Airsoft Practical Shooting (IAPS)
Web site www.airsoft-shooting.org



Art of Shooting
Part G – Field Sports Disciplines
Summary
Field Sports disciplines simulate moving and static targets found in traditional field sports, such as
stalking. Moving target disciplines include the enormously popular Clay Pigeon shooting, and so-
called Running Boar and Running Deer shot with Smallbore and Fullbore rifles, respectively. Shooting
at static ‘game’ targets includes Silhouette Rifle, popular in the United States, and Field Target shot
with Air Rifles.
Chapter 39 - Silhouette Rifle, Pistol and Shotgun
Silhouette shooting comprises shooting at heavy metal targets of chickens, pigs, turkeys and rams,
with the aim of knocking them over, using rifles and pistols, and also shotguns.
Chapter 40 - Sporting Rifle
Popular with field sports shooters, the rifles used must be in the style of a ‘sporting rifle’ rather than
that of a target, match or sniper rifle. It encompasses static targets (e.g. fox, buck) that are shot prone,
kneeling, standing and from the bench, and moving/running mechanical targets (e.g. deer, boar) that
are shot standing.
Chapter 41 - Clay Pigeon Shooting
Clay pigeon shooting is the art of shooting flying targets (i.e. clays) with a shotgun. Formal Clay
shooting consists of a number of disciplines, such as Trap and Skeet. Trap shooting has targets fired
away from the participant at different angles as well as different heights. Skeet involves shooting at
targets fired horizontally from a low and high house both as singles and pairs. Each round consists of
25 targets.
Chapter 42 - Field Target (Air Rifle)
Field target shooting – shot with highly accurate air rifles – combines the outdoor field conditions of
rough shooting, with the precision of target shooting. A typical course is laid out, outdoors with a route
to walk and at set points are shooting points with a knockdown target (cf. Silhouette Shooting) at any
distance from 7.5 metres to 55 metres.
Chapter 43 - Hunter Field Target (Air Rifle)
Hunter Field target shooting (HFT) – shot with air rifles – combines the skill of outdoor field conditions
of rough shooting, with the precision of target shooting. A typical course is laid out, outdoors with a
route to walk and at set points are shooting lanes with one knockdown targets in each at any distance
from 8 metres to 45 metres with hit zone from 15 to 45mm diameter.
Other Shooting Disciplines
There are other ‘outdoor’ disciplines that combine shooting with other sports.
‰ Biathlon Shooting – the Biathlon usually refers specifically to the winter sport that combines
cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. Another popular variant is summer biathlon, which
combines cross-country running with rifle shooting.
‰ Pony Club Tetrathlon - the Pony Club Tetrathlon, similar to the Modern Pentathlon, is a
competition combining cross-country riding with running, shooting and swimming events. There
are separate competitions for boys and girls. Pony Club Tetrathlon is particularly important in the
UK, as it is the entry point for many of the UK’s finest female air pistol shooters.
‰ Mounted Shooting - mounted shooting is a new equestrian sport where competitors race
through various patterns of barrels and poles within in an area while firing 45 calibre pistols
loaded with black powder blanks at balloon targets. There are more than 5,000 mounted shooters
(in over 135 mounted shooting clubs) throughout 47 states in the US.


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Art of Shooting
Chapter 39
Silhouette Rifle and Pistol
Silhouette shooting – highly popular in the United States - comprises shooting at heavy metal
targets of chickens, pigs, turkeys and rams, with the aim of knocking them over, using rifles and
pistols.

Silhouette shooting originated in Mexico in the days of
Poncho Villa as entertainment. The sport ‘emigrated’ to
the US in the early 70's. The first sanctioned shoot was
held in Tucson in 1973 when the NRA-USA sponsored
the first national championship.

A variety of rifles, pistols and shotguns, especially black
powder are used. Shooting is done standing or prone;
IHMSA and NRA-USA’s freestyle positions are shot
prone. As with many United States shooting disciplines,
a class system exists so shooters compete against shooters of similar ability. Hence novice
shooters need not shoot against master class shooters.

Figure 39.1: Silhouette Shooting

The two major governing bodies are the National Rifle Association (NRA-USA) and the
International Handgun Metallic Silhouette Association (IHMSA).
39.1 Rifles and Ammunition
The NRA-USA rules allow a wide variety of rifles, pistols and air guns to be used for Silhouette
shooting [2]. Rifle categories include: High powered rifle, Smallbore rifle, Black powder cartridge
rifle, Open Air Rifle, Target Air Rifle and Sporter Air Rifle. Pistol categories include: Long Range
Pistol, Hunter's Pistol, and Smallbore Hunter's Pistol.
High powered Rifles
Two categories of rifle are allowed: a) Hunting rifles – a standard bolt action rifle with a
maximum weight including scope of 9 lbs; and b) Silhouette rifles – a more flexible category with
a maximum weight of 10 lbs, 2 oz.
Smallbore Rifles
Smallbore rifles comprise any unmodified .22 rifle chambered for .22 calibre rimfire short, long
and long rifle, and using commercial ammunition. Again two categories are allowed: a) Hunting
rifles, and b) Silhouette rifles.
Black Powder Rifles
With BP rifles, almost any pre-1896 (American) manufactured single shot hunting or military style
rifle is allowed. The most popular calibre used is the .45 70.
Pistols
NRA-USA rules [1] designate three types of Silhouette pistols. Long Range Silhouette pistol
categories comprise: a) Conventional – permitting minor modifications to commercial pistols, and
b) Unlimited – allowing custom pistols below a 15” barrel length and 41 lbs weight. Smallbore
Silhouette pistols are similar in specification, but restricted to .22 calibre. Lastly, the Hunter,
intended for distances up to 100 meters, allows minor modifications to conventional pistols, with
restrictions on barrel length of 103 inches and weight of 41 lbs.
Air Guns
Any calibre of air rifle and air pistol up to .22 calibre may be used outdoor and indoor ranges.
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Three categories of rifle are used: a) Open Air Rifles – any air rifle weighing no more than 16
lbs, b) Target Air Rifle – any unmodified factory air rifle, and c) Sporter Air Rifle – any
unmodified factory rifle weighing less than 11 lbs.
39.2 Ranges and Targets
The rifle targets are heavy steel ‘silhouette’ cut-outs of animals at a range of distances. Typically
chickens are shot at 200 metres, pigs at 300 metres, turkeys at 385 metres and rams at 500
metres. Targets are placed in banks of 5 targets, on a stand.

Pistol targets and ranges are: chickens 50 metres,
pigs 100 metres, turkeys 150 metres and rams 200
metres.
39.3 Equipment
Silhouette shooting demands very little expense
associated with equipment. A spotting scope (for the
Coach), shooting mat, gloves and any type of normal
clothing, as long as it doesn’t afford any artificial
support.
39.4 Competitions
Competitions comprise shooters firing a specific
number of shots at groups of targets. To score a hit
the target must fall off its stand, with the winner being the one who knocks down the most targets.

Figure 39.2: Silhouette Targets (Pyramyd Air)

Shooters typically divide themselves into relays that shoot together, with each relay being up to
eight shooters: two for chicken, two for pigs and so on. A match consists of 40 shots. At each
stage the shooter fires 10 shots at 10 animals, comprising 21 minutes to fire 5 rounds, one at
each of 5 targets in a single bank, followed by then another 21 minutes to fire 5 rounds at 5
targets in a second bank. Pistol time is only 2 minutes.

A match proceeds through a number of stages under the instructions of the Chief Range Officer.
Stage 1 – a relay is called to the line of fire.
Stage 2 – the command ‘Listo’ (Spanish for ready) is announced. The shooters start their times,
load a magazine or a single round, check their sights and aim at the lower left-most animal in
their bank of five targets. Banks are shot lower-left, upper-left, lower-right.
Stage 3 – the command ‘Fuego’ (Spanish for fire) is announced. The shooters commence firing,
one shot per target; hit or miss. When the shooter finishes, he lays the rifle or pistol on the
adjacent bench, unloaded, breech open and muzzle pointing down range.
Stage 4 – after two minute 45 seconds the command ‘Alto Fuego’ (Spanish for cease fire) is
announced. Firing ceases immediately and the shooters place their weapons on the adjacent
benches. Each shooter then records their score, marking an ‘X’ for a hit and a ‘0’ for a miss.
Stage 5 – after a short break, the relay shoots the next bank of targets, with the Chief Range
Officer repeating the ‘Listo-Fuego-Alto Fuego’ sequence.
Stage 6 – when the relays have completed all their banks, the Chief Range Officer will stop all
shooting, to allow the relays to go forward safely to reset the animals.

Traditionally a shooter may start with any animal, but the progression is always chickens-pigs-
turkeys-rams-chickens etc.
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Art of Shooting
39.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metallic_silhouette, good introduction
to Silhouette shooting.
[2]. Elgin Gates, "Gun Digest" Book of Metallic Silhouette Shooting”, (1988).
[3]. NRA-USA, “Silhouette Competition – how to get started”, www.nrahq.org/compete/silhouette.asp
[4]. International Handgun Metallic Silhouette Association (IHMSA), www.ihmsa.org.
39.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation The National Silhouette Association Ireland
Address NSA, P.O.Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland.
Email silhouetteireland@eircom.net
Web site http://homepage.eircom.net/~ntsai/nsai.html
Organisation International Handgun Metallic Silhouette Association
Telephone +1 801 733-8423
Address HQ IHMSA, PO Box 901120, Sandy, UT 84090-1120
Email lorene@ihmsa.org
Web site www.ihmsa.org

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Art of Shooting
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Chapter 40
Sporting Rifle
This discipline fosters competitive shooting with the sporting rifle, working for the greater safety and
accuracy in the use of the sporting rifle on the range and in the field. It encompasses moving/running
mechanical targets (e.g. boar, deer) that are shot standing, and static targets (e.g. fox, buck) that are
shot prone, sitting, kneeling, standing and from the bench. All the Sporting Rifle targets are
electronically scored.
40.1 Rifles and Ammunition
The rifles used must be in the style of a ‘sporting rifle’ rather than that of a target, match or sniper rifle.
Shooters typically use rifles with
heavy barrels both for the
moving and static targets, due
to the number of rounds fired in
quick succession and for the
‘swing’.
Centrefire Rifle
Sporting rifles used on the
running deer or statics are
divided into: a) Open class –
any centrefire rifle within range limits, and b) Class B – calibres not less than .240 and greater than
1700 ft/lbs muzzle energy (e.g. .243,.308).


a) Running Target (Pilkguns.com) b) Static Target
Figure 40.1: Sporting Rifle
.22LR Rifle
For the running boar, special heavy barrel .22LR rifles are typically used.
.177 Air Rifle
For the ISSF 10m running target .177 Air Rifles are used.
40.2 Ranges and Targets
One of the benefits of the Sporting Rifle discipline with Northern Europe’s inclement weather is that
shooting is on covered outdoor ranges, comprising an undercover firing point, while the target is in the
open at 100m for static targets and running deer, and 50m for running boar. The 10m ranges are fully
enclosed.
100m Static Targets
The ‘Statics’, comprise targets such as Fox and Buck, shot at 100m in a variety of positions: prone,
sitting, kneeling, standing and from the bench, with and without shooting aids such as sticks and
slings; depending on the competition.
100m Running Deer
Shooting takes place from an enclosed firing point at a ‘Siamese’, or two headed, moving target at
100m on a trolley across a 23m wide opening between two banks. Either one or two shoots are fired
at the target in each direction, using a centrefire rifle, depending on the event.
50m Running Boar
Running boar is similar to the running deer in as much as shooters fire at a ‘Siamese’ target as it
crosses a gap in front of them. The main differences between this and running deer are that it is shot
at 50m, with .22" rimfire rifles only, and that the speed of the runs can be either ‘slow’, ‘fast’ or a
mixture of ‘slow’ and ‘fast’.




Art of Shooting
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a) Statics b) Running (Boar)
Figure 40.2: Sporting Rifle Targets
10m Running Target
10 m Running Target is one of the
ISSF shooting events, shot with
an airgun at a moving target. The
target travels across a two-meter
wide aisle at the range of 10
metres from the firing point. The
target moves at either slow or fast
speed, and is visible for 5 or 2.5
seconds, respectively.
40.3 Equipment
Besides a centrefire rifle (e.g. .223.308) for the running deer and statics, a .22LR rifle (ideally heavy
barrelled) for the running boar and a target air rifle for the 10m, the important pieces of equipment are
ear defenders, plus for the statics a full-length bipod and optionally a sling.

The one distinctive piece of equipment used by International-level competitors is the so-called Twin-
post scope. With Twin-post scopes the reticle has two independently adjustable posts, which are used
to correctly set the scope for the required amount of lead for the ‘slow’ and ‘fast’ runs of the target.
40.4 Competitions
The Sporting Rifle discipline offers a wide variety of static and moving target competitions, as
discussed above.
100m Static Targets
The statics embrace a number of competitions shooting a static buck or fox target. A popular test is
the ‘stalkers’ where the shooter takes 2 shots prone, 2 seated, 2 kneeling 2 standing, and 2 from the
bench. As shooting aids, for the seated, kneeling and standing shoots, the shooter can use a bipod or
a sling.
100m Running Deer
The running deer embraces a number of competitions. Typically each shooter has 2-4 ‘sighters’ or
practice shots followed by 10 or 20 scoring shots, taken as the deer alternatively traverses left then
right at 100m. In addition, there is the ‘doubles’, where the shooter fires twice during each run.
50m Running Boar
The running boar competitions are similar to running deer, but are shot at 50m, with each shooter
typically allowed 2-4 sighters shots followed by 10-20 scoring shots. The boar’s speed can be set to
slow, fast or random slow/fast. Shooters find the running boar addictive.
10m Running Target
10m running target completions are essentially the same as the 50m running boar; with the speed
being set to slow, fast or random slow/fast. The full course of fire in a regular event is 20 shots at each
speed; each competitor shooting 20 slow and 20 fast.
40.5 Further Information
[1]. A. A. Yur' Yev, “Competitive Shooting,” (Russian to English translation by the NRA (1985),
this is a truly wonderful book, but hard to find.
[2]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10_m_Running_Target, introduction to
ISSF 10m running targets.
Art of Shooting
© Philip Treleaven 2008 134 feedback to p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk
40.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation The British Sporting Rifle Club (BSRC)
Address c/o NRA, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey. GU24 0PB
Email secretary@bsrc.co.uk
Web site www.bsrc.co.uk
Organisation Welsh Airgun Association
Email iharris@btinternet.com
Web site www.welsh-airgun.org.uk

Art of Shooting
Chapter 41
Clay Pigeon Shooting
Clay pigeon shooting is a hugely popular international sport
across the globe. It is the art of shooting flying targets (i.e.
clays) with a shotgun. Formal Clay shooting consists of a
number of disciplines, such as Trap and Skeet:
‰ Trap shooting has targets fired away from the participant
at different angles as well as different heights.
‰ Skeet involves shooting at targets fired horizontally from a
low and high house both as singles and pairs.
‰ Sporting Clays are presented to the shooter in ways that
mirror the flight pattern of game birds, or rabbits, in their
natural habitats.

Each round consists of 25 targets for Trap and Skeet and up to
100 targets for Sporting Clays [1].
41.1 Shotguns and Ammunition
For clay pigeon shooting at registered events [4], the maximum permitted bore is 12 (gauge),
equivalent to 0.729 inches (18.5mm) in diameter. Shotguns used are under and over, side-by-side or
semi-automatic (Pump action shotguns are generally considered unsuitable). Barrel lengths typically
vary from 26-32 inches (66-81cm).

For clay pigeon shooting, shot size must not
exceed 2.6mm (i.e. English No. 6 shot). The
shot load must be a maximum 24 gram for
Olympic Trap, Olympic Skeet and Double
Trap; and 28 gram (1 oz) for all UK
competition disciplines.

a) Under and Over b) Semi-Automatic
Figure 41.2: Clay Pigeon Shotguns
41.2 Ranges and Targets
Clay pigeon ranges broadly subdivide into Trap and Skeet [1], illustrated by Figure 41.3.

Figure 41.1: Clay Pigeon

a) Trap b) Skeet
Figure 41.3: Clay Pigeon Ranges
Trap Ranges
Trap targets are thrown either as singles or doubles from one or more traps situated some 15 metres
in front of the shooter and are generally going away from the firing point at varying speeds, angles
and elevations.
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Art of Shooting
Skeet Ranges
Skeet targets are thrown in singles and doubles from 2 trap houses situated some 40 metres apart, at
opposite ends of a semicircular arc on which there are seven shooting positions. The targets are
thrown at set trajectories and speeds.
Clay Pigeon Targets
Clay pigeon targets (clays) are saucer-shaped and made from a mixture of pitch and clay; robust
enough to be thrown, but fragile enough
to smash when hit. Targets are usually
orange or black (see Figure 41.4), and
are of a precise weight and size for each
of the various disciplines [1]. The
‘standard’ weighs 105 grams, has a
diameter of 110 mm and a thickness of
25-26 mm, and is the only clay used in
all of the trap and skeet disciplines.

a) Standard b) Midi c) Mini d) Battue e) Rabbit
Figure 41.4: Clay Pigeon Targets [1]
41.3 Equipment
For clay pigeon shooting the ‘standard’ equipment is an ‘over-or-under’ or semi-automatic 12 bore
(gauge) shotgun, a clay pigeon shooting vest, plus eye and ear protectors.
41.4 Competitions
Clay pigeon shooting has over 20 official competitions (referred to as ‘disciplines’). They divide into
Trap and Skeet, plus the popular Sporting Clays [1].
Trap Shooting
As introduced, in Trap disciplines targets are thrown away from the firing point at varying speeds,
angles and elevations. Trap disciplines include:
‰ Down-the-Line (DTL) – traditional DTL, popular in the UK and Commonwealth, is similar to
American trap but allows two shots at each target with a penalty for a second barrel hit. DTL uses
a layout set up with 5 stands in a crescent shape 16 yards from a traphouse which throws a target
between 0 and 22.5 degrees to either side of a centre line to a distance of 50-55 yards from the
traphouse. A typical competition has a competitor shooting at 100 targets, 25 at a time across 4
different layouts with 5 targets shot on each stand rotating on a 1, 2, …5 basis.
‰ American Trap – in this trap discipline, popular in the USA, standard targets are thrown as
singles at constant height but at a random angle at a maximum of 22 degrees to the centre line. A
round comprises 25 targets with one shot allowed at each target.
‰ Olympic Trap – Olympic Trap, one of the ISSF shooting events, uses fifteen machines arranged
in five stations. Targets have a minimum height of 1.5 metres and a maximum height of 3.5
metres, with a maximum target angle of 45 degrees. A squad of six competitors take turns in
shooting from the five stations. The course of fire is 125 shots for men and 75 shots for women.

Other disciplines are: Single Barrel, Double Rise, Automatic Ball Trap (ABT), Double Trap and
Universal Trench.
Skeet Shooting
With Skeet disciplines, targets are thrown at set trajectories and speeds from 2 trap houses situated
some 40 metres apart, at opposite ends of a semicircular arc. Worldwide the main disciplines are:
‰ English Skeet – a round of skeet consists of 25 targets in a sequence with squads of five
shooting from seven stations. With English Skeet each squad member takes shots: on station 1
& 2 a high single, a low single and then a double (i.e. high/low simultaneous pair, shooting the
high target first); on station 3 a high single and a low single (no double); on station 4 a high single,
a low single and then a double(the shooter has to nominate which target they are shooting first);
on station 5 a high single and a low single; on station 6 a high single, a low single and then a
double (shooting the low target first); and on station 7 a low single, a high single and then a
double(shooting the low target first).
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‰ American Skeet – a round of skeet consists of 25 targets in a set sequence, with squads of five
shooters taking their turn from the eight shooting stations. Here each squad member takes two
singles and one double on stations 1, 2, 6 & 7; and two singles on stations 3, 4, 5 & 8.
‰ Olympic Skeet - Olympic or International Skeet is one of the ISSF shooting events and
comprises a mixture of high and low clays, and shot as singles and doubles. A round consists of
25 targets with squads of five shooters taking turns at the eight stations. Each squad member
takes: on stations 1, 2 & 3 one high single and double (shooting high target first); on station 4 one
high single and low single, then one double (shooting high target first) and one double (Shooting
low target first); on stations 5 & 6 one low single and a double (shooting low target first); on
station 7 a double (shooting low target first); and on station 8 one high single followed by one low
single (both targets have to be broken before they reach the centre) .
‰ In Olympic Skeet, the targets are set to fly faster than those of English Skeet with a total flight
length of between 65m and 67m and there is a random delay of between 0 to 3 seconds after the
shooter has called for the target before it appears. Also, the shooter must hold his gun so that the
toe of the gun butt is visible beneath the elbow until the target appears.
Sporting Clays
Sporting Clays covers a number of disciplines (e.g. English, American) devised to simulate live quarry
shooting, with targets being thrown in a great variety of trajectories, angles, speeds, elevations and
distances. A typical Sporting Clays course is laid out over a 10, 20 or 30-acre site, with the course
consisting of 10 – 14 stations. Varying numbers of targets, either as singles or pairs, are shot at each
station, with the total shots for an outing adding up to 50 or 100 (two or four boxes of shells,
respectively). The gun position (whether in the shoulder or below the arm pit) in Sporting Clays is
optional for English Sporting but must be placed in designated position for International (FITASC)
Sporting and can not be moved before the target comes into view.
41.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clay_Pigeon_shooting, good introduction
to clay pigeon shooting, with additional entries for each of the clay pigeon disciplines.
[2]. C. Stewart Meinert, “The CPSA Clay Target Shooter’s Handbook”, CPSA (2006), CPSA
Official Handbook, ISBN 0-9552221-0-9. CPSA Official Handbook; a really excellent book.
[3]. John King, “Clay Pigeon Shooting: For Beginners and Enthusiasts,” The Sportsmans Press
(1991) ISBN-10: 0948253495.
[4]. Tony Hoare, “Successful Clay Pigeon Shooting,” The Crowood Press Ltd (1991) ISBN-10:
1852235667
[5]. Clay Pigeon Shooting Association (CPSA), http://www.cpsa.co.uk/epromos.cfm, provides a list of
Clay Pigeon Associations throughout the UK, Europe, the Commonwealth and USA.
[6]. US National Sporting Clays Association, www.mynsca.com, the governing body for clay pigeon
shooting in America.
[7]. Federation Internationale de Tit Armes Sportives de Chasse, www.fitasc.com, the international
governing body for Clay Pigeon Shooting.
41.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation British International Clay Target Shooting Federation
Telephone 01483 485400
Address BICTSF, PO Box 1500, Brookwood, Surrey. GU24 0NP
Email secretary@bictsf.com
Web site www.bictsf.com
Organisation Irish Clay Pigeon Shooting Association
Telephone 00 353 (0)87 2988030
Address Suite 20A, The Mall, Beacon Court, Sandyford, Dublin 18, Ireland
Email icpsa@eircom.net
Web site http://www.icpsa.ie/
Organisation Clay Pigeon Shooting Association
Telephone 01483 485400
Address CPSA, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey. GU24 0NP
Email info@cpsa.co.uk
Web site www.cpsa.co.uk
Organisation Scottish Clay Target Association
Email Julian Cordery (Julian.cordery@scta.co.uk)
Tony Lithgow (tony@awlithgow.co.uk)
Web site www.scta.co.uk
Organisation Welsh Clay Target Shooting Association
Telephone 07751 353020 (Phone after 6PM only please)
Address Glanyrhafon, Caersws, Powys SY17 5SA
Email wctsa.membership@hotmail.com
Web site www.wctsa.co.uk
Organisation Ulster Clay Pigeon Shooting Association
Telephone 028 25898 075
Address 60 Shankbridge Road, Ballymena, Co Antrim, BT42 3DL
Email ucpsasec@hotmail.com
Web site www.ucpsa.com

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Art of Shooting
Chapter 42
Field Target (Air Rifle)
Field target shooting – shot with highly accurate air rifles –
combines the outdoor field conditions of rough shooting, with
the precision of target shooting. A typical course is laid out,
outdoors with a route to walk and at set points are shooting
lanes with two knockdown targets in each (cf. Silhouette
Shooting) at any distance from 7 metres to 50 metres.

Targets are shot freestyle with no more than 10% of the
targets being free standing and no more than 10% being
kneeling, as set discipline targets. In the typical freestyle
position, the shooter sits on a cushion to take the shots.
42.1 Rifles and Ammunition
To shoot Field Target competitions, a good quality air rifle is
required together with a high-magnification, range-finding
telescopic sight, as illustrated in Figure 42.1. All air weapons calibres are allowed (.177, .22, .20, .25
etc), but in the UK air guns must be within the non-FAC limit i.e. 12 ft/lbs for rifles, 6ft/lbs for pistols.
Recoiling spring air weapons are at a disadvantage to recoilless pre-charged pneumatics (PCP’s), as
the latter will enhance the shooter’s ability (although both are equally accurate).

Figure 42.1: Field Target Air Rifle

Any design of pellet that is completely made of lead or lead alloy may be used.
42.2 Ranges and Targets
The targets in Field Target shooting are made of metal and are shaped to look like the typical airgun
prey: rabbits, rats, pigeons and squirrels or
shapes such as squares diamonds or circles.
Each target, as illustrated in Figure 42.2, has a
circular hole, with a metal disc behind, linked to
the mechanism that holds the target upright. The
objective of the shooter is to hit the 'hit zone' - if
they manage to hit the 'hit zone' the target will
fall flat to the ground (Hit recorded) - if the
shooter hits any other part of the silhouette the
target will remain standing (No hit scored).
Figure 42.2: Field Target ‘targets’
42.3 Equipment
Besides an accurate air rifle, you will also need a precision telescopic sight. The popularity of Field
Target shooting has led to the development of sophisticated range finding and bullet drop
compensating telescopic sights. With these the FT shooter can accurately estimate the distance to the
target and then accurately set the cross hairs.
42.4 Competitions
As discussed above, a typical course is laid out, outdoors with a route to walk and at set points are
shooting points with a knockdown target at any distance from 8 yards (7.3 m) and 55 yards (50.3 m).
Targets are shot from open “gates” in a firing line, and are divided into “lanes” of two targets each.
The majority of shots may be taken in any stance, and most competitors carry a small beanbag or
cushion to sit on while shooting. It may also be used under the knee or to support the ankle during
kneeling shots.

In competition [1], 20% of the lanes will be designated as compulsory standing or kneeling, and there
must be as even a split as possible between the two. Most competitions have 40 targets arranged in
20 lanes, so it is usual to have 2 standing lanes and 2 kneeling lanes. Grand Prix events have 25
lanes, so there will be 2 lanes of one position and 3 of the other. Standing or kneeling targets must be
no more than 45 yards (41 m) from the firing line. Points are scored with 1 for a hit (resulting in the
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Art of Shooting
faceplate falling), and 0 for a miss (whether it strikes the surrounding faceplate, misses it, or “splits” on
the edge of the kill but fails to down the target).

Members of the British Field Target Association (BFTA) are graded according to their performance
every six months.
42.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_Target, introduction to Field Target
Air Rifle shooting.
[2]. The British Field Target Association (BFTA) (www.bfta.net), the BFTA is the National
Association of Governing Bodies related to Field Target shooting in Scotland, Wales, and the
seven regional associations in England.
[3]. American Airgun Field Target Association, www.aafta.org, as the name suggests the governing
body of Field Target in the United States.
[4]. World Field Target Federation, www.nifta.com, the world governing body.
42.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation British Field Target Association
Address BFTA, P.O Box 2242, Reading, Berks RG7 5YY
Email Secretary@BFTA.net
Web site www.bfta.net
Organisation Scottish Air Rifle and Pistol Association
Web site www.sarpa.co.uk
Organisation Welsh Airgun and Field Target Association (WAFTA)
T
Email secretary@wafta.co.uk
Web site www.wafta.co.uk/index.htm
Organisation Northern Ireland Field Target Association
Telephone 07921 676 231
Email info@nifta.com
Web site www.nifta.com/




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Art of Shooting
Chapter 43
Hunter Field Target (Air Rifle)
Hunter Field target shooting (HFT) – shot with air rifles – combines the skill of outdoor field conditions
of rough shooting, with the precision of target shooting. A
typical course is laid out, outdoors with a route to walk and
at set points are shooting lanes with one knockdown
targets in each at any distance from 8 metres to 45 metres
with hit zone from 15 to 45mm diameter.

A total of 30 Targets are shot, the majority freestyle where
the shooter can stand, kneel or take the shot prone (sitting
is not permitted) but 9 targets must be shot from
compulsory positions 3 shot standing, 3 kneeling, and 3
from a prone position at set discipline targets.
43.1 Rifles and Ammunition
To shoot Hunter Field Target competitions, any air rifle is required together with a telescopic sight, as
illustrated in Figure 43.1. All air weapons calibres are allowed .177, .22, .20, .25 pre-charged
pneumatics (PCP’s) or spring air weapons etc, but in the UK air guns must be within the non-FAC limit
i.e. 12 ft/lbs for rifles, 6ft/lbs for pistols.

Any design of pellet that is completely made of lead or lead alloy may be used.
43.2 Ranges and Targets
The targets in Hunter Field Target (HFT) shooting are made of metal and are shaped to look like the
typical airgun prey: rabbits, rats, pigeons and
squirrels etc or shapes such as squares diamonds or
circles. Each target, as illustrated in Figure 43.2, has
a circular hole, with a metal disc behind, linked to the
mechanism that holds the target upright. The
objective of the shooter is to hit the 'hit zone' - if they
manage to hit the 'hit zone' the target will fall flat to
the ground and 2 points will be awarded, 1 point for a
faceplate strike (hitting the target anywhere other
than the hit zone) and zero for a complete miss.

Figure 43.2: typical Hunter Field Target ‘targets’

Figure 43.1: Hunter Field Target
43.3 Equipment
Besides an air rifle, you will also need a telescopic sight. All settings to scope and rifle must be done
prior to taking your first shot in the competition. After that no further adjustments to your equipment or
scope are allowed. Therefore range finding must be done by eye. Hence most competitors tend to use
scopes settings with a maximum of 10x magnification and a parallax setting of 25-30 yards which
allows a reasonable view of the targets at both end of the target range distances.
43.4 Competitions
As discussed above, a typical course is laid out, outdoors with a route to walk and at set points are
shooting points with a knockdown target at any distance from 8 metres to 45 metres.

A competition comprises 30 target positions with 1 scoring point for each ‘knocked down’ of the target.
They comprise:
‰ 3 Targets – 3 must be standing shots using 35mm to 45 mm hit zones only and un-obscured; a
minimum of 2 must allow the shooter support on a tree or other inanimate object.
‰ 3 Targets – 3 must be kneeling shots using 35mm to 45 mm hit zones only and un-obscured; a
minimum of 2 must allow the shooter support on a tree or other inanimate object .
‰ 3 Targets – 3 must be prone-only shots using any UKAHFT hit zone size.
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‰ 21 Targets – the remaining 21 must be placed so each target is able to be shot from any of the
permitted (standing, kneeling and prone) shooting positions.
43.5 Further Information
[1]. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hunter_Field_Target, introduction to Hunter
Field Target Air Rifle shooting.
[2]. The United Kingdom Association for Hunter Field Target (UKAHFT) (www.ukahft.co.uk), the UKAHFT
is the governing body for national HFT shoots.
[3]. World Hunter Field Target Association, www.whfta.org, the world governing body.
43.6 Contacts
A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.

Organisation United Kingdom Association for Hunter Field Target
Email info@ukahft.co.uk
Web site www.ukahft.co.uk
Organisation World Hunter Field Target Association
Email info@whfta.org
Web site www.whfta.org



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Art of Shooting
Glossary
1



.177 (4.5 mm)
The standard airgun calibre for international (ISSF) target shooting. Pellet diameter is nominally 4.5 mm, with a range of
sizes in .01 mm steps to allow exact matching to specific guns for best accuracy.
.22LR
The standard .22 rimfire cartridge used in target rifles and pistols; typically subsonic with a 40-grain bullet.
10 Ring
The centre ring of the target used in pistol, rifle or running-target events, worth 10 points. It is also known as a ‘bull’ or
‘bullseye’.
3P (Three Positional)
As the name implies, a competition that is shot using three different body positions to support the rifle; in the order prone,
standing, kneeling.
5.56 mm (.223)
The standard NATO centrefire, small arms calibre. The normal bullet diameter is .224 inch and weights range from 40 to 70
grain, with the heavier being favoured for long ranges.
7.62 (.308)
The old ‘standard’ NATO centrefire calibre. The 7.62x51 mm or .308 inch used in the UK and Commonwealth for Fullbore
rifle shooting outdoors at ranges up to 1200 yards. Bullets are .308 inch diameter and range from about 110 to 200 grains,
with the 155-grain the most common.
9 mm
A centrefire calibre, much used by the military in both handguns and sub-machine guns. The actual bullet diameter in
Imperial units is .354 inch with the bullets being 115 grains.
Accidental discharge (AD)
Any firing of a gun that is not deliberate. Sometimes called an 'unintentional discharge'.
ACP
Automatic Colt Pistol defines a type of ammunition.
Action
The firing mechanism for loading a cartridge, locking the mechanism, firing the cartridge and extracting the fired case.
Action release
The part of a firearm that opens the action to give access to the chamber.
Action shooting
A shooting sport in which competitors fire at small metallic targets in the shortest possible time, typically using a pistol drawn
from a holster.
Aim(ing)
The process of aligning the gun with the target, usually by means of the sights.
Aiming Mark
That part of the target that is used to align the sights onto the target. In rifle shooting the centre of the Bullseye; in target
pistol the aiming mark is often the base of the black disk in the centre of the target.
Aiming picture
The appearance of both sights and target when they are correctly aligned.
Air resistance
The slowing effect on a bullet in flight, due to friction with the air.
Airgun
The general term for a pneumatic firearm that fires projectiles using compressed air.
Airsoft
Airsoft is a modern combat sport or recreational hobby in which participants eliminate opponents by hitting each other with
spherical airsoft pellets, launched from airsoft guns.
Ammunition
The general name given to cartridge comprising case, primer, propellant and bullet.
Antique (firearm)
Typically a firearm manufactured prior to 1899 or a firearm for which ammunition is not generally available or a firearm
incapable of firing fixed ammunition.
Anti-splash curtains
Curtains made of a rubber compound (e.g. Linatex) hung in front of the ‘Bullet Catcher’ so as to stop any ‘back-splash’ from
the bullets when they break up on impact.
Aperture (iron) sight
A type of rear sight used on firearms that comprises an aperture with a small opening mounted on the firearm's receiver. The
fore sight contains a ring in the centre of which the (round) aiming mark is placed. This is the standard type of sights used on
air rifles, Smallbore and Fullbore rifles for target shooting.
Assault rifle
A military issued Selective Fire or Fully Automatic rifle with a short overall length designed to fire a reduced power rifle
cartridge.
Automatic
A semi automatic is a self-loading firearm which fires one shot for each pull of the trigger. A full automatic is a firearm, which
continues to fire once the trigger is pulled.
Ball
Originally a used for a spherical bullet fired by black powder firearms, now generally a used for a fully jacketed bullet of
cylindrical profile with round or pointed nose. Most commonly used in military terminology.
Ballistic coefficient (BC)
A measure of a given bullet's ability to overcome air resistance in flight when compared to a standard bullet. Used to
calculate ballistic tables.
Ballistics
The science of cartridge discharge and the bullet’s flight and what affects them; including trajectory, force, impact and
penetration. This includes internal ballistics (in the barrel), external ballistics (in flight) and terminal ballistics (within the
target).
Barrel
That part of a gun along which the bullet or pellet(s) travel when fired, it is usually but not always circular in cross-section.
Barrel length
The distance from the muzzle to the chamber, including the chamber itself; but not accessories or barrel extensions like flash
suppressors or muzzle brakes.
Bayonet lug
A mounting point on a small arm that allows a bayonet or other accessory to be attached.
BB
The standard definition is a round ball Airgun projectile of .175-inch diameter. In the UK it can also mean a round shotgun
cartridge projectile of .181 inch diameter.
BB gun
A type of Airgun designed to use spherical steel BB pellets.
Bedding
The manner in which the barrel and action of a rifle are fitted to the stock.
Belted (cartridge) case
A rimless cartridge case with a raised integral belt around the case just ahead of the extractor groove to provide a positive
headspace surface while retaining the extractor groove.
Benchrest (shooting)
The standard definition is a form of shooting done with the firearm supported on a 'bench' rather than solely by the
marksman. It is also used for a device for testing the accuracy of guns and ammunition.
Berdan (primer)
A centrefire primer system developed by Hiram Berdan, having multiple flash holes and an integral anvil in the case.
Biathlon
A shooting sport that combines both skiing and rifle shooting.
Big bore
A rifle shooting term that refers to (large calibre) centrefire firearms or ammunition.
Bipod
A twin legged support for a rifle, musket or carbine, usually fixed at the end of the forend away from the shooter. (Illegal for
competition use under ISSF rules.)
Bird shot
Individual shotgun pellets of less than .24" in diameter. The size of the shot is given as a number or letter with the larger
number the smaller the shot size.
Bisley
The home of UK and Commonwealth shooting; a range complex located at Bisley, Surrey, England.
Bisley style
The term often used in Commonwealth countries for any large or Fullbore shooting competition. It also refers to a specific
style of grip and hammer configuration on a revolver.
Black powder (BP)
The original finely-ground propellant powder, used in muzzle-loaders and antique cartridge firearms. The basic ingredients
are salt-petre (potassium nitrate), charcoal (carbon) and sulphur.
Blank (ammunition)
A cartridge loaded with a primer and powder but without a bullet. On firing it produces the usual loud 'bang' but with little
danger to life.
Blowback (or blow-back)
The method of operating low-powered semi-automatic guns. The bolt is literally 'blown' open by the cartridge when the gun is
fired. It is typically used for .22 rimfire ammunition only, as any more powerful cartridge would require either an excessively

1
A more extensive Shooting and Firearms glossary can be found at www.saami.org/Glossary/index.cfm
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Art of Shooting
heavy bolt and / or a very strong spring to keep the breech sealed until the pressure had dropped to a safe level before
opening the chamber.
Bluing
The chemical process of artificial oxidation (rusting) applied to gun parts so that the metal attains a dark blue or nearly black
appearance.
Boat tail (bullet)
The tapered rear end of some bullets, used to increase ballistic efficiency (by reducing drag) at long range. So-called
because in plan view the bullet outline resembles that of a boat.
Bolt
A steel rod-like assembly (similar in design and operation to a normal door bolt) that moves back and forth in an action,
sealing the cartridge in the chamber during firing.
Bolt action
A type of firearm, usually, but not always a rifle, which is loaded and unloaded by means of a bolt. It can be either a single
shot, or a multi shot firearm.
Bolt face
The forward end of the bolt that supports the base of the cartridge.
Bore
The standard definition is the interior of a firearm's barrel excluding the chamber, through which the bullet or other projectile
is fired from the gun. It is also the British word for the calibre of a shotgun (in America they use 'Gauge').
Bore diameter
The measurement from one side of the bore to the other; the land-to-land diameter taken from the raised lands (not the
inside of the grooves).
Bore line
An imaginary line projected from the muzzle of a gun along the centre of the bore.
Bottleneck case
Cartridge case with a neck diameter smaller than its body diameter thus creating a shoulder and giving the case the
appearance of a wine bottle in profile.
Boxer
A centrefire primer system developed by Edward Boxer, characterised by having one central flash hole and the anvil as an
integral part of the primer. Standard primer for Hand loading cartridges.
Brass (cartridge case)
A synonym for expended metallic cartridge cases, and a term used to mean empty, reloadable cartridge cases.
Breech
The end part of the barrel nearest the shooter with the chamber into which the cartridge is loaded.
Breech loader
A firearm loaded through the breech.
Breechblock
The part in the breech mechanism that locks the action to enable the firing of the cartridge.
Broken target
Used to describe a shotgun target (i.e. clay pigeon) that falls apart before being fired upon.
BSA
Birmingham Small Arms company.
Buck shot
Large lead pellets used in shotgun shells where the individual projectiles are of .24" in diameter or greater.
Bull (or Bullseye)
Short for bull’s-eye. The centre of a target, usually scoring a 5, 7 or 10 when hit.
Bull barrel
A heavier, thicker than normal barrel with little or no taper. It thus reduces recoil and minimises the effects caused by heating
when firing rapidly.
Bullet
The name given to the single, usually cylindrical and pointed projectile that comes out of the barrel of a gun. If there is more
than one projectile, then usually the term used is 'pellet', as in a shotgun cartridge.
Bullet catcher
The part of the butts that actually stops and retains the fired bullet.
Bullet mould
A device of either steel or aluminium used to cast bullets for home reloading.
Bullet path
The track or path taken by a bullet in flight. Also known as the bullet trajectory.
Bullet puller (or inertia
puller)
A device used to 'pull' a bullet from its cartridge case. Normally, either a collet is clamped round the bullet and it is literally
pulled from the case, or an inertia hammer is used, whereby the case is held and the bullet 'pulled' by its own inertia, when
the tool is struck against a hard object.
Bullet, flat-nosed
A bullet with a flattened tip, used mainly in cartridges designed for rifles with tubular magazines.
Bullet, Full Metal Jacket
A jacket, usually of copper completely covering a bullet, so as to leave no lead exposed.
Bullet, Hollow point
A metal jacketed or unjacketed bullet design in which the core of the bullet is exposed by means of a cavity in its nose to
ensure the expansion of the bullet upon impact. Often abbreviated "JHP" or "HP."
Bullet, Jacket
A covering over the lead core of a bullet, usually made of copper and is either complete (i.e. full metal jacket), or partial.
Bullet, Round nose
A bullet with a rounded head such as used in most .22 rimfire target cartridges.
Bullseye
The standard term is the centre of a target, however it is also used for a type of fast burning smokeless powder suited to
cartridges intended to be shot by short barrelled firearms.
Burning rate
The relative speed at which a propellant powder burns in comparison to other powders in a controlled combustion chamber.
A fast burning powder is used in short barrelled guns, such as pistols and a slow burning one in rifles.
Butt
The rear end of a rifle or shotgun (the portion that rests against the shoulder.) In a handgun, the bottom part of the grip.
Butt Plate
A plate put on the butt end of a stock. The plate, usually of rubber, plastic or metal cushions the shooters shoulder from
recoil when a firearm is fired.
Butt stock
In rifles and shotguns, the part of the stock which extends from the receiver to the butt.
Butts
The name given to that part of the range that contains the target frames and the bullet catcher, which traps and safely
contains the fired bullets.
Calibre (or caliber)
The diameter of the bore of a barrel measured from land to land, usually measured in tenths of an inch or in millimetres. It
does not designate the actual diameter of a bullet.
Call for the target:
To call out a command when ready for the shotgun target to be released.
Calling the shot
The action of stating the position on the target of the last shot fired, before looking through the spotting scope, or retrieving
the target.
Cannelure
A groove or indention around the circumference of a bullet. Its purpose is to permit the cartridge casing to be crimped tightly
against the bullet shank to hold it firmly to the casing.
Cant
The angle of lean from the vertical that the firearm has whilst being held by the shooter.
Cap
An explosive device fitted over the nipple of a percussion Black Powder gun in order to initiate ignition of the main charge
and fire the bullet.
Capping off
The process of firing a cap on its own before attempting to load a percussion fired Black Powder gun, in order to clear any oil
or other residue from the nipple and chamber.
Carbine
Originally a shortened version of a standard rifle with a barrel less than ?? inches. Commonly used today to indicate any rifle
of short overall length.
Carbon dioxide (powered)
A propellant in which the energy source is obtained from compressed carbon dioxide gas.
Card
Another word for target, notably in Smallbore target shooting.
Cartridge
A complete unit of ammunition (or round) for small arms consisting of a cartridge case, primer, propellant, and projectile(s),
which is inserted into the firing chamber.
Cartridge case
A container made of metal or other material that holds the propelling charge, primer, and projectile in a single unit of
ammunition.
Cartridge magazine
A device or container from which ammunition may be fed into the firing chamber of a firearm. The two common types are
box-type magazine and tubular magazine.
Case (or Casing)
The envelope (container) of a cartridge. For rifles and handguns it is usually of brass or other metal; for shotguns it is usually
of paper or plastic with a metal head and is more often called a "shell."
Cast
The two definitions are: a) the lateral displacement of the centreline of a shotgun (or rifle) stock from the centreline of the
bore, to better align the shooters eye with the centre line of the bore; or b) the process of making bullets for reloading by
melting lead or an alloy of lead.
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Art of Shooting
Cease-fire
The command to stop shooting, unload the firearm and step behind the cease-fire line.
Centrefire (or Centerfire)
A cartridge in which the primer is seated in a pocket or recess in the center of the base of the cartridge case. Also, refers to a
firearm that uses centrefire cartridges.
Chain-firing (or flashover)
The term used in black powder revolvers to describe the dangerous result of not using grease over the balls in the cylinders.
When the primary cylinder is fired, lack of grease on the other cylinders may cause them to discharge before they are lined
up with the barrel.
Chamber
The two meanings are a) The part of a firearm containing the cartridge (or separate powder and ball) at the moment of firing
it, normally at the opposite end of the barrel to the muzzle; and b) The action of loading a round of ammunition into the
firearm.
Charge (powder)
In terms of propellants: a) for nitro powder and Black Powder, the amount, by weight, of the powder in a cartridge or load; b)
for Pyrodex, the amount, by volume, of the powder used; and c) To fill a magazine with cartridges.
Cheek Piece
A lateral projection from the comb of the stock that provides additional support and contact to the shooter's cheek when the
rifle is shouldered in the firing position. It is used to assist positioning the aiming eye correctly behind the sights.
Chief Firearms Officer
The person in authority responsible for issuing licences, authorizations to transport, authorizations to carry and other
functions related to the administration of the Firearms Act and its Regulations.
Choke
The restriction at the muzzle of a shotgun barrel used to control the dispersion of the shot.
Chronograph
A device to measure the velocity of projectiles fired from a gun.
Cleaned (target)
A perfect target, in which the shooter hits a 10 on each of the 10 targets on the sheet for a score of 100.
Cleaning kit
A set of specialized accessories used to clean and maintain a firearm.
Cleaning rod
The cleaning rod for a rifle, handgun or shotgun, usually of plastic coated metal, longer than the barrel to be cleaned and
often fitted with a rotating (ball-bearing) handle.
Click
The name given to the smallest adjustment of a aperture or telescopic sight.
Clip
A device for holding cartridges together before inserting them into a firearm's magazine. (It is also used - incorrectly - to
mean a detachable Magazine.)
CO2
Carbon dioxide is used as a propellant for Airguns. It is stored on the gun in liquid form under pressure and typically will give
around 180 shots per fill from the reservoir.
Cock (full-cock, half-cock)
The cock on muzzle-loading firearms, holds the flint or match. The term full-cock is to set the action into position for firing.
The term half-cock is to set the action in an intermediate position from which the gun cannot be fired.
Coking
The burning of black powder residue with much heat and little smoke.
Comb
The upper part of the stock where the shooter's cheek rests during aiming.
Combat Shooting
A generic reference to a shooting sport (generally using handguns) that seeks to simulate the use of small arms as an
instrument of personal protection. (see Practical shooting)
Compensator
A muzzle brake, designed to reduce the effects of recoil by redirecting the escaping gases and to limit the muzzle jump on
firing so as to assist rapid subsequent shots.
Conical bullet
A cylindrical shaped bullet with a cone shaped tip.
Cordite
The trade name of one of the earliest smokeless propellants made in Britain, so called because of its long, cord-like
appearance.
Core
The centre of a bullet that is covered by a jacket.
Count back
The system used to break a tie between two or more competitors with the same total score.
Crimp
The inward folding of a cartridge case used to retain the bullet (or shot charge in a shotgun). It can be either tapered, or
rolled.
Cross-bolt safety
A safety device that blocks the firing mechanism of a firearm.
Cross-hairs
The sighting lines in a telescopic sight.
Crown (or muzzle crown)
The bevelled, countersunk, or rounded muzzle surface of a barrel.
Crowning
The act of forming the radius on the muzzle end of a barrel.
CUP.
‘Copper Units of Pressure’ is a standard method of estimating the pressure inside a gun when it is being fired. It is of great
importance for safe reloading, as cartridge cases are quoted by their manufacturers as having a particular maximum CUP,
which must not be exceeded.
Cylinder
That part of a revolving firearm that holds the ammunition in individual chambers. The cylinder then rotates as the gun is
used to present each round in turn to the barrel for firing.
Cylinder bore
A shotgun barrel having the same diameter throughout, i.e. without choke.
Cylinder gap
The gap between the front of the cylinder and the rear of the barrel of a revolver. This can be as small as 1/1000 of an inch
in a high quality gun, but is usually nearer 1/100 of an inch.
Cylinder Stop
On a revolver, a spring activated device housed in the bottom of the frame beneath the cylinder that engages alignment
notches in the cylinder. It stops the cylinder’s rotation and holds it in place each time a chamber in the cylinder is in
alignment with the barrel.
Damascus (barrels)
An early method of making barrels out of welding together two or more rods of twisted iron and rolling them into a ribbon.
This ribbon was then wrapped round a mandrel and hammered so that the edges became fused together.
Delayed blowback
A self-loading firearm whose breechblock and barrel are not positively locked together, but which incorporates a mechanism
which initially restricts the breechblock from moving when fired, delaying its opening.
Die
A tool used in reloading metallic cartridge cases to resize the case to the specified dimensions, or a tool used to de-prime
fired cases, or a tool used to seat bullets in cases, or a tool used to load powder into cases prior to seating the bullet.
Disconnector
Mechanical device in a semi-automatic firearm that is designed to prevent the firing of more than one shot from one pull of
the trigger.
Dominant eye (and hand)
The stronger, or 'master' eye and hand. The dominant eye is the one through which a person would usually view an object
when using a telescope. The dominant hand is what the shooter would describe himself as being for example, 'right-handed'.
Double Action (DA)
The type of firearm action whereby one pull of the trigger performs the two separate functions of a) cocking the gun and b)
firing the gun.
Double action only (DAO)
An action that cannot fire in a single action mode.
Double trap
A trapshooting event where two targets are released simultaneously at different heights and angles and the shooter must fire
a shot at each target.
Double-action revolver
A revolver that both cocks and fires with a complete pull of the trigger.
Double-barrel
A firearm with two barrels, either side-by-side or over-and-under.
Double-base (powder)
Propellant powder in which nitro-cellulose is supplemented by nitro-glycerine.
Down range
The direction from the firing point towards the target on a range.
DPM
Disruptive Pattern Material – the pattern used in modern (British) military camouflage clothing.
Dry firing
Firing of an unloaded firearm to practice handling and shooting techniques. This can damage some types of actions,
particularly rim-fire.
Dud
A popular term for a cartridge that fails to fire after its primer is struck by the firearm's firing pin.
Dummy ammunition
Inactive ammunition without a primer or propellant used for practising handling of firearms.
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Art of Shooting
Dummy cartridge
Sometimes called, 'Drill rounds'; inactive ammunition without primer or propellant.
Ears (or cans)
The popular name given to hearing protectors of whatever type.
Ears on
The command by the Range Officer to put on hearing protection prior to commencing firing.
Effective range
The maximum distance for a firearm at which a competent shooter can expect to hit the target.
Ejector
The mechanism that expels the cartridge or case from the firearm.
Ejector star
On a revolver, the collective ejector, manually operated through the center of an opened cylinder, which clears all chambers
at once.
Elevation
Vertical adjustment of the rear sight to change the projectile's point of impact either up or down.
English match
A 60 shot course of fire for .22 rimfire rifles shot from the prone position over 50 metres.
Equipment control
The person(s) who checks all shooting equipment and clothing before a shooter is allowed to take part in a competition, so
as to ensure that it all complies with the current specifications. Normally the gun will be marked with a sticker to show that it
has passed inspection.
Extractor
The device that extracts, or removes the cartridge case from the chamber of the gun. This is not the same as the Ejector
(see above).
Eye piece
The lens of a telescopic sight nearest the shooters eye.
Eye relief
The distance that the shooters eye is positioned behind the ocular (eye) lens of a sight in order to obtain the best view of the
target and to avoid a black-eye on firing. Somewhere between 2 to 4 inches is the usual distance.
F-Class
The F ('Farquarson') Class, or F-Class shooting discipline involves prone target rifle shooting using a variety of aids, such as
telescopic sights, bipods, front-rests and sandbags, and any calibre of ammunition up to 8mm.
Feed
The action of moving a fresh cartridge into the chamber.
Feeding path
The path a cartridge follows within an action.
Felt recoil
The way that a shooter actually feels the recoil, or 'kick' of a gun when it is fired.
Fg, FFg, FFFg, FFFFg
Size grades of Black Powder particles, from coarsest to finest. FFFFg is mainly used as a priming powder for flintlocks,
wheel locks and matchlocks.
Field stripping
Taking apart a firearm for regular maintenance and cleaning.
Firearm
Any instrument that projects a bullet by gas pressure generated by the combustion of a propellant. Specifically a rifle,
shotgun or handgun using gunpowder as a propellant.
Firearms Certificate (FAC)
In the UK, the necessary permit to hold any firearm or ammunition.
Fireform
The process of improving accuracy and functioning by firing the case so that it becomes an exact fit of the chamber of a
particular gun.
Firing line (or point)
The or point from which shooting takes place, with each position numbered consecutively from 1 upwards with contrasting
colours i.e. if 1 is painted black, 2 should be white, etc.
Firing pin
The part of a gun's action which actually strikes the primer so as to set it off and initiate firing the cartridge's main charge of
propellant.
Fixed sights
Non-adjustable sights on firearms, typically used on sporting and military firearms.
Flash hider (or suppressor)
A muzzle attachment intended to reduce visible muzzle flash caused by the burning propellant.
Flash hole
For a centrefire cartridge, the small diameter hole through which the flame from the primer ignites the main charge in the
cartridge case; and for muzzleloaders, the small diameter hole through which the 'flash' from the priming charge travels to
ignite the main charge.
Flash suppressor
Muzzle attachment designed to cool emergent gases and prevent/reduce muzzle flash.
Flechette
A small dart stabilized by fins, encased in a discarding sabot (case) and loaded into a shotgun shell.
Flintlock
A muzzle loading firearm with its powder charge ignited by a flint striking a metal surface (the frizzen) to produce sparks
which ignite fine priming powder, which in turn sets off the main charge.
Floor plate
The hinged metal plate at the bottom of some cartridge magazines, held by a release spring located just ahead of the trigger
guard.
Flyer
A shot well outside the normal group on a target due almost always to shooter error.
Follower, magazine
The metal plate or part of a magazine between the spring and the ammunition.
Follow-through
Staying in the same position after squeezing the trigger or continuing the swing in firing at a moving target. This helps to
shoot accurately.
Forcing cone
The tapered section of a rifle, handgun or shotgun where the bullet or pellet is guided into the bore.
Fore-end (fore-stock)
The front portion of a one-piece or two-piece firearm stock, which serves as a hand-hold.
Fouling
The deposits that build up in the barrel of a gun after it is fired. Fouling can either be soft and harmless carbon residue, or
more persistent lead or copper, both of which are detrimental to accuracy.
Fouling Shot
The process of firing a shot off before starting trying to shoot accurately, so as to remove any oil from the barrel and to coat
the bore with a layer of powder residue.
FPS (feet per second)
Feet per second is the standard measure of projectile velocity in the Imperial measurement system.
Frame
The common part of a handgun that the action, barrel and grip are connected to.
Free pistol
A .22 calibre target pistol which is 'free' of most constraints such as barrel length, sight radius, weight etc.
Free rifle
A .22 or centrefire rifle which is 'free' of most constraints such as barrel length, trigger, sight radius, weight etc.
Frizzen
The upright steel plate in a flintlock gun that is struck by the flint in order to produce the sparks for igniting the priming
powder.
Front sight (or foresight)
The sight attached to the muzzle end of the barrel of a rifle or handgun.
Front Strap
The part of a revolver or pistol grip frame that faces forward and often joins with the trigger guard.
Full cock
The position of the hammer or striker when the firearm is ready to fire.
Full course
In Smallbore, a full course consists of 120 record shots, 40 in each position, fired in the following order prone, standing,
kneeling. In Air rifle, a full course is 40 shots.
Fullbore (or Full-Bore or
Full Bore)
Generally taken to mean centrefire calibres, such as 7.62 calibre.
Gain twist
A system of rifling where the pitch (of the twist) increases towards the muzzle.
Gauge (or gage)
An American term for the measurement of the diameter of a shotgun's bore expressed as the number of lead balls of bore
diameter that weigh one pound.
Gauging, inward
The scoring process whereby the edge of the bullet hole nearest the centre of the target determines its value. In this method
the shot hole has only to touch (not cut) the next higher scoring ring to be awarded the higher values.
Gauging, outward
The scoring process whereby the edge of the bullet hole furthest from the centre determines its value. In this method, the
shot hole has only to touch (not cut) the next lower scoring ring to be awarded the lower value.
Greenhill’s Formula
An empirical formula that relates bullet weight and length to rifling twist. Twist in inches (T) = [150/(L/D)]xD where L = bullet
length in inches and D = bullet diameter in inches.
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Art of Shooting
Grip
The small portion of the stock gripped by the trigger hand, or the handle of a handgun.
Groove
The sunken part of rifling.
Groove diameter
The distance across the bore of a rifled barrel from the bottom of one groove to the bottom of the one opposite.
Grooves
Spiral cuts into the bore of a barrel that give the bullet its spin or rotation as it moves down the barrel.
Group
The pattern of shots on a target.
Group Size
It is the distance between the centres of the two farthest apart shots in a group.
Gun Lobby
A term used by the media to describe the National Rifle Association of America, and anyone else who does fights against
firearms laws.
Guncotton
Nitro-cellulose form of smokeless propellant.
Gunpowder
The original black powder made up of 70% saltpetre, 15% sulphur and 10% charcoal.
Half Cock
A position of the hammer in a hammer-activated firing mechanism that acts as a manual safety.
Hammer
In firearms the term hammer has a number of meanings: a) The part of the action that drives the firing pin forward; b) the
part of the action which strikes the cap in a Percussion gun; and c) The term is also, used to describe two very quick shots
fired from a handgun with the first directed by the sights and the second held on target by the power of the shooter's grip.
Hammer Spur
The thumb piece on the top rear of the hammer that enables it to be manually drawn back to full cock.
Hammerless
This general term for a firearm where the hammers are fully encased inside the frames, typically used for handguns and
shotguns.
Handgun
Synonym for pistol, but covers single shot pistols, semi-automatics and revolvers.
Handload(ing)
The practice of loading and reloading centrefire cartridges to produce specific cartridge characteristics; for example
accuracy, low velocity, minimum recoil rounds for rapid-fire target shooting.
Hang fire
A term applied to an excessive delay in ignition of the main charge after the primer has fired. This is usually associated with
Black Powder muzzle loaders and especially Matchlocks.
Headspace
This is the distance from the breech face to that part of the chamber that stops the forward movement of the cartridge case.
Different cartridge designs obtain their headspace in different ways.
Headstamp
The manufacturers marks stamped into the base (or primer end) of a metallic cartridge case giving various details of its
construction, such as calibre, maker, load, date of manufacture, etc.
High house
The trap house from where targets are thrown from a point higher than the low house in skeet events.
High power
A term applied to the first smokeless powder cartridges with velocities of approximately 609.6 metres per second (2,000 feet
per second).
High power rifle
Generally, a firearm that uses centrefire ammunition.
Hit
A shotgun target that has been struck and broken by the shooter.
Holding
The action of keeping the sights on the target while squeezing the trigger.
HPS (highest possible
score)
The highest possible score on competition targets. In ISSF normally this has a value of 100 when shot to international rules.
Hull
The outer covering or casing of a shotgun shell.
ICFRA
The International Confederation of Fullbore Rifle Associations. The governing body of Target Rifle (TR) world championship
events.
Inner-10
The name given to a smaller ring enclosed by the 10 ring on a target. Normally the Inner-10 does not have a score value, it
is used as a tie-breaker between competitors with an identical numerical score; the one with the higher number of Inner-10's
being the winner.
Iron sights (or metallic
sights)
A somewhat loose term used to describe non-optical sights, especially open sights as fitted to handguns and aperture sights
fitted to target rifles.
ISSF (International
Shooting Sport Federation)
The international Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) is a governing body of the international shooting sport; formally called the
Union Internationale de Tir (UIT) or International Shooting Union (ISU). The official web site is www.issf-shooting.org.
Journee's formula
The empirical formula used to calculate safe distances for shotgun pellets. It says that the maximum range in yards for a
round pellet is 2200 times its diameter in inches.
Jump, muzzle
The vertical movement of the muzzle on firing the firearm caused by the centre of the barrel being higher than the centre of
support for the gun.
Keyhole
Elongated hole made in a target by a bullet that is tumbling in flight and hence striking the target other than point first.
Caused by inadequate rotational stabilization of the bullet, usually due to insufficient barrel twist or too low a velocity for the
calibre.
Lapping
The process of repeatedly passing a lead 'slug' (usually a wadcutter bullet mounted on a cleaning rod) through the bore of a
gun barrel in order to lap, or polish it. The polishing is assisted by means of dipping the slug in a mild metal polish.
Leade
The short unrifled section of the bore, in front of the chamber, into which the bullet's nose is introduced.
Leading
The deposition of lead in the bore of a firearm due to the passage of lead bullet (pronounced "ledding"). Often caused by
firing the bullets at too great a velocity, or by a slight roughness in the barrel, stripping a sliver of metal off as they pass.
Lever action
An action operated by a lever located underneath it.
Linatex
A self-healing, or self-sealing rubber sheet material, used in the UK to reduce splatter from bullets impacting on the bullet
catcher.
Line of sight
An imaginary straight line from the shooter's eye to the target; usually through the sights.
Live ammunition
Ammunition containing primers and propellants capable of firing bullets or other projectiles.
Load
The two meanings are firstly to place a round of ammunition in a firearm chamber or magazine, and secondly a specific type
or composition of ammunition.
Loading gate
The hinged cover over the opening through which cartridges are inserted into the magazine or chamber on a revolver.
Loading port
The opening through which cartridges are inserted into the magazine or chamber on a revolver.
Lock
In firearms that are loaded through the breech, the lock is both the firing mechanism and breech-sealing assembly.
Lock time
The time taken from the release of the sear by the trigger to the moment the primer is struck, usually very short, less than 2
milliseconds being the aim.
Long recoil
A semi-automatic pistol in which the barrel and breechblock are locked together for the full distance of rearward recoil travel,
after which the barrel returns forward, while the breechblock is held back. After the barrel has fully returned, the breechblock
is released to fly forward, chambering a fresh round in the process.
Long-arm (or long gun)
Generic term used to describe rifles and shotguns.
Lost
The description for a shotgun target that has not been hit.
Low house
In skeet events, the trap house from where targets are thrown from a point lower than the high house.
Machine gun
A fully automatic firearm using a cartridge designed and intended for use in rifles or larger firearms.
Machine pistol
An automatic weapon using a cartridge designed and intended for use in pistols, and is fired one or two handed, and does
not include a shoulder mount. (see "submachine gun" of difference.)
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Art of Shooting
Machine rest
A device for securely holding a firearm in a consistent position so as to allow accuracy testing of firearm and ammunition.
Macrae Handicap system
A handicapping system for competitions that tries to ensure that all participants have an equal chance of winning by
recognising that it takes more effort for a skilled shot to improve their scores than a beginner.
Magazine
A spring-loaded container either fixed to a firearm’s frame or detachable, which holds cartridges under spring pressure to be
fed into the firearm’s chamber.
Magazine release
A button or switch that allows for the removal of a magazine from the firearm.
Magnum cartridge
The term is used to mean a small arms cartridge loaded to higher than "standard" power levels. (The .357 Magnum cartridge
is actually the .38 Special cartridge loaded to about twice the normal pressure level.)
Mainspring
A strong spring which activates the striker or hammer of a firearm.
Malfunction
The failure of a firearm or ammunition to work properly. This can be caused by a jam or stoppage, or a mechanical or
structural failure.
Marksman
A person who can shoot their firearm accurately.
Marksman, Master
A person who can shoot up to the mechanical capability of their weapon.
Master eye
The stronger eye; the eye through which a person usually views an object as when sighting a firearm.
Match
In shooting, either a) a target shooting competition, or b) in muzzle loading, a string soaked in nitrate so as to burn slowly
and steadily without going out in wind, used to fire a Matchlock gun.
Matchlock
A muzzle loading firearm which is fired by means of a slowly burning match being applied to a flash hole by means of the
trigger.
Meplat (or Metplat)
The (diameter of the) tip of a bullet.
Mid-range
The point in the trajectory halfway between the firing point (cf. muzzle) and the target.
Mil
A ’mil’ is short for milliradian – 1/1000
th
of a radian. See MOA below.
Military firearm
Any firearm that is or has been used by the military services.
Millisecond
One thousandth of a second (1/1000 second).
Minie ball (or mini-ball)
A cylindrical shaped bullet used in muzzle-loaders. It has a pointed tip and a hollow base that spreads as it is fired.
Mirage
The observed apparent movement and/or distortion of a target due only to temperature created air disturbance between the
shooter and the butts.
Misfire
The failure of a cartridge to fire after the firing pin has struck the primer. Not to be confused with ‘hangfire’, which is a delay
in firing.
MLAGB
Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Britain (MLAGB) is the governing body for muzzle loading shooting and competitions
within the UK.
MLAIC
Muzzle Loaders Association International Committee (MLAIC) the body that governs all International muzzle loading
competitive target shooting.
MOA (minute of angle)
The MOA is used in target shooting as a handy reference of accuracy and for sight adjustment. At a range of 100 yards 1
MOA represents a distance of 1.0472 inches (or approximately 1 inch).
Modified Estonian (stance)
The name of the popular stance used in prone target shooting, where the body is at 5
o
-15
o
degrees to the line of fire, with the
body slightly tilted by pulling up the right knee (right hander).
Monte Carlo stock
A stock with a raised comb. Provides elevated eye alignment when using a telescopic sight.
MPI (mean point of impact)
The mathematical centre of a group of shot holes on the target.
Mushroom
The term used for the shape many soft-point bullets become when they expand upon impact.
Musket
The name of a shoulder fired muzzle loading (and usually) smoothbore gun held in both hands.
Muzzle
The end of the barrel from which the projectile exits.
Muzzle blast
The blast, or shockwave felt by a shooter and observers when the bullet exits from the barrel.
Muzzle brake
A device attached to the muzzle of a firearm that is designed to reduce the recoil by redirecting the powder gases produced
during firing.
Muzzle energy
The energy measured in Foot-Pounds (ft/lb) or in Joules that a projectile contains when it leaves the barrel of a gun.
Muzzle flash
The flash caused by unburned powder burning-up in free air after the bullet has left the barrel.
Muzzle loader (or
muzzleloader)
Any firearm that is loaded from the muzzle end, usually by means of a separate powder charge, with the bullet seated
afterwards. Muzzle loaders can be Matchlocks, Wheel Locks, Flintlocks, or Percussion fired.
Muzzle velocity
The velocity of a projectile as it leaves the barrel of a gun, the speed being measured in feet per second or metres per
second.
ND (negligent discharge)
The unplanned discharge of a firearm caused by a failure to observe the basic safety rules.
Neck
The constricted forward section of a bottle-necked cartridge casing, namely the portion that grips the bullet.
Nipple
A drilled cone shaped part of a Black Powder firearm or chamber at the closed end used to hold the percussion cap(s)
needed to fire the main charge(s).
Nitrocellulose or Nitro
Short for Nitrocellulose, the standard form of smokeless propellant used today for cartridge firearms. Also known as
guncotton.
No bird
A ‘non-counting’ clay pigeon target: being broken when it emerges, not propelled or released before the shooters call.
NRA
The ‘National Rifle Association’ is the name used in America, United Kingdom and many Commonwealth countries by
organisation promoting shooting.
NRA (National Rifle
Association)
National Rifle Association (of United Kingdon, American, Australia etc.) is the body that deals with rifle (e.g. Fullbore) and
pistol target shooting.
NSRA (National Smallbore
Rifle Association)
National Smallbore Rifle Association is the body that governs .22, airgun and crossbow target shooting in the UK.
Object lens
The lens of a telescopic sight (or any optical device) nearest the object being viewed.
Obturation
The expansion of a cartridge case on firing to seal off the chamber and prevent gases from escaping.
Ocular Lens
The lens at the rear of an optical device and nearest the user's eye.
Offhand
Shooting in a standing position; the standard shooting position for pistol and the unsupported standing position in rifle
shooting.
Ogive
A type of curve portion represented by the section of a bullet between its bearing surface and its tip or metplat.
Olympic final
A 10 shot shoot-off between the top 8 shooters in an ISSF competition. Scoring is done to 1/10 of a point for each shot, with
a maximum score for a perfectly central shot of 10.9 and thus a maximum total score for all 10 shots of 109.
Open frame
Refers to a revolver frame that has no topstrap over the cylinder.
Open sight
A type of rear sight characterized by an open topped notch (e.g. "V" or "U" notch). It is mounted on the rear portion of the
barrel on rifles and shotguns or on the rear portion of a handgun's receiver and used in conjunction with a blade type front
sight. This is the standard type of sight on handguns.
Over bore capacity
Common term used to describe cartridges with a propellant capacity overly large in relation to the bore. Expanding gas
produced by propellant combustion can only be forced through a given aperture at a certain rate. Thereafter increasing the
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Art of Shooting
amount of gas by increasing the amount of propellant merely raises pressures without raising velocity. For example a .300
H&H case necked down to .22 calibre has twice the powder capacity of a .22-250 and produces maximum pressures that are
much higher, but without noticeably higher velocities.
Over-and-under
A firearm, usually a shotgun, with two barrels placed one over the other, especially those used for clay-pigeon shooting.
Over-travel
The amount of rearward travel of the trigger after the release of the sear.
Pair
Two shots fired quickly with the use of the sights (in particular used in Clay Shooting)..
Palm rest
The two definitions are: a) a height adjustable support for the non-firing hand of the user of a target rifle, extending
downward from the forearm of the stock, or b) a height adjustable rest at the base of the grip of a handgun.
Pan
That part of a matchlock, wheel lock or flintlock muzzle loading firearm that holds the priming powder next to the flash hole
so that the main charge can be ignited by it.
Parabellum
A term synonymous with the 9 mm pistol calibre cartridge.
Parallax
The apparent shift in position of a viewed object attributable to the difference between two separate and distinct points of
view.
Patch
There are three definitions: a) Muzzleloader - a small piece of leather or cloth that is greased and placed around a bullet
before ramming it down the barrel of a muzzleloader so as to hold it firmly in place and prevent it rolling out; b) Cleaning - a
piece of cloth or paper drawn through the bore of a firearm to clean it; and c) Targets - the action of covering bullet holes in a
target using small adhesive disks, so as to extend its useful life.
Patch box
A small compartment in the butt of a muzzle-loader used to store patches or other small items.
Pattern distribution
The distribution of the shot in a shotgun cartridge. This is measured at a standard distance of 40 yards and in a 30-inch
circle.
Peep sight
Another name for an aperture (iron) sight where the rear sight has a hole through which the target is viewed.
Pellet
Either an airgun projectile (usually of lead), or a shotgun projectile (e.g. lead or steel) fired from a cartridge/shotshell.
Pellet gun
A rifle or pistol using compressed air, CO2 or spring to propel a skirted pellet as opposed to a spherical BB.
Penetration
The depth that a projectile travels into a target before it stops.
Percussion cap
A small metal explosive filled cup that is placed over the nipple of a percussion firearm.
Percussion gun
The name given to firing a gun by means of a percussion cap placed over the flash hole (called a 'nipple' on a percussion
gun).
Perfect match score
In Smallbore 1,200 is perfect score; while in air rifle, 400 is the perfect match score.
Pistol
A relatively short barrelled handgun, usually under 24 inches overall and held in one or both hands without any other
support. This includes self-loaders, manual repeaters, single-shots, double or multiple barrel pistols, derringers etc.
Pistol grip
The handle of a handgun or protrusion on the buttstock or fore-end of a rifle or shotgun that resembles the grip or handle of
a handgun. A "semi-pistol grip" is one less pronounced than normal; a "vertical pistol grip" is more pronounced than normal.
Plinking
An American term for casual, non-precision shooting, usually aimed at informal targets such as tin cans etc.
Plug
A metal device the same size as the shot hole, used to mark the score on targets.
Pneumatic power
A propulsion system in which compressed air is stored under pressure and when released provides the energy to propel the
projectile.
Polygonal rifling
Rifling without hard-edged lands or grooves, typically consisting of flat surfaces that meet at angles round the bore.
Position
The position of the body of the shooter when firing, for competition under ISSF rules, this will be either, standing, kneeling or
prone (lying face down)
Powder
The general term for any propellant used in firearms which burns upon ignition. The two major types are smokeless powder
(a propellant) and black powder (an explosive).
Powder burn
Charring caused by gunshot residue.
Powder charge
The amount of powder by weight in the case of smokeless powder, and by volume, in the case of black powder.
Powder, Grain
The unit of weight used to measure powder charges and bullets. By definition it is 1/437.5 of an ounce and therefore there
are 7000 grains to the pound. Modern powders are measured by weight. Black powder and its substitutes are measured in
grains by volume.
Practical shooting
A shooting sport that simulates the use of a firearm in its intended role personal defence.
Prime
The two definitions are a) to place a primer in a cartridge case, and b) in the case of a black powder firearm, to place powder
on the pan or percussion cap on the nipple.
Primer
That component of ammunition that ignites the propelling charge when struck by the firearm's firing mechanism.
Primer pocket
The recess in the base of the cartridge case that accepts the primer.
Primer pop
The term to describe when a cartridge does not contain the correct amount of gunpowder.
Primer ring
Refers to a visible dark ring created by the primers in centerfire ammunition around the firing pin hole in the frame after much
use.
Progressive (press)
Name given to a type of reloading press whereby one pull of the operating lever competes one stage of the process and
allows the press to be moved to the next stage.
Projectile
The name given to any item coming out of the barrel of any type of firearm when it is fired.
Prone
Shooting from a lying position.
Proof
The process of proving a firearm is safe for use, usually done by firing a special test cartridge which will apply at least 30%
more pressure to the gun than shown.
Proof mark
The stamping on the barrel of a firearm to how that it has passed the proof test. In the case of a revolver, each chamber is
separately proofed.
Proving safe
The action of demonstrating that a firearm is not loaded.
Pull-through
The cord used to pull a bore brush or cleaning patch through the bore of a firearm.
Pump action
A repeating firearm that has a magazine and is manually set in motion usually parallel to the barrel; also called slide action.
Pyrodex
A trade name for a Black Powder substitute propellant.
Ramrod
A rod used to 'ram' the ball (or bullet) down the barrel of a muzzle loading gun so as to seat it firmly on the charge of Black
Powder.
Range
Range has the following meanings: a) the distance travelled by a projectile from firearm to target; b) a projectile's maximum
travelling distance; and c) an area or facility designed for the safe shooting of firearms.
Range commands
The instructions given by the Range Officer to the shooters, detailing how the current course of fire is to be carried out.
These can vary from the very simple, "Fire" and "Cease Fire", to quite elaborate instructions, depending on the event.
Range Safety Certificate
The certificate supplied by the Army (in the UK), stating the maximum calibre, muzzle velocity and muzzle energy that can
be used and over what distances and from what firing positions for any given Range.
Receiver (or action)
The portion of a firearm that contains the operating parts and into which the barrel is fitted. In handguns, this refers to the
frame.
Recoil (or kick)
The backward movement of a firearm when it is fired.
Recoil-operated
Refers to a semi-automatic pistol where the recoil is rearward in reaction to the discharging bullet (e.g. Blowback).
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Art of Shooting
Record shots
These are the shots that are counted toward the match score, with "sighters" not included.
Regulate, Barrel
In double-barrel firearms, the process of getting both barrels to shoot to the same point of impact with a given load at a given
distance. This distance is normally set to the range for which the firearm is intended to be used.
Reloading
The practice of reloading brass cartridge cases with primer, propellant and bullet so as to use them again.
Reticule
The aiming device built into a telescopic sight, traditionally in the form of crosshairs for target shooting purposes.
Revolver
A repeating handgun characterized by having a revolving cylinder separate from the barrel, that contains a set of chambers
that rotate into line with the barrel for firing.
Revolving action
An action with a revolving cylinder containing a number of cartridge chambers. One chamber at a time lines up with the
barrel.
Ricochet
The redirection of a bullet after impact, usually with a hard surface. For example, a bullet bouncing off a rock.
Rifle
A ‘long gun’ firearm characterized by spiral grooves cut on the inside of its projection tube or barrel.
Rifle, Martini
A type of falling block action used in single shot firearms. Viewed from the side with the breech open these firearms bear a
passing resemblance to under lever repeating centre fire rifles.
Rifled slug
A large, single projectile with spiral grooves used in shotguns.
Rifling, barrel
A series of spiral grooves cut in the bore of a firearm designed to stabilize a projectile by spinning it.
Rifling, Lands
Raised portions of the bore left between the grooves of the rifling in the bore of a firearm. In rifling, the grooves are usually
twice the width of the lands.
Rim
The edge on the base of a cartridge case. The rim is the part of the case that the extractor grips to remove the cartridge from
the chamber.
Rimfire (cartridge)
Relating to a cartridge where the explosive that ignites the powder is contained in the rim of the case.
Rimless
Refers to a cartridge in which the base diameter is the same as the body diameter. The casing will normally have an
extraction groove machined around it near the base, creating a “rim” at the base that is the same diameter as the body
diameter.
RO/RCO (Range Officer or
Range Conducting Officer)
The person in charge of shooting on the range.
Round
A unit of ammunition consisting of the primer, casing, propellant and bullet. A cartridge.
Running target
A target moved across a track to simulate a moving animal or other target.
SA (Single action, single-
action)
An action that only releases the hammer from a cocked position when the trigger is pulled.
SAAMI
Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufactures Institute, the American body that specifies many of the data used in reloading.
Sabot
A lightweight carrier surrounding a heavier projectile of reduced calibre, allowing a firearm to shoot ammunition for which it is
not chambered.
Safety (Safety Catch)
A mechanical device built into a weapon intended to prevent accidental discharge. It may be either manually operated or
automatic.
SD (Sectional density)
The ratio of the bullet mass to the square of its diameter, so SD=bullet weight in pounds / bullet diameter in inches x 2; or
equivalent units.
Sear
The part of a gun's action that is 'tripped' by the trigger to release the hammer, or firing pin and initiate firing the cartridge.
Selective-Fire Firearm
Any firearm that may be operated in either the fully automatic or semiautomatic mode at the selection of the user.
Self-Loader
Another term for semi-automatic firearm. More commonly refers to early designs of semi-automatic pistols.
Semi-automatic
A firearm designed to fire a single cartridge, eject the empty case and reload the chamber each time the trigger is pulled.
Semi-wad cutter
A cylindrical bullet with a short truncated cone at the nose. Often used for paper target shooting.
Serpent
The part of the action of a Matchlock firearm that carries the match to the pan when the trigger is pulled in order to ignite the
priming powder and hence fire the gun.
Set trigger
A very light trigger that is prepared, or set, by the operation of either another lever, or by manipulating the trigger itself.
Shooting glove
A padded glove or mitt, with or without fingers, used to ensure the comfort of the non-trigger hand as the shooter supports
the rifle.
Shooting jacket
In target shooting, the jacket is made of leather or canvas and provides support and pads the shooter to minimize the effect
of pulse and recoil. There are strict guidelines regarding the thickness.
Shooting shoes
Light athletic shoes designed for rifle shooting. They often have the toe end of the sole and the heel cut flat for stability.
Shooting station
The marked area where shooters must stand when firing.
Shooting trousers
Snug canvas and/or leather trousers often having padded reinforcements sewn on both knees and the seat to prevent the
slipping of elbows and knees when firing from the kneeling position.
Shoot-off
A form of tie-breaker in a shooting competition.
Short recoil
Refers to a semi-automatic pistol in which the barrel and breechblock are locked together for only a short distance of
rearward recoil travel, at which point the two are uncoupled, the barrel is stopped and the breechblock continues rearward,
extracting the spent casing from the chamber.
Shot
Small spherical projectiles loaded in shotgun cartridges/shotshells.
Shot shell (or shotgun
cartridge)
A cartridge used in a shotgun. It contains multiple shot pellets or a single projectile called a slug.
Shotgun
A shoulder firearm with a smooth bore designed to fire multiple pellets called shot, or a single projectile called a slug.
Side lever
Typically refers to a lever on the left or right side of either a) a pistol’s frame that is used to release the slide for removal,
maintenance and cleaning, or b) a firearm’s action to open the breech.
Side-by-side
A double-barrelled firearm, the barrels of which are horizontally aligned, one beside the other, as distinct from an, over-and-
under. This is the traditional arrangement for shotguns and big game rifles.
Sight (or sighting shots)
Device fitted to a firearm to assist the aiming of it in relation to a target.
Sighter
A practice shot fired at the beginning of a match to check sight adjustments. Sighters are not counted toward the final score.
Sighting picture
The appearance of the sights when they are correctly aligned with each other before the target is in view.
Silhouette shooting
A shooting sport in which the competitors attempt to knock over metallic game-shaped targets at various ranges.
Single action revolver
A revolver that requires the hammer to be cocked manually. Pressing the trigger will not cause it to fire until this is done.
Single shot
A single-barrel firearm that is manually loaded and has no magazine-feed device.
Single stroke pneumatic
An Airgun where only one stroke is needed to power the gun.
Skeet
A form of clay-target shooting where targets cross in front of the shooter, being thrown from two traps about 40 metres apart
and the shooter moves in an arc to different stations, firing from various angles.
Slide
The upper portion of a semi-automatic pistol that houses the barrel and contains the breechblock and portions of the firing
mechanism. As its name states, it slides along tracks in the top of the frame during the recoil process providing the linkage
between the breechblock and barrel.
Slide safety
A device that blocks the firing mechanism of a firearm that has a slide.
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Art of Shooting
Sling
In target shooting, an adjustable strap with buckle adjustments and arm cuffs that provide stability. A sling is attached to the
rifle fore-end and helps to support the rifle in prone and kneeling positions.
Slug
More correctly a "rifled slug." An individual cylindrical projectile, usually of bore diameter, designed to be discharged from a
shotgun. The term is often incorrectly used to mean a Bullet.
Small arms
Firearms designed to be carried and used by an individual or individuals.
Smallbore (or Small-bore)
Generally refers to a .22 calibre firearm or rim-fire ammunition.
Smokeless powder
A term usually used to refer to nitro powders. Note that nitro is not totally smoke-free.
Smoothbore (or Smooth
bore)
A firearm with a bore that is not rifled, such as a shotgun.
Snap cap
An inert cartridge with a spring-loaded primer, used to check gun functioning, for dry fire practice and to release the spring
tension for storage.
Snub-nosed
Descriptive of (usually) a revolver with an unusually short barrel.
Soft point, bullet
A metal jacketed bullet design in which the nose of the core of the bullet is exposed to ensure the expansion of the bullet
upon impact. Often abbreviated "JSP" or "SP."
Speed loader
The speed loader is a circular device or clip that holds a complete set of revolver cartridges aligned to insert into all
chambers of the cylinder simultaneously.
Spent bullet
A bullet near the end of its flight that has lost nearly all its energy. Despite a loss in energy, spent bullets can still penetrate
targets.
Sporting clays
A shotgun shooting sport that combines elements of skeet and trap, and that is designed to simulate field conditions.
Sporting firearm
Any firearm that has been designed for field sports.
Spotter
A companion to the shooter on the firing point, who undertakes recording the accuracy of shooting and can advise on wind
conditions, especially for long range shooting.
Spotting scope
A telescope on a stand, used to observe the position of a shot on the target from a distance and without having to retrieve it.
Normally a magnification of between 20 and 30 times is used.
Spring (air) pistol
Also known as spring-air or adiabatic system. A system in which the projectile is propelled by air pressure that is created by
a piston moved by a spring.
Stance, Kneeling
Shooting from a kneeling position with the offhand (nontrigger side) supported by the off knee.
Stock
The part of a rifle or shotgun used in holding the firearm against the shoulder when firing.
Stopping power
A popular but imprecise term used to refer to the ability of a small arms cartridge to cause a human assailant or a large
game animal to be immediately incapacitated when shot with it.
Striker
In a firearm that does not have a hammer, the striker is a linear driven, spring-loaded cylindrical part which strikes the primer
of a chambered cartridge. The striker replaces both the hammer and firing pin found in hammer driven firearms.
String
A series of shots, normally five or ten.
Submachine gun
An automatic firearm commonly firing pistol ammunition intended for close-range combat, that is typically fired two-handed
and with a shoulder mount.
Swaging
A process of manufacturing bullets out of lead wire using great pressure to cut and 'swage', or 'squeeze' the bullet into
shape. Swaged bullets can be jacketed.
Swiss (powder)
Very fine Black Powder, finer than FFFFg and used as a primer in muzzle loading guns.
Tang safety
A device that blocks the firing mechanism of a firearm.
Target
The object that shooters aim to ‘hit’; for example, a board marked with concentric circles which shooters aim to hit.
Telescopic Sight (or scope)
A sight that employs optics to provide a magnified view of the target.
Throat
The unrifled part of the bore immediately in front of the chamber.
Throat erosion
The erosion of the throat area caused by the hot gasses of the propellant burning away the metal and limiting the barrel's
useful life.
Topstrap
The part of a revolver frame that extends over the top of the cylinder and connects the top of the breech with the forward
portion of the frame into which the barrel is mounted.
Torque reaction
The tendency for the gun when fired to twist in the opposite direction to the rifling.
Tracer ammunition
A type of ammunition that utilizes a projectile or projectiles that contain a compound in its base that burns during its flight to
provide a visual reference of the projectile's trajectory.
Trajectory
The curved path that a bullet takes through the air.
Trap (or trapshooting)
A shotgun shooting sport in which the competitors attempt to break clay pigeon targets going away from them at different
angles and elevations. It is an Olympic shooting sport.
Trigger
The device normally operated by the shooter's index finger that initiates the firing of a gun.
Trigger guard
The metal loop around the trigger made to protect it and prevent accidentally touching the trigger.
Trigger pull weight
The minimum pressure that must be exerted on the trigger before a firearm will fire.
Trigger shoe
Broadly a device which fits over the standard trigger so as to offer a wider surface to the trigger finger and thus give the
impression of reducing its apparent weight.
Trigger stop
A device to limit the over-travel of a trigger when pulled.
Trigger weight
The related definitions are: a) the weight that a trigger must support to comply with competition rules, and b) the weight
(often made of brass) used to check a competitor's trigger before passing the gun as complying with the rules for shooting.
Turning targets
A device, usually electrically operated that twists a target through 90
o
very rapidly so as to present the target to the shooter.
Used in timed fire events and controlled by an electronic timer.
Twist, rate of
The length over which the rifling grooves in a barrel make one complete revolution of 360 degrees. For example, a rate of
1:10 equates to one revolution in 10 inches.
Two stage trigger
A type of trigger that typically has about half the trigger weight to fire the gun taken up by a relatively long rearward
movement and the remainder by a crisp sudden let off.
UIT
Union International de Tir (UIT) The old (French) name for the International governing body of target shooting. It means,
International shooting union.
USA Shooting
The national governing body for Olympic shooting sports for the United States
V Bull
The inner ring of a bulls eye target.
Velocity
The speed of a projectile after it has left the barrel, usually quoted as feet per second (fps) or in metres per second .
Wad
A paper fibre or plastic disc used to separate the powder charge from the shot or slug, to seal propellant gases behind the
charge, and to hold the shot together in the barrel.
Wadcutter (or wad-cutter)
A bullet with a flat, circular head the same diameter all the way along its length. Especially used in target shooting as they
punch a neat round hole the same diameter as the bullet and thus make scoring easier.
WCF ammunition
Winchester Centerfire; a type of ammunition.
Weaver stance
A specialized form of two-handed pistol shooting that provides enhanced recoil control, mobility, and accuracy.
Wheel Lock (or wheel-lock)
An early type of muzzle loader lock system which came before the flintlock. A spring driven wheel was released by the
trigger. This spinning wheel struck a shower of sparks off a lump of pyrite which led to ignition of the priming charge and
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Art of Shooting
hence the main charge.
Wildcat (cartridge)
A cartridge designed and made by a handloader by altering an existing cartridge case and usually displaying enhanced
velocity over the original donor cartridge.
Windage
The lateral sight adjustment used to move the point of impact horizontally (right or left) on the target.
Wind-doping (or wind
reading)
The ability to read the changing wind conditions at long range outdoors, so as to be able to compensate for them on a shot-
by-shot basis.
WMR ammunition
Winchester Magnum Rimfire, a type of ammunition.
X-Ring
The name given to a smaller inner ring enclosed within the 10 ring and used as a tie-breaker. Normally the X-Ring does not
have a numerical value.
Yaw
The motion of a bullet in flight spinning erratically around its own axis.
Zero
This term is also used to mean the process of insuring that the sights of a firearm are properly aligned so the sight settings in
windage (lateral) and elevation (vertical) where the point of aim and the point of impact coincide. It can be set to any range
desired.
Zoom
A term used to describe variable magnification optical devices.

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Art of Shooting
Target Shooting Organisations
Below are the contact details of some of the principal target shooting federations and associations.
There are a number of governing bodies of target shooting, such as the International Shooting Sports
Federation (ISSF), next there are various regional bodies and worldwide bodies for specific
disciplines, such as the European Shooting Federation, Federation Internationale de Tir aux Armes
Sportive de Chasse, and the World Benchrest Shooting Federation. Below these are the national
governing bodies, such as the National Rifle Association of the United Kingdon and the National
Target Shooting Association of Ireland, and then there are bodies such as the Clay Pigeon Shooting
Association which governs clay shooting in England.
International, European and Commonwealth
Organisation International Shooting Sports Federation
Telephone +49 89 544 355 0
Address ISSF Headquarter, Bavariaring 21, D-80336 München Germany
Email munich@issf-sports.org
Web site www.issf-shooting.org
Organisation International Confederation of Fullbore Rifle Associations
Telephone
Address
Email info@nra.org.uk (or contact ‘NRA’ national association)
Web site www.icfra.com
Organisation European Shooting Confederation
Telephone +47 22920627
Address Skadalsveien 26A, 0781 Oslo, Norway
Email unni.nicolaysen@mac.com
Web site www.esc-shooting.org
Organisation Commonwealth Shooting Federation
Telephone
Address
Email martinmace@hotmail.com
Web site
Organisation Federation Internationale de Tir aux Armes Sportive de Chasse
Telephone 33.(0)1.42.93.40.53
Address 10 RUE DE LISBONNE 75008 PARIS FRANCE
Email fitasc@fitasc.com
Web site www.fitasc.com
Organisation World Benchrest Shooting Federation
Telephone
Address
Email
Web site www.world-benchrest.com
Organisation International Practical shooting Confederation
Telephone 905-849-6960
Address PO Box 972, Oakville, Ontario, Canada L6J 5E8
Email info@ipsc.org
Web site www.ipsc.org

United Kingdom
Organisation British Shooting Limited
Telephone +44-1483-486948
Address Edmonton House, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email admin@britishshooting.org.uk
Web site www.britishshooting.org.uk
Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK
Telephone 01483 797777
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0PB
Email info@nra.org.uk
Web site www.nra.org.uk
Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association
Telephone 01483 485505
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email info@nsra.co.uk
Web site www.nsra.co.uk
Organisation British International Clay Target Shooting Federation
Telephone 01483 485400
Address BICTSF, PO Box 1500, Brookwood, Surrey. GU24 0NP
Email secretary@bictsf.com
Web site www.bictsf.com
Organisation Muzzle Loaders Association of GB (MLAGB)
Telephone 01926 458198
Address MLAGB, 7 Olympus Court, Tachbrook Park, Warwick CV34 6RZ
Email membership@mlagb.com
Web site www.mlagb.com
Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association
Telephone 07010 703845
Address UKPSA, PO Box 7057, Preston, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 4EN
Email alan@mediainc.co.uk
Web site www.ukpsa.co.uk
Organisation British Field Target Association
Telephone
Address BFTA, P.O Box 2242, Reading, Berks RG7 5YY
Email Secretary@BFTA.net
Web site www.bfta.net
Organisation The British Sporting Rifle Club (BSRC)
Telephone
Address c/o NRA, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey. GU24 0PB
Email secretary@bsrc.co.uk
Web site www.bsrc.co.uk
Organisation Great Britain 300m Club
Telephone
Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email info@GB300m.com
Web site www.gb300m.com
Organisation United Kingdom Benchrest Association
Telephone
Address
Email
Web site www.ukbra.co.uk
Organisation United Kingdom Association of Rimfire Benchrest Shooting
Telephone
Address
Email ukbr22web@fsmail.net
Web site http://www.benchrest22.org
Organisation British Pistol Club
Telephone 01483 486293
Address B.C.M 5114 London WC1N 3XX
Email britishpistolclub@ntlworld.com
Web site www.britishpistolclub.org
Organisation Historical Breechloading Smallarms Association
Telephone
Address BCM HBSA, LONDON WC1N 3XX
Email general.secretary@hbsa-uk.org
Web site www.hbsa.fsnet.co.uk
Organisation High Power Rifle Association of the UK
Telephone
Address PO Box 5977, Elsenham, Hertfordshire CM22 6GH
Email
Web site www.highpowerrifle.co.uk
Organisation GB F Class Association
Telephone
Address
Email mrmister@tinyonline.co.uk
Web site www.f-class.org.uk
Organisation Single Shot Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Club of Great Britain
Telephone
Address
Email secretary@ssbpcrc.co.uk
Web site www.ssbpcrc.co.uk/index.htm

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Art of Shooting
Republic of Ireland
Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland
Telephone 00 866 504 9073
Address PO Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland
Email Lcrawford@kildarecoco.ie
Web site www.targetshootingireland.org
Organisation Shooting Sports Association of Ireland
Telephone 087 900 7501
Address PO Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland
Email SSAI@eircom.net
Web site www.shootingsportsireland.com
Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland
Telephone
Address NRA of Ireland, Leabeg, Blueball, Tullamore, Co Offaly, Ireland
Email info@nrai.ie
Web site www.nrai.ie
Organisation Irish Clay Pigeon Shooting Association
Telephone 00 353 (0)87 2988030
Address Suite 20A, The Mall, Beacon Court, Sandyford, Dublin 18, Ireland
Email icpsa@eircom.net
Web site www.icpsa.ie
Organisation Irish Practical Shooting Association
Telephone
Address I.P.S.A. c/o Fitzgerald Kitchens, Bective Street, Kells, Co. Meath.
Email pro@ipscireland.org
Web site www.ipscireland.org
Organisation The National Silhouette Association Ireland
Telephone
Address NSA, P.O.Box 9, Blackrock, Co. Dublin, Ireland.
Email silhouetteireland@eircom.net
Web site http://homepage.eircom.net/~ntsai/nsai.html
England
Organisation English Target Shooting Federation
Telephone +44-1483-486948
Address Edmonton House, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey GU24 0NP
Email admin@britishshooting.org.uk
Web site
Organisation English Twenty Club
Telephone
Address
Email www.englishtwenty.org.uk
Web site www.englishtwenty.org.uk
Organisation English Smallbore Shooting Union
Telephone
Address The ESSU, 125 Turnpike Link, Croydon, Surrey CRO 5NU
Email ecretary@essu.org.uk
Web site www.essu.org.uk
Organisation English Pistol Association
Telephone
Address
Email englishpistolassociation@blueyonder.co.uk
Web site
Organisation Clay Pigeon Shooting Association
Telephone 01483 485400
Address CPSA, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey. GU24 0NP
Email info@cpsa.co.uk
Web site www.cpsa.co.uk

Scotland
Organisation Scottish Target Shooting Federation
Telephone
Address
Email admin@stsf.org.uk
Web site www.stsf.org.uk
Organisation Scottish Rifle Association
Telephone
Address 164 Ledi Drive, Bearsden, Glasgow G61 4JX
Email mabooonscottland@ntlworld.com
Web site www.scottishrifleassociation.org.uk
Organisation Scottish Smallbore Rifle Association
Telephone
Address
Email executive@ssra.co.uk
Web site www.ssra.co.uk
Organisation Scottish Pistol Association
Telephone
Address
Email scottishpistolhq@aol.com
Web site www.scottishpistolassociation.co.uk
Organisation Scottish Clay Target Association
Telephone
Address
Email Julian Cordery (Julian.cordery@scta.co.uk)
Tony Lithgow (tony@awlithgow.co.uk)
Web site www.scta.co.uk
Organisation Scottish Air Rifle and Pistol Association
Telephone
Address
Email
Web site www.sarpa.co.uk
Wales
Organisation Welsh Target Shooting Federation
Telephone
Address
Email iharris@btinternet.com
Web site www.wtsf.org.uk
Organisation Welsh Rifle Association
Telephone
Address WRA, c/o National Rifle Association, Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Surrey
Email
Web site www.welshra.co.uk
Organisation Welsh Smallbore Rifle Association
Telephone
Address
Email
Web site
Organisation Welsh Clay Target Shooting Association
Telephone 07751 353020 (Phone after 6PM only please)
Address Glanyrhafon, Caersws, Powys SY17 5SA
Email wctsa.membership@hotmail.com
Web site www.wctsa.co.uk
Organisation Welsh Airgun Association
Telephone
Address
Email iharris@btinternet.com
Web site http://www.welsh-airgun.org.uk
Organisation Welsh Airgun and Field Target Association (WAFTA)
Telephone
Address
Email secretary@wafta.co.uk
Web site www.wafta.co.uk/index.htm

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Art of Shooting
Northern Ireland
Organisation Target Shooting Federation of Northern Ireland
Address
Email patrick.wilson@brewin.co.uk
Web site
Organisation Ulster Rifle Association
Address URA, PO BOX 1860, LISBURN, BT27 6YP
Email membershipsecretary@ulsterrifleassociation.org.uk
Web site www.ulsterrifleassociation.org.uk
Organisation Northern Ireland Smallbore Shooting Union
Telephone 028 9446 4514
Address
Email des.clyde@ukonline.co.uk
Web site
Organisation Ulster Clay Pigeon Shooting Association
Telephone 028 25898 075
Address 60 Shankbridge Road, Ballymena, Co Antrim, BT42 3DL
Email ucpsasec@hotmail.com
Web site www.ucpsa.com
Organisation Northern Ireland Field Target Association
Telephone 07921 676 231
Address
Email info@nifta.com
Web site www.nifta.com

United States
Organisation USA Shooting
Telephone 719 866 4670
Address 1 Olympic Plaza, Colorado Springs, CO 80909
Email membership@usashooting.org
Web site www.usashooting.com
Organisation National Rifle Association
Telephone 1-800-672-3888
Address NRA, 11250 Waples Mill Road, Fairfax, VA 22030
Email
Web site www.nra.org
Organisation US National Sporting Clays Association
Telephone +1 (210) 688-3371
Address 5931 Roft Rd. San Antonio, TX 78253 USA
Email nssa@nssa-nsca.com
Web site www.mynsca.com
Organisation United States Practical Shooting Association
Telephone (360) 855-2245
Address P.O. Box 811, Sedro-Woolley, WA 98284
Email office@uspsa.org
Web site www.uspsa.org
Organisation National Benchrest Shooters Association
Telephone
Address
Email http://nbrsa.org/contact
Web site http://nbrsa.org/
Organisation Civilian Marksmanship Program
Telephone +1 (419) 635-2141
Address PO Box 576 Port Clinton, OH 43452
Email custserve@odcmp.com
Web site www.odcmp.com
Organisation Single Action Shooting Society
Telephone +1 (714) 694-1800
Address SASS, 23255 La Palma Avenue, Yorba Linda, California 92887
Email www.sassnet.com/Contact-Us-001A.php
Web site www.sassnet.com

Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa
Organisation Australian International Shooting Ltd
Telephone +61 8 8296 0951
Address PO Box 375, Brighton, SA, 5048
Email office@ausshooting.org
Web site www.ausshooting.org
Organisation Shooting Federation of Canada
Telephone (613) 727-7483
Address 45 Shirley Boulevard, Nepean, ON, K2K 2W6
Email info@sfc-ftc.ca
Web site www.sfc-ftc.ca/main.cfm
Organisation New Zealand Shooting Federation
Telephone 64 3 352 0077
Address PO Box 5042, Papanui, Christchurch, New Zealand
Email nzcta@xtra.co.nz
Web site www.nzshootingfed.org.nz
Organisation South African Shooting Sport Federation
Telephone +27-16-9313125
Address 5 James Champman Street, Vanderbijlpark 1911
Email sassf@telkomsa.net
Web site
Organisation National Rifle Association of Australia
Telephone +61 7 3398 1228
Address Belmont, Queensland
Email membership@nraa.com.au
Web site www.nraa.com.au
Organisation Dominion of Canada Rifle Association
Telephone 613.829.8281
Address 45 Shirley Boulevard, Nepean, ON, K2K 2W6
Email office@dcra.ca
Web site www.dcra.ca
Organisation Target Shooting New Zealand
Telephone +64 06 368 6749
Address P.O. Box 49, LEVIN 5540
Email targetshootingnz@xtra.co.nz
Web site www.targetshootingnz.co.nz
Organisation National Rifle Association of New Zealand
Telephone (04) 528 4843
Address P.O. Box 47-036 Trentham 5018
Email nranz@xtra.co.nz
Web site http://www.nranz.com/
Organisation South African Bisley Union
Telephone +27 12 547 7803
Address P O Box 1522, MONTANA PARK, 0159
Email sanra@sanra.org.za
Web site www.sanra.co.za
Organisation Sporting Shooter Association of Australia
Telephone 02 8805 3900
Address PO Box 282, Plumpton NSW 2761
Email mem@ssaa.org.au
Web site www.ssaa.org.au


© Philip Treleaven 2008 235 feedback to p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk
Art of Shooting
Index
3 Position (shooting) 68, 82
300 metre (shooting) 70
Action 21,26, 187
Action shooting 109, 119, 165
Aiming Mark 105
Airgun 46, 91
Airsoft 46, 82, 85, 91,126
Ammunition 35, 40, 213
Aperture (iron) sight 50, 192
Associations and organisations 232
Ball 35
Ballistic coefficient (BC) 38, 48
Ballistics 35, 192
Barrel 35, 192
BB 46, 126
Bedding 182
Benchrest (shooting) 74, 77
Berdan (primer) 35, 213
BFTA (British Field Target Association) 138
Bisley ii
Black powder (BP) 40, 100, 103
Boat tail (bullet) 35
Bolt 21, 182, 218
Bolt action 21
Bore 35, 192
Bore diameter 35, 192
Boxer 35
Brass (cartridge case) 35
Breech 30, 182
Breechblock 182
Buck shot 35
Bull (or Bullseye) 165
Bull barrel 192
Bullet 35
Bullseye Pistol 89
Butt 21, 182
Butt Plate 21, 182
Butts 3
Calibre (or caliber) 35, 192
Cannelure 35
Capping off 40, 100
Card 165
Cartridge 35
Cartridge case 35
Cartridge magazine 35
Cast 182
Centrefire (or Centerfire) 2
Chain-firing (or flashover) 40, 100, 105
Chamber 35, 192
Charge (powder) 35, 40, 213
Cheek Piece 182
Choke 30, 192
Civilian service rifle 113
Classic and historical arms 98
Clay pigeon shooting 135
Cleaning rifles, pistols, shotguns, airguns 206
Cleaning kit 206
Clothing 56
Comb 182
Cowboy action shooting 105
CPSA 2, 135
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Art of Shooting
Cross-hairs 50, 197, 203
Crown (or muzzle crown) 192
Die 213
Disciplines, shooting 6
Dominant eye (and hand) 152
Double Action (DA) 187
Double action only (DAO) 187
Double-action revolver 187
Double-base (powder) 35
Dry firing 171, 174
Ears (or cans) 56
Ejector 30, 187
Elevation 35, 144
Extractor 21, 187
Eye piece 50, 197
Eye relief 50, 197
F-Class 72
Fg, FFg, FFFg, FFFFg 40
Fault analysis 174
Field stripping 218
Field target shooting 138
Fifty-calibre (long range) rifle 115
Firearms Certificate (FAC) 13
Firing line (or point) 13
Fixed sights 50
Flintlock 40
Floor plate 35
Follower, magazine 35
Follow-through 132, 144, 152
Forcing cone 192
Fore-end (fore-stock) 182
FPS (feet per second) 35
Free pistol 6, 35
Free rifle 6, 68
Frizzen 40, 100
Front sight (or foresight) 50, 197
Fullbore (or Full-Bore or Full Bore) 6, 62
Gallery rifle and pistol shooting 93
glossary 223
Greenhill’s Formula 35
Grip 26, 182
Groove 35, 192
Groove diameter 35, 192
Group 165, 174
Group Size 165, 174
Gunsmithing 218
Half Cock 40
Handload(ing) 213
Hang fire 13
Headspace 192
Headstamp 35
High house 135
High power 65
High power rifle 6, 65
Hunter field target shooting 140
IPAS iron plate action shooting 121
Iron sights (or metallic sights) 50, 197
ISSF (International Shooting Sport Federation) 6
Jump, muzzle 174
Keyhole 35
Lapping 192
Leade 192
Line of sight 35, 144
Long range pistol 95
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Art of Shooting
Low house 135
Magazine 35
Magazine release 21
Mainspring 21
Maintenance 218
Malfunction 13
Marker 13
Marksmanship, rifle, pistol, shotgun 144, 148, 152
Master eye 152
Match Rifle 80
Matchlock 40
McQueen 108
Mental training 171
Metplat 35
Mil 35
Military firearm 6, 107
Mirage 158
Misfire 13
MLAGB (Muzzle Loading Association of Great Britain) 40, 100
MLAIC 40, 100
MOA (minute of angle) 35, 165
Modified Estonian (stance) 144
Monte Carlo stock 182
Musket 40, 100
Muzzle 21, 192
Muzzle loader (or muzzleloader) 40, 100
Muzzle velocity 13, 35, 192
ND (negligent discharge) 13
Nitrocellulose or Nitro 35
Notebooks and scorebooks 165
NRA (National Rifle Association) 2, 13
NSRA (National Smallbore Rifle Association) 2, 13
Object lens 50, 197
Obturation 227
Ocular Lens 50, 197
Offhand 2, 65, 144
Ogive 35
Open sight 50, 197
Over-and-under 30, 187, 192
Palm rest 186, 229
Parallax 50, 197
Paralympics shooting 16
Peep sight 50, 197
Pellet 46
Pellet gun 46, 82, 91, 126
Percussion cap 40, 100, 103
Physical training 171
Pistol 26, 85, 107, 117, 119, 148
Pistol grip 152, 182
Plinking 228
Powder 35, 40
Powder charge 213
Practical pistol 117
Practical rifle 111
Practical shotgun 123
Practical shooting 107, 109, 111, 117, 123
Primer 35
Primer pocket 35
Progressive (press) 213
Prone 2
Proof mark 35
Pull-through 206
Pump action 30
Pyrodex 40
Ramrod 40, 100
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Art of Shooting
Range 2, 13
Range commands 13
Receiver (or action) 21, 187
Recoil (or kick) 23, 27, 28, 148
Reloading 213
Rests 56, 158
Reticule 50, 197
Revolver 26
Ricochet 13
Rifle 26
Rifling, barrel 35, 192
Rifling, Lands 192
Rimfire (cartridge) 35
Rimless 35
RO/RCO (Range Officer or Range Conducting Officer) 13
Running target 6, 132
SA (Single action, single-action) 187
SAAMI 223
Safety 13
Sear 187
Self-Loader 26, 187
Semi-automatic 26, 187
Semi-wad cutter 35
Service pistol 119
Set trigger 187
Shooting glove 56
Shooting jacket 56
Shooting shoes 56
Shooting trousers 56
Shot 35
Shot shell (or shotgun cartridge) 30, 35
Shotgun 30
Side-by-side 30
Sighter 62, 165
Sighting picture 174, 197
Silhouette shooting 129
Single action revolver 187
Single shot 187
Single stroke pneumatic 46
Skeet 135
Sling and rests 56, 155
Smallbore (or Small-bore) 68
Smokeless powder 35
Smoothbore (or Smooth bore) 40, 192
Soft point, bullet 35
Sporting clays 135
Sporting firearm 132
Sporting rifle 132
Spotting scope 56, 62
Spring (air) pistol 46
Stance, Kneeling 2
Stock 21, 182
Striker 21,26, 30, 187
Target (shooting) 2, 163
Target Air Pistol 91
Target Pistol 85
Target shotgun 123
Telescopic Sight (or scope) 50, 197, 203
Throat 192
Trajectory 30
Trap (or trapshooting) 135
Triggers 21, 26, 187
Trigger guard 21, 26, 187
Trigger pull weight 187, 218
Turning targets 84, 107, 123
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Art of Shooting
Twist, rate of 192
Two stage trigger 187
UIT 6
UKPSA (United Kingdom Practical Shooting Association) 109, 111, 117, 123
V Bull 62, 163
Velocity 35
Wadcutter (or wad-cutter) 35
Weaver stance 148
Wildcat (cartridge) 35
Windage 50, 158, 192
X-Ring 73, 119
Yaw 194, 232
Zero and zeroing 50, 197, 203

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Art of Shooting Shooting Techniques – introduces marksmanship with rifles, handguns, shotguns and airguns. Specialist Skills – a group of chapters introducing skills and knowledge, such as the correct cleaning of firearms, handloading ammunition, and the selection and fitting of sights. We have tried to keep each ‘chapter’ as short as possible, and provide references to further information (especially on the Web). More importantly we provide contact details for each of the target shooting disciplines. We hope you enjoy this handbook, and it helps you get the most from target shooting.

Bisley Camp
Set in 3000 acres of Surrey heathland some 30 miles from Central London, Bisley has the unique combination of one of the best, most modern, and largest arrangement of shooting facilities in the world combined with colonial-style clubhouses. Bisley, apart from being able to offer a great variety of shooting, has other advantages. It is the largest multi-discipline range complex in the world near a major centre of population and has few restrictions such as those that now inhibit new ranges being built in populated areas. It is in large part a Victorian and Edwardian time warp. Nearly all the original buildings survive and a recent massive restoration programme has put most of them in good order and to good use. Relatively little has been built since 1914 to spoil the charm of the Camp; and such as may be built hereafter must be in keeping with the older buildings now that the bulk of the Camp is formally designated a Conservation Area. The ranges laid out in 1890/91 are substantially similar to those of today. Stickledown (the longdistance range) was extended from 24 to 40 targets in 1903 (later 50), and the greatest distance was increased from 1100 to 1200 yards in 1910. Century was so named in 1903 when the Great Butt was widened from 90 to 100 targets (now 108). These two very large ranges and the associated danger areas provide a framework for the siting of smaller, specialist ranges, and have proved adaptable for many new types of shooting disciplines which have evolved in the 100 years since they were designed. Brand new formal Clay facilities were constructed and the Lord Roberts Centre was built to house a Smallbore rifle range. On the 300m range it is now possible to shoot using the latest electronic targetry.

Further Information
[1]. The National Shooting Centre (www.nsc-bisley.org.uk), National Rifle Association NRA-UK (www.nra.org.uk) and National Smallbore Rifle Association NSRA (www.nsra.co.uk) web sites are good places to find information on target shooting in the United Kingdom. National Small Bore Rifle Association (NSRA), www.nsra.co.uk, the NSRA is the national governing body for all Small-bore Rifle & Pistol Target Shooting in the United Kingdom, including Airgun and Crossbow Shooting. A list of Smallbore clubs can be found at
www.nsra.co.uk/nsra/nsra_frame.htm

[2].

[3]. [4]. [5]. [6].

Clay Pigeon Shooting Association (CPSA), http://www.cpsa.co.uk/epromos.cfm, provides a list of Clay Pigeon Associations throughout the UK, Europe, the Commonwealth and USA. Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Britain (MLAGB), muzzle loading shooting in the UK. The UK Practical Shooting Association, Practical Shooting Confederation.
www.mlagb.com,

the governing body for

www.ukpsa.co.uk,

the UK region of the International

The National Rifle Association of America NRA-USA (www.nra.org/programs.aspx) and the NRA Headquarters (www.nrahq.org/compete/index.asp) web sites provide a wealth of information on target shooting. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/, contains a number of excellent articles on shooting disciplines, marksmanship and firearms technology.

[7].

Acknowledgements
I would like to take this opportunity to thank the NRA, NSRA, CPSA, MLAGB, UKPSA and the other shooting organisations for there support in producing this Handbook. In particularly I am most grateful to the many experts at Bisley who contributed their knowledge and advice to this book: Glynn Alger, Jenny Andrews, Vince Bottomley, Carl Boswell, Alex Cargill Thompson, Mike Cherry, Mike Cripps, Martin Crix, Roger Dorrington, Vanessa Duffy, Martin Farnan, Dave Froggett, Ken Garside, Ed Hall,
© Philip Treleaven 2008 ii feedback to p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk

Art of Shooting Robb Harrison, Fred James, David Jennings, Geoffrey Kolbe, John Kynoch, Iain MacGregor, Donald McIntosh, Graham McLellan; Bob Maddison, Lou Martin, Chris McVerry, David Minshall, Paul Monaghan, John Morgan-Hosey, Charles Murton, Phil Northam, Terry Ord, Keith Paris, David Parish, John Perry, Bill Richards, Iain Robertson, Karen Robertson, Ian Shirra-Gibb, Derek Simpson, Pete Sparkes, David Spittles, Nick Steadman, Chris Stevenson, Clive Taylor, Frank Thibault, David Thomas, Alan Vickers, Stephen Way, Alan Westlake, Graham Wilkes, Rae Wills, Brian Woodall. Please contact me if I have missed anyone (p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk). Screenshots, images and clip art I would also like to thank the organisations and individuals acknowledged in the illustrations for permission to reproduce screen shots, and images. Again, please contact me if I have missed anyone (p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk). Disclaimer I have taken great care and effort to check all the information and advice in this handbook for accuracy. However, given the comprehensive nature of the material, mistakes are inevitable. I regret therefore, that I cannot be held responsible for any loss that you may suffer as a result of any omissions or errors. All profits from the Handbook will be donated to supporting British Shooting (NRA, NSRA, CPSA etc.).

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Bullseye Pistol or Conventional (3-gun) Pistol 23. Black Powder and Muzzleloaders 9. pistol. Service Pistol 36. Field Target (Air Rifle) 43. Match Rifle 20. shotgun 31. 3 Position. Centrefire 22.ac. Shooting Disciplines 3. Shotguns 7. Benchrest Rifle 18. Target Shooting 2. Air Rifle – 10m and 3-Position Part D – Target Pistol and Gallery Disciplines 21. Match 15. Pistols. Multi-shot 24. Equipment and Accessories Part C – Target Rifle Disciplines 12. Pistol and Shotgun 40. Pistols 6. Fifty-Calibre (Long Range) Rifle 34. High Power Rifle 14. Black Powder Cartridge Rifles and Pistols 29. Gallery Rifle and Pistol 25. Practical Pistol and Air Pistol 35. Rapidfire. Standard. Long Range Pistol Part E . Clothing. Civilian Service Rifle 33. Practical Shooting – rifle. Cowboy Action Shooting Part F – Military and Practical Disciplines 30. Airguns – pellets. Target Pistols – Free. Classic and Historic Arms 27.treleaven@cs.ucl. Hunter Field Target (Air Rifle) 1 2 6 13 19 21 26 30 35 40 46 50 56 60 62 65 68 70 72 74 77 80 82 84 85 89 91 93 95 97 98 100 103 105 107 109 111 113 115 117 119 121 123 126 128 129 132 135 138 140 © Philip Treleaven 2008 iv feedback to p. Smallbore Target Rifle –Standard. Shotguns 28. Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest 19. Target Air Pistols – Single.Art of Shooting Contents Part A – Target Shooting Basics 1. Safety. Airsoft 10. Practical Rifle 32. F-Class Rifle 17. Iron and Optical Sights 11. Clay Pigeon Shooting 42.Historic Arms Disciplines 26. International 300m Rifle 16. Rifles 5. Target and Practical Shotgun 38. Iron Plate Action Shooting 37. BBs.uk . Sporting Rifle 41. Muzzle Loading Rifles. Cartridges and Bullets 8. Silhouette Rifle. Fullbore Target Rifle 13. Airsoft Rifles and Pistols Part G – Field Sports Disciplines 39. Range Discipline and the Law Part B – Firearms and Shooting Equipment 4.

Hand Loading Ammunition 59. Firearm Maintenance and Gunsmithing Glossary Target Shooting Associations and Organisations Index 142 144 148 152 155 158 165 171 174 180 182 187 192 197 203 206 213 218 223 233 236 © Philip Treleaven 2008 v feedback to p.ac. Physical and Mental Training 51. Using Slings and Rests 48.uk . Pistols. Actions and Triggers 54. Notebooks and Scorebooks 50.Art of Shooting Part H – Shooting Techniques 44. Target Sights .ucl. Rifle Marksmanship 45. Firearm Stocks and Grips 53. Cleaning Rifles. Shotgun Technique 47. Shotguns and Airguns 58. Reading the Weather 49. Firearm Barrels 55.selection and fitting 56. Pistol Marksmanship 46.treleaven@cs. Zeroing a Rifle 57. Shooter Fault Analysis Part I – Specialist Skills 52.

Art of Shooting

Part A – Target Shooting Basics
Summary
Every week thousands of people in the UK and millions worldwide ‘go’ target shooting. For the novice big questions are how to get started and finding the shooting discipline that’s just right for you? So this book is written for everyone who would like to take up the sport, it provides a crash course on what shooting disciplines are available, appropriate firearm and equipment, how they work, how to get started and most importantly how its both fun and safe. Part A provides an overview of the different target shooting disciplines. It also covers the important elements of safety and the Laws governing ownership and use of firearms. Chapter 1 -Target Shooting In chapter 1 we look at ‘getting started’ in target shooting, the types of firearms (rifle, handgun, shotgun, black powder firearms, airguns), the shooting positions (prone, sitting, kneeling, standing, moving and a mixture of stances), types of ranges (indoor, outdoor, covered, series of stages), and types of target (static bull’s eye, silhouettes of animals, or moving targets). Chapter 2 - Shooting Disciplines This chapter look at each of the Shooting Disciplines you can pursue in the United Kingdom, and some additional disciplines that are popular in America, such as High Power Rifle and semi-automatic Pistol Shooting. Since many of the Shooting Disciplines use similar rifles, shooting positions and ranges, I have made an attempt to group them by style of shooting discipline. Chapter 3 - Safety, Range Discipline and the Law Shooting has an enviable safety record. Next we look at basic shooting safety rules, Club membership, Range safety and the UK and USA firearms laws.

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Art of Shooting

Chapter 1

Target Shooting
Every week thousands of people in the UK and millions worldwide ‘go’ shooting. As an indication of the popularity, the International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) claims to represent more than 75 million shooters worldwide. And many thousands more would love to join them but don’t know where to start. From Fullbore and High Power rifle shooting at 600 yards to air pistol at 10 metres; from muzzleloaders using black powder to clay pigeon shooting. What’s available, how do you find the shooting discipline that’s right for you, what’s the right firearm and equipment, how do you legally purchase a firearm, how do you expertly clean it and so on? For a novice, finding the information can be a real challenge. So I and my friends in British shooting have put together this handbook as ‘primer’ for the new shooter. When choosing a target shooting discipline, a good starting point is to ask yourself what firearms you will enjoy shooting? Below (left) is a target rifle. If Smallbore then it fires a .22LR round, and if Fullbore it fires a 7.62x51mm (NATO) round, highly accurate to over 1000 yards (900m). Figure 1.1b shows a WWII service rifle, also effective out to 1,000 yards. Next is a top of the range 12-bore (gauge) over & under shotgun for clay pigeon shooting. Finally we have a high-tech compressed air .177 calibre single shot air pistol capable of shooting 1 inch (2.5cm) groups at 10m. Which is your shooting passion?

a) Target Rifle

b) Service Rifle

c) Over & Under Shotgun

d) Target Air Pistol

Figure 1.1: Passion for Target Shooting

1.1

Getting Started

So what do you do if you have never handled a firearm, but are eager to have a go at target shooting? Obviously it helps if you have a good idea of what you want to do: target rifle, historic arms, military rifles, Gallery shooting with a rifle or pistol, field sports disciplines, black powder or airgun.

1.2

What’s Right for You?

Simplistically, shooting disciplines can be grouped: a) by type of firearm, b) by shooting position, c) by type of range and d) by type of target: Type of Firearm – rifle, pistol, shotgun, black powder firearm, or airgun. Shooting Position – shooting prone, sitting, kneeling, standing (or offhand), moving, and a mixture of stances. Type of Range – indoor range, outdoor range, covered firing point, or a series of stages (or courses of fire). Type of Target – static bullseye targets, silhouettes of animals, or moving targets. We will look at each of these in turn.

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Art of Shooting Type of Firearm What firearms do you want to shoot? Target rifles with iron or telescopic sights; historic or modern semi-automatic military riles; single shot pistols, revolvers and semi-automatic pistols; over-andunder, side-by-side or semi-automatic shotguns; muzzleloaders and black powder rifles, pistols and shotguns, air rifles or pistols, or so-called Airsoft replicas of modern firearms. The great thing about target shooting is the galaxy of firearms available. Shooting Position or Stance The next choice is shooting position or stance: prone, sitting, kneeling, moving around a course of fire or series of stages, and disciplines that involve shooting in a variety of stances. For example, Fullbore and Smallbore target shooting is typically shot prone, Gallery Rifle and Clay Pigeon is shot standing, and Field Target (Air Rifle) is shot in a variety of stances, moving around a course of fire.

a) Prone

b) Sitting

c) Kneeling

d) Standing

e) Moving

Figure 1.2: Shooting Positions

Type of Range Ranges come in a variety of configuration, the most common being indoor ranges from 10m to 25m from the firing point to the target; outdoor ranges with covered firing points from 25 yards to 100 yards (25m-100m); outdoor ranges from 300 to over 1200 yards (270m-1100m); and courses of fire that simulate military or hunting situations, which can be outdoors or indoors.

a) Indoor

b) Covered Firing Point

c) Outdoor

d) Course of Fire

Figure 1.4: Types of Ranges

Figure 1.3 shows a typical outdoor range layout, comprising the raised firing point, mantlet, target and butt to stop the bullet after it has passed through the target. In Fullbore shooting where the targets are pulled down, scored by a human marker, then run up again for the next shot, the mantlet also provides protection for the marker.

Figure 1.3: Range Layout

Type of Target Finally we come to the types of target. They range from the traditional static ‘bullseye’ target; to static silhouettes of animals and humans; to ‘knock-down’ targets in the shape of animals; to moving targets in the shape of animals that move across the range on a trolley; and lastly the well-known clay pigeon propelled into the air by a throwing device.

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governing body of international © Philip Treleaven 2008 4 feedback to p.shootingwiki.uk/epromos. provides a list of Clay Pigeon Associations throughout the UK. the UK National Smallbore Rifle Association (www. Official National Rifle www. www.cpsa.Art of Shooting a) Bullseye b) Disruptive c) Knock-down Figure 1.ucl.5: Types of Target d) Running Target e) Clay Pigeon 1.com). A list of Smallbore clubs can be found at www.nsra.3 Joining a Shooting Club Having decided to take up shooting and chosen your shooting discipline. National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom (NRA-UK). At a national level a good starting point is one of the national shooting organisations. the Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Briton (www. National Small Bore Rifle Association (NSRA).uk/nsra/nsra_frame.org.mlagb. the NRA-UK is the national governing body for Fullbore rifle shooting in the United Kingdom. the Commonwealth and USA. The web is obviously a good place to find details of both national associations and local clubs. [4].nsra.org). such as National Rifle Associations of America (www.nra. the NSRA is the national governing body for all Small-bore Rifle & Pistol Target Shooting in the United Kingdom. National Rifle Association of America (NRA-USA).uk . http://www.uk). Europe.bictsf. www. Further Information Shooting Wiki.treleaven@cs. and further contact details can be found in the chapters on specific shooting disciplines.targetshooting.nra.ac. The tab ‘Clubs’ gives an extensive list of UK shooting clubs.uk).htm [5]. and see which is right for you.org.nra. International Shooting Sport Federation. the British International Clay Target Shooting Federation (www. including Airgun and Crossbow Shooting.com). Below I’ve listed the contact details for the main shooting bodies in the UK. www.nraa. UK magazine dedicated to Target Shooting. such as Bisley [4].co. Association of America.uk.org) or Australia (www. the next challenge is finding out what clubs are available in your area. many of the larger shooting centres.co. [2].ca. Clay Pigeon Shooting Association (CPSA).org/wiki/shooting and cover all aspects of shooting. [3]. shooting sports. [7].4 [1]. In addition. www. such the UK National Rifle Association (www.org.org. two extensive web sites comprehensive Canadian web site on all Target Shooting Magazine. [8]. hold open days when you can try a range of different shooting disciplines. Target Shooting Canada. or the equivalent national associations in other countries.uk.cfm. www. aspects of target shooting.nsra.nra. 1. http://en.co.co. [6].org.issf-shooting.wikipedia. All national associations provide courses and can put you in touch with a local club.

com Organisation Muzzle Loaders Association of GB (MLAGB) Telephone 01926 458198 Address MLAGB.com Organisation British Field Target Association Address BFTA.com Web site www.com www.shootingsportsireland.P.O.org Web site www. Dublin.org.net Web site www.treleaven@cs. Bective Street. Sandyford.net/~ntsai/nsai. Weymouth. Brookwood. Dublin. Ireland Email icpsa@eircom.uk National Smallbore Rifle Association 01483 485505 Bisley Camp.bictsf.org Organisation Shooting Sports Association of Ireland Telephone087 900 7501 Address PO Box 9. Email silhouetteireland@eircom. Woking. Woking. Tullamore. Blackrock.icpsa.Art of Shooting 1.uk British International Clay Target Shooting Federation 01483 485400 BICTSF. Bisley Camp. Tachbrook Park. Surrey GU24 0PB info@nra.5 Contacts The three principal associations in the UK are the National Rifle Association (NRA-UK).ie Web site www.org Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland Address NRA of Ireland. A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. Brookwood. Ireland. Brookwood.britishshooting.nrai.ipscireland.bfta.net Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association Telephone 07010 703845 Address PO Box 7057. Ireland Web site www. Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site British Shooting Limited +44-1483-486948 Edmonton House.uk Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site National Rifle Association of the UK 01483 797777 Bisley Camp. Box 9.com Organisation Irish Clay Pigeon Shooting Association Telephone 00 353 (0)87 2988030 Address Suite 20A.uk www.O Box 2242.co.uk . Surrey. Surrey GU24 0NP info@nsra.co.co.A. Berks RG7 5YY Email Secretary@BFTA.ucl. Preston.eircom. Meath. Co.mlagb.html © Philip Treleaven 2008 5 feedback to p. Bisley Camp. PO Box 1500. Dorset DT4 4EN Email alan@mediainc. Warwick CV34 6RZ Email membership@mlagb.org. Surrey.targetshootingireland.nra. Co.bsrc. P.ie Organisation The National Silhouette Association Ireland Address NSA. Ireland Email SSAI@eircom.ac.net Web site www. Reading. Co Offaly. GU24 0PB Email secretary@bsrc. Ireland Email info@nrai. Surrey GU24 0NP admin@britishshooting.co. Woking. Blueball. c/o Fitzgerald Kitchens. Blackrock. Leabeg. The Mall.uk Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland Telephone00 866 504 9073 Address PO Box 9. 7 Olympus Court.uk www. Brookwood. Dublin 18.nsra. Kells.uk Web site www.org.ie Organisation Irish Practical Shooting Association Address I.uk www. Beacon Court.net Web site www.uk Organisation The British Sporting Rifle Club (BSRC) Address c/o NRA. the National Smallbore Rifle Association (NSRA) and the British International Clay Target Shooting Association.ukpsa. Blackrock.S.org.co. Co. Co. Brookwood. In Ireland a principal association is the National Target Association of Ireland. Woking. Email pro@ipscireland. GU24 0NP secretary@bictsf.uk Web site www. Dublin.co.net Web site http://homepage. Woking. P.

shot standing. or moving targets.1 Target Rifle Disciplines Target rifle disciplines are shot with specialist bolt-action target rifles lying down in the prone position. Since many of the Shooting Disciplines use similar rifles. A typical competition comprises 3-4 courses of fire each of twenty shots at distances of 200. The usual calibre is 7. standing and kneeling at 50m. Type of Target – static bullseye targets. and b) 3 Position – competitions comprise 3 x 40 shots (Men). pistol.22LR) or Target Air Rifle (e. I have made an attempt to group them by style of shooting discipline. telescopic sights indoors for Smallbore and Air Figure 2.22 rimfire rifles specially designed for target shooting. The International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) recognises two international competitions: a) Prone – competitions comprise 60 shots prone at 50m.ac.g. kneeling. Shooting Position – shooting prone. 300.treleaven@cs. iron sights b) Magazine. 2.generally unmodified M1. M16 or AR15. 20. M14. and supported by a sling. Ranges can be outdoors from 300-1200 yards (270-1100m).ucl.177 calibre).custom-made bolt action. 3 x 20 shots (Women) shot prone. and 600 yards. 50 and 100 yards.g. magazine rifles.62.Art of Shooting Chapter 2 Shooting Disciplines This chapter looks at the popular Shooting Disciplines (or to give them their ISSF name. shooting at distances of 15. such as Fullbore and Smallbore.2: Prone Target shooting (aperture). shooting positions and ranges. moving and a mixture of stances. Events) that you can pursue in the United Kingdom. and b) Service rifles .uk . Rifles are Fullbore (e. or airgun. such as Highpower Rifle and Practical Pistol shooting. or iron peep sights. Type of Range – indoor range. black powder firearm. © Philip Treleaven 2008 6 feedback to p. 5. with each shot carefully scored and analysed. standing. shooting disciplines are differentiated by: Type of Firearm – rifle. sitting. Smallbore Target Rifle Smallbore Rifle shooting is carried out using precision . They are single-shot and use iron (aperture) sights.1: Target Rifle (RPA) Rifle. firing centrefire cartridges 7. outdoor range. a rest or a bipod. As illustrated by Figure 2. Shooting is done with iron Figure 2. This also encompasses shooting disciplines such as FClass and Benchrest that use telescopic sights and rests. 25. silhouettes of animals. As introduced in Chapter 1. and America.56 and 6mm calibre etc. with iron sights or telescopic sights.g. or a) Single-shot.). seated and prone. because they share the same ranges and similar rifles. rifles are either single-shot or bolt action magazine rifles. Smallbore (e.62mm. High Power Rifle High Power shooting comprises: a) Match rifles .1. shotgun. respectively. covered firing point. . Fullbore Target Rifle Fullbore Target Rifle (TR) involves prone single-shot precision shooting using iron (aperture) sights at round bullseye targets at distances from 300 to 1200 yards (270-1100m). or series of stages (or courses of fire). .

and 40 shots in 1 hr 15 min for women. standing and kneeling (PSK). 2. or carbon fibre.ucl. being governed by the International Shooting Sports Federation and included in the Olympics. at long distances from 1000 to 1200 yards (914-1100m). possible score . Telescopic sights and hand loaded ammunition are used. Rapidfire. b) Rapidfire . front-rests and sandbags. feet pointing towards the target.600. but shooters can use a variety of aids. Benchrest Rifle Benchrest shooting is a sport in which very accurate rifles are shot at targets from a bench with rests. possible score . referred to as: a) Free – competitions comprise 60 shots fired with . bipods. hugely popular in the United States. c) Standard – competitions use semi-automatic . The Air Rifle competition is shot at 10m from the standing unsupported position and consists of 60 shots in 1 hr 45 mins for men. Match Rifle Match Rifle it is usually fired with the 7.uk . Shooters typically use single shot custom rifles with heavy stainless steel barrels. Multi-shot For Air Pistols. Centrefire The International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) recognises four pistol disciplines. a centrefire. The targets are usually static bullseye targets at 25m and 50m. and is popular with UK and Commonwealth shooters. comprises a “3-gun aggregate”. Pistols – Free.32 calibre pistols with competitions comprising two rounds each of 30 shots and shot at 25 metres. fibreglass. However.22 rimfire.competition are fired with .Art of Shooting International 300m Rifle The International 300m Rifle discipline is fired at only one distance (i. Whilst the majority of shooters shoot prone.2 Target Pistol and Gallery Disciplines Gallery shooting disciplines are shot on indoor or covered ranges using pistols and rifles firing ‘pistol’ calibre cartridges (e. Standard. . F-Class Rifle F ('Farquarson') Class.45 stages.357 calibre). and from a position seated on a stool. and the specification for rifles and the firing positions allowed are more open than Target Rifle. © Philip Treleaven 2008 7 feedback to p.177”) calibre pistols propelled by gas (usually compressed air or CO2).22LR single shot pistols in the standing position at a target 50 metres Figure 2. and a . and consist of a series of five shots fired at five targets at 25 metres.22 pistols and comprise a 60-shot match into 5-shot strings with different timings.62mm cartridge. and any calibre of ammunition up to 8mm.ac. but the rifle may be 'Standard' or 'Free' and in any calibre up to 8mm.3: Target Pistol and Gallery away. or prone. Target Air Rifle Match Air Rifle is a highly popular discipline worldwide. 300 metres).22 five shot pistols.22LR or . 10m Standard Air Pistol and 10m Rapid Fire Air Pistol.5mm (. Matches may be prone only. reclining on their backs. the ISSF recognises four competitions: 10m Air Pistol Men (60 shots). three-gun or conventional pistol shooting. or F-Class is shot prone with any Fullbore target rifle. All are shot in the standing position and single handed. with 4. and are shot from a covered firing point. Popular ammunition is the 6mm PPC and the Remington BR line of cartridges. a few still adopt the 'supine' position.g. 10m Air Pistol Women (40 shots). Bullseye Pistol Bullseye.45 pistol both for the ‘open’ centrefire and .treleaven@cs. shots at 25 metres. fired with a . and d) Centrefire – competitors typically use semi-automatic .45 calibre at paper targets at fixed distances and within time limits.e.. Air Pistols – Single. and handmade stocks of graphite. such as telescopic sights. most competitors use their .400.

such as .38. b) replicas and c) modern purpose-designed rifles and pistols at distances up to 600 yards (550m). sniper rifles (both past and present) and civilian versions of current use service rifles. Lever action rifles typically incorporate a 10-shot tubular magazine underneath the barrel. 2. Practical.Art of Shooting Gallery Rifle and Pistol Gallery rifles are usually lever action or bolt-action carbines firing pistol ammunition.45 calibres. 2. These include ex-military rifles.56 calibre AR15. such as a 5. Figure 2.g.3 Historic Arms Disciplines Historic arms disciplines – as the name suggests – shoot ‘old’ or replica firearms. Although pistols are largely banned in the UK. it is possible to own and shoot gallery or long barrel pistols. Cowboy Action Shooting Cowboy Action Shooting (CAS) uses four firearms: two revolvers.to late 19th century including single action revolvers. Practical 3-Gun Shooting – rifle. With rifling. Rimfire carbines are often autoloaders with a rotary 10-shot magazine.5: Military Rifle Disciplines Civilian Service Rifle Civilian Service Rifle is a shooting discipline that involves the use of rifles that are used by military forces and law-enforcement agencies. Rifles are shot on outdoor ranges.22LR. black powder firearms (muskets. lever action rifles (chambered in pistol calibres) and side-by-side double barrel shotguns (e.357. pistol and pump-action shotgun on a simulated military or law enforcement course of fire (called stages). and involves shooting a rifle. defensive and service pistol competitions are broadly the same. with external hammers). CAS requires competitors to use firearms typical of the mid. as well as historic (called Section 7) pistols.451" calibre shoot well out to 1000 yards (915m).56mm calibre cartridge) or various sniper-type rifles (firing the 7. Muzzle Loading Rifle and Pistol Figure 2. Practical Rifle Practical rifle shooters use civilian versions of modern service rifles. especially muzzleloaders and black powder cartridge firearms. 9mm. pistols on indoor ranges and shotguns on outdoor ranges.4: Historic Arms Disciplines Muzzleloading.treleaven@cs. specialist rifles in .uk . such as those manufactured by Lee-Enfield and BSA. rifles. with competitions involving a course of fire. both past and present use. but regulated by different national bodies. pistol.62x51mm calibre).ucl. Shooting competitions range from 25 yards for pistols to over 1000 yards (23-915m) for rifles. Commonwealth and other significant Military Miniature Calibre Training and Target Rifles. pistols and shotguns) cover any firearm into which the bullet is loaded from the muzzle of the gun. a lever action rifle and a double barrel shotgun. shotgun Practical 3-gun shooting is highly popular in the United States.4 Military and Practical Disciplines The Military Rifle disciplines shoot civilian equivalents of modern service rifles such as the M16 (firing 5. .ac. or . and competitions as you might expect are military or law enforcement inspired. Classic and Historic Arms The Classic and Historic Arms group is dedicated to those with an interest in historic rifles with particular reference to British. © Philip Treleaven 2008 8 feedback to p. . To compete competitively a telescopic sight and large capacity magazines are a requirement (20 rounds is the norm although 10 rounds will suffice at a pinch). Black Powder Cartridge Rifles and Pistols Shooting is conducted with a) original period rifles.

Airsoft guns (also known as Soft Air guns) are spring. fox. Sporting Rifle Popular with field sports shooters. and b) moving mechanical targets (e.ac. or air cartridge revolvers. or in some contexts. Skeet involves shooting at targets fired horizontally from a low and high house both as singles and pairs. deer. Competitors use a magazine fed pistol or revolver capable of firing multiple shots before reloading. electric.22 is allowed. Service Pistol A service pistol is any pistol (revolver. It encompasses: a) static targets (e.e. © Philip Treleaven 2008 9 feedback to p.g. with competitors shooting a simulated military or law-enforcement course of fire. pigs. The standard calibre is . Service Pistol typically involves competitions between serving military personnel. Silhouette Rifle. clays) with a shotgun. Airsoft Rifle and Pistol Airsoft is a shooting discipline in which players participate in simulated military or law enforcementstyle combat using replicas (in appearance only) of real firearms firing small pellets. Target and Practical Shotgun Target and Practical Shotgun involves competitors shooting self-loading or pump action shotguns with magazines containing 7-14 rounds at steel plates. pistols or shotguns. Pistol and Shotgun Silhouette shooting comprises shooting at heavy metal targets of chickens.5 metres to 55 metres. kneeling.6: Field Sports Disciplines precision of target shooting. such as Trap and Skeet. sitting. recent personal and (where the Law allows) civilian enthusiasts. and the enormously popular Clay Pigeon shooting. A typical course is laid out. or gas powered air guns that fire small spherical plastic pellets of either 6 mm or 8 mm diameter (0. ‘shoot/no-shoot’ targets. match or military rifle. Field Target (Air Rifle) Field target shooting – shot with highly accurate air rifles – combines the outdoor field conditions of rough shooting. Each round consists of 25 targets. the majority of pistols used for PP are CO2 powered. Moving target disciplines include Running Boar and Running Deer shot with Smallbore and Fullbore rifles. buck) that are shot prone.177 but . using either rifles.Art of Shooting Practical Pistol and Air Pistol Practical Pistol involves cartridge pistols. popular in the United States. boar) that are shot standing. respectively.ucl. buck or boar.g. 2.uk . ‘pepper poppers’ and paper targets.5 Field Sports Disciplines Field Sports disciplines simulate static and moving targets found in traditional field sports. with the Figure 2. Silhouette Shooting) at any distance from 7. with the aim of knocking them over. Clay Pigeon Shooting Clay pigeon shooting is the art of shooting flying targets (i. such as fox. Trap shooting has targets fired away from the participant at different angles as well as different heights. Formal Clay shooting consists of a number of disciplines. Shooting static ‘game’ targets includes Silhouette. law enforcement officers. or semi-automatic) issued to military personnel. Due to the pistol ban in the UK (except Northern Ireland). air pistols and Airsoft. and Field Target shot with Air Rifles.24 or 0. Shooting is often done on Military ranges.treleaven@cs. outdoors with a route to walk and at set intervals are shooting points with a knockdown target (cf.32 inches). standing and from the bench. the rifles used must be in the style of a ‘sporting rifle’ rather than that of a target. turkeys and rams.

The shooter fires three rounds of 40 shots (. Examples include: 10m Air Pistol – the four competitions (Air Pistol Men & Women.177 air rifle. 30 shots (W) 5 taken in 10 secs 60 shots fired in two so-called half courses 30 + 30 shots 30 + 30 shots 3 x 20 shots 60 shots 60 shots 125 targets (M). Rifle In the rifle events competitors shoot at 10-ring targets. kneeling and standing positions at a target 50 meters away. For example. 3 x 20 shots (W) prone. kneeling 3 x 40 shots (M). 30 shots fast 40 shots mixed 60 shots (M). standing. 10m Air Rifle – shots are fired in the standing position at a target 10 meters away with a . Standard and Rapid Fire) are shot single-handed.ac.22LR) are fired in the prone position at a target 50 meters away. 120 targets (W) 125 targets (M). Running Target The running target event involves a ‘slow run’ and a ‘fast run’. 10m Running Target (men only) – two rounds of 30 shots are fired in the standing position. standing.treleaven@cs. 75 targets (W) Figure 2.7: International Shooting Sports Federation Disciplines Men ISSF Women Olympic Men Women Examples of the ISSF and Olympic competitions are shown below. in the standing position at a distance of 10 meters. © Philip Treleaven 2008 10 feedback to p. Pistol In the pistol events. 50m Rifle 3-Position . some of which have Olympic status. kneeling 30 slow. at a target 10 meters away with a . 75 targets (W) 125 targets (M). 50m Rifle Prone (men only) . 20 slow.Sixty shots (. 30 fast (M). 40 shots (W) standing 60 shots prone 3 x 40 shots (M) and 3 x 20 shots (W) prone. 75 targets (W) 150 targets (M). 40 shots (W) 40 shots (M). with Air Pistol the men’s competition comprises 60 shots in 105 minutes and women’s 40 shots in 75 minutes.uk . competitors fire at a 10-ring target. holding and firing the pistol with one hand.22LR) each in the prone.Art of Shooting 2.177 air rifle. unsupported. standing. kneeling 60 shots prone 3 x 20 shots prone. 20 fast (W) 40 shots mixed 30 shots slow.7).6 International Shooting Disciplines The International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) recognizes several shooting events (see Figure 2.ucl. Event Rifle 10m Air Rifle 50m Rifle prone 50m Rifle 3 position (free rifle) 300m Rifle 3 position (free rifle) 300m Rifle prone 300m Rifle standard 300m Army Rifle Running Targets 10m Running Target 10m Running Target Mixed 50m Running Target 50m Running Target Mixed Pistol 10m Air Pistol 10m Standard Air Pistol 10m Rapid Fire Air Pistol 25m Pistol (sporting pistol) 25m Centre-Fire Pistol 25m Standard Pistol 25m Rapid Fire Pistol 50m Pistol (free pistol) Shotgun Trap Skeet Double Trap Automatics Trap Competition 60 shots (M).

25 and 50 metres.In the double trap.uk/nsra/nsra_frame.org. introduction to shooting Shooting Wiki.uk/epromos. the Commonwealth and USA. Athletes compete in rifle and pistol events from distances of 10.co. Modern Pentathlon The Modern Pentathlon involves 10m air pistol shooting.a single target is thrown from either house.htm).32 S&W Long calibre.Sixty shots (. [3]. the NSRA is the national governing body for all Small-bore Rifle & Pistol Target Shooting in the United Kingdom. one from each house. The pistols are 5-shot semi-automatics in . introduction to National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom (NRA-UK).shootingwiki. National Rifle Association of America (NRA-USA).22 calibre rifles and air guns (pneumatic. http://en. National Small Bore Rifle Association (NSRA). At a distance of 25 meters.nsra. together with fencing.htm [5]. the free encyclopedia. a centre of 50 mm must be hit in the so-called precision semiround. the NRA-UK is the national governing body for Fullbore rifle shooting in the United Kingdom. Competitions are open to all athletes with a physical disability [3].uk. Clay Pigeon Shooting Association (CPSA). The pistols are 5-shot semi-automatics in . running and swimming competitions. Paralympics shooting sports. two targets are released simultaneously at different heights and angles from the centre bank of traps.7 [1]. Skeet – In the skeet event. The tab ‘Clubs’ gives an extensive list of UK shooting clubs.co. For a more complete description of Olympic shooting see (www.nsra. official National Rifle © Philip Treleaven 2008 11 feedback to p. [2]. Shotgun Clay pigeon shooting competitions comprise: Trap – competitors move through five adjacent shooting stations. Double Trap . women's and mixed competitions. The targets come off any of the three traps. [6]. http://en. provides a list of Clay Pigeon Associations throughout the UK.ac.org. each comprising three traps set at different heights and angles. two targets are released from separate trap houses at either end of a semicircle. Association of America.org. Other Olympic events involving shooting are the Biathlon.22 Short calibre. The course of fire consists of either ‘singles’ .wikipedia.ucl.Art of Shooting 25m Sports Pistol (women only) – A competition consists of 30 precision shots and 30 rapid fire shots.22LR) are fired in the standing position at a target 50 meters away.uk . As each target is released the shooter is allowed two shots. www.org/wiki/Paralympic_shooting. Europe. www.uk. or ‘doubles’ . 50m Free Pistol (men only) . Competitors move through a semi-circular range featuring eight adjacent shooting stations.targetshooting. ranging in height from 3 to 3 1⁄2 metres. the web site cover all ISSF / Olympic Shooting Disciplines Wikipedia.cpsa. www. www. Athletes use .consisting of two targets thrown simultaneously. and the shooter fires one shot at each target. Further Information Wikipedia.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shooting_sports. Pentathlon and Paralympics shooting. The SH2 classification levels are for shooters who do require a rifle support stand. with the shooter not knowing which of the traps will release. 2. Disabled (Paralympics) Shooting Shooting is a Paralympics sport for persons with locomotor disabilities. the free encyclopedia. [4]. The SH1 levels are for shooters who do not require a rifle support stand.nra.co. sports. in men's. 25m Centre Fire Pistol (men only) – A competition consists of two rounds of 30 shots each. CO2 gas or spring). There are only two primary classifications in shooting sports (SH1 and SH2).ca/olympic.cfm.treleaven@cs. A list of Smallbore clubs can be found at www. including Airgun and Crossbow Shooting. [7].nra. http://www. horseback riding.

O Box 2242.nrai. Woking. c/o Fitzgerald Kitchens. PO Box 7057. Kells. Surrey GU24 0PB Email info@nra. Surrey GU24 0NP Email info@nsra. Bisley Camp. Weymouth.ukpsa.Box 9. Email pro@ipscireland. A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. Co. Co Offaly.com Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association Telephone 07010 703845 Address UKPSA.co.co. GU24 0NP Email secretary@bictsf.uk Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association Telephone 01483 485505 Address Bisley Camp.8 Contacts The three principal associations in the UK are the National Rifle Association (NRA-UK).org Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland Address NRA of Ireland.icpsa.A.com Web site www.uk Organisation Muzzle Loaders Association of GB (MLAGB) Telephone 01926 458198 Address MLAGB. GU24 0PB Email secretary@bsrc.org. Blackrock.co.uk .ucl. Meath.uk Web site www. International Shooting Sport Federation.ac. Ireland. Brookwood.bfta. Surrey GU24 0NP Email admin@britishshooting. The Mall.net Web site www. Tullamore. Dublin 18.eircom. In Ireland the principal association is the National Target Association of Ireland.uk Web site www. www.co.ie Organisation Irish Practical Shooting Association Address I. Woking. the National Smallbore Rifle Association (NSRA) and the British International Clay Target Shooting Association.com Web site www. Dorset DT4 4EN Email alan@mediainc.shootingsportsireland.ipscireland. Bective Street. . Blueball.S.targetshootingireland.org Web site www. Brookwood. Beacon Court. Ireland Email SSAI@eircom. Ireland Email info@nrai.co. Dublin.org.net Web site http://homepage. Surrey.treleaven@cs.P.net Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK Telephone 01483 797777 Address Bisley Camp.org. Leabeg.com Organisation Irish Clay Pigeon Shooting Association Telephone 00 353 (0)87 2988030 Address Suite 20A. Blackrock. Surrey. Berks RG7 5YY Email Secretary@BFTA. Reading.Art of Shooting [8].nsra.net Web site www.com Organisation British Field Target Association Address BFTA.uk Web site www. Woking. the governing body of 2. 7 Olympus Court.org. Brookwood.nra. Blackrock.net/~ntsai/nsai. Co. Co. Preston. P.html © Philip Treleaven 2008 12 feedback to p.Dublin.uk Web site www. P.uk Web site www. international shooting sports. Tachbrook Park.uk Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland Telephone 00 866 504 9073 Address PO Box 9.net Web site www.org.co.britishshooting. Brookwood. Organisation British Shooting Limited Telephone +44-1483-486948 Address Edmonton House. Sandyford. Dublin. Warwick CV34 6RZ Email membership@mlagb.ie Web site www. Ireland Web site www. Email silhouetteireland@eircom.uk Organisation The British Sporting Rifle Club (BSRC) Address c/o NRA. Woking.issf-shooting.O.ie Organisation The National Silhouette Association Ireland Address NSA.uk Organisation British International Clay Target Shooting Federation Telephone 01483 485400 Address BICTSF. Co. Brookwood. PO Box 1500.org Organisation Shooting Sports Association of Ireland Telephone 087 900 7501 Address PO Box 9. Ireland Email icpsa@eircom.bictsf.mlagb. Bisley Camp.bsrc.

(Obviously Black Powder firearms are loaded in a vertical position.uk . © Philip Treleaven 2008 13 feedback to p. Barrel – before firing check the barrel is free of obstructions. This is so that if there is a negligent discharge. preferably by looking up the barrel from the breech end. Muzzle control – always keep the firearm pointing down range in a safe direction. In serious cases you may be asked to leave the range and disciplinary action may be taken.ucl. Misfires – if the round fails to fire when you operate the trigger this may be due to a ‘hang fire’ where the powder in the case has not ignited immediately.62 firearms are engineered for higher powder pressures. and ensuring the firearm is held horizontally.) Trigger finger – always keep your finger off the trigger until ready to fire. in the UK a Home Office Approved Club. at the very least. Stop”) if any person or animal enters the danger area. These include always assuming the firearm is loaded. and never cross a range unless you have confirmed with Range Control that it is safe to do so. If you break any of these rules you may expect. To summarise: Handling a firearm . ensure the muzzle is pointing down range and the barrel is horizontal. 7. Target – make sure you positively identify your target. pistol. If in any doubt ask for assistance in removing the round. Although 7.1 Basic Safety Rules There are a number of standard safety rules. If you have already decided on what shooting discipline is of interest to you the appropriate National Governing Body will be able to advise you on your nearest shooting club for that discipline. Firing Point – you should enter a range from directly behind the firing point. when loading a round. and prove that a firearm is unloaded before passing it to someone. Clearly 7.Art of Shooting Chapter 3 Safety. pointing down range. shotgun or airgun. Calibre – always check that the calibre of the firearm and the calibre of the ammunition match exactly.308 Win firearms are considered equivalent. the bullet will be contained by the stop butt or within the Range Danger Area.62x51 (NATO) is different from 7. and you must never point a firearm at any other person or at your self.62 NATO and . Putting your finger in the trigger guard is a dangerous practice since your finger may accidentally touch the trigger causing a negligent discharge. 3. Stop. and equally important what lies in front and behind it. and should have a breech flag inserted (where possible) or in the case of bolt action rifles have the bolt removed (or both). which must be adhered to whether using a rifle. Unloaded – firearms should be unloaded when not in use. It is essential that the firearm continues to point down range for at least 30 seconds. never pointing it at anyone. 3. or when receiving it. You should alert other shooters (by shouting “Stop.always assume every firearm is loaded until you have proved otherwise.62x39 (Russian). Loading – when loading a round into the chamber.2 Club Membership To take up target shooting. to be reprimanded by the RCO or other more experienced shooters. You must then inform the Range Conducting Officer (RCO) and carry out the ‘Misfire Unload Drill’ under his supervision.treleaven@cs. mostly fairly obvious. before firing. you normally need to join an officially approved club. Range Discipline and The Law Shooting has an enviable safety record and everyone works hard to maintain that record.ac.

Once full club membership has been granted you may apply for a Firearms or Shotgun Certificate. Airguns – since a license is not required to shoot an airgun under the designated muzzle energy. airguns up to a designated muzzle energy (12 ft-lb for rifles. In the UK. The following is a summary: Muzzle Velocities and Muzzle Energies . and club rules. then for: Rifles – for centrefire rifles. and Fullbore) has a set of designated MV and ME that are safe to use. Applying for a Firearm or Shotgun Certificate – to possess a rifle. 3. Some police forces stipulate a minimum number of times they expect you to shoot each year to continue to have ‘good reason’ for the possession of the firearm(s) concerned. Keeping up Membership – once you have obtained a firearm or shotgun certificate. Outdoor. or those belonging to other members of the Club. muzzle loading or front loading revolver or certain types of cartridge revolvers in the UK requires a certificate from the local police. This is to ensure you are both properly trained in range safety and are also safe and responsible in the handling of firearms. you can let friends and relations shoot. This will then be considered a ‘one-man Guest Day’ and will count as one of the 12 Guest Days each Club are entitled to hold each year. but it goes without saying that you can’t remove them from the range.similar arrangements cannot be made for long barrelled revolvers or long range revolvers since these may only be used by the person whose name is on the FAC. and when in use a trained officer – the Range Conducting Officer (RCO) – must conduct all firing practices to ensure safety procedures are being followed.you start as a Probationary Member and follow a Probationary Course that covers range and safety procedures. Clubs are therefore required by law to keep records of every time you shoot.treleaven@cs.ucl. 6 ft-lb for pistols) can be purchased without a certificate so they are a good starting point. The only type of pistol which may therefore be used on such a Guest Day would be muzzle loading or Front Loading pistol. the (UK) police will check that you are an active member of the club. If a friend or relative does not have club membership or the required certificate. Pistols . until you have obtained the necessary certificate to purchase your own firearm. clubs must follow a formal probationary membership procedure to ensure you are properly trained and more importantly safe to use a firearm. you can continue to use the Club’s firearms and ammunition.uk . firing a firearm. shotgun. but as a courtesy you should discuss this with the Club officials before shooting. Probationary Club Membership .22LR ranges even though a smaller calibre. Once you become a full Member. Shotguns – for standard shotguns. one requirement being that you are an active full member of a designated shooting club (or you have permission to shoot on suitable land). if you have never shot before. Hence the .ac. Smallbore. this probationary period will last for a minimum period of three months (though many clubs have longer probationary periods of up to a year). Club Visitors – if you (or a friend) are a full member of a Home Office Approved shooting club or have a firearm certificate.3 Range Safety In the interest of safety all (rifle and pistol) shooting ranges are formally designated for the permissible muzzle velocities and muzzle energies that may be used. due to its 2550 ft/s (775 m/s) muzzle velocity. before shooting the Club Secretary needs to apply to the local police for permission for the named individual to shoot at a designated time and then under supervision of a qualified RCO.Art of Shooting In most countries. However. © Philip Treleaven 2008 14 feedback to p.17 HMR is normally banned from . This covers limits on the muzzle velocities and muzzle energies of the ammunition (due to the danger of ricochets). then you can (with permission) shoot at another club’s range. including the UK. When you apply to join the club your name and address will be forwarded to your local (UK) police who will check if there are any reasons why you should not be entrusted with firearms. Club’s Firearms & Ammunition – whilst a Probationary Member you will be able to use the Club’s firearms and ammunition under supervision. For Gallery ranges this might be a muzzle velocity of 2150 ft/sec (655m/s) and muzzle energy of 1496 ft-lb’s (2030 Joules). friends and relations can shoot under supervision of a qualified person without application to the police.each range of each type (Indoor.

a Shotgun Certificate covers the purchase of a number of smoothbore shotguns of any bore size or calibre.ucl. on the certificate. etc.police. such as being an active member of a Home Office Approved shooting club and that the firearm you request is appropriate for the shooting discipline. The Metropolitan Police web site (www. shotguns by a Shotgun Certificate. pistol or shotgun: Rifles – to purchase a rifle.do not require a certificate. 3. the police may question the need if a significant number are purchased. Shotgun Certificate – a Shotgun Certificate allows you to purchase a number of shotguns. b) when anyone wishes to go down range. Stop. owning and purchasing a firearm or shotgun (see www.Art of Shooting RCO – a Range Conducting Officer is responsible for the safe running of all live firing on the range and must be present during all firing. The only MoD-recognised RCO Courses are those run by the NRA (for Fullbore and Smallbore) and the NSRA (for Smallbore only). and d) if anyone observes an unsafe situation they are to immediately shout ‘Stop.uk/firearms-enquiries) is a good source of information on UK firearms laws. Any club which wishes to use MoD ranges of any sort must have at least one qualified RCO present while firing is taking place.uk/firearms-enquiries). Stop’. In addition to the basic rules of safe firearm handling.met.ac. and procedures for getting a Firearm or Shot Gun Certificate. Permission to purchase is covered by a Firearm Certificate and the procedure is the same as for rifles. The seller will enter the details of the transfer. they must first request permission of the RCO. Rifles and pistols are covered by a Firearm Certificate. Pistol – although pistols are banned in the UK. come under the control of the RCO whose orders must be obeyed at all times. your certificate must have an unallocated slot for the precise type and calibre of the firearm. Application for a Certificate Before you can purchase a firearm or ammunition you require a certificate. Variation – if you wish to apply for permission to purchase an additional firearm.4 UK Firearms Laws A ‘firearm’ within the definition of the UK Firearms Acts means any lethal barrelled weapon. Purchasing or Transferring a Firearm Naturally there are also strict rules to follow when purchasing or selling a firearm depending on whether it is a rifle. and both seller and purchaser subsequently need to inform the Police. including spectators and visitors. These rules include: a) ear and possibly eye protection are required of all shooters and spectators on the firing point. Shotguns – as discussed. and both seller and purchaser need to inform the Police.a Firearm Certificate designates each rifle and pistol (by type and calibre) that you may purchase and possess together with the amount of ammunition you may purchase at a time and the total amount you may possess. All persons present on a range. Air Rifles and Air Pistols – the majority of airguns . The following are the broad requirements generally needed to obtain a certificate: Good Reason – before you can obtain a Firearm or Shotgun certificate you need to show ‘good reason’. there are a number of safety rules that are expected of shooter.uk . you will need to apply to the UK Police for what is called a Variation.for air rifles below 12 ft lbs and air pistols below 6 ft lbs muzzle energy . The seller will enter the details of the transfer. including the firearm number.met. on the certificate. Age Limits – restrictions are placed on young people under 17 years using. including the firearm number. Firearm Certificate . © Philip Treleaven 2008 15 feedback to p. or you have an unused slot on your Firearm Certificate that you wish to change to a different calibre. it is still possible to purchase certain ‘long barrelled’ pistols and black powder pistols.treleaven@cs. c) no handling of firearms is permitted when anyone is beyond the firing line. However.police.

When applying for the grant of a Firearm or Shotgun certificate it may be best to do nothing in relation to security. Black Powder Given the increasing popularity of black powder. Home Storage – at home firearms are required to be stored in a Police-approved steel cabinet. Rifle and Pistol Ammunition – a Firearms Certificate specifies for each allowed calibre of ammunition both the maximum amount that can be purchased at a time.) Ammunition – the amounts of ammunition that can be purchased and possessed depends on the type of firearm. The regulations governing black powder firearms are essentially the same as for conventional (nitro) rifles and pistols. In Transit – when in transit. pistols < 6ft/lbs). unless for short periods at the firing range. black powder substitutes are treated in the same way as nitro powder. This avoids the necessity of installing an approved steel cabinet for home storage and having your security arrangement checked by the local Police Firearms Enquiry Team.Art of Shooting Airguns – when purchasing or transferring an airgun below the designated muzzle energy (rifles < 12 ft/lbs. Only longbarrelled allowed Permission required to purchase BP firearm and to store BP Rifles (>12ft/lbs). Black powder – you need to have been granted an Explosives Licence. a firearm and ammunition should be stored in a suitable case. securely attached to a brick wall. Airgun Pellets – any quantity of pellets can be purchased without a certificate. Before you can purchase a BP firearm you need to get a ‘slot’ on © Philip Treleaven 2008 16 feedback to p.ucl. as far as is reasonably possible.uk . Club Armoury – many clubs have a secure armoury at the range where you can permanently or temporarily store your firearm. (Muzzle energy is a projectile’s energy at the time it leaves the muzzle of a gun. and the total amount that can be held. it is worth summarising black powder firearms regulations.treleaven@cs. it must be out of sight and the vehicle secured.1: UK Firearms Laws covering Purchase and Storage ammunition.1 attempts to summarise the UK registration and storage requirements for firearms and Police Registration Firearm Certificate Shotgun Certificate NA Lists all Shotguns NA Storage (approved) Restrictions Permission required before each purchase Notification required after each purchase Permission required before each purchase. It is advisable not to leave a firearm in an unattended but locked vehicle. Figure 3. Storage of a Firearm The UK Firearms Acts are not specific regarding security except to state that a firearm and ammunition must be kept safe and secure at all times so as to prevent unauthorized access. it is not necessary to inform the Police. Pistols (> 6ft/lbs) No Certificate Required NA NA NA Club Armoury yes yes yes Home Cabinet yes yes yes No Restrictions NA NA NA Rifles Shotguns Pistols Lists all Rifles and amounts of Ammunition NA Lists all Pistols and amounts of Ammunition Lists of all BP firearms and approval to store BP at home Rifles (>12ft-lbs) Pistols (> 6ft-lbs) Black Powder Airguns NA NA NA See restrictions yes NA yes NA NA yes Figure 3.ac. Shotgun Cartridges – a Shot Gun Certificate allows the owner to purchase any quantity and calibre of shotgun cartridges. You should also carry your Firearm and Shotgun certificate to show that you have the right to possess the firearm. and must be kept out of sight. Firing Range – at the range a firearm must be supervised at all times and if left temporarily in a vehicle. and have approval from the Police. However. before you can purchase and keep black powder at home. until a Firearms Enquiry Officer has paid a visit and advised on security measures.

United States – you can only buy a firearm if you've been resident for 90 days. European Firearms Passport If you intend to take firearms or shotguns to another European Union State you require a European Firearms Pass [4]. © Philip Treleaven 2008 17 feedback to p. Finally. Shooting in Europe. Both your firearms and shotguns are listed on the same EFP. Individual – as an individual shooter you must contact the authorities of the EU State. The EFP alone does not entitle you to purchase a firearm or ammunition in another EU State. www. “UK NRA Target Rifle Coaching Course Notes”. and you will need to present this to the Immigration service at the point of disembarkation. and the transportation of firearms. and have a hunting license.police. 3. [4].uk .shooters. if you are going to another EU State as a: Team Member – as part of a Target Shooting Team or an organised hunt. the rules and regulations for the use and purchase of firearms by foreigners obviously vary with each country. for interest.htm.6 [1]. You will need to seek advice both from your local Firearms Enquiry Team and also from the equivalent firearms officials in the country you will be visiting. you will not need to get permission. to reduce the risk of explosion.uk.uk/firearms-enquiries/firearms. overview of shooting laws in Continental Europe. The main difference is that before you can store black powder. can prove it. the rules governing the storage of black powder substitutes are the same as for nitro powders.co. I’ve also included an overview of international regulations. Further Information P F Hicks.treleaven@cs. Applications can be made for a Visitor’s Firearm Permit or a Visitor’s Shotgun Permit from your local Firearms Enquiry Team but will also need to be completed by the sponsor(s) in the UK. You also have to complete the general purchasing requirements that apply to all US citizens.ucl. and also whether you are going as part of a target shooting team or as an individual. Probably a starting point is the appropriate National Shooting Association: EU State – you will need a slot on your UK Firearm or Shotgun Certificate. comprehensive web site explaining UK firearms laws. NRA-ILA.Art of Shooting your firearm certificate for the calibre.org/GunLaws. summary of the United States Gun Laws both Federal and State. National Rifle Association (2003). Metropolitan Police Firearms web site. When purchasing a firearm. “A Citizen’s Guide to Federal Firearms Laws”. have State ID. Visitors from Abroad Visitors from outside the UK can apply for a Visitor’s Permit for (a) one person or (b) up to 20 people from outside the UK to shoot in Britain. In general. a European Firearms Pass (EFP) and an (export) licence from the EU State. [3]. These visitors must be sponsored by a person or organisation for the duration of the visit and for the shooting activities in which they will be taking part. your host or sponsor typically needs to apply for a Visitor’s Certificate.met. (However as discussed above. [2]. www.5 International Rules and Regulations The rules and regulations for the ownership and use of firearms obviously vary with each country. Shooting and Purchasing a Firearm Abroad When you plan to shoot abroad. you need to hold an Explosives Licence. and their permission entered on your EFP. 3.nraila. www.) When storing black powder at home it needs to be kept in a secure wooden container of a very specific design.ac. only keep your EFP with you at all times. and it is obtained from your Firearms Licensing Authority.

Organisation Home Office Police Telephone 0207 035 4848 Address Direct Communications.ucl. Brookwood.gov. Surrey GU24 0PB Email info@nra.gov.html Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK Telephone 01483 797777 Address Bisley Camp.enquiries@homeoffice.uk Web site www. Woking.ac.uk Web site http://police.org. London SW1P 4DF Email public. 2 Marsham Street.treleaven@cs.Art of Shooting 3.gsi.nra.7 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 18 feedback to p.org.uk/operational-policing/firearms.uk .homeoffice.

Art of Shooting Part B – Firearms and Shooting Equipment Summary Your choice of shooting discipline often rests on the firearms you would like to own and what you will enjoy shooting. Black Powder rifle. One way of grouping target rifles is by their action: bolt action (single. lever action. Shotguns most commonly use breech or break actions. with double barrel. and on clothing and equipment. Chapter 8 . pistol and shotgun shooting have become highly popular worldwide. This chapter looks at what’s available. either by trying different factory loaded ammunition or by hand loading your own ammunition. Although we talk about iron and telescopic sights. airsoft An airgun is a pneumatic firearm which fires projectiles using compressed air. Chapter 10 .Cartridges and Bullets This chapter covers rifle/pistol cartridges and shotgun cartridges/shotshells. b) semi-automatic pistols. magazine). pump action. Chapter 6 – Shotguns Shotguns refer to a firearm with any number of barrels with smooth bores. So in this section we look at the different firearms available for target shooting.treleaven@cs. In recent years. without rifling. how they work and details of the firing mechanisms.uk . and c) revolvers. A rifle or pistol cartridge comprises the bullet. Chapter 9 . The best advice for any novice taking up a new shooting discipline is that before rushing out and spending a small fortune on an expensive firearm. Chapter 4 – Rifles We start by looking at the galaxy of rifles available for target shooting. and black powder cartridge firearms. BBs. equipment and accessories get as much advice as possible and see what the old-hands are using. What you enjoy shooting will go a long way in determining your choice of shooting discipline. This section also includes chapters on firearm sights. Chapter 5 – Pistols Pistols cover: a) single-shot pistols used for target competition.ucl. The primer is a small charge of impact-sensitive chemical material. semi-automatic action and break (hinge) action. This chapter looks at airgun ‘ammunition’: pellets. BBs and airsoft.Iron and Optical Sights This chapter looks at open. Broadly. black powder firearms divide into: muzzleloaders. Chapter 7 . spring-loaded piston or other high pressure gas as a propellant. The term ‘sight’ refers to any system used to assist the aiming of a firearm. aperture and optical sights.Airguns – pellets. This section gives you a cursory review of what’s available for the rifle-shooting enthusiast. percussion (or cap ’n’ ball) muzzle loading pistols. Once you are hooked on shooting.ac. CO2. propellant powder and the primer in a metallic case. how they work and information about cartridges and bullets. pretty soon you will want to fine-tune your ammunition.Black Powder and Muzzleloaders Black powder is the original gunpowder and the standard propellant and explosive used until the middle of the 19th century. located either in the centre of case head (centerfire ammunition) or in the rim (rimfire ammunition). there are a number of © Philip Treleaven 2008 19 feedback to p. and side-by-side shotguns for field sports. over-and-under shotguns being used for clay pigeon target shooting.

Art of Shooting different categories: a) open sights as on pistols and shotguns. to the loose shooting vest of the clay pigeon shooter. © Philip Treleaven 2008 20 feedback to p. d) telescopic rifle sights. c) shotgun beads. This chapter reviews the equipment and clothing used in the various different shooting disciplines. Chapter 11 . e) red dot on pistols and gallery rifles.uk .ucl.ac. and f) laser sights on military rifles. b) aperture sights found on target rifles.treleaven@cs.Clothing. Equipment and Accessories Each shooting discipline has its own set of equipment and dress code from the tight fitting jacket and trousers of the prone target rifle shooter.

This is either manually or (in semiautomatic firearms) the discharge forces back the bolt. such as actions. triggers etc. with barrel length up to 22in/56cm. and for rigidity. Target rifles are typically bolt-action. lever action. 4. and e) carbines.having parallel grooves cut into it to reduce weight and assist cooling. or a scope).ucl.1) comprise a stock (butt. barrel and sights (either an iron rear-sight and foresight. is given in the Chapter on Firearm Barrels. c) sporting rifles. It may also be: Floating . rifling and twist rates. the firing pin is driven forward by a spring and strikes the primer.uk . a rifle’s operation and at the various common mechanisms.world. and may be single-shot or fed from a magazine holding 5-10 cartridges. will go a long way in determining your choice of shooting discipline. 4. cheekpiece and grip). So this section gives you a cursory review of what’s available for the rifle-shooting enthusiast. The action is closed. It may have front and rear sights or a rail to mount a telescopic sight. For example. The magazine itself may be built-in or removable. The barrel of a target rifle is typically heavy.2. One way of grouping target rifles is by their action: bolt action (single-shot.Art of Shooting Chapter 4 Rifles As you can imagine there is a galaxy of rifles available for target shooting. such as lever-action rifles. stocks may incorporate adjustable butt plates.treleaven@cs. igniting the propellant [1]. Target rifles may have a number of specialist features. d) black powder muzzleloaders and cartridge rifles.2 Rifle Types At a simple level rifles can be grouped into: a) custom target rifles either single-shot or with a magazine. pump action. chamber and trigger). b) military or service rifle. an action (bolt. Fluted .2: Firing Mechanisms (www. magazine). Terminology Rifles (as illustrated by Figure 4. including manufacture. The action is then opened to extract the fired cartridge and the firing pin is pushed back and held back under spring tension and load the next Figure 4. as illustrated by Figure 4. which creates the pressure to propel the bullet down the barrel and out of the muzzle. The case is then ejected and the next round loaded into the chamber. Information on barrels. combs and cheek-pieces. Figure 4.guns.1 Rifle Basics We start with the basics. and what you enjoy shooting.ru) cartridge. to give a perfect fit when they are shouldered.meaning the barrel does not touch the fore-end or fore-stock. to be released again by the trigger. Firing Mechanism When the rifle is loaded and the trigger is pulled.ac. © Philip Treleaven 2008 21 feedback to p. semi-automatic action and break (hinge) action.1: Rifle Terminology together with a thumbhole at the grip. The iron rear sight is mounted on the receiver or action.

This classification can in fact be used for rifles. and a stock often with an adjustable butt-plate and comb/check-piece.pushing forward the lever.g. The name of an action is usually derived from how it gets its motive force (i. Single-shot designs are less complex than magazine-fed firearms.4: Firearm Actions Break/Hinge action . Historic) Military/Service rifles cover historic bolt-action rifles used by the military (e. opens the breech. a) Target b) Military/Service c) Sporting Rifle d) Black Powder Figure 4. however.) ejects a cartridge from the chamber and then loads a new cartridge from the magazine. In firearms terminology. operating the loading mechanism (bolt. Modern firearms can be classified as: single-shot. many disciplines require bolt-actions with a magazine holding 5 or 10 cartridges. and how it locks the breech. and must be reloaded after each shot. Single-shot Action Single-shot firearms hold only a single round of ammunition. how it is operated). and self-loading repeating. the ‘action’ is the type of system that the firearm employs to load consecutive rounds. Manual Repeating Action With manual-repeating firearms. These rifles often have highly-figured walnut stocks. and are the principal type for target rifle disciplines. 4. lightweight rifle with a barrel length of typically up to 22in (56cm). Lever-action . Carbines/Gallery Rifles A carbine is a short. and any rifle firing black powder cartridges.Art of Shooting Target Rifles (Centerfire. Rimfire) Target rifles are typically custom-made bolt-action rifles with a heavy barrel.raising and pulling back the bolt opens the breech. pump etc. Bolt-action . but when adapted for target shooting are frequently equipped with synthetic stocks and heavy or fluted barrels.3 Actions Next we look at actions. Black Powder Black powder firearms cover smoothbore muskets. lever. old and modern muzzleloaders.ac. pistols and shotguns.3: Rifles Types Sporting Rifles Sporting rifles are designed for field sports such as deer stalking. manual repeating.uk .treleaven@cs. and are used for shooting at static and running targets simulating game. The fired case is then either ejected. AR15) that may be restricted to manual operation. or is manually removed by the shooter (often preferred by target shooters who handload their own ammunition). The majority are single-shot. and causes the fired case to be ejected.most (expensive) double rifles have a hinged action with the cartridges being loaded manually into the breech. Military Rifles (Modern.e. A new cartridge is then manually loaded. Figure 4. Lee Enfield) and modern civilian versions of semi-automatic military rifles (e.ucl. © Philip Treleaven 2008 22 feedback to p.g. The term is often used for lever-action rifles that fire pistol-calibre ammunition.

tilt lock. including recoil operation. a new cartridge is loaded from the magazine. This operation can be done via a) Bolt Lugs & Extractor b) Disassembled Bolt a rotating bolt. Pump-action – pulling back the sliding fore-end. with the trigger working against a significant amount of spring pressure. and the firing pin cocked. Lugs When the bolt is closed ‘lugs’ (knobs) at the front lock the bolt in place.5). shotgun). Various recoil and blowback mechanisms are employed in (semi-) automatic weapons.uk . Common trigger mechanisms are: Immediate or Single-action Trigger – the trigger is ‘single-stage’ with little or no takeup. Automatic . Revolving-action – less common is the revolving action. Semi-automatic – with each squeeze of the trigger one cartridge is fired. automatic) Action Self-loading firearms – semi-automatic and fully automatic . a ‘claw’ that grips the rim of the cartridge and pulls the cartridge from the chamber once it has been fired. Small to medium calibres generally use a two-lug system. pulling the trigger causes the cylinder to rotate. roller lock.ucl. opens the breech. and gas-actuated [3]. 4.ac. a lever.contain a magazine. When the trigger is pulled. Extractor An integral part of the bolt is the extractor (see Figure 4. and pulling back the lever loads a new cartridge from the magazine and cocks the firing pin.5 Trigger Rifles have different trigger mechanisms depending on their intended use [3]. and ejects the spent cartridge. Pressure point or Two-stage Trigger – a two-stage trigger is designed to have a distinct takeup. blowback/forward. and pushing the fore-end forward causes a new cartridge to be loaded from the magazine. and then a new cartridge loaded from the magazine into the chamber. calibre and manufacturer. Next the closing of the action strips a a new cartridge from the magazine and feeds into the chamber. This is typical of some target rifles. delayed blowback. or radial Figure 4. frequently based on the Mauser bolt. Ejector The final action mechanism is the ejector that pushes the cartridge case out of the action. Self-loading (semi-automatic. causes the fired case to be ejected. and the firing pin spring cocked.treleaven@cs. the bolt recoils under pressure. Lever-action – pushing forward the lever opens the breech causes the fired case to be ejected.5). © Philip Treleaven 2008 23 feedback to p. and cocking the hammer. A bolt typically is a metal tube containing the firing pin and spring (see Figure 4. The number of lugs varies according to the type.5: Rifle Bolt lock [3]. locked breech blowback. At the end of the takeup there is a small but noticeable increase in pull as the sear begins to disengage.with a single squeeze of the trigger the firearm keeps shooting until the trigger is released or the magazine runs out of ammunition.Art of Shooting Bolt-action – raising and pulling back the bolt opens the breech. When the trigger is pulled the shot fires (cf. the cartridge in the chamber is discharged. causes the fired case to be ejected by a small pin. Larger calibers may use more lugs [2]. positioning a new cartridge in the breech.4 Locking Mechanisms Most rifles use a ‘bolt’ to seal or block the rear of the chamber forcing all the expanding gas forward. the spent case ejected. 4.

Match Trigger . popular with Benchrest and F-Class shooters. this is often found on expensive hunting rifles. 4.8 [1]. helical) are used in firearms. one above the other.Art of Shooting Pre-set Trigger – this mechanism allows the trigger pressure to be reduced by pushing forward either the trigger or a small catch next to the trigger. This type of internal magazine is typical of leveraction. 4. controlling the trigger pressure. such as 6mm PPC (Palmisano & Pindel Cartridge) and the 6.ucl. and a moving partition pushed by a spring within the magazine forces loose rounds into an exit slot.56x45mm NATO) popular in military-style weapons.6 Magazines The magazine is an ammunition storage and feeding device within or attached to a firearm.wikipedia. drum. .62x51mm) the mainstay of Fullbore target shooting. overview of rifle actions. . http://en. together with 6mm cartridges. more than any other cartridge.this mechanism provides an extensive range of trigger adjustments. pressure point and follow-through after firing. powder loads and bullet types and weights. Certain calibres. position.treleaven@cs.the box magazine stores cartridges in a parallel column. or stack.22LR that has been produced in higher quantities and in a variety of versions.a tubular magazine stored cartridges point to base inside of a spring-loaded tube fixed to and running parallel to the barrel. Double-Set Trigger – not to be confused with a two-stage trigger. the rear being used to activate the front trigger to work at a lower trigger pressure. pan. can be used in rifles. this mechanism uses two triggers.7 Ammunition Rifle and carbine cartridges are available in a vast range of calibres.uk . [2]. Hartink. while a detachable box magazine is a self-contained magazine.223 Remington (5.308 Winchester (7.6: Box Magazines Cylindrical – various types of cylindrical or rotary magazines (e.5-284. An internal box magazine is built into the firearm.org/wiki/Firearm_action. either integral to the firearm (fixed or internal) or removable (detachable). A. The most common type is the ‘box’ magazine. repeating rifles. © Philip Treleaven 2008 24 feedback to p. 4. Further Information Wikipedia. The most popular cartridge has to be the . Other widely used calibres include the . carbines and pistols. “The Complete Encyclopedia of Rifles & Carbines.” Rebo Publishers (2005).ac. Box . Tubular . a) single stack b) multi stack Figure 4. such as the ubiquitous . Cartridges are stored parallel to the axis of rotation.303 British (used in historic firearms).22LR (Long Rifle). ISBN-13: 9789036615129. in particular automatic and semi-automatic firearms.g. capable of being loaded or unloaded while detached from the firearm. the free encyclopedia. E.

Blueball.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 25 feedback to p.ucl. Brookwood. Ireland Email info@nrai. Brookwood.uk Web site www. Tullamore.org.co.uk Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland Address NRA of Ireland.ie Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association Telephone 01483 485505 Address Bisley Camp. Surrey GU24 0NP Email info@nsra. Co Offaly. Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK Telephone 01483 797777 Address Bisley Camp.uk Web site www. Surrey GU24 0PB Email info@nra.9 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.nra. Leabeg.co.org.nsra.ie Web site www.nrai.uk .ac.Art of Shooting 4.treleaven@cs.

However. to shoot a Pistol effectively you need to appreciate how it works. This is true of all firearms. c) semi-automatic military-style pistols.2) has broadly the same action as the bolt of a rifle. When the pistol is loaded and the trigger is pulled. a revolving cylinder containing (typically) 6 rounds plus an external hammer. b) semi-automatic pistols.1: Pistol Terminology Firing Mechanism The slide of a semi-automatic pistol (see Figure 5. the action is then opened.Art of Shooting Chapter 5 Pistols Pistols cover: a) single-shot target pistols. The majority of semi-automatic pistols have straight ‘factory’ grips. 5.ac.1) with the possibility of a magazine forward of the trigger. and a barrel with a fixed foresight.2: Firing Mechanism of Semi-Automatic Pistol (Boberg Eng. The hammer having been pushed back by the rearward movement of the slide is held back under spring tension. This creates the pressure to propel the bullet down the barrel and out of the muzzle. Revolvers have simple grips. specialist target pistols will have anatomical grips (see Figure 5. the case ejected. a slide covering the mechanism. you fit a loaded magazine into the pistol.1 Pistol Basics Arguably.ucl.uk . the firing pin is driven forward by the hammer. a simple action. to be released again by the trigger when the pistol is next fired. To initially load a semi-automatic. and strikes the primer of the cartridge. 5. The recoil spring Figure 5. This causes the first round to be loaded into the chamber and the hammer cocked. and c) revolvers.guns. and d) revolvers. Figure 5.2 Pistol Types There are broadly four types of Pistol a) single-shot pistols used for target competition. The discharge forces back the slide with the cartridge case gripped by the extractor. Terminology A simple division of Pistols is into: single shot pistols. a detachable magazine located in the grip. b) semiautomatic target pistols. then pull back on the slide and release.treleaven@cs.3) moulded to the shooter’s hand. and a precision barrel with rear iron sights adjustable for elevation and windage and a fixed front sight. semi-automatic pistols and revolvers. plus front and rear iron sights.ru) then closes the action forcing the round into the chamber of the barrel. igniting the propellant inside the cartridge case [1]. The next round is then lifted into position from the magazine. © Philip Treleaven 2008 26 feedback to p. Single-shot Precision single-shot target pistols usually have anatomical grips (see Figure 5. http://world.

there is a wide range of firearms using black powder propellants. and black powder cartridge revolvers.. © Philip Treleaven 2008 27 feedback to p. Some pistols with external hammers can also be cocked manually as in the single-action mode.3 Actions The action of a Pistol defines how the hammer is cocked. Double-action – pulling the trigger manually cocks the hammer. and a barrel with a fixed foresight. and fixed front and rear iron sights. the hammer must be cocked manually prior to firing. as discussed below.treleaven@cs. so-called Cap and Ball revolvers where each chamber is loaded by hand. and cartridges have to be unloaded and loaded through a loading port at the back of the cylinder.22LR or . a magazine forward of the trigger guard. A precision target air pistol is powered by compressed air or a CO2 capsule.ac. Usually with a single-action revolver. Target pistols are generally single action. Self-Loading Pistol Semi-automatic or self-loading pistols use the recoil or gas energy of each round to cycle the action. are used both to describe the action and also.32 calibres) typically have anatomical grips. Revolver Revolvers can be divided into: Single-action – normally found on Muzzle loading revolvers and older cartridge revolvers. Single-action – the pistol is cocked prior to firing by pulling back the slide to load the first round from the magazine into the chamber. Single-shot Often over looked in Pistol books. Hammers may be internal or external. and a fixed blade front sight and an adjustable rear iron sight.3: Pistol Terminology Semi-Automatic Pistols Semi-automatic target pistols (usually . the cylinder is fixed in the frame. the trigger mechanism. Black Power Besides the above ‘nitro’ cartridge Pistols.Art of Shooting a) Single-shot b) Semi-Auto (Target-style) c) Semi-Auto (Military-style) d) Revolver Figure 5. The terms single-action and double-action. so when the bolt moves forward to feed the round into the chamber the hammer is not held back in the cocked position.uk . extract the spent case. a revolving cylinder contain (typically) 6 rounds plus an external hammer. Air Pistols Target air pistols and Airsoft pistols may be single-shot or have a simple magazine containing (usually) five pellets. with a fixed front site and a rear site adjustable for windage and elevation. and is re-cocked at each shot by the slide as it flies back to eject the spent case and feed the next round into the chamber. Semi-automatic pistols designed for self-defence have straight ‘factory’ grips. 5. inserting a new cartridge in the chamber and closing the breech. extracting the spent cartridge case. the single-shot design is arguably the mainstay of competitive target pistol shooting. A single-shot pistol is loaded by manually opening the breech (usually which also cocks the pistol). while most modern defensive and military Pistols may be double action.ucl. Revolvers Revolvers have simple grips. These include muzzleloaders. and load the next cartridge. a detachable magazine located in the grip. single action or a combination of both.

.4 Locking Mechanisms Whereas single-shot pistols and revolvers are based on relatively few locking mechanisms. In addition. to disengage the slide. After firing the barrel will. in contrast semi-automatic pistols because of their mechanical complexity use a wide range of locking mechanisms. Browning (or short recoil) system – with this system the barrel has 1-3 lugs which correspond to 1-3 corresponding grooves on the inner side of the slide. this lug engages with the corresponding external groove in the cylinder to hold the cylinder in place for firing. Other locking systems are described in reference [2]. Semi-Automatic Pistol Some of the common locking mechanisms are listed below. locking the breech. before firing. and rotates the cylinder to bring the next round into line with the firing pin and barrel.uk During the trigger pull the mechanism cocks the hammer and turns the cylinder. during the trigger pull the mechanism cocks the hammer before firing. As the next chamber rotates into the firing position. The hammer will be cocked by the slide when the first round is loaded into the chamber.Art of Shooting Double-action – pulling the trigger manually cocks the hammer. Rotating breech system – with this system the breech or the bolt has a number of bolt-locking lugs. the cylinder can then be swung out on its crane. When fired. by means of a simple cam.treleaven@cs. Traditional double-action Pistols also operate in single-action mode.4: Pistol Trigger Actions feedback to p. a single-action may be equipped with so-called Set Trigger whereby the trigger can be manually ‘set’ to fire with a reduced trigger pull weight. the hammer can be cocked manually to fire the revolver in single-action mode. Cylinder axis system – the cylinder rotates around a central axis pin that holds it in place during firing.65mm and occasionally 9mm. but can be double-action only (DAO). Double Action Only The trigger pull cocks the hammer for each and every round. The hammer will be re-cocked automatically during the loading of the next round. 5. These pistols may have internal or external hammers. Double Action (DA/SA) If the pistol is not already cocked. the ‘locking’ function is supplied merely by the weight of the slide and the recoil spring holding the breech in the closed position. If the revolver is not already cocked. before firing. Blowback system – used in pistols up to 7. Most double-action revolvers have a hinged cylinder for loading. Pulling the trigger will not cock the hammer.5 Trigger There are various types of Pistol trigger mechanisms. Double-action (DA) – performs the dual functions of firstly cocking and then releasing the hammer or striker. These are usually "hammerless" revolvers. allowing it to move backwards. where the hammer is an internal mechanism or does not have a thumb spur. the gas pressure causes the breech to rotate. The revolver can also be manually cocked as with SA. Revolver The locking system in a revolver ensures that during firing: firstly the cylinder does not rotate unintentionally and secondly does not swing out of the frame during use. The hammer must be manually cocked. drop slightly.ac. After firing. during the trigger pull the mechanism cocks the hammer and turns the cylinder. 5. the hammer will be re-cocked during the loading of the next round. these lock together when closed. in an DA semi-automatic. Single Action Single shot Manually opening the breech cocks the pistol. the lugs to disengage and the slide to move backwards. In addition. although they broadly subdivide into singleaction (SA) or double-action (DA): Single-action (SA) – performs the single action of releasing the hammer or striker. Cylinder stop system – at the base of the revolver frame is a lug (or cam) operated by the trigger.ucl. To swing out the cylinder for reloading this pin must be disengaged by pressing on a release catch. When the breech is closed these lugs engage in grooves at the rear of the barrel. Semi-Automatic Revolver © Philip Treleaven 2008 28 Figure 5.

Co.22LR.M 5114 London WC1N 3XX Email britishpistolclub@ntlworld. 9mm (e.org/wiki/Pistol.ucl. please consult the list of target shooting organisations found in the appendix.eircom.uk Web site www. 5.treleaven@cs. P. in particular revolvers and semi-automatic firearms.co.britishpistolclub.7 [1]. Hartink. Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association Telephone 01483 485505 Address Bisley Camp. [2].45 calibre. Ireland. Brookwood. Co.O.g. A. Dublin. plus the . 9x19mm Parabellum) used by military and police forces. The most common is the .com Web site www. http://en. notably the . For a comprehensive description of the actions. Other popular calibres are the . Blackrock.22 family of rimfire cartridges. Ireland Web site www. ISBN-13: 9780785815198.ac.html © Philip Treleaven 2008 29 feedback to p. Dublin. Further Information Wikipedia. overview of pistol actions.” Rebo Publishers (1997).Art of Shooting 5.uk . Smith & Wesson Long) used in Centrefire target pistols.org Organisation The National Silhouette Association Ireland Address NSA.org Organisation British Pistol Club Telephone 01483 486293 Address B.C.net Web site http://homepage.g.nsra. “The Complete Encyclopedia of Pistols and Revolvers.6 Ammunition Cartridges for Pistols come in many calibres and with a variety of bullet types. E. Email silhouetteireland@eircom. Blackrock.wikipedia. Surrey GU24 0NP Email info@nsra.32 (e. locking.uk Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland Telephone 00 866 504 9073 Address PO Box 9. the free encyclopedia.co.8 Contacts Given the different firearm laws governing the ownership of pistols in the United Kingdon and Ireland.38 Special and the many variants of the .Box 9.targetshootingireland. and safety mechanisms found in pistols and revolvers see reference [2]. 5.net/~ntsai/nsai.

Art of Shooting Chapter 6 Shotguns Shotguns refer to a firearm with any number of barrels with smooth bores. and side-by-side shotguns for field sports. and the action is closed. over-and-under shotguns being used for clay pigeon target shooting.3: Shotguns Shotguns can be subdivided by the barrels into: single-barrelled. semi-automatic. © Philip Treleaven 2008 30 feedback to p.2. side-by-side.3. or by threading the inside of the muzzle and screwing in an interchangeable choke tube. Firing Mechanism The firing mechanism of a breech-loading shotgun is illustrated in Figure 6. pump action.2 Shotgun Types As illustrated by Figure 6. so besides the ubiquitous breech-loading double barrel shotgun. The action is then opened manually by pushing the top lever to the Figure 6. A new cartridge is then inserted.ac. a) Over-and-Under b) Side-by-Side c) Semi-Automatic d) Pump Action Figure 6.5mm) and 20-bore (0. When the shotgun is loaded and the trigger is pulled (see Figure 6.729in. with double barrel. without rifling. Likewise. 6. a constriction at the muzzle end of each barrel that controls the shot as it leaves the barrel. 6. Terminology As with the rifle.2: Shotgun Firing Mechanism right. the ejector mechanism extracts the spent cartridge(s).ucl. or by actions into: breech loading. The bore/gauge is determined by the number of solid spheres of a diameter equal to the inside diameter of the barrel that could be made from a pound of lead.treleaven@cs.6mm). the common types of shotgun are: over-and-under. pump action and bolt action shotguns in use across the panoply of shooting disciplines. it is increasingly common to see clay pigeon shotguns equipped with stocks with adjustable butt plates and combs. Chokes may either be formed as part of the barrel at the time of manufacture (known as fixed-choke).614in. which creates the pressure to propel the shot down the barrel and out of the muzzle.1: Shotgun Terminology calibre of shotguns is measured in terms of its bore (UK term) or gauge (US term). The Figure 6.uk . 18. lever action or bolt action. The most common gauges are 12-bore (0. A feature unique to shotguns is the so-called choke. Shotguns most commonly use break or hinge actions. and also cocks the hammer. double-barrelled and combination guns. action and barrel as illustrated in Figure 6. As the action hinges open.1 Shotgun Basics Shotguns use many of the same actions as rifles.1. semiautomatic and pump action. a shotgun comprises the stock. The safety catch can be either automatically or manually re-set. igniting the propellant [1].2) the firing pin is driven forward by the hammer spring and strikes the primer. you will also find semiautomatic. 15.

the over-and-under designation comes (obviously) from the vertical arrangement of the barrels. the cocking levers pivot like a see-saw with the rear part of the levers pushing the hammers backwards against the firing springs. two grooves are machined on either side of the barrel. Kersten bolt – two locking plates similar to the Greener. single-barrel.2). Over-and-under . The locking lever then pushes a transverse bolt through the hole. The hammers or firing mechanism then engages with notches (sears) in the trigger mechanism and are ready to fire (see Figure 6. In contrast. The common action mechanisms: Anson & Deeley Boxlock. locking the barrels to the breech.ucl. Holland & Holland Sidelock. most clay pigeon and sporting shotguns are double-barrelled. Frequently they have a single trigger that fires the bottom then the top barrel.the pump works the action.treleaven@cs. and b) Vierlings . 6. Examples (using German terms) include: a) Drillings .3 Shotgun Actions Although there are many shotgun action types (e. Greener – with Greener locking a vertical plate with a hole extends from the rib and fits into the breech. a sliding fore-end (or fore stock) . breechloaders with the barrel hinged at the action.ac.e. and two corresponding pins are located in the breech. where lugs on the underside of the barrel block have grooves machined into them on the front edge.a combination gun that has three barrels.a firearm with four barrels. When the shotgun is closed the pins engage with the grooves on the barrel block. Bolt-action repeaters – the shotgun is equipped with a manually operated bolt just like a rifle. with internal hammers) or hammered. These can either use gas from the fired cartridge or a recoil mechanism. breech loading. Specialist over-and-under shotguns are available for skeet. With the Anson & Deeley Boxlock system. breech-loaders. with the Holland & Holland Sidelock system the firing mechanism is located on side plates screwed to the action and use a flat spring. This section provides a summary of different types of locking mechanism used in shotguns [2]: © Philip Treleaven 2008 31 feedback to p. A locking lever causes a horizontal slider to engage with the grooves and ‘lock’ the barrels to the breech. to reload the action. lock the barrels to the breech when closed. pump or semi-automatic). holding 2-5 shotgun shells.Art of Shooting Single-barrelled shotguns Single shot breech loading – these are single-shot. Side-by-side shotguns are either hammerless (i.4 Shotgun Locking Mechanisms Barrel-block – most shotgun use barrel-block or barrel-catch locking. Pump-action repeaters – In pump-action shotguns. extracting the spent shell and inserting a new one as the pump is worked. Double-barrelled shotguns Side-by-side and over-and-under shotgun is well known: Side-by-Side – with side-by-side shotguns the barrels are arranged horizontally.uk . Semi-automatic repeaters – semi-automatic shotguns have a single barrel and a tube magazine. 6. underneath.g. Pin locking – with an over-and-under. Combination Guns For completeness we should also include combination firearms found in Continental Europe that combine shotgun and rifle barrels. trap and sporting clay pigeon shooting. and the guns are typically equipped with double triggers. when the breech is opened by ‘breaking’ the shotgun.

by their composition subdivided into Felt wad and Plastic wad. 28 bore. b) the primer or cap containing a small charge of impact-sensitive chemical material. The most common is the 12 bore with a cartridge length of 23⁄4” (70mm). b) the type of target (or game) shooting. 6. Although shooting a shorter cartridge (say a 21⁄2in in a 23⁄4in chamber) is not dangerous. the size of shot may be given in millimetres or can also be a number. For a given shotgun gauge. d) the range. These include: case length after firing must not exceed 70mm. c) desired shot pattern. Shotgun Pellets Shotgun pellets can be made of bismuth. The popular 12 bore chamber length is 23⁄4” (70mm). which in turn ignites the powder. the cartridge case is gripped by the extractor and pulled out of the chamber. inside of the receiver walls to load a round.729in (18. or nearly so. and by cartridge length.6 mm in diameter. Bore/Gauge and Chamber Length Shotgun cartridges are designated by bore (UK) or gauge (USA).4) comprises: a) the brass head (or base).ac. The choice and size of shot depends on a number of factors: a) gauge of the gun.5: Shotgun Bore Sizes The length of the shotgun chamber is defined in inches or millimetres.uk .ucl. shot charge must not exceed 24. Shotgun Cartridges A shotgun cartridge or shotshell (see Figure 6.410. The chamber length is important. Molyshot.5 Ammunition and Bore There is an enormous range of shotgun cartridges or shotshells. tin or zinc. The shot is then propelled down the barrel. and e) the sensitivity of the shooter to recoil. f) the shot. lead. 16 bore. where the breech block moves vertically. steel. c) the case of plastic or paper. 10 bore and even larger 8 and 5 bores (for duck). After it has left. Shotgun cartridges are available in . 20 bore. © Philip Treleaven 2008 32 feedback to p. the ISSF place restrictions on the pellets used in competitions. when the trigger is pulled. placing too long a cartridge (say a 3in in a 23⁄4in chamber) can lead to excess gas pressure due to insufficient space for the cartridge to open. pellets must be made of lead or lead alloy.59g) that will precisely fit the bore. the firing pin is driven into the primer. The bore size is derived from the number of spheres of pure lead to a pound (1lb/453.Art of Shooting Pump action – the manually operated pump action employ a similar locking mechanism to the falling block. and pellets must not exceed 2. As with rifle and pistol cartridges. Figure 6.5g. and g) the crimp or closure.4: Shotgun Cartridges Figure 6. 12 bore. For clay pigeon shooting. e) the wad of felt or plastic. For the 12 bore this is 12 spheres with the actual bore being . Burning gases from the powder expands the case to form a seal against the chamber wall.treleaven@cs. d) the powder charge.52mm).

Full choke . It allows the shot pattern to spread fairly quickly. Half or Modified choke . rising and then descending. with the shot holding together even longer.ucl. Skeet guns – skeet targets are fast. Improved Cylinder choke . 6. This favours a lighter gun. 28” or less).g. Quarter choke . Cylinder choke . 6.6: Shotgun Pellets Choke Finally we look at barrel choke. The shot pattern spreads quickly.ac. The choke controls how much shot will hit in a certain area at different ranges.has tighter constriction.7 [1]. allowing the shot to stay together longer.6 Shotgun Selection Although it is clearly possible to shoot clays and game with the same shotgun. Game guns – these are usually carried long distances and therefore lightweight side-by-sides or lighter over-and-unders are favoured. for even denser patterns at long range. quick to swing and short barrels (e. making the pattern denser and more useful at longer ranges. Three-quarter choke . http://en.org/wiki/Shotguns. the free encyclopedia. and shot at close range. Further Information Wikipedia.uk . and Game shooting: Trap guns – trap targets fly away from the shooter.has a minor constriction.has a slight constriction.treleaven@cs.is an un-constricted barrel. therefore for sighting trap guns have a stock with a higher comb (like a Monte Carlo) set parallel to the rib. so a multi-purpose gun combining elements of the other types of shotgun and with interchangeable chokes. It allows the shot pattern to spread fairly quickly. Skeet and Sporting clays. over the years shotguns (especially over-and-under) have been developed for the individual disciplines. with the shot holding together even longer. such as Trap. with fixed chokes and the guns are usually heavier than other types. © Philip Treleaven 2008 33 feedback to p. with Cylinder or Skeet chokes.has tight constriction. overview of shotgun actions. Sporting (clays) guns – clay targets literally fly in all directions.wikipedia.Art of Shooting Figure 6.has moderate constriction.

Westmeath.net Web site www. E. “The Complete Encyclopedia of Hunting Rifles. don’t be put off by the title its really an encyclopedia of shotguns. Organisation British International Clay Target Shooting Federation Telephone 01483 485400 Address BICTSF..membership@hotmail. Co Antrim.co.icpsa. PO Box 1500. 60 Shankbridge Road. ISBN10: 0785818901. Athlone. Surrey. GU24 0NP Email info@cpsa.com Web site www. Ballymena.com Web site www. Stackpole (2003).ie © Philip Treleaven 2008 34 feedback to p. Caersws.cpsa.uk .co.wctsa.com Organisation Scottish Clay Target Association Telephone 01738 710041 Address SCTA Ltd. “Successful Shotgunning”. Brookwood. Hartink.uk Organisation Irish Clay Pigeon Shooting Association Telephone 00 353 (0)87 2988030 Address PO Box 33. [3]. Peter Blakeley.treleaven@cs. Brookwood.uk Organisation Ulster Clay Pigeon Shooting Association Telephone 028 25898 075 Address UCPSA.8 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. ISBN-10: 0811700429 6.uk Web site www.clerk@scta. Perth PH1 4WD Email janice. Powys SY17 5SA Email wctsa. Co. Bisley Camp.com Organisation Clay Pigeon Shooting Association Telephone 01483 485400 Address CPSA.co.ac. PO Box 7588. Ireland Email icpsa@eircom.co.” Rebo Publishers (2004).ucpsa.uk Web site www. BT42 3DL Email ucpsasec@hotmail.com Web site www.scta.ucl. Surrey. A.Art of Shooting [2].co.uk Organisation Welsh Clay Target Shooting Association Telephone 07751 353020 (Phone after 6PM only please) Address Glanyrhafon.bictsf. Woking. GU24 0NP Email secretary@bictsf.

7.ac.g. muzzle energy. the type of bullet (e. . hollow point).g. with centerfire being further subdivided into Boxer and Berdan type primers. Cases Cartridge cases are typically designated by the style of the head. and a muzzle energy of around 3900-4000 Joules. 7.1 shows both a rifle/pistol cartridge and for completeness a shotgun cartridge/shotshell. located either in a cap in the centre of case head (centrefire ammunition) or in the rim (rimfire ammunition). the standard Fullbore Target Rifle (TR) cartridge. a muzzle velocity of around 2900 feet per second (884 metres per second).g.25 ACP.22LR. Boxer. a bullet weight of 155 grains. The primer is a small charge of impact-sensitive chemical material. When the breech is opened the cartridge case is gripped by the extractor and pulled out of the chamber. Burning gases from the powder expand the case to form a seal against the chamber wall.1 Ammunition Basics Figure 7.treleaven@cs.3) subdivide into: Rimfire and Centerfire. the 7. A rifle or pistol cartridge comprises the bullet.3: Cartridge Case Primers © Philip Treleaven 2008 35 feedback to p. For example.g.uk .62x39mm Russian). and whether centrefire or rimfire.62mm).g.62mm refers to the diameter of the lands in the barrel (the raised helical grooves in rifled gun barrels) and a case length of 51mm. The bullet or shot is then propelled down the barrel.22LR. . employs what is called a self-contained anvil with the primer having a single flash hole in the centre that uses the explosion of the primer to Figure 7. . .308” or 7. which in turn ignites the powder. Primers Primers (as illustrated by Figure 7. to get optimum performance. propellant powder and the primer in a metallic case. and eventually leads you into loading your own ammunition and using ballistic calculator software.2 shows the common types. 9mm Para) and e) rebated (e. BTHP – boat tail.1: Cartridges When the trigger is pulled. which include: a) rimmed (ex. a) Rifle (centrefire) b) Shotgun (shotshell) Figure 7. In this chapter we look principally at rifle and pistol ammunition. Figure 7. d) Figure 7. overall length. .300 Winchester). muzzle velocity. 7. the most widely used centrefire primer.62 NATO. . 7. the firing pin is driven into the primer.2: Cartridge Case Types rimless where the head is the same diameter as the case (e. 7. It is great fun but also addictive.38 Super).2 Cartridges Cartridges are specified in terms of calibre (e.62 x 51mm. bullet weight in grains.Art of Shooting Chapter 7 Cartridges and Bullets As your shooting improves you will naturally start to experiment with different cartridges to match your firearm and the distance you at which you shoot. .ucl. b) semi-rimed (ex. c) belted with a bulge where the head joins the body (e.284 Winchester) where the case head is below case diameter.

For example. and seal the firing chamber in all directions except down the bore. For example.56x45 mm and . minimum crosswind sensitivity. All US and most European commercial cartridges use Boxer primers.577/3”.ac. British – this system designates the case diameter and case length. Berdan primers (still used in the UK and Europe) have an integral anvil in the in the primer pocket in the case head with two flash holes (one on either side of the anvil).uk . and maximum retained kinetic energy. and Boxer primers are normally used for hand loading. plus additional designations.56x45mm NATO. . 7. they are not identical. Firing the wrong size cartridge in a firearm is incredibly dangerous. or minimum dispersion and maximum penetration. For example. and the military specification allows a higher chamber pressure. Figure 7. while the 5. plus other identifying markings.treleaven@cs. minimum drop. The principal terms for describing a bullet are shown in Figure 7. Their disadvantage is that conventional US reloading dies cannot decap cases. Cartridges are identified by their Headstamp. Figure 7. Worldwide there are over 400 commercial headstamps and over 800 military headstamps that have existed at various times.5. Cartridges intended for sporting or civilian use typically have two elements: one identified the calibre and the other the manufacturer who originally developed the calibre. the markings on the base of the cartridge case.Art of Shooting ignite the main powder charge. So it’s important to match exactly the cartridge and firearm calibre. Military cases are made from thicker brass than commercial cases. Military cartridges may have anywhere from one to five elements including the calibre. and can cause the firearm to explode.5: Bullet Terminology © Philip Treleaven 2008 36 feedback to p. followed by the number of grains of powder.4: Rifle and Pistol Bullet Types A cartridge case needs to fit perfectly into the chamber of the firearm. . 5. a bullet optimised for one parameter is often a poor solution for another parameter.44/40 Winchester. which reduces the powder capacity (an important consideration for hand loaders). Bullets can be optimised for a range of ballistic properties: maximum range. However. Calibres and Headstamp A cartridge’s calibre is identified by its Headstamp.ucl. There are basically three cartridge designation systems: American – this comprises the bullet diameter (in hundredth of an inch).3 Bullets Next we look at bullet design. European (Metric) – this system (the most widespread) uses two or more fields defining the bore diameter in millimetres and case length. date and place of manufacture. plus the originating company. For example.223 cartridges are considered the same by most shooters.

ac.5 Powders Smokeless ‘nitro’ propellant consists of nitrocellulose (single-base powders). Twist . the Spitzer (German for ‘pointed’). that spin the bullet. is designed to stabilise the range of bullets normally used in a particular calibre. Ball – used in most military ammunition.6 shows the important barrel terms: Thread – attaches the barrel to the action. thereby increasing the rifle's range and accuracy [1]. and sometimes nitro-glycerine and nitro guanidine (triple-base). Boat Tail bullets have a better aerodynamic shape than a Round-nosed or Flat-nosed bullet. All ball powder is double base and burning rate is determined by chemical composition. the round nose and wadcutter used with pistol calibre ammunition. grain diameter and length. Crown – is the end of the muzzle. Ogive shape – this defines the curvature of the bullet. 7. with the main types being the Spitzer used in centerfire bullets. Bore – is the inside of the barrel. Heel shape – the heel or base shape subdivides into flat base and so-called Boat tail. The power looks like tiny ball bearings. A rifle gets its name – obviously .uk . and deterrent coating. Leade/Throat/Forcing cone – is where the bullet is located prior to firing. b) External – what happens during flight and is of concern to all shooters. The powder looks like little rods or tubes. 7.treleaven@cs. Rifling – are the grooves and lands that spin the bullet.e. © Philip Treleaven 2008 37 feedback to p.Art of Shooting In terms of ballistics the important features are the Ogive shape. since it is inexpensive to make and easy to machine load. There are three types of ballistics: a) Internal – what happens inside the firearm barrel and is of concern to the hand loader.from the presence of spiral grooves in the bore called ‘rifling’. frequently combined with up to 50 percent nitro-glycerine (double-base powders). soft point and hollow point. Chamber – holds the cartridge. web thickness. The two main types of nitro powder used in rifle cartridges are: Extruded – used in most high quality or competition ammunition. Chrome Moly or Stainless Steel). common types are Mauser and Remington 700. interesting to hunters. expressed as one turn in so many inches (i. grain size. We will limit ourselves to External ballistics. the Tip/Meplat shape and the Heel/Base shape: Tip shape – the main tip styles are the so-called full metal jacket. and deterrent coating. a) Barrel Terms Figure 7. Hollow Point. and c) Terminal – what happens inside the target.the rate of twist of the rifling. Burning rate is controlled by composition. The latter are considered to be good close-range designs. which is made to withstand the pressures created by the rapidly expanding gases of the cartridge as well as resist corrosion.6 Ballistics Next we include a brief discussion of ballistics. 1 in 12”). For supersonic velocities.g.6: Rifled Barrel Terms b) Rifling 7.ucl. Figure 7.4 Barrels Modern firearm barrels are typically made of ordinance steel (e.

causing it to drop from the line of sight. and many of the specialist handloading companies such as Sierra and Barnes. Line of Departure (LOD) – the line through the centre of the bore.html). www. list of available ballistic software. the free encyclopedia. and the air resistance decelerates the projectile with a force proportional to the square of the velocity. Gravity imparts a downward acceleration on the projectile.8 [1].com/ballistics/index. Bullet Path – the arc of trajectory of the bullet relative to the LOS. These include (see Figure 7. Figure 7. http://en. shape and weight.” “Introduction to Forensic Firearm source of information on ballistics Steven Boelter. its trajectory is determined by its velocity.ucl. Here ballistic software can be invaluable. especially if you are hand loading. 6]. Geoffrey Kolbe. 7.com has an article (www. [6]. Further Information Wikipedia.treleaven@cs. The popular 6mmbr. ISBN10: B000NJKFM6. Understanding external ballistics.com/articles/bmart. rifling and ballistics. simply involves being familiar with a few fundamental concepts. you will probably want to know more about the ballistic properties of the available ammunition. Windage – the horizontal deflection of the bullet to the right or left cause by the wind. “The making of a Rifle Barrel.wikipedia. [3]. called the range danger area. during flight. Ammunition manufacturers such as Remington. some of which are free for downloading from the Web [5. and fortunately there are a number of computer programs available.7): Line of Sight (LOS) – a straight line from the shooter (or the sights) to the target. A bullet with a high BC will travel farther than one with a low BC.org/wiki/.html Sniper country web site.firearmsid.snipercountry. [4]. cartridges.” article by Border Barrels www.Art of Shooting New shooters are often surprised at the amount of land behind the firing range.html) on free software. [5].000 yards away. www.com/ballistics. offer sophisticated software products.6mmbr.62mm bullet at a target 1. “Rifleman's Guide to Rimfire Ammunition”. Elevation – the vertical setting of the sights above the horizontal plane that sets the LOD. Zediker Publishing (2007). Even the little . [2]. © Philip Treleaven 2008 38 feedback to p. contains a number of articles on Identification.com/A_bulletIDrifling.uk . excellent 6mmbr.htm. Drop – the actual drop of the bullet relative to the LOD. at which the bullet is launched. FirearmsID.ac.com/ballistics.com. (www.border-barrels. “Ballistics – a review of ballistic software”. Federal and Winchester provide free ballistics software for their ammunition. Although you may be firing a 7.7: Ballistic Trajectory 7.7 Ballistic Software As you become increasingly serious (some would say addicted) about improving your shooting. if the bullet passes over the butts it may continue on for a further 21⁄2 miles (4km).6mmbr.22LR can travel 2 miles (3km). Ballistic Coefficient (BC) – once a bullet is fired.htm. The so-called ballistic coefficient is a measure of a bullet’s ability to overcome air resistance in flight.com.

GL2 2YF Email info@hps-tr.Art of Shooting 7. England.9 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. Gloucester South.ac. Minworth.eley.treleaven@cs.co.uk/about-eley/contact-us. Telephone +44 (0)1452 729888 Address PO Box 308. Sutton Coldfield.aspx Web site www.org/wiki/ROF_Radway_Green Organisation HPS TR Ltd.hps-tr.uk Organisation ROF Radway Green Web site http://en.co.com © Philip Treleaven 2008 39 feedback to p.com Web site www.uk .eley. B76 1BA Email http://www.wikipedia.ucl. Organisation Eley Ltd Telephone +44 (0)121 313 4567 Address Minworth Industrial Estate.

and in fact are more modern than nitrocellulose-based powders. FFg (medium grain). with the finer powder burning at faster rates than the coarser grades.1: Black Powder Muzzleloader Firearms © Philip Treleaven 2008 40 feedback to p. black powder musket. shooters can choose between traditional black powder and various black powder substitutes. pistol and shotgun shooting has become highly popular worldwide. Black Powder Substitutes Pyrodex is the most common black powder substitute. FFFFg (extra fine grain). Black Powder Cartridge Firearms – breech loading firearms that are loaded with cartridges containing black powder. the standard propellant and explosive used until the latter part of the 19th century. potassium nitrate and charcoal.ac. pistols and shotguns loaded with loose powder and bullet or shot from the muzzle.1 Black Powder Basics In terms of propellants. guidance should be provided during the probationary period of club membership and further advice may be sought from a) BP Musket (historic) b) BP Rifle (modern) Figure 8.pistols with revolving chambers that are loaded with loose powder.uk . BP substitutes evolved because of a desire primarily from the US hunting market to have a propellant suitable for muzzle loading firearms that could move more easily from manufacturer to wholesaler to dealer to customer without having to go through the same shipping regulations required of commercial explosives. Good quality black powder will produce consistent and accurate results with firearms intended for its use. rather than being based on sulphur and charcoal. such as Pyrodex. rifles. 8. with number 1 being the finest and number 5 being the coarsest grade. It should also be noted that similarly graded powder from different manufacturers can exhibit different characteristics. The finest grades rapidly generate high pressures and are generally only suitable for use as priming powder in flintlocks. New Replacement Powders These propellants are carbon-burning (sugar based) propellants. Examples of common black powder brands include Goex (USA). rifle.ucl. Examples include Triple Seven and Goex Clear Shot. In recent years. An alternative system typically used with US manufactured powders has an ‘F’ grading: Fg (coarse grain). only factory made black powder being allowed. Percussion Revolvers . WANO (Germany) and Swiss Black Powder (Switzerland). For the novice. (Note in most competitions black powder substitute/replacement powders are not permitted.Art of Shooting Chapter 8 Black Powder Firearms: Muzzle Loaders and Breech Loaders Black powder is the name commonly applied to gunpowder. Black Powder Black powder is formed from a blend of natural ingredients: sulphur. The widely available Swiss black powder is graded from 1 to 5. FFFg (fine grain).treleaven@cs. Choice of powder will depend on the firearm to be used. ball and cap.) Black powder is available in various granule sizes. Broadly. black powder firearms divide into: Muzzleloaders – those muskets.

such as the flintlock 'Brown Bess'.ucl.3 Muzzle Loaders Shooting with muzzle loaders is conducted with a) original period firearms. the sporting events also often cater for breech loading black powder shotguns. There are very few target shooting competitions held in the UK in which such firearms are eligible for use. and rifled rifles and pistols.treleaven@cs.uk . These guns are used in competition in down-the-line and sporting clay pigeon events.200 yards. flintlock and percussion target pistols and percussion revolvers. “Manufacture and Storage of Explosives Regulations 2005. © Philip Treleaven 2008 41 feedback to p. at longer distances. Muskets and Rifles – Smooth-bore military muskets. These are fired at 25 metres and. and breechloaders that use black powder filled cartridges. pistols and shotguns spanned several centuries and included both military and sporting use. At a basic level.” During the probationary period of a shooting club membership.ac. rifles. pistols and shotguns. Requirements for storage are published by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) in their Approved Code of Practice (ACOP). pistols and shotguns. Pistols – muzzle-loading pistols are popular due to a prolific selection of well-made reproduction firearms including matchlock.2 Black Powder Firearms Firearms – muskets.2: Muzzleloader Firearms b) Muzzleloader Rifle Firearms The use of muzzle loading muskets. and more exotic items such as the Japanese matchlock are generally fired at 50 metres. while military rifles are used at distances out to 600 yards and specially developed percussion target rifles of the 1860 -1880 period are shot out to 1. As such there is great choice available to suit today’s shooter’s interest and budget. as well as wildfowling pieces. b) reproductions of original firearms and c) modern purpose-designed muzzleloaders. Pistols are a generic term and cover all types of hand gun from matchlocks to revolvers. a) Flintlock Figure 8. on occasion. rifles. largely being developed for the US hunting market where there are special hunting seasons for muzzle loading firearms. sporting British and European rifles and the American long rifle firing a patched round ball are used at 50 and 100 metres. 8. Loading – muzzleloaders with separate powder and bullet or shot inserted in the barrel through the muzzle.smoothbore muskets. Shotguns – muzzle-loading shotguns comprise both flintlock and percussion single and double barrel. black powder firearms can be differentiated by the type of: 8. Barrels .Art of Shooting experienced shooters. Black powder requires careful handling and has specific storage requirements. The modern design muzzle loaders are seldom seen in the UK. such matters as the safe handling and storage of shooters powders are explained.

The modern design muzzle loader may also fire a jacketed bullet in a plastic sabot. Flintlock Priming Tool – a low volume flask for dispensing a small quantity of priming powder e. a lubricated patch of fabric is wrapped around the base of the ball to grip the rifling and to make a seal between the ball and the barrel. Hollow based conical bullets do not require any form of wadding. Loading Steps Muzzle loading. Step 6 Vent Hole – clear vent hole with pick. Note that some competition rules do not permit cleaning between shots. In rifles and single shot pistols firing round ball. If in doubt consult the event organiser. These include: Powder Flask or Horn – container with integral measure for dispensing a powder charge for a musket. Cleaning accessories – muzzleloaders require a range of jags and bore brushes for cleaning. In shotguns. When shooting flat based cylindrical bullets a card wad is loaded between powder and bullet. place a cap on the nipple. pour powder into pan and close frizzen. patches. for flintlocks. a flat based cylindrical bullet or a hollow based conical bullet (a Minie bullet). rifle. Patched round balls are typically tight fitting and the ram rod should be suitably robust. Ramrods may also be used for cleaning the bore after shooting and some have a threaded end for attaching cleaning accessories. Step 2 Powder – a measured amount of black powder or BP substitute is inserted in the muzzle as loose powder. match cord. the round or conical bullets or shot. Traditional projectiles are made from lead and typically comprise a solid ball.Art of Shooting Loading Equipment A variety of accessories are necessary for the loading and servicing of the muzzle loading firearm. FFFFg) into the pan of the flintlock.4 Percussion Black Powder (or Cap ’n’ Ball) Revolver By far the most widely used percussion black powder revolvers are those of mid 19th century American pattern. Step 7 Prime – for a percussion lock muzzleloader. although the task is not onerous. modern reproductions are almost exclusively of American arms. Step 4 Projectile – the projectile is next placed in the muzzle end of the barrel. Ramrod – the rod used to drive home the bullet (or shot) onto the powder charge. In addition specialist screws and worms are necessary in the eventuality that stuck balls or patches may need extracting. Supplies – the black powder. To improve accuracy muzzleloaders’ bores are often cleaned (called ‘swabbing’ or ‘wiping out’) before reloading so there is no residue left in the barrel. Although there are a wide variety of British revolvers of the period. More typically separate cleaning rods are used. Step 3 Wadding – wadding is made from felt. follows the sequence of: Step 1 Safety – check that the barrel is unloaded using a ramrod with an ‘empty’ mark.treleaven@cs.uk . flints and percussion caps. Step 5 Ramrod . in general. wadding is placed in before and after the shot or ball.ucl. especially important for double barrel shotguns. 8.g. cloth or card.a ramrod is next used to push the wadding and projectile down to ensure they are firmly seated onto the propellant charge leaving no air gap between powder and projectile. if necessary. © Philip Treleaven 2008 42 feedback to p.ac. pistol or shotgun. or loose shot. As a safety precaution and for consistent results many shooters prefer to load their powder from containers or measures holding only a single charge.

the single-shot breechloader and the lever-action repeater. They are also used in Cowboy Action Shooting. Step 3 Filler/Wadding – To ensure that there is no air gap between powder and ball. there are a significant number of commercial cartridges available. Step 4 Bullet – insert a round or conical bullet in the mouth of one chamber at a time. pistols and shotguns. Examples include the Colt Peace Maker and the 45 Colt. although original arms such as the Snider and Martini-Henry can still be fairly readily found. Subject to suitable safety checks these original guns can give great pleasure in the field or on the clay pigeon ground. The chambers can also be wiped out to remove any oil.ucl. .ac. Pistols – many ‘old-time’ black powder revolvers are offered as replicas.45 calibre.3: Black Powder Revolver.32 calibre. Shotguns – there are still a large number of original black powder shotguns around. Rifles – in general there are two types of black powder cartridge rifle commonly available.uk . the round or conical bullets. 8. By far the most shooting is undertaken with reproductions of American breechloaders such as the Remington rolling block and the Sharps and Ballard falling block rifles. .treleaven@cs. Reproductions of British black powder breech loading rifles are not commonly available.Art of Shooting Firearms Shown on the right is a typical replica black powder revolver. insert an inert filler such as Semolina or ground corn or a lubricated wad between the powder and ball.5 Black Powder Cartridge Firearms Black powder cartridge firearms are becoming increasingly popular due to Silhouette target shooting and Cowboy Action shooting. . Firearms Black powder cartridges cover all types of firearms: rifles. filler or wads and percussion caps. Loading Steps Basic loading steps are: Step 1 Initial Cleaning – before firing the revolver it is important to remove all oil from the vent of the nipple by inserting a percussion cap on each nipple and firing it to ensure a free passage. Although many participants handload their own black powder cartridges. Step 5 Lubricant – placing a dab of lubricant over the bullet after it is seated in the chamber will help continuous shooting by softening the fouling and also reduces the chance of ‘chain fire’. As a safety precaution and for consistent accuracy today many shooters prefer to load their powder from containers or measures holding only a single charge.44 calibre. © Philip Treleaven 2008 43 feedback to p. Supplies – the black powder.38 calibre. measure for dispensing the required powder charge for each chamber of the revolver. Popular calibres are . Step 2 Powder Charge – place a correctly measured powder charge in each chamber. Step 6 Capping – place a percussion cap over each nipple. Loading Equipment Powder Flask or Horn – a container with integral Figure 8. and push home using the revolver’s built-in loading rod. A capping tool can make this task easier than pushing the cap on to the nipple using your fingers.

com. http://hunting. World © Philip Treleaven 2008 44 feedback to p.6 [1]. Step 3 Trim Case – trim the case to the required length if necessary. and the case is run up into the pre-set bullet seating die. Step 2 Resizing – next resize the case in a correct size die.about. Loading Steps An introduction to Handloading modern nitro powder cartridge is given in Chapter 55. “Lyman Black Powder Handbook & Loading Manual”.mlagb. www. Step 8 Lubricating Disc – a single lubricating disc may be inserted on top of the powder. Primers – use an appropriate black powder primer. 8.com/od/blackpowder/l/aa_loadcbrev_a. [5]. [4].org. The Governing Body for www. Step 5 Belling – next a die is used to slightly open the case mouth to accept the bullet.org.Art of Shooting Loading Equipment Here we briefly list the materials used to hand load black powder cartridges. Bullets – pure lead or lead/tin alloy bullets are usually used for black powder cartridge firearms. About. Historical Breechloading Smallarms Association (HBSA). Further details of Black Powder hand loading can be found in the references. The Case – plenty of new black powder cases are available which should be used in preference to attempting to re-use original cases.treleaven@cs.htm Russ Castain. Andrew Courtney. “The Definitive Guide to Shooting Muzzle Pistols”. www. [2]. The Muzzle-Loading Associations International Committee (MLAIC).ac.org. Step 7 Powder Charge – next the correct volumetric powder load is inserted in the primed case. Long Range Muzzle Loader. Lubricating Discs – a lubricating disc may be inserted between the powder and bullet both to provide lubrication for the bore and eliminate air space. using a de burring tool to cut away a little metal.mlaic. Derek Fuller. muzzle loading within the UK.lrml.uk . Lyman Publications (2001). discipline. [8].ucl.com. The Crowood Press (2002). Step 9 Seat Bullet – a bullet is inserted in the case mouth. Governing Body for muzzle loading shooting. UK based forum and resource for this challenging www. ISBN 1861264828. [3]. [7]. The Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Britain (1997) ISBN 0-9530541-0-1. [6]. “The Modern Muzzle Loader”. Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Britain (MLAGB). Load Density – it is important not to have any air space in a black powder cartridge and any gap between powder and bullet must be occupied with an inert filler. Step 6 Re prime – a new primer is then installed. Further Information Sam Fadala.hbsa-uk. UPC #011516971005. Here we briefly explain black powder handloading: Step 1 Deprime – knock out the spent primer from the case. “How to Load a Cap & Ball Black Powder Revolver”. Step 4 Chamfer Case – the mouth of the case is ‘bedevilled’.

mlagb.treleaven@cs.Art of Shooting 8. Warwick CV34 6RZ Email membership@mlagb.com Organisation Historical Breechloading Smallarms Association (HBSA) Address BCM HBSA.ac.org Web site www.ucl. LONDON WC1N 3XX Email secretary@hbsa-uk.org © Philip Treleaven 2008 45 feedback to p.uk .com Web site www.7 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. Organisation Muzzle Loaders Association of GB (MLAGB) Telephone 01926 458198 Address 7 Olympus Court.hbsa-uk. Tachbrook Park.

Spring-piston – these airguns operate by means of a spring-loaded piston. This type of population was popular with high-end target airguns. When the trigger mechanism releases the piston.pellets.ac. The trigger mechanism clicks into a notch in the piston.g. a column of air is forced into the base of the pellet driving it down the barrel. spring-loaded piston or other high pressure gas as a propellant. © Philip Treleaven 2008 46 feedback to p. Carbon Dioxide airguns are powered either by charging the airgun’s built-in reservoir from an external tank.Art of Shooting Chapter 9 Airguns . a single-stroke of the cocking level charges a built-in compressed air cylinder. However they are susceptible to temperature variations that can affect the point of impact. a pellet is placed into the breech and the barrel is swung back into position. Single-stroke Pneumatic – as the name implies. BBs and Airsoft An airgun is a pneumatic gun which fires projectiles using compressed air. The type of pneumatic is determined by the way you get the compressed air into the airgun: Pre-charged Pneumatic – with PCP. CO2 and Springpiston. 12 gram Cartridge – disposable CO2 cartridges (sparklets) are a popular form of propulsion for air pistols with the cylinder being inserted into the pistol grip. a) Pre-Charged Pneumatic b) Single-Stroke Pneumatic c) CO2 d) Spring-piston Figure 9. CO2 powered airguns. or using a disposable cartridge inserted into the airgun. CO2. a Scuba tank). Multi-stroke Pneumatic – the multi-stroke requires between 2-10 strokes of the cocking level to obtain the required pressure.uk . External CO2 Tank – as described above. and may need to stabilise before using in a competition. 9. or by an electric compressor or by using a hand-pump. CO2 propulsion is used both to power mass-produced ‘cheap’ airguns as well as precision target airguns. This is the most common form of airgun population.1 Airgun Basics Airgun power sources or propulsion broadly divides into three groups: Pneumatic. the airgun’s cylinder (or reservoir) is charged with compressed air from an external compressed air source (e.treleaven@cs.1: Airgun (target air pistol) Propulsion Pneumatic (compressed air) – these are powered by compressed air from a cylinder attached to the airgun. (Dry-firing a spring-piston airgun without a pellet in the breech should be avoided as the piston head smashes into the receiver. although generally easy to cock and with low recoil. holding it under tension until released. CO2 – as the name implies. Charging or ‘breaking’ the airgun involves moving the piston backwards within the receiver at the same time it compresses a powerful spring behind the piston. the low power gives reduced recoil and hence improved accuracy. are highly accurate at room temperature. the airgun’s reservoir is filled or charged by decanted CO2 from a ‘bulk’ tank.) Spring-piston airguns subdivide into: Barrel-Break – here the barrel is swung down to cock the piston.ucl.

22 (5. a)Target Air Rifles (match) b) Target Air Pistols Figure 9. 9.5mm) calibre and typically pre-charged pneumatics with iron sights. and are fired at static targets designated by the ISSF. shot standing at 10m static targets. Field Target (FT) Air Rifles Field target air rifles of . Firing Mechanism Figure 9. Cocking the airgun causes the piston to be compressed until it engages a sear. When the trigger is pulled the sear is released. However.5mm) calibre.2 illustrates the basic firing mechanism for a pneumatic (pre-charged) airgun. Spring-piston airguns operate by means of a coiled spring-loaded piston contained in a Figure 9.6mm) calibres are equipped with precision telescopic sights and competitions involve courses of fire that simulate field-hunting conditions.ucl.177” (4. requiring the stock to be adjustable for prone. © Philip Treleaven 2008 47 feedback to p.22 (5. When the gun is cocked the hammer is pulled back and the trigger sear engages.5mm and 5. after which a spring closes the valve.2 Air Rifles and Pistols Broadly airguns used in competitions divide into: a) target air rifles and air pistols shot at static ‘bullseye’ targets over fixed distances.177” (4.ac.177” calibre is almost solely used.treleaven@cs. side-lever or top-lever. Although there is no restriction to . target air rifles are used in so-called three position competitions.3: Air Rifles and Pistols c) Field Target Air Rifle Target Air Rifles Target air rifles are .6mm) calibres. the more accurate and efficient . and c) Field Target Air Rifles used on outdoor simulated ‘field sports’ courses of fire. kneeling and standing stances. usually pre-charged pneumatics.5mm) and .Art of Shooting Lever Cocking – alternative methods of charging the spring-piston. The air then drives the pellet forward. Target Air Pistols Target air pistols are . inside the airguns operate in basically the same as the barrel-break mechanism. and the expanding column of air propels the pellet down the barrel.177” (4.uk .5mm and 5. causing the piston to be driven forward by the spring. include cocking an underlever. Competitions typically simulate a military or law enforcement scenario with competitors following a course of fire. b) so-called Practical air pistols (often accurate replicas of centrefire pistols) used on simulated police or military courses of fire.2: Airgun Firing Mechanism (pneumatic) pressure chamber. with aperture sights. In particular. When the trigger is pulled the hammer is released and travels forward striking the Firing valve and allowing air to flow past through the Transfer port and into the barrel. Practical Air Pistols Practical pistols are replicas of centrefire pistols that fire pellets and are usually powered by small 12gram CO2 disposable cartridges.

BB guns usually have a smoothbore barrel.177” (4. calibre and selection.Art of Shooting Airsoft Rifles and Pistols Airsoft rifles and pistols are also highly realistic replicas of military and law enforcement firearms (e. Wikipedia.4: Airgun Ammunition Pellets There are four basic types of lead ‘diabolo’ pellet used in rifled airguns.22” (5.airguns.treleaven@cs.net/general_regulators. [2]. 9. They are: dome. and measure 0. BBs are usually steel. hollow point. Further Information Wikipedia. the crown. pellets. flat and pointed. American Airguns – airgun.shoot spherical projectiles with a smoothbore barrel.org/wiki/Air_gun.6mm) – a popular calibre for hunting small game. description of the operation of an airgun. the pellet to barrel fit. are made of plastic or other non-metallic materials. For an air pistol this is 6 ft/lbs. the choke of the barrel. [3]. www.24”). a few words on airgun ballistics and accuracy. with a bore diameter and calibre of 0.5mm) – the most common calibre for target shooting with a flat trajectory.uk .173 inches (4.171 to 0.g.ac.6 [1]. and like them each airgun will exhibit differences for a range of pellets. called BBs. pellet stability.wikipedia. BBs BB guns are a type of airgun designed to fire spherical projectiles.ucl.39 mm) in diameter. M16. as it punches nice clean holes in targets. So get advice from the experts and then off to the range with a selection of pellets and see which ones your airgun likes. Airsoft BBs are 5.5 Airgun Accuracy Finally. etc. http://en. plated either with zinc or copper to resist corrosion.4 Pellet Calibre and Selection . 9. conventional airguns do not require a firearm certificate if their muzzle energy is at or below a designated limit. overview of Air rifle and overview of Airsoft good http://en.5 mm). Pellet airguns have rifling just like rifles and Pistols. . but fire plastic balls. Pellet airguns are most commonly found in two calibres [1]: In the UK. and are designed specifically to be non-lethal.wikipedia. after the Birdshot pellet of approximately the same size. BBs and Airsoft plastic balls a) Dome b) Hollow Point c) Flat d) Pointed e) BB f) Airsoft Figure 9.98mm to 6 mm in diameter (0.177” (4. the free encyclopedia. 9. and for an air rifle it is 12 ft/lbs. Glock).34 mm to 4.php. 9. However.often referred to as BB guns or pellet guns . © Philip Treleaven 2008 48 feedback to p. The traditional dome is popular in field target.5mm or 5. and the flat is used extensively in static target shooting. This can depend on the twist rate. pistols. Airsoft Airsoft guns . the free encyclopedia.org/wiki/Airsoft_Pellets.3 Airgun Ammunition Pellets BBs Airsoft There are three types of airgun ammunition: lead pellets. Each airgun varies in the way it handles different pellet types.

7 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.uk .ac.Art of Shooting [4].net © Philip Treleaven 2008 49 feedback to p. Q.ukahft.co.co.uk Web site www. 9.O Box 2242.co. Berks RG7 5YY Email Secretary@BFTA.ucl. Cobham. Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association Telephone 01483 485505 Address Bisley Camp.nsra.uk Web site www. Brookwood.co. Mini-Maxi publications (2006) ISBN: 9780955313103. Reading.uk Organisation The British Field Target Association Address BFTA. “Air Rifle and Air Pistol Maintenance and Repair”. P. Surrey GU24 0NP Email info@nsra.bfta.uk Organisation United Kingdom Association for Hunter Field Target Email info@ukahft.net Web site www.treleaven@cs.

bead or ring as the front sight (see Figure 10. The example shown is adjustable so the Sight can be moved up and down in the mounting bracket. unmagnified aiming system. Figure 10. Beads – a ‘bead’ is a metal or fibre optic stud on the muzzle-end of a shotgun or pistol. d) telescopic rifle sights.uk a) Rearsight b) Front/Foresight Figure 10. Once the sights are correctly aligned with each other.Art of Shooting Chapter 10 Iron and Optical Sights The term ‘sight’ refers to any system used to assist the aiming of a firearm. and the elevation adjusted for the distance to the target. Telescopic sights – commonly referred to as a ‘scope’. called the reticle. Broadly aiming systems subdivide into iron sights and optical sights. Open Sights Open sights [1] generally comprise a square post or bead-on-a-post for a front sight and a notch or U for the rear sight. unmagnified aiming system. consisting of some form of notch or aperture as the rear sights and a post. there are a number of different categories: a) open iron sights as on pistols and shotguns. The Rearsight is attached to the action and has vernier scale adjustments for elevation and windage. common red-lasers are primarily for shortrange. Laser sights – project a light point onto the target.1 Iron Sights As introduced. The Foresight in Figure 10. the post and bead is positioned in the rear sight notch. Although we talk about iron and telescopic sights.2b fits on the muzzle. Optical Sights – comprises lens and a reticle that appears to place a sight image on the target. bead or ring in the front sight [1].e. c) shotgun beads. nearly dark) situations. 10.treleaven@cs. e) red dot on pistols and gallery rifles.2: Aperture Sights (RPA) .1). Dot sights – non-magnifying (1-power) optical sights that uses refractive or reflective optics to generate an image such as a red dot or cross that appears to be projected onto the target.any open. the distance to the target (elevation) and the strength and direction of the wind (windage). they should place the firearm at a precise angle to the line of sight of the target. as shown in Figure 10. a) Open Sight b) Shotgun Bead Aperture Sights Modern Smallbore and Fullbore target rifles use precision target aperture sights.ucl. with the target centred above the bead. consisting of some form of notch or aperture in the rear sights and a post. Using an adjustable Foresight helps maintain the head-eye position. Aperture sights – a rear sight of a firearm consisting of an adjustable eyepiece with a small opening through which the front sight and the target are aligned.2. is an optical magnification sighting system that gives an accurate point of aim using the cross-hairs.1: Open Sights © Philip Treleaven 2008 50 feedback to p. and f) laser sights on military and law enforcement firearms.ac. low-light-level (i. b) aperture iron sights found on target rifles. When aiming. Iron sights used for target shooting are designed to be adjustable to match the ballistics of the cartridge. Open sights – comprising a post or bead on a post for a front sight and a notch or U for the rear sight. Iron sights provide a horizontal and vertical reference point for the shooter to align with the target. and these in turn divide into: Iron sights . the term iron sights refer to an open.

The red dot appears to be projected out to a point at infinity. The actual usable distance of a civilian laser sight is typically 100-150 yards (and then often in semi-dark conditions) because beyond this distance the dot size becomes so large that the error variance is no longer practical.treleaven@cs. Figure 10. such as shotgun beads.5: Red-dot Sight Principles colours. including red-dot. and laser sights that can be fitted to rifles and pistols. which makes the image of the reticle appear to the user to be projected onto the target [3. because they greatly increase the brightness of the bead by collecting more light. Fibre optic sights are becoming increasingly popular for shotguns and also certain pistols. Shotgun Beads Beads.uk . besides telescopic sights there is a range of high-tech optical sighting devices. Many rifles from the late 1800s use historic aperture sights. and a diode that projects light on to the lens. the more light is captured and the larger the field of view.ucl. to so-called ghost ring sights. 9x40mm) and variable power scopes in terms of minimum magnification – maximum magnification x objective lens (e. 5]. a) Telescopic Sight b) Dot Sight Figure 10.4. © Philip Treleaven 2008 51 feedback to p.Art of Shooting Aperture sights range from target aperture sights that use a disk with an adjustable pinhole-size aperture. with the front sight formed by the bead and the rear sight by the shooter’s eye. the principal parts are: the eye or ocular lens. As shown in Figure 10. In general the larger the objective lens. Dot Sights and Holosights Red-dot sights and holosights are 1-power optical sights (offering no magnification) that appear to project a red dot or cross onto the target.4: Telescopic Sight Scopes either have a fixed magnification or a variable magnification. scopes may also have an adjustable objective (AO) or a side focus adjustment on the saddle. Fixed power scopes are expressed in terms of magnification x objective lens (e. whose thin ring blurs to near invisible [1]. with the military and law enforcement using green lasers. Bushnell’s holosight. comprising a concave lens with a thin metallic coating that reflects red light but transmits other Figure 10. 3-9x40mm). The red-dot sight system is quite simple. aligned to emit a beam parallel to the barrel and appears as a small spot on the target. tube size and the size of the objective lens. Laser Sights A laser sight is a small.3: Optical Sights b) Laser sight Telescopic Sights or Scopes Telescopic sights magnify the target image and are classified in terms of the magnification. called a tang sight or also referred to as a ‘ladder’ sight. 10. Others use an infrared diode to produce a dot invisible to the naked human eye but detectable with night vision devices.ac. Besides the elevation and windage adjustments. and the objective lens and bell.g. laser placed on a rifle or pistol. usually visible-light.2 Optical Sights As illustrated in Figure 10. The two basic types are: a) Red lasers that can only be used at short distances in diminished lighting.3. the elevation and windage turret adjustments. Further details on scopes are given below. are used for peripheral vision for open moving targets. and b) Green lasers that use green diode pumped solid state lasers that can be seen in daylight. Most laser sights use a red laser diode.g.

dovetailed sights can be adjusted for windage by tapping the sight to the left or right in the dovetail using a brass or plastic headed hammer. Each ‘click’ of the adjustment moves the sights through a fixed angular displacement. Dials – sights with screw dials are similar to target turrets. These adjustments are independent. likewise bead sights can be adjusted for elevation by replacing the bead with an equivalent higher or lower bead.treleaven@cs. 1⁄4 inch at 100 yards). the ammunition (bullet weight and powder) you use in your rifle or pistol can also have a dramatic affect on the point of impact.22lr rifles) and 100 yards (centrefire rifles). changes the point of impact of the bullet. Related to MOA in shooting is the concept of a ‘Group’. for example. one inch at 100 yards.Art of Shooting 10. For example. so the elevation can be adjusted without affecting the windage. For example.e. Once your have zeroed the sights it is then interesting (and fun) to fire batches of ammunition from different manufacturers to see the affect on the diameter of your groups.uk . Each audible ‘click’ of the turret moves the corresponding elevation or windage 1⁄4 (or ⅛) minute of angle (i. I was able to go from 6-inch (15cm) diameter groups at 100 yards (91m) with 55-grain bullets to 1⁄2-inch (13mm) groups with 77grain bullets. However. then adjust the elevation or windage. © Philip Treleaven 2008 52 feedback to p. Adjustable sights Rifles and pistols for target shooting have adjustable sights providing separate turrets or screws to adjust the horizontal or windage. 25 yards (pistols). Most target sights designed for long distances are adjustable in quarter (1⁄4) or eighth (⅛) MOA "clicks". Thus one eighth MOA is equal to approximately an eighth of an inch at 100 yards or one inch at 800 yards. the group accuracy may be expressed as 1 MOA. Thus a novice shooter can re-adjust his or her firearm sights by estimating the distance in inches the bullet hole is from the desired impact point and adjusting the sights that many MOA in the same direction. So when you get a new firearm take it to the range.223 centrefire rifle with a 1:8 twist.ac. ammunition and shooter in combination.even non-adjustable sights can often be ‘adjusted’. but provide a slot adjusted for a screwdriver or small coin. the pattern/area on a target caused by a series of shots at a given distance.3 Sight Adjustment Moving the sights.ucl. 50 yards (. and fire another 5-10 shots.6: Sight Adjustments Screws – tightening or loosening the elevation and windage screws adjusts iron sights. Non-adjustable sights . With one particular . It’s a good idea to fire 5-10 shots at a time to get an average point of impact. Turrets/Knobs – sights for target rifles are usually fitted with finger-adjustable turrets with dials marked ‘up’ for elevation and ‘right’ for windage. A group is the measure of the intrinsic accuracy of the rifle. obviously. with 1MOA moving the point of impact of the bullet approximately one inch at 100 yards. set the firearm up on a rest or sand bag (to minimise movement) then ‘zero’ the sights to a fixed target at the required distance. and the vertical or elevation. and vice versa. a) Non-adjustable b) Screws (iron) c) Knob (aperture) b) Dials (scope) e) Target Turrets (scope) Figure 10. Minutes of Angles (MOA) Perhaps the most important concept in sight adjustment is the ‘minute of angle’ (MOA). This form of sight adjustment is often found on hunting scopes and red dot sights. However for the novice it is probably easier to think in distance rather angle.

with the choice a) ring with b) ring with c) simple d) transparent of size of the foresight ring being horizontal bar vertical post post disk determined by the shooter’s eyes. As mentioned. then four ‘clicks’ clearly are needed to move from (0) zero to 1 (one). 5).4 Target Aperture Sights Most Smallbore and Fullbore target rifles use aperture (iron) sights. some shooters believe that the amount of light around the (inner) foresight ring should be reasonably narrow. each click of the knob will move the scale one quarter (1⁄4) or eighth (⅛) MOA. The elevation and windage knobs are capable of finely graduated adjustments. Each scale comprises two parts: Main scale (fixed) – this scale has a 0 (zero) line and four divisions each corresponding to 5 minutes of angle (5. 20. depending on the design. the foresight is usually a ring (or tube) on an adjustable post. To Figure 10.7a). the inner ring of the foresight. 10.6: Rear Aperture Sight vernier scale. and a windage knob and vernier scale. while others believe it should be wide. moving the sights vertically and horizontally in quarter (1⁄4) or eighth (⅛) MOA with each click of the knob. Each vernier scale consists of a moving and fixed scale (see Figure 10. Basic Terms The rear aperture target sight consists of a large disk with a small. Vernier scale (moving) – the corresponding vernier scale has a 0 (zero) and five divisions (1. 3.8).ac. The most common foresight is the ring (shown in Figure 10. adjustable hole in the centre and the front sight typically being a ring. 25. 30 …).uk .8: Elevation and Windage Vernier Scales (NRA UK) If each click of the aperture sight knob moves the vernier scale 1⁄4 (one-quarter) MOA. Aperture Sight Types The aperture sight picture comprises the large outer ring formed by the rear sight. and the target at the centre [1]. 4. Sight Adjustments Aperture target sights work with vernier scales for elevation and windage on the rear sight. an elevation knob and corresponding Figure 10. 2.7: Aperture Sight Picture assist sight alignment. 15. The rear sight comprises an adjustable eyepiece. a) Elevation b) Windage Figure 10. © Philip Treleaven 2008 53 feedback to p.ucl.Art of Shooting 10.treleaven@cs.

To learn simply click the elevation up and note the correspondence of the Vernier and Main scales. As we have seen scopes can be fixed power. The exit pupil diameter can be calculated (in millimetres) by dividing the diameter of the objective lens by the power (ex. To read the MOA: look at the position of the 0 on the Vernier and note the corresponding value on the Main scale. © Philip Treleaven 2008 54 feedback to p. since on a variable power scope the eye relief will vary with the range setting. such as 8-32x50 where the shooter can vary the magnification from 8 times to 32 times. 10. Objective Lens – the second number listed for scopes (e. Some of the key variables affecting your choice are: Power – power expresses magnification as a factor compared to the human eye. to illuminated (ill) duplex. The larger the exit pupil. or variable power. when the 1 on the Vernier is level with the 5 on the Main scale. a 5x50 has an exit pupil of 10mm).5x magnification) and 5. to military-style reticles such as MilDot. The golden rule is to only read the side of the scale from which the wind is blowing.g. the brighter the image that will be entering your eye.treleaven@cs. Typical scope reticles are shown in Figure 10. As illustrated by Figure 10.3 feet (at 6. x50) is the diameter of the objective lens in millimetres. Basic Terms When you look at scopes you will be amazed at the number of models available and the vast range of prices. Scope Types A scope’s intended usage and the distance to the target determine types. Exit Pupil . In this section we discuss the basic scope terms and then look at some of the available scopes [3]. Reticle – commonly known as the ‘crosshairs’ . Scopes are typically sold as one of four types: a) target or varmint rifle scopes.8a). such as 32x50 with the object in view being magnified 32 times. and secondly seek the views of experienced club members on the best scope and reticle for your chosen shooting discipline.9: Scope Sight Picture seen through the scope at 100 yards. Two pieces of advice: firstly expect to pay almost as much for your scope as your firearm (it’s a false economy to put a £100 scope on a £1. Windage The Windage scale is slightly harder to read. because it can move right or left of the zero.Art of Shooting Elevation Reading the Elevation scale is relatively straightforward. and range from traditional duplex ‘crosshairs’. Eye relief will usually be stated as a range.5-20x50) might have a FOV at 100 yards of 14. A 50 designation means the lens is 50 millimetres in diameter.5 feet (at 20x magnification). For example a variable power scope (expressed as 6.ucl.because of the standard two thin wires that cross – the reticle is the aiming point within the scope. Outside of this distance the image will blur and disappear. the elevation has been raised 1 MOA.ac. Figure 10.8b illustrates a wind blowing from the right. Then look for correspondence between the Vernier and Main scale (see Figure 10. b) hunting rifle scopes.9.the exit pupil is the size of the beam of light that leaves the scope. and with a variety of crosshairs (or reticles).8a. Field of View (FOV) – FOV defines a) Cross Hairs b) Target Dot c) Mil-Dot d) German how wide an area (say in feet) can be Figure 10.5 Telescopic Sights Telescopic sights or scopes come in a variety of configurations. Eye Relief – eye relief is the optimum distance between your shooting eye and the eyepiece of the scope that allows you to clearly see the target image. c) pistol scopes or d) shotgun scopes.000 rifle). The greater the magnification the smaller the FOV.uk .

Further Information Wikipedia the Free Encyclopaedia. [2].htm 10.6 Zeroing the Sights Before using your rifle. [3].com Web site www. “Facts and Figures about Dot Sights”. Surrey GU24 0NP Email sales@nsra.com © Philip Treleaven 2008 55 feedback to p. 10. Sight Adjustment Scopes are also adjustable in Minutes of Angle (MOA). John Dreyer.co. Telephone +44 (0)1452 729888 Address PO Box 308.uk .ucl.10: Elevation and Windage Tables 10. ISBN-13: 9781571573179. if shooting multiple disciplines. good review of long-range scopes. it is essential that you correctly zero the firearm for the new distance and wind conditions. www.10. UK National Rifle Association. Bisley Camp.html. www. as illustrated in Figure 10. and contains reviews of Wikipedia the Free Encyclopaedia. telescopic and red dot sights. In contrast. [4].ac.uk Web site www.com/optics. to at least get you –as they say – on the paper.uk/Shop2/contact. and are calibrated in one quarter (1⁄4) or eighth (⅛) MOA per click.62x51mm target rifle calibre there are Elevation and Windage tables.org/wiki/iron_sights. 6mmbr. a) Elevation table b) Windage table Figure 10.treleaven@cs.8 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. “Target Rifle Coaching Course Notes”. If shooting a single discipline at a fixed distance. contains reviews of iron. [6].7 [1].htm Organisation HPS TR Ltd. at multiple distances and especially if the shots are affected by wind. [5]. then you will undoubtedly need a variable power scope with target turrets.bullseyepistol.org/wiki/Telescopic_sight. for safety. England. “Optics Digest”. GL2 2YF Email info@hps-tr. www. Safari Press (2005).com.) For the popular 7. NRA (1997).hps-tr.co. aperture sights. than a fixed power scope may be ideal.Art of Shooting It goes without saying that the choice of shooting discipline(s) you pursue will clearly determine the choice of scope.nsra.wikipedia. Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association Shop Telephone 01483 485509 Address Lord Roberts Centre. which give estimates for Elevation and Windage. Brookwood. Gloucester South.dotsight. www. (This is covered in detail in Chapter 53.wikipedia. Clair Rees.6mmbr.

raise and bend your arms. from the tight fitting jacket and trousers of the Smallbore target rifle shooter. especially when you are shooting in competitions. Creedmoor Sports) and for Clay Pigeon shooting. As an illustration of ‘acceptable’ clothing: Hat – a hat should afford adequate shade and shelter to eyes and Rearsight. And certainly don’t turn up at your shooting Club dressed like Rambo or a member of the Special Forces. At the very least you will be the subject of much caustic humour. trousers and boots are required. 11.ac. © Philip Treleaven 2008 56 feedback to p. Kurt Thune. The jacket should be tight enough to keep your elbows 10 inches (35cm) apart. take lots of advice.2 Clothing Many shooting discipline specify the types of clothing that may be used in competitions. AHG Anschutz. High Power (e. The idea is that when you move your arms.Art of Shooting Chapter 11 Clothing. Specialist jackets are made for: prone. To test ‘fit’.1 Appropriate Firearm and Sights The best advice you will be given when taking up a new shooting discipline is to use the Club’s equipment for the first 6-9 months. and probably start with inexpensive second hand equipment if you can. 11.3 Ear Defenders and Shooting Glasses All shooting disciplines require you to wear ear defenders or adequate earplugs. 11.uk . a second hand rifle with a good barrel might cost a few hundred pounds. a) Target Rifle b) High Power Figure 11. standing and 3-position target shooting (e. and elbows.g.1: Jackets & Vests b) Shooting Vest The target rifle jacket used in Smallbore and Fullbore TR locks your torso. and asked to leave.ucl. while a new rifle might cost a few thousand and be an expensive mistake. Sauer). or more than likely considered a potential danger. upper arm under the sling. Every club has a dress. equipment and behaviour code. with padding for the butt. For example. to the loose shooting vest of the clay pigeon shooter. then try and bring your elbows together. Competition shooters also invest in specialist shooting glasses.treleaven@cs. the whole upper torso should rotate.g. only to find it is totally inappropriate or that in fact you really prefer another shooting discipline that requires different equipment. Jacket – a purpose made jacket made of Cordura/leather that gives support across the back. Glove – when using a sling a purpose made Cordura/leather glove may be worn to protect the forward hand from the sling and forward slide swivel or handstop. Wet Weather Clothing – for wet weather on outdoor ranges a waterproof cape or mackintosh. see what firearms and equipment other members are using. Equipment and Accessories In your rush of enthusiasm to ‘get started’ you can easily spend a small fortune on your firearm and shooting equipment.

and a variety of rest ‘tops’ are available for the different shooting disciplines. Practical and Service rifle. an adjustable front rest used by F-Class and Benchrest shooters. sand bags.4: Slings and Rests As a taster. leather or cotton webbing. Target slings need to be tight and so usually have a wide cuff where the loop goes around the upper arm. rests.4 shows a typical target rifle sling.treleaven@cs. Rests and Sandbags Rests and sandbags are popular for long-distance prone shooting. that filter out high-pitch discharges but allow you to hear people speaking. High Power. Ear defenders range from cheap models that suppress all sound. a) Rifle Sling b) Front Rest c) ‘Harris’ Bipod d) Shooting Sticks Figure 11. Its purpose is to support the rifle with minimal muscular effort. giving the shooter a solid shooting platform.ucl. Shooting Glasses Eyeglasses for shooting either improve optics or provide eye protection. In contrast. to expensive custom-made devices that distinguish between firearm discharges and low-level background noise. © Philip Treleaven 2008 57 feedback to p. earplugs range from cheap disposable or soft rubber inserts.ac. the ‘sandbag’ or rear rest is a leather. During shooting the height of the rear rest is varied by squeezing the bag with the non-trigger hand. to reduce pinching and circulation loss [1]. there are a massive range of slings.Art of Shooting Ear Defenders Hearing protectors come in all shapes and prices. Smallbore. often use specially made eyeglasses. such as Cordura. In contrast. The front rest (illustrated in Figure 11. and shooting sticks used in field sports. a) Ear Defenders b) Earplugs Figure 11. monopods and bi-pods. Target rifle shooters. Rests and Bipods Depending on your shooting discipline. suede or Cordura bag filled with sand. to increasingly expensive electronic models. Slings loop around the upper arm and attach to the forend with a hook or bolt. Benchrest shooting.3: Eyeglasses 11. sunglasses) and also protection from dust and discharge. a so-called Harris-type bipod mounted on the fore-end of the rifle. subdividing into Ear Defenders and earplugs. and also for zeroing a rifle. with adjustable lens. Slings The sling is an essential piece of equipment in most rifle shooting disciplines: Fullbore. Slings come in a variety of styles and materials. especially Smallbore.4b) is engineered to allow the height to be precisely adjusted. a) Target Rifle b) Clay Pigeon Figure 11. Black powder and Clay pigeon shooters wear eyeglasses that provide better visibility (cf. Figure 11. nosepiece and an opaque shield for the non-dominant eye.2: Hearing Protectors Likewise.uk .4 Slings.

National Rifle Association (USA).ac. So Chapter 54 covers cleaning of rifles.asp Sinclair International. There are two basic types (see Figure 11.ucl.sinclairintl. you will need a set of rods. Because the scorebook is so important for target shooting.8 [1]. and Shooting sticks for sporting rifle that can be monopods. MidwayUSA/UK. 11. Chapter 17 is devoted to its use.midwayuk. www.5 Mats. With shooting sticks.com. a) Shooting Mat b) Spotting Scope Figure 11. airlines are notorious in the shooting community for damaging rifles and shotguns in transit.uk . Lastly. [2]. “Rules”. The two basic types are: firstly the so-called Bisley design (see Figure 11. since it would affect the barrel’s vibration and cause a shift in the point of impact of the bullets. [6].6 Gun cases. Zediker.4): the Harris-type bipods that are attached to the front stud. you should get a range bag to carry all your accessories. and lastly c) a scorebook. Further Information Glen D.7 Cleaning Equipment Finally.000 yards. [4]. [3]. “Competition Rules”. and secondly a standard hold-all (ideally with internal dividers).5: Mats and Spotting Scopes 11. bipods. and equipment.com. brushes and jags. or tripods. comprehensive US and UK catalogue of shooting supplies © Philip Treleaven 2008 58 feedback to p.org/compete/ International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF). For taking weapons to the range a hard plastic or soft gun case is suitable. www. scorebook and any tools.issf-shooting. Bipods must always be attached to the rifle stock. Range Bags Sleeves & To protect your firearms and other shooting equipment in transit you will need hard or soft gun cases. (2007). www. Zediker Publishing (2007). oils and greases for cleaning your firearm. it is good practice to rest the rifle forend in the palm of the hand. you will need super-strong aluminium cases. with a 6080mm lens if you shoot out to 1.treleaven@cs. b) a high-powered spotting scope.org/rules/english/rules.Art of Shooting Bipods and Shooting Sticks Bipods are two-legged devices that attach to the rifle forend and function as a portable rest. with a non-slip surface at the front for your elbows. pistols and shotguns in detail. 11. “The NRA Rules of Shooting and Programme of the Imperial Meeting Bisley”. Good bipods are adjustable for height and canting. 11.6: Cases and Bags c) Range Bag As a word of warning. Spotting Scopes & Scorebook Other pieces of equipment you will need for many target rifle disciplines are: a) a waterproof shooting mat. So if you are planning to shoot abroad in competitions. and also a range bag to carry your ammunition. US catalogue specialising in rifle target shooting supplies and equipment. [5]. Every shooter has their favourite set of cleaning procedures and equipment. National Rifle Association (UK).6c) that doubles as a shelter for your scorebook during shooting.nrahq. www. and the hand on the top of the shooting stick. plus solvents. never the actual barrel. “Slings and Things”. a) Gun case b) Gun Sleeves Figure 11.

uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 59 feedback to p.midwayuk.com Web site www.edinkillie.com.uk/cgi-bin/mf000003.co.treleaven@cs.co.com Organisation Edinkillie Sport Services Ltd.co. Warwick CV34 9BR Email sales@midwayuk. 11.uk Web site www.intershoot.. equipment and accessories are highly specialised. Bisley Camp. Online Catalogue.9 Contacts Clothing. Gloucester South.uk Organisation Sinclair International Telephone +1 260-493-1858 Address 2330 Wayne Haven St. www.nsra.com Web site www. Telephone 01324 711747 Address PO Box 21615. UK catalogue specialising in US catalogue specialising Neal Johnson Gunsmithing Inc. Address PO Box 86.nealjguns. Fort Wayne.Art of Shooting [7].. Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association Shop Telephone 01483 485509 Address Lord Roberts Centre. UK Email info@edinkillie. [8]. in target shooting equipment. GL2 2YF Email info@hps-tr.htm Organisation Midway UK Telephone 0845 22 66 055 Address P.uk.com Organisation HPS TR Ltd. Edinkillie Sporting Services.intershoot.ac.Box 4300.edinkillie. England. www.sinclairintl.com Organisation Intershoot Ltd. BT78 9AQ Email http://www.co.co.ucl.co.hps-tr. Surrey GU24 0NP Email sales@nsra.com Web site www.O.uk/Shop2/contact. Brookwood. IN 46803 Email support@sinclairintl.uk .co. Therefore it is recommended to ask fellow club members for advice on where they purchase their equipment.uk Web site www. target shooting equipment. Omagh.pl?ACTION=SHOWFORM Web site www. FALKIRK FK1 2YW. Online Catalog. Scotland. Telephone +44 (0)1452 729888 Address PO Box 308.

Chapter 13 – High Power Rifle High Power shooting comprises: a) Match rifles . Chapter 15 . 3 Position (Match) Smallbore Rifle shooting is carried out using .22LR single shot rifles specially designed for target shooting with aperture 'iron' sights. bipods. Chapter 17 . and b) 3 Position – competitions comprise 3 x 40 shots (Men).Fullbore Target Rifle Fullbore Target Rifle (TR) involves prone single shot precision shooting using aperture iron sights at 'round bull' targets at distances from 300 to 1200 yards. but the rifle may be 'Standard' or 'Free' and in any calibre up to 8mm. 300. and are shot from a covered firing point. and outdoors at 50 yards. kneeling at 50m. 50 metres or 100 yards.Benchrest Rifle Benchrest shooting is a sport in which very accurate rifles are shot at targets from a bench with rests. respectively. magazine rifles. The International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) recognises two international competitions: a) Prone – competitions comprise 60 shots prone at 50m. but shooters can use a variety of aids. such as telescopic sights.custom-made bolt action.treleaven@cs. Chapter 16 . standing and kneeling (PSK). iron sights. or 20 yards. with each shot carefully scored and analysed. Smallbore is practiced indoors at 25 yards and occasionally at 15. Chapter 12 .Smallbore Target Rifle – Standard (prone). front-rests and sandbags. and b) Service rifles . respectively. fibreglass. All shooting is done with metallic aperture. © Philip Treleaven 2008 60 feedback to p. using either single-shot rifles with aperture sights and supported by a sling. and any calibre of ammunition up to 8mm. standing.Art of Shooting Part C – Target Rifle Disciplines Summary Target rifle disciplines are typically shot with precision bolt-action target rifles at bullseye targets.International 300m Rifle The International 300m Rifle discipline is fired at only one distance (i. The standard calibre is 7.F-Class Rifle F ('Farquarson') Class. Matches may be prone only.generally unmodified M1. and handmade stocks of graphite. Ranges can be outdoors from 100 yards to1000 yards. and 600 yards. or indoors for Smallbore and Air Rifle. with a 155-grain bullet. seated and prone. M16 or AR15. or F-Class is shot prone with any Fullbore target rifle. Popular ammunition is the 6mm PPC and the Remington BR line of cartridges. A typical competition comprises 3-4 courses each of twenty shots at distances of 200. and 3 x 20 shots (Women) shot. shot standing. and from a sitting position. or peep.ucl.uk . prone.62mm x 51. or magazine rifles with telescopic sights and supported by rests.ac.e. Shooters typically use single shot custom rifles with heavy stainless steel barrels. Chapter 14 . or carbon fibre. M14. 300 metres). or prone.

Other Disciplines In the target rifle category. standing.9kg) using iron or telescopic sights and with any action type (e.e. at long distances from 1000 to 1200 yards.ucl. 10m Air Rifle is governed by the ISSF and included in the Olympics. Light Rifle – the US NRA Light Rifle competition rules allow any ‘light’ . and the specification for rifles and the firing positions allowed are more open. and any stance (i. bolt-action. . reclining on their backs feet pointing towards the target.treleaven@cs. Light rifle matches may be fired indoors or outdoors. The current events available in the UK are Sporter (Standing and 3P) and Precision (3P) Air Rifle disciplines. with as many sighting shots taken as required during the 30 minute match.177. prone or 3 position). at any distance. slide-action. Telescopic sights and hand loaded ammunition are used.62mm cartridge. popular in the United States. © Philip Treleaven 2008 61 feedback to p. 3-Position Air Rifle is very popular in the US. and comprises the ISSF 10m Air Rifle and the US 3 Position Air Rifle. Rimfire Benchrest is shot at 50 meters (or 50 yards in the US) and 25 yards in the UK. unsupported.Art of Shooting Chapter 18 – Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest Rimfire and air rifle Benchrest as the name suggests is shooting from a bench using both front and rear rests using highly accurate . lever-action or self-loading).uk . and is popular with UK and Commonwealth shooters.Match Rifle Match Rifle is usually fired with the 7.22LR hunting rifle weighing less than 81⁄2 lbs (3. Chapter 19 . and is shot over a distance of 10 metres from a standing position. an entry-level discipline.22LR Rimfire rifles or Air rifles of . South Africa and Germany.22 calibre.g. Chapter 20 – Target Air Rifle – 10m and 3-Position Target Air Rifle is highly popular worldwide. Whilst the majority of shooters shoot prone.20 or . Air rifle Benchrest is shot at 25 yards. is the Light Rifle competition. a few still adopt the 'supine' position.ac.

308 Winchester commercial cartridges. A few non-Commonwealth countries.56x45mm military cartridges. 12. The International Confederation of Fullbore Rifle Associations (ICFRA) produces a standardised rule set that has been adopted by some countries. In most other competitions. TR involves prone shooting using a sling for support. . with ammunition being supplied by the NRA. but not at the Olympics. adjustable for windage and elevation. The rifles used are single shot. only 7.62 x 51mm or . Stock and Butt – most configurations of butt stocks are allowed.307 lbs). Trigger Pull – a rifle must have a minimum trigger pressure of 1. Ammunition . and many competitors use no magnification at all. Fullbore TR events are staged at the Commonwealth Games. Musgrave. or . and foresight are permitted. typically 7. Weight . . 5.1 Rifles and Ammunition Figure 12.32 lbs). Swing. at 'round bull' targets at distances from 300 to 1000 yards and very occasionally longer distances..during the UK Imperial Meeting at Bisley in July. and is governed in the UK by the rules of the National Rifle Association of Great Britain.ac.223 Winchester commercial cartridges. Sights – most makes of aperture rear sight.5kg (3. competitors supply their own ammunition. with a restriction on the depth of curvature of the butt plate.303 MK 7 military cartridges.1: Fullbore Target Rifle (Alan Keating) The NRA-UK [1] states that any conventional boltaction rifle conforming to the following can be used for TR: Rifle . most notably Germany and USA. Most countries have their own governing bodies that set national rules. with each shot being carefully scored and analysed.62x51mm NATO.2: Fullbore Rifle (RPA) © Philip Treleaven 2008 62 feedback to p.308” Winchester ammunition may be used. also participate. Calibre – it must fire either standard 7. RPA and Shilen – all specialist designs specifically for target shooting.treleaven@cs. Figure 12.ucl.uk . with aperture 'iron' sights fully adjustable for elevation and windage.it must have a maximum weight of 6. There are strict rules limiting the use of magnifying lenses.62x51mm NATO calibre.Art of Shooting Chapter 12 Fullbore Target Rifle Fullbore Target Rifle (TR) evolved as a British and Commonwealth shooting discipline from Service rifle (SR) shooting in the 1960s. Rifles are usually custom-made using actions such as the Barnard.5kg (14.the rifle and its components must be commercially available.

treleaven@cs. The next essential piece of equipment is a sling to steady the rifle. The sling must not exceed 50mm (2”) in width or 6mm (1⁄4”) in thickness. The winner is carried shoulder high from the range to the prize-giving. At 800 yards and greater the same target is used at all distances. a shooting glove. The target is pulled down into a pit. The sling is a leather. The targets at distances up to 600 metres are sized roughly in proportion to the distance – the 600 yard target is about 21⁄4 times the size of the 300 yard target. from Club level. shoulder and sling pads that contribute to the shooter's comfort.2 Ranges and Targets As stated above. On all targets there are six scoring areas. with suppliers being small companies or one-man businesses who will effectively hand-build your rifle. and hence the correct setting of the windage on the rear sight. The shooting jacket is equipped with elbow. shot in three stages at Bisley during the annual Imperial Meeting of the NRA. a distance of over a mile. specialist shooting jacket.3: Fullbore Target Marking In the UK. you will need a scorebook and a pencil/pen to record and analyse your scores. the shooter is advised to try out several before making an investment. The position of the shot on the target is shown by inserting an orange 'spotting disk' into the shot hole using a pin. The strength and direction of the wind plays a big part in TR. Even a gentle breeze will blow the shot out of the 'bull'. The target is pushed up into view for the shooters to note the score and fire the next shot. Since there are several styles of shooting jackets of varying cost. where the operator places a score ‘panel’ along the bottom of the target to show the value. involving visits to fourteen clubhouses. from the 'bull' scoring 5 to the 'hit' scoring 1. a board 10 ft x 6 ft. © Philip Treleaven 2008 63 feedback to p. After each shot competitors use a telescope to check the position and value of their shot. Wind flags are positioned at regular intervals down the range to assist the shooter in gauging the wind. and then carried around the entire Camp. 12. a mat and ear defenders. but the main prizes will be for the Grand Aggregate (the total score in all the shoots that everyone entering completes). through County and Home Country. bolt-action rifles with aperture ‘iron’ sights. TR is shot prone at static bull’s eye targets on outdoor ranges at distances of 300 to 1000 yards. competitors fire singly and the shooter who has just finished keeps score for the next to fire. two or three shooters use a single target in turn. and keep each others’ score. There will be prizes for each separate shoot. with the ‘bull’ being 2 ft across and the black aiming mark 4 ft across. The most prestigious individual competition is undoubtedly Her Majesty the Queen’s Prize. notably Australia. Individual Competitions A typical TR competition comprises multiple distances. cloth or plastic strap placed around one upper arm and attached near the front of the rifle stock. Inside the 'bull' is a smaller ring (the V-bull) that acts as a tie-break when scores are level for all positions.ac.4 Competitions There are a wide range of TR competitions. Other equipment includes a good spotting scope with stand. In some countries.Art of Shooting 12.3 Equipment Fullbore rifles are precision single shot.ucl.uk . on a celebratory tour. Figure 12. Some ranges are measured in metres. In addition. with two sighting shots and ten or fifteen shots to count at each distance. to International and World Championships. 12. plus a hat to shield the eyes.

ac. Adjutant and Armourer – a total of 26. 12. a Captain. Desmond Burke.uk Web site www. a central coach. These competitions are also known as Palma competitions [2] but are not connected with the TR World Championship match for the Palma Trophy.palma.nrai. Help & Advice National Rifle Association of the UK. Leabeg. TR is most commonly shot at 800-1000 yards. Unlimited sighters precede the 800-yard stage. (available from Fultons and Norman Clarke etc.ucl. Oakville (1970). 900 and 1. National Rifle Association of the UK (2003). World Championships Every 4 years (in the year after the Commonwealth Games).6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. P F Hicks. the same distances are used but with 10 shots at each. Harry Thompson. 900 and 1000 yards on each day. The competition lasts two days. wonderful book but difficult to find.org. with each stage shot in 20 minutes. Although there is an individual event for the title of World Long-Range Champion.org. 600.org. good introduction to Fullbore.).uk Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland Address NRA of Ireland. www. 15 shots at 900 yards.Rules of Shooting and Programme for the Imperial Meeting Bisley” (published each year).treleaven@cs. Ireland Email info@nrai. Commonwealth Games The firing distances for Commonwealth Games events are 300.nra. Blueball. to support teams of 12 firers. Tullamore. and two sighters preceding each of the 900 and 1000-yard stages. the Official US Palma organisation. 500.5 [1]. “Shooting Sport Technique and Practice”. [2]. and 15 shots at 1000 yards. and wind coaches are normally allowed in addition to the shooters. At the Commonwealth Games.uk . 500 and 600 yards. [6]. [3]. Palma Promotions.ie © Philip Treleaven 2008 64 feedback to p. Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK Telephone 01483 797777 Address Bisley Camp. 12. The target has a 20” diameter bull. The Palma Match course of fire is 15 shots at 800 yards.Art of Shooting Team Competitions Team competitions vary from club and county matches to International matches. “Target Rifle Shooting”. USA Palma Match In the USA. Barie & Jenkins (1976) ISBN 0 214 20172 4. 2 reserves. and will include dedicated coaches to direct the shooters on sight settings for wind during the matches. Brookwood. making this a most difficult event. scoring 10. Surrey GU24 0PB Email info@nra. seven shots are fired at each of 300. 4 target coaches. “Canadian Bisley Shooting: An Art and Science”. then roles are reversed to complete the shoot. [5].ie Web site www. [4].000 yards. with each competitor firing fifteen shots to count at 800. The final day’s competition is 15 shots at each of 900 and 1000 yards. a classic. Team sizes vary from 4 to 30. Touring teams typically have up to 20 members. the World Long-Range Target Rifle Championships are held. Canberra Publishing & Printing. the primary event is the World Long-Range Team Championship for the Palma Trophy. “Bisley Bible . On the first day. shooters compete in both singles and pairs competitions. In the Pairs Match the other member of the pair acts as coach providing information on wind direction and speed. “UK NRA Target Rifle Coaching Course Notes”. Co Offaly. Clive R E Halnan. “A Guide to Target Rifle Shooting”. Major E G B Reynolds and Robin Fulton. On the second day. The modern competition is for a team of 16 firers. [7]. and the larger rings are closely spaced. Woking.

223) ammunition.ac. M14. either the unmodified M1. such as the Tubb 2000 [1] shown in Figure 13. The most commonly used rifle in the United Kingdom is a “Straight Pull” AR15 with a manual cocking handle fitted to the right hand side of the bolt carrier.10 rounds sitting or kneeling at 200 yards in 60 seconds. Match rifles .10 rounds prone at 500 or 600 yards in 10 minutes.1: High Power Service rifles . typically hand loaded for competition. Calibres are restricted to . In the UK the High Power Rifle Association in order to encourage more participation in a) Match Rifle . Service Rifle. or peep. Also available are more specialist rifles such as the Tubb 2000 designed from the outset for High Power rifle competition.308 © Philip Treleaven 2008 65 feedback to p. iron sights although a class does exist for rifles fitted with telescopic sights. Service Rifle Service rifles such as M1. Calibres in common use are .2: High Power Rifle Classic Rifle. and d) Slow Fire (prone) . basically this means that the gas operating parts are either not fitted or permanently blanked and the rifle is manually reloaded between shots. The majority of shooting is done with metallic aperture.are generally limited to standard issue military rifles.2a. c) Rapid Fire (prone) . as shown above. . These are: a) Slow Fire (standing) .Tubb b) Service Rifle – M16 the sport recognises five categories: Figure 13.92 Mauser.10 rounds prone at 300 yards in 70 seconds. The most commonly competed classes in the United Kingdom are Service Rifle and Match Rifle.308) and 5.30 or less with many shooters using . or their commercial equivalents such as an AR15 or M1A. M16. magazine or stripper clip fed rifles often built on a Winchester or Remington bolt-action repeater. United Kingdom legislation requires that M1 and M16 style rifles are built from new not to be semi automatic.uk . and is increasing in popularity in the United Kingdom and Europe.treleaven@cs.1 Rifles and Ammunition As discussed. M16 and their derivatives.223 Remington or . Veteran Rifle.e.308 Winchester or a variety of 6mm calibres. High Power shooting mainly comprises Match Rifle and Service Rifle.Art of Shooting Chapter 13 High Power Rifle High Power (or Highpower) is the major Fullbore shooting discipline in the United States. Match Rifle Match rifles are so-to-speak designed from the ground up.62x51mm (cf. Figure 13. Match Rifle and Scoped Rifle.ucl.303 British or 7. the NRA-USA recognises two categories: fully customisable Match Rife and standard issue Service Rifle.56 (i.10 rounds standing at 200 yards in 10 minutes. 13.are fully customisable bolt action. . There are 4 strings of fire that are the basic building blocks of any NRA-USA high power rifle across the course (XTC) competitions. considered the Rolls Royce of High Power rifles but can also be derivatives of the AR15 as shown below. In order to comply with current legislation in the United Kingdom AR15 or M1A style rifles are restricted to manually operated or “Straight Pull” configuration with no gas operated parts and are thus not semiautomatic.308 Winchester with some competitors choosing to shoot classic bolt action European Service Rifles in . A variety of high-spec ammunition is used in High Power Match rifle such as . fire 7. b) Rapid Fire (sitting) .

The shooter starting standing adopts the firing position either sitting or prone makes ready and fires.ac. and typically hand loaded. hat to shade the eyes. © Philip Treleaven 2008 66 feedback to p. the target is fully elevated for a fixed time. then 20 rounds slow-fire in 20 minutes from the prone position at 600 yards. AR15 Service rifle shooters are required to fire 2 rounds the reload with 8 rounds. scored and run back up. eye and ear protection. 13.any commercial. Again. and after firing.uk .260 Remington. scored and run back up. the shooter begins standing. some High Power competitions allow Match Rifle (Open) . 300 and 600 yards. and after the time expires the target is pulled down.treleaven@cs.243 Winchester.Art of Shooting Winchester. the target is pulled down. 300 and 600 outdoor ranges. custom or service rifle of any calibre. and when the target appears has 70 seconds to get in the sitting position. In addition. In: Slow-Fire Events – one round is loaded into the rifle at a time. all matches are slow fire prone are usually limited to 60 rounds to count with 2 sighting shots at each distance or before each string. c) Long Range – slow fire mainly at 1000 yards from the prone position Across the Course (XTC) XTC comprises four stages: First Stage – 2 sighters in 2 minutes. with targets elevated from the Butts or Pits. . fire 5 rounds. 500 and 600 yards or 3 strings of shots fired at a fixed distance again either 300. 13.4 Competitions High Power competitions subdivide into: a) Across the Course (XTC) – slow and rapid fire shot at 200. and at the command of the Range Conducting Officer. The targets used for Mid Range matches are scaled to simulate shooting at 600 yards from whatever distance the firing line is set. A large variety of NRA-USA designated targets are used for High Power allowing matches to be at shorter distances if required. and b) Mid Range – slow fire at 300. Third Stage – 20 rounds rapid-fire at 300 yards. fire 5 rounds. glove. then 20 rounds slow-fire in 20 minutes from the standing position at 200 yards. The shooter begins standing. Rapid-fire Events – the target is run up halfway. AR15 Service rifle shooters are required to fire 2 rounds then reload with 8 rounds.3 Equipment For High Power competitions you ideally need a shooting jacket. . reload with either a magazine or from a stripper clip and fire another 5 rounds. 500 and 600 yards from the prone position. . and when the target appears has 60 seconds to get in the sitting position. including scopes. sling. 500 or 600 yards.2 Ranges and Targets High Power rifle (similar to Fullbore Target Rifle) is shot on 200.ucl. Mid Range A Mid Range Match can consist of shots fired at 3 distances typically 300. reload and fire another 5 rounds. fitted with any optical sights. Second Stage – 20 rounds rapid-fire from the sitting position at 200 yards. Service rifle shooters are required to use the appropriate ‘military’ pattern sights and slings but like Match rifle shooters are allowed to use specially designed shooting jackets. 13. Fourth Stage – 2 sighters in 2 minutes. a mat and spotting scope.223 Remington and also the 6mmXC.

Power. [4]. Zediker (2003) ISBN-13: 9780962692529. “Modern Highpower Competition”.htm Randolph Constantine.treleaven@cs.7 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.ac.uk .highpowerrifle. [2]. Further Information David Tubb.6 [1]. 13. These matches generally allow unlimited sighters. d) Master – up to 97%. therefore Marksmen are competing against fellow Marksmen and not against more experienced and proficient shots holding a Master classification. [3]. They usually comprise 80 shot matches consisting of 4 strings of 20 shots for record in 30 minutes.” www. 13.ucl. www.Art of Shooting Long Range A Long Range match is fired at 1. “Getting Started in High Power”.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 67 feedback to p. Elsenham. and d) High Master – 97% and above. shooters receive a classification based on their average score: a) Marksman – up to 84%. “Getting Started in High Power Rifle Competitions.nrahq.5 Classification System In High Power Rifle.up to 94%. (1998) ISBN-10: 1931220050.org/compete/High 13. Clint Greenwood. Hertfordshire CM22 6GH Web site www. This is to encourage participation and allow competitors to set personal goals.co.asp US NRA.000 yards and fired from the prone position. Organisation High Power Rifle Association of the UK Address PO Box 5977.com/Features/ClintHP. b) Sharpshooter – up to 89%. c) Expert . Precision Shooting Inc. “the Rifle Shooter”.shootersjournal.

However. and even angle of the cheekpiece. singleshot . in the final.3 Equipment Besides the Smallbore rifle. scorecards and a pencil/pen to record your scores. You will need a simple spotting scope with stand. If a shot hits the line between two zones. and outdoors at 50 yards. and a fore-end with an adjustable handstop to which is attached the sling. 50 metres and 100 yards. respectively. and 3 x 20 shots (Women) shot. Smallbore is practiced indoors at 25 yards and occasionally at 15.5kg for women.treleaven@cs. The final round and qualifying scores are added together to determine the winner. kneeling at 50m. Prone shooting has the largest following in the UK and is usually the position in which the beginner starts the discipline. 50 metres or 100 yards. eye and ear protection. 14. the 10 rings on the target are sub-divided into 10 score zones. you will need a timer. © Philip Treleaven 2008 68 feedback to p. 14.ucl. 14. and b) 3 Position – competitions comprise 3 x 40 shots (Men).1: Smallbore Target Rifle and windage.22LR single shot rifles specially designed for target shooting with aperture 'iron' sights. In the rifle events competitors shot at 10-ring targets.ac. The International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) recognises two international competitions: a) Prone – competitions comprise 60 shots prone at 50m. glove and shooting coat.22LR rifles with aperture sights adjustable for elevation Figure 14. The Smallbore rifles have a maximum overall weight of 8kg for men and 6. standing. with the highest score for a shot 10. and whether shooting on an indoor or outdoor range. Scores range from one point for hitting the outside zone.4 Competitions At the club level. which is shot standing. competitions vary from country-to-country and club-to-club. or 20 yards. the higher score is awarded.1 Rifles and Ammunition Smallbore rifles are specially designed bolt-action. a mat and most important. to 10 for a hit in the 10 ring. and outdoors at 50 yards. Smallbore is shoot indoors at 15. For 3 Position shooting. you will need a ‘single-point’ target sling that goes around your upper arm and attaches to the fore-end of the rifle.9. unless they have started with 10m Air Rifle. most clubs have club equipment which you can borrow to get started. prone. the target rifles have fully adjustable stocks.2 Ranges and Targets As discussed. height of the comb. allowing the shooter to reposition the drop of the butt plate. In the international events at 50m there is a qualifying round and then. Smallbore rifles typically have a stock with an adjustable butt plate and cheek piece.uk . Smallbore rifles can have either a single-stage or two-stage trigger. In addition. 20 and 25 yards.Art of Shooting Chapter 14 Smallbore Target Rifle – Prone and 3 Position Shooting Smallbore Rifle shooting is carried out using . 14.

Ireland Web site www.org.uk Web site www.uk Organisation English Smallbore Shooting Union Address The ESSU.co. Brookwood. Surrey CRO 5NU Email secretary@essu. Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association Telephone 01483 485505 Address Bisley Camp. “Ways of the Rifle”.uk Web site www. Blackrock. standing and kneeling positions at a target 50 meters away.22LR) each in the prone. Maik Eckhardt. standing in 1 hour 30 minutes and finally kneeling in 1 hour 15 minutes. Surrey GU24 0NP Email info@nsra. Gaby Buhlmann.The shooter fires three rounds of 40 shots (.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 69 feedback to p. Target Sports Education Center (1997). ISBN 3-00009478-4 14. 14.uk/ Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland Telephone 00 866 504 9073 Address PO Box 9. Chris Fordham. Dublin.co.uk Organisation Welsh Smallbore Rifle Association Web site http://www. [2]. 125 Turnpike Link. Croydon. Woking.co. standing and kneeling positions at a target 50 meters away.org. 20 shot at 50 metres and 20 shot at 100 yards. [3].22LR) are fired in the prone position at a target 50 meters away. ISBN 10: 0965578003. (2000) ISBN-10: 0953909107. Each of the three stages is timed and must be completed within its own time frame including the sighting shots – prone within 1 hour. Further Information Bill Pullum and Frank Hanankrat.22LR) each in the prone.essu. 50m Rifle 3-Position (Men “3 x 40”) .The shooter fires three rounds of 20 shots (.5 [1].uk Web site www. Unlimited sighting shots may be taken before starting in each position.ssra.uk .wtsf.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. UK Outdoor Matches Example outdoor competitions in the UK comprise: English Match – a match comprises a total of 60 shots at 50 metres.Art of Shooting International (ISSF) competitions ISSF competitions are shot at 50m and comprise: 50m Rifle Prone (men only) . Scottish Match – a match comprises a total of 60 shots at 100 yards. all fired within a time limit of 1 hour 15 minutes including unlimited sighting shots. Heinz Reinkemeier.nsra. “New Position Rifle Shooting”.clyde@ukonline.targetshootingireland. “Prone to Win: The Art and Science of Smallbore Target Rifle Shooting”.Sixty shots (.ucl. Dewar Match – a match comprises a total of 40 counting shots. Co. 50m Rifle 3-Position (Women “3 x 20”) . The three stages must be completed with 2 hours 15 minutes overall including unlimited sighting shots.org Organisation Scottish Smallbore Rifle Association Email executive@ssra. Brookwood Publishing Ltd.co.ac. MEC.co.treleaven@cs.uk Organisation Northern Ireland Smallbore Shooting Union Telephone 028 9446 4514 Email des.org.

Unlike TR and MR. firing is from a covered firing point with most 300m ranges using electronic scoring. only firing 3 x 20 in the PSK event. BR being the most popular. Matches may be prone only. standing and kneeling (PSK). to progress in competitions you really need a dedicated 300m rifle chambered for the popular 6mm calibre.treleaven@cs.Art of Shooting Chapter 15 International 300m Rifle The International Sport Shooting Federation (ISSF) governs the International 300m Rifle discipline. Keppeler. Norma are also doing a lot of testing with national teams with their new 6mm XC round. and the availability of very high-quality commercially-loaded ammo from Lapua and Norma. Firing is from a covered firing point.Free and Standard for men and the new Ladies Sport Rifle: © Philip Treleaven 2008 70 feedback to p.2 Ranges and Targets As described.with a maximum weight of 6. 15. It is fired at only one distance (i. However 6.of which there several different versions.1 Rifles and Ammunition There are three classes of 300m rifles.308”. or prone. Due to the electronic scoring a scorebook is unnecessary. The only difference is felt recoil and the size of the groups [1]. Free rifle – with a maximum weight of 8kg and no trigger weight limitations. The bullet’s impact on the target is displayed on a screen positioned next to the shooter. sling.5kg and a trigger weight of 1500 grms. On some of the 300m systems the stock is designed to interchange with rimfire actions.4 Competitions There are three classifications of rifle . Most popular rifles in use are Grunig.5kg and no trigger weight limitations. exceptional accuracy. Ladies Sport Rifle . but the rifle may be 'Standard' or 'Free' and in any calibre up to 8mm. and Blieker shown in Figure 15. so it is possible to have one stock and two actions. It offers low recoil. ladies fire fewer shots. Figure 15. 15. 15. Standard and Free for men and the new Ladies Sport Rifle: Standard rifle – with a maximum weight of 5.3 Equipment 300m rifle shooters use the standard equipment of target rifle shooters: shooting jacket.ucl.uk .e. spotting scopes are an option mainly to look at mirage.5 x 55 is still used by Nordic countries as well as . This permits 300m competitors to train effectively year-round on 50m indoor rimfire ranges. 300 metres). Many more shots are fired than in most other disciplines. usually 60 shots prone or 3 x 40 PSK (40 shots from each position). and ear protectors. and a metric target with smaller scoring rings than Target Rifle (TR) discipline is used.ac. Figure 15. Although you can use any calibre of rifle up to 8mm with iron aperture sights. and also on a screen in the match control centre where computers plot and calculate scores instantaneously.2: International 300m Rifle The dominant calibre in international 300m rifle competition is the 6mm BR [1].2.1: 300m Rifle Shooting 15. glove.

shot respectively prone. “300m Competition”.com Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland Telephone 00 866 504 9073 Address PO Box 9. 3 position (free rifle) competitions comprises 3 x 40 shots (Men). Blackrock.cfm www.org © Philip Treleaven 2008 71 feedback to p.com/300m. Brookwood.com/usaShooting. standing and kneeling.5 kg and are used in both prone and 3 x 20 competitions 15. Co. no trigger weight limitations. interesting article on 300m in the United States.Art of Shooting 3 Position Free Rifle – rifles have a maximum weight of 8kgrm and no trigger weight limitation other than being safe. [2].com Web site www. Ireland Web site www. Surrey GU24 0NP Email info@GB300m. Competitions for men comprise 3 x 20 shots in prone.targetshootingireland. Standard Rifle .rifles have a maximum weight of 5.com. Prone Rifle – rifles have a maximum weight of 8kg as in the free rifle.6mmbr. Dublin. the governing body for 300m 15. USA www.gb300m.ucl. Further Information 6mmbr. standing and kneeling.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.5 [1].uk .5kg and a trigger weight of 1500 grms.treleaven@cs.usashooting. Organisation Great Britain 300m Club Telephone 01483 485505 Address Bisley Camp. shooting.ac. and 3 x 20 shots (Women). Competitions for men and women comprise 60 shots prone.html. Ladies Sport Rifle – Rifles maximum weight 6. Shooting.

Art of Shooting

Chapter 16

F-Class Rifle
F-Class ('Farquarson') Class was introduced in Canada in 1997 and was originally intended to allow TR shooters with eyesight or other physical problems to carry on in the sport by allowing greater freedom in optical sights, rifle rests etc. This class has now, however, developed into a highly popular new discipline in its own right, and is one of the fastest growing forms of rifle competition. In addition to a class which retains the spirit of the original concept (with calibre restrictions and bipod only as a front rest) known as F/TR or similar, ‘Open F-Class’ competition rules allow rifles up to 10 Kg, any calibre of cartridge up 8mm which is within range safety limits, commercial or hand loaded ammunition, plus any magnifying or telescopic sight. In addition, the rules allow front rests or bipods with a rear sandbag for the rifle butt.

16.1

Rifles and Ammunition

The beauty about F-Class is that it scales to suit your pocket. Most F-Class shooters start with a standard boltFigure 16.1: F-Class Shooting action 7.62mm target rifle on a bi-pod shooting factory made ammunition with a telescope sight with turret adjustments. Competition in this category is rapidly improving, but the ‘accuracy bug’ may prompt a move to more sophisticated equipment in Open F-class competitions which allow custom rifles and front rests with scopes in excess of 40x magnification. Open F-class rifles are similar in many respects to 1000-yard Benchrest guns. Popular with competition shooters is hand loaded ammunition shot in a 6.5-284 calibre rifle, although recent trends show a move towards the 7mm calibres, with a high-powered telescope sight up to 50x magnification, from manufacturers such as Leupold or Nightforce. Open F-Class Rifle (F-O) - a rifle restricted to a bore diameter no larger than 8mm calibre (excluding Benchrest “Rail guns”). Any sighting system is permitted, but it must be including in the rifle’s overall weight, which must not exceed 10 kilograms (approximately 22 pounds). The width of the rifle’s forend must not exceed 76mm (approximately 3 inches). Front rests or bipods are allowed along with a rear sandbag. F-Class Target (F-T/R or similar category) - a rifle with the calibre restricted to unmodified .308 Winchester/7.62mm or unmodified .223 Remington/5/56mm chambering. The rifle is fired off a bipod, attached to the rifle’s forend, and/or a sling. Any sighting system is permitted, but it must be included in the rifle’s overall weight, which must not exceed 8.25 kilograms (approximately 18.15 pounds). Individual countries have subtle modifications of these basic rules.

16.2

Ranges and Targets

Like Fullbore Target Rifle, F-Class is shot on outdoor ranges from 300 yards to over 1,000 yards, in the prone position.

16.3

Equipment

The standard equipment for Open F-Class is a target rifle with high-powered scope, an adjustable front-rest (often of Bench-Rest derivation or bipod, a rear sandbag, an optional spotting scope (e.g. 20-60x80mm) and score book. The front rest must not grip or be attached in any way to the rifle foreend. No specialist clothing such as a shooting coat or jacket is required.

© Philip Treleaven 2008

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Art of Shooting A bipod and/or sling are the only allowed front supports for the F-T/R rifle. The rear bag, as for all F class classes must be solely a rear support which provides no positive mechanical method for returning it to its precise point of aim for the prior shot. In all F class shooting, no portion of the rifle’s butt or forend is allowed to rest directly on the ground or any hard surface. A rear rabbit-eared bag, small sandbag or a gloved hand may be used to support the rifle’s butt. Any rear support employed cannot be attached, clamped or held to the rifle in any manner. The rear support may not be fixed to or protrude into the firing point. Mechanically adjustable rear supports are not allowed.

16.4

Competitions

Being so new, F-class rules are still evolving. Style of shooting will vary depending on the country. In GB, F-class shooters usually compete in squads of two or three. After each shot, you must wait for the target to be pulled and marked. In other countries ‘string’ shooting is preferred where each shooter fires all his shots individually. With increasing accuracy rifles, new F-Class targets are being introduced with 1⁄2 MOA V-bulls (X-rings). The international target for F class competition is now the US Palma target with a 5 inch X-ring (Vbull). At shorter ranges an number of targets are used, which may be derived from TR targets but all with smaller V-bull (X-rings).

16.5
[1]. [2]. [3]. [4].

Further Information
6mmbr.com, www.6mmbr.com/fclass.html, the F-Class page on the excellent 6mmbr.com site. F-Class shooting, http://f-classinfo.com/index.html, An American site covering F-Class shooting Website for F-Class shooting in Great Britain, http://www.f-class.org.uk. Website for F-Class shooting in the United States, www.usfclass.com.

16.6

Contacts

A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.
Organisation GB F Class Association Email mrmister@tinyonline.co.uk Web site www.f-class.org.uk Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland Address NRA of Ireland, Leabeg, Blueball, Tullamore, Co Offaly, Ireland Email info@nrai.ie Web site www.nrai.ie

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Art of Shooting

Chapter 17

Benchrest Rifle
Benchrest shooting is all about accuracy rather than marksmanship and competitors shoot for ‘group’ rather than attempting to hit the bullseye. As the name suggests, targets are shot with the competitor seated at a bench, with the rifle supported on a front ‘machine’ rest and rear sand-bag. The standard of accuracy is high, so most benchrest rifles are custom-made and serious shooters will hand-load their ammunition and tune it to their rifle.

17.1

Rifles and Ammunition

Rifles subdivide into two categories - for custom rifles and out-of-the-box factory rifles. Custom Rifles – These will be single-shot boltaction rifles with very heavy barrels. Stocks are of graphite, fibreglass, carbon-fibre or wood. Triggers are usually set to a pull of 2 oz or less. The popular cartridge for 100/200 yards is the 6mm PPC but for 600 yards, the 6BR or 6.5x47 cartridges are popular. At 1000 yards, the bigger cartridges like the 7mmWSM, 6.5-284 rule the roost.

Figure 17.1: Benchrest Shooting

Factory Sporter - These rifles must be un-modified out-of-the-box factory-produced rifles and the class is intended to provide an entry-level route into the sport without spending several thousand pounds. At shorter ranges, the .223 cartridge is popular with the 308 and the big magnums the preferred choice for longer ranges. Rifles A competitive benchrest rifle is not a mass-produced product. Rifles are custom-built with extreme accuracy in mind. The starting-point will be a custom-action like the American Stolle or BAT and heavy ‘match’ barrels must be chambered to the highest possible standards. Strict rules govern the design of the stock and the finished rifle must comply with the weight-limit for the class. Scopes will have a magnification of at least 36 power and triggers are usually set to a pull of only a few ounces. Classes include: Light Varmint – An LV rifle has a weight limit of 10.5 lbs. including scope. The barrel must be cut from a 28 inch blank that tapers from 1.25 inches at the breech to 0.9 in. at the muzzle. Restrictions are also placed on the shape of the stock. Muzzle-brakes are not permitted. Heavy Varmint – As above but with a weight limit of 131⁄2 pounds overall – which usually means a heavier barrel can be used. Light Gun – At 600 to 1000 yards, the rifles may be heavier – up to 17lbs. - so stocks can be wood-laminate and barrels even longer. Muzzle-brakes are allowed. Any rifle weighing over 17lbs will be classed as Heavy Gun – there is no upper weight limit for this class. Factory Sporter – As the name implies, these rifles must be shot ‘out-of-the-box’ and modifications such as re-barrelling or re-stocking are not allowed. Non-standard parts are not allowed but there is no restriction on scope-power. In the United States there are also so-called Rail Guns: Unlimited (including Rail Gun) – rail guns are ‘unlimited’ in that they can have barrels greater than 18”, electronic triggers and unrestricted rests. Unrestricted rests may be of one-piece construction for front and rear, and may incorporate guiding means (see Figure 17.2).
© Philip Treleaven 2008 74 feedback to p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk Figure 17.2: Benchrest rifle

Further Information Wikipedia. http://en.3. Figure 17. Without wind-flags. you cannot shoot small groups. a group. The rear-bag cannot incorporate any metal or adjustment. 17. In the UK.uk lists the popular benchrest cartridges currently in use. we do not shoot for score in the UK. 6. are group shooting competitions. Examples of adjustable front-rests and rear sand-bags are shown in Figure 17. Sand-bags can be made of leather or synthetic material. The recently introduced 6. such a group is known as a ‘screamer’. A very good group shot at 100 yard will have 5 bullets hitting within . Benches should ideally be built from concrete to eliminate vibration.5 [1]. the ancillary equipment is the same. At 1000 yards.5-284 – This is an effective round at 600 to 1000 yards and it is also popular in 6mm and 7mm forms. contains an © Philip Treleaven 2008 75 feedback to p. introduction to Benchrest shooting. It completely dominates 100 and 200 yard group shooting. there are 100 yard ranges at Bisley.100" of each other. Rules state that the rifle must rest on a sand-bag so this will be affixed to the rest-top. In addition. centre to centre.wikipedia.5x47 Lapua is also an effective 600 yard cartridge.ucl. very efficient and very versatile. Wind-flags – Although wind-flags will be the last thing a new benchrest shooter purchases. Ideally. Score shooting – Although this has a following in America. 17. Range distances are from 100 yards out to 1. especially in the 300 to 600 yard range.Art of Shooting Ammunition Only the most consistent and efficient cartridges can provide the necessary accuracy for benchrest shooting.treleaven@cs.4 Competitions In Benchrest shooting there are two major types of competition: Group shooting – where the object is to place five shots on a target as close as possible to each other – in other words. Rear bag . The initial dilemma of most people who become interested in benchrest is what equipment to purchase.org/wiki/Benchrest_shooting. a) Front Rest b) Rear Sandbag Front rest – This will normally consist of a heavy tripod with adjustable feet and an adjustable central column. The only 600 – 1000 yard ranges currently in operation are at Diggle Ranges in the North West. The UK Benchrest website www.2 Ranges and Targets Benchrest is typically shot from a covered firing-point on an outdoor range. the free encyclopedia. The 6BR cartridge has set world records at 600 yards and even 1000 yards.Again rules state that this must be filled with sand and most bags are of leather or a synthetic material like Cordura.co.000 yards. they are as important as any other piece of equipment.3 Equipment Benchrest is all about precision and demands the highest specification equipment. Popular cartridges are: 6PPC – most short-range benchrest shooters use the 6PPC cartridge. 6BR – the 6BR Remington (or 6mm BR Norma) is superbly accurate.3: Rests and Sandbags 17. which are held every two years.ac.uk .ukbra. The 22PPC is a variant used by a small number of competitors. each competitor should have a set of five wind-flags. The rest-top will also incorporate windage adjustment. Minsterley and Diggle. 17. any group below four inches is classed as a screamer. The World Benchrest Championships. there are a host of ‘wildcat’ cartridges such as the 7mmBooBoo and 7mmWSM. Whether it’s 100 or 1000 yards.

co. US magazine for Benchrest shooters.uk contains information on rifles. www.uk .ie © Philip Treleaven 2008 76 feedback to p.ukbra. [9]. www. Dave Brennan.benchrest. “Extreme Rifle Accuracy”.com.gov. [4].ucl. Blueball. Zediker Publishing. competitions. Benchrest Central.com. ammunition and the United States Benchrest includes a list of International Benchrest Shooters.ac.com.nrai. World Benchrest Shooters Federation (WBSF).precisionshooting. www.co. Co Offaly.com. UK Benchrest Association. Ireland Email info@nrai. Tullamore. [7]. 6mmbr. www. member federations.uk Web site www. 17. Leabeg. site covering all American Benchrest information.Art of Shooting [2]. [3].treleaven@cs.ie Web site www. [6]. Precision Shooting Inc. www.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.world-benchrest. [5]. “Benchrest Shooting Primer”. (2000) ISBN 1931220034.6mmbr. www.ukbra. web community dedicated to precision shooting and accurate rifles.whitney@oldham. Mike Ratigan.com.international-benchrest.uk Organisation National Rifle Association of Ireland Address NRA of Ireland.com. ISBN 0-9792528-0-8. Precision Shooting Magazine. [8]. Shooters association. with excellent articles. Organisation UK Benchrest Association Email jeanette.

5X. Unlimited Weight . Air Rifle Benchrest Air rifles are similarly grouped by class. Power to be restricted to 8. with as many sighting shots taken as required during the 30 minute match.is any unmodified factory model weighing not more than 10.22 Rimfire rifles or Air rifles of .5X.ucl. The nice thing about this sport is people can start off with what they have in their rifle cabinet. The action must be a repeater action and hold minimum of two rounds. Scopes vary from 6. It is not a new sport as it originated in the Europe and the United States some years ago.000 of these rifles must already have been produced. Any modification may be made to the rifle and any scope magnification may be used. Any scope may be used with max magnification of 12X scopes.22 Rimfire Rifle . Air rifle Benchrest is shot at 25 yards.is any Sporter model weighing not more than 7. Sporter . Rimfire Benchrest is shot at 50 meters (or 50 yards in the US) and 25 yards in the UK. to an increasing number of custom rifles now being seen on the Rimfire and Air rifle Benchrest circuit. Any modification may be made to the rifle and any scope may be used. International Sporter .762 kg) inclusive of sight.13 Joules or 6 ft lbs maximum.5 pounds (3.22 Rimfire short.ac. 10½ lb Light Varmint . © Philip Treleaven 2008 77 feedback to p. Any scope may be used with max magnification of 6.5 pounds (3.22 Rimfire Rifle . Power to be restricted to 16.is any rifle weighing not more than 10.177. The sport is also popular in some African states and Australia.is any Sporter having a maximum weight not more than 8.855 Kg) inclusive of scope. long.5 pounds (4.27 Joules or 12 ft lbs maximum.5 pounds (4.762 kg) inclusive of sight. Rimfire Rimfire Benchrest rifles are grouped by class.Art of Shooting Chapter 18 Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest Rimfire and air rifle Benchrest as the name suggests is shooting from a bench using both front and rear rests using highly accurate .2: Benchrest rifle International Sporter Air Rifle Class .is any unmodified factory model weighing not more than 10.1: Rimfire & Air Rifle Benchrest The rifles used range from factory Anschutz and CZ’s. and (again) at least 1.treleaven@cs.20 or .uk .1 Rifles and Ammunition Figure 18. Rimfire ammunition must be commercially available but can be in . Any scope may be used with maximum magnification of 12X. or long rifle calibres. Sporter Air Rifle Class . .22 Rimfire Rifle .22 calibre.5X or 12X magnification in the Sporter Classes to 36X or 40X high-powered scopes in the Unlimited Classes. The action must be a repeater action and hold minimum of two rounds.5 pounds (4. 18. and at least 1.762 kg) inclusive of sight. Any scope may be used with max magnification of 6.402 Kg) inclusive of sight.000 of these rifles must already have been produced. Figure 18.is any rifle without weight limit.

the first European Championship in 2007 and the first World Championship in 2008.html. to ensure the rifle is level in the rests. allowing shooters to compete with shooters from all over the world.ac.com. . Any modification may be made to the rifle and any magnification scope may be used.benchrest. http://rimfirebenchrest.5 pounds (4. ‘There is no restriction on cylinder size or capacity as long as 16. 78 feedback to p. The maximum score possible is 250 with 25 10X's.762 kg) inclusive of sight.is any rifle without weight limit.000 of these rifles must already have been produced.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 . www.3 Equipment The main equipment for both Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest is obviously the best rifle that can be afforded. reviews. with correctly powered scope for its class. Further Information 6mmbr. [3].com/fclass. and possibly the scope. US magazine for Benchrest shooters. site covering all American Benchrest information.precisionshooting. Unlimited Air Rifle Class B . Precision Shooting Magazine.this is normally an adjustable precision ‘benchrest’ front rest incorporating windage adjustment. Each of the 25 scoring target has a scoring zone from 10 to 5. Benchrest Central. www. and is mostly shot on outdoor ranges.ucl. There is no restriction on cylinder size or capacity as long as 8. and at least 1. Power to be restricted to 16. Barrel Tuners – these are devices fitted to the muzzle of the barrel or on the length of the barrel. Rimfire Benchrest.is any rifle without weight limit. Barrel Tuners are permitted. 50 meters and 25 yards.2 Ranges and Targets Rimfire Benchrest is shot over two distances. 18.3: Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest Equipment you cannot shoot accurately as you will not be able to judge how the wind will affect the bullet. [5].27 Joules or 12 ft lbs maximum.6mmbr. but most of the matches are ‘postal’. the overall size being 39mm. 18.Art of Shooting Hunter Air Rifle Class . site covering Rimfire Benchrest. Other equipment is outlined below: Front rest . Head-to-head matches take place for major championships. www. information on shooting ‘accuracy’ Target Sports Magazine.these must be sand and most of leather or a material like Wind-flags – an important addition are a) Rests b) Wind Flag c) Barrel Tuner wind-flags. Each competitor should have a set of three to five wind-flags. Air rifle Benchrest is shot at 25 yards. 18. Rear bag filled with bags are synthetic Cordura.treleaven@cs. The sport has really developed in the United Kingdom and Europe over the last four years following the first head-to-head UK national championship in 2006. They are in fact sophisticated weights that alter the harmonics of the barrel. Unlimited Air Rifle Class A .is any unmodified factory model. [4]. 18. and give more accuracy to the rifle once the barrel has been ‘tuned’ to the specific ammunition and the way the action has been set in the rifle stock. without them Figure 18. the rules are still evolving in line with other countries.13 Joules or 6 ft lbs maximum power is retained. UK magazine for shooting with Benchrest Columns. There are 25 scoring targets per target for both 25 yard and 50 meter. etc.27 Joules or 12 ft lbs maximum power is retained. A spirit level is a must on the front rest. Any magnification scope may be used.5 [1].4 Competitions Even though Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest have been going on for some time. [2]. weighing not more than 10.com.com.com/.

6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. http://www. Website for Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest shooting in Great Britain.net or br22scores@btinternet.treleaven@cs. Organisation United Kingdom Association of Rimfire Benchrest Shooting Email ukbr22web@fsmail.erabsf.ucl. [8]. http://worldrimfire.com Web site http://www.ac. http://www.org/ World Rimfire Benchrest Federation.org/ Website for Rimfire and Air Rifle Benchrest shooting in the Europe.com/.org/ © Philip Treleaven 2008 79 feedback to p.benchrest22. 18. [7].Art of Shooting [6].benchrest22.uk .

Art of Shooting Chapter 19 Match Rifle The term Match Rifle in the UK and Commonwealth refers to long-range (1000-1200 yards) prone shooting. Muzzle brakes are prohibited. barrel weight. a proportion still adopt the more traditional 'supine' or back position. Telescopic sights and hand loaded ammunition are used. reclining. though iron (aperture) or magnifying (Galilean) sights are also permitted. any rifle suitable for firing 7. and most shooters use telescopic sights.1: Match Rifle Shooting (David Pollard) home nations). designed for TR shooting up to 1000 yards. Match Rifles and Ammunition in 5. This chapter discusses the former. most competitive Match Rifle shooters choose to use longer barrels than are conventionally used for Target Rifle. 19. though in practice this option is rarely if ever exercised. but otherwise Match Rifle rules apply. it has similarities with F-Class. Experimentation and innovation have always played an important part in the discipline. 19. but at longer distances from 1000 to 1200 yards [1]. In terms of rifles permitted.2 Ranges and Targets For Match Rifle. first shot in 1862.62 x 51 mm (NATO).000 and 1. and the Elcho (the annual a) Prone b) Supine match between the Figure 19. whereas in the United States in Highpower it refers to custom-made magazine rifles. Note that for Match Rifle there is no increase in the size of the aiming mark or the scoring rings. outdoor ranges at 1. Lastly. and almost all shooters either handload their own ammunition or purchase ammunition from specialist manufacturers. heavier bullets are favoured (typically 190 or 200 grain) than those typically used for Target Rifle (TR).62 x 51 mm (NATO) or .5 lbs). Cambridge offers © Philip Treleaven 2008 80 feedback to p. despite shooting taking place at longer distances. a sitting position has recently been introduced.62mm cartridge. The trigger pull must be a minimum of 1.5 kg (3. A small MOD range at Barton Road. Few ranges in the UK are long enough to accommodate Match Rifle.56 x 45 mm (NATO) or .5 kg (5.treleaven@cs.uk . In practice there are few serious events in which Any Rifles are allowed. Like Target Rifle it is usually fired with the 7. To maximise long range performance. so Any Rifle is very much a minority discipline. Match Rifle has long been regarded as a premier shooting discipline. allowing even more opportunity for experimentation. Within Match Rifle.1 Rifles and Ammunition The NRA-UK rules [2] state that for Match Rifle.200 yards are the same as those used for the Fullbore and F-Class shooting disciplines.308 Winchester cartridges of standard dimensions may be used. there is no limit to the overall weight of the rifle.ucl. with their feet pointing towards the target! For those with disabilities that would otherwise prevent them from shooting match rifle. The NRA Rules give clear guidance on the safety of ammunition. but the barrel weight must not exceed 2. and the NRA also offers training courses in basic handloading. Ammunition may be commercial or hand loaded. Most Match Rifle shooting in the UK takes place on Bisley’s Stickledown range. the term Any Rifle refers to a variation on Match Rifle in which greater freedom over rifle specifications is allowed (calibre. and the specification for rifles and the firing positions allowed are more open.307 lbs). The targets used are the NRA’s Bisley Long Range Target Rifle Targets.223 Remington calibres are permitted on an identical basis to that specified for the 7.ac. Whilst many people who start shooting Match Rifle simply mount a telescopic sight on a Target Rifle. is one of the oldest international team matches in any sport. Faster rifling twists (typically one rotation in 10”) are better suited to stabilising the heavier bullets used in Match Rifle. etc). Whilst the majority of shooters shoot prone.

this contrasts with F-Class.asp Great Britain Match Rifle Team (GBMRT). 19. Further Information The NRA-UK. www.5 [1].treleaven@cs. is particularly picturesque.com.org.uk/common/asp/disciplines/mr.” The NRA Rules of Shooting and the Programme of the Imperial Meeting Bisley (available from the NRA). For example.gbmrt.nraa.uk Web site www. A Match Rifle competition typically involves shooting 2 (usually convertible) sighters followed by 15 or 20 shots at each of three distances: 1000 yards. most notably the Elcho. Organisation Great Britain Match Rifle Team (GBMRT) Telephone Jim McAllister (01 483 200 900) Email jmcallister@rutland. Match Rifle may be shot prone or supine.Art of Shooting very limited civilian access. www.1. [3]. The other ‘standard’ Fullbore equipment comprises shooting jacket to increase the steadiness of the firer’s position. Unlike Target Rifle where artificial support is limited to the use of a sling.uk .gbmrt.4 Competitions Whilst most shooting is conducted on an individual basis. www. 19.uk National Rifle Association of Australia (NRAA). but equally renowned for its challenging wind. Match Rifle rules are less restrictive: The rifle must only be directly supported by parts of the firer’s body. hearing protectors. being located on undulating terrain on a hill-side. scorebook and spotting scope.au.ac. and the Woomera Trophy Match (held between GB and Australian Teams every 2 – 3 years during a GB Match Rifle Team [3] tour to Australia [4] or vice-versa). 1100 yards and 1200 yards over the course of a day. though they in turn may be supported artificially. Other principal events include the English Eight Club Spring and autumn meetings (held at Bisley) and the National Rifle Club of Scotland’s Open Meeting at Blair Atholl.ucl.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 81 feedback to p.nra. where the rifle may be directly supported using rest(s).co. four days of individual entry competitions held at the start of the NRA Meeting in July. [4].3 Equipment As shown in Figure 19. there are a few team events. web site of the Australian NRA 19.org. a (right handed) prone shooter may use a rest to support the (left) hand with which he/she supports the fore-end of the rifle. Blair Atholl (near Pitlochry. mat. The NRA-UK Match Rifle web site. 19. in Scotland). “Bisley Bible.org.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. The focus of the UK match rifle calendar is the Hopton Aggregate. [2].

1: Air Rifle . For 3-P Precision an additional sling. ISSF 10m In the main competition.5 mm (. © Philip Treleaven 2008 82 feedback to p. sling. South Africa and Germany.5 kilograms are permitted.5 mm (±0.governed by the International Shooting Sports Federation and included in the Olympics. Air Rifle target dimensions range from the: 10 Ring 0. kneeling roll and mat. The shots are fired in the standing position at a very small centre of exactly 0.1 mm). hats and shooting spectacles are often used. 3-Position Air Rifle – this is the most recent addition to the air rifle shooting scene in the UK originally being very Figure 20.uk .4 Competitions As discussed there are broadly two types of Target Air Rifle shooting: ISSF 10m and 3-Position Sporter and Precision. possible score 400. However most clubs offer basic equipment that can be borrowed to get you started. 20.) and a maximum weight of 5. besides the Air rifle. almost all competitors use specialist compressed air rifles loaded from cylinders. Competitions consist of 60 shots in 105 mins for men.3 Equipment For ISSF events. Feinwerkbau. you will need a shooting jacket. dimensions and permitted adjustments are close to the old “ISU Standard Rifle” specification. The current events available in the UK are Sporter (Standing and 3P) and Precision (3P) Air Rifle disciplines. 20. to the 1 Ring 45.treleaven@cs. trousers and boots can be used. at their own pace. once the initial equipment purchases are made. only the entire rings are counted. kneeling roll and mat will be required. 20. Precision (3P) is very similar to the ISSF disciplines. In addition. within the specified time limits.2 Ranges and Targets As discussed. 10m Air Rifle is shot over a distance of 10 metres from a standing position. The women complete 40 shots within a maximum of 75 minutes.1 Rifles and Ammunition The International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) specify that that only air rifles and carbon dioxide rifles with a calibre of 4. flat shoes and a shooting glove. Eye protection is recommended. The Precision 3-P discipline uses similar rifles but for Sporter. This allows people to shoot the match. Steyr and Walther.177 cal. 20.5 kg. and comprise of 10m electronic targets. with fully-adjustable high-tech air rifles.5 mm (±0. possible score 600. and 40 shots in 75 min for women.177 in) calibre air rifle with a maximum weight of 5.1 mm). the cost of engaging in this particular sport is minimal.ucl. trousers. with a 4. and comprises the ISSF 10m Air Rifle and the US 3 Position Air Rifle: 10m Air Rifle .Match popular in the US. in that jackets. and built by manufacturers such as Anschutz. unsupported. In practice. Air Rifle ranges are indoors. Sporter Air Rifle has limits on the weight and range of adjustments on rifles.5 mm (. The men complete 60 shots in 105 minutes with any number of sighting shots before the first competition shot is fired. Hämmerli. For Sporter events a much simpler rifle is required and other equipment is restricted to glove.ac. More specialist shooting boots.5 mm at a distance of 10 meters. Target Air Rifle has the advantage of being conducted in indoor facilities often with electric target changing equipment.Art of Shooting Chapter 20 Target Air Rifle – 10m and 3-Position Target Air Rifle is highly popular worldwide. including the sighting shots.

MEC. introduction to ISSF UK Sporter web site.9. www.welsh-airgun.org/wiki/10_m_Air _Rifle. There are limits on the weight and range of adjustments on rifles.uk .uk Civilian Marksmanship Program 3 P Air Rifle. sling. Co.sporter. 2002. prone. Gaby Bulmann. Surrey GU24 0NP Email info@nsra.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. 3-Position Two different 3-Position Air Rifle events are available: Precision Air Rifle .is modelled on ISSF 10m shooting and allows the use of specialized target rifles and equipment. The results from the normal programme and the final are added together.org.org. In both types of 3-P shooting.wikipedia. “Ways of the Rifle – .htm.targetshootingireland. 10m Air Rifle shooting.nsra. Dimensions and permitted adjustments are close to the old “ISU Standard Rifle” specification. The sporter events offer to under-21 juniors both standing-only and 3x20 shooting in a very simple and accessible format. Dublin. A shot that hits directly in the centre of the ten counts as a 10.treleaven@cs.0. [3].is designed for new competitors or those who desire to compete with a minimum of equipment and expense using more standard air rifles. 20. Ireland Web site www. 20. Blackrock.co.com/3P.uk Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland Telephone 00 866 504 9073 Address PO Box 9. kneeling roll and mat. ThreePosition Air Rifle”. [2].odcmp. http://en.uk Organisation Welsh Airgun Association Email iharris@btinternet. Heinz Reinkemeier and Maik Eckhardt. Sporter Air Rifle .co.ucl.22. competitors fire at targets at a distance of 10 meters in three different positions. The points achieved are subdivided into decimal tenths. standing and kneeling.ac. dedicated to the promotion of Sporter Air Rifle. [4]. Further Information Wikipedia. and using the minimum of ancillary equipment. whereas a shot just barely touching the centre counts as 10. the free encyclopedia. The CMP actively promotes Three-Position Air Rifle shooting as a premier youth marksmanship competition.com Web site http://www. Ancillary equipment is restricted to glove.uk Web site www. Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association Telephone 01483 485505 Address Bisley Camp. Brookwood. each of the eight finalists only has 75 seconds to fire each of his 10 final shots.5 [1].Art of Shooting In the following final.org © Philip Treleaven 2008 83 feedback to p. www.

which permits minor modifications. 9mm. Standard. b) 10m Air Pistol Women . NRA-USA Long Range Pistol silhouette has two basic pistol definitions and forms of competition: a) Conventional. The targets are usually static bullseye targets at 10m. The various classes cater for pistols of differing types and calibres.45 calibre at paper targets at fixed distances and within time limits. Chapter 23 . which allows almost anything that can be done to a pistol within the limits of a 15 inch barrel and 4 1/2 pound weight limit.Air Pistols – Single. including sighting shots. c) 10m Standard Air Pistol – 40 shots for men and 30 shots for women. most competitors use their . Multi-shot For Air Pistols. However. 25m and 50m.40 shots in a total time of 1 hour 15 minutes. Lever action rifles typically incorporate a 10-shot tubular magazine underneath the barrel.38.357 calibres). ranging from black powder muzzle loaders through modern service and other pistols. divided into events of 5 shots taken in 10 seconds.45 pistol.treleaven@cs. the ISSF recognises four competitions: a) 10m Air Pistol Men .32 five shot pistols. and consist of a series of five shots is fired at five targets.45 stages. referred to as: a) Free – competitions comprise 60 shots fired with . Chapter 24 .22LR single shot pistols in the standing position at a target 50 meters away. fired with a . Centrefire The International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) recognises four pistol disciplines. Rimfire carbines are often autoloaders with a circular 10-shot magazine.ucl.Bullseye or Conventional (3-gun) Pistol So-called Bullseye.uk . and a . It comprises a “3-gun aggregate”.22 rimfire.22LR or . © Philip Treleaven 2008 84 feedback to p. and .22LR. and d) 10m Rapid Fire Air Pistol – 60 shots fired in two so-called half courses. c) Standard – competitions comprise three rounds of 20 shots at 25 metres. b) Rapidfire . . .60 shots in a total time of 1 hour 45 minutes.competitions are fired with .g.62x51.Gallery Rifle and Pistol Gallery rifles are usually lever action or bolt-action carbines firing pistol ammunition.ac. to specially built rifle-calibre firearms firing (for example) 7.Art of Shooting Part D – Target Pistol & Gallery Disciplines Summary Gallery shooting disciplines are shot on covered or indoor ranges using pistols and rifles firing ‘pistol’ cartridges (e. Rapidfire. including sighting shots..45 calibres. both for the ‘open’ centerfire and . and b) Unlimited. a centerfire. such as . Chapter 25 – Long Range Pistol Long-Range Pistol events are shot at distances of 100. three-gun or conventional pistol shooting is hugely popular in the United States. Chapter 22 . and d) Centrefire – completions comprise two rounds each of 30 shots. 200 and up to 1200 yards. Gallery rifle became especially popular in the UK following the handgun ban in 1997. Chapter 21 .Pistols – Free.

shot with up to three different pistols. weight and sight radius specifications.Art of Shooting Chapter 21 Target Pistols – free.1: Target Pistol a number of nationally recognized sports. In this chapter we focus on the four ISSF pistol disciplines: 50m free pistol. is . loaded with one round at a time. 60-shot match is divided into 5-shot strings with different timings: 4 strings within 150 seconds each.22 calibre and shot single-handed.22LR x 5 shot) d) Centrefire (. Standard Pistol The Standard Pistol match is shot with a semi-automatic pistol in .32 SWL x 5) Figure 21. and 4 strings within 10 seconds each. Since 2005. Rapidfire pistols conform to 25m standard pistol specifications.1 Pistols and Ammunition Competitions are shot with .treleaven@cs. the International Military Sports Council’s rapid fire match shot at 25m. 25m rapidfire.2: Target Pistol 50m (Free) Pistol 50m Pistol (also called Free Pistol) is arguably the purest precision shooting discipline among the pistol events.22LR pistols and centrefire pistols. single shot and semi-automatic.ac.56mm calibre with maximum dimensions for barrel length. © Philip Treleaven 2008 85 feedback to p.ucl. Most shooters excelling in 50m Pistol also compete at the same level in 10m Air Pistol. They include the International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) six pistol events shot at distances of 10. grips fitted to the shooter's hand. dating back to the 19th century. a similar precision event. a) Free (. . very light trigger pull. Rapidfire Pistol The Rapidfire Pistol (RFP) match is shot with a semi-automatic pistol in . popular in the United States and Canada and other countries.22LR Rimfire and air pistols [1]. plus Figure 21. weight and sight radius specifications. 4 strings within 20 seconds each. etc.22LR calibre at 25 metres. The pistol.uk .22 Short cartridge as well as wrap-around grips and light trigger pulls. 25. and hit scores and shooting time are equally important.22LR calibre. This is self-loading pistol with 5. the International Practical Shooting Confederation (IPSC) disciplines where the shooter often moves during shooting. and 25m centrefire. These are precision pistols with long barrels.22LR x 1 shot) b) Rapidfire (. rapidfire. 21.22LR x 5) c) Standard (. with the new rules precluded use of the . and 50 metres. centrefire There are a vast number of international and national pistol shooting disciplines spanning centrefire pistols. 25m standard pistol. Cowboy Action Shooting and Metallic silhouette shooting. the Muzzle loading. This is a self-loading pistol with maximum dimensions for barrel length. including the US NRA Conventional Pistol or Bullseye shooting. The course of fire is 60 shots within a maximum time of two hours. standard.

but not laser sights that project a beam onto the target. and which automatically handle late shots. many countries such as the UK have laws restricting civilian ownership of centrefire pistols. 21.essentially the women's equivalent of this event. 50m (Free) Pistol 50m (Free) pistol is shot – as the name implies . 21. 21. All target pistols come with an adjustable rear sight. giving a total maximum score of 600.32 centrefire.2 Ranges and Targets Ranges and targets for the four ISSF pistol disciplines are presented below.65 mm (. For centrefire you also have the option of handloading.at 50m with the targets being either paper or electronic.treleaven@cs. The only difference being the smaller rimfire calibre pistols used (often the same models only chambered for the smaller calibre).Art of Shooting Centrefire Pistol The rules for centrefire pistols specify that matches are to be shot with a pistol of any calibre between 7. and a rapid-fire stage where.normally a men-only event. In general. Regarding ammunition . because it has good performance characteristics. Eye and ear protectors are also mandatory. with a 10-zone of 10 cm diameter. and b) 25m Pistol (formerly called Sport Pistol) .30) and 9. NRA-US Bullseye or Practical shooting allows optical and electronic sights.4 Competitions All ISSF pistol competitions are shot standing and this section summarises the ISSF pistol competition rules [1].22LR single shot. and most international competitions restrict pistols to only open iron sights.ac. Targets are divided into concentric score zones with 10 being the most central part. .not much can be said about ammunition .1).22LR semi-automatic or .) For competition shooting. but the most popular cartridge is the . © Philip Treleaven 2008 86 feedback to p. while the cheapest ammunition is probably is best avoided as the ‘wax’ build will quickly clog the firing mechanism.3 Equipment The rules of the pistol shooting discipline you choose will determine the specification of the pistol chosen: . However. Rapidfire Pistol RFP competitions shot at 25m use either paper targets that are able to turn 90 degrees to appear to the shooter and then turn back to disappear when the shooting time is up or electronic targets which use red and green lights to indicate the beginning and the end of the shooting time.38).ucl. for each shot. the shooter has to raise his arm from a 45 degree angle and fire at a target the same as in 25 m Rapid Fire Pistol. a target pistol is held in one hand at arm’s length and shot without any supporting aids. It subdivides into: a) 25m Centrefire Pistol .uk . Finally a spotting scope is usually allowed and necessary to spot the fall of shot on the target. rather than the ‘standard’ straight factory grips. (However. Centrefire Pistol Centrefire pistol consists of: a 5-shot precision stage where the target is the same as the 50m Free pistol with a 10-zone of 5 cm diameter. as discussed elsewhere. pistols are fitted with anatomical grips that can be adjusted to fit the hand of the shooter (see Figure 21.match grade ammunition is available commercially and is manufactured to higher standards than ‘regular’ ammunition.32 S&W Long. Standard Pistol Standard pistol is shot at 25m with the targets being either paper or electronically scored.62 mm (.

and the gun must be fired.targetshooting. Stage . the shooter has 3 seconds to raise his arm from a 45 degree angle and fire. b) 4 strings within 20 seconds each. the shooter has 3 seconds to raise his arm from a 45 degree angle and fire. www. Pistol Target Shooters.e. for each shot.ucl. [3]. Standard Pistol A Standard Pistol competition comprises a 60-shot match divided into 5-shot strings with different timings: a) 4 strings within 150 seconds each.a 25m pistol match consists also of two parts of 30 shots each: a) a precision stage where 6 series of 5 shots are to be fired. “Introduction to US Army Marksmanship Unit's Pistol Training Guide. good introduction to pistol shooting sports.a Centrefire match consists of two parts of 30 shots each: a) a precision stage where 6 series of 5 shots are to be fired. http://en. and b) a rapid-fire stage where. for each shot. 2x30 or 60 shots). [2].nsra. 2x3x5 or 30 shots). 5 shots). National Smallbore Rifle Association. single-handed.bullseye. NSRA Basic Shooting Techniques Course. Rapidfire Pistol A Rapidfire pistol competition involving the shooter raising his arm from a 45 degree angle and firing fire shots.targetshooting.a stage consists of two series each of 8 seconds. Pistol. each series during a 5 minute period. each series during a 5 minute period. with three seconds allowed for each shot with a break of seven seconds in between. [5].e. in the standing position. and b) a rapid-fire stage where. © Philip Treleaven 2008 87 feedback to p.co. www. available from the UK Pistol Shooting.ca. Further Information Wikipedia.pdf. The event is shot at 25 metres in three timed sequences of four series.5 [1]. Course of Fire – a competition comprises two stages (i.wikipedia. within a time limit. www. 25m Pistol .ac. [4].com.Art of Shooting 50m (Free) Pistol The course of fire is 60 shots within a maximum time of two hours. A Training Resource for Novice to Intermediate www. one at each of five targets next to each other at 25m. The centre of the target is 50mm. one at each of five adjacent targets (i.) 21. Series – a series (or string) comprises five shots.” New Zealand Pistol Association. 6 seconds. (In the women’s competition the six series of five shots each must be completed. competitors have 120 minutes to shoot 60 times at a target 50 metres away.treleaven@cs.ca/docs/Intro2PS. Centrefire Pistol Centrefire pistol competitions comprise 25m Centrefire (men) and 25m Pistol (women) formally called Sport pistol. In 50m pistol.e. Target Shooting Canada. the free encyclopedia. and c) 4 strings within 10 seconds each.uk .org/wiki/Shooting_sports#Handgun_shooting_sports. 25m Centrefire .uk. and 4 seconds (i.

Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association Telephone 01483 485505 Address Bisley Camp. Co.co.org.uk Organisation British Pistol Club Telephone 01483 486293 Address B.nsra.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. Ireland Web site www.com Web site www.targetshootingireland.uk Web site www.Art of Shooting 21.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 88 feedback to p.org Organisation English Pistol Association Email englishpistolassociation@blueyonder.welsh-airgun.uk Organisation Welsh Airgun Association Email iharris@btinternet.uk .ucl.C.co.org Organisation Scottish Pistol Association Email scottishpistolhq@aol.britishpistolclub.co. Dublin.co.uk Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland Telephone 00 866 504 9073 Address PO Box 9.M 5114 London WC1N 3XX Email britishpistolclub@ntlworld.treleaven@cs.com Web site www. Surrey GU24 0NP Email info@nsra.com Web site http://www. Blackrock.scottishpistolassociation.ac. Brookwood.

with the targets turning to face the shooters at the start.2: Bullseye Pistol 22. the .consisting of two five-round strings with twenty seconds for each string.3 Equipment Given the accuracy requirement of Bullseye shooting. most competitors use their .in which ten rounds are fired in ten minutes.3: NRA (USA) Bullseye Completions Rapid Fire . The 50 yard slow and the 25 yard timed/rapid targets have the same ring size.) Custom anatomical pistol grips are also recommended. automatics are used almost exclusively. with NRA-USA rules covering firing slow.Art of Shooting Chapter 22 Bullseye or Conventional (3-gun) Pistol Shooting In the United States. A popular choice is a stock Model 1911A1 pistol. (Laser sights that project an image on the target are not allowed.uk . 22.has a ten second limit for each of the two five-round strings. called a “3-gun aggregate”.1 Pistols and Ammunition Although the NRA-USA Bullseye rules allow autoloaders and revolvers (from .1: Bullseye Pistol (CMP) 22.22 calibre pistols used for Bullseye. timed and rapid stages.45 pistol both for the ‘open’ centerfire and . Participants shoot pistols (semi-automatics and revolvers) at paper targets at fixed distances and within time limits.45 calibre requires an accurized or a custom-built model.45 stages. The sustained fire stages are timed.22 rimfire.ucl. Figure 22.22 to .ac. especially accurized by a pistolsmith. Finally a quality spotting scope with a high resolution that will allow you to see your shots on the target is also necessary. All courses of fire at an indoor competition are typically fired at 50 feet and outdoor competitions are typically fired at both 50 yards (slow fire) and 25 yards (timed and rapid fire). and then turning back to their starting positions when the time finishes. Bullseye pistol competitions typically involve 3-4 courses of fire: Slow Fire . However. Timed Fire . © Philip Treleaven 2008 89 feedback to p. so-called Bullseye. Figure 22.45 calibre. is the most popular pistol shooting discipline.treleaven@cs. a centerfire.4 Competitions Outdoor Competitions 50 yd/ Slow Fire 25 yd Timed & Rapid Slow (short course) 25 yd Timed & Rapid Indoor Competitions Slow Fire 20 yd Timed & Rapid Slow Fire 50 ft Timed & Rapid Slow Fire 25 ft Timed & Rapid As discussed. special autoloader pistols are used with either adjustable rear-sights or optical or electronic sights. Figure 22. The standard course of fire. and a . three-gun or conventional pistol [1]. 22.2 Ranges and Targets Both outdoor and indoor ranges are used for Bullseye. is fired with a .45 calibre). While there are dozens of different choices of commercial .

org © Philip Treleaven 2008 90 feedback to p. 10 at Timed and 10 at Rapid at 25 yards.g. 22. a one-gun competition is often referred to as a "900" whereas a three-gun competition is a "2700".“ www. “The Encyclopedia of Bullseye Pistol. provides extensive information on the shooting discipline. Hence.com. In a shorter ‘900’ match . Organisation National Rifle Association Telephone 1-800-672-3888 Address NRA.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. police. Marksman to top-level Master). Further Information Bullseye Pistol. fired with a . service).the classic outdoor match .Art of Shooting National Match Course .ac.45 calibre pistol. The NRA-USA competitions groups shooters by ability (e. divided into three 90-shot events. VA 22030 Web site www. shot with a single pistol. Timed and Rapid (20-shots each).treleaven@cs. women.22. and the National Match Course (30 shots).g.nra.uk .bullseyepistol.depending on the match format – shooters fire 90 shots in four stages: Slow. centerfire and .comprising 10 shots Slow Fire at 50 yards. 11250 Waples Mill Road. Fairfax. In a ‘2700’ match .ucl. and category (e. juniors. 22.shooters fire 270 shots with a maximum value of 10 points each (hence the name).5 [1].

including sighting shots. © Philip Treleaven 2008 91 feedback to p.60 shots in a total time of 1 hour 45 minutes.22LR rimfire. and air pistols [1]. and the score is evaluated in tenths with a central 10 being scored 10. competitors may use any calibre 4.treleaven@cs. pistols are fitted with anatomical grips that can be adjusted to fit the hand of the shooter (see Figure 23. The ISSF Air Pistol competitions comprise: 10m Air Pistol Men . b) sights must be ‘open’ metallic only. five shots are fired. . 10m Air Pistol Women . 23. e) the grip may not support the hand beyond the wrist and may not encircle the hand.9.5mm (.uk .2: Target Air Pistols Air pistols are shot on indoor ranges at 10m using either paper targets or electronic targets. divided into events of 5 shots taken in 10 seconds. The ammunition must projectiles (pellets). Figure 23. be 4.3 Ranges and Targets Equipment Figure 23. For competition shooting.ac.ucl. including sighting shots. In each series.Art of Shooting Chapter 23 Target Air Pistols – single and multishot There are a vast number of international and national pistol shooting disciplines spanning centrefire pistols. In each series.5mm lead a) Single b) Multi-shot 23. five shots are fired at one target. one on each of 5 falling targets in a set. Eye protectors are also mandatory.177) compressed air or CO2 pistol that complies with the ISSF general rules.40 shots in a total time of 1 hour 15 minutes.5mm at a distance of 10 metres. The following standards applies: a) the pistol must be loaded with one pellet only (apart from rapid fire). d) the weight of the pistol with all accessories must not exceed 1500 grams. there are three ISSF competitions: 10m Air ‘5 Target’ Pistol (Falling Targets) – men fire 60 shots in a total time of 105 minutes and women fire 40 shots in a total time of 75 minutes. 10m Standard Air Pistol (Single Target) – men fire 40 shots and women 30 shots.1 Pistols and Ammunition For 10m Air Pistol.2 23.1: Target Air Pistol (John Bloomfield) 23.1). As discussed. 10m Standard Air Pistol – 40 shots for men and 30 shots for women. c) the weight of the trigger pull must be at least 500 grams. The final of the best eight consists of 10 shots within 75 seconds per shot.4 Competitions Competitions are shot in the standing position at a target centre of 11. and f) it must fit into a box measuring 420 x 150 x 50 mm. divided into events of 5 shots taken in 10 seconds 10m Rapid Fire Air Pistol – 60 shots fired in two so-called half courses. including sighting shots. In this chapter we will focus on the ISSF 10m Air Pistol discipline. Events are divided into series of 5 shots each taken in 10 seconds.

co.com Web site www. Ireland Web site www. 23.targetshootingireland.co.ca.nsra.org Organisation National Target Shooting Association of Ireland Telephone 00 866 504 9073 Address PO Box 9.M 5114 London WC1N 3XX Email britishpistolclub@ntlworld.ucl.com Web site www.ac. www. http://www. Air Pistol.welsh-airgun.5 [1]. [2].6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. 2 series in 6 seconds.shootingwiki. Pistol Target Shooters.uk Web site www.britishpistolclub. Blackrock.org. A Training Resource for Novice to Intermediate 23.targetshooting. and 2 series in 4 seconds. Dublin. Organisation National Smallbore Rifle Association Telephone 01483 485505 Address Bisley Camp.php?title=Air_Pistol_Shooting. Surrey GU24 0NP Email info@nsra.treleaven@cs.uk Organisation British Pistol Club Telephone 01483 486293 Address B.Art of Shooting 10m Rapid Fire Air Pistol – 60 shots fired in two so-called half courses as follows: 1 sighting series in 8 seconds. Further Information Shooting Wiki.org Organisation Welsh Airgun Association Email iharris@btinternet. Co.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 92 feedback to p. introduction to ISSF 10m Target Shooting Canada.org/index.C.uk . 2 series in 8 seconds. Brookwood.

Although these four types of firearm can be shot using traditional “iron” sights. Figure 24. for some competitions.22 rimfire rifle. Figure 24. Spotting scopes are used in a few © Philip Treleaven 2008 93 feedback to p. a variety of long barrelled pistols and revolvers are now being used competitively. self-loading pistols and singleshot-pistols. Gallery Rifle Small Bore (GRSB) – any . Since then. Targets are typically mounted on fixed frames.44. The term ‘pistol calibre’ refers to cartridges which were originally designed for use in pistols and thus a) GRCF . air rifles are also allowed in some.uk .3: Disruptive-Pattern Target 24.357. typically lever-action.ac. 24. telescopic and red-dot sights are used in most competitions.Art of Shooting Chapter 24 Gallery Rifle and Pistol The changes in the Firearms laws in 1996 stopped most competitive pistol shooting in England. The targets themselves vary between classic roundbulls for precision shooting to disruptive-pattern designs for speed events.long barrelled revolver have relatively low muzzle energy Figure 24. Many former pistol shooters turned instead to Gallery Rifle. rubber and paper plates are sometimes used and a few ranges have target frames which move rapidly from one side of the range to the other. . Steel.treleaven@cs.2 Ranges and Targets GR&P can be shot on suitable outdoor and indoor ranges.1: GR&P Shooters Standing Ready (Iain Robertson) Long Barrelled Pistol (LBP) – in the UK this covers all . including revolvers. 24.38 and .2: Gallery Firearms compared to the “full-bore” rifles used in Target Rifle and similar shooting.22” rimfire ‘Long Barrelled Pistols’. though not all. both of which are covered elsewhere in this handbook).ucl. gunsmiths have been working to develop pistols that comply with the Firearms Acts.1 Firearms and Ammunition Gallery Rifle and Pistol (GR&P) covers four types of firearm: Gallery Rifle Centre Fire (GRCF) – any centrefire pistol calibre rifle. GRSB events. then turns through 90 degrees) or advancing target trolleys (which move towards the firer at a fixed speed). a GR&P shooter needs hearing protection and. Long Barrelled Revolver (LBR) – in the UK this covers any ‘Long Barrelled Revolver’ in a centrefire pistol calibre.3 Equipment In addition to a suitable rifle or pistol. Popular centrefire pistol calibres include . suitable belt pouches to carry spare ammunition. turning frames (programmed to provided timed “exposures” during which the target faces the shooter. typically a self-loading rifle with a detachable magazine.under-lever Rifle b) LBR . Scotland and Wales (except for air and muzzle-loading pistols.

web site dedicated to Gallery Rifle shooting in the UK. Bisley Camp.nra.org.com.uk/common/files/GR/GRPHandbook. Surrey GU24 0PB gallery@nra.Art of Shooting events.org. Shooters of LBPs and LBRs are also increasingly able to take part in international events. Galleryrifle.com. Further information on Gallery Rifle and Pistol shooting can be found on the NRA-UK web site [1]. The tab ‘Clubs’ gives an extensive list of UK shooting clubs. [3]. but some events also require the shooter to kneel.5 [1].uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 94 feedback to p. NRA.nra. it is now also popular in Ireland and Germany. exposure timings.nra. www.ucl. 24. Shooters wear normal clothing – anything which provides artificial support (e. Although GR was developed in the UK.g. sit and/or to use his/her weak shoulder/arm.uk www. Gallery Rifle & Pistol Discipline Rep.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. competing alongside shooters using more traditional pistol designs. Eye protection is recommended and is likely to be compulsory in some competitions.pdf The Gallery Rifle and Pistol Handbook of the National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom: National Rifle Association of the UK (NRA-UK). 24. international matches between the three nations take place every year. Competition events include a wide range of targets.uk. Holsters are used for some of the LBP and LBR events.org.org. stiff jackets.galleryrifle.uk . slings or shooting gloves) is not allowed. Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site National Rifle Association of the UK 01483 797777 Charles Murton. distances (usually anywhere from 10m to 50m. www.4 Competitions Much GR&P shooting is carried out in the standing position. Brookwood.treleaven@cs. 24. Further Information www. [2].ac. though some GR&P competitions involve shooting as far as 300yd) and/or the use of barricades for support in order to provide varied challenges to the skills of the shooters.

22 rimfire and separate class for pistol calibres i. which permits minor modifications. These “Long Range Pistols” are now shot at Bisley on a monthly basis from 100 yards to 1200 yards.1 shows long range pistol shooters shooting from their "flying machines". defined as a gun with a barrel of at least 30cm (12”) and an overall length of at least 60cm (24”). Most pistols are scoped.2: Long Range Pistol reason why you can not start off with a Production gun like the Competitor or Thompson Contender in .e. The various classes cater for pistols of differing types and calibres. parallel sided cartridges like .R.ucl.200 yards.Art of Shooting Chapter 25 Long Range Pistol The wonderful picture in Figure 25. with the goal of improving the accuracy of long range pistol shooting.200 yards.2 Ranges and Targets The pistols are used at ranges from 100 to 1200 yards.45 ACP semi-automatic pistols at 100 . produced hand made ammunition and showed them how to hit a dinner plate from 200 yards. Figure 25. long range pistols are created from cut-down rifles. there is no Figure 25.308 or 30-06 and use NRA ammunition. 7. (Gillie) Howe.treleaven@cs. Browning Automatics – shot with 9mm Browning semi-automatic pistols at 100 . At short range 100/600 yards the course of fire © Philip Treleaven 2008 95 feedback to p. through modern service and other pistols.g. which allows almost anything that can be done to a pistol within the limits of a 15 inch barrel and 4 1/2 pound weight limit. In the United States. Prior to the banning of pistols in the UK. Long Range Pistol events are shot at distances of 100. 19. ranging from black powder. There are also classes for black powder. and b) Unlimited. Officers came to Gillie complaining that they could not hit “a door” from 20 paces with their 9mm Browning Semi-Automatic Pistols (standard Army issue). 200 and up to 1200 yards.1: Long Range Pistol Shooting In the UK Long Range Pistol Shooting was started over 40 years ago by Mr. Gillie hand tuned their guns with filed down foresights. an armourer with the Royal Marines.ac. .44 Magnum.62) and typically shot at ranges beyond 100 yards and up to 1200 yards. G.200 yards. Revolvers – shot with revolvers with 9” barrels at 100 . At 100/200 yards the Wessex target is used.200 yards Today.1 Pistols and Ammunition Long range pistols are typically defined as cartridge pistols chambered for rounds more usually associated with rifles (e. Although a majority of shooters do re-load their own ammunition and use the latest wild-cat cartridges. to specially built rifle-calibre pistols.uk . ACP Automatics – shot with . Pocket Pistol – shot with pistols with 2” barrels at distances of 100 . NRA-USA Long Range Pistol silhouette has two basic pistol definitions and forms of competition: a) Conventional. 19. At all other distances the standard NRA target is used. Long Range Pistol Shooting was divided into a number of classes: Black Powder – shot with BP pistols at 100 yards.357 Magnum or .

Organisation International Long Range Pistol Shooters Association Telephone 01276 858 799 Address Mike Lunnon. Free Pistol .Art of Shooting is 2 sighters and 10 to count where as at longer distances 800/1200 yards the course of fire is 2 sighters and 15 to count. Chobham. Production Pistol – specialist pistols. typically based on the Swing or RPA action. 35A Delta Road. also meet monthly all year round and only shoot over 900/1200 yards. Surrey GU24 8PZ © Philip Treleaven 2008 96 feedback to p.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. Chobham. Further Information The NRA-UK.” The NRA Rules of Shooting and the Programme of the Imperial Meeting Bisley.ucl.4 Competitions Long Range Pistol Shooting competitions fall into several classes:Black Powder . short barrelled rifle.22 pistols at 100 yards and 200 yards. 19.treleaven@cs.shot with BP pistols at 100 yards.ac.3 Equipment Figure 25. 19. The British Long Gun Assoc (BLGA). .1 shows Long Range Pistol Shooters shooting from their “flying machines”. Then in the Spring is the Phoenix Meeting at Bisley.uk .shot with . modified production pistols can also be used in this class. The ILRPSA holds monthly competitions all the year round.5 [1]. 35A Delta Road. namely the Competitor or Thompson Contender.22 Rimfire . 19. “Bisley Bible. 19. Surrey GU24 8PZ Organisation British Long Gun Association Telephone 01276 858 799 Address Mike Lunnon. There is no need to have your own machine to start with as there is always someone to lend you one. a Sister club to the ILRPSA. shot from a rested position. Their shooting equipment is essentially a pistol gripped.custom made pistols. (available from the NRA).

451" calibre shoot well out to 1000 yards. Chapter 26 . pistols and shotguns) cover any firearm into which the bullet is loaded from the muzzle of the gun. Chapter 29 . lever action rifle and double barrel shotgun. black powder firearms (muskets.Cowboy Action Shooting Cowboy Action Shooting (CAS) typically uses four firearms: two revolvers.treleaven@cs.Muzzle Loading Rifles.uk .Black Powder Cartridge Rifles and Pistols Shooting is conducted with: a) original period rifles. Chapter 28 .ucl. pistols on indoor ranges.to late 19th century including single action revolvers. and shotguns on outdoor ranges. especially muzzleloaders and black powder cartridge firearms.Art of Shooting Part E – Historic Arms Disciplines Summary Historic arms disciplines – as the name suggests – shoot ‘old’ or replica firearms. rifles. such as those manufactured by Lee-Enfield and BSA. Chapter 27 . b) replicas and c) modern purpose-designed rifles and pistols at distanced up to 600 yards. Pistols and Shotguns Muzzleloader. CAS requires competitors to use firearms typical of the mid. lever action rifles (chambered in pistol calibres) and side-byside double barrel shotguns (e. © Philip Treleaven 2008 97 feedback to p. specialist rifles in .ac. with external hammers). and with rifling.Classic and Historic Arms The Classic and Historic Arms group is dedicated to those with an interest in historic rifles with particular reference to British. Commonwealth and other significant Military Miniature Calibre Training and Target Rifles. Shooting competitions range from 25 yards for pistols to over 1000 yards for rifles. Rifles are shot on outdoor ranges.g.

after 1946. The firearms used are 'datelined' to ensure that competitors are always competing against other competitors using a similar class of firearm. such as firearms manufactured by LeeEnfield [4] and BSA. Commonwealth and other significant Military Miniature Calibre Training and Target Rifles. d) Veteran between 1919 and 1946 incl. http://en. Post Historic .1: Classic and Historic 26.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lee_enfield.2 Ranges and Targets Classic and Historic arms are shot at static targets on both covered and outdoor ranges at a variety of distances.before 1946.before 1919. ‘Rapid Repeater’ such as pump action. These include Miniature Rifle Winter Leagues at 15. The dateline periods are: a) Muzzle Loading . and ‘Semi-Auto’ with any sights). and many use 50s-style cloth shooting jackets. and for outdoor ranges 300 to 600 yards are popular.org. Open . Veteran . d) Post-Veteran Rifle for later target rifles up to 1960. Classic and Historic shooting has had an amazing growth in popularity in the last few years.this covers rifles after 1946. Competitors also use historic slings and sandbags.uk) provides a wealth of information on the classic and historic firearms.e. For covered ranges this is 15. veteran.before 1891.ac.this covers rifles before 1946. 20 and 25 yard ranges for prone rifle in four classes: a) Service Rifle for pre-1946 military trainers.this covers rifles before 1919. 26.. Figure 26. good review of the UK LeeEnfield rifles popular with Classic and Historic Arms enthusiasts. two main Historic Arms Meetings are held at Bisley each year. ‘Deliberate’ using iron sights. b) Vintage . Further Information Wikipedia. at the beginning of the Imperial Meeting in July and the Trafalgar Meeting in October. classic. vintage. Classic . b) Classic Rifle for pre-1919 target rifles. Muzzle loading – this covers rifles before 1874.treleaven@cs.this covers rifles between 1919 and 1946.5 [1]. Figure 26. 26. c) Veteran Rifle for pre-1946 target rifle. the free encyclopedia. 26.1 Rifles and Ammunition The NRA-UK Historic Arms Resource Centre (http://rifleman. including an animation of available information. 20 and 25 yards. falling within one of the six categories above: muzzle loading. and f) Post Historic . In the UK. e) Open .ucl. c) Classic .1946 design at 20 & 25 yard ranges in three classes (i.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 . open or post historic. 98 feedback to p.Art of Shooting Chapter 26 Classic and Historic Arms Classic and Historic Arms groups are dedicated to those with an interest in historic rifles with particular reference to British.4 Competitions The NRA-UK run a number of competitions for Classic and Historic arms.before 1874. Vintage – this covers rifles before 1891.2: Lee-Enfield Rifle 26. and e) Standing Leagues for rifles of pre. with any sights.3 Equipment All that is required is a classic and historic firearm.

UK Historic Arms Resource Centre. Organisation Historical Breechloading Smallarms Association Address BCM HBSA.org. http://rifleman.uk .” The NRA Rules of Shooting and the Programme of the Imperial Meeting Bisley.Art of Shooting [2]. Historical arms.org. [3].fsnet. “Bisley Bible.secretary@hbsa-uk. (available from the NRA). LONDON WC1N 3XX Email general.ucl.treleaven@cs.ac.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.co. The UK NRA.uk Organisation UK Historic Arms Resource Centre Web site http://rifleman. an extensive UK web site covering 26.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 99 feedback to p.uk.org Web site www.hbsa.

while still measured in fractions of a second. The Governing Body for muzzle loading within the UK is the Figure 27. The MLAGB also selects teams to represent Great Britain in international competition. © Philip Treleaven 2008 100 feedback to p. 50 metres and 50 yards. supine.Art of Shooting Chapter 27 Muzzle Loading Rifles. This means that to get the best from the firearm draws on all one’s basic shooting skills. Be it a sporting. Learning to get the best accuracy from them though requires skill. At the basest level muzzle loaders are great fun to shoot and a most enjoyable time can be had in a morning spent in informal target practice. Shooting may be conducted with original period firearms or with modern made reproductions. practice and patience. 27. is slow.1 Firearms Nowadays with our developed appreciation of the past it is not difficult to understand the fascination that muzzle loading arms hold. Sight systems will vary greatly depending on arm. 25 yards. The MLAGB has developed a comprehensive program of events that cater for a huge variety of firearms. At a regional and local club level there are many that include muzzle loading shooting in their club activities.ucl. Shotguns – both flintlock and percussion shotguns will be seen on the ranges and are used in down-the-line. When compared to later breech loading firearms the lock time (in simple terms. The MLAIC holds World and European Championships which are well attended and medals keenly contested. rifles. Pistols. Overlooked or perhaps misunderstood by many. They are shot prone. pistols and shotguns) are hugely popular worldwide. muzzle loading offers a sport with all the challenges of modern target disciplines and capacity for accuracy to suit the most fastidious.uk . Shotguns Muzzle loading firearms (muskets.treleaven@cs. Muzzleloaders are any firearm loaded from the muzzle or in the case of revolvers from the front of the cylinder. There are three basic ignition systems employed: matchlock. At an international level the Muzzle Loaders Associations International Committee (MLAIC) is the World Governing Body. 27. One of the great attractions of muzzle loading is the diversity of firearms available for the enthusiastic target shooter to compete with.2 Ranges and Targets Muzzleloaders are shot on standard rifle. In addition the National Rifle Association (NRA) caters for muzzle loaders in its historic arms matches. Classification and characteristics of muzzle loading firearms.ac. flintlock and percussion. at distances of 25 metres. military or specialised target arm that catches one’s interest there are courses of fire open for most who wish to use them on the target range. especially sighting and follow-through. skeet and sporting clay pigeon events.1: Muzzle Loading Firearms Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Britain (MLAGB). Pistols – muzzle loading pistols are usually shot standing on a covered (open or enclosed) range. basic equipment and loading techniques are covered in Chapter 8. the time taken between pulling trigger and firing of the shot). pistol and clay pigeon ranges: Muskets and Rifles – muzzle loading muskets and rifles are shot on outdoor ranges alongside traditional (nitro) cartridge target and service rifles. from the flintlock musket with solely a foresight for reference to the sophisticated vernier adjustable sights of the long range match rifle. kneeling and standing.

Smooth bore musket events are usually fired at 50m on the French Military 200 metre target (MLAIC C200). however the specialised shooting trousers are banned. The Enfield percussion rifle of The British Army is well known. Competition Equipment – depending on the rules of the competition and the type of firearm to be used. Pistols Pistols are split into four categories: a) Matchlock. The 10 ring measures 80 mm diameter. The European style matchlock with its full length stock will not be unfamiliar. where permitted. No sighting shots are permitted. Modern adjustable target type slings. British and European sporting rifles will be seen competing with the American long rifle. must be original or a reproduction of a contemporary type. For mid (200-600 yard) and long range (distances out to 1200 yards) rifle competitions the standard NRA rifle targets are used. unsupported. shooting jacket.3 Equipment Basic equipment needs for the loading and management of the muzzle loader are covered in Chapter 8. It is prominent on the rifle scene at 100 metres and shot at longer ranges up to 600 yards. All loading must take place during the allotted time period. In MLAGB and MLAIC events International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF) style shooting jackets. also known as PL7.uk . Some events will use other targets for competition but the foregoing are those most commonly in use.4 Competitions The standard course of fire for pistol. This is designated MLAIC C50 within the MLAIC rules. The target has a 50mm diameter 10 ring. shooting glove. this might include a shooting mat. the latter it should be noted is more suited to 50m offhand shooting due to the shape of its stock. Flintlock military muskets are also fired offhand at 50m. 27. gloves and boots are permitted. Musket and rifle events are for the most part fired either offhand or prone. The specially developed percussion target rifles of the 1860 -1880 period extend competitive shooting out to 1. although a fouling shot can be fired into the backstop during the thirty minute detail if desired.200 yards. however the more exotic Japanese style matchlock with its short stock that is held against the cheek has its own unique characteristics. Such specialised equipment may not be permitted in some NRA organised events. Shooting Box or Case – firearms should be transported in cases and a suitable box or case will also be required to transport the black powder. It should be noted that all are not necessary at the outset and equipment can be built up over a period of time. except Historic revolver where a two hand hold is permitted.ucl. musket and rifle fired at short range (up to 100m) is thirteen shots in thirty minutes. and 50m and 100m rifle events are the standard ISSF 50m free pistol target. Flintlock and percussion sporting rifles firing a patched round ball are fired offhand at 50m and prone at 100m. and popular models include the British 'Brown Bess. For the target shooter some consideration of additional items will be necessary. with the best ten shots to count for score. b) Flintlock. Down-the-line shotgun competition is a total of 50 clay targets shot in two separate rounds of 25 clay targets. All competitions are shot in the standing position with a single handhold. and shooting accessories. are not permitted. at 25m. Pistol shooting events are fired one handed. The aiming mark is 200mm diameter and includes the 7-ring. with remaining scoring rings (down to 1) at a 25mm spacing.treleaven@cs. For competitive shooting with © Philip Treleaven 2008 101 feedback to p. In some matches Original pistols are shot alongside reproduction models but in general they are shot in separate classes. Spotting Scope and Stand – a suitable spotting scope and stand for checking the target at a distance is also required.ac. with the black aiming mark out to the 6 ring measuring 400 mm diameter. Muskets and Rifles Matchlock muskets are fired in competition at 50m from the standing and kneeling positions. The fouling shot should be announced to the range officer or scorer before firing so that it does not get mistaken for a match shot. c) Single Shot percussion and d) Revolver. including single-point slings.’ the French Charleville and the American Springfield muskets. a suitable sling etc. Rifle slings. 27.Art of Shooting Targets used for the 25m pistol.

www. Sam Fadala.com Derek Fuller.5 [1]. [2]. [4]. ISBN 1861264828. For competitive shooting with revolvers the solid frame models such as Remington and Rogers and Spencer are preferred to the open frame Colt type. Organisation Muzzle Loaders Association of GB (MLAGB) Telephone 01926 458198 Address 7 Olympus Court.Art of Shooting flintlock and single shot percussion pistols the duelling versions such a Le Page and Kuchenreuter are most popular due to their accuracy. Further Information Andrew Courtney. Shotguns A variety of muzzle loading clay pigeon shooting competitions are held at both club and national level in the disciplines of sporting.mlagb. “Lyman Black Powder Handbook & Loading Manual”.org.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. trap for both percussion and flintlock guns. 27.org.mlaic.com. [6]. Charcoal Burner.mlagb. Muzzle Loaders Association International Committee. At international level the competitions are 50 birds down-the-line from a fixed. Original and reproduction guns compete in separate classes so as not to disadvantage the older arms.charcoalburner. [7].ucl. 27. double barrel. [5]. small bore (18 bore and smaller). The Crowood Press (2002).lrml. Warwick CV34 6RZ Email membership@mlagb. “The Definitive Guide to Shooting Muzzle Pistols”. “The Modern Muzzle Loader”. The Governing Body for muzzle loading within the UK. When shooting the Historic Revolver match the Old Army Rugers with adjustable sights are preferred. below ground. [3]. www. down-the-line and skeet.uk . “Muzzle Loading Pistol Shooting – an Introductory Guide”. Tachbrook Park.ac. www. These competitions usually have classes for percussion single barrel. Lyman Publications (2001). The Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Britain (1997) ISBN 0 9530541 0 1. World Governing Body for muzzle loading shooting. big bore (10 bore and larger) and flintlock guns. UPC #011516971005 Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Britain (MLAGB). Long Range Muzzle Loader.com © Philip Treleaven 2008 102 feedback to p.com Web site www. UK based forum and resource for this challenging discipline. www.treleaven@cs.

28. Figure 28. and also . rifle and shotgun.45-120). © Philip Treleaven 2008 103 feedback to p. and the only artificial supports allowed are Crossed-sticks and/or Wrist Supports that meet Club rules are allowed as rests for this match.45 calibre. Sights must be period correct of original design.45-70). Figure 28.35 calibre. In the United States. In the UK. Typical calibres are .1 Rifles and Ammunition BPCR subdivide into historic firearms.2: Black Powder Cartridge Firearms Pedersoli Rolling Block (Custer Mod.) .ac. Period correct telescopic sights are permitted but shoot within their own class. click adjustable sights are expressly excluded. 28.uk .50 calibre.45-70). The target is an outline of a buffalo with anatomically correct scoring zones. An Introduction to Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Loading By Chuck Raithel can be found on the web or on the SSBPCRC site [3].45-70).45-2.40 calibre.4 Competitions The Single Shot Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Club of Great Britain (SSBPCRC) [3] has five major competitions: Buffalo – the course of fire comprises 20 consecutive rounds to score at both 200 yards and at 600 yards.1" (.ucl. In America this typically comprises 3-gun shooting competitions of BP C pistol. black powder cartridges are governed by the NRA-USA and closely associated with Cowboy Action shooting and Silhouette shooting.1" (. Shiloh (Hartford) .452. Shiloh (Long Range Express) . with Cowboy Action Shooting and Silhouette shooting covered by separate chapters. .treleaven@cs.1" (. each with 30 minutes. and . 28. 28. Examples of the rifles include the a) BP Cartridge Rifle b) BP Cartridge Pistol Pedersoli Quigley .3 Equipment The equipment required is an authentic black powder cartridge rife.25" (. replicas of historic firearms and modern designs.45-3.2 Ranges and Targets Black powder cartridge rifles are shot prone on standard Target Rifle (TR) or specially designed targets on High Power outdoor ranges at distances of 200 to 1000 yards. the Single Shot Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Club of Great Britain shoot prone on outdoor ranges at distances of 200 to 1000 yards.45-2.Art of Shooting Chapter 28 Black Powder Cartridge Rifles and Pistols Black powder cartridge rifle and pistol shooting encompasses both hand loaded and commercial cartridges.1: Black Powder Cartridge In this chapter we focus on UK BPCR shooting.

com © Philip Treleaven 2008 104 feedback to p.htm. The course of fire comprises 10 consecutive rounds each at chickens and at pigs at 300 yards.ssbpcrc.5 [1]. each with 30 minutes.htm Organisation Muzzle Loaders Association of GB (MLAGB) Telephone 01926 458198 Address MLAGB.co. UPC #011516971005 www.Art of Shooting Creedsmoor – the course of fire comprises 20 consecutive rounds to score at both 900 yards and at 1000 yards.pdf Chuck Raithel. Single Shot Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Club of Great Britain.ucl. each with 30 minutes. Then 10 rounds at turkeys and 10 rounds at rams at 500 yards.net.com Web site www.mlagb.ssbpcrc.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. Further Information Sam Fadala.com/Intro_to_BPCR_Loading.the course of fire comprises 20 consecutive rounds to score at both 300 yards and at 600 yards.treleaven@cs. each with 30 minutes.uk Web site www.uk . 28. “Lyman Black Powder Handbook & Loading Manual”. The target is a standard NRA target for 1000 yards. [3]. American BPCR site.wahsatchdesperadoes.ac. [4]. 7 Olympus Court.bpcr. [2]. The targets are the standard NRA targets for these distances.co. www. The targets are so-called Bucket and Wagon Man Targets. “Introduction to Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Loading”.uk/index. Quigley – the course of fire comprises 20 consecutive rounds to score at both 300 yards and 600 yards. Tachbrook Park. Silhouette – this involves shooting at animal ‘silhouette’ targets.uk/index. Each of the four courses of fire being completed in 15 minutes. www.co. Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Site. 28. Organisation Single Shot Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Club of Great Britain Email secretary@ssbpcrc. Warwick CV34 6RZ Email membership@mlagb. Precision . Lyman Publications (2001).

clothing may be historically accurate for the late 1800s or may just be suggestive of the Old West. the fastest time wins. as well as Australia. The informality of CAS means that courses of fire can include shooting from facsimile barber’s chairs. with external hammers). Each competition follows a scenario or ‘stage’.2: Cowboy Action Shooting In CAS. Depending on the rules of the sanctioning organization.1 Rifles and Ammunition A CAS shooter typically uses four authentic Figure 29. and other matches being scored by Rank Points. After these adjustments are made. Holland. with the competitor being scored for time and accuracy.shooters use pistols with adjustable sights. It might involve ‘jumping out of bed.treleaven@cs. All CAS guns must be ‘single action’.2 Ranges and Targets a) Revolver b) Rifle c) Shotgun Figure 29. like in a film.4 Competitions As introduced. and two to eight shotgun rounds. England. Each shooter's ‘raw’ time for the stage is increased by 5 seconds for each missed target and 10 seconds for any procedural penalty incurred. and even huge rocking horses! 29. CAS competitions involve a number of separate shooting scenarios known as ‘stages’ [1]. In ‘Rank Point’ scoring the winner of a match is determined by adding up each shooter's ranking for each stage. CAS competitions are often designated by different Classes depending on the firearms used: Traditional . but firearms can be either original or reproduction guns. grab the money bag. nine or ten rifle rounds. is a competitive shooting sport that originated in California.uk .ucl. the hammer must be manually cocked before each shot can be fired. Modern . 29.ac. © Philip Treleaven 2008 105 feedback to p.Shooters use pistols with fixed sights. with the lowest score winning. CAS requires competitors to use firearms typical of the mid.’ The scenarios and stages are different for each competition. Stages are always different.Art of Shooting Chapter 29 Cowboy Action Shooting Cowboy Action Shooting (CAS) [1]. lever action rifles (chambered in pistol calibres) and side-by-side double barrel shotguns (e.1: Cowboy Action Shooting (courtesy SASS) firearms: two revolvers. in the early 1980s. the ‘ranges’ or courses of fire are typically mock-ups of Old West towns and the targets are typically steel plates that ring/clang/ding when hit. with some matches being scored simply by ‘total time’ plus penalties and bonuses. wagon or train seats. New Zealand.g. and Spain. 29.to late 19th century including single action revolvers. lever action rifle and double barrel shotgun. Matches are held throughout the United States. go outside and get their shotgun and shoot 4 shells from behind a rock or building. 29. shooting through the window with their pistol. then get their rifle from a saddle scabbard and so on. each typically requiring ten pistol rounds (using two single action revolvers). Finland. against the clock.3 Equipment Competitors are required to wear an authentic Western costume of some sort. Shooters compete one at a time. also known as Western Action Shooting or Single Action Shooting.

Single Action Shooting Society (SASS). and style of shooting [1]: Duellist .Shooter uses only one hand to fire pistols Gunfighter .” Stoeger (2001). Organisation Single Action Shooting Society Telephone +1 (714) 694-1800 Address SASS.shooters use black powder rather than smokeless powder in all their guns.bwss. “All About Cowboy Action Shooting. 21 Shardeloes Road. [4].uk Web site www.org. Frontiersman .uk .” (2001). [3]. 29.treleaven@cs. California 92887 Email www. ISBN-10: 0883172321.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. Hunter Scott Anderson.com.org.php Web site www.com/Contact-Us-001A.ac. ISBN13: 9780873418713.ucl.com Organisation British Western Shooting Society Telephone 016-422-53-3333 Address BWSS. cowboy action shooting competitions. Ronald Harris.sassnet. 23255 La Palma Avenue.Art of Shooting Frontier Cartridge . Yorba Linda.Shooter uses two pistols at once when the stage allows otherwise shoots his right side pistol with his right hand only and his left side pistol with his left hand only. Further Information http://en.org/wiki/Cowboy_action_shooting Wikipedia free encyclopedia.sassnet. “Cowboy Action Shooting”.wikipedia. the official sanctioning body for 29. Lincs PE25 3AA Email mail@bwss. “The Top Shooter's Guide to Cowboy Action Shooting. SKEGNESS.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 106 feedback to p.5 [1]. www.sassnet. [2].Shooter uses cap and ball revolvers and side by side double barrel or lever action shotguns.

© Philip Treleaven 2008 107 feedback to p. ‘shoot/no-shoot’ targets. pistol and shotgun on a simulated military or law enforcement course of fire (called stages).ac.ucl. Competitions as you might expect are military or law enforcement inspired. Service Pistol typically involves competitions between serving military personnel. Australia and Canada. Chapter 34 . shotgun Practical 3-gun shooting is popular in the United States.S.uk .A. The majority of pistols used in the UK for PP are CO2 powered. Shooting is often done on Military ranges. recent personnel and (where the Law allows) civilian enthusiasts. FCSA has over 4000 members and is growing steadily. air pistols and Airsoft. and often the course of fire comprise a series of stages. The standard calibre is . Competitors use a magazine fed pistol or revolver capable of firing multiple shots before reloading.Service Pistol A service pistol is any handgun (revolver. South Africa. Chapter 36 – Iron Plate Action Shooting Iron plate action shooting or I. and involves shooting a rifle. Chapter 32 – Civilian Service Rifle Civilian Service Rifle is a shooting discipline that involves the use of rifles that are used by military forces and law-enforcement agencies. or semi-automatic) issued to military personnel. Chapter 30 .Practical Rifle Practical rifle shooters use a civilian version of a modern service rifle. Finland.338 calibre) rifles at bullseye targets at ranges of 1.Practical 3-Gun Shooting – rifle. is the action shooting discipline.22 is allowed. with competitors shooting a simulated military or law-enforcement course of fire. Chapter 33 . sniper rifles (both past and present) and civilian versions of current use service rifles. Chapter 31 .56 calibre AR15.56 calibre cartridge). or in some contexts law enforcement officers.Art of Shooting Part F – Military and Practical Disciplines Summary The Military and Practical disciplines shoot civilian equivalents of modern service rifles such as the M16 (firing 5.Practical Pistol and Air Pistol Practical Pistol involves cartridge pistols. both past and present use.treleaven@cs. Switzerland. ‘pepper poppers’ and paper targets. designed specifically for the multi shot CO2 and Air cartridge pistols and is a form of “speed shooting”. Chapter 37 – Target and Practical Shotgun Target and Practical Shotgun involves competitors shooting self-loading or pump action shotguns with magazines containing 7-14 rounds at steel plates.50 calibre (and .000 yards and greater. handgun. To compete competitively a telescopic sight and large capacity magazines are a requirement (20 rounds is the norm although 10 rounds will suffice at a pinch). Chapter 35 .177 but . or air cartridge revolvers. FCSA has members in twenty-two countries including England.Fifty-Caliber (Long Range) Rifle The Fifty Caliber Shooting Association (FCSA) as the name suggests focus on firing .P. semi-automatic pistols and pump-action shotguns. with competitions involving a series of stages. such as a 5. These include ex-military rifles.

it is one of the least-known shooting disciplines.treleaven@cs. Other Disciplines The ‘McQueen’ (Sniper Rifle) . M16 in 9mm. Specifically it is a series of six Sniping competitions A to F [1]. Submachine gun and belt-fed Machine gun shooting competitions use Heckler & Koch MP5. Classic Sniper Rifle. Open Sniper Rifle.Art of Shooting Chapter 38 .ac.ucl. (Sub) Machine Gun .Although submachine gun matches have been happening in the United States since the early 1980's. Thompson.24 or 0. called: Sniper. Sten.The so-called McQueen is a sniper competition rather than a shooting discipline such as Fullbore or Smallbore target shooting. © Philip Treleaven 2008 108 feedback to p. and Any Rifle – shot at 300 yards. Sporting. and banned in most other countries. Target. Uzi and Mini Uzi. Carl Gustav M/45 / Swedish K and the MP40 (competitions must cost a small fortune!).Airsoft Rifles and Pistols Airsoft is a shooting discipline in which players participate in simulated military or law enforcementstyle combat using replicas (in appearance only) of real firearms firing small round pellets. electric. Sterling.32 inches). Airsoft guns (also known as Soft Air guns) are spring.uk . or gas powered air guns that fire small spherical plastic pellets of either 6 mm or 8 mm diameter (0.

pistol. The next chapter covers IDPA Defensive Pistol. below 45 metres. a breakaway group formed the International Defensive Pistol Association (IDPA) with the aim of returning to the defensive pistol roots of practical shooting. or even partially covering shoot targets. and shotgun. as with military or law enforcement training. Production. In the following two chapters we look at Practical Rifle and Practical Pistol shooting. movement. targets that react when hit. into a winning combination.2 Ranges and Targets Ranges simulate military or law enforcement training with a course of fire (called stages). and speed. In practical shooting competitors move around a course of fire or a series of ‘stages’ shooting at a variety of targets [1-3].1 Firearms and Ammunition The US Practical Shooting Association [1] subdivides firearms into the following classes: Pistols – semi-automatic pistols and revolvers divide by class into: Limited. the course designer can include multiple targets. and in any combination. In general.uk .2: Practical Shooting c) Shotgun For details of these classes refer to the USPSA web site [3].3 Equipment To compete in 3-gun practical shooting competitions you need a suitable pistol. 30. Targets are typically 75 centimetres by 45 centimetres with a 15-centimetre center representing the "A zone" or bullseye. in recent years in the United States 3-gun (rifle. rifle and shotgun. The goal for the competitor is to try and blend accuracy. Rifles – semi-automatic and manual rifles are dived into: Open. Open. In 1996. The sport is governed by the International Practical Shooting Confederation (IPSC) [1]. practical shooting has been a pistol sport. Tactical.treleaven@cs. and shotgun) has been growing in popularity.ac. obstacles. pistol. mainly from a UK perspective. and Revolver. This chapter covers IPSA and USA 3-gun shooting. and is primarily still so at an international level [3]. Most shooting takes place at close range. Shotguns – shotguns of all types are subdivided into: Open and Standard.Art of Shooting Chapter 30 Practical 3-Gun Shooting Practical 3 gun shooting is a sport that challenges an individual's ability to shoot rapidly and accurately with a full power rifle. However. Historically. Limited 10. penalty carrying targets mixed-in. a) Pistol b) Rifle Figure 30. moving targets. Standard. 30. Within the UK practical 3 gun competitions are held using other firearms to overcome the ban on © Philip Treleaven 2008 109 feedback to p. 30. Figure 30. power. competitive tactics.ucl. and Manually Operated.1: Practical 3-Gun (courtesy USPSA) incorporating the United States Practical Shooting Association (USPSA) [2] and UK Practical Shooting Association (UKPSA) [3].

org/ © Philip Treleaven 2008 110 feedback to p. Dressing in combat fatigues is discouraged. B (60%-74.org/wiki/Practical_shooting. 30.co.org Organisation Irish Practical Shooting Association Address PO Box 856.ucl. the The United States Practical Shooting Association.9%). governing body of practical shooting in America. or combination of clothing.uk. www.O. www. the UK region of the International as the name suggests. [3].co. Co. with an electronic ‘beep’ starting the stage and at the end of the stage the competitor shoots a metal ‘stop’ plate to stop the timer. which has a paramilitary style is considered inappropriate at practical 3-gun competitions.org. of practical shooting www. practical shooting http://en.ukpsa. PO Box 7057. Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association Telephone 07010 703845 Address UKPSA. Lightweight sporting Rifles (LWSR) and Long Barrelled Revolvers (LBR) or Gas Powered Pistols (GPP) guns. Scoring is a combination of points (target hits) and time.e.ipsc. Preston. Practical Shooting Confederation.org Web site www. and D (2%-40%).9%). to keep the sport from becoming too formalized or standardized. introduction to The UK Practical Shooting Association.9%).Art of Shooting pistols and to cater for those ranges where full bore rifles cannot be used. 30. Kildare Web site www.ac. Camouflage clothing of any irregular pattern is specifically banned by the UKPSA and many other associations. C (40%-59.treleaven@cs. A (75%-84.uspsa.uk Organisation United States Practical Shooting Association Telephone +1 (360) 855-2245 Address P. the free encyclopedia. The USPSA has a classification scheme for practical shooters so they can compete against shooters of a similar score and skill level: Grand Master (95%-100%). Targets are 75 centimetres by 45 centimetres with a 15-centimetre center representing the "A zone" or Bullseye.ukpsa.9%).ipsc-ireland. the International governing body 30. Naas.4 Competitions The rules of the IPSC state that the course of fire (i. This is to ensure that competitors are of a sufficient standard to cope with the difficult demands of practical shooting under competition conditions. Many competitions use a combination of Shotguns. UKPSA sanctioned matches are only open to those members who have successfully completed a two day basic safety course and obtained a competition licence. With the exception of serving military or police personnel who may wear their normal service clothing.5 [1]. [4].uk .6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. Master (85%-94. [2]. Box 811. any clothing.uspsa. with rare shots out to 45 metres. Further Information Wikipedia. Dorset DT4 4EN Email alan@mediainc.org. Sedro-Woolley. International Practical Shooting Confederation.co. All shooting is against the clock. Weymouth.wikipedia. stages) should be practical and diverse. Gallery Rifles. WA 98284 Email office@uspsa. Most pistol shooting takes place at close range.uk Web site www.

Art of Shooting

Chapter 31

Practical Rifle
In general, ‘Practical’ shooting covers rifles, pistols and air pistols, and also shotguns. Competitors move around a course or a series of ‘stages’ shooting at a variety of targets [1-3], as with military or law enforcement training. The goal for the competitor is to try and blend accuracy, power, and speed, into a winning combination. Practical Rifle evolved as a discipline to replace the old Service Rifle when the Armed Forces adopted the selfloading rifle in the late '60s. Courses of fire are devised by the individual match organiser, and usually involve a physical element (e.g. a 500 to 100 yard run down the range firing two shots every 100 yards). Matches may involve deliberate, timed and snapshooting, and may involve rapid reloading or changing of magazines. Competitions are usually fired on disruptive pattern targets. A rifle with a telescopic sight and a magazine capacity of at least 10 shots is advisable. In the USA targets are 75 centimetres by 45 centimetres with a 15 centimetre centre representing the "A zone" or bullseye.
Figure 31.1: Practical Rifle (Iain Robertson)

31.1

Rifles and Ammunition

You don't need any special equipment to take part except of course a rifle; typically a civilian version of a modern service rifle, such as a 5.56 calibre AR15. Having said that, it will soon become apparent that to compete competitively a telescopic sight and large capacity magazines are a requirement (20 rounds is the norm although 10 rounds will suffice at a pinch).

Figure 31.2: Practical Rifle

31.2

Ranges and Targets

Practical rifle is shot on outdoor ranges at static targets, with targets usually adopted from the ‘local’ NRA.

31.3

Equipment

As discussed, the basic equipment is a civilian equivalent of a modern, self-loading service rifle with a 10 or 20 round magazine, a telescopic sight with a 10-20 magnification, plus hearing protectors and casual clothing.

31.4

Competitions

As discussed above, the individual match organisers largely specify competitions, but courses of fire usually include a ‘physical’ and ‘disruptive’ element, such as running down the range and rapid loading of ammunition. Practical shooters also take part in UK Service Rifle [2] and High Power competitions [3].

31.5
[1]. [2]. [3]. [4].

Further Information
Practical Rifle, www.practicalrifle.co.uk, The web site for practical rifle shooters in the UK. The UK Practical Shooting Association, Practical Shooting Confederation.
www.ukpsa.co.uk,

the UK region of the International as the name suggests, the

The United States Practical Shooting Association, governing body of practical shooting in America. International Practical Shooting Confederation, of practical shooting
111

www.uspsa.org,

www.ipsc.org,

the International governing body
feedback to p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk

© Philip Treleaven 2008

Art of Shooting

31.6

Contacts

A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.
Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association Telephone 07010 703845 Address UKPSA, PO Box 7057, Preston, Weymouth, Dorset DT4 4EN Email alan@mediainc.co.uk Web site www.ukpsa.co.uk Organisation Irish Practical Shooting Association Address PO Box 856, Naas, Co. Kildare Web site www.ipsc-ireland.org/

© Philip Treleaven 2008

112

feedback to p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk

Art of Shooting

Chapter 32

Civilian Service Rifle
Service Rifle is a shooting discipline that involves the use of rifles that are used or were used by military forces and law-enforcement agencies. These include current military rifles (e.g. M16, SA80), ex-military rifles, sniper rifles (both past and present) and civilian versions of current use service rifles (AR15). In the United States the Civilian Marksmanship Program (CMP) governs civilian Service Rifle matches. Competitors must use an approved US military service rifle, or the civilian equivalent. This is generally either an M16 or AR15. In the UK, civilian Service Rifle courses of fire are based on those fired by the Armed Forces, and as with Practical Rifle usually involves a physical element (e.g. a 500 to 100 yard run down firing two shots every 100 yards). Matches may involve deliberate, rapid fire and snap shooting, and will usually involve firing from a variety of positions including prone, sitting, kneeling, and standing, and from a fire trench.

Figure 32.1: Service Rifle

For Military personnel the matches are fired with the current military issue rifle (the SA80 for British Forces) or, for overseas competitors (German H&K G36, USA M16), that of their own country.

32.1

Rifles and Ammunition

Service Rifle covers any rifle that has been in general issue with an armed force at some stage, or a civilian rifle based on a military rifle (H&K SL4/8, AR15 etc). However, many countries prohibit civilians from owning fully automatic rifles. Sights are usually restricted to the type issued with the rifle; not aftermarket target sights, modified military sights or optical sights (except for sniper class). Likewise, ammunition must be of a calibre that has been used with a military force at some stage and consistent with the rifle to which it is being used. However, the ammunition does not have to be military surplus (milsurp); any commercial or reloaded ammunition is acceptable if consistent with the original cartridge as to load and bullet weight. Service Rifle also includes ‘Sniper Class’, which covers military issued sniper rifles or faithfully reproduced sniper rifles. They should have an original optical sight, or a broadly similar civilian pattern telescopic sight, not greater than 4x32 power.

32.2

Ranges and Targets

Service Rifle is shot on civilian and military ranges from 100 to 600, or even 1000 yards at silhouette (head-torso) figure targets. Some competitions are shot on electronic targets that ‘fall’ when hit.

32.3

Competitions

As discussed, competitions are based on courses of fire fired by the Armed Forces and usually involve a physical element such as running down the range; deliberate, rapid fire and snap shooting; and firing from a variety of positions including prone, sitting, kneeling and standing. In the US, a CMP-designated Service Rifle match course of fire is: a) Standing - 10 shots standing, slow fire, 200 yards; b) Sitting - 10 shots sitting, rapid fire, 200 yards; c) Prone (rapid) - 10 shots prone, rapid fire, 300 yards; and d) Prone (slow) - 20 shots prone, slow fire, 600 yards. In the UK, a NRA-designated Service Rifle match course of fire is: a) Sitting - 10 shots sitting, 25 seconds, 200 yards; a) Standing - 10 shots standing, 100 yards; followed by kneeling or squatting, and c) Prone - 10 shots prone, rapid fire, 300 yards.
© Philip Treleaven 2008 113 feedback to p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk

[3].org/index. Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK Telephone 01483 797777 Address Bisley Camp. modern service rifles.treleaven@cs.shootingwiki.wikipedia. http://en.ac.4 [1]. [2].Art of Shooting 32.5 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. the free encyclopedia. Woking. Contact info@… 32. Surrey GU24 0PB Email info@nra.leeenfieldrifleassociation.uk .org/wiki/Service_Rifle. www. Further Information Wikipedia. Brookwood.org.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 114 feedback to p.uk Web site www.org.nra. list of historical and Shootingwiki. The Lee Enfield Rifle Association.uk .org. introduction to US Service Rifle.ucl.php?title=Service_Rifle. www.

1 and 33.7mm calibres the '50BMG' has the largest number of civilian users across the world.50BMG. Italy.1 Rifles and Ammunition Figure 33.000 ft/lbs depending on the loading. As the name implies it focuses on firing . 50BMG reloading data and retail information on rifles available to the UK shooter can be found on the FCSA (UK) website.uk).338 calibre rifles at bullseye targets (and others) at ranges of 1. Many members also compete at distances beyond 1000 yards with other large calibre rifles.338 right down to .'50cal' being the common name.2) are fitted with muzzle breaks or recoil compensators.1: Fifty Calibre Shooting The FCSA specialise in the 50BMG 12. Australia and Canada. All ammunition used in FCSA sanctioned 50cal shooting competitions is the “fixed” 50BMG design (12.408 CheyTec. As such the majority of UK ranges are not suitable. These are fitted to the muzzle of a firearm and redirect propellant gases with the benefit of countering both recoil and rising of the barrel during firing. Figure 33.2 Ranges and Targets To those not familiar with the .7x108mm or the short . such as Switzerland. 33. such as .50BMG calibre.ac. the Steyr HS50 50BMG and AMSD Nemesis 50 BMG from Switzerland. Europe and the US. Accuracy International AW50. with a muzzle velocity usually just under 3000 ft/sec.fcsa.50cal 'Spotter' as used on recoilless artillery.2: Accuracy International AW50 Rifle Popular 50BMG rifles in the UK include RPA Rangemaster . as 50BMG reloading components are the most readily available in the UK.50BMG. 33.50 calibre and other large calibres such as .000 yards and greater. Given the cost of shooting . That said. Finland.treleaven@cs.. Details such as forthcoming 50BMG rifle competitions. rather than the Russian counterpart 12. allowing shooting to around 3000m (see www.7x99mm Browning cartridge .co. there are a growing number of UK ranges that the FCSA (UK) have managed to gain access to (Mainly MOD Multi Purpose / Field Firing Ranges) that have been approved for 50BMG and usually even larger calibres. All of the rifles (see Figure 33. 33.Art of Shooting Chapter 33 Fifty-Caliber (Long Range) Rifle The Fifty Calibre Shooting Association (FCSA) is a discipline shot in the USA.uk .3 Equipment FCSA approved equipment comprises: © Philip Treleaven 2008 115 feedback to p.ucl. the FCSA allows members to use a variety of other calibre’s such as .7mm x 99mm). UK and a number of other countries. the muzzle energy can be in excess of 10.338 Lapua and now the . Malta.22LR. Compared to other 12. South Africa.

http://en. [2].00 oz. www.).restricted to a rifle that shoots a . BMG cartridge and restricted to a total overall weight of thirty two pounds and eight ounces (32 lbs 8. Rifle rests are restricted to the sand bag type made from soft pliable leather or a soft pliable material.co.510/.any rifle that shoots a bullet with a diameter of . UTAH 84754-0111 Email fcsa@scinternet.BOX111.4 Competitions The FCSA (UK) has 4 classes of competition: Light Class Fifty Calibre . article on the . Organisation Fifty Calibre Shooters Association UK Address Please make initial contact by email Email editor@fcsa. 5 shot group.Art of Shooting Rifle Rests . A rifle rest is also allowed to support the rear of the rifle.uk Organisation Fifty Caliber Shooting Association Telephone 00 1 435 527 9245 Address P. Hunter Class Fifty Calibre . 33.511 inches.fiftycal. (These can vary. 33.510/.) Pounds.uk .fcsa. The competitions usually consist of the smallest size. US organisation dedicated to the legal aspects of 50cal ownership in the USA. Unlimited Class Fifty Calibre -: any rifle that fires a bullet with a diameter of .it is recommended that wind flags be used at all FCSA sanctioned shooting competitions.uk Web site www.50 Browning Fifty Caliber Institute.5 [1]. Heavy Class Fifty Calibre .O. the free encyclopedia.org/wiki/.co.bipods are acceptable in any class of FCSA sanctioned shooting competition.org © Philip Treleaven 2008 116 feedback to p.50_BMG.treleaven@cs. see below.wikipedia.ac.511 inches and has a maximum overall weight of fifty (50 lbs. depending on the competition.org. Benches – benches are only allowed in ‘unlimited’ class fifty calibre.Competitors will shoot and compete from a prone shooting position with rifle equipped with bipods or other authorised supports.a rifle rest is allowed to support the forend of the rifle. Bipods . filled only with sand.ucl. Machine Gun cartridge. MONROE. Targets . Further Information Wikipedia.only the NRA-UK MR-1 600 yard target is approved for FCSA sanctioned 1000 yard shooting competitions.fcsa.net Web site www.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.50 cal.) Wind Flags . This does not preclude competitors from using and placing their own wind flags/wind measuring devices on the range during a shooting competition. 33.

obstacles. movement.red dots etc. competitors carry a number of magazines. (This Division is primarily for Anics users).1: Practical Pistol Barrelled Revolvers (LBR). and in any combination.). Air and Airsoft Pistol In the UK. However.: Brocock). following the Pistol ban.). 34.2 Ranges and Targets As discussed in previous chapters on Practical Shooting.Air cartridge revolvers (e. competitive tactics. allowed.Magazine capacity 10 rounds or less. Optical sights (red dots etc.ac. © Philip Treleaven 2008 117 feedback to p. the minimum cartridge case dimension for pistols to be used in IPSC matches is 9 X 19 a) Semi-Automatic b) CO2 Air Pistol c) Airsoft Pistol mm. Open .2: Handguns used for Practical Pistol mm (. UK competitors still compete in overseas competitions using semi-automatics. with the competitor moving around and shooting at a variety of targets positioned at varying distances. “Free” sights .354 inches).Magazine capacity 10 rounds or less. In addition.). Practical Pistol is still shot in Northern Ireland where a number of UKPSA Graded and Championship competitions take place. penalty carrying targets mixed-in. Air Pistols and Airsoft Pistols classify by group: Standard . Types of sights allowed by IPSC are: a) "Open sights" are aiming devices fitted to a firearm which do not use electronic circuitry and/or lenses. or even partially covering shoot targets. ranges simulate military or law enforcement training with a course of fire (called stages). (INCLUDES air cartridge revolvers [Brocock] with red dots etc.uk . targets that react when hit. There are also a number of competitions using Long Figure 34.see revolver Division). In general.). Practical Pistol involves magazine fed semi-automatics or revolvers capable of firing multiple shots before reloading. In most countries. Open sights (No red dots etc. moving targets. Practical Pistol now involves multi-shot Air pistols and Airsoft. Revolver .1 Pistols and Ammunition Practical Pistols are divided into divisions: IPSC Practical Pistols The IPSC separate pistols by Divisions. which they will need to change during the different stages. In general. (But NOT air cartridge revolvers [Brocock] . In mainland UK. the course designer can include multiple targets.Magazine capacity over 10 rounds. The vast majority of pistols are CO2 or Gas powered. The minimum bullet diameter is 9 Figure 34.ucl.treleaven@cs. equipped with open ‘iron’ sights or red-dot sights.Art of Shooting Chapter 34 Practical Pistol and Air Pistol In Practical Pistol (unlike traditional target pistol shot over a fixed distance at a bullseye target) every competition is different. and b) "Optical/electronic sights" are aiming devices (including flashlights) fitted to a firearm which use electronic circuitry and/or lenses. Modified . Open sights (No red dots etc.g. 34. The so-called stages (a dozen or so in a typical match) themselves are set up as shooting problems to be overcome by the competitor.

ucl. Practical Shooting Confederation. Targets are 75 centimetres by 45 centimetres with a 15 centimetre center representing the "A zone" or Bullseye. Weymouth.treleaven@cs. Kildare Web site www. www. and several hundred rounds of ammunition.38 calibre service revolvers. Preston. The United States Practical Shooting Association. and mastering a full power pistol is considerably more difficult than shooting a light recoiling target pistol especially when the competitor is trying to go as fast as possible.ukpsa. Most shooting takes place at close range.uk Organisation Irish Practical Shooting Association Address PO Box 856. Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association Telephone 07010 703845 Address UKPSA.co.ipsc. in the UK. [4].ac. Examples of pistols used include: . d) magazine pouch or clips. International Practical Shooting Confederation. Naas.org.45ACP semi-automatics. b) extra magazines.uspsa.co. governing body of practical shooting in America. a belt. the The UK Practical Shooting Association. www. the International governing body 34. www. [3]. Practical Air and Airsoft Pistol (UK) In the UK equipment comprises: a) an Air Pistol. PO Box 7057. introduction to Practical Pistol shooting the UK region of the International as the name suggests.ukpsa. and . 34.org.co. Co.btinternet. two ammo carriers.uk Web site www. Hitting a 15 centimetre A zone at 45 meters or less might seem easy to an experienced pistol shooter. Dorset DT4 4EN Email alan@mediainc.Art of Shooting 34. power. e) safety glasses. the competitor must try to blend accuracy. UKPSA sanctioned matches are only open to those members who have successfully completed a two day basic safety course and obtained a competition licence. each holding 8 rounds or 40 shots is required. Practical Pistol (USA) You can get started with very little equipment: a safe gun and holster. Further Information UK Practical Pistol. of practical shooting www. This power minimum reflects the heritage of this modern sport.com/~triplep/public_html. Time also plays a major factor.ipsc-ireland.uk .6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. f) airgun pellets. and speed. For competitions at least 5 magazines. c) holster and belt. Safety glasses are are mandatory. with rare shots out to 45 meters.org/ © Philip Treleaven 2008 118 feedback to p.3 Equipment The principal piece of equipment is a legal semi-automatic pistol or air pistol. This is to ensure that competitors are of a sufficient standard to cope with the difficult demands of practical shooting under competition conditions. 34. 9mm semi-automatic service pistols.4 Competitions In practical shooting. [2].5 [1]. into a winning combination.uk. and g) CO2 capsules [1]. but in IPSC only full power pistols are allowed (9mm or larger).

Art of Shooting

Chapter 35

Service Pistol
A service pistol is defined as any pistol (revolver, or semi-automatic) issued to military personnel, or in some contexts, law enforcement officers, such as those shown in Figure 33.2. Service Pistol typically involves competitions between serving military personnel. In the United States, Service Pistol matches are governed by the Civilian Marksmanship Program (www.odcmp.com), with input from the US military services and the National Rifle Association of America (NRA-USA). The course of fire is identical to the National Match Course described in the Bullseye section, but the distances are fixed at 50 yards and 25 yards and are not authorized to be reduced. Further, the firearms are restricted to two military styles, with open sights required, modifications extremely limited and only specific ammunition is allowed. Turning targets for the 25 yard portion are a requirement, as well.

Figure 35.1: Service Pistol

In the UK Service Pistol is governed by the Joint Services Shooting Committee, with input from the individual service shooting committees and the National Rifle Association of the UK and is restricted to military personal who shoot on military ranges. Courses of fire and targets are defined in the National Rifle Association Rules of Shooting, available to the general public. Service Pistol, as to be expected, is typically shot with current 9mm services pistols such as the HK P8 (Germany), Sig Sauer P226 (Japan), and Beretta M9 (USA) or Browning Hi-Power.

35.1

Ranges and Targets

Shooting is largely confined to military ranges. The targets used are the 50 and 25-yard full sized American Bullseye Pistol targets which include an X-ring that is counted for hits. The total possible score is 300-30x.

35.2

Competitions

Service Pistol completions (The National US Match Course of fire) are: 1 string of 10 shots fired in 10 minutes at 50 yards 2 strings of 5 shots fired in 20 seconds at 25 yards 2 strings of 5 shots fired in 10 seconds at 25 yards International matches are held between the armed forces’ teams of the USA, UK, Commonwealth, European and many other countries worldwide. Further details on Service Pistol can be found on Wikipedia and Shooting Wiki.

35.3
[1].

Further Information
Shooting Wiki, shooting.
http://www.shootingwiki.org/index.pp?title=Service_Pistol,

introduction to service pistol

© Philip Treleaven 2008

1

feedback to p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk

Art of Shooting

35.4

Contacts

A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.
Organisation National Rifle Association of the UK Telephone 01483 797777 Address Bisley Camp, Brookwood, Woking, Surrey GU24 0PB Email info@nra.org.uk Web site www.nra.org.uk

© Philip Treleaven 2008

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feedback to p.treleaven@cs.ucl.ac.uk

Art of Shooting

Chapter 36

Iron Plate Action Shooting
Iron plate action shooting or I.P.A.S, is the action shooting discipline, designed specifically for the multi shot Co2 and Air cartridge pistols and is a different form of “speed shooting”. IPAS is good for clubs wanting to shoot rapid fire pistol within limited space and with range equipment that’s easy to construct, set up and clear away/store, it also is appealing to the phyiscaly disabled as there is no movement required other than to draw the pistol.
Figure 36.1: Iron Plate Action Shooting IPAS was started in 2000 to foster ‘Steel Challenge’ competitions. Competitions involve the shooting of several stages where five steel plates either 10”x10”, 12"x12” or 12”x18” and set out at varying ranges and different but challenging layouts need to be hit and each sequence is timed. Each stage is shot 5 times and the slowest of the times is discarded, the remaining four being your score. It's fast, it's furious and most of all, it's fun.

The discipline relies on two basic principles: accuracy and speed.

36.1

Pistols and Ammunition

For IPAS competitions the following pistols are allowed: CO2 – these are replicas of centrefire pistols that are powered by a CO2 cartridge. CO2 guns use a disposable cylinder, a ‘powerlet’, that is purchased pre-filled with 12 grams of liquefied carbon dioxide. Tandem Air Cartridge (TAC) - these are multi-shot air guns based on the Air Cartridge System, which uses a pre-charged, single shot air cartridge (similar in size to a .38 Special cartridge).
TAC Figure 36.2: IPAS Pistols

a) CO2

The following pistols are not allowed: Target pistols, Single shot air pistols, Airsoft pistols and BB firing pistols. The ammunition allowed is standard lead-based air pellets; no steel based pellets or BB’s are permitted. This is to ensure that the pellet is destroyed on impact with the steel plate.

36.2

Ranges and Targets

Stages comprise various distances and layouts. There are currently 70+ official IPAS stages that can be used. The targets comprise metal plates the following sizes are used for IPAS: a) 10” x 10” Squares, b) 12” x 12” Squares, and c) 12” x 18” Rectangles. Each plate is mounted on a 2-inch square long post, held upright in a suitable base, the posts being of various heights: from 18” to 66” in 6” increments allowing for a vast number of stages.

© Philip Treleaven 2008

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uk http://en. The plate distances will vary between a minimum of 5m and a maximum of 25m from the designated shooting box.ipas. [2].ucl.3 Equipment The main equipment is holsters. Further Information Wikipedia. at waist level. 36.org.4 Competitions Each course of fire will consist of between two and five plates (one of which will be a "stop plate").wikipedia. No camouflage or paramilitary style clothing or clothing with offensive slogans to be worn.5 [1].Art of Shooting All plates are painted white apart from the ‘Stop’ plate which is blue or red and mounted on its respective post via a metal threaded stud affixed to the rear surface of the plate. Challenge Airsoft rifle and pistols.org. 36. Competitors are started by a shot timer’s “beep” and it will record the last shot fired by the competitor.uk . The competitor may fire as many rounds as they deem necessary to complete the course of fire.treleaven@cs. alternately a bolt through the centre of the plate (offset on the rectangular plates) 36. All holsters must retain the pistol. who maintain the IPAS web site.ipas. www. http://steelchallenge.uk Web site www. Triggers may not be fully exposed with any holster.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. the free encyclopedia. [3].uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 122 feedback to p. California. the governing body of the Steel Challenge the world speed shooting championship with the annual match is held in Piru. Organisation Iron Plate Action Shooting Email admin@ipas. Plate angles will also vary depending on the course of fire and range space limitations.org.org/wiki/Steel_Challenge overview of the Steel Iron Plate Action Shooting is organised by Sleeping Tigers. All holsters must be mounted in the vicinity of the strong side hip. Unless specified in the course briefing all primary plates may be engaged in any order (the stop plate is always engaged last). 36.ac.com/. Steel Challenge Shooting Association (SCSA).

Optical or electronic sights are allowed along with detachable magazines. including steel plates. No optical or electronic sights. competitors use self-loading (with fixed and removable box-fed magazines). The course of fire is made up of a variety of stages. the Browning Hunter Gold. In Target shotgun the ammunition used is Rifled slug.treleaven@cs. (These are referred to as Section 1 shotguns in the UK. Figure 37. The shotguns are typically 12-bore/gauge.uk . 9 ball Buck shot also known as SG is used on metal and paper targets. compensators and ported barrels. Standard Auto . IPSC classic paper targets and frangible targets such as clays. and birdshot. No optical or electronic sights. a competitor must have completed a two day basic course and gained a competition qualification as well as being a member of the UKPSA. No 5 or No 6 is used on metal targets and frangible clay targets. Any shotgun may be used along with any sights. Standard Manual . No optical or electronic sights. To compete in a UKPSA licensed practical (target) shotgun match. pump-action and occasionally lever-action shotguns. Benelli and Baikal self-loading shotguns. Practical shotgunners like to say ‘In Clay pigeon shooting the shooter stays still and the targets move around. Target shotgun – as covered by the UKPSA was introduced by the NRA at Bisley and involves competitors shooting set courses of fire (stages) from a static position at paper targets. Modified – any shotgun with fixed sights and a maximum overall length of 1320 mm. Practical Shotgun has four classes or divisions of guns which may be used. with magazines holding Figure 37.) Popular makes are the Remington 1100 and 11-87.ucl.ac. We distinguish between: Practical shotgun – as covered by the International Practical Shooting Confederation (IPSC) is a dynamic form of shooting which can involve movement and shooting from different positions at multiple targets. these will be different from one match to the next.Art of Shooting Chapter 37 Target and Practical Shotgun Target and Practical Shotgun involves competitors using self-loading or pump action shotguns with magazines containing 6-14 rounds.any semi auto shotgun with fixed sights and holding a maximum of 9 rounds. © Philip Treleaven 2008 123 feedback to p. Practical shotgun uses a variety of ammunition. Open .1 Shotguns and Ammunition In Target shotgun.any pump action shotgun with fixed sights and holding a maximum of 9 rounds. Rifled Slug is used on paper targets. In practical shotgun the shooter competes against the timer and must either knock down the steel targets or when shooting on paper have the scoring zones scored.1: Target & Practical Shotgun 37. in Practical Shotgun the targets are stationary and the shooter moves around’. There are no gun divisions except for the Embassy Cup which is divided into semi-auto and pump action. These are Section 1 shotguns which must be held on a Firearms certificate.any shotgun.2: Practical Shotgun between six and fourteen rounds.

2 sighters. Both shooting disciplines require a cartridge belt for the carrying of ammunition. 6 shots in 30 seconds on the left hand (of a pair) paper target. TBT . b) Practice 2 – 20 metres. 37.uk . the The United States Practical Shooting Association. Target shotgun is shot at ranges of 15 to 30 metres for short competitions and at 100 and 200 yards for long range.org. with 2 shots on each target standing.3 Equipment Apart from a self-loading or pump action shotgun and the appropriate ammunition. www. [3]. 2 shots on each target standing. buckshot and birdshot. and then 2 shots on each target kneeling. ‘Shotgun bowling’ is shot in the standing position with the target being 10 bowling pins. 2 shots on each target sitting. and c) Practice 3 – 10 metres. governing body of practical shooting in America. The stages are different for every competition and usually includes shotgun bowling pins.ipsc. 6 shots in 20 seconds. www.5 [1].org. Further Information The UK Practical Shooting Association. 2 shots per exposure on right hand shoot/no-shoot target. 2 shots on each target standing. c) Practice 3 – 15 metres. Targets include: paper targets – DP1.uk.ucl. and b) 200 yards. b) Practice 2 – 15 metres.this is shot without movement and comprises a number of stages shooting slug. prone. 2 sighters. 12 shots in 2 minutes at fixed paper targets. The competition comprises four courses of fire: a) Practice 1 – 25 metres. with the ready position comprising the shotgun being held waist height and parallel to the ground.treleaven@cs. the UK region of the International as the name suggests. with the ready position comprising the shotgun being held waist height and parallel to the ground.this is shot in the standing stance. reload with at least 4 rounds. DP2 and IPSC Classic targets. scored as per ten pin bowling. 37.2 Ranges and Targets Practical shotgun is shot at variety of targets including steel plates. reload with at least 4 rounds. followed by 10 shots in 12 minutes sitting or kneeling. IPSC classic paper targets and frangible targets such as clays. 6 shots in 15 seconds. 37. sitting and kneeling with the standard ready position. The competition comprises: a) Practice 1 – 100 yards. 3 shots on each of a pair of targets. of practical shooting www. in unlimited time. However. NRA Shotgun Slug Match – this is shot standing and sitting/kneeling at 100 and 200 yards using shotgun ‘slug’ ammunition.uspsa. and c) Practice 3 – 15 metres. and d) Practice 4 – 10 metres.Art of Shooting 37.ac. reload with at least 4 rounds. followed by 2 strings of 5 shots each in 30 seconds. International Practical Shooting Confederation.co. most types of casual clothing can be worn. 6 shots on shoot/no-shoot targets. paramilitary style clothing is considered inappropriate. 3 shots one each of a pair of fixed targets. The competition comprises three courses of fire: a) Practice 1 – 25 metres. The UKPSA do not allow DPM clothing at any of their competitions. as with other forms of target shooting. [2]. Embassy Cup (Bund der Militär – und Polizeischűtzen) – this is shot in a variety of positions: standing. It comprises a single practice – 25 metres. the International governing body © Philip Treleaven 2008 124 feedback to p.ukpsa. then 2 shots on each target prone. 6 shots in 3x4 seconds exposure. b) Practice 2 – 20 metres. Practical Shooting Confederation. 12 in two strings of 6 at shoot/no-shoot ‘turning’ targets.4 Competitions Target shotgun competitions have their roots in the old pistol courses of fire: Timed and Precision (the ‘Sydney Street’) – this is shot in the standing stance. Each course of fire comprises 8 shots in 20 seconds at a pair of fixed papers targets The competition comprises: a) Practice 1 – 25 metres. Multi-Target (the ‘Trenchard’) .

Preston.Art of Shooting 37.ac.ukpsa.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 125 feedback to p.co. Weymouth. PO Box 7057.ucl.treleaven@cs.co.uk Web site www. Dorset DT4 4EN Email alan@mediainc.uk .6 Contacts Organisation The UK Practical Shooting Association Telephone 07010 703845 Address UKPSA.

with the most popular being 6mm between 0. Battery power is provided by a variety of sources. As introduced.4 volt NiMh battery which are the most common for standard AEG's.25 gram that are over 350 fps. The better versions have a hop up unit at the start of the barrel (an adjustable piece of rubber) which imparts back spin on the bb leaving the chamber increasing its stability and allowing adjustment of its flight through the air. and 0.treleaven@cs. These guns operate in automatic or semiautomatic mode. However. but many of the expensive ‘sniper’ rifles also use this system. standard white. gears. electric or spring. the most popular Airsoft guns are AEGs because of their high rate of fire and the convenience of automatic fire without the cost or unreliability of gas. © Philip Treleaven 2008 126 feedback to p.90 grams. range. a gearbox (see Figure 38. battery life. spring. or spring guns that fire small spherical plastic pellets of either 6 mm or 8 mm diameter (0.ucl.95 mm) and up to approx 350 fps. and are capable of automatic or semi-automatic operation. and piston which drives the pellet by air pressure through the chamber and out of the gun. cheap yellow plastic. normally. South Korea and other East Asia countries. or difficult to obtain due to local laws [1]. but gas power is greatly affected by ambient temperature and in cold condition may not work effectively. China. ranging from Teflon coated special sniper rounds.uk . pellet magazine capacity).24 or 0. Figure 38. Springers are common in cheap Airsoft guns.12-0.Art of Shooting Chapter 38 Airsoft Rifle and Pistol 0B Airsoft is a shooting discipline in which players participate in simulated military or law enforcementstyle combat using replicas (in appearance only) of real firearms firing small pellets. Airsoft guns (also known as Soft Air and Strike Ball) are gas powered. There are two basic types of electric Airsoft guns: a) Automatic Electric Guns (known as AEGs) and the child's version Mini-Autos. must be cocked each time they are fired. most commonly used are 0. Airsoft shooting as a sport originated in the late-1980s in Japan. Taiwan.also known as ‘springs’ or ‘springers’. Gas-powered Airsoft guns . electric or springer. where conventional firearms were often banned. which are more expensive.20 gram (5. In summary.use pressurized gas to propel the pellets.33 grams in weight [3]. Higher weight improve accuracy with less wind drift but reduces range therefore higher power requirement to counteract this.1) houses the motor. 134A gas is the most common recommended propellant. and Biodegradable.g.1: Typical AEG Gear box cut away 38. There are several types of pellets.32 inches). Electric-powered Airsoft guns .12-0. most better quality Airsoft guns require heavier pellets. Spring Airsoft guns . power. The choice of Airsoft guns is determined by either the performance (e.use a rechargeable battery to drive an electric motor that in turn drives an air piston assembly that fires the pellet. With an AEG. consisting of a mixture of propane and polysiloxane lubricant. Gaming – which involves (like paintball but more realistic) simulated military style combat and typically involve hitting an adversary with one of more pellets. The light weight 0. Airsoft events subdivide into: Practical Pistol – that involves the competitor moving around a course of fire and shooting at targets. hits declared on an honour system. electric.12 gram pellets are used in the cheaper types of gun. most Airsoft pellets are plastic and are 6mm or 8mm in diameter. either by common AA batteries or 8. Gas power guns can be very powerful and are often used for top end sniper rifles.ac. and range in weight from 0.1 1B Rifles and Ammunition The guns used in Airsoft can be divided into three groups based on their power source: gas-powered.

U [3].or. In CQB maximum power restrictions may be imposed on guns used of 1 joule. equipment harness etc.treleaven@cs. essential ‘eye’ (a legal requirement in some countries) and face protection.org HU UH © Philip Treleaven 2008 127 feedback to p. the free encyclopedia.2 2B Ranges and Targets Ranges and targets broadly divide into: Close Quarter Battle (CQB) – intense close range battle often involving room clearance. pistols.ukara.wikipedia. It is fairly common for Airsoft players to wear battle dress uniform (BDU).airsoft-shooting.ucl. Outdoor ranges – ordinary target shooting with all types of gun.org/wiki/Airsoft_Pellets. Official UK Airsoft organisations http://www.org.org. the free encyclopedia.6 6B Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. overview of Airsoft pellets. grenades.ukara.ie Web site http://irishairsoft. Pop up targets or real opposing players may be involved.uk the United Kingdom Airsoft Retailers Association or United Kingdom Airsoft Sites Governing Body www. or under and a ‘verbal bang’ rule may be operated. hostage rescue. U overview of Airsoft rifle and [2]. tactical clothing. http://en.uk . with some countries placing restrictions on the visual appearance of the firearms and others restrictions on the maximum muzzle energy. US Airsoft Practical Shooting Association.ukasgb. shirt and jacket. Use is also made of pyrotechnics in the form of grenades. the United States Association for Airsoft HU UH 38.org. Wikipedia. 38. consisting of separate trousers/pants. Further details are given in the references [1. 2].ie/ HU U HU UH Organisation International Airsoft Practical Shooting (IAPS) Web site www. and often use made of pyrotechnics to simulate flash bangs. 38. www. Airsoft Gaming – gaming may include CQB but generally is conducted in more open terrain and woodland with ranges of approx 75-200 feet.usapsa. Wikipedia. 38.wikipedia.uk Web site http://www. flash bangs and smokes. tactical or military surplus clothing. simulating military engagements. Organisation United Kingdom Airsoft Retailers Association Email admin@ukara.uk U U U Organisation Irish Airsoft Association Email info@irishairsoft.3 3B Equipment Airsoft equipment comprises Airsoft gun.Art of Shooting 38.org.uk HU UH HU UH H [4].ac. and smoke.org/wiki/Airsoft_guns U U [1].5 5B Further Information http://en.4 4B Competitions Airsoft guns and gaming are legal in many countries but not all.

Sporting Rifle Popular with field sports shooters. There are separate competitions for boys and girls. buck) that are shot prone. Pony Club Tetrathlon is particularly important in the UK. as it is the entry point for many of the UK’s finest female air pistol shooters. is a competition combining cross-country riding with running. A typical course is laid out.g.000 mounted shooters (in over 135 mounted shooting clubs) throughout 47 states in the US. respectively.treleaven@cs. Shooting at static ‘game’ targets includes Silhouette Rifle.Field Target (Air Rifle) Field target shooting – shot with highly accurate air rifles – combines the outdoor field conditions of rough shooting. shooting and swimming events. such as stalking. Silhouette Shooting) at any distance from 7. Moving target disciplines include the enormously popular Clay Pigeon shooting. Chapter 40 . kneeling. Chapter 41 .mounted shooting is a new equestrian sport where competitors race through various patterns of barrels and poles within in an area while firing 45 calibre pistols loaded with black powder blanks at balloon targets. Other Shooting Disciplines There are other ‘outdoor’ disciplines that combine shooting with other sports. A typical course is laid out. Each round consists of 25 targets.5 metres to 55 metres. Chapter 39 . It encompasses static targets (e. Another popular variant is summer biathlon. and socalled Running Boar and Running Deer shot with Smallbore and Fullbore rifles. with the precision of target shooting. pigs. with the aim of knocking them over. deer. with the precision of target shooting. and also shotguns.ucl. match or sniper rifle.uk . outdoors with a route to walk and at set points are shooting points with a knockdown target (cf. standing and from the bench. Pony Club Tetrathlon . Biathlon Shooting – the Biathlon usually refers specifically to the winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. similar to the Modern Pentathlon. the rifles used must be in the style of a ‘sporting rifle’ rather than that of a target.e.Art of Shooting Part G – Field Sports Disciplines Summary Field Sports disciplines simulate moving and static targets found in traditional field sports.the Pony Club Tetrathlon. Formal Clay shooting consists of a number of disciplines. clays) with a shotgun. boar) that are shot standing. Pistol and Shotgun Silhouette shooting comprises shooting at heavy metal targets of chickens. Mounted Shooting . There are more than 5. Trap shooting has targets fired away from the participant at different angles as well as different heights. such as Trap and Skeet. using rifles and pistols. Chapter 42 . and Field Target shot with Air Rifles. turkeys and rams.Silhouette Rifle. fox.g. outdoors with a route to walk and at set points are shooting lanes with one knockdown targets in each at any distance from 8 metres to 45 metres with hit zone from 15 to 45mm diameter. popular in the United States.ac. Skeet involves shooting at targets fired horizontally from a low and high house both as singles and pairs. Chapter 43 . which combines cross-country running with rifle shooting. and moving/running mechanical targets (e.Hunter Field Target (Air Rifle) Hunter Field target shooting (HFT) – shot with air rifles – combines the skill of outdoor field conditions of rough shooting.Clay Pigeon Shooting Clay pigeon shooting is the art of shooting flying targets (i. © Philip Treleaven 2008 128 feedback to p.

Open Air Rifle. and Smallbore Hunter's Pistol. almost any pre-1896 (American) manufactured single shot hunting or military style rifle is allowed. Target Air Rifle and Sporter Air Rifle. Smallbore rifle.ucl. Smallbore Rifles Smallbore rifles comprise any unmodified . Again two categories are allowed: a) Hunting rifles. the Hunter. The most popular calibre used is the . pigs. turkeys and rams. High powered Rifles Two categories of rifle are allowed: a) Hunting rifles – a standard bolt action rifle with a maximum weight including scope of 9 lbs. using rifles and pistols. 39. Shooting is done standing or prone. The two major governing bodies are the National Rifle Association (NRA-USA) and the International Handgun Metallic Silhouette Association (IHMSA). Pistols NRA-USA rules [1] designate three types of Silhouette pistols. Long Range Silhouette pistol categories comprise: a) Conventional – permitting minor modifications to commercial pistols. Black powder cartridge rifle.comprises shooting at heavy metal targets of chickens.treleaven@cs. The first sanctioned shoot was held in Tucson in 1973 when the NRA-USA sponsored the first national championship. and using commercial ammunition. pistols and shotguns. pistols and air guns to be used for Silhouette shooting [2]. Air Guns Any calibre of air rifle and air pistol up to .22 calibre may be used outdoor and indoor ranges. 2 oz. and b) Silhouette rifles. Smallbore Silhouette pistols are similar in specification. © Philip Treleaven 2008 129 feedback to p.45 70. Rifle categories include: High powered rifle.1: Silhouette Shooting prone. Hunter's Pistol.22 rifle chambered for . Pistol categories include: Long Range Pistol. Hence novice shooters need not shoot against master class shooters.uk . The sport ‘emigrated’ to the US in the early 70's. A variety of rifles.22 calibre. and b) Silhouette rifles – a more flexible category with a maximum weight of 10 lbs. with the aim of knocking them over.1 Rifles and Ammunition The NRA-USA rules allow a wide variety of rifles.ac. allows minor modifications to conventional pistols. long and long rifle. IHMSA and NRA-USA’s freestyle positions are shot Figure 39.Art of Shooting Chapter 39 Silhouette Rifle and Pistol Silhouette shooting – highly popular in the United States . and b) Unlimited – allowing custom pistols below a 15” barrel length and 41⁄2 lbs weight. but restricted to . Silhouette shooting originated in Mexico in the days of Poncho Villa as entertainment. with restrictions on barrel length of 103⁄4 inches and weight of 41⁄2 lbs.22 calibre rimfire short. As with many United States shooting disciplines. Black Powder Rifles With BP rifles. a class system exists so shooters compete against shooters of similar ability. Lastly. intended for distances up to 100 meters. especially black powder are used.

4 Competitions Competitions comprise shooters firing a specific number of shots at groups of targets. as long as it doesn’t afford any artificial support. 39. breech open and muzzle pointing down range. Stage 5 – after a short break. 39. one at each of 5 targets in a single bank. comprising 21⁄2 minutes to fire 5 rounds. Pistol time is only 2 minutes.ac. but the progression is always chickens-pigsturkeys-rams-chickens etc. Shooters typically divide themselves into relays that shoot together. b) Target Air Rifle – any unmodified factory air rifle. lower-right. To score a hit the target must fall off its stand. Stage 6 – when the relays have completed all their banks. When the shooter finishes. and c) Sporter Air Rifle – any unmodified factory rifle weighing less than 11 lbs.ucl. two for pigs and so on. Pistol targets and ranges are: chickens 50 metres. unloaded. turkeys 150 metres and rams 200 metres. Each shooter then records their score. pigs at 300 metres. A match consists of 40 shots. on a stand. the Chief Range Officer will stop all shooting. the relay shoots the next bank of targets. Traditionally a shooter may start with any animal. he lays the rifle or pistol on the adjacent bench. one shot per target.Art of Shooting Three categories of rifle are used: a) Open Air Rifles – any air rifle weighing no more than 16 lbs. 39. to allow the relays to go forward safely to reset the animals. A match proceeds through a number of stages under the instructions of the Chief Range Officer. The shooters commence firing. Firing ceases immediately and the shooters place their weapons on the adjacent benches. The shooters start their times. pigs 100 metres. with the Chief Range Officer repeating the ‘Listo-Fuego-Alto Fuego’ sequence. with each relay being up to eight shooters: two for chicken. At each stage the shooter fires 10 shots at 10 animals. marking an ‘X’ for a hit and a ‘0’ for a miss. Stage 2 – the command ‘Listo’ (Spanish for ready) is announced.3 Equipment Silhouette shooting demands very little expense associated with equipment. Figure 39. Stage 3 – the command ‘Fuego’ (Spanish for fire) is announced. Stage 1 – a relay is called to the line of fire.uk . with the winner being the one who knocks down the most targets. shooting mat. Stage 4 – after two minute 45 seconds the command ‘Alto Fuego’ (Spanish for cease fire) is announced. gloves and any type of normal clothing. A spotting scope (for the Coach). Typically chickens are shot at 200 metres. hit or miss. check their sights and aim at the lower left-most animal in their bank of five targets. followed by then another 21⁄2 minutes to fire 5 rounds at 5 targets in a second bank.2: Silhouette Targets (Pyramyd Air) © Philip Treleaven 2008 130 feedback to p. load a magazine or a single round. Banks are shot lower-left.treleaven@cs. Targets are placed in banks of 5 targets. turkeys at 385 metres and rams at 500 metres. upper-left.2 Ranges and Targets The rifle targets are heavy steel ‘silhouette’ cut-outs of animals at a range of distances.

Organisation The National Silhouette Association Ireland Address NSA.asp International Handgun Metallic Silhouette Association (IHMSA). (1988).5 [1].treleaven@cs.Art of Shooting 39.org © Philip Treleaven 2008 131 feedback to p.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. P. 39.net/~ntsai/nsai.html Organisation International Handgun Metallic Silhouette Association Telephone +1 801 733-8423 Address HQ IHMSA. Email silhouetteireland@eircom. NRA-USA. http://en. [4]. UT 84090-1120 Email lorene@ihmsa. www.org/compete/silhouette.O.net Web site http://homepage. Further Information Wikipedia. good introduction Elgin Gates. PO Box 901120.Box 9.ihmsa. to Silhouette shooting.nrahq.eircom. [3].ihmsa. [2]. “Silhouette Competition – how to get started”.ac. Blackrock. Co. Dublin.uk .ucl. Sandy.org/wiki/Metallic_silhouette.org.wikipedia. www. the free encyclopedia.org Web site www. Ireland. "Gun Digest" Book of Metallic Silhouette Shooting”.

2 Ranges and Targets One of the benefits of the Sporting Rifle discipline with Northern Europe’s inclement weather is that shooting is on covered outdoor ranges. match or sniper rifle. 100m Running Deer Shooting takes place from an enclosed firing point at a ‘Siamese’. comprising an undercover firing point.177 Air Rifles are used.308).com) b) Static Target Sporting rifles used on the running deer or statics are Figure 40.g. kneeling.22LR Rifle For the running boar. 50m Running Boar Running boar is similar to the running deer in as much as shooters fire at a ‘Siamese’ target as it crosses a gap in front of them. The 10m ranges are fully enclosed.g. 40. working for the greater safety and accuracy in the use of the sporting rifle on the range and in the field. with . It encompasses moving/running mechanical targets (e. ‘fast’ or a mixture of ‘slow’ and ‘fast’.ucl. standing and from the bench.177 Air Rifle For the ISSF 10m running target . while the target is in the open at 100m for static targets and running deer. special heavy barrel . using a centrefire rifle. 40. fox.g. Either one or two shoots are fired at the target in each direction. due to the number of rounds fired in quick succession and for the ‘swing’.uk . sitting. and b) Class B – calibres not less than . moving target at 100m on a trolley across a 23m wide opening between two banks. and that the speed of the runs can be either ‘slow’. standing and from the bench. deer) that are shot standing. or two headed.treleaven@cs. sitting. Centrefire Rifle a) Running Target (Pilkguns.243. shot at 100m in a variety of positions: prone. .240 and greater than 1700 ft/lbs muzzle energy (e.ac.. . boar. depending on the competition. .1 Rifles and Ammunition The rifles used must be in the style of a ‘sporting rifle’ rather than that of a target. kneeling. and static targets (e.22LR rifles are typically used. depending on the event. All the Sporting Rifle targets are electronically scored.1: Sporting Rifle divided into: a) Open class – any centrefire rifle within range limits. with and without shooting aids such as sticks and slings. buck) that are shot prone. 100m Static Targets The ‘Statics’.Art of Shooting Chapter 40 Sporting Rifle This discipline fosters competitive shooting with the sporting rifle. © Philip Treleaven 2008 132 feedback to p. Shooters typically use rifles with heavy barrels both for the moving and static targets. and 50m for running boar. comprise targets such as Fox and Buck.22" rimfire rifles only. The main differences between this and running deer are that it is shot at 50m.

with the speed being set to slow. The target travels across a two-meter wide aisle at the range of 10 metres from the firing point.” (Russian to English translation by the NRA (1985).org/wiki/10_m_Running_Target. kneeling and standing shoots. 100m Running Deer The running deer embraces a number of competitions. where the shooter fires twice during each run. 50m Running Boar The running boar competitions are similar to running deer.wikipedia. The boar’s speed can be set to slow.22LR rifle (ideally heavy barrelled) for the running boar and a target air rifle for the 10m. As shooting aids. . http://en. With Twin-post scopes the reticle has two independently adjustable posts. [2]. plus for the statics a full-length bipod and optionally a sling. which are used to correctly set the scope for the required amount of lead for the ‘slow’ and ‘fast’ runs of the target. Further Information A. 2 kneeling 2 standing. shot with an airgun at a moving target. for the seated. respectively. this is a truly wonderful book.treleaven@cs. there is the ‘doubles’. introduction to © Philip Treleaven 2008 133 feedback to p.308) for the running deer and statics. “Competitive Shooting.5 [1]. In addition.5 seconds. taken as the deer alternatively traverses left then right at 100m. as discussed above. 100m Static Targets The statics embrace a number of competitions shooting a static buck or fox target. each competitor shooting 20 slow and 20 fast. a) Statics b) Running (Boar) Figure 40.223. fast or random slow/fast. the free encyclopedia. The one distinctive piece of equipment used by International-level competitors is the so-called Twinpost scope. with each shooter typically allowed 2-4 sighters shots followed by 10-20 scoring shots. Typically each shooter has 2-4 ‘sighters’ or practice shots followed by 10 or 20 scoring shots. 10m Running Target 10m running target completions are essentially the same as the 50m running boar. and is visible for 5 or 2.ac.g. the shooter can use a bipod or a sling.Art of Shooting 10m Running Target 10 m Running Target is one of the ISSF shooting events. A. 40. 40. ISSF 10m running targets. The full course of fire in a regular event is 20 shots at each speed. Wikipedia. Yur' Yev. the important pieces of equipment are ear defenders. 2 seated. but are shot at 50m. and 2 from the bench. fast or random slow/fast. a .4 Competitions The Sporting Rifle discipline offers a wide variety of static and moving target competitions.ucl. Shooters find the running boar addictive.uk . A popular test is the ‘stalkers’ where the shooter takes 2 shots prone.2: Sporting Rifle Targets 40. but hard to find. The target moves at either slow or fast speed.3 Equipment Besides a centrefire rifle (e.

Woking.co.bsrc.treleaven@cs.org. Surrey.ucl.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.Art of Shooting 40.ac.com Web site www.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 134 feedback to p.uk Web site www.uk Organisation Welsh Airgun Association Email iharris@btinternet. Brookwood. GU24 0PB Email secretary@bsrc. Organisation The British Sporting Rifle Club (BSRC) Address c/o NRA. Bisley Camp.co.uk .welsh-airgun.

© Philip Treleaven 2008 135 feedback to p.ac. shot size must not exceed 2. Figure 41.1: Clay Pigeon 41.2 Ranges and Targets Clay pigeon ranges broadly subdivide into Trap and Skeet [1]. Shotguns used are under and over. Skeet involves shooting at targets fired horizontally from a low and high house both as singles and pairs. For clay pigeon shooting. It is the art of shooting flying targets (i.5mm) in diameter. side-by-side or semi-automatic (Pump action shotguns are generally considered unsuitable). the maximum permitted bore is 12 (gauge).1 Shotguns and Ammunition For clay pigeon shooting at registered events [4]. English No.e.treleaven@cs.729 inches (18. 6 shot).ucl. Barrel lengths typically vary from 26-32 inches (66-81cm).3. Each round consists of 25 targets for Trap and Skeet and up to 100 targets for Sporting Clays [1]. Formal Clay shooting consists of a number of disciplines. illustrated by Figure 41. angles and elevations.Art of Shooting Chapter 41 Clay Pigeon Shooting Clay pigeon shooting is a hugely popular international sport across the globe. in their natural habitats. a) Under and Over b) Semi-Automatic Figure 41. equivalent to 0.uk . a) Trap Figure 41.6mm (i. The shot load must be a maximum 24 gram for Olympic Trap.2: Clay Pigeon Shotguns 41.3: Clay Pigeon Ranges b) Skeet Trap Ranges Trap targets are thrown either as singles or doubles from one or more traps situated some 15 metres in front of the shooter and are generally going away from the firing point at varying speeds. clays) with a shotgun. Sporting Clays are presented to the shooter in ways that mirror the flight pattern of game birds. or rabbits. such as Trap and Skeet: Trap shooting has targets fired away from the participant at different angles as well as different heights. and 28 gram (1 oz) for all UK competition disciplines. Olympic Skeet and Double Trap.e.

e. high/low simultaneous pair. is similar to American trap but allows two shots at each target with a penalty for a second barrel hit. popular in the USA. at opposite ends of a semicircular arc. Automatic Ball Trap (ABT). popular in the UK and Commonwealth. American Trap – in this trap discipline. a low single and then a double (i. angles and elevations. plus eye and ear protectors. a clay pigeon shooting vest. uses fifteen machines arranged in five stations.4: Clay Pigeon Targets [1] 25-26 mm. A squad of six competitors take turns in shooting from the five stations. Other disciplines are: Single Barrel.3 Equipment For clay pigeon shooting the ‘standard’ equipment is an ‘over-or-under’ or semi-automatic 12 bore (gauge) shotgun. and on station 7 a low single. plus the popular Sporting Clays [1]. 2. on station 6 a high single.ac.ucl. Olympic Trap – Olympic Trap. standard targets are thrown as singles at constant height but at a random angle at a maximum of 22 degrees to the centre line. …5 basis. A round comprises 25 targets with one shot allowed at each target. Trap Shooting As introduced. a low single and then a double (shooting the low target first). Skeet Shooting With Skeet disciplines.4 Competitions Clay pigeon shooting has over 20 official competitions (referred to as ‘disciplines’). Clay Pigeon Targets Clay pigeon targets (clays) are saucer-shaped and made from a mixture of pitch and clay.5 metres.4). The course of fire is 125 shots for men and 75 shots for women. at opposite ends of a semicircular arc on which there are seven shooting positions. Trap disciplines include: Down-the-Line (DTL) – traditional DTL. shooting the high target first). 41.5 metres and a maximum height of 3. on station 5 a high single and a low single. but fragile enough to smash when hit. © Philip Treleaven 2008 136 feedback to p.treleaven@cs. robust enough to be thrown. 25 at a time across 4 different layouts with 5 targets shot on each stand rotating on a 1. on station 3 a high single and a low single (no double).uk . Worldwide the main disciplines are: English Skeet – a round of skeet consists of 25 targets in a sequence with squads of five shooting from seven stations. Double Rise. They divide into Trap and Skeet. Targets are usually orange or black (see Figure 41. The targets are thrown at set trajectories and speeds. targets are thrown at set trajectories and speeds from 2 trap houses situated some 40 metres apart. A typical competition has a competitor shooting at 100 targets.Art of Shooting Skeet Ranges Skeet targets are thrown in singles and doubles from 2 trap houses situated some 40 metres apart. DTL uses a layout set up with 5 stands in a crescent shape 16 yards from a traphouse which throws a target between 0 and 22. and are of a precise weight and size for each of the various disciplines [1]. The a) Standard b) Midi c) Mini d) Battue e) Rabbit ‘standard’ weighs 105 grams. in Trap disciplines targets are thrown away from the firing point at varying speeds. With English Skeet each squad member takes shots: on station 1 & 2 a high single. has a diameter of 110 mm and a thickness of Figure 41.5 degrees to either side of a centre line to a distance of 50-55 yards from the traphouse. a low single and then a double(the shooter has to nominate which target they are shooting first). 41. with a maximum target angle of 45 degrees. one of the ISSF shooting events. a high single and then a double(shooting the low target first). and is the only clay used in all of the trap and skeet disciplines. on station 4 a high single. Double Trap and Universal Trench. Targets have a minimum height of 1.

co.ac. ISBN 0-9552221-0-9.cfm. Sandyford. Olympic Skeet . “Successful Clay Pigeon Shooting. with targets being thrown in a great variety of trajectories. C.ie/ Organisation Scottish Clay Target Association Email Julian Cordery (Julian.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix. Federation Internationale de Tit Armes Sportives de Chasse. Ballymena. 4. Varying numbers of targets.com.uk/epromos. http://www. Organisation British International Clay Target Shooting Federation Telephone 01483 485400 Address BICTSF.uk Organisation Ulster Clay Pigeon Shooting Association Telephone 028 25898 075 Address 60 Shankbridge Road. Stewart Meinert. and two singles on stations 3. Beacon Court. the Commonwealth and USA. Woking.com Web site www.5 [1]. 5 & 8. with squads of five shooters taking their turn from the eight shooting stations.co.co.treleaven@cs. In Olympic Skeet.uk . the targets are set to fly faster than those of English Skeet with a total flight length of between 65m and 67m and there is a random delay of between 0 to 3 seconds after the shooter has called for the target before it appears. Surrey.cpsa. either as singles or pairs.com Organisation Clay Pigeon Shooting Association Telephone 01483 485400 Address CPSA. http://en. Brookwood. the governing body for clay pigeon www. “Clay Pigeon Shooting: For Beginners and Enthusiasts.com Web site www. and on station 8 one high single followed by one low single (both targets have to be broken before they reach the centre) . Powys SY17 5SA Email wctsa.cordery@scta. Europe. Dublin 18. The Mall.scta. Each squad member takes: on stations 1. BT42 3DL Email ucpsasec@hotmail. [7]. [6].uk) Web site www. English.cpsa. PO Box 1500.” The Crowood Press Ltd (1991) ISBN-10: 1852235667 Clay Pigeon Shooting Association (CPSA). [4].net Web site http://www.wikipedia. The gun position (whether in the shoulder or below the arm pit) in Sporting Clays is optional for English Sporting but must be placed in designated position for International (FITASC) Sporting and can not be moved before the target comes into view. Also.ucpsa. 20 or 30-acre site. 41. elevations and distances. GU24 0NP Email info@cpsa. A typical Sporting Clays course is laid out over a 10. GU24 0NP Email secretary@bictsf.uk) Tony Lithgow (tony@awlithgow. on station 4 one high single and low single. respectively).com Web site www. a really excellent book.co. 6 & 7. 2 & 3 one high single and double (shooting high target first).Olympic or International Skeet is one of the ISSF shooting events and comprises a mixture of high and low clays. [3]. on station 7 a double (shooting low target first). the international 41. Here each squad member takes two singles and one double on stations 1.bictsf. governing body for Clay Pigeon Shooting. with the total shots for an outing adding up to 50 or 100 (two or four boxes of shells.co. Ireland Email icpsa@eircom. A round consists of 25 targets with squads of five shooters taking turns at the eight stations. Caersws. speeds. good introduction to clay pigeon shooting. www.co. provides a list of Clay Pigeon Associations throughout the UK. Bisley Camp.fitasc. CPSA Official Handbook. Brookwood. Further Information Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia. Co Antrim. Sporting Clays Sporting Clays covers a number of disciplines (e. “The CPSA Clay Target Shooter’s Handbook”. John King.Art of Shooting American Skeet – a round of skeet consists of 25 targets in a set sequence.org/wiki/Clay_Pigeon_shooting. [5].uk Web site www. are shot at each station.co.g. then one double (shooting high target first) and one double (Shooting low target first). Surrey.membership@hotmail. angles. CPSA (2006).com © Philip Treleaven 2008 137 feedback to p. with additional entries for each of the clay pigeon disciplines.uk Organisation Irish Clay Pigeon Shooting Association Telephone 00 353 (0)87 2988030 Address Suite 20A. with the course consisting of 10 – 14 stations.ucl.icpsa. American) devised to simulate live quarry shooting. US National Sporting Clays Association. shooting in America.com. 2.mynsca.wctsa. and shot as singles and doubles. the shooter must hold his gun so that the toe of the gun butt is visible beneath the elbow until the target appears.uk Organisation Welsh Clay Target Shooting Association Telephone 07751 353020 (Phone after 6PM only please) Address Glanyrhafon. [2]. on stations 5 & 6 one low single and a double (shooting low target first).” The Sportsmans Press (1991) ISBN-10: 0948253495. CPSA Official Handbook. Tony Hoare.

The majority of shots may be taken in any stance.4 Competitions As discussed above. so there will be 2 lanes of one position and 3 of the other.3 Equipment Figure 42.Art of Shooting Chapter 42 Field Target (Air Rifle) Field target shooting – shot with highly accurate air rifles – combines the outdoor field conditions of rough shooting. outdoors with a route to walk and at set points are shooting points with a knockdown target at any distance from 8 yards (7. . Grand Prix events have 25 lanes. and most competitors carry a small beanbag or cushion to sit on while shooting. In the typical freestyle position. a typical course is laid out.2 Ranges and Targets The targets in Field Target shooting are made of metal and are shaped to look like the typical airgun prey: rabbits. Any design of pellet that is completely made of lead or lead alloy may be used.2. as illustrated in Figure 42. but in the UK air guns must be within the non-FAC limit i.1: Field Target Air Rifle required together with a high-magnification.e. pigeons and squirrels or shapes such as squares diamonds or circles. outdoors with a route to walk and at set points are shooting lanes with two knockdown targets in each (cf. 6ft/lbs for pistols. Standing or kneeling targets must be no more than 45 yards (41 m) from the firing line. Targets are shot from open “gates” in a firing line.3 m). you will also need a precision telescopic sight. 42. It may also be used under the knee or to support the ankle during kneeling shots.2: Field Target ‘targets’ Besides an accurate air rifle. 42. All air weapons calibres are allowed (. 42. With these the FT shooter can accurately estimate the distance to the target and then accurately set the cross hairs.ac. the shooter sits on a cushion to take the shots. In competition [1]. The popularity of Field Target shooting has led to the development of sophisticated range finding and bullet drop compensating telescopic sights.177. 42. . a good quality air rifle is Figure 42. Points are scored with 1 for a hit (resulting in the © Philip Treleaven 2008 138 feedback to p. and are divided into “lanes” of two targets each.1. as set discipline targets. Silhouette Shooting) at any distance from 7 metres to 50 metres. rats. so it is usual to have 2 standing lanes and 2 kneeling lanes. Recoiling spring air weapons are at a disadvantage to recoilless pre-charged pneumatics (PCP’s). 12 ft/lbs for rifles. and there must be as even a split as possible between the two.22. linked to the mechanism that holds the target upright. Targets are shot freestyle with no more than 10% of the targets being free standing and no more than 10% being kneeling. as illustrated in Figure 42.if the shooter hits any other part of the silhouette the target will remain standing (No hit scored).ucl. with the precision of target shooting. as the latter will enhance the shooter’s ability (although both are equally accurate). has a circular hole. A typical course is laid out.treleaven@cs.if they manage to hit the 'hit zone' the target will fall flat to the ground (Hit recorded) . range-finding telescopic sight. 20% of the lanes will be designated as compulsory standing or kneeling. . Each target.1 Rifles and Ammunition To shoot Field Target competitions. with a metal disc behind.uk .25 etc).3 m) and 55 yards (50.20. The objective of the shooter is to hit the 'hit zone' . Most competitions have 40 targets arranged in 20 lanes.

bfta.org/wiki/Field_Target. body of Field Target in the United States.net). http://en.sarpa.aafta.wafta. [3].net Organisation Welsh Airgun and Field Target Association (WAFTA) T Email secretary@wafta. and 0 for a miss (whether it strikes the surrounding faceplate. [4].com/ © Philip Treleaven 2008 139 feedback to p.uk . the BFTA is the National Association of Governing Bodies related to Field Target shooting in Scotland. misses it.treleaven@cs.co.co. Further Information Wikipedia. [2]. P.uk Organisation Northern Ireland Field Target Association Telephone 07921 676 231 Email info@nifta.com Web site www.ac. the free encyclopedia. Reading. as the name suggests the governing World Field Target Federation.nifta.Art of Shooting faceplate falling). 42. or “splits” on the edge of the kill but fails to down the target). the world governing body.uk Web site www. www.com. 42.co.wikipedia. Members of the British Field Target Association (BFTA) are graded according to their performance every six months.org. www.ucl.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.O Box 2242.bfta. American Airgun Field Target Association. The British Field Target Association (BFTA) (www. and the seven regional associations in England. Wales. Organisation British Field Target Association Address BFTA.5 [1].nifta. introduction to Field Target Air Rifle shooting. Berks RG7 5YY Email Secretary@BFTA.htm Organisation Scottish Air Rifle and Pistol Association Web site www.net Web site www.uk/index.

with a metal disc behind. After that no further adjustments to your equipment or scope are allowed. any air rifle is required together with a telescopic sight. the majority freestyle where the shooter can stand. 12 ft/lbs for rifles.3 Equipment Figure 43.ucl. as illustrated in Figure 43. pigeons and squirrels etc or shapes such as squares diamonds or circles. A competition comprises 30 target positions with 1 scoring point for each ‘knocked down’ of the target. as illustrated in Figure 43. Hence most competitors tend to use scopes settings with a maximum of 10x magnification and a parallax setting of 25-30 yards which allows a reasonable view of the targets at both end of the target range distances.20. All air weapons calibres are allowed . Figure 43. 3 Targets – 3 must be prone-only shots using any UKAHFT hit zone size. with the precision of target shooting. 43. 43.1: Hunter Field Target 43. A typical course is laid out. rats. kneel or take the shot prone (sitting is not permitted) but 9 targets must be shot from compulsory positions 3 shot standing. 43.177.uk . © Philip Treleaven 2008 140 feedback to p. outdoors with a route to walk and at set points are shooting points with a knockdown target at any distance from 8 metres to 45 metres.Art of Shooting Chapter 43 Hunter Field Target (Air Rifle) Hunter Field target shooting (HFT) – shot with air rifles – combines the skill of outdoor field conditions of rough shooting. you will also need a telescopic sight. a minimum of 2 must allow the shooter support on a tree or other inanimate object .22. Any design of pellet that is completely made of lead or lead alloy may be used.treleaven@cs. They comprise: 3 Targets – 3 must be standing shots using 35mm to 45 mm hit zones only and un-obscured. and 3 from a prone position at set discipline targets. .25 pre-charged pneumatics (PCP’s) or spring air weapons etc. Each target. . 6ft/lbs for pistols. 3 Targets – 3 must be kneeling shots using 35mm to 45 mm hit zones only and un-obscured.2: typical Hunter Field Target ‘targets’ Besides an air rifle. . linked to the mechanism that holds the target upright. a minimum of 2 must allow the shooter support on a tree or other inanimate object.e. A total of 30 Targets are shot. has a circular hole. a typical course is laid out. Therefore range finding must be done by eye. but in the UK air guns must be within the non-FAC limit i. outdoors with a route to walk and at set points are shooting lanes with one knockdown targets in each at any distance from 8 metres to 45 metres with hit zone from 15 to 45mm diameter. The objective of the shooter is to hit the 'hit zone' . 3 kneeling.2 Ranges and Targets The targets in Hunter Field Target (HFT) shooting are made of metal and are shaped to look like the typical airgun prey: rabbits. 1 point for a faceplate strike (hitting the target anywhere other than the hit zone) and zero for a complete miss.if they manage to hit the 'hit zone' the target will fall flat to the ground and 2 points will be awarded. All settings to scope and rifle must be done prior to taking your first shot in the competition.4 Competitions As discussed above.1 Rifles and Ammunition To shoot Hunter Field Target competitions.2.ac.1.

introduction to Hunter [2]. [3]. The United Kingdom Association for Hunter Field Target (UKAHFT) (www.uk Organisation World Hunter Field Target Association Email info@whfta. the world governing body.org/wiki/Hunter_Field_Target.co. www. Organisation United Kingdom Association for Hunter Field Target Email info@ukahft.wikipedia.uk). the free encyclopedia.Art of Shooting 21 Targets – the remaining 21 must be placed so each target is able to be shot from any of the permitted (standing.ukahft. World Hunter Field Target Association. 43.org © Philip Treleaven 2008 141 feedback to p.6 Contacts A comprehensive list of target shooting organisations can be found in the appendix.whfta. [1].treleaven@cs.co.ukahft.uk Web site www.ac.ucl. 43.org Web site www.uk .co.5 Further Information http://en.org. kneeling and prone) shooting positions. the UKAHFT is the governing body for national HFT shoots. Field Target Air Rifle shooting.whfta. Wikipedia.

firing the cartridge and extracting the fired case. Originally a used for a spherical bullet fired by black powder firearms. locking the mechanism. A semi automatic is a self-loading firearm which fires one shot for each pull of the trigger. The fore sight contains a ring in the centre of which the (round) aiming mark is placed.saami. The old ‘standard’ NATO centrefire calibre. including the chamber itself. now generally a used for a fully jacketed bullet of cylindrical profile with round or pointed nose. typically using a pistol drawn from a holster.175-inch diameter. This includes internal ballistics (in the barrel). The standard . The method of operating low-powered semi-automatic guns. Airsoft is a modern combat sport or recreational hobby in which participants eliminate opponents by hitting each other with spherical airsoft pellets. That part of the target that is used to align the sights onto the target. Any firing of a gun that is not deliberate.cfm 223 feedback to p.ac. That part of a gun along which the bullet or pellet(s) travel when fired. (Illegal for competition use under ISSF rules.Art of Shooting Glossary 1 . A type of rear sight used on firearms that comprises an aperture with a small opening mounted on the firearm's receiver. The general name given to cartridge comprising case. A measure of a given bullet's ability to overcome air resistance in flight when compared to a standard bullet. external ballistics (in flight) and terminal ballistics (within the target). Bullets are . worth 10 points.22 rimfire ammunition only. usually fixed at the end of the forend away from the shooter.24" in diameter.62 (. but not accessories or barrel extensions like flash suppressors or muzzle brakes. England. The size of the shot is given as a number or letter with the larger number the smaller the shot size. Pellet diameter is nominally 4. musket or carbine. in the order prone. The standard NATO centrefire. force.) Individual shotgun pellets of less than . impact and penetration. A rifle shooting term that refers to (large calibre) centrefire firearms or ammunition. The standard definition is a round ball Airgun projectile of . propellant and bullet. due to friction with the air.org/Glossary/index. A military issued Selective Fire or Fully Automatic rifle with a short overall length designed to fire a reduced power rifle cartridge.5 mm. including trajectory. The general term for a pneumatic firearm that fires projectiles using compressed air. a range complex located at Bisley. It is typically used for . it is usually but not always circular in cross-section. primer. The firing mechanism for loading a cartridge. A twin legged support for a rifle. The appearance of both sights and target when they are correctly aligned. much used by the military in both handguns and sub-machine guns. The normal bullet diameter is .22 rimfire cartridge used in target rifles and pistols.181 inch diameter. with the 155-grain the most common. In rifle shooting the centre of the Bullseye. The home of UK and Commonwealth shooting. The original finely-ground propellant powder.308 inch used in the UK and Commonwealth for Fullbore rifle shooting outdoors at ranges up to 1200 yards. with the heavier being favoured for long ranges. charcoal (carbon) and sulphur. This is the standard type of sights used on air rifles. The basic ingredients are salt-petre (potassium nitrate). A centrefire calibre. The actual bullet diameter in Imperial units is .01 mm steps to allow exact matching to specific guns for best accuracy. as any more powerful cartridge would require either an excessively A more extensive Shooting and Firearms glossary can be found at www. which continues to fire once the trigger is pulled. The distance from the muzzle to the chamber.56 mm (. The science of cartridge discharge and the bullet’s flight and what affects them. As the name implies. Curtains made of a rubber compound (e.223) 7. in target pistol the aiming mark is often the base of the black disk in the centre of the target.177 (4. rifle or running-target events. The slowing effect on a bullet in flight. A shooting sport that combines both skiing and rifle shooting. a competition that is shot using three different body positions to support the rifle. The part of a firearm that opens the action to give access to the chamber. The centre ring of the target used in pistol. kneeling.ucl. used in muzzle-loaders and antique cartridge firearms. The standard definition is a form of shooting done with the firearm supported on a 'bench' rather than solely by the marksman. Linatex) hung in front of the ‘Bullet Catcher’ so as to stop any ‘back-splash’ from the bullets when they break up on impact. A mounting point on a small arm that allows a bayonet or other accessory to be attached. Used to calculate ballistic tables. The term often used in Commonwealth countries for any large or Fullbore shooting competition. A full automatic is a firearm.g.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 . The manner in which the barrel and action of a rifle are fitted to the stock.5 mm) .22LR 10 Ring 3P (Three Positional) 5.treleaven@cs. A shooting sport in which competitors fire at small metallic targets in the shortest possible time. It also refers to a specific style of grip and hammer configuration on a revolver. usually by means of the sights.308) 9 mm Accidental discharge (AD) ACP Action Action release Action shooting Aim(ing) Aiming Mark Aiming picture Air resistance Airgun Airsoft Ammunition Antique (firearm) Anti-splash curtains Aperture (iron) sight Assault rifle Automatic Ball Ballistic coefficient (BC) Ballistics Barrel Barrel length Bayonet lug BB BB gun Bedding Belted (cartridge) case Benchrest (shooting) Berdan (primer) Biathlon Big bore Bipod Bird shot Bisley Bisley style Black powder (BP) Blank (ammunition) Blowback (or blow-back) 1 The standard airgun calibre for international (ISSF) target shooting. It is also known as a ‘bull’ or ‘bullseye’. On firing it produces the usual loud 'bang' but with little danger to life.308 inch diameter and range from about 110 to 200 grains. Smallbore and Fullbore rifles for target shooting. The 7. It is also used for a device for testing the accuracy of guns and ammunition. The bolt is literally 'blown' open by the cartridge when the gun is fired. Surrey.62x51 mm or . small arms calibre. Automatic Colt Pistol defines a type of ammunition. standing. A centrefire primer system developed by Hiram Berdan. In the UK it can also mean a round shotgun cartridge projectile of . A rimless cartridge case with a raised integral belt around the case just ahead of the extractor groove to provide a positive headspace surface while retaining the extractor groove. Most commonly used in military terminology. launched from airsoft guns. The process of aligning the gun with the target. Sometimes called an 'unintentional discharge'. typically subsonic with a 40-grain bullet. A cartridge loaded with a primer and powder but without a bullet. Typically a firearm manufactured prior to 1899 or a firearm for which ammunition is not generally available or a firearm incapable of firing fixed ammunition. with a range of sizes in .224 inch and weights range from 40 to 70 grain. A type of Airgun designed to use spherical steel BB pellets. having multiple flash holes and an integral anvil in the case.354 inch with the bullets being 115 grains.

sealing the cartridge in the chamber during firing. usually cylindrical and pointed projectile that comes out of the barrel of a gun. It is also the British word for the calibre of a shotgun (in America they use 'Gauge'). Also known as the bullet trajectory. The end part of the barrel nearest the shooter with the chamber into which the cartridge is loaded. The part in the breech mechanism that locks the action to enable the firing of the cartridge. To call out a command when ready for the shotgun target to be released. propellant. usually made of copper and is either complete (i. so as to leave no lead exposed. The centre of a target. usually measured in tenths of an inch or in millimetres. A device used to 'pull' a bullet from its cartridge case. which is loaded and unloaded by means of a bolt. The rear end of a rifle or shotgun (the portion that rests against the shoulder. A fast burning powder is used in short barrelled guns. clay pigeon) that falls apart before being fired upon. through which the bullet or other projectile is fired from the gun. and projectile in a single unit of ammunition. Large lead pellets used in shotgun shells where the individual projectiles are of . A complete unit of ammunition (or round) for small arms consisting of a cartridge case. A propellant in which the energy source is obtained from compressed carbon dioxide gas. and projectile(s). reloadable cartridge cases. then usually the term used is 'pellet'. The process of firing a cap on its own before attempting to load a percussion fired Black Powder gun. Hollow point Bullet.e. Full Metal Jacket Bullet." A covering over the lead core of a bullet. A heavier. Cartridge case with a neck diameter smaller than its body diameter thus creating a shoulder and giving the case the appearance of a wine bottle in profile. the bottom part of the grip. A synonym for expended metallic cartridge cases. The relative speed at which a propellant powder burns in comparison to other powders in a controlled combustion chamber. full metal jacket).uk . The measurement from one side of the bore to the other.) In a handgun. and a term used to mean empty. which traps and safely contains the fired bullets. flat-nosed Bullet. thicker than normal barrel with little or no taper. A steel rod-like assembly (similar in design and operation to a normal door bolt) that moves back and forth in an action.ucl. For rifles and handguns it is usually of brass or other metal. It can be either a single shot. Another word for target. in order to clear any oil or other residue from the nipple and chamber. the part of the stock which extends from the receiver to the butt. primer. however it is also used for a type of fast burning smokeless powder suited to cartridges intended to be shot by short barrelled firearms. In rifles and shotguns. An imaginary line projected from the muzzle of a gun along the centre of the bore. Its purpose is to permit the cartridge casing to be crimped tightly against the bullet shank to hold it firmly to the casing. primer. used to increase ballistic efficiency (by reducing drag) at long range.e. The track or path taken by a bullet in flight. The action of stating the position on the target of the last shot fired. usually scoring a 5. Round nose Bullseye Burning rate Butt Butt Plate Butt stock Butts Calibre (or caliber) Call for the target: Calling the shot Cannelure Cant Cap Capping off Carbine Carbon dioxide (powered) Card Cartridge Cartridge case Cartridge magazine Case (or Casing) Cast The chemical process of artificial oxidation (rusting) applied to gun parts so that the metal attains a dark blue or nearly black appearance. Normally. Birmingham Small Arms company. the land-to-land diameter taken from the raised lands (not the inside of the grooves). 7 or 10 when hit. A device of either steel or aluminium used to cast bullets for home reloading. The plate.22 rimfire target cartridges. The tapered rear end of some bullets.treleaven@cs. A jacket. The diameter of the bore of a barrel measured from land to land. The name given to the single." The two definitions are: a) the lateral displacement of the centreline of a shotgun (or rifle) stock from the centreline of the bore. Bluing Boat tail (bullet) Bolt Bolt action Bolt face Bore Bore diameter Bore line Bottleneck case Boxer Brass (cartridge case) Breech Breech loader Breechblock Broken target BSA Buck shot Bull (or Bullseye) Bull barrel Bullet Bullet catcher Bullet mould Bullet path Bullet puller (or inertia puller) Bullet. The envelope (container) of a cartridge. or b) the process of making bullets for reloading by melting lead or an alloy of lead. either a collet is clamped round the bullet and it is literally pulled from the case. used mainly in cartridges designed for rifles with tubular magazines. If there is more than one projectile. whereby the case is held and the bullet 'pulled' by its own inertia. A firearm loaded through the breech. A bullet with a rounded head such as used in most . Jacket Bullet. as in a shotgun cartridge. A groove or indention around the circumference of a bullet. A bullet with a flattened tip. © Philip Treleaven 2008 224 feedback to p.ac. The part of the butts that actually stops and retains the fired bullet. usually of copper completely covering a bullet. The standard term is the centre of a target. such as pistols and a slow burning one in rifles. An explosive device fitted over the nipple of a percussion Black Powder gun in order to initiate ignition of the main charge and fire the bullet. which is inserted into the firing chamber. usually. Used to describe a shotgun target (i. notably in Smallbore target shooting.Art of Shooting heavy bolt and / or a very strong spring to keep the breech sealed until the pressure had dropped to a safe level before opening the chamber. A type of firearm. or retrieving the target. Originally a shortened version of a standard rifle with a barrel less than ?? inches.24" in diameter or greater. It does not designate the actual diameter of a bullet. The standard definition is the interior of a firearm's barrel excluding the chamber. It thus reduces recoil and minimises the effects caused by heating when firing rapidly. So-called because in plan view the bullet outline resembles that of a boat. when the tool is struck against a hard object. or a multi shot firearm. plastic or metal cushions the shooters shoulder from recoil when a firearm is fired. characterised by having one central flash hole and the anvil as an integral part of the primer. Often abbreviated "JHP" or "HP. or partial. The angle of lean from the vertical that the firearm has whilst being held by the shooter. usually of rubber. Short for bull’s-eye. but not always a rifle. to better align the shooters eye with the centre line of the bore. for shotguns it is usually of paper or plastic with a metal head and is more often called a "shell. A container made of metal or other material that holds the propelling charge. A plate put on the butt end of a stock. A centrefire primer system developed by Edward Boxer. The name given to that part of the range that contains the target frames and the bullet catcher. Commonly used today to indicate any rifle of short overall length. A metal jacketed or unjacketed bullet design in which the core of the bullet is exposed by means of a cavity in its nose to ensure the expansion of the bullet upon impact. Standard primer for Hand loading cartridges. The two common types are box-type magazine and tubular magazine. A device or container from which ammunition may be fed into the firing chamber of a firearm. before looking through the spotting scope. The forward end of the bolt that supports the base of the cartridge. or an inertia hammer is used.

The trade name of one of the earliest smokeless propellants made in Britain. but which incorporates a mechanism which initially restricts the breechblock from moving when fired. (see Practical shooting) A muzzle brake. On a revolver. countersunk.ucl. A cartridge in which the primer is seated in a pocket or recess in the center of the base of the cartridge case. The dominant eye is the one through which a person would usually view an object when using a telescope. A revolver that both cocks and fires with a complete pull of the trigger. unload the firearm and step behind the cease-fire line. Mechanical device in a semi-automatic firearm that is designed to prevent the firing of more than one shot from one pull of the trigger. The term half-cock is to set the action in an intermediate position from which the gun cannot be fired. holds the flint or match. of the powder in a cartridge or load. as cartridge cases are quoted by their manufacturers as having a particular maximum CUP. either side-by-side or over-and-under. the amount. or a tool used to seat bullets in cases. The upper part of the stock where the shooter's cheek rests during aiming. of the powder used. longer than the barrel to be cleaned and often fitted with a rotating (ball-bearing) handle. half-cock) Coking Comb Combat Shooting Compensator Conical bullet Cordite Core Count back Crimp Cross-bolt safety Cross-hairs Crown (or muzzle crown) Crowning CUP. The act of forming the radius on the muzzle end of a barrel. The cock on muzzle-loading firearms. It stops the cylinder’s rotation and holds it in place each time a chamber in the cylinder is in alignment with the barrel. lack of grease on the other cylinders may cause them to discharge before they are lined up with the barrel. normally at the opposite end of the barrel to the muzzle. A lateral projection from the comb of the stock that provides additional support and contact to the shooter's cheek when the rifle is shouldered in the firing position. 'right-handed'. The system used to break a tie between two or more competitors with the same total score. Cylinder Cylinder bore Cylinder gap Cylinder Stop Damascus (barrels) Delayed blowback Die Disconnector Dominant eye (and hand) Double Action (DA) Double action only (DAO) Double trap Double-action revolver Double-barrel Double-base (powder) Down range DPM Dry firing Dud Dummy ammunition © Philip Treleaven 2008 The command to stop shooting.ac. particularly rim-fire. A popular term for a cartridge that fails to fire after its primer is struck by the firearm's firing pin. refers to a firearm that uses centrefire cartridges. This ribbon was then wrapped round a mandrel and hammered so that the edges became fused together. The type of firearm action whereby one pull of the trigger performs the two separate functions of a) cocking the gun and b) firing the gun. The cylinder then rotates as the gun is used to present each round in turn to the barrel for firing. The bevelled. the amount. designed to reduce the effects of recoil by redirecting the escaping gases and to limit the muzzle jump on firing so as to assist rapid subsequent shots. The restriction at the muzzle of a shotgun barrel used to control the dispersion of the shot. authorizations to carry and other functions related to the administration of the Firearms Act and its Regulations. ‘Copper Units of Pressure’ is a standard method of estimating the pressure inside a gun when it is being fired. That part of a revolving firearm that holds the ammunition in individual chambers. A firearm with two barrels. A safety device that blocks the firing mechanism of a firearm. This can damage some types of actions. A generic reference to a shooting sport (generally using handguns) that seeks to simulate the use of small arms as an instrument of personal protection. A self-loading firearm whose breechblock and barrel are not positively locked together. Inactive ammunition without a primer or propellant used for practising handling of firearms. A shotgun barrel having the same diameter throughout. An early method of making barrels out of welding together two or more rods of twisted iron and rolling them into a ribbon. This can be as small as 1/1000 of an inch in a high quality gun. cord-like appearance. or rolled.) Carbon dioxide is used as a propellant for Airguns.incorrectly . without choke. i. A set of specialized accessories used to clean and maintain a firearm. The term full-cock is to set the action into position for firing. authorizations to transport. and b) The action of loading a round of ammunition into the firearm. and c) To fill a magazine with cartridges. Firing of an unloaded firearm to practice handling and shooting techniques.uk . in which the shooter hits a 10 on each of the 10 targets on the sheet for a score of 100. A cylindrical shaped bullet with a cone shaped tip.to mean a detachable Magazine. The direction from the firing point towards the target on a range. It is used to assist positioning the aiming eye correctly behind the sights. by volume. a spring activated device housed in the bottom of the frame beneath the cylinder that engages alignment notches in the cylinder. The inward folding of a cartridge case used to retain the bullet (or shot charge in a shotgun). An action that cannot fire in a single action mode. The burning of black powder residue with much heat and little smoke. The sighting lines in a telescopic sight.e. The dominant hand is what the shooter would describe himself as being for example. The gap between the front of the cylinder and the rear of the barrel of a revolver. 225 feedback to p.Art of Shooting Cease-fire Centrefire (or Centerfire) Chain-firing (or flashover) Chamber Charge (powder) Cheek Piece Chief Firearms Officer Choke Chronograph Cleaned (target) Cleaning kit Cleaning rod Click Clip CO2 Cock (full-cock. Also. handgun or shotgun. In terms of propellants: a) for nitro powder and Black Powder. Disruptive Pattern Material – the pattern used in modern (British) military camouflage clothing. When the primary cylinder is fired. The name given to the smallest adjustment of a aperture or telescopic sight. It is of great importance for safe reloading. which must not be exceeded. or rounded muzzle surface of a barrel. but is usually nearer 1/100 of an inch. or 'master' eye and hand. usually of plastic coated metal. The stronger. It is stored on the gun in liquid form under pressure and typically will give around 180 shots per fill from the reservoir. or a tool used to de-prime fired cases. A trapshooting event where two targets are released simultaneously at different heights and angles and the shooter must fire a shot at each target. It can be either tapered. or a tool used to load powder into cases prior to seating the bullet. Propellant powder in which nitro-cellulose is supplemented by nitro-glycerine. so called because of its long. The two meanings are a) The part of a firearm containing the cartridge (or separate powder and ball) at the moment of firing it. A device for holding cartridges together before inserting them into a firearm's magazine. A perfect target. delaying its opening. The person in authority responsible for issuing licences. (It is also used . by weight. A device to measure the velocity of projectiles fired from a gun.treleaven@cs. The cleaning rod for a rifle. The centre of a bullet that is covered by a jacket. The term used in black powder revolvers to describe the dangerous result of not using grease over the balls in the cylinders. b) for Pyrodex. A tool used in reloading metallic cartridge cases to resize the case to the specified dimensions.

Size grades of Black Powder particles. outward Greenhill’s Formula Sometimes called. wheel locks and matchlocks. On a revolver. etc. weight etc. such as 7. weight etc. An empirical formula that relates bullet weight and length to rifling twist. Any instrument that projects a bullet by gas pressure generated by the combustion of a propellant. The process of firing a shot off before starting trying to shoot accurately. The upright steel plate in a flintlock gun that is struck by the flint in order to produce the sparks for igniting the priming powder. or F-Class shooting discipline involves prone target rifle shooting using a variety of aids. Non-adjustable sights on firearms. The maximum distance for a firearm at which a competent shooter can expect to hit the target. The hinged metal plate at the bottom of some cartridge magazines.treleaven@cs.22 calibre target pistol which is 'free' of most constraints such as barrel length. Specifically a rifle. The position of the hammer or striker when the firearm is ready to fire. sight radius. The distance that the shooters eye is positioned behind the ocular (eye) lens of a sight in order to obtain the best view of the target and to avoid a black-eye on firing. This is not the same as the Ejector (see above). which clears all chambers at once. and any calibre of ammunition up to 8mm. The part of a revolver or pistol grip frame that faces forward and often joins with the trigger guard. The metal plate or part of a magazine between the spring and the ammunition.uk . or 'kick' of a gun when it is fired. A 60 shot course of fire for . An American term for the measurement of the diameter of a shotgun's bore expressed as the number of lead balls of bore diameter that weigh one pound. The process of improving accuracy and functioning by firing the case so that it becomes an exact fit of the chamber of a particular gun. The popular name given to hearing protectors of whatever type. Taking apart a firearm for regular maintenance and cleaning. manually operated through the center of an opened cylinder. the small diameter hole through which the flame from the primer ignites the main charge in the cartridge case. In this method. The person(s) who checks all shooting equipment and clothing before a shooter is allowed to take part in a competition. The part of a gun's action which actually strikes the primer so as to set it off and initiate firing the cartridge's main charge of propellant. The common part of a handgun that the action. sight radius. The or point from which shooting takes place. Staying in the same position after squeezing the trigger or continuing the swing in firing at a moving target. the collective ejector. The front portion of a one-piece or two-piece firearm stock. Normally the gun will be marked with a sticker to show that it has passed inspection. Vertical adjustment of the rear sight to change the projectile's point of impact either up or down. A . FFFFg Field stripping Firearm Firearms Certificate (FAC) Fireform Firing line (or point) Firing pin Fixed sights Flash hider (or suppressor) Flash hole Flash suppressor Flechette Flintlock Floor plate Flyer Follower. held by a release spring located just ahead of the trigger guard. magazine Follow-through Forcing cone Fore-end (fore-stock) Fouling Fouling Shot FPS (feet per second) Frame Free pistol Free rifle Frizzen Front sight (or foresight) Front Strap Full cock Full course Fullbore (or Full-Bore or Full Bore) Gain twist Gauge (or gage) Gauging. Generally taken to mean centrefire calibres. or more persistent lead or copper. The lens of a telescopic sight nearest the shooters eye. A muzzle loading firearm with its powder charge ignited by a flint striking a metal surface (the frizzen) to produce sparks which ignite fine priming powder. front-rests and sandbags. The tapered section of a rifle. A muzzle attachment intended to reduce visible muzzle flash caused by the burning propellant. so as to ensure that it all complies with the current specifications. A small dart stabilized by fins. and for muzzleloaders. The command by the Range Officer to put on hearing protection prior to commencing firing. if 1 is painted black. In this method the shot hole has only to touch (not cut) the next higher scoring ring to be awarded the higher values. standing. encased in a discarding sabot (case) and loaded into a shotgun shell.Art of Shooting Dummy cartridge Ears (or cans) Ears on Effective range Ejector Ejector star Elevation English match Equipment control Extractor Eye piece Eye relief F-Class Feed Feeding path Felt recoil Fg. The scoring process whereby the edge of the bullet hole nearest the centre of the target determines its value.62 calibre. The mechanism that expels the cartridge or case from the firearm. In Smallbore.e. This helps to shoot accurately. The device that extracts. a full course consists of 120 record shots.22 rimfire rifles shot from the prone position over 50 metres. inward Gauging. The F ('Farquarson') Class. kneeling. FFFg. The path a cartridge follows within an action.22 or centrefire rifle which is 'free' of most constraints such as barrel length. A shot well outside the normal group on a target due almost always to shooter error. from coarsest to finest. the necessary permit to hold any firearm or ammunition. 2 should be white. handgun or shotgun where the bullet or pellet is guided into the bore.ucl. which in turn sets off the main charge. typically used on sporting and military firearms. Muzzle attachment designed to cool emergent gases and prevent/reduce muzzle flash. the shot hole has only to touch (not cut) the next lower scoring ring to be awarded the lower value. inactive ammunition without primer or propellant.ac. The action of moving a fresh cartridge into the chamber. FFFFg is mainly used as a priming powder for flintlocks. The sight attached to the muzzle end of the barrel of a rifle or handgun. Fouling can either be soft and harmless carbon residue. fired in the following order prone. Somewhere between 2 to 4 inches is the usual distance. 40 in each position. In the UK. barrel and grip are connected to. The way that a shooter actually feels the recoil. both of which are detrimental to accuracy. For a centrefire cartridge. which serves as a hand-hold. The scoring process whereby the edge of the bullet hole furthest from the centre determines its value. A . © Philip Treleaven 2008 226 feedback to p. The deposits that build up in the barrel of a gun after it is fired. 'Drill rounds'. In Air rifle. or removes the cartridge case from the chamber of the gun. a full course is 40 shots. with each position numbered consecutively from 1 upwards with contrasting colours i. Feet per second is the standard measure of projectile velocity in the Imperial measurement system. Twist in inches (T) = [150/(L/D)]xD where L = bullet length in inches and D = bullet diameter in inches. so as to remove any oil from the barrel and to coat the bore with a layer of powder residue. FFg. A system of rifling where the pitch (of the twist) increases towards the muzzle. trigger. such as telescopic sights. bipods. shotgun or handgun using gunpowder as a propellant. the small diameter hole through which the 'flash' from the priming charge travels to ignite the main charge.

In firearms that are loaded through the breech. chambering a fresh round in the process. The original black powder made up of 70% saltpetre. The pattern of shots on a target. The action of keeping the sights on the target while squeezing the trigger. The official web site is www. An action operated by a lever located underneath it. or self-sealing rubber sheet material. The thumb piece on the top rear of the hammer that enables it to be manually drawn back to full cock. the breechblock is released to fly forward. A position of the hammer in a hammer-activated firing mechanism that acts as a manual safety. maker. load. the lock is both the firing mechanism and breech-sealing assembly. the one with the higher number of Inner-10's being the winner. A term used by the media to describe the National Rifle Association of America. A term applied to the first smokeless powder cartridges with velocities of approximately 609. less than 2 milliseconds being the aim. The outer covering or casing of a shotgun shell. In ISSF normally this has a value of 100 when shot to international rules. After the barrel has fully returned. used in the UK to reduce splatter from bullets impacting on the bullet catcher. A shotgun target that has been struck and broken by the shooter. The International Confederation of Fullbore Rifle Associations. and does not include a shoulder mount. or polish it.treleaven@cs. Generally. A somewhat loose term used to describe non-optical sights. The governing body of Target Rifle (TR) world championship events.6 metres per second (2.org. The process of repeatedly passing a lead 'slug' (usually a wadcutter bullet mounted on a cleaning rod) through the bore of a gun barrel in order to lap. In firearms the term hammer has a number of meanings: a) The part of the action that drives the firing pin forward.ucl. Nitro-cellulose form of smokeless propellant. Spiral cuts into the bore of a barrel that give the bullet its spin or rotation as it moves down the barrel.issf-shooting. It says that the maximum range in yards for a round pellet is 2200 times its diameter in inches. 15% sulphur and 10% charcoal. it is used as a tie-breaker between competitors with an identical numerical score. Ammunition containing primers and propellants capable of firing bullets or other projectiles. and anyone else who does fights against firearms laws. in front of the chamber.ac. An imaginary straight line from the shooter's eye to the target. usually through the sights. a firearm that uses centrefire ammunition. The distance across the bore of a rifled barrel from the bottom of one groove to the bottom of the one opposite. The sunken part of rifling. The short unrifled section of the bore. An automatic weapon using a cartridge designed and intended for use in pistols. formally called the Union Internationale de Tir (UIT) or International Shooting Union (ISU). etc. Normally the Inner-10 does not have a score value. stripping a sliver of metal off as they pass. Elongated hole made in a target by a bullet that is tumbling in flight and hence striking the target other than point first. while the breechblock is held back. Often caused by firing the bullets at too great a velocity.) © Philip Treleaven 2008 227 feedback to p. for example accuracy. used to describe two very quick shots fired from a handgun with the first directed by the sights and the second held on target by the power of the shooter's grip. and c) The term is also. semi-automatics and revolvers. The name given to a smaller ring enclosed by the 10 ring on a target.Art of Shooting Grip Groove Groove diameter Grooves Group Group Size Gun Lobby Guncotton Gunpowder Half Cock Hammer Hammer Spur Hammerless Handgun Handload(ing) Hang fire Headspace Headstamp High house High power High power rifle Hit Holding HPS (highest possible score) Hull ICFRA Inner-10 Iron sights (or metallic sights) ISSF (International Shooting Sport Federation) Journee's formula Jump. The hinged cover over the opening through which cartridges are inserted into the magazine or chamber on a revolver. Generic term used to describe rifles and shotguns. The two meanings are firstly to place a round of ammunition in a firearm chamber or magazine. A fully automatic firearm using a cartridge designed and intended for use in rifles or larger firearms. The description for a shotgun target that has not been hit. typically used for handguns and shotguns. usually very short. date of manufacture. or by a slight roughness in the barrel. or the handle of a handgun. The opening through which cartridges are inserted into the magazine or chamber on a revolver. A self-healing. This is the distance from the breech face to that part of the chamber that stops the forward movement of the cartridge case. The manufacturers marks stamped into the base (or primer end) of a metallic cartridge case giving various details of its construction. but covers single shot pistols. In skeet events. A term applied to an excessive delay in ignition of the main charge after the primer has fired. into which the bullet's nose is introduced. such as calibre. muzzle Keyhole Lapping Leade Leading Lever action Linatex Line of sight Live ammunition Load Loading gate Loading port Lock Lock time Long recoil Long-arm (or long gun) Lost Low house Machine gun Machine pistol The small portion of the stock gripped by the trigger hand. The international Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) is a governing body of the international shooting sport. The trap house from where targets are thrown from a point higher than the low house in skeet events. and secondly a specific type or composition of ammunition. after which the barrel returns forward. minimum recoil rounds for rapid-fire target shooting. The polishing is assisted by means of dipping the slug in a mild metal polish. This is usually associated with Black Powder muzzle loaders and especially Matchlocks. Synonym for pistol. It is the distance between the centres of the two farthest apart shots in a group.000 feet per second). (see "submachine gun" of difference. The highest possible score on competition targets. This general term for a firearm where the hammers are fully encased inside the frames. b) the part of the action which strikes the cap in a Percussion gun. usually due to insufficient barrel twist or too low a velocity for the calibre. The deposition of lead in the bore of a firearm due to the passage of lead bullet (pronounced "ledding"). A semi-automatic pistol in which the barrel and breechblock are locked together for the full distance of rearward recoil travel. Caused by inadequate rotational stabilization of the bullet. The vertical movement of the muzzle on firing the firearm caused by the centre of the barrel being higher than the centre of support for the gun. and is fired one or two handed. The empirical formula used to calculate safe distances for shotgun pellets. low velocity. especially open sights as fitted to handguns and aperture sights fitted to target rifles. Different cartridge designs obtain their headspace in different ways. The time taken from the release of the sear by the trigger to the moment the primer is struck. The practice of loading and reloading centrefire cartridges to produce specific cartridge characteristics.uk . the trap house from where targets are thrown from a point lower than the high house.

Wheel Locks. The lens at the rear of an optical device and nearest the user's eye. Master Master eye Match Matchlock Meplat (or Metplat) Mid-range Mil Military firearm Millisecond Minie ball (or mini-ball) Mirage Misfire MLAGB MLAIC MOA (minute of angle) Modified Estonian (stance) Monte Carlo stock MPI (mean point of impact) Mushroom Musket Muzzle Muzzle blast Muzzle brake Muzzle energy Muzzle flash Muzzle loader (or muzzleloader) Muzzle velocity ND (negligent discharge) Neck Nipple Nitrocellulose or Nitro No bird NRA NRA (National Rifle Association) NSRA (National Smallbore Rifle Association) Object lens Obturation Ocular Lens Offhand Ogive Olympic final Open frame Open sight Over bore capacity © Philip Treleaven 2008 A device for securely holding a firearm in a consistent position so as to allow accuracy testing of firearm and ammunition. Muzzle loaders can be Matchlocks. which holds cartridges under spring pressure to be fed into the firearm’s chamber. the standard form of smokeless propellant used today for cartridge firearms. It has a pointed tip and a hollow base that spreads as it is fired. A person who can shoot their firearm accurately. muzzle) and the target. or Percussion fired. The blast. The term is used to mean a small arms cartridge loaded to higher than "standard" power levels. The MOA is used in target shooting as a handy reference of accuracy and for sight adjustment. At a range of 100 yards 1 MOA represents a distance of 1. A button or switch that allows for the removal of a magazine from the firearm. with the bullet seated afterwards. the eye through which a person usually views an object as when sighting a firearm. One thousandth of a second (1/1000 second). The lens of a telescopic sight (or any optical device) nearest the object being viewed.g.Art of Shooting Machine rest Macrae Handicap system Magazine Magazine release Magnum cartridge Mainspring Malfunction Marksman Marksman. A ’mil’ is short for milliradian – 1/1000th of a radian. Australia etc. with the body slightly tilted by pulling up the right knee (right hander).38 Special cartridge loaded to about twice the normal pressure level. A cylindrical shaped bullet used in muzzle-loaders. See MOA below. The observed apparent movement and/or distortion of a target due only to temperature created air disturbance between the shooter and the butts.g. Fullbore) and pistol target shooting.ucl. A drilled cone shaped part of a Black Powder firearm or chamber at the closed end used to hold the percussion cap(s) needed to fire the main charge(s). The velocity of a projectile as it leaves the barrel of a gun. airgun and crossbow target shooting in the UK. Flintlocks. The constricted forward section of a bottle-necked cartridge casing. Also known as guncotton. either a) a target shooting competition. (The . The failure of a firearm or ammunition to work properly. This is the standard type of sight on handguns. A 10 shot shoot-off between the top 8 shooters in an ISSF competition. In shooting. National Rifle Association (of United Kingdon. A person who can shoot up to the mechanical capability of their weapon. The flash caused by unburned powder burning-up in free air after the bullet has left the barrel. Muzzle Loaders Association of Great Britain (MLAGB) is the governing body for muzzle loading shooting and competitions within the UK. A muzzle loading firearm which is fired by means of a slowly burning match being applied to a flash hole by means of the trigger. A device attached to the muzzle of a firearm that is designed to reduce the recoil by redirecting the powder gases produced during firing. Any firearm that is loaded from the muzzle end. or a mechanical or structural failure. National Smallbore Rifle Association is the body that governs .9 and thus a maximum total score for all 10 shots of 109.) A strong spring which activates the striker or hammer of a firearm. Scoring is done to 1/10 of a point for each shot. the speed being measured in feet per second or metres per second.treleaven@cs.22. A type of curve portion represented by the section of a bullet between its bearing surface and its tip or metplat. Refers to a revolver frame that has no topstrap over the cylinder. used to fire a Matchlock gun. The failure of a cartridge to fire after the firing pin has struck the primer. or b) in muzzle loading. namely the portion that grips the bullet. Common term used to describe cartridges with a propellant capacity overly large in relation to the bore. The ‘National Rifle Association’ is the name used in America. The name of a shoulder fired muzzle loading (and usually) smoothbore gun held in both hands. usually by means of a separate powder charge. The energy measured in Foot-Pounds (ft/lb) or in Joules that a projectile contains when it leaves the barrel of a gun. The stronger eye. A ‘non-counting’ clay pigeon target: being broken when it emerges. A type of rear sight characterized by an open topped notch (e.357 Magnum cartridge is actually the . It is mounted on the rear portion of the barrel on rifles and shotguns or on the rear portion of a handgun's receiver and used in conjunction with a blade type front sight. The unplanned discharge of a firearm caused by a failure to observe the basic safety rules. United Kingdom and many Commonwealth countries by organisation promoting shooting. A spring-loaded container either fixed to a firearm’s frame or detachable. the standard shooting position for pistol and the unsupported standing position in rifle shooting. The mathematical centre of a group of shot holes on the target. where the body is at 5o-15o degrees to the line of fire. This can be caused by a jam or stoppage. which is a delay in firing. "V" or "U" notch). Expanding gas produced by propellant combustion can only be forced through a given aperture at a certain rate. The end of the barrel from which the projectile exits. Shooting in a standing position. with a maximum score for a perfectly central shot of 10. A stock with a raised comb. The point in the trajectory halfway between the firing point (cf. American.0472 inches (or approximately 1 inch). The name of the popular stance used in prone target shooting. The term used for the shape many soft-point bullets become when they expand upon impact.uk . Any firearm that is or has been used by the military services.ac. or shockwave felt by a shooter and observers when the bullet exits from the barrel.) is the body that deals with rifle (e. Provides elevated eye alignment when using a telescopic sight. Thereafter increasing the 228 feedback to p. a string soaked in nitrate so as to burn slowly and steadily without going out in wind. Not to be confused with ‘hangfire’. A handicapping system for competitions that tries to ensure that all participants have an equal chance of winning by recognising that it takes more effort for a skilled shot to improve their scores than a beginner. The expansion of a cartridge case on firing to seal off the chamber and prevent gases from escaping. not propelled or released before the shooters call. Muzzle Loaders Association International Committee (MLAIC) the body that governs all International muzzle loading competitive target shooting. The (diameter of the) tip of a bullet. Short for Nitrocellulose.

The handle of a handgun or protrusion on the buttstock or fore-end of a rifle or shotgun that resembles the grip or handle of a handgun. The process of proving a firearm is safe for use. usually under 24 inches overall and held in one or both hands without any other support. derringers etc. Blowback). b) Cleaning . This is measured at a standard distance of 40 yards and in a 30-inch circle. depending on the event.a small piece of leather or cloth that is greased and placed around a bullet before ramming it down the barrel of a muzzleloader so as to hold it firmly in place and prevent it rolling out. Rifling without hard-edged lands or grooves. and c) an area or facility designed for the safe shooting of firearms. The two definitions are a) to place a primer in a cartridge case. These can vary from the very simple. typically consisting of flat surfaces that meet at angles round the bore. manual repeaters. with two barrels placed one over the other. or a shotgun projectile (e. single-shots. this will be either. The amount of rearward travel of the trigger after the release of the sear. The stamping on the barrel of a firearm to how that it has passed the proof test. especially those used for clay-pigeon shooting.200 is perfect score. A shooting sport that simulates the use of a firearm in its intended role personal defence. The amount of powder by weight in the case of smokeless powder. Range has the following meanings: a) the distance travelled by a projectile from firearm to target. double or multiple barrel pistols. 229 feedback to p. The portion of a firearm that contains the operating parts and into which the barrel is fitted. A propulsion system in which compressed air is stored under pressure and when released provides the energy to propel the projectile. An American term for casual.300 H&H case necked down to . a "vertical pistol grip" is more pronounced than normal. The position of the body of the shooter when firing. Name given to a type of reloading press whereby one pull of the operating lever competes one stage of the process and allows the press to be moved to the next stage. Over-and-under Over-travel Pair Palm rest Pan Parabellum Parallax Patch Patch box Pattern distribution Peep sight Pellet Pellet gun Penetration Percussion cap Percussion gun Perfect match score Pistol Pistol grip Plinking Plug Pneumatic power Polygonal rifling Position Powder Powder burn Powder charge Powder. stating the maximum calibre. or b) a height adjustable rest at the base of the grip of a handgun. lead or steel) fired from a cartridge/shotshell.uk . so as to extend its useful life. The instructions given by the Range Officer to the shooters.. That component of ammunition that ignites the propelling charge when struck by the firearm's firing mechanism. and c) Targets . A rod used to 'ram' the ball (or bullet) down the barrel of a muzzle loading gun so as to seat it firmly on the charge of Black Powder. wheel lock or flintlock muzzle loading firearm that holds the priming powder next to the flash hole so that the main charge can be ignited by it. A relatively short barrelled handgun. Shooting from a lying position.ac. each chamber is separately proofed. Two shots fired quickly with the use of the sights (in particular used in Clay Shooting). A rifle or pistol using compressed air.the action of covering bullet holes in a target using small adhesive disks. In Smallbore 1. A trade name for a Black Powder substitute propellant.5 of an ounce and therefore there are 7000 grains to the pound. this refers to the frame. The unit of weight used to measure powder charges and bullets. A small metal explosive filled cup that is placed over the nipple of a percussion firearm. The depth that a projectile travels into a target before it stops. A small compartment in the butt of a muzzle-loader used to store patches or other small items. in the case of black powder. The two definitions are: a) a height adjustable support for the non-firing hand of the user of a target rifle. usually done by firing a special test cartridge which will apply at least 30% more pressure to the gun than shown. A repeating firearm that has a magazine and is manually set in motion usually parallel to the barrel. kneeling or prone (lying face down) The general term for any propellant used in firearms which burns upon ignition. also called slide action. Black powder and its substitutes are measured in grains by volume.treleaven@cs. The name given to any item coming out of the barrel of any type of firearm when it is fired.g.g. The term to describe when a cartridge does not contain the correct amount of gunpowder. CO2 or spring to propel a skirted pellet as opposed to a spherical BB. A metal device the same size as the shot hole. In the case of a revolver. That part of a matchlock. Another name for an aperture (iron) sight where the rear sight has a hole through which the target is viewed. A "semi-pistol grip" is one less pronounced than normal. b) a projectile's maximum travelling distance.22 calibre has twice the powder capacity of a . For example a . Either an airgun projectile (usually of lead). The apparent shift in position of a viewed object attributable to the difference between two separate and distinct points of view. Refers to a semi-automatic pistol where the recoil is rearward in reaction to the discharging bullet (e. The recess in the base of the cartridge case that accepts the primer. for competition under ISSF rules.a piece of cloth or paper drawn through the bore of a firearm to clean it. while in air rifle. Modern powders are measured by weight.22-250 and produces maximum pressures that are much higher. and b) in the case of a black powder firearm. detailing how the current course of fire is to be carried out. 400 is the perfect match score. Refers to a visible dark ring created by the primers in centerfire ammunition around the firing pin hole in the frame after much use. The two major types are smokeless powder (a propellant) and black powder (an explosive). The name given to firing a gun by means of a percussion cap placed over the flash hole (called a 'nipple' on a percussion gun). to quite elaborate instructions. to place powder on the pan or percussion cap on the nipple. By definition it is 1/437. usually aimed at informal targets such as tin cans etc. A term synonymous with the 9 mm pistol calibre cartridge. The cord used to pull a bore brush or cleaning patch through the bore of a firearm. but without noticeably higher velocities. usually a shotgun. In handguns. The backward movement of a firearm when it is fired. The action of demonstrating that a firearm is not loaded.ucl. standing. This includes self-loaders. The distribution of the shot in a shotgun cartridge. and by volume. non-precision shooting. muzzle velocity and muzzle energy that can be used and over what distances and from what firing positions for any given Range. Charring caused by gunshot residue. extending downward from the forearm of the stock. "Fire" and "Cease Fire". There are three definitions: a) Muzzleloader . Grain Practical shooting Prime Primer Primer pocket Primer pop Primer ring Progressive (press) Projectile Prone Proof Proof mark Proving safe Pull-through Pump action Pyrodex Ramrod Range Range commands Range Safety Certificate Receiver (or action) Recoil (or kick) Recoil-operated © Philip Treleaven 2008 A firearm. The certificate supplied by the Army (in the UK).Art of Shooting amount of gas by increasing the amount of propellant merely raises pressures without raising velocity. used to mark the score on targets.

The aiming device built into a telescopic sight. An action that only releases the hammer from a cocked position when the trigger is pulled.Art of Shooting Record shots Regulate. A double-barrelled firearm. A form of clay-target shooting where targets cross in front of the shooter. A practice shot fired at the beginning of a match to check sight adjustments. A revolver that requires the hammer to be cocked manually. maintenance and cleaning. Often used for paper target shooting. with "sighters" not included. The rim is the part of the case that the extractor grips to remove the cartridge from the chamber. or b) a firearm’s action to open the breech. Refers to a cartridge in which the base diameter is the same as the body diameter. the barrels of which are horizontally aligned. In double-barrel firearms. The appearance of the sights when they are correctly aligned with each other before the target is in view. As its name states. Raised portions of the bore left between the grooves of the rifling in the bore of a firearm. A device that blocks the firing mechanism of a firearm that has a slide. A type of falling block action used in single shot firearms. The person in charge of shooting on the range. Relating to a cartridge where the explosive that ignites the powder is contained in the rim of the case. An action with a revolving cylinder containing a number of cartridge chambers. singleaction) SAAMI Sabot Safety (Safety Catch) SD (Sectional density) Sear Selective-Fire Firearm Self-Loader Semi-automatic Semi-wad cutter Serpent Set trigger Shooting glove Shooting jacket Shooting shoes Shooting station Shooting trousers Shoot-off Short recoil Shot Shot shell (or shotgun cartridge) Shotgun Side lever Side-by-side Sight (or sighting shots) Sighter Sighting picture Silhouette shooting Single action revolver Single shot Single stroke pneumatic Skeet Slide Slide safety © Philip Treleaven 2008 These are the shots that are counted toward the match score. the grooves are usually twice the width of the lands. by the operation of either another lever. A ‘long gun’ firearm characterized by spiral grooves cut on the inside of its projection tube or barrel. it slides along tracks in the top of the frame during the recoil process providing the linkage between the breechblock and barrel. as distinct from an. For example. with or without fingers. traditionally in the form of crosshairs for target shooting purposes. A cartridge used in a shotgun. eject the empty case and reload the chamber each time the trigger is pulled. They often have the toe end of the sole and the heel cut flat for stability. Another term for semi-automatic firearm. A series of spiral grooves cut in the bore of a firearm designed to stabilize a projectile by spinning it. A repeating handgun characterized by having a revolving cylinder separate from the barrel. a bullet bouncing off a rock. Device fitted to a firearm to assist the aiming of it in relation to a target. creating a “rim” at the base that is the same diameter as the body diameter. In rifling. Viewed from the side with the breech open these firearms bear a passing resemblance to under lever repeating centre fire rifles. The part of a gun's action that is 'tripped' by the trigger to release the hammer. Typically refers to a lever on the left or right side of either a) a pistol’s frame that is used to release the slide for removal. The part of the action of a Matchlock firearm that carries the match to the pan when the trigger is pulled in order to ignite the priming powder and hence fire the gun. at which point the two are uncoupled. propellant and bullet so as to use them again. the jacket is made of leather or canvas and provides support and pads the shooter to minimize the effect of pulse and recoil. The marked area where shooters must stand when firing. Small spherical projectiles loaded in shotgun cartridges/shotshells. The casing will normally have an extraction groove machined around it near the base.ac. Lands Rim Rimfire (cartridge) Rimless RO/RCO (Range Officer or Range Conducting Officer) Round Running target SA (Single action. the American body that specifies many of the data used in reloading. It may be either manually operated or automatic. The edge on the base of a cartridge case. over-andunder. Sighters are not counted toward the final score. The upper portion of a semi-automatic pistol that houses the barrel and contains the breechblock and portions of the firing mechanism. Pressing the trigger will not cause it to fire until this is done. one beside the other. 230 feedback to p. usually with a hard surface. firing from various angles. barrel Rifling. or a single projectile called a slug. Any firearm that may be operated in either the fully automatic or semiautomatic mode at the selection of the user. The ratio of the bullet mass to the square of its diameter. There are strict guidelines regarding the thickness. A firearm designed to fire a single cartridge. Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufactures Institute. A large. A shooting sport in which the competitors attempt to knock over metallic game-shaped targets at various ranges. Refers to a semi-automatic pistol in which the barrel and breechblock are locked together for only a short distance of rearward recoil travel. or set. Barrel Reloading Reticule Revolver Revolving action Ricochet Rifle Rifle. An Airgun where only one stroke is needed to power the gun. A form of tie-breaker in a shooting competition. that contains a set of chambers that rotate into line with the barrel for firing. Martini Rifled slug Rifling. A very light trigger that is prepared. or firing pin and initiate firing the cartridge. or equivalent units.treleaven@cs. A shoulder firearm with a smooth bore designed to fire multiple pellets called shot. The redirection of a bullet after impact.uk . Snug canvas and/or leather trousers often having padded reinforcements sewn on both knees and the seat to prevent the slipping of elbows and knees when firing from the kneeling position. The practice of reloading brass cartridge cases with primer. A unit of ammunition consisting of the primer. A target moved across a track to simulate a moving animal or other target. This distance is normally set to the range for which the firearm is intended to be used. In target shooting.ucl. used to ensure the comfort of the non-trigger hand as the shooter supports the rifle. allowing a firearm to shoot ammunition for which it is not chambered. It contains multiple shot pellets or a single projectile called a slug. being thrown from two traps about 40 metres apart and the shooter moves in an arc to different stations. single projectile with spiral grooves used in shotguns. or by manipulating the trigger itself. One chamber at a time lines up with the barrel. A cylindrical bullet with a short truncated cone at the nose. so SD=bullet weight in pounds / bullet diameter in inches x 2. A single-barrel firearm that is manually loaded and has no magazine-feed device. propellant and bullet. the barrel is stopped and the breechblock continues rearward. A lightweight carrier surrounding a heavier projectile of reduced calibre. A cartridge. extracting the spent casing from the chamber. the process of getting both barrels to shoot to the same point of impact with a given load at a given distance. Light athletic shoes designed for rifle shooting. This is the traditional arrangement for shotguns and big game rifles. A padded glove or mitt. More commonly refers to early designs of semi-automatic pistols. A mechanical device built into a weapon intended to prevent accidental discharge. casing.

to seal propellant gases behind the charge. especially for long range shooting. Swaged bullets can be jacketed. Very fine Black Powder. The minimum pressure that must be exerted on the trigger before a firearm will fire. for dry fire practice and to release the spring tension for storage. The unrifled part of the bore immediately in front of the chamber. A firearm with a bore that is not rifled. Descriptive of (usually) a revolver with an unusually short barrel. finer than FFFFg and used as a primer in muzzle loading guns. circular head the same diameter all the way along its length. The erosion of the throat area caused by the hot gasses of the propellant burning away the metal and limiting the barrel's useful life. Winchester Centerfire. A telescope on a stand. an adjustable strap with buckle adjustments and arm cuffs that provide stability. The part of a rifle or shotgun used in holding the firearm against the shoulder when firing. The term is often incorrectly used to mean a Bullet. that is typically fired two-handed and with a shoulder mount. The related definitions are: a) the weight that a trigger must support to comply with competition rules. a rate of 1:10 equates to one revolution in 10 inches.treleaven@cs. for example. rate of Two stage trigger UIT USA Shooting V Bull Velocity Wad Wadcutter (or wad-cutter) WCF ammunition Weaver stance Wheel Lock (or wheel-lock) © Philip Treleaven 2008 In target shooting. and that is designed to simulate field conditions. designed to be discharged from a shotgun.Art of Shooting Sling Slug Small arms Smallbore (or Small-bore) Smokeless powder Smoothbore (or Smooth bore) Snap cap Snub-nosed Soft point. Despite a loss in energy. and b) the weight (often made of brass) used to check a competitor's trigger before passing the gun as complying with the rules for shooting. mobility. Broadly a device which fits over the standard trigger so as to offer a wider surface to the trigger finger and thus give the impression of reducing its apparent weight. More correctly a "rifled slug.ucl.uk . The national governing body for Olympic shooting sports for the United States The inner ring of a bulls eye target. bullet Speed loader Spent bullet Sporting clays Sporting firearm Spotter Spotting scope Spring (air) pistol Stance.ac. The length over which the rifling grooves in a barrel make one complete revolution of 360 degrees. Any firearm that has been designed for field sports. Used in timed fire events and controlled by an electronic timer. A bullet with a flat. spent bullets can still penetrate targets. A sight that employs optics to provide a magnified view of the target. usually electrically operated that twists a target through 90o very rapidly so as to present the target to the shooter. Often abbreviated "JSP" or "SP. For example. An automatic firearm commonly firing pistol ammunition intended for close-range combat. A paper fibre or plastic disc used to separate the powder charge from the shot or slug. The part of a revolver frame that extends over the top of the cylinder and connects the top of the breech with the forward portion of the frame into which the barrel is mounted. Generally refers to a . Note that nitro is not totally smoke-free. A sling is attached to the rifle fore-end and helps to support the rifle in prone and kneeling positions. normally five or ten. It is an Olympic shooting sport. A bullet near the end of its flight that has lost nearly all its energy. A specialized form of two-handed pistol shooting that provides enhanced recoil control. Kneeling Stock Stopping power Striker String Submachine gun Swaging Swiss (powder) Tang safety Target Telescopic Sight (or scope) Throat Throat erosion Topstrap Torque reaction Tracer ammunition Trajectory Trap (or trapshooting) Trigger Trigger guard Trigger pull weight Trigger shoe Trigger stop Trigger weight Turning targets Twist. It means. and to hold the shot together in the barrel. A shotgun shooting sport in which the competitors attempt to break clay pigeon targets going away from them at different angles and elevations. The striker replaces both the hammer and firing pin found in hammer driven firearms. a type of ammunition. Especially used in target shooting as they punch a neat round hole the same diameter as the bullet and thus make scoring easier. A popular but imprecise term used to refer to the ability of a small arms cartridge to cause a human assailant or a large game animal to be immediately incapacitated when shot with it. A device that blocks the firing mechanism of a firearm. A type of ammunition that utilizes a projectile or projectiles that contain a compound in its base that burns during its flight to provide a visual reference of the projectile's trajectory. A shotgun shooting sport that combines elements of skeet and trap. The tendency for the gun when fired to twist in the opposite direction to the rifling. A device. A type of trigger that typically has about half the trigger weight to fire the gun taken up by a relatively long rearward movement and the remainder by a crisp sudden let off. used to check gun functioning. The object that shooters aim to ‘hit’. Shooting from a kneeling position with the offhand (nontrigger side) supported by the off knee. Also known as spring-air or adiabatic system. spring-loaded cylindrical part which strikes the primer of a chambered cartridge. A term usually used to refer to nitro powders. International shooting union. such as a shotgun. A device to limit the over-travel of a trigger when pulled. An early type of muzzle loader lock system which came before the flintlock. A spring driven wheel was released by the trigger. In a firearm that does not have a hammer. Normally a magnification of between 20 and 30 times is used. and accuracy. a board marked with concentric circles which shooters aim to hit. An inert cartridge with a spring-loaded primer." An individual cylindrical projectile. A process of manufacturing bullets out of lead wire using great pressure to cut and 'swage'. A metal jacketed bullet design in which the nose of the core of the bullet is exposed to ensure the expansion of the bullet upon impact. used to observe the position of a shot on the target from a distance and without having to retrieve it. or 'squeeze' the bullet into shape. The metal loop around the trigger made to protect it and prevent accidentally touching the trigger." The speed loader is a circular device or clip that holds a complete set of revolver cartridges aligned to insert into all chambers of the cylinder simultaneously.22 calibre firearm or rim-fire ammunition. A companion to the shooter on the firing point. usually quoted as feet per second (fps) or in metres per second . This spinning wheel struck a shower of sparks off a lump of pyrite which led to ignition of the priming charge and 231 feedback to p. The device normally operated by the shooter's index finger that initiates the firing of a gun. The speed of a projectile after it has left the barrel. usually of bore diameter. the striker is a linear driven. A system in which the projectile is propelled by air pressure that is created by a piston moved by a spring. The curved path that a bullet takes through the air. A series of shots. Firearms designed to be carried and used by an individual or individuals. Union International de Tir (UIT) The old (French) name for the International governing body of target shooting. who undertakes recording the accuracy of shooting and can advise on wind conditions.

so as to be able to compensate for them on a shotby-shot basis. Wildcat (cartridge) Windage Wind-doping (or wind reading) WMR ammunition X-Ring Yaw Zero Zoom A cartridge designed and made by a handloader by altering an existing cartridge case and usually displaying enhanced velocity over the original donor cartridge.uk . A term used to describe variable magnification optical devices.ucl. The lateral sight adjustment used to move the point of impact horizontally (right or left) on the target. It can be set to any range desired.Art of Shooting hence the main charge.ac. This term is also used to mean the process of insuring that the sights of a firearm are properly aligned so the sight settings in windage (lateral) and elevation (vertical) where the point of aim and the point of impact coincide. The name given to a smaller inner ring enclosed within the 10 ring and used as a tie-breaker. The ability to read the changing wind conditions at long range outdoors. Normally the X-Ring does not have a numerical value. a type of ammunition. Winchester Magnum Rimfire. The motion of a bullet in flight spinning erratically around its own axis. © Philip Treleaven 2008 232 feedback to p.treleaven@cs.

mlagb.org.40. GU24 0PB secretary@bsrc. Berks RG7 5YY Secretary@BFTA. PO Box 7057. Canada L6J 5E8 info@ipsc. Brookwood.C.com www.co. P.com British Field Target Association BFTA.org European Shooting Confederation +47 22920627 Skadalsveien 26A.org Federation Internationale de Tir aux Armes Sportive de Chasse 33. European and Commonwealth Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site International Shooting Sports Federation +49 89 544 355 0 ISSF Headquarter.O Box 2242. Below these are the national governing bodies. Brookwood. Tachbrook Park.org www.gb300m.org Organisation International Confederation of Fullbore Rifle Associations Telephone Address Email info@nra. D-80336 München Germany munich@issf-sports. Brookwood. and the World Benchrest Shooting Federation.world-benchrest. Dorset DT4 4EN alan@mediainc.co.com International Practical shooting Confederation 905-849-6960 PO Box 972.uk Web site www. and then there are bodies such as the Clay Pigeon Shooting Association which governs clay shooting in England.uk www.uk Organisation United Kingdom Benchrest Association Telephone Address Email Web site www.issf-shooting.net Great Britain 300m Club Bisley Camp. such as the National Rifle Association of the United Kingdon and the National Target Shooting Association of Ireland. LONDON WC1N 3XX general. Bisley Camp.M 5114 London WC1N 3XX britishpistolclub@ntlworld. Hertfordshire CM22 6GH Email Web site www.com United Kingdom Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site British Shooting Limited +44-1483-486948 Edmonton House. Reading.co.com Web site Organisation World Benchrest Shooting Federation Telephone Address Email Web site www. Bisley Camp.uk www.uk Organisation High Power Rifle Association of the UK Telephone Address PO Box 5977.nra.com www. Brookwood. Warwick CV34 6RZ membership@mlagb.ac.fsnet.uk www.com The UK Practical Shooting Association 07010 703845 UKPSA.benchrest22. Surrey GU24 0NP info@GB300m. Federation Internationale de Tir aux Armes Sportive de Chasse.co. such as the European Shooting Federation.42.uk www.co. Brookwood.org.secretary@hbsa-uk.co. Surrey GU24 0PB info@nra.ukpsa.hbsa.com www.uk The British Sporting Rifle Club (BSRC) c/o NRA.britishshooting.org www.93. 0781 Oslo.nicolaysen@mac.org. Ontario.org Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Historical Breechloading Smallarms Association BCM HBSA. such as the International Shooting Sports Federation (ISSF). Surrey.org www.bictsf.uk British International Clay Target Shooting Federation 01483 485400 BICTSF.uk Organisation Single Shot Black Powder Cartridge Rifle Club of Great Britain Telephone Address Email secretary@ssbpcrc.bfta.uk Muzzle Loaders Association of GB (MLAGB) 01926 458198 MLAGB.f-class. Preston.co.org Organisation United Kingdom Association of Rimfire Benchrest Shooting Telephone Address Email ukbr22web@fsmail.uk/index.co.co.uk www.org. Norway unni.53 10 RUE DE LISBONNE 75008 PARIS FRANCE fitasc@fitasc.com Organisation Commonwealth Shooting Federation Telephone Address Email martinmace@hotmail. Surrey. Weymouth.ukbra.highpowerrifle. PO Box 1500. International.com www. Woking.com www.uk .ucl.treleaven@cs.co.ssbpcrc.fitasc.co.icfra. Woking. Woking.britishpistolclub.net Web site http://www.net www. Bavariaring 21. Brookwood. Surrey GU24 0NP admin@britishshooting.uk Web site www.co.(0)1.org.uk (or contact ‘NRA’ national association) Web site www. Woking.nsra.uk © Philip Treleaven 2008 233 feedback to p. There are a number of governing bodies of target shooting. 7 Olympus Court.htm Organisation GB F Class Association Telephone Address Email mrmister@tinyonline.bsrc. next there are various regional bodies and worldwide bodies for specific disciplines.org. Surrey GU24 0NP info@nsra.uk National Smallbore Rifle Association 01483 485505 Bisley Camp. Elsenham.uk Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site British Pistol Club 01483 486293 B. Oakville.Art of Shooting Target Shooting Organisations Below are the contact details of some of the principal target shooting federations and associations.ipsc. GU24 0NP secretary@bictsf.esc-shooting.com www.com Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site National Rifle Association of the UK 01483 797777 Bisley Camp.

htm © Philip Treleaven 2008 234 feedback to p.uk Organisation Scottish Clay Target Association Telephone Address Email Julian Cordery (Julian.org. Surrey. Bisley Camp.uk Web site www.com www.org Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Shooting Sports Association of Ireland 087 900 7501 PO Box 9.eircom. Caersws.uk Organisation English Pistol Association Telephone Address Email englishpistolassociation@blueyonder. Sandyford.uk Web site www.uk Organisation Welsh Airgun and Field Target Association (WAFTA) Telephone Address Email secretary@wafta.org www. c/o Fitzgerald Kitchens.scottishpistolassociation.ie www. Bective Street.co. Dublin.icpsa.co.org.co. Surrey CRO 5NU ecretary@essu. Tullamore.co.uk Web site www. Bisley Camp.net www.nrai.ie www.wafta.P.net http://homepage. Dublin. Dublin.net/~ntsai/nsai. Surrey GU24 0NP admin@britishshooting.Art of Shooting Republic of Ireland Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site National Target Shooting Association of Ireland 00 866 504 9073 PO Box 9. Brookwood.ie The National Silhouette Association Ireland NSA.treleaven@cs.uk Wales Organisation Welsh Target Shooting Federation Telephone Address Email iharris@btinternet.co.org. Kells.html England Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site English Target Shooting Federation +44-1483-486948 Edmonton House.org.uk Organisation Scottish Air Rifle and Pistol Association Telephone Address Email Web site www.uk Clay Pigeon Shooting Association 01483 485400 CPSA.membership@hotmail. Ireland icpsa@eircom.targetshootingireland.scta.org.sarpa. Co.ipscireland. Co.uk Organisation English Twenty Club Telephone Address Email www.ucl. Meath.welsh-airgun. Blackrock. Brookwood. The Mall. Co Offaly. Surrey Email Web site www. Co.uk/index. Leabeg.uk Organisation Scottish Smallbore Rifle Association Telephone Address Email executive@ssra. Bisley Camp. Ireland Lcrawford@kildarecoco. Ireland info@nrai.co.cordery@scta.uk Organisation Welsh Smallbore Rifle Association Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Welsh Airgun Association Telephone Address Email iharris@btinternet.co.org.uk Web site Scotland Organisation Scottish Target Shooting Federation Telephone Address Email admin@stsf.uk Organisation Scottish Pistol Association Telephone Address Email scottishpistolhq@aol.uk) Web site www. 125 Turnpike Link. Bearsden.uk Organisation Welsh Rifle Association Telephone Address WRA.ac.co.englishtwenty.uk) Tony Lithgow (tony@awlithgow.cpsa.co. pro@ipscireland.org.wtsf. Woking.shootingsportsireland.ie Irish Practical Shooting Association I.org National Rifle Association of Ireland NRA of Ireland. Brookwood.org.com Web site www.co.Box 9.co.scottishrifleassociation. P.uk www. Blackrock. Glasgow G61 4JX mabooonscottland@ntlworld.org.com Irish Clay Pigeon Shooting Association 00 353 (0)87 2988030 Suite 20A.stsf.O.com Web site http://www. Dublin 18. Ireland SSAI@eircom. Blackrock. Ireland.com www. Beacon Court.uk Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Welsh Clay Target Shooting Association 07751 353020 (Phone after 6PM only please) Glanyrhafon. silhouetteireland@eircom.uk Web site www. Blueball.A.ssra.co.wctsa. Powys SY17 5SA wctsa.uk www.englishtwenty.welshra.S.co.uk .net www.uk Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Scottish Rifle Association 164 Ledi Drive.uk English Smallbore Shooting Union The ESSU. Co.com Web site www.co. GU24 0NP info@cpsa.org. Croydon. c/o National Rifle Association.essu.

nz Web site www.uk .com United States Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site USA Shooting 719 866 4670 1 Olympic Plaza.8281 45 Shirley Boulevard.com.com/Contact-Us-001A.O. WA 98284 office@uspsa.au Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Shooting Federation of Canada (613) 727-7483 45 Shirley Boulevard. ON.ca www. Nepean.co.sanra.sassnet. Plumpton NSW 2761 mem@ssaa.uk Ulster Clay Pigeon Shooting Association 028 25898 075 60 Shankbridge Road. Ballymena. Yorba Linda. TX 78253 USA nssa@nssa-nsca.uk Web site Organisation Northern Ireland Smallbore Shooting Union Telephone 028 9446 4514 Address Email des. LEVIN 5540 Email targetshootingnz@xtra.nz http://www.org New Zealand Shooting Federation 64 3 352 0077 PO Box 5042.nraa.ca/main.usashooting.sassnet. K2K 2W6 office@dcra.ucl. 0159 sanra@sanra.com/ Sporting Shooter Association of Australia 02 8805 3900 PO Box 282.co.ucpsa.targetshootingnz. SA.odcmp.com Australia.ca National Rifle Association of New Zealand (04) 528 4843 P.nzshootingfed.O.ssaa.wilson@brewin.com www. Nepean.org United States Practical Shooting Association (360) 855-2245 P.au www.nz National Rifle Association of Australia +61 7 3398 1228 Belmont.829.ac.nra.co.Art of Shooting Northern Ireland Organisation Target Shooting Federation of Northern Ireland Address Email patrick.co.org www. PO BOX 1860.nifta. New Zealand nzcta@xtra.co.au www.nz www.O.nranz. OH 43452 custserve@odcmp. Brighton.com Organisation National Benchrest Shooters Association Telephone Address Email http://nbrsa.treleaven@cs. 23255 La Palma Avenue. Co Antrim.org. Fairfax.dcra. MONTANA PARK. Christchurch.org/contact Web site http://nbrsa.com www.co.ulsterrifleassociation. Papanui. 5048 office@ausshooting.org. BT27 6YP membershipsecretary@ulsterrifleassociation. K2K 2W6 info@sfc-ftc.com US National Sporting Clays Association +1 (210) 688-3371 5931 Roft Rd.com www. South Africa Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Australian International Shooting Ltd +61 8 8296 0951 PO Box 375.sfc-ftc. Canada.org.mynsca.com Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site National Rifle Association 1-800-672-3888 NRA. Box 49.uk Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Northern Ireland Field Target Association 07921 676 231 info@nifta.org. Colorado Springs. California 92887 www. Vanderbijlpark 1911 sassf@telkomsa.ausshooting. Box 47-036 Trentham 5018 nranz@xtra. VA 22030 www. ON.net Dominion of Canada Rifle Association 613.org www.uspsa.com Organisation Address Email Web site Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Ulster Rifle Association URA. CO 80909 membership@usashooting. Queensland membership@nraa.za www. 11250 Waples Mill Road.org/ Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site Single Action Shooting Society +1 (714) 694-1800 SASS.org.au Organisation Target Shooting New Zealand Telephone +64 06 368 6749 Address P.ca www.com.clyde@ukonline.php www.com www.cfm South African Shooting Sport Federation +27-16-9313125 5 James Champman Street. Sedro-Woolley.co.uk www.org Civilian Marksmanship Program +1 (419) 635-2141 PO Box 576 Port Clinton.org www. San Antonio. LISBURN.nz Organisation Telephone Address Email Web site South African Bisley Union +27 12 547 7803 P O Box 1522.org. New Zealand.za © Philip Treleaven 2008 235 feedback to p. Box 811. BT42 3DL ucpsasec@hotmail.

182. 77 35. 192 35 40. 40.26. 82. 100 165 35 35 35 182 2 40. 103 35 21. 213 138 ii 40. 85. 82 70 21. 91 46. 213 50. 192 232 35 38. 182 3 35.Art of Shooting Index 3 Position (shooting) 300 metre (shooting) Action Action shooting Aiming Mark Airgun Airsoft Ammunition Aperture (iron) sight Associations and organisations Ball Ballistic coefficient (BC) Ballistics Barrel BB Bedding Benchrest (shooting) Berdan (primer) BFTA (British Field Target Association) Bisley Black powder (BP) Boat tail (bullet) Bolt Bolt action Bore Bore diameter Boxer Brass (cartridge case) Breech Breechblock Buck shot Bull (or Bullseye) Bull barrel Bullet Bullseye Pistol Butt Butt Plate Butts Calibre (or caliber) Cannelure Capping off Card Cartridge Cartridge case Cartridge magazine Cast Centrefire (or Centerfire) Chain-firing (or flashover) Chamber Charge (powder) Cheek Piece Choke Civilian service rifle Classic and historical arms Clay pigeon shooting Cleaning rifles.ac.uk . 187 109. 192 35.treleaven@cs. 192 113 98 135 206 206 56 182 105 2. 213 182 30.126 35. 100. 218 21 35.ucl. 40. 182 182 35 165 192 35 89 21. shotguns. 100. 192 35 35 30. 192 46. 192 35. 91. 135 © Philip Treleaven 2008 236 feedback to p. 192 35. 48 35. pistols. 165 105 46. 105 35. 182 21. airguns Cleaning kit Clothing Comb Cowboy action shooting CPSA 68. 126 182 74. 119.

197 6. 174 218 40 213 13 192 35 135 65 6.uk . 192 165. FFFg. 197 50. 192 35.treleaven@cs. 197 6 174 35 192 192 35.ucl. 174 165. 144 21. magazine Follow-through Forcing cone Fore-end (fore-stock) FPS (feet per second) Free pistol Free rifle Frizzen Front sight (or foresight) Fullbore (or Full-Bore or Full Bore) Gallery rifle and pistol shooting glossary Greenhill’s Formula Grip Groove Groove diameter Group Group Size Gunsmithing Half Cock Handload(ing) Hang fire Headspace Headstamp High house High power High power rifle Hunter field target shooting IPAS iron plate action shooting Iron sights (or metallic sights) ISSF (International Shooting Sport Federation) Jump. 62 93 223 35 26. 68 40. 144. 174 56 30. 35 6. 100 50.Art of Shooting Cross-hairs Crown (or muzzle crown) Die Disciplines. 187 50. muzzle Keyhole Lapping Leade Line of sight Long range pistol 50. 187 35. 144 95 © Philip Treleaven 2008 237 feedback to p. FFFFg Fault analysis Field stripping Field target shooting Fifty-calibre (long range) rifle Firearms Certificate (FAC) Firing line (or point) Fixed sights Flintlock Floor plate Follower. 197. FFg. 65 140 121 50. 182 35. 197 72 40 174 218 138 115 13 13 50 40 35 35 132. shooting Dominant eye (and hand) Double Action (DA) Double action only (DAO) Double-action revolver Double-base (powder) Dry firing Ears (or cans) Ejector Elevation Extractor Eye piece Eye relief F-Class Fg. 152 192 182 35 6.ac. 203 192 213 6 152 187 187 187 35 171.

197 2. pistol. 107. 165 144 182 40. 197 46 46. 229 50.Art of Shooting Low house Magazine Magazine release Mainspring Maintenance Malfunction Marker Marksmanship. 100 35.uk . 144 35 50. 65.ac. 82. 40 213 117 111 123 107. 35. 107 158 13 40. 100. 197 30. 192 13 35 165 2. 148. 91. 197 16 50.ucl. 117. 100 21. 85. 111. 100 feedback to p. 148 152. 192 186.treleaven@cs. 126 40. 13 50. 152 152 80 40 108 171 35 35 6. 100 40. 192 40. 103 171 26. 187. 117. 109. 182 228 35. 100 13. 119. 123 35 35 213 2 35 206 30 40 40. rifle. 197 227 50. 13 2. shotgun Master eye Match Rifle Matchlock McQueen Mental training Metplat Mil Military firearm Mirage Misfire MLAGB (Muzzle Loading Association of Great Britain) MLAIC MOA (minute of angle) Modified Estonian (stance) Monte Carlo stock Musket Muzzle Muzzle loader (or muzzleloader) Muzzle velocity ND (negligent discharge) Nitrocellulose or Nitro Notebooks and scorebooks NRA (National Rifle Association) NSRA (National Smallbore Rifle Association) Object lens Obturation Ocular Lens Offhand Ogive Open sight Over-and-under Palm rest Parallax Paralympics shooting Peep sight Pellet Pellet gun Percussion cap Physical training Pistol Pistol grip Plinking Powder Powder charge Practical pistol Practical rifle Practical shotgun Practical shooting Primer Primer pocket Progressive (press) Prone Proof mark Pull-through Pump action Pyrodex Ramrod © Philip Treleaven 2008 238 135 35 21 21 218 13 13 144.

132 187 223 13 187 26. 30.uk . single-action) SAAMI Safety Sear Self-Loader Semi-automatic Semi-wad cutter Service pistol Set trigger Shooting glove Shooting jacket Shooting shoes Shooting trousers Shot Shot shell (or shotgun cartridge) Shotgun Side-by-side Sighter Sighting picture Silhouette shooting Single action revolver Single shot Single stroke pneumatic Skeet Sling and rests Smallbore (or Small-bore) Smokeless powder Smoothbore (or Smooth bore) Soft point. 13 13 21. 197.ac. 203 192 30 135 21. 187 26. 107. 197 129 187 187 46 135 56. 218 84. 26. 187 23. 192 35 135 132 132 56. 187 2. bullet Sporting clays Sporting firearm Sporting rifle Spotting scope Spring (air) pistol Stance. 148 213 56. 197 26 13 26 35. 35 30 30 62. 165 174. 123 © Philip Treleaven 2008 239 feedback to p. barrel Rifling. 27. 187 187. 187 21. 155 68 35 40. 182 21. 26. 158 50. 28.26. Kneeling Stock Striker Target (shooting) Target Air Pistol Target Pistol Target shotgun Telescopic Sight (or scope) Throat Trajectory Trap (or trapshooting) Triggers Trigger guard Trigger pull weight Turning targets 2. Lands Rimfire (cartridge) Rimless RO/RCO (Range Officer or Range Conducting Officer) Running target SA (Single action. 19