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Fundamentals

of Engineering

Review

FLUID MECHANICS

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emgates@csupomona.edu 909-869-4332

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Prepared by E.M. Gates Department of Mechanical Engineering California State Polytechnic University

Ver.02.2

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I. II.

Fundamentals

of Engineering Review

FLUID MECHANICS

Fluid Properties Fluid Statics A. Pressure distribution in a fluid at rest B. Manometers c. Forces on plane surfaces D. Forces on curved surfaces E. Buoyancy

III. Fluid Dynamics A. Continuity B. Bernoulli's Equation c. Momentum D. Energy Equation IV. Flow in Pipes


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Specific weight (y) y = weight per unit volume = pg [N/m3] c. Fluid Properties A. D.OQ:D Po.. ~y ~ = p u/oly ". Pressure difference across a curved interface of radius R: ~p = 2aIR [a] =N/m • 3 .(' =: Pref = 1000 kg/m'.. 'oQ. I. Specific Gravity (SG) SG = p/ Pref For liquids. Pressure (p) \CO. • p = force per unit area [N/m2 or Pa. / absolute viscosity (J.c. Surface Tension.----- -. Viscosity dy~~: ~ 1c. Density (p) p = mass/unit volume [kg/nr'] B."t_s'T' oc.!) [Nss/rrr' or Pa-s or kg/m-s] kinematic viscosity (v) = u/p [mvs] F. cr. usually given in kPa] gage pressure = pressure relative to local atmospheric pressure absolute pressure = pressure relative to a vacuum E.

006 .---_.25 V 3. == IJ- e. @) temperature_J(c) pressure (d) velocity (e) surface An oil has a kinematic viscosity of 0.156 N/m.125 (d) 1.OOOtzs) = •\ If 6 m3 of oil weighs 47 kN. what is the internal bubble pressure? (a) 52Pa ~C) 26palCd) ~ 104P~Ce) 78Pa A? -::Z> r¥c R. .80. SG = 798/1000 = 0.08 I(b) 0.] ~ . density and specific gravity. The absolute viscosity of a fluid is primarily a fimction of (a) ?ensity tension 2. • 4. y = 47/6 = 7.000125 ro2/s and a specific gravity of 0.\56> -:0 l 2: . Ans._- - - - -• QUESTIONS 1. -I\o~ ~. lTe = (~oo)(..1~ (c) 0.. fmd its specific weight.C!)II~ • 4 .798.. fA.0 '1(.t's \. What is its dynamic viscosity in kg/m-s? (a) 0.83 kN/m3 p = 7830 N/m3 • = ylg = 7830/9. A soap bubble has a diameter of 12 mm and the surface has a tension coefficient of 0. . -. If the external pressure is 0 Pa gage.0 (e) 1.81 = 798 kg/rrr'.

80. If 6 nr' of oil weighs 47 kN.156 N/m. An oil has a kinematic viscosity of 0. If the external pressure is 0 Pa gage.08 (b) 0.125 (d) 1.000125 m2/s and a specific gravity of 0.25 3. What is its dynamic viscosity in kg/m-s? (a) 0.10 (c) 0.81 = 798 kg/nr'. Ans.83 kN/m3 = 7830 N/m3 p = ylg = 7830/9. SG = 798/1000 • = 0. A soap bubble has a diameter of 6 mm and the surface has a tension coefficient of 0. • 4.52 Pa (c) 26 Pa (d) 104 Pa (e) 78 Pa • 4 . density and specific gravity.-• QUESTIONS 10 The absolute viscosity of a fluid is primarily a function of (a) density tension (b) temperature (c) pressure (d) velocity (e) surface 2. find its specific weight.0 (e) 1. y = 47/6 = 7. what is the internal bubble pressure? (a) 52 Pa (b) .798.

~ is: (a) Lp~ (b) pVL2/J-l (c) p~V2/L (d) J-lLV2/p Ee) pVL/J-l}-= kg2/m4 Re [pVL/J. c = 0. [LpJ-LIV] = m*(kglm3)*(N-s/m2)/(m/s) [pVL2/J.. how far will water rise in a 10 mm diameter glass tube in millimeters? (a) 1 (b) §)d) 2 4 . p and viscosity. fluid density. V. -~------------ -._ . body size.l] = (kglm3)*(mls)*m/(N-s/m2) 6.lLV2/p] = (N-s/m2)*m*(mlsf/(kglm3) =1 = N2_s/m5 = mSls3 ANSWER IS (e) =m If water at 30°C has a surface tension.l] = (kglm3)*(mls)*m2/(N-s/m2) [pJ-lV2JL] = (kglm3)*(N-s/m2)*(mls?lm [J. • • 5 . The only possible dimensionless group which combines velocity. 5. L.073 N/m and the contact angle at a water-air-glass interface is zero.

Manometers Forces on Plane Surfaces Forces on Curved Surfaces Buoyancy • 6 . 2. z y x ~p = -y~z (*) • if Yis constant then between any two locations in the fluid 1 and 2 APPLICATIONS 1. 3. 4." • II Fluid Statics A. Pressure variation in a fluid at rest.

Manometers With equation (*) we can measure fluid pressures and differences in pressures with columns of liquid. Guide to dealing with manometers: pressures are the same at the same elevation in the same fluid. i) B. • ii) start at one end of the manometer and calculate changes in pressure using equation (*) until you get to the other end.-- -~--~~~~~~~- -. • 7 .

SGHg = 13. 0---\ h= 730 mm Hg Patm = 0 + 13.6* 1000*9.15) -9.l 5) ~ ~R ~A.~\(..64 Mercury • ~ PI..400 Pa . A barometer is a manometer used to measure atmospheric pressure.81 kN/m3• Yoil = 8. • 2.6.3 +. + ~~~IS~ . determine the atmospheric pressure.73 Pa Patm = 97.81 *0.~5)- t9: 1"~~(.:s)- 'toil (.p~ .) . Find the pressure difference between A and B."3.. 3 kN/m .5 kP~ 8 .6'i)(.~.-• QUESTIONS: 1. YHg = 133 kN/m\ Y water = 9. For the case shown.~ . ~t\~(.

c.-. free surface sz . Hydrostatic force on a submerged planar surface. area about the centroidal x-axis . I is the second moment of 9 .} Hydrostatic Force ~\O""'~ centroid of area • center of pressure Hydrostatic force is perpendicular to the planar surface and: magnitude = pressure at the centroid of the planar area times the area line of action passes through the "center of pressure" which is located a vertical distance of • below the centroid of the planar area.' l("e~.

2. A tank of oil (S.• QUESTION 1.G.82) has dimensions 5 m wide by 10 m long by 8 m deep. It = 12"10 kN A 3 m wide gate OAB is hinged at 0 and rests against a rigid support atB. what is the hydrostatic force on the 5 m by 8 m wall? fra) 1290 kN l(b) 2580 kN (c) 1575 kN (d) 3150 kN '1 ""c':"\" t ~~ 5". k3 10 . • (a) What is the hydrostatic force acting on the horizontal portion of the gate BA? f" ~ pc A :: ¥~~c:A:: (q·~V(~~~)(z ~3) • ~ l= -= ~\'2.. If the tank is full. = 0.

~l1 sJ[4x ~1 A L \ F:: 5~" It. (b) What is the hydrostatic force acting on the vertical portion of the gate AO? r : ~~:: 01: ~r.27x5CC9 ~ '11'2)( \ :: p~~ .""(~o·) [51['1)(~1 [ t.2.A 19....7..l-" D.] What force P is required to hold the gate closed? L M~0 -=) 2 .> p ~~:S7 k NJ 1 - • 11 .N J :! (c) Where does the force calculated in part (b) act on the vertical portion of the gate AO? -8~ (d) ~~:: ""~ = l~~' r hc....A ~e 3 ·~'1-.-.

.'i: / ...k:.JQ.1 I • ~' i~ ~i '.. 1. Determine the magnitude of the horizontal and vertical components of the force of the water on the gate. '"-e othe. • ~---I--· ----.tvfi-if1y ~G\.• D. ---_. Hydrostatic forces on curved surfaces.\e<. ~ tlt~ 12 . The line of action of the force is through the centroid of the volume of the fluid. QUESTION A 3 m long curved gate is located in the side of a reservoir containing water. The vertical component of the hydrostatic force on a curved surface equals the weight of the fluid above the curved surface between the curved surface and the free surface. by (-I) ov\ s. l=:.i So v.\\e.. The horizontal component of the hydrostatic force on a curved surface equals the hydrostatic force acting on the projection of the curved surface onto a vertical plane.ole....

Buoyancy The fluid exerts a buoyant force on the body equal in magnitude to the weight of the displaced fluid and acts through the centroid of the displaced volume.07kN • 13 . Yoil = 8.96 kN/m3• - OIL 0.81 + [0.15*0.15 m thick oil layer.96 =4.75]*8.~-- ~.6*0.75]*9.75*0.15 m • = WATER 0. Determine the weight of the cube.~ -~~-------~~-- • E.75*0.60m Weight of cube = Weight of displaced fluid [0. QUESTION A solid cube floats in water with a 0.

• 14 . B. C. ~--/-:-~--\--_j x -. One dimensional._I - ----II~~ 2 ~ -\ Elosses E in E out Fluid motion is described by: • A. Consider a control volume with one inlet and one exit. steady.• III. Conservation of Mass or Continuity If the density is constant. y 1 . incompressible fluid dynamics. D. Conservation of Mass Bernoulli's Equation Energy Equation Momentum Equation A.

p 1 T. p v = P2 *A2* V = (?2* Tl~*l PIA 1 2 \. Determine the average air velocity at section 1.1 mls 690 252 • 15 . Air flows steadily between two cross sections in a long straight section of a 0.25 mID pipe.) = pRT. • ~ ~ 690 kPa 300 K d :0 ~ • 127 kPa 252-K 320 m/s Solution: • Assuming ideal gas behaviour.• QUESTIONS 1. then: 1 -v 2 = 127 * 300*320 =70.

-~'L: ~'K5')(~~(11.i ~'t:.85 ~..._...\ 16 . -to %.91 kg/rrr' and the ambient pressure is 70 kPa.7'l....• B. What is the pressure difference between points I and 2? Kerosene. k~Q..85) flows through a Venturi meter with a flow rate of 0. ~ ~+ _L P. e _.stagnation poin~ on the nose of the airplane? _. . sa = 0. e t-_l\I.. = 71.~OOO~ ~ . -9 G"':)z. --' ~ iJ. What is the pressure at the .&.&. • \~t. Bernoulli's Equation For a steady constant density flow with negligible friction we have between any two points in the flow on the same streamline: QUESTION 1.. p • 2. .4 k Po.A Cv-o - ..050 m3/s.] Kerosene(SG = 0.!''1'J He..~ z. An airplanes flies at 200 kph at an elevation of 3000 m where the air mass density is 0.Rt -+ .

+ pg 2g = n1 V2 21] + Ein .. • OR 17 . if Ein is provided by a pump mgh.. where hLis the pressure decrease through the control volume due to frictional losses expressed as the height of a column of the flowing liquid.. = the pressure rise across the pump expressed as the height of a column of the liquid being pumped....!. is the pressure decrease across the turbine expressed as the height of a column of liquid being pumped.-.J:.J. + . where h. v2 Elosses if Eout is a turbine = where h.l. Co Energy Equation rate at which energy enters = rate at which energy leaves rate at which energy enters = mg[. the rate at which energy = mgh. rate at which energy leaves = • P I11g[ 2.. + 22 + Z2] + Eout + pg g mgh.

~ ~ \9. The loss between sections 1 and 2 is equal to 3.: zc: kw n. 11 5• ~ "is ""__..68)( lC(!1:))o. VI '2. 1) ~ \'5 .. 29.~1. \c:5] • 18 . ~ 25 ~ : ZO kL.l) 'l.'8C>]l\1i .p~ ~ \ A.68) flows through a pump at 0.~...~'l ~ ~~ f ~ 2. .9.0 kW "'2.::__ • ~l - t I ~ '::. Gasoline (SG = 0. P-r..• 2.(q~l) hf:: ~p.S K .12 m3/s D2 = 0. _ ~.. What will the difference in pressures between sections 1 and 2 be if 20 kW is delivered by the pump 10 the fluid? Q = 0...8 \ 't. e(" ~~:.....6 m.r. 1..t W4?: .. - . -\I "2.12 m3/s.2 m I 3m VI = • I 2_ -n- ~(.

) • 19 .2 • kg/nr' > ~ -.~ r \_ o '. What is the force exerted on the plate by the jet? Pwater = 998. c. Momentum Equation F. QUESTION A jet of water issues from a nozzle at a speed of 6 mls and strikes a stationary flat plate oriented normal to the jet. = m(V2x - V1J where F x and Fy are the components of the resultant external force acting 01\ the control volume and v x and Vy are the components of the fluid velocity..1 1 I " I -. ..'(~ -v.. . The exit area of the nozzle is 645 mrrr'.-.

l = VD/v Re>2300 = 4QhtDv. Minor losses in turbulent flow: where C is the loss coefficient for the particular firting( value given. = p VD/J.. Hydraulic gradient line = 4 x flow = pi pg + z + z + V2/2g • Energy gradient line = p/pg 20 . turbulent Major losses: • laminar flow: f = 64IRe turbulent flow: f=f(Re. e/D) where e/D is the relative pipe roughness fis determined from the Moody diagram page 43..• IV Applications A. a few available on page 39) Non-circular cross-section use hydraulic diameter area/wetted perimenter. Flow in Pipes Reynolds Number (Re) Re < 2300 laminar.

....15 0..02 ...1'11'110 .f.9-9.04 0.10 0.000005 e. I"- .. " . rv.1'110 0.... nnR 10) 2 :3 :5 10· 2 :3 :5 105 2 :3 5 106 2 :3 5 I .""' ~ r-<. ~ r" ~~ .0..7 2 :3 5 I o8 0.0 6 [\ 0.. nn. "'" . r- r""'" ""'" ".008 • 0.... (It) Riveted steel Concrete Cast iron Galvanized iron Cammercial steel or wrogntiron Drawn tubing 0. "'- 11'1... .1-00. 10.. Re • .0002 :. " I' r-r..OOZ ~~ '. I--. ~ t5 a: LL 0... ~ r.6 0...0 0..0 8 0.0 5 \ --.3 \ .0 3 z o l'.05 0. 'D II o.015 .._ "i'~ r--. r. • MOODY (STANTON) DIAGRAM e....01 0...0 0...0000 REYNOLDS NUMBER. " """"~t-- "" .::..001-0. r- • ~n(''1 0...0 2 ..~ 'f"': 0.0 4 1\ ~ ..0000 o 5 o. i. 0.3-3.: to-.... o.009 O.0015 0. 0. 010 ~.03 0..1-. f'. ~ I'..0004 ..25 0. -: ''%. t0~ .. ~ ~ I' .04...... ~ I I~~~~! : I.~ 1""1-...1'" .....0 15 ISMOOTH PIPE :5: ~ i. ~ I"&i .004 O.~ b~ 0.003-0.z- \ T JRRIII ~"Ii t-.0 9 0. ~ I c.."'" ~~ r-..0 7 I' 10. ..• Reprinted by permission of ASHRAE. \..00085 0_0005 0_00015 0.(mm) 0.

constant diameter pipe with no pump or turbine the energy equation reduces to: with: Step 1.Energy equation for pipe flow is normally written on a per unit weight flow rate.00125 21 .2/1.003 x 10-6 = 339.000 :.7*0. that is. Pj/pg + V//2g + z. e = • e/D = 0. determine the Reynolds number of the flow: Re = VD/v = 1. turbulent 0. + h. (p = 998. Water at 200e is flowing in a 0.2 m diameter cast iron pipe with an average velocity of 1.7 mls.2 kg/rrr'. we divide the energy equation by mg.25 nun Step 2. + hL QUESTIONS 1.000001003 m2/s) Solution: • for a level. v = 0.00025/0. Determine the pressure drop per 100 meters of pipe.2 = 0. = P/pg + V//2g + ~ + h. determine the relative roughness: from page 43.

determine pressure drop: PI .1 kPa • • 22 .i 2 = 15. determine f from Moody diagram f= 0.021 Step 4.Step 3.P2 = 998.021 * (b~~)* l.2*0.

\. Water at 20°C is being pumped from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir through 16 em diameter commercial steel pipe(f= 0. I) 1. x l \ rf> ] _ . v = 0.2 m3/s. The minor loss coefficients are: sharp-edged entrance..2 kg/rrr'.75 sudden exit into reservoir.0 (p = 998. '» (002/1'"(0"<)\(0)') . C = 0.• 2.000001003 m2/s) 25m 20m wrought iron pipe Water 2Q'>C • (a) Determine the Reynolds number of the flow Re' v D . C = 0.0155).00~ :: . C = 1... • 23 .10-' (b) Determine the major head loss in the pipe circuit . . The flowrate is 0..5 90° elbow.

~ --------- . -.. \J. e .'2.<a )(65) I I~" 18 Z lJ 1 k ·7 • 24 ...~- .~ ....~ \ I. Ihp ~ 6S ~ Z5+-Z4.• (c) Determine the minor head loss in the pipe circuit (d) Determine the required head rise across the pump and the required pumping power if the pump efficiency is '(0%.. ~2\. • hr" hp= ii¥7 ~ ~-=. z (~...'1+\S.. P.._ 0\- ~ + +~ T.0.t) _ \.l. jCQq8. = p~ P?S ~2.6.

•• 3.4 m of water = 1t)¥. 25 .61 m pipe f pump 30m = 0.04 mls :.4 = 0.- E(. -+~~. 107 m 101 m 610 m 0.020* (o~J~o 81 OR )2*¥.j.107 9.Q = 3.4 m water .30 = 86. Pump Be delivers water to reservoir F and the energy gradient line is shown.04* n*0. = 116. G""eq:~'~ ~ GL...6102/4 (b) 0. L.020 What is the flowrate from the lower reservoir to the upper reservoir? The energy loss between C and D is equal to 116..4 .61 m pipe f A turbine 610 m 0.2 = V = 3.020 • (a) hL = = 0.4 .~ + \"1" -\ l.89 m3/s What is the head rise across the pump? • h. OR 9.

'. (c) Determine the power supplied to the pump assuming an efficiency of 100%.2*9.4 + VE2/2g zF=91. ~-::eQ P = pgQhp = 998.EGLF losses between E and F = • [101] .4 = 753 kW (d) What is the elevation of the surface of the upper reservoir? EGLE .1m • 26 .[0 + ZF + 0] = 9.81 *0.89*86.

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