layout is a floor plan of the physical

facilities which are used in production. Layout planning refers to the generation of several possible plans for the special arrangement of physical facilities and selects the one which minimizes the distance between the departments.

 Facilitate the organizational structure.  Minimize overall production time. safety and comfort.  .  Provide for employee convenience.  Utilize existing space most effectively.  Facilitate the manufacturing process.OBJECTIVES OF PLANT LAYOUT  The objectives of plant layout are:  Minimize  investment in equipment.  Maintain flexibility of arrangement and operation.  Minimize materials handling cost.

Process layout Product layout Group layout Fixed position layout  .CLASSIFICATION OF LAYOUT  Layouts can be classified into the following four categories.

The product layout is selected when the volume of production of a product is high such that a separate production line to manufacture it can be justified.    . job shops employ process layout due to the variety of products manufactured and their low production volumes. machines are not shared by different products. Process layout is normally used when the production volume is not sufficient to justify a product layout. Typically.PROCESS LAYOUT  In a process layout. Therefore.   PRODUCT LAYOUT  Product layout is used when machines and auxiliary services are located according to the processing sequence of the product. all drills will be located in one area of the plant. In a strict product layout. Therefore the production volume must be sufficient to achieve satisfactory utilization of equipments. similar machines and services are located together.

FIXED POSITION LAYOUT A fourth type of layout is the static product layout. . in which the physical characteristics of the product dictate as to which type of machine and men are to be brought to the product. or layout by fixed position. Since. The ship building company commonly employs a static product layout. it has limited scope. the static product layout is not justified except in unusual situations.

•Large amount of in-process inventory will result. •Higher grades of skills are required. LIMITATIONS •Material handling cost will be high. •Space and capital are tied up by work in process. fewer machines are required.ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF PROCESS LAYOUT ADVANTAGES •Machines are better utilized. •Throughput time is longer. •A high degree of flexibility in terms of task allocation to machines exists. . •Comparatively low investment in machines is required. •Production planning and control systems are more involved. •The diversity of tasks offers a more interesting and satisfying occupation for the operator.

•Throughput time is less. •The line output is decided by the bottleneck machine. •Comparatively high investment in equipment is required. •Material handling cost is minimum.ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF PRODUCT LAYOUT ADVANTAGES •The flow of product will be smooth and logical in flow lines. •Simple production planning and control systems are possible. LIMITATIONS •A breakdown of one machine in a product line may cause stoppages of machines in the downstream of the line. . •Less space is occupied by work in transit and for temporary storage. •A change in product design may require major alterations in the layout. •In-process inventory is less. •Operators need no be skilled.

List A •Component standardization and rationalization •Reliability of estimates •Effective machine operation •Productivity Costing accuracy List B Planning effort Paper work Setting time Down time Work in progress • • .ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF GROUP TECHNOLOGY LAYOUT ADVANTAGES Group technology layout can increase the items given in list A and it can decrease the items given in list B.

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