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NMR Mud Logging Principles 01_Book

NMR Mud Logging Principles 01_Book

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Published by: camelman on Jul 14, 2011
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The static magnetic field produced by the MRIL magnet is a gradient field B

0(r) whose

magnitude is a function of the radial distance r from the tool surface.3

In particular,


0(r) α 1/r2

. For example, along a thin cylinder with a diameter of 16 in. that is concentric
with the axis of a 6-in. OD tool, field strength is approximately 155 gauss (Fig. 5.7).

The MRIL gradient magnetic field B

0 decreases as the distance from the tool surface in-

creases. Because the Larmor frequency is proportional to B

0, the Larmor frequency of
protons in the formation will also decrease as the distance from the tool surface increases.

Thus, for an MRIL tool to investigate at a particular distance into the formation, the fre-
quency of the oscillating field (B

1) is selected to match the Larmor frequency of the protons
at that distance. In practice, a narrow frequency band is chosen so that the sensitive volume is
a thin cylindrical shell.

Fig. 5.8 contains a cross-sectional view of an MRIL tool, the borehole, the surrounding
formation, and the sensitive volume.4

The graph below this view depicts the decrease in B


strength (hence, the decrease in Larmor frequency) with distance from the tool. The B


gradient and the selection of the B

1 frequency band thus determine the diameter and thickness
of the sensitive volume of the tool. This volume is very well defined. Protons on either side
of the sensitive volume will be polarized by the B

0 field but will not be tipped by the B

1 field

because of the frequency mismatch between the precession of these protons and the B

1 field.

Theoretically, the depth of investigation increases with decreasing B

1 frequency. In reality,

increasing the depth of investigation requires higher B

1 power to tip the protons 90° and
180°. Furthermore, increasing the depth of investigation decreases the signal-to-noise ratio.

Because of the radial character of MRIL responses, the tool must be well centralized in the
wellbore. When a washout does not intersect the sensitive volume, the washout will have no
effect on measurements except for the loading effect of the mud on the B

1 field. Because of

this loading effect, more B

1 power is needed for 90° tipping in the sensitive volume in a salty-

mud environment than in a resistive-mud environment.

If a washout does intersect the sensitive volume, then wellbore fluids will also affect the
measurement. In some cases, decentralization will expose the sensitive volume to wellbore
fluids, and MRIL measurements will include some mud signal. In both situations, the MRIL
determinations of effective porosity (MPHI) and bulk volume irreducible (BVI) will be much
higher than the actual formation values because (1) the liquid in the mud system is rich in
protons and (2) the relaxation times of the protons in the mud are very fast because of the
high surface area of the mud grains. Generally, wellbore-fluid effects on MRIL signals are
easy to identify, especially when caliper data are available.

No washout or borehole-fluid corrections are available for MRIL measurements. Thus, when
wellbore fluids affect MRIL signals, MRIL measurements no longer represent formation
conditions and cannot be used for formation evaluation.

The static magnetic field of an MRIL tool is generated by a permanent magnet made from
ferromagnetic materials, and the magnetization is temperature-dependent. Therefore, the
strengths of both the static magnetic field and the field gradient are also temperature-
dependent, as shown in Fig. 5.9. As the magnet becomes hotter, B

0 decreases and, for a given


1 frequency, the depth of investigation also decreases. Because the temperature dependence
of the MRIL magnet is well characterized, knowledge of the magnet’s temperature and of the


1 frequency uniquely determines the depth of investigation of the tool.

MRIL Tool Principles


Halliburton Energy Services

Chapter 5

Figure 5.7—The perma-
nent magnet of the MRIL
tool produces a gradient
field whose magnitude
decreases with radial
distance from the tool.

Permanent Magnetic Mandrel

Direction ofB(r)



Gradient field

approximately 175 gauss.
Larmor frequency


approximately 750 kHz
at this shell.






Amplitude of






Figure 5.8—The diameter
and thickness of the
sensitive volume of the
MRIL tool are determined
by the gradient of the
permanent B0 field and the
frequency band of the
oscillating B1 field.








Bandwidth of RF Pulse

Center Frequency

Diameter of Investigation

Tool Diameter






NMR Logging Principles and Applications


MRIL Tool Principles

Chapter 5

MRIL tools are available in 6- and 41

/2- (or 4 7

/8- for the Prime tool) in. OD versions, both of
which can operate at high frequency (about 750 kHz) or low frequency (about 600 kHz). As
seen in Fig. 5.10, the depths of investigation of the 6-in. probe at 200°F are about 14.5 and
16.5 in., at the high and low frequencies, respectively. For the 41

/2-in. probe, the correspond-
ing depths of investigation are about 10 and 11.5 in. For typical borehole sizes (for example,
holes drilled with an 81

/2-in. bit), a 16-in. diameter of investigation corresponds to a region
of investigation located about 3 to 4 in. from the borehole wall. Therefore, the sensitive
volume is generally within the flushed zone.

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