P. 1
gsm[1]

gsm[1]

|Views: 72|Likes:
Published by kisengese

More info:

Published by: kisengese on Jul 14, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/21/2012

pdf

text

original

Sections

  • Mobile Handset
  • The GSM Radio Interface
  • The GSM Network Architecture
  • Access Mechanism
  • Frequency multiplex
  • Time multiplex
  • Time and Frequency Multiplex
  • Code Multiplex
  • Various Access Method
  • Cells
  • Capacity & Spectrum Utilization Solution
  • Representation of Cells
  • Cell size and capacity
  • Cell structure
  • Capacity of a Cellular System
  • Cell Structure for K = 12
  • Tri-Sector antenna for a cell
  • Cell Distribution in a Network
  • Optimum use of frequency spectrum
  • Re-use of the frequency
  • Concept of TDMA Frames and Channels
  • GSM -TDMA/FDMA
  • GSM Frame
  • GSM speech coding
  • GSM Speech Coding
  • GSM Protocol Suite
  • Network Layer
  • Application Layer protocols
  • GSM protocol layers for signaling
  • Protocols involved in the radio interface
  • LAPDmon radio interface
  • LAPDmMessage structure
  • Protocols involved in the A-bis interface
  • Presentation of A-bisInterface
  • LAPD message structure
  • LAPD
  • Presentation of the A-ter interface
  • Presentation on the A-ter interface
  • Presentation of the A interface
  • Presentation on the A-Interface
  • Inter MSC presentation
  • Bearer Services
  • Tele Services
  • Disadvantages of GSM

Overview of GSM Cellular Network and Operations

Emmanuel Kiprono Kelong

Network and switching subsystem
• NSS is the main component of the public mobile network GSM – switching, mobility management, interconnection to other networks, system control • Components – Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC – Databases (important: scalability, high capacity, low delay) • Home Location Register (HLR) central master database containing user data, permanent and semi-permanent data of all subscribers assigned to the HLR (one provider can have several HLRs) • Visitor Location Register (VLR) local database for a subset of user data, including data about all user currently in the domain of the VLR

.

Operation subsystem • The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables centralized operation. management. and maintenance of all GSM subsystems • Components – Authentication Center (AUC) • generates user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR • authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and encryption of user data on the air interface within the GSM system – Equipment Identity Register (EIR) • registers GSM mobile stations and user rights • stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked and sometimes even localized – Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) • different control capabilities for the radio subsystem and the network subsystem .

Provides access to the GSM n/w Consists of Mobile equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) .Mobile Handset TEMPORARY DATA .Ciphering Data PERMANENT DATA Permanent Subscriber Identity Key/Algorithm for Authentication.Temporary Subscriber Identity .Current Location .

960 z MH MOBILE 15 -9 Hz M 0 89 L UP K IN .The GSM Radio Interface AIR INTERFACE BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION 35 K 9 LIN WN DO .

UPLINK • 935 to 960mhz base to mobile DOWNLINK • 8 channels/carrier . inter carrier spacing 200khz. • 890 to 915mhz mobile to base .The GSM Network Architecture • Time division multiple access-TDMA • 124 radio carriers.

GSM uses paired radio channels NK PLI U K LIN N OW D 890MHz 915MHz 935MHz 960MHz 0 124 0 124 .

TDMA.Access Mechanism – FDMA. CDMA .

Frequency multiplex • Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency bands • A channel gets a certain band of the spectrum for the whole time k1 k2 k3 k4 • Advantages: c – no dynamic coordination necessary – works also for analog signals • Disadvantages: – waste of bandwidth if the traffic is distributed unevenly – inflexible t – guard spaces k5 k6 f .

• A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain amount of time • Advantages: – only one carrier in the medium at any time – throughput high even for many users Time multiplex k1 c k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 • Disadvantages: – precise synchronization necessary f t .

Time and Frequency Multiplex • Combination of both methods • A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain amount of time k k k k 1 2 3 4 k5 k6 c f t .

Time and Frequency Multiplex • Example: GSM • Advantages: – Better protection against tapping – Protection against frequency selective interference – Higher data rates compared to code multiplex k1 c k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 • But: precise coordination required t f .

• GSM combines FDM and TDM: bandwidth is subdivided into channels of 200khz. shared by up to eight stations. assigning slots for transmission on demand. .

GSM uses paired radio channels NK PLI U K LIN N OW D 890MHz 915MHz 935MHz 960MHz 0 124 0 124 .

Code Multiplex k1 k2 k3 k4 k5 k6 • • • • • Each channel has a unique code All channels use the same spectrum at the same time Advantages: – Bandwidth efficient – No coordination and synchronization necessary – Good protection against interference and tapping Disadvantages: – Lower user data rates – More complex signal regeneration t Implemented using spread spectrum technology c f .

Various Access Method .

Cells .

Capacity & Spectrum Utilization Solution The need: • Optimum spectrum usage • More capacity • High quality of service • Low cost Network capacity at required QoS with conventional frequency plan Out of Capacity!!! Subscriber growth Time I wish I could increase capacity without adding NEW BTS! What can I do? .

Representation of Cells Ideal cells Fictitious cells .

Cell size and capacity • Cell size determines number of cells available to cover geographic area and (with frequency reuse) the total capacity available to all users • Capacity within cell limited by available bandwidth and operational requirements • Each network operator has to size cells to handle expected traffic demand .

even less for higher frequencies .g. higher number of users – less transmission power needed – more robust. locally • Problems: – fixed network needed for the base stations – handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary – interference with other cells • Cell sizes from some 100 m in cities to. transmission area etc. decentralized – base station deals with interference. 35 km on the country side (GSM) ..Cell structure • Implements space division multiplex: base station covers a certain transmission area (cell) • Mobile stations communicate only via the base station • Advantages of cell structures: – higher capacity. e.

Capacity of a Cellular System • Frequency Re-Use Distance • The K factor or the cluster size • Cellular coverage or Signal to interference ratio • Sectoring .

58R The cluster size is specified in terms of the offset of the center of a cluster from the center of the adjacent cluster .The K factor and Frequency Re-Use Distance 7 6 K= i2 + ij + j2 5 j 7 6 5 4 √3K D = √ * R 2 1 3 R i D K = 22 + 2*1 + 12 K=4+2+1 K=7 2 1 3 Frequency re-use distance is based on the cluster size K D = 4.

46R K=4+0+0 K=4 R i .The Frequency Re-Use for K = 4 K = i2 + ij + j2 K = 22 + 2*0 + 02 D √3K D = √ * R D = 3.

The Cell Structure for K = 7 7 6 1 5 7 6 1 5 4 7 6 1 5 4 3 5 4 2 6 1 3 7 2 5 4 3 2 4 2 6 1 3 3 1 7 2 2 .

Cell Structure for K = 4 1 4 1 4 3 1 4 3 2 4 3 2 4 3 1 2 3 1 2 4 3 2 4 3 1 2 1 2 .

Cell Structure for K = 12 9 8 2 7 1 6 9 8 2 7 1 6 5 4 3 12 6 5 10 11 7 1 5 8 2 3 4 9 10 3 12 6 10 11 7 8 9 10 2 3 1 4 5 11 12 4 12 11 .

Increasing cellular system capacity • Cell sectoring – Directional antennas subdivide cell into 3 or 6 sectors – Might also increase cell capacity by factor of 3 or 6 .

Increasing cellular system capacity • Cell splitting – Decrease transmission power in base and mobile – Results in more and smaller cells – Reuse frequencies in non-contiguous cell groups – Example: ½ cell radius leads 4 fold capacity increase .

Tri-Sector antenna for a cell .

Cell Distribution in a Network

Rural Highway Suburb Town

Optimum use of frequency spectrum
• Operator bandwidth of 7.2MHz (36 freq of 200 kHz) • TDMA 8 traffic channels per carrier • K factor = 12 • What are the number of traffic channels available within its area for these three cases
– Without cell splitting – With 72 cells – With 246 cells

Re-use of the frequency

One Cell = 288 traffic channels 8 X 36 = 288

72 Cell = 1728 traffic channels 8 X (72/12 X 36) = 1728 246 Cell = 5904 traffic channels

Concept of TDMA Frames and Channels
c f

t

• GSM combines FDM and TDM: bandwidth is subdivided into channels of 200khz, shared by up to eight stations, assigning slots for transmission on demand.

GSM uses paired radio channels
NK PLI U

K LIN N OW D

890MHz

915MHz

935MHz

960MHz

0

124

0

124

GSM delays uplink TDMA frames The start of the uplink TDMA is delayed of three time slots Downlink TDMA F1MHz TDMA frame (4.615 ms) R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Uplink TDMA Frame F1 + 45MHz R T R T Fixed transmit Delay of three time-slots .

TDMA/FDMA 935-960 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) downlink fre qu en cy 890-915 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) uplink higher GSM frame structures time GSM TDMA frame 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 4.5 µs 577 µs .615 ms GSM time-slot (normal burst) guard space tail user data S Training S user data guard tail space 3 bits 57 bits 1 26 bits 1 57 bits 3 546.GSM .

8 Kb/S HALF RATE Lm 11.PAGING CHANNEL RACH -.FAST ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL SDCCH SACCH FACCH DOWN LINK ONLY UPLINK ONLY BOTH UP & DOWNLINKS .FREQUENCY CORRECTION CHANNEL SCH -.RANDOM ACCESS CHANNEL AGCH -.ACCESS GRANTED CHANNEL SDCCH -.SLOW ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL FACCH -.SYNCHRONISATION CHANNEL BCCH -.BROADCAST CONTROL CHANNEL PCH -.STAND ALONE DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNEL SACCH -.4 Kb/S BROADCAST COMMON CONTROL DEDICATED CONTROL FCCH SCH BCCH PCH RACH AGCH FCCH -.LOGICAL CHANNELS TRAFFIC SIGNALLING FULL RATE Bm 22.

BCH • Broadcast control channel (BCCH) is a base to mobile channel which provides general information about the network.Broadcast Channel . the cell in which the mobile is currently located and the adjacent cells • Frequency correction channel (FCCH) is a base to mobile channel which provides information for carrier synchronization • Synchronization channel (SCH) is a base to mobile channel which carries information for frame synchronization and identification of the base station transceiver .

Common Control Channel CCH • Paging channel (PCH) is a base to mobile channel used to alert a mobile to a call originating from the network • Random access channel (RACH) is a mobile to base channel used to request for dedicated resources • Access grant channel (AGCH) is a base to mobile which is used to assign dedicated resources (SDCCH or TCH) .

Dedicated Control Channel DCCH • Stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH) is a bi-directional channel allocated to a specific mobile for exchange of location update information and call set up information .

Dedicated Control Channel DCCH • Slow associated control channel (SACCH) is a bi-directional channel used for exchanging control information between base and a mobile during the progress of a call set up procedure. The SACCH is associated with a particular traffic channel or stand alone dedicated control channel • Fast associated control channel (FACCH) is a bi-directional channel which is used for exchange of time critical information between mobile and base station during the progress of a call. The FACCH transmits control information by stealing capacity from the associated TCH .

25 SYNCHRONISATION BURST .156.SB 3 39 64 39 3 8.NB 3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25 BITS 15/26ms = 0.25 SYNCHRONISATION BITS TAIL BIT ENCRYPTION BIT TRAINING BITS FLAG BITS MIXED BITS .25 FREQUENCY CORRECTION BURST .AB 6 41 GUARD PERIOD 36 FIXED BITS 3 68.577ms NORMAL BURST .DEFINITION OF TIME SLOT .FB 3 142 3 8.25 ACCESS BURST .

HIERARCHY OF FRAMES 1 HYPER FRAME = 2048 SUPERFRAMES = 2 715 648 TDMA FRAMES ( 3 H 28 MIN 53 S 760 MS ) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 1 SUPER FRAME = 1326 TDMA FRAMES ( 6.615ms) 0 TDMA FRAME NO. 1 0 1 2 3 0 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 TIME SLOT = 156.577 ms) 1 2 3 4 155 156 1 bit =36.9 micro sec (4.25 BITS ( 0.4 ms ) 0 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 3 4 48 49 50 1 2 24 25 (4.12 S ) LEFT (OR) RIGHT 1 SUPER FRAME = 51 MULTI FRAMES TRAFFIC CHANNELS 0 1 2 3 4 48 49 50 SIGNALLING CHANNELS 1 SUPER FRAME = 26 MULTI FRAMES 0 1 MULTIFRAME = 26 TDMA FRAMES ( 120 ms ) 0 1 2 3 24 25 1 MULTI FRAME = 51 TDMA FRAMES (235 .615 ms) 1 .

GSM Frame 0 to 11 and 13 to 24 Are used for traffic data 0 1 2 SACCH is transmitted in frame 12 Full rate channel is idle in 25 Frame duration = 120ms 12 24 25 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Frame duration = 60/13ms 3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25 Frame duration = 15/26ms .

• 1 stealing bit for each information block (used for FACCH) .• 114 bits are available for data transmission. • The training sequence of 26 bits in the middle of the burst is used by the receiver to synchronize and compensate for time dispersion produced by multipath propagation.

PAGING CHANNEL RACH -.FAST ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL SDCCH SACCH FACCH DOWN LINK ONLY UPLINK ONLY BOTH UP & DOWNLINKS .LOGICAL CHANNELS TRAFFIC SIGNALLING FULL RATE Bm 22.FREQUENCY CORRECTION CHANNEL SCH -.SYNCHRONISATION CHANNEL BCCH -.8 Kb/S HALF RATE Lm 11.SLOW ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL FACCH -.ACCESS GRANTED CHANNEL SDCCH -.4 Kb/S BROADCAST COMMON CONTROL DEDICATED CONTROL FCCH SCH BCCH PCH RACH AGCH FCCH -.STAND ALONE DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNEL SACCH -.BROADCAST CONTROL CHANNEL PCH -.RANDOM ACCESS CHANNEL AGCH -.

Location update from the mobile Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on RACH send channel request AGCH receive SDCCH SDCCH request for location updating SDCCH authenticate SDCCH authenticate response SDCCH switch to cipher mode SDCCH cipher mode acknowledge SDCCH allocate TMSI SDCCH acknowledge new TMSI SDCCH switch idle update mode .

Call establishment from a mobile Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on RACH send channel request AGCH receive SDCCH SDCCH send call establishment request SDCCH do the authentication and TMSI allocation SDCCH send the setup message and desired number SDCCH require traffic channel assignment FACCH switch to traffic channel and send ack (steal bits) FACCH receive alert signal ringing sound FACCH receive connect message FACCH acknowledge connect message and use TCH TCH conversation continues .

Call establishment to a mobile Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on Mobile receives paging message on PCH Generate Channel Request on RACH Receive signaling channel SDCCH on AGCH Answer paging message on SDCCH Receive authentication request on SDCCH Authenticate on SDCCH Receive setup message on SDCCH Receive traffic channel assignment on SDCCH FACCH switch to traffic channel and send ack (steal bits) Receive alert signal and generate ringing on FACCH Receive connect message on FACCH FACCH acknowledge connect message and switch to TCH .

960 z MH MOBILE 15 -9 Hz M 0 89 L UP K IN .GSM speech coding AIR INTERFACE BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION 35 K 9 LIN WN DO .

Regular Pulse Excitation/Long Term Prediction RPE/LTP converts the 104 Kbps stream to 13 Kbps . LPF A/D RPE/LTP speech Encoder To Channel Coder 13Kbps Sampling Rate .8K Encoding .13 bit Encoding (104 Kbps) RPE/LTP .Transmit Path BS Side 8 bit A-Law to 13 bit Uniform 8 K sps RPE/LTP speech Encoder To Channel Coder 13Kbps MS Side 8 K sps.

GSM Speech Coding • GSM is a digital system. The output stream from PCM is 64 kbps. . so speech which is inherently analog. too high a rate to be feasible over a radio link. has to be digitized. • The method employed by current telephone systems for multiplexing voice lines over high speed trunks and is pulse coded modulation (PCM).

GSM Frame 0 to 11 and 13 to 24 Are used for traffic data 0 1 2 SACCH is transmitted in frame 12 Full rate channel is idle in 25 Frame duration = 120ms 12 24 25 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Frame duration = 60/13ms 3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25 Frame duration = 15/26ms .

each of which is encoded as 260 bits. .linear predictive coder (RPE--LPC) with a long term predictor loop is the speech coding algorithm. • Regular pulse excited -.GSM Speech Coding • Speech is divided into 20 millisecond samples. giving a total bit rate of 13 kbps.

to which are added the 78 remaining class II bits. • Class Ia bits have a 3 bit cyclic redundancy code added for error detection = 50+3 bits. – Class Ib 132 bits . based on a combination of the previous 4 input bits. – Class II 78 bits . The convolution encoder thus outputs 378 bits.least sensitive to bit errors.8 kbps. • Class Ia + class Ib = 53+136=189. Each input bit is encoded as two output bits.• The 260 bits are divided into three classes: – Class Ia 50 bits . . • Thus every 20 ms speech sample is encoded as 456 bits. giving a bit rate of 22.most sensitive to bit errors. • 132 class Ib bits with 4 bit tail sequence = 132 + 4 = 136. input into a 1/2 rate convolution encoder of constraint length 4.moderately sensitive to bit errors.

each sample is interleaved. and these blocks are transmitted in eight consecutive time-slot bursts.• To further protect against the burst errors common to the radio interface. 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 57 bits 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 26 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 57 bits 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits 57 bits . each burst carries traffic from two different speech samples. Since each time-slot burst can carry two 57 bit blocks. The 456 bits output by the convolution encoder are divided into 8 blocks of 57 bits.

GSM Protocol Suite .

SS HLR MM + CM MSC VLR RR BSC BTS Radio interface .

Link Layer • LAPDm is used between MS and BTS • LAPD is used between BTS-BSC • MTP2 is used between BSCMSC/VLR/HLR .

– RR radio resource management MS-BSC. . – CC call control management MS-MSC. – MM mobility management(location management. MM and RR protocol discriminator (PD) is used as network address. – SS supplementary services management MSMSC/HLR. SS. security management) MS-MSC/VLR. • Messages pertaining to different transaction are distinguished by a transaction identifier (TI).Network Layer • To distinguish between CC.

indicating whether the message is a BSSMAP or a DTAP. MAP is also used between MSC and HLR.Application Layer protocols • BSSMAP between BSC and MSC • DTAP messages between MS and MSC. • MAP protocol is the one between neighbor MSCs. . • All messages on the A interface bear a discrimination flag. • DTAP messages carry DLCI(information on type of link on the radio interface) to distinguish what is related to CC or SMS.

931 Q.921 A-Bis Interface .GSM Functional Architecture and Principal Interfaces Mobile Application Part MAP TCAP CCS7 SCCP A Interface Q931 BSSAP SCCP CCS7 MTP Um CCS7 MTP Base Station System Q.921 Radio Interface Q.

GSM protocol layers for signaling Um Abis A MS CM MM RR RR’ LAPDm radio LAPDm radio BTSM LAPD PCM BSSAP BTS BSC MSC CM MM BSSAP SS7 PCM RR’ BTSM LAPD PCM PCM SS7 16/64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s / 2.048 Mbit/s .

location IMSI attach/detach – CM: Call Control(CC). Supplementary Services(SS). handover – MM: security. Short Message Services(SMS). power control.Protocols involved in the radio interface • Level 1-Physical – TDMA frame – Logical channels multiplexing • Level 2-LAPDm(modified from LAPD) – No flag – No error retransmission mechanism due to real time constraints • Level 3-Radio Interface Layer (RIL3) involves three sub layers – RR: paging. . ciphering execution.

.

LAPDm on radio interface • In LAPDm the use of flags is avoided. it uses the error detecting performance of the transmission coding scheme offered by the physical layer . It makes use of “more” bit to distinguish last frame of a message. • No frame check sequence for LAPDm. • LAPDm maximum length is 21 octets of information.

LAPDm Message structure ADDRESS CONTROL INFORMATION 0-21 OCTETS SAPI N(S) N(R) .

.

• SAP1=0 for radio signaling.LAPDm on radio interface • The acknowledgement for the next expected frame in the indicator N(R ). • On radio interface two independent flows(one for signaling. SAPI=62 for OAM and SAPI=63 for layer 2 management on the Abis interface. . because there is no need to distinguish the different mobile stations. which is done by distinguishing the different radio channels. • LAPDm SAPI=0 for signaling and SAPI=3 for SMS. and one for SMS) can exist simultaneously. • These two flows are distinguished by a link identifier called the SAPI(service access point identifier). • There is no need of a TEI.

• Level 2-LAPD protocol. • Level 3-Application Protocol – Radio Subsystem Management (RSM) – Operation and Maintenance procedure (OAM) . – Data which rate is adapted and synchronized. standard HDLC – Radio Signaling Link (RSL) – Operation and Maintenance Link (OML).Protocols involved in the A-bis interface • Level 1-PCM transmission (E1 or T1) – Speech encoded at 16kbit/s and sub multiplexed in 64kbit/s time slots.

The initial user rate. which may be 300. … is adjusted to 16 kbit/s . – Traffic exchanges – Signaling exchanges • Physical access between BTS and BSC is PCM digital links of E1(32) or T1(24) TS at 64kbit/s.Presentation of A-bis Interface • Messages exchanges between the BTS and BSC. 1200. • Speech: – Conveyed in timeslots at 4X16 kbit/s • Data: – Conveyed in timeslots of 4X16 kbit/s.

LAPD message structure FLAG ADRESS CONTROL INFORMATION 0 – 260 OCT FCS FLAG SAPI TEI N(S) N(R) .

SAPI=62 for OAM. since this is a point to multipoint interface. SAPI=3. to identify the TRX.LAPD • The length is limited to 260 octets of information. . • Each TRX in a BTS corresponds to one or several signaling links. • LAPD has the address of the destination terminal. • SAPI=0. These links are distinguished by TEI (Terminal Equipment Identities).

Presentation of the A-ter interface .

25 TS2 X.25 TS2 OMC PCM LINK PCM LINK .TRAU BSC LAPD TS1 OAM Speech TS Transcoding CCS7 TS Speech TS CCS7 TS MSC X.

4*30 – 92 communications(T1).Presentation on the A-ter interface • Signaling messages are carried on specific timeslots (TS) – LAPD signaling TS between the BSC and the TCU – SS7 TS between the BSC and the MSC. • Speech and data channels (16kbit/s) • Ater interface links carry up to: – 120 communications(E1). . dedicated for BSSAP messages transportation. • The 64 kbit/s speech rate adjustment and the 64 kbit/s data rate adaptation are performed at the TCU. – X25 TS2 is reserved for OAM.

Presentation of the A interface .

Signaling Protocol Model .

examples: Location Update.deals with procedures that take place logically between the BSS and MSC. User Supplementary Service registration. MS originated and terminated Calls.deals with procedures that take place logically between the MS and MSC. Short Message Service. Ciphering. Handover.Presentation on the A-Interface BSSMAP . examples: Trunk Maintenance. deactivation and erasure . activation. The BSS does not interpret the DTAP information. Voice/Data Trunk Assignment DTAP . it simply repackages it and sends it to the MS over the Um Interface.

Inter MSC presentation .

MS CM BTS O A M L A P D O A M L A P D BSC BSSAP R R D T A P B S S M A P NSS CM MM R R MM BSSAP DTAP/ BSSMAP SCCP MTP3 MTP2 M A P T C A P SCCP SCCP MTP3 MTP2 MTP3 MTP2 MTP1 Um Interface A bis Interface A Interface .

MS BSC MSC PD=RR PD=MM TI=a TI=b Link: SAPI=0 PD=CC DLCI: SAPI=0 TI=A DLCI: SAPI=3 Channel ID = N1 DTAP SCCP Ref=R1 PD: protocol discriminator TI: Transaction Identifier for RIL3-CC protocol DLCI: Data Link connection Identifier SAPI: Service Access Point Identifier on the radio Interface TEI: Terminal Equipment Identifier on the Abis I/F Link: SAPI=3 Channel=C1 Channel=C2 Channel ID = N1 TRX:TEI=T1 SCCP Ref=R2 Radio Interface Abis Interface A Interface .

4.6 kbit/s • Asynchronous: 300 .8 or 9.Bearer Services • Telecommunication services to transfer data between access points • Specification of services up to the terminal interface (OSI layers 1-3) • Different data rates for voice and data (original standard) – Data service • Synchronous: 2.1200 bit/s . 4.

• All these basic services have to obey cellular functions. Connection with the highest priority (preemption of other connections possible).Tele Services • Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones. . – Emergency number common number throughout Europe (112).1 kHz. – Multinumbering several ISDN phone numbers per user possible. security measurements etc. – Mobile telephony primary goal of GSM was to enable mobile telephony offering the traditional bandwidth of 3. Mandatory for all service providers. Free of charge. • Offered services.

from cars. wireless communication.Performance characteristics of GSM • Communication – mobile. support for voice and data services • Total mobility – international access. more customers per cell • High transmission quality – high audio quality and reliability for wireless. chip-card enables use of access points of different providers • Worldwide connectivity – one number. the network handles localization • High capacity – better frequency efficiency. smaller cells. trains) • Security functions – access control. uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds (e.g. authentication via chip-card and PIN ..

Disadvantages of GSM • • • • • • No full ISDN bandwidth of 64 kbit/s to the user Reduced concentration while driving Electromagnetic radiation Abuse of private data possible High complexity of the system Several incompatibilities within the GSM standards .

Hope you enjoyed the Presentation.Good Bye .Thank You.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->