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KINETICS Noise Control

SEISMIC DESIGN MANUAL


COPYRIGHT 2003 All Rights Reserved

Kinetics Noise Control, Inc. 6300 Irelan Place, Dublin, Ohio 43017 USA
Ph 614.889.0480, Fax 614.889.0540

3570 Nashua Drive Mississauga, Ontario L4V 1L2 Canada


Ph 905.670.4922, Fax 905.670.1698 www.kineticsnoise.com

Member VISCMA
(Vibration Isolation and Seismic Control Manufacturers Association)

Except as noted under Reprint Permission, no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrievable system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Kinetics Noise Control, Inc.

Forward
An industry leader, Kinetics Noise Control has engineered and manufactured vibration isolation, noise control products and seismic restraint systems for over 40 years. With the advent of recent changes to the building codes, in particular with respect to a buildings ability to survive seismic events, there is a new focus on the proper design, application and installation of equipment restraint componentry. To address this need, Kinetics Noise Control has taken a more active role in the development of new restraint devices that are more effective than those produced by the industry in the past. In conjunction with the development of hardware, this manual has been published as an aid to project specifiers, architects, engineers, and installation contractors. The primary focus of this manual is to offer a guide to meeting the different requirements specified in the various building codes in ways that are more easily understood than in the original code format. The key to the manual is its ability to link both code and project requirements to products and design solutions with a minimum of effort. Often raised questions and frequently encountered field problems are addressed in the earlier segments of this manual. Prior to designing or installing a restraint system, those parties involved should read and become familiar with these sections. A full understanding of them will allow an installation to move ahead smoothly with a minimum of difficulty. Interpretations of code language are included for areas in which there is often confusion. Because this manual is focused on the restraint of equipment, large segments of the existing code language intended to address items beyond the scope of the mechanical system, and generally not of interest to those using this manual, have been reduced to a more manageable size. Piping and duct restraint is covered in detail because of the high level of input and guidance needed at the field level. Addressed in this section are piping, conduit and ducting systems, cable and strut restraint arrangements, and various anchorage systems. This manual was written to allow the user to maintain compliance with SMACNA to the maximum extent possible. When there are areas where safe, functional systems can be installed at a lower cost or level of effort than is dictated by the SMACNA guidelines, these are pointed out as possible options. It is not the intent of this manual to be fully SMACNA compatible, however, and when SMACNA is specified the end user should obtain and reference their manual as well. Also included in this manual are guidelines for determining the level of restraint required and the quantity of restraint components needed for various pieces of equipment in various locations. Different types of restraints are identified with explanations as to which ones might be the most appropriate for particular situations and why. Design and sizing information for interfacing items such as anchorage components and housekeeping pads are addressed as well.

Kinetics Noise Control Qualifications


In addition to a staff of non-licensed Engineers, Kinetics Noise Control employees include eight licensed Professional Engineers, including three with PhDs and four with Masters degrees. Kinetics Noise Control holds and maintains P.E. licenses in over 30 seismically active or high wind probability states, as well as portions of Canada. In addition, Engineers from Kinetics Noise Control participate at the national level in the following organizations: BSSC (Building Seismic Safety Council), ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers), FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), ACI (American Concrete Institute), ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers) - TC-2.6 (Sound and Vibration), TC-2.7 - (Seismic Restraint), ASHRAE/ANSI Standard 171 Development - (Testing Standards for Seismic Devices) and VISCMA (Vibration Isolation and Seismic Control Manufacturers Association). Kinetics Noise Control has been an active supporter and a leader in developing tools to aid contractors and designers in designing and specifying appropriate restraint devices. Recent accomplishments include authorship of the ASHRAE 2003 HVAC Applications Handbooks Seismic chapter and generation and presentation of several papers on seismic subjects for ASHRAE at the national level and many more at the local chapter level. Kinetics Noise Control supported the development of FEMAs (3) pocket seismic installation guides at both the basic drafting and oversight levels and has authored papers for VISCMA publication, clarifying IBC code provisions. Kinetics Noise Control offers extensive practical experience in both design and application. Combined, the licensed Professional Engineers of Kinetics Noise Control have a total of over 200 years of experience in the design of components and systems and of this, over 125 years is directly linked to seismic, vibration and sound control systems. Kinetics Noise Control is an innovative company. Working over the broadest range of markets of anyone in our industry, Kinetics has designed and provided solutions to a large variety of problems or situations. Some of the markets served include: HVAC Equipment and Piping Industrial Vibration Systems MRI Scanners/Electron Microscopes Architectural Noise Separation Interior Wall Treatments Rigid and Curtain Wall Enclosures Whole Building Isolation Tuned Mass Damping Systems Duct Silencers Jet Engine Testing Silencers Molded Elastomeric Components Mobile Equipment Applications Acoustic Test Chambers Pipe Flexes Riser System Support Seismic Restraint Systems Bomb Blast Mitigation Rail Isolation Systems Coordinate Measuring Machines Dynamometers

In developing solutions to these and other design challenges, Kinetics Noise Control and/or its employees hold, or have pending, 16 patents. Of these, seven are directly linked to seismic restraint, vibration, and sound control systems.

About the Authors


Paul Meisel, PE, Vice President of Engineering, currently maintains P.E. licenses in ten states. Mr. Meisel has been with Kinetics for over 12 years and prior to that was involved in the design of mining equipment for 17 years. He is an active member of ASHRAE and the author of the ASHRAE 2003 Handbook Seismic Restraint chapter. He is a past member of FEMAs BSSC TS-8 (Restraint of Non-structural Components) Task Group. Mr. Meisel is a regular speaker at ASHRAE functions and the author of two ASHRAE publications related to seismic restraint issues. Mr. Meisel holds or has pending four patents, three directly related to the vibration and seismic control industry. Richard Sherren, MS, PE, Chief Mechanical Engineer, currently maintains licenses in ten states. Mr. Sherren has been with Kinetics for three years and prior to that worked as an engineering consultant for five years and in the design of heavy construction and mining equipment for 17 years. He is an active member of ASHRAE and a past instructor of college-level engineering, management and CAD courses. Mr. Sherren is a member of ASHRAE committees TC 2.7 (Seismic Restraint) and SPC-171 (Testing of Seismic Restraint Devices). He is author of a paper issued through VISCMA on the interaction between internal and external isolation systems on packaged air handling systems. Mr. Sherren has pending one patent on an innovative method for the seismic restraint of equipment. Scott Campbell, PhD, PE, Chief Civil/Structural Engineer, currently maintains licenses in seven states. Dr. Campbell has been with Kinetics for three years and has been involved in design, teaching, and research in dynamics for over 18 years. Specializing in nonlinear analysis of structures, a significant amount of the work that Dr. Campbell has done throughout his career has been in the field of blast and seismic design. He is an active member of ASHRAE, ASCE, and ACI and is a current member of FEMAs BSSC TS-8 (Restraint of Non-structural Components). In line with his specialty, Dr. Campbell is also the author of numerous papers and presentations on nonlinear analysis and design for seismic, blast, and vibratory loads. David Meredith, MS, PE, Export Manager. Mr. Meredith has held his current position since 1994 and is responsible for the design of custom noise and vibration control systems sold by the company. He is also responsible for export sales and marketing, working with the company's overseas sales offices. Prior to assuming his current duties, Mr. Meredith was Chief Engineer for the company. He joined Kinetics Noise Control in 1978 and has recently presented papers and technical lectures at seminars sponsored by the Society of Manufacturing Engineers (Nashville), the International Conference on Structural Dynamics, Vibration, Noise and Control (Hong Kong) and InterNoise '96 (Liverpool, U.K.). Mr. Meredith is a member of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), and the Institute of Noise Control Engineers (INCE).

Interpretation of this Publication


Referenced in this publication is information on various Codes and Standards provisions, design and installation procedures and guidelines for satisfying these Codes and Standards. The included information was carefully developed using sound engineering principles to meet these guidelines: however, the final authority and responsibility as to specific design, installation, approval and/or Code interpretations addressed herein rests with the engineer or architect responsible for the specific design. Kinetics Noise Control, Inc., and all contributors to this publication assume no liability for the specific installation of its products or the design, application, approval or interpretation of the requirements or guidelines contained in this publication. It is recommended that all users of this publication, under all circumstances, consult with competent design professionals as well as applicable federal, state, local and contract regulations on requirements for specific installations.

Reprint Permission & Restrictions


Nonexclusive royalty-free permission is granted to government and private sector users of this publication to reproduce unaltered abstracts from this publication for their use relating to the specific design, specification, installation or approval of this document. Reproduction for the purpose of its sale is prohibited. Any other use of any other portion of this publication must be first approved in writing by Kinetics Noise Control, Inc. Anyone reproducing these documents assumes all liability for the specific application of such information, including errors or omissions in reproduction.

Amendments and Updates


Kinetics Noise Control reserves the right to periodically update this document as well as to offer formal interpretations as questions arise. Prior to using this document it is the responsibility of the user to verify that the segment being used is the latest release. Updates can be found on the web at www.kineticsnoise.com.

Proprietary Products
This manual assumes the use of Proprietary Products as provided by Kinetics Noise Control or otherwise identified herein. As not all components have equal capacities, Kinetics Noise Control cannot support or authorize the use of materials that are not under the direct control of Kinetics. Any liability that may result from the application of this manual to materials procured from other sources is not the responsibility of Kinetics Noise Control or its employees.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
How to Use This Manual D Section How to Use This Manual P Section DESIGN AND APPLICATION GUIDELINES Kinetics Seismic Engineering Seismic Building Code Review Product/Design Overview Applying Restraint Capacity Ratings Floor/Curb Mounted Floor-Mounted Equipment Curb-Mounted Equipment Distribution Systems Piping Ductwork Electrical Conduit/Cable Trays Suspended Suspended Equipment Architectural Element Restraint Systems Recommended Seismic Specifications PRODUCT DETAILS Floor/Curb Mounted Seismic Mounting Brackets Isolator/Restraints (FMS Series) Isolator/Restraints (FHS/FLS/FLSS Series) Elastomeric Isolator/Restraints (KRMS/RQ) Seismic Bumper/Snubbers (HS Series) RTU Seismic Isolation Systems (ESR/KSR/KSCR) Suspended Cable/Wire Rope Restraints Other Required Components (Rod Stiffeners etc.) Architectural Elements Concrete Anchor Bolts Chapter D1 Chapter D2 Chapter D3 Chapter D4 TOC-3-1 TOC-3-2

Chapter D5 Chapter D6

Chapter D7 Chapter D8 Chapter D9

Chapter D10 Chapter D11 Chapter D12

Chapter P1 Chapter P2 Chapter P3 Chapter P4 Chapter P5 Chapter P6

Chapter P7 Chapter P8 Chapter P9 Chapter P10

TABLE OF CONTENTS
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONT.)


APPENDICES

TABLE OF CONTENTS
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Inspection Forms Frequently Asked Questions Housekeeping Pad Design Guidelines Pipe Data Tables Duct Data Tables Glossary References

Appendix A1 Appendix A2 Appendix A3 Appendix A4 Appendix A5 Appendix A6 Appendix A7

HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL (Overview of Chapter Contents)


This Manual is organized into 2 major sections, Design and Application Guidelines and Product Details. The Design and Application Guidelines segment is intended to provide the user with practical guidance for installation and sizing of Seismic Restraint components. The Product Details segment identifies various products and their features, functions and benefits for use in various applications. It is important to recognize that not all portions of this Manual will be of interest or even of practical use to most users. Instead Architects, Designers, Structural Engineers, HVAC or Plumbing Contractors, Inspectors and/or Code officials will likely be keyed into specific areas relating to their particular field of interest. To that end, the Manual includes adequate redundancy within the Chapters to allow each one to (as much as possible) stand individually. As an aid to the user, the following section offers general guidance as to what is in each chapter of the manual. When confronted with a design issue or installation problem, the first step of researching a solution would be to quickly review the summaries below. From this, the segment of the manual appropriate to the issue at hand can be identified and a further data can be located quickly and easily.

Section D Design and Application Guidelines


The Design and Application section is broken into several chapters, each dealing with a somewhat different subject area. Below you will find a listing of these Chapters and immediately after the listing, there is a summary of the material in each Chapter. Kinetics Seismic Engineering Seismic Building Code Review Product/Design Overview Applying Restraint Capacity Ratings Floor & Wall-Mounted Equipment Curb-Mounted Equipment Piping Restraints and Installation Guidance Duct Restraints and Installation Guidance Electrical Conduit/Cable Tray Restraint and Installation Guidance Suspended Equipment Architectural Elements Recommended Seismic Specifications Chapter D1 Chapter D2 Chapter D3 Chapter D4 Chapter D5 Chapter D6 Chapter D7 Chapter D8 Chapter D9 Chapter D10 Chapter D11 Chapter D12

HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL (D Section)


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Kinetics Seismic Engineering (D1) The first chapter (D1) addresses in detail the Design Analysis of Seismic restraint systems as performed by Kinetics Noise Control. The chapter is Analytical in nature and will be of considerably more interest to Designers and Engineers in reviewing the design details of the project than it will be to installation contractors. Discussed are the items addressed by Kinetics Noise Control in a standard analysis, the items excluded, input information required and interpreting the output. Purpose, Extent and Limitations of Analysis (D1.1) This document describes details of exactly what a Seismic Analysis performed by Kinetics Noise Control addresses, what it does not address and why there are limitations. It also indicates the information required from other parties to generate a successful installation and why these independent parties must be involved. Referenced Standards (D1.2) This document identifies the various codes and standards used to compile this manual and used as a basis for the calculations and recommendations offered by Kinetics Noise Control. Overview of the Analytical Methods Used (D1.3) This segment briefly goes through the procedures used by Kinetics Noise Control to determine the distribution of Seismic loads from the effective center of mass of the restrained system to the various restraint locations. It is not an all-inclusive cookbook and as such, does not provide detailed computation instructions. It is intended as an overview to aid in the understanding of the process for Engineers and other design professionals. Static versus Dynamic Modeling Techniques (D1.4) This is a commentary on the Pros and Cons of Static versus Dynamic modeling of equipment restraint systems. Appropriateness for various types of applications will also be addressed. Required Calculation Input (D1.5) In order to obtain appropriate output from an Analysis, the proper input data is necessary. Listed here is the material needed by Kinetics Noise Control to perform an accurate analysis. Also discussed here are what input data is mandatory and where assumptions can be made to expedite the analytical process. Of necessity, any assumptions made will be conservative. This paper also addresses the potential impact that these assumptions can have on the overall design of the restraint system.

HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL (D Section)


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Understanding Standard Calculation Output (D1.6) The bulk of Kinetics Noise Control performed calculations are done using a proprietary program that yields standardized output. This paper guides the reader through the output document identifying the locations on the document where input parameters are identified as well as how to understand the output results and how to apply this to real world applications. Understanding Non-Standard Calculation Output (D1.7) Because not all equipment can be fit into a configuration that can be handled by the proprietary analysis program listed above, this segment will address analyses for various non-standard equipment arrangements. Identified are the input and output parameters that must appear in some format to ensure that all appropriate factors are addressed as well are the proper output factors that must be present to ensure selection of the appropriate restraint components. General Qualifications and Disclaimer (D1.8) This is simply a copy of the Standard Kinetics Noise Control Seismic disclaimer appropriate for all seismic calculations performed by Kinetics Noise Control. It identifies in detail the extent of the analysis performed by Kinetics Noise Control and it employees. It also lists factors that are beyond the scope of the Kinetics Noise Control analysis and which must be addressed by others. Seismic Building Code Review (D2) The second chapter (D2) addresses various Building Codes and details of their requirements. Every attempt has been made in this section to weed out portions of the various codes that are not appropriate for the restraint of non-structural components and mechanical equipment and to convert the remainder of the language into something that can be more easily understood. This chapter will be of interest to designers, specifiers, estimators and others who are looking to identify areas where seismic restraint is or is not required. Understanding the IBC Code (D2.1) This document is a rewording of the 2000 IBC Code focussing on non-structural components and simplified to make it more readily understood by the typical user. It includes references back to the IBC document should anyone reading the section be interested in the exact verbiage in the code. Pipe Restraint Requirements (IBC) (D2.2) Pipe restraint requirements as defined by the 2000 IBC code are addressed in detail in this document. This does not include any sizing or installation guidance. It simply defines those pipes that require restraints and those that for one reason or another, can be exempted from this requirement.

HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL (D Section)


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Duct Restraint Requirements (IBC) (D2.3) Duct restraint requirements as defined by the 2000 IBC code are addressed in detail in this document. Again it does not include any sizing or installation guidance. It simply defines those ducts that require restraints and those that for one reason or another, can be exempted from this requirement. Pipe Restraint Requirements (SBC, BOCA) (D2.4) Pipe restraint requirements as defined by both 1997 SBC and the 1996 BOCA codes are addressed in detail in this document.

Pipe Restraint Requirements (97UBC) (D2.6) Pipe restraint requirements as defined by the 1997 UBC code is addressed in detail in this document. Duct Restraint Requirements (97UBC) (D2.7) Duct restraint requirements as defined by the 1997 UBC code is addressed in detail in this document. Evaluating Seismic Requirements in Specs (D2.8) This paper addresses the IBC, UBC, SBC, BOCA and TI-809-04 Requirements. It is an overview document intended to offer insight to estimators and others interested in roughly determining what componentry may be needed to meet Seismic requirements for particular Projects. National Building Code of Canada Requirements (D2.9) Non-structural design issues required by the 1995 Canadian Building Code are collected and identified in this document. Other Referenced Standards (OSHPD, VISCMA, SMACNA) (D2.10) An overview of other commonly identified standards and design guides are referenced in this paper. These are discussed without going into significant detail on any of them, but do offer the reader some other references and points of view. Product/Design Overview (D3) The third chapter of this manual (D3) is more practically oriented than the previous chapters. It is geared toward identifying problems and issues routinely encountered in the field and offers guidance and/or recommendations for resolving them with minimal effort. This section offers the most value if read early in a project as many of the

HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL (D Section)


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Duct Restraint Requirements (SBC, BOCA) (D2.5) Duct restraint requirements as defined by both 1997 SBC and the 1996 BOCA codes are addressed in detail in this document.

recommendations impact design or installation philosophies that once set, can be difficult to modify. It is recommended reading for any group involved in locating, supporting or installing mechanical systems in structures. 10 Biggest Seismic Problems Dealt with by Contractors (D3.1) This document identifies 10 items that routinely cause problems for installation contractors. Included are identification of the problems as well as alternate less costly designs and possible solutions if the problems are unavoidable. Cables vs Struts for Ceiling Mounted Pipe/Duct/Conduit Restraint (D3.2) This is a cautionary document intended only as a warning that Cable and Strut restraint systems behave very differently and different rules must be applied. More detail is available in the Piping, Duct and Conduit sections of the manual. When to Use Combination Isolator/Restraints (D3.3) Benefits of using combination Isolator/Restraint components and common applications are addressed here from a design standpoint. When to Use Separate Isolator/Restraints (D3.4) Benefits of using separate Isolator/Restraint components and common applications are reviewed from a design standpoint. High Capacity Restraint Configurations (D3.5) As the codes have changed and required restraint capacities have increased, older more conventional restraint designs have been found to be insufficient for many applications. This section is an overview of the issues faced when selecting restraints for the more severe applications found today and what avenues are open to optimize the installation. Hybrid Isolator/Restraints (FMS) (D3.6) In an effort to provide a more suitable restraint system better tailored to current requirements, KINETICS Noise Control has developed the FMS family of Isolator/Restraints. These components can be mixed and matched to provide a broad range of capacities. In addition, they can be used either as separate restraints or in combined isolator/restraint applications. This section addresses the uses and benefits of the FMS components for many potential applications. Roof Mounted Equipment Applications (D3.7) Roof mounted equipment applications have always involved challenges not experienced with indoor applications. These range from wind and weather considerations to variations in structural attachment. Because new code requirements have greatly increased the design force levels at the roof, the design for these applications has become more complicated. This section offers an overview of what is involved.

HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL (D Section)


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Applying Restraint Capacity Ratings (D4) Chapter D4 of this manual provides a significant level information with regard to the selection of appropriately sized, Seismically rated components for particular applications. Differences between the ASD and LRFD rating systems are addressed as well as how to read, understand and interpret the Seismic rating charts which accompany each Seismic component submittal. This Chapter includes information critical to anyone involved in making decisions relating to sizing or locating restraints in the field, particularly with regard to piping, duct or conduit installations. The installation of restraints on these systems often requires that design decisions be made in the field. This is the result of issues relating to access, modifications, inaccurate drawing details or a myriad of other reasons that result in the initial drawings not matching the installation. Understanding this information will allow the user to safely size restraints if alternate restraint components or locations are found to be necessary. The section is recommended reading for Design Professionals or any group responsible for sizing or evaluating the appropriateness of particular restraint devices. ASD (Applied Stress Design) vs LRFD (Load Resistance Factor Design) (D4.1) Older Codes have historically used ASD values when sizing components. New Codes have switched to LRFD. When evaluating ratings, all load and capacity data must be converted into the same units or the resulting mismatch can invalidate the analysis. This paper discusses the differences between the two and when a conversion is required to properly size components. Horizontal/Vertical Seismic Load Capacity Envelopes (Constant) (D4.2) The most common way of expressing the Seismic Capacity of a Restraint or seismically rated isolator is with a Horizontal/Vertical load capacity chart. This Section explains these charts and how to use them. Horizontal/Vertical Seismic Load Capacity Envelopes (Variable) (D4.3) In some combination Isolator/Restraint devices, the supported load affects the seismic rating. Depending on the load or the device, it could increase or decrease the restraint capacity. Charts used to evaluate these kinds of restraints are slightly different than the charts mentioned above and this section explains them and their application. Force Class (for Hanging Piping, Ductwork, Conduit and Equipment) (D4.4) Because of the significant number of variables involved, rating cable and strut restraint systems are typically more complicated that rating conventional stand alone restraints. In an effort to simplify sizing these components, Kinetics Noise

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Control has developed the Force Class Rating System. In it, A restraint location is assigned a Force Class load requirement (I-VI) based on Seismic Zone, Code, Length of Run, Weight per foot of suspended system and Location in the structure. Hardware is also assigned a Force Class capacity based on Size, Anchorage and Worst case geometry. These values are such that a Force Class I component can generate sufficient capacity to with stand a Force Class I Load. It is then a simple matter to select components appropriate to the load. This section describes in detail and provides necessary data to use this system. It is of critical interest to those involved in evaluating pipe, duct or conduit restraint systems. Force Class Load Determination Table (Sample) (D4.5) A Sample Force Class load rating Table is presented in this document. As these are customized for each installation, this example cannot be used for design without being tailored to the application in question, but if offers a typical example of what might be encountered in practice. Maximum Restraint Spacing, Run Offset and Drop Length (D4.6) This is a collection of Tables that allow a user to quickly select appropriate maximum spacing for both lateral and axial restraints as well as determine allowable unrestrained drop lengths maximum allowable offsets. It is appropriate for piping, ductwork and conduit. Hanger Rod, Strut and Stiffener Tables (D4.7) When subjected to Seismic Loads (either in Strut of Cable restrained system) Uplift forces are generated in hanger rods. Depending on the magnitude of the force and the length and diameter of the hanger rod, a rod stiffener is often required. This section provides guidance as to how big a stiffener to use and when it is needed. Cable and Anchorage Ratings (D4.8) Force Class ratings for and application information for various Cable and Cable Anchorage Components are addressed in this section. Force Class Examples (D4.9) This section works through some typical Force Class applications and sample problems. Floor & Wall Mounted Equipment (D5) Design information relative to the anchorage of floor mounted equipment, whether hard mounted or isolated, or wall mounted equipment is provided in this Chapter (D5). Offered are both a technical review of the issues involved as well as more practical installation considerations and options. This section is recommended reading for Design Professionals or any group responsible

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for sizing or evaluating the appropriateness of particular restraint devices. Floor Mounted Section Floor Mounted Equipment Primer (D5.1.1) This section provides a technical overview of the forces encountered by all floor mounted equipment in seismic applications. Forces Transferred between Equipment and Restraints (D5.1.2) A summary of the details relating to the interface between Floor mounted equipment and the restraint is addressed in this document. Items such as impact and load sharing for different restraint arrangements are discussed. Attachment of Equipment to Restraints (D5.1.3) In some cases, the direct connection between equipment and restraint is obvious. In others it is not. Issues that need to be understood relative to this connection are highlighted in this paper. Attachment of Restraints to the Structure (D5.1.4) There is a wide range of structures to which restraints can be attached. Variations in these structures as well as in the restraints, can significantly impact the capacity of the system. Oversized Baseplate Section Oversized Baseplates How they work and why to use them (D5.2.1) When connecting to concrete, the brittle nature of the concrete requires that the load capabilities of the hardware be significantly de-rated. As a result, the restraint device normally has considerably more capacity than does the connection. In these cases, an adapter plate can significantly increase the capacity of the system. Oversized Baseplates Capacities and Selection Guide (D5.2.2) This section offers guidance on selecting an appropriate oversized baseplate for a given application. Wall Mounted Section Forces Transferred between Wall Mounted Equipment and Restraints (D5.3.1) The addition of gravity loads increases the requirements for restraint hardware in wall mounted equipment. A brief review of the appropriate factors is addressed in this document. Attachment of Wall Mounted Equipment to Structure (D5.3.2) As wall structures are frequently very different from ceiling or floor construction, the

HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL (D Section)


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detail of equipment attachment must also be adapted. This section addresses this interface. Curb Mounted Equipment (D6) Design information relative to the connection of curb mounted equipment, whether hard mounted or isolated, is provided in this Chapter (D6). It offers a technical review of curbs and equipment/curb interfaces as well as more practical installation considerations. This chapter is recommended reading for Design Professionals or any group responsible for sizing or evaluating the appropriateness of curbs and curb mounted restraint devices and curbs themselves. The is also more practical guidance as to how to increase the capacity of non-seismically rated curb assemblies. Seismic Forces Acting on Curb Mounted Equipment (D6.1) This section provides a technical overview of the forces encountered by curb mounted equipment in seismic applications. Sheet Metal Curb Section Basic Primer for Sheet Metal Curbs (D6.2.1) An overview of curbs and curb issues is the key goal of this document. It offers the reader a basic understanding of the issues involved. Attachment of Equipment to Sheet Metal Curbs (D6.2.2) Making structural connections to sheet metal structures is often difficult. It is the intent of this paper to offer make the reader aware of key factors needed to have a successful installation. Transferring Seismic Forces through Sheet Metal Curbs (D6.2.3) Methods of increasing the seismic capacity of unrated sheet metal curbs are addressed in this document. Attachment of Sheet Metal Curbs to the Building Structure (D6.2.4) Similar to the equipment connection, making structural connections to sheet metal structures is often difficult. It is the intent of this paper to offer make the reader aware of key factors needed to securely anchor curbs to the supporting structure. Limitations of Sheet Metal Curbs in Seismic Applications (D6.2.5) Guidance as to when a sheet metal curb may be appropriate and when it isnt is covered in this paper. Rules for Using Sheet Metal in Seismic Applications (D6.2.6) This document is a summary of the previous (D6.2) documents in this chapter

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offering basic guidance without going into detail. Structural Curb Section Basic Primer for Structural Curbs (D6.3.1) An overview of curbs and curb issues is the key goal of this document. It offers the reader a basic understanding of the issues involved. Attachment of Equipment to Structural Curbs (D6.3.2) Access, weatherproofing, and secure attachment all make connecting equipment to curbs more difficult than it would be in an interior environment It is the intent of this paper to offer make the reader aware of key factors needed to have a successful installation. Transferring Seismic Forces through Structural Curbs (D6.3.3) Methodologies used to maximize the seismic capacity of structural curbs are addressed in this document. Attachment of Structural Curbs to the Building Structure (D6.3.4) Because of the long narrow footprint of each of the curb walls, making structural connections to the parent structure is often difficult. It is the intent of this paper to offer make the reader aware of key factors needed to securely anchor curbs to the supporting structure. Limitations of Structural Curbs in Seismic Applications (D6.3.5) Guidance as to when structural curbs are suitable and when they are not, are covered in this paper. Rules for Using Structural Curbs in Seismic Applications (D6.3.6) This document is a summary of the previous (D6.3) documents in this chapter offering basic guidance without going into detail. Piping Systems (D7) This section comprehensively addresses the restraint of Piping systems for seismic applications. It is extremely practical in nature. It avoids the basic sizing of components (which is explained in Chapter D4) and focuses on layout, hardware arrangements, installation options and other issues critical to the installation contractor. Addressed in the section are floor mounted, suspended and vertically oriented systems. This chapter is recommended reading for Installation contractors, design support for contractors and field inspection personnel.

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Seismic Forces Acting on Piping Systems (D7.1) This section provides a brief overview of the forces encountered by piping systems exposed to seismic forces and how they generate loads in restraint systems. Basic Primer for the restraint of Piping (D7.2) This section addresses different kinds of piping systems, variations between them and provides some general direction in getting started with a restraint plan. Pros and Cons of Struts versus Cables (D7.3) While Struts and Cables are often used to perform the same restraint function and because they appear similar to the casual observer, there are significant differences between them that need to be accounted for in the field. This section addresses these issues. Layout Requirements for Pipe Restraint Systems - Definitions and Locations (D7.4.1) The basic installation Rules for the appropriate restraint of piping systems along with basic definitions of terms used in later sections of this manual make up this section of the manual. Ceiling Supported Pipe Restraint Arrangements (D7.4.2) Illustrated here are widely ranging options for the installation of both lateral and axial restraint arrangements acceptable for use on piping systems. Isolated, non-Isolated, single pipe and multiple trapezed pipes are all addressed in this section. Floor or Roof supported Pipe Restraint Arrangements (D7.4.3) This section is similar to the one above except that it covers piping that is supported from below, either on floors or for roof mounted applications. Pipe Restraint Arrangements for Vertical Piping Runs (D7.4.4) The focus on this section is risers or other vertical runs of piping. Support and restraint arrangements and guidelines for these kinds of applications are addressed in detail in this segment. Axial Restraint of Steam and High Temp Piping (D7.4.5) Because of expansion/contraction issues, the axial restraint of steam and other high temperature piping systems can be extremely difficult. This section addresses these areas and includes recommendations to resolve these issues. Attachment Details - Transferring Forces (D7.5.1) A key element in the effectiveness of a restraint is the details of the connection. Basic parameters required to ensure that these connections are appropriate for seismic applications are included in this paper.

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Attachment Details Cable Clamps (D7.5.2) There are several end connection details that are suitable for cable restraints. Both appropriate and inappropriate connections are identified in this section along with proper installation techniques. Attachment Details Piping Attachment (D7.5.3) The connection between the cable or strut and a piping system can be accomplished in a wide variety of ways and through the use of a wide variety of hardware. A wide variety of acceptable arrangements applicable to a broad variety of possible applications are shown and discussed in this section.

Non-Moment Generating Connections (D7.5.5) Under some conditions, restraints can be avoided if the pipe hanger rod is fitted with a Non-Moment generating connection. Additional input on this subject is available in this section. Connection options for Awkward Situations (D7.6) Virtually every application will have situations where the basic connection arrangements wont fit or simply are not suitable. This section illustrates several typical Awkward situations and offers guidance on possible configurations to incorporate restraints in these areas. Ductwork (D8) This section comprehensively addresses the restraint of Ductwork for seismic applications. It is extremely practical in nature. It avoids the basic sizing of components (which is explained in Chapter D4) and focuses on layout, hardware arrangements, installation options and other issues critical to the installation contractor. Addressed in the section are floor mounted and suspended systems. This chapter is recommended reading for Installation contractors, design support for contractors and field inspection personnel. Seismic Forces Acting on Ductwork (D8.1) This section provides a brief overview of the forces encountered by ductwork exposed to seismic forces and how they generate loads in restraint systems.

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Attachment Details Attachment to Structure (D7.5.4) Similar to the connection between the cable or strut and a piping system is the connection between the cable or strut and the structure. Cautions are required to ensure that the structure is not weakened by the connection and that the connection is adequate to transfer the design load. As in the section above, this segment illustrates a wide variety of acceptable arrangements that can accomplish this feat.

Basic Primer for the restraint of Ductwork (D8.2) This section addresses different kinds of duct systems, variations between them and provides some general direction in getting started with a restraint plan. Pros and Cons of Struts versus Cables (D8.3) While Struts and Cables are often used to perform the same restraint function and because they appear similar to the casual observer, there are significant differences between them that need to be accounted for in the field. This section addresses these issues. Layout Requirements for Duct Restraint Systems - Definitions and Locations (D8.4.1) The basic installation Rules for the appropriate restraint of duct systems along with basic definitions of terms used in later sections of this manual make up this section of the manual. Ceiling Supported Duct Restraint Arrangements (D8.4.2) Illustrated here are widely ranging options for the installation of both lateral and axial restraint arrangements acceptable for use on Ductwork. Isolated, nonIsolated, single and multiple trapezed ducts are all addressed in this section. Floor or Roof supported Duct Restraint Arrangements (D8.4.3) This section is similar to the one above except that it covers ductwork that is supported from below, either on floors or for roof mounted applications. Attachment Details - Transferring Forces (D8.5.1) A key element in the effectiveness of a restraint is the details of the connection. Basic parameters required to ensure that these connections are appropriate for seismic applications are included in this paper. Attachment Details Cable Clamps (D8.5.2) There are several end connection details that are suitable for cable restraints. Both appropriate and inappropriate connections are identified in this section along with proper installation techniques. Attachment Details Duct Attachment (D8.5.3) The connection between the cable or strut and a duct can be accomplished in a wide variety of ways and through the use of a wide variety of hardware. A wide variety of acceptable arrangements applicable to a broad variety of possible applications are shown and discussed in this section. Attachment Details Attachment to Structure (D8.5.4) Similar to the connection between the cable or strut and the ductwork is the connection between the cable or strut and the structure. Cautions are required to

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ensure that the structure is not weakened by the connection and that the connection is adequate to transfer the design load. As in the section above, this segment illustrates a wide variety of acceptable arrangements that can accomplish this feat. Non-Moment Generating Connections (D8.5.5) Under some conditions, restraints can be avoided if the duct support hanger is fitted with a Non-Moment generating connection. Additional input on this subject is available in this section. Connection options for Awkward Situations (D8.6) Virtually every application will have situations where the basic connection arrangements wont fit or simply are not suitable. This section illustrates several typical Awkward situations and offers guidance on possible configurations to incorporate restraints in these areas. Electrical Distribution Systems (D9) This section comprehensively addresses the restraint of Conduit and Cable Trays for seismic applications. It is extremely practical in nature. It avoids the basic sizing of components (which is explained in Chapter D4) and focuses on layout, hardware arrangements, installation options and other issues critical to the installation contractor. Addressed in the section are floor mounted and suspended systems. This chapter is recommended reading for Installation contractors, design support for contractors and field inspection personnel. Seismic Forces Acting on Conduit and Cable Trays (D9.1) This section provides a brief overview of the forces encountered by electrical distribution systems exposed to seismic forces and how they generate loads in restraint systems. Basic Primer for the restraint of Cable Trays & Conduit (D9.2) This section addresses different kinds of Distribution systems, variations between them and provides some general direction in getting started with a restraint plan. Pros and Cons of Struts versus Cables (D9.3) While Struts and Cables are often used to perform the same restraint function and because they appear similar to the casual observer, there are significant differences between them that need to be accounted for in the field. This section addresses these issues.

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Layout Requirements for Electrical Distribution Restraint Systems - Definitions and Locations (D9.4.1) The basic installation Rules for the appropriate restraint of conduit and cable trays along with basic definitions of terms used in later sections of this manual make up this section of the manual. Ceiling Supported Conduit/Tray Restraint Arrangements (D9.4.2) Illustrated here are widely ranging options for the installation of both lateral and axial restraint arrangements acceptable for use on Electrical Distribution systems. Floor supported Conduit/Tray Restraint Arrangements (D9.4.3) This section is similar to the one above except that it covers conduit and cable trays that are supported from below, typically in floor mounted applications. Attachment Details - Transferring Forces (D9.5.1) A key element in the effectiveness of a restraint is the details of the connection. Basic parameters required to ensure that these connections are appropriate for seismic applications are included in this paper. Attachment Details Cable Clamps (D9.5.2) There are several end connection details that are suitable for cable restraints. Both appropriate and inappropriate connections are identified in this section along with proper installation techniques. Attachment Details Conduit/Tray Attachment (D9.5.3) The connection between the cable or strut and conduit or cable trays can be accomplished in a wide variety of ways and through the use of a wide variety of hardware. A wide variety of acceptable arrangements applicable to a broad variety of possible applications are shown and discussed in this section. Attachment Details Attachment to Structure (D9.5.4) Similar to the connection between the cable or strut and the distribution system is the connection between the cable or strut and the structure. Cautions are required to ensure that the structure is not weakened by the connection and that the connection is adequate to transfer the design load. As in the section above, this segment illustrates a wide variety of acceptable arrangements that can accomplish this feat. Non-Moment Generating Connections (D9.5.5) Under some conditions, restraints can be avoided if the conduit support is fitted with a Non-Moment generating connection. Additional input on this subject is available in this section.

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Connection options for Awkward Situations (D9.6) Virtually every application will have situations where the basic connection arrangements wont fit or simply are not suitable. This section illustrates several typical Awkward situations and offers guidance on possible configurations to incorporate restraints in these areas. Suspended Equipment (D10) This section comprehensively addresses the restraint of Suspended Equipment in seismic applications. It is extremely practical in nature. It avoids the basic sizing of components (which is explained in Chapter D4) and focuses on layout and hardware issues. This chapter is recommended reading for Installation contractors, design support for contractors and field inspection personnel. Seismic Forces Acting on Suspended Equipment (D10.1) This section provides a brief overview of the forces encountered by suspended equipment exposed to seismic forces and how they generate loads in restraint systems. Basic Primer for the restraint of Suspended Equipment (D10.2) This section addresses different kinds of by suspended equipment, variations between them and provides some general direction in getting started with a restraint plan. Pros and Cons of Struts versus Cables (D10.3) While Struts and Cables are often used to perform the same restraint function and because they appear similar to the casual observer, there are significant differences between them that need to be accounted for in the field. This section addresses these issues. Suspended Equipment - Definitions and Locations (D10.4.1) Basic installation Rules along with basic definitions of terms used in later sections of this manual make up this section of the manual. Suspended Equipment Arrangements (D10.4.2) Illustrated here are a wide range of options for the installation of Restraints suitable for use on suspended equipment. Attachment Details - Transferring Forces (D10.5.1) A key element in the effectiveness of a restraint is the details of the connection. Basic parameters required to ensure that these connections are appropriate for seismic applications are included in this paper.

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Attachment Details Cable Clamps (D10.5.2) There are several end connection details that are suitable for cable restraints. Both appropriate and inappropriate connections are identified in this section along with proper installation techniques. Attachment Details Suspended Equipment (D10.5.3) The connection between the cable or strut and the equipment can be accomplished in a wide variety of ways and through the use of a wide variety of hardware. A wide variety of acceptable arrangements applicable to a broad variety of possible applications are shown and discussed in this section.

Connection options for Awkward Situations (D10.6) Virtually every application will have situations where the basic connection arrangements wont fit or simply are not suitable. This section illustrates several typical Awkward situations and offers guidance on possible configurations to incorporate restraints in these areas. Architectural Element Restraint Design and Applications (D11) Most projects include a significant number of non-structural architectural elements that under some conditions require restraint as well. This section relates specifically to vibration-isolated elements and restraint requirements for them. The most likely audience for this section would be Architects and Structural Engineers responsible for the integrity of the structure. Floating Floor Restraint Design (D11.1) This section addresses the basic parameters required to ensure the performance of a floating floor restraint system. Internal forces in the slab as well as appropriate restraint techniques are addressed. Floating Floor Perimeter Restraint (D11.1.1) Pros and cons of perimeter restraints are covered in detail in this section. Floating Floor Internal Restraints (D11.1.2) In many cases perimeter restraint is either not possible or impractical. For these

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Attachment Details Attachment to Structure (D10.5.4) Similar to the connection between the cable or strut and the suspended equipment is the connection between the cable or strut and the structure. Cautions are required to ensure that the structure is not weakened by the connection and that the connection is adequate to transfer the design load. As in the section above, this segment illustrates a wide variety of acceptable arrangements that can accomplish this feat.

cases internal restraint elements are needed. Information on appropriate internal restraints is available in this section. Isolated Ceiling Restraint Design (D11.2) This section addresses the basic parameters required to ensure the performance of an isolated-ceiling restraint system. Isolated Ceiling Perimeter Restraint (D11.2.1) Pros and cons of perimeter restraints are covered in detail in this section. Isolated Ceiling Internal Restraints (D11.2.2) In many cases perimeter restraint is either not possible or impractical. For these cases internal restraint elements are needed. Information on appropriate internal restraints is available in this section. Isolated Wall Restraint Design (D11.3) This section addresses the basic parameters required to ensure the performance of an isolated-ceiling restraint system. Isolated Walls Restrained at the Top and Bottom (D11.3.1) Pros and cons of perimeter restraints are covered in detail in this section. Isolated Wall Internal Restraints (D11.3.2) In many cases top and bottom restraint is either not possible or impractical. For these cases internal restraint elements are needed. Information on appropriate internal restraints is available in this section. Kinetics Seismic Specification (D12) Recommended long format Specifications Long Form Specification (D12.1) Comprehensive long form specifications as appropriate for inclusion in contract documents.

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HOW TO USE THIS MANUAL (Overview of Chapter Contents) Section P


Product Details
The Product Detail section is broken into several chapters, each dealing with different Seismically related products. Below you will find a listing of these Chapters and immediately after the listing, there is a summary of the material in each Chapter. Floor/Curb Mounted Seismic Mounting Brackets Isolator/Restraints (FMS Series) Isolator/Restraints (FHS/FLS/FLSS Series) Elastomeric Isolator/Restraints (KRMS/RQ) Seismic Bumper/Snubbers (HS Series) RTU Seismic Isolation Systems (ESR/KSR/KSCR) Suspended Cable/Wire Rope Restraints Other Required Components (Rod Stiffeners etc.) Architectural Elements Concrete Anchor Bolts Seismic Mounting Brackets (P1) The first Product Section includes information on standard attachment brackets used by Kinetics Noise Control for the direct attachment of hard or pad mounted equipment to structures. Both Geometrical and capacity data is included for each component. General Description (P1.1) A general description of these items is provided along with information on recommended applications. Floor Mounted Equipment Submittal Data (KSMS) (P1.2.1) Design information and installation information on the KSMS (Equipment Attachment) mounting clip is provided in this section. Submittal Data (KSMG) (P1.2.2) Design information and installation information on the KSMG (Isolation Pad

Chapter P1 Chapter P2 Chapter P3 Chapter P4 Chapter P5 Chapter P6

Chapter P7 Chapter P8 Chapter P9 Chapter P10

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Mounted Equipment) mounting clip is provided in this section. KSMS and KSMG Locating Guide (P1.2.3) Standard orientation and placement information for KSMS and KSMG clips can be found in this segment. Curb Mounted Equipment Submittal Data (KSMF) (P1.3.1) Design information and installation information on the KSMF (Mushroom Fan mounting clip) is provided in this section. Submittal Data (KSCM-1) (P1.3.2) Design information and installation information on the KSCM-1 (Curb Mounting Kit 1 (1 piece)) Equipment mounting clip is provided in this section. Submittal Data (KSCM-2) (P1.3.3) Design information and installation information on the KSCM-2 (Curb Mounting Kit 2 (2 piece)) Equipment mounting clip is provided in this section. Submittal Data (KSCV) (P1.3.4) Design information and installation information on the KSCV (Curb Mounted Vertical Restraint Kit) Equipment restraint clip is provided in this section. Submittal Data (KSVR) (P1.3.5) Design information and installation information on the KSVR (Sheet Metal Curb Reinforcement Kit) is provided in this section. Clip Selection Information Selection Information (P1.4) General component selection guidance for the above listed hardware is offered in this document. FMS Isolators and Restraints (P2) With the advent of higher restraint capacity requirements in the field, Kinetics Noise Control has developed the FMS modular isolator/restraint family. These restraints have many features that are new and different in the marketplace and can offer significant benefits to the user. This Chapter addresses this isolator/restraint in detail. The FMS will be of interest to anyone attempting to restrain extremely heavy equipment, equipment in seismically active areas and/or equipment that is going to be attached to concrete.

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General Description (P2.1) A general description of the FMS, its features, functions, benefits as well as practical applications are provided in this section. FMS Restraint Data FMSAA Restraint Submittal Data (P2.2.1) FMSAA Submittal and Design information data is provided in this section.

FMSB Restraint Submittal Data (P2.2.3) FMSB Submittal and Design information data is provided in this section. FMSC Restraint Submittal Data (P2.2.4) FMSC Submittal and Design information data is provided in this section. FMSD Restraint Submittal Data (P2.2.5) FMSD Submittal and Design information data is provided in this section. FMSE Restraint Submittal Data (P2.2.6) FMSE Submittal and Design information data is provided in this section. FMSF Restraint Submittal Data (P2.2.7) FMSF Submittal and Design information data is provided in this section. FMSG Restraint Submittal Data (P2.2.8) FMSG Submittal and Design information data is provided in this section. FMS Spring Coil Data FMS 1 Deflection A Coil Isolator Data (P2.3.1) Data for 1 deflection coils used in conjunction with the FMS Restraint ranging in capacity from 35 to 1600 lb is illustrated in this document. FMS 1 Deflection C Coil Isolator Data (P2.3.2) Data for 1 deflection coils used in conjunction with the FMS Restraint ranging in capacity from 250 to 14,000 lb is illustrated in this document. FMS 2 Deflection Coil Isolator Data (P2.3.3) Data for 2 deflection coils used in conjunction with the FMS Restraint ranging in capacity from 100 to 18,000 lb is illustrated in this document.

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FMSA Restraint Submittal Data (P2.2.2) FMSA Submittal and Design information data is provided in this section.

FMS 4 Deflection Coil Isolator Data (P2.3.4) Data for 4 deflection coils used in conjunction with the FMS Restraint ranging in capacity from 100 to 23,200 lb is illustrated in this document. FMS Restraint Selection Information (P2.4) Seismic ratings and technical application data for use on FMS type Isolators. FMS Load Spreader Plate Data (P2.5) This section addresses application data for FMS restraints fitted with oversized baseplates.

FHS, FLS and FLSS Seismic Isolators (P3) Design and selection data for the FHS, FLS and FLSS lines of Seismically rated Isolators are available here. These older isolators are used commonly throughout the industry. Data here is of interest to specifiers, installation contractors and design professionals involved in the restraint selection process. General Description (P3.1) A general description of the FHS, FLS and FLSS isolators begins this chapter. Their features, functions, benefits as well as practical applications are provided in this section. FHS Restraint Submittal Data (P3.2.1) Design information and capacity information for the FHS Isolator line is provided in this section. FLS Restraint Submittal Data (P3.2.2) Design information and capacity information for the FLS Isolator line is provided in this section. FLSS Restraint Submittal Data (P3.2.3) Design information and capacity information for the FLSS Isolator line is provided in this section. FLS, FLSS, FHS Selection Information (P3.3) Design Selection and guidance information to be used in conjunction the FHS, FLS and FLSS Isolators are summarized in this document.

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FMS Installation Instructions (P2.6) Comprehensive Installation Instructions for the FMS Isolators and Restraints can be found in this segment of the chapter.

FHS, FLS and FLSS Load Spreader Plates (P3.4) Load Spreader Plates and the resulting increase in performance for concrete anchorage applications are addressed in this section. FHS, FLS and FLSS Installation Instructions (P3.5) Comprehensive Installation Instructions for the FHS, FLS and FLSS Isolators can be found in this segment of the chapter. KRMS and RQ Elastomeric Seismic Isolators (P4) Design and selection data for the KRMS and RQ lines of Seismically rated Isolators/Mounts are available here. Data here is of interest to specifiers, installation contractors and design professionals involved in the restraint selection process. KRMS General Description (P4.1.1) A general description of the KRMS Isolator begins this chapter. Their features, functions, benefits as well as practical applications are provided in this section. RQ General Description (P4.1.2) Descriptive information and specifications on the RQ Isolators are addressed here. KRMS Restraint Submittal Data (P4.2.1) Design information and capacity information for the KRMS Isolator line is provided in this section. RQ Seismic Mount Submittal Data (P4.2.2) Design information and capacity information for the RQ Mount family is provided in this section. KRMS and RQ Selection Information (P4.3) Design Selection and guidance information to be used in conjunction the KRMS and RQ Isolators/Mounts are summarized in this document. KRMS and RQ Load Spreader Plates (P4.4) Load Spreader Plates and the resulting increase in performance for concrete anchorage applications are addressed in this section. KRMS and RQ Installation Instructions (P4.5) Comprehensive Installation Instructions for the KRMS and RQ Isolators/Mounts can be found in this segment of the chapter.

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s HS Series Seismic Restraints (P5) Design and selection data for the HS lines of Seismic Restraints/Snubbers are available here. Data here is of interest to specifiers, installation contractors and design professionals involved in the restraint selection process. General Description (P5.1) A general description of the HS-2 and HS-5 Restraint/Snubbers begins this chapter. Their features, functions, benefits as well as practical applications are provided in this section. HS-2 Restraint/Snubber Submittal Data (P5.2.1) Design information and capacity information for the HS-2 Restraint/Snubber is provided in this section. HS-5 Restraint/Snubber Submittal Data (P5.2.2) Design information and capacity information for the HS-5 Restraint/Snubber family is provided in this section. HS-2 and HS-5 Selection Information (P5.3) Design Selection and guidance information to be used in conjunction the HS-2 and HS-5 Restraint/Snubbers are summarized in this document. HS-2 and HS-5 Load Spreader Plates (P5.4) Load Spreader Plates and the resulting increase in performance for concrete anchorage applications are addressed in this section. HS-2 and HS-5 Installation Instructions (P5.5) Comprehensive Installation Instructions for the HS-2 and HS-5 Restraint/Snubbers can be found in this segment of the chapter. ESR / KSR / KSCR Seismically Rated Roof Curbs (P6) Design and selection data for the ESR / KSR and KSCR Seismically rated Isolation curbs or curb isolation rails are available here. Data here is of interest to specifiers, installation contractors and design professionals involved in the restraint selection process. General Description (P6.1) A general description of the ESR / KSR and KSCR begins this chapter. Their

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features, functions, benefits as well as practical applications are provided in this section. ESR Restraint Submittal Data (P6.2.1) Design information and capacity information for the ESR Isolation Curb is provided in this section. KSR Isolation Rail Submittal Data (P6.2.2) Design information and capacity information for the KSR Curb-top Isolation Rail is provided in this section.

ESR / KSR / KSCR Selection Information (P6.3) Design Selection and guidance information to be used in conjunction the KRMS and RQ Isolators/Mounts are summarized in this document. ESR Load Spreader Plates (P6.4) Load Spreader Plates and the resulting increase in performance for concrete anchorage applications are addressed in this section. ESR / KSR / KSCR Installation Instructions (P6.5) Comprehensive Installation Instructions for the ESR / KSR / KSCR Curb Systems can be found in this segment of the chapter. Cable and Wire Rope Restraints (P7) Design and selection data for a wide range of Cable restraint kits and hardware is included in this section. Data here is of interest to specifiers, installation contractors and design professionals involved in the restraint selection process. General Description (P7.1) A general description of the tradeoffs and benefits of the various different cable arrangements begins this chapter. Their features, functions as well as practical applications are provided in this section. Fixed Length Cable Kits (Swaged End) Submittal Data (P7.2.1 through P7.2.6) Design and capacity information for the wide range of cable hardware kits offered by Kinetics Noise Control is provided in these sections.

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KSCR Curb Submittal Data (P6.2.3) Design information and capacity information for the KSCR Isolation Curb is provided in this section.

Bulk Length Cable Kits (Not Swaged) Submittal Data (P7.3.1 through P7.3.7) Design and capacity information for the wide range of cable hardware kits offered by Kinetics Noise Control is provided in these sections. Cable Anchorage Kits Submittal Data (P7.4.1 through P7.4.4) Design and capacity information for the wide range of cable hardware kits offered by Kinetics Noise Control is provided in these sections. Cable Restraint Selection Information (P7.5) Design Selection and guidance information to be used in conjunction the various cable kits are summarized in this document. Cable Restraint Installation Instructions (P7.6) Comprehensive Installation Instructions to be used in conjunction the various cable kits can be found in this segment of the chapter. Other Hardware Required for use with Suspended Equipment (P8) Proper restraint design for many suspended equipment applications requires the use of additional hardware accessory items. Design and selection data for these components is included in this section. Data here is of interest to specifiers, installation contractors and design professionals involved in the restraint selection process. General Description (P8.1) A general description of these pieces of hardware and their function are provided in this section. KHRC-A (Rod Stiffener Clamps for Angles) Submittal Data (P8.2.1) Design information is provided in this section. KHRC-P (Rod Stiffener Clamps for Pipe) Submittal Data (P8.2.2) Design information is provided in this section. KCHB (Pipe Clevis Internal Brace) Submittal Data (P8.2.3) Design information is provided in this section. KSCA (Cable/Strut Attachment Bracket) Submittal Data (P8.2.4) These components are included in many of the cable kits, but are also available separately. Design information is provided in this section. KSUA (Cable Attachment Bracket) Submittal Data (P8.2.5) These components are included in many of the cable kits, but are also available

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separately. Design information is provided in this section. KSCC (Cable/Strut Attachment Bracket) Submittal Data (P8.2.6) These components are included in many of the cable kits, but are also available separately. Design information is provided in this section. Cable Hardware Selection Information (P8.3) Design Selection and guidance information to be used in conjunction the various suspended equipment hardware components are summarized in this document. Cable Hardware Installation Instructions (P8.4) Comprehensive Installation Instructions to be used in conjunction the various hardware components can be found in this segment of the chapter. Restraint Components for Architectural Elements (P9) In acoustically or vibration sensitive buildings, often significant non-structural elements are used to prevent the transfer of noise or vibration. These components require restraint in seismically prone areas. Design and selection data for hardware to be used to accomplish this task are included in this section. Data here is of interest to specifiers, architects, installation contractors and design professionals involved in the restraint selection process. General Description (P9.1) A general description of these pieces of hardware and their function are provided in this section. FFR-1 (Embedded Restraint for Jack-up Floating Floors) Submittal Data (P9.2.1) Design information is provided in this section. FFR-2 (Embedded Restraint for Roll-Out Floating Floors) Submittal Data (P9.2.2) Design information is provided in this section. Perimeter Pads (Perimeter Restraint for Floating Floors) Submittal Data (P9.2.3) Design information is provided in this section. KSWC (Ceiling Cable Restraint Kit) Submittal Data (P9.3.1) Design and capacity information for the KSWC cable kit offered by Kinetics Noise Control is provided in this section. PSB (Embedded Wall Restraint) Submittal Data (P9.4.1) Design information is provided in this section.

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IPRB (Top of Wall Restraint Angle) Submittal Data (P9.4.2) Design information is provided in this section. KSWB (Seismically Rated Wall Mounting Isolation Clip Submittal Data (P9.4.3) Design information is provided in this section. Selection Information (P9.5) Design Selection and guidance information to be used in conjunction the various hardware components listed above are summarized in this document. Installation Instructions (P9.6) Comprehensive Installation Instructions to be used in conjunction the various hardware components can be found in this segment of the chapter. Anchor Bolts and Attachment Hardware (P10) Design and selection data for Seismically Rated Anchorage hardware used by Kinetics Noise Control makes up this section. Data here is of prime interest to installation contractors and design professionals involved in the restraint selection process. General Description (P10.1) A general description of the anchorage hardware used by Kinetics Noise Control is provided in this section. KCAB (Wedge type Anchor Bolt) Submittal Data (P10.2.1) Design information is provided in this section. KUAB (Undercut type Anchor Bolt) Submittal Data (P10.2.2) Design information is provided in this section. TG Grommets (Anchor Bolt Adapter Grommets) Submittal Data (P10.2.3) Design information is provided in this section. Selection Information KCAB Anchor Selection Information (P10.3.1) Design Selection and guidance information to be used in conjunction the various anchors are summarized in this document. KUAB Anchor Selection Information (P10.3.2) Design Selection and guidance information to be used in conjunction the various anchors are summarized in this document.

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Installation Instructions (P10.4) Comprehensive Installation Instructions to be used in conjunction the various anchor types can be found in this segment of the chapter.

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CHAPTER D1 SEISMIC BUILDING CODE REVIEW TABLE OF CONTENTS

Referenced Standards Overview of Analytical Methods Used Static vs Dynamic Modeling Techniques Required Calculation Input Understanding Standard Calculation Output Understanding non-Standard Calculation Output General Assumptions and Disclaimer

D1.2 D1.3 D1.4 D1.5 D1.6 D1.7 D1.8

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Chapter D1)


KINETICS SEISMIC ENGINEERING
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Purpose, Extent and Limitations of Analysis

D1.1

PURPOSE, EXTENT AND LIMITATIONS OF A SEISMIC ANALYSIS


The primary purpose for a seismic analysis with regard to equipment, piping, ductwork and conduit is to offer a degree of confidence to the Engineer of Record that a competent individual has reviewed the application, specified appropriate componentry and documented that, properly installed, it is in compliance with code and specification requirements. There are many inherent limitations as to the extent of such an analysis. The primary limitation is that, by law, an Engineer can only take responsibility for those components over which he has direct control or knowledge. The typical items that are addressed in an analysis are the determination of design seismic forces, the resulting reactions at the restraint connections to the structure (if the equipment remains rigid) and the capabilities of the hardware and anchorage to resist those forces. The capabilities of equipment to withstand seismic forces must be determined by either the equipment manufacturer or by an independent party that has access to all of the technical information relative the equipment. As to its structural durability, all material strengths, thicknesses, geometry and operating loads must be accounted for and added to the seismic load requirements. The issue becomes more complex when continued operation of the equipment is mandated. As the ability of an independent party to obtain this information is extremely limited, the manufacturer must normally address the equipment durability issues. There are also building structural issues that must be considered. These relate to the ability of the building structure to withstand the local seismic forces placed on it by the equipment. In a similar fashion to the equipment, to properly analyze these factors, a detailed knowledge of both the building structure and the loads anticipated in that structure during a seismic event must be considered. These must be added to the forces generated by the equipment. As there is no one else with access to this information, this analysis falls into the domain of the Structural Engineer of Record. Finally, in order for the system to work, it is assumed that all of the componentry is properly installed. Critical information on the installation of the various parts is provided and frequently once installed, it is extremely difficult to determine if the appropriate procedures were followed. As a result, after the fact inspections are based only on what can be observed in the final installation and are not comprehensive. The responsibility for following the appropriate procedures falls to the installation contractor with possible oversight by an independent on site observer.

PURPOSE, EXTENT AND LIMITATIONS OF A SEISMIC ANALYSIS


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REFERENCED STANDARDS
Listed below are the significant documents referenced and or used in the creation of this manual. ACI (American Concrete Institute) 318-02 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, 2002 ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) 7-98 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, 1998 ASCE (American Society of Civil Engineers) 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, 2002 ASD (Allowable Stress Design) National Design Specification for Wood Construction Manual (American Forest and Paper Association / American Wood Council) 1999 ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers) HVAC Application Handbook, 2003 ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers) RP-812 A Practical Guide to Seismic Restraint, 1999 BOCA (Building Officials and Code Administrators) National Building Code, 1996 and Amendments FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) FEMA 412 Installing Seismic Restaints for Mechanical Equipment, 2002 FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) FEMA 413 Installing Seismic Restaints for Electrical Equipment, 2004 FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) FEMA 414 Installing Seismic Restaints for Ducts and Pipe, 2004 IBC (International Building Code) (International Code Council), 2000 IBC (International Building Code) (International Code Council), 2003 NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) NFPA 13 Installation of Sprinkler Systems, 1999 NRC-CNRC (National Research Council Canada) National Building Code of Canada, 1995

REFERENCED STANDARDS
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SBC (Standard Building Code) (Southern Building Code Congress International), 1997 and Amendments TI-809-04 (US Army Corps of Engineers) Seismic Design for Buildings, 1998 UBC (Uniform Building Code) (International Conference of Building Officials), 1997 and Amendments

REFERENCED STANDARDS
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OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED


Unless otherwise specified, the analyses performed by on a worst case statically applied load and assume that rigid. These assumptions are in compliance with application of appropriate factors, address dynamic elements involved as well. Kinetics Noise Control are based the equipment being restrained is code parameters and with the forces to the various structural

There are several types of reactive loads that result from the analysis of a typical piece of equipment. A horizontal shear load, an imbalance load, a vertical uplift load, an overturning load and the static deadweight load. The interaction between these results in worst case combinations at each restraint point. SHEAR LOAD ANALYSIS The most obvious restraint loading that occurs during a seismic event is the horizontal force that is generated by the lateral load. In its simplest case this results in the lateral load being split among the restraints. If the center of gravity of the equipment is aligned with the geometric center of the restraints, the split will be equal as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 IMBALANCED LOAD ANALYSIS More frequently, the unit center of gravity is not aligned with the geometric center. When this is the case, an imbalanced load is generated which needs to be combined with the shear loads previously discussed. Figure 2 shows that the method of analyzing this

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED


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Generally speaking, this analysis models a piece of restrained equipment as a rigid body with a lateral and possibly vertical load as defined by the code applied to its center of gravity. The application of these loads generates forces at the equipment restraints, which can eventually be reconciled to anchor loads. As the wave front angle for the earthquake is unknown, this analysis work must ensure that the design loads are applied in the directions which will generate the highest forces in the anchors.

situation is to treat the horizontal shear load at each restraint as a function of the mass that is associated with them.

Figure 2 OVERTURNING LOAD ANALYSIS The accurate modeling of overturning forces is critical in determining the vertical forces to which the restraints are exposed. In the simple case where the center of gravity is coincident with the geometric center of the system and with four restraints, the vertical components are a simple function of the height of the center of gravity and the restraint spacing (Figure 3).

Figure 3 In the case of a system with more than four restraints, the number of points that can be considered to share the overturning load becomes a function of clearance that may be present. Note in Figure 4, that with no clearance, resistance to the overturning load will occur at every restraint location. The most common type of installation that exhibits this property is a rigidly bolted system.

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED


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9-1

Figure 4 In systems that have more than four restraints and contain restraints that maintain an operating clearance, only the end restraints can be considered effective in resisting overturning loads. With this type of restraint, some elastomeric snubbing must be present to prevent impact loading and resulting force amplification. In some cases, if the snubbing pads are thick enough and the operating clearance small enough, some load sharing may be present, but in general this effect is minimal. This is clearly illustrated in Figure 4. LOAD DIRECTION ANALYSIS Because the direction of the seismic load is unknown, it is necessary to determine the worst case overturning load at each restraint point based on any possible load direction. The method used by Kinetics Noise Control is to set up a mathematical model of the equipment arrangement and then index the application angle of the design seismic force for the full 360 degrees of possible application angles in 1-degree increments. At each increment, the overturning load for each point is computed and the worst case load encountered at each restraint point is used in the analysis.

Figure 5

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED


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OTHER SIGNIFICANT FACTORS Before a mathematical model can be built, there are several other key hardware factors that need to be accounted for. These factors relate to specific snubber or system designs that can have a major impact on the final restraining loads. SINGLE DIRECTION SNUBBERS Figure 6A shows a system using four single direction lateral restraints. Because this type of restraint only restrains a single direction lateral load, they must be used in sets of four. Some versions of these include a vertical snubbing pad for uplift loads. Although these are then biaxial restraints, they behave very similarly. It is important to note that since each restraint only works in a single direction, that any restraint must absorb the entire lateral force by itself. MULTI-DIRECTION SNUBBERS In contrast to this, the same unit fitted with four multi-axial restraints will produce an average lateral load per restraint equal to 1/4 of the total load. This results in a series of restraints, which can be significantly smaller than what would be required for single direction components (Figure 6B).

Figure 6

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED


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OPEN SPRING ISOLATORS When restraining vertical loads, there are two distinct types of restraints that can be used. The first of these I will call an open or non-contained spring isolator. This is one in which the spring bears against the floor and the anchor bolts have the possibility of absorbing the spring load. An illustration of this is shown in Figure 7 (Labeled OPEN). CONTAINED SPRING ISOLATORS Another more common type of restrained spring isolator is one, which I will call a contained spring isolator. In this type, the spring load is contained within the restraint housing. The net result is that the anchor bolts, while still required to resist the equipment loading, do not have to absorb any additional loading that may be generated by the spring. This is shown in Figure 7 (Labeled CONTAINED). To illustrate this point more clearly, The first illustration in Figure 7 shows the two types of isolators under normal load. Note that in either case the anchors are effectively unloaded. If the equipment weight is now suddenly removed, the situation occurs that is illustrated in the second illustration. In this case nearly all the spring load is transferred directly to the anchor bolts in the open case, but the anchors are still unloaded in the contained one.

Figure 7

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED


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SEPARATE SNUBBERS A quick review of systems which incorporate spring supports and independent snubbers will show that they perform in the same manner as those which use open spring isolators. These cases are illustrated in the right half of Figure 7. MODEL GENERATION Two static models are set up for a given piece of equipment. One would be an X-axis model and the other a Y-axis version. In these models, all translational, vertical and overturning loads are accounted for including factors for the center of gravity offsets in each of the two major axes. The input load can be considered to be applied in any direction and X and Y components are extracted from it. Using the above concept and generating loads for each restraint point based on the load angle discussed earlier. The angle is incremented from 0 to 360 degrees, generating the resulting forces at each restraint point for each angle. The worst case force at each restraint location is then stored and used for the evaluation of the restraint at that location. RESTRAINT ANALYSIS Up to now, the analysis has been limited to the entire system. It now becomes necessary to use the loads developed for each restraint location to determine the adequacy of each restraint. In general each restraint behaves like a small piece of equipment with its own horizontal, vertical and overturning components. Because these parameters are clearly defined for each restraint however, these factors can be boiled down to a capacity chart listing the maximum vertical, lateral and combined capacity of the restraint. These values are different for anchorage to concrete or attachment to steel. The previously computed forces are then compared to the restraint limits to ensure their adequacy.

OVERVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS USED


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STATIC vs DYNAMIC MODELING


The basic format for tests and/or analyses of seismic resistant systems follow one of the following two primary paths, static or dynamic modeling. Within these major categories there are a myriad of detailed approaches that will not be addressed here. Instead, this document will focus on the significant differences between the static and dynamic models, what can be gained from each and when one might be preferred over another. The static analysis involves applying a force either mathematically to a mathematically modeled system or to apply an actual force to a physical model. This force must be applied in the direction that will generate the largest possible static forces in the equipment, the equipment anchorage and the restraint. The force at that restraint is then measured or computed for comparison to the statically rated capacity of the restraint, the equipment, the anchorage device or the local load conditions on the structure. In order to use this analysis to address the forces that occur in a dynamic situation, like an earthquake, a factor (or series of factors) is then applied to the computed forces. These factors have been fine tuned with experience and currently offer a high degree of confidence. Unfortunately, these amplified factors can only be directly related to the structural performance of the system. In a dynamic analysis, a time varying input force is used. The force is generated from historical ground acceleration data from an earthquake that has properties that are expected to be similar to those that would be experienced at the proposed project site. The amplitude of this profile is adjusted upward or downward to provide peaks that coincide with the seismic design values for the project. In the case of equipment, if the study is done analytically, a model that not only addresses the basic geometry of the system, but also models the dynamic cushioning in the restraint device itself is needed. If an actual sample is tested, samples of the equipment, restraints and anchorage systems as well as a shake table large enough to mimic the appropriate seismic accelerations are necessary. In addition, the dynamic input forces must accurately portray not only the expected earthquake, but must also accurately account for the direction of the wave front and the impact of dynamic factors in the structure. On the surface, it is obvious that a dynamic test will be considerably more expensive than would be a static one. In order for it to be justified in the practical world, there is a requirement that if offers a fair trade-off in value to the end user. Dynamic modeling has been most commonly used with regard to building structures and with systems were failure can result in serious danger or loss of life (Nuclear facilities for example). With regard to the building structures themselves, there are several factors that allow dynamic models to offer easily justified benefits. First, the cost of the analysis, compared to the cost of the structure, is relatively low. In addition, since buildings are generally one-offs, they normally include extensive individualized design work specific to

STATIC vs DYNAMIC MODELING


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the application anyway and as such, frequently are already modeled. An additional factor specific to a structure is that the consequences of failure, from a life-safety standpoint, are significant. Finally, from a cost/benefit side, the use of a dynamic model can open the potential to reduce or simplify the structure and can actually reduce its cost. With regard to those applications involving the potential for extremely hazardous material release, cost is not even an issue. It is critical to all concerned that the system is analyzed in absolutely the best way possible. Both static and dynamic modeling methods should be used and conservative factors applied to the result.

Note that the above also holds true for those pieces of equipment in non-critical structures, but whos continued operation after a seismic event would be needed to ensure life-safety. Benefits of a static analysis become clear in non-critical applications. Here, the use of static techniques and appropriate factors offer conservative, easily documented and repeatable results that can confirm the structural durability of the equipment and anchorage for minimal cost. In these cases (where continued operation of the equipment is not required), life safety can be addressed simply by applying a conservative static analysis. In these applications, if the potential cost or downtime that might result from internal damage to this equipment is a significant issue, features could be added internally by the manufacturers for minimal cost that could increase the confidence level of continued operation greatly. The key here is that the cost to offer a 90% chance of success would only be a fraction of the cost that would be required to guarantee success. Over the long term, it is likely that equipment designed to be installed in seismically active areas, will become more robust and will be designed to meet some reasonable fatigue

STATIC vs DYNAMIC MODELING


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Hospitals and other facilities that must remain operational after a seismic event pose more of a dilemma. The dynamic analysis of the structure can often be justified as noted above, however the mechanical equipment inside can be a problem. Of primary concern is the current requirement identified in the IBC and TI-809-04 codes for critical equipment to remain operational. This means that not only must the equipment be structurally substantial enough to ride out an event, but also that its internals must be tough enough that the tremor will not generate internal mechanical failures. There is no practical way to model this statically. Instead, the individual equipment component parts must be designed to accept significant forces within allowable fatigue limits. This type of analysis is common for vehicles or other devices that are subject to dynamic loads, but is not commonly used in the design of static equipment. The only other option would be to perform substantial dynamic testing over a wide input spectrum (both in frequency and direction) on existing equipment. This would likely cost considerably more than the value of the equipment itself.

criteria. Once this becomes common practice, much of the need to perform detailed dynamic analyses or testing of this equipment will likely disappear. Currently, the best value is to perform static analyses with the inclusion of appropriate factors on all equipment installations. The resulting forces can be used to validate the capability of the equipment to remain in place during an appropriate seismic event. Where it is necessary to certify the continued operation of the equipment as well, current practice is that it be dynamically tested or analyzed. At best, this is not comprehensive and requires that all factors are appropriately accounted for, that the actual ground forces experienced are similar to those assumed in type, frequency and magnitude and that the unit in the field behaves at least as well as the unit in the lab. Better than the dynamic qualification test however, is that the equipment should be designed to withstand all anticipated and factored forces expected on its internal components within the fatigue limits of the materials that make it up and with some reasonable additional safety factor.

STATIC vs DYNAMIC MODELING


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Required Calculation Input


There are several pieces of information that are required for Kinetics Noise Control to perform an analysis on an equipment installation. Some of this information is project and/or code related and some is equipment related. The input requirements will vary depending on the project building code. The appropriate building code for the project is required and is the first piece of information to be determined, as it governs everything else. Since the codes vary with time and local jurisdiction, and because there are periods during which it may be possible to use different codes for the same project, it is critical that the code, and code version, used are consistent with the project requirements. More recent codes require project site data that impacts the seismic design forces. This includes soil type and, in the 97 UBC, the type and proximity of the nearest fault. This data is not something that can be quickly pulled from a map, and as such is not something that it is available to anyone offsite who is attempting to perform an analysis. The end use of the building also needs to be identified. Factors are assigned in the course of the analysis based on the end use, and the project impact (safety and/or cost) can be significant if the wrong factors are used. Once the general information is identified, specific information relative to the equipment and system is required. Besides the obvious geometric and weight data for the equipment (height, width, length, weight, approximate center of gravity location, and locations of any mounting hardware), generic material as to what type of equipment it is and whether its continued function is needed for life safety must be determined. The 95 NBC (Canada), 97 UBC, 2000 IBC, 2003 IBC and TI-809-04 all require that the mounting elevation of the equipment relative to the roof height of the structure be known as well. In some cases, some of the required data must be estimated. Kinetics Noise Control will attempt to do this conservatively, and in so doing the net result is a more conservative analysis and potentially costly installation. While attempts are made to make reasonable and conservative estimates, it remains the responsibility of others to compare these values to the actual equipment and indicate to Kinetics Noise Control if something appears to be inconsistent. All values used in the analysis are provided on the output; the responsibility to review this data will normally fall to the general contractor or the engineer of record. To aid in collecting the appropriate information to perform analyses, the following checklist has been developed and should be filled out for each piece of equipment addressed by the project.

REQUIRED CALCULATION INPUT


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Seismic Checklist
General Data: Project:_____________________________________________Date:_________ Seismic Code: o SBC o UBC o BOCA o UBC (Calif) o IBC o NBC-Canada o Other _____________________________ Code Year of issue: o 1993 o 1994 o 1995 o 1996 o 1997 o 2000 o 2003 o Other _____________________ Accel factor or Proj location (Av, v, Z, or SDS (.2 Sec Response Accel)):_____________ Optional Minimum G factors from Spec:_________Horiz, __________Vert Building Use:______________________________________________________ Total Occupancy:___________________________________________________ Addition data for 1997 UBC If Av = .4, provide distance to nearest fault and source type. o <= 2 km o > 2 km ,< 10 km o > 10 km o A (Frequent Lrg Magnitude) o B (Other) o C (Rare Sml Magnitude) Addition data for 2000 IBC, TI-809-04 Equipment Importance Factor (Ip):________ Failure of this Equipment will result in a life safety issue: o Yes o No Addition data for 1997 UBC, IBC and TI-809-04 codes only: Soil Type: o Sa (Hard Rock) o Sb (Rock) o Sc (Dense Soil/Soft Rock) o Sd (Stiff Soil) o Se (Soft Soil) o Sf (Other-Backfill, etc.) Provide detail data on soil conditions if Sf selected. Addition data for the NBC-Canada Code only: Foundation Factor: Failure of this Equipment can release Hazardous Materials: o Yes o No Tag Data: Equipment Location in Building: o At or Below Grade o Above Grade Roof Elevation _______ o If 1997 UBC, IBC, TI-809-04 or NBC Equipment Mounting Elevation_______ Type of Equipment:___________ Equipment Weight: ___________ Height from base of Equipment to Vertical CG:_______________ The Equipment will be attached to: o Concrete Anchors o Through Bolt to Steel or Concrete o Welded o Bolt to Wood (Thickness, width, and type of wood required.) Include structural drawings if available showing unit location with respect to structural members. Equipment Geometry (Include Drawing)

REQUIRED CALCULATION INPUT


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UNDERSTANDING KNC S STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT


Most of the seismic and wind certifications performed by Kinetics Noise Control will be done using proprietary analytical software and will generate a report in the format shown on the following pages. In cases that cannot be modeled using this software, the results will be obtained using customized spreadsheet documents that will vary in format depending on the analysis involved. This section will provide insight and understanding of the data presented using the standardized computer-generated format. There will always be at least one output sheet per seismic calculation. If special anchorage is required, a second sheet indicating the special anchorage requirements will be added. If wind is also an issue, and a wind analysis was requested, a third document (for standard anchorage) and possibly a fourth (for special anchorage) would be included as well. In all cases, the output documents will have three portions. The upper half of the sheet indicates the information input into the program. The second segment indicates the program outputs, and the last segment lists special notes that are applicable.

Seismic Certification Document (A) All standard seismic certifications will include the (A)-type document. It can be identified by the (A) in the top right corner and the word Seismic included in the title. Input Data Looking first at the input data, there are several key areas that are grouped together as follows: UNDERSTANDING KNCS STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 1 OF10
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General project data is generally across the top of the document. Included is the reference purchase order number from Kinetics Noise Control in the top left-hand corner. Below this is the name assigned to the project by Kinetics Noise Control, the representative s name, reference to the representative s purchase order number, and the date that the certification was performed. Also listed is the code used to perform the analysis and any overriding horizontal and vertical seismic design acceleration coefficients, if specified. For some codes, the soil type, fault type, and fault proximity come into play and if they are applicable they are listed as shown above. The next data segment is specifically related to the particular equipment installation being certified. In the figure below, the location of this information has been indicated. For ease of reference, the tag data listed at the top right-hand corner as well as on the third line refers to the component being evaluated. Within the body of the text a name for the equipment is listed along with the tag identification and below this is the mounting arrangement. In this case, the mounting is identified as Base Mounted, Common Support/Restraint Loc. This indicates that the equipment is mounted at its base (typically to the floor) and that the restraints and supports are at the same locations (meaning that if isolated, combination isolator/restraints are used, or if hard mounted, that the unit is bolted down and restrained UNDERSTANDING KNCS STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 2 OF 10
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with the same hardware). Other options that may be listed are: Base Mounted, Different Support/Restraint Loc. (for separate isolators & restraints) Base Mounted, 4 Isolators/2 Restraints (where 2 restraints are located at the equipment centerline) Hanging, Common Support/Restraint Loc. (where equipment is hung with 4 or more rods and is restrained at the same points) Hanging, Different Support/Restraint Loc. (where equipment is hung with 4 or more rods and is restrained at different points) Hanging, 2 Supports/4 Restraints (where equipment is hung on 2 hanger rods and is restrained with 4 restraint cables).

Listed on the right side of the certification are Code G (ASD) and Conc Ancs (ASD) values. These are the computed seismic force values used by the program to determine the forces at the restraint points expressed in ASD (Allowable Stress Design or Working Stress based) units. Code G is the basic design force and is used to evaluate component capacity and through-bolted anchorage. Conc Ancs includes additional factors that must be used to evaluate anchorage to concrete. The (H/V) terms are the horizontal and vertical force components. Weight, geometry, and equipment specific seismic design factors are the last items that fall into this segment of the input data. Wgt (weight) is the operating weight of the equipment. Elev-Roof/Equip is the relative elevation of the equipment in the structure to the roof elevation and is required only by some codes. Seismic factors Ap, Ss, I, Rp s/c are the factors drawn from the code and are used to UNDERSTANDING KNCS STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 3 OF 10
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compute the previously discussed seismic force values. The names of these terms will vary from code to code, but they will always be found in this location on the certification document. Where s/c appears, this indicates that different values are used for throughbolted (s for steel) and anchored to concrete (c for concrete) connections. Values for A, B, ex, and ey are identified in the schematic. These represent the spacing between the outermost restraint elements and the assumed offset in the center of gravity of the system. When the restraint components are independent of the supports, the values a and b will also be listed. In the sketch, support points are represented by O s and restraint points by X s. The last item that relates to the equipment data is the height (Hgt). The value here is the vertical distance between the equipment center of gravity and the restraint contact point. With hanging equipment, two values will be listed. The first is the vertical distance between the equipment center of gravity and the restraint connection point and the second is the distance between the restraint connection point and the elevation at which the hanger rods connect to the equipment. Moving on to the installation sketch:

The diagram represents schematically the general layout of the equipment. Restraint points are labeled 1, 2, 3, etc. and the previously discussed dimension locations are identified. If the equipment has more than 4 restraint points, the sketch will show added restraint locations at the midpoint of the long axis; however, the actual number of restraints will be listed under the restraint data heading. In some cases, there may be 2 restraints grouped in each corner. If this is the case the UNDERSTANDING KNCS STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 4 OF 10
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schematic drawing will reflect that condition. The last segment listed in the input data portion of the certification is the restraint data section.

Listed here is information on the total number of restraints and the number visible on each side (or axis). Also identified is the restraint type and assumed anchor embedment depth (in bolt diameters) for concrete anchors. Finally, by location (as shown on the sketch) the model of the restraint is identified. If more than 4 restraints, the smallest of the remaining restraints is listed after the heading Other. For hard-mounted applications, the restraints will be identified as Solid. If cable restrained, the cable quantity and size will be identified. Output Data This section of the certification is broken into 2 major subdivisions. First is a summary of the design loads used at each restraint location.

UNDERSTANDING KNCS STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 5 OF 10


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If more than 4 restraints are used on a piece of equipment, a final column will appear labeled Other. The data displayed will be the worst-case condition of those restraints not listed as 1 through 4. Listed here is the static load (deadweight), the worst-case uplift load condition, the worstcase horizontal load condition, and the effective corner weight used when considering overturning factors. If the system is a hanging system, the maximum tensile load in the cable (based on an angle of 45 degrees to the horizontal) is listed instead of the effective corner weight. All seismic forces as presented are based on the G-forces appropriate for through-bolted or welded connections. Higher G-forces, as noted at the top of the sheet, are, however, used by the program when appropriate if computing safety factors for concrete anchors. Note: If evaluating or independently analyzing special concrete anchorage conditions, where a 2:1 factor is required (IBC, 97 UBC, TI809-04), the forces listed must be increased as follows. Horizontal forces should be doubled. The effective corner weight should be subtracted from the maximum uplift force and the result added to the maximum uplift force to determine a new uplift component. In addition, the restraint geometry must be accounted for as the listed forces act at the snubbing location of the restraint and forces at the anchors can be considerably different. (This is only required for evaluating the anchorage.) The effective corner weight differs from the static load in that it is the force required at that corner to lift the equipment (if the equipment is assumed to be rigid). For example, it will take the same force to lift the corner of a table with 4 legs as it will to lift a corner of the same table if 10 legs are added somewhere in the middle. While the centrally located legs spread the load out from a support standpoint, they do not share the load when resisting rocking motions. The lower section of the output data segment presents restraint and hardware capacity information as shown below.

This information will vary depending on the restraint components used, but in general it will present safety factors for the restraint component used, through-bolt size and quantity UNDERSTANDING KNCS STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 6 OF 10
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(if through bolted), anchor size, quantity and embedment (if anchored to concrete), and through-bolt/anchor safety factors. If a hanging system is used, the worst-case compressive load in the hanger rod is also identified. Data presented in the Other column reflects worst-case loading in conjunction with the smallest Other restraint and as such is a worst-case condition for the remaining components. All safety factors listed must exceed 1.0 to have a valid installation with the following exception. In cases where only the concrete anchor safety factor is less than 1.0, an oversized base plate can be provided to allow higher capacity. In these cases, a second certification sheet labeled (B) will be included and will address this condition. Notes The final segment of the certification document is comprised of general notes and the standard disclaimer. The notes will vary with the restraint devices used and the application, but will in general offer the following added information.

Weld sizes that can be used as an option to bolting when appropriate for the restraint devices are listed. When one or more of the concrete anchor safety factors is less than 1.0, a note indicating that Sheet B will be included and information addressing the need for an oversized baseplate will appear. Additional notes relating to allowable cable angles, A-307 hardware requirements, and edge distances for concrete anchors are also included when appropriate. General Comments on Document (A) Often, due to a lack of comprehensive input data, Kinetics Noise Control engineers will conservatively estimate the center of gravity location. While estimating a dimension or magnitude for this isn t unreasonable, the direction of the imbalance is almost always UNDERSTANDING KNCS STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 7 OF 10
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unknown. Because of this, unless the direction of the imbalance is clearly stated (relative to features on the equipment that are spelled out) the worst-case computed corner restraint condition should be assumed for all corner locations. Seismic Certification Document (B) When appropriate and as indicated above, the seismic certifications will include the (B)type document. It can be identified by the (B) in the top right corner and the word Seismic included in the Title. While it is formatted in the same manner and includes much the same information as the (A) document, it contains detailed information relating to the capacity of the required oversize base plate and additional anchors. Input Data The only difference between the (A)- and (B)-documents within the input data section is that the schematic equipment layout sketch is changed to show the size and layout of the required oversize base plate.

Information on the on the bolt pattern, anchor size, overall dimensions, and weld locations are all presented in a readable format. Output Data The first portion of the output data (which indicates the loads at the restraint points) remains unchanged from the (A)-Document. Information on the modified anchorage arrangement is, however, new. UNDERSTANDING KNCS STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 8 OF 10
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Notes Additional notes are provided that relate directly to the oversized base plate and the anchors that go with them. Wind Certification Document (A) When requested, Kinetics Noise Control will perform an additional wind certification. It is very similar to the seismic certification and can be identified by the (A) in the top right corner and the words Wind Load included in the title. Input Data

The areas where there are differences between the wind load input data and the seismic load input data are indicated above. UNDERSTANDING KNCS STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 9 OF 10
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Listed will be the quantity and size of the anchors, the required anchor embedment depth, and the resulting anchorage safety factor for each location.

The seismic G-forces listed in the seismic certification are replaced by a design wind pressure. In addition, the length, width, and height of the restrained equipment are indicated. All of the remaining input information remains the same. Output Data The output data format is exactly the same as the output data in the seismic certification. The only difference is that the values listed are the result of the wind load and not of the seismic load. As with the seismic certification, the possibility exists in a wind application that concrete anchorage may be inadequate. If this is the case, a (B)-document similar to the (B)seismic document is generated. Wind Certification Document (B) Without going into great detail, the difference between the (B)-wind certification document and the (A)-wind certification document is identical to the differences between the (B)seismic document and the (A)-seismic document. Refer back to the earlier comments for further clarification.

UNDERSTANDING KNCS STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT PAGE 10 OF 10


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UNDERSTANDING NON-STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT


There are periodically equipment applications that do not fit well into the automated seismic computation programs developed by Kinetics Noise Control. This holds true for others that perform this service as well. This section of the manual indicates the minimum material that should be expected to be included in the output document, from Kinetics Noise Control or from any other reputable organization. This data comprises those items that must be verified by the end user to ensure that the appropriate information was provided, was understood and was used. Because of the number of links in the chain, miscommunication in this area is common and failure to do validate this data can make the certification invalid. It also provides input that should be used by the equipment manufacturer and the building structural engineer to ensure that the durability of the equipment and locally, of the structure, is adequate to withstand the seismic inputs. Echoed Input Data First there should be a list of assumed inputs. Overall, there should be a listing of the project, any reference order numbers to which the certification applies and the date the calculation was performed. In addition, global parameters like the Code used, the ground acceleration coefficient, the soil type, any appropriate fault factors and Importance factors should be listed. If there are over-riding design accelerations included in the spec, these should be defined as well. This data is necessary to communicate to all concerned which code was applied and what factors were either provided to the individual doing the calculation or were assumed by them. The date should be included as changes are sometimes required in the field and calculations need to be re-run. If there are multiple calculations that end up in a job file, the date offers a historical link as to which calculation is valid. Moving on to the application specific information, there should be a listing of the Equipment Importance factor (if different from the structure), assumed or dictated equipment elevation data, equipment type (by definition), mounting parameters and overall geometric and weight data. The parameters used here can significantly impact the performance of the system and frequently are not fully disclosed to the individual performing the analysis. Items such as CG locations, elevations in the structure, lifesafety assumptions, and even weights are often not clear. Even when provided, this information often comes in piecemeal via phone, fax or separate email correspondence. Because the individual has no direct control over the accuracy of the input information, it is critical that it be echoed back to ensure that the data applied makes sense to the user.

UNDERSTANDING NON-STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT


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Computed Output Information The minimum output material that must be offered to the end user as a result of the computation is the following: 1) The computed Seismic load (in Gs) appropriate for the particular piece of equipment in question. 2) A selection of a restraint device (or devices) including model, size, quantity, general arrangement and specific locations. 3) The maximum expected horizontal and vertical forces at those devices resulting from the application of a worst case seismic load. 4) Confirmation that the restraint device is adequate in size to withstand the loads. 5) If anchored to concrete and an oversized baseplate is required, the size of that baseplate. 6) Minimum size and embedment depth of anchors for concrete applications. 7) If required, identification of anchor type (Wedge or Undercut). 8) If bolted to steel, the minimum acceptable size of attachment bolts. 9) If welded to steel, the minimum size of welds required to make the connection. 10) An installation sketch or schematic orienting the equipment. A Seismic Calculation Assumptions and Disclaimer Document This critical document spells out in detail, what is and what is not addressed by the certification. In addition, it indicates what assumptions may have been made in putting the analysis together. Lastly, it indicates to whom this information should be forwarded to ensure that all facets relating to the acceptability of the installation are addressed. Stamped or Sealed Coversheet A dated coversheet listing the certification document by Tag and indicating the name of the individual who performed the certification along with their Professional Engineering seal must also be included. If there is only one calculation, in lieu of a coversheet, the certification document itself can include this information.

UNDERSTANDING NON-STANDARD CERTIFICATION OUTPUT


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

Seismic and Wind Certification General Assumptions and Disclaimer


All Seismic and Wind Certifications performed by Kinetics Noise Control, Inc., and/or its associates, unless clearly stated otherwise in the body of that certification document, will be performed in accordance with the assumptions and disclaimers identified herein. Loads Considered The loads considered in this certification are limited to those forces described in the seismic portion of the specified code for the project. If Kinetics Noise Control is not otherwise informed, the most recent version of the appropriate code will be used. Wind will not be considered during the analysis unless it is specified to be included in the seismic certification request. In the absence of wind velocity and the appropriate factors, Kinetics Noise Control will use 35 PSF as a wind load requirement. If this is not adequate, it is the responsibility of the Design Professional of Record to notify Kinetics Noise Control. Extent of the Certification The certification addresses those items that directly restrain a component or piece of equipment and are provided by Kinetics Noise Control. It includes the attachment weld, anchor or bolt that is required to affix the restraint to the building structure, or third-party support structure, and extends through the weld or bolt that attaches the restraint to the restrained component or piece of equipment. An example of a third-party support structure is a sheet metal roof curb or equipment rail or base not provided by Kinetics Noise Control. The certification does not cover the capabilities of the building structure or third-party support structure to withstand the seismic loading, nor does it cover the ability of the equipment, component or component frame to structurally withstand these same forces. Provided in the certification are the design horizontal and vertical loads at the attachment locations that can be used by others to evaluate the ability of the building or third-party support structure or piece of equipment to withstand these loads. Determination of the applicability of the certification design loads to a specific project remains the responsibility of the Design Professional of Record. Equipment Data The equipment weight, geometry, and CG data used to perform the certification have been provided to Kinetics Noise Control by others, no attempt has been made by Kinetics Noise Control to verify its accuracy and it is up those providing the information to do so. Where CG data is not provided, associates of Kinetics Noise Control will attempt to make reasonable yet conservative estimates as to the magnitude of any imbalance, although it must be recognized that the direction of the imbalance is often unknown. Unless the equipment orientation is obvious from the diagram in the certification document, it should be assumed that the orientation is not known. Under these conditions, the worst-case restraint, attachment and/or anchorage selection indicated for any particular location must be used for all locations.

GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS AND DISCLAIMER


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Equipment Durability Kinetics Noise Control and its associates make no representations as to equipment durability and its ability to survive a seismic event and remain functional. Installation Where detailed installation procedures are not addressed in KNC-provided documentation, all seismic hardware and components must be installed in conformance with FEMA 412, 413, and 415. Free copies are available from FEMA (1-800-480-2520) or through Kinetics Noise Control. Equipment, Restraint, and Component Attachment Holes For seismic restraint, it is necessary that any attachment bolts positioned in the path between the equipment to be restrained and the building structure be a tight fit with their mating holes (the hole is to be not more than 1/16 in diameter larger than the attachment bolt). In the case of Kinetics Noise Control-supplied restraint components, attachment safety factors are based on hardware sized per the above. In the case of directly attached equipment, the hardware and components provided by Kinetics Noise Control are the minimum required to withstand the seismic loading. If attachment holes in the equipment exceed the recommendation above, the attachment hole is to be sleeved or grouted to bring its effective diameter down to not more than 1/16 larger than the attachment hardware used. Anchor Capacity and Edge Distances All anchor load allowables are based on ICBO test data and assume full anchor embedment in 3000 psi concrete and a minimum spacing between the anchor centerline and the edge of the slab into which it is sunk in accordance with the included anchorage data. The anchor data used is appropriate for the anchors provided by Kinetics Noise Control, unless otherwise noted. Under some conditions as noted in the calculations, undercut anchors may be required Stamps Stamped documents are intended to support the Engineer of Record on the project. If the project is located in an area for which Kinetics does not have a valid PE license, the documents will be stamped with a valid out-of-state seal. This practice is intended solely to indicate that a competent individual has reviewed the document. It is not intended to imply that the licensee is legally empowered to practice in the jurisdiction of the project. General Kinetics Noise Control, Inc., and its associates guarantees that we will use that degree of care and skill ordinarily exercised under similar conditions by reputable members of our profession to determine restraint and/or attachment safety factors based on customersupplied input data. No other warranty, expressed or implied, is made or intended.

GENERAL ASSUMPTIONS AND DISCLAIMER


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CHAPTER D2 SEISMIC BUILDING CODE REVIEW TABLE OF CONTENTS

IBC 2000 Piping Restraint Rules IBC 2000 Ductwork Restraint Rules BOCA 1996/SBC 1997 Piping Restraint Rules BOCA 1996/SBC 1997 Ductwork Restraint Rules UBC 1997 Piping Restraint Rules UBC 1997 Ductwork Restraint Rules Evaluating Seismic Requirements in Specifications National Building Code of Canada Requirements Other Referenced Standards (OSHPD, VISCMA, SMACNA)

D2.2 D2.3 D2.4 D2.5 D2.6 D2.7 D2.8 D2.9 D2.10

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Chapter D2)


SEISMIC BUILDING CODE REVIEW
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Understanding the 2000 IBC Code

D2.1

KINETICS Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section D2.1 1.0 D2.1 2.0 D2.1 2.1 D2.1 2.2 D2.1 2.3 D2.1 2.4 D2.1 2.5 D2.1 2.6 D2.1 3.0 D2.1 3.1 D2.1 3.2 D2.1 3.3 D2.1 4.0 D2.1 4.1 D2.1 4.2 D2.1 4.3 D2.1 4.4 D2.1 4.5 D2.1 4.6 D2.1 4.7 D2.1 4.8 D2.1 4.9 Title Introduction Seismic Restraint Basics for Pipe and Duct Introduction Building Use Nature of Occupancy Site Class Mapped Acceleration Parameters Seismic Design Category Summary Component Importance Factor Introduction Criteria for Assigning a Component Importance Factor Summary General Exemptions and Requirements Introduction Exemptions for Seismic Design Categories A and B Exemptions for Seismic Design Category C Exemptions for Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F Chandelier Exemption Component Size Relative to the Building Structure Reference Documents Allowable Stress Design Submittals and Construction Documents

D2.1 4.10 Equipment Certification for Essential Facilities D2.1 4.11 Consequential or Collateral Damage D2.1 4.12 Flexibility of Components and Their Supports and Restraints D2.1 4.13 Summary

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Section D2.1 5.0 Title Exemptions for Piping Systems

D2.1 5.1 Introduction D2.1 5.2 The 12 Rule D2.1 5.3 Single Clevis Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories A and B D2.1 5.4 Single Clevis Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Category C D2.1 5.5 Single Clevis Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F D2.1 5.6 Exemptions for Trapeze Supported Pipe per VISCMA Recommendations D2.1 5.6.1 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories A and B D2.1 5.6.2 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Category C D2.1 5.6.3 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Category D D2.1 5.6.4 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories E and F D2.1 5.7 Summary D2.1 6.0 Exemptions for HVAC Ductwork

D2.1 6.1 Introduction D2.1 6.2 The 12 Rule D2.1 6.3 Size Exemption D2.1 6.4 Further Exemptions for Ductwork D2.1 6.5 Restraint Allowance for In-Line Components D2.1 6.6 Summary D2.1 7.0 Exemptions for Electrical

D2.1 7.1 Introduction D2.1 7.2 Implied Blanket Exemption Based on Component Importance Factor D2.1 7.3 Conduit Size Exemptions D2.1 7.4 Trapeze Supported Electrical Distribution Systems D2.1 7.5 Summary D2.1 8.0 Seismic Design Forces

D2.1 8.1 Introduction D2.1 8.2 Horizontal Seismic Design Force

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Section Title D2.1 8.3 Vertical Seismic Design Force D2.1 8 .4 The Evolution of a P and R P Factors D2.1 8.5 LRFD versus ASD D2.1 8.6 Summary D2.1 9.0 Anchorage of MEP Components to the Building Structure

D2.1 9.1 Introduction D2.1 9.2 General Guidelines for MEP Component Anchorage D2.1 9.3 Anchorage in (Cracked) Concrete and Masonry D2.1 9.4 Undercut Anchors D2.1 9.5 Prying of Bolts and Anchors D2.1 9.6 Power Actuated or Driven Fasteners D2.1 9.7 Friction Clips D2.1 9.8 Summary

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INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this manual is to provide design professionals, contractors, and building officials responsible for the MEP, Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing, with the information and guidance required to ensure that the seismic restraints required for a specific project are selected and/or designed, and installed in accordance with the provisions code. This guide will be written in several easily referenced sections that deal with specific portions of the code.

This guide is based on the International Building Code (IBC). The 2000 IBC and the 2003 IBC are very similar, and in fact are almost identical. When they are referenced in this manual, it will be as 2000/2003 IBC. The latest version of the IBC that is currently being adopted by the various states is 2006 IBC. This is the version that will form the core basis for this manual. When appropriate the differences between the 2006 IBC and the 2000/2003 IBC will be pointed out. The intent is to have a working guide that is based on the current 2006 IBC, but is also relevant to the 2000/2003 IBC. The code based requirements for the restraint of pipe and duct are found in the following references.

1. 2007 ASHRAE HANDBOOK Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Applications; American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle, N.E. Atlanta, GA 30329, 2007; Chapter 54 Pp 54-11 and 54-12. 2. 2000 International Building Code; International Code Council, 5203 Leesburg Pike, Suite 708, Falls Church, Virginia, 22041-3401; 2000. 3. ASCE 7-98 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures; American Society of Civil Engineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, Virginia 20191-4400, Chapter 9. 4. 2003 International Building Code; International Code Council, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois 60478-5795; 2002. 5. ASCE/SEI 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures; American Society of Civil Engineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, Virginia 20191-4400, Chapter 9.

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6. 2006 International Building Code; International Code Council, Inc., 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois 60478-5795; 2006. 7. ASCE/SEI 7-05 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures; American Society of Civil Engineers, 1801 Alexander Bell Drive, Reston, Virginia 20191-4400, Chapters 1, 2, 11, 13, 20, and 21. 8. SMACNA, Seismic Restraint Manual Guidelines for Mechanical Systems with Addendum No. 1 2nd Edition; Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Inc., 4201 Lafayette Center Drive, Chantilly, Virginia 20151-1209, 1998. 9. UNIFIED FACILITIES CRITERIA (UFC) Seismic Design for Buildings; United States Department of Defense Document UFC 3-310-03A, 1 March 2005; Table 3-3, Pp 3-13 317.

The selection and installation of the proper seismic restraints for MEP systems requires good coordination with the design professionals and contractors involved with the building project. A good spirit of cooperation and coordination is especially required for projects that have been designated as essential facilities, such as hospitals, emergency response centers, police and fire stations. Coordination between the various design professionals and contractors will be a constant theme throughout this guide. This coordination is vital for the following reasons. 1. The seismic restraints that are installed for a system can and will interfere with those of another unless restraint locations are well coordinated. 2. The space required for the installed restraints can cause problems if non-structural walls need to be penetrated, or other MEP components are in the designed load path for the restraints. 3. The building end of the seismic restraints must always be attached to structure that is adequate to carry the code mandated design seismic loads. It is the responsibility of the structural engineer of record to verify this.

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REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION
D2.1 2.1 Introduction:

As with any design job, there is certain basic information that is required before seismic restraints can be selected and placed. The building owner, architect, and structural engineer make the decisions that form the basis for the information required to select the seismic restraints for the pipe and duct systems in the building. This is information that should be included in the specification and bid package for the project. It also should appear on the first sheet of the structural drawings. For consistency, it is good practice to echo this information in the specification for each building system, and on the first sheet of the drawings for each system. In this fashion, this information is available to all of the contractors and suppliers that will have a need to know. D2.1 2.2 Building Use Nature of Occupancy (Section 1.5) [Section 1.5]1:

How a building is to be used greatly affects the level of seismic restraint that is required for the MEP (Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing) components. In the 2006 IBC the building use is defined through the Occupancy Category, which ranges from I to IV. Occupancy Category I is applied to buildings where failure presents a low hazard to human life. At the other end of the range, Occupancy Category IV is applied to buildings which are deemed to be essential. In the previous two versions of the IBC (2000/2003), the building use was defined though the Seismic Use Group which varied from I to III. Table 1-1 of ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 describes which types of buildings are assigned to which Occupancy Category. Table 2-1 below summarizes the information found in Tables 1-1 and 9.1.3 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Table 1-1 of ASCE 7-05, and ties the Seismic Use Group from the previous versions of the IBC to the Occupancy Category. The nature of the building use, or its Occupancy Category, is determined by the building owner and the architect of record.

References in brackets (Section 1.5) and [Section 1.5] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

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Table 2-1; Building Use vs. Occupancy Category & Seismic Use Group (Table 1-1, Table 9.1.3) [Table 1-1] Occupancy Seismic Category Use 2000/2003 Group & 2006 2000/2003 IBC IBC

Building Use or Nature of Occupancy

I I II

Buildings and structures in which failure would pose a low hazard to human life. These buildings include, but are not limited to: Agricultural buildings and structures. Certain temporary buildings and structures. Minor storage buildings and structures. Buildings and structures that are not listed as Occupancy Category I, III, or IV. Also, cogeneration power plants that do not supply power to the national power grid. Buildings and structures, in which failure would pose a substantial hazard to human life, have the potential to create a substantial economic impact, and/or cause a mass disruption of dayto-day civilian life. These buildings include, but are not limited to: Where more than 300 people congregate in one area. Daycare facilities with a capacity greater than 50. Elementary and Secondary school facilities with a capacity greater than 250 and colleges and adult educational facilities with a capacity greater than 500. Healthcare facilities with 50 or more resident patients that do not have surgery or emergency treatment facilities. Jails, prisons, and detention facilities. Power generation stations. Water and sewage treatment facilities. Telecommunication centers.

III

II

Buildings and structures which are not in Occupancy Category IV which contain enough toxic or explosive materials that would be hazardous to the public if released. Buildings and structures which are designated as essential facilities which include but are not limited to: Hospitals & healthcare facilities with surgical or emergency treatment facilities. Fire, rescue, ambulance, police stations, & emergency vehicle garages. Designated emergency shelters. Facilities designated for emergency preparedness & response. Power generating stations and other public utilities required for emergency response and recovery. Ancillary structures required for the continued operation of Occupancy Category IV buildings and structures. Aviation control towers, air traffic control centers, and emergency aircraft hangers. Water storage facilities and pumping stations required for fire suppression. Buildings and structures required for national defense. Buildings and structures that contain highly toxic and/or explosive materials in sufficient quantity to pose a threat to the public.

IV

III

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D2.1 2.3 Site Class Soil Type (Sections 9.4.1.2.1, 9.4.1.2.2) [Section 11.4.2 & Chapter 20]:

The Site Class is related to the type of soil and rock strata that directly underlies the building site. The Site Class ranges from A to F progressing from the stiffest to the softest strata. Table 2-2 lists the various Site Classes and their corresponding strata.

Generally the structural engineer is responsible for determining the Site Class for a project. If the structural engineers firm does not have a geotechnical engineer on staff, this job will be contracted to a geotechnical firm. The Site Class is determined in accordance with the references stated above from ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05. The site profile is normally obtained by drilling several cores on the property. If there is insufficient information concerning the soil properties, then the default Site Class D is assigned to the project.
Table 2-2; Site Class vs. Soil Type (Table 9.4.1.2) [Table 20.3-1] Site Class
A B C D E F

Soil Type
Hard Rock Rock Very Dense Soil & Soft Rock Stiff Soil (Default Site Class) Soft Clay Soil Liquefiable Soils, Quick Highly Sensitive Clays, Collapsible Weakly Cemented Soils, & etc. These require site response analysis.

D2.1 2.4 Mapped Acceleration Parameters (Sections 9.4.1.2.4 & 9.4.1.2.5) [Sections 11.4.3 & 11.4.4 and Chapters 21 & 22]

The United States Geological Survey, USGS, has mapped all of the known fault lines in the United States and its possessions. They have assigned ground level acceleration values to each location based on the Maximum Considered Earthquake, MCE, for two earthquake periods, 0.2 sec and 1.0 sec, at 5% damping. The mapped values are listed in terms of %g, where 1g is 32.2 ft/sec2, 386.4 in/sec2, 9.8 m/sec2. The long period values are generally applied to the buildings and other

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structures since they react more strongly to the long period excitation due to their relatively high mass and low stiffness. The code specifies the use of short period values when evaluating nonstructural components, which include pipe and duct, as they respond more strongly to the short period excitation due to their relatively low mass and high stiffness.

The Mapped Acceleration Parameters are available in ASCE 7-98/02 for 2000/2003 IBC and ASCE 7-05 for 2006 IBC, or may be obtained from the USGS cataloged by ZIP Code. The short period Mapped Acceleration Parameter is usually denoted as S S and the Long period Mapped Acceleration Parameter is denoted as S1 . Note that the values for S S and S 1 may be different for 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC. Be sure the correct values are being used for the code that is in force in your jurisdiction.

Special Note: For the purpose of making preliminary estimates, the long and short period mapped acceleration parameters for selected U. S. cities are given in Table 2.4, and for selected international cities in Table 2.5. Please be aware that these values do not necessarily represent the maximum acceleration values that may occur in the named cities. For the U. S. cities please refer to the data compiled by the USGS by ZIP CODE. For international locations, local geological assessments should be sought from reputable sources at that location.

The Site Class information is then used to determine the Design Spectral Acceleration Parameters, S DS and S D 1 , for the short and long period MCE respectively. Equations 2-1 and 2-2 may be used to estimate the Design Spectral Acceleration Parameters.

S DS =

2 Fa S S 3

Equation 2-1 (9.4.1.2.4-1) [11.4-3]

And

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S D1 = 2 Fv S 1 3

Equation 2-2 (9.4.1.2.4-2) [11.4-5]

Where: Fa = the short period Site Coefficient which is listed in Table 2-5. The values for Fa which correspond to values of S S that fall between those listed in Table 2-5 may be obtained through linear interpolation. Fv = the long period Site Coefficient which is listed in Table 2-6. The values for Fv which correspond to values of S 1 that fall between those listed in Table 2-6 may be obtained through linear interpolation. S DS = the Design Short Period Spectral Acceleration Parameter which has been corrected for the Site Class.

S D1 = the Design Long Period Spectral Acceleration Parameter which has been corrected for the
Site Class. S S = the Mapped Short Period Acceleration Parameter for the MCE @ 5% damping.

S 1 = the Mapped Long Period Acceleration Parameter for the MCE @ 5% damping.

If not otherwise listed for the project, the structural engineer should be contacted for the values of S DS and S D1 . These values are not only required to determine the design accelerations, but also to determine the Seismic Design Category for the building, which will be discussed next.

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Table S2-3; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected U.S. Cities 2000/2003 IBC & 2006 IBC
State, City
Alabama
Birmingham Mobile Montgomery

ZIP CODE
------35217 36610 36104

SS
2000 2006 2003
-----0.33 0.13 0.17

S1
2000 2006 2003
-----0.12 0.06 0.08

State, City
Illinois
Chicago Moline Peoria Rock Island Rockford Springfield

ZIP CODE
------60620 61265 61605 61201 61108 62703

SS

S1

2000 2000 2006 2006 2003 2003


-----0.19 0.14 0.18 0.13 0.17 0.27

-----0.31 0.12 0.16

-----0.10 0.05 0.07

-----0.17 0.14 0.18 0.13 0.15 0.29

-----0.07 0.06 0.09 0.06 0.06 0.12

-----0.06 0.06 0.08 0.06 0.06 0.11

Arkansas
Little Rock

------72205

-----0.48

-----0.50

-----0.18

-----0.16

Arizona
Phoenix Tucson

------85034 85739

-----0.23 0.33

-----0.19 0.29

-----0.07 0.09

-----0.06 0.08

Indiana
Evansville Ft. Wayne Gary Indianapolis South Bend

------47712 46835 46402 46260 46637

-----0.82 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.12

-----0.72 0.15 0.16 0.19 0.12

-----0.23 0.06 0.07 0.09 0.06

-----0.21 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.05

California
Fresno Los Angeles Oakland Sacramento San Diego San Francisco San Jose

------93706 90026 94621 95823 92101 94114 95139

-----0.76 1.55 1.98 0.59 1.61 1.50 2.17

-----0.78 2.25 1.97 0.64 1.62 1.61 1.60

-----0.30 0.60 0.87 0.23 0.86 0.86 0.78

-----0.29 0.83 0.77 0.25 0.82 0.82 0.60

Kansas
Kansas City Topeka Wichita

------66103 66614 67217

-----0.12 0.19 0.14

-----0.13 0.17 0.14

-----0.06 0.06 0.06

-----0.06 0.05 0.05

Colorado
Colorado Springs Denver

------80913 80239

-----0.18 0.19

-----0.22 0.21

-----0.06 0.06

-----0.06 0.06

Kentucky
Ashland Covington Louisville

------41101 41011 40202

-----0.22 0.19 0.25

-----0.19 0.18 0.25

-----0.09 0.09 0.12

-----0.07 0.08 0.10

Connecticut
Bridgeport Hartford New Haven Waterbury

------06606 06120 06511 06702

-----0.34 0.27 0.29 0.29

-----0.27 0.24 0.25 0.25

-----0.09 0.09 0.08 0.09

-----0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

Louisiana
Baton Rouge New Orleans Shreveport

------70807 70116 71106

-----0.14 0.13 0.17

-----0.12 0.11 0.15

-----0.06 0.06 0.08

-----0.05 0.05 0.07

Florida
Ft. Lauderdale Jacksonville Miami St. Petersburg Tampa

------33328 32222 33133 33709 33635

-----0.07 0.14 0.06 0.08 0.08

-----0.06 0.14 0.05 0.07 0.07

-----0.03 0.07 0.02 0.04 0.03

-----0.02 0.06 0.02 0.03 0.03

Massachusetts
Boston Lawrence Lowell New Bedford Springfield Worchester

------02127 01843 01851 02740 01107 01602

-----0.33 0.38 0.36 0.26 0.26 0.27

-----0.28 0.33 0.31 0.22 0.23 0.24

-----0.09 0.09 0.09 0.08 0.09 0.09

-----0.07 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.07 0.07

Georgia
Atlanta Augusta Columbia Savannah

------30314 30904 31907 31404

-----0.26 0.42 0.17 0.42

-----0.23 0.38 0.15 0.43

-----0.11 0.15 0.09 0.15

-----0.09 0.12 0.07 0.13

Maryland
Baltimore

------21218

-----0.20

-----0.17

-----0.06

-----0.05

Maine
Augusta Portland

------04330 04101

-----0.33 0.37

-----0.30 0.32

-----0.10 0.10

-----0.08 0.08

Iowa
Council Bluffs Davenport Des Moines

------41011 52803 50310

-----0.19 0.13 0.07

-----0.18 0.13 0.08

-----0.09 0.06 0.04

-----0.08 0.06 0.04

Michigan
Detroit Flint Grand Rapids Kalamazoo Lansing

------48207 48506 49503 49001 48910

-----0.12 0.09 0.09 0.12 0.11

-----0.12 0.09 0.09 0.11 0.10

-----0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04

-----0.04 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.04

Iowa
Boise Pocatello

------83705 83201

-----0.35 0.60

-----0.30 0.63

-----0.11 0.18

-----0.10 0.19

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 6 of 15


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Table 2-3 Continued; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected U.S. Cities 2000/2003 IBC & 2006 IBC
State, City
Minnesota
Duluth Minneapolis Rochester St. Paul

ZIP CODE
------55803 55422 55901 55111

SS
2000 2006 2003
-----0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

S1
2000 2006 2003
-----0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03

State, City
Raleigh Winston-Salem

ZIP CODE
27610 27106

SS

S1

2000 2000 2006 2006 2003 2003


0.22 0.28 0.21 0.24 0.10 0.12 0.08 0.09

-----0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06

-----0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03

North Dakota
Fargo Grand Forks

------58103 58201

-----0.07 0.05

-----0.08 0.06

-----0.02 0.02

-----0.02 0.02

Missouri
Carthage Columbia Jefferson City Joplin Kansas City Springfield St. Joseph St. Louis

------64836 65202 65109 64801 64108 65801 64501 63166

-----0.16 0.19 0.22 0.15 0.15 0.21 0.12 0.59

-----0.17 0.21 0.23 0.16 0.13 0.22 0.12 0.58

-----0.09 0.10 0.11 0.08 0.06 0.10 0.05 0.19

-----0.08 0.09 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.10 0.05 0.17

Ohio
Akron Canton Cincinnati Cleveland Columbus Dayton Springfield Toledo Youngstown

------44312 44702 45245 44130 43217 45440 45502 43608 44515

-----0.18 0.16 0.19 0.20 0.17 0.21 0.26 0.17 0.17

-----0.17 0.14 0.18 0.19 0.15 0.18 0.21 0.16 0.16

-----0.06 0.06 0.09 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.08 0.06 0.06

-----0.05 0.05 0.07 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.07 0.05 0.05

Mississippi
Jackson

------39211

-----0.19

-----0.20

-----0.10

-----0.09

Oklahoma
Oklahoma City Tulsa

------73145 74120

-----0.34 0.16

-----0.33 0.16

-----0.09 0.07

-----0.07 0.07

Montana
Billings Butte Great Falls

------59101 59701 59404

-----0.16 0.74 0.29

-----0.17 0.65 0.26

-----0.06 0.21 0.09

-----0.07 0.20 0.09

Oregon
Portland Salem

------97222 97301

-----1.05 1.00

-----0.99 0.80

-----0.35 0.4

-----0.34 0.34

Nebraska
Lincoln Omaha

------68502 68144

-----0.18 0.13

-----0.18 0.13

-----0.05 0.04

-----0.05 0.04

Pennsylvania
Allentown Bethlehem Erie Harrisburg Philadelphia Pittsburgh Reading Scranton

------18104 18015 16511 17111 19125 15235 19610 18504

-----0.29 0.31 0.17 0.23 0.33 0.13 0.30 0.23

-----0.26 0.27 0.16 0.20 0.27 0.13 0.26 0.20

-----0.08 0.08 0.05 0.07 0.08 0.06 0.08 0.08

-----0.06 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.06 0.06

Nevada
Las Vegas Reno

------89106 89509

-----0.64 1.36

-----0.57 1.92

-----0.19 0.50

-----0.18 0.77

New Mexico
Albuquerque Santa Fe

------87105 87507

-----0.63 0.62

-----0.59 0.54

-----0.19 0.19

-----0.18 0.17

New York
Albany Binghamton Buffalo Elmira New York Niagara Falls Rochester Schenectady Syracuse Utica

------12205 13903 14222 14905 10014 14303 14619 12304 13219 13501

-----0.28 0.19 0.32 0.17 0.43 0.31 0.25 0.28 0.19 0.25

-----0.24 0.17 0.28 0.15 0.36 0.28 0.21 0.24 0.18 0.22

-----0.09 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.09 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.08 0.09

-----0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.09 0.06 0.07

Rhode Island
Providence

------02907

-----0.27

-----0.23

-----0.08

-----0.06

South Carolina
Charleston Columbia

------29406 29203

-----1.60 0.60

-----2.19 0.55

-----0.45 0.19

-----0.56 0.15

South Dakota
Rapid City Sioux Falls

------57703 57104

-----0.16 0.11

-----0.17 0.11

-----0.04 0.04

-----0.04 0.03

Tennessee
Chattanooga Knoxville Memphis Nashville

------37415 37920 38109 49503

-----0.52 0.59 1.40 0.09

-----0.46 0.53 1.40 0.09

-----0.14 0.15 0.42 0.04

-----0.12 0.12 0.38 0.04

North Carolina
Charlotte Greensboro

------28216 27410

-----0.35 0.26

-----0.32 0.23

-----0.14 0.11

-----0.11 0.08

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Table 2-3 Continued; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected U.S. Cities 2000/2003 IBC & 2006 IBC
State, City
Texas
Amarillo Austin Beaumont Corpus Christi Dallas El Paso Ft. Worth Houston Lubbock San Antonio Waco

ZIP CODE
------79111 78703 77705 78418 75233 79932 76119 77044 79424 78235 76704

SS
2000 2006 2003
-----0.17 0.09 0.12 0.10 0.12 0.37 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.14 0.10

S1
2000 2006 2003
-----0.05 0.04 0.05 0.02 0.06 0.11 0.06 0.05 0.03 0.03 0.05

-----0.18 0.08 0.10 0.08 0.11 0.33 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.09

-----0.04 0.03 0.04 0.02 0.05 0.11 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.04

Utah
Salt Lake City

------84111

-----1.82

-----1.71

-----0.78

-----0.09

Virginia
Norfolk Richmond Roanoke

------23504 23233 24017

-----0.13 0.32 0.30

-----0.12 0.25 0.26

-----0.06 0.09 0.10

-----0.05 0.06 0.08

Vermont
Burlington

------05401

-----0.47

-----0.40

-----0.13

-----0.10

Washington
Seattle Spokane Tacoma

------98108 99201 98402

-----1.56 0.38 1.24

-----1.57 0.40 1.22

-----0.54 0.09 0.40

-----0.54 0.11 0.42

Washington, D.C.
Washington

------20002

-----0.18

-----0.15

-----0.06

-----0.05

Wisconsin
Green Bay Kenosha Madison Milwaukee Racine Superior

------54302 53140 53714 53221 53402 54880

-----0.07 0.14 0.12 0.12 0.13 0.06

-----0.06 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.12 0.06

-----0.03 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.02

-----0.03 0.05 0.04 0.05 0.05 0.2

West Virginia
Charleston Huntington

------25303 25704

-----0.21 0.23

-----0.19 0.20

-----0.08 0.09

-----0.07 0.07

Wyoming
Casper Cheyenne

------82601 82001

-----0.38 0.19

-----0.39 0.20

-----0.08 0.06

-----0.08 0.05

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------

---------------------

---------------------

---------------------

---------------------

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 8 of 15


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Table 2-4; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected International Cities UFC 3-310-03A (1 March 2005)
Country, City
AFRICA Algeria
Alger Oran

SS
----------1.24 1.24

S1
----------0.56 0.56

Country, City
Kenya
Nairobi

SS
-----0.62

S1
-----0.28

Country, City
South Africa
Cape Town Durban Johannesburg Natal Pretoria

SS
-----1.24 0.62 0.62 0.31 0.62

S1
-----0.56 0.28 0.28 0.14 0.28

Lesotho
Maseru

-----0.62

-----0.28

Angola
Luanda

-----0.06

-----0.06

Liberia
Monrovia

-----0.31

-----0.14

Benin
Cotonou

-----0.06

-----0.06

Libya
Tripoli Wheelus AFB

-----0.62 0.62

-----0.28 0.28

Swaziland
Mbabane

-----0.62

-----0.28

Botswana
Gaborone

-----0.06

-----0.06

Tanzania
Dar es Salaam Zanzibar

-----0.62 0.62

-----0.28 0.28

Malagasy Republic
Tananarive

-----0.06

-----0.06

Burundi
Bujumbura

-----1.24

-----0.56

Malawi
Blantyre Lilongwe Zomba

-----1.24 1.24 1.24

-----0.56 0.56 0.56

Togo
Lome

-----0.31

-----0.14

Cameroon
Douala Yaounde

-----0.06 0.06

-----0.06 0.06

Tunisia
Tunis

-----1.24

-----0.56

Cape Verde
Praia

-----0.06

-----0.06

Mali
Bamako

-----0.06

-----0.06

Uganda
Kampala

-----0.62

-----0.28

Central African Republic


Bangui

-----0.06

-----0.06

Mauritania
Nouakchott

-----0.06

-----0.06

Upper Volta
Ougadougou

-----0.06

-----0.06

Chad
Ndjamena

-----0.06

-----0.06

Mauritius
Port Louis

-----0.06

-----0.06

Zaire
Bukavu Kinshasa Lubumbashi

-----1.24 0.06 0.62

-----0.56 0.06 0.28

Congo
Brazzaville

-----0.06

-----0.06

Morocco
Casablanca Port Lyautey Rabat Tangier

-----0.62 0.31 0.62 1.24

-----0.28 0.14 0.28 0.56

Djibouti
Djibouti

-----1.24

-----0.56

Zambia
Lusaka

-----0.62

-----0.28

Egypt
Alexandria Cairo Port Said

-----0.62 0.62 0.62

-----0.28 0.28 0.28

Zimbabwe
Harare

-----1.24

-----0.56

Mozambique
Maputo

-----0.62

-----0.28

Niger
Niamey

-----0.06

-----0.06

ASIA Afghanistan
Kabul

----------1.65

----------0.75

Equatorial Guinea
Malabo

-----0.06

-----0.06

Nigeria
Ibadan Kaduna Lagos

-----0.06 0.06 0.06

-----0.06 0.06 0.06

Bahrain
Manama

-----0.06

-----0.06

Ethiopia
Addis Ababa Asmara

-----1.24 1.24

-----0.56 0.56

Bangladesh
Dacca

-----1.24

-----0.56

Gabon
Libreville

-----0.06

-----0.06

Republic of Rwanda
Kigali

-----1.24

-----0.56

Brunei
Bandar Seri Begawan

-----0.31

-----0.14

Gambia
Banjul

-----0.06

-----0.06

Senegal
Dakar

-----0.06

-----0.06

Burma
Mandalay Rangoon

-----1.24 1.24

-----0.56 0.56

Guinea
Bissau Conakry

-----0.31 0.06

-----0.14 0.06

Seychelles
Victoria

-----0.06

-----0.06

China
Canton Chengdu Nanking Peking

-----0.62 1.24 0.62 1.65

-----0.28 0.56 0.28 0.75

Sierra Leone
Freetown

-----0.06

-----0.06

Ivory Coast
Abidijan

-----0.06

-----0.06

Somalia
Mogadishu

-----0.06

-----0.06

-----------------------------------

------

------

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 9 of 15


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Table 2-4 Continued; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected International Cities UFC 3-310-03A (1 March 2005)
Country, City
ASIA China
Shanghai Shengyang Tibwa Tsingtao Wuhan

SS
----------0.62 1.65 1.65 1.24 0.62

S1
----------0.28 0.75 0.75 0.56 0.28

Country, City
Jordan
Amman

SS
-----1.24

S1
-----0.56

Country, City
Thailand
Bangkok Chinmg Mai Songkhia Udom

SS
-----0.31 0.62 0.06 0.31

S1
-----0.14 0.28 0.06 0.14

Korea
Kwangju Kimhae Pusan Seoul

-----0.31 0.31 0.31 0.06

-----0.14 0.14 0.14 0.06

Turkey
Adana Ankara Istanbul Izmir Karamursel

-----0.62 0.62 1.65 1.65 1.24

-----0.28 0.28 0.75 0.75 0.56

Cyprus
Nicosia

-----1.24

-----0.56

Kuwait
Kuwait

-----0.31

-----0.14

Hong Kong
Hong Kong

-----0.62

-----0.28

Laos
Vientiane

-----0.31

-----0.14

India
Bombay Calcutta Madras New Delhi

-----1.24 0.62 0.31 1.24

-----0.56 0.28 0.14 0.56

Lebanon
Beirut

-----1.24

-----0.56

United Arab Emirates


Abu Dhabi Dubai

-----0.06 0.06

-----0.06 0.06

Malaysia
Kuala Lumpur

-----0.31

-----0.14

Viet Nam
Ho Chi Min City

-----0.06

-----0.06

Nepal
Kathmandu

-----1.65

-----0.75

Indonesia
Bandung Jakarta Medan Surabaya

-----1.65 1.65 1.24 1.65

-----0.75 0.75 0.56 0.75

Yemen Arab Republic


Sanaa

-----1.24

-----0.56

Oman
Muscat

-----0.62

-----0.28

Pakistan
Islamabad Karachi Lahore Peshawar

-----1.68 1.65 0.62 1.65

-----0.65 0.75 0.28 0.75

ATLANTIC OCEAN AREA Azorea


All Locations

----------0.62

----------0.28

Iran
Isfahan Shiraz Tabriz Tehran

-----1.24 1.24 1.65 1.65

-----0.56 0.56 0.75 0.75

Bermuda
All Locations

-----0.31

-----0.14

Quatar
Doha

-----0.06

-----0.06

CARIBBEAN SEA Bahama Islands


All Locations

----------0.31

----------0.14

Iraq
Baghdad Basra

-----1.24 0.31

-----0.56 0.14

Saudi Arabia
Al Batin Dhahran Jiddah Khamis Mushayf Riyadh

-----0.31 0.31 0.62 0.31 0.06

-----0.14 0.14 0.28 0.14 0.06

Cuba
All Locations

-----0.62

-----0.28

Dominican Republic
Santo Domingo

-----1.24

-----0.56

Israel
Haifa Jerusalem Tel Aviv

-----1.24 1.24 1.24

-----0.56 0.56 0.56

French West Indies


Martinique

-----1.24

-----0.56

Singapore
All Locations

-----0.31

-----0.14

Grenada
Saint Georges

-----1.24

-----0.56

Japan
Fukuoka Itazuke AFB Misawa AFB Naha, Okinawa Osaka/Kobe Sapporo Tokyo Wakkanai Yokohama Yokota

-----1.24 1.24 1.24 1.65 1.65 1.24 1.65 1.24 1.65 1.65

-----0.56 0.56 0.56 0.75 0.75 0.56 0.75 0.56 0.75 0.75

South Yemen
Aden City

-----1.24

-----0.56

Haiti
Port au Prince

-----1.24

-----0.56

Sri Lanka
Colombo

-----0.06

-----0.06

Jamaica
Kingston

-----1.24

-----0.56

Syria
Aleppo Damascus

-----1.24 1.24

-----0.56 0.56

Leeward Islands
All Locations

-----1.24

-----0.56

Puerto Rico
All Locations

-----0.83

-----0.38

Taiwan
All Locations

-----1.65

-----0.75

Trinidad & Tobago


All Locations

-----1.24

-----0.56

--------------------

------

------

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 10 of 15


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Table 2-4 Continued; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected International Cities UFC 3-310-03A (1 March 2005)
Country, City
Belize
Beimopan

SS
-----0.62

S1
-----0.28

Country, City
Denmark
Copenhagen

SS
-----0.31

S1
-----0.14

Country, City
Trieste Turin

SS
1.24 0.62

S1
0.56 0.28

Canal Zone
All Locations

-----0.62

-----0.28

Finland
Helsinki

-----0.31

-----0.14

Luxembourg
Luxembourg

-----0.31

-----0.14

Costa Rica
San Jose

-----1.24

-----0.56

France
Bordeaux Lyon Marseille Nice Strasbourg

-----0.62 0.31 1.24 1.24 0.62

-----0.28 0.14 0.56 0.56 0.28

Malta
Valletta

-----0.62

-----0.28

El Salvador
San Slavador

-----1.65

-----0.75

Netherlands
All Locations

-----0.06

-----0.06

Guatemala
Guatemala

-----1.65

-----0.75

Norway
Oslo

-----0.62

-----0.28

Honduras
Tegucigalpa

-----1.24

-----0.56

Germany
Berlin Bonn Bremen Dsseldorf Frankfurt Hamburg Munich Stuttgart Vaihigen

-----0.06 0.62 0.06 0.31 0.62 0.06 0.31 0.62 0.62

-----0.06 0.28 0.06 0.14 0.28 0.06 0.14 0.28 0.28

Poland
Krakow Poznan Waraszawa

-----0.62 0.31 0.31

-----0.28 0.14 0.14

Nicaragua
Managua

-----1.65

-----0.75

Panama
Colon Galeta Panama

-----1.24 0.83 1.24

-----0.56 0.38 0.56

Portugal
Lisbon Oporto

-----1.65 1.24

-----0.75 0.56

Romania
Bucharest

-----1.24

-----0.56

Mexico
Ciudad Juarez Guadalajara Hermosillo Matamoros Mazatlan Merida Mexico City Monterrey Nuevo Laredo Tijuana

-----0.62 1.24 1.24 0.06 0.60 0.06 1.24 0.06 0.06 1.24

-----0.28 0.56 0.56 0.06 0.28 0.06 0.56 0.06 0.06 0.56

Spain
Barcelona Bilbao Madrid Rota Seville

-----0.62 0.62 0.06 0.62 0.62

-----0.28 0.28 0.06 0.28 0.28

Greece
Athens Kavalla Makri Rhodes Sauda Bay Thessaloniki

-----1.24 1.65 1.65 1.24 1.65 1.65

-----0.56 0.75 0.56 0.75 0.56 0.56

Sweden
Goteborg Stockholm

-----0.62 0.31

-----0.28 0.14

Hungary
Budapest

-----0.62

-----0.28

Switzerland
Bern Geneva Zurich

-----0.62 0.31 0.62

-----0.28 0.14 0.28

EUROPE Albania
Tirana

----------1.24

----------0.56

Iceland
Keflavick Reykjavik

-----1.24 1.65

-----0.56 0.75

Austria
Salzburg Vienna

-----0.62 0.62

-----0.28 0.28

Ireland
Dublin

-----0.06

-----0.06

United Kingdom
Belfast Edinburgh Edzell Glasgow/Renfrew Hamilton Liverpool London Londonderry Thurso

-----0.06 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.62 0.31 0.31

-----0.06 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.28 0.14 0.14

Italy
Aviano AFB Brindisi Florence Genoa Milan Naples Palermo Rome Sicily

-----1.24 0.06 1.24 1.24 0.62 1.24 1.24 0.62 1.24

-----0.56 0.06 0.56 0.56 0.28 0.56 0.56 0.28 0.56

Belgium
Antwerp Brussels

-----0.31 0.62

-----0.14 0.28

Bulgaria
Sofia

-----1.24

-----0.56

Czechoslovakia
Bratislava Prague

-----0.62 0.31

-----0.28 0.14

U. S. S. R.
Kiev

-----0.06

-----0.06

--------------------

------

------

REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION PAGE 11 of 15


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Table 2-4 Continued; Mapped Acceleration Parameters for Selected International Cities UFC 3-310-03A (1 March 2005)
Country, City
U. S. S. R.
Leningrad Moscow

SS
-----0.06 0.06

S1
-----0.06 0.06

Country, City
Valparaiso

SS
1.65

S1
0.75

Country, City
Baguio

SS
1.24

S1
0.56

Colombia
Bogot

-----1.24

-----0.56

Samoa
All Locations

-----1.24

-----0.56

Yugoslavia
Belgrade Zagreb

-----0.62 1.24

-----0.28 0.56

Ecuador
Quito Guayaquil

-----1.65 1.24

-----0.75 0.56

Wake Island
All Locations

-----0.06

-----0.06

NORTH AMERICA Greenland


All Locations

----------0.31

----------0.14

Paraguay
Asuncion

-----0.06

-----0.06

Peru
Lima Piura

-----1.65 1.65

-----0.75 0.75

Canada
Argentia NAS Calgary, Alb Churchill, Man Cold Lake, Alb Edmonton, Alb East Harmon AFB Fort Williams, Ont. Frobisher N. W. Ter. Goose Airport Halifax Montreal, Quebec Ottawa, Ont. St. Johns, Nfld. Toronto, Ont. Vancouver Winnipeg, Man.

-----0.62 0.31 0.06 0.31 0.31 0.62 0.06 0.06 0.31 0.31 1.24 0.31 1.24 0.31 1.24 0.31

-----0.28 0.14 0.06 0.14 0.14 0.28 0.06 0.06 0.14 0.14 0.56 0.28 0.56 0.14 0.56 0.14

Uruguay
Montevideo

-----0.06

-----0.06

Venezuela
Maracaibo Caracas

-----0.62 1.65

-----0.28 0.75

PACIFIC OCEAN AREA Australia


Brisbane Canberra Melbourne Perth Sydney

----------0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.31

----------0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14

Caroline Islands
Koror, Paulau, Is. Ponape

-----0.62 0.06

-----0.28 0.06

SOUTH AMERICA Argentina


Buenos Aires

----------0.25

----------0.10

Fiji
Suva

-----1.24

-----0.56

Johnson Island
All Locations

-----0.31

-----0.14

Brazil
Belem Belo Horizonte Brasilia Manaus Porto Allegre Recife Rio de Janeiro Salvador Sao Paulo

-----0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.31

-----0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.14

Mariana Islands
Guam Saipan Tinian

-----1.24 1.24 1.24

-----0.56 0.56 0.56

Marshall Islands
All Locations

-----0.31

-----0.14

New Zealand
Auckland Wellington

-----1.24 1.65

-----0.56 0.75

Bolivia
La Paz Santa Cruz

-----1.24 0.31

-----0.56 0.14

Papua New Guinea


Port Moresby

-----1.65

-----0.75

Philippine Islands
Cebu Manila

-----1.65 1.65

-----0.75 0.75

Chile
Santiago

-----1.65

-----0.75

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Table 2-5; Short Period Site Coefficient, Fa (Table 9.4.1.2.4a) [Table 11.4-1] Site Class
A B C D E F

Mapped MCE Short Period Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter


(Linear Interpolation Is Permitted)

SS 0.25
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.6 2.5

SS=0.50
0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.7

SS=0.75
0.8 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.2

SS=1.00
0.8 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.9

SS 1.25
0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9

These values to be determined by site response analysis.

Table 2-6; Long Period Site Coefficient, Fv (Table 9.4.1.2.4b) [Table 11.4-2] Site Class
A B C D E F

Mapped MCE Long Period Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter


(Linear Interpolation Is Permitted)

S1 0.10
0.8 1.0 1.7 2.4 3.5

S1 = 0.20
0.8 1.0 1.6 2.0 3.2

S1 = 0.30
0.8 1.0 1.5 1.8 2.8

S1 = 0.40
0.8 1.0 1.4 1.6 2.4

S1 0.50
0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5 2.4

These values to be determined by site response analysis.

D2.1 2.5 Seismic Design Category (Section 9.4.2.1) [Section 11.6]:

This parameter is of great importance to everyone involved with MEP systems. The Seismic Design Category to which a building has been assigned will determine whether seismic restraints are required or not, and if they qualify for exemption, which MEP components may be exempted, and which will need to have seismic restraints selected and installed. The MEP components within

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a building will be assigned to the same Seismic Design Category as the building itself. There are six Seismic Design Categories, A, B, C, D, E, and F. The level of restraint required increases from Seismic Design Category A through F. Up through Seismic Design Category D, the Seismic Design Category to which a building or structure is assigned is determined though the use of Tables 2-6 and 2-7.

To determine the Seismic Design Category both the Long ( S D1 ) and Short ( S DS ) Period Design Response Acceleration Parameter must be determined. The most stringent Seismic Design Category, resulting from the two acceleration parameters, will be assigned to the project. For Occupancy I, II, or III (Seismic Use Group I or II) structures, if the Mapped Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter is greater than or equal to 0.75, S1 0.75 , then the structure will be assigned to Seismic Design Category E. For Occupancy Category IV (Seismic Use Group III) structures, if the Mapped Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter is greater than or equal to 0.75, S1 0.75 , then the structure will be assigned to Seismic Design Category F. To ensure consistency, the Seismic Design Category should be determined by the structural engineer.

Table 2-7; Seismic Design Category Based on the Short Period Design Response Acceleration Parameter (Table 9.4.2.1a) [Table 11.6-1] Occupancy Category (Seismic Use Group) Value of SDS I or II (I)
SDS < 0.167 0.167 0.33 SDS < 0.33 SDS < 0.50 SDS A B C D

III (II)
A B C D

IV (III)
A C D D

0.50

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Table 2-8; Seismic Design Category Based on the Long Period Design Response Acceleration Parameter (Table 9.4.2.1b) [Table 11.6-2] Occupancy Category (Seismic Design Category) Value of SD1 I or II (I)
SD1 < 0.067 0.067 0.133 SD1 < 0.133 SD1 < 0.20 SD1 A B C D

III (II)
A B C D

IV (III)
A C D D

0.20

D2.1 2.6 Summary:

The following parameters will be required by the design professionals having responsibility for MEP systems in a building, and should be determined by the structural engineer of record.

1. Occupancy Category (Seismic Use Group for 2000/2003 IBC): This defines the building use and specifies which buildings are required for emergency response or disaster recovery. 2. Seismic Design Category: This determines whether or not seismic restraint is required. 3. Short Period Design Response Acceleration Parameter ( S DS ): This value is used to compute the horizontal seismic force used to design and/or select seismic restraints required.

These parameters should be repeated in the specification and drawing package for the particular system, mechanical, electrical, or plumbing, in question.

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COMPONENT IMPORTANCE FACTOR
D2.1 3.1 Introduction:

MEP components and systems are categorized in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 as nonstructural components. There are just two values for the Component Importance Factors for MEP components, 1.0 and 1.5, which are not directly linked to the importance factor for the building structure. The Component Importance Factor is designated as I P in the body of the code. All MEP components must be assigned a component importance factor. The design professional that has responsibility for the MEP system in question is also responsible for assigning the Component Importance Factor to that system.

D2.1 3.2 Criteria for Assigning a Component Importance Factor (Sections 9.6.1 and 9.6.1.5) [Section 13.1.3]1:

For MEP systems, the Component Importance Factor ( I P ) assigned to the components within the system shall be determined as follows.

1. If the MEP system is required to remain in place and function for life-safety purposes following and earthquake the importance factor assigned to the MEP system and its components shall be 1.5. Some examples of this type of system would be; a. Fire sprinkler piping and fire suppression systems. b. Smoke removal and fresh air ventilation systems. c. Systems required for maintaining the proper air pressure in patient hospital rooms to prevent the transmission of infectious diseases. d. Systems that maintain proper air pressure, temperature, and humidity in surgical suites, bio-hazard labs, and clean rooms.
1

References in brackets (Sections 9.6.1 and 9.6.1.5) and [Section 13.1.3] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively..

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e. Medical gas lines. f. Steam lines or high pressure hot water lines. 2. If the MEP system contains or is used to transport hazardous materials, or materials that are toxic if released in quantities that exceed the exempted limits a Component Importance Factor of 1.5 shall be assigned to that MEP system and its components. Examples are as follows. a. Systems using natural gas. b. Systems requiring fuel oil. c. Systems used to exhaust laboratory fume hoods. d. Boilers, furnaces and flue systems. e. Systems that are used to ventilate bio-hazard areas and infectious patient rooms. f. Chemical or by-product systems which are required for industrial processes. 3. If the MEP system is in or attached to a building that has been assigned to Occupancy Category IV (Seismic Use Group III), i.e. essential or critical facilities, and is required for the continued operation of that facility following an earthquake, then a Component Importance Factor of 1.5 shall be assigned to that system and its components. Hospitals, emergency response centers, police stations, fire stations, and etc. fall in Occupancy Category IV. The failure of any system could cause the portion of the building it serves to be evacuated and unusable would cause that system and its components to be assigned a Component Importance Factor of 1.5. Even the failure of domestic water lines can flood a building and render it uninhabitable. So, all of the items listed above under items 1 and 2 would apply to facilities in Occupancy Category IV. 4. If the MEP system that is located in or attached to an Occupancy Category IV facility and its failure would impair the operation of that facility, then a Component Importance Factor of 1.5 shall be assigned to that MEP system and its components. This implies that any MEP system or component that could be assigned a Component Importance Factor of 1.0 that is located above an MEP system or component that has been assigned a Component Importance Factor of 1.5 must be reassigned to a Component Importance Factor of 1.5.

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5. All other MEP systems that are not covered under items 1, 2, 3, or 4 may be assigned a Component Importance Factor of 1.0. D2.1 3.3 Summary:

The Component Importance Factor is very important to the designer responsible for selecting and certifying the seismic restraints for an MEP system or component. This factor is a direct multiplier for the horizontal seismic design force, which shall be discussed in a later section. The Component Importance Factor will also be a key indicator as to whether a particular component will qualify for and exemption or not. If a Component Importance Factor has not been assigned to an MEP system, the designer responsible for selecting the seismic restraints must assume that the Component Importance Factor is equal to 1.5. If the MEP system actually could be assigned a Component Importance Factor of 1.0, this could result in a large increase in the size and number of restraints required along with a corresponding increase in the cost for the system.

It is in the best interest of the design professionals responsible for an MEP system to properly assign the Component Importance Factor to that MEP system. The Component Importance Factor for each MEP system and component should be clearly indicated on the drawings that are distributed to other design professionals, contractors, suppliers, and building officials.

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GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS
D2.1 4.1 Introduction:

The International Building Codes (IBCs) allow certain exemptions to be made for MEP systems and components from the need for seismic restraint. These exemptions are based on the Seismic Design Category, the Component Importance Factor, and the size and weight, of the MEP components.

There are further general provisions in the IBC pertaining to MEP components that must be acknowledged at the outset of a project. These are provisions ranging from the upper bound size for an MEP component in order for it to be considered as a non-structural component to the component certifications and documentation required.

This section will present the general exemptions for MEP systems and components and discuss the general requirements that apply to them. D2.1 4.2 Exemptions for Seismic Design Categories A and B (Section 9.6.1-1 and 9.6.1-3) [Section 13.1.4-1 and 13.1.4-2]1:

MEP systems and their components that are located in or on buildings that have been assigned to Seismic Design Categories A and B are exempt from the requirements for seismic restraints. These two exemptions point out the need for having the correct seismic deign in formation for the project available to all of the design professionals and contractors during the bidding stage of the project. Being able to use these exemptions can save the MEP contractors as much as 10% to 15% in their costs.

References in brackets (Section 9.6.1-1 and 9.6.1-2) [Section 13.1.4-1 and 13.1.4-2] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively, which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

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For example, a critical piece of information required at the outset is the Site Class. If the Site Class has not been determined by a qualified geotechnical engineer, then Site Class D must be assumed. The resulting combination of the mapped acceleration parameters and soil profile of Site Class D may force the project to be assigned to Seismic Design Category C which in turn forces the requirement for seismic restraints. If instead the Site Class had been determined to be Site Class B by a qualified geotechnical engineer, then the project may have been found to fall into Seismic Design Category A or B, thus eliminating the need for seismic restraints for MEP systems and components.

D2.1 4.3 Exemptions for Seismic Design Category C (Section 9.6.1-4) [Section 13.1.4-3]:

MEP systems and components that have been assigned to Seismic Design Category C, and that have been assigned a Component Importance Factor of 1.0, are exempt from the requirements for seismic restraints. In this case it is very important that the design professionals responsible for the various MEP systems and components assign the correct Component Importance Factors to those systems and components. If no Component Importance Factor is assigned, the installing contractor should prudently assume that the Component Importance Factor is equal to 1.5, and provide restraints for that system or component. This is particularly true of duct runs where it is very likely that the ventilation components may also be required for smoke control.

It is also critical to know which MEP systems and components have a component Importance Factor of 1.0 and which ones have a Component Importance Factor of 1.5. To the extent possible, those with Component Importance Factors equal to 1.5 should be installed above those with Component Importance Factors equal to 1.0 in order to reduce the over all number of restraints needed for the project.

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D2.1 4.4 Exemptions for Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F (Sections 9.6.1-5 and 9.1.6-6) [Sections 13.1.4-4 and 13.1.4-5]:

There are basically three exemptions that apply here.

1. MEP components that: a. Are in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F. b. Have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0, c. Have flexible connections between the components and all associated duct, piping, conduit. d. Are mounted at 4 ft (1.22 m) or less above a floor level. e. And weigh 400 lbs (1780 N) or less. 2. MEP components that: a. Are in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F. b. Have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0. c. Have flexible connections between the components and all associated duct, piping, conduit. d. And weigh 20 lbs (89 N) or less. 3. MEP distribution systems that: a. Are in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F. b. Have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0. c. Have flexible connections between the components and all associated duct, piping, conduit. d. And weigh 5 lbs/ft (73 N/m) or less.

D2.1 4.5 Chandelier Exemption (Section 9.6.3.2) [Section 13.6.1]:

This exemption applies to light fixtures, lighted signs, ceiling fans, and other components that are not connected to ducts or piping and which are supported by chains or other wise suspended from

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the structure by a method that allows the component to swing freely. These components will require no further seismic support provided that all of the following conditions are met.

1. The design load for these components shall be equal to: a. 3.0 times the operating load, applied as a gravity design load, for 2000/2003 IBC. b. 1.4 times the operating weight of the component acting downward with a simultaneous horizontal load that is also equal to 1.4 times the operating weight for 2006 IBC. The horizontal load is to be applied in the direction that results in the most critical loading and thus the most conservative result. 2. The component shall not impact other components, systems, or structures as it swings through its projected range of motion. 3. The connection to the structure shall allow a 360 range of motion in the horizontal plane. In other words, this must be a free swinging connection.

D2.1 4.6 Component Size Relative to the Building Structure (Section 9.6.1) [Section 13.1.5]:

For the most part MEP components will be treated as nonstructural components by the code. However, if the MEP component is very large relative to the building it must be treated as a nonbuilding structure, which has a completely different set of design issues. For 2000/2006 IBC, If the weight of the MEP component is greater than or equal to 25% of the combined weight of the MEP Component and the supporting structure, the MEP component must be treated as a nonbuilding structure per Section 9.14 of ASCE 7-98/02. For 2006 IBC, if the weight of the nonstructural component is greater than or equal to 25% of the effective seismic weight of the building as defined in Section 12.7.2 of ASCE 7-05, then that component must be classified as a nonbuilding structure and designed accordingly.

When might this apply? This applies to very large pieces of MEP equipment such as large cooling towers, and the very large air handling units that are placed on the roofs of buildings employing

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lightweight design techniques. The structural engineer of record will have a value for the effective seismic weight of the building. This must be compared to the operating weight of the MEP component in question. D2.1 4.7 Reference and Accepted Standards (Sections 9.6.1.1 and 9.6.1.2) and Reference Documents [Section 13.1.6]:

Typically reference standards, acceptance standards, and reference documents are other publications that will provide a basis for earthquake resistant design. Examples of reference documents currently in existence would be the SMACNA Seismic Restraint Manual, listed in Section 1.0 Introduction of the guide, and NFPA 13. These documents may be used with the approval of the jurisdiction having authority as long as the following conditions are met.

1. The design earthquake forces used for the design and selection of the seismic restraints shall not be less that those specified in Section 9.6.1.3 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.3.1 of ASCE 7-05, which is also covered in Section 8.0 of this guide. 2. The seismic interaction of each MEP component with all other components and building structures shall be accounted for in the design of the supports and restraints. 3. The MEP component must be able to accommodate drifts, deflections, and relative displacements that are defined in ASCE 7-05. This means that flexible connections for pipe, duct, and electrical cables for MEP components are in general, a good idea to prevent damage if the MEP component, and/or the pipe, duct, and electrical cables that are attached to it are unrestrained. D2.1 4.8 Allowable Stress Design (Sections 2.3 and 2.4) [Sections 2.3, 2.4, and 13.1.7]:

Reference documents that use allowable stress design may be used as a basis for the design and selection of seismic restraints. However, the design earthquake loads determined in accordance with Section 9.6.1.3 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.3.1 of ASCE 7-05 must be multiplied by 0.7.

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D2.1 4.9 Submittals and Construction Documents (Sections 9.6.3.6, 9.6.3.15 and A.9.3.4.5) [Sections 13.2.1, 13.2.5, 13.2.6, and 13.2.7]:

Projects that require seismic restraints for MEP systems and components will require project specific certification that the design of the seismic restraints selected for the MEP systems and their components will meet the code, specification, or details which ever is most stringent. This certification is to be provided both in the submittals and in the construction documents.

For the submittal of seismic restraints and supports, the certification may be satisfied by one of the following means.

1. Project and site specific designs and documentation that are prepared and submitted by a registered design professional. Please note that a specific discipline is not mentioned regarding the registered design professional that is responsible for the design and signing and sealing of the documentation. 2. Manufacturers certification accompanying the submittal the restraints are seismically qualified for the project and site. The certification may be made in any one of three ways as detailed below. a. Analysis this is typical for the seismic restraints used for MEP systems and components. Manufacturers of these seismic restraint devices will normally have families of the various types of restraint devices that have different seismic force capacity ranges. The manufacturer will perform an analysis to determine the project and site specific seismic design loads, and then analyze the MEP system and/or components to determine the required restraint capacities at the restraint attachment points to the system and/or components. The proper restraint will be selected from the manufacturers standard product offering, or a special restraint may be designed and built for the application. The manufacturers certification will include a statement signed and seal by a registered design professional that the restraint devices will meet the appropriate code, specification, and/or details.

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b. The manufacturer of the restraint devices may have them tested in accordance with ICC-ES AC 156 as outlined in Sections 9.6.3.6 and A.9.3.4.5 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.5 of ASCE 7-05. They will then provide a signed and sealed certification document stating that the restraint devices will provide adequate protection for the MEP system and components. c. Experience data per the requirements in Sections 9.6.3.6 and A.9.3.4.5 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.6 of ASCE 7-05. This is not a normal avenue for a manufacturer of seismic restraint devices to use to certify their products as being fit for a specific project. In using this method, the manufacturers would incur a great deal of liability.

Section A.9.3.4.5 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.7 of ASCE 7-05 indicates that seismic restraints for MEP systems and components will require construction documents that are prepared and, signed and sealed by a registered design professional. Frequently, the submittal package provided by the manufacturer of the seismic restraints will also have enough information to fulfill this requirement. The registered design professional mentioned above needs to be one with knowledge and experience in force analysis, stress and analysis, and the proper use of steel, aluminum, elastomers, and other engineering materials in the design of force resisting systems. There are several disciplines that may fulfill these requirements such as, structural engineers, civil engineers, and mechanical engineers involved in the area of machine design.

D2.1 4.10 Equipment Certification for Essential Facilities (Sections 9.6.3.6, 9.6.6.15, and A9.3.4.5) [Sections 13.2.2, 13.2.5, and 13.2.6]:

For buildings that have been assigned to Seismic Design Categories C, D, E, and F designated seismic systems will require certification. Designated seismic systems are those whose failure has the potential to cause loss of life or loss of function for buildings that were deemed essential for recovery following an earthquake. Typically essential facilities are those that have been assigned

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to Occupancy Category IV, see Section 2.2 of this guide. For these types of systems, certification shall be provided as follows.

1. For active MEP systems and components that must remain functional after an earthquake shall be certified by the supplier or manufacturer as being operable after the design level earthquake for the project site based on: a. Shake table testing such as that specified in ICC-ES AC 156 as described in Section A.9.3.4.5 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.5 of ASCE 7-05. Evidence of compliance is to be submitted to the jurisdiction having authority and the design professional of record for approval. b. Experience or historical data as outlined in Sections 9.6.3.6, 9.6.3.15 and A.9.3.4.5 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.6 of ASCE 7-05. This experience data is to come from a nationally recognized procedures and data base that is acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. The substantiated seismic capacities from the experience data must meet or exceed the specific seismic requirements for the project. As in a. above evidence of compliance will need to be submitted to the design professional of record, and the jurisdiction having authority for approval. 2. MEP systems and components that contain hazardous materials must be certified as maintaining containment of the hazardous materials following an earth quake. Evidence of compliance must be submitted to the design professional of record and the jurisdiction having authority for approval. This certification may be made through: a. Analysis. b. Approved shake table testing specified in Section 9.6.3.6 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.5 of ASCE 7-05. c. Experience data as described in Section 9.6.3.6 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.2.6 of ASCE 7-05.

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D2.1 4.11 Consequential or Collateral Damage (Section 9.6.1) [Section 13.2.3]:

The potential interaction of the MEP systems and components with surrounding systems, components or building structures must be considered when locating and restraining the MEP systems and components. The failure of an MEP system or component that has been assigned a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0 must not cause the failure of an MEP system or component that has been assigned a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5. This goes back to the issue of assigning a Component Importance Factor of 1.5 to MEP systems or components with a Component Importance Factor of 1.0 whose failure would cause the failure of a system or component with a Component Importance Factor of 1.5. D2.1 4.12 Flexibility of Components and their Supports and Restraints (Sections 9.6.1 and 9.6.1.2) [Section 13.2.4]:

All MEP systems and components that are constructed of normal engineering materials will have a certain amount of flexibility, or springiness. So how these systems and components behave during an earthquake will greatly affect their performance and survivability. The system or component could have a flexibility that would put it to resonance with the building and/or the earthquake, in which case the displacements and stresses in the system would be much larger than expected. Conversely the flexibility of the system or component could be such that it was not in resonance with either the building or the earthquake. In this case, the displacements and stresses may be much lower than a code based analysis would indicate. Therefore, the code indicates that the flexibility of the components and their supports be considered as well as the strength of the parts to ensure that the worst cases are considered.

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D2.1 4.13 Summary:

The exemptions and requirements outlined in this section are intended to assist the MEP design professionals and contractors in planning their project contribution efficiently. Also, they help define the limits of responsibility for each MEP design profession and trade.

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EXEMPTIONS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS
D2.1 5.1 Introduction:

The exemptions that apply specifically to piping are covered in Section 9.6.3.11.4 of ASCE 798/02 and Section 13.6.8 of ASCE 7-05. The provisions of this section do not cover elevator system piping which is covered in Section 9.6.3.16 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.6.10 of ASCE 7-05. The piping considered in this section is assumed to be high-deformability piping. This implies pipes made from ductile materials that are joined by welding, brazing, or groove type couplings, similar to VICTAULIC couplings, where the grooves in the pipe have been roll formed rather than cut. Limited deformability piping on the other hand, would be pipes made of ductile materials that are joined by threading, bonding, or the use of groove type couplings where the grooves in the pipe have been machine cut. Low deformability piping would be comprised of pipes made from relatively brittle materials such as cast iron or glass. Also not covered in this section is fire protection piping. Fire protection piping will be covered in a separate publication. D2.1 5.2 The 12 Rule (9.6.3.11.4-c) [Section 13.6.8-1]1:

No restraints will be required for piping that meets the requirements of the 12 Rule for the entire piping run. The 12 Rule will be said to apply to a piping run if:

1. The piping is supported by rod hangers. a. For single clevis supported pipe, all of the hangers in the piping run are 12 in. (305 mm) or less in length from the top of the pipe to the supporting structure. b. For trapeze supported pipe, all of the hangers in the piping run are 12 in. (305 mm) or less in length from the top of the trapeze bar to the supporting structure. 2. For 2000/2003 IBC The hanger rods and their attachments are not to be subjected to bending moments. For 2006 IBC the hangers are to be detailed to avoid bending of the
1

References in brackets (9.6.3.11.4-c) [Section 13.6.8-1] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

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hangers and their attachments. This statement very is ambiguous. It does not clearly define the phrase significant bending, and leaves it up to the design professional responsible for the piping system, or worse, the contractor responsible for installing the piping system. The past practice by SMACNA and other recognized authorities in the industry to call for the connection between the hanger and the supporting structure to be non-moment generating. This means that the connector must be one that allows the piping run to swing freely on its hangers without introducing a bending moment in the hanger. 3. There must be sufficient space around the piping run to accommodate the expected motion of the pipe as it sways back and forth with the earthquake motion in the building. 4. Connections between the piping and the interfacing components must be designed and/or selected to accept the full range of motion expected for both the pipe and the interfacing component.

D2.1 5.3 Single Clevis Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories A and B (Sections 9.6.1-1 and 9.6.1-3) [Sections 13.1.4-1 and 13.1.4-2]

No seismic restraints are required for piping in building assigned to Seismic Design Categories A and B. This is implied by the general exemptions found in Section 9.6.1 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Section 13.1.4 of ASCE 7-05. D2.1 5.4 Single Clevis Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Category C (Sections 9.6.1-1 and 9.6.3.11.4-d2) [Sections 13.1.4-3 and 13.6.8-2b]

1. For single clevis supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C for which the Component Importance Factor is equal to 1.0, no seismic restraint is required. 2. For piping in Buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, for which the Component Importance Factor is equal to 1.5, and for which the nominal size is 2 in. (51 mm) or less; no seismic restraint is required.

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D2.1 5.5 Single Clevis Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F (Sections 9.6.3.11.4-d1 and 9.6.3.11.4-d3) [Sections 13.6.8-2a and 13.6.8-2c]

1. For single clevis supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F, for which the Component Importance Factor is equal to 1.5, and for which the nominal size is 1 in. (25 mm) or less; no seismic restraint is required. 2. For single clevis supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F, for which the Component Importance Factor is equal to 1.0, and for which the nominal size is 3 in. (76 mm) or less; no seismic restraint is required.

D2.1 5.6 Exemptions for Trapeze Supported Pipe per VISCMA Recommendations:

Neither ASCE 7-98/02 nor ASCE 7-05 specifies how the piping is to be supported. The point is that many pipes of the exempted size may be supported on a common trapeze bar using hanger rods of the same size as would be specified for a single clevis supported pipe. Keep in mind that the purpose of the seismic restraints is to make sure the pipe moves with the building. The amount of force that the hanger rod must carry will be a direct function of the weight of pipe being supported. It is apparent that there must be some limit to how much weight a trapeze bar can support for a given hanger rod size before seismic restraint is required. VISCMA (Vibration Isolation and Seismic Control Manufacturers Association) has investigated this issue and can make the following recommendations on the application of the exemptions in Sections 5.4 and 5.5 above to trapeze supported pipe, www.viscma.com.

The following basic provisions must apply.

1. The hangers must be ASTM A36 all-thread rod. 2. The threads must be roll formed. 3. The pipes must be rigidly attached to the hanger rods.

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4. Provisions must be made to avoid impact with adjacent pipe, duct, equipment, or building structure, or to protect the pipe from such impact. D2.1 5.6.1 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories A and B: (Sections 9.6.11 and 9.6.1-3) [Sections 13.1.4-1 and 13.1.4-2] For trapeze supported piping in Seismic Design Categories A and B, no seismic restraint is required. D2.1 5.6.2 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Category C: (Sections 9.6.1-1 and 9.6.3.11-d2) [Sections 13.1.4-3 and 13.6.8-2b]

1. For trapeze supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, which have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0, and for which the nominal size is 2 in. (51 mm) or less, nor seismic restraint is required. 2. For trapeze supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category C, which have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5, and for which the nominal size is 2 in. (51 mm) or less, no seismic restraint is required if: a. The trapeze bar is supported by 3/8-16 UNC, or larger, hanger rods. b. The maximum hanger spacing is 10 ft. on center. c. The total weight supported by the trapeze bar is 15 lbs/ft or less.

D2.1 5.6.3 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Category D: (Sections 9.6.1-6, 9.6.3.11.4-d2 and 9.6.3.11.4-d3) [Sections 13.1.4-5, 13.6.8-2a, and 13.6.8-2c]

1. For trapeze supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D, which have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5, and for which the nominal size is 1 in. (25 mm) or less, no seismic restraint is required if: a. The trapeze bar is supported by 3/8-16 UNC, or larger, hanger rods. b. The maximum hanger spacing is 7 ft. on center.

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c. The total weight supported by the trapeze bar is 4 lbs/ft or less. 2. For trapeze supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D, which have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0, and for which the nominal size is 3 in. (76 mm) or less, no seismic restraint is required if: a. The trapeze bar is supported by 1/2-13 UNC, or larger, hanger rods. b. The maximum hanger spacing is 10 ft. on center. c. The total weight supported by the trapeze bar is 25 lbs/ft or less. D2.1 5.6.4 Trapeze Supported Pipe in Seismic Design Categories E and F: (Sections 9.6.16, 9.6.3.11.4-d2 and 9.6.3.11.4-d3) [Sections 13.1.4-5, 13.6.8-2a, and 13.6.8-2c]

1. For trapeze supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories E and F, which have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5, and for which the nominal size is 1 in. (25 mm) or less, no seismic restraint is required if: a. The trapeze bar is supported by 3/8-16 UNC, or larger, hanger rods. b. The maximum hanger spacing is 7 ft. on center. c. The total weight supported by the trapeze bar is 4 lbs/ft or less. 2. For trapeze supported piping in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category D, which have a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0, and for which the nominal size is 3 in. (76 mm) or less, no seismic restraint is required if: a. The trapeze bar is supported by 1/2-13 UNC, or larger, hanger rods. b. The maximum hanger spacing is 10 ft. on center. c. The total weight supported by the trapeze bar is 11 lbs/ft or less. D2.1 5.7 Summary:

The exemptions and allowances outlined in this section can, with careful planning save a lot of time and money. They may also mean the difference between making a profit on a project and breaking even, or worse, losing money. In order to take proper advantage of these exemptions,

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the Seismic Design Category to which the project has been assigned must be known. This is readily available from the structural engineer. Also, the design professional who is responsible for the piping system must assign an appropriate Component Importance Factor to the system.

As a sidebar to the previous statement, it should be noted that the specification for the building may increase the Seismic Design Category in order to ensure an adequate safety margin and the continued operation of the facility. This is a common practice with schools, government buildings, and certain manufacturing facilities. Also, the building owner has the prerogative, through the specification, to require all of the piping systems to be seismically restrained. So, careful attention to the specification must be paid, as some or all of the exemptions in this section may be nullified by specification requirements that are more stringent than those provided by the code.

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EXEMPTIONS FOR HVAC DUCTWORK
D2.1 6.1 Introduction:

The 2000/2003/2006 IBC has some general exemptions that apply to HVAC ductwork based on Component Importance Factor and the size of the duct. At present, there are not as many exemptions for ductwork as there are for piping. The number of exemptions for ductwork changed with SMACNA being dropped as a reference document in the 2003/2006 IBC. This will be discussed below in the appropriate section. D2.1 6.2 The 12 Rule (Section 9.6.3.10-a) [Section 13.6.7-a]1:

No seismic restraints will be required for ductwork with a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0 that meets the requirements of the 12 Rule for the entire run of ductwork. The 12 Rule is said to apply to a run of ductwork if:

1. The HVAC ducts a suspended for hangers that are 12 (305 mm) or less in length for the entire run of ductwork. This is usually measured from the supporting structure to the top of the trapeze bar that is supporting the ductwork. 2. The hangers have been detailed and constructed in order to avoid significant bending of the hanger and its attachments. As with the 12 rule applied to piping, the industry generally interprets this to mean that the connection of the hanger to the structure must be nonmoment generating, or free swinging.

References in brackets (Section 9.6.3.10-a) [Section 13.6.7-a] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

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D2.1 6.3 Size Exemption (Section 9.6.3.10-b) [Section 13.6.7-b]:

No seismic restraints are required for ductwork with a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0 if the cross-sectional area is less than 6 ft2 (0.557 m2).

D2.1 6.4 Further Exemptions for Ductwork (Sections 9.6.1.1.2 and 9.6.3.10) [Section 13.6.7]:

There are no further exemptions for ductwork in 2006 IBC. The SMACNA Seismic Restraint Manual does have exemptions for ductwork that has been assigned a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5. For 2000 IBC the SMACNA Seismic Design Manual was an accepted standard, and ductwork with a cross-sectional area of less than 6 ft2 (0.557 m2) may be exempted from the need for seismic restraint. However for 2003 IBC and 2006 IBC, the SMACNA Seismic Design Manual was removed from the design portion of the code and was, instead, incorporated as an Accepted Standard in Section 9.6.1.1.2 of ASCE 7-02, which applies to 2003 IBC. The SMACNA Seismic Restraint Manual is not specifically identified in ASCE 7-05, 2006 IBC instead the following statement was inserted into the design portion of the code.

HVAC duct systems fabricated and installed in accordance with standards approved by the authority having jurisdiction shall be deemed to meet the lateral bracing requirements of this section.

In other words, it will be up to the local building authority to approve or disapprove SMACNA or any other reference documents. So, the HVAC design professional and contractor will need to petition the local building authority for permission to use the exemptions in the SMACNA Seismic Restraint Manual.

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D2.1 6.5 Restraint Allowance for In-Line Components (Section 9.6.3.10) [Section 13.6.7]:

This allowance deals with components, such as fans, heat exchangers, humidifiers, VAV boxes, and the like, that are installed in-line with the ductwork. Components that have an operating weight of 75 lbs (334 N) or less may be supported and laterally, seismically, braced as part of the duct system. Where the lateral braces, seismic restraints, have been designed and sized to meet the requirements of ASCE 7-98/02 Section 9.6.1.3 or ASCE 7-05 Section 13.3.1. The following requirements will also apply to these components.

1. At least one end of the component must be hard, rigidly, attached to the ductwork. The other end may have a flex connector or be open. The flex connected, or open end, of the component must be supported and laterally braced. This requirement is not mentioned as part of ASCE 7-98, -02, or -05, but is a requirement that is born out of common sense. 2. Devices such as diffusers, louvers, and dampers shall be positively attached with mechanical fasteners. 3. Unbraced piping and electrical power and control lines that are attached to in-line components must be attached with flex connections that allow adequate motion to accommodate the expected differential motions. D2.1 6.6 Summary:

As with the piping exemptions these exemptions and allowances, with careful planning, can save the contractor and the building owner a great deal of effort and money. There is also a great advantage to petition the local building authority to allow the SMACNA Seismic Design Manual to become a reference document for the project. This will allow the exemptions spelled out in the SMACNA Seismic Design Manual to be utilized to best advantage

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EXEMPTIONS FOR ELECTRICAL
D2.1 7.1 Introduction:

The exemptions mentioned in both ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 are actually implied exemptions that are stated as requirements. This section is an attempt to more fully define these provisions for the design professional responsible for the design of the electrical components and distribution systems, and also for the installing contractor who is responsible for bidding and installing the restraints.

D2.1 7.2 Implied Blanket Exemption Based on Component Importance Factor I P (Section 9.6.3.14) [Sections 13.6.4 and 13.6.5]1:

Section 9.6.3.14 of ASCE 7-98/02 states that;

Attachments and supports for electrical equipment shall meet the force and displacement provisions of Sections 9.6.1.3 and 9.6.1.4 and the additional provisions of this Section. In addition to their attachments and supports, electrical equipment designated as having I P = 1.5 , itself, shall be designed to meet the force and displacement provisions of Sections 9.6.1.3 and 9.6.1.4 and the additional provisions of this Section.

In this statement, there really are no implied exemptions for electrical equipment, except that if the supports for the equipment have been designed by the manufacturer to meet the seismic load requirements with the specified mounting hardware, no further analysis and restraint will be required.

In Section 13.6.4 of ASCE 7-05, the text reads as follows.


1

References in brackets (Section 9.6.3.14) [Sections 13.6.4 and 13.6.5] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

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Electrical components with I P greater than 1.0 shall be designed for the seismic forces and relative displacements defined in Sections 13.3.1 and 13.3.2 .

ASCE 7-05 Section 13.6.5 states the following; Mechanical and electrical component supports (including those with I P = 1.0 ) and the means by which they are attached to the component shall be designed for the forces and displacements determined in Sections 13.3.1 and 13.3.2. Such supports including structural members, braces, frames, skirts, legs, saddles, pedestals, cables, guys, stays, snubbers, and tethers, as well as elements forged or cast as part of the mechanical or electrical component.

ASCE 7-05 Section 13.6.4 implies that electrical components that have been assigned a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.0, regardless of the Seismic Design Category to which they have been assigned, will not require seismic restraints beyond the attachment provisions normally included with the component, provided that a qualified component is selected. This means that if the component has four mounting feet with holes for the component should be attached to the structure with four nothing further is required. 3/8 mounting hardware, then

3/8 bolts, or anchors. Beyond that

However, ASCE 7-05 Section 13.6.5 insists that the supports must be designed to withstand the code mounted forces and displacements. So, as with ASCE 7-98/02 this is not a general blanket exemption. The manufacturer of the component must be able to certify that the supports designed as part of the component will withstand the seismic requirements for the project using hardware of the appropriate size and strength.

So, while additional analysis and restraint may not be required for electrical components with I P = 1.0 , the supports for this equipment must be designed by the manufacturer with sufficient strength to meet the code mandated requirements. After this the design professional of record for a project and the contractor may provide attachment hardware of the appropriate type, size, and

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strength, as recommended by the manufacturer of the equipment, without doing any further analysis, or providing any further restraint.

While this sounds rather wishy-washy, its really not. If the manufacturer of the equipment and its supports certifies that is was design to handle accelerations in excess of the design acceleration for the project, then it may be exempted from the need for further seismic restraint or analysis. D2.1 7.3 Conduit Size Exemption [13.6.5.5-6a]:

There are no specific size exemptions for electrical conduit in 2000/2003 IBC, ASCE 7-98/02. However, 2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05 does have exemptions for electrical conduit. They seem to follow the exemptions, in terms size, that are used for piping. Therefore, it is reasonable to use the exemptions in 2006 IBC for 2000/2003 IBC since it is the most recent version, and takes into account any new testing or analysis.

For 2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05, seismic restraints are not required for conduit that has been assigned a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5, and whose trade size is 2.5 in. (64mm) or less. When sizing and selecting restraints for electrical conduit, that the weight per linear foot of conduit varies greatly depending on the exact type of conduit being used. Also, when computing the total weight per foot of the conduit plus the cabling, it standard practice to assume that there will be ~40% copper fill for the cabling.

D2.1 7.4 Trapeze Supported Electrical Distribution Systems [13.6.5.5-6b]:

As with conduit, no specific exemptions for trapeze supported electrical distribution systems exist in 2000/2003 IBC, ASCE 7-98/02. However, an exemption is allowed under 2006 IBC, ASCE 705. It makes sense to argue for the use of this exemption in 2000/2003 IBC as well. The exemption matches the weight limits proposed for trapeze supported pipe in Section 5.6 of this guide.

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No restraints are required for conduit, bus ducts, or cable trays that are supported on trapeze bars, that have been assigned a Component Importance Factor equal to 1.5, and that have a total weight that is 10 lb/ft (146 N/m) or less. This total weight includes not only the conduit, bus duct, or cable trays, but also includes the trapeze bars as well.

D2.1 7.5 Summary:

All of the implied exemptions above are made without regard for the Seismic Design Category to which the building has been assigned. Further, a complete reading of the project specification is in order to ensure that these exemptions have not been negated by the wishes of the building owner.

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SESIMIC DESIGN FORCES
D2.1 8.1 Introduction:

The code based horizontal seismic force requirements for MEP systems and components are either calculated by the seismic restraint manufacturer as a part of the selection and certification process, or may be determined by the design professional of record for the MEP systems under consideration.

This is an informational section. It will discuss the code based horizontal seismic force demand equations and the variables that go into them. This discussion will provide a deeper understanding for the designer responsible for selecting the seismic restraints for MEP systems and their components and the nature of the seismic forces and the factors that affect them. D2.1 8.2 Horizontal Seismic Design Force (Section 9.6.1.3) [Section 13.3.1]1:

The seismic force is a mass, or weight, based force, and as such is applied to the MEP component at its center of gravity. Keep in mind that the earthquake ground motion moves the base of the building first. Then the motion of the building will accelerate the MEP component through its supports and/or seismic restraints. The horizontal seismic force acting on an MEP component will be determined in accordance with Equation 9.6.1.3-1 of ASCE 7-98/02 and Equation 13.3-1 of ASCE 7-05.
FP = 0.4a P S DS W P z 1 + 2 h RP I P

Equation 8-1 (9.6.1.3-1) [13.3-1]

References in brackets (Section 9.6.1.3) [Section 13.3.1] refer to sections and/or tables in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

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ASCE 7-98/02, and -05 define and upper and lower bound for the horizontal force that is to be applied to the center of gravity of a component. The horizontal seismic force acting on an MEP component is not required to be greater than; F P = 1.6 S DS I P W P

Equation 8-2 (9.6.1.3-2) [13.3-2]

And the horizontal seismic force acting on an MEP component is not to be less than; F P = 0.3 S DS I PW P

Equation 8-3 (9.6.1.3-3) [13.3-3]

Where:

FP = the design horizontal seismic force acting on an MEP component at its center of gravity.
S DS = the short period design spectral acceleration.

a P =the component amplification factor. This factor is a measure of how close to the natural period
of the building the natural period of the component is expected is expected to be. The closer the natural period of the component is to that of the building, the larger a P will be. Conversely, the further the natural period of the component is away from that of the building, the smaller a P will be. Typically a P will vary from 1.0 to 2.5, and is specified by component type in ASCE 7-98/02 and -05 and listed in Table 8-3.

I P = the component importance factor which be either 1.0 or 1.5. W P = the operating weight of the MEP system or component that is being restrained. R P = the response modification factor which varies from 1.25 to 5.0 in ASCE 7-98, 1.5 to 5.0 in
ASCE 7-02, and 1.50 to 12.0 in ASCE 7-05 by component type. This factor is a measure of the ability of the component and its attachments to the structure to absorb energy. It is really a measure of how ductile or brittle the component and its attachments are. The more flexible, ductile the component and its supports and/or restraints are the larger R P will be. And conversely, the more brittle and inflexible the component and its supports and/or restraints are, the smaller R P will

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be. The values are specified by component type in Table 8-1 for ASCE 7-98, Table 8-2 for ASCE 7-02, and Table 8-3 for ASCE 7-05.

z = the structural attachment mounting height of the MEP component in the building relative to the
grade line of the building.
h = the average height of the building roof as measured from the grade line of the building.

The 0.4 factor was introduced as a modifier for S DS as a recognition that the MEP components inside the building would react more strongly to the long period earthquake ground motion than to the short period motion. The 0.4 factor brings the design level acceleration for the MEP components more in line with the design level acceleration that is applied to the building structure itself.

z The 1 + 2 term in Equation 8-1 is recognition of the fact that all buildings and structures become h
more flexible as they increase in height. That is they are much stiffer, stronger, at the foundation level than the roof. Since the ground motion from an earthquake enters the building structure at the foundation level, the actual accelerations imparted an MEP component will be greater the higher in the building they are attached. A building may be likened to a vertically mounted cantilever beam that is being shaken by the bottom. It is a vibrating system that will have a certain natural period that is, in a general fashion, based on its mass and stiffness. If the natural period of the building is at, or close too, the earthquake period, the motion of the building could be extreme. This was the case in the Mexico City earthquake of September 19, 1985.

The horizontal seismic design force must be applied independently to the component in at least two perpendicular directions in the horizontal plane. The horizontal seismic design force must be applied in conjunction with all of the expected dead loads and service loads. The idea here is that the horizontal seismic design force is to be applied in the direction that causes the highest stress in the supports and restraints, and thus produces the most conservative results.

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D2.1 8.3 Vertical Seismic Design Force (Sections 9.5.2.7 and 9.6.1.3) [Sections 12.4.2.2 and 13.3.1]:

The MEP component, its supports, and its restraints must also be designed for a vertical seismic design force that acts concurrently with the horizontal seismic design force. This vertical seismic design force must be directed such that it also produces the highest stress in the supports and restraints, thus producing the most conservative result. This vertical seismic design force is defined as follows. FV = 0.2 S DS W P

Equation 8-4 (9.5.2.1-1/-2) [12.4-4]

Where: FV = the vertical seismic design force.

D2.1 8.4 The Evolution of a P and R P Factors (Sections 9.6.1.3 and 9.6.3.2 and Table 9.6.3.2) [Sections 13.3.1 and 13.6.1 and Table 13.6-1]:

The MEP component, along with its supports, will also form a vibrating system with a natural period that depends on the mass of the component and the stiffness of the supports. The component amplification factor ( a P ) is a measure of how closely the natural period of the component and its supports matches the natural period of the building. For a P = 1.0 the natural periods are not close, while for a p = 2.5 the natural period of the MEP component and their support is very close to that of the building.

The component response modification factor( R P )is a measure of how much energy the MEP component along with its supports and attachments can absorb without sustaining crippling damage. A common term used throughout the HVAC industry is fragility. As the term implies, it is concerned with how fragile a component might be. That is, how easily a component may be

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damaged, and to what degree it might be damaged by a specified load and loading rate. The R P factor, then, is considered to be an indicator of how fragile an MEP component might be. For R P = 1.0 the component is extremely fragile. For R P = 12.0 , on the other hand, would be a component that is very robust.

The values for a P and R P are assigned by the ASCE 7 committee based on accumulated experience throughout the building industry. The evolution of these factors may be traced through Tables 8-1; 8-2, and 8-3 which represent 2000 IBC, ASCE 7-98; 2003 IBC, ASCE 7-02; and 2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05 respectively. The different values for the same items in the three tables indicate the lack of knowledge and understanding concerning these components throughout the industry. Only time, experience, and shake table testing will produce true usable values for a P and R P .

D2.1 8.5 LRFD versus ASD: (Sections 2.3 and 2.4) [Sections 2.3, 2.4 and 13.1.7]

This topic was briefly touched upon in Section 4.8 of this guide. However, more should be said about it in this section dealing the design seismic forces that will be applied to the MEP components. The Civil and Structural Engineering community has adopted the LRFD, Load Resistance Factor Design, philosophy. With this design philosophy the factors controlling the serviceability of the structure as assigned to the design loads. ASD, Allowable Stress Design, is the design philosophy which preceded LRFD. In ASD, the factors controlling the serviceability of the structure are assigned to the yield strength or to the ultimate strength of the material. Traditionally the factors controlling the serviceability of the structure have been known as the Safety Factors, or Factors of Safety.

The forces calculated using Equations 8-1, 8-2, 8-3, and 8-4 will have magnitudes that correspond to LRFD. Many standard components such a concrete anchors, bolts, screws, and etc. will have their capacities listed as ASD values. Components whose capacities are listed as ASD values may be compared to the LRFD results from Equations 8-1 through 8-4 by multiplying the ASD values by 1.4.

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Table 8-1; Component Amplification and Response Modification Factors for 2000 IBC (Table 9.6.3.2) Mechanical & Electrical Component2
General Mechanical Equipment
Boilers and furnaces. Pressure vessels on skirts and free-standing. Stacks & cantilevered chimneys Other

aP 3
----1.0 2.5 2.5 1.0

RP 4
----2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

Piping Systems
High deformability elements and attachments (welded steel pipe & brazed copper pipe). Limited deformability elements and attachments (steel pipe with screwed connections, no hub connections, and Victaulic type connections). Low deformability elements and attachments (iron pipe with screwed connections, and glass lined pipe).

----1.0 1.0 1.0

----3.5 2.5 1.25

HVAC Systems
Vibration isolated. Non-vibration isolated. Mounted-in-line with ductwork. Other

----2.5 1.0 1.0 1.0

----2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

General Electrical
Distributed systems (bus ducts, conduit, and cable trays). Equipment. Lighting fixtures.

----2.5 1.0 1.0

----5.0 2.5 1.25

Components mounted on vibration isolators shall be restrained in each horizontal direction with bumpers or snubbers, and the horizontal seismic design force shall be equal to 2FP. 3 The value for aP shall not be less than 1.0. Lower values shall not be used unless justified by a detailed dynamic analysis. A value of aP=1.0 is to be applied to equipment that is rigid or rigidly attached. A value of aP=2.5 is to be applied to equipment regarded as flexible or flexibly attached. 4 A value of RP=1.25 is to be used for component anchorage design with expansion anchor bolts, shallow chemical anchor, shall low deformability cast in place anchors, or when the component is constructed of brittle materials. Shallow anchors are those with an embedment depth to nominal diameter ratio that is less than 8.

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Table 8-2; Component Amplification and Response Modification Factors for 2003 IBC (Table 9.6.3.2) Mechanical & Electrical Component5
General Mechanical Equipment
Boilers and furnaces. Pressure vessels on skirts and free standing. Stacks and cantilevered chimneys. Other

aP 6
----1.0 2.5 2.5 1.0

RP
----2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

Piping Systems
High deformability elements and attachments (welded steel pipe & brazed copper pipe). Limited deformability elements and attachments (steel pipe with screwed connections, no hub connections, and Victaulic type connections). Low deformability elements and attachments (iron pipe with screwed connections, and glass lined pipe).

----1.0 1.0 1.0

----3.5 2.5 1.5

HVAC Systems
Vibration isolated. Non-vibration isolated. Mounted-in-line with ductwork. Other

----2.5 1.0 1.0 1.0

----2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

General Electrical
Distribution systems (bus ducts, conduit, and cable trays). Equipment Lighting fixtures.

----2.5 1.0 1.0

----5.0 2.5 1.5

Components mounted on vibration isolators shall be restrained in each horizontal direction with bumpers or snubbers. If the maximum bumper/snubber clearance, or air gap, is greater than 1/4 in., the horizontal seismic design force shall be equal to 2FP. If the maximum bumper/snubber clearance, air gap, is less than or equal to 1/4 in., the horizontal seismic design force shall be taken as FP. 6 The value for aP shall not be less than 1.0. Lower values shall not be used unless justified by a detailed dynamic analysis. A value of aP=1.0 is to be applied to equipment that is rigid or rigidly attached. A value of aP=2.5 is to be applied to equipment regarded as flexible or flexibly attached.

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Table 8-3; Component Amplification and Response Modification Factors for 2006 IBC [Table 13.6-1]
MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS
Air-side HVAC fans, air handlers, and other mechanical components with sheet metal framing. Wet-side HVAC boilers, chillers, & other mechanical components constructed of ductile materials. Engines, turbines, pumps compressors, and pressure vessels not supported on skirts. Skirt supported pressure vessels. Generators, batteries, transformers, motors, & other electrical components made of ductile materials. Motor control cabinets, switchgear, & other components constructed of sheet metal framing. Communication equipment, computers, instrumentation and controls. Roof-mounted chimneys, stacks, cooling and electrical towers braced below their C.G. Roof-mounted chimneys, stacks, cooling and electrical towers braced below their C.G. Lighting fixtures. Other mechanical & electrical components.

aP 7
2.5 1.0 1.0 2.5 1.0 2.5 1.0 2.5 1.0 1.0 1.0

RP 8
6.0 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 6.0 2.5 3.0 2.5 1.5 1.5

Vibration Isolated Components & Systems


Components & systems isolated using neoprene elements & neoprene isolated floors with elastomeric snubbers or resilient perimeter stops Spring isolated components & systems & vibration isolated floors closely restrained with elastomeric snubbing devices or resilient perimeter stops. Internally isolated components or systems. Suspended vibration isolated equipment including in-line duct devices & suspended internally isolated components.

----2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5

----2.5 2.0 2.0 2.5

Distribution Systems
Piping in accordance with ASME B31, this includes in-line components, with joints made by welding or brazing. Piping in accordance with ASME B31, this includes in-line components, constructed of high or limited deformability materials with joints made by threading, bonding, compression couplings, or grooved couplings. Piping & tubing that is not in accordance with ASME B31, this includes in-line components, constructed with high deformability materials with joints made by welding or brazing. Piping & tubing that is not in accordance with ASME B31, this includes in-line components, constructed of high or limited deformability materials with joints made by threading, bonding, compression couplings, or grooved couplings. Piping & tubing of low deformability materials, such as cast iron, glass, or non-ductile plastics. Ductwork, including in-line components, constructed of high deformability materials, with joints made by welding or brazing. Ductwork, including in-line components, constructed of high or limited deformability materials, with joints made by means other than welding or brazing. Duct work constructed of low deformability materials such as cast iron, glass, or non-ductile plastics. Electrical conduit, bus ducts, rigidly mounted cable trays, & plumbing. Suspended cable trays.
7

----2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.0 2.5

----12.0 6.0 9.0 4.5 3.0 9.0 6.0 3.0 2.5 6.0

The value for aP shall not be less than 1.0. Lower values shall not be used unless justified by a detailed dynamic analysis. A value of aP=1.0 is to be applied to components that are rigid or rigidly attached. A value of aP=2.5 is to be applied to components regarded as flexible or flexibly attached. 8 Components mounted on vibration isolators shall be restrained in each horizontal direction with bumpers or snubbers. If the maximum bumper/snubber clearance, or air gap, is greater than 1/4 in., the horizontal seismic design force shall be equal to 2FP. If the maximum bumper/snubber clearance, air gap, is less than or equal to 1/4 in., the horizontal seismic design force shall be taken as FP.

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D2.1 8.6 Summary:

This section has provided an insight into the way in which the seismic design forces for MEP systems and components are to be computed. It is generally not necessary for a designer to actually run the computations for the seismic design forces. These forces are normally computed by the manufacturer of the seismic restraint devices as part of the selection and certification process to ensure that the proper components are selected per the code and the specification.

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ANCHORAGE OF MEP COMPONENTS TO THE BUILDING STRUCTURE
D2.1 9.1 Introduction:

The anchorage, or attachment, of the MEP components and their seismic restraints to the building structure has always been a gray area generally left to the installing contractor with little or no guidance from the design professionals responsible for the MEP systems or the building structure. ASCE/SEI 7-05 does give some general guidance for the making these attachments. However, the design professionals involved with the MEP systems and the building structure must share the responsibility for ensuring the adequacy of these attachments. This section will cover the guidance provided to the design professionals of record in ASCE/SEI 7-05. D2.1 9.2 General Guidelines for MEP Component Anchorage (Section 9.6.1.6 and 9.6.3.4) [Section 13.4]1:

1. The MEP component, its supports, and seismic restraints must be positively attached to the building structure without relying on frictional resistance generated by the dead weight of the component. The following are some of the acceptable ways and means of attachment. a. Bolting b. Welding c. Post installed concrete anchors d. Cast in place concrete anchors 2. There must be a continuous load path of sufficient strength and stiffness between the component and the building structure to withstand the expected seismic loads and displacements. This means that when cable restraints are used for distributed MEP systems, the cables can not bend or wrap around any other component or structure in a straight line path between the component and the structure.
1

References in brackets (Sections 9.6.1.6 and 9.6.3.4) [Section 13.4] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in ASCE 7-98/02 and ASCE 7-05 respectively which forms the basis for the seismic provisions in 2000/2003 IBC and 2006 IBC respectively.

ANCHORAGE OF MEP COMPONENTS TO THE BUILDING STRUCTURE PAGE 1 of 4 D2.1 9.0


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3. The local areas of the building structure must be designed with sufficient strength and stiffness to resist and transfer the seismic restraint forces from the MEP systems and components to the main force resisting structure of the building. It is at this point that the design professional of record, and the installing contractor for the MEP system must work closely with the structural engineer of record to make sure that the intended anchorage points for the MEP system seismic restraints have sufficient capacity. D2.1 9.3 Anchorage in (Cracked) Concrete and Masonry (Section 9.6.1.6) [Section 13.4.2]:

1. Anchors for MEP component seismic restraints and supports are to be designed and proportioned to carry the least of the following: a. A force equal to 1.3 times the seismic design forces acting on the component and its supports and restraints. b. The maximum force that can be transferred to the anchor by the component and its supports. 2. R P 1.5 will be used to determine the component forces unless: a. The design anchorage of the component and/or its restraints is governed by the strength of a ductile steel element. b. The design of post installed anchors in concrete used for the anchorage of the component supports and restraints is prequalified for seismic applications according to ACI 355.2. i. Anchors that have been prequalified per ACI 355.2 will have an ICC-ES ESR Report issued for that anchor stating the fact that it is suitable for seismic applications for the current version of IBC. It will also give the allowable loads, embedments, and edge distances pertinent to the allowable loads. ii. Anchors from different manufacturers may not be directly substituted on a oneto-one basis. Each manufacturer will have a different design that will have different allowable loads when tested under ACI 355.2. The allowable loads for equivalent anchor sizes may be radically different.

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c. The anchor is designed in accordance with Section 14.2.2.14 of ASCE 7-05.

For 2000 IBC, ASCE 7-98, the cracked concrete anchors are not required, and standard post installed wedge type anchors may be used for seismic restraint as long as there is an ICC Legacy report stating that the anchors may be used in seismic applications. For 2003 IBC, ASCE 7-02, there are no specific statements in ASCE 7-02 that require the use of cracked concrete anchors in seismic applications. However, ASCE 7-02 Section 9.9 adopts ACI 318-02 as a reference document. ACI 318-02 specifies that the post installed anchors meet ACI 355.2 and are required to be qualified for moderate or high seismic risk zone usage. ACI 355.2 is the test standard by which post installed anchors are to be pre-qualified for seismic applications in cracked concrete. So, by inference, cracked concrete anchors should also be used for 2003 IBC. However, that has not yet been widely enforced since few if any post installed anchors had been qualified to this standard before 2006 IBC was issued.

D2.1 9.4 Undercut Anchors (Section 9.6.3.13.2-c) [Section 13.6.5.5-5]:

For both 2000 IBC, ASCE 7-98, and 2006 IBC, ASCE 7-05, post installed expansion, wedge, anchors may not be used for non-vibration isolated mechanical equipment rated over 10 hp (7.45 kW). However, post installed undercut expansion anchors may be used.

For 2003 IBC, ASCE 7-02, post installed expansion, wedge, anchors may not be used for nonvibration isolated mechanical equipment. However, post installed undercut expansion anchors are permitted. D2.1 9.5 Prying of Bolts and Anchors (Section 9.6.1.6.3) [Section 13.4.3]:

The design of the attachment of the MEP component supports and restraints must take into account the mounting conditions such as eccentricity in the supports and brackets, and prying of the bolts or anchors.

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D2.1 9.6 Power Actuated or Driven Fasteners (Section 9.6.1.6.5) [Section 13.4.5]:

Power actuated or driven fasteners, such as powder shot pins, may not be used for tensile load applications in Seismic Design Categories D, E, and F unless specifically approved for this application.

D2.1 9.7 Friction Clips (Section 9.6.3.13.2-b) [Section 13.4.6]:

Friction clips may not be used to attach seismic restraints to the component or the building structure. A typical example would be the attachment of a cable restraint to a structural beam with a standard beam clamp. A beam clamp with a restraint strap or safety strap, capable of resisting the applied seismic load that will ensure that the clamp will be prevented from walking off the beam may be used.

D2.1 9.8 Summary:

Attachment of the MEP components and their seismic restraints to the building structure is of the utmost importance to maintaining the building function following an earthquake. It is the responsibility of the design professionals of record for the MEP systems to work with the structural engineer of record and the architect of record for the building to ensure that the anchorage points for the MEP component supports and restraints have been properly designed to transfer the design seismic loads as well as any other dead weight and service loads.

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IBC 2000/2003 Piping Restraint Rules


The following information is based on the 2000 IBC Code. (The same data is present in the 2003 IBC and/or Chapter 9 of ASCE 7-02, but the citation references would vary). These do not take into account more stringent specifications or local requirements. Systems relating to power piping; process piping; liquid transportation systems for hydrocarbons, LPG, anhydrous ammonia and alcohol; refrigeration; slurries; or gas transmission are subject to ASME standards that should also be consulted where applicable. Should such requirements exist, they would need to be evaluated independently. For the remainder of this document pipingrefers only to piping not related to those items above. Prior to using this document, the appropriate (SDS) design spectral response for the project in question must be determined. This is a function of the mapped short period spectral response and the soil classification factor. If the soil type is unknown, type D should be assumed. In addition, the project must be classified according to seismic use group. Refer to the code or separate documentation for a detailed breakdown as to the definitions of various seismic use groups. Lastly, the piping system importance factor must be determined. This factor is now tied s more closely to the use of, or hazard generated by, the piping rather than the use of the structure. There are two levels of importance: 1.0 and 1.5. The importance factor of 1.5 is used under the following conditions: 1) The component is a life-safety component that must function after an earthquake. 2) The component contains hazardous or flammable material in excess of exempted limits. 3) Components needed for continued operation of Group III occupancy structure. 4) Components whose failure could result damage to a system or space required for continued operation of Group III occupancy structure. 5) All other conditions use an importance factor of 1.0. Using the seismic use group in conjunction with the design spectral response, the seismic design category can be determined from the table below:

IBC 2000 PIPING RESTRAINT RULES


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Seismic Design Category based on .2 Second Response Accelerations Seismic Use Group SDS Value I II III SDS < 0.167g A A A 0.167g<SDS<0.33g 0.33<SDS<0.50g 0.50g<SDS
a 0.75g<S1
a

B C D E

B C D E

C D D F

S1 is mapped max considered spectral response

Piping Exempt from Restraint Requirements Piping of all types that does not require seismic restraint per code: 1) Any piping that is placed in a structure that falls into seismic design category A or B (1621.1.1). 2) Any piping that is placed in a structure that falls into seismic design category C and has an importance factor of 1.0 (1621.1.1). 3) Any piping system in any seismic design category that has an importance factor of 1.0, weighs less than 400 lb, is mounted within 4 ft of the floor, is flexibly mounted to all interfacing equipment, and is not critical to the continued operation of the structure (1621.1.1). Fire-Protection piping that does not require seismic restraint per code: 1) All piping when not subject to earthquakes(NFPA 13 6-4). As this definition is not clear, defer back to IBC 1621.1.1 indicating nothing required for design category A or B (only). 2) Lateral bracing not required if the top of the pipe is within 6of the support structure and the pipe is individually supported. Longitudinal bracing still is required (NFPA 13 6-4.5.3, NFPA 13 6-4.5.4). 3) Branch lines that are under 2.5diameter require no bracing (NFPA 13 6-4.5.3). Gas, fuel or other high hazard piping systems that do not require seismic restraint per code: 1) Runs of piping supported by hangers where all rod hangers are a maximum of 12 long (from top anchor position to top of pipe or from top anchor position to top of trapeze bar, whichever is longer). The rods must be fitted with a non-moment generating free swinging connection at the top and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided. (Note, all hanger rods on the run must comply with the above to meet this criteria, and the swinging of the pipes must not interfere with other pipes and systems.) (1621.3.10.2.1-2.2.1 and 1621.3.10) 2) High deformability piping (see below for examples) in seismic design category D, E, or

IBC 2000 PIPING RESTRAINT RULES


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F if the diameter is 1.0or less. The piping must also be located such that impacts with other piping or equipment will not occur during a seismic event, and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided. (1621.3.10.2.1-2.2.2 and 1621.3.10). 3) High deformability piping (see below for examples) in seismic design category C if the diameter is 2.0or less. The piping must also be located such that impacts with other piping or equipment will not occur during a seismic event, and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided. (1621.3.10.2.1-2.2.3 and 1621.3.10). Medical gas piping systems that do not require seismic restraint per code: 1) Runs of piping supported by hangers where all rod hangers are a maximum of 12 long (from top anchor position to top of pipe or from top anchor position to top of trapeze bar, whichever is longer). The rods must be fitted with a non-moment generating free swinging connection at the top and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided. Note that all hanger rods on the run must comply with the above to meet this criteria, and the swinging of the pipes must not interfere with other pipes and systems (1621.3.10.2.1-2.2.1 and 1621.3.10). 2) High deformability piping (see below for examples) in seismic design category D, E, or F if the diameter is 1.0or less. The piping must also be located such that impacts with other piping or equipment will not occur during a seismic event, and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided (1621.3.10.2.1-2.2.2 and 1621.3.10). 3) High deformability piping (see below for examples) in seismic design category C if the diameter is 2.0or less. The piping must also be located such that impacts with other piping or equipment will not occur during a seismic event, and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided (1621.3.10.2.1-2.2.3 and 1621.3.10). General Piping Systems that do not require Seismic Restraint per Code: 1) Runs of piping supported by hangers where all rod hangers are a maximum of 12 long (from top anchor position to top of pipe or from top anchor position to top of trapeze bar, whichever is longer). The rods must be fitted with a non-moment generating free swinging connection at the top and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided. Note that all hanger rods on the run must comply with the above to meet this criteria and the swinging of the pipes must not interfere with other pipes and systems (1621.3.10.2.1-2.2.1). 2) High deformability piping (see below for examples) in seismic design category D, E, or F and an importance factor of 1.5, if the diameter is 1.0or less. The piping must also be located such that impacts with other piping or equipment will not occur during a seismic event, and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided (1621.3.10.2.1-2.2.2). 3) High deformability piping (see below for examples) in seismic design category C and an importance factor of 1.5, if the diameter is 2.0or less. The piping must also be located such that impacts with other piping or equipment will not occur during a seismic event, and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided (1621.3.10.2.1-2.2.3 and 1621.3.10).

IBC 2000 PIPING RESTRAINT RULES


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4) High deformability piping (see below for examples) in seismic design category D, E, or F and an importance factor of 1.0, if the diameter is 3.0or less. The piping must also be located such that impacts with other piping or equipment will not occur during a seismic event, and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided (1621.3.10.2.1-2.2.4). Piping system deformability Classifications and Flexibility Issues: The Code identifies piping systems by levels of deformability. Unfortunately the definitions as expressed in the body of the code are difficult to match up to typical hardware that might be used. As a guide, various types of commonly used components and corresponding deformability ratings are listed below. High deformability: These are comprised of piping made of ductile materials and connected with strain tolerant connections. Steel or copper pipe with welded, brazed or roll formed groove type connections, PVC/PVDF plastic piping with glued connections or ductile iron pipe with no-hub connections can normally be assumed to fall into this category. Medium deformability: These are systems that are commonly made up of relatively ductile materials, but are connected together with couplings that are less strain resistant. Steel pipe and fittings as well as plastic piping connected with screwed joints or cut groove type connections can normally be assumed to fall into this category. Low deformability: These systems are made of brittle materials and/or have connectors with a low strain tolerance. Plain cast iron, glass lined and FRP pipe and connectors fall into this group. Flexibility: Some motion tolerant coupling types, when used in seismic applications, are actually too flexible. On these a reduced restraint spacing (one half that specified by SMACNA) must be used to prevent excessive motion in and resulting damage to the piping system. Examples of these include non-rigid groove type connectors and 2 band no-hub couplings. Unless noted otherwise, KNC assumes piping installed in seismic areas to meet the high deformability criteria and that measures have been taken to control the system flexibility when sizing and locating restraint components.

IBC 2000 PIPING RESTRAINT RULES


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

IBC 2000 Ductwork Restraint Rules


The following information is based on the 2000 IBC Code itself and does not take into account more stringent specifications or local requirements. Prior to using this document, the appropriate (SDS) design spectral response for the project in question must be determined. This is a function of the mapped short period spectral response and the soil classification factor. If the soil type is unknown, type D should be assumed.

Lastly, the ductwork systems importance factor must be determined. This factor is now tied more closely to the use of, or hazard generated by, the ductwork rather than the use of the structure. There are two levels of importance: 1.0 and 1.5. The importance factor of 1.5 is used under the following conditions: 1) The component is a life-safety component that must function after an earthquake. 2) The component contains hazardous or flammable material in excess of exempted limits. 3) Components needed for continued operation of Group III occupancy structures. 4) Components whose failure could result in damage to a system or space required for continued operation of Group III occupancy structures. 5) All other conditions use an importance factor of 1.0. Using the seismic use group in conjunction with the design spectral response, the seismic design category can be determined from the table below:
Seismic Design Category based on .2 Second Response Accelerations Seismic Use Group SDS Value I II III SDS < 0.167g A A A 0.167g<SDS<0.33g 0.33<SDS<0.50g 0.50g<SDS
a 0.75g<S1
a

B C D E

B C D E

C D D F

S1 is mapped max considered spectral response

IBC 2000 DUCTWORK RESTRAINT RULES


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In addition, the project must be classified according to seismic use group. Refer to the code or separate documentation for a detailed breakdown as to the definitions of various seismic use groups.

Ductwork Exempt from Restraint Requirement Ductwork of all types that does not require seismic restraint per code: 1) Any ductwork that is placed in a structure that falls into seismic design category A or B (1621.1.1). 2) Any ductwork that is placed in a structure that falls into seismic design category C and has an importance factor of 1.0 (1621.1.1). 3) Any ducting system in any seismic design category that has an importance factor of 1.0, weighs less than 400 lb, is mounted within 4 ft of the floor, is flexibly mounted to all interfacing equipment, and is not critical to the continued operation of the structure (1621.1.1). High hazard ductwork systems that do not require seismic restraint per code: 1) Restrain all ducts regardless of size (1621.3.9). General ducting systems that do not require seismic restraint per code: 1) Runs of ductwork with an importance factor of 1.0 that are supported by hangers where all rod hangers are a maximum of 12 long (from top anchor position to top of duct or from top anchor position to top of trapeze bar, whichever is longer). The rods must be detailed to avoid significant bending of the hanger rods or connections Note that all hanger rods on the run must comply with the above to meet this criteria and the swinging of the ducts must not interfere with other ducts or systems (1621.3.9 item 1). 2) Ducts with an importance factor of 1.0 and with a cross-sectional area of 6 square feet of less. The ductwork must also be located such that impacts with other ductwork or equipment will not occur during a seismic event, and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided (1621.3.9 item 2).

IBC 2000 DUCTWORK RESTRAINT RULES


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BOCA 1996/SBC 1997 Piping Restraint Rules


The following information is based on the 1996 BOCA and 1997 SBC codes and does not take into account more stringent specifications or local requirements. Systems relating to power piping; process piping; liquid transportation systems for hydrocarbons, LPG, anhydrous ammonia and alcohol; refrigeration; slurries; or gas transmission are subject to ASME standards that should also be consulted where applicable. Should such requirements exist, they would need to be evaluated independently. For the remainder of this document piping refers only to piping not related to those items above. Prior to using this document, the appropriate peak velocity related acceleration (Av) for the project in question must be determined. In addition, the project must be classified by seismic performance category. Refer to the code or separate documentation for a detailed breakdown as to the definitions of various seismic hazard exposure groups.
Effective Peak Velocity Related Accelerations
Av<.05 .05<Av<.10

Seismic Hazard Exp Grp I II III A A A C C D E

B B .10<Av<.15 C C .15<Av<.20 C D .20<Av D D Seismic Performance Category

Piping Exempt from Restraint Requirements Piping of all types that does not require seismic restraint per code: 1) Any piping that is placed in a structure that falls into seismic performance category A or B (BOCA-1610.6 item 2 and SBC-1607.6 item 2). Fire-Protection piping that does not require seismic restraint per code: 1) All piping when not subject to earthquakes (NFPA 13 6-4). As this definition is not clear, defer back to BOCA code 1610-2 and SBC-1607.6-2 indicating nothing required for performance category A or B (only). 2) Lateral bracing not required if the top of the pipe is within 6 of the support structure and the pipe is individually supported. Longitudinal bracing still is required (NFPA 13 6-4.5.3, NFPA 13 6-4.5.4). 3) Branch lines that are under 2.5 diameter require no bracing (NFPA 13 6-4.5.3).

BOCA 1996/SBC 1997 PIPING RESTRAINT RULES


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Gas, fuel or other high hazard piping systems that do not require seismic restraint per code: 1) No exceptions, must all be restrained (BOCA-Table 1610.6.4(1) and SBC-Table 1607.6.4A no applicable notes) Medical gas piping systems that do not require seismic restraint per code (assumed other pipe systems in BOCA-Table 1610.6.4(1) and SBC-Table 1607.6.4A as no other categories apply, however 1992 SMACNA indicates 1 max for unrestrained medical gas piping (Section 3.3)): 1) Runs of piping individually supported by hangers where all rod hangers are a maximum of 12 long (from top anchor position to top of pipe or from top anchor position to top of trapeze bar, whichever is longer). Adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided. Note that all hanger rods on the run must comply with the above to meet this criteria, and the swinging of the pipes must not interfere with other pipes and systems (BOCA 1610.6.4.2 and Table 1610.6.4(1) note c1 / SBC 1607.6.4.2 and Table 1607.6.4A note 3a). 2) Piping in mechanical rooms that is 1.0 diameter or less. The piping must also be located such that impacts with other piping or equipment will not occur during a seismic event, and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided (BOCA Table 1610.6.4(1) note c2 and SBC Table 1607.6.4A note 3b). 3) Piping in other areas that is 2.0 diameter or less. The piping must also be located such that impacts with other piping or equipment will not occur during a seismic event, and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided (Min of 1992 SMACNA (3.3) and BOCA Table 1610.6.4(1) note c3 or SBC Table 1607.6.4A note 3c). General piping systems that do not require seismic restraint per code: 1) Runs of piping individually supported by hangers where all rod hangers are a maximum of 12 long (from top anchor position to top of pipe or from top anchor position to top of trapeze bar, whichever is longer). Adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided. Note that all hanger rods on the run must comply with the above to meet this criteria, and the swinging of the pipes must not interfere with other pipes and systems (BOCA 1610.6.4.2 and Table 1610.6.4(1) note c1 / SBC 1607.6.4.2 and Table 1607.6.4A note 3a). 2) Piping in mechanical rooms that is 1.0 diameter or less. The piping must also be located such that impacts with other piping or equipment will not occur during a seismic event ,and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided (BOCA Table 1610.6.4(1) note c2 and SBC Table 1607.6.4A note 3b). 3) Piping in other areas that is 2.0 diameter or less. The piping must also be located such that impacts with other piping or equipment will not occur during a seismic event, and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided (BOCA Table 1610.6.4(1) note c3 and SBC Table 1607.6.4A note 3c).

BOCA 1996/SBC 1997 PIPING RESTRAINT RULES


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

BOCA 1996/SBC 1997 Ductwork Restraint Rules


The following information is based on the 1996 BOCA and 1997 SBC codes and does not take into account more stringent specifications or local requirements. Prior to using this document, the appropriate peak velocity related acceleration (Av) for the project in question must be determined. In addition, the project must be classified by seismic performance category. Refer to the code or separate documentation for a detailed breakdown as to the definitions of various seismic hazard exposure groups.

Av<.05 .05<Av<.10

A C C D E

B B .10<Av<.15 C C .15<Av<.20 C D .20<Av D D Seismic Performance Category

Ductwork Exempt from Restraint Requirements Ductwork of all types that does not require seismic restraint per code: 1) Any ductwork that is placed in a structure that falls into seismic performance category A or B (BOCA-1610.6 item 2 and SBC-1607.6 item 2). High hazard ductwork systems that do not require seismic restraint per code: 1) No exceptions, must all be restrained (BOCA-Table 1610.6.4(1) and SBC-Table 1607.6.4A no applicable notes). HVAC ducting systems that do not require seismic restraint per code: 1) Runs of ductwork supported by hangers where all rod hangers are a maximum of 12 long (from top anchor position to top of duct or from top anchor position to top of trapeze bar, whichever is longer). Adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided. Note that all hanger rods on the run must comply with the above to meet this criteria, and the swinging of the ducts must not interfere with other ducts and systems (BOCA 1610.6.4.2 and Table 1610.6.4(1) note d1 / SBC 1607.6.4.2 and Table 1607.6.4A note 4a). 2) Ductwork that is less than 6 square feet in area. The ductwork must also be located such that impacts with other ductwork or equipment will not occur during a seismic event, and adequate flexes at the equipment interfaces must be provided (BOCA Table 1610.6.4(1) note d2 and SBC Table 1607.6.4A note 4b).

BOCA 1996/SBC 1997 DUCTWORK RESTRAINT RULES


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Effective Peak Velocity Related Accelerations

Seismic Hazard Exp Grp I II III

UBC 1997 Piping Restraint Rules


The following information is based on the 1997 UBC code and does not take into account more stringent specifications or local requirements. Systems relating to power piping; process piping; liquid transportation systems for hydrocarbons, LPG, anhydrous ammonia and alcohol; refrigeration; slurries; or gas transmission are subject to ASME standards that should also be consulted where applicable. Should such requirements exist, they would need to be evaluated independently. For the remainder of this document piping refers only to piping not related to those items above. The UBC grants several exclusions without regard to the project or piping systems importance factor or the expected peak ground accelerations. As such, it is not necessary to review project importance factors or Seismic Zone when reviewing piping systems for possible exclusion (Footnotes on Table 16-O). Piping, Except Fire, Exempt from Restraint Requirements Any piping that meets all of the following criteria (Table 16-O Footnotes): A) Lateral motion will not cause damaging impact with other systems. B) Piping uses exclusively ductile materials and contains ductile connections. C) Lateral motion will not cause damage to fragile appurtenances (example: sprinkler heads). D) If mounted on a post protruding up from the floor, the post is checked for stability. E) The piping supports are under 12 in length and contain a connection that will not allow them to carry a moment (swivel). Rule of Thumb Exclusions While the code does not identify any exclusions based on pipe size or fluid carried, most jurisdictions will apply limits to the minimum piping size that requires bracing based on SMACNA. In addition, because hazardous materials such as gas are not addressed in the 97UBC, again the SMACNA document will typically be considered to be the guiding reference. Because the local authority has the final say on this, however, both of these items should be confirmed for each locale. Restraints can be excluded per SMACNA for: 1) Piping in mechanical rooms that is 1.0 diameter or less (SMACNA 3.3). 2) Piping in other areas that is 2.0 diameter or less (SMACNA 3.3). Additional locations where restraint is required: 1) All gas and hazardous piping regardless of size (SMACNA 3.3).

UBC 1997 PIPING RESTRAINT RULES


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Assuming fire-protection is governed by NFPA 13, restraint exclusions associated with it would be: 1) Lateral bracing not required if the top of the pipe is within 6 of the support structure and the pipe is individually supported. Longitudinal bracing still is required (NFPA 13 6-4.5.3, NFPA 13 6-4.5.4). 2) Branch lines that are under 2.5 diameter require no bracing (NFPA 13 6-4.5.3).

UBC 1997 PIPING RESTRAINT RULES


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UBC 1997 Ductwork Restraint Rules


The following information is based on 1997 UBC Code and does not take into account more stringent specifications or local requirements. The UBC grants several exclusions without regard to the project or ductwork systems importance factor or the expected peak ground accelerations. As such, it is not necessary to review project importance factors or seismic zone when reviewing ductwork systems for possible exclusion (Footnotes on Table 16-O). Ductwork Exempt from Restraint Requirements Any duct that meets all of the following criteria (Table 16-O footnotes): A) Lateral motion will not cause damaging impact with other systems. B) Lateral motion will not result in the loss of vertical support. C) If mounted on a post protruding up from the floor, the post is checked for stability. D) The duct supports are under 12 in length and contain a connection that will not allow them to carry a moment (swivel). Rule of Thumb Exclusions While the code does not identify any exclusions based on duct size or importance factor, most jurisdictions will apply limits to the minimum duct size that requires bracing based on SMACNA. Because the local authority has the final say on this, however, this should be confirmed for each locale. Restraints can be excluded per SMACNA for: 1) All ductwork that is under 6 sq feet in area (SMACNA 3.2).

UBC 1997 DUCTWORK RESTRAINT RULES


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Evaluating Seismic Requirements in Specifications


There are four or five items that are critical when determining the extent of seismic restraint required by a specification. Once the need for restraint is determined, the magnitude of the seismic forces must be evaluated to select the required components. The initial four items affecting all codes are: 1) The effective national code (code document and year). 2) The location of the project and the ground acceleration coefficient (Av or Z depending on the code). 3) The occupancy category (essential, hazardous, or emergency service-related in particular). 4) Any special seismic factors that may be listed in the spec and that exceed code requirements. These may dictate restraint even if the code would not normally require it, and a seismic requirement is often added to a spec to afford some degree of bomb blast protection. A fifth item that affects only the 97 UBC, 2000 IBC, and TI 809-04 spec is: 5) The class of soil present at the jobsite (geotechnical report data). The above information will need to be applied to the code requirements to determine the extent of seismic restraint to be included in the project. Once the above information is gathered, we can compare it to the appropriate code to determine specific requirements. A typical map for the BOCA, SBC, and UBC codes is shown below for reference.

EVALUATING SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS IN SPECIFICATIONS


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1996 BOCA and 1997 SBC The last version of both the BOCA and SBC codes, although being phased out by the 2000 IBC code, are still occasionally referenced at the state level or for a specific project. These two codes have basically identical seismic design parameters and will be considered together in this section. Equipment Exempt from Seismic Requirements The first step in calculating the seismic requirements for a job is to determine if restraint can be ruled out for the entire project. Start by determining the seismic use (or hazard exposure) group. All structures are placed into one of three classifications: I Anything not in Groups II or III II High occupancy structures and schools III Emergency, hazardous, and essential facilities. Using the seismic use group, along with the site ground acceleration factor and the table below, a performance factor can be obtained. Equipment in buildings with a performance factor of A or B is exempt from seismic design requirements.
Effective Peak Velocity Related Accelerations
Av<.05 .05<Av<.10

Seismic Hazard Exp Grp I II III A A A C C D E

B B .10<Av<.15 C C .15<Av<.20 C D .20<Av D D Seismic Performance Factor

In addition, mechanical equipment in performance category C buildings which falls into seismic use group I occupancies and is not related to safety, emergency power, or hazardous material transfer is also exempt. Piping does not require restraint in any seismic zone or performance category as long as it is 1) not hazardous, and 2) mounted such that the dimension from the top of the pipe to the supporting surface does not exceed 12 and adequate flexes are included at equipment connections. In addition, if the pipe is under 2-1/2 in diameter and is not in a mechanical room, or if it is under 1-1/4 in diameter and is in a mechanical room, no restraint is required. Ducting does not require restraint in any seismic zone or performance category as long as it is 1) not hazardous, and 2) mounted such that the pendulum length from the support

EVALUATING SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS IN SPECIFICATIONS


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surface to the trapeze does not exceed 12 and adequate flexes are included at equipment connections. Also, if the duct is less than 6 sq ft in area no restraint is required. In the BOCA and SBC codes there is no specific equipment exemption by weight or mounting location. If there is a requirement in the building to restrain equipment, it must all be restrained without regard to weight. Estimating Seismic Forces The global lateral seismic load is Fp = Av C c Pac W c where: = lateral seismic load = ground acceleration coefficient = seismic coefficient (Table 2.8-1) = performance criteria factor (Table 2.8-1) = attachment amplification factor = 2.0 for resiliently mounted equipment above grade = 1.0 for all others Wc = equipment/component weight. Worst-Case Load/Required Restraint Estimates The worst-case loads can be estimated for preliminary design as: Lateral Load: 2 * (total lateral load / number of restraints) Vertical Load: 0 (Fp < .25Wc) 0.5Fp (.25Wc < Fp < .5Wc) 1.0Fp (.5Wc < Fp < 1.0Wc) 2.0Fp (Fp > 1.0Wc) For general guidance, when restraint is required with these codes, FHS and FLSS isolators and 1/4" restraint cables will work in virtually all zones and with most equipment types. For attachment to concrete in higher seismic zones, load spreader plates will almost certainly be required. For non-hazardous piping and ductwork, a reasonable estimate of the number of restraints required is the total length of restrained pipe divided by 25, or the total length of restrained duct divided by 20. For hazardous systems, the values would be about 3/2 of Fp Av Cc P ac (Eq. 2.8-1)

EVALUATING SEISMIC REQUIREMENTS IN SPECIFICATIONS


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the above.
Table 2.8-1. Seismic Coefficients and Performance Criteria Factors (BOCA and SBC).
Mech / Elec component or system Cc P Ssmc Hzrd Grp I II III 2.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 0.5 1.5 1.0 1.5 1.5

Fire protection equip and systems Emergency or standby electrical systems General Equipment A) Boilers, furnaces, incinerators, water htrs, and other equipment utilizing combustible energy sources or high-temperature energy sources B) Communication systems C) Electrical bus ducts and primary cable systems suspended farther than 12" from supporting surface or 2-1/2" or more inside diameter D) Electrical motor control centers, motor control devices, switchgear, transformers, and unit substations E) Reciprocating or rotating equipment F) Tanks, heat exchangers and pressure vessels. Manufacturing and process machinery Pipe systems A) Gas and high-hazard piping B) Fire suppression piping C) Other pipe systems HVAC ducts Electrical panel boards Lighting fixtures (Cc for pendulum fixtures must be 1.5)

0.67 2.0 2.0 0.67 0.67 0.67 0.67

0.5 1.5 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5

1.0 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

1997 UBC The 97 UBC code is considerably more complex than the BOCA or SBC codes. This code introduces soil factors, equipment elevation, and fault proximity into the equation. Equipment Exempt from Seismic Requirements When determining the seismic requirements the first step, as with BOCA and SBC, is to review the job to see if restraint can be ruled out of the project globally. The 97 UBC code contains only a single global exclusion. All components in buildings constructed in seismic zones 2 and higher must be designed for seismic loads. By exclusion, this indicates that components in all buildings constructed in seismic zone 1 (Z < .075) need not be reviewed for seismic loads. The 97 UBC excludes equipment weighing 400 lb or less which is floor or roof mounted. For equipment meeting this exclusion it need be restrained only in the manner normally recommended for general applications by the equipment manufacturer. No engineering support documentation is required to substantiate the design and no special components

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are required. Piping does not require restraint in any zone as long as it is 1) not hazardous, and 2) mounted with a swivel-type connection such that the dimension from the top of the pipe to the supporting surface does not exceed 12 and adequate flexes are included at equipment connections. Ducting does not require restraint in any seismic zone or performance category as long as it is mounted with a swivel-type connection such that the pendulum length from the support surface to the trapeze does not exceed 12 and adequate flexes are included at equipment connections. Raceways do not require restraint in any seismic zone or performance category as long as they are mounted with a swivel-type connection such that the pendulum length from the support surface to the raceway does not exceed 12 and adequate flexes are included at equipment connections. Although not in the code, it is accepted practice to not restrain piping outside of mechanical rooms that is under 2-1/2 in diameter or ductwork that is under 6 sq ft in area. This is referenced in the SMACNA guidelines and these guidelines have been accepted by the UBC as meeting code compliance. These can be excluded if SMACNA is referenced in the specification. Estimating Seismic Forces The lateral seismic force acting on a component or piece of equipment is calculated as Fp = where: Fp ap Ca Ip Rp hx hr Wp = total design lateral force = component amplification factor (Table 2.8-2) = seismic coefficient = importance factor = component response modification factor (Table 2.8-2) = component attachment elevation with respect to grade = roof elevation with respect to grade = weight of component. a pC a I p h 1 + 3 x Rp hr W p (Eq. 2.8-2)

The design lateral force need not exceed

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Fp = 4.0Ca I pW p and the absolute minimum design load is Fp = 0.7C a I pW p .

(Eq. 2.8-3)

(Eq. 2.8-4)

The importance factor Ip for a piece of equipment is 1.5 if the equipment is essential to the continued operation of essential or hazardous services (whether or not the building itself is essential). Otherwise the importance factor is 1.0. Table 2.8-2. Component Amplification and Response Modification Factors.
Horizontal Force Factors Components Ceilings and light fixtures Equipment Tanks and vessels Elec, mech, plumbing equip, conduit, piping, ductwork All equip anchored to structure below its center of mass Emergency systems and essential communications Isolated equipment

ap 1 1 1 2.5 1 2.5

Rp 3 3 3 3 3 1.5

The seismic coefficient (Ca) is a measure of the ground motion acceleration and its calculation requires the following information. 1) The Site Ground Acceleration Coefficient (z). This will range from .075 to .4 depending on location. 2) The Site Soil Classification (Hard Rock - SA, Rock - SB, Dense Soil - SC, Stiff Soil - SD, Soft Soil - SE, and Other - SF). If unknown, use soil profile SD. 3) If the Site Ground Acceleration Coefficient (z) is 0.4 (Seismic Zone 4) the proximity to the nearest active fault is required. Fault maps can be pulled up on the Internet to help in this task, but it should be specified by the Engineer of Record. If the distance to the fault is greater than 10 km, the forces are not increased. If less than 10 km, the distance in km should be estimated. 4) If the Site Ground Acceleration Coefficient (z) is 0.4 (Seismic Zone 4) the seismic source type must be identified. A faults that are capable of producing large magnitude earthquakes and that have a high rate of seismic activity. C faults not capable of producing large magnitude earthquakes and that have a relatively low rate of seismic activity. B all other faults.

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In any case, if the equipment is anchored to concrete the load can be reduced by a factor of 1.4 to account for the different design factors used for the anchor capacity and load determination (this applies to either hard-mounted or isolated equipment). If the equipment is isolated and anchored to concrete with post installed or shallow (less than 8 bolt diameter) cast-in-place anchors, the design load used must be doubled to account for dynamic impact.

The Seismic Coefficient is determined from Table 2.8-3b. The table is entered with the Seismic Zone Factor and Soil Profile and the value of Ca is determined. In Seismic Zone 4 (z = 0.4) the Near Source Factor (Na) should be determined from Table 2.8-3a. Table 2.8-3. Near Source Factor and Seismic Coefficient. (a) Near Source Factor (b) Seismic Coefficient
Seismic Coefficient Ca

Near Source Factor (Na) Closest Distance to know Seismic Source Seismic Source Type <= 2 km 5 km >= 10 km A 1.5 1.2 1.0 B 1.3 1.0 1.0 C 1.0 1.0 1.0 Linear Interpolation for distance is permitted

Sb Sc Sd Se Sf

0.08 0.09 0.12

0.15 0.18 0.22

0.20 0.24 0.28

0.30 0.33 0.36

0.40Na 0.40Na 0.44Na

0.36Na 0.19 0.30 0.34 0.36 Site Specific Geotechnical Report Required

Worst-Case Load/Required Restraint Estimates The worst-case loads can be estimated for preliminary design as: Lateral Load: 2 * (total lateral load / number of restraints) Vertical Load: 0 (Fp < .25Wp) 0.5Fp (.25Wp < Fp < .5Wp) 1.0Fp (.5Wp < Fp < 1.0Wp) 2.0Fp (1.0Wp < Fp < 2.0Wp) 4.0Fp (Fp > 2.0Wp) When restraint is required with this code, FHS and FLSS isolators and 1/4 inch restraint cables will generally work for at grade applications in virtually all zones and with most equipment types. For equipment locations at higher elevations and the roof, particularly in higher seismic zones, it may be necessary to use separate restraints (HS-5 or 7) or FMS isolator/restraints. If attached to concrete, load spreader plates will almost certainly be required. For non-hazardous piping and ductwork at grade, a reasonable estimate of the number of restraints required is the total length of restrained pipe divided by 20 and the total length of restrained duct divided by 15. For hazardous systems the values would be about 3/2 the above. For piping and duct at the roof, the required restraints will approximately double. For pipes over 6 diameter in all cases cable sizes will increase to 3/8 and for

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Seismic Zone Factor, z Soil Profile Type z = 0.075 z = 0.15 z = 0.2 z = 0.3 Sa 0.06 0.12 0.16 0.24

z = 0.4 0.32Na

pipes over 12 diameter the size can increase to 1/2". 2000 IBC and TI 809-04 This code and federal spec represent the latest round of thinking in seismic design. They are similar to the 97 UBC but use new maps and factors to allow more accurate load assessments at a given site without having to research fault information. Soil factors and equipment elevation still factor into the equation. The primary difference between TI 809-04 and the 2000 IBC is in the area of exclusions. The 2000 IBC excludes some structures and components from the seismic design scope that TI 809-04 does not. Equipment Exempt from Seismic Requirements As with all building codes, the first step in calculating the seismic requirements for a job is to determine if restraint can be ruled out for the entire project. The 2000 IBC exempts components from the seismic requirements as follows: Entire Structures (and contents): 1) Group R-3, single-family, stand-alone residential structures not more than three stories in height, in areas where the mapped SDS value is less than .5g. 2) Agricultural storage structures intended only for incidental human occupancy. 3) All structures where the mapped SDS value is less than .167g and the mapped SD1 value is less than .067g. Mechanical/Electrical Components and Architectural Elements: 1) All non-structural mechanical components and architectural elements in structures that fall into seismic design category A or B. 2) All mechanical components in structures that fall into seismic design category C and where the importance factor is 1.0 3) All architectural elements in structures that fall into seismic design category C and where the importance factor is 1.0, and there are fewer than three stories. Specific Mechanical/Electrical Equipment: 1) All components (no matter what seismic design category) with an importance factor of 1.0 weighing less than 400 lb, mounted to the floor with legs under 4 in height, connected via flexible connections between components and associated ductwork, piping, etc., and not critical to the continued operation of the structure.

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Specific Architectural Elements: 1) Components supported on chains or otherwise suspended from the structural system above, as long as they are capable of moving a minimum of 12 or a swing of 45 degrees without damage or contact with an obstruction, and as long as the gravity design load used when sizing the attachment hardware is 3g. 2) Seismic load of less than 5 psf. Other: 1) Equipment installed in line and hard mounted to the ductwork that weighs 75 lb or less can be restrained as though it is part of the duct (no separate restraints

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2) Mechanical and electrical components in seismic design categories D and E that weigh 20 lb or less (no matter where mounted), that are connected via flexible connections between components and associated ductwork, piping, etc., where the importance factor does not exceed 1.0. 3) Ductwork that is less than 6 sq ft in area for the full length of a run where the importance factor does not exceed 1.0 (no matter what seismic design category) and the motion induced by a seismic event will not result in contact with other components. 4) All ductwork that is suspended on hangers 12 or less in length for the full length of a run with a non-moment generating connection to the structure and where the importance factor does not exceed 1.0 (no matter what seismic design category) and motion induced by a seismic event will not result in contact with other components. 5) High deformability piping in all seismic design categories that is 3.0 inches or less in diameter and has an importance factor of 1.0. (Note: High deformability is a measure of ductility as defined in the code section 1602.1.) (Note: if trapeze mounted and the cumulative total area of the pipes supported is less than 5, no restraint is required.) 6) High deformability piping in seismic design category C that is 2.0 inches or less in diameter with an importance factor of 1.5. (Note: if trapeze mounted and the cumulative total area of the pipes supported is less than 3.2, no restraint is required.) 7) High deformability piping in seismic design category D or E that is 1.0 inch or less in diameter, with an importance factor of 1.5. 8) All piping that is suspended on hangers 12 or less in length (from the top of the pipe) with a non-moment generating (swivel) connection to the structure, for all importance factors and seismic eesign categories. 9) Any component that is supported from above by chains or other non-moment generating connection provided it cannot be damaged by or cannot damage any other component and has a supporting connection designed to take at least three times the operating weight.

are required). There are considerably fewer exemptions from seismic restraint design in the TI 809-04 Code. There are no exemptions for entire structures or general equipment types and there are only a few for specific components as follows: Specific Mechanical Equipment: 1) Piping in seismic design category A. 2) Piping in seismic design category B in structures that are not categorized as essential or hazardous. 3) Gas piping under 1 diameter. 4) Piping in boiler and mechanical rooms of less than 1-1/4 diameter. 5) All other piping of less than 2-1/2 diameter. 6) All electrical conduit of less than 2-1/2 diameter. 7) Ductwork that is less than 6 sq ft in area . 8) All ductwork that is suspended on hangers 12 or less in length for the full length of a run with a non-moment generating connection to the structure. 9) All piping that is suspended on individual hangers 12 or less in length (from the top of the pipe) with a non-moment generating (swivel) connection to the structure. Estimating Seismic Forces The lateral seismic force acting on a component or piece of equipment in both the 2000 IBC and TI 809-04 is calculated as Fp = where: Fp ap SDS Ip Rp z h Wp = total design lateral force = component amplification factor (Table 2.8-4) = design spectral response acceleration at short periods = component importance factor = component response modification factor (Table 2.8-4) = component attachment elevation with respect to grade = average roof elevation with respect to grade = weight of component. 0.4a p S DS z 1 + 2 W p Rp I p h (Eq. 2.8-5)

The design lateral force need not exceed Fp = 1.6S DS I pW p (Eq. 2.8-6)

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and the absolute minimum design load is Fp = 0.33SDS I pW p . (Eq. 2.8-7)

The Component Amplification (ap) and Response Modification (Rp) factors are shown in Table 2.8-4. When anchoring components to concrete using shallow embedment anchors (those with an embedment length-to-diameter ratio of less than 8), an Rp value of 1.5 is to be used and overides the value identified in the Component Coefficient table.

Component Coefficients
Mechanical and Electrical Component or Element General Mechanical Boilers and furnaces Pres vessels, stacks, cantilevered chimneys Other Mfg and Process Equipment General Conveyors Piping High deformability elements and attachments Limited deformability elements and attachments Low deformability elements or attachments HVAC Equipment Vibration isolated Non-vibration isolated Mounted in line with ductwork Elevator & Escalator Components Trussed Towers General Electrical Distribution systems Equipment Lighting Fixtures Architectural Component or Element Interior Non-Structural Walls and Partitions Plain (unreinforced) masonry Other Ceilings Access Floors Floors (built on and affixed to seismic frame) Other Flexible Components High deformability Limited deformability Low deformability ap 1.0 2.5 1.0 1.0 2.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 Rp 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.5 2.5 1.25 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.5 2.5 1.25

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 2.5 2.5

1.25 2.5 2.5 2.5 1.25 3.5 2.5 1.25

The importance factor in the 2000 IBC or TI 809-04 document is now tied more closely to the use of the equipment rather than the use of the structure. There are two levels of

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Table 2.8-4. Component Amplification and Response Modification Factors.

importance: 1.0 and 1.5. conditions:

The importance factor of 1.5 is used under the following

1) The component is a life-safety component that must function after an earthquakea 2) The component contains hazardous or flammable material in excess of exempted limits. 3) Storage racks in structures that are open to the public (Home Depot for example). 4) Components needed for continued operation of Group III occupancy structure.

Determination of the seismic response spectral acceleration at short periods (SDS) requires the use of a spectral response map. Current maps applicable to either specification can be quite detailed and unreadable in a small scale. To avoid this problem, dynamic maps can be downloaded from the following website: http://geohazards.cr.usgs.gov/eq/design/ibc/IBC1615-1us.pdf. For evaluating the attachment of equipment and architectural components, the maps of interest are those that list the maximum short period spectral response (.2 second). The maps identifying maximum long period spectral response (1 second) are of interest to us only to determine if the structure can be exempted (IBC applications only) from seismic analysis and would only come into play if the design spectral response at short period (.2 second) is less than 0.167. It must be noted that the maps indicate the maximum spectral response for long and short periods (SMS & SMl) and not the design spectral response. The ground accelerations used for the design of architectural and equipment attachment are the short period (.2 second) values only (SS). These are multiplied by the site (soil) classification factor (Fa) from the table below (2.8-5a) and then reduced by a factor of 2/3 except in the case of immediate occupancy structures under TI 809-04. In the TI 809-04 immediate occupancy case (A) the reduction factor is increased to 3/4. The result, the design spectral response at short periods (SDS) is the final acceleration coefficient used in the design. Levels of seismic concern are identified in the new code as the seismic design category. These are a function of the structures end use and the ground acceleration coefficient. A rough definition of the three possible use groups (I, II, and III) is as follows: Group III is an emergency treatment, an essential service structure or a structure containing potentially hazardous material; Group II is a high occupancy structure or non-essential utilities;; Group I is what is left. Table 2.8-5b indicates the seismic design categories for various conditions.

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All other conditions use an importance factor of 1.0.

Table 2.8-5. Site Factors and Seismic Design Categories. (a) Site Factors
Site Factor (F a) Based on Site Class and Mapped Site Class A B C c D E F
a b c

(b) Seismic Design Category


a

0.167g<SDS<0.33g 0.33<SDS<0.50g 0.50g<SDS 0.75g<S1


a

B C D E

B C D E

C D D F

Use straight line interpolation for intermediate values of mapped spectral acceleration Site specific geotechnical investigation and dynamic site response analyses shall be performed to determine values In lieu of geotechnical data and in cases where Site Class E or F are not expected, Site Class D shall be assumed.

S1 is Mapped Max Considered Spectral Response

Vertical Force Component It can be assumed that a vertical force component must be factored into the restraint analysis for most situations. The vertical force to be used is Fpv = 0.2SDS Force Tailoring Factors In order to apply the above forces, there are additional factors that may be applicable, depending on the component being analyzed and the method of attachment used.
1) As with the 97 UBC, the forces obtained from the above equations are working

(Eq. 2.8-8)

strength figures. Because of this, the forces can be reduced by a factor of 1.4 when computing concrete anchorage loads (working stress-based ratings). It comes into play when evaluating connections using the older ASD (Allowable Stress Design) bolt allowables, connections to timber with lag screws, or connections to concrete with post installed anchors. 2) Permitted design loads and the resulting stresses in the attachment hardware can be increased by a factor of 1.33 for short-term wind and seismic load applications when working with working stress-based allowables. 3) Shallow embedment anchors must be sized to withstand 1.95 (or 1.3 x Rp (where Rp equals 1.5)) times the computed design load. 4) For mechanical or electrical equipment that is supported on vibration isolation systems, the design lateral force shall be taken as 2 Fp .

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Spectral Response for Short Periods (Ss) Mapped Spectral Response Accel at Short Periods Soil S s < 0.25 S s = 0.50 Ss = 0.75 Ss = 1.0 Ss > 1.25 Type Hard Rock 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 Moderate Rock 1 1 1 1 1 Dense Soil, Soft Rock 1.2 1.2 1.1 1 1 Stiff Soil 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 1 Soft Soil, Clay 2.5 1.7 1.2 0.9 Note b Fill and Other Note b Note b Note b Note b Note b

Seismic Design Category based on .2 Second Response Accelerations Seismic Use Group SDS Value I II III SDS < 0.167g A A A

Consolidating the above into simple understandable equations, we get the following: Using the previously determined design force Fp, steel bolt and fastener allowables as per LFRD, ASD and/or published post installed anchor allowables per ICBO 1) Rigid Equipment Connection via Through Bolts using the ASD Bolt Allowables: Lateral Design Load = Fp / 1.4, but increase bolt allowables by multiplying by 4/3 Vertical Design Load = Fpv / 1.4, but increase bolt allowables by multiplying by 4/3

Increase all anchor allowables by multiplying by 4/3 in all cases. Shallow embed anchors (< 8 dias) Lateral Design Load = 1.95Fp / 1.4 Vertical Design Load = 1.95Fpv / 1.4 Standard embed anchors (>= 8 dias) Lateral Design Load = 1.3Fp / 1.4 Vertical Design Load = 1.3Fpv / 1.4 3) Rigid Equipment Connection to Concrete with Post Installed Anchors using ICBO Special Inspection Anchor Ratings (OSHPD Applications): Shallow embed anchors (< 8 dias) Lateral Design Load = 1.95Fp / 1.4 Vertical Design Load = 1.95Fpv / 1.4 Standard embed anchors (>= 8 dias) Lateral Design Load = 1.3Fp / 1.4 Vertical Design Load = 1.3Fpv / 1.4 4) Rigid Equipment Connection to Wood with Lag Screws as rated per ASD: Lateral Design Load = Fp / 1.4, but increase Lag Screw Allowables by 1.6 Vertical Design Load = Fpv / 1.4, but increase Lag Screw Allowables by 1.6

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2) Rigid Equipment Connection to Concrete with Post-Installed Anchors using ICBO Anchor Ratings (Non OSHPD Applications):

5) Isolated Equipment Connection via Through Bolts using the ASD Bolt Allowables: Increase Bolt Allowables by multiplying by 4/3 in all cases. Lateral Design Load = 2Fp / 1.4 Vertical Design Load = 2Fpv / 1.4 6) Isolated Equipment Connection to Concrete with Post Installed Anchors using ICBO Anchor Ratings (Non OSHPD Applications):

Shallow embed anchors (< 8 dias) Lateral Design Load = 3.9Fp / 1.4 Vertical Design Load = 3.9Fpv / 1.4 Standard embed anchors (>= 8 dias) Lateral Design Load = 2.6Fp / 1.4 Vertical Design Load = 2.6Fpv / 1.4 7) Isolated Equipment Connection to Concrete with Post Installed Anchors using ICBO Special Inspection Anchor Ratings (OSHPD Applications): Shallow embed anchors (< 8 dias) Lateral Design Load = 3.9Fp / 1.4 Vertical Design Load = 3.9Fpv / 1.4 Standard embed anchors (>= 8 dias) Lateral Design Load = 2.6Fp / 1.4 Vertical Design Load = 2.6Fpv / 1.4 8) Isolated Equipment Connection to Wood with Lag Screws as rated per ASD: Increase Lag Screw Allowables by multiplying by 1.6 in all cases. Lateral Design Load = 2Fp / 1.4 Vertical Design Load = 2Fpv / 1.4

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Increase Anchor Allowables by multiplying by 4/3 in all cases.

Special Anchorage Requirements With the exception of undercut anchors, expansion anchors shall not be used to attach non-vibration isolated equipment rated at over 10 hp. Conventional wedge-type, postinstalled anchors are acceptable for isolated equipment as long as they meet the load requirements as defined here. For general guidance, when restraint is required with this code, FHS and FLSS isolators as well as 1/4 restraint cables will work for at grade applications in lower level (below 1g) zones and with most equipment types. For equipment locations in more severe zones and/or at higher elevations and the roof, particularly in higher seismic zones, it will likely be necessary to use separate restraints (HS-5 or 7) or FMS isolator/restraints. If attached to concrete, load spreader plates will be required. For non-hazardous piping and ductwork at grade, a reasonable estimate of the restraints required is (for piping) the total length of restrained pipe divided by 20 and (for ductwork) the total length of restrained duct divided by 15. For hazardous systems, the values would be about 2/3 of the above. For piping and duct at the roof, these spacings will decrease to about half of the above values. For pipes over 6 diameter in all cases, cable sizes will increase to 3/8 and for pipes over 12 diameter, the size can increase to 1/2. In higher seismic areas, the use of anchor bolts will be heavily restricted, not only because of severe limitations for their use on equipment over 10 hp, but also because of factors that dictate more severe design load magnitudes when they are used. The higher loads require larger anchors and the larger anchors require greater embedment depths. If an embedment depth of under 8 bolt diameters is required due to slab thickness limitations, the design load is again doubled and the idea of using concrete anchors can be effectively eliminated. This leaves through-bolting through the slab as the only viable option. Unless housekeeping pads are monolithic to the floor slab, their added thickness cannot be included in the embedment depth. Therefore, an anchor that penetrates a 6 housekeeping pad and extends 2 into the structural floor slab is considered to have an embedment depth of 2 instead of 8. Significant pre-planning is needed to ensure that the problems that can result from these situations are adequately addressed.

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KINETICS Guide to Understanding NBCC Seismic for MEP


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section D2.9 1.0 D2.9 2.0 D2.9 2.1 D2.9 2.2 D2.9 2.3 D2.9 2.4 D2.9 2.5 D2.9 2.6 D2.9 3.0 D2.9 3.1 D2.9 3.2 D2.9 3.3 D2.9 3.4 D2.9 4.0 D2.9 4.1 D2.9 4.2 D2.9 4.3 D2.9 4.4 D2.9 4.5 D2.9 4.6 D2.9 4.7 D2.9 4.8 D2.9 4.9 Title Introduction Required Basic Project Information Introduction Building Use Nature of Occupancy Site Class Soil Type Spectral Response Acceleration Value at 0.2 Second Importance Factor for Earthquake Loads Summary Design Seismic Forces Introduction Lateral Design Seismic Force Basis of Design for NBCC 2005 Summary General Exemptions and Requirements Introduction General Acceleration Based Exemption for MEP Components Chandelier Exemption Isolated vs. Rigidly Connected Components Design Horizontal Seismic Load Application Connection of MEP Components to the Building Structure Lateral Deflections of MEP Components Transfer of Seismic Restraint Forces Seismic Restraints for Suspended MEP Components & Hanger Rods

D2.9 4.10 Summary

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Other Referenced Standards


Several other standards and codes are frequently mentioned in specifications. A short summary of these standards, and their applicability, is presented in this section. ASCE 7 ASCE 7, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures, published by the American Society of Civil Engineers, is the basis for the seismic and wind load provisions in most building codes. It has been adopted virtually word-for-word, and in the future will be adopted by reference. Specifications occasionally refer to ASCE 7 for determining the loads, especially wind loads, on equipment or non-structural components. For preliminary, estimating purposes, this can be assumed to be identical to the 2000 IBC provisions. Final design must explicitly consider the referenced standard and/or applicable code. OSHPD OSHPD is the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. It is responsible for overseeing the design of hospitals and their contents within the state of California. Outside of that narrow focus, OSHPD has no legal authority. OSHPD has a pre-approval process for seismic restraints of equipment (as well as for the equipment itself). In order to gain pre-approval, a manufacturer submits drawings, load test results, and calculations for OSHPD that show the equipment seismic capacities and how they were determined. OSHPD may approve the listed capacities, request additional information, or reject the submittal. Upon approval, the equipment can then be used in California hospitals, up to the loads listed on the drawings, without further review by OSHPD. The time required to obtain approval is currently up to three years after submittal of the initial information. Note that a lack of pre-approval does not mean that a piece of equipment cannot be used in projects under OSHPD jurisdiction. Approval of equipment for individual projects can be obtained by submitting similar information to the OSHPD office overseeing the particular project. The time required to obtain these onetime approvals is typically a few weeks. A recent trend in specifications is to require OSHPD pre-approval for projects that do not fall under OSHPD jurisdiction. There are several reasons why this is not a good idea. First, OSHPD has no legal authority outside of hospitals in California. Therefore, their pre-approval has no meaning and does not supply any extra legitimacy to the product. Second, there are no consistent standards for the data used to obtain OSHPD approval. The required test data and calculations vary widely depending upon the reviewer. Thus, OSHPD approval could mean that an extensive set of tests was performed, backed by numerous calculations; alternatively, it could mean that a one-page letter listing the capacities was submitted, or anything in between. Until consistent standards are applied,

OTHER REFERENCED STANDARDS


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OSHPD approval has no more meaning than sales literature, other than for California hospitals. SMACNA The SMACNA (Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Inc.) Seismic Restraint Manual Guidelines for Mechanical Systems contains guidelines for the restraint of ducts and piping. These guidelines do not replace the applicable building code, but can be considered to be the state of the practice for seismic bracing of ducts and piping. NFPA 5000 The NFPA 5000 (National Fire Protection Association) is an alternate building code. It is currently not adopted for use in any jurisdiction, although California has preliminarily adopted it for the next round of code revisions in that state. Expect the provisions to be very similar to the IBC. FEMA FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency) has produced several documents intended to provide practical guidance for the installation of seismic restraints. The documents are FEMA 412 (Installing Seismic Restraints for Mechanical Equipment), FEMA 413 (Installing Seismic Restraints for Electrical Equipment ), and FEMA 415 (Installing Seismic Restraints for Ducts and Pipe). These manuals give detailed installation instructions, including numerous photographs and illustrations, and specify which types of restraints are appropriate for different conditions. They are meant to be used in the field by installers and, to a lesser extent, by designers looking for the correct type of restraint. They are not design guides and give no information for selecting the appropriate size of restraints. ASHRAE Practical Guide The ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.) has produced A Practical Guide to Seismic Restraint. This guide contains practical information about the building code requirements related to seismic restraint and presents clarifying examples and calculation procedures. This is a very useful publication for understanding the code requirements and how both the letter and spirit can be followed.

OTHER REFERENCED STANDARDS


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KINETICS Guide to Understanding NBCC Seismic for MEP


INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this guide is to provide design professionals, contractors, and building officials responsible for the MEP, Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing, with the information and guidance required to ensure that the seismic restraints required for a specific project are selected and/or designed, and installed in accordance with the code provisions. This guide will be written in several easily referenced sections that deal with specific portions of the code.

This guide is based on the National Building Code of Canada 2005 (NBCC 2005). The NBCC 2005 appears to be very different in the formulation of the design forces than the previous NBCC 1995 version. This document will be based entirely on the newer NBCC 2005 version.

1. National Building Code of Canada 2005; Canadian Commission on Building and Fire Codes and National Research Council of Canada, 1200 Montreal RD, Ottawa, ON K1A 9Z9 Chapter Division B Part 4 Structural Design.

The selection and installation of the proper seismic restraints for MEP systems requires good coordination with the design professionals and contractors involved with the building project. A good spirit of cooperation and coordination is especially required for projects that have been designated as post-disaster buildings, such as hospitals, emergency response centers, police and fire stations. Coordination between the various design professionals and contractors will be a constant theme throughout this guide. This coordination is vital for the following reasons. 1. The seismic restraints that are installed for a system can and will interfere with those of another unless restraint locations are well coordinated. 2. The space required for the installed restraints can cause problems if non-structural walls need to be penetrated, or other MEP components are in the designed load path for the restraints.

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3. The building end of the seismic restraints must always be attached to structure that is adequate to carry the code mandated design seismic loads. It is the responsibility of the structural engineer of record to verify this.

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REQUIRED BASIC PROJECT INFORMATION
D2.9 2.1 Introduction:

As with any design job, there is certain basic information that is required before seismic restraints can be selected and placed. The building owner, architect, and structural engineer make the decisions that form the basis for the information required to select the seismic restraints for the pipe and duct systems in the building. This is information that should be included in the specification and bid package for the project. It also should appear on the first sheet of the structural drawings. For consistency, it is good practice to echo this information in the specification for each building system, and on the first sheet of the drawings for each system. In this fashion, this information is available to all of the contractors and suppliers that will have a need to know. D2.9 2.2 Building Use Nature of Occupancy [Sentence 4.1.2.1]1:

How a building is to be used greatly affects the level of seismic restraint that is required for the MEP (Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing) components. In the NBCC 2005 the building use is defined through the Importance Category, which ranges in four stages from Low to Post-Disaster. Table 2-1 below summarizes the information found in Tables 4.1.2.1 of the NBCC 2005. The nature of the building use, or its Occupancy Category, is determined by the building owner and the architect of record.

References in brackets [Sentence 4.1.2.1 and Table 4.1.2.1] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in the National Building Code of Canada 2005.

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Table 2-1; Importance Category vs. Building Use and Occupancy [Table 4.1.2.1]

Importance Category

Building Use or Nature of Occupancy

Low

Buildings whose failure will present a low direct or indirect hazard to human life Low human occupancy buildings where structural collapse is unlikely to cause injury or other serious consequences. Minor storage buildings and structures. Buildings not listed as Importance Category Low, High, or Post-Disaster. Buildings which are likely to be used in Post-Disaster situations as shelters, which will include the following building types: Elementary, middle, or secondary schools. Community centers.

Normal

High

Manufacturing and storage facilities which contain toxic, explosive, or hazardous materials in sufficient quantities to pose a hazard to the public is released, such as: Petrochemical facilities. Fuel storage facilities Manufacturing and storage facilities for dangerous goods.

PostDisaster

Buildings and structures which are designated as essential facilities which include but are not limited to: Hospitals, emergency treatment facilities, and blood banks. Emergency response facilities, fire, rescue, ambulance, and police stations, housing for emergency response equipment, and communications facilities including radio and television, unless exempted by the jurisdiction having authority). Power generating stations and sub-stations. Control centers for air land and marine transportation. Water treatment, storage, and pumping facilities. Sewage treatment facilities and buildings or structures required for national defense.

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D2.9 2.3 Site Class Soil Type [Sentences 4.1.8.4.(2) and 4.1.8.1.(3)]:

The Site Class is related to the type of soil and rock strata that directly underlies the building site. The Site Class ranges from A to F progressing from the stiffest to the softest strata. Table 2-2 lists the various Site Classes and their corresponding strata.

Generally the structural engineer is responsible for determining the Site Class for a project. If the structural engineers firm does not have a geotechnical engineer on staff, this job will be contracted to a geotechnical firm. The site profile is normally obtained by drilling several cores on the property. Unlike the U. S. building codes, there is no published default Site Class that may be that can be substituted for the actual Site Class that is determined from soils testing performed at the actual project location.
Table 2-2; Site Class vs. Soil Type [Table 4.1.8.4A] Site Class
A B C D E F

Soil Type
Hard Rock Rock Very Dense Soil & Soft Rock Stiff Soil Soft Soil Liquefiable Soils, Quick Highly Sensitive Clays, Collapsible Weakly Cemented Soils, & etc. These require site-specific evaluation.

D2.9 2.4 Spectral Response Acceleration Value at 0.2 Second [Sentence 4.1.8.4.(1) and Table C-2]

The Spectral Response Acceleration Values at 0.2 Second, which are denoted as S a (0.2 ) , have been determined for selected location in Canada and documented in the Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, Volume 10, Number 4, pp 670-680, 1983. These values for selected location in Canada are presented in Table C-2 of the NBCC 2005, and are repeated for convenience below in Table 2-3

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Table 2-3; Spectral Response Acceleration Value at 0.2 Second for Selected Locations in Canada [Table C-2]
Province & Location
British Columbia 100 Mile House Abbotsford Agassiz Alberi Ashcroft Beatton River Burns Lake Cache Creek Campbell River Carmi Castlegar Chetwynd Chilliwack Comox Courtenay Cranbrook Crescent Valley Crofton Dawson Creek Dog Creek Duncan Elko Fernie Fort Nelson Fort St. John Glacier Golden Grand Forks Hope Kamloops Kaslo Kelowna Kimberley Kitimat Plant Kitimat Townsite Lilooet Lytton Mackenzie

Sa(0.2)
-----0.28 0.92 0.67 0.75 0.33 0.12 0.12 0.33 0.62 0.28 0.27 0.24 0.73 0.66 0.65 0.27 0.27 1.10 0.12 0.32 1.10 0.27 0.27 0.12 0.12 0.27 0.26 0.27 0.63 0.28 0.27 0.28 0.27 0.37 0.37 0.60 0.60 0.23

Province & Location


Masset McBride Mcleod Lake Merrit Mission City Montrose Nakusp Nanaimo Nelson Ocean Falls Osoyoos Penticton Port Alberni Port Hardy Port McNeill Powell River Prince George Prince Rupert Princeton Qualicum Beach Quesnel Revelstoke Salmon Arm Sandspit Sidney Smith River Smithers Squamish Stewart Taylor Terrace Tofino Trail Ucluelet Vancouver Region Burnaby (Simon Fraser Univ.) Cloverdale Haney Ladner

Sa(0.2)
0.53 0.27 0.18 0.32 0.93 0.27 0.27 1.00 0.27 0.38 0.28 0.28 0.75 0.43 0.43 0.67 0.13 0.38 0.42 0.82 0.27 0.27 0.27 0.56 1.20 0.52 0.12 0.72 0.30 0.12 0.34 1.20 0.27 1.20 -----0.94 1.00 0.97 1.10

Province & Location


Langley New Westminster North Vancouver Richmond Surrey (88 Ave & 156 St.) Vancouver Vancouver (Granville & 41 Ave) Vernon Victoria Region Victoria (Gonzales Hts.) Victoria (Mt. Tolmie) Victoria Williams Lake Youbou Alberta Athabasca Banff Barrhead Beaverlodge Brooks Calgary Campsie Camrose Cardston Claresholm Cold Lake Coleman Coronation Cowley Drumheller Edmonton Edson Embarras Portage Fairview Fort MacLeod Fort McMurray Fort Saskatchewan Fort Vermilion Grande Prairie

Sa(0.2)
1.10 0.99 0.88 1.10 1.10 0.94 0.88 0.27 -----1.20 1.20 1.20 0.28 1.00 -----0.12 0.24 0.12 0.13 0.12 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.18 0.15 0.12 0.24 0.12 0.20 0.12 0.12 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.16 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12

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Table 2-3 Continued; Spectral Response Acceleration Value at 0.2 Second for Selected Locations in Canada [Table C-2]
Province & Location
Alberta Habay Hardisty High River Hinton Jasper Keg River Lac la Bishe Lacombe Lethbridge Manning Medicine Hat Peace River Pincher Creek Ranfurly Red Deer Rocky Mountain House Slave Lake Stettler Stony Plain Suffield Taber Turner Valley Valleyview Vegreville Vermilion Wagner Wainwright Wetaskiwin Whitecourt Wimborne Saskatchewan Assiniboia Battrum Biggar Broadview Dafoe Dundurn Estevan

Sa(0.2)
-----0.12 0.12 0.15 0.24 0.24 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.19 0.12 0.12 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 -----0.17 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.15

Province & Location


Humboldt Bay Island Falls Kamsack Kindersley Lloydminster Maple Creek Meadow Lake Melfort Melville Moose Jaw Nipawin North Battleford Prince Albert Qu Appelle Regina Rosetown Saskatoon Scott Strasbourg Swift Current Uranium City Weyburn Yorktown Manitoba Beausejour Boussevain Churchill Dauphin Flin Flon Gimli Island Lake Lac du Bonnet Lynn Lake Morden Neepawa Pine Falls Portage la Prairie Rivers Sandilands

Sa(0.2)
0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.23 0.12 -----0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12

Province & Location


Selkirk Spit Lake Steinbach Swan River The Pas Virden Winnipeg Ontario Ailsa Craig Ajax Alexandria Alliston Almonte Armstrong Arnprior Atikokan Aurora Bancroft Barrie Beaverton Belleville Belmont Big Trout Lake CFB Borden Bracebridge Bradford Brampton Brantford Brighton Brockton Burks Falls Burlington Cambridge Campbellford Cannington Carleton Place Cavan Centralia Chapleau

Sa(0.2)
0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 -----0.16 0.22 0.68 0.17 0.58 0.12 0.64 0.12 0.19 0.26 0.16 0.16 0.26 0.20 0.12 0.16 0.18 0.18 0.26 0.24 0.25 0.40 0.21 0.36 0.22 0.23 0.17 0.52 0.20 0.14 0.12

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Table 2-3 Continued; Spectral Response Acceleration Value at 0.2 Second for Selected Locations in Canada [Table C-2]
Province & Location
Ontario Chatham Chesley Clinton Coboconk Cobourg Cochrane Colborne Collingwood Cornwall Corunna Deep River Deseronto Dorchester Dorion Dresden Dryden Dunnville Durham Dutton Earlton Edison Elmvale Embro Englehart Espanola Exeter Fenelon Falls Fergus Forest Fort Erie Fort Erie (Ridgeway) Gananoque Geraldton Glencoe Goderich Gore Bay Graham Gravehurst (Muskoka Airport)

Sa(0.2)
-----0.20 0.13 0.13 0.18 0.24 0.21 0.24 0.14 0.67 0.14 0.66 0.27 0.19 0.12 0.18 0.12 0.35 0.14 0.20 0.26 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.25 0.12 0.14 0.18 0.18 0.14 0.40 0.39 0.31 0.12 0.19 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.17

Province & Location


Grimsby Guelph Guthrie Haileybury Haldimand (Caledonia) Haldimand (Hagersville) Haliburton Halton Hills (Georgetown) Hamilton Hanover Hastings Hawkesbury Hearst Honey Harbour Hornepayne Huntsville Ingersoll Iroquois Falls Jellicoe Kapuskasing Kemptville Kenora Killaloe Kincardine Kingston Kinmount Kirkland Lake Kitchener Lakefield Lansdowne House Leamington Lindsay Lions Head London Lucan Maitland Markdale Markham Martin Matheson

Sa(0.2)
0.40 0.21 0.16 0.29 0.34 0.29 0.21 0.25 0.33 0.13 0.23 0.65 0.12 0.15 0.12 0.20 0.19 0.21 0.12 0.14 0.60 0.12 0.48 0.12 0.30 0.19 0.24 0.19 0.20 0.20 0.18 0.15 0.18 0.16 0.41 0.14 0.22 0.12 0.22

Province & Location


Mattawa Midland Milton Milverton Minden Mississauga Mississauga (Port Credit) Mitchell Moosonee Morrisburg Mount Forest Nakina Nanticoke (Jarvis) Nanticoke (Port Dover) Napanee New Liskeard Newcastle Newcastle (Bowmanville) Newmarket Niagara Falls North Bay Norwood Oakville Orangeville Orillia Oshawa Ottawa Owen Sound Pagwa River Paris Parkhill Parry Sound Pelham (Fonthill) Pembroke Penetanguishene Perth Petawawa Peterborough Petrolia

Sa(0.2)
0.51 0.15 0.30 0.15 0.19 0.31 0.32 0.14 0.15 0.63 0.15 0.12 0.26 0.23 0.28 0.29 0.22 0.21 0.19 0.41 0.29 0.22 0.35 0.18 0.16 0.21 0.66 0.13 0.12 0.22 0.15 0.16 0.40 0.66 0.15 0.39 0.66 0.20 0.16

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Table 2-3 Continued; Spectral Response Acceleration Value at 0.2 Second for Selected Locations in Canada [Table C-2]
Province & Location
Ontario Pickering (Dunbarton) Picton Plattsville Point Alexander Port Burwell Port Colborne Port Elgin Port Hope Port Perry Port Stanley Prescott Princeton Raith Rayside-Balfour (Chelmsford) Red Lake Renfrew Richmond Hill Rockland Sault Ste. Marie Schreiber Seaforth Simcoe Sioux Lookout Smith Falls Smithville Smooth Rock Falls South River Southhampton St. Catharines St. Marys St. Thomas Stirling Stratford Strathroy Sturgeon Falls Sudbury Sundridge Tavistock

Sa(0.2)
-----0.23 0.26 0.18 0.66 0.21 0.38 0.12 0.23 0.19 0.20 0.44 0.20 0.12 0.14 0.12 0.63 0.22 0.66 0.12 0.12 0.14 0.22 0.12 0.42 0.40 0.19 0.23 0.12 0.41 0.16 0.20 0.25 0.16 0.17 0.23 0.15 0.22 0.17

Province & Location


Temagami Thamesford Thedford Thunder Bay Tillsonburg Timmins Timmins (Porcupine) Toronto (Metropolitan) Etobicoke North York Scarborough Toronto Trenton Trout Creek Uxbridge Vaughan (Woodbridge) Vittoria Walkerton Wallaceburg Waterloo Watford Wawa Welland West Lorne Whitby Whitby (Brooklin) White River Wiarton Windsor Wingham Woodstock Wyoming Qubec Acton-Vale Alma Amos Asbestos Aylmer Baie-Comeau

Sa(0.2)
0.30 0.18 0.14 0.12 0.20 0.17 0.19 -----0.26 0.24 0.24 0.26 0.25 0.25 0.19 0.24 0.21 0.13 0.18 0.19 0.16 0.12 0.40 0.20 0.21 0.20 0.12 0.12 0.18 0.13 0.19 0.15 -----0.45 0.59 0.17 0.37 0.67 0.66

Province & Location


Beauport Bedford Beloeil Brome Brossard Buckingham Campbells Bay Chambly Chicoutimi Chicoutimi (Bagotville) Chicoutimi (Kenogami) Coaticook Contrecoeur Cowansville Deux-Montagnes Dolbeau Drummondville Farnham Fort-coulonge Gagon Gasp Gatineau Gracefield Granby Harrington-Harbour Harve-St-Pierre Hemmingford Hull Iberville Inukjuak Joliette Jonquire Kuujjuaq Kuujjuarapik La-Malbaie La-Tuque Lac-Mgantic Lachute Lennoxville

Sa(0.2)
0.60 0.60 0.67 0.42 0.68 0.68 0.67 0.67 0.62 0.63 0.62 0.41 0.66 0.48 0.68 0.31 0.50 0.59 0.67 0.12 0.22 0.68 0.62 0.48 0.12 0.33 0.68 0.68 0.66 0.12 0.63 0.62 0.12 0.12 2.30 0.29 0.40 0.64 0.38

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Table 2-3 Continued; Spectral Response Acceleration Value at 0.2 Second for Selected Locations in Canada [Table C-2]
Province & Location
Qubec Lry Loretteville Louisevilee Magog Malartic Maniwaki Masson Matane Mont-Joli Mont-Laurier Montmagny Montral Region Beaconsfield Dorval Laval Montral Montral-Est Montral-Nord Outremont Pierrefonds St-Lambert St-Laurent Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue Verdun Nicolet (Gentilly) Nitchequon Noranda Perc Pincourt Plessisville Port-Cartier Povungnituk Qubec City Region Ancienne-Lorette Levis Qubec Sillery Ste-Foy

Sa(0.2)
-----0.70 0.63 0.63 0.38 0.21 0.66 0.66 0.68 0.62 0.66 0.89 -----0.69 0.69 0.68 0.69 0.68 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.69 0.64 0.12 0.20 0.20 0.69 0.45 0.46 0.22 -----0.60 0.58 0.59 0.58 0.59

Province & Location


Richmond Rimouski Rivire-du-loup Roberval Rock-Island Rosemre Rouyn Salaberry-de-Valleyfield Schefferville Senneterre Sept-les Shawinigan Shawville Sherbrooke Sorel St-Flicien St-Georges-de-Cacouna St-Hubert St-hubert-de-Temiscouata St-Hyacinthe St-jean St-Jrme St-Jovite St-Nicolas Ste-Agathe-des-Monts Sutton Tadoussac Tmiscaming Thetford Mines Thurso Trois-Rivires Val-dOr Varennes Verchres Victoriaville Ville-Marie Waterloo Windsor -------------------------------

Sa(0.2)
0.38 0.63 1.10 0.43 0.42 0.68 0.20 0.69 0.12 0.20 0.37 0.58 0.67 0.37 0.65 0.31 0.98 0.68 0.64 0.59 0.69 0.64 0.63 0.59 0.59 0.44 0.84 0.59 0.35 0.63 0.64 0.22 0.68 0.67 0.43 0.33 0.41 0.36 ------

Province & Location


New Brunswick Alma Bathhurst Campbellton Chatham Edmundston Fredericton Gagetown Grand Falls Moncton Oromocto Sackville Saint John Shippagan St. Stephen Woodstock Nova Scotia Amherst Antigonish Bridgewater Canso Debert Digby Greenwood (CFB) Halifax Region Dartmouth Halifax Kentville Liverpool Lockeport Louisburg Lunenburg New Glasgow North Sydney Pictou Port Hawkesbury Springhill Stewiacke Sydney

Sa(0.2)
-----0.27 0.41 0.39 0.41 0.41 0.39 0.34 0.42 0.30 0.36 0.25 0.34 0.34 0.66 0.41 -----0.24 0.19 0.23 0.24 0.22 0.26 0.25 -----0.23 0.23 0.24 0.24 0.26 0.22 0.23 0.18 0.19 0.18 0.21 0.24 0.22 0.20

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Table 2-3 Continued; Spectral Response Acceleration Value at 0.2 Second for Selected Locations in Canada [Table C-2]
Province & Location
Nova Scotia Tatamagouche Truro Wolfville Yarmouth Prince Edward Island Charlottetown Souris Summerside Tignish Newfoundland Argentia Bonavista Buchans Cape Harrison Cape Race Channel-Port aux Basques Corner Brook Gander Grand Bank Grand Falls Happy Valley-Goose Bay Labrador City St. Anthony St. Johns Stephenville Twin Falls Wabana Wabush Yukon Aishihik Dawson Destruction Bay Snag Teslin Watson Lake Whitehorse Northwest Territories Aklavik

Sa(0.2)
-----0.19 0.21 0.25 0.23 -----0.19 0.15 0.19 0.22 -----0.18 0.17 0.15 0.24 0.20 0.15 0.14 0.16 0.18 0.15 0.15 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.14 0.12 0.12 0.12 -----0.26 0.54 0.73 0.61 0.19 0.45 0.22 -----0.18

Province & Location


Echo Bay / Port Radium Fort Good Hope Fort Providence Fort Resolution Fort Simpson Fort Smith Hay River Holman Inuvik Mould Bay Norman Wells Rae-Edzo Tungsten Yellowknife Nunavut Alert Arctic Bay Arviat / Eskimo Point Baker Lake Cambridge Bay Chesterfield Inlet Clyde River Coppermine Coral Harbour Eureka Iqaluit Isachsen Nottingham Island Rankin Inlet Resolute Resolution Island -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sa(0.2)
0.12 0.15 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.35 0.51 0.12 0.51 0.12 -----0.12 0.18 0.18 0.12 0.12 0.16 0.50 0.12 0.24 0.33 0.13 0.40 0.24 0.12 0.35 0.44 -----------------------------------------

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D2.9 2.5 Importance Factor for Earthquake Loads [Sentence 4.1.8.5 and Table 4.1.8.5]:

The Importance Factor for Earthquake Loads ( I E ) for the building is assigned based on the Importance Category of the building. It may be prudent to request both the assigned Importance Category and the Importance Factor for Earthquake Loads. The Importance Factor for Earthquake Loads may be specified more stringently than the Importance Category of the building would indicate in order to artificially provide increased protection for the building and its contents. The Importance Factor for Earthquake Loads is assigned as shown in Table 2-4

Table 2-4; Importance Factor for Earthquake Loads by Importance Category [Table 4.1.8.5] Importance Category Low Normal High Post-Disaster Importance Factor for Earthquake Loads

IE
0.8 1.0 1.3 1.5

D2.9 2.6 Summary:

The following parameters will be required by the design professionals having responsibility for MEP systems in a building, and should be determined by the structural engineer of record.

1. Importance Category: This defines the building use and specifies which buildings are required for emergency response or disaster recovery. 2. Spectral Response Acceleration Value at 0.2 Second: This is used to determine the actual Lateral Design Seismic Force. 3. Importance Factor for Earthquake Loads: This is a numerical value that translates the building usage into the Lateral Design Seismic Force used to design and/or select seismic

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restraints for non-structural components. This value used in conjunction with the Spectral Response Acceleration Value at 0.2 Second will determine whether seismic restraints are required for non-structural components or not.

These parameters should be repeated in the specification and drawing package for the particular system, mechanical, electrical, or plumbing, in question.

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DESIGN SESIMIC FORCES
D2.9 3.1 Introduction:

The code based horizontal seismic force requirements for MEP systems and components are either calculated by the seismic restraint manufacturer as a part of the selection and certification process, or may be determined by the design professional of record for the MEP systems under consideration.

This is an informational section. It will discuss the code based horizontal seismic force demand equations and the variables that go into them. This discussion will provide a deeper understanding for the designer responsible for selecting the seismic restraints for MEP systems and their components and the nature of the seismic forces and the factors that affect them. D2.9 3.2 Lateral Design Seismic Force [Sentence 4.1.8.17.(1)]1:

The seismic force is a mass, or weight, based force, and as such is applied to the MEP component at its center of gravity. Keep in mind that the earthquake ground motion moves the base of the building first. Then the motion of the building will accelerate the MEP component through its supports and/or seismic restraints. The lateral seismic force acting on an MEP component will be determined in accordance with the following set of equations from NBCC 2005.
V P = 0.3Fa S a ( 0.2 ) I E S PW P

Equation 3-1

Where:

V P = the Lateral Design Seismic Force


Fa = the acceleration based site coefficient. Values for this coefficient are given in Table 3-1 based on the site class. Linear interpolation between these values is permitted.
1

References in brackets [Sentence 4.1.8.17.(1)] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in the National Building Code of Canada 2005.

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I E = the Importance Factor for Earthquake Loads for the building. See Section D2.9 2.5 of this
guide.

S P = the horizontal force factor for the non-structural component and its anchorage to the building. W P = the weight of the non-structural component.

The value for S P is computed in the following fashion.

SP =

C P Ar A x RP

Equation 3-2

Where:

C P = the seismic coefficient for mechanical and electrical equipment. These values are given per
component category in Table 3-2.

Ar = the response amplification factor used to account for the type of attachment of the
mechanical or electrical component to the building listed by component category in Table 3-2. Ax = the amplification factor at the elevation of the component attachment point in the building. It is used to account for the increasing flexibility of the building from grade level to roof level.

R P = the element or component response modification factor listed by component category in


Table 3-2.

Ax is computed as follows.

h Ax = 1 + 2 x hn

Equation 3-3

Where: hx = the elevation of the attachment point to the structure of the non-structural component.

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hn = the elevation of the roof line. The values for S P must remain within the following limits.

0.7 S P 4.0

Equation 3-4

Table 3-1; Acceleration Based Site Coefficient, Fa [Table 4.1.8.4] Site Class Sa(0.2) A B C D E F Spectral Response Acceleration Value at 0.2 Second
(Linear Interpolation Is Permitted)

0.25 Sa(0.2) = 0.50 Sa(0.2) = 0.75 Sa(0.2) = 1.00 Sa(0.2) 0.7 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.1 0.9

1.25

0.7 0.8 1.0 1.3 2.1

0.8 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9

These values to be determined by site response analysis.

D2.9 3.3 Basis of Design for NBCC 2005 [Sentences 4.1.3.1.(1a), 4.1.3.2.(4), 4.1.3.2.(6), 4.1.3.2.(7), and 4.1.3.2.(8) and Table 4.1.3.2]:

The design of seismic restraints in the NBCC 2005 is based on the Ultimate Limit State. This limit state is used for design when life safety is at issue to prevent building or system collapse. This design basis along with the prescribed loads for earthquake design will produce results which are consistent with LRFD design techniques. Therefore; LRFD allowable loads may be used for the design and selection of seismic restraints for MEP components.

D2.9 3.4 Summary:

This section has provided an insight into the way in which the seismic design forces for MEP systems and components are to be computed. It is generally not necessary for a designer to

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actually run the computations for the seismic design forces. These forces are normally computed by the manufacturer of the seismic restraint devices as part of the selection and certification process to ensure that the proper components are selected per the code and the specification.

Table 3-2; Seismic Coefficient, Response Amplification Factor, and Response Modification Factor NBCC 2005 [Table 4.1.8.17] Category 7 11 Non-Structural Component Suspended light fixtures with independent vertical support Machinery, fixtures, equipment, ducts, and tanks (including contents): That are rigidly connected. That are flexible or flexibly connected. Machinery, fixtures, equipment, ducts, and tanks (including contents) containing toxic or explosive materials, materials having a flash point below 38C or firefighting fluids: That are rigidly connected. That are flexible or flexibly connected. Flat bottom tanks (including contents) that are attached directly to the floor at or below grade within a building. Flat bottom tanks (including contents) that are attached directly to the floor at or below grade within a building that contain toxic or explosive materials, materials that have a flash point below 38C or firefighting materials. Pipes, ducts, cable trays (including contents) Pipes, ducts, cable trays (including contents) containing toxic or explosive materials. Electrical cable trays, bus ducts, conduits. Rigid components with ductile material and Connections. Rigid components with non-ductile material or Connections. Flexible components with ductile material and Connections. Flexible components with non-ductile material or Connections.

CP
1.00 ----1.00 1.00 ----1.50 1.50 0.70

Ar
1.00 -----1.00 2.50 -----1.00 2.50 1.00

RP
2.50 -----1.25 2.50 -----1.25 2.50 2.50

12

13

14

1.00

1.00

2.50

15 16 17 18 19 20 21

1.00 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

1.00 1.00 2.50 1.00 1.00 2.50 2.50

3.00 3.00 5.00 2.50 1.00 2.50 1.00

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GENERAL EXEMPTIONS AND REQUIREMENTS
D2.9 4.1 Introduction:

The National Building Code of Canada has limited exemptions for MEP components written in to it. The SMACNA Seismic Restraint Manual Guidelines for Mechanical Systems, 2nd Edition with Addendum No. 1, 1998; is not directly referenced in the NBCC. Therefore, it is safe to assume that any exemptions in the SMACNA manual that have been previously taken are no longer allowed.

There are, however, some general exemptions for MEP components which will be covered in this section. Along with the exemptions, this section will the requirements for flexible/flexibly connected (isolated) components, direction of seismic design force application, structural connections, deflections, transfer of seismic forces to the building structure, and hanger rods for MEP components. D2.9 4.2 General Acceleration Based Exemption for MEP Components [Sentences 4.1.8.1, and 4.1.8.17.(2)]1

Sentence 4.1.8.1 is a general exemption for building, and also applies to those buildings that have been assigned to the Importance Category classified as Post Disaster. The deflections and loads due to earthquake motion as specified in Sentence 4.1.8.17, do not apply to MEP Components when S a ( 0.2 ) 0.12 . Under this condition seismic restraints will not be required for MEP components.

The next general exemption is found in Sentence 4.1.8.17.(2) and applies to buildings that have been assigned to Importance Categories Low, Normal, and High. Section 2.9 3.0 of this guide

References in brackets [Sentence 4.1.8.17.(2)] apply to sections, tables, and/or equations in the National Building Code of Canada 2005.

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covered the seismic design forces specified by the NBCC. The basic acceleration term multiplying the weight (mass) of the MEP component is I E Fa S a ( 0.2 ) . This term includes the importance of the building, the effects of the ground upon which the project is being built, and the expected horizontal acceleration produced by the design earthquake for the project location. This general exemption for MEP components is based on the value of this term. If I E Fa S a ( 0.2 ) < 0.35 , then MEP components that fall into categories 7 through 21 in Table 3-2 of this guide do not require seismic restraint for buildings assigned to Importance Categories Low, Normal, and High.

D2.9 4.3 Chandelier Exemption [Sentence 4.1.8.17.(13)]

This exemption does not read exactly as the companion exemption in the International Building Code (IBC); see Kinetics Guide to Understanding IBC Seismic for MEP, Section D2.1 4.5. So, for clarity it will be directly quoted below.

Isolated suspended equipment and components, such as pendant lights, may be designed as a pendulum system provided that adequate chains or cables capable of supporting 2.0 times the weight of the suspended component are provided and the deflection requirements of Sentence 4.1.8.17.(11) are satisfied.

D2.9 4.4 Isolated vs. Rigidly Connected Components [Sentence 4.1.8.17.(4)]:

The NBCC basically says that MEP components that can be defined by Categories 11 and 12 in Table 3-2 of this Guide are to be treated as flexible/flexibly connected (isolated) components. If, however, the fundamental period of the component and its connections to the building structure can be shown to be less than or equal to 0.06 second, it mat be treated as though it were a rigid or rigidly connected component.

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D2.9 4.5 Design Horizontal Seismic Load Application [Sentence 4.1.8.17.(7)]:

The design horizontal seismic loads are to be applied in the direction the results in the most critical loading for the MEP component and its attachment to the structure. This will ensure that the most conservative design and selection of seismic restraints for the MEP component has been made. D2.9 4.6 Connection of MEP Components to the Building Structure [Sentence 4.1.8.17.(8)]:

Connections for the MEP components to the building structure must be designed to resist gravity loads, meet the requirements of Sentence 4.1.8.1 of the NBCC, and also satisfy the following additional requirements.

1. Friction due to gravity loads may not be used to resist seismic forces. 2. The R P value for non-ductile fasteners such as adhesives, powder shot pins, and other power actuated fasteners must be taken as 1.0. 3. Shallow embedment anchors, shallow expansion, chemical, epoxy, or cast-in-place, are those whose embedment depth to nominal diameter ratio is less than 8:1. For these types of anchors the value for R P shall be taken as 1.5. 4. Drop in anchors and power actuated fasteners, such as powder shot pins, are not to be used in tensile applications.

D2.9 4.7 Lateral Deflections of MEP Components [Sentence 4.1.8.17.(10)]:

The lateral deflections based on design horizontal seismic force specified the Sentence 4.1.8.17.(1), see Section D2.9 3.0 of this guide, need to be multiplied by a factor of R P I E to yield more realistic values for the anticipated deflections. The values of R P and I E are used to

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artificially inflate the loads to ensure the selection of seismic restraints and attachments that will meet the Post-Disaster criteria. D2.9 4.8 Transfer of Seismic Restraint Forces [Sentence 4.1.8.17.(11)]:

This provision is intended to engender co-operation between the MEP design professionals and the structural engineering professionals. It is basically saying that the MEP components and their attachments to the building structure must be designed in such away that they do not transfer any loads to the structure that were not anticipated by the structural engineer. This means that the MEP design professionals must inform the structural engineer of the anticipated dead loads and seismic restraint forces at the restraint attachment points as soon as the MEP component selections have been finalized. Conversely, the structural engineer needs to make him or her self available to the MEP design professionals to work out issues surrounding the seismic loads and the attachment points for the seismic restraints used for the MEP components. D2.9 4.9 Seismic Restraints for Suspended MEP Components & Hanger Rods [Sentence 4.1.8.17.(12)]:

The seismic restraints for suspended MEP equipment, pipes, ducts, electrical cable trays, bus ducts, and so on, must meet the force and displacement conditions of Sentence 4.1.8.17, and be designed in such away that they do not place the hanger rods in bending.

D2.9 4.13 Summary:

The exemptions and requirements outlined in this section are intended to assist the MEP design professionals and contractors in planning their project contribution efficiently. Also, they help define the limits of responsibility for each MEP design profession and trade.

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CHAPTER D3 PRODUCT/DESIGN OVERVIEW TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cables vs Struts used for Ceiling Mounted Pipe/Duct/Conduit Restraint When to Use Combination Isolators/Restraints When to Use Separate Isolators/Restraints High Capacity Restraint Configurations Hybrid Isolators/Restraints (FMS) Roof Mounted Equipment Applications

D3.2 D3.3 D3.4 D3.5 D3.6 D3.7

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Chapter D3)


PRODUCT/DESIGN OVERVIEW
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The 10 Biggest Problems Contractors Deal with when Installing Seismic Restraints

D3.1

The 10 Biggest Problems Contractors Deal With When Installing Seismic Restraints
General (1) Knowing When Restraint is Required Large areas of the country are now being forced to include some kind of seismic restraint due to the adoption of the IBC Code and its more stringent seismic design requirements. This is particularly true for emergency treatment centers, essential service structures, or facilities that contain some form of hazardous materials. There are only two significant areas of the country completely exempted by code from restraint requirements: a belt running generally northward from western Texas to Minnesota and the tip of the Florida Peninsula. The code will require some level of restraint (at least in critical facilities) at most other locations. Even for non-critical facilities, the IBC Code will usually require some form of restraint in the following regions: New England, the south central US (in a band several hundred miles wide from Charleston, South Carolina to a point about 150 miles west of Memphis, Tennessee) and everywhere west of the Rocky Mountains. Increasingly, customers will specify some form of restraint to ensure continued operation of a facility or in an effort to reduce insurance premiums, even in areas where the IBC code does not require restraint. It is critical that specs for individual projects be fully understood in this regard. The IBC Code is quickly becoming the code of the land. Since FEMA has targeted compliance with seismic standards as critical, it should be assumed that some form of seismic compliance will be required before a final occupancy permit is issued for any structure built in the above areas. Anchorage Issues (2) Equipment Location in the Building Research has shown that the force generated in a building increases as one rises through the structure. Surprisingly, the total height of the structure is not as important a factor as is the location of equipment in that structure relative to the roof. The IBC Code addresses this condition by requiring that the design used when specifying equipment anchorage includes forces that increase by a factor of 3 as equipment locations move upward from grade to the roof. To the designer and installation contractor, this means that sturdier equipment is required along with a significantly more robust anchorage system. In relatively lowlevel seismic areas, this requirement is often insignificant, but in seismically active areas it can add substantial cost and can significantly impact the design of the

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equipment, structure, and restraint system. Common devices frequently used in the past will no longer be suitable and more exotic devices are needed. In extreme cases, major design changes are necessary to meet the new force requirements. It is most cost effective to locate heavy equipment at lower levels within the building envelope wherever feasible. If heavy equipment is to be located on upper floors (or on the roof of even a one-story building) in an area with potentially high seismic accelerations, addressing seismic issues early can avoid costly delays, significant redesign, and possible retrofit. (3) Anchorage to Concrete Concrete has long been identified as a weak point when used in areas exposed to seismic events. The addition of anchorage holes in the concrete provides locations for stress cracks to develop. These cracks open up and allow conventional anchors to easily pull out. Because of the requirement to withstand cyclic pounding during an event, wedge-type or other special seismically rated anchors are required. Approved anchors have been tested and carry an ICBO rating based on test results. These ratings vary by size and by anchor manufacturer. It is critical that the restraint system design specifies a particular anchor by size and source and that the anchor used conforms to this specification. New code requirements mandate that undercut anchors are to be used for 10 horsepower and greater equipment that is hard mounted. At the time of this writing, the only viable undercut anchor available in the United States is the HILTI HDA-P or T series anchors. These are metric, but they can interface well with imperial-based mounting holes. About 25% more labor time should be assumed for their installation because of the undercut requirement. Detailed installation instructions are available in ICBO report ER-5608. This document can easily be downloaded from the Internet for reference. In addition, the ratings allowed for anchors in seismic applications are considerably less than ratings for similar-sized A307 bolts. If the equipment being restrained is isolated, the shock caused by the motion of the equipment pounding against restraint snubbers is more likely to damage brittle anchors than it is to damage the more ductile A307 bolts. To account for this, an additional factor must be applied to the load when using anchors for the final attachment to concrete. The net result is that equipment using A307 through bolts for attachment have a considerably higher seismic rating than does equipment attached with the same sized post-installed anchors. The code severely penalizes applications where the embedment depth is less than 8 anchor bolt diameters (i.e., 4 inches for a inch anchor). Since anchors must be embedded in a monolithic slab, the thickness of the concrete beneath the equipment often becomes the factor that limits the anchor size. Since there should be at least 1 inch of cover over the end of an anchor, the minimum slab thickness for a inch

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diameter anchor should not be less than 5 inches. If more capacity is required, either a thicker slab or an array of several inch anchors would be required to obtain an appropriate rating. Similar to embedment restrictions, anchor spacing and edge distance issues can also significantly reduce the anchorage capacity. Care should be taken to allow sufficient edge distances to attain full-rated anchor capacities. Where arrays of anchors are used to develop sufficient capacity, it must be verified that sufficient slab area exists to ensure that these minimum dimensions are not violated. It is still common to find designs that require equipment located high up in buildings in seismically prone areas to be anchored to concrete. In many cases a review of the installation shows that this configuration cannot meet code requirements. In these cases, the options are typically limited to one of three things. 1) Add a steel attachment structure that ties into the building steel, 2) design an appropriate frame that allows significantly more anchors to be placed over a larger area, 3) bolt the equipment down using bolts that go through the floor (or roof deck) and which include a backer or fish plate on the underside of the slab. (4) Concrete Housekeeping Pads, Curbs, and Piers A frequent solution used to obtain a reasonable embedment depth for larger diameter anchors is to add a housekeeping pad. This practice increases the slab thickness in the area where the seismic anchors are fitted. As previously mentioned, it is a code requirement that anchors be embedded in a monolithic pour. This requires that either the pad be poured concurrent with the structural floor slab and the combined thickness meets the requirement (not likely), or that a separate pad is added that is independently thick enough to meet the requirement (more common). The housekeeping pad must be adequately reinforced and doweled with sufficient connections to ensure that it will neither shatter nor come loose from the floor during a seismic event. Even with larger (and deeper) anchors at the restraint locations, it is the normal practice to attach most housekeeping pads to the structural floor slab beneath it using a large array of smaller (and shallower) anchors. All such housekeeping pads should be designed based on the seismic application. Kinetics Noise Control can offer design tables and general details for this purpose. Concrete curbs or piers are occasionally included on roof decks to aid in flashing the roofing material while leaving a support point for equipment. Where these are used, size becomes critical as the minimum edge distance and anchor spacing limits frequently dictate a pier considerably wider than might otherwise be expected. For example, if a hard-mounted piece of equipment is being attached to several piers using (1) inch anchor centered on each pier, the minimum edge distance for an HILTI HDA-P is 7-3/8inch. This means that the minimum pier size would be 2 x 7-3/8

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or 14-3/4 inches square. If using a plate with (4) inch anchors per pier, the minimum anchor-to-anchor spacing (for inch anchors) is 14-3/4 inches and thus the minimum size of the pier becomes 29-1/2 inches square. (5) Equipment Durability and Interfacing Support Members Equipment qualification is a new issue being addressed in the IBC. The code indicates that if any piece of equipment is used in a seismically active area, it should be capable of withstanding the design seismic forces for that area (as defined by the ground acceleration and basic building and foundation parameters) and continue to operate. In the past this was not a requirement. The equipment manufacturer should be advised that the equipment is going into a seismically active area and should be made aware of the seismic forces applicable to the particular piece of equipment, including the elevation in the structure. In turn, the equipment manufacturer should provide the installation contractor with appropriate documents ensuring that the equipment is suitable for the application. Frequently, the equipment is qualified as if it were to be hard mounted to a slab or other support structure. The dynamic loads in this case are considerably less than those used if the equipment is isolated and setting on several independent restraints. If this is the case, the contractor should make a note of it. Some form of rigid frame may be required in cases where the equipment is equipped with light structural connection locations to prevent damage that may result from high twisting or bending loads generated by directly connected isolators/restraints. The equipment manufacturer can best advise if a frame is needed (as they are the only ones who really know how the equipment is built) and they should indicate the need for a frame if required. (6) Restraint of Tall, Narrow, Floor mounted Equipment Tall, narrow pieces of equipment can be difficult to restrain, particularly if isolated. Because the restraint points at the floor are relatively close together, small motions at the floor result in large motions at the top of the equipment. In addition, small lateral forces acting on the equipments CG generate large uplift forces at the restraint points. Where possible, this equipment should be restrained to a wall, braced with a frame that has a relatively wide base, or set on top of an inertia mass to shift the CG downward. Another option is to use cable restraints to limit lateral motion (if cable restrained, the restraints must tie to the same surface as the equipment mounting feet). Top-heavy equipment can be a particular problem outdoors (where wind effects can cause wild gyrations) or when mounted on relatively high-deflection springs (which offer little resistance to rocking loads).

10 BIGGEST SEISMIC INSTALLATION PROBLEMS


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Piping/Duct Issues (7) Not Enough Room to Fit Restraints The most frequent issue that comes up relative to the restraint of piping, duct, or other ceiling-mounted systems is that there is often not enough room for restraints if the restraints are arranged in the conventional fashion. Lateral restraints often interfere with walls, other duct or piping systems, or equipment. Creativity is oftentimes required to arrange restraints in ways that can fit. For example, on a trapeze, lateral restraint cables can be arranged in an X instead of in a V or can be grouped together on one hanger rod instead of having one on each end of the trapeze. In some cases, attaching to a wall may be better than attaching to the ceiling. Typical details showing a broad variety of options can be obtained from Kinetics Noise Control. In many cases, knowing the requirements concerning restraint locations which can be used to resist forces for two or more different runs can save a significant number of restraints and reduce the difficulty of installation simply by reducing the quantity of restraints required. (8) Mixing Cables and Struts When arranging restraints along a run, cables and struts cannot be mixed. Thus a given run must be either all cable or all strut. Both have advantages and disadvantages that should be understood. When using cables, each restraint point requires that at least two cables be fitted. As a trade-off, the cables do not load hanger rods in tension and concerns about tensile forces in the hanger rods need not be addressed. When using struts, only one strut is required at each restraint location. Struts do, however, load hanger rods in tension and frequently require that larger hanger rods be fitted or that the spacing between adjacent restraints be reduced to one-half or one-quarter of that allowed for cables. Cables are the preferred method of restraint if the piping or duct system is isolated. If the hanger rod length becomes excessive, a reinforcement member is required on the hanger rod to prevent buckling of the hanger when subjected to large seismic forces. This is required for both cable or strut restraint systems. Tables and design information for installation of both cable and strut systems are available from Kinetics Noise Control. (9) Adherence to the 12 Hanger Rod or the Small Duct or Pipe Exception Rules If installing a system tight to the ceiling to take advantage of the 12 inch hanger exclusion rule, the 12 inch dimension is measured from the top of the pipe or duct if the duct or pipe is individually supported without a trapeze bar. If supported by a trapeze, the 12 inch dimension is from the top of the trapeze bar. In all cases, the

10 BIGGEST SEISMIC INSTALLATION PROBLEMS


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measurement is from the uppermost attachment point to the structure. All supports for a given run must comply with the above to apply the 12 rule. An additional requirement of the 12 inch rule is that the hanger rod must include a nonmoment generating (free-swinging) connection to the structure. This is to allow the pipe or duct to swing without stressing the hanger rod. A swivel or isolation hanger can accomplish this function. If using an isolation hanger, a vertical limit stop must be positioned on the hanger rod just below the isolator housing. Thus when subjected to an uplift load, the limit stop will come into contact with the isolator housing and prevent significant upward motion of the rod. If supporting a trapeze, the largest pipe or duct on the trapeze must be used to determine if the run can be considered for exclusion. (Note: The older codes only allowed individually supported pipes or ducts to be eligible for exclusion using the size or 12 inch rule. There is no such limitation in the IBC Code.) (10) Axial Restraint of Thermally Expanding/Contracting Piping It can be a challenge to axially restrain pipes that must be allowed to expand or contract due to thermal considerations. It is often possible to install a lateral restraint at a short dogleg or at the adjacent leg at the beginning or end of a run. As long as these are located within 24 inches of the centerline of the run, which is to be axially restrained, this is permitted. The addition of flex joints or expansion fittings between independently restrained segments of a run allows the individual segments to be restrained in a more conventional fashion. Where growth or shrinkage is expected, no more than one axial restraint is to be used for a given run of pipe unless some form of expansion compensation joint is fitted between the restraints. A double roller (one top, one bottom) is needed to transfer upward forces generated by the restraint acting on the pipe back into the supporting hanger rod when roller supported pipes are directly braced to the ceiling with cables or struts. When pipes are mounted on trapezes and the trapeze is fitted with a roller, bracing the trapeze will not axially restrain the pipe. The bracket fitted to the pipe to which the restraint connects must be either welded to the pipe or sufficiently clamped to allow transfer of the full restraint force. If the pipe is insulated, a hardened area or welded saddle must be used that is strong enough to meet the seismic design needs.

10 BIGGEST SEISMIC INSTALLATION PROBLEMS


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

CABLE vs STRUTS IN SEISMIC RESTRAINT APPLICATIONS

CAUTION
KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

Caution must be exercised when restraining overhead piping, ductwork, or equipment with struts or rigid braces as an alternate to cable. Although they look similar, the two restraint methods behave very differently in practice. Component sizes, restraint spacing, and support hardware that may have been specified for cable restrained systems can be grossly undersized if struts are substituted. The reason for this is that when the seismic force pushes the restrained component toward a strut, the strut must absorb the load in compression. This puts additional, often significant, tensile load into the hanger rod. This is unavoidable! This does not occur in cable-restrained systems since cables cannot be loaded in compression. In cable-restrained systems, hanger rods are not subjected to these added tensile loads. This is also unavoidable! Struts should never be used to restrain a system that has had its support hanger rods and anchorage sized strictly on weight. More detailed information on this subject is available in the Duct, Pipe, Conduit and Suspended Equipment sections of this manual.

CABLE vs STRUTS IN SEISMIC RESTRAINT APPLICATIONS


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When to Use Combination Isolator/Restraints


Most isolated equipment can be restrained independently of resilient supports or by devices that include both resilient support and seismic restraint capabilities. There are pros and cons to using combined elements. Identified in this section are those occasions when combination restraints will offer benefits over separate components. 1) Cost is typically the biggest benefit of combination isolator/restraints. 90% of the time, a combination device will be less costly than separate elements. 10% of the time there will be a large enough mismatch between the capabilities of the combined component and the demands of the application that breaking the two elements apart and selecting independent components can actually save money. For example, a typical rating for a seismically rated isolator might be 1g. This means that it is designed to withstand a lateral seismic force that is approximately equal to its support capacity (using the largest spring coil for which the unit is designed). In some applications, however, only a .5g restraint capacity (the horizontal load requirement is half the vertical load) is actually needed. Also in some of these applications, the weight is such that the actual spring used is toward the smaller end of the isolator s capacity range. When these occur simultaneously, the combination isolator/restraint used might have a capacity well in excess of what is needed (possibly 5 to 10 times). This added capacity costs money. 2) Space is also an issue that is most efficiently addressed using a combination device. A combination restraint/isolator will take up about the same amount of room as a standalone isolator. Thus the need for added space to locate separate restraints is eliminated. 3) Alignment is usually simpler with combination restraints as there are fewer components to align. 4) When restraints and resilient elements are separated, the force generated by the spring can and does, when exposed to seismic activity, act on the restraint and its anchorage. This can greatly reduce the restraint system s capacity. Most combination isolator/restraint components are designed to trap all spring forces within the isolator housing itself. This keeps added tensile forces out of the anchorage and, as a result, the effective restraint capacity of the system can be higher than would be obtained from combination elements. 5) If the equipment is mounted on a raised platform the ability to add connection points for independent restraints is often not present. In these cases the isolator component must include the restraint feature.

WHEN TO USE COMBINATION ISOLATOR/RESTRAINTS


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When to Use Separate Isolator/Restraints


As mentioned in the previous section, most isolated equipment can be restrained independently of resilient supports or by devices that include both resilient support and seismic restraint capabilities. This document will focus on those applications where independent isolators and restraints are preferable to combined units. Below are listed reasons for using separate support and restraint hardware. 1) Probably the most common reason for using separate restraints is for applications involving high level seismic applications. Typical combined isolator/restraint units are designed for a particular lateral force as compared to their weight. For example, a 1g rated seismic isolator will laterally restrain a force approximately equal to the load it will support. Today s applications, however, involve applications where possibly as many as 4 or 5 g s might be required. The selection of combined isolator/restraint components that can work in this range is extremely limited. In these applications, independent isolators appropriate for the support load and snubbers appropriate for the lateral seismic load are often the most attractive alternative. 2) Anchorage is also an issue that can drive the need for separate restraints. Low profile restraints will typically withstand a higher lateral load than will high profile combination isolator/restraints. Where anchorage is critical it can frequently be optimized by using separate elements. 3) Access, adjustment, and visibility are frequently cited as conditions that make separated isolator/restraint elements preferable. In most combination devices the ability to see that there is clearance quickly and easily is questionable at best. Normally clearance is assured by shaking the unit, but sometimes this is not practical. Sometimes (but not always) with separate elements, this clearance can be viewed from a distance. 4) Depending on the installation, the support locations on the structure or the connections to the equipment are not rugged enough to withstand the seismic loads. In these cases, restraints can be relocated to areas where there is adequate capacity in the equipment and structure to ensure a good seismic load path. 5) Lastly, occasionally the equipment geometry or weight will make it possible to use fewer restraints if they are located remotely. For example, bases that are supported on 4 isolators and use 2 restraints are not uncommon.

WHEN TO USE SEPARATE ISOLATOR/RESTRAINTS


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High-Capacity Restraint Configurations


Beginning with the adoption of the 97 UBC code and later with the new IBC code, seismic design loads have increased dramatically. Applications where large pieces of equipment are located high in structures and, in particular, where they are anchored to concrete have become significantly more difficult to address. Some of the factors driving this are 2:1 increase factors for isolated equipment attached to concrete, 3:1 or 4:1 increase factors for equipment located at rooftop levels, and higher basic design acceleration values. These high design forces not only add to the shear load on equipment anchors but also greatly increase tensile (or uplift) loads. The tensile loads result from overturning factors on both the equipment and on the restraint itself. While there is often little that can be done with regard to equipment geometry, the location of the equipment in the structure, or the material to which it is attached, improvements can be made in the restraint to minimize tensile loads developed in its attachment anchors. The need to do this is critical as the allowable tensile capacities of concrete anchors are very low compared to either their allowable shear loads or the tensile capacities of equivalent through bolts. This results in a significant penalty in capacity when using concrete anchors. In addition, the required embedment depth for larger anchors (often 6 to 10 inches) makes their use impractical (or even impossible) for a wide range of projects. When the restraints are mounted by concrete anchors, the interaction between the tensile and shear forces applied to the anchor simultaneously dramatically reduces its ability to withstand a lateral load. This reduction is highly dependent on the height of the snubber element above the base of the restraint. For example, a restraint with the snubber element located 10 inches off the floor will resist only about of the lateral load than would an identical restraint with the snubber element located 2 inches off the floor. As a result, especially if attaching to concrete, efforts should be made to keep the restraint element as close to the floor (or mounting surface) as possible. Common older designs for seismically rated isolators have the restraint element located above the spring coil. The capacities on these units are greatly reduced in concrete anchorage applications and for critical areas they should be avoided. A few combination isolator/restraints have the restraint relocated to the base, with the coil above. The FMS is Kinetics Noise Control s version of this type of seismically rated assembly.

HIGH-CAPACITY RESTRAINT CONFIGURATIONS


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Hybrid Isolators / Restraints (FMS)


Hybrid Isolator/Restraints have been developed as an answer to many of the problems encountered in serving the widely ranging requirements present in applications today. These components reflect a major shift from past isolator designs in look, ease of installation, performance, and flexibility. They are the result of a rethink of today s isolation/restraint requirements and a back to the drawing board approach to design.

FMS 2-Coil Seismically Rated Spring Isolator The Model FMS Seismically Rated Restraint/Vibration Isolator has been developed by Kinetics Noise Control using these techniques. It is a modularized system that can be used as an independent restraint device or as a seismically rated vibration isolator assembly. It is comprised of a restraint module and an optional vibration isolation module. This modular design allows the engineer to design for seismic or wind forces independent of the load and deflection requirements of the vibration isolator. The independent vibration isolation module can be varied extensively using laterally stable springs compliant with ASHRAE guidelines. The restraint portion of the FMS is available in a wide range of capacities. Vibration isolation components are available with a full complement of capacities up to 20,000 pounds and in deflections of 1 through 4 inches. Key to the flexibility of the FMS is the ability to select the restraint module independent of the vibration isolator load and deflection requirement. This ensures a custom, no-compromise fit for restraint and vibration control. Using these features, the FMS can be optimized to a wide range of applications.

HYBRID ISOLATORS / RESTRAINTS (FMS)


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ADJUSTMENT NUT

SPRING CAP

ISOLATION ELEMENT

HANGER ROD NEOPRENE LOAD CAP

SPRING COIL(S)

RESTRAINT ELEMENT LOCKING SCREW LOWER NEOPRENE RESTRAINT ELEMENT LATERAL NEOPRENE RESTRAINT ELEMENT UPPER RESTRAINT HOUSING LOWER RESTRAINT HOUSING TOP NEOPRENE RESTRAINT ELEMENT

RESTRAINT CLEARANCE

FMS Section (Typical) Offered here is a summary of the FMS isolator/restraint system. Its features, benefits, and best applications as well as potential limitations will be addressed. While hybrid isolators, and the FMS in particular, are well suited to many applications, as with anything, they won t work everywhere. The initial FMS concept was to shift the seismic snubbing element as close to the floor or mounting surface as possible. As discussed earlier in this chapter, shifting the snubbing surface to an elevation close to the mounting surface greatly increases the seismic force that the restraint can absorb. On the FMS, this was taken to the extreme such that all lateral loads are absorbed in a snubber element fit directly into the base mounting plate. This unique design minimizes (virtually eliminates) the vertical load components transmitted into the anchors or other attachment hardware. As a result, considerably higher seismic ratings are possible versus older, more conventional designs using similar sized connection hardware. Shown below are load diagrams that illustrate the impact that shifting the snubbing point from the top of the restraint to the bottom has on the anchor loads.

HYBRID ISOLATORS / RESTRAINTS (FMS)


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Anchor Load Reactions A consequence of moving the restraint element to the bottom of the isolator is that the spring moves to the top. This allows the use of an open spring design where the spring is completely visible for inspection and totally accessible for adjustment. Unlike most conventional isolators, the top adjustment nut can be adjusted with a ratchet or power impact-type tool if desired.
Impact Wrench

Easy Adjustment Access The use of a hanger rod as a pendulum offers a couple of less obvious benefits as well. First, the isolator becomes inherently stable with the hanger rod wanting to return to a vertical position rather than wanting to drift off to one side or the other. This reduces the likelihood of vibration shorts in the snubbing element. In addition, a pendulum in this length range has a much lower natural frequency than could be expected from laterally deflecting a coil. This offers a benefit in isolation efficiency.

HYBRID ISOLATORS / RESTRAINTS (FMS)


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A second benefit of relocating the coil to the top of the snubber is that it can be easily changed. This is true not only in service, but also during the design phase. Within the limitations of the restraint housing top area, a wide variation of 1, 2, and 4 inch deflection coils can be fit onto the same restraint element. This flexibility allows the user to custom select isolator/restraint combinations that could range from as little as g to as much as 10 g s

Coils with Different Deflections on the Same FMS Restraint Housing Not only is it possible to vary capacity or deflection on a given restraint component, but it is also possible to significantly increase the capacity through the use of multiple coils if this is appropriate for the application.

Multiple Coil Options Used on the Same Restraint Housing Restraint housing components are available in 8 sizes with horizontal force capacity ratings ranging from 1,000 lb up to 70,000 lb. Standard isolation elements are available in 1, 2, and 4 inch deflections with support capacities ranging from 35 to 23,000 lb.

HYBRID ISOLATORS / RESTRAINTS (FMS)


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Application Because of the extreme design flexibility of the modular concept, Kinetics Model FMS Seismic Restraint/Vibration Isolators can be used effectively for large, heavy pieces of equipment in highly active seismic or wind-prone areas as well as for more common applications in less active areas without financial consequence. The FMS is ideal for equipment mounted on structural frames or concrete inertia bases. As with any seismic restraint or vibration isolation device, direct mounting to light pieces of equipment may not be possible without an intermediate frame. Because of the limited vertical travel and near constant operating height, the FMS isolator is excellent for use on cooling towers, chillers, boilers, or other equipment where the potential for wide weight variations during service is anticipated. Typical Application Details

Pump-Mounted Inertia Base Application

Structural Fan Base Application

HYBRID ISOLATORS / RESTRAINTS (FMS)


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Chiller Mounting Arrangement

FDS TYPE ISOLATOR UNITS

SEISMICALLY RATED FMS MODULE

Cooling Tower Support Rail (FMS used as Restraint with FDS Isolator Modules)

Limitations The FMS Isolator/Restraint uses a flange for attachment to the supported equipment. As such, it is not directly applicable to the underside of equipment mounting feet. In addition, the restraint element and support center for the isolation coil is offset from the flange mounting surface. This generates a moment force at the mounting flange that must be absorbed by the supported equipment or cross member. Both of the above issues can be addressed through the use of an intermediate cross support member (frame or beam) that is designed to absorb these additional moments and has provisions for the attachment of the equipment.

HYBRID ISOLATORS / RESTRAINTS (FMS)


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Roof-Mounted Equipment Applications


Mounting and seismically restraining equipment on the roofs of structures has always required special treatment. Today, with the advent of multipliers based on the elevation of equipment within the structure, these connections have become even more critical as well as more difficult. Depending on the code used, a multiplier of 2, 3, or 4 is applied to the seismic design force level at the ground level before applying it to roof-mounted equipment. This is true whether or not the structure involved has one story or 100. These high forces must be effectively transferred to what is often a relatively light structure and the entire arrangement must be weatherproofed. In most coastal regions of the country, hurricaneforce winds must also be withstood. Often the forces generated by these winds is significantly higher than the seismic design forces. When working with roof-supported systems it is important to be aware, and to make those responsible for the structure s design aware, of the issues regarding equipment restraint as early as possible. It is not uncommon, particularly on concrete roofs, to come across situations where conventional anchorage does not work. To be more specific, large diameter anchors are frequently required to achieve the needed capacity. These large diameter anchors require significant embedment (as much as 10 inches) into a contiguous (uninterrupted) concrete slab. It is rare that this much concrete exists on the roof and when it does not the addition of this much additional concrete would overload the structure. Under these conditions, through bolts with backer plates, although not ideal, are the only viable option. Narrow concrete perimeter roof curbs also pose significant problems in that they will typically not allow enough edge distance to properly install seismically rated anchors. For seismic applications, these should be avoided. Large penetrations in concrete roof decks for ducts or the like can also result in awkward situations in placing anchors. As much as possible, openings should be held away from the interior edge of the roof curb by at least 12 inches For optimum performance dedicated steel structural members should be used to support large pieces of equipment. These can be located above or below the roof deck, but in any case must have an interface to which the equipment can be directly connected. For maximum capacity a welded connection between these members and the supported equipment is frequently desirable. Particular caution should be exercised in this area to ensure that twisting moments, which can be put into this structure by loads applied to the supported equipment, are adequately addressed.

ROOF-MOUNTED EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS PAGE 1 OF 2


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Under some less heavily loaded conditions seismic connections to sheet metal roof decking may be possible. Under no circumstances, however, should seismic connections to sheet metal decking be attempted without a complete review of the application, appropriate reinforcement, and adequate connection capacity between the decking and structural roof support members. See also later sections of this manual relating to curb-mounted equipment for more detailed information. A frequent design issue with roof-mounted equipment fit with seismic restraints is that light winds tend to push the equipment against the seismic snubber. This can result in a minor short, decreasing isolator performance. To avoid this condition a perimeter wind barrier around the equipment or a soft wind cushion element that can minimize these occurrences is recommended.

ROOF MOUNTED EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS PAGE 2 OF 2


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CHAPTER D4 APPLYING RESTRAINT CAPACITY RATINGS TABLE OF CONTENTS

Horizontal/Vertical Seismic Load Capacity Envelopes (Constant) Horizontal/Vertical Seismic Load Capacity Envelopes (Variable) Force Class for Hanging Piping, Ductwork, Conduit and Equipment Force Class Load Determination Sample (Tables 1 and 1a) Maximum Restraint Spacing, Offset, and Drop Length (Tables 2 and 3) Hanger Rod, Rod Stiffener, and Strut Tables (4a, 4b, and 4c) Cable and Anchorage Ratings (Tables 5 and 5a) Force Class Examples

D4.2 D4.3 D4.4 D4.5 D4.6 D4.7 D4.8 D4.9

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Chapter D4)


APPLYING RESTRAINT CAPACITY RATINGS
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ASD (Allowable Stress Design) vs LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design)

D4.1

ASD (ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN) vs LRFD (LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN)
There are two systems used for the analysis of loads in structures. Both have been used successfully, but there are reasons that one may be preferred over the other for particular situations. Currently, the building codes that govern the factors used in the design of seismic components are migrating from one system to the other. Because there is a significant difference between the two, factors need to be introduced on some occasions to properly compare design forces and component capacities. The two systems are ASD (Allowable Stress Design) and LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design). ASD (Allowable Stress Design) ASD has been used historically for determining forces and assigning capacities to restraints, materials, anchors and other critical items. It is also commonly referred to as Working Stress Design. When using the ASD system, factors are applied to lower the peak allowable strengths of the hardware or materials used on a project to the point that, when subjected to peak design loads, a cushion is built into the materials for safety. Thus, if a component is determined to be able to withstand a tensile load of 1400 lb without failure, in the ASD world, it will be rated at only 1000 lb. The same basic logic is also applied to the loads. The forces used for design in this system are working loads. While these are the biggest loads normally expected, they do not include extra factors intended to address unknowns, compounded loads and other uncommon occurrences. It is assumed that the safety factor in the materials can address these items. Thus both the loads and the strengths of the materials are reduced to a level that is commonly referred to as the Working Stress Based. LRFD (Load and Resistance Factor Design) LRFD is used on the newer codes and is more commonly being used in identifying material or component capacities as well. It is also commonly referred to as Working Strength Design. When using the LRFD design principles, the factors applied to the materials are small or non-existent. The LRFD capacity listed can be assumed to be all that you will get.

ASD vs LRFD Design


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The forces that are generated by LRFD computations are similarly not reduced. Every effort is made to identify the worst case conditions and load combinations and as a result, there are factors applied to the loads to anticipate these conditions that are not included in the ASD world. As a result, both the forces and the material capacities used for LRFD computations are higher than those used with ASD. This is commonly referred to as the Workng Strength Based. For purposes of our calculations, it is possible to directly compare working strength to working stress values by introducing a factor of 1.4. Thus if we go back to our original material example, the material rated at 1000 lb tensile strength using ASD factors, would be rated at 1400 lb using LRFD. Applicability Currently the BOCA, SBC, and NBC (Canada) codes are ASD based. The 97 UBC, IBC and TI-809-04 Codes are LRFD based. There are multiple reasons that the codes have moved toward the LRFD. Probably the primary one however, is that it has been felt the loads and load combinations can be more accurately portrayed with LRFD factors than they can with ASD factors. Unfortunately, there is currently a situation where some materials or hardware are rated in ASD based units and some in LRFD based units. In addition, as mentioned above, some of the codes have forces in ASD units and some in LRFD units. The differences between the values are too big to ignore and it is critical that anyone involved in comparing values, sizing components or specifying designs must have a good grasp of this and know at all times, what values he is working with. Kinetics Noise Control currently performs most analyses on individual pieces of equipment using ASD units. This is because many of the hardware and material allowables are still in those units and because of the need to deal with many codes, we have preferred to standardize. In general, for areas where it is not clear which units might be used, it will be noted on KNC documentation. For example, on the standardized certification document that we generate, the seismic design forces listed at the top are clearly indicated to be in ASD units. On the other hand, Kinetics Noise Control produced piping and duct design tables are in LRFD units. Again, on each of the documents produced, LRFD units are indicated. LRFD has been used here as primary because these are relatively new tables and as the codes are heading in that direction, it seemed appropriate to adopt that system.

ASD vs LRFD Design


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HORIZONTAL/VERTICAL SEISMIC LOAD CAPACITY ENVELOPES (CONSTANT)


All seismically rated restraints that resist both horizontal and vertical loads and that are provided by Kinetics Noise Control represent their seismic capacity with a load envelope diagram. The vertical axis of the diagram is the vertical capacity of the restraint. The horizontal axis of the diagram is the horizontal capacity of the restraint. The area in between represents the maximum capacity for applications that have combined vertical and horizontal load components. Most applications involve combination of these forces. For restraints that resist horizontal loads only, a single number identifies their capacity. For all seismic restraints and for most seismically rated isolators, the seismic capacity is independent of the load that the isolator might support. In some cases, however, the load being supported by the isolator can increase of decrease its seismic rating. This section addresses only those isolators where the restraint capacity is unaffected by the load. Note: The load supported does not impact the capacity of most seismically rated isolators. Any seismically rated component that has its capacity illustrated as in the diagrams below are of the constant capacity type. If the seismic rating is load sensitive, the capacity diagrams will be more complex. Refer to section D4.3 for more information on these and on how to use the load diagrams appropriate to them. On most diagrams, there are two curves. One represents the capacity of the restraint when through bolted and/or welded. This can also be assumed to be the capacity limit of the restraint device itself. The other curve indicates the capacity of the restraint if bolted to concrete. This will be equal to or less than the through bolted capacity and it includes reductions that address the limitations that must be applied to anchors when the restraint is attached as is to a concrete slab. It should be noted that the concrete anchorage capacity can increase up to the limit of the through bolted capacity with the addition of optional oversized base plates and significantly larger anchors. In some cases, a family of isolators or restraints may be identified on the same diagram. If this is the case, each curve will be labeled as to which family member it represents and where appropriate, both anchored to concrete and through bolted values will be shown. In addition, not all components are intended to be anchored to concrete. If it is not appropriate for the given component, no associated curve will be published for it. A typical set of curves is shown below.

HORIZ / VERT SEISMIC LOAD ENVELOPES (CONSTANT)


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BOLTED ED TO STEEL
VERTICAL FORCE LBS X 1000
6

ANCHORED TO CONCRETE
5

0 0 1 2 3 4

HORIZONTAL FORCE LBS X 1000

To use the diagram, the required capacity at the various restraint (or attachment) points for the application must be known (or computed). There are a number of ways to obtain these values. Some of these can be fairly simple but give very conservative values. Some are more complicated, but may substantiate the use lighter weight attachment hardware. As part of a standard seismic analysis for given piece of equipment, Kinetics Noise Control provides these values for particular applications. ASHRAE offers guidance on alternate ways of computing these forces and there could well be other ways to do it that result in reasonable answers. Some caution must be exercised though, as it is not as simple as dividing the total seismic force by the number or isolators to get a force per isolator (See also Section D1.3 of this manual). Once the vertical and horizontal restraint capacity necessary has been determined, these values should be plotted on the diagram using the vertical force component for the y-variable and the horizontal force component for the x-variable. Shown below is a diagram with capacity requirement of 3500 lb vertical and 750 lb horizontal plotted on it. For our purposes, we will assume that the parameters used to calculate these values are through bolted parameters. (When using these charts, because the actual computed load requirement can vary depending on whether the final connection is to steel or concrete, it is critical to ensure that the load requirement used is appropriate to the anchorage type being considered. [Concrete anchorage forces compares to concrete allowables and through bolted forces compare to bolted allowables]) Note that the point falls between the Anchored to Concrete and Bolted to Steel curves. Because the point is inside the Bolted to Steel curve, this indicates two things. 1) The restraint itself is adequate for the application and, 2) if the application involves through

HORIZ / VERT SEISMIC LOAD ENVELOPES (CONSTANT)


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bolting the restraint to the structure, the restraint can be successfully applied as is. If the point had fallen outside of the Bolted to Steel curve, the restraint device would have been inadequate in size for the application and a restraint with higher capacity would have to be selected. If the force had been computed using Anchored to Concrete parameters, because the point falls outside of the anchored to concrete curve, it indicates that if connecting to concrete using post installed anchors, the restraint cannot be used as is. Since it does fall inside the Bolted to Steel curve however, it indicates that it could be fitted with an oversized baseplate and more (or larger) anchor bolts. If this oversized baseplate is sized to resist these forces, it offers a viable attachment option. Details on selecting an adequate oversized baseplates can be found in the Floor and Wall Mounted Equipment Chapter, Section D5.2.
8

BOLTED ED TO STEEL
VERTICAL FORCE LBS X 1000
6

ANCHORED TO CONCRETE
5

0 0 1 2 3 4

HORIZONTAL FORCE LBS X 1000

If the point had fallen inside of the Anchored to Concrete curve, the restraint could have been used as is in the anchored to concrete application.

HORIZ / VERT SEISMIC LOAD ENVELOPES (CONSTANT)


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HORIZONTAL/VERTICAL SEISMIC LOAD CAPACITY ENVELOPES (VARIABLE)


All seismically rated restraints that resist both horizontal and vertical loads and that are provided by Kinetics Noise Control represent their seismic capacity with a load envelope diagram as indicated in the previous section. In some cases involving combined isolation and restraint devices however, the supported load can significantly impact the lateral, vertical or combined capacity. This requires the creation of a special load diagram appropriate to the specific load being supported.

In general, when working with a restraint that has Variable load capacity, increases in the supported load will make restraints more stable (and resistant to lateral loads) and will increase the applied force necessary to overcome gravity forces (and increase their effectiveness in dealing with uplift loads). If the seismically rated isolator, however, is designed with a cantilever element that transfers the load from both the spring and the snubber to the supported piece of equipment, the actual stress in the component is the resultant of these two factors. As the supported load increases, the maximum restraint load will decrease and vice versa. This relationship is typically linear and needs to be taken into account when sizing the restraint component.
8 7

VERTICAL FORCE LBS X 1000

BOLTED ED TO STEEL
6

ANCHORED TO CONCRETE
5

0 0 1 2 3 4

HORIZONTAL FORCE LBS X 1000

Typical Constant capacity Envelope If the restraint being used is of the Variable capacity type, it will be obvious from the load envelopes provided. Instead of the single graph illustrating the Constant capacity curve as shown above, there will be 3 separate graphs as shown below.

HORIZ/VERT SEISMIC LOAD ENVELOPES (VARIABLE)


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Once developed, the vertical axis of the diagram indicates the vertical capacity of the restraint and the horizontal axis of the diagram is the horizontal capacity of the restraint in the same manner as does the Constant load capacity envelope. (See also D4.2)

Typical Variable capacity Envelope It should be noted on the Variable load envelope set of graphs, that Figure 1 (the one on the left) is similar to the graph for the Constant capacity case. This envelope represents the capacity of the restraint if it does not support any weight. (When it is used as a restraint only and not as an isolator.) If the restraint bears weight, a new envelope must be created. This is accomplished using the following procedure: 1) To generate the seismic restraint capacity envelope for a particular load condition, first determine the static load on the isolator element. 2) Refer to Figure 2 or 3 depending on whether the restraint is to be through-bolted (Steel Attachment) or anchored to concrete (Concrete attachment). Locate the above static load on the X axis and determine the horizontal restraint capacity rating by reading the intersecting Y axis value from the appropriate curve (#3 or #6). 3) Plot this point on the horizontal axis of the restraint envelope graph. 4) Similarly determine and plot the vertical restraint rating drawn from curve #1 or #4 on the vertical axis of the restraint envelope graph. 5) Repeat for the combined rating (curve #2 or #5) and plot it at the location where both the vertical and horizontal force equal this value. 6) Connect the above points to generate the performance envelope for the restraint under the particular load condition.

HORIZ/VERT SEISMIC LOAD ENVELOPES (VARIABLE)


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Example Assume we have a seismically rated restraint that supports 600 lb and we want to derive a restraint capacity curve for it. Using the sample graph below, we can see that the horizontal capacity with a 600 lb support load is 2650 lb (Curve #3), The vertical capacity is 2000 lb (Curve #1) and the combined capacity is 1100 (Curve #2).

Plotting these values on the Restraint Capacity Envelope curve, we produce a curve that looks like the dashed line shown on the following page. Also shown on this diagram is the unloaded restraint curve and added is a curve indicating the capacity for this particular restraint if it were to be loaded to the maximum (1000 lb.) At this point, the curve can be applied in the same manner as the constant capacity envelope addressed in the previous section of the manual.

HORIZ/VERT SEISMIC LOAD ENVELOPES (VARIABLE)


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Generated Seismic Load Capacity Envelope

HORIZ/VERT SEISMIC LOAD ENVELOPES (VARIABLE)


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

Force Class for Hanging Piping, Ductwork, Conduit and Equipment


The Kinetics Noise Control Force Class design guide is used to size components for use in seismically rated piping and ductwork systems. Addressed in this documentation are guidelines for sizing restraints, hanger rods, rod stiffeners, and anchorage for seismic applications. The guide is quite comprehensive and contains a significant level of detail to allow all aspects of the restraint and anchorage to be optimized where awkward geometry or critical conditions not obvious during the design process occur. The guide can also be used to identify a more standardized, yet conservative, selection of components that would be appropriate for most or all of the restraint locations for a given system. Components provided by Kinetics, unless otherwise noted, will be sized for these more standardized conditions. In general these are worst case conditions depending primarily on the pipe sizes to be restrained with some adjustment for the systems elevation in the structure. Components provided by Kinetics will be cable systems based on 60 degree (worst case) restraint cable angles in conjunction with the longest allowable spans (per SMACNA). In cases where there are a significant number or items trapezed together, components will be selected based on total weight and indications will be included on drawings as appropriate showing where these conditions exist. The tables described below are shown in the remaining sections of Chapter D4 of this manual. Note that Tables 1 and 1A are samples and will vary from project to project. Tables 1 and 1A Force Class and Load Determination Tables Knowing duct size, pipe size, or weight per linear foot of the system being restrained, this series of tables allows the end user to determine or verify the Force Class rating of the properly sized restraint component. This document is tailored with seismic factors appropriate to the particular project under review, and as such is not applicable to other projects. The key information listed on this document is in the right-hand column. At the top, Force Classes are identified and corresponding force values in pounds are listed. Below this is the design force in gs for the project in question. The forces are broken down for various elevations within the structure as the forces vary with elevation. The bottom six tables are set up based on six different restraint spacings. These tables indicate, for systems with a known weight per linear foot and a known spacing between restraints, the required Force Class rating of the restraint components. The tables offer guidance for 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 80 foot restraint spacings. In the left hand column is reference information that offers a guide to determining the weight per foot for various pipe and duct components. Individual pipe or duct weights can be read directly off the table. For trapezed systems, the combined total weights per foot

FORCE CLASS FOR HANGING PIPING, DUCTWORK, CONDUIT, AND EQUIP.


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of the individual pipe or duct components should be used. For applications where fine tuning of the components is desired, a second similar table (Table 1A) is available listing the actual force (rather than Force Class). In many cases, this table can be used to justify the use of smaller restraint components for particular locations. Linear interpolation between various weights and spacings is permitted. Table 2 Maximum Permitted Restraint Spacing for Piping and Ductwork There are four tables that make up this family. They address the maximum axial and lateral spacing for piping and conduit (two tables) and ductwork (two tables).

Table 3 Maximum Permitted Offset in a run and Drop Length for Piping and Ductwork There are two sets of two tables each that make up this family. They address the maximum allowable centerline offset in a run (on the first table) and the maximum drop length that can be left unrestrained (on the second table). One set is for piping/conduit and the other is for ductwork. As with Table 2, in order to use these tables, the design seismic force in gs or the SMACNA SHL level must be known. See the g values listed for various floors in Table 1. Tables 4A and 4B Hanger Rod Sizes and Stiffeners The two tables that make up 4A indicate the minimum required hanger rod and hanger rod anchor sizes based the tensile forces that result from the static deadweight load in the hanger rod in conjunction with the added seismic force component. In order to use these tables the Force Class (from Table 1) and the static deadweight load per hanger rod (weight per foot of the supported pipe/conduit/ductwork multiplied by the spacing between hangers [divided by 2 if two supports carry the load]) are needed. In addition, if a rigid member is used in lieu of cables for restraint, the angle between the strut and the horizontal plane becomes a factor. The angle information is not needed for cable restraints. Table 4B allows hanger rod stiffeners to be appropriately sized. The upper portion of the table indicates the maximum unstiffened hanger rod length for a given location. The required input information is the Force Class (Table 1), the hanger rod diameter (as installed, but per Table 4a minimum) and the angle between the horizontal plane and the restraint cable or strut (as installed, but not to exceed 60 degrees). If the listed maximum unstiffened hanger rod length has been exceeded, a stiffener is required. The lower portion of Table 4B indicates the increase allowed in hanger rod

FORCE CLASS FOR HANGING PIPING, DUCTWORK, CONDUIT, AND EQUIP.


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In order to use these tables, the design seismic force in gs or the applicable SMACNA SHL level must be known. g values for various floors are listed in Table 1.

length for various sizes and types of stiffeners. Detailed instructions walk the user through the process. For instance, a .62 dia rod stiffened with a .75 dia schedule 40 pipe lists a factor of 2. This indicates that the listed maximum unstiffened hanger rod length (based on Force Class) can be doubled if the hanger rod is fitted with the .75 dia schedule 40 pipe. (Note: KNC does not provided hanger rods or stiffeners. These items are by others. KNC does provide hanger rod anchors and stiffener attachment hardware.) Table 4C Seismic Strut Sizing Table This table indicates the maximum permitted length for various restraint strut materials subjected to loads as determined by the Force Class (Table 1) and strut angle (from the horizontal plane). (Note: KNC does not provide strut members, but does provide hardware that can be used to attach struts made of angle material. Standard KNC-provided components are based on cable restraint systems.) Table 5 Cable and Restraint Anchorage Capacity Data In the upper right portion of this document, cable restraint capacities by Force Class are listed for various diameter cables (1/8 to 1/2) installed at various angles relative to the horizontal plane (up to a worst case of 60 degrees). In the left-hand column are capacities for KNC-provided attachment clips and anchors (full embedment of 8 times anchor diameter is assumed). Required input is the Force Class (Table 1) and restraint cable angle to the horizontal. Data is provided for single anchor, double anchor and quad anchor arrangements. The lower right-hand column contains similar information, but it is based on the use of through bolts to anchor to the structure in lieu of an anchor bolt. Also included is a supplement to this table (Table 5A). 5A lists the same information as Table 5 except that the force capacities are listed in lieu of the Force Class. This table can be used in conjunction with the required force table (Table 1A) to potentially fine tune the system. Linear interpolation between the parameters listed in table 5A is permitted.

For other information and guidance on the installation of restrained equipment and systems, FEMA Manual 412 should be consulted. The manual is available without charge directly from FEMA (1-800-480-2520) or through Kinetics Noise Control. Kinetics Noise Control takes no responsibility for installations not in compliance with this document or other Kinetics-supplied documentation.

FORCE CLASS FOR HANGING PIPING, DUCTWORK, CONDUIT, AND EQUIP.


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Force Class Load Determination Sample (Tables 1 and 1A)

FORCE CLASS LOAD DETERMINATION SAMPLE (TABLES 1 AND 1A)


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Force Class Load Determination Sample (Tables 1 and 1A)

FORCE CLASS LOAD DETERMINATION SAMPLE (TABLES 1 AND 1A)


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Maximum Allowable Restraint Spacing (Table 2)


KINETICS NO ISE CO N TRO L, INC . 6300 IR ELAN PLAC E DU BLIN , O HIO 43017 ph 614 889-0480

Table 2

Maxim um Permitted Restraint Spacing for Piping and Conduit


(If pip e size is oth er than listed, u se d ata for next size larg er)

Maximum Perm itted Restraint Spacing for D uctw ork


(If oth er than listed, u se d ata for next size larg er) L ateral R estrain t S pacin g (ft) Horizontal S eism ic Force (g) (LRF D) 0.21 0.42 0.67 1 1.5* 2* 3* SM ACN A Designation C B A AA 50 40 30 30 20 20 20 50 40 30 30 20 20 20 50 40 30 30 20 20 20 50 40 30 30 20 20 20 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 these 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 sizes Axial Restraint Sp acin g (ft) Horizontal Seism ic F orce (g) (LRF D) 0.21 0.42 0.67 1 1.5* 2* 3* S MA CN A Designation C B A AA 80 80 60 60 40 40 40 80 80 60 60 40 40 40 80 80 60 60 40 40 40 80 80 60 60 40 40 20 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 independently

Duct Size (in) (R ound) 36 48 60 84 (Rect) 30 x 30 42 x 42 54 x 54 60 x 60 84 x 84 96 x 96 54 x 28 60 x 30 84 x 42 96 x 48 108 x 54 120 x 60 * Indicates that

4* 10 10 10 10

4* 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

30 30 20 20 20 10 80 80 60 60 30 30 20 20 20 10 80 80 60 60 30 30 20 20 20 10 80 80 60 60 30 30 20 20 20 10 80 80 60 60 30 30 20 20 20 10 80 80 60 60 30 30 20 20 20 10 80 80 60 60 30 30 20 20 20 10 80 80 60 60 30 30 20 20 20 10 80 80 60 60 30 30 20 20 20 10 80 80 60 60 30 30 20 20 20 10 80 80 60 60 30 30 20 20 20 10 80 80 60 60 30 30 20 20 20 10 80 80 60 60 and forces are not listed by SM ACNA and hav e been com puted

Listed G load is LRF D [Strength] Based. Multiply S tress based forces by a factor of 1.4 before com paring to the G v alues listed abov e.

MAX RESTRAINT SPACING, OFFSET AND DROP LENGTH (TABLES 2 AND 3)


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L ateral R estrain t S pacin g (ft) Axial Restraint Sp acin g (ft) Horizontal S eism ic Force (g) (LRF D) Horizontal Seism ic F orce (g) (LRF D) 0.21 0.42 0.67 1 1.5* 2* 3* 4* 0.21 0.42 0.67 1 1.5* 2* 3* 4* P ipe and SM ACN A Designation S MA CN A Designation C onduit C B A AA C B A AA Size (in) < 2.5* 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 2.5 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 80 80 80 80 80 80 80 40 3 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 40 80 80 80 80 80 80 40 40 4 40 40 40 40 40 40 20 20 80 80 80 80 80 40 40 20 5 40 40 40 40 40 40 20 20 80 80 80 80 40 40 20 20 6 40 40 40 40 40 20 20 20 80 80 40 40 40 20 20 20 8 40 40 40 40 20 20 20 20 80 80 40 40 20 20 20 20 10 40 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 80 20 20 20 20 20 20 12 40 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 14 40 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 16 40 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 18* 40 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 80 40 20 20 20 20 20 20 20* 40 40 20 20 20 20 20 10 80 40 20 20 20 20 20 10 24* 40 40 20 20 20 20 10 10 80 40 20 20 20 20 10 10 * Indicates that these sizes and forces are not listed by SM ACNA and hav e been com puted independently M ax Sp acin gs ap plicable to Hazardo us M aterials an d M edical G as S ystem s are half th e ab o ve values.

Maximum Allowable Offset and Drop Length (Table 3)


K INE TIC S N O ISE CO N T RO L, INC . 6300 IRE LAN PLA CE D UB LIN, O HIO 43017 ph 614 889-0480

T a ble 3

M axim um P erm itted O ffset a nd D ro p L eng th fo r Pip ing


(If p ipe size is oth er th an listed, u se data for next size larg er)

M axim um P erm itted O ffset a nd U n-B rac ed D ro p L eng th fo r D u ctw o rk


(If o th er th an listed , u se d ata fo r n ext size larg er) M ax C en terline O ffs et in R u n (in ) H orizontal S eism ic F orce (g) (LR F D ) 0.21 0.42 0.67 1 1.5* 2* 3* SM AC N A D esignation C B A AA 38 30 23 23 15 15 15 38 30 23 23 15 15 15 38 30 23 23 15 15 15 38 30 23 23 15 15 15 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 these 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 sizes M ax U n -B raced D uct D ro p L en gth (ft) H orizontal Seism ic Force (g) (LR FD ) 0.21 0.42 0.67 1 1.5* 2* 3* 4* S M A C N A D esignation C B A AA 25 20 15 15 10 10 10 5 25 20 15 15 10 10 10 5 25 20 15 15 10 10 10 5 25 20 15 15 10 10 10 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 independently 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

D uct S ize (in) (R ound) 36 48 60 84 (R ect) 30 x 30 42 x 42 54 x 54 60 x 60 84 x 84 96 x 96 54 x 28 60 x 30 84 x 42 96 x 48 108 x 54 120 x 60 * Indicates that

4* 8 8 8 8

23 23 15 15 15 8 20 20 15 15 23 23 15 15 15 8 20 20 15 15 23 23 15 15 15 8 20 20 15 15 23 23 15 15 15 8 20 20 15 15 23 23 15 15 15 8 20 20 15 15 23 23 15 15 15 8 20 20 15 15 23 23 15 15 15 8 20 20 15 15 23 23 15 15 15 8 20 20 15 15 23 23 15 15 15 8 20 20 15 15 23 23 15 15 15 8 20 20 15 15 23 23 15 15 15 8 20 20 15 15 23 23 15 15 15 8 20 20 15 15 and forces are not listed by SM AC N A and hav e been com puted

Listed G load is LR FD [S trength] B ased. M ultiply S tress based forces by a factor of 1.4 before com paring to the G v alues listed abov e.

MAX RESTRAINT SPACING, OFFSET AND DROP LENGTH (TABLES 2 AND 3)


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

M ax C en terline O ffs et in R u n (in ) M ax U n -B ra ced P ipe D ro p L eng th (ft) H orizontal S eism ic F orce (g) (LR F D ) H orizontal Seism ic Force (g) (LR FD ) 0.21 0.42 0.67 1 1.5* 2* 3* 4* 0.21 0.42 0.67 1 1.5* 2* 3* 4* Pipe and C onduit SM AC N A D esignation S M A C N A D esignation C B A AA C B A AA Size (in) < 2.5* 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 2.5 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 3 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 4 30 30 30 30 30 30 15 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 10 10 5 30 30 30 30 30 30 15 15 20 20 20 20 20 20 10 10 6 30 30 30 30 30 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 20 10 10 10 8 30 30 30 30 15 15 15 15 20 20 20 20 10 10 10 10 10 30 30 15 15 15 15 15 15 20 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 12 30 30 15 15 15 15 15 15 20 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 14 30 30 15 15 15 15 15 15 20 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 16 30 30 15 15 15 15 15 15 20 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 18* 30 30 15 15 15 15 15 15 20 20 10 10 10 10 10 10 20* 30 30 15 15 15 15 15 8 20 20 10 10 10 10 10 5 24* 30 30 15 15 15 15 8 8 20 20 10 10 10 10 5 5 * Indicates that these sizes and forces are not listed by SM AC N A and hav e been com puted independently M ax S p acin gs app licab le to H azard ou s M aterials and M edical G as S ystem s are h alf the ab ove valu es.

Minimum Hanger Rod Diameter (Table 4a)


K IN E T IC S N O IS E C O N T R O L , IN C . 6 3 0 0 IR E L A N P L A C E D U B L IN , O H IO 4 3 0 1 7 p h 6 1 4 8 8 9 -0 4 8 0

T a b le 4 a
S u p p o r te d W t p e r H a n g e r R o d (lb s) 100 250 500 1000 2000 100 250 500 1000 2000 100 250 500 1000 2000 100 250 500 1000 2000 S u p p o r te d W t p e r H a n g e r R o d (lb s) 100 250 500 1000 2000 100 250 500 1000 2000 100 250 500 1000 2000

M in i m u m D ia m e t e r o f H a n g e r R o d * ( in i n c h e s )
( R e f e r t o B o t to m T a b l e f o r A n c h o r C a p a c iti e s i f a t t a c h e d to c o n c r e t e ) F o r c e ( lb ) F o rc e C la s s S t ru t A n g le 6 0 d e g re e s f r o m H o riz o n ta l P la n e S t ru t A n g le 4 5 d e g re e s f r o m H o riz o n ta l P la n e S t ru t A n g le 3 0 d e g re e s f r o m H o riz o n ta l P la n e - -A l l C a b le s -S tr u t A n g l e 0 d e g re e s f r o m H o riz o n ta l P la n e 250 I 0 .3 8 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .7 5 0 .8 8 0 .3 8 0 .3 8 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .8 8 0 .3 8 0 .3 8 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .8 8 0 .3 8 0 .3 8 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .8 8 500 II 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .6 3 0 .7 5 1 .0 0 0 .5 0 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .7 5 0 .8 8 0 .3 8 0 .5 0 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .8 8 0 .3 8 0 .3 8 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .8 8 1000 II I 0 .7 5 0 .7 5 0 .8 8 0 .8 8 1 .1 2 0 .6 3 0 .6 3 0 .7 5 0 .7 5 1 .0 0 0 .5 0 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .7 5 1 .0 0 0 .3 8 0 .3 8 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .8 8 2000 IV 1 .0 0 1 .0 0 1 .0 0 1 .1 2 1 .2 5 0 .7 5 0 .7 5 0 .8 8 1 .0 0 1 .1 2 0 .6 3 0 .6 3 0 .7 5 0 .8 8 1 .0 0 0 .3 8 0 .3 8 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .8 8 1 .1 2 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 0 .8 8 1 .0 0 1 .0 0 1 .1 2 1 .2 5 0 .3 8 0 .3 8 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .8 8 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 5000 V 10000 VI

0 .3 8 0 .3 8 0 .5 0 0 .6 3 0 .8 8

M in i m u m D ia m e t e r o f K N C H a n g e r R o d A n c h o r* (in in c h e s )
S t ru t A n g le 6 0 d e g re e s f r o m H o riz o n ta l P la n e S t ru t A n g le 4 5 d e g re e s f r o m H o riz o n ta l P la n e S t ru t A n g le 3 0 d e g re e s f r o m H o riz o n ta l P la n e 0 .7 5 0 .8 8 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 0 .6 3 0 .7 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 0 .5 0 0 .7 5 1 .0 0 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5

0 .8 8 1 .0 0 1 .2 5

1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5

0 .6 3 0 .8 8 1 .2 5 1 .2 5

0 .8 8 1 .2 5 1 .2 5

1 .2 5 1 .2 5

-- A ll C a b le s -100 0 .3 8 0 .3 8 0 .3 8 0 .3 8 0 .3 8 0 .3 8 S t ru t A n g l e 0 250 0 .6 3 0 .6 3 0 .6 3 0 .6 3 0 .6 3 0 .6 3 d e g re e s f r o m 500 0 .8 8 0 .8 8 0 .8 8 0 .8 8 0 .8 8 0 .8 8 1000 H o riz o n ta l 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 1 .2 5 2000 P la n e N o t e s : A ll a b o v e c a p a c iti e s a r e b a s e d o n L R F D [ S tr e n g th ] b a s e d l o a d s , a 5 : 1 S a f e ty F a c to r a n d a 1 . 3 3 A l l o w a b l e o v e rl o a d f a c to r a p p l i c a b le t o W i n d a n d S e i s m i c L o a d in g s . A l l A n c h o r c a p a c iti e s a r e b a s e d o n I C B O a ll o w a b le s , s o m e s i z e s m a y h a v e to b e i n c r e a s e d i f e m b e d d e d i n t o th e t e n s i le s id e o f a s t ru c tu ra l m e m b e r . * If C a b le s a re u s e d in lie w o f S tru ts , A ll H a n g e r R o d a n d A n c h o r S iz e s w i ll b e e q u a l to t h e V a l u e s l is te d f o r S t r u t s in t h e " 0 " d e g r e e a n g l e T a b l e .

HANGER ROD, ROD STIFFENER, AND STRUT TABLES (4a, 4b, AND 4c)
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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

Hanger Rod Stiffener and Strut Tables (Table 4b & 4c)


KINETICS NOISE CONTROL, INC. 6300 IRELAN PLACE DUBLIN, OHIO 43017 ph 614 889-0480

Table 4b
Force Class I II III IV V VI Hanger Rod Dia 0.38 0.50 0.62 0.75 0.88 1.00 1.25 60 Rod Size 0.38 0.50 0.62 0.75 0.88 1.00 1.25 0.38 0.50 6 10 17 25 35 45 73 7 14 4 7 12 18 24 32 52 5 10 5 8 12 17 23 37 4 7 6 9 12 16 26 5 8 10 16 12 o

Hanger Rod Stiffening Tables


Maximum Unstiffened Hanger Rod Length (in) Cable Angle (x) degrees from Horizontal 45 Rod Size 0.62 0.75 0.88 22 33 45 16 23 32 11 16 23 8 12 16 7 10 7
o

Rod Stiffener Sizing Table (Multipliers) 0.75 10.1 5.4 3.4 2.3 1.6 1.2 Schedule 40 Pipe 1 1.25 15.4 23.1 8.3 12.5 5.2 7.8 3.5 5.2 2.5 3.7 1.9 2.8 1.2 1.8 1.5 29.1 15.7 9.8 6.5 4.7 3.6 2.2 1.0 x 1.0 x .12 5.0 2.7 1.7 1.1 Angle Stiffeners 1.5 x 1.5 x .25 2.0 x 2.0 x .12 12.7 14.5 6.8 7.8 4.3 4.9 2.9 3.3 2.1 2.3 1.6 1.8 2.0 x 2.0 x .25 19.8 10.7 6.6 4.4 3.2 2.4 1.1

Max Length Governed by Buckling (Euler). As Stiffener is not a Primary Load Bearing Member and Compressive Load is Intermittent kL/r factor not applied.

Instructions for Use of the above Tables


1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Determine the appropriate Force Class for the Hanger Rod in Question. Determine the Maximum Angle between the Restraint Cable or Strut and Horizontal. Determine the Hanger Rod used (or to be used) at the Restriant Location. Determine the Un-Stiffened Hanger Rod Length (Distance from anchor point to pipe or duct support bracket on Hanger Rod). Using the Maxim um Unstiffened Hanger Rod Length Table Determine if Installed Length exceeds Max Length. If above length is exceeded, Determ ine ratio between installed Length and Max Length (If Installed Length is 32 in and Max Length is 16 inches, the ratio is 32/16 or 2. If a fraction, round up to the next largest whole number.) 7) Select an appropriate stiffener using the Rod Stiffener Table based on the existing Hanger Rod Dia, Multiplier and Max Stiffener length. 8) Read off at the top of the colum n the size of the required stiffener (Sch 40 pipe and Typical Angles are listed). 9) 2 clamps (minim um ) are required to attach the stiffener to the hanger rod. The spacing between clamps cannot exceed the Maxim um Length listed in the first Table.

Table 4c
Force (lb) Force Class Strut Angle 60 degrees from Horizontal Strut Angle 45 degrees from Horizontal Strut Angle 30 degrees from Horizontal Strut Angle 0 degrees from Horizontal Strut Material (A36 Angle) 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.0 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x .12 .25 .12 .25 .12 .25 .12 .25 .12 .25 .12 .25 .12 .25 .12 .25 250 I 32 58 80 78 38 58 80 78 39 58 80 78 39 58 80 78

Seismic Strut Sizing Table


Maximum Length of Strut (in inches) 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 Strut Material II III IV V VI (A36 Angle) 23 58 66 78 27 58 79 78 30 58 80 78 32 58 80 78 16 41 47 64 19 49 56 76 21 54 62 78 23 58 66 78 11 29 33 45 13 35 39 54 15 38 44 60 16 41 47 64 18 21 29 22 25 34 24 28 38 26 30 40 20 15 24 17 19 27 18 21 29 2.5 2.5 3.0 4.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 4.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 4.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 4.0 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 2.5 2.5 3.0 4.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 4.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 4.0 2.5 2.5 3.0 4.0 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x .25 .38 .38 .38 .25 .38 .38 .38 .25 .38 .38 .38 .25 .38 .38 .38 250 I 98 97 117 158 98 97 117 158 98 97 117 158 98 97 117 158 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 II III IV V VI 98 97 117 158 98 97 117 158 98 97 117 158 98 97 117 158 91 97 117 158 98 97 117 158 98 97 117 158 98 97 117 158 64 77 102 158 76 91 117 158 84 97 117 158 91 97 117 158 41 48 65 101 48 58 77 120 53 64 85 132 57 69 91 142 29 34 46 71 34 41 54 85 38 45 60 94 41 48 65 101

See Appendix A8.1.1, A8.2.1, A8.3.1 for Tabulated Values of Rod Stiffeners (4b) for various conditions

HANGER ROD, ROD STIFFENER, AND STRUT TABLES (4a, 4b, AND 4c)
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1.00 1.25 0.38 0.50 60 97 10 18 42 68 7 13 30 48 5 9 21 34 3 6 13 22 4 9 15 -

30 Rod Size 0.62 0.75 0.88 1.00 1.25 29 43 60 79 127 20 31 42 56 90 14 22 30 39 64 10 15 21 28 45 6 10 13 18 28 7 9 12 20

0 Rod Size All Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited

Cable and Anchorage Ratings (Table 5)

CABLE AND ANCHORAGE RATINGS (TABLES 5 AND 5a)


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Cable and Anchorage Ratings (Table 5A)

CABLE AND ANCHORAGE RATINGS (TABLES 5 AND 5a)


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FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


All of the following examples are based on the use of the Sample Load Determination Tables 1 and 1A (D4.5). Note that the tables used are project specific and will change based on the Code, the Project Location and the Building Use classification. Project specific Tables 1 and 1A must be obtained from Kinetics Noise Control prior to reviewing any particular application. This manual section applies only after it has been determined that restraint is required for a particular run of piping, ductwork or on a particular piece of equipment. More information is available to make this determination in section D2 (Codes) and D7 through D10 (Piping, Ducting, Conduit and Suspended Equipment) DUCTWORK EXAMPLE For our example, assume we have a length of pipe as illustrated below.

Further, assume that the 30, 110, 45 and 17 long runs are supported by hanger rods that are 36 long and which are anchored at the top into the underside of the roof slab for the structure and are spaced 10 apart. We can look at both struts and cables for restraint. Determine Design Seismic Force The first thing that we need to know is the design seismic force that we must apply. If we look near the top right corner of Table 1 or Table 1A (D4.5), there are listed the design accelerations in Gs that are appropriate for various elevations in this structure. Since we are attaching the piping in our example to the underside of the roof, the value of interest to us is the acceleration at the roof, in this case .336 G.

Determine the Maximum Restraint Spacing Before we can make effective use of the rest of the information on Table 1 or 1A, we need to determine a spacing for our restraints. Since we do not know yet, what that spacing is,

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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we can refer to Table 2 (D4.6). The upper portion of this table refers to piping and conduit while the lower portion refers to ductwork. There is also a table for lateral and one for axial restraing spacing. Beginning with lateral we need to find a column in the table that meets or exceeds .336 G. The second column lists a value of .42 G. This fulfills our needs. Reading down the column until we get to a 6 pipe, we get a maximum allowable lateral restraint spacing of 40 ft. Likewise on the axial table we get a maximum allowable restraint spacing of 80 ft. Placing Restraints Using this information, along with the layout information available in section D7.4.1 (piping) or section 9.4.1(conduit), we can determine the we need the following restraints: Run 25 30 110 45 17 10 Lateral Restraint 2 2 4 2 1 1 Axial Restraint 1 1 2 1 1 1

If we can locate some of these restraints within 2 ft of a corner, they can do double duty (act as a lateral restraint for one run and an axial restraint for the other). Consolidating these, we can come up with a layout that looks like this:

Note that for the vertical 25 and 10 runs, the hanger rods act as axial restraints. Determine the maximum length of pipe per restraint From the above picture, the maximum span between any two adjacent lateral restraints is 36 and the maximum span between any two adjacent axial restraints is 55. For our

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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purposes, we will use this worst case condition and size all restraints to this capacity. Determine Restraint Hardware Capacity requirements We can now apply the above information to Table 1 or 1A (D4.5) to determine a hardware Force Class or a design force requirment to size our restraint components. Refering first to the weight per foot guide, we can see that a filled 6 pipe weighs 35 lb per foot. Using the Table 1 Force Class tables on the right side of the page and refering to the 40 ft OC spacing (for the 36 case that we have), we see that for a roof application involving a pipe that weighs 50 lb per ft, we need a Force Class III rated hardware system. Optional If we would like to fine tune our selection, we can use Table 1A and perform the same exercise to determine the actual force requirement for the 50 lb per ft pipe restrained 40 ft OC to be 672 lb. If desired, the values on Table 1A can be pro-rated based on the weight and spacing. In this case we can multiply the 672 lb by the actual lb per ft divided by the tabulated lb per ft (35/50) and also by the actual restraint spacing divided by the tabulated spacing (36/40). After multiplying the 672 lb figure by these 2 factors, we find that the minimum component that we can select must withstand a design force of 423 lb. Selecting restraint components Table 5 and 5A (D4.8) list the capacity of various Kinetics Noise Control provided hardware and anchorage components. Table 5 indicates capacities in Force Class units while 5A indicates capacities in lb. The goal is to select components with capacities in excess of the design requirements. If the cable or strut installation angle (as compared to the horizontal plane) is unknown, it should be assumed to be 60 degrees (worst case). Cable ratings are listed at the top. Table 5 indicates that a .25 cable is adequate for any Force Class III requirement at 60 degrees. Best practice using a strut is to limit the angle to 45 degrees. With a 36 long hanger rod and a 45 degree angle to the strut, the length of the strut would be 1.41 * 36 or 51. This dimension is not important for cables, but is critical for struts (Use of struts for restraint of the bottom of the 25 run is not recommended). Refering to Table 4c (D4.7), we need a strut that will be installed at 45 degrees, will be 51 long and will resist a Force Class III load. The minimum angle size that will accommodate this is a 2 x 2 x .25. Returning to Table 5, below the cable data on the left are ratings for various hardware components that are anchored to concrete. On the right are ratings for hardware components that are through bolted. These tables list capacities for the clips mounted in either of the orientations indicated by figure at the top of the page. If the restraint that we are using is attached to concrete, in order to achieve a Force Class III connection, the 1

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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Bolt anchor table on the left indicates that a CCA clip with a single .75 anchor mounted to a vertical surface is needed. As an option, at the bottom of the page on the 2 Bolt anchor chart, either a KSCA or CCA clip mounted with (2) .38 anchors could be used. If the restraint is through bolted (or welded), data from the Grade 2 Bolt table on the right can be used. It indicates that with through bolts, a .5 bolt is adequate, no matter what the orientation. Optional As with the load determination table, it is also possible to fine tune our hardware selection. This can often verify the acceptability of a smaller hardware component than that selected based on Force Class. To do this, we use Table 5A in the same manner as we did above, but we apply the 423 lb figure that we determined earlier as our force requirement. Using this, we can verify that a either a 5mm or .18 cable with gripple connectors would be adequate at 60 degrees. We can also confirm the acceptability of a single .5 anchor with a KSCA clip in any orientation. If through bolted, we can use a KSCA clip with a .38 bolt in any orientation. Thus it can be seen that with a little more effort, smaller hardware can often be justified.

This addresses the lateral restraints. The axial restraints can be addressed in the identical manner with the following result. Force Determination Force Class Method. Design Requirement (60 ft span, 50 lb/ft pipe) Force Class = IV Optional Method Design Requirement (55 ft span, 35 lb/ft pipe) Design Force = 647 lb Cable / Strut Size Determination Force Class Method. Cable size for Force Class IV at 60 degrees = .38 Size for 51 long strut at Force Class IV at 45 degrees = 2.5 x 2.5 x .25 Optional Method Cable size for 647 lb at 60 degrees = .18 (U-clip connection) Attachment Hardware Determination Force Class Method. Concrete Connection for Force Class IV at 60 degrees CCA clip with (4) .375 anchors at any orientation

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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Through-Bolt Connection CCA clip with .75 bolt works for any orientation Optional Method Concrete Connection for 647 lb at 60 degrees CCA clip with.875 anchor at any orientation Through Bolt Connection KSCA clip with .38 bolt at any orientation Minimum Hanger Rod Size and Anchor Determination The supported weight per hanger rod based on 10 ft spacing and 35 lb/ft piping is 350 lb. Refer to Table 4a (D4.7) and note that all cables behave the same as a strut that is oriented horizontally. For supported weights up to 500 lb, the use of a cable restraint and a Force Class III (Lateral) seismic load, the minimum acceptable hanger rod size is .50. If a strut is used in place of the cable and the angle of the strut is 45 degrees to the horizontal, the minimum hanger rod size permissible is .75 Below this is the anchor capacity table. If the hangers are anchored to concrete rather than through-bolted, this table indicates the size requirments for the anchor. In a similar fashion to the above, the anchor size for the cable restrained system can be found to be .88, while that for the strut restrained system jumps to 1.25 When the above table is applied to the axial restraint which needs a Force Class IV rating based on the 55 ft spacing, supporting from concrete becomes impractical. To resolve this issue, the piping must be either hung from steel or the spacing between restraints decreased to reduce the Force Class Requirement. Evaluating Rod Stiffeners Using only the lateral restraint example from above and assuming that we are using cable restraints and the minimum size hanger rods (.50) we can use Table 4b to evaluate the need for rod stiffeners. Looking up Force Class III and a cable angle of 60 degrees (worst case) in the upper table, we find that the maximum unstiffened length that we can have for a .50 hanger rod is 10. Since our hanger rod is 36, a rod stiffener is required. The second table indicates multipliers that can be used to evaluate the additional length that can be achieved with the addition of various rod stiffening materials. We would like to increase our length from 10 to 36, thus we need a multiplier of 3.6 (36/10). If we look at the line in the table for .50 hanger rod, we can see that a .75 diameter pipe or a 1.5 x 1.5 x .25 angle will both offer multipliers in excess of the 3.6 that we need and would be acceptable as rod stiffeners.

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

The maximum spacing between clamps cannot exceed the maximum unstiffened rod length, so a minimum of 3 clamps are needed to clamp the hanger rod to the rod stiffener. DUCTWORK EXAMPLE For our example, assume we have a length of duct as illustrated below.

Further, assume that the entire system is supported by hanger rods that are 54 long and which are anchored at the top into the underside of the roof slab for the structure and are spaced 10 apart. We can look at both struts and cables for restraint. Determine Design Seismic Force The first thing that we need to know is the design seismic force that we must apply. If we look near the top right corner of Table 1 or Table 1A (D4.5), there are listed the design accelerations in Gs that are appropriate for various elevations in this structure. Since we are attaching the ductwork in our example to the underside of the roof, the value of interest to us is the acceleration at the roof, in this case .336 G. Determine the Maximum Restraint Spacing Before we can make effective use of the rest of the information on Table 1 or 1A, we need to determine a spacing for our restraints. Since we do not know yet, what that spacing is, we can refer to Table 2 (D4.6). The upper portion of this table refers to piping and conduit while the lower portion refers to ductwork. There is also a table for lateral and one for axial restraint spacing. Beginning with lateral we need to find a column in the table that meets or exceeds .336 G. The second column lists a value of .42 G. This will meet our requirement. Reading down the column until we get to a 42 x 42 duct, we get a maximum allowable lateral restraint spacing of 40 ft. Likewise on the axial table we get a maximum allowable restraint spacing of 80 ft.

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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Placing Restraints Using this information, along with the layout information available in section D7.4.1 (piping) or section 9.4.1(conduit), we can determine the we need the following restraints: Run 10 70 20 25 Lateral Restraint 1 3 2 1 Axial Restraint 1 1 1 1

Determine the maximum length of duct per restraint From the above picture, the maximum span between any two adjacent lateral restraints is 34 and the maximum span between any two adjacent axial restraints is 67. For our purposes, we will use this worst case condition and size all restraints to this capacity. Determine Restraint Hardware Capacity requirements We can now apply the above information to Table 1 or 1A (D4.5) to determine a hardware Force Class or a design force requirement to size our restraint components. Refering first to the weight per foot guide, we can see that a 42 x 42 duct weighs 29 lb per foot. Using the Table 1 Force Class tables on the right side of the page and refering to the 40 ft OC spacing (for the 34 case that we have), we see that for a roof application involving a duct that weighs 50 lb per ft, we need a Force Class III rated hardware system. Optional If we would like to fine tune our selection, we can use Table 1A and perform the same exercise to determine the actual force requirement for the 50 lb per ft pipe restrained 40 ft OC to be 672 lb. If desired, the values on Table 1A can be pro-rated based on the weight and spacing. In this case we can multiply the 672 lb by the actual lb per ft divided by the tabulated lb per ft (29/50) and also be the actual restraint spacing divided by the tabulated

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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If we can locate some of these restraints within 2 ft of a corner, they can do double duty (act as a lateral restraint for one run and an axial restraint for the other. Consolidating these, we can come up with a layout that looks like this:

spacing (34/40). After multiplying the 672 lb figure by these 2 factors, we find that the minimum component that we can select must withstand a design force of 332 lb. Selecting restraint components Table 5 and 5A (D4.8) list the capacity of various Kinetics Noise Control provided hardware and anchorage components. Table 5 indicates capacities in Force Class units while 5A indicates capacities in lb. The goal is to select components with capacities in excess of the design requirements. If the cable or strut installation angle (as compared to the horizontal plane) is unknown, it should be assumed to be 60 degrees (worst case). Cable ratings are listed at the top. Table 5 indicates that a .25 cable is adequate for any Force Class III requirement at 60 degrees. Good design practice is to limit the strut angle to 45 degrees. With a 54 long hanger rod and a 45 degree angle to the strut, the length of the strut would be 1.41 * 54 or 77. This dimension is not important for cables, but is critcal for struts. Refering to Table 4c (D4.7), we need a strut that will be installed at 45 degrees, will be 77 long and will resist a Force Class III load. The minimum angle size that will accommodate this is a 2.5 x 2.5 x .38. Returning to Table 5, below the cable data on the left are ratings for various hardware components that are anchored to concrete. On the right are ratings for hardware components that are through bolted. These tables list capacities for the clips mounted in either of the orientations indicated by figure at the top of the page. If the restraint that we are using is attached to concrete, in order to achieve a Force Class III connection, the 1 Bolt anchor table on the left indicates that a CCA clip with a single .75 anchor mounted to a vertical surface is needed. As an option, at the bottom of the page on the 2 Bolt anchor chart, either a KSCA or CCA clip mounted with (2) .38 anchors could be used as well. If the restraint is through-bolted (or welded), data from the Grade 2 Bolt table on the right can be used. It indicates that with through-bolts, a .5 bolt is adequate, no matter what the orientation. Optional As with the load determination table, it is also possible to fine tune our hardware selection. This can often verify the acceptability of a smaller hardware component than that selected based on Force Class. To do this, we use Table 5A in the same manner as we did above, but we apply the 332 lb figure that we determined earlier as our force requirement. Using this, we can verify that a either a 5mm or .18 cable with gripple connectors would be adequate at 60 degrees. We can also confirm the acceptability of a single .5 anchor with a KSCA clip in any orientation.

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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If through bolted, we can use a KSCA clip with a .25 bolt in any orientation. Thus it can be seen that with a little more effort, smaller hardware can often be justified.

This addresses the lateral restraints. The axial restraints can be addressed in the identical manner with the following result. Force Determination

Cable / Strut Size Determination Force Class Method. Cable size for Force Class IV at 60 degrees = .38 Size for 77 long strut at Force Class IV at 45 degrees = 3 x 3 x .38 Optional Method Cable size for 653 lb at 60 degrees = .18 (U-clip connection) Attachment Hardware Determination Force Class Method. Concrete Connection for Force Class IV at 60 degrees CCA clip with (4) .375 anchors at any orientation Through Bolt Connection CCA clip with .75 bolt works for any orientation Optional Method Concrete Connection for 653 lb at 60 degrees CCA clip with.875 anchor at any orientation Through Bolt Connection KSCA clip with .38 bolt at any orientation Minimum Hanger Rod Size and Anchor Determination The supported weight per hanger rod based on 10 ft spacing and 29 lb/ft duct is 145 lb (Note that there are (2) hanger rods splitting the total 290 lb at each support location). Refer to Table 4a (D4.7) and note that all cables behave the same as a strut that is oriented horizontally. For supported weights up to 250 lb, the use of a cable restraint and a Force Class III (Lateral) seismic load, the minimum acceptable hanger rod size is .38. If a strut is used in place of the cable and the angle of the strut is 45 degrees to the horizontal, the minimum hanger rod size permissible is .63

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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Force Class Method. Design Requirement (80 ft span, 50 lb/ft duct) Force Class = IV Optional Method Design Requirement (67 ft span, 29 lb/ft duct) Design Force = 653 lb

Below this is the anchor capacity table. If the hangers are anchored to concrete rather than through-bolted, this table indicates the size requirements for the anchor. In a similar fashion to the above, the anchor size for the cable restrained system can be found to be .63, while that for the strut restrained system jumps to 1.25 When the above table is applied to the axial restraint which needs a Force Class IV rating based on the 67 ft spacing, supporting from concrete becomes impractical. To resolve this issue, the ductwork must be either hung from steel or the spacing between restraints decreased to reduce the Force Class Requirement. Evaluating Rod Stiffeners Using only the lateral restraint example from above and assuming that we are using cable restraints and the minimum size hanger rods (.50) we can use Table 4b to evaluate the need for rod stiffeners. Looking up Force Class III and a cable angle of 60 degrees (worst case) in the upper table, we find that the maximum unstiffened length that we can have for a .38 hanger rod is 6. Since our hanger rod is 54, a rod stiffener is required. The second table indicates multipliers that can be used to evaluate the additional length that can be achieved with the addition of various rod stiffening materials. We would like to increase our length from 6 to 54, thus we need a multiplier of 9 (54/6). If we look at the line in the table for the .38 hanger rod, we can see that a 1 diameter pipe or a 2 x 2 x .12 angle will both offer multipliers in excess of the 9 that we need and would be acceptable as rod stiffeners. The maximum spacing between clamps cannot exceed the maximum unstiffened rod length, so a minimum of 8 clamps are needed to clamp the hanger rod to the rod stiffener. Because of the large number of clamps needed, in this case it might be preferable to increase the size of the hanger rod and decrease the number of clamps and the size of the required rod stiffener. SUSPENDED EQUIPMENT EXAMPLE For our example, assume we have a piece of suspended equipment as illustrated below.

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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Determine Design Seismic Force The first thing that we need to know is the design seismic force that must be applied. If we look near the top right corner of Table 1 or Table 1A (D4.5), there are listed the design accelerations in Gs that are appropriate for various elevations in this structure. Since we are attaching the equipment in our example to the underside of the roof, the value of interest to us is the acceleration at the roof, in this case .336 G. Caution should be used here as the specific data in the Table 1 and 1A that might be provided for ductwork or piping may not contain factors appropriate for use on equipment. If there is a question about the applicability of the tablulated values to equipment, contact Kinetics Noise Control for confirmation. Use of the Force Class Tables to size restraints for equipment should be limited to smaller equipment requiring not more than 4 supports and 4 restraints (one in each corner oriented at 45 degrees to the equipment as shown above). Determine the weight of the equipment that is being restrained This should be given data received from the equipment supplier. operating weight of the equipment as installed.

It should be the

Determine Restraint Hardware Capacity requirements We can now apply the above information to Table 1 or 1A (D4.5) to determine a hardware Force Class or a design force requirment to size our restraint components. Since we are working with something that has a known weight, the tabulated data in the tables needs to be tailored to offer a direct comparison. Use the table that indicates 10 ft OC spacing. Multiply all of the weights in the weight per foot column by 10. Compare these updated weights to the actual equipment weight to then determine the appropriate Force Class from the 10 ft OC table.

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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Further, assume that the equipment is supported by hanger rods that are 54 long and which are anchored at the top into the underside of the roof slab for the structure. In addition, assume that the equipment weights 900 lb. We can look at both struts and cables for restraint.

Thus, the weight per ft values change from 10 lb/Ft to 100 lb, from 25 lb/ft to 250 lb, etc. Our equipment at 900 lb would than match the row on the table that originally read 100 lb/ft and now reads 1000 lb. Reading the output from this table, the required Force Class for a roof level application would be Force Class II. Optional If we would like to fine tune our selection, we can use Table 1A and perform the same exercise to determine the actual force requirement for a 1000 lb piece of equipment to be 336 lb. If desired, the values on Table 1A can be pro-rated based on the actual weight. In this case we can multiply the 336 lb by the actual lb divided by the tabulated lb (900/1000). After multiplying the 336 lb figure by this factor, we find that the minimum component that we can select must withstand a design force of 302 lb. Selecting restraint components Table 5 and 5A (D4.8) list the capacity of various Kinetics Noise Control provided hardware and anchorage components. Table 5 indicates capacities in Force Class units while 5A indicates capacities in lb. The goal is to select components with capacities in excess of the design requirements. If the cable or strut installation angle (as compared to the horizontal plane) is unknown, it should be assumed to be 60 degrees (worst case). Cable ratings are listed at the top. Table 5 indicates that a .5mm or a .18 cable with Gripples is adequate for any Force Class II requirement at 60 degrees. If we are using a strut, the angle should be limited to 45 degrees. With a 54 long hanger rod and a 45 degree angle to the strut, the length of the strut would be 1.41 * 54 or 77. This dimension is not important for cables, but is critcal for struts. Refering to Table 4c (D4.7), we need a strut that will be installed at 45 degrees, will be 77 long and will resist a Force Class II load. The minimum angle size that will accommodate this is a 2.5 x 2.5 x .25. Returning to Table 5, below the cable data on the left are ratings for various hardware components that are anchored to concrete. On the right are ratings for hardware components that are through bolted. These tables list capacities for the clips mounted in either of the orientations indicated by figure at the top of the page. If the restraint that we are using is attached to concrete, in order to achieve a Force Class II connection, the 1 Bolt anchor table on the left indicates that a CCA clip with a single .75 anchor is needed. As an option, at the bottom of the page on the 2 Bolt anchor chart, either a KSCA or CCA clip mounted with (2) .25 anchors could be used as well.

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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If the restraint is through-bolted (or welded), data from the Grade 2 Bolt table on the right can be used. It indicates that with through-bolts, a .38 bolt is adequate, no matter what the orientation. Optional As with the load determination table, it is also possible to fine tune our hardware selection. This can often verify the acceptability of a smaller hardware component than that selected based on Force Class. To do this, we use Table 5A in the same manner as we did above, but we apply the 302 lb figure that we determined earlier as our force requirement. Usng this, we can verify that a either a 5mm or .18 cable with gripple connectors would be adequate at 60 degrees, but that there is not enough of a difference to allow a reduction in cable size from the Force Class evaluation. We can confirm the acceptability of a single .38 anchor with a KSCA clip in any orientation. If through-bolted, we can use a KSCA clip with a .25 bolt in any orientation. Minimum Hanger Rod Size and Anchor Determination The supported weight at the most highly loaded hanger rod should be assumed to be approx 35% of the equipment weight unless there is some good reason to assume otherwise. In our case, 35% of 900 lb is 315 lb. Refer to Table 4a (D4.7) and note that all cables behave the same as a strut that is oriented horizontally. For supported weights up to 500 lb, the use of a cable restraint and a Force Class II (Lateral) seismic load, The minimum acceptable hanger rod size is .50. If a strut is used in place of the cable and the angle of the strut is 45 degrees to the horizontal, the minimum hanger rod size permissible is .63 Below this is the anchor capacity table. If the hangers are anchored to concrete rather than through bolted, this table indicates the size requirments for the anchor. In a similar fashion to the above, the anchor size for the cable restrained system can be found to be .88, while that for the strut restrained system jumps to 1.25 Evaluating Rod Stiffeners Using the minimum size hanger rods (.50) we can use Table 4b to evaluate the need for rod stiffeners. Looking up Force Class II and a cable angle of 60 degrees (worst case) in the upper table, we find that the maximum unstiffened length that we can have for a .50 hanger rod is 14. Since our hanger rod is 54, a rod stiffener is required. The second table indicates multipliers that can be used to evaluate the additional length that can be achieved with the addition of various rod stiffening materials. We would like to

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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increase our length from 14 to 54, thus we need a multiplier of 3.9 (54/14). If we look at the line in the table for the .50 hanger rod, we can see that a .75 diameter pipe or a 1.5 x 1.5 x .25 angle will both offer multipliers in excess of the 3.9 that we need and would be acceptable as rod stiffeners. The maximum spacing between clamps cannot exceed the maximum unstiffened rod length, so a minimum of 3 clamps are needed to clamp the hanger rod to the rod stiffener.

FORCE CLASS SAMPLE CALCULATIONS


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TABLE OF CONTENTS
FLOOR & WALL MOUNTED EQUIPMENT FLOOR MOUNTED EQUIPMENT Floor Mounted Equipment Primer Forces Transferred between Equipment and Restraints Attachment of Equipment to Restraints Attachment of Restraints to the Structure OVERSIZED BASEPLATES FOR ISOLATORS & BRACKETS Oversized Baseplates How They Work & Why Use Them Oversized Baseplates Capacities and Selection Guide WALL MOUNTED EQUIPMENT Forces Transferred between Equipment and Restraints Attachment of Equipment to Structure D5.3.1 D5.3.2 D5.2.1 D5.2.2 D5.1.1 D5.1.2 D5.1.3 D5.1.4 Chapter D5

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Chapter D5)


FLOOR & WALL MOUNTED EQUIPMENT
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Floor Mounted Equipment Primer


Introduction: This section will deal with the basics of the Kinetics Seismic Certification analysis for floor mounted equipment and the basic location and placement of the required isolators or restraints around the perimeter of the equipment. Also, there will be a general discussion concerning the required number and size of fasteners at each isolator or restraint location. We will begin the discussion with seismic isolators and restraints that have three axis restraint elements. Table D5.1.1-1 is a listing of the common isolator and restraint models having tri-axial restraints offered by Kinetics Noise Control. Table D5.1.1-1: Typical Kinetics Tri-axial Seismic Isolator and Restraint Models. Isolator Restraint Models Models FHS FLS FLSS FMS KRMS HS-5 HS-7 KSMS FMS ------------

Kinetics Seismic Certification Analysis Program: Figure D5.1.1-1 shows a typical arrangement for these types of devices around a typical piece of equipment. The piece of equipment in Figure D5.1.1-1 may be a generator on an inertia base located on a concrete housekeeping pad. The Kinetics Seismic Certification analysis program calculates the code values for horizontal and vertical seismic forces acting on the equipment. These seismic forces are applied at the center of gravity (C.G.) of the equipment. The horizontal seismic force may come from any direction. So, the program will cycle through a full 360 to determine the worst case loading condition for the isolators or restraints. Then the program will compute the forces acting at each isolator or restraint location, and then compare these values to the allowable limits for the selected isolator or restraint model and size. These allowable limits are based on the strength of the isolator or restraint components as well as the strength of the attachment of the isolator to the structural steel framing of the building. One half of the lower of these two values then defines the allowable limit for the isolator or restraint. If the isolator or restraint is to be attached to concrete, the concrete anchors are evaluated separately. The Kinetics Seismic Certification program will print out the safety factor for each isolator or restraint,

FLOOR MOUNTED EQUIPMENT PRIMER


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the safety factor for the bolts required to attach the isolator to the buildings structural steel, and the safety factor for the concrete anchors that fit the holes in the isolator or restraint mounting plate. Also included in the information will be the number of bolts or anchors required for each isolator or restraint location. Occasionally the anchorage to concrete is insufficient when using the anchor size, number, and spacing provided by the standard base plate on the isolator or restraint. In these cases the Kinetics Seismic Certification program will recommend a standard oversized base plate to be used with the isolators/restraints. For a discussion on the Kinetics Noise Control oversized base plates see Documents D5.2.1 and D5.2.2.
1

5 2

3 6

4 A A/2 B/2 B

Figure D5.1.1-1: Typical Equipment and Isolator or Restraint Layout. Isolator or Restraint Locations: The isolator or restraints are located of the geometric center lines of the equipment as indicated in Figure D5.1.1-1. On the Kinetics Seismic Certification sheet there is a schematic of the plan view of the equipment showing the general isolator or restraint locations. An example of this schematic is shown in Figure D5.1.1-2. The ATTACHMENT POINT numbers in Figure D5.1.1-2 correspond to the isolator or restraint numbers in Figure D5.1.1-1. Isolators or restraints 5 and 6 in Figure D5.1.1-1 are represented by the unnumbered ATTACHMENT POINTS in Figure D5.1.1-2. Note that the odd numbered isolators or restraints are always on one side of the equipment, and the even numbered Isolators or restraints are on the other. If there are more than three pairs of isolators or restraints, they should be spaced as evenly as possible along the length of the equipment between pair 1 & 2, and pair 3 & 4 starting with pair 5 & 6 closest to pair 1 & 2. This is

FLOOR MOUNTED EQUIPMENT PRIMER


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further illustrated in Figures D5.1.1-3 through D5.1.1-5. These figures represent the plan view of a typical air handling unit that is restrained with Kinetics Noise Control Model KSMS Seismic Equipment Brackets. In these figures the terms L and W are the overall length and width of the equipment respectively. Dimensions A and B are the dimensions that establish the isolator/restraint locations. The variable N represents the number of isolators/restraints.

ATTACHMENT POINT

B
Ey

Ex

B/2 2

CG

A/2 A
Figure D5.1.1-2: Seismic Certification Isolator or Restraint Location Schematic.

L L/2

W/2 W

B/2 B

A/2 A
Figure D5.1.1-3: Typical of Four Isolator or Restraint Locations.

FLOOR MOUNTED EQUIPMENT PRIMER


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L L/2

W/2 W

B/2

A/2 A
Figure D5.1.1-4: Typical of Six Isolator or Restraint Locations.

A A/2 A/3 A/(N-1)

W/2 W

5 7

B/2 B

6 8

L/2 L
Figure D5.1.1-5: Typical of Eight or More Isolator or Restraint Locations.

FLOOR MOUNTED EQUIPMENT PRIMER


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Bolt/Anchor Number & Size and Weld Size & Length: In general, the number of bolts or anchors used to attach the isolator/restraint to the building structure and their size are specified on the Kinetics Seismic Certification sheet. The bolts may be ASTM A-307, SAE Grade 2, or better. In some instances, they may be ASTM A-325, SAE Grade 5 or better. However care must be taken if ASTM A-490 or SAE Grade 8 bolts are used. These fasteners are made from highly heat treated steels and may behave in a brittle manner in service. The concrete anchors certified by Kinetics Noise Control for use with isolators and restraints sold by Kinetics Noise Control are Model KCAB Seismically Rated Wedge Type Anchors, Model KUAB Seismically Rated Undercut Type Anchors and KCCAB Seismically Rated Cracked Concrete Type Anchors. The use of adhesive type concrete anchors or non-wedge type, or nonundercut type anchors are not currently approved by Kinetics Noise Control. In lieu of proper documentation, the appropriate bolt or anchor size may be determined by the size of the holes in the mounting plate or the oversized base plate. Table D5.1.1-2 will be useful in obtaining the proper bolt or anchor size. Table D5.1.1-2: Bolt or Anchor Size vs. Hole Size Bolt or Anchor Size (in) 1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4

Hole Size (in) 5/16 7/16 9/16 11/16 13/16 15/16 1-1/16 1-3/16 1-5/16

Unless otherwise specified by Kinetics Noise Control, all of the mounting holes in the isolator or restraint mounting plate or the oversized base plate are to be used with the appropriate sized fastener to attach the isolator or restraint to the building structure.

FLOOR MOUNTED EQUIPMENT PRIMER


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If the isolator or restraint is to be attached to building structure by welding, the weld size and the linear length as well approximate locations will be specified on the Kinetics Seismic Certification sheet. The welds specified will have the same strength as the proper number and type of bolts for the most highly loaded isolator or restraint.

FLOOR MOUNTED EQUIPMENT PRIMER


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

Forces Transferred Between the Equipment & Restraint


Introduction: Due to the nature of certain seismically restrained isolators, and certain types of seismic restraints, the forces that are transferred between the equipment and the restraint, and the restraint and the ground are not what would be normally expected from the normal static force analysis. In this document we will discuss the basic types of restraints and isolators, and point out the effects that each will have on the magnitude of the forces transferred. The newer building codes such as the IBC Code family and TI-809-04 have mandated design seismic forces that are much larger in magnitude than were previously specified in the older model building codes. This means that the restraints that will be specified, oversized base plates that will be required, and the building structure required to support the equipment with its isolators, and/or restraints will all increase in size and capacity. Basic Restraint Types: The most basic types of restraints are those with built in clearance, and those without built in clearance. The following list shows the basic restraint types with the Kinetics Noise Control Models that apply to each. 1.) Restraints with Built In Clearance: Tri-Axial Restraints HS-5, HS-7, and FMS; Bi-Axial Restraints HS-2; Single-Axis Restraint HS-1. 2.) Restraints without Built In Clearance: KSMS The restraints with built in clearance are used primarily for three reasons. First this type of restraint is used when free standing steel coil springs are specified for isolation of the equipment. This allows the equipment to move, vibrate, slightly when operating without contacting the restraints. Second they may be used for equipment that is sitting on the floor and has no provisions to allow it to be attached solidly to the building structure, such as mounting feet or a structurally sound base. Third, certain models of this type of restraint, such as the HS-1, may be added after the equipment has been installed and is operational, if there is enough space on the floor or housekeeping pad. When restraints with built in clearance are used, the engineer, contractor, equipment supplier, and building owner need to be aware that impact forces greatly in excess of the basic code values for the horizontal and vertical seismic forces may be transferred between the equipment and the restraint. These built in clearances allow the equipment to be accelerated relative to the restraint. When the restraint is finally contacted, the equipment has generated an appreciable amount of kinetic energy that must be dissipated in the restraint. If the contact forces are stiff, the impact forces will be large. If

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the contact surfaces are relatively soft, the impact forces will be smaller in magnitude. This phenomenon is discussed in Document T3.1.1 of the Kinetics Vibration Isolation Manual. In this document, a Kinetics Noise Control Model HS 1 2000 was studied. The Impact Factor, IP, is defined as the ratio of the earthquake acceleration rate divided by the restraint deceleration rate. For a 500 lb piece of equipment, the Impact Factor varied from a high value of 4.56:1 with an earthquake input acceleration of 0.25 g to a low value of 1.62:1 with an earthquake input acceleration of 2.00 g. Please realize that these values are the product of a simplified analysis. However, the physics is sound, and the need to address higher impact forces than the basic code values is adequately demonstrated. In an effort to address this impact between the equipment and the restraint, the newer codes require that an Impact Factor of 2:1 be applied to the basic computed seismic force. Depending on the design of the restraint and the magnitude of a seismic event, this factor may or may not, be representative of the actual acceleration values encountered in service, however, it is a good point from which to begin. The equipment manufacturers must to be cognizant of these impact forces as they will affect the reliability of their equipment. They must be considered when designing equipment that will be certified under the provisions of the 2000 IBC for continued operation after an earthquake for facilities that are categorized as essential or hazardous. For restraints with built in vertical clearance, the forces that resist the overturning of the equipment are concentrated at the corner restraints. This sometimes leads to the necessity to select restraints and/or oversized base plates that seem to be larger than common practice would normally recommend. The restraints without built in clearance used to mount rigid equipment will not have the impact force issues that the restraints with clearance have. Also, the forces that resist overturning are more-or-less evenly distributed between the restraints. These restraints are equivalent to solid mounting the equipment using the mounting feet provided by the equipment manufacturer. These restraints may also be used in conjunction with the preexisting mounting feet on the equipment to provide additional restraint as required by the code provisions. Basic Seismic Isolator Types: The isolators that utilize steel coil springs fall into two basic types as shown below with Kinetics Noise Control models that typify each type. 1.) Contained Spring Seismic Isolators: FHS with an Oversized Base Plate; FLS; FLSS; and FMS. In these isolators, when the equipment moves upward, and the vertical restraint is contacted, the spring force is not added to the loads in the bolts, anchors, or welds that

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attach the isolator to the building structure. The spring forces are, thus, tied up in the isolator housing. 2.) Uncontained Spring Isolators: FHS without an Oversized Base Plate, or any tri-axial restraint arrangement where the isolator is a separate component from the restraint and is supported directly by the building structure. In this type of isolator, when the equipment moves upward and contacts the vertical restraint, the spring force is added to the loads in the bolts, anchors, or welds. For all of the seismic isolator types listed above, the seismic restraint is a tri-axial type with built in clearance. As such, the previous discussion concerning restraints with built in clearance will apply to these products as well. Also, the forces that resist the overturning of the equipment will tend to be concentrated at the corner isolator locations in a similar fashion. The Kinetics Noise Control Model KRMS Seismic Neoprene Isolator falls in to the category of a restraint/isolator assembly without built in clearance. The vertical restraints forces are carried entirely though the housing to the bolts, anchors, or welds attaching the isolator to the building structure. So, it does not fall into either the category of restrained spring, or unrestrained spring. It exhibits the characteristics of both, and must be treated accordingly.

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Attachment of Equipment to Restraints


Introduction: Restraints can be attached to equipment in a number of ways. The most obvious is by directly bolting the equipment mounting face or stud on the restraint devise to the equipment via a factory provided hole in the equipment. Unfortunately many pieces of equipment (particularly those not initially designed for seismic service) do not include mounting provisions. In some cases, several independent components make up the piece of equipment and often, if provided, holes are not well located or of appropriate size for direct connection to the restraint device. Wherever the restraints are attached to the equipment, the equipment manufacturer must offer assurances that the application of seismically generated forces at these locations will not exceed the structural capabilities of the equipment. When reviewing the forces, the manufacturer must take into account shear, tensile and bending forces at the connection points. Equipment Directly Bolted to Restraints: Where equipment can be directly bolted to the restraints and where the pattern is reasonably appropriate, this is the most appropriate method to use. The installer should refer to the certification that was performed on that particular piece of equipment and ensure that the number of attachment points and geometry used are consistent with the mounting pattern on the equipment. If the computation addressed several similar pieces of equipment, the spacing used would have been the smallest of all of those included in the analysis (as this would be the worst case). As such, if the actual bolt pattern found on the equipment is larger than that used in the analysis, mounting using the larger pattern is quite acceptable and would not negate the analysis. It is further assumed, when performing an analysis or certification, that the hardware used matches the holes or studs in the restraint device. It is not permitted to downsize this hardware relative to that originally intended for the restraint. If the hole in the equipment is larger than the restraint hardware, it must be fitted to the bolt used in the restraint. This can be done by welding a washer plate to the equipment, adding a sleeve or using a grommet such as the Kinetics TG grommet. The hole size cannot exceed the nominal hardware diameter by more than 1/8. If the hole in the equipment is smaller than the size required by the restraint, it must either be enlarged (with the equipment manufacturers knowledge and permission) or the equipment must be fitted with an appropriately sized adapter to allow the use of the larger hardware.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO RESTRAINTS


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Equipment Welded to Restraints: In many instances, there is no provision for bolt down attachment of the equipment, the arrangement is not conducive to seismic restraint or the bolt attachment provisions are simply inadequate. In these cases, welding is the most common method of attachment. Optional welding information is provided on Kinetics Noise Controls standard Certification document. Where this information is not provided, but the acceptable bolt size is known and bending forces are not significant, the following table can be used to size the weld based on the bolt size.

0.25 0.375 0.5 0.625 0.75 0.875 1

1.11 2.50 4.44 6.94 10.00 13.61 17.77

0.74 1.67 2.96 4.63 6.67 9.07 11.85

0.56 1.25 2.22 3.47 5.00 6.80 8.89

0.37 0.83 1.48 2.31 3.33 4.54 5.92

0.28 0.62 1.11 1.74 2.50 3.40 4.44

2.44 5.50 9.78 15.27 22.00 29.94 39.10

1.63 3.67 6.52 10.18 14.66 19.96 26.07

1.22 2.75 4.89 7.64 11.00 14.97 19.55

0.81 1.83 3.26 5.09 7.33 9.98 13.03

0.61 1.37 2.44 3.82 5.50 7.48 9.78

Weld Length in Inches that are Equivalent to 1 Bolt When using the above table, each weld used should be approximately centered at the restraint location indicated in the analysis. In addition the leg size must not be larger in size than the thickness of either of the materials that are being welded together. Welds should be made to structural members within the equipment and should not be performed without the knowledge and approval of the equipment manufacturer. Intermediate Structure: Intermediate structures are used for a number of reasons. First, cases where the equipment is not structurally adequate for the direct attachment of the restraints. Second, cases where the equipment is floated on springs and there are multiple individual components that must be held in proper alignment with one another. Occasions when mass must be added to the system for stability can require an intermediate structure and lastly, when the type of restraint or isolator desired is not directly compatible with the type of mounting arrangement available on the equipment. If an intermediate structure is fitted, this structure must be designed to withstand the full local restraint loads at their points of attachment and must interface with the equipment in such a fashion that the forces transmitted to the equipment are within the structural capabilities of the equipment. One of the biggest benefits of the use of intermediate frames is to distribute the high point loads (and often bending loads) that can be applied

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Weld Equivalents to A307 Hardware 1/8 3/16 1/4 3/8 1/2 Bolt Dia Weld Weld Weld Weld Weld

Weld Equivalents to A325 Hardware 1/8 3/16 1/4 3/8 1/2 Weld Weld Weld Weld Weld

by the restraint components over several connections to the equipment. In the case of bending loads, intermediate structures can sometimes prevent them from being transmitted into the equipment at all. Cautions and Equipment Durability Design Factors: When connecting restraints to equipment, they must be connected in such a way as to be permanently connected. They cannot be connected to removable panels, doors or covers. They also must not be located in such a way that they obstruct removable panels, doors or covers. Care must be taken to ensure that the equipment has the capability to resist the seismic loads (particularly bending). Shear and Tensile forces can be obtained directly from Certification documents. These forces act at the center of the snubbing elements in the restraint device. Bending can be determined by factoring in the distance in the horizontal and vertical axis between the center of the snubbing element and the center of the mounting face or stud at the equipment surface. The maximum moment that the equipment must be capable of withstanding is the sum of the horizontal and vertical moments. The Horizontal moment is the peak horizontal force from the analysis multiplied by the vertical distance from the snubber centerline to the center of the mounting surface face. This must be added to the peak vertical force multiplied by the horizontal distance between the snubber centerline and the center of the mounting surface face.

For floor mounted equipment, the peak vertical force is compressive and depending on the restraint type, may not be the uplift force listed in the standard certification document. If the restraint is separate from the support system or if the spring force is not trapped within the isolator housing (For example an FHS without an oversized baseplate), the uplift force is the appropriate number to use. If the support system does not include a spring or if a spring is used, but it is trapped within a restraint housing (For example and

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO RESTRAINTS


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FLS), the peak vertical force equals the dead load (expressed as a positive number) plus the uplift force as listed in the standard certification document. Below is listed some typical output data in which the worst case location is Loc 4. For it, the peak horizontal force would be 775 lb. If the restraint device in this instance included a fully contained spring coil (like an FLS) the peak vertical force would be 976 (The static load expressed as a positive number), + 728 (the uplift load) according to the procedure above. In this case, it works out to be 1704 lb.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO RESTRAINTS


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Attachment of Restraints to Structure


Introduction: Unlike the connection between restraints and equipment (which is almost always a metal to metal connection), the connection to structure can be made to a wide variety of materials. The most frequent connection is to concrete, but connections to structural steel, wood and gage materials are also common. As the structural connection has the potential to be the weakest link in the anchorage chain, proper treatment is critical.

Of particular concern are the following: 1) Connections to structural steel involving drilling holes or otherwise weakening the structure. 2) Connections to post-tensioned concrete slabs involving drilling into the slab. 3) Bolt or screwed connections to the narrow edge of wooden beams. 4) Any connections to gage material. Connections to Concrete Because of the brittle nature of concrete, it is particularly susceptible to failures that result from the pounding loads generated by earthquakes. As a result, the anchors selected must be sized conservatively. While cast in place anchors are preferable from a loading standpoint, the ability to properly locate them at the time of the pour is very low and they are rarely used in equipment mounting applications. If this hurdle is overcome, they can be sized using conventional anchor sizing procedures as identified in the current version of ACI 318. Most commonly, post-installed anchors are used. While these can be installed at the time the equipment is placed, they do not have the same positive grip as to the cast in place anchors. As a result, reduced capacities based on ICBO/ICC tests must be used and frequently factors are added to increase the design forces used in the analysis to further ensure that the anchors will remain functional. For equipment that is mounted on springs, wedge type anchors are preferred. These anchors are relatively easy to install, continue to expand as they are exposed to tensile loads and offer added confidence that they will continue to function, even in cracked concrete.

Attachment of Restraints to Structure


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In addition to being critical to the anchorage of the equipment, the structural connection also has the potential to impact the durability of the structure. Because of this, all connections to structure should be reviewed with the engineer of record prior to installation to ensure that the attachment method chosen can not result in a structural weak spot that can cause an unintended failure in the building or other dangerous situation.

Also used in floor mounted applications are adhesive anchors. These offer good performance, but the installation is more critical. They are unacceptable for overhead applications or in areas where they could be subjected to chemical attack however. Although other anchors types can be used (provided they have an ICBO/ICC rating), their allowed capacities are such that they are not viable alternates. Kinetics Noise Control provides seismically rated wedge type anchors for most applications. When equipment is not isolated and is under 10 hp, the same wedge anchors used above can be selected. If the equipment is isolated however, depending on the building code in effect for the project, undercut anchors may be required. These anchors require that a hole be drilled and then be modified to include an oversized pocket at their base. These pockets can be created with a special tool or in some cases, can be cut with the anchor itself. These pockets offer a more positive lock for the bolt than can be obtained with a wedge type anchor. When using post-installed concrete anchors, all anchors are to be embedded 8 bolt diameters and must retain at least a 1 cover of concrete between the bottom of the hole and the opposite face of the concrete. For slabs on grade, this value should increase to at least 1-1/2. Because of this requirement, the size of the thickness of the concrete has a direct impact on the maximum permitted anchor size. For instance, if the slab to which the equipment is to be attached is 4 thick, this means that with 1 of cover, the maximum embedment can be 3 and thus the maximum anchor size can only be 3/8 diameter. If the required anchor is larger than this, some special treatment of the floor slab is required. All anchors are rated for installation into a single, uninterrupted layer of concrete. Because of this, unless poured at the same time and as one piece with the floor slab, the added thickness of a housekeeping pad cannot be added to the floor slab thickness when determining the maximum allowed anchor embedment. Instead, the housekeeping pad by itself, must be adequately thick to accommodate the anchors and must be tied with an array of smaller anchors to the structural floor. There is more information on designing housekeeping pads in the appendix of this manual. Because post-installed anchors are dependent on friction for their capacity, it is critical that they are torqued to the appropriate level. Also, because anchors of similar sizes as manufactured by different manufacturers do not possess equal capacities, it is not permissible to substitute away from those that were assumed in the evaluation and certification process. All Kinetics Certifications are based n the use of Kinetics Noise Control provided anchors, torqued in conformance with the anchor torquing data provided in the submittal information and also available in the product section of this manual. An optional attachment method is to through drill floor slabs above grade and install the restraint device using bolts and nuts. If this is done, any factors that may have been used

Attachment of Restraints to Structure


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

in the analysis to derate the anchors, can be ignored. A second option is to cast an oversized embedment plate into the floor in the approximately location of the required restraint device. This plate can be interfaced with the steel reinforcement in the slab to ensure that it will not pull out. When the equipment is installed at some later time, the restraints can be welded to the embed plate and the entire restraint arrangement can be treated as though it was attached to concrete. Connections to Structural Steel There are two different types of steel structures to which equipment may attach. The first is a purpose built structure that was designed specifically to support the equipment being restrained and the second is a structure whose primary design intent is based on the capacity of the building envelope to withstand building design loads. In the first case, attachment holes are common and have typically been accounted for in the design of the structure. The use of bolts to attach the equipment is common practice, but should be coordinated with the structures designer. In the second case however, the attachment of equipment is really an afterthought. While the structure would globally have been designed to have adequate capacity for both its intended building function and equipment support, the addition of holes or locally applied stress concentration can weaken it to the point that serious building structural issues can emerge. Under no circumstances should the structure be modified in such a way that it would be weakened without prior review of the structural engineer of record. Connections to the building structure are normally accomplished by welding components to the structure. These components can include holes or other bolting provisions. If the attachment process involves the removal of fire proofing material on the steel, it must be replaced prior to completion. When fitting bolts, they are not permitted to exceed the nominal hardware size by more than 1/8. Thus the largest hole permitted for a 5/8 bolt is 3/4. Slotting this hole for alignment is not permitted and if required, the hole must be repaired to limit the clearance to 1/8 prior to the installation of hardware. All bolts are to be tightened in conformance with normal practice. Connections to Wood There are a wide variety of wood sections to which people attach equipment. These range from heavy timber members and engineered lumber to roof sheeting. When seismically restraining equipment, connections should be made to structural grade or engineered lumber. Where possible, the preferred connection is to through-bolt the wood member and

Attachment of Restraints to Structure


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incorporate a load spreading washer plate (or fishplate) on the back side of the wood to prevent crushing. Where it is necessary to screw into the wood, lag screws inserted into properly drilled holes can be used providing the following rules are followed: 1) The edge distance from the center of the screw hole to the edge of the wooden member in which it is inserted must be at least 1-1/2 bolt diameters. 2) The end distance (from the bolt to the end of the wooden member in the direction of the grains axis must be at least 7 bolt diameters. 3) Spacing between bolts must be at least 4 bolt diameters. 4) Embedment is adequate for the design loads expected. Of these items, the first 3 are relatively straightforward. The last item is more ambiguous and needs further explanation. The bolt capacity is a function of many factors and should be sized specifically for the application under review. The density and type of the wood, the angle of the screw relative to the grain and the redundancy of the connections all have significant impact on the rating of the connection. In order to achieve the full rated capacity of the restraint device (if connected with lag screws), the limiting capacity of the screw must be a metal failure in the screw itself. In general, this means that for a reasonably dense grade of structural lumber and a screw mounted at 90 degrees to the grain axis, an embedment depth of 9 diameters is needed to achieve full capacity. Further information on the design of lag screw connections is available in the NDS/ASD National Design Specification for Wood Construction Manual published by American Forest and Paper Association / American Wood Council or Section A7.3 in the Appendix portion of this manual. As with connections to steel, it is mandatory that the structural engineer of record is aware of and approves connections to wood structures because of the possible adverse affect that equipment attachment might have on the ability of the structure to carry primary building loads. Connections to Gage Materials The most common applications that involve connections to gage materials involve curbs and roof mounted equipment. In these cases, if light equipment is involved (like mushroom fans), connections directly to sheet metal can frequently be adequate. In order to be successful however, the connections need to be made up of a series of small fasteners spaced evenly around the component being anchored. In general, applications involving screws larger than #10 cannot be directly connected to gage materials. Where these connections can be made, it is also mandatory that the gage materials themselves are also attached to larger structural elements with a series of smaller connections. Again these must be designed such that the can transfer any seismic loads forced into them by the equipment back into the structure without damage.

Attachment of Restraints to Structure


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Oversized Base Plates How They Work & Why Use Them
The normal design philosophy for Kinetics Noise Control, when designing a new seismic isolator or restraint, is to size the components to allow the smallest package when the isolator or bracket is to be attached to the structural steel of the building. This means that the mounting fasteners and the footprint of the isolator or bracket optimized for the attachment to steel. As a result, the maximum capacity of the isolator or bracket can not be utilized when it is to be attached to concrete using either wedge type anchors or even the undercut type concrete anchors. An isolator or bracket that is designed to optimize the capacity of the concrete anchors would have a footprint and fastener requirement that would be way too large for efficient attachment to structural steel. Also, we at Kinetics Noise Control feel that it would be prohibitively expensive to design one complete line of isolators or brackets for attachment to steel, and another complete line of isolators or brackets for attachment to concrete. Therefore, we design to optimize the isolator or bracket for attachment to structural steel, and employ the appropriate oversized base plate for an application that specifies attachment to concrete. The oversized base plate is typically a square piece of steel plate with four anchor holes in it. The isolator or bracket is welded more-or-less to the center of the plate with the recommended amount of weld for attaching the isolator or bracket to structural steel. This oversized base plate allows us to use an anchor size larger than would be allowed by the mounting holes in the isolator or bracket. Also, the oversized base plate will allow us to space the anchors far enough apart to take full advantage of the allowable loads published for the concrete anchors. A typical wedge type concrete anchor, when loaded, tends to produce a cone shaped stress field where the point of the cone is at the embedded end of the anchor, and the large end of the cone is at the surface of the concrete. When the anchors are too close together, these cone shaped stress fields will interact and reduce the allowable capacities of the anchors. Basic Analysis for Oversized Base Plates: Shown in Figure D5.2.1-1 is a typical oversized base plate with an isolator or bracket attached to it at the center of the plate. In this figure, L is the length and width of the base plate and t is the thickness of the base plate. The variable d represents the anchor size, or diameter, to be used with the base plate. The height H is the distance from mounting surface of the isolator or bracket to the center of the restraint. The seismic force is represented by Fh for the horizontal component of the seismic force, and Fv for the vertical component of the seismic force. The force component Fh is assumed to act at the center of the restraint, and the force component Fv acts act the center of the base plate. There will be three analyses, one for Fv = 0, one for Fh = 0, and on where Fh = Fv.

OVERSIZED BASE PLATES HOW THEY WORK & WHY USE THEM
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Fv
L 1.5d #1 L-3d L #3 1.5d #4 4X d ANCHORS t L-3d #2 Edge 0-0

Fh
ISOLATOR BRACKET H

Edge 0-0

Figure D5.2.1-1: Typical Oversized Base Plate. Case 1: Fv = 0 In this case, the base plate will tend to tip around Edge 0-0. The analysis is based on the following assumptions. 1.) 2.) 3.) 4.) 5.) The base plate acts as a rigid member. The anchors will remain elastic. The deflections and rotations of the base plate will be small. The tension in anchors #1 and #3 will be equal, T1 = T3. The tension in anchors #2 and #4 will be equal, T2 = T4.

Sum moments about Edge 0-0 to determine the tension in the anchors. Counter clockwise moments will be positive (+). M0-0 = 0 = 2*T1*[L-(1.5*d)]+2*T2*(1.5*d)-Fh*(H+t) And; Fh*(H+t) = 2*T1*[L-(1.5*d)]+2*T2*(1.5*d) (Eq. D5.2.1-2) (Eq. D5.2.1-1)

It is clear that anchors #1 and #3 will be more highly loaded than anchors #2 and #4. So,

OVERSIZED BASE PLATES HOW THEY WORK & WHY USE THEM
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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

we will ultimately need to determine the tension in anchors #1 and #3. Through the assumptions it is possible to relate the tension in anchors #2 and #4 to the tension in anchors #1 and #3 in a linear fashion as follows. T2 = T1*{(1.5*d) / [L-(1.5*d)]} (Eq. D5.2.1-3)

Substitute Equation D5.2.1-3 into Equation D5.2.1-2, simplify and solve for T1. Fh*(H+t) = 2*T1*[L-(1.5*d)]+2*T1*{(1.5*d)2 / [L-(1.5*d)]} Fh*(H+t)*[L-(1.5*d)] = 2*T1*[L-(1.5*d)]2+2*T1*(1.5*d)2 T1 = Fh*(H+t)*[L-(1.5*d)] / {2*[(L-(1.5*d))2+(1.5*d)2]} (Eq. D5.2.1-4)

(Eq. D5.2.1-6)

The anchors will also be loaded in shear. Lets assume that all of the anchors are loaded equally in shear. The shear load on each anchor, P1, will be as follows. P1 = Fh / 4 (Eq. D5.2.1-7)

The base plate thicknesses were selected in order to make the anchors the limiting components for values of H up to and including 20 inches. The stress in the base plate is estimated by assuming that the base plate is a beam with both ends fixed, and a couple Mo applied to the center of the beam, as shown in Figure D5.2.1-2.

L 1.5d (L-3d)/2 L-3d

Mo

Figure D5.2.1-2: Assumed Base Plate Loading Arrangement for Case 1.

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(Eq. D5.2.1-5)

Because the isolator or bracket will be rather large, the center of the base plate will not be subjected to a great deal of bending. The maximum bending will occur at the anchor holes. The maximum applied moment in the at the anchor holes is; M = Mo / 4 The applied moment may be approximated as; Mo Then; M = Fh*H / 4 In general, the bending stress, sb, in the base plate is given by; sb = M*c / I (Eq. D5.2.1-11) (Eq. D5.2.1-10) Fh*H (Eq. D5.2.1-9) (Eq. D5.2.1-8)

In this equation, c is the distance from the neutral axis to the outer fibers of the beam, and I is the area moment of inertia of the beam cross-section. For all of the cases presented in this document, I and c have the following values. I = L*t3 / 12 And; c=t/2 The final form of the bending stress equation will be as follows. sb = 3*Fh*H / (2*L*t2) The allowable bending stress, sA, is; sA = 0.6*Sy Sy is the yield strength of the base plate. The factors of safety for the anchors and the base plate are now computed. For each case they must be greater than or equal to 1.00. For the anchors, the factor of safety is; F.S. = {1 / [(T1 / TA)5/3+(P1 / PA)5/3]} 1.00 (Eq. D5.2.1-16) (Eq. D5.2.1-15) (Eq. D5.2.1-14) (Eq. D5.2.1-13) (Eq. D5.2.1-12)

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In the above equation, TA and PA are the allowable tension and shear loads for the anchors being used. The factor of safety for the base plate is given by; F.S. = sA / sb Case 2: Fh = 0 Since the base plate has been assumed to be rigid and the deflections have been assumed to be small, there will be little or no prying action on the anchors due to the vertical component of the seismic force Fv. Also, since Fh = 0, there will be no shear forces acting on the anchors. The vertical component of the seismic force will be equally distributed between the four anchors, and; T1 = Fv / 4 and P1 = 0 (Eq. D5.2.1-18) 1.00 (Eq. D5.2.1-17)

The maximum bending will occur at the anchor holes. The base plate loading for Case 2 is shown in Figure D5.2.1-3.

Fv

(L-3d)/2

1.5d

L-3d L

Figure D5.2.1-3: Assumed Base Plate Loading Arrangement for Case 2.

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The maximum applied moment in the at the anchor holes is; M = Fv*(L-3*d) / 8 (Eq. D5.2.1-19)

Substitute Equations D5.2.1-12, D5.2.1-13, and D5.2.1-19 into Equation D5.2.1-11 to obtain the maximum bending stress in the base plate. sb = 3*Fv*(L-3*d) / (4*L*t2) Case 3: Fh = Fv = Fc This is the combined loading case that helps determine the final shape of the capacity envelope for the base plate. Again, we will sum moments about Edge 0-0 to determine the maximum tension in the bolts. All of the assumptions that applied to Case 1 will apply for Case 3. M0-0 = 0 = 2*T1*[L-(1.5*d)]+2*T2*(1.5*d)-Fc*(H+t)- Fc*L/2 And; Fc*(2*H+2*t+L)/2 = 2*T1*[L-(1.5*d)]+2*T2*(1.5*d) Substitute Equation D5.32.1-3 into Equation D5.2.1-22, solve for T1. Fc*(2*H+2*t+L)/2 = 2*T1*[L-(1.5*d)]+2*T1*{(1.5*d)2 / [L-(1.5*d)]} Fc*(2*H+2*t+L)*[L-(1.5*d)]/2 = 2*T1*[L-(1.5*d)]2+2*T1*(1.5*d)2 T1 = Fc*(2*H+2*t+L)*[L-(1.5*d)] / {4*[(L-(1.5*d))2+(1.5*d)2]} (Eq. D5.2.1-23) (Eq. D5.2.1-24) (Eq. D5.2.1-25) (Eq. D5.2.1-22) (Eq. D5.2.1-21) (Eq. D5.2.1-20)

The anchors will be also be loaded in shear, and this shear load may be estimated using Equation D5.2.1-7. The maximum bending will occur at the anchor holes in this case as well. The base plate loading for Case 3 is shown in Figure D5.2.1-4. The maximum bending moment at the bolt holes will be, M = Mc/4+Fc*(L-3*d)/8 Mc = Fc*H (Eq. D5.2.1-26) (Eq. D5.2.1-27)

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Fc
(L-3d)/2

Mc
KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

1.5d

L-3d L

Figure D5.2.1-4: Assumed Base Plate Loading Arrangement for Case 3. M = Fc*H/4+Fc*(L-3*d)/8 M = (Fc/8)*[2*H+L-3*d] (Eq. D5.2.1-28) (Eq. D5.2.1-29)

Substitute Equations D5.2.1-29, D5.2.1-12, and D5.2.1-13 into Equation D5.2.1-11 to obtain the bending stress in the base plate. sb = 3*Fc*(2*H+L-3*d) / (4*L*t2) (Eq. D5.2.1-30)

The results of this analysis are presented and their applications are discussed in Document D5.2.2.

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Oversized Base Plates Capacities and Selection Guide


In Document D5.2.1 it was shown why oversized base plates are used with Kinetics Noise Control designed seismic isolators and brackets when attaching to structural concrete. This document also showed how the oversized base plates were intended to work, and gave the mathematical basis for computing the capacities for square base plates with varying isolator/bracket heights. This document is intended to show the capacities for the current family of Kinetics Noise Control oversized base plates, and provide some guidance in selecting the proper one for a given application. Currently, Kinetics Noise Control has a standard series of square oversized base plates that follow the form shown in Figure D5.2.2-1. The dimensional data for the series is provided in Table D5.2.2-1.
L 1.5d L-3d

L-3d L

1.5d

4X d ANCHORS ISOLATOR BRACKET

Figure D5.2.2-1: Standard Oversized Base Plate Dimensions

OVERSIZED BASE PLATES CAPACITIES AND SELECTION GUIDE


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Table D5.2.2-1: Standard Oversized Base Plate Dimensions. Plate Anchor Side Anchor Oversized Length Thickness Size Embedment Base Plate d L t Number (in) (in) (in) (in) 01 02 03 04 05 06-A 06-B 07-A 07-B 08 8.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 20.00 20.00 22.00 22.00 24.00 0.38 0.50 0.50 0.63 0.63 0.75 0.75 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.38 0.50 0.63 0.75 0.75 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.25 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 6.00 8.00 9.00 8.00 9.00 10.00

Tables and Figures D5.2.5-2 through D5.2.2-11 Define the seismic capacities the of the oversized base plates described in Table D5.2.2-1. These capacities are based on Document D5.2.1. The isolator/bracket must be located more-or-less in the center of the oversized base plate and Kinetics Noise Control supplied wedge type concrete anchors must be used. Selection of Oversized Base Plates: 1.) Choose an oversized base plate that fits the base plate of the isolator/bracket and allows room enough for welding without interfering with the concrete anchor installation. 2.) Determine the distance from the base of the isolator/bracket to the center of the restraint, H. 3.) Determine the horizontal and vertical seismic loads from the Kinetics Noise Control Seismic Certification sheet for the most highly loaded isolator/bracket, and plot this point on the Seismic Capacity Envelope for the selected oversized base plate. 4.) The point from Step 3 should fall under the capacity envelope for the next larger value of H than that determined in Step 2. 5.) For special cases, linear interpolation may be used to determine the capacity envelope for the actual value of H determined in Step 2.

OVERSIZED BASE PLATES CAPACITIES AND SELECTION GUIDE


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Oversized Base Plate No. 01: L = 8.00 inches; t = 0.38 inches; d = 0.38 inches Table D5.2.2-2: Seismic Capacities for Oversized Base Plate No. 01 Restraint Height H (in) 1.00 4.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 20.00 Horizontal Load Fh; Fv=0 (lbs) 4,310 2,280 1,315 915 700 565 Vertical Load Fv; Fh=0 (lbs) 3,140 3,140 3,140 3,140 3,140 3,140 Combined Load Fc; Fh=Fv (lbs) 1,930 915 700 565 470

4
VERT. LOAD X 1000 (lbs)

H=1" H=4" H=8" H=12" H=16" H=20"

3 2 1 0 0 1

HORIZ. LOAD X 1000 (lbs)


Figure D5.2.2-2: Seismic Capacity Envelopes for Oversized Base Plate No. 01

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Oversized Base Plate No. 02: L = 10.00 inches; t = 0.50 inches; d = 0.50 inches Table D5.2.2-3: Seismic Capacities for Oversized Base Plate No. 02 Restraint Height H (in) 1.00 4.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 20.00 Horizontal Load Fh; Fv=0 (lbs) 7,500 4,085 2,395 1,675 1,285 1,040 Vertical Load Fv; Fh=0 (lbs) 4,675 4,675 4,675 4,675 4,675 4,675 Combined Load Fc; Fh=Fv (lbs) 3,030 1,555 1,210 990 840

5
VERTICAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)
H=1"

4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3

H=4" H=8" H=12" H=16" H=20"

HORIZONTAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)


Figure D5.2.2-3: Seismic Capacity Envelopes for Oversized Base Plate No. 02

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Oversized Base Plate No. 03: L = 12.00 inches; t = 0.50 inches; d = 0.63 inches Table D5.2.2-4: Seismic Capacities for Oversized Base Plate No. 03 Restraint Height H (in) 1.00 4.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 20.00 Horizontal Load Fh; Fv=0 (lbs) 11,845 6,995 4,230 2,985 2,300 1,865 Vertical Load Fv; Fh=0 (lbs) 7,045 7,045 7,045 7,045 7,045 7,045 Combined Load Fc; Fh=Fv (lbs) 4,700 2,595 2,060 1,705 1,450

VERTICAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)

8
H=1"

6 4 2 0 0 2 4

H=4"

H=8" H=12" H=16" H=20"

10

12

HORIZONTAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)


Figure D5.2.2-4: Seismic Capacity Envelopes for Oversized Base Plate No. 03

OVERSIZED BASE PLATES CAPACITIES AND SELECTION GUIDE


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Oversized Base Plate No. 04: L = 14.00 inches; t = 0.63 inches; d = 0.75 inches Table D5.2.2-5: Seismic Capacities for Oversized Base Plate No. 04 Restraint Height H (in) 1.00 4.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 20.00 Horizontal Load Fh; Fv=0 (lbs) 17,925 10,320 6,210 4,390 3,375 2,745 Vertical Load Fv; Fh=0 (lbs) 8,930 8,930 8,930 8,930 8,930 8,930 Combined Load Fc; Fh=Fv (lbs) 6,200 3,580 2,875 2,400 2,060

VERTICAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)

10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4

H=1" H=4" H=8" H=12" H=16" H=20"

10 12 14 16 18

HORIZONTAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)


Figure D5.2.2-5: Seismic Capacity Envelopes for Oversized Base Plate No. 04

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Oversized Base Plate No. 05: L = 16.00 inches; t = 0.63 inches; d = 0.75 inches Table D5.2.2-6: Seismic Capacities for Oversized Base Plate No. 05 Restraint Height H (in) 1.00 4.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 20.00 Horizontal Load Fh; Fv=0 (lbs) 18,700 11,420 7,035 5,010 3,875 3,155 Vertical Load Fv; Fh=0 (lbs) 8,930 8,930 8,930 8,930 8,930 8,930 Combined Load Fc; Fh=Fv (lbs) 6,390 3,870 3,150 2,655 2,290

VERTICAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)

10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4

H=1" H=4" H=8" H=12" H=16" H=20"

10 12 14 16 18 20

HORIZONTAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)


Figure D5.2.2-6: Seismic Capacity Envelopes for Oversized Base Plate No. 05

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Oversized Base Plate No. 06-A: L = 20.00 inches; t = 0.75 inches; d = 1.00 inches Table D5.2.2-7: Seismic Capacities for Oversized Base Plate No. 06-A Restraint Height H (in) 1.00 4.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 20.00 Horizontal Load Fh; Fv=0 (lbs) 35,625 21,440 13,195 9,405 7,280 5,930 Vertical Load Fv; Fh=0 (lbs) 13,550 13,550 13,550 13,550 13,550 13,550 Combined Load Fc; Fh=Fv (lbs) 10,125 6,525 5,415 4,625 4,035

VERTICAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)

20 16 12 8 4 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
HORIZONTAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)
H=1" H=4" H=8" H=12" H=16" H=20"

Figure D5.2.2-7: Seismic Capacity Envelopes for Oversized Base Plate No. 6A

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Oversized Base Plate No. 06-B: L = 20.00 inches; t = 0.75 inches; d = 1.00 inches Table D5.2.2-8: Seismic Capacities for Oversized Base Plate No. 06-B Restraint Height H (in) 1.00 4.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 20.00 Horizontal Load Fh; Fv=0 (lbs) 39,865 26,905 17,495 12,725 9,945 8,140 Vertical Load Fv; Fh=0 (lbs) 18,855 18,855 18,855 18,855 18,855 18,855 Combined Load Fc; Fh=Fv (lbs) 13,650 8,940 7,450 6,380 5,575

VERTICAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)

20 16 12 8 4 0 0 4 8 12

H=1" H=4" H=8" H=12" H=16" H=20"

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

HORIZONTAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)


Figure D5.2.2-8: Seismic Capacity Envelopes for Oversized Base Plate No. 06-B

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Oversized Base Plate No. 07-A: L = 22.00 inches; t = 1.00 inches; d = 1.00 inches Table D5.2.2-9: Seismic Capacities for Oversized Base Plate No. 07-A Restraint Height H (in) 1.00 4.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 20.00 Horizontal Load Fh; Fv=0 (lbs) 35,275 22,210 14,065 10,150 7,910 6,465 Vertical Load Fv; Fh=0 (lbs) 13,500 13,500 13,500 13,500 13,500 13,500 Combined Load Fc; Fh=Fv (lbs) 10,135 6,765 5,675 4,885 4,290

VERTICAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)

20 16 12 8 4 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
HORIZONTAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)
H=1" H=4" H=8" H=12" H=16" H=20"

Figure D5.2.2-10: Seismic Capacity Envelopes for Oversized Base Plate No. 07-A

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Oversized Base Plate No. 07-B: L = 22.00 inches; t = 1.00 inches; d = 1.00 inches Table D5.2.2-10: Seismic Capacities for Oversized Base Plate No. 07-B Restraint Height H (in) 1.00 4.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 20.00 Horizontal Load Fh; Fv=0 (lbs) 39,585 27,710 18,550 13,685 10,775 8,860 Vertical Load Fv; Fh=0 (lbs) 18,855 18,855 18,855 18,855 18,855 18,855 Combined Load Fc; Fh=Fv (lbs) 13,665 9,265 7,805 6,735 5,920

VERTICAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)

20
H=1" H=4"

16 12 8 4 0 0 4 8 12

H=8" H=12" H=16" H=20"

16

20

24

28

32

36

40

HORIZONTAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)


Figure D5.2.2-10: Seismic Capacity Envelopes for Oversized Base Plate No. 07-B

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Oversized Base Plate No. 08: L = 24.00 inches; t = 1.00 inches; d = 1.25 inches Table D5.2.2-11: Seismic Capacities for Oversized Base Plate No. 08 Restraint Height H (in) 1.00 4.00 8.00 12.00 16.00 20.00 Horizontal Load Fh; Fv=0 (lbs) 48,185 37,280 26,745 20,355 16,290 13,530 Vertical Load Fv; Fh=0 (lbs) 27,310 27,310 27,310 27,310 27,310 27,310 Combined Load Fc; Fh=Fv (lbs) 19,145 13,505 11,525 10,040 8,885

VERTICAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)

32 24 16 8 0 0 8 16

H=1" H=4" H=8" H=12" H=16" H=20"

24

32

40

48

56

HORIZONTAL LOAD X 1000 (lbs)


Figure D5.2.2-11: Seismic Capacity Envelopes for Oversized Base Plate No. 08

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CHAPTER D6 CURB MOUNTED EQUIPMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS

Basic Curb Information Seismic Forces & Curb Mounted Equipment Sheet Metal Curbs Basic Primer for Sheet Metal Curbs Attachment of Equipment to Sheet Metal Curbs Transferring Seismic Forces Through Sheet Metal Curbs Attachment of the Sheet Metal Curb to the Building Structure Limits of Sheet Metal Curbs in Seismic Applications Rules for Using Sheet Metal in Seismic Applications Structural Curbs Basic Primer for Structural Curbs Attachment of Equipment to Structural Curbs Transferring Seismic Forces Through the Structural Curb Attachment of the Structural Curb to the Building Structure Limitations of Structural Curbs in Seismic Applications Rules for Using Structural Curbs in Seismic Applications D6.3.1 D6.3.2 D6.3.3 D6.3.4 D6.3.5 D6.3.6 D6.2.1 D6.2.2 D6.2.3 D6.2.4 D6.2.5 D6.2.6 D6.1

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Chapter D6)


CURB MOUNTED EQUIPMENT
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Seismic Forces & Curb Mounted Equipment


Introduction: The newer building codes such as 2000 IBC, TI-809-04, 2003 IBC, and NFPA 5000 have mandated design seismic forces that are much larger in magnitude than were previously specified in the older model building codes. These new codes have written the design horizontal seismic force equation to account for the amplification of the accelerations due to increasing flexibility as you go up in a building. Therefore, equipment that is mounted on the roof of a building will have design seismic forces that are three times larger than a similar piece of equipment that is mounted on grade. Great care must be taken in the design, selection, and installation of supports and restraints for roof top curb mounted equipment. Basic Curb Types: The roof curbs may be broken down into isolated and non-isolated types. The isolated roof curbs may be further broken down into sheet metal and structural types. The discussion will start with the isolated curb types. Sheet Metal Seismic Isolation Curbs: Kinetics Noise Control provides two products for isolation with sheet metal roof curbs. First is the Kinetics Noise Control model KSR Isolation Rail. The KSR-1 and KSR-2 are seismically restrained steel coil spring isolation systems that are built to be installed on third party sheet metal roof curbs. Figure D6.1-1 shows a typical cross-section through the springs of a KSR installation. Figure D6.1-2 is a typical cross-section through the seismic/wind restraints of the KSR. KSR-1 systems are designed to operate with a system Static Deflection of when loaded, which gives a system Natural Frequency of 3.13 Hz. The KSR-2 systems are intended to operate with a loaded system Static Deflection of , which produces a system Natural Frequency of 2.21 Hz. The Static Deflection of the KSR systems is adjustable by adding or removing the spring coils, which are easily accessible and compressed for insertion or withdrawal. The seismic/wind restraints consist of stainless steel leaf horizontal restraints, and reinforced neoprene strap vertical restraints. Each KSR installation requires a minimum of one horizontal restraint per curb side. The vertical restraints are required only if uplift will occur at any of the equipment corners. The leaves and straps, when required are attached to the extruded aluminum top rail and the curb side wall through the nailer as shown in Figure D6.1-2. The locations for the restraints are specified by the by Kinetics Noise Control. The required number of restraints, horizontal and vertical, is determined by analysis using the Kinetics Noise Control Seismic/Wind Certification Program.

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2.05 1.52

Supported Roof Top Equipment Closed-Cell Foam Tape Weather Seal by Kinetics

7.40 Neoprene Weather Seal by Kinetics. Pre-Punched Aluminum Cover Strip by Kinetics.

KSR-2 8.67 Free Ht. 6.72 Oper. Ht.

Steel Coil Spring Isolation by Kinetics Extruded Aluminum Bottom Rail by Kinetics. Caulking by Kinetics. Sheet Metal Roof Curb by Others. 1.83 Bottom Rail

Figure D6.1-1; Typical Cross-Section Through KSR Showing Isolation Springs.

Pre-Punched Holes in Extruded Aluminum Top Rail for Mounting Hardware by Kinetics. Seismic/Wind Restraints Quantity and Location Pre-Determined by KInetics

Curb Attachment Hardware for Seismic/Wind Restraints by Kinetics.

Figure D6.1-2; Typical Cross-Section Through KSR Showing Restraints.

SEISMIC FORCES & CURB MOUNTED EQUIPMENT


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KSR-1 7.42 Free Ht. 6.42 Oper. Ht.

Extruded Aluminum Top Rail By Kinetics

Kinetics Noise Control also provides two complete seismically rated sheet metal curb and isolation rail systems, the model KSCR-1 and KSCR-2. A typical cross-section through the KSCR is shown in Figure D6.1-3.
Supported Roof Top Equipment.

Extruded Aluminum Top Rail. Steel Coil Spring Isolation. KSCR-1 21.42 Free Ht. 20.42 Oper. Ht. KSCR-2 22.67 Free Ht. 20.72 Oper. Ht. 14.00 Standard Curb Ht. Seismic/Wind Restraint. Neoprene Weather Seal. Poly Spring Cup & Neoprene Washer. Pre-Punched Aluminum Cover Strip. Flashing by Others. Insulation (Optional). Cant Strip by Others.

16 Gage Galvanized Steel Reinforced with Treated 2x4's ~30" O.C.

Figure D6.1-3; Typical Cross-Section Through a KSCR. As with the KSR-1 & -2, The KSCR-1 is a Static Deflection isolation system, and the KSCR-2 is a Static Deflection isolation system. The horizontal and vertical restraints used for the KSCR are the same ones used on the KSR. At least one horizontal restraint per curb side wall is required, and more are added as indicated by analysis through the Kinetics Noise Control Seismic/Wind Certification Program. The vertical restraints are added where indicated by the analysis. Typically the curb itself is 16 Gage Galvanized steel reinforced with treated wood 2x4s at 30 On Center. Curb heights greater may require the use of heavier gage sheet steel in order to carry the seismic and wind loads without danger of buckling failure. Structural Seismic Isolation Curb: Kinetics Noise Control provides the model ESR-1, ESR-2, and ESR-4 structural seismic isolation curb systems. They are, respectively, , 2 , and Static Deflection isolation systems. The intended system Natural Frequencies are 3.13 Hz, 2.12 Hz, and 1.56 Hz respectively.

SEISMIC FORCES & CURB MOUNTED EQUIPMENT


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3-Axis Neoprene Seismic Snubber. Welded Steel Spring/Restraint Pedestal.

C4x5.4 Standard Top Rail. C6x8.2 Top Rail for Drain Pans. Steel Coil Spring & Neoprene Isolation.

Leveling Bolt.

Continuous Galvanized Steel Curb Perimeter. ESR-1 / -2 20.25 ESR-4 21.25

Wood Nailers. Removable Access Panel.

Building Structural Steel

(ESR-1 / -2) - 12.50 (ESR-4) - 14.50

Figure D6.1-4; Typical ESR Pedestal Installation.

Equipment Outline. Galvanized Flashing. EPDM Weather Seal. Wood Nailer. C4x5.4 Top Rail. 3-axis Neoprene Snubber. Welded Steel Spring/Restraint Pedestal. Optional External Insulation. Cover Strip. Screws. Built-up Roof, Membrane & Insulation by Others.

Building Structural Steel.

(ESR-1 / -2) - 4.00 Min. (ESR-4) - 6.00 Min.

Figure D6.1-5; Typical Cross-Section Through an ESR Pedestal Installation.

SEISMIC FORCES & CURB MOUNTED EQUIPMENT


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Application of Isolated Roof Curbs: The KSR & KSCR are generally used for small to medium sized pieces of equipment, and in low to medium seismic areas. For instance, they may work well for equipment weights up to 8,000 lbs 10,000 lbs in areas like Central Ohio, Western Pennsylvania, Northwestern New York, Chicago, etc. However, they may not be at all suitable for equipment weights of 2,000 lbs 5,000 lbs in high seismic areas like Memphis, Tennessee; Los Angeles, California; Salt Lake City, Utah; or Charleston, South Carolina. Also, the building type may determine the usefulness of the KSR & KSCR. For instance, they may not work well for the smaller units on the roof of a hospital in New York City. The ESR is used for the larger pieces of equipment 10,000 lbs and up. Also, it will be used for small to medium pieces of equipment in the high seismic areas. The ESR is used when a structural curb is specified, when adjustment of the springs is an issue, and when a low system Natural Frequency, Static Deflection, is required for sensitive applications. Non-Isolated Sheet Metal Seismic Roof Curbs: Kinetics Noise Control does not produce a non-isolated roof curb. However, Kinetics Noise Control does make a set of kits to attach the supported piece of equipment to a roof curb that is built by others, or the building structure. The attachment of equipment to third party curbs is an issue that has not been well addressed by either the equipment manufacturers or the curb manufacturers. The kits produced by Kinetics Noise Control provide enough parts and hardware to connect a wide range of equipment types and makes to sheet metal curbs. The horizontal seismic /wind restraint kits provided by Kinetics Noise Control are the models KSMF, Figure D6.1-6; KSCM-1, Figure D6.1-7; and KSCM-2, Figure D6.1-8. A minimum of four (4) kits are required for each curb. One (1) kit for each curb side wall.

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The seismic forces are transferred from the equipment to the top rail through fasteners or welds at each pedestal location. The size and number of the fasteners, and the size and length of weld required at each pedestal is specified by the Kinetics Noise Control Seismic/Wind Certification Program. The loads are transferred to the welded steel spring restraint pedestal through the 3-axis neoprene snubber assembly. The loads then are transferred from the pedestal to the building structure. The ESR is normally to be intended to be attached directly to the building structural steel either by bolting or welding. Mounting holes are provided for three (3) 5/8 Bolts/Anchors in the base plate of each pedestal. An equivalent amount of weld is specified by Kinetics Noise Control for each pedestal. Attachment of the ESR to the building structural steel will maximize the seismic capacity of the system. If the ESR is to be attached to concrete or some type of wooden structure, special analysis and additional components will be required to make an adequate attachment, and the full capacity of the ESR may not be realized.

Additional kits may be required based on an analysis by Kinetics Noise Control. The required number and location of each kit are specified by Kinetics Noise Control.

Equipment Wooden Nailer

KSMF

Curb by Others

Preferred Installation

KSMF Kinetics Seismic Bracket Kit for Curb Mounted Equipment

Figure D6.1-6: Typical KSMF Seismic Attachment Kit Installation.

Weather Seal by Others Equipment

1/8

3 Plc.s per Brkt

Optional Equipment Connection Three (3) Self-Drilling TEK Screws by Kinetics KSCM-1 Kinetics Seismic Restraint Bracket Kit for Curb Mounted Equipment

Roof Curb by Others

Figure D6.1-7; Typical KSCM-1 Horizontal Seismic Attachment Kit Installation.

SEISMIC FORCES & CURB MOUNTED EQUIPMENT


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Weather Seal by Others


1/8 6 Plc.s per Brkt

Equipment

Roof Curb by Others

KSCM-2 Seismic Restraint Brackets #1 & #2 by Kinetics Attach to Curb Prior to Setting Equipment

Figure D6.1-8; Typical KSCM-2 Horizontal Seismic Attachment Kit Installation. The analysis performed by Kinetics Noise Control will indicate if uplift occurs at any of the corners of the equipment. If uplift is present, Kinetics Noise Control will recommend the use of model KSCV, Figure D6.1-9, vertical equipment restraint kits that restrain the equipment directly to the building. A minimum of one (1) KSCV kit will be required at each corner of the equipment. The analysis performed by Kinetics Noise Control will show exactly how many kits are required for an application. The reason Kinetics Noise Control recommends the use of the KSCV kits rather than taking the vertical loads through the curb, is that we do not control the construction of the curb, and can not guarantee that the curb side walls will be able to carry both horizontal and vertical loads generated by a seismic or wind event. The analysis performed by Kinetics Noise Control also looks at the curb side walls if enough information is provided in the submittal sent to Kinetics. If the curb side walls do not appear to be able to carry the design seismic or wind loads, Kinetics Noise Control will make recommendations that reinforcements are to be used for the curb side walls and/or that heavier gage steel is to be used in the curb side walls in order to meet the design load requirements. If reinforcements are indicated by the analysis, Kinetics Noise Control can provide the model KSVR, Figure D6.1-10, curb side wall reinforcement kit. The KSVR kit is intended to carry the vertical loads generated by the equipment and leave the curb side walls to carry the horizontal seismic loads. The analysis performed by Kinetics Noise Control will recommend the number and spacing for the reinforcements.

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Optional Connection Bracket-to-Bracket & Bracket-to-Equipment Using Threee (3) Self-Drilling TEK Screws by Kinetics

When Attaching KSCV Bracket to Equipment Cabinet, Use Only the Sheet Metal Screws Provided by Kinetics Equip. PVC Pipe Assem. by Kinetics

Threaded Rod & Hardware by Kinetics

Attaching The KSCV Bracket to The Equipment Cabinet by Welding is not Recommended DO NOT Block Access & Maintenance Doors with KSCV Equipment Bracket!

Threaded Rod by Kinetics

Figure D6.1-9; Typical KSCV Vertical Seismic Restraint Kit Installation.

Roof Curb by Others

H Curb Height

S = Max. Spacing

Hr Measure & Cut to Fit

KSVR Reinforcement Kit by Kinetics

Figure D6.1-10; Typical KSVR Reinforcement Kit Installation.

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Summary: For roof top curb mounted equipment on a job requiring seismic restraint it is important to perform a seismic analysis. If isolated, the analysis will indicate whether a KSR & KSCR would be suitable for the application with the proper number of restraints, or whether an ESR with the proper number of pedestals would be required. If non-isolated, the analysis will show the correct number of horizontal and/or vertical restraint kits needed for the application. It wall also show if the curb side walls require reinforcement, or if they need to be made of a heavier gage steel.

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Basic Primer for Sheet Metal Curbs


Rooftop HVAC units normally require some type of penetration through the roof to allow air to be transferred to and from the unit. These pieces of equipment are supported on a curb that is built around the penetration in the roof. This allows the roof to be attached to the curb and permanently sealed from the elements. One of the most popular constructions for curbs is the sheet metal curb. Sheet metal curbs are light, economical, and easily installed. They may be field fabricated or purchased in pre-fabricated sections from a curb manufacturer. The plan view of the curb may be rectangular, square, or L shaped. In this document, and the ones to follow, we will be concerned with curbs that have a rectangular plan view. Shown in Figure 6.2.1-1 is a plan view of a rectangular sheet metal curb.

SIDE A

SIDE D

Lb

SIDE C
Figure 6.2.1-1. Plan View of Rectangular Sheet Metal Curb. The two long sides will be identified as SIDE A and SIDE C as shown in Figure 6.2.1-1. The short sides will be labeled as SIDE B and SIDE D, as in figure 6.2.1-1. The term La will be the inside length of the long sides of the curb. The term Lb will represent the inside length of the curb s short sides. Another term we will need to define now for later use is the inside perimeter of the curb, Lp. The value of the inside perimeter will be as follows: Lp = 2(La + Lb ) (Eq. 6.2.1-1)

Figure 6.2.1-2 shows two section views through a typical sheet metal curb. Each of the views represents a slightly different construction. Some manufacturers use a 2 X 2 nailer,

BASIC PRIMER FOR SHEET METAL CURBS


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La

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and others use a 2 X 4 nailer. The purpose of the wooden nailer is to permit the equipment and the roof flashing to be easily attached to the curb. The wooden nailer also adds some strength to the curb. However, the wood used is often sub-standard and cannot be counted on to carry more than the roof flashing. Purpose-built seismic roof curbs should have a good grade of treated lumber specified for the nailer.

Figure 6.2.1-2. Typical Sheet Metal Curb Sections. In Figure 6.2.1-2, H is the height of the curb. Normally, the standard height of the curb is 14 inches. This provides enough standoff to accommodate most roofing systems and still allow for the flashing. The height of the curb can vary depending on the requirements of the equipment, the sound attenuation equipment, and the slope of the roof, if any. The term t is the thickness of the sheet metal used to construct the curb. There are three basic material thickness values commonly used for the construction of curbs: 18 gage (0.0478 inches), 16 gage (0.0598 inches), and 14 gage (0.0747 inches). The curb height, H, and the sheet metal thickness, t, will determine the loads that can be carried by the curb, as we shall see in Documents 6.2.3 and 6.2.4. It should be mentioned here, as well as Document 6.2.3, that all of the loads must be carried in the plane side walls of the curb. The sides of the curb do not behave as a beam. The curb walls are really very thin plates that are loaded in compression on their long edges due to the equipment weight, and in uniform shear along each edge. The principal failure mode of the curb wall will be buckling. Documents 6.2.3, 6.2.4, 6.2.5, and 6.2.6 go into greater detail concerning the applications and limitations of sheet metal curbs in areas prone to earthquakes.

BASIC PRIMER FOR SHEET METAL CURBS


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2X2 NAILER

2X4 NAILER

Attachment of Equipment to Sheet Metal Curbs


The various equipment configurations do not always lend themselves to being attached to a sheet metal roof curb. In the past, many pieces of equipment were not physically fastened to the curb and relied on gravity and friction to keep them in place. In geographical areas that can experience high, or even moderate, wind and/or seismic loads, gravity and friction will be inadequate for restraint of the equipment. This document will present several different styles of attachment brackets and attachment configurations. Curb side walls can carry loads only in the plane of the side wall. They cannot carry significant loads that act perpendicular to the side wall. The weight load of the equipment is carried as a distributed compressive load in the side wall. The horizontal wind and/or seismic loads are carried as distributed shearing loads in the plane of the curb side wall. Uplift forces should not be applied to a sheet metal curb that carries a significant weight load and horizontal wind and/or seismic load. The uplift force would put the curb side wall in bending which would reduce its horizontal load carrying capability to zero. For a complete discussion of the transfer of forces through a sheet metal curb refer to document D6.2.3. Horizontal Restraints There are many different types of equipment that are mounted on sheet metal roof curbs. We will start with the smaller types. Typical of these are the powered ventilator mushroom fans, louvers, and un-powered ventilators. A typical mushroom fan attached to a curb is shown in Figure 6.2.2-1. The ventilators and louvers usually have weights that are low enough and perimeters small enough that they are sufficiently rigid to carry the required uplift forces without damage. Therefore, they are an exception to the rules in the previous paragraph. Also, the curbs for ventilators and louvers often have the wooden nailer attached directly to the top of the sheet metal. Thus, the attachment of the equipment to the curbs has usually involved fastening directly to the wood of the nailer. Figure 6.2.2-2 shows a typical installation of a seismic equipment bracket kit provided by Kinetics Noise Control. For curb-mounted ventilators and louvers the model name for the kit is the KSMF-1 (Kinetics Seismic Mushroom Fan), see Chapter P1 for product details and ratings. This bracket design allows the attachments to be made to the sheet metal part of the curb. The threads on the sheet metal screws must completely engage the sheet metal of the curb in order to develop full strength. Sheet metal screws of the appropriate diameter and length to accommodate most curb designs are provided in the kit by Kinetics Noise Control. Shown also in Figure 6.2.2-1 is the locating scheme for this type of seismic bracket kit. The dimensions A and B are the locations of the restraints as specified on the Kinetics Seismic and/or Wind Certification sheet. A minimum of four kits are required for each piece of equipment. The restraints are placed

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to keep the horizontal wind, and/or seismic force loads in the plane of the curb walls. More may be required per the certification sheet. They should be evenly spaced along the sides.
1 3

B/2

0.75 TYP

~2.25 TYP

A/2 A

Figure 6.2.2-1. Typical Mushroom Fan on Curb.

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KSMF-1 KINETICS SEISMIC BRACKET KIT FOR CURBMOUNTED EQUIPMENT.

EQUIPMENT WOODEN NAILER

KSMF-1 CURB PREFERRED INSTALLATION

CURB OPTIONAL INSTALLATION WOODEN NAILER

KSMF-1

Figure 6.2.2-2. Typical Restraint Installation for Mushroom Fans.

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Next we will address larger pieces of rooftop equipment such as air handling units, makeup air units, etc. These types of units are heavy enough, and have a large enough perimeter, that the curb side walls will not be rigid enough to carry uplift forces as well as horizontal forces. Therefore, the horizontal and uplift forces must be dealt with separately. We will begin with the horizontal restraints for rooftop units with fairly uniform bottoms and side rails. Kinetics Noise Control offers the KSCM-1 Seismic Bracket Kit for attaching this type of rooftop unit to a sheet metal curb. Each kit consists of a heavy gage sheet metal angle and enough sheet metal screws to attach it to the curb and the equipment.

WEATHER SEAL BY OTHERS. EQUIPMENT

1/8

3 PLC.S PER BRKT

OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT CONNECTION THREE (3) SELF-DRILLING TEK SCREWS BY KINETICS. KSCM-1 KINETICS SEISMIC RESTRAINT BRACKET KIT FOR CURB-MOUNTED EQUIPMENT.

ROOF CURB BY OTHERS.

Figure 6.2.2-3. Installation Option No. 1 Using KSCM-1 Kits. Another installation option is shown in Figure 6.2.2-4. The attachments to the curb and the equipment are made as described for the option shown in Figure 6.2.2-3.

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Figure 6.2.2-3 shows one possible option for attaching the equipment to the curb. The KSCM-1 bracket is attached to the curb as shown using the three longer sheet metal screws provided in the kit. These screws must pass through the nailer and the sheet metal side wall. They must fully engage the sheet metal side wall to generate full strength. The equipment may be attached to the bracket using the three short sheet metal screws provided in the kit, or by welds (by others) as shown on the product submittals found in chapter P1.

WEATHER SEAL BY OTHERS. EQUIPMENT


3 PLC.S PER BRKT 1/8

ROOF CURB BY OTHERS.

OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT CONNECTION THREE (3) SELF-DRILLING TEK SCREWS BY KINETICS.

Figure 6.2.2-4. Installation Option No. 2 Using KSCM-1 Kits. A third option for the KSCM-1 kit is demonstrated below in Figure 6.2.2-5.

WEATHER SEAL BY OTHERS. EQUIPMENT

1/8

3 PLC.S PER BRKT

OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT CONNECTION THREE (3) SELF-DRILLING TEK SCREWS BY KINETICS. ROOF CURB BY OTHERS. KSCM-1 KINETICS SEISMIC RESTRAINT BRACKET KIT FOR CURB-MOUNTED EQUIPMENT.

Figure 6.2.2-5. Installation Option No. 3 Using KSCM-1 Kits.

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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

KSCM-1 KINETICS SEISMIC RESTRAINT BRACKET KIT. ATTACH TO CURB PRIOR TO SETTING EQUIPMENT.

These are just three of the possible attachment options that may be achieved with the KSCM-1 kit. Note that final connections to the equipment can be made after the equipment has been placed on the curb. In some cases the connections to the curb could also be made after the equipment has been set. Thus, there are some cases where the KSCM-1 kit would be a retrofit option after the equipment has been installed. The legs of the KSCM-1 bracket may be trimmed to fit the application. The sheet metal screws, or welds, are intended to be in shear parallel to the curb side wall. Because the screws attaching the bracket to the curb are fully engaged in the side wall, the loads are passed as directly as possible to the side wall. All of the specified connections must be made fully for the restraint to be effective. The product details and ratings may be found in Chapter P1. Some pieces of rooftop equipment have long overhangs, or the side rails have long drops. In these cases the KSCM-1 kit does not provide enough flexibility to properly attach the equipment to the curb. Kinetics Noise Control has developed the KSCM-2 Seismic Bracket Kit to address this problem. The kit consists of two heavy-gage sheet metal angles of different sizes and enough hardware to attach it to the curb and the equipment. Figures 6.2.2-6 through 6.2.2-8 demonstrate the use of the parts found in the KSCM-2 kit for the same applications shown for the KSCM-1 kit. Figure 6.2.2-9 shows how the KSCM-2 kit could be used to attach a rooftop unit with structural channel base rails. It should be noted that in some circumstances the KSCM-1 kit could also be used for this type of application. Also, Option No. 5 in Figure 6.2.2-10 could possibly be made using the parts from the KSCM-1 kit. Figures 6.2.2-11 through 6.2.2-13 illustrate possible situations where both of the KSCM-2 brackets could be used. In these cases, the two brackets are used together to deal with situations where the equipment side rails overhang the curb and drop a considerable distance below the top of the curb. The three long sheet metal screws are used to attach the KSCM brackets to the curb. They must fully engage to sheet metal of the curb side wall to develop the full capacity of the attachment. Each of the KSCM-2 kits contains six short sheet metal screws. Three of the screws may be used to connect a bracket to the equipment. The other three may be used to connect the two brackets together. The equipment and bracket to bracket connections may made using welds (by others) as shown on the product submittals found in chapter P1. Care must be taken when attaching to the equipment with sheet metal screws that power cables, control wires, and piping are not damaged. Also, the brackets must not block or interfere with access and maintenance doors on the equipment.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO SHEET METAL CURBS


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WEATHER SEAL BY OTHERS.


3 PLC.S PER BRKT 1/8

EQUIPMENT

ROOF CURB BY OTHERS.

OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT CONNECTION THREE (3) SELF-DRILLING TEK SCREWS BY KINETICS.

Figure 6.2.2-6. Installation Option No. 1 Using KSCM-2 Kits.

WEATHER SEAL BY OTHERS.

EQUIPMENT

1/8

3 PLC.S PER BRKT

ROOF CURB BY OTHERS.

OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT CONNECTION THREE (3) SELF-DRILLING TEK SCREWS BY KINETICS. KSCM-2 SEISMIC RESTRAINT BRACKET #2 BY KINETICS IS SHOWN. KSCM-2 BRACKET #2 BY KINETICS MAY ALSO BE USED.

Figure 6.2.2-7. Installation Option No. 2 Using KSCM-2 Kits.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO SHEET METAL CURBS


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KSCM-2 SEISMIC RESTRAINT BRACKET #2 BY KINETICS. ATTACH TO CURB PRIOR TO SETTING EQUIPMENT.

WEATHER SEAL BY OTHERS. EQUIPMENT

1/8

3 PLC.S PER BRKT

ROOF CURB BY OTHERS.

KSCM-2 SEISMIC RESTRAINT BRACKET #1 BY KINETICS.

Figure 6.2.2-8. Installation Option No. 3 Using KSCM-2 Kits.

EQUIPMENT

1/8

3 PLC.S PER BRKT

KSCM-2 SEISMIC RESTRAINT BRACKET #1 OR BRACKET #2 BY KINETICS. ROOF CURB BY OTHERS.

WEATHER SEAL BY OTHERS.


Figure 6.2.2-9. Installation Option No. 4 Using KSCM-1 Kits.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO SHEET METAL CURBS


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OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT CONNECTION THREE (3) SELF-DRILLING TEK SCREWS BY KINETICS.

WEATHER SEAL BY OTHERS.


3 PLC.S PER BRKT

EQUIPMENT

1/8

KSCM-2 SEISMIC RESTRAINT BRACKET #1 BY KINETICS. OPTIONAL EQUIPMENT CONNECTION THREE (3) SELF-DRILLING TEK SCREWS BY KINETICS. ROOF CURB BY OTHERS.
Figure 6.2.2-10. Installation Option No. 5 Using KSCM-2 Kits.

WEATHER SEAL BY OTHERS. EQUIPMENT


1/8 6 PLC.S PER BRKT

OPTIONAL CONNECTION BRACKET-TO-BRACKET & BRACKET-TO-EQUIPMENT USING THREE (3) SELF-DRILLING TEK SCREWS BY KINETICS. ROOF CURB BY OTHERS. KSCM-2 SEISMIC RESTRAINT BRACKETS #1 & #2 BY KINETICS. ATTACH TO CURB PRIOR TO SETTING EQUIPMENT.
Figure 6.2.2-11. Installation Option No. 6 Using KSCM-2 Kits.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO SHEET METAL CURBS


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WEATHER SEAL BY OTHERS. EQUIPMENT


1/8 6 PLC.S PER BRKT

KSCM-2 SEISMIC RESTRAINT BRACKETS #1 & #2 BY KINETICS. ROOF CURB BY OTHERS. ATTACH TO CURB PRIOR TO SETTING EQUIPMENT.

Figure 6.2.2-12. Installation Option No. 7 Using KSCM-2 Kits.

1/8

3 PLC.S PER BRKT 3 PLC.S PER BRKT 1/8

WEATHER SEAL BY OTHERS. ROOF CURB BY OTHERS.

EQUIPMENT

OPTIONAL CONNECTION BRACKET-TO-BRACKET & BRACKET-TO-EQUIPMENT USING THREE (3) SELF-DRILLING TEK SCREWS BY KINETICS. KSCM-2 SEISMIC RESTRAINT BRACKETS #1 & #2 BY KINETICS. ATTACH TO CURB PRIOR TO SETTING EQUIPMENT.

Figure 6.2.2-13. Installation Option No. 8 Using KSCM-2 Kits.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO SHEET METAL CURBS


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OPTIONAL CONNECTION BRACKET-TO-BRACKET & BRACKET-TO-EQUIPMENT USING THREE (3) SELF-DRILLING TEK SCREWS BY KINETICS.

~(Lb/2)-3.0 TYP 2.00 TYP No. 2 No. 5 No. 9 No. 7

SIDE B
No. 3 Lb = ~B No. 11

La = ~A No. 12 ~(La/2)-3.0 TYP

No. 6

SIDE D
2.00 TYP No. 1 No. 8 No. 10 No. 4

Figure 6.2.2-14. Locating Scheme for KSCM-1 & KSCM-2 Kits. It is necessary to properly locate the brackets around the roof curb to ensure that the

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO SHEET METAL CURBS


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SIDE C

SIDE A

seismic and wind loads are transferred into curb side walls efficiently. Figure 6.2.2-14 presents a layout of the perimeter locating scheme for a typical rectangular roof curb. Here again, the A and B dimensions correspond roughly to those same dimensions on the Kinetics Seismic and/or Wind Certification sheet. A minimum of four KSCM Restraint Bracket Kits are required for each application. These are located on the perimeter of the curb as shown in Figure 6.2.2-14 as No. 1 through No. 4. They are located close to the corners to efficiently transfer the forces into the curb side walls. Additional KSCM Restraint Bracket Kits may be required as indicated by the Kinetics Seismic and/or Wind Certification Sheet. Additional KSCM Restraint Bracket Kits are to be added in pairs, (No. 5) & (No. 6), (No. 7) & (No. 8), (No. 9) & (No. 10), and (No. 11) & (No. 12), and located as shown in Figure 6.2.2-14. When there are more than three (3) restraints per side, they must be equally spaced. It is important that the restraints on any pair of opposite sides (Side A & Side C and Side B & Side D) be able to carry the entire horizontal seismic and/or wind load. Vertical Restraints As stated earlier, the curb side walls will not carry significant simultaneous horizontal and vertically upward loads. The vertical uplift forces must be carried as directly as possible from the equipment to the roof structure. To address this issue, Kinetics Noise Control has developed the KSCV Seismic & Wind Vertical Restraint Kits. The kit consists of two basic groups of parts. The first group of parts is shown in Figure 6.2.2-15. Various examples of the connections that may be made with these parts are shown in Figures 6.2.2-16 through 6.2.2-18. The local connection between the roof and the building structure must equal the capacity of the KSCV restraint kit, see submittals in Chapter P1! The parts shown in Figure 6.2.2-15 allow the roof to be penetrated and then sealed using proven roofing technology. The KSCV PCV Pipe Assembly provides a standard sized roof penetration that can be sealed with commercially available pipe flashing or boots (by others). The flashing and boot are not included so that the roofers can use those parts with which they are most familiar. Each KSCV restraint requires one hole to be drilled through the roof structure per KSCV kit to allow the threaded rod to pass through. The KSCV Restraint Channel provides adequate bearing area even when the roof structure is corrugated steel. The steel washers and coupling nut at the top of the KSCV PCV Pipe Assembly allow the roof attachment part of the kit to be fully assembled and roofed before the rooftop unit is set on the curb. The coupling nut allows the equipment attachment part of the kit to be connected to the roof attachment part of the kit after the unit is in place. The parts shown in Figure 6.2.2-19 allow the equipment to be connected to the lower portion of the KSCV restraint. The leg of the KSCV Equipment Bracket that has six (6) holes punched in it mounts to the equipment. The two holes in the other leg are for the short piece of threaded rod which screws into the coupling nut at the top of the building attachment portion of the KSCV kit. The two (2) nuts and standard washer provide the

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restraint connection. The KSCV Equipment Bracket may be attached to the equipment with the six (6) sheet metal screws provided, or it can be welded to the equipment.
COUPLING NUT. STANDARD STEEL WASHERS. KSCV 1-1/2" PVC PIPE ASSEM. STANDARD STEEL WASHER. STANDARD HEX NUTS.

KSCV RESTRAINT CHANNEL

THREADED ROD.

Figure 6.2.2-15. Building Attachment Parts for KSCV Kit.


WEATHER STRIP BY OTHERS. 1-1/2" PIPE FLASHING OR BOOT BY OTHERS. ROOF SYSTEM BY OTHERS. INSULATION BY OTHERS. 8.00 MAX. INSULATION

CURB, NAILER, & RIGID INSULATION BY OTHERS. CANT STRIP BY OTHERS. CAULKING BY OTHERS. STAND. CURB HT. 14.06

CONCRETE ROOF BY OTHERS. KSCV VERTICAL RESTRAINT KIT BY KINETICS. STRUCTURAL STEEL BY OTHERS. STEEL DECKING BY OTHERS.

Figure 6.2.2-16. KSCV Building Attachment Concrete Roof Deck.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO SHEET METAL CURBS


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CURB, NAILER, & RIGID INSULATION BY OTHERS. CANT STRIP BY OTHERS. CAULKING BY OTHERS.

WEATHER STRIP BY OTHERS. 1-1/2" PIPE FLASHING OR BOOT BY OTHERS. ROOF SYSTEM BY OTHERS. INSULATION BY OTHERS. 8.00 MAX. INSULATION

STAND. CURB HT. 14.06

STEEL DECKING BY OTHERS.

KSCV UPLIFT RESTRAINT KIT BY KINETICS.

STRUCTURAL STEEL BY OTHERS.

Figure 6.2.2-17. KSCV Building Attachment Metal Roof Deck.


CURB, NAILER, & RIGID INSULATION BY OTHERS. CANT STRIP BY WEATHER STRIP OTHERS. BY OTHERS. CAULKING BY OTHERS. STAND. CURB HT. 14.06

1-1/2" PIPE FLASHING OR BOOT BY OTHERS. ROOF SYSTEM BY OTHERS. INSULATION BY OTHERS.

STEEL DECKING BY OTHERS. KSCV UPLIFT RESTRAINT KIT BY KINETICS. 16 GA. SHEET STEEL BRIDGE ACROSS VALLEY BY OTHERS. HOLD IN PLACE WITH SHEET METAL SCREWS OR POP-RIVETS BY OTHERS.

Figure 6.2.2-18. KSCV Building Attachment Valley of Metal Roof Deck.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO SHEET METAL CURBS


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(2)STANDARD HEX NUTS. STANDARD STEEL WASHER.

(6) SELF-DRILLING TEK SCREWS.

KSCV EQUIPMENT BRACKET. OPT. 1 OPT. 2 THREADED ROD.

Figure 6.2.2-19. Equipment Attachment Parts for KSCV Kit. Shown in Chapter P1 are the appropriate submittals for weld attachment details for the KSCV Equipment Bracket. This section also includes the rating for the KSCV restraint. Figures 6.2.2-20 through 6.2.2-23 give four examples of methods to attach the KSCV restraint kit to various styles of equipment. The KSCV kit has sufficient flexibility to allow for some misalignment between the equipment attachment and the building attachment. However, the locations of the two parts of the restraint kit must be carefully planned. The equipment attachment portion of the restraint must not block any maintenance or service access doors. Also, there must be sufficient material in the equipment structure to handle the loads imposed by the restraint. The basic locating scheme for the KSCV Seismic & Wind Vertical Restraint Kits around the perimeter of a rectangular curb is shown in Figure 6.2.2-24. As before, the A and B dimensions correspond roughly to those same dimensions on the Kinetics Seismic and/or Wind Certification sheet. The KSCV Vertical Restraint Kits will be grouped at the corners of the curb. If the Kinetics Seismic, and/or Wind Certification shows that a vertical restraint is required at one corner, a vertical restraint will be required at each corner. This is because we do not know from which direction the seismic wave or wind will come. If more than one restraint is required at a corner, the same number of restraints must be applied to each corner as shown in Figure 6.2.2-24.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO SHEET METAL CURBS


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3/16

3 PLCS

TRIM THREADED ROD TO FIT APPLICATION.

EQUIP.

OPTIONAL WELD ATTACH. TRIM PVC PIPE ASSEM. TO FIT APP.

TRIM THREADED ROD TO FIT APPLICATION.

Figure 6.2.2-20. Example No. 1 KSCV Equipment Attachment.


TRIM THREADED ROD TO FIT APPLICATION. DO NOT BLOCK ACCESS & MAINT. DOORS WITH KSCV EQUIP. BRACKET!

3/16

3 PLCS

EQUIP.

OPTIONAL WELD ATTACH.

TRIM PVC PIPE ASSEM. TO FIT APPLICATION.

TRIM THREADED ROD TO FIT APPLICATION.

Figure 6.2.2-21. Example No. 2 KSCV Equipment Attachment.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO SHEET METAL CURBS


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DO NOT BLOCK ACCESS & MAINT. DOORS WITH KSCV EQUIP. BRACKET!

TRIM THREADED ROD TO FIT APPLICATION.


3/16

EQUIP.
3/16

3 PLCS

DO NOT BLOCK ACCESS & MAINT. DOORS WITH KSCV EQUIP. BRACKET!

TRIM THREADED ROD TO FIT APPLICATION.

Figure 6.2.2-22. Example No. 3 KSCV Equipment Attachment.


WHEN ATTACHING KSCV BRACKET TO EQUIPMENT CABINET, USE ONLY THE SHEET METAL SCREWS PROVIDED BY KINETICS. EQUIP. TRIM PVC PIPE ASSEM. TO FIT APP.

TRIM THREADED ROD TO FIT APP. ATTACHING THE KSCV BRACKET TO THE EQUIPMENT CABINET BY WELDING IS NOT RECOMMENDED. DO NOT BLOCK ACCESS & MAINT. DOORS WITH KSCV EQUIP. BRACKET!

TRIM THREADED ROD TO FIT APPLICATION.

Figure 6.2.2-23. Example No. 4 KSCV Equipment Attachment.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO SHEET METAL CURBS


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TRIM PVC PIPE ASSEM. TO FIT APP.

BACK-UP/SPACER PLATE, TO BE ASTM A-36 MIN. PLATE MUST BE LARGE ENOUGH FOR SPECIFIED WELDS. PLATE BY OTHERS.

1ST KSCV FOR POINT 3 ~2.00 TYP WHEN KSCM BRACKET IS NOT PRESENT.

THIS DIMENSION IS DETERMINED BY THE EQUIP. OVERHANG.

SIDE B

Lb

A=~La

La

~3.25 TYP FROM KSCM BRACKET WHEN PRESENT ~5.50 TYP SPACING FOR ADDITIONAL KITS 1ST KSCV FOR POINT 1

1ST KSCV FOR POINT 2

SIDE D
B=~Lb

Figure 6.2.2-24. Locating Scheme for KSCV Kits.

ATTACHMENT OF EQUIPMENT TO SHEET METAL CURBS


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1ST KSCV FOR POINT 4

SIDE C

SIDE A

Vertical Reinforcement of Curb Side Walls There will be certain applications where a given curb will be marginally inadequate. Kinetics Noise Control cannot analyze and certify the entire curb for a specified application unless the curb is provided by Kinetics Noise Control. However, Kinetics Noise Control can perform a basic analysis of the strength of the curb wall based on the curb height, sheet metal thickness, the length of the curb walls, the equipment weight, and its C.G. location. From that analysis Kinetics Noise Control can make a recommendation as to whether reinforcement of the curb side walls would lead to an adequate curb installation from a seismic point of view. Kinetics Noise Control provides a kit that may be used to reinforce the curb side walls. The kit consists of 2 X 2 treated lumber and self-drilling sheet metal screws, from which several reinforcements may be made depending on the curb height. The philosophy behind the KSVR Seismic Curb Wall Vertical Reinforcement Kit is to provide enough vertical reinforcements to carry the entire weight load of the equipment. This will leave the sheet metal curb side walls to carry the horizontal loads thus maximizing the curb s seismic and wind load capacity. Figure 6.2.2-25 shows the KSVR kit installed on one curb wall.

H CURB HEIGHT

S = MAX. SPACING

Hr MEASURE & CUT TO FIT

2 X 2 TREATED WOOD REINFORCEMENTS

Figure 6.2.2-25. Typical KSVR Kit Installation on a Curb Side Wall. The analysis performed by Kinetics Noise Control will recommend a maximum spacing for the installation of the vertical reinforcements. The minimum number of vertical reinforcements that will ever be recommended per side is three (3). There will be a vertical reinforcement on each end of the curb side wall and one in the middle. The treated 2 X 2 provided by Kinetics Noise Control is cut to fit tightly between the foot of the curb, and the wooden nailer at the top of the curb. Then, the vertical reinforcement is fastened to the curb side wall using the sheet metal screws provided in the KSVR kit. The

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number of screws, their spacing, and installation is specified in the product submittals found in Chapter P1. Figure 6.2.2-26 shows the range of curb heights for which the KSVR kit is suitable. Table 6.2.2-1 will show how many vertical reinforcements can be made from one KSVR kit.

H = 24.06 to 36.00

H = 16.06 to 24.00

H = 8.06 to 16.00

H = 0.00 to 8.00

Figure 6.2.2-26. Application Range for KSVR Kits. Table 6.2.2-1. Vertical Reinforcements per KSVR Kit APPLICABLE CURB HEIGHT RANGE INCLUSIVE (H) (in.) 0.00 to 8.00 8.06 to 16.00 16.06 to 24.00 24.06 to 36.00

NUMBER OF VERTICAL REINFORCEMENTS PER KIT

NUMBER OF SELF-DRILLING SHEET METAL SCREWS PER REINFORCEMENT

4 3 2 1

1 2 3 4

The kits described in this section provide components that will allow various pieces of

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rooftop equipment to be attached to sheet metal curbs in areas that may be subjected to high seismic and/or wind loadings. The analysis and ratings provided with the kits will permit the curb manufacturer, and/or Design Professional of Record for a project, to certify the curb for the specified seismic and/or wind loadings.

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Transferring Forces through a Sheet Metal Curb


Sheet metal curbs must be considered as non-structural items. The sides of a sheet metal curb have no load-carrying capability unless they form a closed section in the plan view. The sides must be fully attached to one another for the full height of the curb in order to generate full strength in the individual sides. Figure 6.2.3-1, shown below, presents one side of a typical sheet metal curb and the loads that the curb may be expected to carry.

La or Lb w f

H t

WOODEN NAILER

Rh Rw

Figure 6.2.3-1. Loading on a Sheet Metal Curb. H is the height of the curb, and t is the thickness of the sheet metal used in the construction of the curb. The lengths represented by La and Lb are the inside lengths of the long sides and the short sides of the curb, respectively. For the sake of simplicity, assume that the weight of the equipment is evenly distributed around the perimeter of the curb. This is close enough to the truth for our purposes assuming that the CG of the equipment is more or less, located at the geometric center of the plan view of the curb. This distributed weight load is denoted by w. The value of w may be determined by considering a typical plan view for a rectangular curb as in Figure 6.2.3-2. The distributed weight load will be given by the following equation.

TRANSFERRING FORCES THROUGH A SHEET METAL CURB


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SIDE A

SIDE D

SIDE C
Figure 6.2.3-2. Plan View of a Rectangular Sheet Metal Curb. w = W (2(La + Lb )) = W Lp (Eq. 6.2.3-1)

where W is the weight of the equipment, and Lp is the length of the inside perimeter of the curb. The horizontal seismic force acting on the curb is shown as a uniformly distributed shear load (f) acting along the top of the curb. The terms Rw and Rh are the reactions for the distributed weight load, and distributed seismic force respectively. It is very important to realize that the walls of the curb can only carry loads in the plane of the wall. The curb wall can not effectively resist forces that act perpendicular to the wall of the curb. This is especially true if the sides of the curb are long. The walls of the curb are very thin plates that are loaded in compression on the top and bottom edges by the distributed weight load of the equipment. The horizontal seismic load will be a distributed shear load along the top and bottom edges. Failure of the curb wall will generally be by buckling. Buckling is a very dangerous and catastrophic failure mode. It is dangerous because it occurs at a stress that is well below the yield point of the materials. It is catastrophic because the collapse is usually complete. For a given curb height and material thickness there is a critical equipment weight in the absence of a seismic load that will buckle the curb. Table 6.2.3-1 identifies the variation in the critical equipment weight on the curb wall with the height of the curb (H) and the thickness of the curb material (t). Again the critical equipment weight (w) is in terms of the

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Lb

SIDE B

La

distributed weight of the equipment. Note that the load carrying ability of the curb will Table 6.2.3-1. Critical Equipment Weight (w) (lbs./in.).

CURB HEIGHT (H) (in.)

14.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0

57.66 50.23 34.88 25.63 19.62 15.50 12.56 10.38 8.72

29.58 25.77 17.90 13.15 10.07 7.95 6.44 5.32 4.47

15.11 13.16 9.14 6.71 5.14 4.06 3.29 2.72 2.28

decrease by approximately 70% as the thickness of the curb material decreases from 14 gage to 18 gage. In addition, there is an 80% decrease in the load-carrying capability of the curb as its height is increased from 14 inches to 36 inches. Thus great care must be exercised when placing large pieces of equipment on curbs fabricated from the lighter gages of steel or when placing large pieces of equipment on extended-height curbs. As one might expect, there is a critical horizontal seismic distributed load (f) that, when applied to the top edge of the curb, will cause the curb to fail in buckling. The critical seismic load will be a function of the height of the curb, the material thickness, and the weight of the equipment being supported by the curb. For ease of use, the equipment weight can be represented as an evenly distributed load (w). The variation of this critical seismic load with the variables mentioned above is shown in Tables 6.2.3-2, 6.2.3-3, and 6.2.3-4.

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w FOR MATERIAL THICKNESS 14 GAGE t = 0.0747 in.

w FOR MATERIAL THICKNESS 16 GAGE t = 0.0598 in.

w FOR MATERIAL THICKNESS 18 GAGE t = 0.0478 in.

Table 6.2.3-2. Critical Seismic Load for a 14 Gage Curb (t = 0.0747 in.). w lbs./in. H (in.) 14.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0

0.00 f lbs./in. 326.2 284.2 197.3 145.0 111.0 87.7 71.0 58.7 49.3

5.00 f lbs./in. 320.8 278.7 191.8 139.4 105.3 81.9 65.0 52.5 42.9

10.00 f lbs./in. 315.1 272.9 185.8 133.0 98.4 74.3 56.2 40.5 N/A

20.00 f lbs./in. 302.6 260.1 171.5 115.7 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

30.00 f lbs./in. 288.3 244.9 150.2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

40.00 f lbs./in. 271.0 224.8 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

50.00 f lbs./in. 247.1 181.8 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

55.00 f lbs./in. 227.9 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Table 6.2.3-3. Critical Seismic Load for a 16 Gage Curb (t = 0.0598 in.). w lbs./in. H (in.) 14.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 0.00 f lbs./in. 167.4 145.8 101.2 74.4 56.9 45.0 36.4 30.1 25.3 2.50 f lbs./in. 164.6 143.1 98.5 71.6 54.1 42.1 33.5 27.0 22.1 5.00 f lbs./in. 161.8 140.2 95.5 68.4 50.7 38.3 29.2 21.4 N/A 10.00 f lbs./in. 155.6 133.8 88.4 60.0 36.8 N/A N/A N/A N/A 15.00 f lbs./in. 148.5 126.3 78.2 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 20.00 f lbs./in. 140.0 116.6 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 25.00 f lbs./in. 128.7 99.4 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 30.00 f lbs./in. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

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Table 6.2.3-4. Critical Seismic Load for an 18 Gage Curb (t = 0.0478 in.). w lbs./in. H (in.) 14.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 0.00 f lbs./in. 85.5 74.5 51.7 38.0 29.1 23.0 18.6 15.4 N/A 2.50 f lbs./in. 82.7 71.7 48.8 35.0 26.0 19.7 15.0 11.2 N/A 5.00 f lbs./in. 79.6 68.5 45.3 30.9 19.8 N/A N/A N/A N/A 7.50 f lbs./in. 76.1 64.8 40.4 33.8 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10.00 f lbs./in. 71.9 60.0 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 12.50 f lbs./in. 66.4 52.3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 15.00 f lbs./in. 55.3 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 20.00 f lbs./in. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

Note that no safety factor has been applied to any of the values in Tables 6.2.3-1, 6.2.3-2, 6.2.3-3, or 6.2.3-4. These values should not be used for design or certifying sheet metal curbs for seismic applications unless a factor of safety of not less than 2:1 is applied to them. Values listed as N/A indicate combinations of equipment load, curb height, and material thickness that are absolutely not viable for seismic applications. They indicate that a thicker gage of material must be used for the construction of the curb. In the case of Table 6.2.3-2, the combinations that are marked N/A indicate that a structural seismic curb is required. An obvious conclusion drawn from Tables 6.2.3-2, 6.2.3-3, and 6.2.3-4 is that if the equipment load could be carried by components other than the wall of the curb, the seismic load-carrying capacity of the curb could be maximized. The most cost-effective method of providing vertical reinforcement to carry the equipment weight load is to use treated wood 2 X 4s or 2 X 2s. This is usually the same material that is used for the nailer at the top of the curb. A typical view of the side of a curb that has been vertically reinforced with 2 X 2s is shown in Figure 6.2.3-3. This figure shows the minimum number of vertical reinforcements. A vertical reinforcement is required on each end of the side of the curb with at least one additional member located in the middle. Table 6.2.3-5 gives the maximum allowable vertical reinforcement spacing (S) as a function of the curb height, and the equipment weight load. These reinforcement members must be cut to fit tightly between the underside of the nailer or curb lip and the top of the structural support member at the base of the curb. If a gap exists they will not function properly. The controlling failure mode is buckling. For selection purposes in the table below, a factor of safety of 4:1 was applied to the vertical reinforcements to account for the variation in grade and structure of the treated wood 2 X 2s. Table 6.2.3-5 indicates that for many cases the minimum number of vertical reinforcements will be sufficient to carry the weight

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of the equipment.

La or Lb w f WOODEN NAILER H S t Rh Rw

WOODEN 2 X 2'S

VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT

Figure 6.2.3-3. Typical Vertically Reinforced Curb.

Table 6.2.3-5. Maximum Spacing for Vertical Reinforcements Treated Wood 2x2s Factor of Safety = 4:1 with Respect to Buckling. w lbs./in. H (in.) 14.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 0.00 S (in.) 2,762 2,406 1,671 1,227 940 743 601 497 418 5.00 S (in.) 1,381 1,203 835 614 470 371 301 249 209 10.00 S (in.) 690 601 418 307 235 186 150 124 104 20.00 S (in.) 345 401 209 153 117 93 75 62 52 30.00 S (in.) 230 200 139 102 78 62 50 41 35 40.00 S (in.) 173 150 104 77 59 46 38 31 26 50.00 S (in.) 138 120 84 61 47 37 30 25 21 55.00 S (in.) 126 109 76 56 43 34 27 23 19

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In the course of a seismic event, the most significant vertical seismic loads occur at the corners of the curb. This type of load will put the curb wall in bending. In the presence of a horizontal seismic load, a vertical seismic load will cause the load-carrying ability of the curb to drop to an unacceptable level. Thus vertical seismic loads should be transferred from the equipment to the building structure in as direct a manner as possible. The mode of transfer must minimize the bending moments in the curb wall to maintain the ability of the curb to carry the equipment weight load and the horizontal seismic load. The distribution of the horizontal seismic load is addressed through a rational analysis. Figure 6.2.3-4 shows the plan view of a curb with the equipment CG at the center of

SIDE A
Fa = 0.5FCOS( )
Fd = 0.5FSIN( )

F
Fd = 0.5FSIN( )

Fc = 0.5FCOS( )

SIDE C
Figure 6.2.3-4. Seismic Loading of Curb. the curb. In this figure F is the horizontal seismic force. The angle f represents the direction of motion for the seismic wave front. Since the curb wall can transfer forces only in the plane of the wall as previously discussed, the forces carried by the individual curb walls will be as shown in Figure 6.2.3-4. The resulting distributed seismic force acting on the long sides of the curb will be equal to fa = (0.5 La )F cos . (Eq. 6.2.3-2)

In a similar fashion, the distributed seismic force acting on the short sides of the curb will be f b = (0.5 Lb )F sin . (Eq. 6.2.3-3)

Note that the ability of a sheet metal curb to resist a horizontal seismic load depends on

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SIDE D

SIDE B

the length of the curb available to carry the loads. Thus, the worst-case scenario for a curb would occur when f was equal to 90 degrees. The seismic load is parallel to the short sides of the curb, which means that the short sides of the curb must be able to resist the entire horizontal seismic load. So, for calculation purposes, the distributed seismic load on the short sides of the curb would be as follows. f h = 0. 5 F Lb (Eq. 6.2.3-4)

The last issue that must be addressed is the presence of large-scale penetrations in the curb walls. Screw and pop rivet holes are not considered to be large-scale holes. Largescale penetrations are those that are made for ducts, pipes, or conduits. Figure 6.2.3-5 shows a rectangular penetration for a duct.

La or Lb

H t

WOODEN NAILER

Figure 6.2.3-5. Typical Duct Penetration. If left un-reinforced, this penetration would eliminate any significant seismic load-carrying ability for that side of the curb. However, in some case an appropriate reinforcement scheme for a duct penetration, similar to that shown in Figure 6.2.3-6, can be added. In

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Equations 6.2.3-1 and 6.2.3-4 with Tables 6.2.3-1 through 6.2.3-4, along with a healthy factor of safety, allow us to determine the suitability of a given curb in a specified seismic application. Since the curb walls are very thin compared to any other dimensions, any dents, creases, or other defects will drastically lower the critical buckling loads, a factor of safety in the range of 3:1 or 4:1 is considered appropriate to account for the possibility of such minor damage. Major damage must be corrected.

this scheme, the reinforcement ring made out of sheet metal is placed around the hole.

La or Lb REINFORCEMENT "RING" AROUND DUCT PENETRATION.

H t

Figure 6.2.3-6. Reinforcement of Duct Penetrations. The ring must have a thickness equal to or greater than that of the curb wall and extend at least 2 inches beyond the penetration. The ring must be pop riveted, screwed, or spot welded in place. Enough fasteners should be used to ensure that the loads are transferred to the ring. In addition to the ring, vertical restraints made up of treated wood 2 X 2s should be placed as shown in Figure 6.2.3-6. The total seismic load carrying ability of this side of the curb should be reduced as follows: fap = 0.5 F (La Lh ) and, fbp = 0.5 F (Lb Lh ) (Eq. 6.2.3-6) (Eq. 6.2.3-5)

In these two equations, fap and fbp are the distributed horizontal seismic loads carried by the long and short sides, respectively, of a curb with a duct penetration in one of the walls. The term Lh represents the length of the duct penetration. Another type of penetration is a circular penetration for either a pipe or a cable conduit. This type of penetration is shown in Figure 6.2.3-7. These penetrations are much smaller than the one for a duct. Ringing these penetrations as shown in Figure 6.2.3-8 should provide sufficient reinforcement without the loss of seismic load-carrying capacity. The rings should have the same thickness as the walls of the curb and extend at least 2 inches beyond the penetration. The attachment may be by pop rivet, screw, or spot weld. A sufficient number of fasteners

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WOODEN NAILER

La or Lb

H t

WOODEN NAILER

Figure 6.2.3-7. Typical Piping/Conduit Penetrations.

La or Lb REINFORCEMENT RINGS AROUND PIPE & CONDUIT PENETRATIONS.

H t

WOODEN NAILER

Figure 6.2.3-8. Reinforcement of Piping/Conduit Penetrations. must be used to ensure that loads are effectively transferred to the reinforcing rings. The intent of this document is to provide input and guidance as to how loads are transferred through a sheet metal curb. The tables and equations presented in this document may be used with factors of safety of 3:1 to 4:1 in order to estimate the performance of a curb for a specific seismic application. However, prior to installation a thorough analysis should be made by the curb manufacturer or KINETICS NOISE CONTROL.

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Attachment of Sheet Metal Curbs to the Building


Attachment of a sheet metal curb to a roof structure involves intimate knowledge of the type of roof being used, the slope of the roof, the location of the curb on the roof, and the orientation of the curb with respect to the roof structure and slope. We, at Kinetics Noise Control, usually do not have access to all of the information necessary to completely specify the connection between the curb and the roof structure. Having said all of that, this document will provide some of the requisite guidelines for attaching a sheet metal curb to a roof structure. General Comments We will begin by making some general comments on attaching sheet metal curbs to roofs made of different materials. 1.) The attachment fasteners at the foot of the sheet metal curb are assumed to be loaded primarily in shear. 2.) If uplift forces are present they must be carried directly to the roof by the KSCV Seismic & Wind Vertical Restraint Kits at each corner of the equipment. 3.) The local attachment between the roof and the building structure must have a capacity greater than or equal to the loads transferred from the sheet curb foot and the KSCV kits to the roof! 4.) The minimum number of fasteners per curb side will be three regardless of the fastener type or size. There will be one fastener approximately at each end of the curb side, and one approximately at the middle. 5.) The actual positions of the fasteners are approximate to account for vertical curb wall reinforcements, troughs in metal decking, etc. 6.) Support beneath the sheet metal curb side wall must be continuous around the entire perimeter to maintain the full horizontal seismic, and/or wind load rating. If the curb side wall is required to span significant distances, it will be placed in bending, and thus suffer a large reduction in the horizontal load-carrying capacity! 7.) Sheet metal curbs may be allowed to span the valleys in metal roof decking. However, if vertical reinforcements are required for the curb side walls, the reinforcements must not be located above a valley in the metal roof decking, or the valley must be spanned with a support for the reinforcement as discussed in a later paragraph. Attachment to Metal Decking The sheet metal curb foot may be fastened to metal decking using sheet metal screws of sufficient size and quantity to carry the required loads, see Figure 6.2.4-1. Kinetics Noise Control requires that the screws be no smaller than No. 10 and that they have a washer-

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type head. The washer-type head helps reduce the incidence of pull-through. The analysis provided by Kinetics Noise Control is based on a flat roof, and will give a recommended number of No. 10 or No. 12 sheet metal screws per side, and the maximum allowable spacing for each screw size. The sheet metal screws must be long enough so that their threads can be fully engaged at the maximum screw diameter to generate full screw strength. Since the foot of the curb must be continuously supported, 14 gage sheet steel may be used to bridge the valleys in the metal roof decking to support the foot of the curb as shown in the view in Figure 6.2.4-1. As shown in Figure 6.2.4-2, the curb may also be fastened to the metal deck with through bolts and nuts. Standard steel washers should be used under the nuts and bolt heads to prevent pull-through. It is good practice to insert the bolts as shown in Figure 6.2.4-2, and to use double nuts. This will help to maintain the integrity of the joint over time. The analysis by Kinetics Noise Control specifies the number of -20 UNC SAE Grade 2 bolts to use per each curb side, and the maximum allowable spacing for use on a flat roof. Curb installations have been made by welding the curb foot to the metal decking. The strength of these welds is dependent on the type of welder being used, the procedure being followed, and the actual materials involved in the weld joint. There are too many unknowns for Kinetics Noise Control to specify the number and size of the welds required to attach a curb to a metal roof deck. However, if the shear strength of the welds used is equivalent to the shear strength of the fasteners indicated by Kinetics Noise Control, the weld attachment will be adequate. It is up to the Design Professional of Record to specify the number and size of the welds required to attach the curb to the metal deck once the details of the welding process and materials are known. When vertical reinforcements are used the reinforcement must not lie over top of an unsupported portion of the curb foot. This would occur if the foot of the curb was spanning a valley in the metal roof decking. A bridge that is tied into the adjacent portions of the decking must be created beneath the vertical reinforcement. Figure 6.2.4-3 shows one way this may be accomplished. It is important that at least two screws attach the bridge to the deck on both the inside and the outside of the curb side wall. Attachment to Structural Steel Kinetics Noise Control requires that sheet metal curbs be attached to structural steel with through bolts and nuts with washers beneath the bolt heads and nuts, as shown in Figure 6.2.4-4. Again it is good practice to insert the bolts as shown, and to use double nuts. Certain structural shapes will require the use of square beveled structural washers. For a flat roof the analysis provided by Kinetics Noise Control will indicate the proper number of -20 UNC SAE Grade 2 bolts per curb side and the maximum allowable spacing. Note that the curb side wall is fully supported by the structural members.

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TWO (2) No. 12 OR No. 10 SHEET METAL SCREWS PER FASTENER LOCATION, BY OTHERS.

No. 12 OR No. 10 SHEET METAL SCREWS TO ATTACH CURB TO METAL DECK, NUMBER & SPACING SPEC'D BY KINETICS.

Figure 6.2.4-1. Attachment to Metal Decking Using Sheet Metal Screws.

ATTACHMENT OF SHEET METAL CURBS TO THE BUILDING


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14 GA. STEEL SHEET, BY OTHERS,TO BRIDGE METAL ROOF DECK VALLEY.

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TWO (2) No. 12 OR No. 10 SHEET METAL SCREWS PER FASTENER LOCATION, BY OTHERS.

1/4-20 UNC SAE GRADE 2 BOLTS, NUTS & WASHERS TO ATTACH CURB TO METAL DECK, NUMBER & SPACING SPEC'D BY KINETICS.

Figure 6.2.4-2. Attachment to Metal Decking Using Through Bolts.

ATTACHMENT OF SHEET METAL CURBS TO THE BUILDING


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PREFERRED INSTALLATION

OPTIONAL INSTALLATION

KSCV VERTICAL SIDE WALL REINFORCEMENT KIT BY KINETICS TWO (2) No. 12 OR No. 10 SHEET METAL SCREWS, BY OTHERS, ON EACH SIDE OF THE CURB SIDE WALL.

14 GA. STEEL SHEET, BY OTHERS, TO BRIDGE METAL ROOF DECK VALLEY.

Figure 6.2.4-3. Vertical Reinforcement Placement for Metal Decking. Curbs have been attached to structural steel by welding. As before, Kinetics Noise Control will not make any recommendations concerning the weld size and number. It will be up to the Design Professional of Record to specify the number of welds and their size. However, the welds must be of sufficient size and number to have a capacity greater than or equal to the number of -20 UNC SAE Grade 2 bolts specified by Kinetics Noise Control for the application in question. Attachment to Concrete In order to attach a curb to a concrete deck, the concrete must have a minimum compressive strength of 3,000 psi and be steel reinforced. Figure 6.2.4-5 shows a typical concrete roof installation. The analysis provided by Kinetics Noise Control will indicate the proper number of concrete wedge-type anchors per side and the maximum allowable spacing. The wedge-type anchors require an embedment depth of 2 and a minimum distance to any edge of the concrete of 33/8. Double nuts are not necessary for this installation due to the wedging action of the anchor when properly tightened.

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STRUCTURAL STEEL BENEATH CURB SIDE WALL, BY OTHERS.

1/4-20 UNC SAE GRADE 2 BOLTS, NUTS, & WASHERS TO ATTACH CURB TO STRUCTURAL STEEL, NUMBER & SPACING SPEC'D BY KINETICS.

STRUCTURAL STEEL BENEATH CURB END WALL, BY OTHERS.

Figure 6.2.4-4 Attachment to Structural Steel Using Through Bolts.

ATTACHMENT OF SHEET METAL CURBS TO THE BUILDING


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1/4" SQUARE BEVELED STRUCTURAL WASHER, BY OTHERS. REQUIRED FOR (C), (MC), AND (S) STRUCTURAL SHAPES.

1/4 X 3-1/4 WEDGE-TYPE CONCRETE ANCHORS WITH NUTS & WASHERS TO ATTACH CURB TO A CONCRETE ROOF DECK, NUMBER AND SPACING SPEC'D BY KINETICS.

24 in. DRILL DEPTH

2 in. MIN. ANCHOR EMBEDMENT

Figure 6.2.4-5 Attachment to Concrete Using Wedge-Type Anchors.

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38 in. MIN. EDGE DISTANCE TO DUCT OPENING

3 in. MIN. THICK CONCRETE

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4 in. DRILL

In order to maintain the full capacity of the wedge-type anchors, the spacing between adjacent anchors must be no less than 4. In addition, the deck must be thick enough to provide a minimum of 1 cover beneath the bottom of the hole for the wedge anchor. Attachment to Wood In general, wood is a highly variable structural material in terms of its strength and uniformity. The strength of a piece of wood depends very strongly on its grain structure and direction, as well as its species, moisture content, and growing conditions. The in situ strength of the wood can change over time as its moisture content increases or decreases relative to the surrounding environment. Wood is also susceptible to strength reductions due to aging and insect infestations. Also, plywood decking and glulam structural components may be delaminated over time through exposure to harsh environments, and thus lose their integrity. Wherever possible, Kinetics Noise Control recommends that attachments be made to wood using through bolts, nuts, washers, and fish-plates against the wood side of the bolt joint. This arrangement is depicted in Figure 6.2.4-6. The bolts should be inserted as shown and retained with double nuts. The minimum recommended fish-plate size and material is X 3 X 3 ASTM A36 steel. The fish-plate distributes the compressive load from the nut, and prevents crushing of the wood fibers. The fish-plate is to be provided by others. There may be some cases where the use of lag screws may be most appropriate. Two examples of this type of installation are also detailed in Figure 6.2.4-6. Note, in both of the cases shown, the required embedment for the lag screw is into the structural timber. The embedment for the lag screw is measured to where the tapered point begins. Care must be taken to maintain the proper edge and end distances in the structural timbers for the lag screws in order to develop their full capacity. Pilot holes of the proper diameter must be drilled slightly beyond the required embedment for the lag screws to prevent splitting of the structural timbers. Do not allow the pilot holes to go clear through the structural timber. Note that the curb side wall is fully supported by the structural timbers. Attachment to Sloped Roofs Sloped roofs present an interesting problem for the attachment of sheet metal curbs. The ideal sheet metal curb for a sloped roof would be one where the sheet metal was cut and bent to accommodate the slope. This would keep the equipment level, and still allow the curb to be attached to the roof directly using the fasteners as recommended by Kinetics Noise Control. However, frequently standard curbs of uniform height are ordered and applied to sloped roofs. Blocking is placed under the foot of the curb to level the curb. Depending on the slope of the roof, the height of the blocking could be considerable. This presents serious problems when attempting to create a competent connection between the curb and the roof.

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1/4-10 LAG SCREWS & WASHERS OR 1/4-20 UNC SAE GRADE 2 BOLTS, NUTS, WASHERS, & 1/4 in. X 3 in. X 3 in. "FISH-PLATES" TO ATTACH CURB TO STRUCTURAL STEEL, NUMBER & SPACING SPEC'D BY KINETICS.

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Figure 6.2.4-6 Attachment to Wood Using Through Bolts & Lag Screws.

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3/8 in. MIN. EDGE DIST. TYP.

PLYWOOD DECKING BY OTHERS.

"FISH-PLATE" BY OTHERS. 1/4 in. X 3 in. X 3 in. ASTM A36 STEEL.

11 PILOT 64 DRILL TYP.

2 in. X 4 in. MIN. WOODEN JOIST SIZE FOR 1/4-10 LAG SCREW, BY OTHERS

1 24 in. PILOT DEPTH TYP. 2 in. PENTRATION TYP.

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The blocking for a seismically rated sheet metal roof curb must continuously support the curb side walls. This is required to prevent bending in the side walls which would drastically reduce the curbs ability to carry horizontal seismic and/or wind loads. A possible roof curb arrangement on a sloped roof is shown in Figure 6.2.4-7. The blocking is cut in such a way that it provides full and continuous support for the curb side walls. The attachment hardware passes through the blocking. This ensures that the blocking will remain in position beneath the curb side wall. The holes through the blocking for the attachment hardware should be tight against the hardware. It would be best if the attachment hardware had to be tapped into place. A close fit with the attachment hardware will reduce the bending stress to near zero, and keep the hardware in shear. When the height of the blocking exceeds (3) three inches, the attachment hardware that provides the most flexibility is -20 UNC SAE Grade 2 All-Thread. Use double nuts and washers on each end of the All-Thread. Where the height of the blocking is not excessive, the attachment hardware discussed in the previous paragraphs may be used as long as it passes through the blocking with minimal clearance. Figure 6.2.4-8 provides a detail to handle situations where the blocking on two adjacent sides meets at a corner. To help maintain the integrity of the attachments, it is necessary that the corners of the blocking be reinforced inside and out with field-fabricated sheet metal angles. The angles must be attached to the curb with sheet metal screws as shown. The threads of the screws must fully engage the sheet metal of both angles to develop the full capacity of the screws. The minimum number of screws recommended per leg is (3) three, (4) four screws per leg are shown. There will be corners where the blocking is short enough so that corner bracket is not needed. It is only necessary to install the corner brackets when the blocking exceeds (2) two inches in height. Conclusion This section has taken a quick and very general look at the attachment of sheet metal curbs to roof structures. There will be many situations that are not specifically addressed by this document, which is not intended to be all encompassing. The drawings and descriptions are intended to provide general guidelines to help the Design Professional of Record, and the contractor with the installation of a curb. The use of mounting hardware larger that -20 UNC should be avoided. The use of a larger number of smaller fasteners will provide a better load distribution along the foot of the curb than a small number of larger fasteners. The key to using sheet metal curbs in seismic applications is to distribute the loads entering the curb from the equipment and exiting the curb to the equipment as evenly as possible.

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ROOF LINE

Figure 6.2.4-7 Blocking & Attachment for a Sloped Roof.

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BLOCKING, BY OTHERS, TO BE CONTINUOUS.

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No. 10 OR No. 12 SHEET METAL SCREWS, BY OTHERS.

14 GAGE STEEL CORNER BRACKETS, BY OTHERS.


Figure 6.2.4-8 Curb Blocking Corner Detail.

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Limits of Sheet Metal Curbs in Seismic Applications


Introduction In order to understand the limitations of sheet metal curbs in seismic applications, a review of how forces are transferred through the curb, which is covered in detail in Document 6.2.3, is in order. This discussion will evolve around curbs that have a rectangular plan view as shown in Figure 6.2.5-1. The sides of the curb will be designated as shown in Figure 6.2.5-1. The inside length of the curb is designated La. The inside width of the curb is given the designation Lb.

SIDE A

SIDE D

Lb

SIDE C
Figure 6.2.5-1. Plan View of a Rectangular Sheet Metal Curb. An elevation view of any one of the curb side walls is shown in Figure 6.2.5-2. In this figure, H is the height of the curb side wall. The thickness of the curb wall material is designated as t. The term w is the distributed weight of the equipment. It is shown as an even distribution; however, it may be an increasing quantity from one side to the other. The horizontal applied seismic and/or wind load is designated as f. Again, f is shown as an evenly distributed load, although it may also be increasing from one side of the curb to the other. These loads must be carried in the plane of the curb wall. Loads that are perpendicular to the plane of the curb wall will lead to premature buckling of the curb wall. Curb Side Wall Weight Bearing Limit The primary failure mode for the curb side walls is buckling. Buckling is a very dangerous

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SIDE B

La

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failure mode. It is a geometry-related failure, it occurs in regions of compression loading, and always occurs at a stress that is much lower than the yield stress of the material. Structures that have at least one cross-sectional dimension that is small compared to the length or height dimension are candidates for a buckling type-failure. If one side wall
La or Lb w f

H t

WOODEN NAILER

Rh Rw

Figure 6.2.5-2. Typical Curb Side Wall Elevation View. buckle, the adjacent side walls may not be able to carry the additional load and may fail as well. Thus, buckling, when it occurs, is a catastrophic failure. We cannot predict the exact load at which buckling will occur. We can only predict a load above which buckling may occur in a perfect curb side wall. The actual buckling limit may be much lower due to dents and imperfections in the curb side walls. Table 6.2.5-1 presents the allowable distributed weight load, wA', that may be applied to a curb side wall as a function of the curb height, H, and the curb wall thickness, t. This table is base on Table 6.2.3-1, and is expanded to include 12 gage sheet steel for the curb side walls. The allowable distributed weight load, wA', includes a factor of safety of 2:1. As an initial check on the suitability of using a sheet metal curb with the specified piece of equipment, compute an average distributed weight load for the equipment assuming that the equipment C.G. is located in the geometric center of the equipment. Equation 6.2.5-1 w = W/[2*(La+Lb)] (Eq. 6.2.5-1)

provides an estimate for the distributed weight loading for an application. An example of how this equation may be used in conjunction with Table 6.2.5-1 to determine the proper specifications for a curb to carry a given piece of equipment is presented. In Equation 6.2.5-1 W is the total weight of the equipment supported by the curb.

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Table 6.2.5-1; Allowable Vertical Curb Wall Loading ( wA' ) (lb/in) CURB WALL t (in.) H (in.) 18 GAGE 0.0478 16 GAGE 0.0598 14 GAGE 0.0747 12 GAGE 0.1046 10 GAGE 0.1345

9.0 12.0 14.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 30.0 36.0 Example No. 1: W = 14,000 lbs. La = 375 in. Lb = 99 in.

18.3 10.3 7.55 6.58 4.57 3.36 2.57 1.65 1.14

35.8 20.1 14.8 12.9 8.95 6.57 5.03 3.22 2.24

69.8 39.2 28.8 25.1 17.4 12.8 9.81 6.28 4.36

192 108 79.2 69.0 47.9 35.2 26.9 17.2 12.0

407 229 168 147 102 74.8 57.3 36.7 25.5

w = 14,000/[2*(375+99)] = 14.8 lb/in If, H = 14 in., and the application is for a non-essential facility in a low seismic area, the minimum curb wall must be 16 gage commercial quality sheet steel. If the application is for an essential facility, or a medium to high seismic area, then the minimum curb wall should be 14 gage commercial quality sheet steel. If, H = 24 in., and the application falls into any facility and any seismic area, the minimum curb wall must be 12 gage commercial quality sheet steel. The preceding example clearly shows that care must be used in selecting a sheet metal

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6.0

41.1

80.5

157

431

916

wa = w*[La/(La-Ld)] And, for the short sides of the curb, the modification is given below. wb = w*[Lb/(Lb-Ld)]

(Eq. 6.2.5-2)

(Eq. 6.2.5-3)

In Equations 6.2.5-2 and 6.2.5-3 wa and wb are the distributed weight loads on the long and short sides of the curb, respectively, when a duct opening is present in the curb side wall. The term Ld represents the length of the duct opening in the curb side wall. Example No. 2 demonstrates how the presence of a duct opening can affect the load-bearing capacity of a sheet metal curb. Example No. 2: W = 14,000 lbs. La = 375 in. Lb = 99 in. Ld = 24 in. The duct opening is in the short sides. w = 14,000/[2*(375+99)] = 14.8 lb/in wb = 14.8*[99/(99-24)] = 19.5 lb/in If, H = 14 in., and the application is for a non-essential facility in a low seismic area, the minimum curb wall for the side with the duct opening must be 14 gage commercial quality sheet steel. If the application is for an essential facility, or a medium to high seismic area, then the minimum curb wall should be 12 gage commercial quality sheet steel. When a duct opening is present, the curb wall with the opening will need to be made from heavier gage sheet steel than the curb walls without the duct opening.

LIMITS OF SHEET METAL CURBS IN SEISMIC APPLICATIONS


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curb for any application. The example did not consider a piece of equipment where the C.G. was offset from the geometric center of the equipment by a significant amount, or a curb that has a large opening cut in the side wall to accommodate ductwork. The offset C.G. will lead to a non-uniform weight distribution and a concentration of load on one side or in one corner. If the C.G. is offset from the geometric center of the equipment by more than 5% of the length or width, then a detailed analysis must be done to ensure that local buckling is not an issue. Holes cut in the curb side walls drastically reduce the loadbearing capacity of the curb, and must be taken into account. The length of the curb side wall affected by the opening must be subtracted from the length of the curb side wall. Then, for the curb side wall with the duct opening, the result of Equation 6.2.5-1 may be modified for the side with the duct opening as follows for the long sides of the curb.

Curb Side Wall Horizontal Seismic and Wind Load Bearing Capacity As with the weight bearing limit, the horizontal seismic and wind load bearing limit of the curb side walls will be dependent upon the buckling limit of the curb walls. The shearing loads enter the walls at the top of the curb and exit at the bottom. They remain in the plane of the curb side wall. Thus, only horizontal loads that are parallel to the curb walls will be carried by those walls. This is demonstrated in the curb plane view shown in Figure 6.2.5-3.

SIDE D

FD FC SIDE C

FH

FB 4

Figure 6.2.5-3. General Horizontal Load Distribution to the Curb Walls. In Figure 6.2.5-3, the horizontal seismic and/or wind load, FH, will be distributed into the four curb side walls. In the absence of evidence to the contrary, it is reasonable to assume the following: FA = FC = FH*Cos and FB = FD = FH*Sin (Eq. 6.2.5-5) (Eq. 6.2.5-4)

The allowable horizontal seismic and wind loadings for various curb side wall material gages and curb heights are given in Tables 6.2.5-2 through 6.2.5-6. These are values

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SIDE B

FA

KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

SIDE A

based on the critical buckling shear load for the curb side walls. The allowable loads given in Tables 6.2.5-2 through 6.2.5-6 have a factor of safety of 2:1 with respect to the critical buckling load built into them. In these tables, w is the maximum allowable vertical load with no shear load applied. Since the horizontal load enters the curb as a distributed load, the horizontal load that may be resisted by a curb side wall will depend on its length. Thus, the shorter the curb wall, the less its capacity to resist a horizontal seismic and/or wind load. The worst possible seismic and/or wind load case for a sheet metal curb would be where the horizontal load was parallel to the two short sides of the curb as illustrated in Figure 6.2.5-4.

SIDE A

3 SIDE B

FD SIDE C FH

FB 4

Figure 6.2.5-4. Worst-Case Horizontal Load Distribution to the Curb Walls.

For this worst-case loading the force balance will give the following relationship. F H = FB + FD (Eq. 6.2.5-6)

For the purpose of determining the suitability of a particular curb for a given application, it will be convenient to assume that

LIMITS OF SHEET METAL CURBS IN SEISMIC APPLICATIONS


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SIDE D

F = FB = FD = FH/2

(Eq. 6.2.5-7)

The distributed load applied to the short side walls of the curb, f, will be as follows: f = FH/(2*Lb) (Eq. 6.2.5-8)

Example No. 3: W = 2,000 lbs. La = 115 in. Lb = 45 in. H = 24 in. w = 2,000/[2*(150+50)] = 5.00 lb/in For an un-reinforced curb wall, the minimum sheet metal for the curb walls will be 16 Gage, see Table 6.2.5-1.

A.) FH = 0.50*W (0.5g) FH = 0.50*2,000 = 1,000 lbs. f = 1,000/(2*50) = 10.00 lb/in From Table 6.2.5-3, for w = 5.0 lb/in, fA' = 25.4 lb/in. This curb will perform well in this application.

B.) FH = 1.00*W (1g) FH = 1.0*2,000 = 2,000 lbs. f = 2,000/(2*50) = 20.00 lb/in From Table 6.2.5-3, for w = 5.0 lb/in, fA' = 25.4 lb/in. This curb will perform well in this application.

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The actual value for FH will be determined through the application of the building code in force for the project. Example No. 3 will illustrated the application of Tables 6.2.5-1 through 6.2.5-6.

C.) FH = 1.50*W (1.5g) FH = 1.50*2,000 = 3,000 lbs. f = 3,000/(2*50) = 30.00 lb/in From Table 6.2.5-3, for w = 5.0 lb/in, fA' = 25.4 lb/in. In this case, the curb is inadequate. Table 6.2.5-3 also shows that even if the curb side walls were reinforced to carry the equipment weight load, the curb would be inadequate for the proposed seismic application. In order to have a 24 in. high curb in this seismic application, the minimum curb side wall would need to be 14 gage. Duct openings will drastically reduce the ability of a curb wall to carry a horizontal seismic and/or wind load. In the presence of a duct opening, the load applied to a long side of the curb, fa, will be given by fa = f*[La/(La-Ld)] (Eq. 6.2.5-2)

In the presence of a duct opening, the load applied to the short side of the curb, fb, will be fb = f*[Lb/(Lb-Ld)] (Eq. 6.2.5-3)

The effects of a duct opening on the seismic load carrying ability of the curb are illustrated in Example No. 4. Example No. 4: W = 2,000 lbs. La = 150 in. Lb = 50 in. Ld = 25 in. (Duct opening in short curb side.) H = 24 in. t = 16 Gage = 0.0598 in. (Curb side wall material thickness.) w = 2,000/[2*(150+50)] = 5.00 lb/in wb = 5.00*[50/(50-25)] = 10.00 lb/in FH = 0.50*W (0.5g) FH = 0.50*2,000 = 1,000 lbs.

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f = 1,000/(2*50) = 10.00 lb/in fb = 10.00*[50/(50-25)] = 20.00 lb/in The presence of a duct opening moves the curb specified in this example from being adequate for a 0.5g application to being inadequate. The curb wall with the duct opening would need to have a minimum material thickness of 14 gage. The applicability of sheet metal curbs in seismic applications will be limited by many different factors. Each proposed application must be individually assessed to determine its suitability for a seismic or high wind installation. The tables and examples presented in this document will allow the reader to make a rough estimate on the suitability of a sheet metal curb for their application. However, the manufacturer of the curb, or Kinetics Noise Control as the manufacture of the seismic restraints should be consulted for a detailed assessment of the curb and its application. Kinetics Noise Control has developed a generalized analysis of sheet metal curbs based on the buckling strength of the curb side walls. This analysis is used to specify the number of horizontal and vertical restraints required to resist the code-determined loadings. The analysis will also determine whether vertical reinforcement will enhance the application of the curb.

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Table 6.2.5-2; Allowable Horizontal Seismic & Wind Curb Wall Loading ( fA' ) (lb/in) CURB WALL: 18 GAGE; t = 0.0478 in --------w' (lb/in) 82.3 36.6 20.6 15.1 13.2 9.14 6.71 5.14 4.06 3.29 2.72 2.28 w (lb/in H (in) 6.0 9.0 12.0 14.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 233 104 58.3 42.7 37.3 25.9 19.0 14.5 11.5 9.31 7.69 6.45 231 102 56.9 41.3 35.9 24.4 17.5 13.0 9.83 7.50 5.59 N/A 230 101 55.4 39.8 34.4 22.7 15.4 9.87 N/A N/A N/A N/A 227 97.8 52.0 35.9 30.1 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 224 94.5 47.7 27.6 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 218 86.4 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 200 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 170 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.0 2.5 5.0 10.0 15.0 25.0 50.0 75.0 150

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Table 6.2.5-3; Allowable Horizontal Seismic & Wind Curb Wall Loading ( fA' ) (lb/in) CURB WALL: 16 GAGE; t = 0.0598 in --------w' (lb/in) 161 71.6 40.3 29.6 25.8 17.9 13.1 10.1 7.95 6.44 5.32 4.47 w (lb/in) H (in) 6.0 9.0 12.0 14.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 455 203 114 83.7 73.0 50.6 37.1 28.6 22.5 18.2 15.0 12.6 454 201 113 82.4 71.6 49.3 35.7 27.1 21.0 16.7 13.5 11.0 453 200 111 80.9 70.2 47.8 34.1 25.4 19.2 14.6 10.7 N/A 450 197 108 77.8 67.0 44.2 29.8 18.6 N/A N/A N/A N/A 447 194 105 74.3 63.2 39.1 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 442 188 97.4 64.4 49.9 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 426 168 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 409 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 327 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.0 2.5 5.0 10.0 15.0 25.0 50.0 75.0 150

LIMITS OF SHEET METAL CURBS IN SEISMIC APPLICATIONS


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

Table 6.2.5-4; Allowable Horizontal Seismic & Wind Curb Wall Loading ( fA' ) (lb/in) CURB WALL: 14 GAGE; t = 0.0747 in --------w' (lb/in) 314 140 78.5 57.7 50.2 34.9 25.6 19.6 15.5 12.6 10.4 8.72 w (lb/in) H (in) 6.0 9.0 12.0 14.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 888 396 222 163 142 98.7 72.4 55.4 43.8 35.6 29.4 24.7 887 395 221 162 141 97.4 71.0 54.1 42.5 34.2 28.0 23.2 885 393 219 160 139 96.0 69.6 52.6 40.9 32.6 26.3 21.4 883 391 217 158 136 92.9 66.4 49.2 37.1 28.2 20.3 N/A 880 388 214 155 133 89.6 62.6 44.6 30.0 N/A N/A N/A 875 382 207 148 126 81.2 48.8 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 860 366 189 124 90.6 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 846 348 155 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 795 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.0 2.5 5.0 10.0 15.0 25.0 50.0 75.0 150

LIMITS OF SHEET METAL CURBS IN SEISMIC APPLICATIONS


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

Table 6.2.5-5; Allowable Horizontal Seismic & Wind Curb Wall Loading ( fA' ) (lb/in) CURB WALL: 12 GAGE; t = 0.1046 in --------w' (lb/in) 862 383 215 158 138 95.8 70.4 53.9 42.6 34.5 28.5 23.9 w (lb/in) H (in) 6.0 9.0 12.0 14.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 2,438 2,437 2,435 2,433 2,430 2,425 2,411 2,397 2,355 1,083 1,082 1,081 1,078 1,075 1,070 1,056 1,041 608 447 390 271 199 152 120 97.6 80.6 67.6 607 446 389 270 198 151 119 96.2 79.3 66.2 605 444 388 268 196 150 118 94.8 77.8 64.8 603 441 385 266 194 147 115 91.8 74.7 61.5 600 439 382 263 191 144 112 88.4 71.1 57.6 594 433 376 257 184 137 104 80.0 60.6 N/A 580 418 361 239 164 110 N/A N/A N/A N/A 564 400 342 216 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 993 504 314 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.0 2.5 5.0 10.0 15.0 25.0 50.0 75.0 150

LIMITS OF SHEET METAL CURBS IN SEISMIC APPLICATIONS


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Table 6.2.5-6; Allowable Horizontal Seismic & Wind Curb Wall Loading ( fA' ) (lb/in) CURB WALL: 10 GAGE; t = 0.1345 in --------w' (lb/in) 1,833 814 458 337 293 204 150 115 90.5 73.3 60.6 50.9 w (lb/in) H (in) 6.0 9.0 12.0 14.0 15.0 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0 5,185 5,183 5,182 5,179 5,177 5,171 5,158 5,144 5,103 2,302 2,301 2,300 2,297 2,294 2,289 2,275 2,262 2,219 1,295 1,294 1,293 1,290 1,287 1,282 1,268 1,254 1,208 953 829 577 424 325 256 207 171 144 952 827 576 423 324 255 206 170 143 951 826 574 422 323 253 205 169 141 948 823 572 419 320 251 202 166 138 945 821 569 416 317 248 199 163 135 940 815 563 410 311 242 193 156 128 926 801 549 395 295 224 173 133 95.9 911 786 532 377 275 199 N/A N/A N/A 861 734 471 260 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 0.0 2.5 5.0 10.0 15.0 25.0 50.0 75.0 150

LIMITS OF SHEET METAL CURBS IN SEISMIC APPLICATIONS


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Rules for Sheet Metal Curbs in Seismic Applications

RULES FOR SHEET METAL CURBS IN SEISMIC APPLICATIONS


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1. The seismic load carrying capability of a sheet metal roof curb is greatly improved with the addition of sufficient vertical reinforcement to the curb walls to carry the weight load of the equipment. Reinforcement in the form of treated wooden 2 X 2s is adequate. A minimum of three per side is required: one at each end and one in the middle. More reinforcement may be required for tall, narrow equipment particularly in conjunction with high seismic loads. 2. Provisions must be made to transfer vertical uplift loads produced by seismic or wind forces directly to the roof structure without producing excess bending in the curb wall. 3. For light-gage curbs, horizontal loads may be transmitted only in the plane of the curb walls. Opposite curb walls will carry similar loads. 4. For design purposes, the short sides of the curb must be able to carry the entire horizontal seismic or wind load. 5. If the Center of Gravity (CG) of the equipment is more than 10% off of the geometric center of the plan view of the curb special attention must be given to more heavily loaded portions of the curb. CG variation greater than that mentioned above causes high stresses and possible local buckling of the curb in the corner carrying the highest weight. 6. Large penetrations (larger than a screw or bolt hole) of the curb walls for ductwork, piping, and power cable conduits are not be permitted unless the penetration has been adequately reinforced. Adequate reinforcement shall consist of enough treated wood 2 X 2s to carry the weight load of the equipment across the penetration, see Document 6.2.3. Also, the curb wall is to be reinforced with sheet metal of a thickness equal to that of the curb wall. The width of this reinforcement is to be not less than 2 inches, see Document 6.2.3. This is necessary to transfer the horizontal seismic force around the penetration. The allowable seismic load of the side with the penetration and its opposite side should also be reduced by 50%.

CHAPTER D7 PIPING SYSTEMS TABLE OF CONTENTS

Basic Primer for Suspended Piping Pros and Cons of Struts versus Cables Layout Requirements for Piping Restraint Systems Requirements for Piping System Restraints (Definitions and Locating Requirements) Ceiling-Supported Pipe Restraint Arrangements Floor- or Roof-Supported Pipe Restraint Arrangements Vertical Pipe Run Restraint Arrangements Axial Restraint of Steam Pipes Piping Restraint System Attachment Details Transferring Forces (Piping Restraints) Cable Clamp Details Piping Attachment Details Structure Attachment Details for Piping Restraints Non-Moment Generating Connections Connection Options for Awkward Situations

D7.2 D7.3

D7.4.1

D7.4.2 D7.4.3 D7.4.4 D7.4.5

D7.5.1 D7.5.2 D7.5.3 D7.5.4 D7.5.5 D7.6

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Chapter D7)


PIPING SYSTEMS
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Seismic Forces Acting on Piping Systems

D7.1

Seismic Forces Acting on Piping Systems


When subjected to an earthquake, piping systems must resist lateral and axial buckling forces, and the restraint components for these systems must resist pullout and localized structural failures. Most piping systems are suspended from the deck above on either fixed or isolated hanger rod systems. They may be supported singly or there may be several pipes attached to a common trapeze. On some occasions the pipes may run vertically or may be mounted to the floor. Suspended Systems Most codes do not require that piping supported on non-moment generating (swiveling) hanger rods 12 in or less in length be restrained. The 12 in length was determined based on the natural frequency of systems supported on the short hanger rods. In practice, it has been found that the vibrations generated by earthquakes do not excite these types of systems and, although the pipes move back and forth somewhat as a result of an earthquake, they do not tend to oscillate severely and tear themselves apart. There are also exclusions in most codes for small pipes, no matter what the hanger rod length. Again, the basis for this exclusion is based on the post-earthquake review of many installations. It has been found that smaller pipes are light and flexible enough that they cannot generate enough energy to do significant damage to themselves. For cases where restraints are required, however, the forces involved can be significant. This is due to the difference between the spacing of piping system supports and piping system restraints. Supports for piping systems are typically sized to carry approximately a 10 ft length of piping (in the case of trapezes, multiple pipes each approx 10 ft long). Seismic restraints, on the other hand, are normally spaced considerably further apart with the spacing varying by restraint type, restraint capacity, pipe sizes, and the seismic design load. It is very important to be aware of the impact of the difference in spacing as the wider this spacing, the larger the seismic load when compared to the support load. Guidance in determining restraint spacing requirements is available in Chapter D4 of this manual. To illustrate this difference, consider a simple example of a single pipe weighing 50 lb/ft being restrained against a 0.2g seismic force with restraints located on 80 ft centers and supports located on 10 ft centers. The load that is applied to the hanger rods by the weight of the pipe is 50 lb/ft x 10 ft or 500 lb each (assuming single rod supports). The horizontal load that occurs at the restraint locations is the total restrained weight (50 lb/ft x 80 ft = 4000 lb) multiplied by the seismic force (0.2g) or 800 lb. Thus the seismic load is larger than the vertical dead load.

SEISMIC FORCES ACTING ON PIPING SYSTEMS


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Restraints for suspended systems are normally in the form of cables or struts that run from the pipe up to the deck at an angle. Because of the angle, horizontal seismic loads also generate vertical forces that must be resisted. Therefore, restraint devices must be attached at support locations so that there is a vertical force-resisting member available. As the angle becomes steeper (the restraint member becomes more vertical), the vertical forces increase. At 45 degrees the vertical force equals the horizontal force and at 60 degrees the vertical force is 1.73 times the horizontal force. The net result is that for cable systems or for struts loaded in tension, the uplift force at the bottom end of the restraint can be considerably higher than the downward weight load of the pipe. Returning to our example, assume that we have a restraint member installed at a 60 degree angle from horizontal and that the lateral force will load it in tension. In this case, the 800 lb seismic force generates an uplift force of 1.73 x 800 lb or 1384 lb. This is 884 lb more than the support load and, depending upon the support rod length and stiffness, can cause the support rod to buckle. Rod stiffeners are used to protect against this condition and sizing information is available in Chapter D4 of this manual. Unlike cables, if struts are used for restraint they can also be loaded in compression. In the example above, if the strut were loaded in compression, the 1384 lb load would be added to the support load (trying to pry the hanger rod out of the deck). The total support capacity required would be 1384 lb + 500 lb or 1884 lb. As a consequence, when using struts, the hanger rod must be designed to support 1884 lb instead of the 500 lb maximum generated with cables. Hanger rod sizing information is also available in Chapter D4 of this manual. Riser Systems Where piping systems are running vertically in structures, except for the loads directly applied by vertical seismic load components identified in the code, there will be little variation in vertical forces from the static condition. Lateral loads are normally addressed by pipe guides and the spacing between pipe guides is not to exceed the maximum tabulated lateral restraint spacing indicated in the design tables in Chapter D4. Floor-Mounted Systems The primary difference between floor- and ceiling-mounted piping systems is that the support loads in the pipe support structure are in compression instead of tension (as in the hanger rods). Although a support column and diagonal cables can be used, a fixed stand made of angle or strut is generally preferred. Rules relating to restraint spacing and the sizing information for diagonal struts are the same as for hanging applications. However, the support legs need to be designed to support the combined weight and vertical seismic load (for a two-legged stand and the example above, 500 lb / 2 + 1384 lb

SEISMIC FORCES ACTING ON PIPING SYSTEMS


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

or 1634 lb) in compression (Note: 500 lb / 2 is the load per leg for two legs). The anchorage for the legs needs to be able to withstand the difference between the dead weight and the vertical seismic load (in the example above 1384 lb - 500 lb / 2 or 1134 lb).

SEISMIC FORCES ACTING ON PIPING SYSTEMS


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Basic Primer for Suspended Piping


Failures in piping systems resulting from earthquakes have historically resulted in large quantities of water or other materials being dumped into occupied spaces of the building structure. The resulting dollar damage to the building and its contents is often considerably more than the costs of damage to the building structure itself. In addition, failure of the buildings mechanical systems can render the structure unoccupiable until the damage is corrected, and result in major problems for the tenants and/or owners. Because of the impact that failures of these systems have had in the past, design requirements for piping systems have become much more stringent. Within a building structure, there are multitudes of different kinds of piping systems, each with its own function and requirements. These include potable water, sanitary, HVAC, fire piping, fuel, gas, medical gases, and process systems to name a few. Requirements for the systems vary based on the criticality or hazardous nature of the transported fluid. Code mandated requirements for the restraint of piping systems are addressed in Chapter D2 of this manual (Seismic Building Code Review). Prior to applying this section of the manual, it is assumed that the reader has reviewed Chapter D2 and has determined that there is indeed a requirement for the restraint of piping. This chapter of the manual is a how to guide and will deal only with the proper installation and orientation of restraints and not whether or not they are required by code or by specification. This chapter also does not address the sizing of restraint hardware. Chapter D4 includes sections on sizing componentry based on the design seismic force and the weight of the system being restrained. Process piping is not directly associated with building operating systems and often has its own set of requirements. If there are no applicable special requirements, these systems should be restrained in a similar fashion to the building mechanical systems. This manual will not address any special requirements for process piping systems. Building mechanical systems (potable water, HVAC, sanitary) can normally be grouped together and have similar design requirements. In many cases, requirements for fuel, gas, and medical gasses are more stringent. Refer to the code review chapter (D2) of the manual for applicable design requirements. Fire piping restraint is normally addressed in the applicable fire code. There is always some requirement for restraint, as triggering a nozzle generates thrust in the piping and must be countered. This thrust may be uni-directional, unlike the loads generated by an earthquake, and can sometimes be countered by unsymmetrical restraint arrangements.

BASIC PRIMER FOR SUSPENDED PIPING


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These types of non-seismic restraints are not addressed in this chapter. To determine the design requirements for seismic applications, refer again back to the code review Chapter D2.

BASIC PRIMER FOR SUSPENDED PIPING


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Pros and Cons of Struts Versus Cables


Both cables and struts have their place in the restraint of piping. In order to minimize costs and speed up installation, the differences between the two should be understood. In general, piping restrained by struts will require only 1 brace per restraint location while piping restrained with cables requires that 2 cables be fitted forming an X or a V. As a trade-off, the number of restraint points needed on a given run of piping will typically be considerably higher for a strut-restrained system than for the cable-restrained system and, generally, strut-restrained systems will be more costly to install. An added factor to consider when selecting a restraint system is that once a decision is reached on the type to use for a particular run, code requirements state that the same type of system must be used for the entire run (all cable or all strut). Later sections in this chapter will define runs, but for our purposes at present, it can be considered to be a more or less straight section of piping. The obvious advantage to struts is that, when space is at a premium, cables angling up to the ceiling on each side of a run may take more space than is available. Struts can be fitted to one side only, allowing a more narrow packaging arrangement. The advantages of cables, where they can be used, are numerous. First, they can usually be spaced less frequently along a pipe than can struts. Second, they cannot increase the tensile forces in the hanger rod that results from the weight load, so rod and rod anchorage capacities are not impacted. Third, they are easily set to the proper length. And fourth, they are well suited to isolated piping applications. To better explain the differences between the systems, it is necessary to look at how seismic forces are resisted with cables and struts. Shown below are sketches of both cable-restrained and strut-restrained piping.

Cable Restrained

PROS AND CONS OF STRUTS VERSUS CABLES


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Strut Restrained

This tensile load is in addition to any deadweight load that may already be supported by the hanger and is often significantly higher than the original load. This has the potential to rip the hanger rod out of the support structure and must be considered when sizing components. Because of this added tensile component and the resulting impact on the necessary hanger rod size, most strut manufacturers limit the maximum allowable strut angle (to the horizontal) to 45 degrees. This is lower than typical allowable angles for cables that often reach 60 degrees from the horizontal. Although the tables listed in Chapter D4 of this manual allow the use of higher angles for strut systems, users will find that the penalties in hanger rod size and anchorage will likely make these higher angles unusable in practice. To put this into context, examples will be provided at both 45 degrees and 60 degrees from the vertical to indicate the impact on capacity that results from the angle. For a 45 degree restraint angle, if we assume a trapeze installation with the weight (W) equally split between 2 supports, the initial tension in each support is 0.5W. Using a 0.25g lateral design force (low seismic area), the total tensile load in a hanger increases to 0.75W for bracing on every support and 1.0W for bracing on every other support, if a strut is used. For reference, if struts are used in a 60 degree angle configuration (from the horizontal), the tensile force in the hanger rod for all cases increases by a factor of 1.73 (tan 60) over that listed in the previous paragraph. This means that the tensile force becomes .94W for bracing on every support and 1.36W for bracing on every other support. On the other hand, where 0.25g is applicable, buckling concerns in the pipe are such that the spacing between lateral restraints can be as high as 40 ft and for axial restraints, 80 ft. If we were to try to use struts placed at a 40 ft spacing in conjunction with supports

PROS AND CONS OF STRUTS VERSUS CABLES


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The key factor to note is that cables can only be loaded in tension. This means that seismic forces can only generate compressive loads in the pipe hanger rod. Seismic forces can, however, load the strut in compression resulting in a tensile load on the hanger rod.

spaced at 10 ft, the tensile force developed by a seismic event in the rod increases to 1.5W for 45 degree configurations and to 2.23W for 60 degree configurations. As mentioned earlier, there is no increase in the rod forces for cable restrained systems. Using real numbers based on a 40 ft restraint spacing and a 60 degree angle configuration, if the peak tensile load in the hanger rod is 500 lb for a cable restrained system, it becomes 2230 lb for an otherwise identical strut restrained system. A summary of the above data, based on a 500 lb weight per hanger rod (1000 lb per trapeze bar) and including concrete anchorage sizes and minimum embedment is shown below.
Summary of Hanger Rod Tensile Loads based on 500 lb per Rod Weight Tens Force (lb) Min Rod (in) Min Anc (in) Embed (in) Every Hanger Braced (10') Cable Angle = 45 Strut Angle = 45 Cable Angle = 60 Strut Angle = 60 Every other Hanger Braced (20') Cable Angle = 45 Strut Angle = 45 Cable Angle = 60 Strut Angle = 60 Every fourth Hanger Braced (40') Cable Angle = 45 Strut Angle = 45 Cable Angle = 60 Strut Angle = 60 Max Spacing between Braces (80') Cable Angle = 45 Strut Angle = 45 Cable Angle = 60 Strut Angle = 60 500 750 500 933 500 1000 500 1365 500 1500 500 2230 500 2500 500 3960 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.50 0.38 0.50 0.38 0.50 0.38 0.63 0.38 0.63 0.38 0.75 0.38 0.88 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.50 0.38 0.50 0.38 0.63 0.38 0.63 0.38 0.75 0.38 0.75 0.38 1.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 5.00 3.00 5.00 3.00 6.00 3.00 6.00 3.00 8.00

Note: The above anchorage rating is based on ICBO allowables only. Often the underside of a concrete floor slab is in tension and if this is the case, the anchorage capacity may need to be further de-rated (forcing the need for an even larger hanger rod than is indicated here). The net result is that the ability to use struts is highly dependent on the hanger rods that are in place. If these were sized simply on deadweight, the added seismic load, even in relatively low seismic areas, can quickly overload them. The only recourse is to either

PROS AND CONS OF STRUTS VERSUS CABLES


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

replace the hanger rods with larger ones or decrease the restraint spacing to the point at which virtually every support rod is braced. It should also be noted that the hanger rods in tension become seismic elements. This occurs with struts, but does not with cables. As a result, the system must comply with all of the anchor requirements specified by ICBO. This includes the use of wedge-type anchors and embedment depths that are a minimum of 8 anchor diameters. With larger anchor sizes, floor slab thickness may cause this to become a significant problem. With both cables and struts, the hanger rods can be loaded in compression. As the seismic force increases, it eventually overcomes the force of gravity and produces a buckling load in the hanger rod. It is mandatory in all cases that the rod be able to resist this force. There is a wide range of variables involved in determining the need for rod stiffeners to resist this buckling load. Factors that impact this need are 1) the magnitude of the compressive force, 2) the weight load carried by the hanger rod, 3) the length of the hanger rod, 4) the diameter of the hanger rod, and 5) the angle between the restraint strut or cable and the horizontal axis. Tables are included in Chapter D4 of this manual that allow the user to determine if there is a need for a stiffener and to allow the proper selection if required. Because uplift occurs, some attention must be given to isolated systems. First, when using isolators, the location of the isolation element needs to be at the top end of the hanger rod (close to, but not tight against the ceiling). If placed at the middle of the hanger rod, the rod/isolator combination will have virtually no resistance to bending and will quickly buckle under an uplift load. Second, a limit stop must be fit to the hanger rod, just beneath the hanger such that when the rod is pushed upward a rigid connection is made between the hanger housing and the hanger rod that prevents upward motion. This is accomplished by adding a washer and nut to the hanger rod just below the isolator (see the sketch below).

PROS AND CONS OF STRUTS VERSUS CABLES


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

Requirements for Piping System Restraints Definitions and Locating Requirements


SMACNA has developed a set of restraint placement criteria based on analytical review, practical experience, and historical analysis. The criteria presented in this manual is generally based on the SMACNA criteria, with the only exceptions being an extrapolation of the data to higher seismic force levels and an increase in allowable spacing where restraint hardware capacity (as illustrated in the SMACNA guide) would be exceeded. With respect to the conceptual restraint arrangement illustrations, the SMACNA concepts are appropriate and are referenced here. In general, pipes are restrained in lengths called runs. Therefore before getting into a detailed review of the restraint systems it is imperative that a definition of run as well as other key terms be addressed. Definitions Axial In the direction of the axis of the pipe. Lateral Side to side when looking along the axis of the pipe. Pipe Clamp A heavy duty split ring clamp tightened against the pipe to the point that it can be used to control the axial motion of the pipe. Restraint Any device that limits the motion of a pipe in either the lateral or axial direction. Run A more or less straight length of pipe where offsets are limited to not more than S/16 where S is the maximum permitted lateral restraint spacing (a function of pipe size and seismic forces) and the total length is greater than S/2. (Note: S dimensions for various conditions are listed in Chapter D4.)

DEFINITIONS AND LOCATING REQUIREMENTS


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Short Run A run as defined above where the total length is less than S/2 and where it is connected on both ends to other runs or short runs. Drop A length of pipe that normally extends down from an overhead run of pipe and connects to a piece of equipment, usually through some type of flex connector. The drop can also extend horizontally. In order to qualify as a drop, the length of this pipe must be less than S/2. If over S/2, the length of pipe would be classified as a run.

Restraint Requirements 1) Full runs (Greater in length than S/2) must be restrained in both the axial and lateral direction. If the run is not a short run or a drop, it must, as a minimum, be laterally restrained at the last support location on each end.

DEFINITIONS AND LOCATING REQUIREMENTS


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2) If a run is longer than S, intermediate restraints are required to limit the spacing to that permitted by the building code (see table in Chapter D4).

3) Axial restraints attached to the run of piping along its length must be connected using a pipe clamp (as previously defined). 4) Short runs or drops need only have one lateral and one axial restraint.

5) If a lateral restraint is located within 2 feet of a corner (based on a measurement to the pipe centerline), it can be used as an axial restraint on the intersecting run.

DEFINITIONS AND LOCATING REQUIREMENTS


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6) Larger pipes cannot be restrained with restraints located on smaller branch lines.

7) Within a run, the type of restraint used must be consistent. For example, mixing a strut with cable restraints is not permitted.

DEFINITIONS AND LOCATING REQUIREMENTS


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8) With longer hanger rods, rod stiffeners are likely to be required. Refer to the appropriate table in Chapter D4 to determine: (1) if needed, (2) what size stiffener material is appropriate, and (3) how frequently it needs to be clamped to the hanger rod.

9) In addition to possibly requiring rod stiffeners, when struts are used to restrain piping, the size of the hanger rod and its anchorage also become critical. Again refer to the appropriate table in Chapter D4 to determine the minimum allowable size for the hanger rod and anchor.

DEFINITIONS AND LOCATING REQUIREMENTS


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10) In some cases, it may be possible to locate the piping system close enough to the support structure (12) to eliminate the need for restraint. (Refer to the building code review chapter (D2) to determine if this exemption is applicable.) If it is applicable, the 12 dimension is measured as shown below.

11) When using the above rule it is critical that all support locations in a run conform. If even one location exceeds 12, the run cannot be exempted from restraint.

DEFINITIONS AND LOCATING REQUIREMENTS


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Ceiling-Supported Pipe Restraint Arrangements


Although the basic principle of diagonal bracing is almost always used to design restraint systems, the actual arrangement of these systems can vary significantly. Despite what looks like substantially different designs, the design forces in the members remain the same, and the same rules apply when sizing components. Illustrated here are many different restraint arrangements, all of which can be used in conjunction with the design rules provided in this manual. Details of the end connections and anchorage hardware are shown in subsequent sections of the manual. It is assumed in this manual that the restraint component is attached to a structural element capable of resisting the design seismic load. Due to variations in the installation conditions such as structural clearance, locations of structural attachment points, and interference with other pieces of equipment or systems, there will likely be significant benefits to using different arrangements in different locations on the same job. The only significant caution here is that it is not permissible to mix struts and cables on the same run. This manual addresses diagonal bracing slopes of between horizontal and 60 degrees from the horizontal. Angles in excess of 60 degrees to the horizontal are not permitted.

When installing restraints, lateral restraints should be installed perpendicular ( 10 degrees) to the pipe in plan. Axial restraints should be in line with the pipe, 10 degrees, again in the plan view. All restraint cables should be aligned with each other. See the sketch below.

CEILING-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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Lateral Restraint

Axial Restraint

In general, when restraining piping the component actually being restrained is the support device for the pipe. This may be a pipe clevis, a heavy-duty pipe clamp, or a trapeze bar. Because the goal is to restrain the actual pipe, it is necessary that the restrained element be connected to the pipe in such a way as to transfer the appropriate forces between the two. For example, if an axial restraint is installed on a trapeze bar which in turn supports a pipe that is carried by a roller, it is obvious that the axial forces generated by the pipe cannot be restrained by the connection to the trapeze bar, and some other arrangement is needed. When firmly connecting restraints to piping there are a few general rules that should be followed: 1) A pipe clevis cannot restrain a pipe in the axial direction. 2) If the pipe is wrapped with insulation and an axial restraint is needed, a riser clamp should be tightly clamped to the pipe prior to wrapping it with insulation and the restraint device should penetrate the insulation material. 3) If the pipe is wrapped with insulation and lateral restraint is needed, a hardened insulation material should be fitted at the restraint location. 4) Piping which expands and contracts significantly should include expansion joints or loops between each axially restrained component. 5) Trapeze-mounted piping should be tightly clamped to the trapeze bar. In addition, when sizing restraint components for multiple pipes, the total weight of all of the restrained piping must be considered. Hanging Systems Restrained with Cables Hanging systems may include supports for single pipes or multiple pipes. Single pipes can be supported using clevis hangers but multiple pipes are normally supported on trapeze bars.

CEILING-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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Lateral Restraint Examples For a cable-restrained pipe supported by a hanger clevis, there are two options for nonisolated installations and two similar options for isolated installations. These options are shown below. Note that the isolator is mounted with minimal clearance to the structure and that a travel limiting washer is fitted to the hanger rod just below the isolator in the isolated arrangements.

Lateral Cable Restraints clamped to Hanger Rod and attached to Clevis Tie Bolt (Non-isolated)

Lateral Cable Restraints clamped to Hanger Rod and attached to Clevis Tie Bolt (Isolated) There are many options that exist for the arrangements of lateral restraints used in conjunction with trapeze-mounted systems. Shown below are several options for both non-isolated and isolated cable-restrained systems.

CEILING-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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Lateral Cable Restraints Mounted to a Trapeze (Non-isolated)

Lateral Cable Restraints Mounted to a Trapeze (Isolated)

CEILING-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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Axial Restraint Examples Axial restraints cannot be connected to a standard pipe clevis and be expected to work. This is because there is inadequate friction between the clevis hanger and the pipe to transfer the forces in the pipe to the restraint. When axially restraining piping, a trapeze or riser clamp tightly attached to the pipe is the most common connecting device used, although a weld-on tab or connection to a flange is a possibility in some cases. Details on these connections will be addressed in later sections. If the details of the connection are ignored at this point, general axial restraint arrangements recognized in this manual are illustrated below. Note: Axial restraints offset from the restrained pipe will generate additional bending forces in the restrained pipe. This is true whether mounted to one end of a trapeze or along side a single pipe rather than directly over its center. Provisions should be made to avoid offsetting axial restraints when restraining a single pipe. This requires either that the restraint be attached to the centerline of the pipe, that the axial restraint be combined with a lateral restraint to form an X arrangement or that 2 axial restraints be fitted, one on either side of the pipe (See also the Figure below). (Note that when specifying and providing restraints, KNC assumes one of the 2 former arrangements are used, if the latter case is used, the installation contractor will have to procure and additional restraint set from KNC.) For trapezed systems supporting multiple pipes, a single axial restraint should be located at the approximate center of the trapeze bar or pairs of axial restraints should be installed on each end of the trapeze bar.

Various Acceptable Axial Restraint Arrangements Hanging Systems Restrained with Struts It is recommended that struts not be used to restrain isolated piping systems. Struts will generate hard connections between the piping and structure and will greatly reduce the efficiency of the isolation system. Having said that, in some special situations it may be possible to design restraint struts with integral isolation elements, but this is tedious and

CEILING-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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Axial Cable Restraints (Non-isolated)

Axial Cable Restraints (Isolated) CEILING-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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should be avoided unless drastic measures are required. As with cable restraints, hanging systems may include supports for single pipes or multiple pipes. Single pipes can be supported using clevis hangers, but multiple pipes are normally supported on trapeze bars. Lateral Restraint Examples For a strut-restrained pipe supported by a hanger clevis there are two typical options. One is to connect the restraint to the clevis bolt and the other is to connect the restraint to the hanger rod. These are shown below.

Typical Lateral Restraint Strut Arrangements for Clevis-Supported Pipe Shown below are 3 options for trapeze-supported piping. All are equivalent.

3 Arrangements for Laterally Restrained Trapezes with Struts Axial Restraint Examples As with cables, axial restraints using struts cannot be connected to a standard pipe clevis

CEILING-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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and be expected to work. When axially restraining piping, a trapeze or riser clamp tightly attached to the pipe is the most common connecting device between the restraint strut and the pipe, but occasionally a weld-on tab or connection to a flange can be used. Details on these connections will be addressed in later sections. Ignoring the details of the connection at this point, common axial restraint arrangements recognized in this manual are illustrated below. As with the cable restraints, it must be recognized that axial restraints offset from the restrained pipe will generate additional bending forces in the pipe. This is true whether mounted to one end of a trapeze or along side a single pipe rather than directly on its center. Provisions should be made to avoid offsetting axial restraints when restraining a single pipe. This requires either that the restraint be attached to the centerline of the pipe, that the axial restraint be combined with a lateral restraint to form an X arrangement or that 2 axial restraints be fitted, one on either side of the pipe. (Note that when specifying and providing restraints, KNC assumes one of the 2 former arrangements are used, if the latter case is used, the installation contractor will have to procure and additional restraint set from KNC.) For trapezed systems supporting multiple pipes, a single axial restraint should be located at the approximate center of the trapeze bar or pairs of axial restraints should be installed on each end of the trapeze bar.

Various Acceptable Axial Restraint Arrangements

Piping Axially Restrained with Struts

CEILING-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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Floor- or Roof-Supported Pipe Restraint Arrangements


Although the basic principle of diagonal bracing is almost always used to design restraint systems, the actual arrangements of these systems can vary significantly. Despite what looks like substantially different designs, the design forces in the members remain the same, and the same rules apply when sizing components. Illustrated here are many different floor- and roof-mounted restraint arrangements, all of which can be used in conjunction with the design rules provided in this manual. Details of the end connections and anchorage hardware are shown in subsequent sections of this manual. It is assumed in this manual that the restraint component is attached to a structural element capable of resisting the design seismic load. This manual addresses diagonal bracing oriented between horizontal and 60 degrees from the horizontal. Angles in excess of 60 degrees to the horizontal are not permitted.

When installing restraints, lateral restraints should be installed perpendicular (10 degrees) to the pipe in the plan view. Axial restraints should be in line with the pipe (10 degrees) again in the plan view. All restraint cables should be aligned with each other. See the sketch below.

Lateral Restraint

Axial Restraint

FLOOR- OR ROOF-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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In general, when restraining piping the component actually being restrained is the support device for the pipe. For floor-mounted equipment this would normally be either a fabricated frame or a trapeze bar. Because the goal is to restrain the actual pipe, it is necessary that the restrained element be connected to the pipe in such a way as to transfer the appropriate forces between the two. For example, if an axial restraint is installed on a trapeze bar which in turn supports a pipe that is carried by a roller, it is obvious that the axial forces generated by the pipe cannot be restrained by the connection to the trapeze bar and some other arrangement is needed. With respect to firmly connecting restraints to piping, there are a few general rules that should be followed: 1) A pipe carried on a roller cannot be restrained in the axial direction by restraining the support. 2) If the pipe is wrapped with insulation and an axial restraint is needed, a riser clamp should be tightly clamped to the pipe prior to wrapping it with insulation and the restraint device should penetrate the insulation material. 3) If the pipe is wrapped with insulation and lateral restraint is needed, a hardened insulation material should be fitted at the restraint location. 4) Piping which expands and contracts significantly should include expansion joints or loops between each axially restrained component. 5) Trapeze-mounted piping should be tightly clamped to the trapeze bar. In addition, when sizing restraint components for multiple pipes the total weight of all of the restrained piping must be considered. Floor- or Roof-mounted Systems Restrained with Cables Floor- or roof-mounted systems may include supports for single pipes or multiple pipes. Typically, simple box frames are fabricated to support piping, whether it is a single pipe or multiple pipes. Lateral Restraint Examples For a cable-restrained pipe support bracket there are four options normally encountered for non-isolated systems and four similar arrangements for isolated systems. These options are shown below. The vertical legs of the support bracket must be sized to carry both the weight load of the supported pipes as well as the vertical component of the seismic forces. Refer to Chapter D4 for more detailed information as to how to size these members.

FLOOR- OR ROOF-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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OUTSIDE RESTRAINT

SINGLE LEG RESTRAINT

X BRACED

INSIDE RESTRAINT

Lateral Cable Restraints used in conjunction with floor-mounted pipe support stands (Non-isolated)

OUTSIDE RESTRAINT
SEISMIC RATED ISOLATOR

SINGLE LEG RESTRAINT


SEISMIC RATED ISOLATOR

X BRACED
SEISMIC RATED ISOLATOR

INSIDE RESTRAINT
SEISMIC RATED ISOLATOR

Lateral Cable Restraints used in conjunction with floor-mounted pipe support stands (Isolated)

FLOOR- OR ROOF-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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Axial Restraint Examples When axially restraining piping, a trapeze or riser clamp tightly clamped to the pipe is the most common connecting device used, although a weld-on tab or connection to a flange is a possibility in some cases. Details on these connections will be addressed in later sections. If the details of the connection are ignored at this point, general axial restraint arrangements recognized in this manual are illustrated below. Note: Axial restraints offset from the restrained pipe will generate additional bending forces in the restrained pipe. This is true whether mounted to one end of a trapeze or along side a single pipe rather than directly under its center. When the restraint is offset, the maximum permissible offset from the center of the pipe is 1 pipe diameter. For trapezed systems supporting multiple pipes, a single axial restraint should be located at the approximate center of the trapeze bar or pairs of axial restraints should be installed on each end of the trapeze bar or support frame.

RESTRAINED PIPE

RESTRAINED SUPPORT

Axial Cable Restraints (Non-isolated)

RESTRAINED PIPE

RESTRAINED SUPPORT

ISOLATOR

ISOLATOR

Axial Cable Restraints (Isolated)

FLOOR- OR ROOF-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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Floor- or Roof-Mounted Systems Restrained with Struts As with cable restraints, floor- or roof-mounted pipe support systems will normally involve a box frame that supports the piping (single or multiple) with some kind of a trapeze bar. Lateral Restraint Examples With struts there are three typical configurations. As with the cable systems, these arrangements can be used with or without isolation as shown below.
SIDE STRUT DIAGONAL BRACE

ANCHOR TO STRUCTURAL WALL

Typical Lateral Restraint Strut Arrangements for Piping (Non-isolated)

SIDE STRUT
SEISMIC RATED ISOLATOR

DIAGONAL BRACE
SEISMIC RATED ISOLATOR

ANCHOR TO STRUCTURAL WALL


SEISMIC RATED ISOLATOR

Typical Lateral Restraint Strut Arrangements for Piping (Isolated) Axial Restraint Examples When axially restraining piping, a trapeze or riser clamp tightly clamped to the pipe is the most common connecting device between the restraint strut and the pipe, but occasionally

FLOOR- OR ROOF-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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a weld-on tab or connection to a flange can be used. Details on these connections will be addressed in later sections. Ignoring the details of the connection at this point, common axial restraint arrangements recognized in this manual are illustrated below. As with the cable restraints, it must be recognized that axial restraints offset from the restrained pipe will generate additional bending forces in the pipe. This is true whether mounted to one end of a trapeze or along side a single pipe rather than directly under its center. When the restraint is offset, the maximum permissible offset from the center of the pipe is 1 pipe diameter. For trapezed systems supporting multiple pipes, a single axial restraint should be located at the approximate center of the trapeze bar or pairs of axial restraints should be installed on each end of the trapeze bar or support frame.

RESTRAINED PIPE

RESTRAINED SUPPORT

Piping Axially Restrained with Struts (Non-isolated)

RESTRAINED SUPPORT
SEISMIC RATED ISOLATOR

Piping Axially Restrained with Struts (Isolated)

FLOOR- OR ROOF-SUPPORTED PIPE RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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Vertical Pipe Run Restraint Arrangements


Vertical runs of piping need to be restrained in the same manner as horizontal runs. The anchorage provided for the riser system will normally, but not always, have enough capacity to resist the maximum axial seismic load. If anchors were selected based on simple deadweight loads and included little or no overload capacity, the possibility exists that they might have to be upsized to meet the seismic requirements. Because the seismic requirements would be low as compared to the support loads, upsizing anchors by one step is normally more than adequate to meet these requirements. The required capacity of lateral restraints (guides) would, however, be closely linked to the seismic forces. Cables or struts do not normally restrain riser systems. Instead their motion is controlled by special guide and anchor components. In non-seismic applications, these parts are put in place to limit the buckling factors that are generated in the piping by gravity factors. These are very similar to the forces generated in horizontally oriented piping by earthquakes. Spacing for restraints on risers must meet the same maximum span condition that applies to horizontal runs, but in most instances the spacing used to place these items ignoring seismic concerns will meet this. Although in conventional designs the spacing between the lateral restraints (or guides) will not normally be an issue, the capacity of the guides must be adequate to withstand the higher seismic forces. Applicable seismic forces for risers are the same as for horizontal runs and more detail on how to determine these can be found in chapter D4. Typical Axial Restraint Arrangements Below are illustrations for axial (only) pipe restraints. A simple riser clamp can act as an axial restraint. It need not be attached to the structure to perform the axial restraint function. The same basic arrangement will work for either non-isolated or pad-isolated systems and for attachment to concrete or steel. These do not offer any lateral restraint.

PAD SUPPORTED HEAVY DUTY RISER CLAMP

HEAVY DUTY RISER CLAMP

Concrete Supported Axial Restraint for Vertical Pipe Run

VERTICAL PIPE RUN RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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PAD SUPPORTED HEAVY DUTY RISER CLAMP

HEAVY DUTY RISER CLAMP

Steel Supported Axial Restraint for Vertical Pipe Run Typical Lateral Restraint Arrangements
Pipe guides act as lateral restraints only and have a rated force capacity that is based on loads in the horizontal axis. These components do not offer any axial restraint capabilities.

There are two typical guide types. The first includes a component hard mounted to the structure, a mating portion hard mounted to the pipe, and a slip fit connection between the two. This is shown below.
WELD

WELD

SEISMICALLY RATED GUIDE (KPG)

SEISMICALLY RATED GUIDE (KPG)

Concrete-Supported Lateral Restraint (Guide) for Vertical Pipe Run The second type is comprised of a frame with cushioned pads located on the perimeter that bear directly against the pipe itself. This eliminates the need for a direct connection to the pipe. However, if the pipe is insulated, it does require that the insulation be adequately hardened or that a hard shield be provided to prevent damage to the insulation under seismic loads. Typical concrete slab and steel structural examples are shown below.

VERTICAL PIPE RUN RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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WELD

Steel Supported Lateral Restraint (Guide) for Vertical Pipe Run Combined Lateral and Axial Restraints In addition to the above details showing independent axial and lateral restraint devices, there are several devices used in vertical runs of pipe that offer both of these together. Anchors for riser systems are the first of these and several types are illustrated below:
WELD

WELD

HEAVY DUTY RISER CLAMP ANCHORED TO FLOOR

HEAVY DUTY RISER CLAMP BOLTED OR WELDED TO BEAM

Simple Hard-mounted Riser Clamp


WELD WELD

PAD SUPPORTED HEAVY DUTY RISER CLAMP ANCHORED TO FLOOR

PAD SUPPORTED HEAVY DUTY RISER CLAMP BOLTED TO FLOOR

Pad-mounted Riser Clamp

VERTICAL PIPE RUN RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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4 SINGLE AXIS PADS ON HEAVY ANGLE FRAME ANCHORED TO STRUCTURE

4 SINGLE AXIS PADS ON HEAVY ANGLE FRAME WELDED TO STRUCTURE

WELD

WELD

Riser Mounted on Cushioned Rated Anchor The final combination axial and lateral restraint is a seismically rated, floor-supported isolator.

SEISMICALLY SEISMICALLY RATED ISOLATOR RATED ISOLATOR Riser Piping Mounted on Floor-Mounted Seismically-Rated Isolator

VERTICAL PIPE RUN RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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SEISMICALLY RATED ANCHOR (KPA)

SEISMICALLY RATED ANCHOR (KPA)

AXIAL RESTRAINT OF STEAM PIPES


The Axial Restraint of Steam Piping raises important design configuration issues. As the pipe length grows with the temperature, the use of more than one restraint on any individual run will resist this growth and will either cause the pipe to buckle or will result in the failure of the restraint. This is unacceptable.

For short runs, a single axial restraint should be used and caution should be exercised to ensure that if restraints are fitted at the junction points of different runs, they do not fall at both ends of the same run. Caution should also be exercised to be sure that there is adequate length between corners and the first lateral restraint on a run to allow for the growth that can occur on the adjacent run.

For long runs that require more than 1 Axial Restraint, a device must be fitted into the run to absorb expansions and contractions between the restraint locations. This can take the form of an expansion loop or an expansion compensator as illustrated below. If an expansion loop is fitted, the middle leg of the loop requires axial restraint as well. Because this restricts its movement, some caution must be used to ensure that the legs on each side of the loop are adequate to absorb the expansion for their respective runs. If the distance between the loop and the restraints on adjacent runs is approximately the same the system will be balanced and both legs will bend about the same. If the dimensions to the axial restraints vary significantly, the distortion of the two different legs will vary from one another in direct proportion and this should be addressed in design. Kinetics is not responsible for the design of these loops.

AXIAL RESTRAINT OF STEAM PIPES


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AXIAL RESTRAINT OF STEAM PIPES


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Transferring Forces (Piping Restraints)


In order for a restraint system to do its job, all elements of the connections need to be sized and installed properly. Because of the large variety and quantity of interfacing conditions in any given installation, piping, duct, and electrical distribution systems are particularly prone to problems in this area. The next several sections of this manual will deal with specific components used to clamp cable ends together, or anchor cables or struts to steel members, wood members, and concrete or masonry. There are several types of connections used for each of these conditions, and each type of connection requires some degree of care and understanding to achieve full capacity. There are a few general rules that apply when adding restraints to systems. These are listed below along with a few comments meant to provide a basic understanding or rationale. 1) Friction generally cannot be counted on when dealing with dynamic, seismic load conditions. Connections, with the following exceptions, should be positive in nature and not require friction to ensure their continued long-term operation. Exceptions: A) Cable end connections (swaged ends, u-bolts, Gripple clips, and cable nuts can be used with appropriate installation procedures). B) Properly installed heavy-duty riser clamps seated against steel pipes or other compression resistant materials. C) Toothed strut nuts used in conjunction with a purpose-designed strut material (Unistrut, for example). (Rationale: Permitted friction connections have been well researched and deal with a narrow range of applications. In addition, once properly tightened, the components are such that the likelihood of their coming loose as a result of seismic load conditions is very low.) 2) Anchors used for the support of overhead equipment cannot also be used for the anchorage of seismic restraints. (Rationale: The loads used to size hanger rods and anchors are based on the weight loads generated by the piping system. Seismic forces can increase the tensile loads significantly, and the combination of loads can cause the anchorage to fail.) 3) Anchors to concrete must comply with minimum edge distance, spacing and slab thickness requirements. To achieve full capacity ratings they must further not be installed into a surface containing significant tensile forces. (Rationale: All anchorage must be in compliance with ICC allowables for seismic applications. Unless otherwise noted, it is assumed that connections are not made to the underside of structural concrete beams .)

TRANSFERRING FORCES (PIPING RESTRAINTS)


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4) Screws attached to wood must comply with minimum edge distance, spacing and embedment requirements, and must further not be embedded into the end grain of the wooden member. (Rationale: All wood anchorage must be in compliance with NDS allowables for seismic applications. Full capacity can only be achieved with adequate embedment, end, and edge distances into the side grain of structural wood members.) 5) Connections that have the potential to expose open bar joist chords to significant lateral loads are not permitted. (Rationale: Open joists are notoriously weak in their lateral axis. They are not designed to take loads, particularly on the lower cord, and even light lateral loads can generate buckling and quickly cause catastrophic failure.) 6) Connections that have the potential to generate significant lateral loads on the weak axis of I-beams or channels used as joists or columns are not permitted unless approved by the structural engineer of record. (Rationale: Floor or roof support beams are significantly weaker in their minor axis than in their major axis. While they can, under some conditions, withstand some lateral loads, the engineer of record should be consulted to ensure that capacity exists on particular members to withstand the anticipated loads. If these loads are exceeded, catastrophic failures can quickly result.) 7) Holes should not be added to key structural members without prior authorization from the engineer of record. (Rationale: The addition of holes, particularly in flanges, can greatly reduce the structural capacity. 8) The pipe-to-pipe connection can become a critical factor in evaluating the performance of the system. Unless otherwise informed, Kinetics Noise Control assumes connections to be of medium deformability as defined by the design code. This is generally appropriate for steel or welded fittings, brazed connections, plastic pipe, and no hub connections. The use of groove-type coupling, cast iron couplings, glass lined pipe, or other non-standard materials will impact this and must be addressed during the design stage. (Rationale: While generic data is available for some of these materials, it is not for groove-type or other specialty couplings and the specifying agency, prior selecting this type of hardware, must obtain the approval of the coupling manufacturer for its use in a seismic application.)

TRANSFERRING FORCES (PIPING RESTRAINTS)


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Cable Clamp Details


There are three different types of cable clamp arrangements that are acceptable for use on Kinetics Noise Control cable restraint systems. These are factory swaged, clamped with U-bolt cable clips, and connections made using seismically rated Gripple connectors. Other types of connections have either not been tested, or when tested do not meet the capacity standards required for consistent performance.

Factory-Swaged Connections

Swaged Connector

U-Bolt Cable Clip Connections


For larger cables, as an option to the seismically rated Grippleon smaller cables, and where field connections are necessary or desired, U-bolt cable clips can be used. When used, a minimum of three clips is required per connection for sizes up to 3/8cable. For 1/2cables a minimum of four clips is required per connection.

CABLE CLAMP DETAILS


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When so ordered, one end of a cable assembly can be obtained with a factory-swaged connection. Crimping a zinc-coated copper or a stainless steel sleeve onto a cable loop at the termination point makes these connections. Multiple crimp locations are required with the actual number varying based on the cable size. To obtain a seismic rating, these swaged connections must be performed using the appropriate calibrated hydraulic press and must not use aluminum sleeves. Field-swaged connections and in particular those made using hand crimping tools are not suitable for seismic applications. All Kinetics Noise Control computed seismic certifications are based on capacities obtained from components provided by Kinetics Noise Control. No certifications can be offered on components crimped by others.

SADDLE CABLE CLIPS

U-Bolt Cable Clips

CORRECT INSTALLATION

NOT LIKE THIS

Failure to orient the clip in the proper fashion will cause premature failure of the cable assembly. While proper tightening of the clip nuts and adequate turnback (or overlap) length of the cable is important, tests conducted have found that it is not as critical for seismic applications as it is for lifting applications. Reasonable variations from the values listed below have a minimal impact on the capacity of the connection. Below is a table with the desired minimum tightening torques recommended by clip manufacturers, clip quantities, and turnback lengths listed for various sized cables. Minimum Minimum Amount of Rope Torque in Cable Size Number Turnback/Inches Ft. Lbs. in Inches of Clips 1/8 3/16 1/4 3/8 1/2 3 3 3 3 4 3-3/4 3-3/4 4-3/4 6-1/2 11-1/2 3 4.5 15 30 45

CABLE CLAMP DETAILS


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When fitting cable clips, the saddle side of the clip must always be against the live portion of the cable. The liveside of the cable is the side that does not terminate at the connection, but continues to the clip at the opposite end.

Gripple Connections
For smaller cables (up to 5mm (metric) and up to 3/16 (English)), special proprietary Grippleconnection clips can be used. These clips offer significant benefits in speed of installation and can be used in a large variety of common light-duty applications. When using Gripple connectors or Gripple restraint connection kits, it is critical that seismically rated components are used. While Kinetics Noise Control offers only seismically rated components, those supplied by others may not be. Grippleconnectors for sizes in excess of 5mm or 3/16are not appropriate for seismic installations as they will not seat properly and consistently without the application of a constant tensile load.

Gripple Connector

GRIPPLE Installation Procedure


1) Feed the proper sized cable as provided by Kinetics Noise Control through the Gripple as shown.

FEED CABLE THROUGH GRIPPLE IN DIRECTION OF ARROW

2) Loop the cable through the attachment bracket or hardware. If the cable rides against any sharp corners (not counting the hole in the Kinetics Noise Control provided bracket itself) or is subject to excessive vibration in service, fit the Kinetics Noise Control provided thimble in the loop and then feed the cable back through the opposite side of the GRIPPLE.

CABLE CLAMP DETAILS


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LOOP CABLE AROUND BRACKET (INSERT THIMBLE IF CABLE RUBS ON A SHARP CORNER OR VIBRATION IS AN ISSUE) AND THEN FEED CABLE BACK THROUGH GRIPPLE IN DIRECTION OF ARROW

3) Remove the slack from the cable by slipping the cable through the GRIPPLE, but leave the loop slightly oversized to allow later tensioning.
STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT POINT (ACTUAL HARDARE AND GEOMETRY CAN VARY FROM THAT SHOWN)

CONCRETE OR STEEL STRUCTURE BY OTHERS

DURING INITIAL INSTALLATION LEAVE LOOP SLIGHTLY OVERSIZE

EQUIPMENT ATTACHMENT POINT (ACTUAL HARDWARE AND GEOMETRY CAN VARY FROM THAT SHOWN)

4) Apply a sideways load to the cable by pulling or pushing on it to fully seat the GRIPPLE.

PUSH SIDEWAYS ON CABLE TO SET JAW IN GRIPPLE

CABLE CLAMP DETAILS


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5) When seating the GRIPPLE, jaws will ride up an internal ramp in the GRIPPLE itself and bite into the cable. In a properly seated GRIPPLE, the cable will shift approximately 1-1/2 cable diameters (the preset distance) as the jaws engage. If need be, mark the cable to check the preset. This step may be required initially, but once a feelfor it is obtained, this is no longer necessary. Once the 1-1/2 cable diameter preset dimension has been obtained, the GRIPPLE is adequately seated.

APPROX 1-1/2 CABLE DIA. PRESET

PRESET DIMENSION MEASUREMENT LOCATION

6) Once fully seated, any additional slack should be removed from the cable restraint by pulling on the dead end or tailof the cable sticking out of the GRIPPLE. If Isolated, the cables should not be made tight, but should instead be left slightly loose to prevent the transfer of vibrations into the structure. (Slightly loose could be defined as having approx 1/8 to 1/4of visible sag in the cable 1/8 for short cables (up to 2 ft), 1/4 for cables longer than that.)

PULL DEAD END OR "TAIL" TO REMOVE REMAINING SLACK FROM CABLE.

7) The GRIPPLE installation is now complete.

CABLE CLAMP DETAILS


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Cable Thimbles
Where sharp corners can bear against the cable loop or where vibration or other dynamic forces can cause the cable loop to abraid, a cable thimble should be used. A cable thimble fit inside the cable loop is shown in the picture below.

Cable Thimble

Unacceptable Connectors
Drilled bolt Cable Connections exhibit undesirable inconsistancies in capacity if precautions are not taken during the assembly process. Undertightening these types of connections results in a loss of frictional capacity while overtightenting cuts into the cable and generates premature cable failures.

Unacceptable Cable Connection Detail and Common Application If used, the only consistant way to properly install cable connectors of this or similar type is with the use of a torque wrench. Variations of as little as 5 ft-lb of tightening torque can drop the tensile failure load on the cable by 30% or more. Since the use of torque wrenches or other torque-controlled devices in the field is limited, the level of confidence in the capabilities of these connections is lower than desired for critical seismic

CABLE CLAMP DETAILS


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applications. Because of the extreme sensitivity of the cable pull strength to the tightening torque of the bolt, drilled cable retention bolts have not been found to be acceptable by Kinetics Noise Control for use as connection hardware.

CABLE CLAMP DETAILS


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Piping Attachment Details


Pipes can be supported as independent units or grouped together and supported on a trapeze structure. Restraints can be installed in the same manner. When installing restraints, however, it is critical that (except for horizontally oriented restraint members) they be located in the immediate proximity of a vertical support member as the support is required to absorb vertical forces that are developed during the restraint process. If the piping is isolated, cable restraints should be used in lieu of struts to prevent the transfer of vibration through the strut into the structure. Where cables are illustrated, they can be replaced with a single strut mounted in a similar fashion where appropriate.

Single Pipe Sections Supported on Hangers


Lateral Restraints The simplest piping restraint connection is a lateral restraint fit to a single pipe. Because the forces being restrained are at 90 degrees to the pipe axis, there is no requirement for a clamped or otherwise rigid connection between the pipe hanger and the pipe itself. Of concern is the durability of the hardware used, the durability of the pipe insulation (if insulated) and the capacity of the hanger rod to resist the reaction loads generated by the horizontal seismic forces. Shown below are typical details for clevis hangers fitted with KCHB brace angles and straps (on the cross bolts) and hard insulation (on the pipe). If not insulated, the hardened insulation, blocks, or saddles would not be required.

Side-Restrained Pipe with Wood Insulation Blocks

Side-Restrained Pipe with Hardened Insulation

PIPING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


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Rod-Restrained Pipe with Wood Insulation Blocks

Top-Restrained Pipe with Hardened Insulation

The above description represents the minimum treatment required at each restraint location, and is appropriate whether cable restraints or struts are used. Axial Restraints Axial restraints pose more of a problem. Conventional pipe hangers, as shown above, do not have the ability to be clamped tightly enough to the pipe to prevent relative axial motion between the two. In order to ensure that the restraint is rigidly attached to the pipe, a heavy-duty pipe clamp is required, and the tie bolts must be tightened to spec. Three different acceptable types of clamps are shown below. Again note that the restraints must be located in the immediate vicinity of a vertical support member.

PIPING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


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Pipes clamps must be clamped against hard spacers, hardened insulation or directly against the pipe as shown above

Restraint Arrangements for Multiple Pipe Sections Supported on a Trapeze


General Trapeze Design When restraining multiple pipes of different sizes, the maximum spacing between restraints cannot exceed the worst-case condition for any of the individual pipes. In addition, the restraints must be sized based on the total weight of all of the pipes on the trapeze bar. Some caution should be exercised when selecting the bar to ensure that it has adequate capacity to transfer the load from the pipes to the restraint connections. This is particularly true for some strut arrangements that can be significantly stiffer in the vertical axis than they are in the horizontal (see illustration below.) Because the range of applications for trapeze bars is limitless, details will not be addressed here, but should be reviewed by a competent design professional.

PIPING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


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Pipe Connections to Trapeze Bars When installing restraints, typically not all support points will require treatment. For those trapeze bars that are not restrained either axially or laterally no special pipe connection treatment is required. Where lateral restraint only is provided at a location, motion restraint between the pipes and the trapeze bar only is required in the lateral direction. Where axial restraint is required, the pipe needs to be clamped firmly to the trapeze bar so that it cannot slip through the clamp during a seismic event. The axial clamps shown here are suitable for both axial and lateral loads, and can be used on all connections. The lateral restraint examples are only appropriate for lateral loads. Note that when controling the axial motion of the pipe, issues relating to expansion and contraction can arise. These issues need to be addressed in the design of the piping system either through the use of expansion loops, frequent doglegs, or expansion couplings. Axial/Lateral Restraint Trapeze Connections Below are examples of connections that would be suitable for either axial or lateral load conditions.

Piping Clamped to a Formed Channel-Based Trapeze Bar

PIPING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


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Section that is Stiff Vertically But Weak Horizontally

Trapeze Connections Suitable for Lateral Restraint Only In cases where pipe expansion or contraction must be allowed but lateral restraint is needed, the connection between the pipe and the trapeze must allow motion along the pipe axis. This type of connection cannot transfer an axial restraint force and, as such, can only be used to prevent lateral motion of the piping.

Preferred Lateral Restraint Trapezed Pipe Mounting Arrangement

Cable and Strut Hardware Attachment Options for use with Single Pipe Hanger Brackets
A typical piping installation begins with suspending the pipes, and then returning later and adding restraints. While this eliminates the need to deal with restraints when actually hanging the pipes, it normally results in more time expended, and possible rework, during the restraint installation phase. Increasing the diameter of hanger rods for strut-restrained systems, relocation or duplication of supports for more accessible restraint installation,

PIPING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


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Piping Clamped to an Angle-Based Trapeze Bar

and dismantling and reassembling hanger components to make appropriate connections are the three primary examples of this. While there is little that can be done from a hardware standpoint to deal with relocation issues, the proper selection of restraint hardware can reduce or eliminate the need to dismantle and reassemble previously installed pipe supports. Hanger Bracket Reinforcement When using conventional hangers, the first item required is a spacer bar at the hanger clevis. This serves two functions. The first is to keep the sides of the support from collapsing during a seismic event and the second is to offer a hard surface to work against when attaching and tightening side-mounted restraint brackets and hardware.

Hanger Clevis Showing KSHB Clevis Hanger Brace Fitted on Tie Bolt The brace shown here can be installed without disassembling any previously installed support hardware. Cable/Strut Restraint Connection Hardware for Hanger Brackets Also shown in the above drawing are side-mounted cable attachment brackets. Installation requires the removal and replacement of the tie bolt, which for larger or spring supported pipes can be awkward and time consuming. This is the preferred installation arrangement for CCA mounting clips when used on pipes in excess of 12 inches in diameter. The CCA mounting clip can be used with either cables or struts, but for struts, the angle between the strut and the ground is limited to 45 degrees. See also the sketches below.

PIPING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


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Side-Mounted CCA Clip with Cable and Strut Connections For piping that is 12 inches in diameter and less, the CCA clip can be top mounted. Unless installed during the initial hanger bracket installation process, this will require the hanger clevis to be disconnected and reinstalled. This installation is virtually the same as the side-mounted arrangement with the exception that the CCA clip attaches to the hanger clevis at the hanger rod location.

Top-Mounted CCA Clip with Cable and Strut Connections As an option to the CCA clip, a KSCU clip can be used for side- and top-mounted cable restraint applications as shown below.

Top- and Side-Mounted KSUA Clips with Cable Connections

PIPING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


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The KSCA is the most versatile clip manufactured by Kinetics Noise Control. It can be mounted in a number of fashions, including both of the above, as well as hanger rod mounted. In the hanger rod-mounted arrangement, no previously installed hardware need be disassembled. This frequently makes it the most time-efficient bracket to install in the field. While the KSCA is not suitable for extremely heavy-duty applications, it is appropriate for most applications, even up to relatively high G load conditions. See the tables in Chapter D4 in this manual for sizing components.

Top Mounted

Side Mounted

Conventional KSCA Cable Restraint Clip Mounting Arrangements

Hanger Rod-Mounted KSCA Cable Restraint Clip

PIPING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


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KINETICS Seismic Design Manual

KSCA with Strut Attachment Hardware Cable/Strut Restraint Connection Hardware for Trapeze Bars One of the most common materials for trapezed support of piping is formed strut-type channel (ex. Unitstrut). Connections to these materials, if using strut nuts, require the use of toothed nuts. Smooth nuts do not provide adequate resistance against friction and as such are not acceptable. All nuts must be tightened to their full-rated torque.

Shown below are various acceptable methods of mounting restraint hardware to struts.

PIPING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


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Cable Restraint Bracket to Strut Trapeze Bar Connections (Typical) Similar types of mounting arrangements can be used with trapeze bars made out of angle or other structural shapes as illustrated below.

PIPING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


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Cable Restraint Bracket to Structural Steel Trapeze Bar Connections (Typical) Hanger Rod Stiffening Arrangements In some cases, depending on hanger rod length and the applied seismic force, it may be necessary to protect the hanger rod from the buckling forces that can occur during a seismic event. Chapter D4 includes a section on determining the need for and sizing of the stiffener. When required, either a pipe or an angle can be used as a stiffener and must be clamped tightly to the hanger rod using rod clamps. Kinetics Noise Control makes clamps for both pipe and angle stiffeners. These are designated the KSRC-P (for pipe) and KSRC-A (for angle). Both are adjustable and can be used over a wide range of hanger rod and stiffener sizes.

KSRC-P Hanger Rod Stiffener Clamp can be used to clamp Rods from .5 to 1.0 Diameter to Pipes from .75 to 1.5 Diameter Both clamps feature two-part construction and no tool required installation. The KSRCP is comprised of a flexible band punched with a number of slots that is fitted to a clamp body with an integral seat for the hanger rod. Based on the size of the pipe stiffener and the hanger rod, the appropriate slot in the clamp band can be used for preliminary

PIPING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


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adjustment, with final tightening by means of a wing nut.

KSRC-A Hanger Rod Stiffener Clamp can be used to clamp Rods from .5 to 1.0 Diameter to Angles with Leg lengths from 1 to 2 inches Shown above is the KSRC-A Clamp. It is made up of two telescoping jaws and a thumbscrew. Preliminary adjustment is made by aligning the appropriate holes in the jaws for the thumb screw, and final tightening is made by tightening the screw. For both of the above clamps the clamping screws are to be tightened so that they will not come loose in service through vibration. If significant vibration is expected, the use of Loctite or other thread binder is recommended.

PIPING ATTACHMENT DETAILS


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Structural Attachment Details for Piping Restraints


When restraining piping systems to a structure, there are several different construction options that impact the restraint selection. Primary among these are the interface with masonry- or concrete-, steel-, and wood-framed structures. Within each of these are subgroups that can impact the restraint selection as well. This chapter is broken down into the three main categories listed above, and offers examples of restraint attachment arrangements suitable for each. While this section addresses local stresses at attachment points, it is critical in any seismic installation that the design professional responsible for the structure as a whole is made aware of the particular attachment points. Locations and estimated loads must be provided and there must be agreement that the addition of these loads will not overload the structure. In addition, the attachment of this hardware should be done in such a way as to avoid any significant reduction in capacity of the member to which it is being connected. The authors of this manual in no way assume any liability relative to any limitations on the capacity of the structure to resist the potential forces carried through the restraints or any reduction in capacity of the structure that might result from improper or inappropriate installation of the hardware. General Installation Issues Caution should be exercised when using struts for restraint in lieu of cables. A more detailed summary is available earlier in this chapter. The use of struts will more than likely require an increase in the hanger rod size and a decrease in the restraint spacing as compared to cables, and appropriate factors must be used for component selection and placement. Code requirements also dictate that systems are supported from and restrained to components that do not move in a significantly different fashion during an earthquake. Because structures tend to flex about 1% with respect to height, this would indicate that a relative motion between the floor and ceiling of a 10 ft tall room would be about . As a result, attachment of a component to the ceiling and restraint to the floor (or the reverse) is unacceptable. Ideally, the components should be supported from and restrained to the same surface (mount to ceiling/restrain to ceiling). As a worst case, no more than relative motion should be permitted (which might permit mounting to the ceiling and restraining to a surface near the top of an adjacent structural wall). The stiffer the structure, the more flexibility the installer has in placing restraints.

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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When installing restraints there are often opportunities to use the same attachment points used for suspending hanger rods to also connect restraint cables or struts. All hardware size information indicated in this manual is based on independent support and restraint hardware. The use of common connection points is not recommended and, if used, both seismic and support forces along with worst-case safety factors and hardware selection criteria must be included in the evaluation. This is beyond the scope of this document.

Connections to Masonry Structures (Including Concrete)

Damage to the reinforcement will (at best) weaken the structure and can (at worst) result in severe injury or death. Do not under any circumstances drill into a masonry element without first obtaining approval and, second, locating and avoiding any reinforcement components. All connections that bear the weight (only) of ceiling-mounted components must be rated for a 5:1 safety factor, but may not require seismically approved anchorage hardware. Any connection that must resist only a seismic force must use seismically rated hardware with an inherent 2:1 safety factor. Connections that must withstand both seismic and gravity loads require both seismically rated anchorage and a 5:1 safety factor. Examples of the above are as follows: Seismic Rating No Yes Yes

Hanger rod Anchorage for Cable-Restrained System Restraint Anchor (Strut or Cable System) Hanger rod Anchorage for Strut-Restrained System

5:1 Yes No Yes

Connections into portions of beams or other elements that are loaded in tension will have a reduced capacity as compared to published ratings. These should be avoided, or if unavoidable, should be analyzed independently of the charts and tables published in this document. All tables used in this document are based on the use of Kinetics Noise Control-supplied seismically rated anchors. Caution should be used to ensure that adequate embedment depth and cover (per local code or anchor manufacturer with a 1 minimum) is provided.

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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Masonry structural elements can be either concrete or block. When concrete, they might be poured in place with a removable form, poured over decking, or pre-cast and erected on site. When attaching to masonry, it is important to be aware of the locations of any reinforcing steel that may be embedded in it. It is not permissible to damage the reinforcement.

Minimum Anchor Installation Requirements

The most efficient connection to the underside of a concrete slab is with a single anchor. Depending on the load requirements and available slab thickness, this may not be practical, and in order to get adequate capacity, multiple anchors may be required. Single anchor attachments can be made with anchors from up to using the Kinetics Noise Control KSCA bracket and the KSUA bracket as shown below.

KSCA Clip with Single to Anchor

KSUA Clips for Through Anchors

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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Ceiling Connections

For larger, single-anchor arrangements, the CCA can be used. orientation, it can be used with either a 5/8 or 3/4 anchor.

Depending on the

CCA Clips for Single 5/8 and 3/4 Anchors Anchors can be embedded in concrete through the decking as shown below:

Typical Restraint Clip Anchored to Concrete Through Decking In cases where multiple anchors are required to meet load and/or maximum allowable embedment requirements, a clip fitted with a multiple-anchor embedment plate or a bridging strut member should be used. If using a strut, spacing between anchors must not be less than the allowed spacing per Kinetics Noise Control anchor data tables (Chapter P10).

CCA Clip attached using Kinetics Noise Control 2/4 Bolt Mount Plate

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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Multiple-Anchor Mounting Using Strut Channel Under extreme conditions, where the slab to which the restraint is being attached is too thin to achieve the needed capacity with conventional concrete anchors, it may be necessary to bolt through the slab. This method eliminates concerns related to failures due to anchor pullout and allows both the use of the higher through-bolt rating as well as eliminates the penalty factors associated with connections using concrete anchors. Connections made in this manner must bridge over reinforcement steel embedded in the concrete slab as shown below.

Typical Through-Bolted Restraint Attachment Option Wall and Column Connections In general, restraint connections to walls and columns made of concrete are very similar to the connections to the ceiling. Wall connections in this group, however, also encompass connections to masonry walls which require some additional attention. Illustrated below are the wall or column versions of the connections previously shown for the ceiling applications.

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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KSCA Clip with Single 1/4 to 1/2 Anchor

KSCU Clips for 1/4 Through 1/2 Anchors

CCA Clips for Single 5/8 and 3/4 Anchors

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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CCA Clip attached using Multiple Bolt Mount Plate and Strut Channel

Through Bolted Connection Because of the materials lesser strengths, there are limited methods of attachment to masonry block walls. Caution should be exercised to avoid installing wedge-type anchors directly into the mortar used to cement the blocks together. When used, anchors must penetrate into the core of the masonry unit and achieve adequate embedment into the concrete or grout that fills the cavity. If the blocks are not filled, the use of seismically rated wedge-type anchors should be avoided. When working with hollow core block walls, restraint components must bolt through either one or both surfaces of the block units. Penetrations through both sides require backer plates of adequate size to distribute stress, while penetrations through one wall are more limited in capacity and must make use of an umbrella or other positive gripping internal element. Masonry walls used to anchor restraints, as with other structural elements to which restraints are connected, must be reviewed and approved by the design professional of record on the project.

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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Shown below is an example of a rated anchor embedded into the filled core of a masonry wall unit.

Attachment to filled Masonry Wall with Wedge-Type Anchor

Through-Bolted Connection to a Hollow Block Masonry Wall

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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Filled Umbrella-Type Anchor for and Bolt Sizes

Connections to Steel Structures


Connections can be made to steel building elements by drilling and bolting, clamping (in some instances), or by welding. As most connections are made to hanging components, the most common structural members used as restraint supports tend to be beams and trusses. Some cautions are appropriate when connecting to these elements, as their primary function is normally to support the floor or roof above, and they are already subject to significant stress. In addition, these elements are oriented such that, while they can withstand high vertical loads, they can be quite weak when horizontal loads are applied to them, especially when the loads are applied at 90 degrees to the beam axis (transverse). While it is generally safe to make seismic restraint connections near the top of these beams, it is often less convenient than making the attachment at the bottom. Extreme caution must be exercised when connecting to the bottom flange of I-beams and, in particular, open web joists, as frequently a small lateral load applied to these areas can result in a catastrophic failure of the beam. No connections should be made without prior review and approval of the design professional of record. Assuming approval has been granted for the installation of a restraint at a particular location, welding or clamping the restraint in place is typically the fastest, least invasive method of making the connection. Bolting requires that the structural element be drilled and is normally avoided where possible.

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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Welded Connections to Beams and Columns There are two basic methods for making weld attachments. The first is to directly weld a bracket to the structure and the second is to weld a threaded piece of hardware (typically a nut or bolt) to the structure and then attach the bracket to it. Looking first at the direct bracket welding options, the most suitable clips are the KSCA and the CCA. Below are shown optional weld locations for the KSCA clip mounted to both beams and columns. These same arrangements are appropriate for floor- or roof-mounted connections with the exception that they are inverted.

Weld Data and Orientation for the attachment of the KSCA Clip The CCA clip can be mounted in a similar fashion.

Weld Data and Orientation for the attachment of the CCA Clip

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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The second type of weld attachment is to weld hardware to the structure and use that to attach the restraint bracket. The KSCU is well adapted to that type of connection.

Weld Data and Orientations for attachment of the KSCU Clip

Bolted Connections to Steel Members When used, bolted connections to steel structural members are normally made to open web joists or trusses. These are amenable to bolted connections as they have an integral slot, although caution is required to ensure that the addition of the restraint loads will not result in a buckling failure. It is also important to ensure that the load is oriented in such a way as to not cause the attachment bolt to slip in the slot to which it is attached.

Transverse load Connections to X Braced Open Web Trusses It is not recommended that restraints be connected to the bottom flange of an open web truss without substantial X bracing in the immediate area of the restraint attachment point. The bracing must be sufficient in nature and adequately connected to the truss to

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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carry all restraint loads to the deck above.

Connections to the Top Chord of an Open Web Truss X bracing is normally not required when restraints are connected to the top chord of an open web truss as long as the truss is adequately tied into the decking and/or floor structure above. This, along with the case below showing loads that are carried parallel to the truss, transfer only minimal stress to the truss itself. Even so, as with the other arrangements, permission should be obtained before making either of these connections.

Bolted Connection to an Open Web Truss for loads parallel to the Truss

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Clamped Connections to Steel Members Another frequent restraint connection arrangement is to clamp the cable to a beam with a beam clamp. Again it is critical to ensure that the addition of these loads will not result in damage to the beam. The beam clamp selected must have a significant lateral force transferring capacity. Most readily available clamps are intended as supports for vertical loads and have only minimal lateral capacity. As such they are not suitable. Shown below is Kinetics Noise Controls KSBC beam clamp.

The KSBC Beam Clamp can be mated with a wide range of I-Beams as well as KSUA, KSCA, and CCA Restraint Clips

KSBC Beam Clamps are also compatible with Strut and Angle Bracing

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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Connections to Wood
Connections to Ceilings and other Horizontal Surfaces Wood structural members can often create issues when it comes to connecting seismic restraint hardware. Although lag screws are easy to install, adequate depth, end and edge distance issues frequently make them impractical. The option to bolt through a wood member and include a backer plate eliminates the depth issue, but the end and edge distance requirements still must be met. The minimum edge distance is 1.5 bolt diameters and the minimum end distance is seven times the bolt diameter. The capacity of connections to wood using through bolts and a backer plate is limited only by bolt capacity and the structural capacity of the frame member. Capacities using lag bolts are severely limited, as the pull-out capacity of the lag bolt is much less than that of a through bolt. Shown below are typical connections to the underside of horizontal surfaces (floormounted systems would be the same, but inverted).

KSCA Clip with Single 1/4 to 1/2 Lag Bolt

KSCU Clips for 1/4 Through 1/2 Lag Bolts

STRUCTURAL ATTACHMENT DETAILS FOR PIPING RESTRAINTS


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Where loads are such that a single anchor is inadequate, multiple anchors can be used as shown below.

CCA Clip attached using Kinetics Noise Control 2/4 Bolt Mount Plate As long as adequate resistance to prevent twisting of the joists is provided, it is possible to bridge across multiple joists and install a restraint in between.

Two Anchor Mounting using a Strut Channel

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CCA Clip with Lag Bolts 5/8 and 3/4 Diameter

For worst-case conditions, as with concrete anchors, it is possible to bolt through a wood member with a backer plate.

Through-Bolted Application with Backer Plate Wall and Column Connections As with concrete anchors, the wall and column connections to wood members are very similar to those for horizontally oriented surfaces. Shown below are typical examples.

KSCA Clips Mounted with Single 1/4 to 1/2 Lag Bolts

KSCU Clips for 1/4 and 1/2 Diameter Lag Screws

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CCA Clip with Lag Bolts 5/8 and 3/4 Diameter

Multiple Bolt Anchor Plate with CCA Clip

Through-Bolted Connection

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Conclusion
This sections attempts to list the bulk of the structural attachment arrangements that are likely to be found in the field. Not all combinations of struts, angles, cables, etc., have been shown for each option. Except for cases where a connection obviously wont fit, the ability to mix and match the various end connection combinations shown can be assumed.

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NON-MOMENT GENERATING CONNECTIONS


The IBC and 97 UBC codes allow the omission of seismic restraints for most piping, conduit and ductwork runs without regard to size but that are located within 12 of the structure. This figure is 6 for fire sprinkler piping. In order to qualify for this, the following parameters must be met: 1) The length of all supports on the run measuring from the top anchorage point to the connection point to the trapeze bar or the top of a singly supported pipe or conduit run must not exceed 12 (6 for fire piping). 2) Unrestrained free travel of the supported system must be such that over the course of its movement, contact is not made with any other system, component or structural element that can result in damage to either the supported system or the object it hit. 3) The top connection to the structure must include a Non-Moment generating connection to prevent damage to the hanger rod or support strap. A Non-Moment generating connection is any device that would allow a free flexing action of the hanger rod or support strap for an unlimited number of cycles without its being weakened. This motion must be permitted in any direction. Shown below are typical examples of acceptable Non-Moment generating connections. Any other device that allows the same freedom of motion is equally acceptable. A hanger rod rigidly embedded into the underside of a concrete structural slab is not.

ISOLATOR CLEARANCE

SHEET METAL STRAP

CHAIN

NON-MOMENT GENERATING CONNECTIONS


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Connection Options for Awkward Situations


Almost every project will include some areas where installing restraints in a conventional fashion will be difficult. This segment of the manual offers options to consider when confronted with various situations. Long, Narrow Hallways Probably the most common issue in the field is how to deal with lateral restraints in long, narrow hallways. Normally there is considerable congestion in these areas and not enough room to angle restraints up to the ceiling structure. Often the walls are not structural and do not offer a surface to which to anchor. When evaluating halls, the first issue is to determine if either of the walls of the hall is structural. If either wall is structural, it offers a surface to which the restraints can often be attached. For structural walls, any relative displacement issues between the wall and the structure supporting the pipe must be identified. The maximum permitted relative displacement is inch, which for most structures correspond to a difference in elevation of approximately 2 feet (see also the Structural Attachment Section of this chapter). Assuming the wall meets both of the above requirements, a lateral restraint can be run either directly over to the wall or up at a slight angle to the wall. Normally this would be done with a strut as shown below.

Trapeze-Mounted Piping Restrained to Structural Wall or Column with a Horizontal Strut

CONNECTION OPTIONS FOR AWKWARD SITUATIONS


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Trapeze-Supported Piping Restrained to Structural Wall or Column with an Sloping Strut

Clevis-Supported Piping Restrained to Structural Wall or Column For the case where there are no nearby structural connection points or where the nearby structural elements are not suitable, there are several options that can be considered. The first option is to restrain to the ceiling using X bracing or a diagonal strut.

X or Diagonally Braced Restraint Arrangement

CONNECTION OPTIONS FOR AWKWARD SITUATIONS


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A K or double K brace can also be used. The K can either be located inside the support rods or outside the support rods, but in the case of a double K, both sides must be identical (either inside or outside).

Single and Double K Brace Restraint Arrangement In cases where only non-structural walls limit access for restraint, it is frequently possible to penetrate the non-structural wall and shift the lateral restraint device to the opposite side of the wall or partition as shown here.

Wall Penetration Restraint (Cable)

Wall Penetration Restraint (Strut)

CONNECTION OPTIONS FOR AWKWARD SITUATIONS


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Axial Restraint Strut at a Dogleg This arrangement is often a convenient way to connect an axial restraint and can occur both in the horizontal and vertical plane. Often it will be found that when installing piping, a jog has been added to a run to avoid running into a column or other structural member. Where this occurs, it offers an easy way to connect an axial restraint.

Axial Restraint Strut at a Dogleg Piggyback or Double-Tier Restraint In congested areas, there is often a double layer of piping supported off a single trapeze arrangement. It is possible under some conditions to brace one trapeze bar to the other, and then restrain the second trapeze bar to the structure. If doing this, there are a couple of cautions. First, the restraint capacity for the second trapeze bar must be adequate to restrain the total load from both bars and, second, the piping must be similar in nature and ductility.

Piggyback or Double-Tier Restraint Arrangement

CONNECTION OPTIONS FOR AWKWARD SITUATIONS


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Restraints for Piping Mounted Well Below the Support Structure This situation is not easily handled. Past history has shown, and the code is quite clear, that it is not a good idea to support the pipe from one structural element and restrain it using another structural element that will undergo significantly different motions. Restraints fit in this fashion will likely fail or cause the pipe supports to fail. Neither of these outcomes is desirable. About the only solution to this is to add a support structure for the piping that is located either just above or just below the piping. The piping can then be both attached and restrained to this structure. The structure can be supported off the floor, off the ceiling, or from structural walls or columns. The support structure must be rigid enough to absorb all of the seismic loads, and particularly the moments, with minimal deformation, transferring pure shear or tensile forces into the supports.

CONNECTION OPTIONS FOR AWKWARD SITUATIONS


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CHAPTER D8 DUCTWORK TABLE OF CONTENTS

Basic Primer for Suspended Ductwork Pros and Cons of Struts versus Cables Layout Requirements for Duct Restraint Systems Requirements for Ductwork Restraints (Definitions and Locating Requirements) Ceiling-Supported Duct Restraint Arrangements Floor- or Roof-Supported Duct Restraint Arrangements Duct Restraint System Attachment Details Transferring Forces (Duct Restraints) Cable Clamp Details Duct Attachment Details Structure Attachment Details for Duct Restraints Non-Moment Generating Connections Connection Options for Awkward Situations

D8.2 D8.3

D8.4.1

D8.4.2 D8.4.3

D8.5.1 D8.5.2 D8.5.3 D8.5.4 D8.5.5 D8.6

TABLE OF CONTENTS (Chapter D8)


DUCTWORK
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Seismic Forces Acting on Ductwork

D8.1

Seismic Forces Acting on Ductwork


When subjected to an earthquake, ductwork must resist lateral and axial buckling forces, and the restraint components for these systems must resist pullout and localized structural failures. Most duct systems are suspended from the deck above on either fixed or isolated hanger rod systems. While ducts are normally supported singly, there may occasionally be multiple ducts attached to a common trapeze. On some occasions ducts may run vertically or may be mounted to the floor. Suspended Systems Most codes do not require that ductwork supported on non-moment generating (swiveling) hanger rods 12 in or less in length be restrained. This length was determined based on the natural frequency of systems supported on the short hanger rods. In practice, it has been found that the vibrations generated by earthquakes do not excite these types of systems and, although the ducts may move back and forth somewhat as a result of an earthquake, they do not tend to oscillate severely and tear themselves apart. There are also exclusions in most codes for small ducts (under 6 square ft in area), no matter what the hanger rod length. Again, this exclusion is based on the post-earthquake review of many installations. It has been found that smaller ducts are light and flexible enough that they cannot generate enough energy to do significant damage to themselves. For cases where restraints are required, however, the forces involved can be significant. This is due to the difference between the required spacing of ductwork supports and restraints. Supports for ductwork will normally carry the weight of approximately 10 ft of duct (in the case of trapezes, this could be multiple ducts, but the length is still held to approx 10 ft). Seismic restraints, on the other hand, are normally spaced considerably further apart, with the spacing varying by restraint type, restraint capacity, duct size, and the seismic design load. It is very important to be aware of the impact of the difference in spacing, as the wider this spacing, the larger the seismic load when compared to the support load. Guidance in determining restraint spacing requirements is available in Chapter D4 of this manual. To illustrate this difference, consider a simple example of a 54 x 60 inch duct weighing about 50 lb/ft being restrained against a 0.2g seismic force. Assume the axial restraints are located on 80 ft centers (the max permitted) and supports are located on 10 ft centers. The load that is applied to the hanger rods by the weight of the duct is 50 lb/ft x 10 ft or 250 lb each (assuming two support rods). The horizontal load that occurs at the restraint locations is the total restrained weight (50 lb/ft x 80 ft = 4000 lb) multiplied by the seismic force (0.2g) or 800 lb. Thus the seismic load is considerably larger than the vertical dead load.

SEISMIC FORCES ACTING ON DUCTWORK


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Restraints for suspended systems are normally in the form of cables or struts that run from the duct up to the deck at an angle. Because of the angle, horizontal seismic loads also generate vertical forces that must be resisted. Therefore, restraint devices must be attached at support locations so that there is a vertical force-resisting member available. As the angle becomes steeper (the restraint member becomes more vertical), the vertical forces increase. At 45 degrees the vertical force equals the horizontal force and at 60 degrees the vertical force is 1.73 times the horizontal force. The net result is that for cable systems or for struts loaded in tension, the uplift force at the bottom end of the restraint can be considerably higher than the downward weight load of the duct. Returning to our example, assume that we have a restraint member installed at a 60 degree angle from horizontal and that the lateral force will load it in tension. In this case, the 800 lb seismic force generates an uplift force of 1.73 x 800 lb or 1384 lb. This is 1134 lb more than the support load and, depending upon the support rod length and stiffness, can cause the support rod to buckle. Rod stiffeners are used to protect against this condition and sizing information is available in Chapter D4 of this manual. Unlike cables, if struts are used for restraint they can also be loaded in compression. In the example above, if the strut were loaded in compression the 1384 lb load would be added to the support load (trying to pry the hanger rod out of the deck). The total support capacity required would be 1384 lb + 250 lb or 1634 lb. As a consequence, when using struts, the hanger rod must be designed to support 1634 lb instead of the 250 lb maximum generated with cables. Hanger rod sizing information is also available in Chapter D4 of this manual. Riser Systems Where ductwork runs through the structure vertically, except for the loads directly applied by vertical seismic load components identified in the code, there will be little variation in vertical forces from the static condition. Lateral loads are normally addressed by support brackets and the spacing between brackets is not to exceed the maximum tabulated lateral restraint spacing indicated in the design tables in Chapter D4. Floor-Mounted Systems The primary difference between floor- and ceiling-mounted duct systems is that the support loads in the duct support structure are in compression instead of tension (as in the hanger rods). Although a support column and diagonal cables can be used, a fixed stand made of angle or strut is generally preferred. Rules relating to restraint spacing and the sizing information for diagonal struts are the same as for hanging applications. However, the support legs need to be designed to support the combined weight and

SEISMIC FORCES ACTING ON DUCTWORK


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vertical seismic load (for a two-legged stand and the example above, the supported weight is again 500 lb / 2. Thus the total load the supports must be designed to is 250 lb + 1384 lb or 1634 lb) in compression. The anchorage for the legs needs to be able to withstand the difference between the dead weight and the vertical seismic load (in the example above 1384 lb - 250 lb or 1134 lb).

SEISMIC FORCES ACTING ON DUCTWORK


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Basic Primer for Suspended Ductwork


Probably the two biggest immediate concerns with failed ductwork following earthquakes has to do with the maintenance of adequate smoke ventilation capability and personal injury for those that might be in the area when a duct fails. These are applicable to virtually all types of structures. For hospitals and other emergency response facilities, the loss of heating or air-conditioning can effectively shutdown the facility. The shutdown can occur not only because of thermal issues, but also because the flow of air in a hospital is controlled to minimize the spread of infection.

Because of the impact that failures in air distribution systems have had in the past, design requirements for these kinds of systems have become much more stringent. Within a building structure there can be several different kinds of air distribution and venting systems, each with its own function and requirements. These include fire smoke control ventilation, laboratory ventilation, medical filtration and isolation systems, and kitchen or bathroom vents. Requirements for the systems vary based on the criticality or hazardous nature of what is being transported. Code-mandated requirements for the restraint of ductwork is addressed in Section D2 of this manual (Seismic Building Code Review). Prior to applying this section of the manual, it is assumed that the reader has reviewed Chapter D2 and has determined that there is indeed a requirement for restraint. This chapter of the manual is a how to guide and will deal only with the proper installation and orientation of restraints and not whether or not the restraints are required by code or by specification. This chapter also does not address the sizing of restraint hardware. Chapter D4 includes sections on sizing componentry based on the design seismic force and the weight of the system being restrained.

BASIC PRIMER FOR SUSPENDED DUCTWORK


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Frequently the costs and damage to relationships between building owners and tenants incurred as a result of the inability to occupy a structure can be considerably more than the costs of damage to the building structure itself.

Pros and Cons of Struts versus Cables


Both cables and struts have their place in the restraint of ductwork. In order to minimize costs and speed up installation, the differences between the two should be understood. In general, ducts restrained by struts will require only 1 brace per restraint location while ducts restrained with cables require that 2 cables be fit forming an X or a V. As a trade-off, the number of restraint points needed on a given run of duct will typically be considerably higher for a strut-restrained system than for the cable-restrained system and, generally, strut-restrained systems will be more costly to install. An added factor to consider when selecting a restraint system is that once a decision is reached on the type to use for a particular run, code requirements state that the same type of system must be used for the entire run (all cable or all strut). Later sections in this chapter will define runs, but for our purposes at present it can be considered to be a more or less straight section of duct. The obvious advantage to struts is that, when space is at a premium, cables angling up to the ceiling on each side of a run may take more space than is available. Struts can be fit to one side only, allowing a more narrow packaging arrangement. The advantages of cables, where they can be used, are numerous. First, they can usually be spaced less frequently along a duct than can struts. Second, they cannot increase the tensile forces in the hanger rod that result from the weight load, so rod and rod anchorage capacities are not impacted. Third, they are easily set to the proper length. And fourth, they are well suited to isolated duct applications. To better explain the differences between the systems, it is necessary to look at how seismic forces are resisted with cables and struts. Shown below are sketches of both cable-restrained and strut-restrained duct.

Cable Restrained

PROS AND CONS OF STRUTS VERSUS CABLES


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Strut Restrained The key factor to note is that cables can only be loaded in tension. This means that seismic forces can only generate compressive loads in the hanger rod. Seismic forces can, however, load the strut in compression resulting in a tensile load on the hanger rod. This tensile load is in addition to any deadweight load that may already be supported by the hanger and is often significantly higher than the original load. This has the potential to rip the hanger rod out of the support structure and must be considered when sizing components. Because of this added tensile component and the resulting impact on the necessary hanger rod size, most strut manufacturers limit the maximum allowable strut angle (to the horizontal) to 45 degrees. This is lower than typical allowable angles for cables that often reach 60 degrees from the horizontal. Although the tables listed in Chapter D4 of this manual allow the use of higher angles for strut systems, users will find that the penalties in hanger rod size and anchorage will likely make these higher angles unusable in practice. To put this into context, example applications will be provided at both 45 degrees and 60 degrees from the vertical to indicate the impact on capacity that results from the angle. For a 45 degree restraint angle, if we assume a trapeze installation with the weight (W) equally split between 2 supports, the initial tension in each support is 0.5W. Using a 0.25g lateral design force (low seismic area), the total tensile load in a hanger increases to 0.75W for bracing on every support and 1.0W for bracing on every other support, if a strut is used. For reference, if struts are used in a 60 degree angle configuration (from the horizontal), the tensile force in the hanger rod for all cases increases by a factor of 1.73 (tan 60) over that listed in the previous paragraph. This means that the tensile force becomes .94W for bracing on every support and 1.36W for bracing on every other support. On the other hand, where 0.25g is applicable, buckling concerns in the duct are such that the spacing between lateral restraints can be as high as 40 ft and for axial restraints, 80 ft.

PROS AND CONS OF STRUTS VERSUS CABLES


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If we were to try to use struts placed at a 40 ft spacing in conjunction with supports spaced at 10 ft, the tensile force developed by a seismic event in the rod increases to 1.5W for 45 degree configurations and to 2.23W for 60 degree configurations. As mentioned earlier, there is no increase in the rod forces for cable-restrained systems. Using real numbers based on a 40 ft restraint spacing and a 60 degree angle configuration, if the peak tensile load in the hanger rod is 500 lb for a cable restrained system, it becomes 2230 lb for an otherwise identical strut-restrained system. A summary of the above data, based on a 500 lb weight per hanger rod (1000 lb per trapeze bar) and including concrete anchorage sizes and minimum embedment is shown below.
Summary of Hanger Rod Tensile Loads based on 500 lb per Rod Weight Tens Force (lb) Min Rod (in) Min Anc (in) Embed (in) Every Hanger Braced (10') Cable Angle = 45 Strut Angle = 45 Cable Angle = 60 Strut Angle = 60 Every other Hanger Braced (20') Cable Angle = 45 Strut Angle = 45 Cable Angle = 60 Strut Angle = 60 Every fourth Hanger Braced (40') Cable Angle = 45 Strut Angle = 45 Cable Angle = 60 Strut Angle = 60 Max Spacing between Braces (80') Cable Angle = 45 Strut Angle = 45 Cable Angle = 60 Strut Angle = 60 500 750 500 933 500 1000 500 1365 500 1500 500 2230 500 2500 500 3960 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.50 0.38 0.50 0.38 0.50 0.38 0.63 0.38 0.63 0.38 0.75 0.38 0.88 0.38 0.38 0.38 0.50 0.38 0.50 0.38 0.63 0.38 0.63 0.38 0.75 0.38 0.75 0.38 1.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 5.00 3.00 5.00 3.00 6.00 3.00 6.00 3.00 8.00

Note: The above anchorage rating is based on ICBO allowables only. Often the underside of a concrete floor slab is in tension and if this is the case, the anchorage capacity may need to be further de-rated (forcing the need for an even larger hanger rod than is indicated here). The net result is that the ability to use struts is highly dependent on the hanger rods that are in place. If the hangers were sized simply on deadweight, the added seismic load,

PROS AND CONS OF STRUTS VERSUS CABLES


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even in relatively low seismic areas, can quickly overload them. The only recourse is to either replace the hanger rods with larger ones or decrease the restraint spacing to the point at which virtually every support rod is braced. It should also be noted that the hanger rods in tension become seismic elements. This occurs with struts, but does not with cables. As a result, the system must comply with all of the anchor requirements specified by ICBO. This includes the use of wedge-type anchors and embedment depths that are a minimum of 8 anchor diameters. With larger anchor sizes, floor slab thickness may cause this to become a significant problem. With both cables and struts, the hanger rods can be loaded in compression. As the seismic force increases, it eventually overcomes the force of gravity and produces a buckling load in the hanger rod. It is mandatory in all cases that the rod be able to resist this force. There is a wide range of variables involved in determining the need for rod stiffeners to resist this buckling load. Factors that impact this need are 1) the magnitude of the compressive force, 2) the weight load carried by the hanger rod, 3) the length of the hanger rod, 4) the diameter of the hanger rod, and 5) the angle between the restraint strut or cable and the horizontal axis. Tables are included in Chapter D4 of this manual that allow the user to determine if there is a need for a stiffener and to allow the proper selection if required. Because uplift occurs, some attention must be given to isolated systems. First, when using isolators, the location of the isolation element needs to be at the top end of the hanger rod (close to but not tight against the ceiling). If placed at the middle of the hanger rod, the rod/isolator combination will have virtually no resistance to bending and will quickly buckle under an uplift load. Second, a limit stop must be fit to the hanger rod, just beneath the hanger such that when the rod is pushed upward a rigid connection is made between the hanger housing and the hanger rod that prevents upward motion. This is accomplished by adding a washer and nut to the hanger rod just below the isolator (see the sketch below).

PROS AND CONS OF STRUTS VERSUS CABLES


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Requirements for Ductwork Restraints Definitions and Locating Requirements


SMACNA has developed a set of restraint placement criteria based on analytical review, practical experience, and historical analysis. The criteria presented in this manual is generally based on the SMACNA criteria, with the only exceptions being an extrapolation of the data to higher seismic force levels and an increase in allowable spacing where restraint hardware capacity (as illustrated in the SMACNA guide) would be exceeded. With respect to the conceptual restraint arrangement illustrations, the SMACNA concepts are appropriate and are referenced here. In general, ductwork is restrained in lengths called runs. Therefore before getting into a detailed review of the restraint systems it is imperative that a definition of run as well as other key terms be addressed. Definitions Axial In the direction of the axis of the duct. Lateral Side to side when looking along the axis of the duct. Restraint Any device that limits the motion of a duct in either the lateral or axial direction. Run A more or less straight length of duct where offsets are limited to not more than S/16 where S is the maximum permitted lateral restraint spacing (a function of ductwork size and seismic forces) and the total length is greater than S/2. (Note: S dimensions for various conditions are listed in Chapter D4.)

Short Run A run as defined above where the total length is less than S/2 and where it is connected on both ends to other runs or short runs.

DEFINITIONS AND LOCATING REQUIREMENTS


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Drop A length of duct that normally extends down from an overhead run and connects to a piece of equipment, usually through some type of flex connector. The drop can also extend horizontally. In order to qualify as a drop, the length of this pipe must be less than S/2. If over S/2, the length of pipe would be classified as a run.

Restraint Requirements 1) Full runs (greater in length than S/2) must be restrained in both the axial and lateral direction. If the run is not a short run or a drop, it must, as a minimum, be laterally restrained at the last support location on each end.

DEFINITIONS AND LOCATING REQUIREMENTS


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2) If a run is longer than S, intermediate restraints are required to limit the spacing to that permitted by the building code (see table in Chapter D4).

3) Axial restraints attached to the run of duct along its length must be connected using a positive connection between the duct and the restraint. 4) Short runs or drops need only have one lateral and one axial restraint.

5) If a lateral restraint is located within 2 feet of a corner (based on a measurement to the duct centerline) or is immediately adjacent to the duct for larger ducts, it can be used as an axial restraint on the intersecting run.

6) Larger ducts cannot be restrained with restraints located on smaller branches.

DEFINITIONS AND LOCATING REQUIREMENTS


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7) Within a run, the type of restraint used must be consistent. For example, mixing a strut with cable restraints is not permitted.

8) With longer hanger rods, rod stiffeners are likely to be required.

Refer to the

DEFINITIONS AND LOCATING REQUIREMENTS


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appropriate table in Chapter D4 to determine: (1) if needed, (2) what size stiffener material is appropriate, and (3) how frequently it needs to be clamped to the hanger rod.

9) In addition to possibly requiring rod stiffeners, when struts are used to restrain ductwork, the size of the hanger rod and its anchorage also become critical. Again refer to the appropriate table in Chapter D4 to determine the minimum allowable size for the hanger rod and anchor.

10) In some cases, it may be possible to locate the ducts close enough to the support

DEFINITIONS AND LOCATING REQUIREMENTS


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structure (12) to eliminate the need for restraint. (Refer to the building code review chapter (D2) to determine if this exemption is applicable.) If it is applicable, the 12 dimension is measured as shown below.

11) When using the above rule it is critical that all support locations in a run conform. If even one location exceeds 12, the run cannot be exempted from restraint.

DEFINITIONS AND LOCATING REQUIREMENTS


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Ceiling-Supported Duct Restraint Arrangements


Although the basic principle of diagonal bracing is almost always used to design restraint systems, the actual arrangement of these systems can vary significantly. Despite what looks like substantially different designs, the design forces in the members remain the same, and the same rules apply when sizing components. Illustrated here are many different restraint arrangements, all of which can be used in conjunction with the design rules provided in this manual. Details of the end connections and anchorage hardware are shown in subsequent sections of the manual. It is assumed in this manual that the restraint component is attached to a structural element capable of resisting the design seismic load. Due to variations in the installation conditions such as structural clearance, locations of structural attachment points, and interference with other pieces of equipment or systems, there will likely be significant benefits to using different arrangements in different locations on the same job. The only significant caution here is that it is not permissible to mix struts and cables on the same run. This manual addresses diagonal bracing slopes of between horizontal and 60 degrees from the horizontal. Angles in excess of 60 degrees to the horizontal are not permitted.

When installing restraints, lateral restraints should be installed perpendicular ( 10 degrees) to the duct in plan. Axial restraints should be in line with the duct, 10 degrees, again in the plan view. All restraint cables should be aligned with each other. See the sketch below.

CEILING-SUPPORTED DUCT RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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Lateral Restraint

Axial Restraint

In general, when restraining ductwork, the component actually being restrained is the support device for the duct. This is normally either a ring clamp made of gauge material, or a trapeze bar. Because the goal is to restrain the actual duct, it is necessary that the restrained element be connected to the duct in such a way as to transfer the appropriate forces between the two. Based on the Maximum Horizontal Force requirement and Force Class from Section D4, the appropriate size and quantity of fasteners to connect ducts to support/restraint members is as follows: Force Class I Force (Lbs) 250 #10 Screw 3 Screw II 500 5 III 1000 10 3 IV 2000 20 6 V 5000 20 VI 10000 40

When firmly connecting restraints to ductwork there are a few general rules that should be followed: 1) Attachment screws should be spread evenly either around or along the top and bottom of the duct. 2) To minimize wind noise, short screws with minimal projection into the air stream should be selected. 3) Trapeze-mounted ductwork must be fully encompassed by a frame or screwed to the trapeze at each lateral restraint point. 4) Axially restrained duct connections must be positive and require screws as indicated above. In addition, when sizing restraint components for multiple ducts, the total weight of all of the restrained ductwork must be considered.

CEILING-SUPPORTED DUCT RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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Hanging Systems Restrained with Cables Hanging systems may include supports for single or multiple ducts. Single ducts can be supported using brackets made of gauge material but multiple pipes are normally supported on or suspended from trapeze bars. Lateral Restraint Examples For a cable-restrained duct supported by gauge brackets, there is really only one mounting arrangement. It can be used with both isolated and non-isolated systems as shown below. Note that the isolators are mounted with minimal clearance to the structure and that a travel limiting washer is fitted to the hanger rod just below the isolator in the isolated arrangement.

Lateral Cable Restraints used with a Gauge Material Ring Clamp (Non-isolated)

Lateral Cable Restraints used with a Gauge Material Ring Clamp (Isolated) There are many options that exist for the arrangements of lateral restraints used in conjunction with trapeze-mounted systems. Shown below are several options for both non-isolated and isolated cable-restrained systems.

CEILING-SUPPORTED DUCT RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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\_/ (BOTTOM) TRAPPED

\_/ (TOP) TRAPPED

\_/ (BOTTOM) BOXED

\_/ (TOP) BOXED

V (TOP) BOXED

X (TOP) TRAPPED

Lateral Cable Restraints Mounted to a Trapeze (Non-isolated)

\_/ (BOTTOM) TRAPPED

\_/ (TOP) TRAPPED

\_/ (BOTTOM) BOXED

\_/ (TOP) BOXED

CEILING-SUPPORTED DUCT RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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V (TOP) BOXED

X (TOP) TRAPPED

Lateral Cable Restraints Mounted to a Trapeze (Isolated) Axial Restraint Examples When axially restraining ductwork, a perimeter metal strap or angle tightly screwed to the duct is the most common device used to retain the duct to the support bar. Occasionally welded tabs or connections to flanges are used. (Caution: Connections to flanges should only be used with the flange manufacturers concurrence that the flange can withstand the seismic forces.) Details on these connections will be addressed in later sections. Axial restraints offset from the centerline of restrained ductwork will generate additional bending forces in the duct. Because of the nature of ducts, unless restraints are fit on both sides, there will be an offset. Provisions should be made to avoid offsetting axial restraints when restraining a single duct. This requires either that the restraint be attached to the centerline of the duct, that the axial restraint be combined with a lateral restraint to form an X arrangement or that 2 axial restraints be fitted, one on either side of the duct (See also the Figure below). (Note that when specifying and providing restraints, KNC assumes one of the 2 former arrangements are used, if the latter case is used, the installation contractor will have to procure and additional restraint set from KNC.) For cases where multiple ducts are being supported on a common structure, the axial restraint should be between ducts in line with the approximate side-to-side center of Gravity location.

Various Acceptable Axial Restraint Arrangements

CEILING-SUPPORTED DUCT RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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V (BOTTOM) TRAPPED

Axial Cable Restraints (Non-isolated)


V (BOTTOM) TRAPPED

V (TOP) BOXED

GAUGE BRACKET SUPPORTED

Axial Cable Restraints (Isolated)


Hanging Systems Restrained with Struts It is recommended that struts not be used to restrain isolated ductwork. Struts will generate hard connections between the duct and structure and will greatly reduce the efficiency of the isolation system. Having said that, in some special situations it may be possible to design restraint struts with integral isolation elements, but this is tedious and

CEILING-SUPPORTED DUCT RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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GAUGE BRACKET SUPPORTED

should be avoided unless drastic measures are required. As with cable restraints, hanging systems may include supports for single ducts or multiple ducts. Single ducts can be supported using a bracket made of gauge material, but multiple ducts are normally supported on trapeze bars. Lateral Restraint Examples For a strut-restrained duct supported by a bracket made from gauge material there is only one common arrangement. It is to connect the restraint to the base of the hanger rod at the attachment point to the bracket. It is shown below.

Typical Lateral Restraint Strut Arrangements for Gauge Bracket Supported Duct Shown below are 3 options for trapeze-supported ductwork. All are equivalent.

CEILING-SUPPORTED DUCT RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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3 Arrangements for Laterally Restrained Trapezes with Struts Axial Restraint Examples When axially restraining ductwork with struts, a perimeter metal strap or angle tightly screwed to the duct is the most common device used to retain the duct to the support bar. Occasionally welded tabs or connections to flanges are used. (Caution: Connections to flanges should only be used with the flange manufacturers concurrence that the flange can withstand the seismic forces.) Details on these connections will be addressed in later sections. As with cables, struts offset from the centerline of restrained ductwork will generate additional bending forces in the duct. Because of the nature of ducts, unless restraints are fitted on both sides, there will be an offset. Provisions should be made to avoid offsetting axial restraints when restraining a single duct. This requires either that the restraint be attached to the centerline of the duct, that the axial restraint be combined with a lateral restraint to form an X arrangement or that 2 axial restraints be fitted, one on either side of the duct. (Note that when specifying and providing restraints, KNC assumes one of the 2 former arrangements are used, if the latter case is used, the installation contractor will have to procure and additional restraint set from KNC.) For cases where multiple ducts are being supported on a common structure, the axial restraint should be between ducts in line with the approximate side-to-side center of gravity location. Ignoring the details of the connection at this point, common axial restraint arrangements recognized in this manual are illustrated below.

Ductwork Axially Restrained with Struts

CEILING-SUPPORTED DUCT RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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Floor- or Roof-Supported Duct Restraint Arrangements


Although the basic principle of diagonal bracing is almost always used to design restraint systems, the actual arrangements of these systems can vary significantly. Despite what look like substantially different designs, the design forces in the members remain the same, and the same rules apply when sizing components. Illustrated here are many different floor- and roof-mounted restraint arrangements, all of which can be used in conjunction with the design rules provided in this manual. Details of the end connections and anchorage hardware are shown in subsequent sections of this manual. It is assumed in this manual that the restraint component is attached to a structural element capable of resisting the design seismic load. This manual addresses diagonal bracing oriented between horizontal and 60 degrees from the horizontal. Angles in excess of 60 degrees to the horizontal are not permitted.

When installing restraints, lateral restraints should be installed perpendicular (10 degrees) to the duct in the plan view. Axial restraints should be in line with the duct (10 degrees) again in the plan view. All restraint cables should be aligned with each other. See the sketch below.

Lateral Restraint

Axial Restraint

FLOOR- OR ROOF-SUPPORTED DUCT RESTRAINT ARRANGEMENTS


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In general, when restraining ductwork the component actually being restrained is the support device for the duct. For floor-mounted equipment this would normally be either a fabricated frame or a trapeze bar. Because the