KNOWING PHILIPPINE HISTORY Understanding History History± study of past events Arnold Joseph Toynbee (1889-1975) y British

historian, conducted the challenge and response theory y He viewed the past as a succession of civilizations rather than political entities y The failure of a civilization to survive was the result of its inability to respond to challenges Alvin Scaff y

His exchange theory refers to the systematic of principles that govern the exchange of goods between individuals, between groups, between organizations and even between nations.

George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) y one of the most prominent thinkers of 19th century y conceived the subject matter of philosophy to the reality as a whole y He referred the reality as the Absolute spirit Weltgiest
y y

world spirit embodies ideals like patriotism, heroism and unity

Geisteswissenchaften y world of spirit of thought y this area of thought is thesis y this thought is guided by a particular ideal Naturwissenchaften y antithesis y complete opposite of the Geisteswissenchaften y particular situation or matter Karl Marx
y y

y

German philosopher consider Economic theory He asserts that the prevailing economic system determines the form of societal organization and the political and intellectual history of the epoch, which thus attribute actions and events in history to economic motives Communist Manifesto  the history of society is a history of struggles between the ruling class and the oppressed masses.

man became greatly concerned with material wealth.y Theory of scientific social evolution  when society is still primitive. there was social equilibrium but with the introduction of new ideas and tools of doing things. Fernand Braudel (1902-1985) y Father of Historical Structuralism y to achieve a total history all aspects of man¶s past are to be integrated Renato Constantino y Philippine history is a people¶s history y History is the recorded struggle of people for every increasing freedom and for newer and higher realization of the human person SOURCES OF HISTORY Primary sources y those that are witnessed the event that took place or have been part of the incident being studied y includes written report  narratives  manuscripts  public documents  letters  diaries Secondary sources y have not been part of the event being considered  magazines  newspapers  pamphlets  typescripts  articles about the primary sources Archaeology y basic source of prehistory y study of past cultures Archaeologists y study artifacts and fossils Archaeological excavation y systematic recovery and study of these pieces of material for evidence .

particularly in Ilocos. Solheim II y conducted the first post-war excavations in Masbate from 1951-1953 y Alfredi Evangelista and E. Pampanga and Manila Second Major Archaeological Excavation y Carl Guthe y University of Michigan from 1922-1925 Henry Otler Beyer 1883-1966 y Father of Philippine Archaelogy and Prehistory y born in Edgewood y outbreak of the 2nd world war y Outline Review of Philippine Archaelogy by Islands and Provinces Larry Wilson y mining prospector y assisted Beyer in the exploration of numerous Pleistocene sites in Northern Luzon Von Koenigswald y palaeontologist known for his work on Java man Elephas beyeri y the specie of dwarf elephant Wilhelm G. Sorsogon y Fox led the Tabon Caves Archaeological Project in Southwestern Palawan Homo sapiens y earliest known human inhabitants of the Philippines Neil McIntosh y undertook the analysis and x-rays of the Tabon skullcap and mandible in 1975 . Pangasinan. Arsenio Manuel assisted him Robert B.First Major Archaeological Excavation y Frenchman. Fox and Alfredo Evangelista y undertook series of test-digs in the caves of Cagraraay. Alfred Marche in 1881Pleis y Island in Marindque and other sites in Central Philippines Dr. Antonio de Morga y Sucesos de Las Islas Filipinas (Historical Events of the Philippine Islands) y described the ancient artefacts that were recovered by farmers in Luzon. Albay and Bato.

Jose Maria Pavon y Spanish secular priest who became a parish priest of Himamaylan. Negros Occidental in 1838-1839 Jose E. James Robertson y Director of the Philippine Library and Museum in 1914 Ibn Batuta (1304-1378) y Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Ibn Batuta y Arab traveller from Morocco y his book Rihlah (Travels) includes descriptions of the Byzantine court of Constantinople . Marco y discovered the alleged Pavon manuscripts Dr.Krl Hutterer and Rosa Tenazas y recovered prehistoric artefacts in the middle of Cebu City UNHISTORICAL DATA Include Maragtas Story. the Code of Kalantiaw and the Legend of Princess Urduja saduk y native hat Maragtas Code y Legal code written by Datu Sumakwel y oldest known written body of laws Henry Scott y made the study of prehistoric source materials for the study of Philippine history Pedro Monteclaro y local historian of Panay Code of Kalantiaw y second oldest legal code y this code was said to be a set of ancient laws promulgated in 1433 Datu Bendara Kalantiaw y third Muslim ruler of Panay Fr.

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